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Sample records for lycium barbarum electronic

  1. Studies on Sulfation of Lycium barbarum Polysaccharides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI,Jian-Ping; YAN,Hong; ZHONG,Ru-Gang

    2004-01-01

    @@ Polysaccharides can anti-virus, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1),[1] herpes simplex virus (HSV-1,HSV-2) and cytomegalovirus. Some of them are sulfates, e.g. dextran sulfate, heparin, sulfonation of chitosan and sulfated derivatives of Lentinan. Our results showed that sulfated derivatives of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP)have anti-HIV activity. Because the anti-HIV activity of LBP was deeply dependent on the molecular weight, the sulfation pattern and glycosidic branches besides degree of sulfation (DS), so we emphasized our work on the factors of DS.

  2. Lycium barbarum polysaccharides promotes in vivo proliferation of adult rat retinal progenitor cells

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    Hua Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lycium barbarum is a widely used Chinese herbal medicine prescription for protection of optic nerve. However, it remains unclear regarding the effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides, the main component of Lycium barbarum, on in vivo proliferation of adult ciliary body cells. In this study, adult rats were intragastrically administered low- and high-dose Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (1 and 10 mg/kg for 35 days and those intragastrically administered phosphate buffered saline served as controls. The number of Ki-67-positive cells in rat ciliary body in the Lycium barbarum polysaccharides groups, in particular low-dose Lycium barbarum polysaccharides group, was significantly greater than that in the phosphate buffered saline group. Ki-67-positive rat ciliary body cells expressed nestin but they did not express glial fibrillary acidic protein. These findings suggest that Lycium barbarum polysaccharides can promote the proliferation of adult rat retinal progenitor cells and the proliferated cells present with neuronal phenotype.

  3. Green reduction of graphene oxide via Lycium barbarum extract

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    Hou, Dandan; Liu, Qinfu; Cheng, Hongfei; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Sen

    2017-02-01

    The synthesis of graphene from graphene oxide (GO) usually involves toxic reducing agents that are harmful to human health and the environment. Here, we report a facile approach for effective reduction of GO, for the first time, using Lycium barbarum extract as a green and natural reducing agent. The morphology and de-oxidation efficiency of the reduced graphene were characterized and results showed that Lycium barbarum extract can effectively reduce GO into few layered graphene with a high carbon to oxygen ratio (6.5), comparable to that of GO reduced by hydrazine hydrate (6.6). The possible reduction mechanism of GO may be due to the active components existing in Lycium barbarum fruits, which have high binding affinity to the oxygen containing groups to form their corresponding oxides and other by-products. This method avoided the use of any nocuous chemicals, thus facilitating the mass production of graphene and graphene-based bio-materials.

  4. Polyphenolic Content, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Lycium barbarum L. and Lycium chinense Mill. Leaves

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    Andrei Mocan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and the polyphenolic content of Lycium barbarum L. and L. chinense Mill. leaves. The different leave extracts contain important amounts of flavonoids (43.73 ± 1.43 and 61.65 ± 0.95 mg/g, respectively and showed relevant antioxidant activity, as witnessed by the quoted methods. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of target phenolic compounds were achieved using a HPLC-UV-MS method. Rutin was the dominant flavonoid in both analysed species, the highest amount being registered for L. chinense. An important amount of chlorogenic acid was determined in L. chinense and L. barbarum extracts, being more than twice as high in L. chinense than in L. barbarum. Gentisic and caffeic acids were identified only in L. barbarum, whereas kaempferol was only detected in L. chinense. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH, TEAC, hemoglobin ascorbate peroxidase activity inhibition (HAPX and inhibition of lipid peroxidation catalyzed by cytochrome c assays revealing a better antioxidant activity for the L. chinense extract. Results obtained in the antimicrobial tests revealed that L. chinense extract was more active than L. barbarum against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains. The results suggest that these species are valuable sources of flavonoids with relevant antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

  5. Optimization of Micropropagation Protocol for Goji Berry (Lycium barbarum L.

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    Alexandru Fira

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Micropropagation of Lycium barbarum cv. 'Ningxia N1' was achieved. The cultures were by initiated by axenical seed germination. The highest shoot proliferation was obtained on the MS media with 1.33 or 2.22 µM benzyl adenine, gelled with wheat starch as an agar alternative. The treatments with 2.22 µM benzyl adenine ensured proliferation rates superior to the ones with 1.33 μM benzyl adenine, but the latter provided longer and more robust shoots. Use of large microcuttings as an explant onto the multiplication media ensured higher in vitro explant survival, higher number of shoots regeneration and more vigorous plantlets. The microcuttings inserted vertically into the media yielded superior growth and multiplication as compared to the microcuttings placed horizontally. The non-rooted, elongated shoots from the treatment 1.33 μM benzyl adenine were either rooted in vitro on a hormone-free MS medium with starch or used for direct ex vitro rooting and acclimatization. The optimal number of microcuttings/vessel for in vitro rooting was 40 and the rooted plantlets were efficiently acclimatized ex vitro by three methods: float hydroculture in floating cell trays, floating perlite, and in Jiffy7 pellets.

  6. Anti-ulcer effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharide in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Rui-dong; YANG Qian-zi; XIAO Wei; LIU Fang-e; CHEN Jian-kang

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) on experimental gastric ulcers in rats. Methods: The ulcers were induced by water-immersion restraint stress, acetic acid and pylorus-ligation in rats. In each model, animals were divided randomly into 4 groups and administrated with LBP of 100 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg, ranitidine 100 mg/kg (as a reference standard) and saline respectively. Mucosal lesions were scored as ulcer index. In the pylorus-ligation model, we also compared the gastric juice volume, total acidity, acid output and pepsin activity among groups. Results: Oral administration of LBP inhibited the formation of the acute gastric lesions induced by physical stress such as water-immersion restraint (P<0.05), and accelerated the healing of chronic gastric ulcer model induced by acetic acid (P<0.05 to P<0.01). In the pylorus-ligated rats, significant decrease was also seen in ulcer index (P<0.05 to P<0.01), total acidity (P<0.05), acid output (P<0.05 to P<0.01). LBP 300 mg/kg even showed marked reduction of the volume (P<0.05) and pepsin activity (P<0.05) in the gastric juice. These effects were in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion: LBP has protective effects on treating gastric ulcer and this action may relate to the reduction of acid output and pepsin activity in the gastric juice.

  7. Antioxidative mechanism of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides promotes repair and regeneration following cavernous nerve injury

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    Zhan-kui Zhao; Hong-lian Yu; Bo Liu; Hui Wang; Qiong Luo; Xie-gang Ding

    2016-01-01

    Polysaccharides extracted from Lycium barbarum exhibit antioxidant properties. We hypothesized that these polysaccharides resist oxida-tive stress-induced neuronal damage following cavernous nerve injury. In this study, rat models were intragastrically administered Lycium barbarum polysaccharides for 2 weeks at 1, 7, and 14 days after cavernous nerve injury. Serum superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities signiifcantly increased at 1 and 2 weeks post-injury. Serum malondialdehyde levels decreased at 2 and 4 weeks. At 12 weeks, peak intracavernous pressure, the number of myelinated axons and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase-pos-itive nerve ifbers, levels of phospho-endothelial nitric oxide synthase protein and 3-nitrotyrosine were higher in rats administered at 1 day post-injury compared with rats administered at 7 and 14 days post-injury. These ifndings suggest that application of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides following cavernous nerve crush injury effectively promotes nerve regeneration and erectile functional recovery. This neu-roregenerative effect was most effective in rats orally administered Lycium barbarum polysaccharides at 1 day after cavernous nerve crush injury.

  8. Cell wall polysaccharides of Chinese Wolfberry (Lycium barbarum) : Part 2. Characterisation of arabinogalactan-proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Redgwell, Robert J.; Curti, Delphine; Wang, Juankuan; Dobruchowska, Justyna M.; Gerwig, Gerrit J.; Kamerling, Johannis P.; Bucheli, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) were isolated from Wolfberry fruit (Lycium barbarum) and purified by anion-exchange chromatography and precipitation with Yariv reagent. Linkage and NMR analysis established the structure of Wolfberry AGP as typical of AGP reported from other sources. The data were

  9. Goya (Lycium barbarum) fruits as bioactive components source in food – a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Bartosz Kulczyński; Barbara Groszczyk; Anna Cerba; Anna Gramza-Michałowska

    2014-01-01

    Goya (Lycium barbarum) berries belong to a group called “superfruits”, because they contain many nutritional value components with high biological activity. The present paper focused on short characteristic and chemical components, and on the nutritional and health value of goya fruits. Results of numerous scientific investigations confirm their hypoglycemic effect, lowering cholesterol and triglycerides level in blood, immunostimulative, anticancer and antioxidative activity. Sin...

  10. Determination of eight pesticides in Lycium barbarum by LC-MS/MS and dietary risk assessment.

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    Fu, Yan; Yang, Ting; Zhao, Jian; Zhang, Liang; Chen, Ruoxia; Wu, Yinliang

    2017-03-01

    A LC-MS/MS method for determination of eight pesticides (triadimefon, sulfoxaflor, flusilazole, tebuconazole, difenoconazole, amitraz, azoxystrobin, and thiophanate-methyl) in Lycium barbarum was established. The samples were extracted with acetonitrile, and then cleaned up by primary secondary amine. The extracts were diluted with 0.1% formic acid in water. The results showed that at the fortified levels of 0.01-10mg/kg, the average recoveries of these pesticides ranged from 82.1% to 96.2% with the relative standard deviations lower than 7%. The half-lives of eight pesticides were 1.3-5.0days in Lycium barbarum fruits. The pre-harvest interval of all pesticides mentioned above were investigated. Tebuconazole (14days), sulfoxaflor (14days) and flusilazole (28days) have longer pre-harvest interval than the others which have 7days. The dietary risks, assessed as hazard quotients, were far below 100%. The results showed that the eight pesticides applied to Lycium barbarum were comparably safe for the consumer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Changes in sugars and organic acids in wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L.) fruit during development and maturation.

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    Zhao, Jianhua; Li, Haoxia; Xi, Wanpeng; An, Wei; Niu, Linlin; Cao, Youlong; Wang, Huafang; Wang, Yajun; Yin, Yue

    2015-04-15

    Wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L.) fruits of three cultivars ('Damaye', 'Baihua' and 'Ningqi No.1') were harvested at five different ripening stages and evaluated for sugars and organic acids. Fructose, glucose and total sugar contents increased continually through development and reached their maxima at 34 days after full bloom (DAF). Fructose and glucose were the predominant sugars at maturity, while sucrose content had reduced by maturity. L.barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) content was in the range of 13.03-76.86 mg g(-1)FW during ripening, with a maximum at 20DAF. Citric, tartaric and quinic acids were the main organic acid components during development, and their levels followed similar trends: the highest contents were at 30, 14 and 20DAF, respectively. The significant correlations of fructose and total sugar contents with LBP content during fruit development indicated that they played a key role in LBP accumulation.

  12. Cell wall polysaccharides of Chinese Wolfberry (Lycium barbarum) : Part 1. Characterisation of soluble and insoluble polymer fractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Redgwell, Robert J.; Curti, Delphine; Wang, Juankuan; Dobruchowska, Justyna M.; Gerwig, Gerrit J.; Kamerling, Johannis P.; Bucheli, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Water-soluble polysaccharides (WSP) and insoluble cell wall material (CWM) were isolated from Wolfberry fruit (Lycium barbarum). WSP were fractionated by treatment with a quaternary ammonium salt and anion-exchange chromatography. Pectic polysaccharides were major components but a glucan, xylan and

  13. Cell wall polysaccharides of Chinese Wolfberry (Lycium barbarum) : Part 1. Characterisation of soluble and insoluble polymer fractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Redgwell, Robert J.; Curti, Delphine; Wang, Juankuan; Dobruchowska, Justyna M.; Gerwig, Gerrit J.; Kamerling, Johannis P.; Bucheli, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Water-soluble polysaccharides (WSP) and insoluble cell wall material (CWM) were isolated from Wolfberry fruit (Lycium barbarum). WSP were fractionated by treatment with a quaternary ammonium salt and anion-exchange chromatography. Pectic polysaccharides were major components but a glucan, xylan and

  14. Lycium barbarum L. Polysaccharide (LBP Reduces Glucose Uptake via Down-Regulation of SGLT-1 in Caco2 Cell

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    Huizhen Cai

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Lycium barbarum L. polysaccharide (LBP is prepared from Lycium barbarum L. (L. barbarum, which is a traditional Chinese medicine. LPB has been shown to have hypoglycemic effects. In order to gain some mechanistic insights on the hypoglycemic effects of LBP, we investigated the uptake of LBP and its effect on glucose absorption in the human intestinal epithelial cell line Caco2 cell. The uptake of LBP through Caco2 cell monolayer was time-dependent and was inhibited by phloridzin, a competitive inhibitor of SGLT-1. LPB decreased the absorption of glucose in Caco2 cell, and down-regulated the expression of SGLT-1. These results suggest that LBP might be transported across the human intestinal epithelium through SGLT-1 and it inhibits glucose uptake via down-regulating SGLT-1.

  15. Effects of a dark-septate endophytic isolate LBF-2 on the medicinal plant Lycium barbarum L.

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    Zhang, Hai-Han; Tang, Ming; Chen, Hui; Wang, Ya-Jun

    2012-02-01

    Dark septate endophytes (DSE) are ubiquitous root associated fungi; however, our understanding of their ecological function remains unclear. Here, we investigated the positive effect of a DSE fungus on its host plant Lycium barbarum L. A DSE isolate, LBF-2, isolated from the roots of L. barbarum, was inoculated onto the roots of plants, which were grown under greenhouse conditions for five weeks. The result of molecular analyses of internal transcribed spacer regions indicated that LBF-2 was 96% similar to Paraphoma chrysanthemicola. Melanized septate hyphae were observed in the root cortical cells of L. barbarum using a light microscope. Inoculation with LBF-2 increased the total biomass by 39.2% and also enhanced chlorophyll fluorescence. Inoculation increased the concentration of total chlorophyll by 22.8% and of chlorophyll a by 21.3%, relative to uninoculated controls. These data indicate that the LBF-2 isolate might be used to facilitate the cultivation of L. barbarum, which has medicinal applications.

  16. Ultrastructural deposition forms and bioaccessibility of carotenoids and carotenoid esters from goji berries (Lycium barbarum L.).

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    Hempel, Judith; Schädle, Christopher N; Sprenger, Jasmin; Heller, Annerose; Carle, Reinhold; Schweiggert, Ralf M

    2017-03-01

    Goji berries (Lycium barbarum L.) have been known to contain strikingly high levels of zeaxanthin, while the physical deposition form and bioaccessibility of the latter was yet unknown. In the present study, we associated ripening-induced modifications in the profile of carotenoids with fundamental changes of the deposition state of carotenoids in goji berries. Unripe fruit contained common chloroplast-specific carotenoids being protein-bound within chloroplastidal thylakoids. The subsequent ripening-induced transformation of chloroplasts to tubular chromoplasts was accompanied by an accumulation of up to 36mg/100g FW zeaxanthin dipalmitate and further minor xanthophyll esters, prevailing in a presumably liquid-crystalline state within the nano-scaled chromoplast tubules. The in vitro digestion unraveled the enhanced liberation and bioaccessibility of zeaxanthin from these tubular aggregates in goji berries as compared to protein-complexed lutein from spinach. Goji berries therefore might represent a more potent source of macular pigments than green leafy vegetables like spinach.

  17. [Screening and identification of antioxidant endophytes from Lycium barbarum of Ningxia].

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    Du, Xiao-ning; Dai, Jin-xia

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, 29 endophytes were isolated from different organs and tissues of Lycium barbarum of Ningxia by tablet coating method, 18 of them was fungi, and 11 of them was actinomycetes. The endophytes quantity in the different tissues were leaves > flowers > roots >fruits; The hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of 11 endophytes were investigated by Fenton reaction, and total antioxidant capacities of them were examined by a. total antioxidant capacity test kit; culture features and strain-specific sequence analysis were employed to explore the diversity of the 11 endophytes. The result showed that 5 fungi and 6 actinomycetes that having antioxidant activity could be phylogenetically classified into 3 genera, 3 genera and 3 families, respectively. The total antioxidant capacity and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of the 11 endophytes showed distinct difference. The antioxidant activity of Aspergillus were stronger, among which total antioxidant capacity of fL1 was (188.5 ± 0.549) U · mL⁻¹ and the IC₅₀ was 0.3 mg · L⁻¹; the IC₅₀ of strain fL1 was 0.42 mg · L⁻¹ and the total antioxidant capacity of fL9 was (113.63 ± 1.021) U · mL⁻¹, all of them were stronger than the positive control Vit C. The experimental results indicated that endophytic fungi of L. barbarum of Ningxia have a great developing and application prospect for the development of antioxidant agent.

  18. Immunomodulatory effects of a standardized Lycium barbarum fruit juice in Chinese older healthy human subjects.

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    Amagase, Harunobu; Sun, Bixuang; Nance, Dwight M

    2009-10-01

    Lycium barbarum has been traditionally used in combination with several herbs for medicinal properties, but systematic modern clinical evaluation as a single herb has not been reported. To examine the systematic effects of L. barbarum on immune function, general well-being, and safety, we tested the effects of a standardized L. barbarum fruit juice (GoChi, FreeLife International, Phoenix, AZ, USA) at 120 mL/day, equivalent to at least 150 g of fresh fruit, the amount traditionally used, or placebo for 30 days in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study in 60 older healthy adults (55-72 years old). The GoChi group showed a statistically significant increase in the number of lymphocytes and levels of interleukin-2 and immunoglobulin G compared to pre-intervention and the placebo group, whereas the number of CD4, CD8, and natural killer cells or levels of interleukin-4 and immunoglobulin A were not significantly altered. The placebo group showed no significant changes in any immune measures. Whereas the GoChi group showed a significant increase in general feelings of well-being, such as fatigue and sleep, and showed a tendency for increased short-term memory and focus between pre- and post-intervention, the placebo group showed no significant positive changes in these measures. No adverse reactions, abnormal symptoms, or changes in body weight, blood pressure, pulse, visual acuity, urine, stool, or blood biochemistry were seen in either group. In conclusion, daily consumption of GoChi significantly increased several immunological responses and subjective feelings of general well-being without any adverse reactions.

  19. Reversal of Apoptotic Resistance by Lycium barbarum Glycopeptide 3 in Aged T Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONG-GUO YUAN; HONG-BIN DENG; LI-HUI CHEN; DIAN-DONG LI; QI-YANG HE

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study whether Lycium barbarian glycopeptide 3 (LBGP3) affects T cell apeptosis in aged mice. Methods LBGP3 was purified with DEAE cellulose and Sephadex columns. Apoptotic "sub-Gl peak" was detected by flow cytometry and DNA ladder was resolved by agarose gel electrophoresis. Levels of IFN-γ, and IL-10 were measured with specific kits and mRNA expression was detected by RT-PCR. Apoptosis-related proteins of FLIP, FasL, and Bcl-2 were determined by Western blotting. Resdts LBGP3 was purified from Fructus Lycii water extracts and identified as a 41 kD glycopeptide.Treatment with 200 μg/mL LBGP3 increased the apoptotic rate of T cells from aged mice and showed a similar DNA ladder pattern to that in young T ceils. The reversal of apoptotic resistance was involved in down-regulating the expression of Bcl-2 and FLIP, and up-regulating the expression of FasL. Conclusion Lycium barbarum glycopeptide 3 reverses apoptotic resistance of aged T cells by modulating the expression of apoptosis-related molecules.

  20. Studies on Chemistry and Immuno-modulating Mechanism of a Glycoconjugate from Lycium barbarum L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG,Xue-Mei(彭雪梅); HUANG,Lin-Juan(黄琳娟); QI,Chun-Hui(齐春会); ZHANG,Yong-Xiang(张永详); TIAN,Geng-Yuan(田庚元)

    2001-01-01

    The detailed structure of an O-glycan derived from the fruitof Lyciun barbariun L.was elucidated based on glycosidiclinkage analysis,comnplete and partial acid hydrolysis,1H-NMR amd 13C NMR spectroscopy.According to the experi-ments,the carbohydrate was in the form of polysacchride(arabinogalactan) chains with highly branched 3,4-galactans and terminal arabinofuranosyl substituents.``The irmmmo-modulating mechanism of glycoconjugate ami its glycan were investigated using tritium thymidine lucor-poration assay,flow cytometry assay and electrophoreticalmobility shift assay (EMSA).The results suggested that theimmunoncfive components of the fruit of Lycium barbarum L.could enlance the splenocyte proliferation in normal mice andthe effects of glycan chain were stronger than those of glyco-conjugate.The target cell was most likely to be B-lympho-cyte,on which existed receptor binding site acting with theglycan.In addition,the immuno-stimulatory effect of glyco-conjugate (LbGp4) amd its glycan (LbGp4-OL) was associat ed with activating the expression of nuclear factor kB (NF-kB) and activator protein 1 (AP-l).``

  1. The Protective Effects of Lycium Barbarum Polysaccharides on Transient Retinal Ischemia

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    Di Yang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Retinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury leads to irreversible neuronal death, glial activation, retinal swelling and oxidative stress. It is a common feature in various ocular diseases, such as glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy and amaurosis fugax. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of Lycium Barbarum Polysaccharides (LBP in a murine retinal I/R model. Mice were orally treated with either vehicle (PBS or LBP (1mg/kg daily for 1 week before induction of retinal ischemia. Retinae were collected after 2 hours ischemia and 22 hours reperfusion. Paraffin-embedded sections were prepared for immunohistochemical analyses. Significantly fewer viable cells were found in vehicle-treated retinae comparing to LBP group. This finding was further confirmed by TUNEL assay where significantly fewer apoptotic cells were identified in LBP-treated retinae. Additionally, retinal swelling induced by retinal I/R injury in the vehicle-treated group was not observed in LBP-treated group. Moreover, intense GFAP immunoreactivity and IgG extravasation were observed in vehicle-treated group but not in LBP treated group. The results showed that pre-treatment with LBP was protective in retinal I/R injury via reducing neuronal death, apoptosis, retinal swelling, GFAP activation and blood vessel leakage. LBP may be used as a preventive agent for retinal ischemia diseases.

  2. Lycium barbarum polysaccharides protected human retinal pigment epithelial cells against oxidative stressinduced apoptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lian; Liu; Wei; Lao; Qing-Shan; Ji; Zhi-Hao; Yang; Guo-Cheng; Yu; Jing-Xiang; Zhong

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the protective effect and its mechanism of lycium barbarum polysaccharides(LBP)against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in human retinal pigment epithelial cells.METHODS: ARPE-19 cells, a human retinal pigment epithelial cell lines, were exposed to different concentrations of H2O2 for 24h, then cell viability was measured by Cell Counting Kit-8(CCK-8) assay to get the properly concentration of H2O2 which can induce half apoptosis of APRE-19. With different concentrations of LBP pretreatment, the ARPE-19 cells were then exposed to appropriate concentration of H2O2, cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometric analysis. Expression levels of Bcl-2 and Bax were measured by real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR) technique.RSULTS: LBP significantly reduced the H2O2-induced ARPE-19 cells’ apoptosis. LBP inhibited the H2O2-induced down-regulation of Bcl-2 and up-regulation of Bax.CONCLUSION: LBP could protect ARPE-19 cells from H2O2-induced apoptosis. The Bcl-2 family had relationship with the protective effects of LBP.

  3. Lycium barbarum polysaccharides regulate phenotypic and functional maturation of murine dendritic cells.

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    Zhu, Jie; Zhao, Lu-Hang; Zhao, Xiao-Ping; Chen, Zhi

    2007-06-01

    Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBPs) have been known to have a variety of immunomodulatory functions including activation of T cells, B cells and NK cells. Dendritic cells (DC) are potent antigen-presenting cells that play pivotal roles in the initiation of the primary immune response. However, little is known about the immunomodulatory effects of LBPs on murine bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDC). In the present study, the effects of LBPs on the phenotypic and functional maturation of murine BMDC were investigated in vitro. Compared to the BMDC that were only subjected to treatment with RPMI1640, the co-expression of I-A/I-E, CD11c and secretion of IL-12 p40 by BMDC stimulated with LBPs (100 microg/ml) were increased. In addition, the endocytosis of FITC-dextran by LBPs-treated BMDC (100 microg/ml) was impaired, whereas the activation of proliferation of allogenic lymphocytes by BMDC was enhanced. Our results strongly suggest that LBPs are capable of promoting both the phenotypic and functional maturation of murine BMDC in vitro.

  4. 适宜干燥方法提高干制枸杞品质%Optimal drying method improving quality ofLycium barbarum L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海; 高月; 王颉; 姚思远; 王伟华; 冉国伟; 刘瑜; 郭雪霞; 张慧媛

    2015-01-01

    为缩短鲜枸杞的干制时间,获得高品质的干制枸杞,该文通过比较自然晾晒、燃煤烘干房以及太阳能干燥设备对枸杞的干燥效率的差异以及测定并分析3种干燥方式获得干果的主要功能性成分(总糖、总黄酮、多糖、甜菜碱,类胡萝卜素)含量及外观品质和出糖率的差异。试验结果表明,采用太阳能干燥设备干燥枸杞的时间最少约为26 h,功能性成分总质量分数约71.71 g/(100 g),与其他2种干燥方式相比功能性成分损失降低,干枸杞色泽更接近鲜枸杞的色泽,出糖率约为1.53%,低于其他2种干燥方式。太阳能干燥设备对于枸杞干燥具有显著的优势,应用前景广阔。%Lycium barbarum Lis the fruit with rich sweet and sour taste. It is not only the traditional medicinal material, but also a kind of nutritional supplement.Lycium barbarum L has seasonal and regional characteristics for harvest and short storage period. So the drying ofLycium barbarum L becomes a kind of important processing. At present, the drying ofLycium barbarum Lis mainly traditional natural drying. This method needs long drying time and the mildew rate is high, so it has no guarantee to the quality of the products. It is difficult to meet the needs of the modern production. The drying in coal-fired drying room needs high energy consumption and produces severe pollution during the drying process. The temperature and humidity is not easy to control. The fireworks affect the quality of the dried Chinese wolfberry seriously. The solar drying equipment appears in Ningxia region in recent years. It uses solar energy and electrical energy to dryLycium barbarum L. It is able to not only save energy and protect environment but also dry fast. TheLycium barbarum L was dried by natural drying, coal-fired drying room and solar drying equipment separately, and the drying rates ofLycium barbarum L were compared by weighing method. Their main

  5. Comparison and Characterization of Compounds with Antioxidant Activity in Lycium barbarum Using High-Performance Thin Layer Chromatography Coupled with DPPH Bioautography and Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Shing-Chung; Luo, Zhen; Wu, Ding-Tao; Cheong, Kit-Leong; Hu, De-Jun; Xia, Zu-Meng; Zhao, Jing; Li, Shao-Ping

    2016-06-01

    Methanol extracts from 50 batches of Lycium barbarum (L. barbarum, wolfberry) in China were compared and characterized using high-performance thin-layer chromatography coupled with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) bioautography (HPTLC-DPPH) and electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS), respectively. Results showed that similar components occupying the major antioxidant activity existed in L. barbarum collected from different origins. However, the average antioxidant capacities of methanol extracts of L. barbarum collected in Ningxia were significantly higher than those of Qinghai, Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia, and Gansu, which may contribute to rational use of L. barbarum in China. Furthermore, the chemical structure of compound with the highest antioxidant capacity was tentatively identified as 2-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-l-ascorbic acid using ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS analysis, which possessed high potentials to be used as an antioxidant biomarker for the quality control of L. barbarum. Results are helpful for the bioactivity-based quality control of L. barbarum, and beneficial for the improvement of their performance in functional/health foods area, suggesting that HPTLC-DPPH bioautography with ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS could be used as a routine approach for quality control of antioxidant components in L. barbarum. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Inhibiting effect of lycium barbarum polysaccoharide on angiogenesis as well as oxidative stress and inflammation in retina of diabetic mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-Xi Zhang; Kai Xue; Wei Gao; Tan Long

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of lycium barbarum polysaccoharide on angiogenesis as well as oxidative stress and inflammation in retina of diabetic mice.Methods: C57BL/6 mice were selected and divided into control group, diabetes group and lycium barbarum polysaccoharide group (LBP group), diabetes group and LBP group received intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin to establish diabetes model, and LBP group received intragastric administration of LBP for intervention. The levels of angiogenesis molecules, oxidative stress indexes and inflammatory cytokines in retinal tissue of three groups were determined.Results:VEGF165, VEGFR1, VEGFR2, VEGFR3, Ang-1, Ang-2, Tie-1, Tie-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, ICAM-1, P-selectin, ROS, AOPP, MDA and 8-OHdG levels in retina tissue of diabetes group were significantly higher than those of control group, and T-AOC level was significantly lower than that of control group; VEGF165, VEGFR1, VEGFR2, VEGFR3, Ang-1, Ang-2, Tie-1, Tie-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, ICAM-1, P-selectin, ROS, AOPP, MDA and 8-OHdG levels in retina tissue of LBP group were significantly lower than those of diabetes group, and T-AOC level was significantly higher than that of diabetes group.Conclusion:LBP can inhibit angiogenesis as well as oxidative stress and inflammation in retina of diabetic mice, and has therapeutic effect on diabetic retinopathy.

  7. Speciation analysis and bioaccessibility evaluation of trace elements in goji berries (Lycium Barbarum, L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcieszek, Justyna; Kwiatkowski, Piotr; Ruzik, Lena

    2017-04-07

    Goji berries (Lycium Barbarum, L.) are known for their nutritional potential as a great source of trace metals (e.g., copper, zinc and manganese) which are present in the form of highly bioaccessible compounds. In order to assess the bioaccessibility of trace elements and to identify compounds responsible for better bioaccessibility of copper and zinc, an in vitro simulation of gastrointestinal digestion was used in this study. The total content of trace metals was evaluated using sample digestion followed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Bioaccessibility of trace elements was estimated by size exclusion chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. These analytical methods were used to analyse samples of goji berries to determine the highest amount of elements. For total trace metal content in goji berries, Zn had the highest level of the three studied (10.6μgg(-1)), while the total content of manganese and copper was 9.9μgg(-1) and 6.1μgg(-1), respectively. Additionally, the analysed metals were found to be highly bioaccessible to the human body (about 56% for Mn, 72% for Cu and 64% for Zn in the gastric extract and approximately 35% for Mn, 23% for Cu and 31% for Zn in the case of gastrointestinal extract). To obtain information about metal complexes present in goji berries, extraction treatment using different solutions (ionic liquid, HEPES, SDS, Tris-HCl, ammonium acetate, water) was performed. Enzymatic treatment using pectinase and hemicellulase was also checked. Extracts of berries were analysed by SEC-ICP-MS and μHPLC-ESI-MS/MS techniques. The ionic liquid and pectinase extraction helped efficiently extract copper (seven compounds) and zinc (four compounds) complexes. Compounds identified in goji berries are most likely to be responsible for better bioaccessibility of those elements to the human organism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of Lycium barbarum. polysaccharide on type 2 diabetes mellitus rats by regulating biological rhythms

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    Zhao, Rui; Gao, Xu; Zhang, Tao; Li, Xing

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with circadian disruption. Our previous experimental results have showed that dietary Lycium barbarum. polysaccharide (LBP-4a) exhibited hypoglycemic and improving insulin resistance (IR) activities. This study was to explore the mechanisms of LBP-4a for improving hyperglycemia and IR by regulating biological rhythms in T2DM rats. Materials and Methods: The rats of T2DM were prepared by the high-sucrose-fat diets and injection of streptozotocin (STZ). The levels of insulin, leptin and melatonin were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The effect of LBP-4a on mRNA expression of melatonin receptors (MT2) in epididymal adipose tissue was evaluated by RT-PCR. The expression of CLOCK and BMAL1 in pancreatic islet cells was detected by Western blotting. Results: Our data indicated that the 24-hr rhythm of blood glucose appeared to have consistent with normal rats after gavaged administration of LBP-4a for each day of the 4 weeks, and the effects of hypoglycemia and improving hyperinsulinemia in T2DM rats treated at high dose were much better than that at low dose. The mechanisms were related to increasing MT2 level in epididymal adipose tissue and affecting circadian clocks gene expression of CLOCK and BMAL1 in pancreatic islet cells. Conclusion: LBP-4a administration could treat T2DM rats. These observations provided the background for the further development of LBP-4a as a potential dietary therapeutic agent in the treatment of T2DM. PMID:27803791

  9. 沙棘枸杞子无糖果冻配方的研究%The Research of Sugarless Jelly of Seabuckthorn and Lycium barbarum L Fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙芝杨

    2012-01-01

    Seabuckthom juice, Lycium barbarum L juice and xylitol were used to produce sugarless jelly. Optimal formula of jell is 1.0% gelatin, 11% xylitol, 9% seabuckthorn juice and 8% Lycium barbarum L juice. The color of jelly is orange. It tastes smooth, sweet and sour. Sugarless jelly is rich in flavor of seabuckthom and Lycium barbarum L fruit.%以沙棘汁、枸杞子汁、木糖醇为主要原料,并配以其它辅料,研究沙棘枸杞子无糖果冻的最佳配方。通过单因素试验和正交试验确定了果冻的最佳配方:明胶1.0%,木糖醇11%,沙棘汁9%和枸杞汁8%,得到桔黄色,口感爽滑,酸甜可口的沙棘枸杞子无糖果冻,具有浓郁的沙棘和枸杞子风味。

  10. 枸杞多糖的提取及其抗衰老的研究%Research on the Extraction and Anti-aging of Lycium Barbarum Polysaccharide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘杰; 潘晓秋; 周晖; 张海林; 齐宏亮; 廖丹; 倪雪松

    2016-01-01

    目的:优选枸杞多糖的最佳提取工艺,通过建立D-半乳糖致衰老小鼠模型,研究枸杞多糖的抗衰老作用。方法:采用正交设计法对提取工艺进行研究;应用D-半乳糖连续注射,造成实验性衰老小鼠模型,通过测定血液丙二醛(MDA)、谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶( GSH-PX)和过氧化氢酶( CAT)的含量及超氧化物歧化酶( SOD)的活力和皮肤中SOD、MDA及羟脯氨酸( Hyp)的水平来检测枸杞多糖抗衰老的能力。结果:通过正交设计确定的枸杞多糖的最佳提取方案为:料液比为1∶30,提取2次,1次90 min,功率为100 kHz。通过研究可见,枸杞多糖可提高小鼠血液中SOD、CAT、GSH-px水平,降低MDA值;可提高小鼠皮肤SOD活力,降低皮肤MDA含量,提高Hyp含量。结论:本研究建立的提取方法简单、易行,枸杞多糖的提出率高。枸杞多糖具有抗D-半乳糖所致小鼠衰老的作用。%OBJECTIVE:To optimize the optimum extraction technology of lycium barbarum polysaccharide and establish senile mice model by D-galactose , so as to research the anti-aging effects of lycium barbarum polysaccharide . METHODS:Orthogonal design method was adopted to research the extraction technology .The senile mice model was established by injection of D-galactose .The anti-aging capacibility of lycium barbarum polysaccharide were determined by the detection of malonaldehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), the content of catalase (CAT), activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and level of SOD, MDA and hydroxyproline (Hyp) in the skin.RESULTS:The optimum extraction technology scheme by orthogonal design method were : the ratio of solid to liquid was 1∶30, 2 times of extraction, 90 min for once, the power was 100 kHz.Lycium barbarum polysaccharide could increase the level of SOD , CAT and GSH-px in rats , decrease MDA , improve the SOD activity , decrease MDA and increase the content of Hyp

  11. Composition of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides and their apoptosis-inducing effect on human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells

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    Qian Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP is a natural functional component that has a variety of biological activities. The molecular structures and apoptosis-inducing activities on human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells of two LBP fractions, LBP-d and LBP-e, were investigated. Results: The results showed that LBP-d and LBP-e both consist of protein, uronic acid, and neutral sugars in different proportions. The structure of LBP was characterized by gas chromatography, periodate oxidation, and Smith degradation. LBP-d was composed of eight kinds of monosaccharides (fucose, ribose, rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, galactose, and glucose, while LBP-e was composed of six kinds of monosaccharides (fucose, rhamnose, arabinose, mannose, galactose, and glucose. LBP-d and LBP-e blocked SMMC-7721 cells at the G0/G1 and S phases with an inhibition ratio of 26.70 and 45.13%, respectively, and enhanced the concentration of Ca2 + in the cytoplasm of SMMC-7721. Conclusion: The contents of protein, uronic acid, and galactose in LBP-e were much higher than those in LBP-d, which might responsible for their different bioactivities. The results showed that LBP can be provided as a potential chemotherapeutic agent drug to treat cancer.

  12. Crude Extracts from Lycium barbarum Suppress SREBP-1c Expression and Prevent Diet-Induced Fatty Liver through AMPK Activation

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    Wang Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP is well known in traditional Chinese herbal medicine that, has beneficial effects. Previous study reported that LBP reduced blood glucose and serum lipids. However, the underlying LBP-regulating mechanisms remain largely unknown. The main purpose of this study was to investigate whether LBP prevented fatty liver through activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK and suppression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a low-fat diet, high-fat diet, or 100 mg/kg LBP-treatment diet for 24 weeks. HepG2 cells were treated with LBP in the presence of palmitic acid. In our study, LBP can improve body compositions and lipid metabolic profiles in high-fat diet-fed mice. Oil Red O staining in vivo and in vitro showed that LBP significantly reduced hepatic intracellular triacylglycerol accumulation. H&E staining also showed that LBP can attenuate liver steatosis. Hepatic genes expression profiles demonstrated that LBP can activate the phosphorylation of AMPK, suppress nuclear expression of SREBP-1c, and decrease protein and mRNA expression of lipogenic genes in vivo or in vitro. Moreover, LBP significantly elevated uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α expression of brown adipose tissue. In summary, LBP possesses a potential novel treatment in preventing diet-induced fatty liver.

  13. Goji fruit (Lycium barbarum) protects sciatic nerve function against crush injury in a model of diabetic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonyan, K V; Avetisyan, L G; Chavushyan, V A

    2016-09-01

    Excess fructose consumption causes changes in functioning of the central and peripheral nervous systems, which increase the vulnerability of peripheral nerves to traumatic injury. The aim of this study was to evaluate the electrophysiological parameters of responses of motoneurons of the spinal cord at high-frequency stimulation of the distal part of the injured sciatic nerve in a model of diabetic stress under action of Lycium barbarum (LB). Male albino rats were given with drinking water with 50% concentration of dietary fructose for 6 weeks. Starting on the 7th week a crush injury of the left sciatic nerve was carried out. Some of the animals received fructose post-injury for 3 weeks and some of the animals received fructose+dry LB fruits for 3 weeks. In the fructose+crush+LВ group a relatively proportional division of tetanic and posttetanic potentiation and depression in responses of ipsilateral and contralateral motoneurons was observed, which would suggest the modulatory role of LB in short-term synaptic plasticity formation. Generally, LB fruit is able to modulate central nervous system reorganization, amplifying positive adaptive changes that improve functional recovery and promote selective target reinnervation in high fructose-diet rats with sciatic nerve crush-injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. 苦瓜枸杞低糖酸奶的研制%Production and research on low-sugar yoghurt with balsam pear and Lycium barbarum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋立; 李雨露; 马勇; 吕长鑫; 励建荣

    2011-01-01

    The optimum formula and technique of yoghurt were studied by using aspartame and acesulfame potassium as substitutes of sucrose with milk,balsam pear,Lycium barbarum and de-fatted milk powder as material. The results showed that 3% of mixed bacteria with lactobacillus l. d. Bulgaricus and Str. Thermophilus as proportion 1∶ 1 was inoculated after milk,the sweetener 0. 010%(aspartame:acesulfame potassium=1∶ 1),balsam pear juice 1. 5%,Lycium barbarum juice 3% and 2% de-fatted milk powder were mixed,homogenized and sterilized. The low- sugar yoghurt with balsam pear and Lycium barbarum was produced through fermentation under 42℃ for 4h. The low-sugar yoghurt was uniform in color,fine in texture and smooth organizing,delicious taste in sour and sweet with coordinated flavour.%研究了以牛奶、苦瓜、枸杞、脱脂奶粉为主要原料,并以阿斯巴甜和安赛蜜替代蔗糖来生产酸奶的最佳配方及工艺。结果表明,牛奶与0.010%的甜味剂(阿斯巴甜∶安赛蜜=1∶1)、1.5%的苦瓜汁、3%的枸杞汁、2%的脱脂奶粉混合、均质、杀菌后,接入保加利亚乳杆菌与嗜热链球菌比例为1∶1的混合菌种3%,在42℃条件下发酵4h,制得颜色均一、组织细腻、酸甜爽口、香味协调的苦瓜枸杞低糖酸奶。

  15. Antioxidant, Antimicrobial Effects and Phenolic Profile of Lycium barbarum L. Flowers

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    Andrei Mocan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available L. barbarum L. is a widely-accepted nutraceutical presenting highly advantageous nutritive and antioxidant properties. Its flowers have been previously described as a source of diosgenin, β-sitosterol and lanosterol that can be further pharmaceutically developed, but no other data regarding their composition is available. The purpose of this work was to investigate the chemical constituents, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of L. barbarum flowers, as an alternative resource of naturally-occurring antioxidant compounds. The free radical scavenging activity of the ethanolic extract was tested by TEAC, two enzymatic assays with more physiological relevance and EPR spectroscopy. The presence of several phenolic compounds, such as chlorogenic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids, but also isoquercitrin, rutin and quercitrin, was assessed by an HPLC/MS method. The antioxidant assays revealed that the extract exhibited a moderate antioxidant potential. The antimicrobial activity was mild against Gram-positive bacteria and lacking against Escherichia coli. These findings complete the scarce existing data and offer new perspectives for further pharmaceutical valorization of L. barbarum flowers.

  16. Study on the Relationship between the Main Secondary Metabolites and Polysaccharide in Fruits of Lycium barbarum at Different Application Amounts of Nitrogen%不同施氮水平下枸杞主要次生代谢产物与多糖的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康建宏; 吴宏亮; 杨涓; 杨剑涛

    2008-01-01

    [Objective] The aim of this study is to investigate the optimum application amount of nitrogen in Lycium barbarum based on considering the re-lationship between main secondary metaholites and polysaccharide. [Method] Under field conditions, the effects of different application amounts of nitro-gen on main secondary metabolites of betaine, carotenoid and flavone of Lycium barbarum and the relationship between main secondary metabolites and pol-ysaccharide. [Result] The main secondary metabolites of betainc, carotenoid and flavone of Lycium barbarum varied under different application amounts of nitrogen. The proper application amuant of nitrogen (600 -900 kg/hm2) was beneficial to the formation and accumulation of secondary metabolites such as carotenoids. Correlation analysis results showed that polysaccharide were negatively correlated with betaine, carotenoid and flavone at significant probability level. [Conclusion] Considering the relationship between the output and quality of the fruits of Lycium barbarum, the optimum nitrogen application a-mount should be 600 -900 kg/hm2.

  17. Densitometric TLC analysis for the control of tropane and steroidal alkaloids in Lycium barbarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokotkiewicz, A; Migas, P; Stefanowicz, J; Luczkiewicz, M; Krauze-Baranowska, M

    2017-04-15

    Thin layer chromatographic methods for quantitative determination of nightshade-specific tropane (l-hyoscyamine, scopolamine) and steroidal alkaloids (α-solanine, α-chaconine) in goji berries (L. barbarum L., Solanaceae) were developed. The analysis of tropane derivatives included separation on silica gel-coated HPTLC plates using mobile phase consisted of chloroform:methanol:acetone:25% ammonium hydroxide (75:15:10:1.6 v/v/v/v), derivatization with Dragendorff reagent and scanning densitometry at λ - 520nm in reflectance/absorption mode. Steroidal alkaloid analysis employed silica gel-coated TLC plates, mobile phase composed of chloroform:methanol:water:25% ammonium hydroxide (70:30:4:2 v/v/v/v), derivatization with Carr-Price reagent and video densitometry under white light in the reflectance mode. Both methods were validated with respect to linearity, precision, accuracy and sensitivity, enabling reliable detection of tropane derivatives and α-solanine at 1.20 and 7.84mgper100g fresh material, respectively. None of the analyzed compounds were detected in fruits, leaves, stems and roots of three L. barbarum varieties ('No. 1', 'New Big' and 'Amber Sweet Goji').

  18. Lycium barbarum polysaccharides reduce neuronal damage, blood-retinal barrier disruption and oxidative stress in retinal ischemia/reperfusion injury.

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    Suk-Yee Li

    Full Text Available Neuronal cell death, glial cell activation, retinal swelling and oxidative injury are complications in retinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injuries. Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP, extracts from the wolfberries, are good for "eye health" according to Chinese medicine. The aim of our present study is to explore the use of LBP in retinal I/R injury. Retinal I/R injury was induced by surgical occlusion of the internal carotid artery. Prior to induction of ischemia, mice were treated orally with either vehicle (PBS or LBP (1 mg/kg once a day for 1 week. Paraffin-embedded retinal sections were prepared. Viable cells were counted; apoptosis was assessed using TUNEL assay. Expression levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, aquaporin-4 (AQP4, poly(ADP-ribose (PAR and nitrotyrosine (NT were investigated by immunohistochemistry. The integrity of blood-retinal barrier (BRB was examined by IgG extravasations. Apoptosis and decreased viable cell count were found in the ganglion cell layer (GCL and the inner nuclear layer (INL of the vehicle-treated I/R retina. Additionally, increased retinal thickness, GFAP activation, AQP4 up-regulation, IgG extravasations and PAR expression levels were observed in the vehicle-treated I/R retina. Many of these changes were diminished or abolished in the LBP-treated I/R retina. Pre-treatment with LBP for 1 week effectively protected the retina from neuronal death, apoptosis, glial cell activation, aquaporin water channel up-regulation, disruption of BRB and oxidative stress. The present study suggests that LBP may have a neuroprotective role to play in ocular diseases for which I/R is a feature.

  19. Lycium barbarum (wolfberry reduces secondary degeneration and oxidative stress, and inhibits JNK pathway in retina after partial optic nerve transection.

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    Hongying Li

    Full Text Available Our group has shown that the polysaccharides extracted from Lycium barbarum (LBP are neuroprotective for retinal ganglion cells (RGCs in different animal models. Protecting RGCs from secondary degeneration is a promising direction for therapy in glaucoma management. The complete optic nerve transection (CONT model can be used to study primary degeneration of RGCs, while the partial optic nerve transection (PONT model can be used to study secondary degeneration of RGCs because primary degeneration of RGCs and secondary degeneration can be separated in location in the same retina in this model; in other situations, these types of degeneration can be difficult to distinguish. In order to examine which kind of degeneration LBP could delay, both CONT and PONT models were used in this study. Rats were fed with LBP or vehicle daily from 7 days before surgery until sacrifice at different time-points and the surviving numbers of RGCs were evaluated. The expression of several proteins related to inflammation, oxidative stress, and the c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK pathways were detected with Western-blot analysis. LBP did not delay primary degeneration of RGCs after either CONT or PONT, but it did delay secondary degeneration of RGCs after PONT. We found that LBP appeared to exert these protective effects by inhibiting oxidative stress and the JNK/c-jun pathway and by transiently increasing production of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1. This study suggests that LBP can delay secondary degeneration of RGCs and this effect may be linked to inhibition of oxidative stress and the JNK/c-jun pathway in the retina.

  20. Protection of retinal ganglion cells and retinal vasculature by Lycium barbarum polysaccharides in a mouse model of acute ocular hypertension.

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    Xue-Song Mi

    Full Text Available Acute ocular hypertension (AOH is a condition found in acute glaucoma. The purpose of this study is to investigate the protective effect of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP and its protective mechanisms in the AOH insult. LBP has been shown to exhibit neuroprotective effect in the chronic ocular hypertension (COH experiments. AOH mouse model was induced in unilateral eye for one hour by introducing 90 mmHg ocular pressure. The animal was fed with LBP solution (1 mg/kg or vehicle daily from 7 days before the AOH insult till sacrifice at either day 4 or day 7 post insult. The neuroprotective effects of LBP on retinal ganglion cells (RGCs and blood-retinal-barrier (BRB were evaluated. In control AOH retina, loss of RGCs, thinning of IRL thickness, increased IgG leakage, broken tight junctions, and decreased density of retinal blood vessels were observed. However, in LBP-treated AOH retina, there was less loss of RGCs with thinning of IRL thickness, IgG leakage, more continued structure of tight junctions associated with higher level of occludin protein and the recovery of the blood vessel density when compared with vehicle-treated AOH retina. Moreover, we found that LBP provides neuroprotection by down-regulating RAGE, ET-1, Aβ and AGE in the retina, as well as their related signaling pathways, which was related to inhibiting vascular damages and the neuronal degeneration in AOH insults. The present study suggests that LBP could prevent damage to RGCs from AOH-induced ischemic injury; furthermore, through its effects on blood vessel protection, LBP would also be a potential treatment for vascular-related retinopathy.

  1. Lycium barbarum extracts protect the brain from blood-brain barrier disruption and cerebral edema in experimental stroke.

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    Di Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Ischemic stroke is a destructive cerebrovascular disease and a leading cause of death. Yet, no ideal neuroprotective agents are available, leaving prevention an attractive alternative. The extracts from the fruits of Lycium barbarum (LBP, a Chinese anti-aging medicine and food supplement, showed neuroprotective function in the retina when given prophylactically. We aim to evaluate the protective effects of LBP pre-treatment in an experimental stroke model. METHODS: C57BL/6N male mice were first fed with either vehicle (PBS or LBP (1 or 10 mg/kg daily for 7 days. Mice were then subjected to 2-hour transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO by the intraluminal method followed by 22-hour reperfusion upon filament removal. Mice were evaluated for neurological deficits just before sacrifice. Brains were harvested for infarct size estimation, water content measurement, immunohistochemical analysis, and Western blot experiments. Evans blue (EB extravasation was determined to assess blood-brain barrier (BBB disruption after MCAO. RESULTS: LBP pre-treatment significantly improved neurological deficits as well as decreased infarct size, hemispheric swelling, and water content. Fewer apoptotic cells were identified in LBP-treated brains by TUNEL assay. Reduced EB extravasation, fewer IgG-leaky vessels, and up-regulation of occludin expression were also observed in LBP-treated brains. Moreover, immunoreactivity for aquaporin-4 and glial fibrillary acidic protein were significantly decreased in LBP-treated brains. CONCLUSIONS: Seven-day oral LBP pre-treatment effectively improved neurological deficits, decreased infarct size and cerebral edema as well as protected the brain from BBB disruption, aquaporin-4 up-regulation, and glial activation. The present study suggests that LBP may be used as a prophylactic neuroprotectant in patients at high risk for ischemic stroke.

  2. Proteome analysis of the wild and YX-1 male sterile mutant anthers of wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L..

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    Rui Zheng

    Full Text Available Pollen development is disturbed in the early tetrad stage of the YX-1 male sterile mutant of wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L.. The present study aimed to identify differentially expressed anther proteins and to reveal their possible roles in pollen development and male sterility. To address this question, the proteomes of the wild-type (WT and YX-1 mutant were compared. Approximately 1760 protein spots on two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE gels were detected. A number of proteins whose accumulation levels were altered in YX-1 compared with WT were identified by mass spectrometry and the NCBInr and Viridiplantae EST databases. Proteins down-regulated in YX-1 anthers include ascorbate peroxidase (APX, putative glutamine synthetase (GS, ATP synthase subunits, chalcone synthase (CHS, CHS-like, putative callose synthase catalytic subunit, cysteine protease, 5B protein, enoyl-ACP reductase, 14-3-3 protein and basic transcription factor 3 (BTF3. Meanwhile, activities of APX and GS, RNA expression levels of apx and atp synthase beta subunit were low in YX-1 anthers which correlated with the expression of male sterility. In addition, several carbohydrate metabolism-related and photosynthesis-related enzymes were also present at lower levels in the mutant anthers. In contrast, 26S proteasome regulatory subunits, cysteine protease inhibitor, putative S-phase Kinase association Protein 1(SKP1, and aspartic protease, were expressed at higher levels in YX-1 anthers relative to WT anthers. Regulation of wolfberry pollen development involves a complex network of differentially expressed genes. The present study lays the foundation for future investigations of gene function linked with wolfberry pollen development and male sterility.

  3. Co-administration of the polysaccharide of Lycium barbarum with DNA vaccine of Chlamydophila abortus augments protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Yong; Li, Shaowen; Yang, Junjing; Yuan, Jilei; He, Cheng

    2011-01-01

    Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) can stimulate moderate immune responses therefore could potentially be used as a substitute for oil adjuvants in veterinary vaccines. In the present study, it was shown that the isolated active component of LBP3a, combined with a DNA vaccine encoding the major outer membrane protein (MOMP) of Chlamydophila abortus, induced protection in mice against challenge. Sixty BALB/c mice were randomly assigned to 5 groups. Sub-fractions of polysaccharide LBP3a, at 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg concentrations, respectively, were mixed with a pCI-neo::MOMP (pMOMP) vaccine. Mice administrated with pCI-neo + LBP3a were served as a control. All mice were inoculated at day 0, 14, and 28, and challenged on day 44. The effects of LBp3a on serum antibody levels, in vitro lymphocyte proliferation, the activity of interleaukin-2 (IL-2), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor α(TNF-α)and chlamydia clearance were determined. A combination of DNA vaccine and LBP3a induced significantly higher antibody levels in mice, higher T cell proliferation and higher levels of IFN-γ and IL-2. Mice immunized with DNA and LBP3a also showed significantly higher levels of chlamydia clearance in mice spleens and a greater Th1 immune response. The immunoenhancement induced by 25 mg/kg LBP3a is more effective than that induced by a 12.5 and 50 mg/kg. This implies that LBP3a at 25 mg/kg has a high potential to be used as an effective adjuvant with a DNA vaccine against swine Chlamydophila abortus.

  4. An evidence-based update on the pharmacological activities and possible molecular targets of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides

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    Cheng J

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Jiang Cheng,1,2 Zhi-Wei Zhou,2 Hui-Ping Sheng,3 Lan-Jie He,4 Xue-Wen Fan,1 Zhi-Xu He,5 Tao Sun,6 Xueji Zhang,7 Ruan Jin Zhao,8 Ling Gu,9 Chuanhai Cao,2 Shu-Feng Zhou2,5 1Department of Neurology, General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, Ningxia, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Pharmaceutical Science, College of Pharmacy, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA; 3Department of Infectious Diseases, 4Department of Endocrinology, General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, Ningxia, 5Guizhou Provincial Key Laboratory for Regenerative Medicine, Stem Cell and Tissue Engineering Research Center and Sino-US Joint Laboratory for Medical Sciences, Guiyang Medical University, Guiyang, Guizhou, 6Key Laboratory of Craniocerebral Diseases of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, Ningxia, 7Research Center for Bioengineering and Sensing Technology, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 8Center for Traditional Chinese Medicine, Sarasota, FL, USA; 9School of Biology and Chemistry, University of Pu’er, Pu’er, Yunnan, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Lycium barbarum berries, also named wolfberry, Fructus lycii, and Goji berries, have been used in the People’s Republic of China and other Asian countries for more than 2,000 years as a traditional medicinal herb and food supplement. L. barbarum polysaccharides (LBPs are the primary active components of L. barbarum berries and have been reported to possess a wide array of pharmacological activities. Herein, we update our knowledge on the main pharmacological activities and possible molecular targets of LBPs. Several clinical studies in healthy subjects show that consumption of wolfberry juice improves general wellbeing and immune functions. LBPs are reported to have antioxidative and antiaging properties in different models. LBPs show antitumor activities against various types of

  5. Effect of Lycium barbarum Polysaccharides on the expression of endothelin-1 and its receptors in an ocular hypertension model of rat glaucoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-Song Mi; Kin Chiu; Geoffrey Van; Justin Wai Chung Leung; Amy Cheuk Yin; Sookja Kim Chung; Raymond Chuen-Chung Chang; Kwok-Fai So

    2012-01-01

    Lycium barbarum, a traditional Chinese anti-aging herb, has been shown to protect retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in a rat chronic ocular hypertension (COH) model.Here, we investigated the expression of endothelin-1 (ET-1), a strong vasoconstrictor, and its receptors, ETA and ETB, in the COH model and assessed the effects of Lycium barbarum on the ET-1 axis.Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) was induced in the right eye of SD rats using argon laser photocoagulation.(1) The expression of ET-1, ETA and ETB in normal and COH retinas was studied.(2) Some COH rats were fed daily with Lycium barbarum Polysaccharides (LBP) using 1 mg/kg or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) for 3 weeks (started 1 week before photocoagulation).The effects of LBP on the expression of ET-1 and its receptors, ETA and ETB, in COH retina were evaluated.A semi-quantitative analysis of staining intensity was used to evaluate the expression levels of ET-1, ETA and ETB in retinal vasculature.We found that (1) Under COH condition, the immunoreactivity of ET-1 was increased in retina associated with an increase of ETB receptor immunoreactivity and a decrease of ETA receptor immunoreactivity.(2) After feeding COH rats with LBP, the expression of ET-1 was decreased with an increase of ETA expression and a decrease of ETB expression in the retina, especially in RGCs.(3) By comparing the staining intensity in the vasculature of COH retina in LBP-fed group with PBS-fed group, there was a decrease in the expression of ET-1 and ETA and an increase in ETB.In summary, ET-1 expression was up-regulated in the retina in COH model.LBP could decrease the expression of ET-1 and modulate the expression of its receptors, ETA and ETB, under the condition of COH.The neuroprotective effect of LBP on RGCs might be related to its ability to regulate the ET-1-mediated biological effects on RGCs and retinal vasculature.

  6. Characterization and comparison of polysaccharides from Lycium barbarum in China using saccharide mapping based on PACE and HPTLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ding-Tao; Cheong, Kit-Leong; Deng, Yong; Lin, Peng-Cheng; Wei, Feng; Lv, Xiao-Jie; Long, Ze-Rong; Zhao, Jing; Ma, Shuang-Cheng; Li, Shao-Ping

    2015-12-10

    Water-soluble polysaccharides from 51 batches of fruits of L. barbarum (wolfberry) in China were investigated and compared using saccharide mapping, partial acid hydrolysis, single and composite enzymatic digestion, followed by polysaccharide analysis by using carbohydrate gel electrophoresis (PACE) analysis and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) analysis, respectively. Results showed that multiple PACE and HPTLC fingerprints of partial acid and enzymatic hydrolysates of polysaccharides from L. barbarum in China were similar, respectively. In addition, results indicated that β-1,3-glucosidic, α-1,4-galactosiduronic and α-1,5-arabinosidic linkages existed in polysaccharides from L. barbarum collected in China, and the similarity of polysaccharides in L. barbarum collected from different regions of China was pretty high, which are helpful for the improvement of the performance of polysaccharides from L. barbarum in functional/health foods area. Furthermore, polysaccharides from Panax notoginseng, Angelica sinensis, and Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus were successfully distinguished from those of L. barbarum based on their PACE fingerprints. These results were beneficial to improve the quality control of polysaccharides from L. barabrum and their products, which suggested that saccharide mapping based on PACE and HPTLC analysis could be a routine approach for quality control of polysaccharides.

  7. fraction from Lycium barbarum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Revd Dr Olaleye

    hypercholesterolemia and diabetes (Zhao and Liu, ... Mr. king Li, a botanist of Qujing Normal University. A ... immersed in tenfold dH2O, boiled at 100℃ for 12 h .... 22.00. 24.00. 26.00. 28.00. 30.00. 0. 7. 14. 21. 28 time (d) body w eight (g. ) NC.

  8. Preparation of carotenoid extracts and nanoemulsions from Lycium barbarum L. and their effects on growth of HT-29 colon cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, H. J.; Huang, R. F.; Kao, T. H.; Inbaraj, B. S.; Chen, B. H.

    2017-03-01

    Lycium barbarum L., a traditional Chinese herb widely used in Asian countries, has been demonstrated to be protective against chronic diseases such as age-related macular degeneration. The objectives of this study were to determine the carotenoid content in L. barbarum by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, followed by preparation of a carotenoid nanoemulsion to evaluate the mechanism of inhibition on HT-29 colon cancer cells. The highest extraction yield of carotenoids was attained by employing a solvent system of hexane-ethanol-acetone (1:1:1, v/v/v). Nine carotenoids, including neoxanthin (4.47 μg g-1), all-trans-zeaxanthin and its cis-isomers (1666.3 μg g-1), all-trans-β-cryptoxanthin (51.69 μg g-1), all-trans-β-carotene and its cis-isomers (20.11 μg g-1), were separated within 45 min and quantified using a YMC C30 column and a gradient mobile phase of methanol-water (9:1, v/v) (A) and methylene chloride (B). A highly stable carotenoid nanoemulsion composed of CapryolTM 90, Transcutol®HP, Tween 80 and deionized water was prepared with a mean particle size of 15.1 nm. Characterization of zeaxanthin standard, blank nanoemulsion, carotenoid extract and carotenoid nanoemulsion by differential scanning calorimetry curves and Fourier transform infrared spectra revealed a good dispersion of zeaxanthin-dominated carotenoid extract with no significant chemical change after incorporation into nanoemulsion. The in vitro release kinetic study showed a higher release profile at pH 5.2 than at physiological pH 7.4, suggesting a rapid release of carotenoids in the acidic environment (pH 4.5-6.5) characteristic of tumors. Both the carotenoid nanoemulsion and the extract were effective at inhibiting growth of HT-29 colon cancer cells, with an IC50 of 4.5 and 4.9 μg ml-1, respectively. Also, both treatments could up-regulate p53 and p21 expression and down-regulate CDK2, CDK1, cyclin A and cyclin B expression and arrest the cell cycle at G2/M. The

  9. Reversal of the Caspase-Dependent Apoptotic Cytotoxicity Pathway by Taurine from Lycium barbarum (Goji Berry in Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells: Potential Benefit in Diabetic Retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Song

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy is a preventable microvascular diabetic complication and a leading cause of vision loss. Retinal pigment epithelial cell apoptosis is an early event in diabetic retinopathy. Taurine is reportedly beneficial for diabetic retinopathy and is abundant in the fruit of Lycium barbarum (LB. We have investigated the effect of pure taurine and an extract of LB rich in taurine on a model of diabetic retinopathy, the retinal ARPE-19 cell line exposed to high glucose. We demonstrate for the first time that LB extract and the active ligand, taurine, dose dependently enhance cell viability following high glucose treatment in the ARPE-19 retinal epithelial cell line. This cytoprotective effect was associated with the attenuation of high glucose-induced apoptosis, which was shown by characteristic morphological staining and the dose-dependent decrease in the number of apoptotic cells, determined by flow cytometry. Moreover, we have shown that LB extract and taurine dose dependently downregulate caspase-3 protein expression and the enzymatic activity of caspase-3. We conclude that taurine, a major component of LB, and the LB extract, have a cytoprotective effect against glucose exposure in a human retinal epithelial cell line and may provide useful approaches to delaying diabetic retinopathy progression.

  10. Changes of the Main Carotenoid Pigment Contents During the Drying Processes of the Different Harvest Stage Fruits of Lycium barbarum L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Wen-ping; NI Zhi-jing; LI He; CHEN Min

    2008-01-01

    The test analyzed the regularity of biosynthesis and degradation of the main functional components,such as zeaxanthin,β-carotene,and esterified carotenoids in the fruit of Lycium barbarum L.in order to provide theoretical basis for improvement of processing condition,appearance quality,and preservation of carotenoids.RP-HPLC was adapted to assay the changes of the main carotenoids of the different harvested stage fruit during the drying processing.Quantification was realized using external standard with gradient elution.The results showed that zeaxanthin and β-carotene contents in fruits increased dramatically,2-22 times that of fresh fruits at the beginning of the drying period.In the middle of drying period,degradation occurred to a some extent,and the fall fruit degraded to a large extent.At the end of drying period, zeaxanthin and β-carotene contents increased to a little extent until a balanced state is obtained.Zeaxanthin dipalmitate content had a total degradation to more than 40%at the beginning of the drying period,and increased a little at the middle period,then reached a balanced state finally.The total carotenoid content analysis showed that the summer fruit had higher carotenoid content than the fall fruit.The experiments demonstrated zeaxanthin and β-carotene contents in fruits increased and zeaxanthin dipalmitate decreased during the drying process,which had an effect on the production appearance.

  11. Study on Microwave Extraction Technology of Betaine from Lycium barbarum Leaves%微波法提取枸杞叶甜菜碱工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党军; 王瑛; 陶燕铎; 邵赞; 梅丽娟; 王启兰

    2011-01-01

    研究微波法提取枸杞叶中甜菜碱的最佳工艺,考察工艺参数对枸杞叶中甜菜碱提取率的影响.以甜菜碱提取率为指标,通过L9(3(4))正交实验与方差分析优选出枸杞叶中甜菜碱最佳提取工艺条件.结果表明,最佳工艺为固液比为(g:ml)1:10,20 min,微波功率200 w.枸杞叶中甜菜碱最佳提取率平均值可高达4.48%.该工艺简单、稳定、可行.%The optimum microwave extraction technology of betaine from Lycium, barbarum leaves was studied and the impacts of every technology parameter on extraction rate of betaine were investigated. Extraction rate of betaine was taken as index. L9(34) orthogonal design and analysis of variance were adopted to optimize the technological conditions of microwave extraction of betaine. The results sbowed that the rate of solid and liquid, extraction time and microwave power were 1:10 ( g:ml) , 20min, 200w, respectively, and the average of betaine extraction rate was up to 4.48%. The technology was simple, stable and feasible.

  12. Integrated method of thermosensitive triblock copolymer-salt aqueous two phase extraction and dialysis membrane separation for purification of lycium barbarum polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Hu, Xiaowei; Han, Juan; Ni, Liang; Tang, Xu; Hu, Yutao; Chen, Tong

    2016-03-01

    A polymer-salt aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) consisting of thermosensitive copolymer ethylene-oxide-b-propylene-oxide-b-ethylene-oxide (EOPOEO) and NaH2PO4 was employed in deproteinization for lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP). The effects of salt type and concentration, EOPOEO concentration, amount of crude LBP solution and temperature were studied. In the primary extraction process, LBP was preferentially partitioned to the bottom (salt-rich) phase with high recovery ratio of 96.3%, while 94.4% of impurity protein was removed to the top (EOPOEO-rich) phase. Moreover, the majority of pigments could be discarded to top phase. After phase-separation, the LBP in the bottom phase was further purified by dialysis membrane to remove salt and other small molecular impurities. The purity of LBP was enhanced to 64%. Additionally, the FT-IR spectrum was used to identify LBP. EOPOEO was recovered by a temperature-induced separation, and reused in a new ATPS. An ideal extraction and recycle result were achieved.

  13. NMR-based identification of the phenolic profile of fruits of Lycium barbarum (goji berries). Isolation and structural determination of a novel N-feruloyl tyramine dimer as the most abundant antioxidant polyphenol of goji berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forino, Martino; Tartaglione, Luciana; Dell'Aversano, Carmela; Ciminiello, Patrizia

    2016-03-01

    Biological properties of fruits of Lycium barbarum (goji berries) have been ascribed to their high content of nutrients and phenolics. Comprehensive studies aimed at unambiguously identifying the phenolic components in goji berries are still lacking. In this paper, we report on the isolation and NMR-based identification of the major phenolics in commercially available goji berries. Together with already known phenolics, including caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, rutin, scopoletin, N-trans-feruloyl tyramine, and N-cis-feruloyl tyramine, an unreported N-feruloyl tyramine dimer was characterized as the most abundant polyphenol isolated from the berries. Usually divalent molecules show enhanced biological activities than their corresponding monomers.

  14. Physico-chemical Properties and Bioactivities of a Glycoconjugate LbGp5B from Lycium barbarum L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG,Xue-Mei(彭雪梅); PENG,Xue-Mei; QI,Chun-Hui(齐春会); QI,Chun-Hui; TIAN,Geng-Yuan (田庚元); TIAN,Geng-Yuan; ZHANG,Yong-Xiang(张永详); ZHANG,Yong-Xiang

    2001-01-01

    A glycoconjugatedesignated as LbGp5B was isolated from the fruit of Lyciun barbarum L. and purified to homogeneity by gel filtration .LbGp5B is composed of rhamnose (Rha), arabinose (Ara), galactose (Gal), glucose (Glc), galacturonic acid (GalA) and seveateen amino acids. The molecular weight of LbGp5B was determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and by matrix-asisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time of fight (T OF) mass spectrometry (MS). The preliminary experiments showed that LbGp5B promoted splenocyte proliferation in mice and inhihited the peroxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL).

  15. 枸杞果实总RNA提取方法的比较研究%Comparison for the Extraction of the Total RNA from Lycium barbarum L.fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽娟; 姚新灵; 冯秀娟; 马丽华

    2011-01-01

    The performances of the five extraction of the total RNA, the Trizol, the guanidinium isothiocyanate, the CTAB, the TransZol plant kit and the improved CTAB from Lycium barbarum L. Fruits tissue that is rich in polysaccharides polyhenolics and the pigments are compared in this paper. The yields,the quality and the integrity of RNA are tested by ultraviolet spectrophotometer analysis(A260/280) and 1. 0% agarose gel electrophoresis. The RNA can be used for reverse transcription and PCR amplification efficiently. Therefore,the improved CTAB extraction would be the fast and the efficient for the total RNA isolation from Lycium barbarum L. Fruits.%以枸杞果实为植物材料,比较研究Trizol试剂快速提取法、异硫氰酸胍法、TransZol plant试剂盒法、CTAB法和改良CTAB法提取枸杞果实RNA的可行性.结果表明,改良CTAB法能有效地抑制酚类物质、多糖及皂苷等次级代谢产物对RNA的影响,可从枸杞果实获得质量高、完整性好的总RNA;RT-PCR分析显示提取的总RNA具有反转录活性;该方法具有高效、简单和经济的特点.

  16. Activation of the Nrf2/HO-1 antioxidant pathway contributes to the protective effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides in the rodent retina after ischemia-reperfusion-induced damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meihua He

    Full Text Available Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP, extracts from the wolfberries, are protective to retina after ischemia-reperfusion (I/R. The antioxidant response element (ARE-mediated antioxidant pathway plays an important role in maintaining the redox status of the retina. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, combined with potent AREs in its promoter, is a highly effective therapeutic target for the protection against neurodegenerative diseases, including I/R-induced retinal damage. The aim of our present study was to investigate whether the protective effect of LBP after I/R damage was mediated via activation of the Nrf2/HO-1-antioxidant pathway in the retina. Retinal I/R was induced by an increase in intraocular pressure to 130 mm Hg for 60 minutes. Prior to the induction of ischemia, rats were orally treated with either vehicle (PBS or LBP (1 mg/kg once a day for 1 week. For specific experiments, zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP, 20 mg/kg, an HO-1 inhibitor, was intraperitoneally administered at 24 h prior to ischemia. The protective effects of LBP were evaluated by quantifying ganglion cell and amacrine cell survival, and by measuring cell apoptosis in the retinal layers. In addition, HO-1 expression was examined using Western blotting and immunofluorescence analyses. Cytosolic and nuclear Nrf2 was measured using immunofluorescent staining. LBP treatment significantly increased Nrf2 nuclear accumulation and HO-1 expression in the retina after I/R injury. Increased apoptosis and a decrease in the number of viable cells were observed in the ganglion cell layer (GCL and inner nuclear layer (INL in the I/R retina, which were reversed by LBP treatment. The HO-1 inhibitor, ZnPP, diminished the LBP treatment-induced protective effects in the retina after I/R. Taken together, these results suggested that LBP partially exerted its beneficial neuroprotective effects via the activation of Nrf2 and an increase in HO-1 protein expression.

  17. Neuroprotective mechanism of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides against hippocampal-dependent spatial memory deficits in a rat model of obstructive sleep apnea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Sing Lam

    Full Text Available Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH is a hallmark of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA, which induces hippocampal injuries mediated by oxidative stress. This study aims to examine the neuroprotective mechanism of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP against CIH-induced spatial memory deficits. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to hypoxic treatment resembling a severe OSA condition for a week. The animals were orally fed with LBP solution (1 mg/kg daily 2 hours prior to hypoxia or in air for the control. The effect of LBP on the spatial memory and levels of oxidative stress, inflammation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress, apoptosis and neurogenesis in the hippocampus was examined. There was a significant deficit in the spatial memory and an elevated level of malondialdehyde with a decreased expression of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GPx-1 in the hypoxic group when compared with the normoxic control. In addition, redox-sensitive nuclear factor kappa B (NFКB canonical pathway was activated with a translocation of NFКB members (p65, p50 and increased expression levels of NFКB-dependent inflammatory cytokines and mediator (TNFα, IL-1β, COX-2; also, a significantly elevated level of ER stress (GRP78/Bip, PERK, CHOP and autophagic flux in the hypoxic group, leading to neuronal apoptosis in hippocampal subfields (DG, CA1, CA3. Remarkably, LBP administration normalized the elevated level of oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, ER stress, autophagic flux and apoptosis induced by hypoxia. Moreover, LBP significantly mitigated both the caspase-dependent intrinsic (Bax, Bcl2, cytochrome C, cleaved caspase-3 and extrinsic (FADD, cleaved caspase-8, Bid signaling apoptotic cascades. Furthermore, LBP administration prevented the spatial memory deficit and enhanced the hippocampal neurogenesis induced by hypoxia. Our results suggest that LBP is neuroprotective against CIH-induced hippocampal-dependent spatial memory deficits by promoting hippocampal neurogenesis

  18. 采用ISSR-PCR分子标记法鉴别黑果枸杞与雄性不育枸杞%Identification of Lycium ruthenicum Murr and Male Sterility of Lycium barbarum L. by Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    思彬彬; 张靠稳; 刘国迪

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To identify Lycium ruthenicum and male sterility of Lycium barbarum by inter-simple sequence repeat markers. [ Method] Primers suitable for routine analysis were screened from 100 inter-simple sequence repeat primers, then, they were used in PCR and separated of 2 samples of L. Ruthenicum and male sterility of /- barbarum L. [ Results] Four of the 100 primers amplified polymorphic bands and suitable for the identification of L ruthenicum and male sterility oft. Barbarum. [Conclusion] Inter-simple sequence repeat markers provide a quick, reliable molecular marker for identification of L ruthenicum and male sterility of L barbarum.%[目的]探索用ISSR分子标记方法在核酸分子水平上鉴别黑果枸杞与雄性不育枸杞.[方法]从100条ISSR引物中筛选合适的引物对黑果枸杞与雄性不育枸杞样品进行PCR扩增及电泳分析,寻找特征位点.[结果]有4条ISSR引物扩增出较为明显的多态性特征条带,可单独应用于黑果枸杞与雄性不育枸杞的鉴别.[结论]ISSR作为一种简便、可靠的分子标记方法,可用于黑果枸杞与雄性不育枸杞的鉴别.

  19. Mechanism simulation analysis and prototype experiment ofLycium barbarum harvest by vibration mode%振动式枸杞采摘机理仿真分析与样机试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张最; 肖宏儒; 丁文芹; 梅松

    2015-01-01

    为了实现枸杞机械化采摘,该文研究了枸杞振动采摘机理,并建立振动采摘力学模型,分析求解得到枸杞挂果枝条受迫振动时各节点处枸杞和花朵所受惯性力的通解。运用 MATLAB 对振动式枸杞采摘机工作参数进行优化和仿真试验,优化得到合理的迫振载荷和驱动轮转速组合,仿真试验得到受迫振动枸杞挂果枝条各节点处枸杞与花朵所受采摘惯性力随转速变化规律仿真曲线,对转速取值进行调整。最后进行了枸杞采摘试验,试验得到合理的驱动轮转速为2870 r/min,该转速水平在仿真得到的合理的转速区间为2868.84~2871.21 r/min。试验转速为2870 r/min时,成熟枸杞采摘效率为815颗/min,成熟枸杞采净率为86.70%,未成熟枸杞采摘率为7.36%,花朵采摘率为7.43%,成熟枸杞损伤率为8.62%,机采人采效率比为5.43,试验结果与仿真结论一致。研究结果可为枸杞振动采摘机的研制提供参考。%Recently, as scientific research has been further explored, the health care functions of theLycium barbarum (L. barbarum) in anti-oxidation, anti-aging, anti-fatigue, protecting liver, improving body immunity, eye protection and other aspects have been further confirmed. Its unique and nutrient-rich health function is recognized gradually in western countries, and the market demand of theL. barbarum is expanding each year. TheL. barbarum blooms and bears fruit continuously during the growing season which begins in mid-May. Depending on the picking time around the year, theL. barbarum fruit can be divided into spring, summer and autumn fruit. In order to make driedL. barbarum keep good commodity characters, the L. barbarum is harvested at 80 percent maturity. The full bearing period ofL. barbarum is from May to September every year, which is the picking peak ofL. barbarum. It must be picked once about every 7 days. For centuries, the mechanized harvesting of

  20. Correlation Between the Total Flavonoid Contents and Antioxidant Activity of Lycium barbarum L.Leaves%宁夏枸杞叶中总黄酮含量与抗氧化活性关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛东玲; 马婷婷; 张自萍

    2012-01-01

    为进一步开发宁夏枸杞叶资源,研究宁夏枸杞叶抗氧化活性部位中总黄酮含量与抗氧化活性间关系.以乙醇做提取溶剂,再以不同极性溶剂对醇提液进一步萃取分离;并用DPPH法(DPPH·)测定不同极性萃取部分的抗氧化能力,用分光光度法测定不同极性萃取部分中的总黄酮含量.结果表明,除石油醚萃取部位外,其他各萃取部分在一定质量浓度时,对DPPH自由基(DPPH·)清除率均达到90%,且与总黄酮含量有极显著的相关性(P<0.01),其中,正丁醇萃取部分中的总黄酮含量最高,达到77.32mg/g,其清除自由基ρ(SC50 )=0.048 3 mg/mL,活性与维生素C相当.可为枸杞叶的深度开发提供参考.%To study the correlation between the total flavonoid content and antioxidant activities of different solvent extracts from the leaves of Lycium barbarum L., to provide the reference for further development and utilization of the leaves of Lycium barbarum L. . Ethanol extract from the leaves of Lycium barbarum L. Was fractioned by different solvents, the antioxidant activities of different solvent extracts were evaluated by DPPH, flavonoid content was determined by Colorimetry. Except of petroleum ether extracts, free radical scavenging rate of other solvent extracts in a certain concentration are up to 90% , and there are the significant correlations (P<0. 01) between DPPH free radical scavenging activities and the total flavonoid content. Total flavoniod content of n-Butanol extract is the highest with 77. 32 mg/g, its free radical scavenging activity is equal to Vitamin C, SC50 value is 0. 0483 mg/mL.

  1. 种植枸杞对干旱区荒漠缓冲带土壤质量的影响%Research on Soil Quality of Planting Lycium barbarum in Arid Desert Buffer Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟宗江; 何学敏; 孙景鑫; 吕光辉

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective] A comparative analysis was conducted about the soil pH, organic matter, total soil N and C/N before and after planting Lycium barbarum in Arid Desert Buffer Zone of National Nature Reserve in the Ebinur Wetland and the condition of soil comprehensive quality changes was evaluated in order that the basis for protecting areas soil and water conservation and planting economic crops could be provided. [Method] Through artificial cultivation and indoor experiments, the physical and chemical properties and comprehensive quality status of soil samples before and after planting the Lycium barbarum and the surrounding natural control samples were evaluated and analyzed. [ Result ] Short - term weather changes insignificantly impacted on soil pH, total salt and total nitrogen, while the influence on surface soil organic matter was stronger; Effects of Artificial cultivation, planting and irrigation on soil physical and chemical properties were strong, such as reducing the soil pH and total salt, which was helpful to the improvement of soil salinization, while reducing soil organic matter and total nitrogen at the same time; The orders about integrated soil quality index of April, August, the experimental group and contrast group were that August test group < April < August contrast group. [ Conclusion ] Newly planted Lycium barbarum plantation played a certain role in the improvement of soil salinization in arid desert buffer zone, but exacerbated the soil poor degree. Under natural conditions, soil quality showed increasing trend from spring to summer, and Lycium barbarum cultivation reduced the soil quality to some extent.%[目的]对艾比湖湿地国家级自然保护区荒漠边缘缓冲带枸杞种植前后土壤的pH、总盐、有机质、全氮及C/N进行比较分析,评价其土壤综合质量变化情况,为保护区水土保持和经济作物种植提供依据.[方法]通过人工栽培和室内试验,对枸杞种植前后及周边自然对照土

  2. Determination of polysaccharide in Lycium barbarum L. extract powder containing malt dextrin%含麦芽糊精枸杞提取物干粉中多糖含量测定方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾东升; 崔施展; 谢晓亮; 温春秀; 李荣乔; 刘铭

    2015-01-01

    目的:建立含麦芽糊精的枸杞提取物干粉中多糖含量的测定方法。方法采用糖化酶水解麦芽糊精,醇沉后苯酚硫酸法测定多糖含量,优化糖化酶水解麦芽糊精的工艺,比较酶解麦芽糊精后测定多糖含量、直接测定多糖含量与样品中多糖含量真实值之间的差异。并考察糖化酶对枸杞多糖的水解能力。结果糖化酶水解麦芽糊精的最佳工艺条件为:酶解温度60℃、酶与底物比例为1∶5,反应时间为30 min。与样品中枸杞多糖含量的真实值相比,直接测定值显著偏高,组间比较数据有显著统计学差异(P<0.01),酶解麦芽糊精后测定值无显著性差异(P>0.05);与直接测定值相比,酶解麦芽糊精后测定值显著降低(P<0.01),且糖化酶对枸杞多糖无水解能力。结论糖化酶水解法可消除麦芽糊精对枸杞提取物干粉中多糖测定的影响,且方法简单、有效。%Objective To establish a method for determination of polysaccharide in Lycium barbarum L . extract powder containing with malt dextrin. Method Maltodextrin was treated with glucoamylase hydrolysis and ethanol precipitation successively;then the phenol-sulfuric acid method was used to determine the content of polysaccharide. The glucoamylase hydrolysis technolgy of malt dextrin was optimized, and the variation of polysaccharide content before and after hydrolysis, the difference of polysaccharide contents between direct determination and truth were compared. Morever, the hydrolysis effect of glucoamylase on Lycium barbarum L. was investigated. Results The optimum hydrolysis condition was: temperature 60℃, the ratio of enzyme to substrate 1∶5, hydrolysis time 30 min. The polysaccharide content determined directly was significantly higher than the real value (P0.05). Glucoamylase showed no hydrolysis effects on Lycium barbarum L. polysaccharide. Conclusion Glucoamylase hydrolysis can deplete the

  3. The effects of lycium barbarum juice to serum testosterone and sexual function in adult men%枸杞汁对成年男性血清睾酮及性功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐国琴; 翁锡全; 彭燕群; 蓝道忠

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of lycium barbarum juice to serum testosterone and sexual function in adult men. METHODS:40 adult men of 30-70 years old were recruited, and given lycium barbarum juice 100 mL at night for 32 days. The serum testosterone and cortisol were measured and sexual function of adult men were evaluated by the IIEF and BMSFI before and af⁃ter the study. RESULTS: After drinking lycium barbarum juice for 32 days, the serum testosterone, serum testosterone/cortisol ratio were significantly higher than before, while sexual satisfac⁃tion was significantly increased, libido, erectile function and sex⁃ual function total score were significantly improved, all with statis⁃tically significant difference(P<0.05), especially in men of 41-65 years old. CONCLUSION: Drinking lycium barbarum juice for 32 days can increase serum testosterone and testosterone/corti⁃sol ratio in adult men, improve sexual satisfaction, sexual desire and overall satisfaction with erectile function, and enhance sexual function of adult men.%目的:探讨枸杞汁对成年男性血清睾酮及性功能的影响.方法:招募30~70岁成年男性共40人,每晚睡前饮用枸杞汁100 mL,持续32 d,测试研究前后血睾酮和皮质醇含量,并通过勃起功能国际指数问卷( IIEF)和简明男性性功能量表( BMSFI)评价性功能状况.结果:饮用32 d枸杞汁后,成年男性血睾酮升高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);血睾酮/皮质醇比值出现显著性升高现象,同时,性交满意度显著性增加,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);性欲、勃起功能总体满意度提高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),性功能评分总分有显著性的提高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),尤其是41-65岁年龄组成年男性血清激素水平和性功能评价指标提高更加明显.结论:饮用32 d枸杞汁可提高成年男性血清睾酮浓度和睾酮/皮

  4. 枸杞子糖缀合物及其糖链对LDL氧化修饰的抑制作用%STUDIES ON THE GLYCOCONJUGATES AND GLYCANS FROM LYCIUM BARBARUM L IN INHIBITING LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN (LDL) PEROXIDATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄琳娟; 田庚元; 王仲孚; 董继斌; 吴满平

    2001-01-01

    的 研究枸杞子糖缀合物及其糖链对LDL氧化修饰的抑制作用。方法 在Cu2+诱导的LDL氧化模型中测定了脂质过氧化产物硫代巴比妥酸反应物质(TBARS)的含量及LDL在琼脂糖凝胶电泳上的迁移率以反映从枸杞子中分离、纯化得到的糖缀合物及糖链对LDL氧化修饰的抑制作用。结果 枸杞子糖缀合物及糖链抗LDL氧化的能力是不同的,其中LbGp5可明显的抑制LDL的氧化。结论 枸杞子糖缀合物具有抗LDL氧化作用,而糖链不具有抗LDL氧化的作用。%AIM To determine the effects of glycoconjugates and their glycans from Lycium barbarum L. on inhibiting low density lipoprotein (LDL) peroxidation. METHODS Using Cu2+-induced oxidation as a model, the oxidative production of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and the LDL electrophoresis migration on agarose gel were measured. RESULTS The effects of glycoconjugates and their glycans from Lycium barbarum L. on inhibiting LDL peroxidation were different, among them, glycoconjugate LbGp5 showed the best effect on inhibiting LDLperoxidation. CONCLUSION The glycoconjugates can inhibit LDL peroxidatin while their glycans showed no effects on inhibiting LDL peroxidation.

  5. Parameter Difference of Chlorophyll Fluorescence in Leaves of Different Cultivars of Lycium barbarum%不同枸杞品种叶绿素荧光参数差异分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨娟; 王有科; 李捷; 陈娜; 李小刚; 张晓娜

    2014-01-01

    In this research,some cultivars of Lycium barbarum were taken as the materials.In the field experiment,the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and the chlorophyll contents in the cultivars of L.barbarum were studied using the chlorophyll fluorescence measuring technique.The results revealed that the maximal photochemical efficiency of PS Ⅱ (Fv/Fm) and potential activity of PS Ⅱ (Fv/Fo) of Ningqi No.2 were remarkably higher than those of other three cultivars.The actual photosynthesis yield (Y(Ⅱ)),activity photosynthesis yield (Fv'/ Fm'),photochemical quenching (qP) and electron transport rate (ETR) were significantly different from different cultivars under a photo synthetically active radiation of 0-2 847 μmol · m-2 · s-1,and they were the highest in Ningqi No.2,followed by Mengqi No.1 and Damaye,and the lowest in Ningqi No.1.The initial slope α of fitting parameter ETR was similar to the change trend of ETR.The content of Chlorophyll a,Chlorophyll b and Chlorophyll a + b in Ningqi No.2 were the highest.There was an extremely significant or a significant positive correlation between chlorophyll a + b and Y(Ⅱ),Fv'/Fm',qP and ETR,but a negative correlation with NPQ.So it could be concluded that Ningqi No.2 had a higher physiological activity of PS Ⅱ and physiological basis of potential biomass,the photosynthesis capability of all the four cultivars was strong.The photochemical efficiency of Ningqi No.1 was weaker,and it was easy to suffer from photo inhibition at high light intensity.%在田间试验条件下,以宁杞1号、宁杞2号、大麻叶和蒙杞l号为材料,采用叶绿素荧光技术测定了不同枸杞品种的叶绿素荧光参数,并测定供试品种的叶绿素含量.结果表明:宁杞2号的PSⅡ最大光化学效率(Fv/Fm)和PSⅡ潜在活性(Fv/Fo)值显著高于其他3个品种.在不同光照强度(PAR,0~2 847 μmol·m-2·s-1)下,实际光合量子产量[Y(Ⅱ)]、有效光合量子产量(Fv'/Fm')、光化学淬灭系数(qP)

  6. Effects of Covering on Growth Potential and Chlorophyll Content of Hardwood Cutting of Lycium barbarum%覆盖对枸杞硬枝扦插苗生长势及叶绿素含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张巨琼; 蔺海明; 林楠

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of plastic Him covering, straw covering, plastic film covering in greenhouse and no-covering cutting on growth and Chlorophyll content of Lycium barbarian hardwood cutting seedlings. Methods: Single factor randomized block design method was used in this research. Results: The effect of different covering treatments on germination rate, seedling rate and growth potential were all plastic film covering in greenhouse > plastic film covering > straw covering > no-covering cutting. Chlorophyll a, Chlorophyll b, Chlorophyll a + b content and Ca/Cb were significantly different with different coverings in different periods. Conclusion: The optimal covering on hardwood cutting of Lycium barbarum is plastic film covering in greenhouse. Both plastic film and straw covering are better than no-covering cutting.%目的:研究地膜覆盖、麦草覆盖、地膜+弓棚覆盖和露地扦插对枸杞硬枝扦插苗生长势及叶绿素含量的影响.方法:采用单因素随机区组设计.结果:覆盖对枸杞硬枝扦插苗萌芽率、成苗率及生长势的影响均为地膜+弓棚覆盖>地膜覆盖>麦草覆盖>露地扦插;不同处理及不同时期的叶绿素a、b、(a+b)含量和叶绿素(a/b)值均差异显著.结论:枸杞硬枝扦插育苗的最佳覆盖方式为地膜+弓棚覆盖,地膜覆盖和麦草覆盖亦优于露地扦插.

  7. A diet formula of Puerariae radix, Lycium barbarum, Crataegus pinnatifida, and Polygonati rhizoma alleviates insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in CD-1 mice and HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Zhang, HongJuan; Ji, BaoPing; Cai, ShengBao; Wang, RuoJun; Zhou, Feng; Yang, JunSi; Liu, HuiJun

    2014-05-01

    According to the principles of traditional Chinese medicine, medicinal and edible herbs exhibit holistic effects through their actions on multiple target organs. Four herbs, Puerariae radix, Lycium barbarum, Crataegus pinnatifida, and Polygonati rhizoma, were selected and combined to create a new herbal formula (PLCP). The protective effects of both the aqueous extract (AE) and ethanol extract (EE) of PLCP against insulin resistance (IR) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) were evaluated in both high fat and high fructose diet-fed mice. Active fractions and constituents were screened in HepG2 cells with IR or an over-accumulation of triglycerides, and were further identified by high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry. The results indicate that the AE did not improve (p > 0.05) glucose tolerance after three weeks, whereas EE showed a promising effect throughout the experiment. Medium and high doses of EE were found to reduce fasting blood glucose at week 9 by 21.1% and 24.4%, respectively. In addition, their efficacies for alleviating IR were comparable with that of metformin. Compared with AE, EE effectively improved hyperlipidemia, antioxidant status, and NAFLD. In contrast, metformin did not alleviate hyperlipidemia (p > 0.05) or NAFLD in the mice model. Results from the cell-based study indicate that the protective effects of EE were possibly due to the actions from puerarin, 3'-methoxypuerarin, daidzin, daidzein, and ononin.

  8. Analysis of total flavonoids and free radical scavenging activities in different Lycium barbarum cultivars%宁夏枸杞不同品种叶的总黄酮含量及清除自由基能力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛东玲; 马婷婷; 张永梅; 吴春丽; 张自萍

    2013-01-01

    采用紫外分光光度法和DPP H法分别对宁夏枸杞不同品种叶的总黄酮含量及其清除自由基能力进行分析.结果表明:宁夏枸杞不同品种的叶总黄酮含量和清除自由基能力之间均存在显著性差异.其中宁杞菜1号叶的总黄酮含量极显著高于其它几个品种(**P<0.01),并且其清除自由基能力也最强,与其它品种之间差异显著(*P<0.05).说明宁杞菜1号是开发枸杞茶的优良品种.%The content of total flavoniods and free radical scavenging activities of different Lycium barbarum cultivars were respectively evaluated by ultraviolet spectrophotometry and DPPH.The results showed the content of total flavoniods of Ningqicai No.1 was significantly higher than other cultivars (?? P <0.01),and its free radical scavenging activity was much stronger than other cultivars (? P <0.05).It was suggested that Ningqicai No.1 was an excellent cultivar to develop Gouqi tea.

  9. 枸杞成熟与干制过程中多糖积累的蛋白质组学研究进展%Progress of proteomics of Lycium barbarum polysaccharide accumulation in the process of maturing and drying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房想; 魏超昆; 刘关瑞; 王旭; 龚媛; 刘敦华

    2015-01-01

    随着后基因组时代的到来,蛋白质组学越来越广泛地应用到生命科学领域,目前主要应用于医学、生物学、植物学,近些年在食品科学方面也进行了相关研究。应用蛋白质组学在植物生长发育和成熟衰老方面的研究比较常见,但在加工环节中的应用并不多见。该方法能通过研究植物体相关蛋白质而在本质上动态地揭示植物从生长发育到成熟衰老过程的机制,为研究枸杞果实成熟及干制过程中多糖积累提供了新的思路和理论支撑。本文综述了枸杞果实成熟及干制过程中多糖积累的研究进展,简单介绍蛋白质组学、蛋白质组学的研究技术及其在植物及加工环节中的研究进展,并展望蛋白质组学技术在枸杞果实成熟及干制过程中多糖积累的研究前景,为今后蛋白质组学的应用与发展提供一定的参考和理论依据。%With the advent of the post genomic era, proteomics is becoming more and more widely used in the field of life sciences especially in medicine, biology and botany. Proteomics has also been used in the area of food science in recent years. Application of proteomics in plant growth and ripening research is more common; however, there are little researches in applications in process. This method focuses on the related proteins revealing the mechanism of plant growth and ripening naturedly, and provides a new way of ideas and theoretical support for the research on the development ofLycium barbarum ripening and drying process. This article summarized the process ofLycium barbarum polysaccharide accumulation in the maturing and drying, and briefly introduced proteomics, proteomics technology and its research progress in plant and processing. The researches of proteomics ofLycium barbarumpolysaccharide accumulation in the maturing and drying were prospected, which provided some references and theoretical basis for the application and development

  10. Protective Effects of Lycium barbarum Extract Against MPP + -induced Neurotoxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans and PC12 Cells%枸杞提取物对MPP+诱导的线虫和PC12细胞神经毒性的保护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚晓黎; 吴婉玲; 郑民缨; 李伟; 叶城辉; 卢锡林

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察枸杞提取物对MPP+诱导的线虫和PC12细胞神经毒性的保护作用并探讨其作用机制。方法:以不同浓度枸杞提取物预处理MPP+诱导的线虫和PC12细胞多巴胺能神经损伤模型,计算线虫的存活率和选择性表达绿色荧光的多巴胺能退行性变神经元的数量,以MTT法和核形态检测PC12细胞的损伤,检测PC12细胞的胞内的氧自由基、线粒体膜电位、总GSH水平。结果:枸杞提取物明显提高了MPP+处理过的线虫的存活率和保护了多巴胺能神经元,对MPP+诱导的PC12细胞的具有明显的保护作用,作用呈量效关系。枸杞提取物通过减少MPP+诱导PC12细胞胞内ROS的过量积聚,减少线粒体损伤,恢复GSH水平而发挥其保护作用。结论:枸杞提取物主要通过抗氧化及恢复GSH水平而发挥其对MPP+诱导的线虫和PC12细胞神经毒性保护作用。%Objective;To investigate the neuroprotective effects of lycium barbarum extract against MPP + -induced neurotoxicity in Caenorhabditis elegant and PCI2 cells and its mechanism. Methods; Pretreated MPP + -induced nearotoxicity in C. elegans and PC 12 cells with Lycium barbarum at differert dosages. The viability and DA neurodegeneralion was assessed in C. elegans selectively expressing green fluorescent protein (CFP) in DA neurons. PC 12 cell damage was measured using MTT and nuclear morphology. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) , mitochondrial membrane potential and total CSH were assessed. Results; Lycium barbarum extract protected against MPP + -induced loss of viability and DA neurodegeneration in C. elegans in a dose-dependent manner. Similar neuropro-tection was replicated in MPP + PC 12 cell model. Lycium barbarum extract attenuated MPP + -induced intracellular ROS accumulation,loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and restored total GSH levels in PC12 cells. Conclusions: Lycium barbarum extract protects against MPP + -induced neurotoxicity

  11. Impact of lycium barbarum polysaccharides supplementation on immune function in students major in basketball%枸杞多糖对篮球专业大学生免疫功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛伟

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨枸杞多糖(LBP)对篮球专业大学生免疫功能的影响.方法 将20名男子篮球专业大学生随机分为对照组和试验组,每组10人,2组运动员均进行心率每分钟180~190次强度的运动训练,正常饮食.连续训练21 d,期间试验组每日早晚各服用LBP,每次2粒,每日2次;对照组每日早晚各服用等剂量安慰剂(内含淀粉).训练前后分别检测免疫指标IgA、IgG、IgM和CD4+、CD8+、CD4+/CD8+值.结果 试验组训练后IgA及IgM浓度明显高于训练前,并且高于对照组训练后IgA及IgM值,差别均有统计学意义(P<0.05).试验组训练后CD4+及CD4+/CD8+比值较训练前均明显升高,且明显高于对照组训练后CD4+及CD4+/CD8+比值,差别均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 LBP能改善篮球运动员的免疫功能.%Objective To study the impact of lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) on immune function in college students major in basketball. Methods Twenty men's basketball subject college students were randomly divided into control group and experimental group,and each group for 10 persons. Athletes were trained by 180 - 190 times per minute heart rate of exercise training in two group .normal diet. All players performed exercise everyday for 21 days. LBP 4 g were took experimental group and placebo (containing starch) 4 g were took in control group during the each day of the daily morning and evening. Values of immune parameters IgA,IgG,IgM,and CD4+ ,CD8+ ,CD4+/CD8+ were measured before and after experiment. Results Values of IgA and IgM after the experiment were significantly higher than those before the experiment in experimental group,and higher than those in control group;The difference was statistically significant(P <0.05). CD4+ and CD4VCD8+ ratio after the experiment were significantly higher than those before the experiment in experimental group,and were significantly higher CD4 + and CD4 V CD8 + ratio in control group, the difference was statistically

  12. Function of Lycium Barbarum Polysaccharide on Proliferation and Apoptosis of Human Lung Cancer A549 Cells%枸杞多糖对人肺腺癌A549细胞增殖和凋亡的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟凡珍; 江涛

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the growth inhibition and proliferation of human lung adenocarcinoma AS49 cells induced by Lycium bar-barum polysaccharide( LBP) in vitro,and the possible underlying mechanisms. Methods A549 cells cultured in vitro were divided into control group and experimental group ( I/ZICjo for 48 hours) by the different concentrations of LBP treatment. The inhibitory effects of LBP on proliferation of A549 were determined by MTT assay at 24 h ,48 h ,72 h after the addition of LBP to A549 culture. Growth curve were generated by MTT assay,doubling time were calculated by cell counting,Cell cycle and apoptosis were examined by Flow cytometry(FCM) ,Sur-vivin mRNA changes were detected by RT-PCR,CyclinBl protein changes were detected by Western blot ,Tramwell assay in vitro was utilized to evaluate the invasive activity. Results MTT assay demonstrated that different concentrations of LBP significantly inhibited the proliferation of A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner,the doubling time and the rate of apoptosis of cells in experimental group is dramatically different from the control group. ( P < 0. 05 ) , It was found that LBP arrested A549 cells at G2 phase; Survivin mRNA expression and CyclinBl protein expression were lower,compared with that in the control group( P <0. 05 ) . Conclusion The present study suggests that LBP can significantly inhibit the proliferation of A549 cells. The mechanism may be related to an arrest effect on cell cycle,reducing Survivin mRNA and CyclinBl protein expression and inhibiting tumour invasion.%目的 探讨枸杞多糖(LBP)对体外培养的人肺腺癌细胞A549的增殖抑制作用及其可能的作用机制.方法 用不同浓度的LBP处理A549细胞,MTT法检测24、48、72h时间点LBP对A549细胞的生长抑制率,实验设为对照组和实验组(1/2IC50作用48小时),MTT法绘制生长曲线、细胞计数计算倍增时间、流式细胞仪检测凋亡率及其细胞周期、RT-PcR检测Survivin m

  13. 枸杞多糖的热裂解及其在卷烟中的应用%Pyrolysis of Lycium barbarum L. polysaccharide and its application in cigarette

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王全; 周肇峰; 陆建南; 李江宁; 黄文忠; 陆炳高

    2015-01-01

    为研究枸杞多糖的热裂解行为及其对卷烟感官质量的影响,利用水提醇沉法对枸杞多糖进行了提取分离,应用热裂解-气相色谱-质谱联用仪分析了枸杞多糖在不同裂解氛围,即无氧条件(N2)和有氧条件(10% O2和90% N2),以及不同温度(300℃,600℃,750℃ 和 900℃)下的热裂解产物,利用归一化法进行定量分析。结果表明:枸杞多糖在卷烟中起到了掩盖杂气、去除刺激、改善余味的作用,使香气细腻程度有所提升,烟气状态、圆润感及香气的谐调性较好;枸杞多糖在卷烟中的适宜添加量为(5~10)×10-6 g;枸杞多糖在热裂解过程中可以释放出小分子的醛类、酮类物质等具有特殊香味的化合物,可产生花香、烘烤香、甜香、奶香、果香等香韵。%In order to study the pyrolysis behavior of Lycium barbarum L. polysaccharide and influence on the cigarette sensory quality,the polysaccharide was extracted by water extraction and alcohol precipitation method. The pyrolysates were analyzed in different atmosphere(10% O2 and 90% N2 )and at temperature levels(300 ℃,600 ℃,750 ℃ and 900 ℃). The pyrolysates were directly introduced into Py-GC-MS spectrometer,quantitative analysis was made by area normalization. The results showed that cigarette sen-sory quality was improved by polysaccharide,the smoke of cigarette was mild and glomerate,polysaccha-rides offered enhanced sweety aroma,as well as the aroma quantity,improve after-tasting and reduce offensive taste and irritation of cigarette. The optimum application amount was(5 ~ 10)× 10 - 6 g. The py-rolysis of polysaccharide could release micromolecule aldehydes and ketones containing special odor having floral,toast,sweet,milk and fruity notes.

  14. 枸杞多糖提取物对顺铂诱发大鼠肾毒性的影响%Protective Effect of Lycium barbarum Polysaccharide against Cisplatin-induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海莲; 高丽萍; 冷洪涛; 李贞

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To reveal the protective effect and possible mechanism ofLycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) against cisplatin (CDDP)-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Methods: A total of 50 rats were randomly divided into blank control group, CDDP model group, and high-dose, medium-dose and low-dose LBP groups (orally administered at doses of 277, 554, 1008 g/(kg ~ d) respectively once daily for 15 days). The blank control and CDDP model groups were both orally administered with distilled water during the adminstrtion period. After 10 days of administration, the blank control group was given normal saline by intraperito- neal injection while a single injection of CDDP in the remaining groups was carried out to establish a mouse model of renal injury. At the end of the administration period, all rats were sacrificed to determine serum BUN and Ser contents as well as NO and MDA contents and NOS and SOD activities in the kidney. Results: In the rats with CDDP-induced nephrotoxicity LBP pretreatment could significantly reduce the increase in serum BUN and Scr levels and kidney MDA and NO levels and NOS activity caused by CDDP (P〈0.05 or P〈0.01). Conclusions: Oral intake of LBP ameliorates CDDP-induced renal dysfunction. The mechanism may be related to the decreased NOS activity and NO and MDA contents.%目的:观察枸杞多糖(LBP)对顺铂所致肾毒性的防护作用,并初步探讨其作用机制。方法:将50只大鼠随机分为空白对照组、顺铂(CDDP)模型组、LBP低、中、高剂量组(277、554、1008g/(kg·d))(以体质量计)。空白对照组和CDDP组每天灌胃蒸馏水,LBP组每天灌胃LBP,每日1次,灌胃10d后,空白对照组腹腔注射生理盐水,其余各组一次性腹腔注射CDDP7.0mg/kg建立肾损伤动物模型,之后继续灌胃5d。腹腔注射后第5天宰杀大鼠,检测大鼠血清尿素氮(BUN)、肌酐(Scr)的含量、肾组织中一氧化

  15. 干旱胁迫对宁夏枸杞叶片蔗糖代谢及光合特性的影响%Sugar Metabolism and Photosynthetic Characteristics in Leaf of Lycium barbarum L.under Drought Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵建华; 李浩霞; 安巍; 石志刚; 王亚军; 王华芳

    2013-01-01

    A study of the response of sugar content,enzyme activities of sugar metabolism and photosynthetic parameters in leaf of Lycium barbarum under water stress aimed at providing theoretical basis for highyield planting of this plant in the arid regions.The results showed that:(1)The sucrose and starch contents in leaves were reduced under water stress at the green fruit stage,but their contents increased under light drought at the color fruit stage.The starch content in leaves gradually increased with drought aggravated.(2) The activities of neutral invertase(NI),sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) and sucrose synthase (SS) in leaves were gradually reduced under drought stress at the green fruit stage.The activities of acid invertase (AI) and SS were reduced at the color fruit and maturing stages,but the activities of NI was increased at these two stages.(3) With the increasing of drought stress,the leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pn),transpiration rate (Tr) and stomatal conductance (Gs) were gradually lowering.The water use efficiency (WUE)was light drought (LD)>normal irrigation (CK)>severe drought (SD)>moderate drought (MD).It is therefore suggested that light drought can promote the sucrose content and WUE in leaf and transport more photoassimilates to the fruit.%以宁夏枸杞品种‘宁杞1号’为材料,采用防雨棚内盆栽控水法研究了轻度干旱(LD)、中度干旱(MD)、重度干旱(SD)和正常灌水(CK)4种土壤水分条件下枸杞叶片糖分含量、蔗糖代谢酶活性和光合参数的响应规律,为宁夏枸杞在干旱地区高产栽培提供参考依据.结果显示:(1)干旱胁迫降低了枸杞青果期叶片蔗糖和淀粉含量,轻度干旱胁迫可提高枸杞色变期叶片果糖和蔗糖含量,而成熟期叶片淀粉含量则随着干旱加重而升高.(2)干旱胁迫降低了青果期枸杞叶片中性转化酶(NI)、蔗糖磷酸合成酶(SPS)和蔗糖合成酶(SS)的活性,降低了色变期和成熟期叶片酸性转化

  16. The Intervention Effect of Lycium Barbarum Polysaccharide on Adulthood Lower Fertility Reproduction Induced by Neonatal Exposed to Methylmercury Chloride in Rats%枸杞多糖对新生鼠氯化甲基汞慢暴露染毒致成年期生育能力下降的干预作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹池; 刘香; 陈海斌; 罗迈; 崔静; 张华; 王米佳; 王丹; 田建英

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨早期低剂量接触氯化甲基汞( Methyl Mercury Chloride , MMC)对大鼠生殖功能和生长发育的影响以及枸杞多糖( Lycium Barbarum Polysaccharides ,LBP)的早期干预。方法:将60只健康7日龄大鼠随机分为对照组( CON)、MMC组、MMC+LBP组、LBP组,MMC组和MMC+LBP组均颈部皮下注射MMC,CON组颈部注射相同剂量的生理盐水, MMC+LBP组同时喂养LBP,雌雄合笼,自然观察各组体重发育以及生殖繁育能力以及子代仔鼠早期生长发育和存活状况。再将已孕母鼠哺乳期仔鼠染毒,观察母鼠产仔情况。结果:1)MMC组毛色萎缩,精神状态倦怠、动作不活泼、食欲不振。2)MMC组生长较缓慢且随染毒时间的延长而明显。3)MMC组染毒大鼠未产仔,MMC+LBP组有产仔,但产死率高、出生后存活率低于CON;LBP组产死率较CON低。4)MMC+LBP组有畸胎,且仔鼠出生体重与正常CON和LBP组仔鼠出生体重有统计学意义(P<0.01)。5)染毒仔鼠影响其已孕母鼠再次生育。结论:MMC对大鼠有生殖发育毒性,LBP可抑制MMC引起的生殖毒性。%Objective:To detect the toxicity of neonatal exposed to methylmercury chloride on the adulthood reproduction ,as well as ear-ly growth and development in rats and the intervention of Lycium barbarum polysaccharide .Methods:Sixty SD of 7 d rats were randomly divided into saline Control , MMC, MMC+LBP, LBP.The natural development , weight growth and fertilities were observed .Healthy pregnant female rats and MMC exposed neonatal rats and were also observed .Results:1) Compared with the control group , the rats in MMC group was dropping, inactivity, loss of appetite;2) The weights of rats in MMC group grew slower than in control rats with the ex-posure time dependently;3) MMC group were infertility after exposure to the methyl mercury .There remained offspring in MMC+LBP group and their after-born death rates

  17. Lycium barbarum polysaccharide attenuates cisplatin- induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Li-Qiong Huang1,2, Yuan-Zhen Zhang1,2*, Bo Zheng3, Yi He3 .... Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Total RNA was extracted from the cultured GCs ... China), and reverse-transcribed into cDNA using ... transcripts was calculated on the basis of CP .... The follicle is the fundamental structure and.

  18. Anti-tumor effects of lycium barbarum polysaccharide on pancreatic cancer cells by polarization of macrophages%枸杞多糖通过诱导巨噬细胞极化抗胰腺癌的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨青; 白光; 王巍; 包翠芬; 翟振华

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) on restraining the mouse pancre⁃atic cancer cells LTPA by the polarization of macrophages to type 1 macrophages (M1). Methods LTPA tumor model of the subcutaneous CB-17SCID mice was constructed. Model mice were randomly divided into tumor-bearing model group (n=10) and LBP treatment group (n=10). The LBP treatment group was fed 10mg/kg LBP every day, and the tumor-bearing model group was fed the same dose of normal saline. The same amount of macrophages Raw264.7 was randomly divided into the control group and experimental groups (different concentrations of LBP). MTT assay was used to detect the optical density (OD) of Raw264.7 in experimental groups and control group. ELISA was used to detect the levels of the interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-10 in experimental group (LBP was 100 mg/L) and the control group. Flow cytometry was used to test the levels of the membrane protein CD16/32 and CD206 in experimental group (LBP was 100 mg/L) and the control group. The tumor mass was weighted and the volume was calculated after three weeks. The effects of LBP on the growth of subcutaneous tumor were detected. HE staining and KI-67 staining were used to detect the microscopic changes of tumor and the proliferation of the LTPA. Results The dose of 100 mg/L LBP can promote the growth of the macrophages Raw264.7 (P<0.01), and induced the high expression of CD16/32 and low expression of CD206, high secretion of IL-12 and low secretion of IL-10. The weight, volume of the tumor and the expression of KI-67 were significantly lower in experimental group than those in the con⁃trol group (P<0.01). The microscopic necrosis area range of tumor was larger than that of control group. Conclusion The LBP has the effect of restraining LTPA by the polarization of macrophages to M1.%目的:探讨枸杞多糖(LBP)通过诱导巨噬细胞极化成一型巨噬细胞(M1)抗小鼠胰腺癌细胞LTPA的

  19. Head-space Gas Chromatography Comparison of Volatile Organic Compounds from Packing Materials and Packaged Lycium barbarum Pieces%包装材料与枸杞子饮片中挥发性有机物的顶空气相色谱比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓宇; 银玲; 刘友平

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare volatile organic compounds in nine samples including three blank packaging materials ( composite membrane of polyethylene and aluminum foil, polyethylene plastic membrane, leather condensate membrane paper) , these three kinds of materials have packaged and Lycium barbarum pieces have packaged for 12 months using these three kinds of packaged materials. Method: Component analysis of volatile organic compounds in these nine samples was determined by head-space gas chromatography, the relative content of each compound was gained by area normalization method. Result: Vvolatile organic compounds in each sample were mainly oxidation terpenoids, aldoketones and fatty acids compounds, among them, blank polyethylene bag peculiarly included volatile dissolvent (ethanol and acetone) ; Isopropyl alcohol and n-pentanol were only being in leather condensate membrane paper; polyethylene bag and leather condensate membrane paper which packaged L. barbarum pieces for 12 months all contained benzaldehyde. Three blank packaging material all contained BHT which was additive antioxidant usually used in plastic packaging materials, only blank leather condensate membrane bag contained BHA which was additive antioxidant usually used in plastic packaging materials; furfuraldehyde was the main ingredient in L. barbarum which packaged for 12 months. Conclusion: Compositions and relative content of L. barbarum pieces using different packing materials were different, it showed that packaging materials had an important effect on volatile organic compounds in the pieces.%目的:对3种空白包装材料(聚乙烯铝箔复合膜、聚乙烯塑料膜、牛皮凝膜纸)、3种已包装材料及采用3种包装材料包装12月的枸杞子饮片共9个样品中的挥发性有机物进行比较研究.方法:采用顶空气相色谱法对9个样品中的挥发性有机物进行成分分析,用面积归一化法获得各化合物的相对含量.结果:各样品中挥发性有机

  20. Comparative analysis of anthocyanin biosynthesis during fruit development in two Lycium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Shaohua; Wu, Min; Zou, Caiyun; Liu, Xiaomin; Shen, Xiaofei; Hayward, Alice; Liu, Chunzhao; Wang, Ying

    2014-04-01

    Dietary consumption of functional foods enriched in anthocyanins benefit for human health by protection against far-ranging human diseases. Delphinidin-derived anthocyanins (valuable as blue pigments and antioxidants) are accumulated specifically in the fruits of Lycium ruthenicum but not in the fruits of Lycium barbarum, suggesting the differences of anthocyanin biosynthesis between the two species. In this study, anthocyanin profiling confirmed that anthocyanins were increasingly accumulated during fruit ripening in L. ruthenicum, and sharply increased at full expanded mature fruit, while no anthocyanin were detected at any stage of L. barbarum fruit development. Several genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis were characterized in L. ruthenicum and L. barbarum fruits. Expression profiling of these genes during fruit development showed a significant positive correlation between transcript abundance and anthocyanin accumulation in L. ruthenicum fruit. Meanwhile, transcripts in L. barbarum fruit were either undetectable or were downregulated during fruit ripening, before increasing slightly in the final stages of maturation. In addition, the ratio of LrF3'5H/LrF3'H transcription showed a gradual increase before 6 days after breaker (DAB) and a sharp enhancement at 10 DAB. Our results suggest that the expression patterns of both regulatory and structural genes and the transcriptional ratio of branch-node structural genes F3'5'H/F3'H may determine the phenotypic difference in anthocyanin biosynthesis between L. ruthenicum and L. barbarum fruits.

  1. 木虱啮小蜂对枸杞、枸杞木虱的行为反应%Behavior responses of Tetrastichus sp., an ectoparasitiod wasp, to its host,Paratrioza sinica Yang & Li and host plant, Lycium barbarum L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段立清; 刘宽余; Imre S.OTVOS; 冯淑军; 李海平; 单艳敏

    2005-01-01

    木虱啮小蜂Tetrastichus sp.是枸杞木虱Paratrioza sinica Yang& Li若虫外寄生蜂,是控制枸杞木虱种群数量动态的重要因子之一.为查明其寻找寄主的信息素,应用四臂嗅觉仪、培养皿两种方法测定了枸杞Lycium barbarum L.的健康叶、虫伤叶、枸杞木虱若虫、若虫与叶复合体、卵与叶复合体和若虫分泌物等不同物质对木虱啮小蜂行为反应的影响.结果证明枸杞木虱若虫分泌物对木虱啮小蜂有明显的吸引作用,四臂嗅觉仪测定时有73%的雌蜂趋向分泌物材料区(P=O.0000).枸杞健康叶,虫伤叶及其水、正丁烷提取物,卵与枸杞叶复合体对木虱啮小蜂无明显吸引作用.木虱若虫水提物及正丁烷提取物在培养皿中可吸引木虱啮小蜂并可引起刺探行为,但嗅觉仪测定时单独若虫并不吸引木虱啮小蜂,只有活体若虫与枸杞叶片复合体才对木虱啮小蜂有吸引作用(P=0.0004).木虱啮小蜂通过与寄主若虫的接触,可提高其搜索效率.接触过寄主若虫的雌蜂第一次找到寄主的时间显著少于未曾接触寄主若虫的雌蜂,前者只用后者1/4的时间,说明该寄生蜂能对其寄主若虫进行学习.

  2. 分子修饰后枸杞多糖对睾丸生精功能保护作用%Protective Effects of Molecularly Modified Lycium Barbarum Polysaccharides on Testicular Spermatogenic Function of Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李环; 张晶; 赵宏伟; 于敬红

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察硒化枸杞多糖对邻苯二甲酸二丁酯(DBP)所致的雄性大鼠睾丸组织氧化损伤的保护作用,并确定枸杞硒多糖的最佳反应条件.方法 在醋酸催化作用下,利用亚硒酸钠对枸杞多糖进行分子修饰.将48只健康雄性SD大鼠随机分成对照组、DBP+硒化枸杞多糖组、DBP+硒组、DBP+枸杞多糖组、DBP染毒组,连续灌胃30d,检测睾丸组织中超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GSH-Px)、总抗氧化能力(T-AOC)和丙二醛(MDA)的含量.结果 硒化枸杞多糖的最佳条件是室温(20℃),亚硒酸钠与枸杞多糖用量为1∶1,反应时间为48h.硒化枸杞多糖组与除对照组的其他组比较脂质过氧化指标均有统计学意义(P<0.05);同时硒化枸杞多糖可显著提高体内SOD,T-AOC以及GSH-Px含量,降低MDA水平.结论 硒化修饰枸杞多糖后的抗氧化作用要强于普通枸杞多糖和无机硒.%Objective To observe the protective effect of selenium lyceum barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) on dibutyl phthalate (DBP)-induced male rat testicular oxidative tissue damage and determine the best reaction condition for obtaining selenium LBP. Method On the basis of the catalytic effect of acetic acid, sodium selenite was used for the molecular modification of LBP.48 Healthy male SD rats were divided into control group,DBP + selenium group,LBP group,DBP + selenium group,DBP + LBP group and DBP-infected group at random. They were given the corresponding agents in intragastric administration for 30 days. Contents of SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) , total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC)and malondialdehyde (MDA)in testicular tissues of the rats were measured. Results The best conditions for making the selenium LBP included that the best temperature was room temperature (20 ℃), the proportion of sodium selenite and LBP was 1 :1 ,and the reaction time was 48 h. Compared with those in the other groups except the control group,the lipid

  3. Neuroprotective effect of lycium barbarum polysaccharides after cavernous nerve crush injury in a rat model%枸杞多糖对大鼠海绵体神经钳夹损伤的修复作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘波; 丁协刚; 赵颀涵; 罗琼; 李世文; 王行环

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨使用枸杞多糖(LBP)修复钳夹损伤的海绵体神经(CN),恢复自主勃起功能的可行性.方法 21只雄性SD大鼠随机分成3组,即假手术组、LBP组、损伤对照组,于术后3个月电刺激CN测定海绵体内压(ICP)及平均动脉压(MAP),取CN进行甲苯胺蓝染色检测有髓轴突数目,取阴茎组织进行烟酰胺腺嘌呤二核苷酸磷酸(NADPH)染色检测一氧化氮合酶(NOS)阳性神经纤维数目.结果 LBP组ICP/MAP比值(0.44 ±0.05)明显高于损伤对照组(0.26 ±0.03,P<0.05),但低于假手术组(0.68 ±0.08,P<0.05).LBP组CN有髓轴突数目(106.8 ±17.9),与假手术组(180.9 ±15.3)和损伤对照组(64.9±l3.9)比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).阴茎背神经NOS阳性神经纤维数目(164.2±12.2),与假手术组(263.3 ±15.0)和损伤对照组(85.6±14.7)比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 LBP可促进CN钳夹损伤后的神经再生及勃起功能的恢复.%Objective To investigate the feasibility of erectile function recovery by repairing crushed cavernous nerves (CN) with lyceum barbarum polysaccharides (LBP).Methods Twenty-one male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 groups:sham group,LBP group,and control group.Erectile function was assessed by cavernous nerve electrostimulation at 3rd month after operation and nerve regeneration was assessed by toluidine blue staining of CN and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-diaphorase staining of penile tissue.Results The peak ICP/MAP ratio in LBP group (0.44 ± 0.05) was significantly higher than in control group (0.26 ± 0.03,P < 0.05),but lower than in sham group (0.68-± 0.08,P < 0.05).The LBP group had more myelinated axons of CNs (106.8 ± 17.9) than the control group (64.9 ± 13.9,P < 0.05),but fewer than the sham group (180.9 ± 15.3,P < 0.05).The LBP group had more NOS diaphorase positive nerve (164.2 ± 12.2) than the control group (85.6 ±14.7,P<0.05),but fewer than the sham group

  4. 枸杞多糖对雏鸡淋巴细胞体外增殖及分泌IL-2的影响%Effects of Lycium barbarum Polysaccharide on Cell Proliferation of Chicken Lymphocytes and IL-2 Excretion in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐占云; 秦睿玲; 褚耀诚; 李国辉; 李春红; 王丽

    2013-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) on cell proliferation of chicken Lymphocytes in vitro. Different concentrations of LBP were added into cultured with plants hemagg-lutinin (PHA) stimulated chicken thymus, spleen and peripheral blood lymphocyte, and cultured with bacteria lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated chicken bursa of Fabricius, peripheral blood lymphocyte, spleen, MTT method and ELISA method were used to determine the lymphocyte proliferation and IL-2 excretion respectively. The results showed that: (1) LBP could stimulate T, B lymphocyte proliferation and IL-2 excretion in certain concentration range and with the increase of the concentration of polysaccharide increase; (2) The OD value of T, B lymphocyte with the source of the same organ were significantly growth trend with chickens dayage growth in same concentration of LBP. (3) The OD value of thymus T lymphocyte and bursa of Fabricius B lymphocyte were higher than in peripheral blood and the spleen T, B lymphocytes with the same concentration LBP and the same day age of chicken. These results indicated that LBP could stimulate T, B lymphocyte proliferation and IL-2 excretion, and the promoting function of lymphocyte proliferation have certain concentration-response, time relationship and organizational correlation.%为探讨枸杞多糖(LBP)对雏鸡T、B淋巴细胞体外增殖的影响,将不同浓度的LBP分别加入到用植物血凝素(PHA)刺激的体外培养的雏鸡胸腺、外周血、脾脏淋巴细胞中,以及用细菌脂多糖(LPS)刺激的体外培养的雏鸡法氏囊、外周血、脾脏淋巴细胞中,分别用MTT比色法和ELISA法测定淋巴细胞增殖的变化以及IL-2的分泌量.结果显示:(1)LBP在一定浓度范围内时,均能刺激T、B淋巴细胞的增殖和促进IL-2的分泌,且随着多糖浓度的增加而增加;(2)LBP对同一器官来源的T、B淋巴细胞的OD值随着雏鸡日龄的

  5. Effects of Lycium Barbarum Polysaccharides on Blood Lipid and Oxidative Stress of the Liver in Hyperlipidemic Mice%枸杞多糖对高脂血症小鼠血脂及肝脏氧化应激的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晓丹; 李光华; 周旭; 丁娟; 罗彦

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨枸杞多糖(lycium barbarum polysaccharides,LBP)对高脂血症小鼠肝脏胆固醇7α-羟化酶(cholesterol 7-alpha hydroxylase,CYP7A1)mRNA表达及氧化应激功能的影响.方法 选取健康雄性昆明种小鼠26只,随机分为正常对照组、高脂血症组、高脂血症+ LBP组;除正常对照组给予正常饮食,高脂血症组、高脂血症+ LBP组采用高脂饲料喂养法建立小鼠高脂血症模型;模型建立成功后,高脂血症+LBP组于每天上午9:00按80mg·(kg·d)-1 LBP灌胃;正常对照组、高脂血症组在同样时间以同样容量生理盐水灌胃,持续灌胃30d.采用酶联免疫法测定血清总胆固醇(total cholesterol,TC)、甘油三酯(triglyceride,TG)、热休克蛋白70(heat shock protein 70,HSP 70)水平;采用吸光光度法测定肝脏超氧化物歧化酶(super oxide dismutase,SOD)、肝脏丙二醛(malondialdehyde,MDA)表达水平;采用实时荧光定量PCR技术测定肝脏CYP7A1mRNA表达水平.结果 与正常对照组比较,高脂血症组小鼠血清TC、TG、肝脏MDA均升高(P<0.01),肝脏SOD、肝脏CYP7A1 mRNA表达水平均下降(P<0.01),高脂饮食+LBP组血清TC、TG、HSP70升高(P<0.01),而肝脏CYP7A1 mRNA表达水平则降低(P<0.05);与高脂血症组比较,高脂血症+LBP组小鼠血清TC、肝脏MDA均下降(P<0.01),肝脏SOD、肝脏CYP7A1 mRNA表达水平、HSP 70升高(P<0.05或P<0.01).结论 LBP可提高高脂血症小鼠抗氧化应激能力,并可能通过上调高脂血症小鼠肝脏CYP7A1 mRNA的表达降低胆固醇.

  6. Effects of polysaccharide from Lycium barbarum in alloxan-induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-01

    Dec 1, 2009 ... Diabetes was induced in fasted mice (12 h) by intraperitoneal inject- tion of 200 mg/kg ... was confirmed by the determination of tail vein blood glucose levels ... 400 mg/kg to different groups of mice (5 mice in each group). The.

  7. A Study on Polar Extracts from Lycium barbarum L Fruits on the Thermal Stability of Oil%宁夏枸杞子极性提取物在食用油高温氧化中的作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙芝杨

    2011-01-01

    L.barbarum L fruits were extracted with 95% ethanol.Antioxidative activity of polar extracts was studied in the system of lard and sunflower seeds oil by examining POV.Extracts showed good antioxidation ability for lard and sunflower seeds oil.%利用95%乙醇提取宁夏枸杞子的极性物质。采用Schaal法研究了宁夏枸杞子极性提取物在食用油高温氧化过程中的作用。研究表明,枸杞子极性提取物对猪油、葵花籽油的氧化均具有良好抑制作用。

  8. Soil Salinity Changes Under Cropping with L ycium barbarum L.and Irrigation with Saline-Sodic Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DOU Chao-Yin; KANG Yao-Hu; WAN Shu-Qin; HU Wei

    2011-01-01

    In order to utilize the wasted saline-sodic soils under shallow groundwater condition,a 3-year field study was carried in a field cropped with Lycium barbarum L.and irrigated by drip irrigation with saline groundwater under the water table depth of 30-40 cm in the northern Yinchuan Plain,China.Effects of cropping duration (one,two,and three years) on soil salinity,soil solution composition,and pH in three adjacent plots were investigated in 2008.Results showed that a high irrigation frequency maintained high soil water potential and subsequently facilitated infiltration and downward movement of water and salt in the crop root zone.Salt accumulated on the edges of the ridges,and soil saturated-paste electrical conductivity (ECe) was higher in the edge.Concentrations of Na+,Ca2+,Mg2+,Cl-,and SO42- in the soil increased with the soil depth as did the ECe,while HCO3- and pH had a relative uniform distribution in soil profile.As planting year increased,the ECe and soil salts in the field had a decreasing tendency,while in the root zone they decreased immediately after irrigation and then remained relatively stable in the following growing seasons.HCO3- and pH had little change with the planting year.Results suggested that the application of drip irrigation with saline water could ameliorate saline-sodic soil and provide a relatively feasible soil environment for the growth of salt-tolerant plant Lycium barbarum L.under the saline-sodic soils with shallow groundwater.

  9. STUDY ON THE VALORIFICATION OF LYCIUM BARBARUM FRUIT (GOJI IN PASTRY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaria Pop

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research refers to the development of new recipes of fabricating tow different muffins and spritz cookies, using Goji whole fruits rehydrated and Goji ground powder type fruits, in different proportions and after, by sensory analysis proving the consumer preferences in relation to Goji fruit intake in the products. Also has been studied the total carotenoid content by spectrophotometric measurements from finished products comparing with whole goji berry fruit. The products are obtained by baking dough made ​​from flour, sugar, eggs, vegetable fat, milk, goji berries, friable chemical. The raw material and auxiliary material (white flour and Goji berries and the pastry products obtain with addition of goji was submitted to the physio-chemical exam, following: moisture content, ash content, gluten content, acidity content, vitamin C content, carotenoids content in accordance with applicable standards. Therefore we obtained 3 types of muffins (simple muffins, muffins with addition of 10% whole goji fruit, muffins with addition of 10% fruit goji powder ground type and 4 types of spritz cookies (simple cookies, cookies with addition of 3 %, 5 %, 10 % of goji powder.

  10. Effects of Lycium barbarum. polysaccharide on type 2 diabetes mellitus rats by regulating biological rhythms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhao

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: LBP-4a administration could treat T2DM rats. These observations provided the background for the further development of LBP-4a as a potential dietary therapeutic agent in the treatment of T2DM.

  11. Bleeding due to a probable interaction between warfarin and Gouqizi (Lycium Barbarum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhua Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike what is widely anticipated by the public, herbal medicines are not always safe despite being natural. We describe a 65-year-old Chinese man taking a prolonged maintenance dose of warfarin who experienced an elevated international normalized ratio (INR with associated bleeding after drinking Gouqizi (goji berry wine. This report illustrates that large doses (more than 6–12 g of Gouqizi can significantly enhance the anticoagulant action of warfarin and may cause similar adverse effects in keeping with three previous reports. Therefore, the use of herbal medicines must adhere to pharmacopoeia-recommended guidelines, including dosage regimes. Doctors should advise patients regarding possible interactions between herbs and warfarin when prescribing and should increase the frequency of INR monitoring for those patients concurrently receiving warfarin and medicinal herbs. Further study is needed to do for the mechanism of interaction between Gouqizi and warfarin.

  12. Goji Berry (Lycium barbarum: Composition and Health Effects – a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulczyński Bartosz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Goji berries contain many nutrients and bioactive compounds which allowed to classify them as superfruits. A short description of the fruits is presented together with cultivation requirements. The chemical composition of the berries and their health-promoting properties are described later in this literature review. Based on the available data, their potentially beneficial application in dietary prevention of diseases of affluence, such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer, is elaborated. We also refer to the safety of Goji consumption in the context of ingredients potentially harmful for human health, allergic reactions and the interactions with other substances.

  13. A study of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) extraction technology and its anti-aging effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Ran; Liu, Xiao-Min; Dong, Qi

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to optimise the LBP extraction technology and to study the anti-aging effect of LBP by establishing D-gal aging mouse model. Orthogonal design was used to study the extraction technology. The experimental aging mouse model was formed by continuous injection of D-gal, and the anti-aging capacity of LBP was tested using measuring MDA, CAT and GSH-px contents and SOD activity in blood and SOD, MDA and Hyp levels in skin. The results showed that the optimum LBP extraction option determined by the orthogonal design is as follows: solid-liquid ratio of 1:30, extraction for 2 times, 90 min each time, and power is 100 kHz. Thus, LBP can increase SOD, CAT and GSH-px levels in blood and reduce MDA level. It can also improve skin SOD activity, reduce skin MDA content, and increase Hyp content. We concluded that the extraction method established in this experiment is easy and feasible, and the yield of LBP is high, apparently showing that LBP has the potential of delaying senility in D-gal induced mice.

  14. Systematic Review of Chemical Constituents in the Genus Lycium (Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Qian

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Lycium genus is widely used as a traditional Chinese medicine and functional food. Many of the chemical constituents of the genus Lycium were reported previously. In this review, in addition to the polysaccharides, we have enumerated 355 chemical constituents and nutrients, including 22 glycerogalactolipids, 29 phenylpropanoids, 10 coumarins, 13 lignans, 32 flavonoids, 37 amides, 72 alkaloids, four anthraquinones, 32 organic acids, 39 terpenoids, 57 sterols, steroids, and their derivatives, five peptides and three other constituents. This comprehensive study could lay the foundation for further research on the Lycium genus.

  15. 银耳、枸杞多糖联合啤酒酵母的体外抑菌研究%Experiment on in Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Beer Yeast Combined with Tremella,and Lycium bararum Polysaccharide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟英英; 张莹; 李翠莲

    2012-01-01

    采用水提法制取银耳、枸杞多糖提取液,通过生长曲线研究2种提取液对啤酒酵母(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)体外增殖的影响,同时以抑菌圈直径为指标研究其联合啤酒酵母的体外抑菌作用.结果表明,枸杞提取液抑制啤酒酵母的生长,但效果不显著;银耳提取液促进啤酒酵母的生长,效果也不显著.枸杞提取液及银耳提取液对金黄色葡萄球菌(Staphylococcus aureus)、大肠杆菌(Escherichia coli)、沙门氏菌(Salmonella)有显著的抑菌效果;枸杞提取液及银耳提取液分别联合啤酒酵母对金黄色葡萄球菌、大肠杆菌、沙门氏菌的抑菌效果强于啤酒酵母,显示出协同作用.银耳提取液可与啤酒酵母组成合生元.%Water extracts of Tremella and Lycium barbarum polysaccharide in different concentrations of 100%, 50%, 25%, 10%, 5%, 2.5% were used to inspect the effect of proliferation on beer yeast with the grow curve. Antibacterial activities of beer yeast combined with the two water extracts respectively were detected by inhibition zone in vitro. The results showed that water extract of L. barbarum could inhibit growth of beer yeast with no significant difference while Tremella could promote the growth of beer yeast but not significantly. Data of inhibition zone in vitro showed that S. aureus, E. coli, Salmonella were inhibited significantly after being treated with water extracts from L. barbarum and Tremella respectively, compared with negative control. Beer yeast combined with L. barbarum and Tremella water extract respectively could inhibit the growth of S. aureus, E. coli, Salmonella significantly, compared to positive control. In conclusion, L. barbarum and Tremella water extract combined with beer yeast could enhance the antibacterial activity in vitro. And Tremella water extracts and beer yeast can compose synbiotics.

  16. Sensory Profile and Consumer Acceptability of Prebiotic White Chocolate with Sucrose Substitutes and the Addition of Goji Berry (Lycium barbarum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais Ferreira, Janaína Madruga; Azevedo, Bruna Marcacini; Luccas, Valdecir; Bolini, Helena Maria André

    2017-03-01

    Functional food is a product containing nutrients that provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the descriptive sensory profile and consumers' acceptance of functional (prebiotic) white chocolates with and without the addition of an antioxidant source (goji berry [GB]) and sucrose replacement. The descriptive sensory profile was determined by quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) with trained assessors (n = 12), and the acceptance test was performed with 120 consumers. The correlation of descriptive and hedonic data was determined by partial least squares (PLS). The results of QDA indicated that GB reduces the perception of most aroma and flavor attributes, and enhances the bitter taste, bitter aftertaste, astringency, and most of the texture attributes. The consumers' acceptance of the chocolates was positive for all sensory characteristics, with acceptance scores above 6 on a 9-point scale. According to the PLS regression analysis, the descriptors cream color and cocoa butter flavor contributed positively to the acceptance of functional white chocolates. Therefore, prebiotic white chocolate with or without the addition of GB is innovative and can attract consumers, due to its functional properties, being a promising alternative for the food industry. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  17. Pyrolysates of Polysaccharide in Lycium barbarum%枸杞多糖的热裂解产物研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祖萌萌; 郭春生; 王政; 祈林; 张峻松

    2012-01-01

    利用裂解气相—色谱质谱联用(Py-GC/MS)对卷烟燃烧过程进行模拟,研究枸杞多糖在无氧条件下的热裂解,以期为枸杞多糖在卷烟中的应用提供一些理论基础.用GC-MS定性定量测定分析热裂解产物.比较了不同温度(300,600,900℃)下的裂解产物差异,对裂解产物进行了归类分析,并分析了主要裂解产物致香成分的致香效果,为卷烟评吸提供了理论依据.

  18. Lycium barbarum Reduces Abdominal Fat and Improves Lipid Profile and Antioxidant Status in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayara Zagonel de Souza Zanchet

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural antioxidants present in fruits have attracted considerable interest due to their presumed safety and potential nutritional value. Even though antioxidant activities of many fruits have been reported, the effects of phytochemicals of goji berry (GB in patients with metabolic syndrome have not been investigated. In this study, we examined anthropometric and biochemical parameters in patients with metabolic syndrome after the consumption of GB. The patients were divided into two groups, control (C and supplemented (S, and followed up for 45 days. Participants were individually instructed to carry out a healthy diet, but additionally, an inclusion of 14 g of the natural form of goji berry in the diet during 45 days for the S group was proposed. After 45 days of study, a significant reduction in transaminases as well as an improvement in lipid profile in the S group was observed. Likewise, a significant reduction in the waist circumference of the S group was observed when compared with that of the C group, and increased glutathione and catalase levels associated with a reduction of lipid peroxidation. These results suggest that this is an effective dietary supplement for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases in individuals with metabolic syndrome.

  19. The effects of postharvest application of lecithin to improve storage potential and quality of fresh goji (Lycium barbarum L.) berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatoi, Mushtaque Ahmed; Jurić, Slaven; Vidrih, Rajko; Vinceković, Marko; Vuković, Marko; Jemrić, Tomislav

    2017-09-01

    To enhance storage life and post-storage quality of fresh goji berries, three treatments with lecithin (1, 5, 10g·L(-1)) and two storage times (8, 16days) were evaluated. The significant effects on the physiological and biochemical parameters were varied. 1g·L(-1) lecithin showed its main effects after 8days of storage by reduction in total weight loss and decay, SSC/TA ratio (also at 16days), and chlorophyll content and with highest scores of sensory attributes (also at 16days). 5g·L(-1) lecithin showed its main effects after 16days of storage: highest SSC, highest TA (also at 8days), highest TPC, only significant reduction in DPPH antioxidant activity, and highest total flavonoid content. 10g·L(-1) lecithin showed its main effects after 8days of storage with highest SSC, chlorophyll content, total flavonoid, DPPH, and ABTS antioxidant activity (also at 16days), but with least scores of sensory attributes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Diffusion Profiles of Health Beneficial Components from Goji Berry (Lyceum barbarum Marinated in Alcohol and Their Antioxidant Capacities as Affected by Alcohol Concentration and Steeping Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Song

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The fruit (goji berry of Lycium barbarum, a traditional Chinese medicine, has been widely used in health diets due to its potential role in the prevention of chronic diseases. One of the most popular applications of goji berry is to make goji wine in China by steeping goji berry in grain liquor. However, how the steeping process affects antioxidant capacities and phytochemicals of goji berry is not yet fully understood. Therefore, to provide scientific data for the utilization of goji berry in the nutraceutical industry, the diffusion rate of betaine, β-carotene, phenolic compounds in goji berry and their antioxidant capacities affected by alcohol concentration and steeping time were determined by UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The results showed that low alcohol concentration (15% or 25% would promote the diffusion of betaine and increase antioxidant activity, while high concentration (55% or 65% would generally increase the diffusion of flavonoids and reduce antioxidant activity. The steeping time had no significant effect on the diffusion of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities. However, all goji berry wine steeped for 14 days with different alcohol concentrations exhibited the highest betaine concentration. Current findings provide useful information for the nutraceutical industries to choose proper steeping time and alcohol concentration to yield desired health promotion components from goji.

  1. 基于数据挖掘的枸杞研究热点分析%Analysis on the Research Hotspots of Lycium L. Based on Data Mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭栋; 童元元; 黄生权; 邢鹏; 赵英凯

    2016-01-01

    about breeding were “genetic diversity”, “male sterile”, “its sequence”, “callus issue”, and“anther culture”. Key words about planting were“output”,“quality”,“hard twig cuttage”,“irrigation amount”. Key words about harvesting and processing were“picking machine of Lycium L.”,“drying kiln of Lycium L.”,“hot air drying”, and “combined drying”. Key words about storage were “pesticide residue”, “heavy metal”, and“organophosphorus pesticide”. Co-occurrence network of high-frequency key words showed that the research hotspots were pesticide residue, test of heavy metal and the storage of fresh fruits. Dendrogram of high-frequency key words showed that the high-frequency key words were “package”, “refreshment”, and “lycium barbarum polysaccharide”. Conclusion The research hotspots of planting of Lycium L. are planting skills effecting the output and quality of Lycium L.; In the field of harvesting and processing of Lycium L., design and research of picking machine has replaced traditional manual picking. Modern hot air drying has already replaced traditional drying in the sun or drying skills; In the aspect of storage of Lycium L., the study on the refreshment of Lycium L. has attached attention.

  2. Effects of leaves ofLycium barbarumon estrogen receptor in ovariectomized rats%宁夏枸杞叶对去势模型大鼠雌激素受体表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马锋; 马敬祖; 巩凡; 高俊; 吕金悍

    2016-01-01

    背景:前期实验发现枸杞叶主要成分枸杞多糖对成年去势雌性大鼠骨质疏松有明显的骨质改善作用。  目的:观察宁夏枸杞叶对去势大鼠血清雌激素和骨组织雌激素受体表达的影响。  方法:SD雌性未孕6月龄大鼠32只,分为3组。模型组和治疗组切除大鼠卵巢建立绝经后骨质疏松症动物模型。假手术组仅切除卵巢周围少许脂肪组织立即关闭切口。造模后8周后治疗组大鼠随机分为2组,分别饮水服枸杞叶500 mg/kg(治疗低剂量组)和枸杞叶1000 mg/kg(治疗高剂量组),每天1次,连续12周;模型组和假手术组给予等量的蒸馏水。用放射免疫法(RIA 法)检测大鼠血清中的雌二醇的水平变化,运用免疫组织化学方法检测雌性大鼠各组骨组织中雌激素受体的变化。  结果与结论:与假手术组比较,模型组大鼠血清雌二醇明显降低(P OBJECTIVE:To explore effects of leaves ofLycium barbarum on serum estradiol and bone estrogen receptor expressions in adult oxariectomized female rats. METHODS: Thirty-two 6-month-od female rats were randomized into sham-surgery, model, and treatment groups, respectively. Rat models of postmenopausal osteoporosis were induced by ovariotomy folowed by oraly administration of water solution of leaves ofLycium barbarum (500 or 1 000 mg/kg) or distiled water once daily for consecutive 12 weeks in treatment and model groups, respectively. Serum estradiol level was detected by radiation immunoassaymethod. Estrogen receptor α, β immunoreactivities in bone tissue were determined by immunohistochemical staining. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Serum estradiol level in the model group was significantly decreased compared with the sham-surgery group (P < 0.01), but that was significantly increased in the treatment groups, particularly at high dose, compared with the model group (P< 0.01). Estrogen receptor α, βimmunoreactivities were weaker in the

  3. Assessing phylogenetic relationships of Lycium samples using RAPD and entropy theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-lin YIN; Kai-tai FANG; Yi-zeng LIANG; Ricky NS WONG; Amber WY HA

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the phylogenetic relationships among related species of Lycium samples. Methods: Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting and lab-on-a-chip electrophoresis techniques were used to analyze the characteristics of Lycium species. Seven species and 3 varieties of Lycium were studied.Based on RAPD fingerprint data obtained from 11 primers, we proposed a new index, called dispersivity, using entropy theory and projection methods to depict the diversity of the DNA fingerprints. Results: Using the proposed dispersivity,primers were sorted and the dendrograms of the 7 species and 3 varieties of Lycium were constructed synthetically by merging primer information. Conclusion:Phylogenetic relationships among Lycium samples were constructed synthetically based on RAPD fingerprint data generated from 11 primers.

  4. 枸杞花药培养的初步研究%Preliminary Study on the Anther Culture in Lycium barbarum L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段丽君; 周军; 曹有龙

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the culture technique in anther of Chinese wolfberry, we optimized the culture medium(including hormone combination) and cul-ture conditions. The results showed that calluses were induced from all the six tested Chinese wolfberry materials, hut the induction rate of callus varied to-ward the materials with different genotypes. When the experimental materials were cuhured on medium appended with 2,4-D 1.0 mg/L and KT 1.0 mg/L un-der dark, the callus induction rate reached 20.0 % in this study, and this hormone combination should be the optimum for anther culture of Chinese wolf-berry. With MS appended with 6-BA 0.5 mg/L and NAA 0.1 mg/L as differentiation medium and that appended with NAA 0.1 mg/L, the plants could be yielded in 20 days.

  5. Flowering Biological Characteristics of Lycium barbarum in Guyuan, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region%宁南固原枸杞开花生物学特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗术东; 王彪; 褚忠桥; 吴杰; 杨文寿; 张俊丽

    2011-01-01

    为明确宁夏南部山区枸杞的开花生物学特性,以当地枸杞主栽品种“宁杞一号”为材料,于2008-2010年对枸杞的开花物候、花粉活力、柱头可授性、泌蜜规律、花粉胚珠比和杂交指数等进行研究.结果表明,宁杞1号单花花期一般为3d左右,老眼枝花期在4月下旬至5月上旬,七寸枝花在5月下旬至7月上旬,盛花期在5月下旬至6月下旬.花后2h开始散粉,但花粉在散粉前就具有活力,花后6h活性最强,72 h时花粉基本散尽且残余花粉活力很低.花后27 h内,5 a生树七寸枝花粉活力高于同时期10 a生树的花粉活力,其他时间段花粉活力基本一致.柱头在松蕾期和花后3h内均不具备可授性,花后3h开始具有可授性,18~36 h达最强,36 h候后可授性逐渐下降,花后60 h时基本丧失可授性.一天当中,枸杞单花蜜量7:00最大,此后在蜜量上逐渐减少,但含糖量上升,到15:00以后蜜量开始出现回升趋势.七寸枝初花期的蜜量显著高于老眼枝,而5a生七寸枝在盛花期的蜜量显著高于10 a生树.枸杞单花花粉量约为241 000粒,花粉胚珠比介于4 918~6 694之间,杂交指数(OCI)为5,因而可以断定枸杞的繁育系统为专性异交类型,需要传粉媒介为其传粉.%To identify the flowering biological characteristics of Chinese wolf berry in the southern of Ningxia Hui autonomous region, the floral biological characteristics, pollen viability, stigma receptivity, nectar secretion rhythm, pollen ovule ratio and outcrossing index of "Ningqi 1" were investigated in this paper. The results suggested that the old branches flowered from the late of April to the first ten days of May, but the new branches flowered from the late of May to the first ten days of July, and the full-bloom stage started from the late of May to the late of June, and most of flowers bloom about 3 days. The pollen can maintain viability since the late of bud stage, the flower has the strongest viability at 6 hours after flowering, the flower diverging over its pollen 72 hours later and the residuary pollen has low viability. The pollen viability of the five years old Chinese wolfberry is stronger than 10 years old trees during the first 27 hours, and has the same strong viability since the flowers bloom for27 hours later. The stigma had no receptivity during the bud stage and the first 3 hours, with the passage of time, the stigma receptivity become more and more strong, and the stigma has the strongest receptivity since the flower flowered for 18 to 36 hours, the stigma decreased its receptivity after 36 hours and loss the receptivity after 60 hours. The nectar secretion rhythm is also investigated in this paper, the results showed that the maximum volume of nectar was appeared at 7-00, since then? The volume of nectar become less and less until 15:00, but the concentration of the sugar for the flower raised with the time. At the same time, new branches secreted more nectar than the old ones, the new branches of five years old tree secreted more nectar than ten years old tree during the full-bloom stage. The pollen quantity of whole flower is about 241 000, and the pollen ovule ratio is about 4 918 ~6 694, the outcrossing index is five, so the breeding system is obligate xenogamy, this suggested that insect pollination will benefit to the pollination of Chinese wolfberry.

  6. Breeding systems in some representatives of the genus Lycium (Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Minne

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of the ovule and the embryo sac of five of the 17 species of Lycium and of one hybrid, recorded for southern Africa, was investigated. All specimens of four of the species and the hybrid (between a hermaphroditic and a functionally dioecious species were found to be functionally dioecious: they express only one sex, although both male and female organs are present in the same tlower. One species was hermaphroditic. The embryo sacs of all species, and of the hybrid, were of the normal eight-nucleate Polygonum type. The structure of the ovary and the development of the embryo sac are similar to those of L europaeum L. The absence of unreduced embryo sacs indicates that apomixis does not occur at any ploidy level in the species studied.

  7. Breeding systems in some representatives of the genus Lycium (Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Minne

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of the ovule and the embryo sac of five of the 17 species of Lycium and of one hybrid, recorded for southern Africa, was investigated. All specimens of four of the species and the hybrid (between a hermaphroditic and a functionally dioecious species were found to be functionally dioecious: they express only one sex, although both male and female organs are present in the same tlower. One species was hermaphroditic. The embryo sacs of all species, and of the hybrid, were of the normal eight-nucleate Polygonum type. The structure of the ovary and the development of the embryo sac are similar to those of L europaeum L. The absence of unreduced embryo sacs indicates that apomixis does not occur at any ploidy level in the species studied.

  8. Isolationand structure elucidation of coumarin and cinamate derivatives from Lycium ruthenicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Valizadeh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Lyciumspecies is a popular medicinal plant in the traditional Chinese medicine and Lycium ru-thenicum is a native medicinal plant of Iran. Lycium genus has several biologically important properties too. Investigation of chemical composition of ethyl acetate extract of this plant is the goal of this study. Two coumarins (Scopoletin and Sculetin and Methyl-2-hydroxy-4-undecanoxy-trans-cinamate were isolated and characterized as the major constituents using 1H NMR, 13C NMR and FT-IR spectroscopic data, MS spectrometry, elemental analysis and by comparison with the literature values. Phytochemical investigation of Lyciumruthenicum demonstrated the presence of important biologically active compounds. This is the first phyto-chemical study of this species in Iran.

  9. Comparative Analysis of Aroma Compounds in Lycium chinense Juice and in Lycium chinense Wine by HS-GC-MS%采用HS-GC-MS法对枸杞汁发酵前后香气成分的比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琦; 张惠玲; 周广志

    2015-01-01

    The volatile compounds in Lycium chinense juice and Lycium chinense wine were extracted by HS-SPME, the aroma compounds among them were then analyzed by GC-MS, and the aroma composition and their relative content between Lycium chinense juice and Lycium chinense wine were compared. The results suggested that, there was significant different in aroma varieties and aroma composition between Ly-cium chinense juice and Lycium chinense wine, 31 peaks in Lycium chinense juice and 58 peaks in Lycium chinense wine were detected respec-tively, and 13 kinds of compounds in Lycium chinense juice and 32 kinds of compounds in Lycium chinense wine were identified respectively. The facts proved that after the fermentation, the varieties and the content of flavoring compounds in Lycium chinense juice got increased.%采用顶空固相微萃取(HS-SPME)法提取枸杞汁和枸杞酒样品中的挥发性成分,采用气相色谱质谱联用技术(GC-MS)对其中的香气化合物进行鉴定,并对二者香气组成和相对含量进行对比。结果表明,枸杞汁和枸杞酒中香气种类和组成具有明显差异,在枸杞汁和枸杞酒中分别检测出31个和58个峰,鉴定出13种和32种化合物。枸杞汁经过发酵,其风味物质的种类和含量得到增加。

  10. 吡虫啉在枸杞中的残留动态%Residues Dynamics of Imidacloprid in Lycium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳; 王晓菁; 牛艳; 吴燕

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate residues dynamics of imidacloprid in lycium, field trials for imidacloprid residue in lycium were conducted in Ningxia, Neimenggu and Gansu. The results showed that the residues and degradation dynamics of imidacloprid in lycium completely fitted to the first-order reaction kinetic equation. The half-life of degradation for imidacloprid was 3. 0 to 3. 4 d in fresh lycium berries,2. 9 to 5. 0 d in dry fruits. According to the recommended application dosage, the final residue ranged from 0. 004 2 to 0. 403 mg/kg of imidacloprid in lycium. The maximum residue limit was recommended 1 mg/kg in lycium.%为了评价吡虫啉在枸杞上使用后的残留动态,在宁夏、内蒙古和甘肃同时进行残留动态试验.结果表明,吡虫啉在枸杞中的残留消解完全符合一级反应动力学方程式,在枸杞鲜果上的半衰期为3.0~3.4 d,在枸杞干果上的半衰期为2.9~5.0 d;按推荐剂量施用的情况下,在枸杞中的残留为0.004 2~0.403mg/kg.吡虫啉在枸杞中最高残留限量(MRL值)推荐值为1 mg/kg.

  11. Breaking the resistance of Escherichia coli: Antimicrobial activity of Berberis lycium Royle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Tauseef Ahmad; Kamili, Azra N; Chishti, M Z; Ahad, Shazia; Tantry, Mudasir A; Hussain, P R; Johri, R K

    2017-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of root bark of Berberis lycium and its principal component berberine was tested against a panel of microbial strains using agar well diffusion test and further analyzed using micro-broth dilution method. Preliminary analysis, on the basis of zone of Inhibition (ZOI) showed that the methanolic extract of B. lycium was highly effective against Escherichia coli (ZOI 41 ± 1 mm). Among the bacterial strains E. coli was found to be most susceptible and among fungi Candida albicans was the most susceptible for berberine as well as the crude methanolic extract of the plant. Methanolic extract of the plant was more effective for E. coli (MIC 1.7 ± 1.18; MBC 2.4 ± 1.18) than berberine (MIC 3.5 ± 0.57) (p resistant colonies after 72 h when tested with berberine but the development of such colonies was not observed with the methanolic extract of the plant. This could be due to the presence of resistance breaking molecules in the crude methanolic extract of B. lycium. Also the MIC index of crude methanolic extract was 1.39 for E. coli, which showed the mode of action to be bactericidal. HPLC analysis revealed the presence of berberine at highest concentration in methanolic extract of the plant, followed by aqueous extract. Potentiation of this berberine by resistance breaking molecules in the crude extract could be a possible explanation for its strong effectiveness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 响应面法优化枸杞多糖提取的研究%Study on Optimization of the Extraction Technology of Lycium Barbarum Polysaccharide by Response Surface Methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琳; 鄢瑞明; 曾凡骏

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the method of polysaccharide extraction was hot water extraction and discussing the crushing of raw materials, decolor, pre-soaked in the three factors of pre-experimental extraction to the effect of the follow-up. With anthrone - sulfuric acid method, the content of LBP was tested under the 620nm and the yield was calculated. Box - Behnken statistical design technology was used to optimize the method of LBP extraction. With the response surface optimization, the optimum conditions were: extraction temperature 87℃, liquid ratio 1:26, extraction time 7h. On the condition, the highest yield of LBP was 8.2%. The results were not only had the best extraction conditions for LBP, but also the results of response surface design experiment was much higher the traditional orthogonal in the degree of accuracy. The reference was provided for flarge-scale factory production in the future.%实验采用热水浸提法提取多糖,以蒽酮—硫酸法在620nm下检测枸杞多糖的含量,计算出得率.采用Box -Behnken统计设计技术优化枸杞多糖提取方法,得到的最佳工艺条件是:提取温度87℃,料液比1∶26,提取时间7h,一次提取枸杞多糖得率最高可达8.2%.不仅得出了枸杞多糖的最佳提取条件,而且采用响应面设计实验得到的结果相对传统的正交实验准确度更高,为以后大规模工厂化生产提供了参考.

  13. Studies of polyamine metabolism in somatic embryo-genesis of Lycium barbarum%枸杞体细胞胚发生过程中内源多胺代谢动态的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢更妹; 黄惠英; 王亚馥

    2002-01-01

    完全脱分化的枸杞继代愈伤组织在转入分化培养后第1天就开始启动分化,接着体细胞转变为胚性细胞,继而分裂形成多细胞原胚、球形胚和成熟胚等.与此同时,Put含量迅速上升形成第1个峰值,随后有所下降,但到多细胞原胚期Put含量又上升,并达到最高峰,为对照的6倍.Spd只在胚性细胞分化早期出现,Spm仅在体细胞胚发育晚期存在.外源Put不仅可提高体细胞胚发生频率,而且使3种内源多胺含量均有所提高.加入多胺生物合成抑制剂DFMA后,多胺水平下降,体细胞胚发生几乎完全被抑制.补充外源Put后,多胺的生物合成得到部分恢复,DFMA对体细胞胚发生的抑制效应也被部分解除.结果表明,维持一定量的多胺水平是枸杞体细胞胚发生的必要因素.

  14. 宁夏枸杞蚜虫发生规律及其气象等级预报%Occurrence of Aphis sp. on Lycium barbarum L. and Its Meteorological Grades Forecast in Ningxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静; 张宗山; 马力文; 黄峰; 卫建国; 张玉兰

    2015-01-01

    根据人工气候箱内不同温度条件下2次枸杞蚜虫饲养试验,确定枸杞蚜虫发育起始温度,建立蚜虫发育速率与温度的关系方程,以5.0℃作为枸杞蚜虫发育的起点温度,利用该方程对1991-2012年宁夏枸杞蚜虫繁衍动态和全年可繁殖世代数进行推算。根据2006-2008年田间蚜虫调查的虫口密度与气象因子建立的统计关系,确定枸杞蚜虫发生程度的气象指标和为害等级预报模型,并用2012年中宁田间调查情况进行验证。结果表明,宁夏枸杞蚜虫平均起始发生期为3月27日,终止时间为10月下旬,全年可繁殖21~25代,为害高峰时段为第3~12代,干旱、晴天条件下枸杞蚜虫更易发展,多雨、高湿环境抑制枸杞蚜虫的发展。预报模型回代准确率88.2%,异地检验准确率100%,效果良好,说明模型和气象指标可用于监测、预测枸杞蚜虫的繁殖世代数和为害的气象等级。%The initial growth temperature of aphis sp. was defined according to 2 feeding experiments under different temperature treatments in the HGP ̄280H type climatic cabinet,the equation between growth rate of aphis sp. and temperature was established based on the initial growth temperature. The breeding date of each generation and annual total generations from 1991 to 2012 were estimated by using the equation,taking 5. 0℃ as aphis sp. initial growth threshold temperature. The meteorological indicators and prediction model on aphis sp. hazard grades were determined, according to the statistic relationship between population density and its meteorological factors from 2006 to 2008,and verified by using investigated data in Zhongning in 2012. The result showed that the average initial occurring date of aphis sp. was on March 27 and ending date was in later of October. Aphis sp. could breeding 21 ̄23 generations each year, of which 3 ̄12 generations was serious damaged. Drying and sunshine was benefit to them growth and development,and rainy and high humidity inhibited them development. The accuracy of the model and meteorological indicators was 88. 2% and the accuracy of off ̄site observed data was 100% . Those models and meteorological indexes were suitable for monitoring aphis sp. growth state and forecasting hazard grades.

  15. 枸杞蔗糖合成酶基因cDNA分离及表达分析%Isolation and Expression Analysis of Sucrose Synthase Gene cDNA from Lycium barbarum L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽娟; 石晶; 王彦才

    2013-01-01

    以“宁杞1号”为试材,根据已知植物物种蔗糖合成酶基因(Susy)保守区序列设计引物,进行Lb Susy基因保守区的克隆,并根据保守片段核苷酸序列,利用RACE技术扩增基因全长.然后分析Lb Sus基因生物学信息,同时利用Real-time PCR检测Susy基因在枸杞不同组织器官中的表达量.结果表明:经RT-PCR扩增得到长度为2 926 bp的基因片段,克隆到pGM-TEasy载体中,命名为Lb Susy(GenBank:KC907702).推导氨基酸序列与番茄、欧洲桤木等蔗糖合成酶基因氨基酸序列同源性为100%~84%.运用PSORT服务器亚细胞定位分析表明,Lb Susy编码的蔗糖合成酶蛋白质定位于线粒体.Real-time PCR表达分析显示,Lb Susy基因在枸杞茎中表达量最高,在根中表达水平较低.

  16. Male function for ensuring pollination and reproductive success in Berberis lycium Royle: A novel mechanism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Supriya Sharma; Verma Susheel

    2016-03-01

    In Berberis lycium anthers on alternate stamens dehisce, thus prolonging the male function so that pollination is affected and reproduction is ensured. The large pollen sac of each bithecous anther after the appearance of longitudinal dehiscence slit moves away from the filament while remaining attached at the tip of the connective and then orients in such a way that pollen-laden surface faces the stigma. No pollen is available to receptive stigma as pollen grains remain stuck to the anther sac. They do not get dispersed even by wind. Pollination and consequently reproduction is ensured through the intervention of insect, which does not affect pollen transfer to the stigma directly but by touching the base of the staminal filament while foraging nectar secreted by nectaries at the base of corolla, thus leading to staminal movement. This makes the dehisced anthers stick to the stigma and deposit pollen there.

  17. The Diterpenoid 7-Keto-Sempervirol, Derived from Lycium chinense, Displays Anthelmintic Activity against both Schistosoma mansoni and Fasciola hepatica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jennifer; Brown, Martha; Peak, Emily; Bartholomew, Barbara; Nash, Robert J.; Hoffmann, Karl F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Two platyhelminths of biomedical and commercial significance are Schistosoma mansoni (blood fluke) and Fasciola hepatica (liver fluke). These related trematodes are responsible for the chronic neglected tropical diseases schistosomiasis and fascioliasis, respectively. As no vaccine is currently available for anti-flukicidal immunoprophylaxis, current treatment is mediated by mono-chemical chemotherapy in the form of mass drug administration (MDA) (praziquantel for schistosomiasis) or drenching (triclabendazole for fascioliasis) programmes. This overreliance on single chemotherapeutic classes has dramatically limited the number of novel chemical entities entering anthelmintic drug discovery pipelines, raising significant concerns for the future of sustainable blood and liver fluke control. Methodology/ Principle Findings Here we demonstrate that 7-keto-sempervirol, a diterpenoid isolated from Lycium chinense, has dual anthelmintic activity against related S. mansoni and F. hepatica trematodes. Using a microtiter plate-based helminth fluorescent bioassay (HFB), this activity is specific (Therapeutic index = 4.2, when compared to HepG2 cell lines) and moderately potent (LD50 = 19.1 μM) against S. mansoni schistosomula cultured in vitro. This anti-schistosomula effect translates into activity against both adult male and female schistosomes cultured in vitro where 7-keto-sempervirol negatively affects motility/behaviour, surface architecture (inducing tegumental holes, tubercle swelling and spine loss/shortening), oviposition rates and egg morphology. As assessed by the HFB and microscopic phenotypic scoring matrices, 7-keto-sempervirol also effectively kills in vitro cultured F. hepatica newly excysted juveniles (NEJs, LD50 = 17.7 μM). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) evaluation of adult F. hepatica liver flukes co-cultured in vitro with 7-keto-sempervirol additionally demonstrates phenotypic abnormalities including breaches in tegumental integrity and

  18. The diterpenoid 7-keto-sempervirol, derived from Lycium chinense, displays anthelmintic activity against both Schistosoma mansoni and Fasciola hepatica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Edwards

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Two platyhelminths of biomedical and commercial significance are Schistosoma mansoni (blood fluke and Fasciola hepatica (liver fluke. These related trematodes are responsible for the chronic neglected tropical diseases schistosomiasis and fascioliasis, respectively. As no vaccine is currently available for anti-flukicidal immunoprophylaxis, current treatment is mediated by mono-chemical chemotherapy in the form of mass drug administration (MDA (praziquantel for schistosomiasis or drenching (triclabendazole for fascioliasis programmes. This overreliance on single chemotherapeutic classes has dramatically limited the number of novel chemical entities entering anthelmintic drug discovery pipelines, raising significant concerns for the future of sustainable blood and liver fluke control. METHODOLOGY/ PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Here we demonstrate that 7-keto-sempervirol, a diterpenoid isolated from Lycium chinense, has dual anthelmintic activity against related S. mansoni and F. hepatica trematodes. Using a microtiter plate-based helminth fluorescent bioassay (HFB, this activity is specific (Therapeutic index = 4.2, when compared to HepG2 cell lines and moderately potent (LD50 = 19.1 μM against S. mansoni schistosomula cultured in vitro. This anti-schistosomula effect translates into activity against both adult male and female schistosomes cultured in vitro where 7-keto-sempervirol negatively affects motility/behaviour, surface architecture (inducing tegumental holes, tubercle swelling and spine loss/shortening, oviposition rates and egg morphology. As assessed by the HFB and microscopic phenotypic scoring matrices, 7-keto-sempervirol also effectively kills in vitro cultured F. hepatica newly excysted juveniles (NEJs, LD50 = 17.7 μM. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM evaluation of adult F. hepatica liver flukes co-cultured in vitro with 7-keto-sempervirol additionally demonstrates phenotypic abnormalities including breaches in tegumental

  19. Untersuchungen zum Inhaltsstoffspektrum der Blätter und Stängel von Lycium anatolicum (A. Baytop et R. Mill)

    OpenAIRE

    Schlegl, Regina

    2009-01-01

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit sollte mit Lycium anatolicum, eines in der Türkei endemischen Nachtschattengewächses, der bisherige Kenntnisstand zum Inhaltsstoffspektrum der Gattung Lycium bestätigt und erweitert werden. Hierzu wurden Extrakte aus getrockneten Stängeln und Blättern hergestellt und umfassend phytochemisch aufgearbeitet. Die Auftrennung der Extrakte erfolgte über offene Säulenchromatographie mit den stationären Phasen Kieselgel, Sephadex LH-20 und RP-18. Die abschließende Auftre...

  20. Endophytic Fungi from Lycium chinense Mill and Characterization of Two New Korean Records of Colletotrichum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Chandra Paul

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Chinese boxthorn or matrimony vine (Lycium chinense Mill is found primarily in southeastern Europe and Asia, including Korea. The dried ripe fruits are commonly used as oriental medicinal purposes. Endophytic fungi were isolated from surface sterilized tissues and fruits of the medicinal plant in 2013 to identify the new or unreported species in Korea. Among 14 isolates, 10 morphospecies were selected for molecular identification with the internal transcribed spacer (ITS gene. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all isolates belonged to Ascomycota including the genera Acremonium, Colletotrichum, Cochliobolus, Fusarium, Hypocrea and Nemania. Two Colletotrichum species were identified at the species level, using three genes including internal transcribed spacer (ITS, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH and Actin (ACT for PCR and molecular data analysis along with morphological observations. The fungal isolates, CNU122031 and CNU122032 were identified as Colletotrichum fructicola and C. brevisporum, respectively. Morphological observations also well supported the molecular identification. C. brevisporum is represented unrecorded species in Korea and C. fructicola is the first record from the host plant.

  1. New glycosidic constituents from fruits of Lycium chinense and their antioxidant activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Chung

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Potential biologically active new constituents labd-3β, 9β-diol-3α-d-glucopyranosyl-(2a → 1b-α-d-glucopyranosyl-(2b → 1c-α-d-glucopyranosyl-(2c → 1d-α-d-arabinofuranosyl-2d-p-hydroxybenzoate (1 and α-d-glucuronopyranosyl (2 → 1′-α-d-glucuronopyranosyl (2′ → 1″-α-d-glucopyranosyl-2″-n-octadec-9‴-enoate (2 along with β-sitosterol-β-d-glucoside were isolated from the fruits of Lycium chinense. Their chemical structures were elucidated using detailed spectroscopic studies. The structure assignments are based on two-dimensional (2D-NMR techniques including COSY, HSQC, HMBC and NOESY experiments. Compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated for antioxidant activities with three assay protocols such as diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power and the phosphomolybdenum activity, compound 2 showed more potential as compared with 1.

  2. Cloning and Characterization of a Lycium chinense Carotenoid Isomerase Gene Enhancing Carotenoid Accumulation in Transgenic Tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李招娣; 季静; 王罡

    2015-01-01

    Carotenoid isomerase(CRTISO)is a key enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of cis-lycopene to all-trans lycopene. In this study, we isolated and characterized the CRTISO gene from Lycium chinense (LcCRTISO) for the first time. The open reading frame of LcCRTISO was 1 815 bp encoding a protein of 604 amino acids with a molecular mass of 66.24 kDa. Amino acid sequence analysis revealed that the LcCRTISO had a high level of simi-larity to other CRTISO. Phylogenetic analysis displayed that LcCRTISO kept a closer relationship with the CRTISO of plants than with those of other species. Semi-quantitative PCR analysis indicated that LcCRTISO gene was expressed in all tissues tested with the highest expression in maturing fruits. The overexpression of LcCRTISO gene in transgenic tobacco resulted in an increase of total carotenoids in the leaves withβ-carotene and lutein being the predominants. The results obtained here clearly suggested that the LcCRTISO gene was a promising candidate for carotenoid production.

  3. Protective Effect of Lycium ruthenicum Murr. Against Radiation Injury in Mice

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    Yabin Duan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The protective effect of Lycium ruthenicum Murr. against radiation injury was examined in mice. Kunming mice were randomly divided into a control group, model group, positive drug group and L. ruthenicum high dose (8 g/kg, L. ruthenicum middle dose (4 g/kg, L. ruthenicum low dose (2 g/kg treatment groups, for which doses were administered the third day, seventh day and 14th day after irradiation. L. ruthenicum extract was administered orally to the mice in the three treatment groups and normal saline was administered orally to the mice in the control group and model group for 14 days. The positive group was treated with amifostine (WR-2721 at 30 min before irradiation. Except for the control group, the groups of mice received a 5 Gy quantity of X-radiation evenly over their whole body at one time. Body weight, hemogram, thymus and spleen index, DNA, caspase-3, caspase-6, and P53 contents were observed at the third day, seventh day, and 14th day after irradiation. L. ruthenicum could significantly increase the total red blood cell count, hemoglobin count and DNA contents (p < 0.05. The spleen index recovered significantly by the third day and 14th day after irradiation (p < 0.05. L. ruthenicum low dose group showed a significant reduction in caspase-3 and caspase-6 of serum in mice at the third day, seventh day, and 14th day after irradiation and L. ruthenicum middle dose group experienced a reduction in caspase-6 of serum in mice by the seventh day after irradiation. L. ruthenicum could decrease the expression of P53. The results showed that L. ruthenicum had protective effects against radiation injury in mice.

  4. The Extract of Lycium depressum Stocks Enhances Wound Healing in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naji, Siamak; Zarei, Leila; Pourjabali, Masoumeh; Mohammadi, Rahim

    2017-06-01

    In diabetes, impaired wound healing and other tissue abnormalities are considered major concerns. The aim of the present study was to assess the wound-healing activity of methanolic extracts of the extract of Lycium depressum leaves. A total of 60 healthy male Wistar diabetic rats weighing approximately 160 to 180 g and 7 weeks of age were randomized into 10 groups for incision and excision wound models: sham surgery group (SHAM), including creation of wounds and no treatment; base formulation group (FG) with creation of wounds and application of base formulation ointment; treatment group 1 (TG1) with 1 g of powder extract of the plant material in ointment; treatment group 2 (TG2) with 2 g; and treatment group 4 (TG3) with 4 g of powder extract of the plant material in ointment. A wound was induced by an excision- and incision-based wound model in male rats. The mature green leaves of L depressum were collected and authenticated. Extractions of dried leaves were carried out. For wound-healing activity, the extracts were applied topically in the form of ointment and compared with control groups. The healing of the wound was assessed based on excision, incision, hydroxyproline estimation, and biomechanical and biochemical studies. The extract of L depressum leaves enhanced wound contraction, decreased epithelialization time, increased hydroxyproline content, and improved mechanical indices and histological characteristics in treatment groups compared with SHAM and FG ( P < .05). These findings permit the conclusion the extract of L depressum benefits parameters of wound healing in a diabetes induced model.

  5. Transcriptome profiling of the UV-B stress response in the desert shrub Lycium ruthenicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haikui; Feng, Yang; Wang, Lina; Yonezawa, Takahiro; Crabbe, M James C; Zhang, Xiu; Zhong, Yang

    2015-03-01

    Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) is a natural component of the solar radiation. Due to its high energy, low dosages of UV-B can bring huge potential damage effect to organisms. Despite much research that has analyzed the gene expression changes of plants that under UV-B radiation, the transcriptome response of Lycium ruthenicum under the UV-B induction is still un-available. The aim of our study was to identify UV-B responsive genes and gain an insight into the underlying genetic basis of the pathobiology of UV-B related damage. We collected leaf samples from L. ruthenicum with and without UV-B exposure, and then performed a transcriptome profiling to comprehensively investigate their expression signatures. By employing the high throughput RNA-sequencing analysis of samples with and without UV-B exposure, we identified 1,913 up-regulated and 536 down-regulated genes at least by twofold changes. The activity of antioxidant enzyme related genes, including the superoxide dismutase, was decreased, genes related to the synthesis of secondary metabolites and defense responses, such as cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, chalcone-flavanone isomerase and dihydroflavonol reductase were also downregulated. The expression patterns of 14 randomly selected genes resulted from quantitative real-time PCR were basically consistent with their transcript abundance changes identified by RNA-sequencing. We found that several biological pathways related to biotic and abiotic stresses, including cell defense, photosynthesis processes, energy metabolism, were involved in the process of UV-B stress response. A genome-wide screening of gene deregulation under UV-B induction would provide an insight into the understanding of the molecular bases and pathogenesis of UV-B responses.

  6. 枸杞在低温香肠中的应用%The Application of Lycium chinense Mill to the Making of Low Temperature Sausage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑立红; 李凤英; 肖月娟

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve the nutritional value of low temperature sausage, the Lycium chinense Mill was added in making low temperature sausage. NO2- remnant of low temperature sausage added with different dos- age of l_/ycium chinense Mill was determined using the spectrophotometer. The best adding method and optimum adding dose of Lycium chinense Mill were confirmed by measuring red value and light value of the sausage com- bined with sense test. The results showed that the best addition form of Lycit~m chinense Mill was pasty; the optimum adding dose of Lycium chinense Mill was 50 g/kg of meat. While the adding amount of sodium nitrite was 0.150 g/kg,the residue of sodium nitrite in Lycium chinense Mill sausage was 0.031 4 g/kg. Lycium chinense Mill can not only improve the sensory quality and nutrition of low temperature sausage, but also improve the safety by reducing the NO2- remnant.%为了增加香肠制品的营养保健功能,以瘦猪肉为主要原料,将功能性食品原料枸杞添加于肉中制成枸杞香肠。运用WSC-S测色色差仪测定枸杞香肠的亮度、红度、黄度值,用分光光度计测定枸杞香肠的亚硝酸钠残留量,并结合感官鉴评,确定枸杞的最佳添加状态和最佳添加量。结果表明:枸杞的最佳添加状态为浆状液,最佳添加量为50 g/kg(肉馅中,以下同);当亚硝酸钠添加量为0.15 g/kg时,枸杞香肠中的亚硝酸钠残留量仅为0.031 4 g/kg。枸杞的添加,既能增加香肠的感官品质,又能增加营养功能,还能在一定程度上降低亚硝酸钠的残留,增加了肉制品的安全性。

  7. Lycium europaeum fruit extract: antiproliferative activity on A549 human lung carcinoma cells and PC12 rat adrenal medulla cancer cells and assessment of its cytotoxicity on cerebellum granule cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghali, Wafa; Vaudry, David; Jouenne, Thierry; Marzouki, Mohamed Nejib

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a major worldwide health problem and one of the leading causes of death either in developed or developing countries. Plant extracts and derivatives have always been used for various disease treatments and many anticancer agents issued from plants and vegetables are clinically recognized and used all over the world. Lycium europaeum (Solanaceae) also called "wolfberry" was known since ancient times in the Mediterranean area as a medicinal plant and used in several traditional remedies. The Lycium species capacity of reducing the incidence of cancer and also of halting or reserving the growth of cancer was reported by traditional healers. In this study, the antiproliferative capacity, protective properties, and antioxidant activity of the hydro-alcoholic fruit extract of Lycium europaeum were investigated. Results showed that Lycium extract exhibits the ability to reduce cancer cell viability, inhibits proliferation, and induces apoptosis in A549 human lung cancer cells and PC12 rat adrenal medulla cancer cells, in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Cytotoxic effect on normal rat cerebellum granule cells was assessed to be nonsignificant. Results also showed that Lycium fruit extract protected lipids, proteins, and DNA against oxidative stress damages induced by H2O2 via scavenging reactive oxygen species.

  8. Mapeo de genes ribosómicos y heterocromatina en seis especies de Lycium de sudamérica (solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Blanco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El clado Lycieae (Solanaceae reune 92 especies, actualmente agrupadas en un único género, Lycium. Se realizó un estudio citogenético en seis especies sudamericanas de este género, usándose por primera vez en el grupo la técnica de FISH, además de la técnica de bandeo CMA/DAPI. Se emplearon ápices radicales de las siguientes especies: L. boerhaviifolium (previamente Grabowskia, L. bridgesii (previamente Phrodus, el tetraploide L. chilense y los diploides L. cestroides, L. ciliatum y L. tenuispinosum. Se confirmó el número básico x=12. La técnica de bandeo reveló la presencia de una banda CMA+/DAPI- asociada a NORs en el primer par metacéntrico en las especies diploides, y en los dos primeros pares m en la tetraploide. Además, L. tenuispinosum mostró una banda intercalar CMA+/DAPI- en uno de sus cromosomas, en tanto que en L. bridgesii se encontraron bandas terminales e intercalares en todos los cromosomas. Con la técnica de FISH se observó que los loci 18-5,8-26S fueron consistentes con los bloques CMA+/DAPI-/NORs. Las especies diploides presentaron siempre un par cromosómico m portador de genes ADNr 5S, mientras que la especie tetraploide presentó dos pares, concordando con su nivel de ploidía. En las especies estudiadas, la diversificación no fue acompañada por rearreglos cromosómicos estructurales significativos, excepto L. bridgesii, que se destaca por poseer una fórmula cariotípica distinta y un mayor porcentaje de heterocromatina.Mapping of ribosomal genes and heterochromatin in Lycium of South America (Solanaceae. The clade Lycieae (Solanaceae embraces 92 species, currently gathered in a single genus, Lycium. A study was conducted in six South American species of this genus, using the FISH technique for the first time in the group, in addition to the CMA/DAPI banding technique. Root tips of the following species were employed: L. boerhaviifolium (previously Grabowskia, L. bridgesii (previously Phrodus, the

  9. Cloning of a cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase gene from Lycium chinense Mill. and enhanced salt tolerance by overexpressing in tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guangxia; Wang, Gang; Ji, Jing; Gao, Hailing; Guan, Wenzhu; Wu, Jiang; Guan, Chunfeng; Wang, Yurong

    2014-06-10

    To evaluate the physiological importance of cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging system, a full-length cDNA clone, named LmAPX, encoding a cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase was isolated from Lycium chinense Mill. using homologous cloning, then the expression of LmAPX under salt stress was investigated. After sequencing and related analysis, the LmAPX cDNA sequence was 965 bp in length and had an open reading frame (ORF) of 750 bp coding for 250 amino acids. Furthermore, the LmAPX sequence was sub-cloned into prokaryotic expression vector pET28a and the recombinant proteins had a high expression level in Escherichia coli. Results from a southern blot analysis indicated that three inserts of this gene existed in the tobacco genome encoding LmAPX. Compared with the control plants (wild-type and empty vector control), the transgenic plants expressing the LmAPX gene exhibited lower amount of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and relatively higher values of ascorbate peroxidase activity, proline content, and net photosynthetic rate (Pn) under the same salt stress. These results suggested that overexpression of the LmAPX gene could decrease ROS production caused by salt stress and protect plants from oxidative stress.

  10. Hepatoprotective effects of Lycium chinense Miller fruit and its constituent betaine in CCl4-induced hepatic damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Meejung; Park, Jong Sang; Chae, Sungwook; Kim, Seungjoon; Moon, Changjong; Hyun, Jin Won; Shin, Taekyun

    2014-07-01

    The hepatoprotective activities of Lycium chinense Miller (LC) fruit extract and its component betaine were investigated under carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The treatment of LC fruit extract significantly suppressed the increase of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in the sera of CCl4 injured rats, and restored the decreased levels of anti-oxidant enzymes such as total antioxidant capacity (TAC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and suppressed the expression of inflammatory mediators including inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and -2. To visualize the potential activity of betaine, a component of LC fruit, betaine was substituted for LC extract in CCl4 injured rats. The biochemical profile in CCl4 injured rats co-treated with betaine matched those of LC fruit treated CCl4 injured rats. The ameliorative effects of LC extract, as well as betaine, were also confirmed by histopathological examination. Collectively, the present findings imply that LC fruit, via its component betaine, mitigate CCl4-induced hepatic injury by increasing antioxidative activity and decreasing inflammatory mediators including iNOS and COX-1/COX-2.

  11. Chemical Constituents of the Fruits of Lycium ruthenicum%黑果枸杞果实化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳发; 吉腾飞; 苏亚伦; 李进; 刘华

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究黑果枸杞Lycium ruthenicum Murr.果实的化学成分.方法:采用大孔树脂层析、Sephadex LH-20和高效液相色谱法对其化学成分进行分离纯化,通过理化性质和波谱数据分析鉴定化合物结构.结果:从黑果枸杞果实中分离得到9个化合物,分别为:N-mono-cinnamoyl-putrescine(1)、petunidin-3-trans-p-coumaroylrutinoside-5-glucoside(2),4-(p-cumaroyl)-methyl-L-rhamnoside(3)、p-香豆酸(4)、阿魏酸(5)、芦丁(6)、槲皮素(7)、原儿茶酸(8)、锦葵花素(9).结论:化合物1~9均为首次从该植物中分离得到.%Objective:To study the chemical constituents of the fruits of Lycium ruthenicum Murr..Methods :Isolation and purification were carried out on macroporous resin column,Sephadex LH-20 and HPLC.The structures of the compounds were identified by physicochemical properties and spectral analysis.Results:Nine compounds were isolated and identified as N-mono-cinnamoyl-putres-cine(l) ,petunidin-3-traras-p-coumaroylrutinoside-5-glucoside(2) ,4-(p-cumaroyl)-methyl-L-rhamnoside(3) ,p-coumarinic acid(4) ,ferulic acid(5),rutin(6) ,quercetin(7) ,protocatechuric acid(8) ,malvidin(9).Conclusion:Compound 1-9 are obtained from Ly-cium ruthenicum for the first time.

  12. Anti-Ulcerogenic Properties of Lycium chinense Mill Extracts against Ethanol-Induced Acute Gastric Lesion in Animal Models and Its Active Constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opeyemi J. Olatunji

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to explore the gastroprotective properties of the aerial part of Lycium chinense Mill (LCA against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa lesions in mice models. Administration of LCA at doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight prior to ethanol consumption dose dependently inhibited gastric ulcers. The gastric mucosal injury was analyzed by gastric juice acidity, glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD, malondialdehyde (MDA, myeloperoxidase (MPO activities. Furthermore, the levels of the inflammatory mediators, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and interleukin-1β (IL-1β in serum were also analyzed using ELISA. Pathological changes were also observed with the aid of hematoxylin-eosin (HE staining. Our results indicated that LCA significantly reduced the levels of MPO, MDA and increased SOD and GSH activities. Furthermore, LCA also significantly inhibited the levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in the serum of ulcerated mice in a dose dependent manner. Immunohistological analysis indicated that LCA also significantly attenuated the overexpression of nuclear factor-κB in pretreated mice models. This findings suggests Lycium chinense Mill possesses gastroprotective properties against ethanol-induced gastric injury and could be a possible therapeutic intervention in the treatment and management of gastric ulcers.

  13. Comparative Profiling of miRNAs and Target Gene Identification in Distant-Grafting between Tomato and Lycium (Goji Berry)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaldun, A. B. M.; Huang, Wenjun; Lv, Haiyan; Liao, Sihong; Zeng, Shaohua; Wang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Local translocation of small RNAs between cells is proved. Long distance translocation between rootstock and scion is also well documented in the homo-grafting system, but the process in distant-grafting is widely unexplored where rootstock and scion belonging to different genera. Micro RNAs are a class of small, endogenous, noncoding, gene silencing RNAs that regulate target genes of a wide range of important biological pathways in plants. In this study, tomato was grafted onto goji (Lycium chinense Mill.) to reveal the insight of miRNAs regulation and expression patterns within a distant-grafting system. Goji is an important traditional Chinese medicinal plant with enriched phytochemicals. Illumina sequencing technology has identified 68 evolutionary known miRNAs of 37 miRNA families. Moreover, 168 putative novel miRNAs were also identified. Compared with control tomato, 43 (11 known and 32 novels) and 163 (33 known and 130 novels) miRNAs were expressed significantly different in shoot and fruit of grafted tomato, respectively. The fruiting stage was identified as the most responsive in the distant-grafting approach and 123 miRNAs were found as up-regulating in the grafted fruit which is remarkably higher compare to the grafted shoot tip (28). Potential targets of differentially expressed miRNAs were found to be involved in diverse metabolic and regulatory pathways. ADP binding activities, molybdopterin synthase complex and RNA helicase activity were found as enriched terms in GO (Gene Ontology) analysis. Additionally, “metabolic pathways” was revealed as the most significant pathway in KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) analysis. The information of the small RNA transcriptomes that are obtained from this study might be the first miRNAs elucidation for a distant-grafting system, particularly between goji and tomato. The results from this study will provide the insights into the molecular aspects of miRNA-mediated regulation in the medicinal plant

  14. Comparative profiling of miRNAs and target gene identification in distant-grafting between tomato and Lycium (goji berry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A B M Khaldun

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Local translocation of small RNAs between cells is proved. Long distance translocation between rootstock and scion is also well documented in the homo-grafting system, but the process in distant-grafting is widely unexplored where rootstock and scion belonging to different genera. Micro RNAs are a class of small, endogenous, noncoding, gene silencing RNAs that regulate target genes of a wide range of important biological pathways in plants. In this study, tomato was grafted onto goji (Lycium chinense Mill. to reveal the insight of miRNAs regulation and expression patterns within a distant-grafting system. Goji is an important traditional Chinese medicinal plant with enriched phytochemicals. Illumina sequencing technology has identified 68 evolutionary known miRNAs of 37 miRNA families. Moreover, 168 putative novel miRNAs were also identified. Compared with control tomato, 43 (11 known and 32 novels and 163 (33 known and 130 novels miRNAs were expressed significantly different in shoot and fruit of grafted tomato, respectively. The fruiting stage was identified as the most responsive in the distant-grafting approach and 123 miRNAs were found as up-regulating in the grafted fruit which is remarkably higher compare to the grafted shoot tip (28. Potential targets of differentially expressed miRNAs were found to be involved in diverse metabolic and regulatory pathways. ADP binding activities, molybdopterin synthase complex and RNA helicase activity were found as enriched terms in GO (Gene Ontology analysis. Additionally, ‘metabolic pathways’ was revealed as the most significant pathway in KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis. The information of the small RNA transcriptomes that are obtained from this study might be the first miRNAs elucidation for a distant-grafting system, particularly between goji and tomato. The results from this study will provide the insights into the molecular aspects of miRNA-mediated regulation in the

  15. Characterization of Polyphenols from Lycium ruthenicum Fruit by UPLC-Q-TOF/MS(E) and Their Antioxidant Activity in Caco-2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Lv, Haiyang; Wang, Fengzhong; Wang, Yi

    2016-03-23

    The fruit of Lycium ruthenicum Murr. (LRF) has long been used in folk medicine. Nevertheless, detailed information related to its polyphenol compositions remains scarce. In this study, we confirmed that the total phenolic and anthocyanin contents of LRF fruit extracts (LRFEs) were 4906.5 ± 60.6 mg of gallic acid equivalents/100 g DW and 787.6 ± 34.1 mg of cyanindin-3-glucoside equivalents/100 g DW, respectively. A characterization of LRFEs was performed by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry using an MS(E) data acquisition. A total of 26 polyphenols were tentatively identified, of which 19 represent the first reports of these polyphenols in LRFEs. Furthermore, the cellular antioxidant array showed that LRFEs could protect Caco-2 cells against H2O2-induced oxidative damage based on microscopic fluorometric imaging.

  16. Study on anti-aging effect of Lycium ruthenicum Murr.%黑果枸杞抗衰老作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田磊; 蒋宝平; 樊晓峰

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of Lycium ruthenicum Murr. on the learning,memory and antioxi-dant ability of aging mice induced by D-galactose. Methods Aging model was induced by subcutaneously injecting mice with D-galactose. At 6 weeks after administration of aqueous extract of Lycium ruthenicum Murr.,the water maze was used to determine the function of learning and memory,the analytic kit was used to measure the activity of super-oxide dismutase ( SOD),the contents of malondialdehyde ( MDA) and lipid peroxidation ( LPO) in brain of mice,as well as the activity of SOD,the contents of MDA and glutathione peroxidase ( GSH-Px) in serum of mice. Results Lycium ruthenicum Murr. could reduce the escape latency,swimming total path,shorten the time in the near station,sig-nificantly shorten the time and swimming path in the distant station area to stay,increase the residence swimming path in the area close to the table and the average swimming speed of aging model mice in a water maze. Besides,it could reduce MDA content and increase GSH-Px content and SOD activity in serum,increase SOD activity and reduce LPO and MDA contents in brain (P<0. 05,P<0. 01). Conclusion Lycium ruthenicum Murr. has anti-aging effect on ag-ing model mice,and the mechanism may be related to improving learning and memory and enhancing antioxidant ability in aging mice.%目的 观察黑果枸杞对D-半乳糖诱导的小鼠衰老模型的学习记忆力及抗氧化能力的影响. 方法 注射5% D-半乳糖制备小鼠衰老模型,灌胃给予黑果枸杞6周后,水迷宫法测定模型小鼠的空间学习记忆能力,试剂盒法测定脑中丙二醛(MDA)、过氧化脂质(LPO)含量及超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活力,以及血清中谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶( GSH-Px)、MDA含量及SOD活力. 结果 黑果枸杞能缩短衰老模型小鼠在水迷宫的逃避潜伏期、游泳总路程、近台区停留时间、远台区停留时间、远台区游泳路程,增加衰老小鼠平均游泳速度

  17. 枸杞多糖对肥胖大鼠肾脏的保护作用及机制的初步研究%Study on the Protective Effect of Lycium Barbarum Polysaccharide (LBP) on Kidney and Its Mechanism in Obese Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈武; 马卫成; 徐锦龙; 徐爱仁

    2013-01-01

    Object we: To investigate the protective effect of kidney and mechanism of LBP in obese rats. Methods: LBP continuous gavage for 12 weeks in obese rats,then serum levels of TC,TG,HDL,LDL,FBG,FINS,Cr,BUN and kidney LDL, Ox — LDL were all determined, and the ISI was calculated. Results: LBP could lower lipid and blood glucose, and improve insulin resistance, improve kidney function, reduce the role of the kidney tissue LDL and Ox - LDL. Conclusion: LBP had a protective role for kidney in obese rats and its mechanism might be associated with reducing kidney tissues of Ox - LDL.%目的:探讨枸杞多糖对肥胖大鼠肾脏的保护作用及其机制.方法:制备肥胖大鼠模型,枸杞多糖连续灌胃12周,测定血清TC、TG、HDL、LDL、FBG、FINS、Cr、BUN及肾脏LDL与Ox-LDL,并计算ISI.结果:枸杞多糖具有降脂、降糖、改善胰岛素抵抗、改善肾功能、降低肾脏组织LDL与Ox-LDL的作用.结论:枸杞多糖对肥胖大鼠肾脏具有一定的保护作用,其机制可能与减少肾脏组织Ox-LDL有一定的关系.

  18. Effects of Lycium Barbarum Polysaccharides on Blood Pressures and Fetus Development of Hypertensive Pregnant Mice%枸杞多糖对实验性高血压妊娠小鼠血压和胎鼠发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘正军; 张晓蕾; 周建武; 王建成

    2009-01-01

    目的:检测枸杞多糖对实验性高血压妊娠小鼠血压和胎鼠发育的影响.方法:提取宁夏枸杞多糖;冷刺激诱导建立孕小鼠高血压模型.将小鼠分为5组:正常妊娠对照组(A组)、冷刺激妊娠组(模型组,B组)、冷刺激+不同浓度多糖组(实验组,C-E组).C、D、E组分别灌胃给予枸杞多糖5 mg/kg、10mg/kg、20mg/kg,qd×18 d;A组、B组相应地给予等量生理盐水,连续饲养18 d.妊娠小鼠颈动脉插管记录血压,剖宫检测胎盘、胎鼠重,全长、体长.结果:B组血压显著高于A组(P0.05).B组胎盘、胎鼠重,全长、体长显著低于A组(P0.05).结论:枸杞多糖对实验性高血压妊娠小鼠有降低血压、保护胎儿发育的作用.

  19. The Aphrodisiac Effect of Honey-Lycium Barbarum-Tomato Juice in D-galactose Induced Aging Mice Models%蜂蜜枸杞番茄汁对D-半乳糖所致衰老小鼠的壮阳作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈有军; 孙秀婷; 严群超; 刘均

    2016-01-01

    目的 研究蜂蜜枸杞番茄汁对D-半乳糖所致衰老小鼠的壮阳作用.方法 取NIH小鼠50只随机分为对照组、模型组、蜂蜜枸杞番茄汁高(24.804 g/kg)、中(12.402 g/kg)、低(6.201 g/kg)剂量组,分别灌胃给样40 d.考察蜂蜜枸杞番茄汁对D-半乳糖衰老模型小鼠血清中丙二醛(MDA)水平、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性、血清和睾丸组织中睾酮水平、精液乳酸脱氢酶(LDH)水平以及精子活动率的影响.结果 模型组小鼠血清中MDA水平高于对照组,血清中SOD活性、血清及睾丸中睾酮水平、精囊腺中LDH水平及精子活动率低于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);蜂蜜枸杞番茄汁高剂量组小鼠血清中睾酮水平高于模型组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);蜂蜜枸杞番茄汁中剂量组小鼠血清中MDA水平低于模型组,SOD活性高于模型组,精囊腺中LDH水平及精子活动率高于模型组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);蜂蜜枸杞番茄汁低剂量组小鼠血清中SOD活性、血清及睾丸中睾酮水平、精囊腺中精子活动率高于模型组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 蜂蜜枸杞番茄汁对D-半乳糖所致衰老小鼠具有壮阳作用.

  20. Berberine and a Berberis lycium extract inactivate Cdc25A and induce {alpha}-tubulin acetylation that correlate with HL-60 cell cycle inhibition and apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Musa [Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad (Pakistan); Institute of Clinical Pathology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14 (Austria); Giessrigl, Benedikt; Vonach, Caroline; Madlener, Sibylle [Institute of Clinical Pathology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Prinz, Sonja [Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14 (Austria); Herbaceck, Irene; Hoelzl, Christine [Department of Medicine I, Institute of Cancer Research, Medical University of Vienna, Borschkegasse 8a (Austria); Bauer, Sabine; Viola, Katharina [Institute of Clinical Pathology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Mikulits, Wolfgang [Department of Medicine I, Institute of Cancer Research, Medical University of Vienna, Borschkegasse 8a (Austria); Quereshi, Rizwana Aleem [Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad (Pakistan); Knasmueller, Siegfried; Grusch, Michael [Department of Medicine I, Institute of Cancer Research, Medical University of Vienna, Borschkegasse 8a (Austria); Kopp, Brigitte [Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14 (Austria); Krupitza, Georg, E-mail: georg.krupitza@meduniwien.ac.at [Institute of Clinical Pathology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2010-01-05

    Berberis lycium Royle (Berberidacea) from Pakistan and its alkaloids berberine and palmatine have been reported to possess beneficial pharmacological properties. In the present study, the anti-neoplastic activities of different B. lycium root extracts and the major constituting alkaloids, berberine and palmatine were investigated in p53-deficient HL-60 cells. The strongest growth inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effects were found in the n-butanol (BuOH) extract followed by the ethyl acetate (EtOAc)-, and the water (H{sub 2}O) extract. The chemical composition of the BuOH extract was analyzed by TLC and quantified by HPLC. 11.1 {mu}g BuOH extract (that was gained from 1 mg dried root) contained 2.0 {mu}g berberine and 0.3 {mu}g/ml palmatine. 1.2 {mu}g/ml berberine inhibited cell proliferation significantly, while 0.5 {mu}g/ml palmatine had no effect. Berberine and the BuOH extract caused accumulation of HL-60 cells in S-phase. This was preceded by a strong activation of Chk2, phosphorylation and degradation of Cdc25A, and the subsequent inactivation of Cdc2 (CDK1). Furthermore, berberine and the extract inhibited the expression of the proto-oncogene cyclin D1. Berberine and the BuOH extract induced the acetylation of {alpha}-tubulin and this correlated with the induction of apoptosis. The data demonstrate that berberine is a potent anti-neoplastic compound that acts via anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic mechanisms independent of genotoxicity.

  1. Voltammetric determination of antioxidant character in Berberis lycium Royel, Zanthoxylum armatum and Morus nigra Linn plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Safeer; Shakeel, Faria

    2012-07-01

    The antioxidant activity potential of three different plant extracts was investigated against superoxide anion radical while employing cyclic voltammetry technique. The plants Berberis lyceum Royle, Morus nigra Linn and Zanthoxylum armatum were selected because of their potential use in the traditional medicine. The voltammetric response of the electrochemically generated superoxide anion radial in DMSO was monitored in the absence and presence of the plat extracts. The decrease in the current was interpreted in terms of antiradical activity of the added extract. The thermodynamic feasibility of the radical scavenging by extracts was accounted in terms of antioxidant activity coefficient (K(ao)) and standard Gibbs free energy (ΔG(o)). The values of K(ao) and ΔG(o) ranged from 1.0 x 102 to 57 x 102 L(-1) and -18 to -27 kJmol(-1), respectively. The possible mechanism of the antioxidant reaction was regarded as E(r)C(i) mechanism i.e. reversible electron transfer followed by hydrogen atom transfer- an irreversible chemical reaction.

  2. Molecular cloning and identification of a flavanone 3-hydroxylase gene from Lycium chinense, and its overexpression enhances drought stress in tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xinyu; Diao, Jinjin; Ji, Jing; Wang, Gang; Guan, Chunfeng; Jin, Chao; Wang, Yurong

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids, as plant secondary metabolites, are widespread throughout the plant kingdom and involved in many physiological and biochemical processes. Drought resistance is attributed to flavonoids with respect to protective functions in the cell wall and membranes. The flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H) gene which encodes flavanone 3-hydroxylase, is essential in flavonoids biosynthetic pathway. Lycium chinense (L. chinense) is a deciduous woody perennial halophyte that grows under a large variety of environmental conditions and survives under extreme drought stress. A novel cDNA sequence coding a F3H gene in Lycium chinense (LcF3H, GenBank: KJ636468.1) was isolated. The open reading frame of LcF3H comprised 1101 bp encoding a polypeptide of 366 amino acids with a molecular weight of about 42 kDa and an isoelectric point of 5.32. The deduced LcF3H protein showed high identities with other plant F3Hs, and the conserved motifs were found in LcF3H at similar positions like other F3Hs. The recombinant protein converted naringen into dihydrokaempferol in vitro. Since studies have shown that amongst flavonoids, flavan-3-ols (catechin and epicatechin) have direct free radical scavenging activity to maintain the normal physiological function of cells in vivo, these data support the possible relationship between the oxidative damage and the regulation of LcF3H gene expression in L. chinense under drought stress. In order to better understand the biotechnological potential of LcF3H, gene overexpression was conducted in tobacco. The content of flavan-3-ols and the tolerance to drought stress were increased in LcF3H overexpressing tobacco. Analysis of transgenic tobacco lines also showed that antioxidant enzyme activities were increased meanwhile the malondialdehyde (MDA) content and the content of H2O2 were reduced comparing to nontransformed tobacco plants. Furthermore, the photosynthesis rate was less decreased in the transgenetic plants. These results suggest that LcF3H

  3. LcMKK, a MAPK kinase from Lycium chinense, confers cadmium tolerance in transgenic tobacco by transcriptional upregulation of ethylene responsive transcription factor gene

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CHUNFENG GUAN; JING JI; XIAOZHOU LI; CHAO JIN; GANG WANG

    2016-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic element to plants. Ethylene is an important phytohormone in the regulation of plant growth, development and stress response. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation has been observed in plants exposed to Cd stress and was suggested to be involved in ethylene biosynthesis. We hypothesized that there may be a link between MAPK cascades and ethylene signalling in Cd-stressed plants. To test this hypothesis, the expression of LcMKK, LchERF and LcGSH1 genes, endogenous ethylene accumulation, GSH content and Cd concentration in Lycium chinense with or without Cd stress treatment were studied. Our results showed that LcMKK gene expression can be induced by the treatment of Cd in L. chinense. The transgenic tobacco expressing 35S::LcMKK showed greater tolerance to Cd stress and enhanced expression of NtERF and NtGSH1 genes, indicating that LcMKK is associated with the enhanced expression level of ERF and GSH synthesis-related genes in tobacco. We also found that endogenous ethylene and GSH content can be induced by Cd stress inL. chinense, and inhibited by cotreatment with PD98059, an inhibitor of MAPK kinase. Evidences presented here suggest that under Cd stress, GSH accumulation occurred at least partially by enhanced LcMKK gene expression and the ethylene signal transduction pathways might be involved in this accumulation.

  4. [Effect of lycium bararum polysaccharides on angiotensin II-induced senescence of human umbilical vein endothelial cells and expressions of P53 and P16].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ling; Wang, Xue-ni; Liu, Ze; Wang, Lu-ni; Wu, Jun; Wang, Wei; Feng, Ju-xiang

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the role of lycium bararum polysaccharides (LBP) on angiotensin II (AngII)-induced senescence of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and expressions of P53 and P16 and explore the mechanism of LBP against aging. HUVECs cultured in vitro were stimulated with 1×10(-6) mmol/L AngII to induce cell senescence, which was identified using β-gal staining. Flow cytometry was used for analyzing the cell cycle changes, and the cell viability was assessed using CCK-8 method. Western blotting was employed to detect the expression of P53 and P16 in the exposed cells. Compared with the control cells, the cells positive for β-gal staining was significantly increased in AngII group, and showed cell cycle arrest at G(0)/G(1) phase with decreased S-phase cell percentage and cell viability. The expression levels of P53 and P16 were significantly increased in the cells with AngII exposure (PP16 (P<0.05). LBP can delay AngII-induced aging of HUVECs possibly by down-regulating the expression of P53 and P15.

  5. Chemical composition of Lycium europaeum fruit oil obtained by supercritical CO2 extraction and evaluation of its antioxidant activity, cytotoxicity and cell absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Antonella; Maxia, Andrea; Putzu, Danilo; Atzeri, Angela; Era, Benedetta; Fais, Antonella; Sanna, Cinzia; Piras, Alessandra

    2017-09-01

    We studied the total phenols and flavonoids, liposoluble antioxidants, fatty acid and triacylglycerol profiles, and oxidative status of oil obtained from Lycium europaeum fruits following supercritical CO2 extraction (at 30MPa and 40°C). Linoleic (52%), palmitic (18%), oleic (13%), and α-linolenic (6%) were the main oil fatty acids, while trilinolein and palmitodilinolein/oleodilinolein represented the main triacylglycerols. The oil was characterized by high levels of all-trans-zeaxanthin and all-trans-β-carotene (755 and 332μg/g of oil, respectively), α-tocopherol (308μg/g of oil), total phenols (13.6mg gallic acid equivalents/g of oil), and total flavonoids (6.8mg quercetin equivalents/g of oil). The oil showed radical scavenging activities (ABTS and DPPH assays) and inhibited Caco-2 cell growth. Moreover, the incubation of differentiated Caco-2 cells with a non-toxic oil concentration (100μg/mL) induced a significant intracellular accumulation of essential fatty acids. The results qualify L. europaeum oil as a potential source for food/pharmaceutical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Lycium chinensis Mill attenuates glutamate induced oxidative toxicity in PC12 cells by increasing antioxidant defense enzymes and down regulating ROS and Ca(2+) generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunji, Opeyemi J; Chen, Hongxia; Zhou, Yifeng

    2016-03-11

    Lycium chinensis Mill is a famous traditional Chinese medicine which displays several medicinal activities including antioxidant and neuroprotective activities. However, the mechanism of action towards the neuroprotective action has not been fully elucidated. This work was aimed at investigating the neuroprotective effects of L. chinensis Mill against glutamate-induced oxidative neurotoxicity in PC12 cells. Oxidative cell death was induced with 5mM glutamate in PC12 cells. Cell viability, LDH release, intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, GSH-Px, CAT and SOD antioxidant enzyme levels were measured. Our results indicated that pretreatment of PC12 cells with L. chinensis Mill extracts markedly attenuated the loss of cell viability, the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Ca(2+) overload, ROS generation, and cell apoptosis induced by glutamate toxicity. Furthermore, L. chinensis Mill extracts also significantly increased the levels of innate antioxidant enzymes GSH-Px, SOD and CAT in glutamate-induced PC12 cells. Conclusively, our results provided substantial evidence that L. chinensis Mill protected PC12 cells against glutamate-induced cell death by attenuating ROS generation, Ca(2+) influx, and increased the antioxidant defense capacity of PC12 cells against oxidative stress damages, suggesting the possible potential of extracts from the plant as sources of bioactive molecules in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders.

  7. Determination of Antioxidant and Lipid-lowering Ingredients in Flavonoids of Lycium Ruthenicum Murr. leaf%黑果枸杞叶总黄酮抗氧化和降血脂成分测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕海英; 林丽; 潘云; 李淑珍; 李志成

    2012-01-01

    黄酮类化合物属于植物次生代谢产物,具有多种生物活性。其中一些兼有抗氧化和降血脂作用,对预防动脉粥样硬化具有广阔的应用前景。本实验以黑果枸杞(LyciumruthenicumMurr.)叶为材料,从中提取叶总黄酮,利用薄层层析和高效液相色谱法检测黑果枸杞叶总黄酮中的具有抗氧化和降血脂功能的化学成分。结果表明:其中包含有芦丁0.8870%、槲皮素0.0414%、木犀草素0.0411%、异鼠李素0.0258%和山奈素0.0448%,这5种黄酮成分总量为1.04%,占黑果枸杞叶总黄酮含量的37.14%。说明黑果枸杞叶总黄酮的抗氧化和降血脂活性可能是这5种黄酮成分发挥作用的结果。%Flavonoids are plant secondary metabolites, with a variety of biological activity. Some fal- conoid effected on both antioxidant and lipid--lowering, therefore, they have broad application prospects on the prevention of atherosclerosis. In this study, falconoid were extracted from the leaf of Lycium rutheni- cum Murr. and their antioxidant and lipid--lowering components were measured, using thin--layer chro- matography and high performance liquid chromatography. The results showed that. flavonoids in Lycium ruthenicum Murr. contained rutin of 0. 8870%, quercetin of 0. 0414%, luteolin of 0. 0411%, is or hamnet in of 0. 0258% and kaempferol of 0. 0448 %, the total amount of five falconoid was 1.04%, accounting for 37.14% of total falconoid in Lycium ruthenicum Murr. Antioxidant and lipid--lowering activity in fla- vonoids of Lycium ruthenicum Murr. Maybe the result of these five falconoid having played an effect.

  8. 黑果枸杞果醋发酵工艺研究%Study on Fermentation Technology of Lycium ruthenicum Murr. Vinegar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海魁; 刘雅琴

    2009-01-01

    [Objective]The study aimed to dicuss fermentation technology parameters of Lycium ruthenicum Murr.vinegar.[Method] Alcohol fermentation and acetic fermentation technology were studied using ofrthogonal test, and the best condition were confirmed. [Result] The study showed that the optimal fermentation technology of alcohol fermentation was sugar concentration of 15%,yeast inoculum of 0.1%,fermentation temperature of 30 ℃.The optimal fermentation technology of acetic fermentation was alcohol content of 10%,fermentation temperature of 30 ℃,shaker speed of 150 r/min. [Conclusion] The fruit vinegar had a good flavor with fruit aroma and was a kind of healthy fruit vinegar.%[目的]探讨黑果枸杞果醋发酵工艺参数.[方法]采用正交试验设计分别对酒精发酵和醋酸发酵工艺进行研究 ,确定了最优发酵条件.[结果]酒精发酵最佳工艺组合为:糖含量15%,酵母接种量0.1%,发酵温度30 ℃;醋酸发酵最佳工艺组合为:初始酒度10%,发酵温度30 ℃,摇床转速150 r/min.[结论]该条件下制得的黑果枸杞果醋风味纯正,具有水果香味,是一种价值较高的营养保健型果醋.

  9. Identification of microRNAs and target genes in the fruit and shoot tip of Lycium chinense: a traditional Chinese medicinal plant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A B M Khaldun

    Full Text Available Although Lycium chinense (goji berry is an important traditional Chinese medicinal plant, little genome information is available for this plant, particularly at the small-RNA level. Recent findings indicate that the evolutionary role of miRNAs is very important for a better understanding of gene regulation in different plant species. To elucidate small RNAs and their potential target genes in fruit and shoot tissues, high-throughput RNA sequencing technology was used followed by qRT-PCR and RLM 5'-RACE experiments. A total of 60 conserved miRNAs belonging to 31 families and 30 putative novel miRNAs were identified. A total of 62 significantly differentially expressed miRNAs were identified, of which 15 (14 known and 1 novel were shoot-specific, and 12 (7 known and 5 novel were fruit-specific. Additionally, 28 differentially expressed miRNAs were recorded as up-regulated in fruit tissues. The predicted potential targets were involved in a wide range of metabolic and regulatory pathways. GO (Gene Ontology enrichment analysis and the KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database revealed that "metabolic pathways" is the most significant pathway with respect to the rich factor and gene numbers. Moreover, five miRNAs were related to fruit maturation, lycopene biosynthesis and signaling pathways, which might be important for the further study of fruit molecular biology. This study is the first, to detect known and novel miRNAs, and their potential targets, of L. chinense. The data and findings that are presented here might be a good source for the functional genomic study of medicinal plants and for understanding the links among diversified biological pathways.

  10. Effect of Water Based Infusion of Aloe barbedensis, Pimpinella anisum, Berberis lycium, Trigonella foenum-graecum and Allium sativum on The Performance of Broiler Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazal Raziq, Sarzamin Khan*, Naila Chand, Asad Sultan, Muhammad Mushtaq, Rafiullah, Sayed Muhammad Suhail1 and Alam Zeb2

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Present study explored the potentials of medicinal plants (Aloe barbedensis, Pimpinella anisum, Berberis lycium, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Allium sativum mixture in broiler chicks at a ratio of 1:3:1:2:1, respectively. For this purpose 240 chicks were randomly assigned into four major groups, namely; A, B, C and D. Each group was further divided into two subgroups with three replicates of 10 chicks each. One of the subgroups was vaccinated against Newcastle disease (ND, Infectious bronchitis (IB and Infectious bursal disease (IBD according to locally adopted vaccination schedule keeping the other subgroup as non vaccinated control. Experimental birds in groups A, B, and C were provided with mentioned infusion @ 20, 10 and 5ml per liter of drinking water while group D was maintained as control. Relevant data were recorded throughout the experiment and or at the termination of the experiment and subjected to statistical analysis. Significantly low mean feed intake (3258.3g and better FCR (1.87 was recorded in group A. Other parameters like weight gain (1739.7g, antibody titer against ND (7.1, IBD (3300.5 and high density lipoprotein (71.6 g/dl were significantly increased in chicks from group A. Similarly, blood cholesterol (145.6 g/dl, triglyceride (145.8 g/dl and low density lipoprotein (57.5 g/dl were significantly reduced in group A. Overall vaccinated group had higher (P<0.05 antibody titer 7.2, 1796.2, 3202.8 against ND, IB and IBD, respectively compared to non-vaccinated group and had no influence on lipid profile. It was concluded that the infusion from the above plants in mentioned composition may not only be effectively used for improved broiler performance and better immunity but also to reduce the cholesterol level.

  11. Chemical constituents of endophytic fungi RER4 from Lycium ruthenicum%黑果枸杞内生真菌RER4化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨秀芳; 王鹏飞; 马养民

    2015-01-01

    根据形态学特征和ITS序列对分离自黑果枸杞根部的内生真菌RER4进行鉴定,结果该真菌鉴定为米曲霉(Aspergillus oryzae)。采用大米固体培养基对RER4进行发酵,利用多种色谱方法从乙酸乙酯提取物中分离纯化得到8个化合物,借助ESI‐MS、NMR等波谱技术鉴定其结构分别为:麦角甾醇(1)、尿黑酸内酯(2)、6‐柠檬酸甲酯(3)、琥珀酸(4)、1,5‐柠檬酸二甲酯(5)、赤薛醇(6)、甘露醇(7)、阿拉伯糖醇(8)。其中化合物尿黑酸内酯首次从米曲霉发酵物中分离得到。%The fungus strain RER4 isolated from the root of Lycium ruthenicum .Was identi‐fied as A spergillus oryz ae by its morphological characteristics and internal transcrised spacer (ITS) sequence analyses .Solid state fermentation was used to culture the endophytic fungi RER4 on the rice medium ,8 compounds were isolated and purified from the eyhyl acetate ex‐tract of endophytic fungi RER4 by various chromatographic methods and their structures were ergosterol ,5‐hydroxy‐benzofuran‐2 (3H )‐one ,3‐hydroxy‐3‐(methoxycarb onyl) pen‐tanedi‐oic acid ,succinic acid ,2‐hydroxy‐4‐methoxy‐2‐(2‐meth oxy‐2‐oxoethyl )‐4‐oxobutan‐oic acid ,erythritol ,mannitol ,adonitol by ESI‐MS and NMR .Among compound 5‐hydroxy‐benzofuran‐2(3H)‐one was firstly isolated from the medium of Aspergillus oryzae .

  12. The effects of exogenous antioxidant germanium (Ge) on seed germination and growth of Lycium ruthenicum Murr subjected to NaCl stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Hou, Long-yu; Li, Qing-mei; Jiang, Ze-ping; Liu, Duo; Zhu, Yan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present the results of a study on the effects of exogenous antioxidant germanium (Ge) on seed germination and seedling growth, and its role as a radical scavenger that regulates related enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT), under salt stress. Seeds were incubated in 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 mM NaCl to determine the salt tolerance of the Lycium ruthenicum Murr seedlings and from the results, the critical and ultimate salt concentrations were chosen for the next experiment. Subsequently, two treatments (seeds soaked in Ge and Ge added to salt) with four concentrations of GeO2 (0, 5, 10 and 20 μM) were used with the critical (150 mM) and ultimate salt concentrations (250 mM). The results demonstrated that salt alone inhibited seed germination significantly (≥150 mM) and reduced seedling growth (≥200 mM). The addition of exogenous Ge to the salt solution, as well as soaking the seeds in Ge, attenuated the salt stress effects in a manner dependent on the dose of Ge, as indicated by the increased percentage of seeds that germinated and improved seedling growth. The addition of Ge also showed a significant reversal of salt stress on the activities of antioxidant enzymes, with a decrease in SOD and POD activity, but an increase in CAT activity with 150 mM NaCl, and enhancement of SOD, POD and CAT with 250 mM NaCl. Correspondingly, the level of malondialdehyde was decreased significantly by each Ge treatment under salt stress. Further, for L. ruthenicum, adding 10 Ge and seeds soaked in 5 Ge were the most effective treatments. To our knowledge, this is the first report to show the protective effects of exogenous Ge against salt-induced oxidative damage in L. ruthenicum seed germination and seedling growth. Thus, L. ruthenicum can be used in areas with salty soil and Ge can promote the plants' salt tolerance.

  13. 枸杞色素抑制脂多糖致大鼠葡萄膜炎作用与机制的研究%Study on inhibitory effect of lycium pigment on lipopolysaccharide-induced uveitis in rats and its mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晋; 赵飞飞; 白双; 郑婕; 郑萍; 戴贵东

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the inhibitory effect of lycium pigment on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced uveitis in rats and its mechanism.Method:The rat uveitis model was established by 30-day oral administration of lycium pigment (50,100,200 mg · kg-1) and footpad injection of LPS.Ocular tissues were collected for a histopathological inspection.The protein,nitric oxide and ADMA in aqueous humor,level of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in retina,activities of serum total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC),superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX),and content of malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined by using Western blot,ELISA and biochemical methods.Result:According to the pathological study,lycium pigment (50,100,200 mg · kg-1) could notably reduce the inflammatory cell infiltration around corpus ciliare matrix of uveitis rats,and the concentration of protein and nitric oxide,and increased ADMA in aqueous humor.Lycium pigment (100,200 mg· kg-1) could significantly inhibit the expression of iNOS in ocular tissues.In addition,lycium pigment (100,200 mg · kg-1) also decrease the activities of serum T-AOC,SOD,GSH-PX,and the content of lipid peroxide MDA.Conclusion:Lycium pigment has the inhibitory effect on LPS-induced uveitis in rats.Its mechanism is related to the regulation of nitric oxide/ADMA pathway and the improvement of oxidation resistance.%目的:探讨枸杞色素(lycium pigment)抑制脂多糖(LPS)致大鼠葡萄膜炎的作用及其机制.方法:枸杞色素(50,100,200 mg·kg-1)灌胃给药30 d后,足跖注射LPS建立大鼠葡萄膜炎模型.眼组织进行病理学检测;房水蛋白、一氧化氮和非对称性二甲基精氨酸(ADMA),眼组织诱导型一氧化氮合酶(iNOS)以及血清总抗氧化能力(T-AOC)、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GSH-PX)和脂质过氧化物丙二醛(MDA)分别采用Western blot、酶联免疫(ELISA)和生物化学等方法进行测定.结果:病理

  14. A Study on Relativity Between Dielectric Properties of Lycium Chinense and Storage Period%枸杞果实介电特性与贮藏时间相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓龙; 康宁波; 李丹; 刘晓丽; 贾永华; 李锋; 王永忠; 潘志广

    2015-01-01

    The correlation analyse were used to research the relation between electrical properties and test frequency of Lycium chinense varieties .Then , it were also be used to research the relation between electrical properties and storage time.it found the well-kept foundation for research the relation between electrical properties and internal quality of ly -cium chinense.The result showed:The electrical properties changed regularly with test frequency.The complex impendence,inductance, resistance decreased with the increase of test frequency .It showed some difference only in the stage of low frequency among Lycium chinense varieties .The complex impendence , resistance , loss factor were positively correlated with storage time .Capacity , dielectric constant wew negative correlated with storage time .At the same time , capacity , dielectric constant , loss factor showed a big difference among varieties when it been storaged .%研究了不同枸杞品种果实介电参数与测定频率、贮藏时间的相关性,并就此相关性进行了探讨,为下一步研究枸杞果实介电参数与内部品质间的相关性打下良好理论基础。研究结果表明:枸杞果实介电参数值会随测试频率的增加而呈规律性变化,阻抗Z、电感 L、电阻R 值随测试频率的增加而减小;在全频率段,各处理组介电参数值无明显差异性,其显著差异性主要表现在低频阶段。3.98 MHz 频率下,阻抗 Z、电阻 R、介质损耗因子ε″与贮藏时间线性正相关,电容C、介电常数ε′与贮藏时间线性负相关。各枸杞品种的电容 C、介电常数ε′、介质损耗因子ε″随贮藏时间的变化值均存在显著差异性。

  15. Anti-inflammatory Activity of Berry Fruits in Mice Model of Inflammation is Based on Oxidative Stress Modulation

    OpenAIRE

    Nardi,Geisson Marcos; Farias Januario, Adriana Graziele; Freire, Cassio Geremia; Megiolaro, Fernanda; Schneider, Kétlin; Perazzoli, Marlene Raimunda Andreola; Do Nascimento, Scheley Raap; Gon, Ana Cristina; Mariano, Luísa Nathália Bolda; Wagner, Glauber; Niero, Rivaldo; Locatelli, Claudriana

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many fruits have been used as nutraceuticals because the presence of bioactive molecules that play biological activities. Objective: The present study was designed to compare the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of methanolic extracts of Lycium barbarum (GOJI), Vaccinium macrocarpon (CRAN) and Vaccinium myrtillus (BLUE). Materials and Methods: Mices were treated with extracts (50 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.), twice a day through 10 days. Phytochemical analysis was performed by hi...

  16. High-performance liquid chromatography separation of cis-trans anthocyanin isomers from wild Lycium ruthenicum Murr. employing a mixed-mode reversed-phase/strong anion-exchange stationary phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hongli; Liu, Yanfang; Guo, Zhimou; Yang, Fan; Wang, Jixia; Li, Xiaolong; Peng, Xiaojun; Liang, Xinmiao

    2015-01-21

    The cis-trans isomerism is a common phenomenon for acylated anthocyanins. Nevertheless, few studies reported effective methods for the preparation of isomeric anthocyanins from natural products. In this work, a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to efficiently purify anthocyanin isomers from Lycium ruthenicum Murr. based on a mixed-mode reversed-phase/strong anion-exchange column (named XCharge C8SAX). Four commercially available columns were evaluated with a pair of isomeric anthocyanins, and the results demonstrated that the XCharge C8SAX column exhibited improved selectivity and column efficiency for the isomers. The chromatographic parameters, including pH, organic content, and ionic strength, were investigated. Optimal separation quality for the anthocyanin isomers was achieved on the XCharge C8SAX column. Six pure anthocyanins, including two pairs of cis-trans isomeric anthocyanins with one new anthocyanin, were purified from L. ruthenicum and identified. All of the results indicated that this method is an effective way to separate anthocyanins, especially for cis-trans isomers.

  17. Microbial Biodiversity in Rhizosphere ofLycium bararumL. Relative to Cultivation History%不同种植年限宁夏枸杞根际微生物多样性变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纳小凡; 郑国琦; 彭励; 雷川怡; 杨红艳; 马玉; 赵强; 石硕矾

    2016-01-01

    为了解长期人工种植枸杞根际土壤微生物的种群结构变化特征,利用Illumina MiSeq测序平台分别对种植5 a、10 a和15 a宁夏枸杞根际土壤微生物基因组总DNA中16S和18S rDNA基因的部分区域进行测序,经UPARSE pipeline和RDP classifier软件进行聚类分析和物种注释.结果表明,长期种植宁夏枸杞不会改变其根际土壤pH,但会导致根际土壤全磷、有效磷、全盐含量和电导率升高.测序结果表明,不同种植年限枸杞根际土壤细菌群落α多样性无显著变化,但真菌群落多样性在种植10 a枸杞中较种植5 a时显著降低(p<0.05),表明根际细菌群落多样性受种植年限影响较小.从门的分类水平看,酸杆菌门、放线菌门、拟杆菌门、厚壁菌门、绿弯菌门、泉古菌门、蓝菌门、芽单胞菌门、变形菌门以及真菌子囊菌门、担子菌门、接合菌门的比例在不同种植年限的枸杞根际土壤中显著改变(p<0.05).属水平的分析也表明,共有27个细菌属和16个真菌属的比例发生改变(p<0.05),这些结果表明枸杞根际土壤微生物群落组成受种植年限的影响更大.相关性分析结果表明,种植年限、土壤全磷及有效磷含量是影响枸杞根际微生物群落结构的主要因子.%The rhizosphere is a critical interface where exchange of substance takes place between plants roots and their surrounding soil. In the rhizosphere,interactions between the plant and soil microbes, though affected by a series of factors,such as physic-chemical properties of the rhizospheric soil,genotype of their host plant,can be beneficial to growth of the plant,the microbes or both. However,it is still not very clear how long-term cultivation ofLycium bararumL. would affect soil microbial community structure in the rhizosphere of the plant. Therefore,rhizospheric soil samples were collected fromLycium bararum L. fields different in cultivation history(5 a,10 a and 15 a)in a farm of

  18. 枸杞多糖的功能性及应用开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹东恢; 郭宏文

    2015-01-01

    枸杞多糖是枸杞的主要活性成分之一,近年来因其具有抗肿瘤和抗氧化等功能作用成为研究的热点。本文论述了枸杞多糖所具有的生物活性的研究进展,对枸杞多糖目前的研究中存在的问题及相关产业的开发进行探讨与展望。%As the major biological activity components, Lycium barbarum polysaccharides have attracted tremendous attentions due to their antitumor and immunoregulation functions. Current research progress in the structure characterization and biological activities of polysaccharides from Lycium barbarum are reviewed in this paper.Meanwhile, problems encountered during the investigations ofLycium barbarum polysaccharidesare also discussed, which will provide a useful guidance for future studies.

  19. Study on Natural Distribution and Biological Characteristics of Lycium ruthenicum in Yanqi Basin%焉耆盆地黑果枸杞自然分布特点及其生物特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何文革; 那松曹克图; 吾其尔; 吴春焕; 赵洁; 王瑛; 李玉霞

    2015-01-01

    对新疆焉耆盆地黑果枸杞的自然分布及其生物特性进行了研究,结果表明:黑果枸杞是典型的根蘖类无性系植物,并兼具有性和无性两套繁殖系统,其自然分布涵盖了焉耆盆地平原荒漠和低地草甸2类8个亚类的草地类型,占盆地10个亚类草地类型的80%,并在农区广泛分布,为焉耆盆地的广布种;其根系由水平根和地下垂直茎以及季节性分生存在的不定根组成;其有性繁育系统为异交型,并具花的色泽变化和“两花两果”特性;其无性繁育由水平根以根蘖克隆的形式繁殖;其单体群落中看似独立的植株个体,却是由地下由水平根相连的一个有机“整体”,并具有相同的遗传基因;其植株具有夏眠及被掩埋后仍能存活并变性的特性。%Natural distribution and biological characteristics of Lycium ruthenicum in Xinjiang Yanqi Basin was studied.The results showed that Lycium ruthenicum was typical clonal plant which belonged to root sucker class,and had two sets of reproductive system,sexual and asexual.Its natural distribution covered 2 classes and 8 subclasses of the desert plains of Yanqi Basin and lowland meadow grassland types,accounting for 80%of the 10 subgenera grassland types in basin,and widely distributed in rural areas in Yanqi Basin.The root was composed of horizontal root and vertical underground stem and adventitious root which meristematic existed seasonal.The sexual breeding system were outcrossing,with flowers color change and "two flowers of two fruit" characteristics,the asexual breeding system reproduction by cloning root suckers with horizontal root.The monomer seemed independent individual plants in the community,but connected by underground horizontal root of an organic"whole",and had the same genetic. Plant with properties that after aestivation and buried still could survive and degeneration.

  20. Natural Distribution and Biological Characteristics of Lycium ruthenicum in Yanqi Basin of Xinjiang%新疆焉耆盆地黑果枸杞自然分布特点及其生物特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Natural distribution and biological characteristics of Lycium ruthenicum in Xinjiang Yanqi Ba-sin were studled. The results shows: Lycium ruthenicum is a typical clonal plant which belongs to root sucker class, and has two sets of reproductive system, sexual and asexual. Its natural distribution covers 2 classes and 8 subclasses of the desert plains of Yanqi basin and lowland meadow grassland types, ac-counting for 80% of the 10 subgenera grassland types in basin, and widely distributed in rural areas, in Yanqi Basin. The root is composed of horizontal root and vertical underground stem and adventitious root which meristematic existing seasonal; the sexual breeding system are outcrossing, with flowers color change and"two flowers of two fruit" characteristics, the asexual breeding system reproduction by cloning root suckers with horizontal root. The monomer seemingly independent individual plants in the communi-ty, but connected by underground horizontal root of an organic integrity, and have the same genetic. It has summer hibernation properties and can survive after buried.%对新疆焉耆盆地黑果枸杞的自然分布及其生物特性进行了研究。结果表明:黑果枸杞是典型的根蘖类无性系植物,并兼具有性和无性两套繁殖系统,其自然分布涵盖了焉耆盆地平原荒漠和低地草甸2类8个亚类的草地类型,占盆地10个亚类草地类型的80%,并在农区广泛分布,为焉耆盆地的广布种;其根系由水平根和地下垂直茎以及季节性分生存在的不定根组成;其有性繁育系统为异交型,并具花的色泽变化和“两花两果”特性;其无性繁育由水平根以根蘖克隆的形式繁殖;其单体群落中看似独立的植株个体,却是由地下由水平根相连的一个有机“整体”,并具有相同的遗传基因;其植株具有夏眠及被掩埋后仍能存活并变性的特性。

  1. Cloning and Expression Analysis of LmP5CS Gene from Lycium chinense Miller%枸杞LmP5CS基因的克隆及表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯远航; 王罡; 季静; 关春峰; 金超

    2013-01-01

    Proline is the important osmotic regulation substances in plants and plays a critical role in improving the stress tolerance of plants. The materials is Lycium chinense Miller, which proline content changes significantly after salt stress. After 1.5% NaCl stress, full length cDNA sequence of a putative Al-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase gene( P5CS) was cloned from Lycium chinense Miller leaves using RT-PCR and 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends ( RACE), named LmP5CS, and construct expression vector pH7m24GW, 3rc -LmP5CS. Sequence analysis showed that the complete open reading frame (ORF) of this gene is 2154 bp, encoding for a protein of 717 amino acids with an isoelectric point of 6.07 and a molecular weight of 77.5 kDa. After 200 mmol / L NaCl stress, protein expression level increased at first and decreased subsequently, proline content changed in accordance with that. The semi-quantitative PCR result suggests that LmP5CS plays an important role in proline content change responses to salt stress.%目的:为进一步研究枸杞抗逆境胁迫的机制,并为转基因育种,提供理论依据.提高农作物的抗逆性提供优质的基因资源.方法:提选取盐胁迫后脯氨酸含量变化较大的耐盐植物枸杞为材料,用1.5% NaCl处理后,提取枸杞叶片总RNA,利用RT-PCR及3′RACE方法克隆获得吡咯啉-5-羧酸合成酶(delta 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase,P5CS)基因的全长cDNA,命名为LmP5 CS,构建pH7m24GW,3 rc-LmP5 CS植物表达载体.结果:LmP5 CS基因的ORF长2 154 bp,编码1个等电点为6.07、分子量为77.5kDa、由717个氨基酸组成的蛋白.枸杞在200 mmol/LNaCl盐胁迫下,LmP5CS基因表达量随处理时间,有先升高后降低的趋势,9h基因表达量最高,脯氨酸含量变化与之一致.结论:LmP5 CS基因在盐胁迫下脯氨酸含量的变化中起关键作用.

  2. Positive feedback regulation of a Lycium chinense-derived VDE gene by drought-induced endogenous ABA, and over-expression of this VDE gene improve drought-induced photo-damage in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Chunfeng; Ji, Jing; Zhang, Xuqiang; Li, Xiaozhou; Jin, Chao; Guan, Wenzhu; Wang, Gang

    2015-03-01

    Violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE) plays an important role in protecting the photosynthetic apparatus from photo-damage by dissipating excessively absorbed light energy as heat, via the conversion of violaxanthin (V) to intermediate product antheraxanthin (A) and final product zeaxanthin (Z) under light stress. We have cloned a VDE gene (LcVDE) from Lycium chinense, a deciduous woody perennial halophyte, which can grow in a large variety of soil types. The amino acid sequence of LcVDE has high homology with VDEs in other plants. Under drought stress, relative expression of LcVDE and the de-epoxidation ratio (Z+0.5A)/(V+A+Z) increased rapidly, and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) also rose. Interestingly, these elevations induced by drought stress were reduced by the topical administration of abamine SG, a potent ABA inhibitor via inhibition of NCED in the ABA synthesis pathway. Until now, little has been done to explore the relationship between endogenous ABA and the expression of VDE genes. Since V serves as a common precursor for ABA, these data support the possible involvement of endogenous ABA in the positive feedback regulation of LcVDE gene expression in L. chinense under drought stress. Moreover, the LcVDE may be involved in modulating the level of photosynthesis damage caused by drought stress. Furthermore, the ratio of (Z+0.5A)/(V+A+Z) and NPQ increased more in transgenic Arabidopsis over-expressing LcVDE gene than the wild types under drought stress. The maximum quantum yield of primary photochemistry of PSII (Fv/Fm) in transgenic Arabidopsis decreased more slowly during the stressed period than that in wild types under the same conditions. Furthermore, transgenic Arabidopsis over-expressing LcVDE showed increased tolerance to drought stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Electronics and electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, George H

    1987-01-01

    Electronics and Electronic Systems explores the significant developments in the field of electronics and electronic devices. This book is organized into three parts encompassing 11 chapters that discuss the fundamental circuit theory and the principles of analog and digital electronics. This book deals first with the passive components of electronic systems, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors. These topics are followed by a discussion on the analysis of electronic circuits, which involves three ways, namely, the actual circuit, graphical techniques, and rule of thumb. The remaining p

  4. Adsorption Behavior of AB-8 Resin for Anthocyanins from Lycium ruthenicum Murray%AB-8大孔树脂吸附黑枸杞中花青素行为研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宏; 付燕秋; 韩静; 赵宇明; 刘栋

    2016-01-01

    通过平衡吸附实验、等温吸附实验及柱吸附实验,研究了黑枸杞中花青素在AB-8大孔树脂中的吸附行为及吸附机理。结果表明:AB-8大孔树脂对花青素的吸附可用Elovich动力学模型描述,且吸附符合Freundlich及Langmuir等温吸附模型,Freundlich模型的线性拟合性更好;此外,花青素的等温吸附焓变为正值且绝对值小于40 kJ/mol,吉布斯自由能为负值,熵变为正,说明吸附过程为多层物理吸附,吸附可自发进行;由粒子内部扩散模型和Boyd模型可知吸附机理很复杂,主要受粒子扩散的影响;Adams-Bohart模型分析表明,在柱吸附分离纯化花青素过程中,应减小流动相的流量和床层高度,增加花青素质量浓度。%The adsorption performance of AB-8 resin for anthocyanin from Lycium ruthenicum Murray and adsorption mechanism were analyzed by equilibrium adsorption experiment, isothermal adsorption experiment and column adsorption experiment. The results showed that the adsorption kinetics process of AB-8 resin for anthocyanin could well fit with Elovich kinetic model. The linear straight of regression displayed that the Freundlich model was more suitable. Moreover, the enthalpy changes were positive and the absolute value was less than 40 kJ/mol. This indicated the adsorptions of AB-8 resin for anthocyanins were endothermic and physical changes. The Gibbs free energy changes were negative. It indicated that the adsorption process occurred spontaneously. The positive value of entropy changes indicated the increased randomness during the adsorption process. The adsorption mechanism was complicated and the adsorption process was mainly affected by particle diffusion. Adams-Bohart model analysis showed that in the process of column adsorption purification anthocyanins, the flow of mobile phase and the bed height should be reduced and the quality of anthocyanin concentrations should be increased.

  5. 枸杞多糖的超滤分级及理化性质的研究%The physicochemical properties of lycium barbanan polysaccharide fractions obtained by ultrafiltration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张民; 唐秀丽; 王芳

    2013-01-01

    In order to explore the effect of separation methods on physicochemical properties of lycium barbanan polysaccharide (LBP) ,the LBP was separated by ultrafiltration membranes with different ranges of molecular weight,the physicochemical properties of fractions such as composition,micro shape and thermodynamic property were studied. Results showed that the molecular weight of fractions obtained by ultrafiltration were 2. 03 × 106 ( LBP - 8) ,3. 62 × 106 (LBP3-1),3.10 ×104 ( LBP1 -4). And the monosaccharide composition were fucose,rhamonose,arabi-nose,xylose,glucose,mannose and galactose,except that LBP1 - 4 with no rhamonose and LBP - 8 have no rhamonose or glucose. They were also different in content of total carbohydrate,uronic acid,protein,neutral sugar and micro shape and thermodynamic property.%探究了超滤法分离对枸杞多糖理化性质的影响.采用截留分子量不同的超滤膜分离枸杞多糖,检测各个组分的分子量范围、多糖组成、多糖形貌和热力学性质,探究超滤分级对枸杞多糖理化性质的影响.超滤方法可以实现枸杞多糖的分级分离,得到分子量大小分别为2.03×106(LBP-8),3.62×106(LBP3-1),3.10×104(LBPI-4)的多糖组分,主要有岩藻糖、鼠李糖、阿拉伯糖、木糖、葡萄糖、甘露糖和半乳糖组成,都不含有核糖,LBP1-4不含有鼠李糖,LBP-8不含鼠李糖和葡萄糖.其总糖含量、半乳糖醛酸含量、中性糖含量、蛋白质含量,多糖形貌和热力学性质均显示差异性.

  6. 枸杞对乳酸杆菌体外保存活力及体内定植的影响%Effects of Chinese wolfberry(Lycium chinense Mill.)on the preservation and colonization of Lactobacillus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞君

    2012-01-01

    To study the effects of Chinese wolfberry on the preservation and colonization of Lactobarillus. Preservation effect of Chinese wolf-berry on Lactobacillus cells were observed when MRS broth was supplemented with different concentration hydrolysate of Chinese wolfberry. Mice received orally antibiotics in the drinking water ad lib to induce microflora dysbiosis. On the sixth day, the mice cured by Lactobacillus or Lactobacillus combined Lycium chinense. After five days, indicator bacteria were counted to determine the effect Lydutn chinense on colonization of Lactobacillus. Cell grown on MRS containing hydrolysate of Chinese wolfberry showed a cell concentration is significantly higher than control group. Results demonstrated that the number of Lactobacillus was significantly higher in the feces of the mice fed Lactobacillus and Chinese wolfberry. Chinese wolfberry can promote the preservation and colonization of Lactobacillus.%研究了枸杞对乳酸杆菌保存和体内定植的影响.采用MRS液体培养基中添加不同浓度的枸杞水解产物,观察一个月内常温下培养基中乳酸杆菌活菌数的变化.实验小鼠用抗生素脱污染,导致菌群失调后,分别用单一乳酸杆菌治疗、乳酸杆菌与枸杞联合治疗5d后,统计不同治疗组中指示菌的变化,确定枸杞对乳酸杆菌在体内定植的影响.结果表明,添加不同体积分数的枸杞水解产物后,MRS液体培养基中乳酸杆菌的存活数高于对照组;实验小鼠用不同方式治疗后,联合治疗组乳酸杆菌的数量高于单一乳酸杆菌治疗组.枸杞对乳酸杆菌的保存及体内定植具有促进作用.

  7. 不同产地野生黑果枸杞资源果实多酚组成分析%The Polyphenols Composition of Lycium ruthenicum Murr. from Different Places

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫亚美; 戴国礼; 冉林武; 罗青; 李晓莺; 秦垦; 巫鹏举; 曾晓雄; 曹有龙

    2014-01-01

    [Objective] Lycium ruthenicum Murr. is grown in the northwest of China, and its fruits is used in medicinal foods for treatments of heart disease, abnormal menstruation and menopause. In the past few years, the polyphenols (especially anthocyanins) are proved to be the main effective components in Lycium ruthenicum Murr. Composition determination and evaluation of anthocyanin and other polyphenols of wild L. ruthenicum fruit in different origin, so as to provide the basis for the breeding and utilization of it.[Method]The contents of total polyphenols, total flavones and total anthocyanins were analyzed using spectrophotometer and the composition of the polyphenol extracts was analyzed using HPLC and HPLC-MS. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) was also used to classify the tested results.[Result]Total contents of polyphenols, flavones and anthocyanins of the L. ruthenicum Murr.s were 8.25-87.77 mg GAE·g-1 dry fruit, 18.03-60.44 mg RE·g-1 dry fruit, and 8.21-31.46 mg·g-1 dry fruit, respectively. The samples from Wutumeiren Gomud of Qinghai, Ganhezi of Xinjiang, Baluntai town of Xinjiang, and Helan12-1 of Ningxia had the higher value of total polyphenols, total flavones and total anthocyanins. Through HPLC-ESI-MS analysis, a total of 19 polyphenols were identified in the tested L. ruthenicum Murr, including 7 acylated anthocyanins, and petunidin-3-O-rutinoside (cis-p-coumaroyl)-5-O-glucoside was found to be the main anthocyanin in L. ruthenicum Murr. Twenty polyphenols were found in all kinds of L. ruthenicum Murr, while Petunidin-3-O-rutinoside (cis-p-coumaroyl)-5-O-glucoside was the main composition of the polyphenols in fruits of L. ruthenicum Murr. The polyphenols fingerprints of L. ruthenicum Murr. from 26 different places were similar, excluding a few of samples. The results of HCA according to the contents of polyphenols, flavones and anthocyanins in L. ruthenicum Murr. were clustered into7 kinds. In the sixth and seventh kinds, all the contents of

  8. 柴达木盆地不同盐生境下黑果枸杞形态结构比较%Morphological Structure Comparison of Lycium ruthenium at Different Salt Habitats in Qaidam Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛菊平; 朱春云

    2015-01-01

    对柴达木盆地5个盐生境的黑果枸杞进行了形态结构比较,探讨黑果枸杞为适应环境的响应。结果表明,不同盐分生境植株形态特征差异明显。全盐含量高、 K+含量高、 Cl-/SO42-毫克当量比大的氯化物-硫酸盐型土壤中植株高大,冠幅小而紧凑,叶片长条形,横切面圆形,高度肉质化,叶肉栅栏组织形成“环栅型”结构,叶脉不明显,无叶柄,枝刺尖利、坚硬;全盐含量低、 Na+含量高、 Cl-/SO42-毫克当量比值小的硫酸盐-氯化物型土壤中植株形态反之。但人工栽培后, K+为主, Cl-/SO42-毫克当量比大的硫酸盐-氯化物型土壤中植株较高,叶变为披针形,栅栏组织呈条形,叶脉明显,具短小叶柄,枝刺变长、变软。%For understanding the morphological structure changes of Lycium ruthenium to adapt to the environment , the plant morphological structure and soil salt of L.ruthenium which grew at 5 different environment was studied in Qaidam Basin.The results showed that the plant morphological characteristics under different saline environment were significantly different.The high salt content, high content of K+, Cl-/SO4 2-mEq ratio and chloride-sulfate in the soil plant tall, the crown was small and compact, the leaf shape was long and thin strip, the transver sesection was circular , leaves became highly succulent , palisade tissue in mesophyll was “ring fence” type structure , leaf veins were not obviously, no petiole, branches were sharp, hard branch spines; Low salt content, high content of Na+and small Cl-/SO4 2-mEq ratio, type of sulfate-chloride in soil , the plant was contrary to the above.How-ever, after artificial cultivation, in high content of K+, high Cl-/SO4 2-mEq ratio, type of sulfate-chloride in soil, the plant was higher, lanceolate leaf with white short nap, normal palisade tissue structure with obvious veins, short petiole, longer and

  9. 不同灌溉定额对枸杞光合特性及产量的影响%Effects of Different Irrigation Quota on Photosynthesis Characteristics and Yield of Lycium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李智; 尹娟; 郑艳军

    2016-01-01

    针对宁夏灌溉水资源紧缺的生产实际,以覆膜滴灌枸杞为研究对象,设置不同灌溉定额进行田间试验,研究了不同灌溉定额对枸杞光合特性及产量的影响。结果表明:①净光合速率日变化,低水分呈双峰型,高水分呈抛物线型;蒸腾速率日变化呈单峰型,不同水分处理的蒸腾速率峰值出现时间点不同;胞间CO2浓度随着灌水量的增加而降低;②灌溉定额2700 m3/hm2时叶绿素相对含量最大,为67.2,灌溉定额3600 m3/hm2时最小,为64;③灌溉定额2700 m3/hm2时产量最高,为10440 kg/hm2,灌溉定额3600 m3/hm2时产量最低,为7126.2kg/hm2,灌水量在一定范围内可增产,但超出2700 m3/hm2,产量与灌溉定额不呈正相关关系。%Aim at the production practice of irrigation water resources shortage in Ningxia.The study was conducted to research the effect of different irrigation quota on photosynthesis characteristics and yield of lycium.The results showed that:①the net photo-synthetic rate of the low and high water treatment respectively showed the double peak and parabola type;the transpiration rate vari-ation showed a single-peak curve,the peak value appeared at different time for different treatments;intercellular CO2 concentration decreased with soil water content threshold increased.②The minimum value of the chlorophyll relative content was 67.2,when the irrigation quota was 2700 m3/hm2 ,and the maximum value was 64,when the irrigation quota was 3 600 m3/hm2;③The optimal yield was 10 440 kg/hm2 ,when the irrigation quota was 2 700 m3/hm2 ,and the lowest yield was 7 126.2 kg/hm2 when the irrigation quota was 3 600 m3/hm2;the irrigation could increase yield,but the yield was not positively correlated with irrigation when the irri-gation amount was more than 2700 m3/hm2 .

  10. Application of Digupi in Toothache Treatment%小议地骨皮在治疗牙痛中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾晓娜; 张敏芬; 李江全

    2012-01-01

    Digupi is the dry velamen of solanaceae plant Lycium ( Lyciutn chinensis Mill. )or Lycium barbarum L. And it has been regarded as a taste of efficient Chinese traditional medicine to clear away deficiency-heat and remove bone-heat and hectic fever. In addition, Digupi can also effectively improve the symptoms of toothache, especially for those caused by wind-pathogen, dental caries or deficiency-fire. Pharmacological studies indicate that Digupi has analgesic and bacteriostatic action. According to the literature and modern pharmacology study reports, Digupi can be used in most common toothache and various dental pathological changes.%地骨皮为茄科植物枸杞Lycium chinensis Mill.或宁夏枸杞L.barbarumL.的干燥根皮,一直被视为清虚热、除骨蒸之佳品.此外,地骨皮还具有治疗牙痛的功效,针对风虫牙痛及虚火牙痛疗效尤佳.现代药理研究表明,地骨皮具有镇痛、抑菌等作用.根据文献和现代药理研究报道,地骨皮可用于治疗各型常见牙痛及多种牙痛变.

  11. Hard electronics; Hard electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In the fields of power conversion devices and broadcasting/communication amplifiers, high power, high frequency and low losses are desirable. Further, for electronic elements in aerospace/aeronautical/geothermal surveys, etc., heat resistance to 500degC is required. Devices which respond to such hard specifications are called hard electronic devices. However, with Si which is at the core of the present electronics, the specifications cannot fully be fulfilled because of the restrictions arising from physical values. Accordingly, taking up new device materials/structures necessary to construct hard electronics, technologies to develop these to a level of IC were examined and studied. They are a technology to make devices/IC of new semiconductors such as SiC, diamond, etc. which can handle higher temperature, higher power and higher frequency than Si and also is possible of reducing losses, a technology to make devices of hard semiconducter materials such as a vacuum microelectronics technology using ultra-micro/high-luminance electronic emitter using negative electron affinity which diamond, etc. have, a technology to make devices of oxides which have various electric properties, etc. 321 refs., 194 figs., 8 tabs.

  12. Electronic Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... New FDA Regulations Text Size: A A A Electronic Cigarettes Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery operated products designed ... more about: The latest news and events about electronic cigarettes on this FDA page Electronic cigarette basics ...

  13. The Electron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, George

    1972-01-01

    Electrons are elementary particles of atoms that revolve around and outside the nucleus and have a negative charge. This booklet discusses how electrons relate to electricity, some applications of electrons, electrons as waves, electrons in atoms and solids, the electron microscope, among other things.

  14. Hard electronics; Hard electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Hard material technologies were surveyed to establish the hard electronic technology which offers superior characteristics under hard operational or environmental conditions as compared with conventional Si devices. The following technologies were separately surveyed: (1) The device and integration technologies of wide gap hard semiconductors such as SiC, diamond and nitride, (2) The technology of hard semiconductor devices for vacuum micro- electronics technology, and (3) The technology of hard new material devices for oxides. The formation technology of oxide thin films made remarkable progress after discovery of oxide superconductor materials, resulting in development of an atomic layer growth method and mist deposition method. This leading research is expected to solve such issues difficult to be easily realized by current Si technology as high-power, high-frequency and low-loss devices in power electronics, high temperature-proof and radiation-proof devices in ultimate electronics, and high-speed and dense- integrated devices in information electronics. 432 refs., 136 figs., 15 tabs.

  15. Ambient Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Someya, Takao

    2012-10-01

    We report the recent research progress and future prospects of flexible and printed electronics, focusing on molecular electronic material-based thin-film transistors, which are expected to usher in a new era of electronics.

  16. Electron cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkov, I.; Sidorin, A.

    2004-10-01

    The brief review of the most significant and interesting achievements in electron cooling method, which took place during last two years, is presented. The description of the electron cooling facilities-storage rings and traps being in operation or under development-is given. The applications of the electron cooling method are considered. The following modern fields of the method development are discussed: crystalline beam formation, expansion into middle and high energy electron cooling (the Fermilab Recycler Electron Cooler, the BNL cooler-recuperator, cooling with circulating electron beam, the GSI project), electron cooling in traps, antihydrogen generation, electron cooling of positrons (the LEPTA project).

  17. Thioredoxin-interacting Protein as a Common Regulation Target for Multiple Drugs in Clinical Therapy/Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengxing Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Initially identified in HL60 cells treated with Vitamin D3, thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP is considered as a major redox regulator and a potential connector between cellular redox state and metabolism. TXNIP plays an important role in the control of glucose and lipid metabolism, and it has been defined as a tumor suppressor gene in various solid tumors and hematological malignancies. This review gives an overview of the mechanism of various medicines including Lycium barbarum polysaccharide, Quercetin, trans-resveratrol, metformin, purple sweet potato color, nobiletin, taurine, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, and Theophylline, and their potential applications in the clinical treatment of many diseases.

  18. Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Michael

    1980-01-01

    Reviews technical aspects of structure determination in biological electron microscopy (EM). Discusses low dose EM, low temperature microscopy, electron energy loss spectra, determination of mass or molecular weight, and EM of labeled systems. Cites 34 references. (CS)

  19. Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Michael

    1980-01-01

    Reviews technical aspects of structure determination in biological electron microscopy (EM). Discusses low dose EM, low temperature microscopy, electron energy loss spectra, determination of mass or molecular weight, and EM of labeled systems. Cites 34 references. (CS)

  20. Understand electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2013-01-01

    Understand Electronics provides a readable introduction to the exciting world of electronics for the student or enthusiast with little previous knowledge. The subject is treated with the minimum of mathematics and the book is extensively illustrated.This is an essential guide for the newcomer to electronics, and replaces the author's best-selling Beginner's Guide to Electronics.The step-by-step approach makes this book ideal for introductory courses such as the Intermediate GNVQ.

  1. Electronic components

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Components provides a basic grounding in the practical aspects of using and selecting electronics components. The book describes the basic requirements needed to start practical work on electronic equipment, resistors and potentiometers, capacitance, and inductors and transformers. The text discusses semiconductor devices such as diodes, thyristors and triacs, transistors and heat sinks, logic and linear integrated circuits (I.C.s) and electromechanical devices. Common abbreviations applied to components are provided. Constructors and electronics engineers will find the book useful

  2. Electronic Prescribing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Do you prescribe electronically?” For more information about electronic prescribing, call 1-800-MEDICARE (1-800-633- ... TTY users should call 1-877-486-2048 . Electronic eRx Prescribing I went to the pharmacy, and ...

  3. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, Harold D

    1971-01-01

    Basic Electronics is an elementary text designed for basic instruction in electricity and electronics. It gives emphasis on electronic emission and the vacuum tube and shows transistor circuits in parallel with electron tube circuits. This book also demonstrates how the transistor merely replaces the tube, with proper change of circuit constants as required. Many problems are presented at the end of each chapter. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and opens with an overview of electron theory, followed by a discussion on resistance, inductance, and capacitance, along with their effects on t

  4. Electronic Government and Electronic Participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tambouris, E.; Scholl, H.J.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.; Wimmer, M.A.; Tarabanis, K.; Gascó, M.; Klievink, A.J.; Lindgren, I.; Milano, M.; Panagiotopoulos, P.; Pardo, T.A.; Parycek, P.; Sæbø, O.

    2015-01-01

    Electronic government and electronic participation continue to transform the public sector and society worldwide and are constantly being transformed themselves by emerging information and communication technologies. This book presents papers from the 14th International Federation for Information P

  5. Electron Tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, Ane L; Rønde, Heidi S

    2013-01-01

    The photo shows a close-up of a Lichtenberg figure – popularly called an “electron tree” – produced in a cylinder of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Electron trees are created by irradiating a suitable insulating material, in this case PMMA, with an intense high energy electron beam. Upon discharge......, during dielectric breakdown in the material, the electrons generate branching chains of fractures on leaving the PMMA, producing the tree pattern seen. To be able to create electron trees with a clinical linear accelerator, one needs to access the primary electron beam used for photon treatments. We...... appropriated a linac that was being decommissioned in our department and dismantled the head to circumvent the target and ion chambers. This is one of 24 electron trees produced before we had to stop the fun and allow the rest of the accelerator to be disassembled....

  6. Electron Tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, Ane L; Rønde, Heidi S

    2013-01-01

    The photo shows a close-up of a Lichtenberg figure – popularly called an “electron tree” – produced in a cylinder of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Electron trees are created by irradiating a suitable insulating material, in this case PMMA, with an intense high energy electron beam. Upon discharge......, during dielectric breakdown in the material, the electrons generate branching chains of fractures on leaving the PMMA, producing the tree pattern seen. To be able to create electron trees with a clinical linear accelerator, one needs to access the primary electron beam used for photon treatments. We...... appropriated a linac that was being decommissioned in our department and dismantled the head to circumvent the target and ion chambers. This is one of 24 electron trees produced before we had to stop the fun and allow the rest of the accelerator to be disassembled....

  7. 新疆产药用植物黑果枸杞有性生殖产出差异的繁殖生态学研究%Reproductive Ecology Research on Populations of a Medicinal Plant (Lycium ruthenicum Murr.) from Xinjiang Reveals Factors Affecting Fruit Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿力同·其米克; 金晓芳; 叶忠铭; 王青锋; 陈进明; 杨春锋

    2014-01-01

    由于黑果枸杞(Lycium ruthenicum)果实具有重要的保健价值,近年来倍受关注,但其野生资源正遭受着前所未有的采伐压力.目前关于影响黑果枸杞果实产量的有性生殖过程研究较少,本实验对新疆库尔勒地区6个不同生境的野生黑果枸杞居群开展了繁殖生态学观察,并对各居群的访花频率、访花昆虫种类、柱头花粉落置、胚珠数、座果率、结实率和单株果实产量等指标进行了比较分析.结果表明,访花频率与结实率、座果率具有显著正相关关系,说明传粉者是限制黑果枸杞有性生殖的关键因素之一;传粉者种类越丰富的居群其有性生殖产出越高,揭示了传粉昆虫的多样性和丰富度是影响黑果枸杞繁殖成功的重要限制因子.此外,和静县华侨农场和焉耆县霍拉山河沟的黑果枸杞居群生殖产出明显与其传粉成功率相偏离,进一步分析表明,风沙侵蚀和人为采伐对植株的破坏是影响这两个居群果实产量的重要原因.本研究结果对于野生黑果枸杞居群的保护及其人工规模栽培提供了重要的参考依据.%Recently,Lycium ruthenicum attracted substantial attention due to the high value of its fruits to human health.As a result,the wild resources are at high risk of loss and detailed studies on the sexual reproductive ecology of this important medicinal plant should be conducted for better conservation.We investigated factors affecting reproductive output of the plant using six wild populations from Xinjiang.We compared differences in pollination frequency,pollinator composition,stigmatic pollen load,and ovule production among the populations,as well as correlations with reproductive output namely,fruit set,seed set and fruit production per plant.Results indicated that pollination frequency was significantly correlated with fruit set and seed set,and populations with high diversity in pollinator types had higher reproductive output

  8. Electronic Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Đerić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Electronic commerce can be defined in different ways. Any definition helps to understand and explain that concept as better as possible.. Electronic commerce is a set of procedures and technologies that automate the tasks of financial transactions using electronic means. Also, according to some authors, electronic commerce is defined as a new concept, which is being developed and which includes process of buying and selling or exchanging products, services or information via computer networks, including the Internet. Electronic commerce is not limited just to buying and selling, but it also includes all pre-sales and after-sales ongoing activities along the supply chain. Introducing electronic commerce, using the Internet and Web services in business, realizes the way to a completely new type of economy - internet economy.

  9. Micropower electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Keonjian, Edward

    1964-01-01

    Micropower Electronics deals with the operation of modern electronic equipment at micropower levels and the problems associated with micropower electronics. Topics covered include the relations between minimum required power density and frequency response for semiconductor triode amplifiers; physical realization of digital logic circuits; micropower microelectronic subsystems; and metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect devices for micropower logic circuitry. This book is comprised of 10 chapters and begins with an analysis of fundamental relationships and basic requirements pertinent to the ph

  10. Microfluidic electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shi; Wu, Zhigang

    2012-08-21

    Microfluidics, a field that has been well-established for several decades, has seen extensive applications in the areas of biology, chemistry, and medicine. However, it might be very hard to imagine how such soft microfluidic devices would be used in other areas, such as electronics, in which stiff, solid metals, insulators, and semiconductors have previously dominated. Very recently, things have radically changed. Taking advantage of native properties of microfluidics, advances in microfluidics-based electronics have shown great potential in numerous new appealing applications, e.g. bio-inspired devices, body-worn healthcare and medical sensing systems, and ergonomic units, in which conventional rigid, bulky electronics are facing insurmountable obstacles to fulfil the demand on comfortable user experience. Not only would the birth of microfluidic electronics contribute to both the microfluidics and electronics fields, but it may also shape the future of our daily life. Nevertheless, microfluidic electronics are still at a very early stage, and significant efforts in research and development are needed to advance this emerging field. The intention of this article is to review recent research outcomes in the field of microfluidic electronics, and address current technical challenges and issues. The outlook of future development in microfluidic electronic devices and systems, as well as new fabrication techniques, is also discussed. Moreover, the authors would like to inspire both the microfluidics and electronics communities to further exploit this newly-established field.

  11. Paper electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobjörk, Daniel; Österbacka, Ronald

    2011-05-03

    Paper is ubiquitous in everyday life and a truly low-cost substrate. The use of paper substrates could be extended even further, if electronic applications would be applied next to or below the printed graphics. However, applying electronics on paper is challenging. The paper surface is not only very rough compared to plastics, but is also porous. While this is detrimental for most electronic devices manufactured directly onto paper substrates, there are also approaches that are compatible with the rough and absorptive paper surface. In this review, recent advances and possibilities of these approaches are evaluated and the limitations of paper electronics are discussed.

  12. Electron holography

    CERN Document Server

    Tonomura, Akira

    1993-01-01

    Holography was devised for breaking through the resolution limit of electron microscopes The advent of a "coherent" field emission electron beam has enabled the use of Electron Holography in various areas of magnetic domain structures observation, fluxon observation in superconductors, and fundamental experiments in physics which have been inaccessible using other techniques After examining the fundamentals of electron holography and its applications to the afore mentioned fields, a detailed discussion of the Aharonov-Bohm effect and the related experiments is presented Many photographs and illustrations are included to elucidate the text

  13. Polymer electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Hsin-Fei, Meng

    2013-01-01

    Polymer semiconductor is the only semiconductor that can be processed in solution. Electronics made by these flexible materials have many advantages such as large-area solution process, low cost, and high performance. Researchers and companies are increasingly dedicating time and money in polymer electronics. This book focuses on the fundamental materials and device physics of polymer electronics. It describes polymer light-emitting diodes, polymer field-effect transistors, organic vertical transistors, polymer solar cells, and many applications based on polymer electronics. The book also disc

  14. Electronic Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Meredith Lindsay

    1995-01-01

    The main objective was to assist in the production of electronic images in the Electronic Photography Lab (EPL). The EPL is a new facility serving the electronic photographic needs of the Langley community. The purpose of the Electronic Photography lab is to provide Langley with access to digital imaging technology. Although the EPL has been in operation for less than one year, almost 1,000 images have been produced. The decision to establish the lab was made after careful determination of the centers needs for electronic photography. The LaRC community requires electronic photography for the production of electronic printing, Web sites, desktop publications, and its increased enhancement capabilities. In addition to general use, other considerations went into the planning of the EPL. For example, electronic photography is much less of a burden on the environment compared to conventional photography. Also, the possibilities of an on-line database and retrieval system could make locating past work more efficient. Finally, information in an electronic image is quantified, making measurements and calculations easier for the researcher.

  15. Electron Bifurcation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, John W.; Miller, Anne-Frances; Jones, Anne K.; King, Paul W.; Adams, Michael W. W.

    2016-04-01

    Electron bifurcation is the recently recognized third mechanism of biological energy conservation. It simultaneously couples exergonic and endergonic oxidation-reduction reactions to circumvent thermodynamic barriers and minimize free energy loss. Little is known about the details of how electron bifurcating enzymes function, but specifics are beginning to emerge for several bifurcating enzymes. To date, those characterized contain a collection of redox cofactors including flavins and iron-sulfur clusters. Here we discuss the current understanding of bifurcating enzymes and the mechanistic features required to reversibly partition multiple electrons from a single redox site into exergonic and endergonic electron transfer paths.

  16. Printed Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, John M. (Inventor); Lettow, John S. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Korkut, Sibel (Inventor); Chiang, Katherine S. (Inventor); Chen, Chuan-Hua (Inventor); Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Printed electronic device comprising a substrate onto at least one surface of which has been applied a layer of an electrically conductive ink comprising functionalized graphene sheets and at least one binder. A method of preparing printed electronic devices is further disclosed.

  17. Metabolic Signatures of Kidney Yang Deficiency Syndrome and Protective Effects of Two Herbal Extracts in Rats Using GC/TOF MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linjing Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Kidney Yang Deficiency Syndrome (KDS-Yang, a typical condition in Chinese medicine, shares similar clinical signs of the glucocorticoid withdrawal syndrome. To date, the underlying mechanism of KDS-Yang has been remained unclear, especially at the metabolic level. In this study, we report a metabolomic profiling study on a classical model of KDS-Yang in rats induced by hydrocortisone injection to characterize the metabolic transformation using gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry. WKY1, a polysaccharide extract from Astragalus membranaceus and Lycium barbarum, and WKY2, an aqueous extract from a similar formula containing Astragalus membranaceus, Lycium barbarum, Morinda officinalis, Taraxacum mongolicum, and Cinnamomum cassia presl, were used separately for protective treatments of KDS-Yang. The changes of serum metabolic profiles indicated that significant alterations of key metabolic pathways in response to abrupt hydrocortisone perturbation, including decreased energy metabolism (lactic acid, acetylcarnitine, lipid metabolism (free fatty acids, 1-monolinoleoylglycerol, and cholesterol, gut microbiota metabolism (indole-3-propionic acid, biosynthesis of catecholamine (norepinephrine, and elevated alanine metabolism, were attenuated or normalized with different degrees by the pretreatment of WKY1 or WKY2, which is consistent with the observations in which the two herbal agents could ameliorate biochemical markers of serum cortisone, adrenocorticotropic (ACTH, and urine 17-hydroxycorticosteroids (17-OHCS.

  18. Polysaccharides from wolfberry prevents corticosterone-induced inhibition of sexual behavior and increases neurogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benson Wui-Man Lau

    Full Text Available Lycium barbarum, commonly known as wolfberry, has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of infertility and sexual dysfunction. However, there is still a scarcity of experimental evidence to support the pro-sexual effect of wolfberry. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP on male sexual behavior of rats. Here we report that oral feeding of LBP for 21 days significantly improved the male copulatory performance including increase of copulatory efficiency, increase of ejaculation frequency and shortening of ejaculation latency. Furthermore, sexual inhibition caused by chronic corticosterone was prevented by LBP. Simultaneously, corticosterone suppressed neurogenesis in subventricular zone and hippocampus in adult rats, which could be reversed by LBP. The neurogenic effect of LBP was also shown in vitro. Significant correlation was found between neurogenesis and sexual performance, suggesting that the newborn neurons are associated with reproductive successfulness. Blocking neurogenesis in male rats abolished the pro-sexual effect of LBP. Taken together, these results demonstrate the pro-sexual effect of LBP on normal and sexually-inhibited rats, and LBP may modulate sexual behavior by regulating neurogenesis.

  19. Progress of Wolfberry Wine Nutritional Value and Health Functions%枸杞果酒的营养价值及保健功能的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵维芯; 蔡树东

    2016-01-01

    枸杞果酒作为一种饮品,不仅口感深受不同人群的喜欢,并且具有丰富的营养价值和良好的保健效果,本文主要针对枸杞果酒丰富的营养价值和保健功能进行综述,以期为新型枸杞果酒的研发及其功能因子的研发奠定一定的理论基础。%With the improvement of people’s living standards,today,health has become a central issue. Lycium barbarum wine as a beverage,is not only a beverage preferred by different group of people,but also has a wealth of good nutritional value and health effects. This paper focuses on reviews on the rich of nutritive value and health function in lycium barbarum fruit wine,in order to offer the theoretical basis for new medlar fruit wine research and detect functional factors.

  20. Electron optics

    CERN Document Server

    Grivet, Pierre; Bertein, F; Castaing, R; Gauzit, M; Septier, Albert L

    1972-01-01

    Electron Optics, Second English Edition, Part I: Optics is a 10-chapter book that begins by elucidating the fundamental features and basic techniques of electron optics, as well as the distribution of potential and field in electrostatic lenses. This book then explains the field distribution in magnetic lenses; the optical properties of electrostatic and magnetic lenses; and the similarities and differences between glass optics and electron optics. Subsequent chapters focus on lens defects; some electrostatic lenses and triode guns; and magnetic lens models. The strong focusing lenses and pris

  1. Electronic diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Diagrams is a ready reference and general guide to systems and circuit planning and in the preparation of diagrams for both newcomers and the more experienced. This book presents guidelines and logical procedures that the reader can follow and then be equipped to tackle large complex diagrams by recognition of characteristic 'building blocks' or 'black boxes'. The goal is to break down many of the barriers that often seem to deter students and laymen in learning the art of electronics, especially when they take up electronics as a spare time occupation. This text is comprised of nin

  2. Digital electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, John

    2013-01-01

    An essential companion to John C Morris's 'Analogue Electronics', this clear and accessible text is designed for electronics students, teachers and enthusiasts who already have a basic understanding of electronics, and who wish to develop their knowledge of digital techniques and applications. Employing a discovery-based approach, the author covers fundamental theory before going on to develop an appreciation of logic networks, integrated circuit applications and analogue-digital conversion. A section on digital fault finding and useful ic data sheets completes th

  3. Electronic identity

    CERN Document Server

    de Andrade, Norberto Nuno Gomes; Argles, David

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing availability of electronic services, security and a reliable means by which identity is verified is essential.Written by Norberto Andrade the first chapter of this book provides an overview of the main legal and regulatory aspects regarding electronic identity in Europe and assesses the importance of electronic identity for administration (public), business (private) and, above all, citizens. It also highlights the role of eID as a key enabler of the economy.In the second chapter Lisha Chen-Wilson, David Argles, Michele Schiano di Zenise and Gary Wills discuss the user-cent

  4. Stretchable electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Someya, Takao

    2012-01-01

    With its comprehensive coverage this handbook and ready reference brings together some of the most outstanding scientists in the field to lay down the undisputed knowledge on how to make electronics stretchable.As such, it focuses on gathering and evaluating the materials, designs, models and technologies that enable the fabrication of fully elastic electronic devices which can sustain high strain. Furthermore, it provides a review of those specific applications that directly benefit from highly compliant electronics, including transistors, photonic devices and sensors. In addition to stre

  5. Starting electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Brindley, Keith

    2005-01-01

    Starting Electronics is unrivalled as a highly practical introduction for hobbyists, students and technicians. Keith Brindley introduces readers to the functions of the main component types, their uses, and the basic principles of building and designing electronic circuits. Breadboard layouts make this very much a ready-to-run book for the experimenter; and the use of multimeter, but not oscilloscopes, puts this practical exploration of electronics within reach of every home enthusiast's pocket. The third edition has kept the simplicity and clarity of the original. New material

  6. Polymer electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Geoghegan, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Polymer electronics is the science behind many important new developments in technology, such as the flexible electronic display (e-ink) and many new developments in transistor technology. Solar cells, light-emitting diodes, and transistors are all areas where plastic electronics is likely to, or is already having, a serious impact on our daily lives. With polymer transistors and light-emitting diodes now being commercialised, there is a clear need for a pedagogic text thatdiscusses the subject in a clear and concise fashion suitable for senior undergraduate and graduate students. The content

  7. Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Ciobotaru, Mihai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2008-01-01

    is to change the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most...... emerging renewable energy sources, wind energy, which by means of power electronics are changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. Power electronics is the enabling technology and the presentation will cover the development in wind turbine...... technology from kW to MW, discuss which power electronic solutions are most feasible and used today....

  8. Electronic Elections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    Electronic voting technology is a two edged sword. It comes with many risks but brings also many benefits. Instead of flat out rejecting the technology as uncontrollably dangerous, we advocate in this paper a different technological angle that renders electronic elections trustworthy beyond...... the usual levels of doubt. We exploit the trust that voters currently have into the democratic process and model our techniques around that observation accordingly. In particular, we propose a technique of trace emitting computations to record the individual steps of an electronic voting machine...... for a posteriori validation on an acceptably small trusted computing base. Our technology enables us to prove that an electronic elections preserves the voter’s intent, assuming that the voting machine and the trace verifier are independent....

  9. Electronic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrinidou, Eleni; Gabrielsson, Roger; Gomez, Eliot; Crispin, Xavier; Nilsson, Ove; Simon, Daniel T.; Berggren, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    The roots, stems, leaves, and vascular circuitry of higher plants are responsible for conveying the chemical signals that regulate growth and functions. From a certain perspective, these features are analogous to the contacts, interconnections, devices, and wires of discrete and integrated electronic circuits. Although many attempts have been made to augment plant function with electroactive materials, plants’ “circuitry” has never been directly merged with electronics. We report analog and digital organic electronic circuits and devices manufactured in living plants. The four key components of a circuit have been achieved using the xylem, leaves, veins, and signals of the plant as the template and integral part of the circuit elements and functions. With integrated and distributed electronics in plants, one can envisage a range of applications including precision recording and regulation of physiology, energy harvesting from photosynthesis, and alternatives to genetic modification for plant optimization. PMID:26702448

  10. ELECTRONIC SIGNATURES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10332324

    'electronic signature' means data attached to, incorporated in, or logically ... See Cwele v S 2012 4 All SA 497 (SCA); Mohlabeng v Minister of Safety and Security ... ZAKZPHC 51 (2 September 2010); Delta Finance, a Division of Wesbank, ...

  11. Electron Microprobe

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The JEOL JXA-8600 is a conventional hairpin filament thermal emission electron microprobe that is more than 20 years old. It is capable of performing qualitative and...

  12. Electronic commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Veselková, Zdeňka

    2012-01-01

    The thesis deals with a description of electronic commerce from its beginning up to present situation in this area. It explains basic terms connected with electronic commerce and it summarizes the relevant legislation. Moreover it describes e-contracts and rights and duties of both contractual parties. The main view is the view of Internet retailer, which is reflected in the practical part focused on concrete problems of retailers.

  13. Molecular Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Karsten Stein

    This thesis includes the synthesis and characterisation of organic compounds designed for molecular electronics. The synthesised organic molecules are mainly based on two motifs, the obigo(phenyleneethynylenes) (OPE)s and tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) as shown below. These two scaffolds (OPE and TTF......) are chemically merged together to form cruciform-like structures that are an essential part of the thesis. The cruciform molecules were subjected to molecular conductance measurements to explore their capability towards single-crystal field-effect transistors (Part 1), molecular wires, and single electron......, however, was obtained by a study of a single molecular transistor. The investigated OPE5-TTF compound was captured in a three-terminal experiment, whereby manipulation of the molecule’s electronic spin was possible in different charge states. Thus, we demonstrated how the cruciform molecules could...

  14. Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Ciobotaru, Mihai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2008-01-01

    energy at the end-user should also be set up. Deregulation of energy has in the past lowered the investment in larger power plants, which means the need for new electrical power sources will be high in the near future. Two major technologies will play important roles to solve the future problems. One...... is to change the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most...... emerging renewable energy sources, wind energy, which by means of power electronics are changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. Power electronics is the enabling technology and the presentation will cover the development in wind turbine...

  15. Electron Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegbahn, Kai

    Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen's discovery of X radiation in 1895 in Wörzburg resulted in an immediate break-through not only in physics but also in Society, the latter mainly because of its sensational radiological applications. Within a short time it furthermore indirectly led to the discovery of radioactivity by Henri Becquerel. The discovery of X radiation opened the gate to modern atomic physics, and radioactivity to nuclear physics. Later on, the discovery of X-ray diffraction by Laue, Friedrich and Knipping in 1912 initiated the field of X-ray spectroscopy with its fundamental contributions to atomic and crystal structures. Secondary electrons were early observed in the scattered radiation when X-rays were hitting a sample. The development of the corresponding electron spectroscopy had to wait a much longer time for its maturity. A survey of electron spectroscopy is presented.

  16. Electronic Commerce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laird, N. [NRG Information Services Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1995-11-01

    The concept of electronic commerce in the gas industry was discussed. It was defined as the integration of communication technology, advanced information processing capability and business standards, to improve effectiveness of the business process. Examples of electronic data interchange from the automotive, airline, and banking industry were given. The objective of using this technology in the gas industry was described as the provision of one electronic facility to make seamless contractual and operational arrangements for moving natural gas across participating pipelines. The benefit of seamless integration - one readily available standard system used by several companies - was highlighted. A list of value-added services such as the free movement of bulletins, directories, nominations,and other documents was provided.

  17. Spin electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Buhrman, Robert; Daughton, James; Molnár, Stephan; Roukes, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This report is a comparative review of spin electronics ("spintronics") research and development activities in the United States, Japan, and Western Europe conducted by a panel of leading U.S. experts in the field. It covers materials, fabrication and characterization of magnetic nanostructures, magnetism and spin control in magnetic nanostructures, magneto-optical properties of semiconductors, and magnetoelectronics and devices. The panel's conclusions are based on a literature review and a series of site visits to leading spin electronics research centers in Japan and Western Europe. The panel found that Japan is clearly the world leader in new material synthesis and characterization; it is also a leader in magneto-optical properties of semiconductor devices. Europe is strong in theory pertaining to spin electronics, including injection device structures such as tunneling devices, and band structure predictions of materials properties, and in development of magnetic semiconductors and semiconductor heterost...

  18. Molecular Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Karsten Stein

    ) are chemically merged together to form cruciform-like structures that are an essential part of the thesis. The cruciform molecules were subjected to molecular conductance measurements to explore their capability towards single-crystal field-effect transistors (Part 1), molecular wires, and single electron......This thesis includes the synthesis and characterisation of organic compounds designed for molecular electronics. The synthesised organic molecules are mainly based on two motifs, the obigo(phenyleneethynylenes) (OPE)s and tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) as shown below. These two scaffolds (OPE and TTF......, however, was obtained by a study of a single molecular transistor. The investigated OPE5-TTF compound was captured in a three-terminal experiment, whereby manipulation of the molecule’s electronic spin was possible in different charge states. Thus, we demonstrated how the cruciform molecules could...

  19. A Survey of Studies on Anti-tumor Effects of LBP and Its Mechanisms%枸杞多糖的抗肿瘤作用及其机理研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭培培

    2011-01-01

    Lycium barbarum is a traditional Chinese medicine,which owns many medical values.LBP is the main active ingredient of Lycium barbarum,which can benefit health in anti-aging,antifatigue and so on.LBP'anti-tumor effects are introduced in the treatment of liver cancer,cervical cancer,prostate cancer,liver ascites cancer,ovarian cancer,colon cancer,cancer of the esophagus,leukemia and lung cancer,the mechanisms of which are also stated,mainly containing adjusting inmmune system and inducing the apoptosis,regulating genes and anti-oxidization.All of these are expected to be referred to for Lycium barbarum's further exploitation.%枸杞是传统常用中药,具有多种药用价值。枸杞多糖是枸杞中的主要活性成分,具有抗衰老、抗疲劳等多种保健功能,本文概述了其在肝癌、宫颈癌、前列腺癌、肝腹水癌、卵巢癌、大肠癌、食管癌、血癌、肺癌等方面的抗肿瘤作用并对其可能存在的机制如免疫系统调节机制、细胞凋亡诱导机制、基因表达调控机制、抗氧化机制做了阐述,以期为枸杞的进一步开发利用提供参考。

  20. Greening Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo; Søes Kokborg, Morten; Thomsen, Marianne

    Based on a literature review with focus on hazardous substances in waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) and numbers from a Danish treatment facility a flow analysis for specific substances has been conducted. Further, the accessible knowledge on human and environmental effects due...

  1. Superconducting electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogalla, Horst

    1994-01-01

    During the last decades superconducting electronics has been the most prominent area of research for small scale applications of superconductivity. It has experienced quite a stormy development, from individual low frequency devices to devices with high integration density and pico second switching

  2. Electronic Portfolios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Alan C.

    1996-01-01

    Outlines three forms of electronic portfolio based on a student's work, a class project about a specific topic, and a class seminar on a broad topic. Discusses logistical problems of management, access, and cross-referencing; technical problems of input, access, and copying; and theoretical issues of the lack of realia, of ownership and copyright,…

  3. Electronic Money.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Tim

    Thirty years ago a cashless society was predicted for the near future; paper currency and checks would be an antiquated symbol of the past. Consumers would embrace a new alternative for making payments: electronic money. But currency is still used for 87% of payments, mainly for "nickel and dime" purchases. And checks are the payment…

  4. Electronic spectroscopies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weckhuysen, B.M.; Schoonheydt, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) in the ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared region is a versatile spectroscopic technique, as both d-d and charge transfer transitions of supported TMI can be probed. One of the advantages of electronic spectroscopy is that the obtained information is

  5. Electronic Homework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Fong-lok; Heyworth, Rex M.

    The Electronic Homework assistant system is composed of two components: the Computer Tutor and the Homework Administrator. The Computer Tutor is an intelligent tutoring system that can provide personal assistance like supplying hints, checking errors, providing remediation and prioritizing problems. The Homework Administrator is a teacher's…

  6. Greening Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo; Søes Kokborg, Morten; Thomsen, Marianne

    Based on a literature review with focus on hazardous substances in waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) and numbers from a Danish treatment facility a flow analysis for specific substances has been conducted. Further, the accessible knowledge on human and environmental effects due to po...

  7. Electronic Government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimmer, Maria A.; Traunmüller, Roland; Grönlund, Åke

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Electronic Government, EGOV 2005, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August 2005. The 30 revised papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions, and assess the state-of-the-art in e...

  8. Electronic detectors for electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruqi, A R; McMullan, G

    2011-08-01

    Electron microscopy (EM) is an important tool for high-resolution structure determination in applications ranging from condensed matter to biology. Electronic detectors are now used in most applications in EM as they offer convenience and immediate feedback that is not possible with film or image plates. The earliest forms of electronic detector used routinely in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were charge coupled devices (CCDs) and for many applications these remain perfectly adequate. There are however applications, such as the study of radiation-sensitive biological samples, where film is still used and improved detectors would be of great value. The emphasis in this review is therefore on detectors for use in such applications. Two of the most promising candidates for improved detection are: monolithic active pixel sensors (MAPS) and hybrid pixel detectors (of which Medipix2 was chosen for this study). From the studies described in this review, a back-thinned MAPS detector appears well suited to replace film in for the study of radiation-sensitive samples at 300 keV, while Medipix2 is suited to use at lower energies and especially in situations with very low count rates. The performance of a detector depends on the energy of electrons to be recorded, which in turn is dependent on the application it is being used for; results are described for a wide range of electron energies ranging from 40 to 300 keV. The basic properties of detectors are discussed in terms of their modulation transfer function (MTF) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) as a function of spatial frequency.

  9. Electronic Aggression

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-20

    Aggression is no longer limited to the school yard. New forms of electronic media, such as blogs, instant messaging, chat rooms, email, text messaging, and the internet are providing new arenas for youth violence to occur.  Created: 11/20/2007 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Division of Violence Prevention.   Date Released: 11/28/2007.

  10. Interacting Electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Richard M.; Reining, Lucia; Ceperley, David M.

    2016-06-01

    Preface; Part I. Interacting Electrons: Beyond the Independent-Particle Picture: 1. The many electron problem: introduction; 2. Signatures of electron correlation; 3. Concepts and models for interacting electrons; Part II. Foundations of Theory for Many-Body Systems: 4. Mean fields and auxiliary systems; 5. Correlation functions; 6. Many-body wavefunctions; 7. Particles and quasi-particles; 8. Functionals in many-particle physics; Part III. Many-Body Green's Function Methods: 9. Many-body perturbation theory: expansion in the interaction; 10. Many-body perturbation theory via functional derivatives; 11. The RPA and the GW approximation for the self-energy; 12. GWA calculations in practice; 13. GWA calculations: illustrative results; 14. RPA and beyond: the Bethe-Salpeter equation; 15. Beyond the GW approximation; 16. Dynamical mean field theory; 17. Beyond the single-site approximation in DMFT; 18. Solvers for embedded systems; 19. Characteristic hamiltonians for solids with d and f states; 20. Examples of calculations for solids with d and f states; 21. Combining Green's functions approaches: an outlook; Part IV. Stochastic Methods: 22. Introduction to stochastic methods; 23. Variational Monte Carlo; 24. Projector quantum Monte Carlo; 25. Path integral Monte Carlo; 26. Concluding remarks; Part V. Appendices: A. Second quantization; B. Pictures; C. Green's functions: general properties; D. Matsubara formulation for Green's functions for T ̸= 0; E. Time-ordering, contours, and non-equilibrium; F. Hedin's equations in a basis; G. Unique solutions in Green's function theory; H. Properties of functionals; I. Auxiliary systems and constrained search; J. Derivation of the Luttinger theorem; K. Gutzwiller and Hubbard approaches; References; Index.

  11. ELECTRON GUN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofilos, N.C.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1960-04-01

    A pulsed electron gun capable of delivering pulses at voltages of the order of 1 mv and currents of the order of 100 amperes is described. The principal novelty resides in a transformer construction which is disposed in the same vacuum housing as the electron source and accelerating electrode structure of the gun to supply the accelerating potential thereto. The transformer is provided by a plurality of magnetic cores disposed in circumferentially spaced relation and having a plurality of primary windings each inductively coupled to a different one of the cores, and a helical secondary winding which is disposed coaxially of the cores and passes therethrough in circumferential succession. Additional novelty resides in the disposition of the electron source cathode filament input leads interiorly of the transformer secondary winding which is hollow, as well as in the employment of a half-wave filament supply which is synchronously operated with the transformer supply such that the transformer is pulsed during the zero current portions of the half-wave cycle.

  12. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Tayal, DC

    2010-01-01

    The second edition of this book incorporates the comments and suggestions of my friends and students who have critically studied the first edition. In this edition the changes and additions have been made and subject matter has been rearranged at some places. The purpose of this text is to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date study of the principles of operation of solid state devices, their basic circuits and application of these circuits to various electronic systems, so that it can serve as a standard text not only for universities and colleges but also for technical institutes. This book

  13. Electronic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Kwok, H L

    2010-01-01

    The electronic properties of solids have become of increasing importance in the age of information technology. The study of solids and materials, while having originated from the disciplines of physics and chemistry, has evolved independently over the past few decades. The classical treatment of solid-state physics, which emphasized classifications, theories and fundamental physical principles, is no longer able to bridge the gap between materials advances and applications. In particular, the more recent developments in device physics and technology have not necessarily been driven by new conc

  14. Electronic Router

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crusan, Jason

    2005-01-01

    Electronic Router (E-Router) is an application program for routing documents among the cognizant individuals in a government agency or other organization. E-Router supplants a prior 14 NASA Tech Briefs, May 2005 system in which paper documents were routed physically in packages by use of paper slips, packages could be lost, routing times were unacceptably long, tracking of packages was difficult, and there was a need for much photocopying. E-Router enables a user to create a digital package to be routed. Input accepted by E-Router includes the title of the package, the person(s) to whom the package is to be routed, attached files, and comments to reviewers. Electronic mail is used to notify reviewers of needed actions. The creator of the package can, at any time, see the status of the package in the routing structure. At the end of the routing process, E-Router keeps a record of the package and of approvals and/or concurrences of the reviewers. There are commercial programs that perform the general functions of E-Router, but they are more complicated. E-Router is Web-based, easy to use, and does not require the installation or use of client software.

  15. Practical electronics handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Sinclair, Ian R

    2013-01-01

    Practical Electronics Handbook, Third Edition provides the frequently used and highly applicable principles of electronics and electronic circuits.The book contains relevant information in electronics. The topics discussed in the text include passive and active discrete components; linear and digital I.C.s; microprocessors and microprocessor systems; digital-analogue conversions; computer aids in electronics design; and electronic hardware components.Electronic circuit constructors, service engineers, electronic design engineers, and anyone with an interest in electronics will find the book ve

  16. Electronic Preprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanisch, R.

    1999-12-01

    Despite the tremendous advances in electronic publications and the increasing rapidity with which papers are now moving from acceptance into ``print,'' preprints continue to be an important mode of communication within the astronomy community. The Los Alamos e-preprint service, astro-ph, provides for rapid and cost-free (to authors and readers) dissemination of manuscripts. As the use of astro-ph has increased the number of paper preprints in circulation to libraries has decreased, and institutional preprint series appear to be waning. It is unfortunate, however, that astro-ph does not function in collaboration with the refereed publications. For example, there is no systematic tracking of manuscripts from preprint to their final, published form, and as a centralized archive it is difficult to distribute the tracking and maintenance functions. It retains documents that have been superseded or have become obsolete. We are currently developing a distributed preprint and document management system which can support both distributed collections of preprints (e.g., traditional institutional preprint series), can link to the LANL collections, can index other documents in the ``grey'' literature (observatory reports, telescope and instrument user's manuals, calls for proposals, etc.), and can function as a manuscript submission tool for the refereed journals. This system is being developed to work cooperatively with the refereed literature so that, for example, links to preprints are updated to links to the final published papers.

  17. Sustainable Management of Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    To provide information on EPAs strategy for electronics stewardship, certified electronics recyclers and the Challenge; as well as where to donate unwanted electronics, how to calculate benefits, and what's going on with electronics mgmt in their states.

  18. EDITORIAL: Synaptic electronics Synaptic electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna; Gimzewski, James K.; Vuillaume, Dominique

    2013-09-01

    Conventional computers excel in logic and accurate scientific calculations but make hard work of open ended problems that human brains handle easily. Even von Neumann—the mathematician and polymath who first developed the programming architecture that forms the basis of today's computers—was already looking to the brain for future developments before his death in 1957 [1]. Neuromorphic computing uses approaches that better mimic the working of the human brain. Recent developments in nanotechnology are now providing structures with very accommodating properties for neuromorphic approaches. This special issue, with guest editors James K Gimzewski and Dominique Vuillaume, is devoted to research at the serendipitous interface between the two disciplines. 'Synaptic electronics', looks at artificial devices with connections that demonstrate behaviour similar to synapses in the nervous system allowing a new and more powerful approach to computing. Synapses and connecting neurons respond differently to incident signals depending on the history of signals previously experienced, ultimately leading to short term and long term memory behaviour. The basic characteristics of a synapse can be replicated with around ten simple transistors. However with the human brain having around 1011 neurons and 1015 synapses, artificial neurons and synapses from basic transistors are unlikely to accommodate the scalability required. The discovery of nanoscale elements that function as 'memristors' has provided a key tool for the implementation of synaptic connections [2]. Leon Chua first developed the concept of the 'The memristor—the missing circuit element' in 1971 [3]. In this special issue he presents a tutorial describing how memristor research has fed into our understanding of synaptic behaviour and how they can be applied in information processing [4]. He also describes, 'The new principle of local activity, which uncovers a minuscule life-enabling "Goldilocks zone", dubbed the

  19. Electronic Mimosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sanjay; Datta, Meera S.; Rana, Vivek; Grover, Shailesh

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes the design of a low-cost, 2D, electromagnetic tracking device for personal computers. This interface makes use of the well-known principle of electromagnetic induction to locate the position of a transmitter in an x-y plane. This device has a ring which is worn by the user on the index finger. The computer monitor is overlaid with a transparent screen equipped with tuned electromagnetic sensors. These sensors pick up the signals transmitted by the transmitter coil on the finger. The receiver circuit extracts the envelope of the received signal and digitizes it. These digitized values of x and y axis signals are read by the computer through the standard parallel port. The system software running on the computer calculates the x and y co-ordinates of the transmitter coil and displays a cursor at that location. The transmitter also has a button which can be used like a mouse button. This keypress information is also transmitted by the electromagnetic means. The device driver for this tracker replaces the standard mouse driver. Hence most applications which use a mouse can also use this tracker. Its name `Mimosa' indicates that the user need not touch the screen (Mimosa Pudica is the Latin name of a plant whose leaves wilt when touched). Presently work is on to achieve uniform sensitivity over the entire screen and reducing transmitter power consumption. In order to demonstrate its working, a small, 3D game was written. The player has to reach a pre-defined location after traversing through a maze. The paper describes the interface electronics, system software, mechanical design and the sample application.

  20. Carbon Nanotube Electron Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Cattien V. (Inventor); Ribaya, Bryan P. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An electron gun, an electron source for an electron gun, an extractor for an electron gun, and a respective method for producing the electron gun, the electron source and the extractor are disclosed. Embodiments provide an electron source utilizing a carbon nanotube (CNT) bonded to a substrate for increased stability, reliability, and durability. An extractor with an aperture in a conductive material is used to extract electrons from the electron source, where the aperture may substantially align with the CNT of the electron source when the extractor and electron source are mated to form the electron gun. The electron source and extractor may have alignment features for aligning the electron source and the extractor, thereby bringing the aperture and CNT into substantial alignment when assembled. The alignment features may provide and maintain this alignment during operation to improve the field emission characteristics and overall system stability of the electron gun.

  1. Mycorrhizal status of Lycium europaeum in the coastal dunes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2013-11-30

    Nov 30, 2013 ... This portion of the Atlantic coastal contains also the reserve of Sidi ..... landside by a dense forest of Juniperus phoenicea that is extended through the .... fungal diversity determines plant biodiversity, ecosystem variability and.

  2. Nano-Electronics and Bio-Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Viewgraph presentation on Nano-Electronics and Bio-Electronics is discussed. Topics discussed include: NASA Ames nanotechnology program, Potential Carbon Nanotube (CNT) application, CNT synthesis,Computational Nanotechnology, and protein nanotubes.

  3. Electronics for LHC Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This document gathers the abstracts of most presentations made at this workshop on electronics for the large hadron collider (LHC) experiments. The presentations were arranged into 6 sessions: 1) electronics for tracker, 2) trigger electronics, 3) detector control systems, 4) data acquisition, 5) electronics for calorimeters and electronics for muons, and 6) links, power systems, grounding and shielding, testing and quality assurance.

  4. Interface Electronic Circuitry for an Electronic Tongue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keymeulen, Didier; Buehler, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Electronic circuitry has been developed to serve as an interface between an electronic tongue and digital input/output boards in a laptop computer that is used to control the tongue and process its readings. Electronic tongues can be used for a variety of purposes, including evaluating water quality, analyzing biochemicals, analyzing biofilms, and measuring electrical conductivities of soils.

  5. Electron beam focusing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dikansky, N.; Nagaitsev, S.; Parkhomchuk, V.

    1997-09-01

    The high energy electron cooling requires a very cold electron beam. Thus, the electron beam focusing system is very important for the performance of electron cooling. A system with and without longitudinal magnetic field is presented for discussion. Interaction of electron beam with the vacuum chamber as well as with the background ions and stored antiprotons can cause the coherent electron beam instabilities. Focusing system requirements needed to suppress these instabilities are presented.

  6. Electronics and Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Previously founded as CCPITMachinery and Electronics Sub-council and CCOIC Machinery and Electronics Chamber of Corn-merce in June, 1988, CCPIT Electronics Sub-Council and CCOIC Electronics Chamber of Commerce were established in May, 1993, and then renamed as CCPIT Electronics and Information Industry Sub-council and CCOIC Electronics and Infor-mation Industry Chamber of Commerce (CCPITECC) in September 1999.

  7. Electronic Correlations in Electron Transfer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulla, Ralf; Tornow, Sabine; Anders, Frithjof

    Electron transfer processes play a central role in many chemical and biological systems. Already the transfer of a single electron from the donor to the acceptor can be viewed as a complicated many-body problem, due to the coupling of the electron to the infinitely many environmental degrees of freedom, realized by density fluctuations of the solvent or molecular vibrations of the protein matrix. We focus on the quantum mechanical modelling of two-electron transfer processes whose dynamics is governed by the Coulomb interaction between the electrons as well as the environmental degrees of freedoms represented by a bosonic bath. We identify the regime of parameters in which concerted transfer of the two electrons occurs and discuss the influence of the Coulomb repulsion and the coupling strength to the environment on the electron transfer rate. Calculations are performed using the non-perturbative numerical renormalization group approach for both equilibrium and non-equilibrium properties.

  8. Electron Microscopy Center (EMC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electron Microscopy Center (EMC) at Argonne National Laboratory develops and maintains unique capabilities for electron beam characterization and applies those...

  9. Research advances on the usage of traditional Chinese medicine for neuroprotection in glaucoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-song Mi; Jing-xiang Zhong; Raymond Chuen-Chung Chang; Kwok-Fai So

    2013-01-01

    Progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and their axons is the main pathogenesis of glaucoma.The cause of glaucoma is not fully understood,but the neurodegeneration of glaucoma involves many mechanisms such as oxidative stress,glutamate toxicity and ischemia/reperfusion insult.In order to target these mechanisms,multiple neuroprotective interventions have been investigated to prevent the death of RGCs.Of note are some tonic herbs from the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) pharmacopeia that have shown neuroprotective effects in glaucoma.TCM differs from Western medicine in that TCM exhibits complicated bioactive components,triggering many signaling pathways and extensive actions on vital organs.Modern scientific approaches have demonstrated some of their underlying mechanisms.In this review,we used Lycium barbarum and Ginkgo biloba as examples to elaborate the characteristics of TCM and their potential applications in neuroprotection in glaucoma.

  10. Potential health benefits and quality of dried fruits: Goji fruits, cranberries and raisins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeszka-Skowron, Magdalena; Zgoła-Grześkowiak, Agnieszka; Stanisz, Ewa; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka

    2017-04-15

    Dried fruits are important snacks and additives to other foods due to their taste and nutritional advantages. Therefore there is an important goal to control the quality of the food on the market for consumer's safety. Antioxidant activity of goji fruits (Lycium barbarum), cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon and oxycoccus) and raisins (Vitis vinifera) were studied using the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and Folin-Ciocalteu assays. Cu, Mn and Ge influencing antioxidant activity were determined together with selected toxic metals (Cd, Ni and Pb). Contamination with fungi was studied by quantification of their marker - ergosterol and important mycotoxins (aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2, and ochratoxin A) were also determined. Antioxidant activity of all tested dried fruits was confirmed with goji fruits being the most profitable for consumers. Contamination of the tested fruits with toxic metals and mycotoxins was low. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Identification of monomenthyl succinate, monomenthyl glutarate, and dimenthyl glutarate in nature by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiserodt, Richard D; Adedeji, Jide; John, T V; Dewis, Mark L

    2004-06-01

    Menthol, menthone, and other natural compounds provide a cooling effect and a minty flavor and have found wide application in chewing gum and oral care products. Monomenthyl succinate, monomenthyl glutarate, and dimenthyl glutarate provide a cooling effect without the burning sensation associated with menthol. Additionally, because they do not have a distinct flavor, they can be used in applications other than mint flavors. Because these menthyl esters have not been reported in nature, we undertook to identify a natural source for these cooling compounds. Using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, monomenthyl succinate was identified in Lycium barbarum and Mentha piperita, and monomenthyl glutarate and dimenthyl glutarate were identified in Litchi chinesis. The identifications were based on the correlation of mass spectrometric and chromatographic retention time data for the menthyl esters in the extracts with authentic standards which resulted in a 99.980% confidence in the identifications.

  12. Investigations on Electronic Materials

    OpenAIRE

    E. Pugnor; T. Kormány

    1982-01-01

    Electronics has been described as a materials oriented technology. In this sense a short review is given concerning: the connection of materials characterization to the design and processing of electronic components; the most important materials characterization methods used for electronic materials; the strategy of organizing a complete material characterization system for selected electronic components.

  13. Electron-attachment processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophorou, L. G.; McCorkle, D. L.; Christodoulides, A. A.

    Topics covered include: modes of production of negative ions, techniques for the study of electron attachment processes, dissociative electron attachment to ground state molecules, dissociative electron attachment to hot molecules (effects of temperature on dissociative electron attachment), molecular parent negative ions, and negative ions formed by ion pair processes and by collisions of molecules with ground state and Rydberg atoms.

  14. Electronic Health Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Electronic Health Records KidsHealth > For Teens > Electronic Health Records Print A A A What's in ... t happen overnight, they are coming. Understanding EHRs Electronic health records (EHR) — also called electronic medical records ( ...

  15. Introduction to electronics

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    Electronics in HEP experiments: specificities and evolution The Art of Electronics: is there something beyond Ohm's law? Basic building blocks of Analog electronics: quickly understanding a schematic Charge preamps, current preamps and future preamps, shaping and the rest Electronics noise: fundamental and practical Evolution of technology: ASICs, FPGAs...

  16. Introduction to Electronics course

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva HR-RFA

    2006-01-01

    Electronics in HEP experiments: specificities and evolution The Art of Electronics: is there something beyond Ohm's law? Basic building blocks of Analog electronics: quickly understanding a schematic Charge preamps, current preamps and future preamps, shaping and the rest Electronics noise: fundamental and practical Evolution of technology: ASICs, FPGAs...

  17. Electronic Health Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Electronic Health Records KidsHealth > For Teens > Electronic Health Records A A A What's in this ... t happen overnight, they are coming. Understanding EHRs Electronic health records (EHR) — also called electronic medical records ( ...

  18. Introduction to Electronic Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilbeck, Lettie

    These materials for a five-unit course were developed to introduce secondary and postsecondary students to the use of electronic equipment in marketing. The units cover the following topics: electronic marketing as a valid marketing approach; telemarketing; radio electronic media marketing; television electronic media marketing; and cable TV…

  19. Hybrid printed electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetse, M.; Smits, E.; Rubingh, E.; Teunissen, P.; Kusters, R.; Abbel, R.; Brand, J. van den

    2016-01-01

    Although many electronic functionalities can be realized by printed or organic electronics, short-term marketable products often require robust, reproducible, and nondisturbing technologies. In this chapter we show how hybrid electronics, a combination of printed circuitry, thin-film electronics,

  20. Electron transfer reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Cannon, R D

    2013-01-01

    Electron Transfer Reactions deals with the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions between metal ions in solution, as well as the electron exchange between atoms or molecules in either the gaseous or solid state. The book is divided into three parts. Part 1 covers the electron transfer between atoms and molecules in the gas state. Part 2 tackles the reaction paths of oxidation states and binuclear intermediates, as well as the mechanisms of electron transfer. Part 3 discusses the theories and models of the electron transfer process; theories and experiments involving bridged electron transfe

  1. Electronics engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Mazda, F F

    1989-01-01

    Electronics Engineer's Reference Book, Sixth Edition is a five-part book that begins with a synopsis of mathematical and electrical techniques used in the analysis of electronic systems. Part II covers physical phenomena, such as electricity, light, and radiation, often met with in electronic systems. Part III contains chapters on basic electronic components and materials, the building blocks of any electronic design. Part IV highlights electronic circuit design and instrumentation. The last part shows the application areas of electronics such as radar and computers.

  2. Practical microwave electron devices

    CERN Document Server

    Meurant, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Practical Microwave Electron Devices provides an understanding of microwave electron devices and their applications. All areas of microwave electron devices are covered. These include microwave solid-state devices, including popular microwave transistors and both passive and active diodes; quantum electron devices; thermionic devices (including relativistic thermionic devices); and ferrimagnetic electron devices. The design of each of these devices is discussed as well as their applications, including oscillation, amplification, switching, modulation, demodulation, and parametric interactions.

  3. Electronics engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, L W

    1976-01-01

    Electronics Engineer's Reference Book, 4th Edition is a reference book for electronic engineers that reviews the knowledge and techniques in electronics engineering and covers topics ranging from basics to materials and components, devices, circuits, measurements, and applications. This edition is comprised of 27 chapters; the first of which presents general information on electronics engineering, including terminology, mathematical equations, mathematical signs and symbols, and Greek alphabet and symbols. Attention then turns to the history of electronics; electromagnetic and nuclear radiatio

  4. Single electron-ics with carbon nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Götz, G.T.J.

    2010-01-01

    We experimentally investigate Quantum Dots, formed in Carbon Nanotubes. The first part of this thesis deals with charge sensing on such quantum dots. The charge sensor is a metallic Single-electron-transistor, sensitive to the charge of a single electron on the quantum dot. We use this technique for

  5. Electron-electron interactions in disordered systems

    CERN Document Server

    Efros, AL

    1985-01-01

    ``Electron-Electron Interactions in Disordered Systems'' deals with the interplay of disorder and the Coulomb interaction. Prominent experts give state-of-the-art reviews of the theoretical and experimental work in this field and make it clear that the interplay of the two effects is essential, especially in low-dimensional systems.

  6. VIRTUAL ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS OF THE ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lazarevich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is present new idea of the creation, developments and improvements of the electronic equipment of complex systems by means of the virtual electronic components. The idea of the virtual electronic components is a presentation and perception of the creation and developments of the equipment on two forming: real – in the manner of standard marketed block of the intellectual property and image – in the manner of virtual component. The real component in most cases slows the development of the electronic equipment. The imaginary component is the «locomotive» of development of the electronic equipment. The Imaginary component contains the scientific has brushed against developer. The scientific has brushed against developer reveals of itself in the manner of virtual component on the modern level of the design rates of microelectronics.

  7. Electron transporting semiconducting polymers in organic electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xingang; Zhan, Xiaowei

    2011-07-01

    Significant progress has been achieved in the preparation of semiconducting polymers over the past two decades, and successful commercial devices based on them are slowly beginning to enter the market. However, most of the conjugated polymers are hole transporting, or p-type, semiconductors that have seen a dramatic rise in performance over the last decade. Much less attention has been devoted to electron transporting, or n-type, materials that have lagged behind their p-type counterparts. Organic electron transporting materials are essential for the fabrication of organic p-n junctions, organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs), n-channel organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and complementary logic circuits. In this critical review we focus upon recent developments in several classes of electron transporting semiconducting polymers used in OLEDs, OFETs and OPVs, and survey and analyze what is currently known concerning electron transporting semiconductor architecture, electronic structure, and device performance relationships (87 references).

  8. Electronics for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Shamieh

    2015-01-01

    Explore the basic concepts of electronics, build your electronics workbench, and begin creating fun electronics projects right away! Electronics For Dummies, 3rd Edition is your guide to the world of electronics. Spanning circuitry, wiring, robotics, transmitters, amplifiers, and more, this book demystifies electricity basics and beyond. The third edition offers new content revised to reflect the latest advancements in the electronics field, and it offers full color project examples to spark your creativity and inspire you to put your new skills to use! Packed with projects that can be comple

  9. High energy electron cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkhomchuk, V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-09-01

    High energy electron cooling requires a very cold electron beam. The questions of using electron cooling with and without a magnetic field are presented for discussion at this workshop. The electron cooling method was suggested by G. Budker in the middle sixties. The original idea of the electron cooling was published in 1966. The design activities for the NAP-M project was started in November 1971 and the first run using a proton beam occurred in September 1973. The first experiment with both electron and proton beams was started in May 1974. In this experiment good result was achieved very close to theoretical prediction for a usual two component plasma heat exchange.

  10. RHIC electron lenses upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, X. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Altinbas, Z. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Bruno, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Binello, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Costanzo, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Drees, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Fischer, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Gassner, D. M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Hock, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Hock, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Harvey, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Luo, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Marusic, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Mi, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Mernick, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Minty, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Michnoff, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Miller, T. A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Pikin, A. I. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Robert-Demolaize, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Samms, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Shrey, T. C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Schoefer, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Tan, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Than, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Thieberger, P. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; White, S. M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2015-05-03

    In the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) 100 GeV polarized proton run in 2015, two electron lenses were used to partially compensate for the head-on beam-beam effect for the first time. Here, we describe the design of the current electron lens, detailing the hardware modifications made after the 2014 commissioning run with heavy ions. A new electron gun with 15-mm diameter cathode is characterized. The electron beam transverse profile was measured using a YAG screen and fitted with a Gaussian distribution. During operation, the overlap of the electron and proton beams was achieved using the electron backscattering detector in conjunction with an automated orbit control program.

  11. Electronic Commerce and Competitive Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    Explains the application of electronic commerce techniques (electronic data interchange (EDI), electronic mail (E-mail), electronic bulletin boards...purchase procedures of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR). Changes to the FAR to recognize electronic commerce are recommended. Also discussed...are opportunities to use electronic commerce and small business and legal considerations of electronic commerce . This report describes how electronic

  12. Certified Electronics Recyclers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn how EPA encourages all electronics recyclers become certified by demonstrating to an accredited, independent third-party auditor and that they meet specific standards to safely recycle and manage electronics.

  13. Chapter 9: Electronics

    OpenAIRE

    Spieler, Helmuth G

    2008-01-01

    Sophisticated front-end electronics are a key part of practically all modern radiation detector systems. This chapter introduces the basic principles and their implementation. Topics include signal acquisition, electronic noise, pulse shaping (analog and digital), and data readout techniques.

  14. Chapter 9: Electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grupen, Claus; Shwartz, Boris A.

    2006-12-19

    Sophisticated front-end electronics are a key part of practically all modern radiation detector systems. This chapter introduces the basic principles and their implementation. Topics include signal acquisition, electronic noise, pulse shaping (analog and digital), and data readout techniques.

  15. Presidential Electronic Records Library

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — PERL (Presidential Electronic Records Library) used to ingest and provide internal access to the Presidential electronic Records of the Reagan, Bush, and Clinton...

  16. THE ELECTRONIC SIGNATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voiculescu Madalina Irena

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Article refers to significance and the digital signature in electronic commerce. Internet and electronic commerce open up many new opportunities for the consumer, yet, the security (or perceived lack of security of exchanging personal and financial data

  17. Electronic Submission of Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide registrants can provide draft and final labels to EPA electronically for our review as part of the pesticide registration process. The electronic submission of labels by registrants is voluntary but strongly encouraged.

  18. Chapter 9: Electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grupen, Claus; Shwartz, Boris A.

    2006-12-19

    Sophisticated front-end electronics are a key part of practically all modern radiation detector systems. This chapter introduces the basic principles and their implementation. Topics include signal acquisition, electronic noise, pulse shaping (analog and digital), and data readout techniques.

  19. Laboratory Handbook Electronics

    CERN Multimedia

    1966-01-01

    Laboratory manual 1966 format A3 with the list of equipment cables, electronic tubes, chassis, diodes transistors etc. One of CERN's first material catalogue for construction components for mechanical and electronic chassis.

  20. Electron shuttles in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kazuya; Manefield, Mike; Lee, Matthew; Kouzuma, Atsushi

    2009-12-01

    Electron-shuttling compounds (electron shuttles [ESs], or redox mediators) are essential components in intracellular electron transfer, while microbes also utilize self-produced and naturally present ESs for extracellular electron transfer. These compounds assist in microbial energy metabolism by facilitating electron transfer between microbes, from electron-donating substances to microbes, and/or from microbes to electron-accepting substances. Artificially supplemented ESs can create new routes of electron flow in the microbial energy metabolism, thereby opening up new possibilities for the application of microbes to biotechnology processes. Typical examples of such processes include halogenated-organics bioremediation, azo-dye decolorization, and microbial fuel cells. Herein we suggest that ESs can be applied widely to create new microbial biotechnology processes.

  1. Electronics materials research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The electronic materials and is aimed at the establishment of quantitative relationships underlying crystal growth parameters, materials properties, electronic characteristics and device applications. The overall program evolves about the following main thrust areas: (1) crystal growth novel approaches to engineering of semiconductor materials; (2) investigation of materials properties and electronic characteristics on a macro and microscale; (3) surface properties and surface interactions with the bulk and ambients; (4) electronic properties controlling device applications and device performance.

  2. Thermography of electronic devices

    OpenAIRE

    Panfilova S. P.; Vlasov A. I.; Gridnev V. N.; Chervinsky A. S.

    2007-01-01

    The possibility of application of thermography to diagnose the electronic devices is analyzed in the article. Typical faults of electronic devices which can be found by means of thermography are given. Advantages of noncontact thermal inspection in comparison with the contact one are described. Some features of thermography of electronic devices are considered. Thermography apparatus is viewed and some pieces of advice about choosing it for electronic devices diagnosis are given. An example o...

  3. Electronics and computer acronyms

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Phil

    1988-01-01

    Electronics and Computer Acronyms presents a list of almost 2,500 acronyms related to electronics and computers. The material for this book is drawn from a number of subject areas, including electrical, electronics, computers, telecommunications, fiber optics, microcomputers/microprocessors, audio, video, and information technology. The acronyms also encompass avionics, military, data processing, instrumentation, units, measurement, standards, services, organizations, associations, and companies. This dictionary offers a comprehensive and broad view of electronics and all that is associated wi

  4. Extreme environment electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Cressler, John D

    2012-01-01

    Unfriendly to conventional electronic devices, circuits, and systems, extreme environments represent a serious challenge to designers and mission architects. The first truly comprehensive guide to this specialized field, Extreme Environment Electronics explains the essential aspects of designing and using devices, circuits, and electronic systems intended to operate in extreme environments, including across wide temperature ranges and in radiation-intense scenarios such as space. The Definitive Guide to Extreme Environment Electronics Featuring contributions by some of the world's foremost exp

  5. Mechanical Engineering for Electronics.

    OpenAIRE

    Was, Loïc

    2012-01-01

    Schlumberger drilling tools are exposed to very hard loading conditions (shocks, vibrations, thermal cycling) while performing a job. As these tools are full of electronics, issues can quickly come from electronics failure. Mechanisms of failure occurring in electronics are very complex but can be predicted in some cases. The first part of the thesis describes in which context mechanical engineering applied to electronics is used in Schlumberger. The different kinds of failure which will be i...

  6. Handbook on electronic commerce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, M. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology; Blanning, R. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States). Owen Graduate School of Management; Strader, T. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Management Information Systems; Whinston, A. [eds.] [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Management Science and Information Systems

    2000-07-01

    The world is undergoing a revolution to a digital economy, with pronounced implications for corporate strategy, marketing, operations, information systems, customer services, global supply-chain management, and product distribution. This handbook examines the aspects of electronic commerce, including electronic storefront, on-line business, consumer interface, business-to-business networking, digital payment, legal issues, information product development, and electronic business models. Indispensable for academics, students and professionals who are interested in Electronic Commerce and Internet Business. (orig.)

  7. Atomicity in Electronic Commerce,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    tremendous demand for the ability to electronically buy and sell goods over networks. Electronic commerce has inspired a large variety of work... commerce . It then briefly surveys some major types of electronic commerce pointing out flaws in atomicity. We pay special attention to the atomicity...problems of proposals for digital cash. The paper presents two examples of highly atomic electronic commerce systems: NetBill and Cryptographic Postage Indicia.

  8. Syringe-injectable electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Fu, Tian-Ming; Cheng, Zengguang; Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M

    2015-07-01

    Seamless and minimally invasive three-dimensional interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating the syringe injection (and subsequent unfolding) of sub-micrometre-thick, centimetre-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 μm. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with >90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe-injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with three-dimensional structures, including (1) monitoring internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (2) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (3) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables the delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, the delivery of large-volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities, and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics.

  9. Technology of Electronic Signatur

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    An electronic signature uses a hash of message and an asymetrical algorithm of encryption for its generation. During verification of message on receiver side the hash of original message must be identical with the hash of received message. Electronic message is secured autentization of author and integrity of transmission date. By electronic signature it is possible to sign everything what is in digital form.

  10. ELECTRONS IN NONPOLAR LIQUIDS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOLROYD,R.A.

    2002-10-22

    Excess electrons can be introduced into liquids by absorption of high energy radiation, by photoionization, or by photoinjection from metal surfaces. The electron's chemical and physical properties can then be measured, but this requires that the electrons remain free. That is, the liquid must be sufficiently free of electron attaching impurities for these studies. The drift mobility as well as other transport properties of the electron are discussed here as well as electron reactions, free-ion yields and energy levels, Ionization processes typically produce electrons with excess kinetic energy. In liquids during thermalization, where this excess energy is lost to bath molecules, the electrons travel some distance from their geminate positive ions. In general the electrons at this point are still within the coulombic field of their geminate ions and a large fraction of the electrons recombine. However, some electrons escape recombination and the yield that escapes to become free electrons and ions is termed G{sub fi}. Reported values of G{sub fi} for molecular liquids range from 0.05 to 1.1 per 100 eV of energy absorbed. The reasons for this 20-fold range of yields are discussed here.

  11. Syringe injectable electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    Seamless and minimally-invasive three-dimensional (3D) interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating syringe injection and subsequent unfolding of submicrometer-thick, centimeter-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 micrometers. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with > 90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with 3D structures, including (i) monitoring of internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (ii) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (iii) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, delivery of large volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics. PMID:26053995

  12. Arduino electronics blueprints

    CERN Document Server

    Wilcher, Don

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for those who want to learn about electronics and coding by building amazing devices and gadgets with Arduino. If you are an experienced developer who understands the basics of electronics, then you can quickly learn how to build smart devices using Arduino. The only experience needed is a desire to learn about electronics, circuit breadboarding, and coding.

  13. Electron measurement in PHENIX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiba, Y. [Univ. of Tokyo, Tanashi (Japan)

    1995-07-15

    Electron Measurement in PHENIX detector at RHIC is discussed. The yield and S/N ratio at vector meson peaks ({phi}, {omega}, {rho}{sup o}, and J/{psi}) are evaluated. The electrons from open charm decay, and its consequence to the di-electron measurements is discussed.

  14. EFFECTIVE ELECTRONIC TUTORIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei A. Fedoseev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes effective electronic tutorials creation and application based on the theory of pedagogy. Herewith the issues of necessary electronic tutorial functional, ways of the educational process organization with the use of information and communication technologies and the logistics of electronic educational resources are touched upon. 

  15. Polarized Electron Source Developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles K. Sinclair

    1990-02-23

    Presently, only two methods of producing beams of polarized electrons for injection into linear accelerators are in use. Each of these methods uses optical pumping by circularly polarized light to produce electron polarization. In one case, electron polarization is established in metastable helium atoms, while in the other case, the polarized electrons are produced in the conduction band of appropriate semiconductors. The polarized electrons are liberated from the helium metastable by chemi-ionization, and from the semiconductors by lowering the work function at the surface of the material. Developments with each of these sources since the 1988 Spin Physics Conference are reviewed, and the prospects for further improvements discussed.

  16. Soldering in electronics assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Judd, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Soldering in Electronics Assembly discusses several concerns in soldering of electronic assemblies. The book is comprised of nine chapters that tackle different areas in electronic assembly soldering. Chapter 1 discusses the soldering process itself, while Chapter 2 covers the electronic assemblies. Chapter 3 talks about solders and Chapter 4 deals with flux. The text also tackles the CS and SC soldering process. The cleaning of soldered assemblies, solder quality, and standards and specifications are also discussed. The book will be of great use to professionals who deal with electronic assem

  17. Ultracold Ordered Electron Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habs, D.; Kramp, J.; Krause, P.; Matl, K.; Neumann, R.; Schwalm, D.

    1988-01-01

    We have started an experimental program to develop an ultracold electron beam, which can be used together with a standard electron cooling device in the Heidelberg Test Storage Ring TSR. In contrast to the standard-type design using electron beam extraction from a heated cathode, the ultracold beam is produced by photoemission of electrons from a cooled semiconductor crystal irradiated with an intense near-infrared laser light beam. Adiabatic acceleration is expected to provide ordering of the electron beam itself. Besides the cooling of ion beams to extremely low temperatures, with the aim of obtaining crystallization, the ultracold beam will constitute an excellent target for atomic physics experiments.

  18. Ultracold ordered electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habs, D.; Kramp, J.; Krause, P.; Matl, K.; Neumann, R.; Schwalm, D.

    1988-01-01

    We have started an experimental program to develop an ultracold electron beam, which can be used together with a standard electron cooling device in the Heidelberg Test Storage Ring TSR. In contrast to the standard-type design using electron beam extraction beam extraction from a heated cathode, the ultracold beam is produced by photoemission of electrons from a cooled semiconductor crystal irradiated with an intense near-infrared laser light beam. Adiabatic acceleration is expected to provide ordering of the electron beam itself. Besides the cooling of ion beams to extremely low temperatures, with the aim of obtaining crystallization, the ultracold beam will constitute an excellent target for atomic physics experiments.

  19. Electronic equipment packaging technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ginsberg, Gerald L

    1992-01-01

    The last twenty years have seen major advances in the electronics industry. Perhaps the most significant aspect of these advances has been the significant role that electronic equipment plays in almost all product markets. Even though electronic equipment is used in a broad base of applications, many future applications have yet to be conceived. This versatility of electron­ ics has been brought about primarily by the significant advances that have been made in integrated circuit technology. The electronic product user is rarely aware of the integrated circuits within the equipment. However, the user is often very aware of the size, weight, mod­ ularity, maintainability, aesthetics, and human interface features of the product. In fact, these are aspects of the products that often are instrumental in deter­ mining its success or failure in the marketplace. Optimizing these and other product features is the primary role of Electronic Equipment Packaging Technology. As the electronics industry continues to pr...

  20. Advanced adhesives in electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Bailey, C

    2011-01-01

    Adhesives are widely used in the manufacture of electronic devices to act as passive and active components. Recently there has been considerable interest in the use of conductive adhesives. This book reviews key types of conductive adhesives, processing methods, properties and the way they can be modelled as well as potential applications.$bAdhesives for electronic applications serve important functional and structural purposes in electronic components and packaging, and have developed significantly over the last few decades. Advanced adhesives in electronics reviews recent developments in adhesive joining technology, processing and properties. The book opens with an introduction to adhesive joining technology for electronics. Part one goes on to cover different types of adhesive used in electronic systems, including thermally conductive adhesives, isotropic and anisotropic conductive adhesives and underfill adhesives for flip-chip applications. Part two focuses on the properties and processing of electronic ...

  1. Electron crystallography and aquaporins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Andreas D; Hite, Richard K; Engel, Andreas; Fujiyoshi, Yoshinori; Walz, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Electron crystallography of two-dimensional (2D) crystals can provide information on the structure of membrane proteins at near-atomic resolution. Originally developed and used to determine the structure of bacteriorhodopsin (bR), electron crystallography has recently been applied to elucidate the structure of aquaporins (AQPs), a family of membrane proteins that form pores mostly for water but also other solutes. While electron crystallography has made major contributions to our understanding of the structure and function of AQPs, structural studies on AQPs, in turn, have fostered a number of technical developments in electron crystallography. In this contribution, we summarize the insights electron crystallography has provided into the biology of AQPs, and describe technical advancements in electron crystallography that were driven by structural studies on AQP 2D crystals. In addition, we discuss some of the lessons that were learned from electron crystallographic work on AQPs.

  2. Automotive electronics design fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Zaman, Najamuz

    2015-01-01

    This book explains the topology behind automotive electronics architectures and examines how they can be profoundly augmented with embedded controllers. These controllers serve as the core building blocks of today’s vehicle electronics. Rather than simply teaching electrical basics, this unique resource focuses on the fundamental concepts of vehicle electronics architecture, and details the wide variety of Electronic Control Modules (ECMs) that enable the increasingly sophisticated "bells & whistles" of modern designs.  A must-have for automotive design engineers, technicians working in automotive electronics repair centers and students taking automotive electronics courses, this guide bridges the gap between academic instruction and industry practice with clear, concise advice on how to design and optimize automotive electronics with embedded controllers.

  3. Medan Electronic Mall Arsitektur Ikonik

    OpenAIRE

    David,, A.

    2014-01-01

    With present the Medan Electronic Mall is intended to meet the needs of electronic goods from electronic of communication, Office Electronics, Household Electronics, Hobbies or electronic game, Medan Electronic Mall also hosts for the people of North Sumatra Province especially for people of Medan City to get particular information will be the development of electronic goods and also enjoy all kinds of things related to electronics such as Game Center, Cyber/Virtual Game, Internet...

  4. Engineered phages for electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yue

    2016-11-15

    Phages are traditionally widely studied in biology and chemistry. In recent years, engineered phages have attracted significant attentions for functionalization or construction of electronic devices, due to their specific binding, catalytic, nucleating or electronic properties. To apply the engineered phages in electronics, these are a number of interesting questions: how to engineer phages for electronics? How are the engineered phages characterized? How to assemble materials with engineered phages? How are the engineered phages micro or nanopatterned? What are the strategies to construct electronics devices with engineered phages? This review will highlight the early attempts to address these questions and explore the fundamental and practical aspects of engineered phages in electronics, including the approaches for selection or expression of specific peptides on phage coat proteins, characterization of engineered phages in electronics, assembly of electronic materials, patterning of engineered phages, and construction of electronic devices. It provides the methodologies and opens up ex-cit-ing op-por-tu-ni-ties for the development of a variety of new electronic materials and devices based on engineered phages for future applications.

  5. Scanning ultrafast electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ding-Shyue; Mohammed, Omar F; Zewail, Ahmed H

    2010-08-24

    Progress has been made in the development of four-dimensional ultrafast electron microscopy, which enables space-time imaging of structural dynamics in the condensed phase. In ultrafast electron microscopy, the electrons are accelerated, typically to 200 keV, and the microscope operates in the transmission mode. Here, we report the development of scanning ultrafast electron microscopy using a field-emission-source configuration. Scanning of pulses is made in the single-electron mode, for which the pulse contains at most one or a few electrons, thus achieving imaging without the space-charge effect between electrons, and still in ten(s) of seconds. For imaging, the secondary electrons from surface structures are detected, as demonstrated here for material surfaces and biological specimens. By recording backscattered electrons, diffraction patterns from single crystals were also obtained. Scanning pulsed-electron microscopy with the acquired spatiotemporal resolutions, and its efficient heat-dissipation feature, is now poised to provide in situ 4D imaging and with environmental capability.

  6. Scanning ultrafast electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ding-Shyue; Mohammed, Omar F.; Zewail, Ahmed H.

    2010-01-01

    Progress has been made in the development of four-dimensional ultrafast electron microscopy, which enables space-time imaging of structural dynamics in the condensed phase. In ultrafast electron microscopy, the electrons are accelerated, typically to 200 keV, and the microscope operates in the transmission mode. Here, we report the development of scanning ultrafast electron microscopy using a field-emission-source configuration. Scanning of pulses is made in the single-electron mode, for which the pulse contains at most one or a few electrons, thus achieving imaging without the space-charge effect between electrons, and still in ten(s) of seconds. For imaging, the secondary electrons from surface structures are detected, as demonstrated here for material surfaces and biological specimens. By recording backscattered electrons, diffraction patterns from single crystals were also obtained. Scanning pulsed-electron microscopy with the acquired spatiotemporal resolutions, and its efficient heat-dissipation feature, is now poised to provide in situ 4D imaging and with environmental capability. PMID:20696933

  7. Metamaterials for Ballistic Electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Dragoman, D; Dragoman, Daniela; Dragoman, Mircea

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents a metamaterial for ballistic electrons, which consists of a quantum barrier formed in a semiconductor with negative effective electron mass. This barrier is the analogue of a metamaterial for electromagnetic waves in media with negative electrical permittivity and magnetic permeability. Besides applications similar to those of optical metamaterials, a nanosized slab of a metamaterial for ballistic electrons, sandwiched between quantum wells of positive effective mass materials, reveals unexpected conduction properties, e.g. single or multiple room temperature negative differential conductance regions at very low voltages and with considerable peak-to-valley ratios, while the traversal time of ballistic electrons can be tuned to larger or smaller values than in the absence of the metamaterial slab. Thus, slow and fast electrons, analogous to slow and fast light, occur in metamaterials for ballistic electrons.

  8. Electrons in Nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flindt, Christian

    2007-01-01

    or a few electrons. Such few-electron devices are expected to form the building blocks of future electrical circuits and it is thus necessary to develop a thorough theoretical understanding of the physics of electrons in nanostructures. Re- garding applications there is a particular interest......-based communication. The statistical description of electron transport through nanostructures is based on rate equations, and the primary contribution of the thesis in that respect is the development of a method that allows for the calculation of the distribution of electrons passing through a device. The method......This thesis concerns theoretical aspects of electrons in man-made nanostruc- tures. Advances in nanofabrication technology during recent decades have made it possible to produce electrical devices on the nano-scale, whose func- tionality is determined by the quantum mechanical nature of a single...

  9. Single electron spintronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Kari J; Ciudad, David; Marrows, Christopher H

    2011-08-13

    Single electron electronics is now well developed, and allows the manipulation of electrons one-by-one as they tunnel on and off a nanoscale conducting island. In the past decade or so, there have been concerted efforts in several laboratories to construct single electron devices incorporating ferromagnetic components in order to introduce spin functionality. The use of ferromagnetic electrodes with a non-magnetic island can lead to spin accumulation on the island. On the other hand, making the dot also ferromagnetic introduces new physics such as tunnelling magnetoresistance enhancement in the cotunnelling regime and manifestations of the Kondo effect. Such nanoscale islands are also found to have long spin lifetimes. Conventional spintronics makes use of the average spin-polarization of a large ensemble of electrons: this new approach offers the prospect of accessing the quantum properties of the electron, and is a candidate approach to the construction of solid-state spin-based qubits.

  10. Electron transfer in proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, O; Pecht, I

    1991-01-01

    Electron migration between and within proteins is one of the most prevalent forms of biological energy conversion processes. Electron transfer reactions take place between active centers such as transition metal ions or organic cofactors over considerable distances at fast rates and with remarkable...... specificity. The electron transfer is attained through weak electronic interaction between the active sites, so that considerable research efforts are centered on resolving the factors that control the rates of long-distance electron transfer reactions in proteins. These factors include (in addition......-containing proteins. These proteins serve almost exclusively in electron transfer reactions, and as it turns out, their metal coordination sites are endowed with properties uniquely optimized for their function....

  11. Nanocrystals for electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panthani, Matthew G; Korgel, Brian A

    2012-01-01

    Semiconductor nanocrystals are promising materials for low-cost large-area electronic device fabrication. They can be synthesized with a wide variety of chemical compositions and size-tunable optical and electronic properties as well as dispersed in solvents for room-temperature deposition using various types of printing processes. This review addresses research progress in large-area electronic device applications using nanocrystal-based electrically active thin films, including thin-film transistors, light-emitting diodes, photovoltaics, and thermoelectrics.

  12. Technology of Electronic Signatur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Sadovsky

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An electronic signature uses a hash of message and an asymetrical algorithm of encryption for its generation. During verification of message on receiver side the hash of original message must be identical with the hash of received message. Electronic message is secured autentization of author and integrity of transmission date. By electronic signature it is possible to sign everything what is in digital form.

  13. Modern electronic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Watkins, John B

    2013-01-01

    Modern Electronic Materials focuses on the development of electronic components. The book first discusses the history of electronic components, including early developments up to 1900, developments up to World War II, post-war developments, and a comparison of present microelectric techniques. The text takes a look at resistive materials. Topics include resistor requirements, basic properties, evaporated film resistors, thick film resistors, and special resistors. The text examines dielectric materials. Considerations include basic properties, evaporated dielectric materials, ceramic dielectri

  14. Field emission electron source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettl, Alexander Karlwalter; Cohen, Marvin Lou

    2000-01-01

    A novel field emitter material, field emission electron source, and commercially feasible fabrication method is described. The inventive field emission electron source produces reliable electron currents of up to 400 mA/cm.sup.2 at 200 volts. The emitter is robust and the current it produces is not sensitive to variability of vacuum or the distance between the emitter tip and the cathode. The novel emitter has a sharp turn-on near 100 volts.

  15. Introduction to electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Korneff, Theodore

    1966-01-01

    Introduction to Electronics focuses on the study of electronics and electronic devices. Composed of 14 chapters, the book starts with discussions on dc circuits, including resistance, voltmeter, ammeter, galvanometer, internal resistance, and positive and negative currents. This topic is followed by discussions on ac circuits, particularly addressing voltage and current, average power, resistive load, complex plane, and parallel circuits. Discussions also focus on filters and tuned circuits, diodes, and power supplies. Particularly given attention are the processes, diagrams, and analyses

  16. ETHICS AND ELECTRONIC VOTING

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    13 pages; International audience; In the first part, we will define the main properties of a democratic election, providing a typology of electronic devices and give a view on some legal documents pertaining to the matter. In the second part, the ethics of voting will be evaluated: our methodology is detailed, followed by an examination of pure paper-based elections, paperless electronic voting and verifiable electronic voting. The new concept of legally operative transparency is defined and ...

  17. Electronic collection management

    CERN Document Server

    Mcginnis, Suzan D

    2013-01-01

    Build and manage your collection of digital resources with these successful strategies! This comprehensive volume is a practical guide to the art and science of acquiring and organizing electronic resources. The collections discussed here range in size from small college libraries to large research libraries, but all are facing similar problems: shrinking budgets, increasing demands, and rapidly shifting formats. Electronic Collection Management offers new ideas for coping with these issues. Bringing together diverse aspects of collection development, Electronic Collection

  18. Introduction to printed electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Suganuma, Katsuaki

    2014-01-01

    This book describes in detail modern technologies for printed electronics, explaining how nanotechnology and modern printing technology are merging to revolutionize electronics fabrication of thin, lightweight, large, and inexpensive products. Readers will benefit from the explanations of materials, devices and circuits used to design and implement the latest applications of printed electronics, such as thin flexible OLED displays, organic solar cells, OLED lighting, smart wallpaper, sensors, logic, memory and more.

  19. Electronic signal conditioning

    CERN Document Server

    NEWBY, BRUCE

    1994-01-01

    At technician level, brief references to signal conditioning crop up in a fragmented way in various textbooks, but there has been no single textbook, until now!More advanced texts do exist but they are more mathematical and presuppose a higher level of understanding of electronics and statistics. Electronic Signal Conditioning is designed for HNC/D students and City & Guilds Electronics Servicing 2240 Parts 2 & 3. It will also be useful for BTEC National, Advanced GNVQ, A-level electronics and introductory courses at degree level.

  20. Flying Electronic Warfare Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides NP-3D aircraft host platforms for Effectiveness of Navy Electronic Warfare Systems (ENEWS) Program antiship missile (ASM) seeker simulators used...

  1. Smart Electronic Textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Wei; Chen, Peining; He, Sisi; Sun, Xuemei; Peng, Huisheng

    2016-05-17

    This Review describes the state-of-the-art of wearable electronics (smart textiles). The unique and promising advantages of smart electronic textiles are highlighted by comparing them with the conventional planar counterparts. The main kinds of smart electronic textiles based on different functionalities, namely the generation, storage, and utilization of electricity, are then discussed with an emphasis on the use of functional materials. The remaining challenges are summarized together with important new directions to provide some useful clues for the future development of smart electronic textiles.

  2. Electronic Wallets in Danger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Michel Sahut

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The erratic development of electronic wallets (EW illustrates thedifficulties of their adoption by the general public and shopkeepersalike. With exceptions, such as Proton in Europe and Octopus in Asia,a lot of electronic wallets are likely to disappear in the next fewyears. Yet the key factors of success are known by banks which oftenchoose to ignore them. However, the strategic change taken by some inorder to bring a fresh start to electronic wallets like Moneo couldreverse the tendency. Nevertheless, it will still be necessary to waitseveral years before seeing electronic wallets really imposethemselves as a credible alternative to payments in cash.

  3. Analytical Electron Microscope

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Titan 80-300 is a transmission electron microscope (TEM) equipped with spectroscopic detectors to allow chemical, elemental, and other analytical measurements to...

  4. Fundamentals of electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Schubert, Thomas F

    2015-01-01

    This book, Electronic Devices and Circuit Application, is the first of four books of a larger work, Fundamentals of Electronics. It is comprised of four chapters describing the basic operation of each of the four fundamental building blocks of modern electronics: operational amplifiers, semiconductor diodes, bipolar junction transistors, and field effect transistors. Attention is focused on the reader obtaining a clear understanding of each of the devices when it is operated in equilibrium. Ideas fundamental to the study of electronic circuits are also developed in the book at a basic level to

  5. High-power electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Kapitsa, Petr Leonidovich

    1966-01-01

    High-Power Electronics, Volume 2 presents the electronic processes in devices of the magnetron type and electromagnetic oscillations in different systems. This book explores the problems of electronic energetics.Organized into 11 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the motion of electrons in a flat model of the magnetron, taking into account the in-phase wave and the reverse wave. This text then examines the processes of transmission of electromagnetic waves of various polarization and the wave reflection from grids made of periodically distributed infinite metal conductors. Other

  6. Electron correlation in molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, S

    2007-01-01

    Electron correlation effects are of vital significance to the calculation of potential energy curves and surfaces, the study of molecular excitation processes, and in the theory of electron-molecule scattering. This text describes methods for addressing one of theoretical chemistry's central problems, the study of electron correlation effects in molecules.Although the energy associated with electron correlation is a small fraction of the total energy of an atom or molecule, it is of the same order of magnitude as most energies of chemical interest. If the solution of quantum mechanical equatio

  7. Flying Electronic Warfare Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides NP-3D aircraft host platforms for Effectiveness of Navy Electronic Warfare Systems (ENEWS) Program antiship missile (ASM) seeker simulators used...

  8. Electronics pocket book

    CERN Document Server

    Parr, E A

    1981-01-01

    Electronics Pocket Book, Fourth Edition is a nonmathematical presentation of the many varied topics covered by electronics. The book tackles electron physics, electronic components (i.e. resistors, capacitors, and conductors), integrated circuits, and the principles of a.c. and d.c. amplifiers. The text also discusses oscillators, digital circuits, digital computers, and optoelectronics (i.e., sensors, emitters, and devices that utilize light). Communications (such as line and radio communications, transmitters, receivers, and digital techniques); the principles and examples of servosystems; a

  9. Flexible Electronics Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Flexible Electronics Research Facility designs, synthesizes, tests, and fabricates materials and devices compatible with flexible substrates for Army information...

  10. Electron Transfer Chain Catalysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Electron-transfer chain (ETC) catalysis belongs to the family of chain reactions where the electron is the catalyst. The ETC mechanism could be initiated by chemical activation, electrochemistry, or photolysis. If this pathway is applied to the preparation of organometallic complexes, it utilizes the greatly enhanced reactivity of organometallic 17e and 19e radicals. The chemical propagation is followed by the cross electron-transfer while the electron-transfer step is also followed by the chemical propagation, creating a loop in which reactants are facilely transformed into products. Interestingly the overall reaction is without any net redox change.

  11. Electron Transfer Chain Catalysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; LingKang

    2001-01-01

    Electron-transfer chain (ETC) catalysis belongs to the family of chain reactions where the electron is the catalyst. The ETC mechanism could be initiated by chemical activation, electrochemistry, or photolysis. If this pathway is applied to the preparation of organometallic complexes, it utilizes the greatly enhanced reactivity of organometallic 17e and 19e radicals. The chemical propagation is followed by the cross electron-transfer while the electron-transfer step is also followed by the chemical propagation, creating a loop in which reactants are facilely transformed into products. Interestingly the overall reaction is without any net redox change.  ……

  12. Nanosecond electron microscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostanjoglo; Elschner; Mao; Nink; Weingartner

    2000-04-01

    Combining electron optics, fast electronics and pulsed lasers, a transmission and a photoelectron emission microscope were built, which visualize events in thin films and on surfaces with a time resolution of several nanoseconds. The high-speed electron microscopy is capable to track fast laser-induced processes in metals below the ablation threshold, which are difficult to detect by other imaging techniques. The material response to nano- and femtosecond laser pulses was found to be very different. It was dominated by thermo/chemocapillary flow and chemical reactions in the case of nanosecond pulses, and by mechanical deformations and non-thermal electron emission after a femtosecond pulse.

  13. Electron caustic lithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Kennedy

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A maskless method of electron beam lithography is described which uses the reflection of an electron beam from an electrostatic mirror to produce caustics in the demagnified image projected onto a resist–coated wafer. By varying the electron optics, e.g. via objective lens defocus, both the morphology and dimensions of the caustic features may be controlled, producing a range of bright and tightly focused projected features. The method is illustrated for line and fold caustics and is complementary to other methods of reflective electron beam lithography.

  14. Electronics circuits and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2011-01-01

    The material in Electronics - Circuits and Systems is a truly up-to-date textbook, with coverage carefully matched to the electronics units of the 2007 BTEC National Engineering and the latest AS and A Level specifications in Electronics from AQA, OCR and WJEC. The material has been organized with a logical learning progression, making it ideal for a wide range of pre-degree courses in electronics. The approach is student-centred and includes: numerous examples and activities; web research topics; Self Test features, highlighted key facts, formulae and definitions. Ea

  15. Electronics circuits and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2007-01-01

    The material in Electronics - Circuits and Systems is a truly up-to-date textbook, with coverage carefully matched to the electronics units of the 2007 BTEC National Engineering and the latest AS and A Level specifications in Electronics from AQA, OCR and WJEC. The material has been organized with a logical learning progression, making it ideal for a wide range of pre-degree courses in electronics. The approach is student-centred and includes: numerous examples and activities; web research topics; Self Test features, highlighted key facts, formulae and definitions. Each chapter ends with a set

  16. (Pulsed electron beam precharger)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finney, W.C. (ed.); Shelton, W.N.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics on electron beam guns: Precharger Modification; Installation of Charge vs. Radius Apparatus; High Concentration Aerosol Generation; and Data Acquisition and Analysis System.

  17. Electronic circuits fundamentals & applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tooley, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Electronics explained in one volume, using both theoretical and practical applications.New chapter on Raspberry PiCompanion website contains free electronic tools to aid learning for students and a question bank for lecturersPractical investigations and questions within each chapter help reinforce learning Mike Tooley provides all the information required to get to grips with the fundamentals of electronics, detailing the underpinning knowledge necessary to appreciate the operation of a wide range of electronic circuits, including amplifiers, logic circuits, power supplies and oscillators. The

  18. Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator (EEBC) was developed to assist organizations in estimating the environmental benefits of greening their purchase,...

  19. Electronic Service Statistics - Quarterly Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This is a quarterly report that compares electronic data vs non-electronic data for electronic services. Report contains six main sections namely, electronic access,...

  20. Optical Electronics. Electronics Module 9. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franken, Bill

    This module is the ninth of 10 modules in the competency-based electronics series. Introductory materials include a listing of competencies addressed in the module, a parts/equipment list, and a cross reference table of instructional materials. Five instructional units cover: fiber optic cable; optical coupler; lasers and masers; optical displays;…

  1. Notes on Electronic Lexicography

    CERN Document Server

    Parvanov, Yavor

    2011-01-01

    These notes are a continuation of topics covered by V. Selegej in his article "Electronic Dictionaries and Computational lexicography". How can an electronic dictionary have as its object the description of closely related languages? Obviously, such a question allows multiple answers.

  2. Managing electronic records

    CERN Document Server

    McLeod, Julie

    2005-01-01

    For records management courses, this book covers the theory and practice of managing electronic records as business and information assets. It focuses on the strategies, systems and procedures necessary to ensure that electronic records are appropriately created, captured, organized and retained over time to meet business and legal requirements.

  3. STEP electronic system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, R. H.; Johnson, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    The STEP electronic system design is discussed. The purpose of the design is outlined. The electronic system design is summarized and it is found that: an effective conceptual system design is developed; the design represents a unique set of capabilities; makes efficient use of available orbiter resources; the system capabilities exceed identified potential experiment needs.

  4. Electron tunnel sensor technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltman, S. B.; Kaiser, W. J.

    1989-01-01

    The recent development of Scanning Tunneling Microscopy technology allows the application of electron tunneling to position detectors for the first time. The vacuum tunnel junction is one of the most sensitive position detection mechanisms available. It is also compact, simple, and requires little power. A prototype accelerometer based on electron tunneling, and other sensor applications of this promising new technology are described.

  5. Electron scattering violates parity

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Parity violation has been observed in collisions between electrons at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in the US. The resuls, which are in agreement with the Stanford Model of particle physics, also provide a new measurement of the weak charge of the electron (½ page)

  6. Pulsed Plasma Electron Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasik, Yakov

    2008-11-01

    Pulsed (˜10-7 s) electron beams with high current density (>10^2 A/cm^2) are generated in diodes with electric field of E > 10^6 V/cm. The source of electrons in these diodes is explosive emission plasma, which limits pulse duration; in the case E Hadas and Ya. E. Krasik, Europhysics Lett. 82, 55001 (2008).

  7. Electron transfer in peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Afzal; Adhikari, Bimalendu; Martic, Sanela; Munir, Azeema; Shahzad, Suniya; Ahmad, Khurshid; Kraatz, Heinz-Bernhard

    2015-02-21

    In this review, we discuss the factors that influence electron transfer in peptides. We summarize experimental results from solution and surface studies and highlight the ongoing debate on the mechanistic aspects of this fundamental reaction. Here, we provide a balanced approach that remains unbiased and does not favor one mechanistic view over another. Support for a putative hopping mechanism in which an electron transfers in a stepwise manner is contrasted with experimental results that support electron tunneling or even some form of ballistic transfer or a pathway transfer for an electron between donor and acceptor sites. In some cases, experimental evidence suggests that a change in the electron transfer mechanism occurs as a result of donor-acceptor separation. However, this common understanding of the switch between tunneling and hopping as a function of chain length is not sufficient for explaining electron transfer in peptides. Apart from chain length, several other factors such as the extent of the secondary structure, backbone conformation, dipole orientation, the presence of special amino acids, hydrogen bonding, and the dynamic properties of a peptide also influence the rate and mode of electron transfer in peptides. Electron transfer plays a key role in physical, chemical and biological systems, so its control is a fundamental task in bioelectrochemical systems, the design of peptide based sensors and molecular junctions. Therefore, this topic is at the heart of a number of biological and technological processes and thus remains of vital interest.

  8. Single particle electron microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekema, Egbert J.; Folea, Mihaela; Kouril, Roman; Kouřil, Roman

    2009-01-01

    Electron microscopy (EM) in combination with image analysis is a powerful technique to study protein structures at low, medium, and high resolution. Since electron micrographs of biological objects are very noisy, improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio by image processing is an integral part of EM

  9. Electronic Mail Connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Susan A.

    1987-01-01

    Provides an overview of new developments in electronic mail, including the interconnection of online networks, some on an international level; and news on system upgrades of specific information services. The growth of the electronic mail industry and possible future trends are discussed and a glossary of technical terms is included. (CLB)

  10. Electronically Controlled Resistor Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Walter L.

    1987-01-01

    Resistance quickly varied in small steps over wide range. Device with no moving parts provides variable electrical resistance. Used with analog or digital circuity to provide electronic selection of large number of resistance values for testing, simulation, control, or other purposes. Nearest electromechanical equivalent of all-electronic device is potentiometer driven by servomotor.

  11. Electronics and Lithuanian Terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stasys Zajankauskas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available It is found that the vacuum triode, transistor, monolithic circuit and microprocessor were the most important inventions of traditional electronics. Thus, the origins of the traditional electronics should be associated with the invention of the vacuum triode, but not with the invention of vacuum diode. It is shown that the science of electronics is not as young as computer science or up-to-date information technologies: electronics, including active electronics, had already celebrated the centenary, and the period of 2004–2008 is the period of numerous already solid jubilees. Thus, the terminology of electronics is not at initial stage of evolution as well – general terms should be already systematized and normalized. However, Lithuanian terms for electronic devices invented before tens of years and terms for old-defined notions associated with these devices are still varying, some are worsened. Especially, the incorrectly motivated terms used for variations of transistors and microcircuits are analyzed in the article. It is motivated which terms are preferable, systematic and exact. The paper is dedicated to the 50th anniversary of monolithic circuit, as well as the 60th anniversary of transistor, the 40th jubilee of microprocessor and centenary of electronics.

  12. Electronically Induced Phase Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    ries (w hen the Slater free-electron exchange is used). A systematic the active researcher. study of relativistic electron densities and isomer...comp:wrees aux mesures actuelles d’effet dHvA d’Arko et Schirber. Le calu; du facteur de forme neutronique en presence d’un champ magnetique est en bon

  13. Green and biodegradable electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Irimia-Vladu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We live in a world where the lifetime of electronics is becoming shorter, now approaching an average of several months. This poses a growing ecological problem. This brief review will present some of the initial steps taken to address the issue of electronic waste with biodegradable organic electronic materials. Many organic materials have been shown to be biodegradable, safe, and nontoxic, including compounds of natural origin. Additionally, the unique features of such organic materials suggest they will be useful in biofunctional electronics; demonstrating functions that would be inaccessible for traditional inorganic compounds. Such materials may lead to fully biodegradable and even biocompatible/biometabolizable electronics for many low-cost applications. This review highlights recent progress in these classes of material, covering substrates and insulators, semiconductors, and finally conductors.

  14. LEIR electron cooler status

    CERN Document Server

    Tranquille, G; Parkhomchuk, V; Prieto, V; Sautier, R

    2006-01-01

    The electron cooler for LEIR is the first of a new generation of coolers being commissioned for fast phase space cooling of ion beams in storage rings. It is a stateof- the-art cooler incorporating all the recent developments in electron cooling technology (adiabatic expansion, electrostatic bend, variable density electron beam) and is designed to deliver up to 600 mA of electron current for the cooling and stacking of Pb54+ ions in the frame of the ions for LHC project. In this paper we present our experience with the commissioning of the new device as well as the first results of ion beam cooling with a high-intensity variable-density electron beam.

  15. Electron Cyclotron Emission Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Cristina

    2009-11-01

    There is much interest in studying plasmas that generate hot electrons. The goal of this project is to develop a wide band electron cyclotron radiometer to measure the non-Maxwellian rapid rises in electron temperature. These rapid increases in temperature will then be correlated to instabilities in the plasma. This project explores a type of noncontact temperature measurement. We will attempt to show the feasibility of electron cyclotron emissions to measure the Maryland Centrifugal Experiment's electron plasma temperature. The radiometer has been designed to have 100dB of gain and a sensitivity of 24mV/dB given by its logarithmic amplifier. If successful, this radiometer will be used as a diagnostic tool in later projects such as the proposed experiment studying magnetic reconnection using solar flux loops.

  16. Practical electronics for inventors

    CERN Document Server

    Scherz, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Spark your creativity and gain the electronics skills required to transform your innovative ideas into functioning gadgets. This hands-on, updated guide outlines electrical principles and provides thorough, easy-to-follow instructions, schematics, and illustrations. Findout how to select components, safely assemble circuits, perform error tests, and build plug-and-play prototypes. Practical Electronics for Inventors, Third Edition, features all-new chapters on sensors, microcontrollers, modular electronics, and the latest software tools. Coverage includes: Resistors, capacitors, inductors, and transformers Diodes, transistors, and integrated circuits Optoelectronics, solar cells, and phototransistors Sensors, GPS modules, and touch screens Op amps, regulators, and power supplies Digital electronics, LCD displays, and logic gates Microcontrollers and prototyping platforms, including Arduino DC motors, RC servos, and stepper motors Microphones, audio amps, and speakers Modular electronics and prototyping.

  17. Simulations of Gaussian electron guns for RHIC electron lens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pikin, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2014-02-28

    Simulations of two versions of the electron gun for RHIC electron lens are presented. The electron guns have to generate an electron beam with Gaussian radial profile of the electron beam density. To achieve the Gaussian electron emission profile on the cathode we used a combination of the gun electrodes and shaping of the cathode surface. Dependence of electron gun performance parameters on the geometry of electrodes and the margins for electrodes positioning are presented.

  18. Electronic Collection Management and Electronic Information Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-01

    TITLE: Electronic Information Management for PfP Nations [La gestion electronique des informations pour les pays du PfP] To order the complete...banking and securities trading. E- commerce has moved into many other areas and it is now possible to purchase a wide variety of goods and services on line...include interactive e- commerce and e-governance services as well as various organizational database management needs (including registrations, membership

  19. Electron Cooling of RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Barton, Donald; Beavis, Dana; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Bluem, Hans; Brennan, Joseph M; Bruhwiler, David L; Burger, Al; Burov, Alexey; Burrill, Andrew; Calaga, Rama; Cameron, Peter; Chang, Xiangyun; Cole, Michael; Connolly, Roger; Delayen, Jean R; Derbenev, Yaroslav S; Eidelman, Yury I; Favale, Anthony; Fedotov, Alexei V; Fischer, Wolfram; Funk, L W; Gassner, David M; Hahn, Harald; Harrison, Michael; Hershcovitch, Ady; Holmes, Douglas; Hseuh Hsiao Chaun; Johnson, Peter; Kayran, Dmitry; Kewisch, Jorg; Kneisel, Peter; Koop, Ivan; Lambiase, Robert; Litvinenko, Vladimir N; MacKay, William W; Mahler, George; Malitsky, Nikolay; McIntyre, Gary; Meng, Wuzheng; Merminga, Lia; Meshkov, Igor; Mirabella, Kerry; Montag, Christoph; Nagaitsev, Sergei; Nehring, Thomas; Nicoletti, Tony; Oerter, Brian; Parkhomchuk, Vasily; Parzen, George; Pate, David; Phillips, Larry; Preble, Joseph P; Rank, Jim; Rao, Triveni; Rathke, John; Roser, Thomas; Russo, Thomas; Scaduto, Joseph; Schultheiss, Tom; Sekutowicz, Jacek; Shatunov, Yuri; Sidorin, Anatoly O; Skrinsky, Aleksander Nikolayevich; Smirnov, Alexander V; Smith, Kevin T; Todd, Alan M M; Trbojevic, Dejan; Troubnikov, Grigory; Wang, Gang; Wei, Jie; Williams, Neville; Wu, Kuo-Chen; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Zaltsman, Alex; Zhao, Yongxiang; ain, Animesh K

    2005-01-01

    We report progress on the R&D program for electron-cooling of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). This electron cooler is designed to cool 100 GeV/nucleon at storage energy using 54 MeV electrons. The electron source will be a superconducting RF photocathode gun. The accelerator will be a superconducting energy recovery linac. The frequency of the accelerator is set at 703.75 MHz. The maximum electron bunch frequency is 9.38 MHz, with bunch charge of 20 nC. The R&D program has the following components: The photoinjector and its photocathode, the superconducting linac cavity, start-to-end beam dynamics with magnetized electrons, electron cooling calculations including benchmarking experiments and development of a large superconducting solenoid. The photoinjector and linac cavity are being incorporated into an energy recovery linac aimed at demonstrating ampere class current at about 20 MeV. A Zeroth Order Design Report is in an advanced draft state, and can be found on the web at http://www.ags...

  20. Dissociative Electron Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arreola, Esmeralda; Esmeralda Arreola Collaboration; Leigh Hargreaves Collaboration

    Since the pioneering work of Boudiaffa et al., it has been understood that electrons, even with energies near or below the ionization threshold, are capable of initiating strand-breaks in human DNA. This discovery raised important questions for cancer treatments, since sub-ionizing electrons are known to be the most copiously produced secondary product of radiation therapy. But even to date these factors are largely excluded from dosimetry calculations. This lack of inclusion is, at least in part, certainly due to the dearth of fundamental data describing low-energy electron interactions with nucleotide molecules that form the basis of DNA. Understanding of how such slow electrons are able to damage DNA remains incomplete, but the strongly peaked nature of Boudiaffa et al.'s data gives strong hints at resonantly driven collision processes. DNA damage is therefore most likely driven by ``dissociative electron attachment'' (DEA). DEA is a rather complicated process to model due to the coupling of electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom in the molecule. At the California State University Fullerton, we are currently commissioning a new spectrometer to study dissociation channels, reaction rates and orientation effects in DEA collisions between slow electrons and nucleotide molecules. At the meeting we will present design parameters and commissioning data for this new apparatus.

  1. Electron heat flux instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Sundas; Sarfraz, M.; Yoon, P. H.; Lazar, M.; Qureshi, M. N. S.

    2017-02-01

    The heat flux instability is an electromagnetic mode excited by a relative drift between the protons and two-component core-halo electrons. The most prominent application may be in association with the solar wind where drifting electron velocity distributions are observed. The heat flux instability is somewhat analogous to the electrostatic Buneman or ion-acoustic instability driven by the net drift between the protons and bulk electrons, except that the heat flux instability operates in magnetized plasmas and possesses transverse electromagnetic polarization. The heat flux instability is also distinct from the electrostatic counterpart in that it requires two electron species with relative drifts with each other. In the literature, the heat flux instability is often called the 'whistler' heat flux instability, but it is actually polarized in the opposite sense to the whistler wave. This paper elucidates all of these fundamental plasma physical properties associated with the heat flux instability starting from a simple model, and gradually building up more complexity towards a solar wind-like distribution functions. It is found that the essential properties of the instability are already present in the cold counter-streaming electron model, and that the instability is absent if the protons are ignored. These instability characteristics are highly reminiscent of the electron firehose instability driven by excessive parallel temperature anisotropy, propagating in parallel direction with respect to the ambient magnetic field, except that the free energy source for the heat flux instability resides in the effective parallel pressure provided by the counter-streaming electrons.

  2. Aerogels for electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrubesh, L.W.

    1994-10-01

    In addition to their other exceptional properties, aerogels also exhibit unusual dielectric and electronic properties due to their nano-sized structures and high porosities. For example, aerogels have the lowest dielectric constants measured for a solid material (having values approaching 1.0); they have exceptionally high dielectric resistivities and strengths (i.e., ability to insulate very high voltages); they exhibit low dielectric loss at microwave frequencies; and some aerogels are electrically conductive and photoconductive. These properties are being exploited to provide the next generation of materials for energy storage, low power consumption, and ultra-fast electronics. We are working toward adapting these unusual materials for microelectronic applications, particularly, making thin aerogel films for dielectric substrates and for energy storage devices such as supercapacitors. Measurements are presented in this paper for the dielectric and electronic properties of aerogels, including the dielectric constant, loss factor, dielectric and electrical conductivity, volume resistivity, and dielectric strength. We also describe methods to form and characterize thin aerogel films which are being developed for numerous electronic applications. Finally, some of the electronic applications proposed for aerogels are presented. Commercialization of aerogels for electronics must await further feasibility, prototype development, and cost studies, but they are one of the key materials and are sure to have a major impact on future electronics.

  3. Coherent electron cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvinenko,V.

    2009-05-04

    Cooling intense high-energy hadron beams remains a major challenge in modern accelerator physics. Synchrotron radiation is still too feeble, while the efficiency of two other cooling methods, stochastic and electron, falls rapidly either at high bunch intensities (i.e. stochastic of protons) or at high energies (e-cooling). In this talk a specific scheme of a unique cooling technique, Coherent Electron Cooling, will be discussed. The idea of coherent electron cooling using electron beam instabilities was suggested by Derbenev in the early 1980s, but the scheme presented in this talk, with cooling times under an hour for 7 TeV protons in the LHC, would be possible only with present-day accelerator technology. This talk will discuss the principles and the main limitations of the Coherent Electron Cooling process. The talk will describe the main system components, based on a high-gain free electron laser driven by an energy recovery linac, and will present some numerical examples for ions and protons in RHIC and the LHC and for electron-hadron options for these colliders. BNL plans a demonstration of the idea in the near future.

  4. Electronic devices and circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, Gordon John

    1968-01-01

    Electronic Devices and Circuits, Volume 1 deals with the design and applications of electronic devices and circuits such as passive components, diodes, triodes and transistors, rectification and power supplies, amplifying circuits, electronic instruments, and oscillators. These topics are supported with introductory network theory and physics. This volume is comprised of nine chapters and begins by explaining the operation of resistive, inductive, and capacitive elements in direct and alternating current circuits. The theory for some of the expressions quoted in later chapters is presented. Th

  5. Power Electronics for Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragicevic, Tomislav; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    A microgrid (MG) is a stand-alone or grid-connected hybrid renewable system that uses distributed renewable and nonrenewable energy sources and energy storage systems (ESSs) to supply power to local loads. The system is ordinarily based on power electronics, with interface converters allowing...... a continuous supply of power in the presence of variable RES production. This chapter describes some specific features of DC MGs in terms of power architecture, control, and protection. It also reviews several uncommon power electronic interfaces. Regarding control, operation without critical communication...... are explained in this chapter. The chapter concludes with a review of power electronic intensive protection solutions for DC MGs....

  6. Quantum electronics basic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Fain, V M; Sanders, J H

    1969-01-01

    Quantum Electronics, Volume 1: Basic Theory is a condensed and generalized description of the many research and rapid progress done on the subject. It is translated from the Russian language. The volume describes the basic theory of quantum electronics, and shows how the concepts and equations followed in quantum electronics arise from the basic principles of theoretical physics. The book then briefly discusses the interaction of an electromagnetic field with matter. The text also covers the quantum theory of relaxation process when a quantum system approaches an equilibrium state, and explai

  7. Electronic components and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Dennis, W H

    2013-01-01

    Electronic Components and Systems focuses on the principles and processes in the field of electronics and the integrated circuit. Covered in the book are basic aspects and physical fundamentals; different types of materials involved in the field; and passive and active electronic components such as capacitors, inductors, diodes, and transistors. Also covered in the book are topics such as the fabrication of semiconductors and integrated circuits; analog circuitry; digital logic technology; and microprocessors. The monograph is recommended for beginning electrical engineers who would like to kn

  8. Consulting in Electronic Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina Loredana Tache

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Economic development of electronic services provide advice and many agents of existingreferral systems to recommend and provide products, information and customized views of thecommunity through a personalized interaction in real time. Distributed systems of autonomous agentsare becoming increasingly important in electronic comet because the basic decisions of agents adviceon trust and reputation are taken in a similar way human society. If these decisions will be as a realconsumer protection, when new aspects of online consumer legislation will become usefulinformation in advice and consulting of electronic commerce.

  9. Electron Beam Materials Irradiators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Marshall R.

    2012-06-01

    Radiation processing is a well established method for enhancing the properties of materials and commercial products by treating them with ionizing energy in the form of high-energy electrons, X-rays, and gamma rays. Beneficial effects include polymerizing, cross-linking, grafting and degrading plastics, sterilizing single-use medical devices, disinfecting and disinfesting fresh foods, purifying drinking water, treating wastewater and other toxic waste materials that harm the environment, and many other applications that are still being evaluated. Industrial electron accelerators of several types have been developed and are being used for these applications. More than 1800 electron accelerators are presently installed in facilities worldwide for these purposes.

  10. Field emission electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Egorov, Nikolay

    2017-01-01

    This book is dedicated to field emission electronics, a promising field at the interface between “classic” vacuum electronics and nanotechnology. In addition to theoretical models, it includes detailed descriptions of experimental and research techniques and production technologies for different types of field emitters based on various construction principles. It particularly focuses on research into and production of field cathodes and electron guns using recently developed nanomaterials and carbon nanotubes. Further, it discusses the applications of field emission cathodes in new technologies such as light sources, flat screens, microwave and X-ray devices.

  11. Semiconductor opto-electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Moss, TS; Ellis, B

    1972-01-01

    Semiconductor Opto-Electronics focuses on opto-electronics, covering the basic physical phenomena and device behavior that arise from the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and electrons in a solid. The first nine chapters of this book are devoted to theoretical topics, discussing the interaction of electromagnetic waves with solids, dispersion theory and absorption processes, magneto-optical effects, and non-linear phenomena. Theories of photo-effects and photo-detectors are treated in detail, including the theories of radiation generation and the behavior of semiconductor lasers a

  12. Principles of quantum electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Marcuse, Dietrich

    1980-01-01

    Principles of Quantum Electronics focuses on the concept of quantum electronics as the application of quantum theory to engineering problems. It examines the principles that govern specific quantum electronics devices and presents their theoretical applications to typical problems. Comprised of 10 chapters, this book starts with an overview of the Dirac formulation of quantum mechanics. This text then considers the derivation of the formalism of field quantization and discusses the properties of photons and phonons. Other chapters examine the interaction between the electromagnetic field and c

  13. VLSI electronics microstructure science

    CERN Document Server

    1982-01-01

    VLSI Electronics: Microstructure Science, Volume 4 reviews trends for the future of very large scale integration (VLSI) electronics and the scientific base that supports its development.This book discusses the silicon-on-insulator for VLSI and VHSIC, X-ray lithography, and transient response of electron transport in GaAs using the Monte Carlo method. The technology and manufacturing of high-density magnetic-bubble memories, metallic superlattices, challenge of education for VLSI, and impact of VLSI on medical signal processing are also elaborated. This text likewise covers the impact of VLSI t

  14. Coding for Electronic Mail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, R. F.; Lee, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Scheme for coding facsimile messages promises to reduce data transmission requirements to one-tenth current level. Coding scheme paves way for true electronic mail in which handwritten, typed, or printed messages or diagrams sent virtually instantaneously - between buildings or between continents. Scheme, called Universal System for Efficient Electronic Mail (USEEM), uses unsupervised character recognition and adaptive noiseless coding of text. Image quality of resulting delivered messages improved over messages transmitted by conventional coding. Coding scheme compatible with direct-entry electronic mail as well as facsimile reproduction. Text transmitted in this scheme automatically translated to word-processor form.

  15. TIS - Beyond Electronic Mail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    AD-AI06 764 AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH F/G 17/2 TIS - BEYOND ELECTRONIC MAIL .(U) 1979 D L OLSON, N T FLYNN, M I DARWISH...79-22§1_ 4~~~~~~~ SIXi.m.aihl -- . TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD covERED TIS -SBeyond Electronic Mail . TlSS~cnA~r 6 PEFRI4 O11G. REPORT NUMBER Duane L.A:o...single-service provisions of so-called " electronic mail ." Approaches to be used in implementing a TIS are considered, and a time-frame scenario is

  16. Electron paramagnetic resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Al'tshuler, S A

    2013-01-01

    Electron Paramagnetic Resonance is a comprehensive text on the field of electron paramagnetic resonance, covering both the theoretical background and the results of experiment. This book is composed of eight chapters that cover theoretical materials and experimental data on ionic crystals, since these are the materials that have been most extensively studied by the methods of paramagnetic resonance. The opening chapters provide an introduction to the basic principles of electron paramagnetic resonance and the methods of its measurement. The next chapters are devoted to the theory of spectra an

  17. Reliable Electronic Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Nayak

    1960-05-01

    Full Text Available The reliability aspect of electronic equipment's is discussed. To obtain optimum results, close cooperation between the components engineer, the design engineer and the production engineer is suggested.

  18. The art of electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Horowitz, Paul

    2015-01-01

    At long last, here is the thoroughly revised and updated third edition of the hugely successful Art of Electronics. It is widely accepted as the best single authoritative book on electronic circuit design. In addition to new or enhanced coverage of many topics, the Third Edition includes: 90 oscilloscope screenshots illustrating the behavior of working circuits; dozens of graphs giving highly useful measured data of the sort that's often buried or omitted in datasheets but which you need when designing circuits; 80 tables (listing some 1650 active components), enabling intelligent choice of circuit components by listing essential characteristics (both specified and measured) of available parts. The new Art of Electronics ​​retains the feeling of informality and easy access that helped make the earlier editions so successful and popular. It is an indispensable reference and the gold standard​​ for anyone, student or researcher, professional or amateur, who works with electronic circuits.

  19. Electronic Universal Vote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian USCATU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the days of informational society everything is going online. Most aspects of our lives have online components. Since democracy is a big issue, it could not escape this trend. Governments themselves are moving to the online environment for the purpose of improving their internal efficiency and their availability to the citizens, businesses and other parties interested. Since governments are the result of elections, elections have also been touched by the electronic fever. New electronic voting solutions arise and each one brings new debates with many arguments in their favor and against them. Accessibility and ease of use leads the arguments in favor of electronic voting over the internet, while fear of fraud is the main reason people are avoiding electronics and clinging on classic paper ballots.

  20. Electron gun for SSRF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A 100 kV triode-electron-gun has been designed and manufactured for the Linac of Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF). In this paper the performance of the gun and some key components are described.

  1. Pulsed plasma electron sourcesa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasik, Ya. E.; Yarmolich, D.; Gleizer, J. Z.; Vekselman, V.; Hadas, Y.; Gurovich, V. Tz.; Felsteiner, J.

    2009-05-01

    There is a continuous interest in research of electron sources which can be used for generation of uniform electron beams produced at E ≤105 V/cm and duration ≤10-5 s. In this review, several types of plasma electron sources will be considered, namely, passive (metal ceramic, velvet and carbon fiber with and without CsI coating, and multicapillary and multislot cathodes) and active (ferroelectric and hollow anodes) plasma sources. The operation of passive sources is governed by the formation of flashover plasma whose parameters depend on the amplitude and rise time of the accelerating electric field. In the case of ferroelectric and hollow-anode plasma sources the plasma parameters are controlled by the driving pulse and discharge current, respectively. Using different time- and space-resolved electrical, optical, spectroscopical, Thomson scattering and x-ray diagnostics, the parameters of the plasma and generated electron beam were characterized.

  2. Scanning Auger Electron Microscope

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A JEOL model 7830F field emission source, scanning Auger microscope. Specifications / Capabilities: Ultra-high vacuum (UHV), electron gun range from 0.1 kV to 25 kV,...

  3. Scanning Auger Electron Microscope

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A JEOL model 7830F field emission source, scanning Auger microscope.Specifications / Capabilities:Ultra-high vacuum (UHV), electron gun range from 0.1 kV to 25 kV,...

  4. Telecommunications--Electronic Mail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Luke E.; Zuckerman, B. Michael

    1989-01-01

    This article identifies resources needed in order for physical education, recreation, and dance professionals to use computer-based telecommunications; discusses electronic mail; and explains how telecommunications can enhance communication in the field, both within and across professions. (IAH)

  5. Introduction to electron crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühlbrandt, Werner

    2013-01-01

    From the earliest work on regular arrays in negative stain, electron crystallography has contributed greatly to our understanding of the structure and function of biological macromolecules. The development of electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) then lead to the first groundbreaking atomic models of the membrane proteins bacteriorhodopsin and light harvesting complex II within lipid bilayers. Key contributions towards cryo-EM and electron crystallography methods included specimen preparation and vitrification, liquid-helium cooling, data collection, and image processing. These methods are now applied almost routinely to both membrane and soluble proteins. Here we outline the advances and the breakthroughs that paved the way towards high-resolution structures by electron crystallography, both in terms of methods development and biological milestones.

  6. Electron and Photon ID

    CERN Document Server

    Hryn'ova, Tetiana; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The identification of prompt photons and the rejection of background coming mostly from photons from hadron decays relies on the high granularity of the ATLAS calorimeter. The electron identification used in ATLAS for run 2 is based on a likelihood discrimination to separate isolated electron candidates from candidates originating from photon conversions, hadron misidentification and heavy flavor decays. In addition, isolation variables are used as further handles to separate signal and background. Several methods are used to measure with data the efficiency of the photon identification requirements, to cover a broad energy spectrum. At low energy, photons from radiative Z decays are used. In the medium energy range, similarities between electrons and photon showers are exploited using Z->ee decays. At high energy, inclusive photon samples are used. The measurement of the efficiencies of the electron identification and isolation cuts are performed with the data using tag and probe techniques with large statis...

  7. Electronics Modernization Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Current electronic packaging designs used in our most recent spacecraft are comprised of technologies from the 1980’s and 1990’s. The current approach...

  8. Electronics for guitarists

    CERN Document Server

    Dailey, Denton J

    2014-01-01

    Electronics for Guitarists focuses on analog circuitry, and is written for the guitarist interested in transistor and vacuum tube-based amplifiers. Topics include discrete transistors and diodes, classical filter circuits, and vacuum tube-based amplifiers.

  9. ELECTRONIC BANKING AND ELECTRONIC COMMERCE IN SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana B. Petrevska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, we may witness to dramatic and visible changes in our life environment. Business ambient for companies is different every day, and it is very hard to predict a direction of future changes. There is an environment characterized by sharp competition and increasing number of competitors, fast technological improvements and highly sophisticated and informed costumers. Technological process influences the humanity strongly, changing the way that people live, work and spend. Electronic commerce and electronic banking has become incontinent, and makes a great part of today's total transactions. There are an increasing number of companies that perform their business that way and make profit. Social networks are proven to be the least expensive way of information exchange, and they are present in almost every part of the world. The globalization has reached the most distant parts of the Earth. Every resistance to new technologies is dangerous and may lead to bankruptcy. Due to the EU expansion, Internet users are to be expected, and prosperity of the e-commerce business models at the same time. In Serbia, electronic commerce is present, but not as developed as in EU countries. E-commerce, however it might be successful throughout the world, it is somewhat slow in its growth in Serbia. The reasons are numerous, and main obstacles are the lack of trust, still limited usage of banking cards, avoiding of e-payments by older population etc. Also, the recent scandals over the misuse of personal data, and e-crime are discouraging factors for the growth of e-trade and ebanking. The younger generations are ever more ready to use e-commerce, since they are open to new technologies and do not have the defensive attitude towards it. E-commerce and e-banking has growing potential even among older population, if the society prevents them from fear and mistrust.

  10. Cooling of electronic equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A. Kristensen, Anders Schmidt

    2003-01-01

    Cooling of electronic equipment is studied. The design size of electronic equipment decrease causing the thermal density to increase. This affect the cooling which can cause for example failures of critical components due to overheating or thermal induced stresses. Initially a pin fin heat sink...... is considered as extruded profiles are inadequate for compact designs. An optimal pin fin shape and configuration is sought also taking manufacturing costs into consideration. Standard methods for geometrical modeling and thermal analysis are applied....

  11. Electronic states of myricetin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vojta, Danijela; Karlsen, Eva; Spanget-Larsen, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Myricetin (3,3',4',5,5',7'-hexahydroxyflavone) was investigated by linear dichroism spectroscopy on molecular samples partially aligned in stretched poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). At least five electronic transitions in the range 40000 – 20000 cm–1 were characterized with respect to their wavenumbers......, relative intensities, and transition moment directions. The observed bands were assigned to electronic transitions predicted with TD-B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p)....

  12. Newnes electronics assembly handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Brindley, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Newnes Electronics Assembly Handbook: Techniques, Standards and Quality Assurance focuses on the aspects of electronic assembling. The handbook first looks at the printed circuit board (PCB). Base materials, basic mechanical properties, cleaning of assemblies, design, and PCB manufacturing processes are then explained. The text also discusses surface mounted assemblies and packaging of electromechanical assemblies, as well as the soldering process. Requirements for the soldering process; solderability and protective coatings; cleaning of PCBs; and mass solder/component reflow soldering are des

  13. Electron Beam Ion Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Zschornacka, G.; Schmidt, M.; Thorn, A.

    2014-01-01

    Electron beam ion sources (EBISs) are ion sources that work based on the principle of electron impact ionization, allowing the production of very highly charged ions. The ions produced can be extracted as a DC ion beam as well as ion pulses of different time structures. In comparison to most of the other known ion sources, EBISs feature ion beams with very good beam emittances and a low energy spread. Furthermore, EBISs are excellent sources of photons (X-rays, ultraviolet, extreme ultraviole...

  14. 4D Electron Tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Oh-Hoon; Zewail, Ahmed H.

    2010-01-01

    Electron tomography provides three-dimensional (3D) imaging of noncrystalline and crystalline equilibrium structures, as well as elemental volume composition, of materials and biological specimens, including those of viruses and cells. We report the development of 4D electron tomography by integrating the fourth dimension (time resolution) with the 3D spatial resolution obtained from a complete tilt series of 2D projections of an object. The different time frames of tomograms constitute a mov...

  15. Mathematics for electronic technology

    CERN Document Server

    Howson, D P

    1975-01-01

    Mathematics for Electronic Technology is a nine-chapter book that begins with the elucidation of the introductory concepts related to use of mathematics in electronic engineering, including differentiation, integration, partial differentiation, infinite series, vectors, vector algebra, and surface, volume and line integrals. Subsequent chapters explore the determinants, differential equations, matrix analysis, complex variable, topography, graph theory, and numerical analysis used in this field. The use of Fourier method for harmonic analysis and the Laplace transform is also described. The ma

  16. Electron scattering experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisenberg, J.

    1984-11-01

    Because of the elementary structure of the electron, it is considered a precise probe of the constituent nature of hadronic matter. Use of the electron as a probe of subnucleonic degrees of freedom in nuclei is discussed in this presentation. Experimentally determined charge distributions for a wide variety of nuclei are presented and compared with shell model calculations which include single particle modes, core polarization, corrections due to delta-hole components, and corrections due to inclusion of meson exchange currents. (AIP)

  17. Electronic Portfolios for Scientists

    OpenAIRE

    Dahn, I.; Christmann, A.

    2007-01-01

    Electronic portfolios (ePortfolios) are electronic versions of paper based portfolios. They are increasingly applied in education. Software for building and maintaining ePortfolios is emerging; open specifications for the exchange of ePortfolios exist. They show the potential to serve as a standard tool for documenting achievements in lifelong learning. In this paper we explore the potential of ePortfolios for scientists.

  18. Electrical and electronic principles

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, SA

    1988-01-01

    Electrical and Electronic Principles, 3 focuses on the principles involved in electrical and electronic circuits, including impedance, inductance, capacitance, and resistance.The book first deals with circuit elements and theorems, D.C. transients, and the series circuits of alternating current. Discussions focus on inductance and resistance in series, resistance and capacitance in series, power factor, impedance, circuit magnification, equation of charge, discharge of a capacitor, transfer of power, and decibels and attenuation. The manuscript then examines the parallel circuits of alternatin

  19. The Recycler Electron Cooler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shemyakin, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Prost, L. R. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2013-03-19

    The Recycler Electron cooler was the first (and so far, the only) cooler working at a relativistic energy (γ = 9.5). It was successfully developed in 1995-2004 and was in operation at Fermilab in 2005-2011, providing cooling of antiprotons in the Recycler ring. This paper describes the cooler, difficulties in achieving the required electron beam parameters and the ways to overcome them, cooling measurements, and details of operation.

  20. Trust in Consumer Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kursawe, Klaus; Katzenbeisser, Stefan

    While Trusted Computing is getting increasing attention in the PC world, consumer electronics devices have limited benefit from the Trusted Computing solutions currently under development. In this paper we outline the different requirements of consumer electronics devices, when compared to the PC world, and point out the technical consequences for standards like the Trusted Computing Group. In addition, we will touch on economic aspects that may inhibit or support Trusted Computing in this domain.

  1. Electron spectroscopy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, John C.

    1992-01-01

    The Surface Science Laboratories at the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) are equipped with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS or ESCA) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) facilities. These techniques provide information from the uppermost atomic layers of a sample, and are thus truly surface sensitive. XPS provides both elemental and chemical state information without restriction on the type of material that can be analyzed. The sample is placed into an ultra high vacuum (UHV) chamber and irradiated with x-rays which cause the ejection of photoelectrons from the sample surface. Since x-rays do not normally cause charging problems or beam damage, XPS is applicable to a wide range of samples including metals, polymers, catalysts, and fibers. AES uses a beam of high energy electrons as a surface probe. Following electronic rearrangements within excited atoms by this probe, Auger electrons characteristic of each element present are emitted from the sample. The main advantage of electron induced AES is that the electron beam can be focused down to a small diameter and localized analysis can be carried out. On the rastering of this beam synchronously with a video display using established scanning electron microscopy techniques, physical images and chemical distribution maps of the surface can be produced. Thus very small features, such as electronic circuit elements or corrosion pits in metals, can be investigated. Facilities are available on both XPS and AES instruments for depth-profiling of materials, using a beam of argon ions to sputter away consecutive layers of material to reveal sub-surface (and even semi-bulk) analyses.

  2. Newnes electronics toolkit

    CERN Document Server

    Phillips, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    Newnes Electronics Toolkit brings together fundamental facts, concepts, and applications of electronic components and circuits, and presents them in a clear, concise, and unambiguous format, to provide a reference book for engineers. The book contains 10 chapters that discuss the following concepts: resistors, capacitors, inductors, semiconductors, circuit concepts, electromagnetic compatibility, sound, light, heat, and connections. The engineer's job does not end when the circuit diagram is completed; the design for the manufacturing process is just as important if volume production is to be

  3. Electronic states of myricetin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vojta, Danijela; Karlsen, Eva; Spanget-Larsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Myricetin (3,3',4',5,5',7'-hexahydroxyflavone) was investigated by linear dichroism spectroscopy on molecular samples partially aligned in stretched poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). At least five electronic transitions in the range 40000 – 20000 cm–1 were characterized with respect to their wavenumbers......, relative intensities, and transition moment directions. The observed bands were assigned to electronic transitions predicted with TD-B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p)....

  4. Electronics 3 checkbook

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, S A; May, A J C

    2013-01-01

    Electronics 3 Checkbook provides a concise coverage of the theories and definitions of concepts in electronics. The book provides problems and worked examples to supplement fuller textbooks of the same subject. The coverage of the text includes decibel measurement, operational amplifiers, DA and AD converters, controlled rectifiers, triggering devices, optoelectronic devices, fiber optics, and power amplifiers. The text will be of great use to electrical engineering students who wish to enhance their understanding of the basics of mechanical and electrical science.

  5. Electron Transfer Pathways in Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Liu

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of the electron salvation process data indicates that the electron transfer between the electron donor and acceptor is hindered by the electron salvation process. It is proposed that the electron transfer in the cell environment must be assisted by intermediate messenger called the “transport protein”.

  6. Thermionics basic principles of electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, J; Ashhurst, W

    2013-01-01

    Basic Principles of Electronics, Volume I : Thermionics serves as a textbook for students in physics. It focuses on thermionic devices. The book covers topics on electron dynamics, electron emission, and the themionic vacuum diode and triode. Power amplifiers, oscillators, and electronic measuring equipment are studied as well. The text will be of great use to physics and electronics students, and inventors.

  7. Netiquette in Electronic Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Kozík

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Electronic mail and electronic communications systems are considered significant and effective tools of communication. One of the most widespread electronic communication tools is e - mail communication. In order to avoid misinterpretation of the report on the side of the recipient, it is need to pay attention to the writing of e - mail messages as well as to their content. With the continuous expansion of the use of electronic communication there have gradually developed certain rules of etiquette in electronic communications. The existing rules of the propriety ones are expressed in the term " etiqutte " and are not automatically applied in the new communications environment - media. For electronic communication, the new rules of etiquette have been stabilised into a term NETIQUETTE. The word netiquette was created by combining words NET (net and ETIKETA (a set of rules of social behavior and habits. Netiquette constitutes the rules of the behavior of users on a network. Although the netiquette is merely "an unwritten set of rules", their not using can be understood as a type of disrespect. Analysis of knowledge of domestic and foreign sources as well as results of a survey confirmed the justification of paying attention to the education of individuals in NETIQUETTE, irrespective of the degree of education.

  8. BOK-Printed Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffarian, Reza

    2013-01-01

    The use of printed electronics technologies (PETs), 2D or 3D printing approaches either by conventional electronic fabrication or by rapid graphic printing of organic or nonorganic electronic devices on various small or large rigid or flexible substrates, is projected to grow exponentially in commercial industry. This has provided an opportunity to determine whether or not PETs could be applicable for low volume and high-reliability applications. This report presents a summary of literature surveyed and provides a body of knowledge (BOK) gathered on the current status of organic and printed electronics technologies. It reviews three key industry roadmaps- on this subject-OE-A, ITRS, and iNEMI-each with a different name identification for this emerging technology. This followed by a brief review of the status of the industry on standard development for this technology, including IEEE and IPC specifications. The report concludes with key technologies and applications and provides a technology hierarchy similar to those of conventional microelectronics for electronics packaging. Understanding key technology roadmaps, parameters, and applications is important when judicially selecting and narrowing the follow-up of new and emerging applicable technologies for evaluation, as well as the low risk insertion of organic, large area, and printed electronics.

  9. Good Security Practices for Electronic Commerce, Including Electronic Data Interchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    FROM - TO) xx-xx-2002 to xx-xx-2002 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Good Security Practices for Electronic Commerce , Including Electronic Data Interchange...Report 12/1/1993 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Good Security Practices for Electronic Commerce , Including Electronic Data Interchange 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6...Maximum 200 Words) Electronic commerce (EC) is the use of documents in electronic form, rather than paper, for carrying out functions of business or

  10. Electron holes in inhomogeneous magnetic field: electron heating and electron hole evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasko, Ivan; Agapitov, Oleksiy; Mozer, Forrest; Artemyev, Anton; Drake, James

    2016-04-01

    Electron holes are electrostatic non-linear structures widely observed in the space plasma, e.g., in reconnecting current sheets, collisionless bow shocks, Earth auroral region and outer radiation belt etc. In the present paper we analyze the process of energy exchange between trapped electrons, untrapped electrons and electron hole propagating in weakly inhomogeneous magnetic field. We show that as electron hole propagates into the region with stronger magnetic field, trapped electrons are heated due to conservation of the first adiabatic invariant. At the same time electron hole may grow or dissipate in dependence on peculiarities of distribution functions of trapped and resonant untrapped electrons. The energy gain of trapped electrons is due to energy losses of resonant electrons and/or decrease of electron hole energy (electrostatic energy and kinetic energy of non-resonant electrons). We stress that taking into account the energy exchange with resonant untrapped electrons increases the heating factor of trapped electrons that is proportional to the magnetic field magnitude in the region up to what electron holes survive. We illustrate the suggested mechanism for H. Schamel's electron holes and show that during propagation along a positive magnetic field gradient their amplitude should grow. Neglect of energy exchange with resonant untrapped electrons would result electron hole dissipation with only modest heating factor of trapped electrons. We argue that the suggested mechanism may be responsible for generation of energetic electrons in the space plasma.

  11. Runaway electrons and ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boozer, Allen H.

    2017-05-01

    The potential for damage, the magnitude of the extrapolation, and the importance of the atypical—incidents that occur once in a thousand shots—make theory and simulation essential for ensuring that relativistic runaway electrons will not prevent ITER from achieving its mission. Most of the theoretical literature on electron runaway assumes magnetic surfaces exist. ITER planning for the avoidance of halo and runaway currents is focused on massive-gas or shattered-pellet injection of impurities. In simulations of experiments, such injections lead to a rapid large-scale magnetic-surface breakup. Surface breakup, which is a magnetic reconnection, can occur on a quasi-ideal Alfvénic time scale when the resistance is sufficiently small. Nevertheless, the removal of the bulk of the poloidal flux, as in halo-current mitigation, is on a resistive time scale. The acceleration of electrons to relativistic energies requires the confinement of some tubes of magnetic flux within the plasma and a resistive time scale. The interpretation of experiments on existing tokamaks and their extrapolation to ITER should carefully distinguish confined versus unconfined magnetic field lines and quasi-ideal versus resistive evolution. The separation of quasi-ideal from resistive evolution is extremely challenging numerically, but is greatly simplified by constraints of Maxwell’s equations, and in particular those associated with magnetic helicity. The physics of electron runaway along confined magnetic field lines is clarified by relations among the poloidal flux change required for an e-fold in the number of electrons, the energy distribution of the relativistic electrons, and the number of relativistic electron strikes that can be expected in a single disruption event.

  12. Beginning analog electronics through projects

    CERN Document Server

    Singmin, Andrew

    2001-01-01

    Analog electronics is the simplest way to start a fun, informative, learning program. Beginning Analog Electronics Through Projects, Second Edition was written with the needs of beginning hobbyists and students in mind. This revision of Andrew Singmin's popular Beginning Electronics Through Projects provides practical exercises, building techniques, and ideas for useful electronics projects. Additionally, it features new material on analog and digital electronics, and new projects for troubleshooting test equipment.Published in the tradition of Beginning Electronics Through Projects an

  13. Cooling system for electronic components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderl, William James; Colgan, Evan George; Gerken, James Dorance; Marroquin, Christopher Michael; Tian, Shurong

    2016-05-17

    Embodiments of the present invention provide for non interruptive fluid cooling of an electronic enclosure. One or more electronic component packages may be removable from a circuit card having a fluid flow system. When installed, the electronic component packages are coincident to and in a thermal relationship with the fluid flow system. If a particular electronic component package becomes non-functional, it may be removed from the electronic enclosure without affecting either the fluid flow system or other neighboring electronic component packages.

  14. Cooling system for electronic components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderl, William James; Colgan, Evan George; Gerken, James Dorance; Marroquin, Christopher Michael; Tian, Shurong

    2015-12-15

    Embodiments of the present invention provide for non interruptive fluid cooling of an electronic enclosure. One or more electronic component packages may be removable from a circuit card having a fluid flow system. When installed, the electronic component packages are coincident to and in a thermal relationship with the fluid flow system. If a particular electronic component package becomes non-functional, it may be removed from the electronic enclosure without affecting either the fluid flow system or other neighboring electronic component packages.

  15. Microfluidic stretchable RF electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shi; Wu, Zhigang

    2010-12-07

    Stretchable electronics is a revolutionary technology that will potentially create a world of radically different electronic devices and systems that open up an entirely new spectrum of possibilities. This article proposes a microfluidic based solution for stretchable radio frequency (RF) electronics, using hybrid integration of active circuits assembled on flex foils and liquid alloy passive structures embedded in elastic substrates, e.g. polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). This concept was employed to implement a 900 MHz stretchable RF radiation sensor, consisting of a large area elastic antenna and a cluster of conventional rigid components for RF power detection. The integrated radiation sensor except the power supply was fully embedded in a thin elastomeric substrate. Good electrical performance of the standalone stretchable antenna as well as the RF power detection sub-module was verified by experiments. The sensor successfully detected the RF radiation over 5 m distance in the system demonstration. Experiments on two-dimensional (2D) stretching up to 15%, folding and twisting of the demonstrated sensor were also carried out. Despite the integrated device was severely deformed, no failure in RF radiation sensing was observed in the tests. This technique illuminates a promising route of realizing stretchable and foldable large area integrated RF electronics that are of great interest to a variety of applications like wearable computing, health monitoring, medical diagnostics, and curvilinear electronics.

  16. Electron microscope phase enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jian; Glaeser, Robert M.

    2010-06-15

    A microfabricated electron phase shift element is used for modifying the phase characteristics of an electron beam passing though its center aperture, while not affecting the more divergent portion of an incident beam to selectively provide a ninety-degree phase shift to the unscattered beam in the back focal plan of the objective lens, in order to realize Zernike-type, in-focus phase contrast in an electron microscope. One application of the element is to increase the contrast of an electron microscope for viewing weakly scattering samples while in focus. Typical weakly scattering samples include biological samples such as macromolecules, or perhaps cells. Preliminary experimental images demonstrate that these devices do apply a ninety degree phase shift as expected. Electrostatic calculations have been used to determine that fringing fields in the region of the scattered electron beams will cause a negligible phase shift as long as the ratio of electrode length to the transverse feature-size aperture is about 5:1. Calculations are underway to determine the feasibility of aspect smaller aspect ratios of about 3:1 and about 2:1.

  17. Electronic Spectroscopy & Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Maroncelli, Nancy Ryan Gray

    2010-06-08

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on Electronic Spectroscopy and Dynamics was held at Colby College, Waterville, NH from 07/19/2009 thru 07/24/2009. The Conference was well-attended with participants (attendees list attached). The attendees represented the spectrum of endeavor in this field coming from academia, industry, and government laboratories, both U.S. and foreign scientists, senior researchers, young investigators, and students. The GRC on Electronic Spectroscopy & Dynamics showcases some of the most recent experimental and theoretical developments in electronic spectroscopy that probes the structure and dynamics of isolated molecules, molecules embedded in clusters and condensed phases, and bulk materials. Electronic spectroscopy is an important tool in many fields of research, and this GRC brings together experts having diverse backgrounds in physics, chemistry, biophysics, and materials science, making the meeting an excellent opportunity for the interdisciplinary exchange of ideas and techniques. Topics covered in this GRC include high-resolution spectroscopy, biological molecules in the gas phase, electronic structure theory for excited states, multi-chromophore and single-molecule spectroscopies, and excited state dynamics in chemical and biological systems.

  18. Reversibly Bistable Flexible Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Alfaraj, Nasir

    2015-05-01

    Introducing the notion of transformational silicon electronics has paved the way for integrating various applications with silicon-based, modern, high-performance electronic circuits that are mechanically flexible and optically semitransparent. While maintaining large-scale production and prototyping rapidity, this flexible and translucent scheme demonstrates the potential to transform conventionally stiff electronic devices into thin and foldable ones without compromising long-term performance and reliability. In this work, we report on the fabrication and characterization of reversibly bistable flexible electronic switches that utilize flexible n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors. The transistors are fabricated initially on rigid (100) silicon substrates before they are peeled off. They can be used to control flexible batches of light-emitting diodes, demonstrating both the relative ease of scaling at minimum cost and maximum reliability and the feasibility of integration. The peeled-off silicon fabric is about 25 µm thick. The fabricated devices are transferred to a reversibly bistable flexible platform through which, for example, a flexible smartphone can be wrapped around a user’s wrist and can also be set back to its original mechanical position. Buckling and cyclic bending of such host platforms brings a completely new dimension to the development of flexible electronics, especially rollable displays.

  19. Electronic Commerce user manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-10

    This User Manual supports the Electronic Commerce Standard System. The Electronic Commerce Standard System is being developed for the Department of Defense of the Technology Information Systems Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, operated by the University of California for the Department of Energy. The Electronic Commerce Standard System, or EC as it is known, provides the capability for organizations to conduct business electronically instead of through paper transactions. Electronic Commerce and Computer Aided Acquisition and Logistics Support, are two major projects under the DoD`s Corporate Information Management program, whose objective is to make DoD business transactions faster and less costly by using computer networks instead of paper forms and postage. EC runs on computers that use the UNIX operating system and provides a standard set of applications and tools that are bound together by a common command and menu system. These applications and tools may vary according to the requirements of the customer or location and may be customized to meet the specific needs of an organization. Local applications can be integrated into the menu system under the Special Databases & Applications option on the EC main menu. These local applications will be documented in the appendices of this manual. This integration capability provides users with a common environment of standard and customized applications.

  20. Electronic Commerce user manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-10

    This User Manual supports the Electronic Commerce Standard System. The Electronic Commerce Standard System is being developed for the Department of Defense of the Technology Information Systems Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, operated by the University of California for the Department of Energy. The Electronic Commerce Standard System, or EC as it is known, provides the capability for organizations to conduct business electronically instead of through paper transactions. Electronic Commerce and Computer Aided Acquisition and Logistics Support, are two major projects under the DoD's Corporate Information Management program, whose objective is to make DoD business transactions faster and less costly by using computer networks instead of paper forms and postage. EC runs on computers that use the UNIX operating system and provides a standard set of applications and tools that are bound together by a common command and menu system. These applications and tools may vary according to the requirements of the customer or location and may be customized to meet the specific needs of an organization. Local applications can be integrated into the menu system under the Special Databases Applications option on the EC main menu. These local applications will be documented in the appendices of this manual. This integration capability provides users with a common environment of standard and customized applications.

  1. Pulsed electron beam precharger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finney, W.C. (ed.); Shelton, W.N.

    1990-01-01

    Electrostatic collection of a high resistivity aerosol using the Electron Beam Precipitator (EBP) collecting section was demonstrated during this reporting period (Quarter Five). Collection efficiency experiments were designed to confirm and extend some of the work performed under the previous contract. The reason for doing this was to attempt to improve upon the collection efficiency of the precipitator alone when testing with a very high resistivity, moderate-to-high concentration dust load. From the collector shakedown runs, a set of suitable operational parameters were determined for the downstream electrostatic collecting sections of the Electron Beam Precipitator wind tunnel. These parameters, along with those for the MINACC electron beam, will generally be held constant while the numerous precharging parameters are varied to produce an optimum particle charge. The electrostatic collector experiments were part of a larger, comprehensive investigation on electron beam precharging of high resistivity aerosol particles performed during the period covered by Quarters Five, Six, and Seven. This body of work used the same experimental apparatus and procedures and the experimental run period lasted nearly continuously for six months. A summary of the Quarter Five work is presented in the following paragraphs. Section II-A of TPR 5 contains a report on the continuing effort which was expended on the modification and upgrade of the pulsed power supply and the monitoring systems prior to the initiation of the electron beam precharging experimental work.

  2. Electron correlation in beryllium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omiste, Juan J.; Li, Wenliang; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2017-01-01

    We apply a three-dimensional implementation of the time-dependent restricted-active-space self-consistent-field (TD-RASSCF) method to investigate effects of electron correlation in the ground state of Be as well as in its photoionization dynamics by short XUV pulses, including time delay in photo......We apply a three-dimensional implementation of the time-dependent restricted-active-space self-consistent-field (TD-RASSCF) method to investigate effects of electron correlation in the ground state of Be as well as in its photoionization dynamics by short XUV pulses, including time delay...... schemes, and in this way we identify the orbital spaces that are relevant for an accurate description of the photoelectron spectra. Finally, we investigate the effects of electron correlation on the magnitude of the relative Eisenbud-Wigner-Smith (EWS) time delay in the photoionization process into two...... different ionic channels. One channel, the ground-state channel in the ion, is accessible without electron correlation. The other channel is only accessible when including electron correlation. For theory beyond the mean-field time-dependent Hartree-Fock, the EWS time delay for the photon energy analyzed...

  3. Electronic Submissions of Pesticide Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applications for pesticide registration can be submitted electronically, including forms, studies, and draft product labeling. Applicants need not submit multiple electronic copies of any pieces of their applications.

  4. Phasor power electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Rim, Chun T

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive introduction to the principles of power electronics, focusing on the switched transformer concept and phasor transformation techniques as employed in the analysis and design of power electronic circuits. Phasor transformations, as introduced in this book, make the time-varying nature of a switching converter simple and easy to handle, transforming it into an equivalent time-invariant circuit. The book starts with an introduction to the philosophy and fundamental principles of power electronics. The switched transformer concept, which is applicable to any switching converter, is introduced, and it is shown how DC-DC converters analyses are then so straightforward that very little equational manipulation is needed. Then the phasor transformation techniques are comprehensively explained over three parts. Single phase and multi-phase AC systems are dealt with through the single phase phasor transformation and circuit DQ transformation, respectively. A general unified phasor tran...

  5. Understanding the Electron

    CERN Document Server

    Knuth, Kevin H

    2015-01-01

    Well over a century after the discovery of the electron, we are still faced with serious conceptual issues regarding precisely what an electron is. Since the development of particle physics and the Standard Model, we have accumulated a great deal of knowledge about the relationships among various subatomic particles. However, this knowledge has not significantly aided in our understanding of the fundamental nature of any particular elementary subatomic particle. The fact that many particle properties, such as position, time, speed, energy, momentum, and component of spin, are observer-dependent suggests that these relevant variables do not represent properties per se, but rather the relationship between the observer and the observed. That is, they reflect details about how the electron influences the observer, and vice versa. Here we attempt to understand this by considering a simple model where particles influence one another in a discrete and direct fashion. The resulting framework, referred to as Influence...

  6. On Zitterbewegung of Electron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhi-yong; XIONG Cai-dong; ZHOU Ping

    2005-01-01

    Traditionally, all the discussions on zitterbewegung (zbw) of electron are based on relativistic quantum mechanics. In this article, from the viewpoint of quantum field theory and in terms of the creation and annihilation operators as well as the polarization vectors of spin-1 field, a more detailed description and some new perspectives for zbw are obtained. Especially, it is shown that zbw arises from a to-and-fro vacuum polarization that occurring in the neighborhood of electron; the zbw vectors form a vector triplet with total spin projections 0 and ±1 in the direction of the momentum of electron, respectively; the macroscopic velocity of the vacuum medium vanishes in all inertial systems.

  7. Electronic apex locators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, M P J; Chandler, N P

    2004-07-01

    Prior to root canal treatment at least one undistorted radiograph is required to assess canal morphology. The apical extent of instrumentation and the final root filling have a role in treatment success, and are primarily determined radiographically. Electronic apex locators reduce the number of radiographs required and assist where radiographic methods create difficulty. They may also indicate cases where the apical foramen is some distance from the radiographic apex. Other roles include the detection of root canal perforation. A review of the literature focussed first on the subject of electronic apex location. A second review used the names of apex location devices. From the combined searches, 113 pertinent articles in English were found. This paper reviews the development, action, use and types of electronic apex locators.

  8. Electron Technology: ELTE 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisarkiewicz, Tadeusz; Kucewicz, Wojciech

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we present a review of research results and technical accomplishments presented by researchers from technical universities, governmental institutes and research companies during the XIIth Scientific Conference Electron Technology, ELTE 2016. This review is based on materials presented at four topical conference sessions: Microelectronics and Nanoelectronics, Photonics, Materials and Technologies, and Microsystems and also on materials presented by invited speakers at two dedicated sessions. Oral sessions were accompanied by the poster sessions. In effect about 50 papers gathered in this volume reflect the topics discussed at the Conference. A short description of technological and measurement possibilities in the laboratories of Academic Centre for Materials and Nanotechnology and also in the Department of Electronics of the Faculty of Computer Science, Electronics and Telecommunications AGH UST are given.

  9. Microelectronics improves power electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, R.

    1982-07-01

    The share of electric energy consumed by electric drives - called power current - can be used more efficiently by using power electronic regulating processes. Lower cost for power electronic components and progress in circuit technology are the decisive factors for the widespread use of regulating units. Microelectronics permit a cost-beneficial control of power regulating units, are made them more attractive for the user. Technical and economic attractivity of power electronic regulating processes have increased. These processes are mainly used for adjusting engine speed to the other process engineering parameters like pressure, output or speed. Optimization of power-current consuming processes are expected to achieve an energy saving potential of 15 TWh by the year 1995.

  10. 4D Electron Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Oh-Hoon; Zewail, Ahmed H.

    2010-06-01

    Electron tomography provides three-dimensional (3D) imaging of noncrystalline and crystalline equilibrium structures, as well as elemental volume composition, of materials and biological specimens, including those of viruses and cells. We report the development of 4D electron tomography by integrating the fourth dimension (time resolution) with the 3D spatial resolution obtained from a complete tilt series of 2D projections of an object. The different time frames of tomograms constitute a movie of the object in motion, thus enabling studies of nonequilibrium structures and transient processes. The method was demonstrated using carbon nanotubes of a bracelet-like ring structure for which 4D tomograms display different modes of motion, such as breathing and wiggling, with resonance frequencies up to 30 megahertz. Applications can now make use of the full space-time range with the nanometer-femtosecond resolution of ultrafast electron tomography.

  11. Electronic network links physicists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Now that AGU is a member of the American Institute of Physics (AIP) (see item on page 150), AGU members may access Pi-NET, the Physics Information Network developed by AIP on behalf of its member societies. The electronic network will be available after March 31, 1986, to members of AIP member and affiliate societies for the cost of a local telephone call.This electronic database service provides listings of job opportunities in physics, calendars of meetings, advance abstracts of more than 40 journals published by AIP and member societies, brief announcements and news items, titles of journal articles from AIP's Searchable Physics Information Notices (SPIN) database, and an electronic catalog and on-line ordering of publications from AIP and member societies. AGU journals will be included in the database shortly.

  12. Laser assisted electron dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bray, Alexander William

    2016-01-01

    We apply the convergent close-coupling (CCC) formalism to analyse the processes of laser assisted electron impact ionisation of He, and the attosecond time delay in the photodetachment of the H^{-} ion and the photoionisation of He. Such time dependent atomic collision processes are of considerable interest as experimental measurements on the relevant timescale (attoseconds 10^{-18} s) are now possible utilising ultrafast and intense laser pulses. These processes in particular are furthermore of interest as they are strongly influenced by many-electron correlations. In such cases their theoretical description requires a more comprehensive treatment than that offered by first order perturbation theory. We apply such a treatment through the use of the CCC formalism which involves the complete numeric solution of the integral Lippmann-Schwinger equations pertaining to a particular scattering event. For laser assisted electron impact ionisation of He such a treatment is of a considerably greater accuracy than the...

  13. Relativistic Runaway Electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breizman, Boris

    2014-10-01

    This talk covers recent developments in the theory of runaway electrons in a tokamak with an emphasis on highly relativistic electrons produced via the avalanche mechanism. The rapidly growing population of runaway electrons can quickly replace a large part of the initial current carried by the bulk plasma electrons. The magnetic energy associated with this current is typically much greater than the particle kinetic energy. The current of a highly relativistic runaway beam is insensitive to the particle energy, which separates the description of the runaway current evolution from the description of the runaway energy spectrum. A strongly anisotropic distribution of fast electrons is generally prone to high-frequency kinetic instabilities that may cause beneficial enhancement of runaway energy losses. The relevant instabilities are in the frequency range of whistler waves and electron plasma waves. The instability thresholds reported in earlier work have been revised considerably to reflect strong dependence of collisional damping on the wave frequency and the role of plasma non-uniformity, including radial trapping of the excited waves in the plasma. The talk also includes a discussion of enhanced scattering of the runaways as well as the combined effect of enhanced scattering and synchrotron radiation. A noteworthy feature of the avalanche-produced runaway current is a self-sustained regime of marginal criticality: the inductive electric field has to be close to its critical value (representing avalanche threshold) at every location where the runaway current density is finite, and the current density should vanish at any point where the electric field drops below its critical value. This nonlinear Ohm's law enables complete description of the evolving current profile. Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Contract No. DEFG02-04ER54742 and by ITER contract ITER-CT-12-4300000273. The views and opinions expressed herein do not necessarily reflect those of

  14. Electron-electron correlations in liquid s-p metals

    CERN Document Server

    Leys, F E

    2003-01-01

    We present calculations for the valence electron-electron structure factor in liquid Mg near freezing, assuming knowledge of the jellium result. On the basis of this, we predict significant corrections to jellium short-range correlations in liquid s-p metals and in particular an increase in the electron-electron contact probability.

  15. Electron kinetics in capacitively coupled plasmas modulated by electron injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya; Peng, Yanli; Innocenti, Maria Elena; Jiang, Wei; Wang, Hong-yu; Lapenta, Giovanni

    2017-09-01

    The controlling effect of an electron injection on the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) and on the energetic electron flux, in a capacitive radio-frequency argon plasma, is studied using a one-dimensional particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo collisions model. The input power of the electron beam is as small as several tens of Watts with laboratory achievable emission currents and energies. With the electron injection, the electron temperature decreases but with a significant high energy tail. The electron density, electron temperature in the sheath, and electron heating rate increase with the increasing emission energy. This is attributed to the extra heating of the energetic electrons in the EEDF tail. The non-equilibrium EEDF is obtained for strong non-local distributions of the electric field, electron heating rate, excitation, and ionization rate, indicating the discharge has transited from a volume heating (α-mode dominated) into a sheath heating (γ-mode dominated) type. In addition, the electron injection not only modifies the self-bias voltage, but also enhances the electron flux that can reach the electrodes. Moreover, the relative population of energetic electrons significantly increases with the electron injection compared to that without the electron injection, relevant for modifying the gas and surface chemistry reactions.

  16. Advances in quantum electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Goodwin, D W

    1974-01-01

    Advances in Quantum Electronics, Volume 2 deals with the effects of quantum mechanics on the behavior of electrons in matter. This book is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1 reviews the statistical properties of optical fields and spectral processing techniques, including the use of photon correlation techniques to measure scattering effects in a number of different media. The use of optical E.P.R. and excitation spectroscopic techniques and techniques for establishing the location of impurity ions in the chalcogenides are describe in Chapter 2. The last chapter surveys the field of mode l

  17. Recycling of electronic scrap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Jens Brøbech

    This Ph.D. thesis deals with the growingly important field of electronics recycling with special attention to the problem of printed circuit board recycling. A literature survey of contemporary electronics recycling and printed circuit board recycling is presented.Further, an analysis of the role...... in the metals producing industry is presented and tested on two printed circuit board scrap cases. The underlying idea for the method is that complex scrap should be introduced in the matrix of man-made material flows at recipient points where the scrap constitutes the least environmental problem and where...

  18. Advances in electronic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Kasper, Erich; Grimmeiss, Hermann G

    2008-01-01

    This special-topic volume, Advances in Electronic Materials, covers various fields of materials research such as silicon, silicon-germanium hetero-structures, high-k materials, III-V semiconductor alloys and organic materials, as well as nano-structures for spintronics and photovoltaics. It begins with a brief summary of the formative years of microelectronics; now the keystone of information technology. The latter remains one of the most important global technologies, and is an extremely complex subject-area. Although electronic materials are primarily associated with computers, the internet

  19. Electronically configured battery pack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemper, D.

    1997-03-01

    Battery packs for portable equipment must sometimes accommodate conflicting requirements to meet application needs. An electronically configurable battery pack was developed to support two highly different operating modes, one requiring very low power consumption at a low voltage and the other requiring high power consumption at a higher voltage. The configurable battery pack optimizes the lifetime and performance of the system by making the best use of all available energy thus enabling the system to meet its goals of operation, volume, and lifetime. This paper describes the cell chemistry chosen, the battery pack electronics, and tradeoffs made during the evolution of its design.

  20. Conventional transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winey, Mark; Meehl, Janet B; O'Toole, Eileen T; Giddings, Thomas H

    2014-02-01

    Researchers have used transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to make contributions to cell biology for well over 50 years, and TEM continues to be an important technology in our field. We briefly present for the neophyte the components of a TEM-based study, beginning with sample preparation through imaging of the samples. We point out the limitations of TEM and issues to be considered during experimental design. Advanced electron microscopy techniques are listed as well. Finally, we point potential new users of TEM to resources to help launch their project.

  1. Electronics for technicians

    CERN Document Server

    Crane, P W

    2013-01-01

    Electronics for Technicians covers the basic fundamentals of electronics, including the operation of devices and circuits. The book is meant to help the technician to obtain numerical answers to actual circuit problems. This volume consists of seven chapters, the first of which introduces the reader to the basic rules for circuits containing resistive and reactive elements. Charge and discharge of a capacitor through a resistor is discussed, along with charge and discharge of an inductance through a resistance, application of sinusoidal voltages to simple networks, and series and parallel LCR

  2. Precision electron polarimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chudakov, E. [Jefferson Lab 12000 Jefferson Ave, STE 16, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)

    2013-11-07

    A new generation of precise Parity-Violating experiments will require a sub-percent accuracy of electron beam polarimetry. Compton polarimetry can provide such accuracy at high energies, but at a few hundred MeV the small analyzing power limits the sensitivity. Mo/ller polarimetry provides a high analyzing power independent on the beam energy, but is limited by the properties of the polarized targets commonly used. Options for precision polarimetry at 300 MeV will be discussed, in particular a proposal to use ultra-cold atomic hydrogen traps to provide a 100%-polarized electron target for Mo/ller polarimetry.

  3. Pulsed Electron Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Germann, Matthias; Escher, Conrad; Fink, Hans-Werner

    2013-01-01

    A technique of pulsed low-energy electron holography is introduced that allows for recording highly resolved holograms within reduced exposure times. Therefore, stacks of holograms are accumulated in a pulsed mode with individual acquisition times as short as 50 {\\mu}s. Subsequently, these holograms are aligned and finally superimposed. The resulting holographic record reveals previously latent high-order interference fringes and thereby pushing interference resolution into the sub-nanometer regime. In view of the non-damaging character of low-energy electrons, the method is of particular interest for structural analysis of fragile biomolecules.

  4. Electronics 2 checkbook

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, S A

    2013-01-01

    Electronics 2 Checkbook is an 11-chapter text that presents problems and worked examples to establish and exemplify the theory contained in technical syllabuses, with a particular emphasis on electronics.The introductory chapters review the elementary theory of semiconductors and the p-n junction diode. The subsequent chapters deal with the applications of diode, the characteristics of bipolar transistors, and the mode of operation of small signal amplifiers. These topics are followed by discussions of the function of the field-effect transistor and power supplies. The concluding chapters expl

  5. VLSI electronics microstructure science

    CERN Document Server

    1981-01-01

    VLSI Electronics: Microstructure Science, Volume 3 evaluates trends for the future of very large scale integration (VLSI) electronics and the scientific base that supports its development.This book discusses the impact of VLSI on computer architectures; VLSI design and design aid requirements; and design, fabrication, and performance of CCD imagers. The approaches, potential, and progress of ultra-high-speed GaAs VLSI; computer modeling of MOSFETs; and numerical physics of micron-length and submicron-length semiconductor devices are also elaborated. This text likewise covers the optical linewi

  6. Electronic Word of Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunst, Katrine

    It is widely recognized that the transition from Word-of-mouth (WOM) to electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) allows for a wider and faster spread of information. However, little attention has been given to how digital channels expand the types of information consumers share. In this paper, we argue...... of the concepts do not capture this new kind of consumer-to-consumer information transfer about products and services. Consequently, we suggest an extension of those concepts: Electronic Word of Behavior....

  7. Modern electronic maintenance principles

    CERN Document Server

    Garland, DJ

    2013-01-01

    Modern Electronic Maintenance Principles reviews the principles of maintaining modern, complex electronic equipment, with emphasis on preventive and corrective maintenance. Unfamiliar subjects such as the half-split method of fault location, functional diagrams, and fault finding guides are explained. This book consists of 12 chapters and begins by stressing the need for maintenance principles and discussing the problem of complexity as well as the requirements for a maintenance technician. The next chapter deals with the connection between reliability and maintenance and defines the terms fai

  8. Practical electronics handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Sinclair, Ian R

    1988-01-01

    Practical Electronics Handbook, Second Edition covers information useful in electronics, with focus on mathematical conventions. The handbook discusses the passive (resistors, capacitors, band coding, and inductors) and active discrete (diodes, transistors and negative feedback) components; discrete component circuits; and transferring digital data. Linear I.C.s, which are the single-chip arrangements of amplifier circuits that are intended to be biased and operated in a linear way, and digital I.C.s, which process signals and consist of two significant voltage levels, are also considered. T

  9. Gallium nitride electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Siddharth; Jena, Debdeep

    2013-07-01

    In the past two decades, there has been increasing research and industrial activity in the area of gallium nitride (GaN) electronics, stimulated first by the successful demonstration of GaN LEDs. While the promise of wide band gap semiconductors for power electronics was recognized many years before this by one of the contributors to this issue (J Baliga), the success in the area of LEDs acted as a catalyst. It set the field of GaN electronics in motion, and today the technology is improving the performance of several applications including RF cell phone base stations and military radar. GaN could also play a very important role in reducing worldwide energy consumption by enabling high efficiency compact power converters operating at high voltages and lower frequencies. While GaN electronics is a rapidly evolving area with active research worldwide, this special issue provides an opportunity to capture some of the great advances that have been made in the last 15 years. The issue begins with a section on epitaxy and processing, followed by an overview of high-frequency HEMTs, which have been the most commercially successful application of III-nitride electronics to date. This is followed by review and research articles on power-switching transistors, which are currently of great interest to the III-nitride community. A section of this issue is devoted to the reliability of III-nitride devices, an area that is of increasing significance as the research focus has moved from not just high performance but also production-worthiness and long-term usage of these devices. Finally, a group of papers on new and relatively less studied ideas for III-nitride electronics, such as interband tunneling, heterojunction bipolar transistors, and high-temperature electronics is included. These areas point to new areas of research and technological innovation going beyond the state of the art into the future. We hope that the breadth and quality of articles in this issue will make it

  10. Electronics made simple

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, George H

    1987-01-01

    Electronics: Made Simple covers the fundamental principles, basic devices, characteristics, and application of electronic equipment.This book is divided into 15 chapters and begins with reviews of the properties and behavior of resistors, capacitors, inductors, and semiconductor devices. Considerable chapters deal with how these devices can be assembled into useful fundamental circuits such as amplifiers, oscillators and power supplies. These topics are followed by discussions of the importance of integrated circuits and the use of digital equipment and photocells in control and computing appa

  11. Electronic components and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Sangwine, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    Most introductory textbooks in electronics focus on the theory while leaving the practical aspects to be covered in laboratory courses. However, the sooner such matters are introduced, the better able students will be to include such important concerns as parasitic effects and reliability at the very earliest stages of design. This philosophy has kept Electronic Components and Technology thriving for two decades, and this completely updated third edition continues the approach with a more international outlook.Not only does this textbook introduce the properties, behavior, fabrication, and use

  12. Nanotube electronics and optoelectronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phaedon Avouris

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Among the many materials that have been proposed to supplement and, in the long run, possibly succeed Si as a basis for nanoelectronics, carbon nanotubes (CNTs have attracted the most attention. CNTs are quasi-one-dimensional materials with unique properties ideally suited for electronics. We briefly discuss the electrical and optical properties of CNTs and how they can be employed in electronics and optoelectronics. We focus on single CNT transistors, their fabrication, assembly, doping, electrical characteristics, and integration. We also address the possible use of CNTs in optoelectronic devices such as electroluminescent light emitters and photodetectors.

  13. Relativistic electronic dressing

    CERN Document Server

    Attaourti, Y

    2002-01-01

    We study the effects of the relativistic electronic dressing in laser-assisted electron-hydrogen atom elastic collisions. We begin by considering the case when no radiation is present. This is necessary in order to check the consistency of our calculations and we then carry out the calculations using the relativistic Dirac-Volkov states. It turns out that a simple formal analogy links the analytical expressions of the differential cross section without laser and the differential cross section in presence of a laser field.

  14. Diagnostic electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickersin, G.R.

    1988-01-01

    In this book the author presents a comprehensive reference text on diagnostic electron microscopy. Throughout the book he illustrates how ultrastructural identification can be helpful for the recognition of cell type and the identification of mechanisms of pathogenesis in various diseases. In addition to electron microscopy photographs, there are also numerous light microscopy photographs for comparison. This text presents the classification of neoplasms in the order and arrangement most familiar to the pathologist. Contents: Introduction; Diagram of a Normal Cell; Normal Cell Function; Embryology; Neoplasms; Infectious Agents; Metabolic Diseases; Renal Diseases; Skeletal Muscle and Peripheral Nerve Diseases; Index.

  15. Electronic logic circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, J

    2013-01-01

    Most branches of organizing utilize digital electronic systems. This book introduces the design of such systems using basic logic elements as the components. The material is presented in a straightforward manner suitable for students of electronic engineering and computer science. The book is also of use to engineers in related disciplines who require a clear introduction to logic circuits. This third edition has been revised to encompass the most recent advances in technology as well as the latest trends in components and notation. It includes a wide coverage of application specific integrate

  16. Precision electron polarimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chudakov, Eugene A. [JLAB

    2013-11-01

    A new generation of precise Parity-Violating experiments will require a sub-percent accuracy of electron beam polarimetry. Compton polarimetry can provide such accuracy at high energies, but at a few hundred MeV the small analyzing power limits the sensitivity. M{\\o}ller polarimetry provides a high analyzing power independent on the beam energy, but is limited by the properties of the polarized targets commonly used. Options for precision polarimetry at ~300 MeV will be discussed, in particular a proposal to use ultra-cold atomic hydrogen traps to provide a 100\\%-polarized electron target for M{\\o}ller polarimetry.

  17. Improved electron transport layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention provides: a method of preparing a coating ink for forming a zinc oxide electron transport layer, comprising mixing zinc acetate and a wetting agent in water or methanol; a coating ink comprising zinc acetate and a wetting agent in aqueous solution or methanolic solution...

  18. Using Electronic Portfolios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Deb

    2012-01-01

    The digitized collections of artifacts known as electronic portfolios are creating solutions to a variety of performance improvement needs in ways that are cost-effective and improve both individual and group learning and performance. When social media functionality is embedded in e-portfolios, the tools support collaboration, social learning,…

  19. Quantitative Electron Nanodiffraction.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spence, John [Arizona State Univ., Mesa, AZ (United States)

    2015-01-30

    This Final report summarizes progress under this award for the final reporting period 2002 - 2013 in our development of quantitive electron nanodiffraction to materials problems, especially devoted to atomistic processes in semiconductors and electronic oxides such as the new artificial oxide multilayers, where our microdiffraction is complemented with energy-loss spectroscopy (ELNES) and aberration-corrected STEM imaging (9). The method has also been used to map out the chemical bonds in the important GaN semiconductor (1) used for solid state lighting, and to understand the effects of stacking sequence variations and interfaces in digital oxide superlattices (8). Other projects include the development of a laser-beam Zernike phase plate for cryo-electron microscopy (5) (based on the Kapitza-Dirac effect), work on reconstruction of molecular images using the scattering from many identical molecules lying in random orientations (4), a review article on space-group determination for the International Tables on Crystallography (10), the observation of energy-loss spectra with millivolt energy resolution and sub-nanometer spatial resolution from individual point defects in an alkali halide, a review article for the Centenary of X-ray Diffration (17) and the development of a new method of electron-beam lithography (12). We briefly summarize here the work on GaN, on oxide superlattice ELNES, and on lithography by STEM.

  20. Inventing the Electronic University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Higher education is confronting a fundamental change. The transition from print on paper to digital and electronic technologies is transforming instruction, scholarly communication, and the storage and preservation of knowledge. What is required is not the automation of old systems, but the restructuring of institutions. The drive for autonomy,…

  1. Power Electronics Thermal Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, Gilberto [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-07

    Thermal modeling was conducted to evaluate and develop thermal management strategies for high-temperature wide-bandgap (WBG)-based power electronics systems. WBG device temperatures of 175 degrees C to 250 degrees C were modeled under various under-hood temperature environments. Modeling result were used to identify the most effective capacitor cooling strategies under high device temperature conditions.

  2. Polymer Electronics, Quo Vadis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiechi, Ryan C.; Hummelen, Jan C.

    2012-01-01

    At the heart of polymer electronics lies more than three decades of research into conjugated polymers. The future of these materials is intimately tied to the development of organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices that can compete with traditional, inorganic devices in efficiency and cost. In addition to

  3. Polymer Electronics, Quo Vadis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiechi, Ryan C.; Hummelen, Jan C.

    2012-01-01

    At the heart of polymer electronics lies more than three decades of research into conjugated polymers. The future of these materials is intimately tied to the development of organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices that can compete with traditional, inorganic devices in efficiency and cost. In addition to

  4. Electronic Inspection of Beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmo, Victor J.; Gammell, Paul M.; Clark, Jerry

    1987-01-01

    Two proposed methods for grading beef quality based on inspection by electronic equipment: one method uses television camera to generate image of a cut of beef as customer sees it; other uses ultrasonics to inspect live animal or unsliced carcasses. Both methods show promise for automated meat inspection.

  5. The electronic stethoscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Shuang; Tan, Ru San; Chai, Kevin Tshun Chuan; Wang, Chao; Ghista, Dhanjoo; Zhong, Liang

    2015-07-10

    Most heart diseases are associated with and reflected by the sounds that the heart produces. Heart auscultation, defined as listening to the heart sound, has been a very important method for the early diagnosis of cardiac dysfunction. Traditional auscultation requires substantial clinical experience and good listening skills. The emergence of the electronic stethoscope has paved the way for a new field of computer-aided auscultation. This article provides an in-depth study of (1) the electronic stethoscope technology, and (2) the methodology for diagnosis of cardiac disorders based on computer-aided auscultation. The paper is based on a comprehensive review of (1) literature articles, (2) market (state-of-the-art) products, and (3) smartphone stethoscope apps. It covers in depth every key component of the computer-aided system with electronic stethoscope, from sensor design, front-end circuitry, denoising algorithm, heart sound segmentation, to the final machine learning techniques. Our intent is to provide an informative and illustrative presentation of the electronic stethoscope, which is valuable and beneficial to academics, researchers and engineers in the technical field, as well as to medical professionals to facilitate its use clinically. The paper provides the technological and medical basis for the development and commercialization of a real-time integrated heart sound detection, acquisition and quantification system.

  6. The Art of Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Paul; Hill, Winfield

    2015-04-01

    1. Foundations; 2. Bipolar transistors; 3. Field effect transistors; 4. Operational amplifiers; 5. Precision circuits; 6. Filters; 7. Oscillators and timers; 8. Low noise techniques and transimpedance; 9. Power regulation; 10. Digital electronics; 11. Programmable logic devices; 12. Logical interfacing; 13. Digital meets analog; 14. Computers, controllers, and data links; 15. Microcontrollers.

  7. Unconditionally Secure Electronic Voting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Akira; Imai, Hideki

    In this chapter, we will show how to achieve unconditional or information-theoretic security in electronic voting with the following property: 1 Even all voters and tallying authorities have unbounded computing power, the distorted integrity of the voting results can be detected and proved incorrect by every honest voter,

  8. Electronic waste recycling techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bernardes, Andréa

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the characterization of electronic waste. In addition, processing techniques for the recovery of metals, polymers and ceramics are described. This book serves as a source of information and as an educational technical reference for practicing scientists and engineers, as well as for students.

  9. Using Electronic Portfolios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Deb

    2012-01-01

    The digitized collections of artifacts known as electronic portfolios are creating solutions to a variety of performance improvement needs in ways that are cost-effective and improve both individual and group learning and performance. When social media functionality is embedded in e-portfolios, the tools support collaboration, social learning,…

  10. Electron microscope studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crewe, A.V.; Kapp, O.H.

    1990-08-01

    Our laboratory has made significant progress this year in devising improved electron-optical systems, in studying invertebrate hemoglobins with the STEM, and in achieving a workable sub-angstrom STEM. Our goal in electron optics is to improve resolution by producing spherical and chromatic aberration coefficients with signs opposite those of magnetic lenses. We have progressed toward this goal through calculations that explore the addition of electrodes to electron mirrors to reduce these two geometric aberrations and by devising a beam separation system that won't introduce asymmetrical aberrations. Some promising new designs of magnetic lenses for SEM applications have also been investigated. We have continued our exploration of the quaternary structure of the invertebrate hemoglobins and are now among the top laboratories in this area of expertise. In addition, we have overcome many of our electronic difficulties on the sub-angstrom STEM and have made significant progress toward achieving an operational system. The addition of an IBM RISC-6000 workstation to our lab has significantly increased our image processing capabilities.

  11. The Electronic Student Portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasick, Emily; McLaren, Clemence

    1995-01-01

    Describes the use of electronic portfolios in one Hawaiian secondary literature class. Students went through their journals, picked two entries that best represented their growth in reading during the course, and explained why. Next they created a presentation about their growth and enjoyment of literature using multimedia technology. (SM)

  12. Electronic and Microelectronic Capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    22 3.9 Aztec Products Custom Wet-Chemistry Line ........................................... 22 3.10 KotIrnorgen...Cofight Vertical Rotary Etcher............*....................................................... 22 11. Aztec Products Custom Wet-Chemistry Line...state of the art in thick film hybrid fabrication methods, microelectronic fabrication and assembly, PC board fabrication, and electronic board assembly

  13. Electronic Resource Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Ellingsen

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Computer applications which deal with electronic resource management (ERM are quite a recent development. They have grown out of the need to manage the burgeoning number of electronic resources particularly electronic journals. Typically, in the early years of e-journal acquisition, library staff provided an easy means of accessing these journals by providing an alphabetical list on a web page. Some went as far as categorising the e-journals by subject and then grouping the journals either on a single web page or by using multiple pages. It didn't take long before it was recognised that it would be more efficient to dynamically generate the pages from a database rather than to continually edit the pages manually. Of course, once the descriptive metadata for an electronic journal was held within a database the next logical step was to provide administrative forms whereby that metadata could be manipulated. This in turn led to demands for incorporating more information and more functionality into the developing application.

  14. Selection of Electronic Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weathers, Barbara

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the impact of electronic resources on collection development; selection of CD-ROMs, (platform, speed, video and sound, networking capability, installation and maintenance); selection of laser disks; and Internet evaluation (accuracy of content, authority, objectivity, currency, technical characteristics). Lists Web sites for evaluating…

  15. Electron-Cyclotron Waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, E.

    1994-01-01

    The essential elements of the theory of electron cyclotron waves are reviewed, The two main electro-magnetic modes of propagation are identified and their dispersion and absorption properties are discussed. The importance of the use of the relativistic resonance condition is stressed.

  16. Advanced Electronic Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-15

    Silicon De- D.,I. Silversmith Solid State Technol. 23, 88 vices Formed by Ion Iniplanta- 1. W. Mountain (1980) tion and Laser Annealing S.C. Munroe M...J. Silversmith Photodeposition R. M. Osgood, Jr. 5075 Picosecond Optical Sampling H. A. Haus* Accepted by IEEE J. Quantum S.T. Kirsch Electron. K

  17. Cold electronics: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschman, R. K.

    Low-temperature operation is being applied and contemplated for electronic systems ranging from single-transistor circuits for basic research to VLSI integrated circuits for ultra-fast computers. It is seen as both a means of extracting better performance from present technology and as an important ingredient of the next generation of devices and circuits. This overview is concerned with electronics based on semiconductors; for low temperatures the primary material is Si, although GaAs also has considerable potential, and the primary device is the field-effect transistor in various forms. Reduced temperature operation offers improvements in performance through improvement of materials-related properties such as electronic carrier mobility, thermal conductivity, and electrical conductivity. Substantial improvements in reliability are also expected since degradation mechanisms are thermally activated; however, this could be negated unless problems of thermal expansion mismatch and cycling are overcome. Refrigeration continues to be a central concern; mechanical cycles are still the mainstay and progress is being made in systems applicable to electronics, although further development is needed.

  18. The Electronic Battle Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouin, Denis; Turcotte, Guy; Lebel, Eric; Gilbert, Annie

    2000-08-01

    The Electronic Battle Box is an integrated suite of planning and decision-aid tools specially designed to facilitate Canadian Armed Force Officers during their training and during their tasks of preparing and conducting military operations. It is the result of a collaborative effort between the Defence Research Establishment Valcartier, the Directorate of Army Doctrine (DAD), the Directorate of Land Requirements (DLR), the G4 staff of 1Cdn Div HQ and CGI Information and Management Consultants Inc. Distributed on CD-ROM, the Electronic Battle Box contains efficient and user-friendly tools that significantly reduce the planning time for military operations and ensure staff officers a better focus on significant tasks. Among the tools are an OrBat Browser and an Equipment Browser allowing to view and edit military organizations, a Task Browser providing facilities to prepare plans using Gantt charts, a Logistic Planner allowing to estimate supply requirements applying complex calculations, and Road, Air and Rail Movement Planners. EBB also provides staff officers with a large set of doctrinal documents in an electronic format. This paper provides an overview of the various tools of the Electronic Battle Box.

  19. The electronic neighbourhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rüdiger, Bjarne; Tournay, Bruno

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a 3-year research project. The Electronic Neighbourhood (2000-2004). Researchers have developed and tested a digital model of the urban area and other digital tools for supporting the dialogue and cooperation between professionals and citizens in an urban...... regeneration project in Copenhagen....

  20. Electronics and Electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nièpce, J.-C.; Givord, D.

    Multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCC) are the capacitors most commonly used in electronic circuits (television, radio, telephone, automobile, aeronautics, space, etc.). The main advantages are low cost, small size, a good level of chemical inertness, due to the fact that they are made from chemically very stable oxide ceramics, and hence good stability in time.

  1. ELECTRON COOLING FOR RHIC.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BEN-ZVI,I.

    2001-05-13

    The Accelerator Collider Department (CAD) at Brookhaven National Laboratory is operating the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), which includes the dual-ring, 3.834 km circumference superconducting collider and the venerable AGS as the last part of the RHIC injection chain. CAD is planning on a luminosity upgrade of the machine under the designation RHIC II. One important component of the RHIC II upgrade is electron cooling of RHIC gold ion beams. For this purpose, BNL and the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics in Novosibirsk entered into a collaboration aimed initially at the development of the electron cooling conceptual design, resolution of technical issues, and finally extend the collaboration towards the construction and commissioning of the cooler. Many of the results presented in this paper are derived from the Electron Cooling for RHIC Design Report [1], produced by the, BINP team within the framework of this collaboration. BNL is also collaborating with Fermi National Laboratory, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility and the University of Indiana on various aspects of electron cooling.

  2. Active devices for electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Sowa, Walter A

    1971-01-01

    An introduction to semiconductors ; the p-n junction ; the junction transistor ; electrical characteristics and ratings ; basic transistor amplifiers ; the field-effect transistor ; the unijunction transistor (UJT) ; the silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) ; the DIAC and TRIAC ; light operated devices ; integrated circuits (ICs) ; other solid-state devices of interest ; electron tubes.

  3. Nucleus Driven Electronic Pulsation

    CERN Document Server

    Ludwig, H; Xue, S -S

    2014-01-01

    We derive and solve by the spectral method the equations for a neutral system of ultra-relativistic electrons that are compressed to the radius of the nucleus and subject to a driving force. This driving force can be thought of as originating from a nuclear breathing mode, a possibility we discuss in detail.

  4. Electronically Enhanced Classroom Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Stephen; Cargill, Julie; Cutts, Quintin

    A design rationale for introducing electronic equipment (a group response system) for student interaction in lecture theaters is presented, linking the instructional design to theory. The effectiveness of the equipment for learning depends mostly on what pedagogic method is employed. Various alternative types are introduced, including: assessment;…

  5. Adaptive municipal electronic forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, Pieter; Dijk, van Betsy; Bondarouk, Tanya; Ruël, Huub; Guiderdoni-Jourdain, Karine; Oiry, Ewan

    2009-01-01

    Adaptation of electronic forms (e-forms) seems to be a step forward to reduce the burden for people who fill in forms. Municipalities more and more offer e-forms online that can be used by citizens to request a municipal product or service or by municipal employees to place a request on behalf of a

  6. Forensic Scanning Electron Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, R. H.

    1983-03-01

    The scanning electron microscope equipped with an x-ray spectrometer is a versatile instrument which has many uses in the investigation of crime and preparation of scientific evidence for the courts. Major applications include microscopy and analysis of very small fragments of paint, glass and other materials which may link an individual with a scene of crime, identification of firearms residues and examination of questioned documents. Although simultaneous observation and chemical analysis of the sample is the most important feature of the instrument, other modes of operation such as cathodoluminescence spectrometry, backscattered electron imaging and direct x-ray excitation are also exploited. Marks on two bullets or cartridge cases can be compared directly by sequential scanning with a single beam or electronic linkage of two instruments. Particles of primer residue deposited on the skin and clothing when a gun is fired can be collected on adhesive tape and identified by their morphology and elemental composition. It is also possible to differentiate between the primer residues of different types of ammunition. Bullets may be identified from the small fragments left behind as they pass through the body tissues. In the examination of questioned documents the scanning electron microscope is used to establish the order in which two intersecting ink lines were written and to detect traces of chemical markers added to the security inks on official documents.

  7. Newnes electronics assembly pocket book

    CERN Document Server

    Brindley, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Produced in association with the Engineering Training Authority with contributions from dozens of people in the electronics industry. The material covers common skills in electrical and electronic engineering and concentrates mainly on wiring and assembly. 'Newnes Electronics Assembly Pocket Book' is for electronics technicians, students and apprentices.

  8. Electronic Library: A TERI Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Debal C.; Deb, Subrata; Kumar, Satish

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the development of Electronic Library at TERI (The Energy and Resources Institute, New Delhi). Highlights include: hardware and software used; the digital library/Virtual Electronic Library; directory of Internet journals; virtual reference resources; electronic collection/Physical Electronic Library; downloaded online full-length…

  9. The electronic structures of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Coles, B R

    2013-01-01

    The Electronic Structures of Solids aims to provide students of solid state physics with the essential concepts they will need in considering properties of solids that depend on their electronic structures and idea of the electronic character of particular materials and groups of materials. The book first discusses the electronic structure of atoms, including hydrogen atom and many-electron atom. The text also underscores bonding between atoms and electrons in metals. Discussions focus on bonding energies and structures in the solid elements, eigenstates of free-electron gas, and electrical co

  10. Basic principles of electronics thermionics

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, J

    2013-01-01

    Basic Principles of Electronics, Volume I: Thermionics covers topics related to thermionic devices. The book starts by providing a physical background about electronics, including structure of matter, ionic, chemical and covalent combination, crystalline structure, conductors and insulators, and thermionic emission. The text then discusses electron dynamics; the characteristics and properties of electrons in solids; electron emission; and thermionic emission in a vacuum diode or triode. The development of the vacuum triode; gas-filled valves; and power amplifiers are also considered. The book

  11. Electronic Commerce Removing Regulatory Impediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    AD-A252 691 ELECTRONIC COMMERCE Removing Regulatory Impediments ~DuiG A% ELECTE I JUL1 8 1992 0 C D Daniel J. Drake John A. Ciucci ... - ""N ST AT KE...Management Institute 6400 Goldsboro Road Bethesda, Maryland 20817-5886 92 LMI Executive Summary ELECTRONIC COMMERCE : REMOVING REGULATORY IMPEDIMENTS... Electronic Commerce techniques, such as electronic mail and electronic data interchange (EDI), enable Government agencies to conduct business without the

  12. Electron scattering for exotic nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Toshimi Suda

    2014-11-01

    A brand-new electron scattering facility, the SCRIT Electron Scattering Facility, will soon start its operation at RIKEN RI Beam Factory, Japan. This is the world’s first electron scattering facility dedicated to the structure studies of short-lived nuclei. The goal of this facility is to determine the charge density distributions of short-lived exotic nuclei by elastic electron scattering. The first collision between electrons and exotic nuclei will be observed in the year 2014.

  13. PREFACE: Correlated Electrons (Japan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Kazumasa

    2007-03-01

    This issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter is dedicated to results in the field of strongly correlated electron systems under multiple-environment. The physics of strongly correlated electron systems (SCES) has attracted much attention since the discovery of superconductivity in CeCu_2 Si_2 by Steglich and his co-workers a quater-century ago. Its interest has been intensified by the discovery of high-Tc superconductivity in a series of cuprates with layered perovskite structure which are still under active debate. The present issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter present some aspects of SCES physics on the basis of activities of a late project "Centre-Of-Excellence" supported by MEXT (Ministry of Education, Sports, Science, Culture and Technology of the Japanese Government). This project has been performed by a condensed matter physics group in the faculties of science and engineering science of Osaka University. Although this project also covers correlated phenomena in optics and nano-scale systems, we focus here on the issues of SCES related to superconductivity, mainly unconventional. The present issue covers the discussions on a new mechanism of superconductivity with electronic origin (critical valence fluctuation mechanism), interplay and unification of magnetism and superconductivity in SCES based on a systematic study of NQR under pressure, varieties of Fermi surface of Ce- and U-based SCES probed by the de Haas-van Alphen effect, electronic states probed by a bulk sensitive photoemission spectroscopy with soft X-ray, pressure induced superconductivity of heavy electron materials, pressure dependence of superconducting transition temperature based on a first-principle calculation, and new superconductors under very high-pressure. Some papers offer readers' reviews of the relevant fields and/or include new developments of this intriguing research field of SCES. Altogether, the papers within this issue outline some aspects of electronic states

  14. Electronic health record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kierkegaard, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    The European Commission wants to boost the digital economy by enabling all Europeans to have access to online medical records anywhere in Europe by 2020. With the newly enacted Directive 2011/24/EU on Patients’ Rights in cross border healthcare due for implementation by 2013, it is inevitable...... that a centralised European health record system will become a reality even before 2020. However, the concept of a centralised supranational central server raises concern about storing electronic medical records in a central location. The privacy threat posed by a supranational network is a key concern. Cross border...... and Interoperable electronic health record systems make confidential data more easily and rapidly accessible to a wider audience and increases the risk that personal data concerning health could be accidentally exposed or easily distributed to unauthorised parties by enabling greater access to a compilation...

  15. Electronic health records

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kierkegaard, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    The European Commission wants to boost the digital economy by enabling all Europeans to have access to online medical records anywhere in Europe by 2020. With the newly enacted Directive 2011/24/EU on patients’ rights in cross-border healthcare due for implementation by 2013, it is inevitable...... that a centralised European health record system will become a reality even before 2020. However, the concept of a centralised supranational central server raises concern about storing electronic medical records in a central location. The privacy threat posed by a supranational network is a key concern. Cross......-border and Interoperable electronic health record systems make confidential data more easily and rapidly accessible to a wider audience and increase the risk that personal data concerning health could be accidentally exposed or easily distributed to unauthorised parties by enabling greater access to a compilation...

  16. Uniform quantized electron gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høye, Johan S.; Lomba, Enrique

    2016-10-01

    In this work we study the correlation energy of the quantized electron gas of uniform density at temperature T  =  0. To do so we utilize methods from classical statistical mechanics. The basis for this is the Feynman path integral for the partition function of quantized systems. With this representation the quantum mechanical problem can be interpreted as, and is equivalent to, a classical polymer problem in four dimensions where the fourth dimension is imaginary time. Thus methods, results, and properties obtained in the statistical mechanics of classical fluids can be utilized. From this viewpoint we recover the well known RPA (random phase approximation). Then to improve it we modify the RPA by requiring the corresponding correlation function to be such that electrons with equal spins can not be on the same position. Numerical evaluations are compared with well known results of a standard parameterization of Monte Carlo correlation energies.

  17. Basics of RF electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Gallo, A

    2011-01-01

    RF electronics deals with the generation, acquisition and manipulation of high-frequency signals. In particle accelerators signals of this kind are abundant, especially in the RF and beam diagnostics systems. In modern machines the complexity of the electronics assemblies dedicated to RF manipulation, beam diagnostics, and feedbacks is continuously increasing, following the demands for improvement of accelerator performance. However, these systems, and in particular their front-ends and back-ends, still rely on well-established basic hardware components and techniques, while down-converted and acquired signals are digitally processed exploiting the rapidly growing computational capability offered by the available technology. This lecture reviews the operational principles of the basic building blocks used for the treatment of high-frequency signals. Devices such as mixers, phase and amplitude detectors, modulators, filters, switches, directional couplers, oscillators, amplifiers, attenuators, and others are d...

  18. Electron-molecule collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Takayanagi, Kazuo

    1984-01-01

    Scattering phenomena play an important role in modern physics. Many significant discoveries have been made through collision experiments. Amongst diverse kinds of collision systems, this book sheds light on the collision of an electron with a molecule. The electron-molecule collision provides a basic scattering problem. It is scattering by a nonspherical, multicentered composite particle with its centers having degrees of freedom of motion. The molecule can even disintegrate, Le., dissociate or ionize into fragments, some or all of which may also be molecules. Although it is a difficult problem, the recent theoretical, experimental, and computational progress has been so significant as to warrant publication of a book that specializes in this field. The progress owes partly to technical develop­ ments in measurements and computations. No less important has been the great and continuing stimulus from such fields of application as astrophysics, the physics of the earth's upper atmosphere, laser physics, radiat...

  19. Conversion electron surface imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Irwin, G M; Wehner, A

    1999-01-01

    A method of imaging the Moessbauer absorption over the surface of a sample based on counting conversion electrons emitted from the surface following resonant absorption of gamma radiation is described. This Conversion Electron Surface Imaging (CESI) method is somewhat analogous to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), particularly chemical shift imaging, and similar tomographic reconstruction techniques are involved in extracting the image. The theory behind the technique and a prototype device is described, as well as the results of proof-of-principle experiments which demonstrate the function of the device. Eventually this same prototype device will be part of a system to determine the spatial variation of the Moessbauer spectrum over the surface of a sample. Applications include imaging of variations of surface properties of steels and other iron containing alloys, as well as other surfaces over which sup 5 sup 7 Fe has been deposited.

  20. Semiconductor Physical Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Sheng

    2006-01-01

    Semiconductor Physical Electronics, Second Edition, provides comprehensive coverage of fundamental semiconductor physics that is essential to an understanding of the physical and operational principles of a wide variety of semiconductor electronic and optoelectronic devices. This text presents a unified and balanced treatment of the physics, characterization, and applications of semiconductor materials and devices for physicists and material scientists who need further exposure to semiconductor and photonic devices, and for device engineers who need additional background on the underlying physical principles. This updated and revised second edition reflects advances in semicondutor technologies over the past decade, including many new semiconductor devices that have emerged and entered into the marketplace. It is suitable for graduate students in electrical engineering, materials science, physics, and chemical engineering, and as a general reference for processing and device engineers working in the semicondi...