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Sample records for lycium barbarum caused

  1. Studies on Sulfation of Lycium barbarum Polysaccharides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI,Jian-Ping; YAN,Hong; ZHONG,Ru-Gang

    2004-01-01

    @@ Polysaccharides can anti-virus, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1),[1] herpes simplex virus (HSV-1,HSV-2) and cytomegalovirus. Some of them are sulfates, e.g. dextran sulfate, heparin, sulfonation of chitosan and sulfated derivatives of Lentinan. Our results showed that sulfated derivatives of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP)have anti-HIV activity. Because the anti-HIV activity of LBP was deeply dependent on the molecular weight, the sulfation pattern and glycosidic branches besides degree of sulfation (DS), so we emphasized our work on the factors of DS.

  2. Lycium barbarum polysaccharides promotes in vivo proliferation of adult rat retinal progenitor cells

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    Hua Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lycium barbarum is a widely used Chinese herbal medicine prescription for protection of optic nerve. However, it remains unclear regarding the effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides, the main component of Lycium barbarum, on in vivo proliferation of adult ciliary body cells. In this study, adult rats were intragastrically administered low- and high-dose Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (1 and 10 mg/kg for 35 days and those intragastrically administered phosphate buffered saline served as controls. The number of Ki-67-positive cells in rat ciliary body in the Lycium barbarum polysaccharides groups, in particular low-dose Lycium barbarum polysaccharides group, was significantly greater than that in the phosphate buffered saline group. Ki-67-positive rat ciliary body cells expressed nestin but they did not express glial fibrillary acidic protein. These findings suggest that Lycium barbarum polysaccharides can promote the proliferation of adult rat retinal progenitor cells and the proliferated cells present with neuronal phenotype.

  3. Green reduction of graphene oxide via Lycium barbarum extract

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    Hou, Dandan; Liu, Qinfu; Cheng, Hongfei; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Sen

    2017-02-01

    The synthesis of graphene from graphene oxide (GO) usually involves toxic reducing agents that are harmful to human health and the environment. Here, we report a facile approach for effective reduction of GO, for the first time, using Lycium barbarum extract as a green and natural reducing agent. The morphology and de-oxidation efficiency of the reduced graphene were characterized and results showed that Lycium barbarum extract can effectively reduce GO into few layered graphene with a high carbon to oxygen ratio (6.5), comparable to that of GO reduced by hydrazine hydrate (6.6). The possible reduction mechanism of GO may be due to the active components existing in Lycium barbarum fruits, which have high binding affinity to the oxygen containing groups to form their corresponding oxides and other by-products. This method avoided the use of any nocuous chemicals, thus facilitating the mass production of graphene and graphene-based bio-materials.

  4. Polyphenolic Content, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Lycium barbarum L. and Lycium chinense Mill. Leaves

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    Andrei Mocan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and the polyphenolic content of Lycium barbarum L. and L. chinense Mill. leaves. The different leave extracts contain important amounts of flavonoids (43.73 ± 1.43 and 61.65 ± 0.95 mg/g, respectively and showed relevant antioxidant activity, as witnessed by the quoted methods. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of target phenolic compounds were achieved using a HPLC-UV-MS method. Rutin was the dominant flavonoid in both analysed species, the highest amount being registered for L. chinense. An important amount of chlorogenic acid was determined in L. chinense and L. barbarum extracts, being more than twice as high in L. chinense than in L. barbarum. Gentisic and caffeic acids were identified only in L. barbarum, whereas kaempferol was only detected in L. chinense. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH, TEAC, hemoglobin ascorbate peroxidase activity inhibition (HAPX and inhibition of lipid peroxidation catalyzed by cytochrome c assays revealing a better antioxidant activity for the L. chinense extract. Results obtained in the antimicrobial tests revealed that L. chinense extract was more active than L. barbarum against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains. The results suggest that these species are valuable sources of flavonoids with relevant antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

  5. Optimization of Micropropagation Protocol for Goji Berry (Lycium barbarum L.

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    Alexandru Fira

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Micropropagation of Lycium barbarum cv. 'Ningxia N1' was achieved. The cultures were by initiated by axenical seed germination. The highest shoot proliferation was obtained on the MS media with 1.33 or 2.22 µM benzyl adenine, gelled with wheat starch as an agar alternative. The treatments with 2.22 µM benzyl adenine ensured proliferation rates superior to the ones with 1.33 μM benzyl adenine, but the latter provided longer and more robust shoots. Use of large microcuttings as an explant onto the multiplication media ensured higher in vitro explant survival, higher number of shoots regeneration and more vigorous plantlets. The microcuttings inserted vertically into the media yielded superior growth and multiplication as compared to the microcuttings placed horizontally. The non-rooted, elongated shoots from the treatment 1.33 μM benzyl adenine were either rooted in vitro on a hormone-free MS medium with starch or used for direct ex vitro rooting and acclimatization. The optimal number of microcuttings/vessel for in vitro rooting was 40 and the rooted plantlets were efficiently acclimatized ex vitro by three methods: float hydroculture in floating cell trays, floating perlite, and in Jiffy7 pellets.

  6. Anti-ulcer effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharide in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Rui-dong; YANG Qian-zi; XIAO Wei; LIU Fang-e; CHEN Jian-kang

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) on experimental gastric ulcers in rats. Methods: The ulcers were induced by water-immersion restraint stress, acetic acid and pylorus-ligation in rats. In each model, animals were divided randomly into 4 groups and administrated with LBP of 100 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg, ranitidine 100 mg/kg (as a reference standard) and saline respectively. Mucosal lesions were scored as ulcer index. In the pylorus-ligation model, we also compared the gastric juice volume, total acidity, acid output and pepsin activity among groups. Results: Oral administration of LBP inhibited the formation of the acute gastric lesions induced by physical stress such as water-immersion restraint (P<0.05), and accelerated the healing of chronic gastric ulcer model induced by acetic acid (P<0.05 to P<0.01). In the pylorus-ligated rats, significant decrease was also seen in ulcer index (P<0.05 to P<0.01), total acidity (P<0.05), acid output (P<0.05 to P<0.01). LBP 300 mg/kg even showed marked reduction of the volume (P<0.05) and pepsin activity (P<0.05) in the gastric juice. These effects were in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion: LBP has protective effects on treating gastric ulcer and this action may relate to the reduction of acid output and pepsin activity in the gastric juice.

  7. Antioxidative mechanism of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides promotes repair and regeneration following cavernous nerve injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhan-kui Zhao; Hong-lian Yu; Bo Liu; Hui Wang; Qiong Luo; Xie-gang Ding

    2016-01-01

    Polysaccharides extracted from Lycium barbarum exhibit antioxidant properties. We hypothesized that these polysaccharides resist oxida-tive stress-induced neuronal damage following cavernous nerve injury. In this study, rat models were intragastrically administered Lycium barbarum polysaccharides for 2 weeks at 1, 7, and 14 days after cavernous nerve injury. Serum superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities signiifcantly increased at 1 and 2 weeks post-injury. Serum malondialdehyde levels decreased at 2 and 4 weeks. At 12 weeks, peak intracavernous pressure, the number of myelinated axons and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase-pos-itive nerve ifbers, levels of phospho-endothelial nitric oxide synthase protein and 3-nitrotyrosine were higher in rats administered at 1 day post-injury compared with rats administered at 7 and 14 days post-injury. These ifndings suggest that application of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides following cavernous nerve crush injury effectively promotes nerve regeneration and erectile functional recovery. This neu-roregenerative effect was most effective in rats orally administered Lycium barbarum polysaccharides at 1 day after cavernous nerve crush injury.

  8. Cell wall polysaccharides of Chinese Wolfberry (Lycium barbarum) : Part 2. Characterisation of arabinogalactan-proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Redgwell, Robert J.; Curti, Delphine; Wang, Juankuan; Dobruchowska, Justyna M.; Gerwig, Gerrit J.; Kamerling, Johannis P.; Bucheli, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) were isolated from Wolfberry fruit (Lycium barbarum) and purified by anion-exchange chromatography and precipitation with Yariv reagent. Linkage and NMR analysis established the structure of Wolfberry AGP as typical of AGP reported from other sources. The data were

  9. Goya (Lycium barbarum) fruits as bioactive components source in food – a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Bartosz Kulczyński; Barbara Groszczyk; Anna Cerba; Anna Gramza-Michałowska

    2014-01-01

    Goya (Lycium barbarum) berries belong to a group called “superfruits”, because they contain many nutritional value components with high biological activity. The present paper focused on short characteristic and chemical components, and on the nutritional and health value of goya fruits. Results of numerous scientific investigations confirm their hypoglycemic effect, lowering cholesterol and triglycerides level in blood, immunostimulative, anticancer and antioxidative activity. Sin...

  10. Determination of eight pesticides in Lycium barbarum by LC-MS/MS and dietary risk assessment.

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    Fu, Yan; Yang, Ting; Zhao, Jian; Zhang, Liang; Chen, Ruoxia; Wu, Yinliang

    2017-03-01

    A LC-MS/MS method for determination of eight pesticides (triadimefon, sulfoxaflor, flusilazole, tebuconazole, difenoconazole, amitraz, azoxystrobin, and thiophanate-methyl) in Lycium barbarum was established. The samples were extracted with acetonitrile, and then cleaned up by primary secondary amine. The extracts were diluted with 0.1% formic acid in water. The results showed that at the fortified levels of 0.01-10mg/kg, the average recoveries of these pesticides ranged from 82.1% to 96.2% with the relative standard deviations lower than 7%. The half-lives of eight pesticides were 1.3-5.0days in Lycium barbarum fruits. The pre-harvest interval of all pesticides mentioned above were investigated. Tebuconazole (14days), sulfoxaflor (14days) and flusilazole (28days) have longer pre-harvest interval than the others which have 7days. The dietary risks, assessed as hazard quotients, were far below 100%. The results showed that the eight pesticides applied to Lycium barbarum were comparably safe for the consumer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Changes in sugars and organic acids in wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L.) fruit during development and maturation.

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    Zhao, Jianhua; Li, Haoxia; Xi, Wanpeng; An, Wei; Niu, Linlin; Cao, Youlong; Wang, Huafang; Wang, Yajun; Yin, Yue

    2015-04-15

    Wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L.) fruits of three cultivars ('Damaye', 'Baihua' and 'Ningqi No.1') were harvested at five different ripening stages and evaluated for sugars and organic acids. Fructose, glucose and total sugar contents increased continually through development and reached their maxima at 34 days after full bloom (DAF). Fructose and glucose were the predominant sugars at maturity, while sucrose content had reduced by maturity. L.barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) content was in the range of 13.03-76.86 mg g(-1)FW during ripening, with a maximum at 20DAF. Citric, tartaric and quinic acids were the main organic acid components during development, and their levels followed similar trends: the highest contents were at 30, 14 and 20DAF, respectively. The significant correlations of fructose and total sugar contents with LBP content during fruit development indicated that they played a key role in LBP accumulation.

  12. Cell wall polysaccharides of Chinese Wolfberry (Lycium barbarum) : Part 1. Characterisation of soluble and insoluble polymer fractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Redgwell, Robert J.; Curti, Delphine; Wang, Juankuan; Dobruchowska, Justyna M.; Gerwig, Gerrit J.; Kamerling, Johannis P.; Bucheli, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Water-soluble polysaccharides (WSP) and insoluble cell wall material (CWM) were isolated from Wolfberry fruit (Lycium barbarum). WSP were fractionated by treatment with a quaternary ammonium salt and anion-exchange chromatography. Pectic polysaccharides were major components but a glucan, xylan and

  13. Cell wall polysaccharides of Chinese Wolfberry (Lycium barbarum) : Part 1. Characterisation of soluble and insoluble polymer fractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Redgwell, Robert J.; Curti, Delphine; Wang, Juankuan; Dobruchowska, Justyna M.; Gerwig, Gerrit J.; Kamerling, Johannis P.; Bucheli, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Water-soluble polysaccharides (WSP) and insoluble cell wall material (CWM) were isolated from Wolfberry fruit (Lycium barbarum). WSP were fractionated by treatment with a quaternary ammonium salt and anion-exchange chromatography. Pectic polysaccharides were major components but a glucan, xylan and

  14. Lycium barbarum L. Polysaccharide (LBP Reduces Glucose Uptake via Down-Regulation of SGLT-1 in Caco2 Cell

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    Huizhen Cai

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Lycium barbarum L. polysaccharide (LBP is prepared from Lycium barbarum L. (L. barbarum, which is a traditional Chinese medicine. LPB has been shown to have hypoglycemic effects. In order to gain some mechanistic insights on the hypoglycemic effects of LBP, we investigated the uptake of LBP and its effect on glucose absorption in the human intestinal epithelial cell line Caco2 cell. The uptake of LBP through Caco2 cell monolayer was time-dependent and was inhibited by phloridzin, a competitive inhibitor of SGLT-1. LPB decreased the absorption of glucose in Caco2 cell, and down-regulated the expression of SGLT-1. These results suggest that LBP might be transported across the human intestinal epithelium through SGLT-1 and it inhibits glucose uptake via down-regulating SGLT-1.

  15. Effects of a dark-septate endophytic isolate LBF-2 on the medicinal plant Lycium barbarum L.

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    Zhang, Hai-Han; Tang, Ming; Chen, Hui; Wang, Ya-Jun

    2012-02-01

    Dark septate endophytes (DSE) are ubiquitous root associated fungi; however, our understanding of their ecological function remains unclear. Here, we investigated the positive effect of a DSE fungus on its host plant Lycium barbarum L. A DSE isolate, LBF-2, isolated from the roots of L. barbarum, was inoculated onto the roots of plants, which were grown under greenhouse conditions for five weeks. The result of molecular analyses of internal transcribed spacer regions indicated that LBF-2 was 96% similar to Paraphoma chrysanthemicola. Melanized septate hyphae were observed in the root cortical cells of L. barbarum using a light microscope. Inoculation with LBF-2 increased the total biomass by 39.2% and also enhanced chlorophyll fluorescence. Inoculation increased the concentration of total chlorophyll by 22.8% and of chlorophyll a by 21.3%, relative to uninoculated controls. These data indicate that the LBF-2 isolate might be used to facilitate the cultivation of L. barbarum, which has medicinal applications.

  16. Ultrastructural deposition forms and bioaccessibility of carotenoids and carotenoid esters from goji berries (Lycium barbarum L.).

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    Hempel, Judith; Schädle, Christopher N; Sprenger, Jasmin; Heller, Annerose; Carle, Reinhold; Schweiggert, Ralf M

    2017-03-01

    Goji berries (Lycium barbarum L.) have been known to contain strikingly high levels of zeaxanthin, while the physical deposition form and bioaccessibility of the latter was yet unknown. In the present study, we associated ripening-induced modifications in the profile of carotenoids with fundamental changes of the deposition state of carotenoids in goji berries. Unripe fruit contained common chloroplast-specific carotenoids being protein-bound within chloroplastidal thylakoids. The subsequent ripening-induced transformation of chloroplasts to tubular chromoplasts was accompanied by an accumulation of up to 36mg/100g FW zeaxanthin dipalmitate and further minor xanthophyll esters, prevailing in a presumably liquid-crystalline state within the nano-scaled chromoplast tubules. The in vitro digestion unraveled the enhanced liberation and bioaccessibility of zeaxanthin from these tubular aggregates in goji berries as compared to protein-complexed lutein from spinach. Goji berries therefore might represent a more potent source of macular pigments than green leafy vegetables like spinach.

  17. [Screening and identification of antioxidant endophytes from Lycium barbarum of Ningxia].

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    Du, Xiao-ning; Dai, Jin-xia

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, 29 endophytes were isolated from different organs and tissues of Lycium barbarum of Ningxia by tablet coating method, 18 of them was fungi, and 11 of them was actinomycetes. The endophytes quantity in the different tissues were leaves > flowers > roots >fruits; The hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of 11 endophytes were investigated by Fenton reaction, and total antioxidant capacities of them were examined by a. total antioxidant capacity test kit; culture features and strain-specific sequence analysis were employed to explore the diversity of the 11 endophytes. The result showed that 5 fungi and 6 actinomycetes that having antioxidant activity could be phylogenetically classified into 3 genera, 3 genera and 3 families, respectively. The total antioxidant capacity and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of the 11 endophytes showed distinct difference. The antioxidant activity of Aspergillus were stronger, among which total antioxidant capacity of fL1 was (188.5 ± 0.549) U · mL⁻¹ and the IC₅₀ was 0.3 mg · L⁻¹; the IC₅₀ of strain fL1 was 0.42 mg · L⁻¹ and the total antioxidant capacity of fL9 was (113.63 ± 1.021) U · mL⁻¹, all of them were stronger than the positive control Vit C. The experimental results indicated that endophytic fungi of L. barbarum of Ningxia have a great developing and application prospect for the development of antioxidant agent.

  18. Immunomodulatory effects of a standardized Lycium barbarum fruit juice in Chinese older healthy human subjects.

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    Amagase, Harunobu; Sun, Bixuang; Nance, Dwight M

    2009-10-01

    Lycium barbarum has been traditionally used in combination with several herbs for medicinal properties, but systematic modern clinical evaluation as a single herb has not been reported. To examine the systematic effects of L. barbarum on immune function, general well-being, and safety, we tested the effects of a standardized L. barbarum fruit juice (GoChi, FreeLife International, Phoenix, AZ, USA) at 120 mL/day, equivalent to at least 150 g of fresh fruit, the amount traditionally used, or placebo for 30 days in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study in 60 older healthy adults (55-72 years old). The GoChi group showed a statistically significant increase in the number of lymphocytes and levels of interleukin-2 and immunoglobulin G compared to pre-intervention and the placebo group, whereas the number of CD4, CD8, and natural killer cells or levels of interleukin-4 and immunoglobulin A were not significantly altered. The placebo group showed no significant changes in any immune measures. Whereas the GoChi group showed a significant increase in general feelings of well-being, such as fatigue and sleep, and showed a tendency for increased short-term memory and focus between pre- and post-intervention, the placebo group showed no significant positive changes in these measures. No adverse reactions, abnormal symptoms, or changes in body weight, blood pressure, pulse, visual acuity, urine, stool, or blood biochemistry were seen in either group. In conclusion, daily consumption of GoChi significantly increased several immunological responses and subjective feelings of general well-being without any adverse reactions.

  19. Reversal of Apoptotic Resistance by Lycium barbarum Glycopeptide 3 in Aged T Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONG-GUO YUAN; HONG-BIN DENG; LI-HUI CHEN; DIAN-DONG LI; QI-YANG HE

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study whether Lycium barbarian glycopeptide 3 (LBGP3) affects T cell apeptosis in aged mice. Methods LBGP3 was purified with DEAE cellulose and Sephadex columns. Apoptotic "sub-Gl peak" was detected by flow cytometry and DNA ladder was resolved by agarose gel electrophoresis. Levels of IFN-γ, and IL-10 were measured with specific kits and mRNA expression was detected by RT-PCR. Apoptosis-related proteins of FLIP, FasL, and Bcl-2 were determined by Western blotting. Resdts LBGP3 was purified from Fructus Lycii water extracts and identified as a 41 kD glycopeptide.Treatment with 200 μg/mL LBGP3 increased the apoptotic rate of T cells from aged mice and showed a similar DNA ladder pattern to that in young T ceils. The reversal of apoptotic resistance was involved in down-regulating the expression of Bcl-2 and FLIP, and up-regulating the expression of FasL. Conclusion Lycium barbarum glycopeptide 3 reverses apoptotic resistance of aged T cells by modulating the expression of apoptosis-related molecules.

  20. Goji fruit (Lycium barbarum) protects sciatic nerve function against crush injury in a model of diabetic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonyan, K V; Avetisyan, L G; Chavushyan, V A

    2016-09-01

    Excess fructose consumption causes changes in functioning of the central and peripheral nervous systems, which increase the vulnerability of peripheral nerves to traumatic injury. The aim of this study was to evaluate the electrophysiological parameters of responses of motoneurons of the spinal cord at high-frequency stimulation of the distal part of the injured sciatic nerve in a model of diabetic stress under action of Lycium barbarum (LB). Male albino rats were given with drinking water with 50% concentration of dietary fructose for 6 weeks. Starting on the 7th week a crush injury of the left sciatic nerve was carried out. Some of the animals received fructose post-injury for 3 weeks and some of the animals received fructose+dry LB fruits for 3 weeks. In the fructose+crush+LВ group a relatively proportional division of tetanic and posttetanic potentiation and depression in responses of ipsilateral and contralateral motoneurons was observed, which would suggest the modulatory role of LB in short-term synaptic plasticity formation. Generally, LB fruit is able to modulate central nervous system reorganization, amplifying positive adaptive changes that improve functional recovery and promote selective target reinnervation in high fructose-diet rats with sciatic nerve crush-injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Studies on Chemistry and Immuno-modulating Mechanism of a Glycoconjugate from Lycium barbarum L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG,Xue-Mei(彭雪梅); HUANG,Lin-Juan(黄琳娟); QI,Chun-Hui(齐春会); ZHANG,Yong-Xiang(张永详); TIAN,Geng-Yuan(田庚元)

    2001-01-01

    The detailed structure of an O-glycan derived from the fruitof Lyciun barbariun L.was elucidated based on glycosidiclinkage analysis,comnplete and partial acid hydrolysis,1H-NMR amd 13C NMR spectroscopy.According to the experi-ments,the carbohydrate was in the form of polysacchride(arabinogalactan) chains with highly branched 3,4-galactans and terminal arabinofuranosyl substituents.``The irmmmo-modulating mechanism of glycoconjugate ami its glycan were investigated using tritium thymidine lucor-poration assay,flow cytometry assay and electrophoreticalmobility shift assay (EMSA).The results suggested that theimmunoncfive components of the fruit of Lycium barbarum L.could enlance the splenocyte proliferation in normal mice andthe effects of glycan chain were stronger than those of glyco-conjugate.The target cell was most likely to be B-lympho-cyte,on which existed receptor binding site acting with theglycan.In addition,the immuno-stimulatory effect of glyco-conjugate (LbGp4) amd its glycan (LbGp4-OL) was associat ed with activating the expression of nuclear factor kB (NF-kB) and activator protein 1 (AP-l).``

  2. The Protective Effects of Lycium Barbarum Polysaccharides on Transient Retinal Ischemia

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    Di Yang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Retinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury leads to irreversible neuronal death, glial activation, retinal swelling and oxidative stress. It is a common feature in various ocular diseases, such as glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy and amaurosis fugax. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of Lycium Barbarum Polysaccharides (LBP in a murine retinal I/R model. Mice were orally treated with either vehicle (PBS or LBP (1mg/kg daily for 1 week before induction of retinal ischemia. Retinae were collected after 2 hours ischemia and 22 hours reperfusion. Paraffin-embedded sections were prepared for immunohistochemical analyses. Significantly fewer viable cells were found in vehicle-treated retinae comparing to LBP group. This finding was further confirmed by TUNEL assay where significantly fewer apoptotic cells were identified in LBP-treated retinae. Additionally, retinal swelling induced by retinal I/R injury in the vehicle-treated group was not observed in LBP-treated group. Moreover, intense GFAP immunoreactivity and IgG extravasation were observed in vehicle-treated group but not in LBP treated group. The results showed that pre-treatment with LBP was protective in retinal I/R injury via reducing neuronal death, apoptosis, retinal swelling, GFAP activation and blood vessel leakage. LBP may be used as a preventive agent for retinal ischemia diseases.

  3. Lycium barbarum polysaccharides protected human retinal pigment epithelial cells against oxidative stressinduced apoptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lian; Liu; Wei; Lao; Qing-Shan; Ji; Zhi-Hao; Yang; Guo-Cheng; Yu; Jing-Xiang; Zhong

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the protective effect and its mechanism of lycium barbarum polysaccharides(LBP)against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in human retinal pigment epithelial cells.METHODS: ARPE-19 cells, a human retinal pigment epithelial cell lines, were exposed to different concentrations of H2O2 for 24h, then cell viability was measured by Cell Counting Kit-8(CCK-8) assay to get the properly concentration of H2O2 which can induce half apoptosis of APRE-19. With different concentrations of LBP pretreatment, the ARPE-19 cells were then exposed to appropriate concentration of H2O2, cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometric analysis. Expression levels of Bcl-2 and Bax were measured by real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR) technique.RSULTS: LBP significantly reduced the H2O2-induced ARPE-19 cells’ apoptosis. LBP inhibited the H2O2-induced down-regulation of Bcl-2 and up-regulation of Bax.CONCLUSION: LBP could protect ARPE-19 cells from H2O2-induced apoptosis. The Bcl-2 family had relationship with the protective effects of LBP.

  4. Lycium barbarum polysaccharides regulate phenotypic and functional maturation of murine dendritic cells.

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    Zhu, Jie; Zhao, Lu-Hang; Zhao, Xiao-Ping; Chen, Zhi

    2007-06-01

    Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBPs) have been known to have a variety of immunomodulatory functions including activation of T cells, B cells and NK cells. Dendritic cells (DC) are potent antigen-presenting cells that play pivotal roles in the initiation of the primary immune response. However, little is known about the immunomodulatory effects of LBPs on murine bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDC). In the present study, the effects of LBPs on the phenotypic and functional maturation of murine BMDC were investigated in vitro. Compared to the BMDC that were only subjected to treatment with RPMI1640, the co-expression of I-A/I-E, CD11c and secretion of IL-12 p40 by BMDC stimulated with LBPs (100 microg/ml) were increased. In addition, the endocytosis of FITC-dextran by LBPs-treated BMDC (100 microg/ml) was impaired, whereas the activation of proliferation of allogenic lymphocytes by BMDC was enhanced. Our results strongly suggest that LBPs are capable of promoting both the phenotypic and functional maturation of murine BMDC in vitro.

  5. 适宜干燥方法提高干制枸杞品质%Optimal drying method improving quality ofLycium barbarum L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海; 高月; 王颉; 姚思远; 王伟华; 冉国伟; 刘瑜; 郭雪霞; 张慧媛

    2015-01-01

    为缩短鲜枸杞的干制时间,获得高品质的干制枸杞,该文通过比较自然晾晒、燃煤烘干房以及太阳能干燥设备对枸杞的干燥效率的差异以及测定并分析3种干燥方式获得干果的主要功能性成分(总糖、总黄酮、多糖、甜菜碱,类胡萝卜素)含量及外观品质和出糖率的差异。试验结果表明,采用太阳能干燥设备干燥枸杞的时间最少约为26 h,功能性成分总质量分数约71.71 g/(100 g),与其他2种干燥方式相比功能性成分损失降低,干枸杞色泽更接近鲜枸杞的色泽,出糖率约为1.53%,低于其他2种干燥方式。太阳能干燥设备对于枸杞干燥具有显著的优势,应用前景广阔。%Lycium barbarum Lis the fruit with rich sweet and sour taste. It is not only the traditional medicinal material, but also a kind of nutritional supplement.Lycium barbarum L has seasonal and regional characteristics for harvest and short storage period. So the drying ofLycium barbarum L becomes a kind of important processing. At present, the drying ofLycium barbarum Lis mainly traditional natural drying. This method needs long drying time and the mildew rate is high, so it has no guarantee to the quality of the products. It is difficult to meet the needs of the modern production. The drying in coal-fired drying room needs high energy consumption and produces severe pollution during the drying process. The temperature and humidity is not easy to control. The fireworks affect the quality of the dried Chinese wolfberry seriously. The solar drying equipment appears in Ningxia region in recent years. It uses solar energy and electrical energy to dryLycium barbarum L. It is able to not only save energy and protect environment but also dry fast. TheLycium barbarum L was dried by natural drying, coal-fired drying room and solar drying equipment separately, and the drying rates ofLycium barbarum L were compared by weighing method. Their main

  6. Comparison and Characterization of Compounds with Antioxidant Activity in Lycium barbarum Using High-Performance Thin Layer Chromatography Coupled with DPPH Bioautography and Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Shing-Chung; Luo, Zhen; Wu, Ding-Tao; Cheong, Kit-Leong; Hu, De-Jun; Xia, Zu-Meng; Zhao, Jing; Li, Shao-Ping

    2016-06-01

    Methanol extracts from 50 batches of Lycium barbarum (L. barbarum, wolfberry) in China were compared and characterized using high-performance thin-layer chromatography coupled with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) bioautography (HPTLC-DPPH) and electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS), respectively. Results showed that similar components occupying the major antioxidant activity existed in L. barbarum collected from different origins. However, the average antioxidant capacities of methanol extracts of L. barbarum collected in Ningxia were significantly higher than those of Qinghai, Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia, and Gansu, which may contribute to rational use of L. barbarum in China. Furthermore, the chemical structure of compound with the highest antioxidant capacity was tentatively identified as 2-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-l-ascorbic acid using ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS analysis, which possessed high potentials to be used as an antioxidant biomarker for the quality control of L. barbarum. Results are helpful for the bioactivity-based quality control of L. barbarum, and beneficial for the improvement of their performance in functional/health foods area, suggesting that HPTLC-DPPH bioautography with ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS could be used as a routine approach for quality control of antioxidant components in L. barbarum. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Inhibiting effect of lycium barbarum polysaccoharide on angiogenesis as well as oxidative stress and inflammation in retina of diabetic mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-Xi Zhang; Kai Xue; Wei Gao; Tan Long

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of lycium barbarum polysaccoharide on angiogenesis as well as oxidative stress and inflammation in retina of diabetic mice.Methods: C57BL/6 mice were selected and divided into control group, diabetes group and lycium barbarum polysaccoharide group (LBP group), diabetes group and LBP group received intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin to establish diabetes model, and LBP group received intragastric administration of LBP for intervention. The levels of angiogenesis molecules, oxidative stress indexes and inflammatory cytokines in retinal tissue of three groups were determined.Results:VEGF165, VEGFR1, VEGFR2, VEGFR3, Ang-1, Ang-2, Tie-1, Tie-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, ICAM-1, P-selectin, ROS, AOPP, MDA and 8-OHdG levels in retina tissue of diabetes group were significantly higher than those of control group, and T-AOC level was significantly lower than that of control group; VEGF165, VEGFR1, VEGFR2, VEGFR3, Ang-1, Ang-2, Tie-1, Tie-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, ICAM-1, P-selectin, ROS, AOPP, MDA and 8-OHdG levels in retina tissue of LBP group were significantly lower than those of diabetes group, and T-AOC level was significantly higher than that of diabetes group.Conclusion:LBP can inhibit angiogenesis as well as oxidative stress and inflammation in retina of diabetic mice, and has therapeutic effect on diabetic retinopathy.

  8. Speciation analysis and bioaccessibility evaluation of trace elements in goji berries (Lycium Barbarum, L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcieszek, Justyna; Kwiatkowski, Piotr; Ruzik, Lena

    2017-04-07

    Goji berries (Lycium Barbarum, L.) are known for their nutritional potential as a great source of trace metals (e.g., copper, zinc and manganese) which are present in the form of highly bioaccessible compounds. In order to assess the bioaccessibility of trace elements and to identify compounds responsible for better bioaccessibility of copper and zinc, an in vitro simulation of gastrointestinal digestion was used in this study. The total content of trace metals was evaluated using sample digestion followed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Bioaccessibility of trace elements was estimated by size exclusion chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. These analytical methods were used to analyse samples of goji berries to determine the highest amount of elements. For total trace metal content in goji berries, Zn had the highest level of the three studied (10.6μgg(-1)), while the total content of manganese and copper was 9.9μgg(-1) and 6.1μgg(-1), respectively. Additionally, the analysed metals were found to be highly bioaccessible to the human body (about 56% for Mn, 72% for Cu and 64% for Zn in the gastric extract and approximately 35% for Mn, 23% for Cu and 31% for Zn in the case of gastrointestinal extract). To obtain information about metal complexes present in goji berries, extraction treatment using different solutions (ionic liquid, HEPES, SDS, Tris-HCl, ammonium acetate, water) was performed. Enzymatic treatment using pectinase and hemicellulase was also checked. Extracts of berries were analysed by SEC-ICP-MS and μHPLC-ESI-MS/MS techniques. The ionic liquid and pectinase extraction helped efficiently extract copper (seven compounds) and zinc (four compounds) complexes. Compounds identified in goji berries are most likely to be responsible for better bioaccessibility of those elements to the human organism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of Lycium barbarum. polysaccharide on type 2 diabetes mellitus rats by regulating biological rhythms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Rui; Gao, Xu; Zhang, Tao; Li, Xing

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with circadian disruption. Our previous experimental results have showed that dietary Lycium barbarum. polysaccharide (LBP-4a) exhibited hypoglycemic and improving insulin resistance (IR) activities. This study was to explore the mechanisms of LBP-4a for improving hyperglycemia and IR by regulating biological rhythms in T2DM rats. Materials and Methods: The rats of T2DM were prepared by the high-sucrose-fat diets and injection of streptozotocin (STZ). The levels of insulin, leptin and melatonin were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The effect of LBP-4a on mRNA expression of melatonin receptors (MT2) in epididymal adipose tissue was evaluated by RT-PCR. The expression of CLOCK and BMAL1 in pancreatic islet cells was detected by Western blotting. Results: Our data indicated that the 24-hr rhythm of blood glucose appeared to have consistent with normal rats after gavaged administration of LBP-4a for each day of the 4 weeks, and the effects of hypoglycemia and improving hyperinsulinemia in T2DM rats treated at high dose were much better than that at low dose. The mechanisms were related to increasing MT2 level in epididymal adipose tissue and affecting circadian clocks gene expression of CLOCK and BMAL1 in pancreatic islet cells. Conclusion: LBP-4a administration could treat T2DM rats. These observations provided the background for the further development of LBP-4a as a potential dietary therapeutic agent in the treatment of T2DM. PMID:27803791

  10. Lycium barbarum extracts protect the brain from blood-brain barrier disruption and cerebral edema in experimental stroke.

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    Di Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Ischemic stroke is a destructive cerebrovascular disease and a leading cause of death. Yet, no ideal neuroprotective agents are available, leaving prevention an attractive alternative. The extracts from the fruits of Lycium barbarum (LBP, a Chinese anti-aging medicine and food supplement, showed neuroprotective function in the retina when given prophylactically. We aim to evaluate the protective effects of LBP pre-treatment in an experimental stroke model. METHODS: C57BL/6N male mice were first fed with either vehicle (PBS or LBP (1 or 10 mg/kg daily for 7 days. Mice were then subjected to 2-hour transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO by the intraluminal method followed by 22-hour reperfusion upon filament removal. Mice were evaluated for neurological deficits just before sacrifice. Brains were harvested for infarct size estimation, water content measurement, immunohistochemical analysis, and Western blot experiments. Evans blue (EB extravasation was determined to assess blood-brain barrier (BBB disruption after MCAO. RESULTS: LBP pre-treatment significantly improved neurological deficits as well as decreased infarct size, hemispheric swelling, and water content. Fewer apoptotic cells were identified in LBP-treated brains by TUNEL assay. Reduced EB extravasation, fewer IgG-leaky vessels, and up-regulation of occludin expression were also observed in LBP-treated brains. Moreover, immunoreactivity for aquaporin-4 and glial fibrillary acidic protein were significantly decreased in LBP-treated brains. CONCLUSIONS: Seven-day oral LBP pre-treatment effectively improved neurological deficits, decreased infarct size and cerebral edema as well as protected the brain from BBB disruption, aquaporin-4 up-regulation, and glial activation. The present study suggests that LBP may be used as a prophylactic neuroprotectant in patients at high risk for ischemic stroke.

  11. 沙棘枸杞子无糖果冻配方的研究%The Research of Sugarless Jelly of Seabuckthorn and Lycium barbarum L Fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙芝杨

    2012-01-01

    Seabuckthom juice, Lycium barbarum L juice and xylitol were used to produce sugarless jelly. Optimal formula of jell is 1.0% gelatin, 11% xylitol, 9% seabuckthorn juice and 8% Lycium barbarum L juice. The color of jelly is orange. It tastes smooth, sweet and sour. Sugarless jelly is rich in flavor of seabuckthom and Lycium barbarum L fruit.%以沙棘汁、枸杞子汁、木糖醇为主要原料,并配以其它辅料,研究沙棘枸杞子无糖果冻的最佳配方。通过单因素试验和正交试验确定了果冻的最佳配方:明胶1.0%,木糖醇11%,沙棘汁9%和枸杞汁8%,得到桔黄色,口感爽滑,酸甜可口的沙棘枸杞子无糖果冻,具有浓郁的沙棘和枸杞子风味。

  12. Reversal of the Caspase-Dependent Apoptotic Cytotoxicity Pathway by Taurine from Lycium barbarum (Goji Berry in Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells: Potential Benefit in Diabetic Retinopathy

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    M. K. Song

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy is a preventable microvascular diabetic complication and a leading cause of vision loss. Retinal pigment epithelial cell apoptosis is an early event in diabetic retinopathy. Taurine is reportedly beneficial for diabetic retinopathy and is abundant in the fruit of Lycium barbarum (LB. We have investigated the effect of pure taurine and an extract of LB rich in taurine on a model of diabetic retinopathy, the retinal ARPE-19 cell line exposed to high glucose. We demonstrate for the first time that LB extract and the active ligand, taurine, dose dependently enhance cell viability following high glucose treatment in the ARPE-19 retinal epithelial cell line. This cytoprotective effect was associated with the attenuation of high glucose-induced apoptosis, which was shown by characteristic morphological staining and the dose-dependent decrease in the number of apoptotic cells, determined by flow cytometry. Moreover, we have shown that LB extract and taurine dose dependently downregulate caspase-3 protein expression and the enzymatic activity of caspase-3. We conclude that taurine, a major component of LB, and the LB extract, have a cytoprotective effect against glucose exposure in a human retinal epithelial cell line and may provide useful approaches to delaying diabetic retinopathy progression.

  13. 枸杞多糖的提取及其抗衰老的研究%Research on the Extraction and Anti-aging of Lycium Barbarum Polysaccharide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘杰; 潘晓秋; 周晖; 张海林; 齐宏亮; 廖丹; 倪雪松

    2016-01-01

    目的:优选枸杞多糖的最佳提取工艺,通过建立D-半乳糖致衰老小鼠模型,研究枸杞多糖的抗衰老作用。方法:采用正交设计法对提取工艺进行研究;应用D-半乳糖连续注射,造成实验性衰老小鼠模型,通过测定血液丙二醛(MDA)、谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶( GSH-PX)和过氧化氢酶( CAT)的含量及超氧化物歧化酶( SOD)的活力和皮肤中SOD、MDA及羟脯氨酸( Hyp)的水平来检测枸杞多糖抗衰老的能力。结果:通过正交设计确定的枸杞多糖的最佳提取方案为:料液比为1∶30,提取2次,1次90 min,功率为100 kHz。通过研究可见,枸杞多糖可提高小鼠血液中SOD、CAT、GSH-px水平,降低MDA值;可提高小鼠皮肤SOD活力,降低皮肤MDA含量,提高Hyp含量。结论:本研究建立的提取方法简单、易行,枸杞多糖的提出率高。枸杞多糖具有抗D-半乳糖所致小鼠衰老的作用。%OBJECTIVE:To optimize the optimum extraction technology of lycium barbarum polysaccharide and establish senile mice model by D-galactose , so as to research the anti-aging effects of lycium barbarum polysaccharide . METHODS:Orthogonal design method was adopted to research the extraction technology .The senile mice model was established by injection of D-galactose .The anti-aging capacibility of lycium barbarum polysaccharide were determined by the detection of malonaldehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), the content of catalase (CAT), activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and level of SOD, MDA and hydroxyproline (Hyp) in the skin.RESULTS:The optimum extraction technology scheme by orthogonal design method were : the ratio of solid to liquid was 1∶30, 2 times of extraction, 90 min for once, the power was 100 kHz.Lycium barbarum polysaccharide could increase the level of SOD , CAT and GSH-px in rats , decrease MDA , improve the SOD activity , decrease MDA and increase the content of Hyp

  14. Composition of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides and their apoptosis-inducing effect on human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells

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    Qian Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP is a natural functional component that has a variety of biological activities. The molecular structures and apoptosis-inducing activities on human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells of two LBP fractions, LBP-d and LBP-e, were investigated. Results: The results showed that LBP-d and LBP-e both consist of protein, uronic acid, and neutral sugars in different proportions. The structure of LBP was characterized by gas chromatography, periodate oxidation, and Smith degradation. LBP-d was composed of eight kinds of monosaccharides (fucose, ribose, rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, galactose, and glucose, while LBP-e was composed of six kinds of monosaccharides (fucose, rhamnose, arabinose, mannose, galactose, and glucose. LBP-d and LBP-e blocked SMMC-7721 cells at the G0/G1 and S phases with an inhibition ratio of 26.70 and 45.13%, respectively, and enhanced the concentration of Ca2 + in the cytoplasm of SMMC-7721. Conclusion: The contents of protein, uronic acid, and galactose in LBP-e were much higher than those in LBP-d, which might responsible for their different bioactivities. The results showed that LBP can be provided as a potential chemotherapeutic agent drug to treat cancer.

  15. Crude Extracts from Lycium barbarum Suppress SREBP-1c Expression and Prevent Diet-Induced Fatty Liver through AMPK Activation

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    Wang Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP is well known in traditional Chinese herbal medicine that, has beneficial effects. Previous study reported that LBP reduced blood glucose and serum lipids. However, the underlying LBP-regulating mechanisms remain largely unknown. The main purpose of this study was to investigate whether LBP prevented fatty liver through activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK and suppression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a low-fat diet, high-fat diet, or 100 mg/kg LBP-treatment diet for 24 weeks. HepG2 cells were treated with LBP in the presence of palmitic acid. In our study, LBP can improve body compositions and lipid metabolic profiles in high-fat diet-fed mice. Oil Red O staining in vivo and in vitro showed that LBP significantly reduced hepatic intracellular triacylglycerol accumulation. H&E staining also showed that LBP can attenuate liver steatosis. Hepatic genes expression profiles demonstrated that LBP can activate the phosphorylation of AMPK, suppress nuclear expression of SREBP-1c, and decrease protein and mRNA expression of lipogenic genes in vivo or in vitro. Moreover, LBP significantly elevated uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α expression of brown adipose tissue. In summary, LBP possesses a potential novel treatment in preventing diet-induced fatty liver.

  16. 苦瓜枸杞低糖酸奶的研制%Production and research on low-sugar yoghurt with balsam pear and Lycium barbarum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋立; 李雨露; 马勇; 吕长鑫; 励建荣

    2011-01-01

    The optimum formula and technique of yoghurt were studied by using aspartame and acesulfame potassium as substitutes of sucrose with milk,balsam pear,Lycium barbarum and de-fatted milk powder as material. The results showed that 3% of mixed bacteria with lactobacillus l. d. Bulgaricus and Str. Thermophilus as proportion 1∶ 1 was inoculated after milk,the sweetener 0. 010%(aspartame:acesulfame potassium=1∶ 1),balsam pear juice 1. 5%,Lycium barbarum juice 3% and 2% de-fatted milk powder were mixed,homogenized and sterilized. The low- sugar yoghurt with balsam pear and Lycium barbarum was produced through fermentation under 42℃ for 4h. The low-sugar yoghurt was uniform in color,fine in texture and smooth organizing,delicious taste in sour and sweet with coordinated flavour.%研究了以牛奶、苦瓜、枸杞、脱脂奶粉为主要原料,并以阿斯巴甜和安赛蜜替代蔗糖来生产酸奶的最佳配方及工艺。结果表明,牛奶与0.010%的甜味剂(阿斯巴甜∶安赛蜜=1∶1)、1.5%的苦瓜汁、3%的枸杞汁、2%的脱脂奶粉混合、均质、杀菌后,接入保加利亚乳杆菌与嗜热链球菌比例为1∶1的混合菌种3%,在42℃条件下发酵4h,制得颜色均一、组织细腻、酸甜爽口、香味协调的苦瓜枸杞低糖酸奶。

  17. Antioxidant, Antimicrobial Effects and Phenolic Profile of Lycium barbarum L. Flowers

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    Andrei Mocan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available L. barbarum L. is a widely-accepted nutraceutical presenting highly advantageous nutritive and antioxidant properties. Its flowers have been previously described as a source of diosgenin, β-sitosterol and lanosterol that can be further pharmaceutically developed, but no other data regarding their composition is available. The purpose of this work was to investigate the chemical constituents, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of L. barbarum flowers, as an alternative resource of naturally-occurring antioxidant compounds. The free radical scavenging activity of the ethanolic extract was tested by TEAC, two enzymatic assays with more physiological relevance and EPR spectroscopy. The presence of several phenolic compounds, such as chlorogenic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids, but also isoquercitrin, rutin and quercitrin, was assessed by an HPLC/MS method. The antioxidant assays revealed that the extract exhibited a moderate antioxidant potential. The antimicrobial activity was mild against Gram-positive bacteria and lacking against Escherichia coli. These findings complete the scarce existing data and offer new perspectives for further pharmaceutical valorization of L. barbarum flowers.

  18. Study on the Relationship between the Main Secondary Metabolites and Polysaccharide in Fruits of Lycium barbarum at Different Application Amounts of Nitrogen%不同施氮水平下枸杞主要次生代谢产物与多糖的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康建宏; 吴宏亮; 杨涓; 杨剑涛

    2008-01-01

    [Objective] The aim of this study is to investigate the optimum application amount of nitrogen in Lycium barbarum based on considering the re-lationship between main secondary metaholites and polysaccharide. [Method] Under field conditions, the effects of different application amounts of nitro-gen on main secondary metabolites of betaine, carotenoid and flavone of Lycium barbarum and the relationship between main secondary metabolites and pol-ysaccharide. [Result] The main secondary metabolites of betainc, carotenoid and flavone of Lycium barbarum varied under different application amounts of nitrogen. The proper application amuant of nitrogen (600 -900 kg/hm2) was beneficial to the formation and accumulation of secondary metabolites such as carotenoids. Correlation analysis results showed that polysaccharide were negatively correlated with betaine, carotenoid and flavone at significant probability level. [Conclusion] Considering the relationship between the output and quality of the fruits of Lycium barbarum, the optimum nitrogen application a-mount should be 600 -900 kg/hm2.

  19. Densitometric TLC analysis for the control of tropane and steroidal alkaloids in Lycium barbarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokotkiewicz, A; Migas, P; Stefanowicz, J; Luczkiewicz, M; Krauze-Baranowska, M

    2017-04-15

    Thin layer chromatographic methods for quantitative determination of nightshade-specific tropane (l-hyoscyamine, scopolamine) and steroidal alkaloids (α-solanine, α-chaconine) in goji berries (L. barbarum L., Solanaceae) were developed. The analysis of tropane derivatives included separation on silica gel-coated HPTLC plates using mobile phase consisted of chloroform:methanol:acetone:25% ammonium hydroxide (75:15:10:1.6 v/v/v/v), derivatization with Dragendorff reagent and scanning densitometry at λ - 520nm in reflectance/absorption mode. Steroidal alkaloid analysis employed silica gel-coated TLC plates, mobile phase composed of chloroform:methanol:water:25% ammonium hydroxide (70:30:4:2 v/v/v/v), derivatization with Carr-Price reagent and video densitometry under white light in the reflectance mode. Both methods were validated with respect to linearity, precision, accuracy and sensitivity, enabling reliable detection of tropane derivatives and α-solanine at 1.20 and 7.84mgper100g fresh material, respectively. None of the analyzed compounds were detected in fruits, leaves, stems and roots of three L. barbarum varieties ('No. 1', 'New Big' and 'Amber Sweet Goji').

  20. Lycium barbarum polysaccharides reduce neuronal damage, blood-retinal barrier disruption and oxidative stress in retinal ischemia/reperfusion injury.

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    Suk-Yee Li

    Full Text Available Neuronal cell death, glial cell activation, retinal swelling and oxidative injury are complications in retinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injuries. Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP, extracts from the wolfberries, are good for "eye health" according to Chinese medicine. The aim of our present study is to explore the use of LBP in retinal I/R injury. Retinal I/R injury was induced by surgical occlusion of the internal carotid artery. Prior to induction of ischemia, mice were treated orally with either vehicle (PBS or LBP (1 mg/kg once a day for 1 week. Paraffin-embedded retinal sections were prepared. Viable cells were counted; apoptosis was assessed using TUNEL assay. Expression levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, aquaporin-4 (AQP4, poly(ADP-ribose (PAR and nitrotyrosine (NT were investigated by immunohistochemistry. The integrity of blood-retinal barrier (BRB was examined by IgG extravasations. Apoptosis and decreased viable cell count were found in the ganglion cell layer (GCL and the inner nuclear layer (INL of the vehicle-treated I/R retina. Additionally, increased retinal thickness, GFAP activation, AQP4 up-regulation, IgG extravasations and PAR expression levels were observed in the vehicle-treated I/R retina. Many of these changes were diminished or abolished in the LBP-treated I/R retina. Pre-treatment with LBP for 1 week effectively protected the retina from neuronal death, apoptosis, glial cell activation, aquaporin water channel up-regulation, disruption of BRB and oxidative stress. The present study suggests that LBP may have a neuroprotective role to play in ocular diseases for which I/R is a feature.

  1. Lycium barbarum (wolfberry reduces secondary degeneration and oxidative stress, and inhibits JNK pathway in retina after partial optic nerve transection.

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    Hongying Li

    Full Text Available Our group has shown that the polysaccharides extracted from Lycium barbarum (LBP are neuroprotective for retinal ganglion cells (RGCs in different animal models. Protecting RGCs from secondary degeneration is a promising direction for therapy in glaucoma management. The complete optic nerve transection (CONT model can be used to study primary degeneration of RGCs, while the partial optic nerve transection (PONT model can be used to study secondary degeneration of RGCs because primary degeneration of RGCs and secondary degeneration can be separated in location in the same retina in this model; in other situations, these types of degeneration can be difficult to distinguish. In order to examine which kind of degeneration LBP could delay, both CONT and PONT models were used in this study. Rats were fed with LBP or vehicle daily from 7 days before surgery until sacrifice at different time-points and the surviving numbers of RGCs were evaluated. The expression of several proteins related to inflammation, oxidative stress, and the c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK pathways were detected with Western-blot analysis. LBP did not delay primary degeneration of RGCs after either CONT or PONT, but it did delay secondary degeneration of RGCs after PONT. We found that LBP appeared to exert these protective effects by inhibiting oxidative stress and the JNK/c-jun pathway and by transiently increasing production of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1. This study suggests that LBP can delay secondary degeneration of RGCs and this effect may be linked to inhibition of oxidative stress and the JNK/c-jun pathway in the retina.

  2. Protection of retinal ganglion cells and retinal vasculature by Lycium barbarum polysaccharides in a mouse model of acute ocular hypertension.

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    Xue-Song Mi

    Full Text Available Acute ocular hypertension (AOH is a condition found in acute glaucoma. The purpose of this study is to investigate the protective effect of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP and its protective mechanisms in the AOH insult. LBP has been shown to exhibit neuroprotective effect in the chronic ocular hypertension (COH experiments. AOH mouse model was induced in unilateral eye for one hour by introducing 90 mmHg ocular pressure. The animal was fed with LBP solution (1 mg/kg or vehicle daily from 7 days before the AOH insult till sacrifice at either day 4 or day 7 post insult. The neuroprotective effects of LBP on retinal ganglion cells (RGCs and blood-retinal-barrier (BRB were evaluated. In control AOH retina, loss of RGCs, thinning of IRL thickness, increased IgG leakage, broken tight junctions, and decreased density of retinal blood vessels were observed. However, in LBP-treated AOH retina, there was less loss of RGCs with thinning of IRL thickness, IgG leakage, more continued structure of tight junctions associated with higher level of occludin protein and the recovery of the blood vessel density when compared with vehicle-treated AOH retina. Moreover, we found that LBP provides neuroprotection by down-regulating RAGE, ET-1, Aβ and AGE in the retina, as well as their related signaling pathways, which was related to inhibiting vascular damages and the neuronal degeneration in AOH insults. The present study suggests that LBP could prevent damage to RGCs from AOH-induced ischemic injury; furthermore, through its effects on blood vessel protection, LBP would also be a potential treatment for vascular-related retinopathy.

  3. Proteome analysis of the wild and YX-1 male sterile mutant anthers of wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L..

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    Rui Zheng

    Full Text Available Pollen development is disturbed in the early tetrad stage of the YX-1 male sterile mutant of wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L.. The present study aimed to identify differentially expressed anther proteins and to reveal their possible roles in pollen development and male sterility. To address this question, the proteomes of the wild-type (WT and YX-1 mutant were compared. Approximately 1760 protein spots on two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE gels were detected. A number of proteins whose accumulation levels were altered in YX-1 compared with WT were identified by mass spectrometry and the NCBInr and Viridiplantae EST databases. Proteins down-regulated in YX-1 anthers include ascorbate peroxidase (APX, putative glutamine synthetase (GS, ATP synthase subunits, chalcone synthase (CHS, CHS-like, putative callose synthase catalytic subunit, cysteine protease, 5B protein, enoyl-ACP reductase, 14-3-3 protein and basic transcription factor 3 (BTF3. Meanwhile, activities of APX and GS, RNA expression levels of apx and atp synthase beta subunit were low in YX-1 anthers which correlated with the expression of male sterility. In addition, several carbohydrate metabolism-related and photosynthesis-related enzymes were also present at lower levels in the mutant anthers. In contrast, 26S proteasome regulatory subunits, cysteine protease inhibitor, putative S-phase Kinase association Protein 1(SKP1, and aspartic protease, were expressed at higher levels in YX-1 anthers relative to WT anthers. Regulation of wolfberry pollen development involves a complex network of differentially expressed genes. The present study lays the foundation for future investigations of gene function linked with wolfberry pollen development and male sterility.

  4. Co-administration of the polysaccharide of Lycium barbarum with DNA vaccine of Chlamydophila abortus augments protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Yong; Li, Shaowen; Yang, Junjing; Yuan, Jilei; He, Cheng

    2011-01-01

    Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) can stimulate moderate immune responses therefore could potentially be used as a substitute for oil adjuvants in veterinary vaccines. In the present study, it was shown that the isolated active component of LBP3a, combined with a DNA vaccine encoding the major outer membrane protein (MOMP) of Chlamydophila abortus, induced protection in mice against challenge. Sixty BALB/c mice were randomly assigned to 5 groups. Sub-fractions of polysaccharide LBP3a, at 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg concentrations, respectively, were mixed with a pCI-neo::MOMP (pMOMP) vaccine. Mice administrated with pCI-neo + LBP3a were served as a control. All mice were inoculated at day 0, 14, and 28, and challenged on day 44. The effects of LBp3a on serum antibody levels, in vitro lymphocyte proliferation, the activity of interleaukin-2 (IL-2), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor α(TNF-α)and chlamydia clearance were determined. A combination of DNA vaccine and LBP3a induced significantly higher antibody levels in mice, higher T cell proliferation and higher levels of IFN-γ and IL-2. Mice immunized with DNA and LBP3a also showed significantly higher levels of chlamydia clearance in mice spleens and a greater Th1 immune response. The immunoenhancement induced by 25 mg/kg LBP3a is more effective than that induced by a 12.5 and 50 mg/kg. This implies that LBP3a at 25 mg/kg has a high potential to be used as an effective adjuvant with a DNA vaccine against swine Chlamydophila abortus.

  5. An evidence-based update on the pharmacological activities and possible molecular targets of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng J

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Jiang Cheng,1,2 Zhi-Wei Zhou,2 Hui-Ping Sheng,3 Lan-Jie He,4 Xue-Wen Fan,1 Zhi-Xu He,5 Tao Sun,6 Xueji Zhang,7 Ruan Jin Zhao,8 Ling Gu,9 Chuanhai Cao,2 Shu-Feng Zhou2,5 1Department of Neurology, General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, Ningxia, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Pharmaceutical Science, College of Pharmacy, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA; 3Department of Infectious Diseases, 4Department of Endocrinology, General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, Ningxia, 5Guizhou Provincial Key Laboratory for Regenerative Medicine, Stem Cell and Tissue Engineering Research Center and Sino-US Joint Laboratory for Medical Sciences, Guiyang Medical University, Guiyang, Guizhou, 6Key Laboratory of Craniocerebral Diseases of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, Ningxia, 7Research Center for Bioengineering and Sensing Technology, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 8Center for Traditional Chinese Medicine, Sarasota, FL, USA; 9School of Biology and Chemistry, University of Pu’er, Pu’er, Yunnan, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Lycium barbarum berries, also named wolfberry, Fructus lycii, and Goji berries, have been used in the People’s Republic of China and other Asian countries for more than 2,000 years as a traditional medicinal herb and food supplement. L. barbarum polysaccharides (LBPs are the primary active components of L. barbarum berries and have been reported to possess a wide array of pharmacological activities. Herein, we update our knowledge on the main pharmacological activities and possible molecular targets of LBPs. Several clinical studies in healthy subjects show that consumption of wolfberry juice improves general wellbeing and immune functions. LBPs are reported to have antioxidative and antiaging properties in different models. LBPs show antitumor activities against various types of

  6. Effect of Lycium barbarum Polysaccharides on the expression of endothelin-1 and its receptors in an ocular hypertension model of rat glaucoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-Song Mi; Kin Chiu; Geoffrey Van; Justin Wai Chung Leung; Amy Cheuk Yin; Sookja Kim Chung; Raymond Chuen-Chung Chang; Kwok-Fai So

    2012-01-01

    Lycium barbarum, a traditional Chinese anti-aging herb, has been shown to protect retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in a rat chronic ocular hypertension (COH) model.Here, we investigated the expression of endothelin-1 (ET-1), a strong vasoconstrictor, and its receptors, ETA and ETB, in the COH model and assessed the effects of Lycium barbarum on the ET-1 axis.Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) was induced in the right eye of SD rats using argon laser photocoagulation.(1) The expression of ET-1, ETA and ETB in normal and COH retinas was studied.(2) Some COH rats were fed daily with Lycium barbarum Polysaccharides (LBP) using 1 mg/kg or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) for 3 weeks (started 1 week before photocoagulation).The effects of LBP on the expression of ET-1 and its receptors, ETA and ETB, in COH retina were evaluated.A semi-quantitative analysis of staining intensity was used to evaluate the expression levels of ET-1, ETA and ETB in retinal vasculature.We found that (1) Under COH condition, the immunoreactivity of ET-1 was increased in retina associated with an increase of ETB receptor immunoreactivity and a decrease of ETA receptor immunoreactivity.(2) After feeding COH rats with LBP, the expression of ET-1 was decreased with an increase of ETA expression and a decrease of ETB expression in the retina, especially in RGCs.(3) By comparing the staining intensity in the vasculature of COH retina in LBP-fed group with PBS-fed group, there was a decrease in the expression of ET-1 and ETA and an increase in ETB.In summary, ET-1 expression was up-regulated in the retina in COH model.LBP could decrease the expression of ET-1 and modulate the expression of its receptors, ETA and ETB, under the condition of COH.The neuroprotective effect of LBP on RGCs might be related to its ability to regulate the ET-1-mediated biological effects on RGCs and retinal vasculature.

  7. Characterization and comparison of polysaccharides from Lycium barbarum in China using saccharide mapping based on PACE and HPTLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ding-Tao; Cheong, Kit-Leong; Deng, Yong; Lin, Peng-Cheng; Wei, Feng; Lv, Xiao-Jie; Long, Ze-Rong; Zhao, Jing; Ma, Shuang-Cheng; Li, Shao-Ping

    2015-12-10

    Water-soluble polysaccharides from 51 batches of fruits of L. barbarum (wolfberry) in China were investigated and compared using saccharide mapping, partial acid hydrolysis, single and composite enzymatic digestion, followed by polysaccharide analysis by using carbohydrate gel electrophoresis (PACE) analysis and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) analysis, respectively. Results showed that multiple PACE and HPTLC fingerprints of partial acid and enzymatic hydrolysates of polysaccharides from L. barbarum in China were similar, respectively. In addition, results indicated that β-1,3-glucosidic, α-1,4-galactosiduronic and α-1,5-arabinosidic linkages existed in polysaccharides from L. barbarum collected in China, and the similarity of polysaccharides in L. barbarum collected from different regions of China was pretty high, which are helpful for the improvement of the performance of polysaccharides from L. barbarum in functional/health foods area. Furthermore, polysaccharides from Panax notoginseng, Angelica sinensis, and Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus were successfully distinguished from those of L. barbarum based on their PACE fingerprints. These results were beneficial to improve the quality control of polysaccharides from L. barabrum and their products, which suggested that saccharide mapping based on PACE and HPTLC analysis could be a routine approach for quality control of polysaccharides.

  8. Bleeding due to a probable interaction between warfarin and Gouqizi (Lycium Barbarum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhua Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike what is widely anticipated by the public, herbal medicines are not always safe despite being natural. We describe a 65-year-old Chinese man taking a prolonged maintenance dose of warfarin who experienced an elevated international normalized ratio (INR with associated bleeding after drinking Gouqizi (goji berry wine. This report illustrates that large doses (more than 6–12 g of Gouqizi can significantly enhance the anticoagulant action of warfarin and may cause similar adverse effects in keeping with three previous reports. Therefore, the use of herbal medicines must adhere to pharmacopoeia-recommended guidelines, including dosage regimes. Doctors should advise patients regarding possible interactions between herbs and warfarin when prescribing and should increase the frequency of INR monitoring for those patients concurrently receiving warfarin and medicinal herbs. Further study is needed to do for the mechanism of interaction between Gouqizi and warfarin.

  9. fraction from Lycium barbarum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Revd Dr Olaleye

    hypercholesterolemia and diabetes (Zhao and Liu, ... Mr. king Li, a botanist of Qujing Normal University. A ... immersed in tenfold dH2O, boiled at 100℃ for 12 h .... 22.00. 24.00. 26.00. 28.00. 30.00. 0. 7. 14. 21. 28 time (d) body w eight (g. ) NC.

  10. Preparation of carotenoid extracts and nanoemulsions from Lycium barbarum L. and their effects on growth of HT-29 colon cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, H. J.; Huang, R. F.; Kao, T. H.; Inbaraj, B. S.; Chen, B. H.

    2017-03-01

    Lycium barbarum L., a traditional Chinese herb widely used in Asian countries, has been demonstrated to be protective against chronic diseases such as age-related macular degeneration. The objectives of this study were to determine the carotenoid content in L. barbarum by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, followed by preparation of a carotenoid nanoemulsion to evaluate the mechanism of inhibition on HT-29 colon cancer cells. The highest extraction yield of carotenoids was attained by employing a solvent system of hexane-ethanol-acetone (1:1:1, v/v/v). Nine carotenoids, including neoxanthin (4.47 μg g-1), all-trans-zeaxanthin and its cis-isomers (1666.3 μg g-1), all-trans-β-cryptoxanthin (51.69 μg g-1), all-trans-β-carotene and its cis-isomers (20.11 μg g-1), were separated within 45 min and quantified using a YMC C30 column and a gradient mobile phase of methanol-water (9:1, v/v) (A) and methylene chloride (B). A highly stable carotenoid nanoemulsion composed of CapryolTM 90, Transcutol®HP, Tween 80 and deionized water was prepared with a mean particle size of 15.1 nm. Characterization of zeaxanthin standard, blank nanoemulsion, carotenoid extract and carotenoid nanoemulsion by differential scanning calorimetry curves and Fourier transform infrared spectra revealed a good dispersion of zeaxanthin-dominated carotenoid extract with no significant chemical change after incorporation into nanoemulsion. The in vitro release kinetic study showed a higher release profile at pH 5.2 than at physiological pH 7.4, suggesting a rapid release of carotenoids in the acidic environment (pH 4.5-6.5) characteristic of tumors. Both the carotenoid nanoemulsion and the extract were effective at inhibiting growth of HT-29 colon cancer cells, with an IC50 of 4.5 and 4.9 μg ml-1, respectively. Also, both treatments could up-regulate p53 and p21 expression and down-regulate CDK2, CDK1, cyclin A and cyclin B expression and arrest the cell cycle at G2/M. The

  11. Changes of the Main Carotenoid Pigment Contents During the Drying Processes of the Different Harvest Stage Fruits of Lycium barbarum L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Wen-ping; NI Zhi-jing; LI He; CHEN Min

    2008-01-01

    The test analyzed the regularity of biosynthesis and degradation of the main functional components,such as zeaxanthin,β-carotene,and esterified carotenoids in the fruit of Lycium barbarum L.in order to provide theoretical basis for improvement of processing condition,appearance quality,and preservation of carotenoids.RP-HPLC was adapted to assay the changes of the main carotenoids of the different harvested stage fruit during the drying processing.Quantification was realized using external standard with gradient elution.The results showed that zeaxanthin and β-carotene contents in fruits increased dramatically,2-22 times that of fresh fruits at the beginning of the drying period.In the middle of drying period,degradation occurred to a some extent,and the fall fruit degraded to a large extent.At the end of drying period, zeaxanthin and β-carotene contents increased to a little extent until a balanced state is obtained.Zeaxanthin dipalmitate content had a total degradation to more than 40%at the beginning of the drying period,and increased a little at the middle period,then reached a balanced state finally.The total carotenoid content analysis showed that the summer fruit had higher carotenoid content than the fall fruit.The experiments demonstrated zeaxanthin and β-carotene contents in fruits increased and zeaxanthin dipalmitate decreased during the drying process,which had an effect on the production appearance.

  12. Study on Microwave Extraction Technology of Betaine from Lycium barbarum Leaves%微波法提取枸杞叶甜菜碱工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党军; 王瑛; 陶燕铎; 邵赞; 梅丽娟; 王启兰

    2011-01-01

    研究微波法提取枸杞叶中甜菜碱的最佳工艺,考察工艺参数对枸杞叶中甜菜碱提取率的影响.以甜菜碱提取率为指标,通过L9(3(4))正交实验与方差分析优选出枸杞叶中甜菜碱最佳提取工艺条件.结果表明,最佳工艺为固液比为(g:ml)1:10,20 min,微波功率200 w.枸杞叶中甜菜碱最佳提取率平均值可高达4.48%.该工艺简单、稳定、可行.%The optimum microwave extraction technology of betaine from Lycium, barbarum leaves was studied and the impacts of every technology parameter on extraction rate of betaine were investigated. Extraction rate of betaine was taken as index. L9(34) orthogonal design and analysis of variance were adopted to optimize the technological conditions of microwave extraction of betaine. The results sbowed that the rate of solid and liquid, extraction time and microwave power were 1:10 ( g:ml) , 20min, 200w, respectively, and the average of betaine extraction rate was up to 4.48%. The technology was simple, stable and feasible.

  13. Integrated method of thermosensitive triblock copolymer-salt aqueous two phase extraction and dialysis membrane separation for purification of lycium barbarum polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Hu, Xiaowei; Han, Juan; Ni, Liang; Tang, Xu; Hu, Yutao; Chen, Tong

    2016-03-01

    A polymer-salt aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) consisting of thermosensitive copolymer ethylene-oxide-b-propylene-oxide-b-ethylene-oxide (EOPOEO) and NaH2PO4 was employed in deproteinization for lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP). The effects of salt type and concentration, EOPOEO concentration, amount of crude LBP solution and temperature were studied. In the primary extraction process, LBP was preferentially partitioned to the bottom (salt-rich) phase with high recovery ratio of 96.3%, while 94.4% of impurity protein was removed to the top (EOPOEO-rich) phase. Moreover, the majority of pigments could be discarded to top phase. After phase-separation, the LBP in the bottom phase was further purified by dialysis membrane to remove salt and other small molecular impurities. The purity of LBP was enhanced to 64%. Additionally, the FT-IR spectrum was used to identify LBP. EOPOEO was recovered by a temperature-induced separation, and reused in a new ATPS. An ideal extraction and recycle result were achieved.

  14. NMR-based identification of the phenolic profile of fruits of Lycium barbarum (goji berries). Isolation and structural determination of a novel N-feruloyl tyramine dimer as the most abundant antioxidant polyphenol of goji berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forino, Martino; Tartaglione, Luciana; Dell'Aversano, Carmela; Ciminiello, Patrizia

    2016-03-01

    Biological properties of fruits of Lycium barbarum (goji berries) have been ascribed to their high content of nutrients and phenolics. Comprehensive studies aimed at unambiguously identifying the phenolic components in goji berries are still lacking. In this paper, we report on the isolation and NMR-based identification of the major phenolics in commercially available goji berries. Together with already known phenolics, including caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, rutin, scopoletin, N-trans-feruloyl tyramine, and N-cis-feruloyl tyramine, an unreported N-feruloyl tyramine dimer was characterized as the most abundant polyphenol isolated from the berries. Usually divalent molecules show enhanced biological activities than their corresponding monomers.

  15. Physico-chemical Properties and Bioactivities of a Glycoconjugate LbGp5B from Lycium barbarum L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG,Xue-Mei(彭雪梅); PENG,Xue-Mei; QI,Chun-Hui(齐春会); QI,Chun-Hui; TIAN,Geng-Yuan (田庚元); TIAN,Geng-Yuan; ZHANG,Yong-Xiang(张永详); ZHANG,Yong-Xiang

    2001-01-01

    A glycoconjugatedesignated as LbGp5B was isolated from the fruit of Lyciun barbarum L. and purified to homogeneity by gel filtration .LbGp5B is composed of rhamnose (Rha), arabinose (Ara), galactose (Gal), glucose (Glc), galacturonic acid (GalA) and seveateen amino acids. The molecular weight of LbGp5B was determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and by matrix-asisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time of fight (T OF) mass spectrometry (MS). The preliminary experiments showed that LbGp5B promoted splenocyte proliferation in mice and inhihited the peroxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL).

  16. 枸杞果实总RNA提取方法的比较研究%Comparison for the Extraction of the Total RNA from Lycium barbarum L.fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽娟; 姚新灵; 冯秀娟; 马丽华

    2011-01-01

    The performances of the five extraction of the total RNA, the Trizol, the guanidinium isothiocyanate, the CTAB, the TransZol plant kit and the improved CTAB from Lycium barbarum L. Fruits tissue that is rich in polysaccharides polyhenolics and the pigments are compared in this paper. The yields,the quality and the integrity of RNA are tested by ultraviolet spectrophotometer analysis(A260/280) and 1. 0% agarose gel electrophoresis. The RNA can be used for reverse transcription and PCR amplification efficiently. Therefore,the improved CTAB extraction would be the fast and the efficient for the total RNA isolation from Lycium barbarum L. Fruits.%以枸杞果实为植物材料,比较研究Trizol试剂快速提取法、异硫氰酸胍法、TransZol plant试剂盒法、CTAB法和改良CTAB法提取枸杞果实RNA的可行性.结果表明,改良CTAB法能有效地抑制酚类物质、多糖及皂苷等次级代谢产物对RNA的影响,可从枸杞果实获得质量高、完整性好的总RNA;RT-PCR分析显示提取的总RNA具有反转录活性;该方法具有高效、简单和经济的特点.

  17. Activation of the Nrf2/HO-1 antioxidant pathway contributes to the protective effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides in the rodent retina after ischemia-reperfusion-induced damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meihua He

    Full Text Available Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP, extracts from the wolfberries, are protective to retina after ischemia-reperfusion (I/R. The antioxidant response element (ARE-mediated antioxidant pathway plays an important role in maintaining the redox status of the retina. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, combined with potent AREs in its promoter, is a highly effective therapeutic target for the protection against neurodegenerative diseases, including I/R-induced retinal damage. The aim of our present study was to investigate whether the protective effect of LBP after I/R damage was mediated via activation of the Nrf2/HO-1-antioxidant pathway in the retina. Retinal I/R was induced by an increase in intraocular pressure to 130 mm Hg for 60 minutes. Prior to the induction of ischemia, rats were orally treated with either vehicle (PBS or LBP (1 mg/kg once a day for 1 week. For specific experiments, zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP, 20 mg/kg, an HO-1 inhibitor, was intraperitoneally administered at 24 h prior to ischemia. The protective effects of LBP were evaluated by quantifying ganglion cell and amacrine cell survival, and by measuring cell apoptosis in the retinal layers. In addition, HO-1 expression was examined using Western blotting and immunofluorescence analyses. Cytosolic and nuclear Nrf2 was measured using immunofluorescent staining. LBP treatment significantly increased Nrf2 nuclear accumulation and HO-1 expression in the retina after I/R injury. Increased apoptosis and a decrease in the number of viable cells were observed in the ganglion cell layer (GCL and inner nuclear layer (INL in the I/R retina, which were reversed by LBP treatment. The HO-1 inhibitor, ZnPP, diminished the LBP treatment-induced protective effects in the retina after I/R. Taken together, these results suggested that LBP partially exerted its beneficial neuroprotective effects via the activation of Nrf2 and an increase in HO-1 protein expression.

  18. Neuroprotective mechanism of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides against hippocampal-dependent spatial memory deficits in a rat model of obstructive sleep apnea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Sing Lam

    Full Text Available Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH is a hallmark of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA, which induces hippocampal injuries mediated by oxidative stress. This study aims to examine the neuroprotective mechanism of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP against CIH-induced spatial memory deficits. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to hypoxic treatment resembling a severe OSA condition for a week. The animals were orally fed with LBP solution (1 mg/kg daily 2 hours prior to hypoxia or in air for the control. The effect of LBP on the spatial memory and levels of oxidative stress, inflammation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress, apoptosis and neurogenesis in the hippocampus was examined. There was a significant deficit in the spatial memory and an elevated level of malondialdehyde with a decreased expression of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GPx-1 in the hypoxic group when compared with the normoxic control. In addition, redox-sensitive nuclear factor kappa B (NFКB canonical pathway was activated with a translocation of NFКB members (p65, p50 and increased expression levels of NFКB-dependent inflammatory cytokines and mediator (TNFα, IL-1β, COX-2; also, a significantly elevated level of ER stress (GRP78/Bip, PERK, CHOP and autophagic flux in the hypoxic group, leading to neuronal apoptosis in hippocampal subfields (DG, CA1, CA3. Remarkably, LBP administration normalized the elevated level of oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, ER stress, autophagic flux and apoptosis induced by hypoxia. Moreover, LBP significantly mitigated both the caspase-dependent intrinsic (Bax, Bcl2, cytochrome C, cleaved caspase-3 and extrinsic (FADD, cleaved caspase-8, Bid signaling apoptotic cascades. Furthermore, LBP administration prevented the spatial memory deficit and enhanced the hippocampal neurogenesis induced by hypoxia. Our results suggest that LBP is neuroprotective against CIH-induced hippocampal-dependent spatial memory deficits by promoting hippocampal neurogenesis

  19. 采用ISSR-PCR分子标记法鉴别黑果枸杞与雄性不育枸杞%Identification of Lycium ruthenicum Murr and Male Sterility of Lycium barbarum L. by Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    思彬彬; 张靠稳; 刘国迪

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To identify Lycium ruthenicum and male sterility of Lycium barbarum by inter-simple sequence repeat markers. [ Method] Primers suitable for routine analysis were screened from 100 inter-simple sequence repeat primers, then, they were used in PCR and separated of 2 samples of L. Ruthenicum and male sterility of /- barbarum L. [ Results] Four of the 100 primers amplified polymorphic bands and suitable for the identification of L ruthenicum and male sterility oft. Barbarum. [Conclusion] Inter-simple sequence repeat markers provide a quick, reliable molecular marker for identification of L ruthenicum and male sterility of L barbarum.%[目的]探索用ISSR分子标记方法在核酸分子水平上鉴别黑果枸杞与雄性不育枸杞.[方法]从100条ISSR引物中筛选合适的引物对黑果枸杞与雄性不育枸杞样品进行PCR扩增及电泳分析,寻找特征位点.[结果]有4条ISSR引物扩增出较为明显的多态性特征条带,可单独应用于黑果枸杞与雄性不育枸杞的鉴别.[结论]ISSR作为一种简便、可靠的分子标记方法,可用于黑果枸杞与雄性不育枸杞的鉴别.

  20. Mechanism simulation analysis and prototype experiment ofLycium barbarum harvest by vibration mode%振动式枸杞采摘机理仿真分析与样机试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张最; 肖宏儒; 丁文芹; 梅松

    2015-01-01

    为了实现枸杞机械化采摘,该文研究了枸杞振动采摘机理,并建立振动采摘力学模型,分析求解得到枸杞挂果枝条受迫振动时各节点处枸杞和花朵所受惯性力的通解。运用 MATLAB 对振动式枸杞采摘机工作参数进行优化和仿真试验,优化得到合理的迫振载荷和驱动轮转速组合,仿真试验得到受迫振动枸杞挂果枝条各节点处枸杞与花朵所受采摘惯性力随转速变化规律仿真曲线,对转速取值进行调整。最后进行了枸杞采摘试验,试验得到合理的驱动轮转速为2870 r/min,该转速水平在仿真得到的合理的转速区间为2868.84~2871.21 r/min。试验转速为2870 r/min时,成熟枸杞采摘效率为815颗/min,成熟枸杞采净率为86.70%,未成熟枸杞采摘率为7.36%,花朵采摘率为7.43%,成熟枸杞损伤率为8.62%,机采人采效率比为5.43,试验结果与仿真结论一致。研究结果可为枸杞振动采摘机的研制提供参考。%Recently, as scientific research has been further explored, the health care functions of theLycium barbarum (L. barbarum) in anti-oxidation, anti-aging, anti-fatigue, protecting liver, improving body immunity, eye protection and other aspects have been further confirmed. Its unique and nutrient-rich health function is recognized gradually in western countries, and the market demand of theL. barbarum is expanding each year. TheL. barbarum blooms and bears fruit continuously during the growing season which begins in mid-May. Depending on the picking time around the year, theL. barbarum fruit can be divided into spring, summer and autumn fruit. In order to make driedL. barbarum keep good commodity characters, the L. barbarum is harvested at 80 percent maturity. The full bearing period ofL. barbarum is from May to September every year, which is the picking peak ofL. barbarum. It must be picked once about every 7 days. For centuries, the mechanized harvesting of

  1. Correlation Between the Total Flavonoid Contents and Antioxidant Activity of Lycium barbarum L.Leaves%宁夏枸杞叶中总黄酮含量与抗氧化活性关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛东玲; 马婷婷; 张自萍

    2012-01-01

    为进一步开发宁夏枸杞叶资源,研究宁夏枸杞叶抗氧化活性部位中总黄酮含量与抗氧化活性间关系.以乙醇做提取溶剂,再以不同极性溶剂对醇提液进一步萃取分离;并用DPPH法(DPPH·)测定不同极性萃取部分的抗氧化能力,用分光光度法测定不同极性萃取部分中的总黄酮含量.结果表明,除石油醚萃取部位外,其他各萃取部分在一定质量浓度时,对DPPH自由基(DPPH·)清除率均达到90%,且与总黄酮含量有极显著的相关性(P<0.01),其中,正丁醇萃取部分中的总黄酮含量最高,达到77.32mg/g,其清除自由基ρ(SC50 )=0.048 3 mg/mL,活性与维生素C相当.可为枸杞叶的深度开发提供参考.%To study the correlation between the total flavonoid content and antioxidant activities of different solvent extracts from the leaves of Lycium barbarum L., to provide the reference for further development and utilization of the leaves of Lycium barbarum L. . Ethanol extract from the leaves of Lycium barbarum L. Was fractioned by different solvents, the antioxidant activities of different solvent extracts were evaluated by DPPH, flavonoid content was determined by Colorimetry. Except of petroleum ether extracts, free radical scavenging rate of other solvent extracts in a certain concentration are up to 90% , and there are the significant correlations (P<0. 01) between DPPH free radical scavenging activities and the total flavonoid content. Total flavoniod content of n-Butanol extract is the highest with 77. 32 mg/g, its free radical scavenging activity is equal to Vitamin C, SC50 value is 0. 0483 mg/mL.

  2. 种植枸杞对干旱区荒漠缓冲带土壤质量的影响%Research on Soil Quality of Planting Lycium barbarum in Arid Desert Buffer Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟宗江; 何学敏; 孙景鑫; 吕光辉

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective] A comparative analysis was conducted about the soil pH, organic matter, total soil N and C/N before and after planting Lycium barbarum in Arid Desert Buffer Zone of National Nature Reserve in the Ebinur Wetland and the condition of soil comprehensive quality changes was evaluated in order that the basis for protecting areas soil and water conservation and planting economic crops could be provided. [Method] Through artificial cultivation and indoor experiments, the physical and chemical properties and comprehensive quality status of soil samples before and after planting the Lycium barbarum and the surrounding natural control samples were evaluated and analyzed. [ Result ] Short - term weather changes insignificantly impacted on soil pH, total salt and total nitrogen, while the influence on surface soil organic matter was stronger; Effects of Artificial cultivation, planting and irrigation on soil physical and chemical properties were strong, such as reducing the soil pH and total salt, which was helpful to the improvement of soil salinization, while reducing soil organic matter and total nitrogen at the same time; The orders about integrated soil quality index of April, August, the experimental group and contrast group were that August test group < April < August contrast group. [ Conclusion ] Newly planted Lycium barbarum plantation played a certain role in the improvement of soil salinization in arid desert buffer zone, but exacerbated the soil poor degree. Under natural conditions, soil quality showed increasing trend from spring to summer, and Lycium barbarum cultivation reduced the soil quality to some extent.%[目的]对艾比湖湿地国家级自然保护区荒漠边缘缓冲带枸杞种植前后土壤的pH、总盐、有机质、全氮及C/N进行比较分析,评价其土壤综合质量变化情况,为保护区水土保持和经济作物种植提供依据.[方法]通过人工栽培和室内试验,对枸杞种植前后及周边自然对照土

  3. Determination of polysaccharide in Lycium barbarum L. extract powder containing malt dextrin%含麦芽糊精枸杞提取物干粉中多糖含量测定方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾东升; 崔施展; 谢晓亮; 温春秀; 李荣乔; 刘铭

    2015-01-01

    目的:建立含麦芽糊精的枸杞提取物干粉中多糖含量的测定方法。方法采用糖化酶水解麦芽糊精,醇沉后苯酚硫酸法测定多糖含量,优化糖化酶水解麦芽糊精的工艺,比较酶解麦芽糊精后测定多糖含量、直接测定多糖含量与样品中多糖含量真实值之间的差异。并考察糖化酶对枸杞多糖的水解能力。结果糖化酶水解麦芽糊精的最佳工艺条件为:酶解温度60℃、酶与底物比例为1∶5,反应时间为30 min。与样品中枸杞多糖含量的真实值相比,直接测定值显著偏高,组间比较数据有显著统计学差异(P<0.01),酶解麦芽糊精后测定值无显著性差异(P>0.05);与直接测定值相比,酶解麦芽糊精后测定值显著降低(P<0.01),且糖化酶对枸杞多糖无水解能力。结论糖化酶水解法可消除麦芽糊精对枸杞提取物干粉中多糖测定的影响,且方法简单、有效。%Objective To establish a method for determination of polysaccharide in Lycium barbarum L . extract powder containing with malt dextrin. Method Maltodextrin was treated with glucoamylase hydrolysis and ethanol precipitation successively;then the phenol-sulfuric acid method was used to determine the content of polysaccharide. The glucoamylase hydrolysis technolgy of malt dextrin was optimized, and the variation of polysaccharide content before and after hydrolysis, the difference of polysaccharide contents between direct determination and truth were compared. Morever, the hydrolysis effect of glucoamylase on Lycium barbarum L. was investigated. Results The optimum hydrolysis condition was: temperature 60℃, the ratio of enzyme to substrate 1∶5, hydrolysis time 30 min. The polysaccharide content determined directly was significantly higher than the real value (P0.05). Glucoamylase showed no hydrolysis effects on Lycium barbarum L. polysaccharide. Conclusion Glucoamylase hydrolysis can deplete the

  4. The effects of lycium barbarum juice to serum testosterone and sexual function in adult men%枸杞汁对成年男性血清睾酮及性功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐国琴; 翁锡全; 彭燕群; 蓝道忠

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of lycium barbarum juice to serum testosterone and sexual function in adult men. METHODS:40 adult men of 30-70 years old were recruited, and given lycium barbarum juice 100 mL at night for 32 days. The serum testosterone and cortisol were measured and sexual function of adult men were evaluated by the IIEF and BMSFI before and af⁃ter the study. RESULTS: After drinking lycium barbarum juice for 32 days, the serum testosterone, serum testosterone/cortisol ratio were significantly higher than before, while sexual satisfac⁃tion was significantly increased, libido, erectile function and sex⁃ual function total score were significantly improved, all with statis⁃tically significant difference(P<0.05), especially in men of 41-65 years old. CONCLUSION: Drinking lycium barbarum juice for 32 days can increase serum testosterone and testosterone/corti⁃sol ratio in adult men, improve sexual satisfaction, sexual desire and overall satisfaction with erectile function, and enhance sexual function of adult men.%目的:探讨枸杞汁对成年男性血清睾酮及性功能的影响.方法:招募30~70岁成年男性共40人,每晚睡前饮用枸杞汁100 mL,持续32 d,测试研究前后血睾酮和皮质醇含量,并通过勃起功能国际指数问卷( IIEF)和简明男性性功能量表( BMSFI)评价性功能状况.结果:饮用32 d枸杞汁后,成年男性血睾酮升高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);血睾酮/皮质醇比值出现显著性升高现象,同时,性交满意度显著性增加,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);性欲、勃起功能总体满意度提高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),性功能评分总分有显著性的提高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),尤其是41-65岁年龄组成年男性血清激素水平和性功能评价指标提高更加明显.结论:饮用32 d枸杞汁可提高成年男性血清睾酮浓度和睾酮/皮

  5. 枸杞子糖缀合物及其糖链对LDL氧化修饰的抑制作用%STUDIES ON THE GLYCOCONJUGATES AND GLYCANS FROM LYCIUM BARBARUM L IN INHIBITING LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN (LDL) PEROXIDATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄琳娟; 田庚元; 王仲孚; 董继斌; 吴满平

    2001-01-01

    的 研究枸杞子糖缀合物及其糖链对LDL氧化修饰的抑制作用。方法 在Cu2+诱导的LDL氧化模型中测定了脂质过氧化产物硫代巴比妥酸反应物质(TBARS)的含量及LDL在琼脂糖凝胶电泳上的迁移率以反映从枸杞子中分离、纯化得到的糖缀合物及糖链对LDL氧化修饰的抑制作用。结果 枸杞子糖缀合物及糖链抗LDL氧化的能力是不同的,其中LbGp5可明显的抑制LDL的氧化。结论 枸杞子糖缀合物具有抗LDL氧化作用,而糖链不具有抗LDL氧化的作用。%AIM To determine the effects of glycoconjugates and their glycans from Lycium barbarum L. on inhibiting low density lipoprotein (LDL) peroxidation. METHODS Using Cu2+-induced oxidation as a model, the oxidative production of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and the LDL electrophoresis migration on agarose gel were measured. RESULTS The effects of glycoconjugates and their glycans from Lycium barbarum L. on inhibiting LDL peroxidation were different, among them, glycoconjugate LbGp5 showed the best effect on inhibiting LDLperoxidation. CONCLUSION The glycoconjugates can inhibit LDL peroxidatin while their glycans showed no effects on inhibiting LDL peroxidation.

  6. Effects of Covering on Growth Potential and Chlorophyll Content of Hardwood Cutting of Lycium barbarum%覆盖对枸杞硬枝扦插苗生长势及叶绿素含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张巨琼; 蔺海明; 林楠

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of plastic Him covering, straw covering, plastic film covering in greenhouse and no-covering cutting on growth and Chlorophyll content of Lycium barbarian hardwood cutting seedlings. Methods: Single factor randomized block design method was used in this research. Results: The effect of different covering treatments on germination rate, seedling rate and growth potential were all plastic film covering in greenhouse > plastic film covering > straw covering > no-covering cutting. Chlorophyll a, Chlorophyll b, Chlorophyll a + b content and Ca/Cb were significantly different with different coverings in different periods. Conclusion: The optimal covering on hardwood cutting of Lycium barbarum is plastic film covering in greenhouse. Both plastic film and straw covering are better than no-covering cutting.%目的:研究地膜覆盖、麦草覆盖、地膜+弓棚覆盖和露地扦插对枸杞硬枝扦插苗生长势及叶绿素含量的影响.方法:采用单因素随机区组设计.结果:覆盖对枸杞硬枝扦插苗萌芽率、成苗率及生长势的影响均为地膜+弓棚覆盖>地膜覆盖>麦草覆盖>露地扦插;不同处理及不同时期的叶绿素a、b、(a+b)含量和叶绿素(a/b)值均差异显著.结论:枸杞硬枝扦插育苗的最佳覆盖方式为地膜+弓棚覆盖,地膜覆盖和麦草覆盖亦优于露地扦插.

  7. A diet formula of Puerariae radix, Lycium barbarum, Crataegus pinnatifida, and Polygonati rhizoma alleviates insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in CD-1 mice and HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Zhang, HongJuan; Ji, BaoPing; Cai, ShengBao; Wang, RuoJun; Zhou, Feng; Yang, JunSi; Liu, HuiJun

    2014-05-01

    According to the principles of traditional Chinese medicine, medicinal and edible herbs exhibit holistic effects through their actions on multiple target organs. Four herbs, Puerariae radix, Lycium barbarum, Crataegus pinnatifida, and Polygonati rhizoma, were selected and combined to create a new herbal formula (PLCP). The protective effects of both the aqueous extract (AE) and ethanol extract (EE) of PLCP against insulin resistance (IR) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) were evaluated in both high fat and high fructose diet-fed mice. Active fractions and constituents were screened in HepG2 cells with IR or an over-accumulation of triglycerides, and were further identified by high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry. The results indicate that the AE did not improve (p > 0.05) glucose tolerance after three weeks, whereas EE showed a promising effect throughout the experiment. Medium and high doses of EE were found to reduce fasting blood glucose at week 9 by 21.1% and 24.4%, respectively. In addition, their efficacies for alleviating IR were comparable with that of metformin. Compared with AE, EE effectively improved hyperlipidemia, antioxidant status, and NAFLD. In contrast, metformin did not alleviate hyperlipidemia (p > 0.05) or NAFLD in the mice model. Results from the cell-based study indicate that the protective effects of EE were possibly due to the actions from puerarin, 3'-methoxypuerarin, daidzin, daidzein, and ononin.

  8. Analysis of total flavonoids and free radical scavenging activities in different Lycium barbarum cultivars%宁夏枸杞不同品种叶的总黄酮含量及清除自由基能力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛东玲; 马婷婷; 张永梅; 吴春丽; 张自萍

    2013-01-01

    采用紫外分光光度法和DPP H法分别对宁夏枸杞不同品种叶的总黄酮含量及其清除自由基能力进行分析.结果表明:宁夏枸杞不同品种的叶总黄酮含量和清除自由基能力之间均存在显著性差异.其中宁杞菜1号叶的总黄酮含量极显著高于其它几个品种(**P<0.01),并且其清除自由基能力也最强,与其它品种之间差异显著(*P<0.05).说明宁杞菜1号是开发枸杞茶的优良品种.%The content of total flavoniods and free radical scavenging activities of different Lycium barbarum cultivars were respectively evaluated by ultraviolet spectrophotometry and DPPH.The results showed the content of total flavoniods of Ningqicai No.1 was significantly higher than other cultivars (?? P <0.01),and its free radical scavenging activity was much stronger than other cultivars (? P <0.05).It was suggested that Ningqicai No.1 was an excellent cultivar to develop Gouqi tea.

  9. 枸杞多糖提取物对顺铂诱发大鼠肾毒性的影响%Protective Effect of Lycium barbarum Polysaccharide against Cisplatin-induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海莲; 高丽萍; 冷洪涛; 李贞

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To reveal the protective effect and possible mechanism ofLycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) against cisplatin (CDDP)-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Methods: A total of 50 rats were randomly divided into blank control group, CDDP model group, and high-dose, medium-dose and low-dose LBP groups (orally administered at doses of 277, 554, 1008 g/(kg ~ d) respectively once daily for 15 days). The blank control and CDDP model groups were both orally administered with distilled water during the adminstrtion period. After 10 days of administration, the blank control group was given normal saline by intraperito- neal injection while a single injection of CDDP in the remaining groups was carried out to establish a mouse model of renal injury. At the end of the administration period, all rats were sacrificed to determine serum BUN and Ser contents as well as NO and MDA contents and NOS and SOD activities in the kidney. Results: In the rats with CDDP-induced nephrotoxicity LBP pretreatment could significantly reduce the increase in serum BUN and Scr levels and kidney MDA and NO levels and NOS activity caused by CDDP (P〈0.05 or P〈0.01). Conclusions: Oral intake of LBP ameliorates CDDP-induced renal dysfunction. The mechanism may be related to the decreased NOS activity and NO and MDA contents.%目的:观察枸杞多糖(LBP)对顺铂所致肾毒性的防护作用,并初步探讨其作用机制。方法:将50只大鼠随机分为空白对照组、顺铂(CDDP)模型组、LBP低、中、高剂量组(277、554、1008g/(kg·d))(以体质量计)。空白对照组和CDDP组每天灌胃蒸馏水,LBP组每天灌胃LBP,每日1次,灌胃10d后,空白对照组腹腔注射生理盐水,其余各组一次性腹腔注射CDDP7.0mg/kg建立肾损伤动物模型,之后继续灌胃5d。腹腔注射后第5天宰杀大鼠,检测大鼠血清尿素氮(BUN)、肌酐(Scr)的含量、肾组织中一氧化

  10. 枸杞成熟与干制过程中多糖积累的蛋白质组学研究进展%Progress of proteomics of Lycium barbarum polysaccharide accumulation in the process of maturing and drying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房想; 魏超昆; 刘关瑞; 王旭; 龚媛; 刘敦华

    2015-01-01

    随着后基因组时代的到来,蛋白质组学越来越广泛地应用到生命科学领域,目前主要应用于医学、生物学、植物学,近些年在食品科学方面也进行了相关研究。应用蛋白质组学在植物生长发育和成熟衰老方面的研究比较常见,但在加工环节中的应用并不多见。该方法能通过研究植物体相关蛋白质而在本质上动态地揭示植物从生长发育到成熟衰老过程的机制,为研究枸杞果实成熟及干制过程中多糖积累提供了新的思路和理论支撑。本文综述了枸杞果实成熟及干制过程中多糖积累的研究进展,简单介绍蛋白质组学、蛋白质组学的研究技术及其在植物及加工环节中的研究进展,并展望蛋白质组学技术在枸杞果实成熟及干制过程中多糖积累的研究前景,为今后蛋白质组学的应用与发展提供一定的参考和理论依据。%With the advent of the post genomic era, proteomics is becoming more and more widely used in the field of life sciences especially in medicine, biology and botany. Proteomics has also been used in the area of food science in recent years. Application of proteomics in plant growth and ripening research is more common; however, there are little researches in applications in process. This method focuses on the related proteins revealing the mechanism of plant growth and ripening naturedly, and provides a new way of ideas and theoretical support for the research on the development ofLycium barbarum ripening and drying process. This article summarized the process ofLycium barbarum polysaccharide accumulation in the maturing and drying, and briefly introduced proteomics, proteomics technology and its research progress in plant and processing. The researches of proteomics ofLycium barbarumpolysaccharide accumulation in the maturing and drying were prospected, which provided some references and theoretical basis for the application and development

  11. Protective Effects of Lycium barbarum Extract Against MPP + -induced Neurotoxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans and PC12 Cells%枸杞提取物对MPP+诱导的线虫和PC12细胞神经毒性的保护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚晓黎; 吴婉玲; 郑民缨; 李伟; 叶城辉; 卢锡林

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察枸杞提取物对MPP+诱导的线虫和PC12细胞神经毒性的保护作用并探讨其作用机制。方法:以不同浓度枸杞提取物预处理MPP+诱导的线虫和PC12细胞多巴胺能神经损伤模型,计算线虫的存活率和选择性表达绿色荧光的多巴胺能退行性变神经元的数量,以MTT法和核形态检测PC12细胞的损伤,检测PC12细胞的胞内的氧自由基、线粒体膜电位、总GSH水平。结果:枸杞提取物明显提高了MPP+处理过的线虫的存活率和保护了多巴胺能神经元,对MPP+诱导的PC12细胞的具有明显的保护作用,作用呈量效关系。枸杞提取物通过减少MPP+诱导PC12细胞胞内ROS的过量积聚,减少线粒体损伤,恢复GSH水平而发挥其保护作用。结论:枸杞提取物主要通过抗氧化及恢复GSH水平而发挥其对MPP+诱导的线虫和PC12细胞神经毒性保护作用。%Objective;To investigate the neuroprotective effects of lycium barbarum extract against MPP + -induced neurotoxicity in Caenorhabditis elegant and PCI2 cells and its mechanism. Methods; Pretreated MPP + -induced nearotoxicity in C. elegans and PC 12 cells with Lycium barbarum at differert dosages. The viability and DA neurodegeneralion was assessed in C. elegans selectively expressing green fluorescent protein (CFP) in DA neurons. PC 12 cell damage was measured using MTT and nuclear morphology. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) , mitochondrial membrane potential and total CSH were assessed. Results; Lycium barbarum extract protected against MPP + -induced loss of viability and DA neurodegeneration in C. elegans in a dose-dependent manner. Similar neuropro-tection was replicated in MPP + PC 12 cell model. Lycium barbarum extract attenuated MPP + -induced intracellular ROS accumulation,loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and restored total GSH levels in PC12 cells. Conclusions: Lycium barbarum extract protects against MPP + -induced neurotoxicity

  12. Parameter Difference of Chlorophyll Fluorescence in Leaves of Different Cultivars of Lycium barbarum%不同枸杞品种叶绿素荧光参数差异分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨娟; 王有科; 李捷; 陈娜; 李小刚; 张晓娜

    2014-01-01

    In this research,some cultivars of Lycium barbarum were taken as the materials.In the field experiment,the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and the chlorophyll contents in the cultivars of L.barbarum were studied using the chlorophyll fluorescence measuring technique.The results revealed that the maximal photochemical efficiency of PS Ⅱ (Fv/Fm) and potential activity of PS Ⅱ (Fv/Fo) of Ningqi No.2 were remarkably higher than those of other three cultivars.The actual photosynthesis yield (Y(Ⅱ)),activity photosynthesis yield (Fv'/ Fm'),photochemical quenching (qP) and electron transport rate (ETR) were significantly different from different cultivars under a photo synthetically active radiation of 0-2 847 μmol · m-2 · s-1,and they were the highest in Ningqi No.2,followed by Mengqi No.1 and Damaye,and the lowest in Ningqi No.1.The initial slope α of fitting parameter ETR was similar to the change trend of ETR.The content of Chlorophyll a,Chlorophyll b and Chlorophyll a + b in Ningqi No.2 were the highest.There was an extremely significant or a significant positive correlation between chlorophyll a + b and Y(Ⅱ),Fv'/Fm',qP and ETR,but a negative correlation with NPQ.So it could be concluded that Ningqi No.2 had a higher physiological activity of PS Ⅱ and physiological basis of potential biomass,the photosynthesis capability of all the four cultivars was strong.The photochemical efficiency of Ningqi No.1 was weaker,and it was easy to suffer from photo inhibition at high light intensity.%在田间试验条件下,以宁杞1号、宁杞2号、大麻叶和蒙杞l号为材料,采用叶绿素荧光技术测定了不同枸杞品种的叶绿素荧光参数,并测定供试品种的叶绿素含量.结果表明:宁杞2号的PSⅡ最大光化学效率(Fv/Fm)和PSⅡ潜在活性(Fv/Fo)值显著高于其他3个品种.在不同光照强度(PAR,0~2 847 μmol·m-2·s-1)下,实际光合量子产量[Y(Ⅱ)]、有效光合量子产量(Fv'/Fm')、光化学淬灭系数(qP)

  13. Impact of lycium barbarum polysaccharides supplementation on immune function in students major in basketball%枸杞多糖对篮球专业大学生免疫功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛伟

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨枸杞多糖(LBP)对篮球专业大学生免疫功能的影响.方法 将20名男子篮球专业大学生随机分为对照组和试验组,每组10人,2组运动员均进行心率每分钟180~190次强度的运动训练,正常饮食.连续训练21 d,期间试验组每日早晚各服用LBP,每次2粒,每日2次;对照组每日早晚各服用等剂量安慰剂(内含淀粉).训练前后分别检测免疫指标IgA、IgG、IgM和CD4+、CD8+、CD4+/CD8+值.结果 试验组训练后IgA及IgM浓度明显高于训练前,并且高于对照组训练后IgA及IgM值,差别均有统计学意义(P<0.05).试验组训练后CD4+及CD4+/CD8+比值较训练前均明显升高,且明显高于对照组训练后CD4+及CD4+/CD8+比值,差别均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 LBP能改善篮球运动员的免疫功能.%Objective To study the impact of lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) on immune function in college students major in basketball. Methods Twenty men's basketball subject college students were randomly divided into control group and experimental group,and each group for 10 persons. Athletes were trained by 180 - 190 times per minute heart rate of exercise training in two group .normal diet. All players performed exercise everyday for 21 days. LBP 4 g were took experimental group and placebo (containing starch) 4 g were took in control group during the each day of the daily morning and evening. Values of immune parameters IgA,IgG,IgM,and CD4+ ,CD8+ ,CD4+/CD8+ were measured before and after experiment. Results Values of IgA and IgM after the experiment were significantly higher than those before the experiment in experimental group,and higher than those in control group;The difference was statistically significant(P <0.05). CD4+ and CD4VCD8+ ratio after the experiment were significantly higher than those before the experiment in experimental group,and were significantly higher CD4 + and CD4 V CD8 + ratio in control group, the difference was statistically

  14. Function of Lycium Barbarum Polysaccharide on Proliferation and Apoptosis of Human Lung Cancer A549 Cells%枸杞多糖对人肺腺癌A549细胞增殖和凋亡的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟凡珍; 江涛

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the growth inhibition and proliferation of human lung adenocarcinoma AS49 cells induced by Lycium bar-barum polysaccharide( LBP) in vitro,and the possible underlying mechanisms. Methods A549 cells cultured in vitro were divided into control group and experimental group ( I/ZICjo for 48 hours) by the different concentrations of LBP treatment. The inhibitory effects of LBP on proliferation of A549 were determined by MTT assay at 24 h ,48 h ,72 h after the addition of LBP to A549 culture. Growth curve were generated by MTT assay,doubling time were calculated by cell counting,Cell cycle and apoptosis were examined by Flow cytometry(FCM) ,Sur-vivin mRNA changes were detected by RT-PCR,CyclinBl protein changes were detected by Western blot ,Tramwell assay in vitro was utilized to evaluate the invasive activity. Results MTT assay demonstrated that different concentrations of LBP significantly inhibited the proliferation of A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner,the doubling time and the rate of apoptosis of cells in experimental group is dramatically different from the control group. ( P < 0. 05 ) , It was found that LBP arrested A549 cells at G2 phase; Survivin mRNA expression and CyclinBl protein expression were lower,compared with that in the control group( P <0. 05 ) . Conclusion The present study suggests that LBP can significantly inhibit the proliferation of A549 cells. The mechanism may be related to an arrest effect on cell cycle,reducing Survivin mRNA and CyclinBl protein expression and inhibiting tumour invasion.%目的 探讨枸杞多糖(LBP)对体外培养的人肺腺癌细胞A549的增殖抑制作用及其可能的作用机制.方法 用不同浓度的LBP处理A549细胞,MTT法检测24、48、72h时间点LBP对A549细胞的生长抑制率,实验设为对照组和实验组(1/2IC50作用48小时),MTT法绘制生长曲线、细胞计数计算倍增时间、流式细胞仪检测凋亡率及其细胞周期、RT-PcR检测Survivin m

  15. 枸杞多糖的热裂解及其在卷烟中的应用%Pyrolysis of Lycium barbarum L. polysaccharide and its application in cigarette

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王全; 周肇峰; 陆建南; 李江宁; 黄文忠; 陆炳高

    2015-01-01

    为研究枸杞多糖的热裂解行为及其对卷烟感官质量的影响,利用水提醇沉法对枸杞多糖进行了提取分离,应用热裂解-气相色谱-质谱联用仪分析了枸杞多糖在不同裂解氛围,即无氧条件(N2)和有氧条件(10% O2和90% N2),以及不同温度(300℃,600℃,750℃ 和 900℃)下的热裂解产物,利用归一化法进行定量分析。结果表明:枸杞多糖在卷烟中起到了掩盖杂气、去除刺激、改善余味的作用,使香气细腻程度有所提升,烟气状态、圆润感及香气的谐调性较好;枸杞多糖在卷烟中的适宜添加量为(5~10)×10-6 g;枸杞多糖在热裂解过程中可以释放出小分子的醛类、酮类物质等具有特殊香味的化合物,可产生花香、烘烤香、甜香、奶香、果香等香韵。%In order to study the pyrolysis behavior of Lycium barbarum L. polysaccharide and influence on the cigarette sensory quality,the polysaccharide was extracted by water extraction and alcohol precipitation method. The pyrolysates were analyzed in different atmosphere(10% O2 and 90% N2 )and at temperature levels(300 ℃,600 ℃,750 ℃ and 900 ℃). The pyrolysates were directly introduced into Py-GC-MS spectrometer,quantitative analysis was made by area normalization. The results showed that cigarette sen-sory quality was improved by polysaccharide,the smoke of cigarette was mild and glomerate,polysaccha-rides offered enhanced sweety aroma,as well as the aroma quantity,improve after-tasting and reduce offensive taste and irritation of cigarette. The optimum application amount was(5 ~ 10)× 10 - 6 g. The py-rolysis of polysaccharide could release micromolecule aldehydes and ketones containing special odor having floral,toast,sweet,milk and fruity notes.

  16. 干旱胁迫对宁夏枸杞叶片蔗糖代谢及光合特性的影响%Sugar Metabolism and Photosynthetic Characteristics in Leaf of Lycium barbarum L.under Drought Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵建华; 李浩霞; 安巍; 石志刚; 王亚军; 王华芳

    2013-01-01

    A study of the response of sugar content,enzyme activities of sugar metabolism and photosynthetic parameters in leaf of Lycium barbarum under water stress aimed at providing theoretical basis for highyield planting of this plant in the arid regions.The results showed that:(1)The sucrose and starch contents in leaves were reduced under water stress at the green fruit stage,but their contents increased under light drought at the color fruit stage.The starch content in leaves gradually increased with drought aggravated.(2) The activities of neutral invertase(NI),sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) and sucrose synthase (SS) in leaves were gradually reduced under drought stress at the green fruit stage.The activities of acid invertase (AI) and SS were reduced at the color fruit and maturing stages,but the activities of NI was increased at these two stages.(3) With the increasing of drought stress,the leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pn),transpiration rate (Tr) and stomatal conductance (Gs) were gradually lowering.The water use efficiency (WUE)was light drought (LD)>normal irrigation (CK)>severe drought (SD)>moderate drought (MD).It is therefore suggested that light drought can promote the sucrose content and WUE in leaf and transport more photoassimilates to the fruit.%以宁夏枸杞品种‘宁杞1号’为材料,采用防雨棚内盆栽控水法研究了轻度干旱(LD)、中度干旱(MD)、重度干旱(SD)和正常灌水(CK)4种土壤水分条件下枸杞叶片糖分含量、蔗糖代谢酶活性和光合参数的响应规律,为宁夏枸杞在干旱地区高产栽培提供参考依据.结果显示:(1)干旱胁迫降低了枸杞青果期叶片蔗糖和淀粉含量,轻度干旱胁迫可提高枸杞色变期叶片果糖和蔗糖含量,而成熟期叶片淀粉含量则随着干旱加重而升高.(2)干旱胁迫降低了青果期枸杞叶片中性转化酶(NI)、蔗糖磷酸合成酶(SPS)和蔗糖合成酶(SS)的活性,降低了色变期和成熟期叶片酸性转化

  17. The Intervention Effect of Lycium Barbarum Polysaccharide on Adulthood Lower Fertility Reproduction Induced by Neonatal Exposed to Methylmercury Chloride in Rats%枸杞多糖对新生鼠氯化甲基汞慢暴露染毒致成年期生育能力下降的干预作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹池; 刘香; 陈海斌; 罗迈; 崔静; 张华; 王米佳; 王丹; 田建英

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨早期低剂量接触氯化甲基汞( Methyl Mercury Chloride , MMC)对大鼠生殖功能和生长发育的影响以及枸杞多糖( Lycium Barbarum Polysaccharides ,LBP)的早期干预。方法:将60只健康7日龄大鼠随机分为对照组( CON)、MMC组、MMC+LBP组、LBP组,MMC组和MMC+LBP组均颈部皮下注射MMC,CON组颈部注射相同剂量的生理盐水, MMC+LBP组同时喂养LBP,雌雄合笼,自然观察各组体重发育以及生殖繁育能力以及子代仔鼠早期生长发育和存活状况。再将已孕母鼠哺乳期仔鼠染毒,观察母鼠产仔情况。结果:1)MMC组毛色萎缩,精神状态倦怠、动作不活泼、食欲不振。2)MMC组生长较缓慢且随染毒时间的延长而明显。3)MMC组染毒大鼠未产仔,MMC+LBP组有产仔,但产死率高、出生后存活率低于CON;LBP组产死率较CON低。4)MMC+LBP组有畸胎,且仔鼠出生体重与正常CON和LBP组仔鼠出生体重有统计学意义(P<0.01)。5)染毒仔鼠影响其已孕母鼠再次生育。结论:MMC对大鼠有生殖发育毒性,LBP可抑制MMC引起的生殖毒性。%Objective:To detect the toxicity of neonatal exposed to methylmercury chloride on the adulthood reproduction ,as well as ear-ly growth and development in rats and the intervention of Lycium barbarum polysaccharide .Methods:Sixty SD of 7 d rats were randomly divided into saline Control , MMC, MMC+LBP, LBP.The natural development , weight growth and fertilities were observed .Healthy pregnant female rats and MMC exposed neonatal rats and were also observed .Results:1) Compared with the control group , the rats in MMC group was dropping, inactivity, loss of appetite;2) The weights of rats in MMC group grew slower than in control rats with the ex-posure time dependently;3) MMC group were infertility after exposure to the methyl mercury .There remained offspring in MMC+LBP group and their after-born death rates

  18. Lycium barbarum polysaccharide attenuates cisplatin- induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Li-Qiong Huang1,2, Yuan-Zhen Zhang1,2*, Bo Zheng3, Yi He3 .... Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Total RNA was extracted from the cultured GCs ... China), and reverse-transcribed into cDNA using ... transcripts was calculated on the basis of CP .... The follicle is the fundamental structure and.

  19. Anti-tumor effects of lycium barbarum polysaccharide on pancreatic cancer cells by polarization of macrophages%枸杞多糖通过诱导巨噬细胞极化抗胰腺癌的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨青; 白光; 王巍; 包翠芬; 翟振华

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) on restraining the mouse pancre⁃atic cancer cells LTPA by the polarization of macrophages to type 1 macrophages (M1). Methods LTPA tumor model of the subcutaneous CB-17SCID mice was constructed. Model mice were randomly divided into tumor-bearing model group (n=10) and LBP treatment group (n=10). The LBP treatment group was fed 10mg/kg LBP every day, and the tumor-bearing model group was fed the same dose of normal saline. The same amount of macrophages Raw264.7 was randomly divided into the control group and experimental groups (different concentrations of LBP). MTT assay was used to detect the optical density (OD) of Raw264.7 in experimental groups and control group. ELISA was used to detect the levels of the interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-10 in experimental group (LBP was 100 mg/L) and the control group. Flow cytometry was used to test the levels of the membrane protein CD16/32 and CD206 in experimental group (LBP was 100 mg/L) and the control group. The tumor mass was weighted and the volume was calculated after three weeks. The effects of LBP on the growth of subcutaneous tumor were detected. HE staining and KI-67 staining were used to detect the microscopic changes of tumor and the proliferation of the LTPA. Results The dose of 100 mg/L LBP can promote the growth of the macrophages Raw264.7 (P<0.01), and induced the high expression of CD16/32 and low expression of CD206, high secretion of IL-12 and low secretion of IL-10. The weight, volume of the tumor and the expression of KI-67 were significantly lower in experimental group than those in the con⁃trol group (P<0.01). The microscopic necrosis area range of tumor was larger than that of control group. Conclusion The LBP has the effect of restraining LTPA by the polarization of macrophages to M1.%目的:探讨枸杞多糖(LBP)通过诱导巨噬细胞极化成一型巨噬细胞(M1)抗小鼠胰腺癌细胞LTPA的

  20. Head-space Gas Chromatography Comparison of Volatile Organic Compounds from Packing Materials and Packaged Lycium barbarum Pieces%包装材料与枸杞子饮片中挥发性有机物的顶空气相色谱比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓宇; 银玲; 刘友平

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare volatile organic compounds in nine samples including three blank packaging materials ( composite membrane of polyethylene and aluminum foil, polyethylene plastic membrane, leather condensate membrane paper) , these three kinds of materials have packaged and Lycium barbarum pieces have packaged for 12 months using these three kinds of packaged materials. Method: Component analysis of volatile organic compounds in these nine samples was determined by head-space gas chromatography, the relative content of each compound was gained by area normalization method. Result: Vvolatile organic compounds in each sample were mainly oxidation terpenoids, aldoketones and fatty acids compounds, among them, blank polyethylene bag peculiarly included volatile dissolvent (ethanol and acetone) ; Isopropyl alcohol and n-pentanol were only being in leather condensate membrane paper; polyethylene bag and leather condensate membrane paper which packaged L. barbarum pieces for 12 months all contained benzaldehyde. Three blank packaging material all contained BHT which was additive antioxidant usually used in plastic packaging materials, only blank leather condensate membrane bag contained BHA which was additive antioxidant usually used in plastic packaging materials; furfuraldehyde was the main ingredient in L. barbarum which packaged for 12 months. Conclusion: Compositions and relative content of L. barbarum pieces using different packing materials were different, it showed that packaging materials had an important effect on volatile organic compounds in the pieces.%目的:对3种空白包装材料(聚乙烯铝箔复合膜、聚乙烯塑料膜、牛皮凝膜纸)、3种已包装材料及采用3种包装材料包装12月的枸杞子饮片共9个样品中的挥发性有机物进行比较研究.方法:采用顶空气相色谱法对9个样品中的挥发性有机物进行成分分析,用面积归一化法获得各化合物的相对含量.结果:各样品中挥发性有机

  1. Comparative analysis of anthocyanin biosynthesis during fruit development in two Lycium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Shaohua; Wu, Min; Zou, Caiyun; Liu, Xiaomin; Shen, Xiaofei; Hayward, Alice; Liu, Chunzhao; Wang, Ying

    2014-04-01

    Dietary consumption of functional foods enriched in anthocyanins benefit for human health by protection against far-ranging human diseases. Delphinidin-derived anthocyanins (valuable as blue pigments and antioxidants) are accumulated specifically in the fruits of Lycium ruthenicum but not in the fruits of Lycium barbarum, suggesting the differences of anthocyanin biosynthesis between the two species. In this study, anthocyanin profiling confirmed that anthocyanins were increasingly accumulated during fruit ripening in L. ruthenicum, and sharply increased at full expanded mature fruit, while no anthocyanin were detected at any stage of L. barbarum fruit development. Several genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis were characterized in L. ruthenicum and L. barbarum fruits. Expression profiling of these genes during fruit development showed a significant positive correlation between transcript abundance and anthocyanin accumulation in L. ruthenicum fruit. Meanwhile, transcripts in L. barbarum fruit were either undetectable or were downregulated during fruit ripening, before increasing slightly in the final stages of maturation. In addition, the ratio of LrF3'5H/LrF3'H transcription showed a gradual increase before 6 days after breaker (DAB) and a sharp enhancement at 10 DAB. Our results suggest that the expression patterns of both regulatory and structural genes and the transcriptional ratio of branch-node structural genes F3'5'H/F3'H may determine the phenotypic difference in anthocyanin biosynthesis between L. ruthenicum and L. barbarum fruits.

  2. 木虱啮小蜂对枸杞、枸杞木虱的行为反应%Behavior responses of Tetrastichus sp., an ectoparasitiod wasp, to its host,Paratrioza sinica Yang & Li and host plant, Lycium barbarum L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段立清; 刘宽余; Imre S.OTVOS; 冯淑军; 李海平; 单艳敏

    2005-01-01

    木虱啮小蜂Tetrastichus sp.是枸杞木虱Paratrioza sinica Yang& Li若虫外寄生蜂,是控制枸杞木虱种群数量动态的重要因子之一.为查明其寻找寄主的信息素,应用四臂嗅觉仪、培养皿两种方法测定了枸杞Lycium barbarum L.的健康叶、虫伤叶、枸杞木虱若虫、若虫与叶复合体、卵与叶复合体和若虫分泌物等不同物质对木虱啮小蜂行为反应的影响.结果证明枸杞木虱若虫分泌物对木虱啮小蜂有明显的吸引作用,四臂嗅觉仪测定时有73%的雌蜂趋向分泌物材料区(P=O.0000).枸杞健康叶,虫伤叶及其水、正丁烷提取物,卵与枸杞叶复合体对木虱啮小蜂无明显吸引作用.木虱若虫水提物及正丁烷提取物在培养皿中可吸引木虱啮小蜂并可引起刺探行为,但嗅觉仪测定时单独若虫并不吸引木虱啮小蜂,只有活体若虫与枸杞叶片复合体才对木虱啮小蜂有吸引作用(P=0.0004).木虱啮小蜂通过与寄主若虫的接触,可提高其搜索效率.接触过寄主若虫的雌蜂第一次找到寄主的时间显著少于未曾接触寄主若虫的雌蜂,前者只用后者1/4的时间,说明该寄生蜂能对其寄主若虫进行学习.

  3. 分子修饰后枸杞多糖对睾丸生精功能保护作用%Protective Effects of Molecularly Modified Lycium Barbarum Polysaccharides on Testicular Spermatogenic Function of Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李环; 张晶; 赵宏伟; 于敬红

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察硒化枸杞多糖对邻苯二甲酸二丁酯(DBP)所致的雄性大鼠睾丸组织氧化损伤的保护作用,并确定枸杞硒多糖的最佳反应条件.方法 在醋酸催化作用下,利用亚硒酸钠对枸杞多糖进行分子修饰.将48只健康雄性SD大鼠随机分成对照组、DBP+硒化枸杞多糖组、DBP+硒组、DBP+枸杞多糖组、DBP染毒组,连续灌胃30d,检测睾丸组织中超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GSH-Px)、总抗氧化能力(T-AOC)和丙二醛(MDA)的含量.结果 硒化枸杞多糖的最佳条件是室温(20℃),亚硒酸钠与枸杞多糖用量为1∶1,反应时间为48h.硒化枸杞多糖组与除对照组的其他组比较脂质过氧化指标均有统计学意义(P<0.05);同时硒化枸杞多糖可显著提高体内SOD,T-AOC以及GSH-Px含量,降低MDA水平.结论 硒化修饰枸杞多糖后的抗氧化作用要强于普通枸杞多糖和无机硒.%Objective To observe the protective effect of selenium lyceum barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) on dibutyl phthalate (DBP)-induced male rat testicular oxidative tissue damage and determine the best reaction condition for obtaining selenium LBP. Method On the basis of the catalytic effect of acetic acid, sodium selenite was used for the molecular modification of LBP.48 Healthy male SD rats were divided into control group,DBP + selenium group,LBP group,DBP + selenium group,DBP + LBP group and DBP-infected group at random. They were given the corresponding agents in intragastric administration for 30 days. Contents of SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) , total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC)and malondialdehyde (MDA)in testicular tissues of the rats were measured. Results The best conditions for making the selenium LBP included that the best temperature was room temperature (20 ℃), the proportion of sodium selenite and LBP was 1 :1 ,and the reaction time was 48 h. Compared with those in the other groups except the control group,the lipid

  4. Neuroprotective effect of lycium barbarum polysaccharides after cavernous nerve crush injury in a rat model%枸杞多糖对大鼠海绵体神经钳夹损伤的修复作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘波; 丁协刚; 赵颀涵; 罗琼; 李世文; 王行环

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨使用枸杞多糖(LBP)修复钳夹损伤的海绵体神经(CN),恢复自主勃起功能的可行性.方法 21只雄性SD大鼠随机分成3组,即假手术组、LBP组、损伤对照组,于术后3个月电刺激CN测定海绵体内压(ICP)及平均动脉压(MAP),取CN进行甲苯胺蓝染色检测有髓轴突数目,取阴茎组织进行烟酰胺腺嘌呤二核苷酸磷酸(NADPH)染色检测一氧化氮合酶(NOS)阳性神经纤维数目.结果 LBP组ICP/MAP比值(0.44 ±0.05)明显高于损伤对照组(0.26 ±0.03,P<0.05),但低于假手术组(0.68 ±0.08,P<0.05).LBP组CN有髓轴突数目(106.8 ±17.9),与假手术组(180.9 ±15.3)和损伤对照组(64.9±l3.9)比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).阴茎背神经NOS阳性神经纤维数目(164.2±12.2),与假手术组(263.3 ±15.0)和损伤对照组(85.6±14.7)比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 LBP可促进CN钳夹损伤后的神经再生及勃起功能的恢复.%Objective To investigate the feasibility of erectile function recovery by repairing crushed cavernous nerves (CN) with lyceum barbarum polysaccharides (LBP).Methods Twenty-one male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 groups:sham group,LBP group,and control group.Erectile function was assessed by cavernous nerve electrostimulation at 3rd month after operation and nerve regeneration was assessed by toluidine blue staining of CN and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-diaphorase staining of penile tissue.Results The peak ICP/MAP ratio in LBP group (0.44 ± 0.05) was significantly higher than in control group (0.26 ± 0.03,P < 0.05),but lower than in sham group (0.68-± 0.08,P < 0.05).The LBP group had more myelinated axons of CNs (106.8 ± 17.9) than the control group (64.9 ± 13.9,P < 0.05),but fewer than the sham group (180.9 ± 15.3,P < 0.05).The LBP group had more NOS diaphorase positive nerve (164.2 ± 12.2) than the control group (85.6 ±14.7,P<0.05),but fewer than the sham group

  5. 枸杞多糖对雏鸡淋巴细胞体外增殖及分泌IL-2的影响%Effects of Lycium barbarum Polysaccharide on Cell Proliferation of Chicken Lymphocytes and IL-2 Excretion in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐占云; 秦睿玲; 褚耀诚; 李国辉; 李春红; 王丽

    2013-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) on cell proliferation of chicken Lymphocytes in vitro. Different concentrations of LBP were added into cultured with plants hemagg-lutinin (PHA) stimulated chicken thymus, spleen and peripheral blood lymphocyte, and cultured with bacteria lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated chicken bursa of Fabricius, peripheral blood lymphocyte, spleen, MTT method and ELISA method were used to determine the lymphocyte proliferation and IL-2 excretion respectively. The results showed that: (1) LBP could stimulate T, B lymphocyte proliferation and IL-2 excretion in certain concentration range and with the increase of the concentration of polysaccharide increase; (2) The OD value of T, B lymphocyte with the source of the same organ were significantly growth trend with chickens dayage growth in same concentration of LBP. (3) The OD value of thymus T lymphocyte and bursa of Fabricius B lymphocyte were higher than in peripheral blood and the spleen T, B lymphocytes with the same concentration LBP and the same day age of chicken. These results indicated that LBP could stimulate T, B lymphocyte proliferation and IL-2 excretion, and the promoting function of lymphocyte proliferation have certain concentration-response, time relationship and organizational correlation.%为探讨枸杞多糖(LBP)对雏鸡T、B淋巴细胞体外增殖的影响,将不同浓度的LBP分别加入到用植物血凝素(PHA)刺激的体外培养的雏鸡胸腺、外周血、脾脏淋巴细胞中,以及用细菌脂多糖(LPS)刺激的体外培养的雏鸡法氏囊、外周血、脾脏淋巴细胞中,分别用MTT比色法和ELISA法测定淋巴细胞增殖的变化以及IL-2的分泌量.结果显示:(1)LBP在一定浓度范围内时,均能刺激T、B淋巴细胞的增殖和促进IL-2的分泌,且随着多糖浓度的增加而增加;(2)LBP对同一器官来源的T、B淋巴细胞的OD值随着雏鸡日龄的

  6. Effects of Lycium Barbarum Polysaccharides on Blood Lipid and Oxidative Stress of the Liver in Hyperlipidemic Mice%枸杞多糖对高脂血症小鼠血脂及肝脏氧化应激的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晓丹; 李光华; 周旭; 丁娟; 罗彦

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨枸杞多糖(lycium barbarum polysaccharides,LBP)对高脂血症小鼠肝脏胆固醇7α-羟化酶(cholesterol 7-alpha hydroxylase,CYP7A1)mRNA表达及氧化应激功能的影响.方法 选取健康雄性昆明种小鼠26只,随机分为正常对照组、高脂血症组、高脂血症+ LBP组;除正常对照组给予正常饮食,高脂血症组、高脂血症+ LBP组采用高脂饲料喂养法建立小鼠高脂血症模型;模型建立成功后,高脂血症+LBP组于每天上午9:00按80mg·(kg·d)-1 LBP灌胃;正常对照组、高脂血症组在同样时间以同样容量生理盐水灌胃,持续灌胃30d.采用酶联免疫法测定血清总胆固醇(total cholesterol,TC)、甘油三酯(triglyceride,TG)、热休克蛋白70(heat shock protein 70,HSP 70)水平;采用吸光光度法测定肝脏超氧化物歧化酶(super oxide dismutase,SOD)、肝脏丙二醛(malondialdehyde,MDA)表达水平;采用实时荧光定量PCR技术测定肝脏CYP7A1mRNA表达水平.结果 与正常对照组比较,高脂血症组小鼠血清TC、TG、肝脏MDA均升高(P<0.01),肝脏SOD、肝脏CYP7A1 mRNA表达水平均下降(P<0.01),高脂饮食+LBP组血清TC、TG、HSP70升高(P<0.01),而肝脏CYP7A1 mRNA表达水平则降低(P<0.05);与高脂血症组比较,高脂血症+LBP组小鼠血清TC、肝脏MDA均下降(P<0.01),肝脏SOD、肝脏CYP7A1 mRNA表达水平、HSP 70升高(P<0.05或P<0.01).结论 LBP可提高高脂血症小鼠抗氧化应激能力,并可能通过上调高脂血症小鼠肝脏CYP7A1 mRNA的表达降低胆固醇.

  7. Effects of polysaccharide from Lycium barbarum in alloxan-induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-01

    Dec 1, 2009 ... Diabetes was induced in fasted mice (12 h) by intraperitoneal inject- tion of 200 mg/kg ... was confirmed by the determination of tail vein blood glucose levels ... 400 mg/kg to different groups of mice (5 mice in each group). The.

  8. A Study on Polar Extracts from Lycium barbarum L Fruits on the Thermal Stability of Oil%宁夏枸杞子极性提取物在食用油高温氧化中的作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙芝杨

    2011-01-01

    L.barbarum L fruits were extracted with 95% ethanol.Antioxidative activity of polar extracts was studied in the system of lard and sunflower seeds oil by examining POV.Extracts showed good antioxidation ability for lard and sunflower seeds oil.%利用95%乙醇提取宁夏枸杞子的极性物质。采用Schaal法研究了宁夏枸杞子极性提取物在食用油高温氧化过程中的作用。研究表明,枸杞子极性提取物对猪油、葵花籽油的氧化均具有良好抑制作用。

  9. Soil Salinity Changes Under Cropping with L ycium barbarum L.and Irrigation with Saline-Sodic Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DOU Chao-Yin; KANG Yao-Hu; WAN Shu-Qin; HU Wei

    2011-01-01

    In order to utilize the wasted saline-sodic soils under shallow groundwater condition,a 3-year field study was carried in a field cropped with Lycium barbarum L.and irrigated by drip irrigation with saline groundwater under the water table depth of 30-40 cm in the northern Yinchuan Plain,China.Effects of cropping duration (one,two,and three years) on soil salinity,soil solution composition,and pH in three adjacent plots were investigated in 2008.Results showed that a high irrigation frequency maintained high soil water potential and subsequently facilitated infiltration and downward movement of water and salt in the crop root zone.Salt accumulated on the edges of the ridges,and soil saturated-paste electrical conductivity (ECe) was higher in the edge.Concentrations of Na+,Ca2+,Mg2+,Cl-,and SO42- in the soil increased with the soil depth as did the ECe,while HCO3- and pH had a relative uniform distribution in soil profile.As planting year increased,the ECe and soil salts in the field had a decreasing tendency,while in the root zone they decreased immediately after irrigation and then remained relatively stable in the following growing seasons.HCO3- and pH had little change with the planting year.Results suggested that the application of drip irrigation with saline water could ameliorate saline-sodic soil and provide a relatively feasible soil environment for the growth of salt-tolerant plant Lycium barbarum L.under the saline-sodic soils with shallow groundwater.

  10. STUDY ON THE VALORIFICATION OF LYCIUM BARBARUM FRUIT (GOJI IN PASTRY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaria Pop

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research refers to the development of new recipes of fabricating tow different muffins and spritz cookies, using Goji whole fruits rehydrated and Goji ground powder type fruits, in different proportions and after, by sensory analysis proving the consumer preferences in relation to Goji fruit intake in the products. Also has been studied the total carotenoid content by spectrophotometric measurements from finished products comparing with whole goji berry fruit. The products are obtained by baking dough made ​​from flour, sugar, eggs, vegetable fat, milk, goji berries, friable chemical. The raw material and auxiliary material (white flour and Goji berries and the pastry products obtain with addition of goji was submitted to the physio-chemical exam, following: moisture content, ash content, gluten content, acidity content, vitamin C content, carotenoids content in accordance with applicable standards. Therefore we obtained 3 types of muffins (simple muffins, muffins with addition of 10% whole goji fruit, muffins with addition of 10% fruit goji powder ground type and 4 types of spritz cookies (simple cookies, cookies with addition of 3 %, 5 %, 10 % of goji powder.

  11. Effects of Lycium barbarum. polysaccharide on type 2 diabetes mellitus rats by regulating biological rhythms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhao

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: LBP-4a administration could treat T2DM rats. These observations provided the background for the further development of LBP-4a as a potential dietary therapeutic agent in the treatment of T2DM.

  12. Goji Berry (Lycium barbarum: Composition and Health Effects – a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulczyński Bartosz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Goji berries contain many nutrients and bioactive compounds which allowed to classify them as superfruits. A short description of the fruits is presented together with cultivation requirements. The chemical composition of the berries and their health-promoting properties are described later in this literature review. Based on the available data, their potentially beneficial application in dietary prevention of diseases of affluence, such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer, is elaborated. We also refer to the safety of Goji consumption in the context of ingredients potentially harmful for human health, allergic reactions and the interactions with other substances.

  13. A study of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) extraction technology and its anti-aging effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Ran; Liu, Xiao-Min; Dong, Qi

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to optimise the LBP extraction technology and to study the anti-aging effect of LBP by establishing D-gal aging mouse model. Orthogonal design was used to study the extraction technology. The experimental aging mouse model was formed by continuous injection of D-gal, and the anti-aging capacity of LBP was tested using measuring MDA, CAT and GSH-px contents and SOD activity in blood and SOD, MDA and Hyp levels in skin. The results showed that the optimum LBP extraction option determined by the orthogonal design is as follows: solid-liquid ratio of 1:30, extraction for 2 times, 90 min each time, and power is 100 kHz. Thus, LBP can increase SOD, CAT and GSH-px levels in blood and reduce MDA level. It can also improve skin SOD activity, reduce skin MDA content, and increase Hyp content. We concluded that the extraction method established in this experiment is easy and feasible, and the yield of LBP is high, apparently showing that LBP has the potential of delaying senility in D-gal induced mice.

  14. Systematic Review of Chemical Constituents in the Genus Lycium (Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Qian

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Lycium genus is widely used as a traditional Chinese medicine and functional food. Many of the chemical constituents of the genus Lycium were reported previously. In this review, in addition to the polysaccharides, we have enumerated 355 chemical constituents and nutrients, including 22 glycerogalactolipids, 29 phenylpropanoids, 10 coumarins, 13 lignans, 32 flavonoids, 37 amides, 72 alkaloids, four anthraquinones, 32 organic acids, 39 terpenoids, 57 sterols, steroids, and their derivatives, five peptides and three other constituents. This comprehensive study could lay the foundation for further research on the Lycium genus.

  15. 银耳、枸杞多糖联合啤酒酵母的体外抑菌研究%Experiment on in Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Beer Yeast Combined with Tremella,and Lycium bararum Polysaccharide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟英英; 张莹; 李翠莲

    2012-01-01

    采用水提法制取银耳、枸杞多糖提取液,通过生长曲线研究2种提取液对啤酒酵母(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)体外增殖的影响,同时以抑菌圈直径为指标研究其联合啤酒酵母的体外抑菌作用.结果表明,枸杞提取液抑制啤酒酵母的生长,但效果不显著;银耳提取液促进啤酒酵母的生长,效果也不显著.枸杞提取液及银耳提取液对金黄色葡萄球菌(Staphylococcus aureus)、大肠杆菌(Escherichia coli)、沙门氏菌(Salmonella)有显著的抑菌效果;枸杞提取液及银耳提取液分别联合啤酒酵母对金黄色葡萄球菌、大肠杆菌、沙门氏菌的抑菌效果强于啤酒酵母,显示出协同作用.银耳提取液可与啤酒酵母组成合生元.%Water extracts of Tremella and Lycium barbarum polysaccharide in different concentrations of 100%, 50%, 25%, 10%, 5%, 2.5% were used to inspect the effect of proliferation on beer yeast with the grow curve. Antibacterial activities of beer yeast combined with the two water extracts respectively were detected by inhibition zone in vitro. The results showed that water extract of L. barbarum could inhibit growth of beer yeast with no significant difference while Tremella could promote the growth of beer yeast but not significantly. Data of inhibition zone in vitro showed that S. aureus, E. coli, Salmonella were inhibited significantly after being treated with water extracts from L. barbarum and Tremella respectively, compared with negative control. Beer yeast combined with L. barbarum and Tremella water extract respectively could inhibit the growth of S. aureus, E. coli, Salmonella significantly, compared to positive control. In conclusion, L. barbarum and Tremella water extract combined with beer yeast could enhance the antibacterial activity in vitro. And Tremella water extracts and beer yeast can compose synbiotics.

  16. Sensory Profile and Consumer Acceptability of Prebiotic White Chocolate with Sucrose Substitutes and the Addition of Goji Berry (Lycium barbarum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais Ferreira, Janaína Madruga; Azevedo, Bruna Marcacini; Luccas, Valdecir; Bolini, Helena Maria André

    2017-03-01

    Functional food is a product containing nutrients that provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the descriptive sensory profile and consumers' acceptance of functional (prebiotic) white chocolates with and without the addition of an antioxidant source (goji berry [GB]) and sucrose replacement. The descriptive sensory profile was determined by quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) with trained assessors (n = 12), and the acceptance test was performed with 120 consumers. The correlation of descriptive and hedonic data was determined by partial least squares (PLS). The results of QDA indicated that GB reduces the perception of most aroma and flavor attributes, and enhances the bitter taste, bitter aftertaste, astringency, and most of the texture attributes. The consumers' acceptance of the chocolates was positive for all sensory characteristics, with acceptance scores above 6 on a 9-point scale. According to the PLS regression analysis, the descriptors cream color and cocoa butter flavor contributed positively to the acceptance of functional white chocolates. Therefore, prebiotic white chocolate with or without the addition of GB is innovative and can attract consumers, due to its functional properties, being a promising alternative for the food industry. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  17. Pyrolysates of Polysaccharide in Lycium barbarum%枸杞多糖的热裂解产物研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祖萌萌; 郭春生; 王政; 祈林; 张峻松

    2012-01-01

    利用裂解气相—色谱质谱联用(Py-GC/MS)对卷烟燃烧过程进行模拟,研究枸杞多糖在无氧条件下的热裂解,以期为枸杞多糖在卷烟中的应用提供一些理论基础.用GC-MS定性定量测定分析热裂解产物.比较了不同温度(300,600,900℃)下的裂解产物差异,对裂解产物进行了归类分析,并分析了主要裂解产物致香成分的致香效果,为卷烟评吸提供了理论依据.

  18. Lycium barbarum Reduces Abdominal Fat and Improves Lipid Profile and Antioxidant Status in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayara Zagonel de Souza Zanchet

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural antioxidants present in fruits have attracted considerable interest due to their presumed safety and potential nutritional value. Even though antioxidant activities of many fruits have been reported, the effects of phytochemicals of goji berry (GB in patients with metabolic syndrome have not been investigated. In this study, we examined anthropometric and biochemical parameters in patients with metabolic syndrome after the consumption of GB. The patients were divided into two groups, control (C and supplemented (S, and followed up for 45 days. Participants were individually instructed to carry out a healthy diet, but additionally, an inclusion of 14 g of the natural form of goji berry in the diet during 45 days for the S group was proposed. After 45 days of study, a significant reduction in transaminases as well as an improvement in lipid profile in the S group was observed. Likewise, a significant reduction in the waist circumference of the S group was observed when compared with that of the C group, and increased glutathione and catalase levels associated with a reduction of lipid peroxidation. These results suggest that this is an effective dietary supplement for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases in individuals with metabolic syndrome.

  19. The effects of postharvest application of lecithin to improve storage potential and quality of fresh goji (Lycium barbarum L.) berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatoi, Mushtaque Ahmed; Jurić, Slaven; Vidrih, Rajko; Vinceković, Marko; Vuković, Marko; Jemrić, Tomislav

    2017-09-01

    To enhance storage life and post-storage quality of fresh goji berries, three treatments with lecithin (1, 5, 10g·L(-1)) and two storage times (8, 16days) were evaluated. The significant effects on the physiological and biochemical parameters were varied. 1g·L(-1) lecithin showed its main effects after 8days of storage by reduction in total weight loss and decay, SSC/TA ratio (also at 16days), and chlorophyll content and with highest scores of sensory attributes (also at 16days). 5g·L(-1) lecithin showed its main effects after 16days of storage: highest SSC, highest TA (also at 8days), highest TPC, only significant reduction in DPPH antioxidant activity, and highest total flavonoid content. 10g·L(-1) lecithin showed its main effects after 8days of storage with highest SSC, chlorophyll content, total flavonoid, DPPH, and ABTS antioxidant activity (also at 16days), but with least scores of sensory attributes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Diffusion Profiles of Health Beneficial Components from Goji Berry (Lyceum barbarum Marinated in Alcohol and Their Antioxidant Capacities as Affected by Alcohol Concentration and Steeping Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Song

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The fruit (goji berry of Lycium barbarum, a traditional Chinese medicine, has been widely used in health diets due to its potential role in the prevention of chronic diseases. One of the most popular applications of goji berry is to make goji wine in China by steeping goji berry in grain liquor. However, how the steeping process affects antioxidant capacities and phytochemicals of goji berry is not yet fully understood. Therefore, to provide scientific data for the utilization of goji berry in the nutraceutical industry, the diffusion rate of betaine, β-carotene, phenolic compounds in goji berry and their antioxidant capacities affected by alcohol concentration and steeping time were determined by UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The results showed that low alcohol concentration (15% or 25% would promote the diffusion of betaine and increase antioxidant activity, while high concentration (55% or 65% would generally increase the diffusion of flavonoids and reduce antioxidant activity. The steeping time had no significant effect on the diffusion of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities. However, all goji berry wine steeped for 14 days with different alcohol concentrations exhibited the highest betaine concentration. Current findings provide useful information for the nutraceutical industries to choose proper steeping time and alcohol concentration to yield desired health promotion components from goji.

  1. 基于数据挖掘的枸杞研究热点分析%Analysis on the Research Hotspots of Lycium L. Based on Data Mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭栋; 童元元; 黄生权; 邢鹏; 赵英凯

    2016-01-01

    about breeding were “genetic diversity”, “male sterile”, “its sequence”, “callus issue”, and“anther culture”. Key words about planting were“output”,“quality”,“hard twig cuttage”,“irrigation amount”. Key words about harvesting and processing were“picking machine of Lycium L.”,“drying kiln of Lycium L.”,“hot air drying”, and “combined drying”. Key words about storage were “pesticide residue”, “heavy metal”, and“organophosphorus pesticide”. Co-occurrence network of high-frequency key words showed that the research hotspots were pesticide residue, test of heavy metal and the storage of fresh fruits. Dendrogram of high-frequency key words showed that the high-frequency key words were “package”, “refreshment”, and “lycium barbarum polysaccharide”. Conclusion The research hotspots of planting of Lycium L. are planting skills effecting the output and quality of Lycium L.; In the field of harvesting and processing of Lycium L., design and research of picking machine has replaced traditional manual picking. Modern hot air drying has already replaced traditional drying in the sun or drying skills; In the aspect of storage of Lycium L., the study on the refreshment of Lycium L. has attached attention.

  2. Lycium europaeum fruit extract: antiproliferative activity on A549 human lung carcinoma cells and PC12 rat adrenal medulla cancer cells and assessment of its cytotoxicity on cerebellum granule cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghali, Wafa; Vaudry, David; Jouenne, Thierry; Marzouki, Mohamed Nejib

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a major worldwide health problem and one of the leading causes of death either in developed or developing countries. Plant extracts and derivatives have always been used for various disease treatments and many anticancer agents issued from plants and vegetables are clinically recognized and used all over the world. Lycium europaeum (Solanaceae) also called "wolfberry" was known since ancient times in the Mediterranean area as a medicinal plant and used in several traditional remedies. The Lycium species capacity of reducing the incidence of cancer and also of halting or reserving the growth of cancer was reported by traditional healers. In this study, the antiproliferative capacity, protective properties, and antioxidant activity of the hydro-alcoholic fruit extract of Lycium europaeum were investigated. Results showed that Lycium extract exhibits the ability to reduce cancer cell viability, inhibits proliferation, and induces apoptosis in A549 human lung cancer cells and PC12 rat adrenal medulla cancer cells, in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Cytotoxic effect on normal rat cerebellum granule cells was assessed to be nonsignificant. Results also showed that Lycium fruit extract protected lipids, proteins, and DNA against oxidative stress damages induced by H2O2 via scavenging reactive oxygen species.

  3. Effects of leaves ofLycium barbarumon estrogen receptor in ovariectomized rats%宁夏枸杞叶对去势模型大鼠雌激素受体表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马锋; 马敬祖; 巩凡; 高俊; 吕金悍

    2016-01-01

    背景:前期实验发现枸杞叶主要成分枸杞多糖对成年去势雌性大鼠骨质疏松有明显的骨质改善作用。  目的:观察宁夏枸杞叶对去势大鼠血清雌激素和骨组织雌激素受体表达的影响。  方法:SD雌性未孕6月龄大鼠32只,分为3组。模型组和治疗组切除大鼠卵巢建立绝经后骨质疏松症动物模型。假手术组仅切除卵巢周围少许脂肪组织立即关闭切口。造模后8周后治疗组大鼠随机分为2组,分别饮水服枸杞叶500 mg/kg(治疗低剂量组)和枸杞叶1000 mg/kg(治疗高剂量组),每天1次,连续12周;模型组和假手术组给予等量的蒸馏水。用放射免疫法(RIA 法)检测大鼠血清中的雌二醇的水平变化,运用免疫组织化学方法检测雌性大鼠各组骨组织中雌激素受体的变化。  结果与结论:与假手术组比较,模型组大鼠血清雌二醇明显降低(P OBJECTIVE:To explore effects of leaves ofLycium barbarum on serum estradiol and bone estrogen receptor expressions in adult oxariectomized female rats. METHODS: Thirty-two 6-month-od female rats were randomized into sham-surgery, model, and treatment groups, respectively. Rat models of postmenopausal osteoporosis were induced by ovariotomy folowed by oraly administration of water solution of leaves ofLycium barbarum (500 or 1 000 mg/kg) or distiled water once daily for consecutive 12 weeks in treatment and model groups, respectively. Serum estradiol level was detected by radiation immunoassaymethod. Estrogen receptor α, β immunoreactivities in bone tissue were determined by immunohistochemical staining. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Serum estradiol level in the model group was significantly decreased compared with the sham-surgery group (P < 0.01), but that was significantly increased in the treatment groups, particularly at high dose, compared with the model group (P< 0.01). Estrogen receptor α, βimmunoreactivities were weaker in the

  4. Assessing phylogenetic relationships of Lycium samples using RAPD and entropy theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-lin YIN; Kai-tai FANG; Yi-zeng LIANG; Ricky NS WONG; Amber WY HA

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the phylogenetic relationships among related species of Lycium samples. Methods: Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting and lab-on-a-chip electrophoresis techniques were used to analyze the characteristics of Lycium species. Seven species and 3 varieties of Lycium were studied.Based on RAPD fingerprint data obtained from 11 primers, we proposed a new index, called dispersivity, using entropy theory and projection methods to depict the diversity of the DNA fingerprints. Results: Using the proposed dispersivity,primers were sorted and the dendrograms of the 7 species and 3 varieties of Lycium were constructed synthetically by merging primer information. Conclusion:Phylogenetic relationships among Lycium samples were constructed synthetically based on RAPD fingerprint data generated from 11 primers.

  5. 枸杞花药培养的初步研究%Preliminary Study on the Anther Culture in Lycium barbarum L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段丽君; 周军; 曹有龙

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the culture technique in anther of Chinese wolfberry, we optimized the culture medium(including hormone combination) and cul-ture conditions. The results showed that calluses were induced from all the six tested Chinese wolfberry materials, hut the induction rate of callus varied to-ward the materials with different genotypes. When the experimental materials were cuhured on medium appended with 2,4-D 1.0 mg/L and KT 1.0 mg/L un-der dark, the callus induction rate reached 20.0 % in this study, and this hormone combination should be the optimum for anther culture of Chinese wolf-berry. With MS appended with 6-BA 0.5 mg/L and NAA 0.1 mg/L as differentiation medium and that appended with NAA 0.1 mg/L, the plants could be yielded in 20 days.

  6. Flowering Biological Characteristics of Lycium barbarum in Guyuan, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region%宁南固原枸杞开花生物学特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗术东; 王彪; 褚忠桥; 吴杰; 杨文寿; 张俊丽

    2011-01-01

    为明确宁夏南部山区枸杞的开花生物学特性,以当地枸杞主栽品种“宁杞一号”为材料,于2008-2010年对枸杞的开花物候、花粉活力、柱头可授性、泌蜜规律、花粉胚珠比和杂交指数等进行研究.结果表明,宁杞1号单花花期一般为3d左右,老眼枝花期在4月下旬至5月上旬,七寸枝花在5月下旬至7月上旬,盛花期在5月下旬至6月下旬.花后2h开始散粉,但花粉在散粉前就具有活力,花后6h活性最强,72 h时花粉基本散尽且残余花粉活力很低.花后27 h内,5 a生树七寸枝花粉活力高于同时期10 a生树的花粉活力,其他时间段花粉活力基本一致.柱头在松蕾期和花后3h内均不具备可授性,花后3h开始具有可授性,18~36 h达最强,36 h候后可授性逐渐下降,花后60 h时基本丧失可授性.一天当中,枸杞单花蜜量7:00最大,此后在蜜量上逐渐减少,但含糖量上升,到15:00以后蜜量开始出现回升趋势.七寸枝初花期的蜜量显著高于老眼枝,而5a生七寸枝在盛花期的蜜量显著高于10 a生树.枸杞单花花粉量约为241 000粒,花粉胚珠比介于4 918~6 694之间,杂交指数(OCI)为5,因而可以断定枸杞的繁育系统为专性异交类型,需要传粉媒介为其传粉.%To identify the flowering biological characteristics of Chinese wolf berry in the southern of Ningxia Hui autonomous region, the floral biological characteristics, pollen viability, stigma receptivity, nectar secretion rhythm, pollen ovule ratio and outcrossing index of "Ningqi 1" were investigated in this paper. The results suggested that the old branches flowered from the late of April to the first ten days of May, but the new branches flowered from the late of May to the first ten days of July, and the full-bloom stage started from the late of May to the late of June, and most of flowers bloom about 3 days. The pollen can maintain viability since the late of bud stage, the flower has the strongest viability at 6 hours after flowering, the flower diverging over its pollen 72 hours later and the residuary pollen has low viability. The pollen viability of the five years old Chinese wolfberry is stronger than 10 years old trees during the first 27 hours, and has the same strong viability since the flowers bloom for27 hours later. The stigma had no receptivity during the bud stage and the first 3 hours, with the passage of time, the stigma receptivity become more and more strong, and the stigma has the strongest receptivity since the flower flowered for 18 to 36 hours, the stigma decreased its receptivity after 36 hours and loss the receptivity after 60 hours. The nectar secretion rhythm is also investigated in this paper, the results showed that the maximum volume of nectar was appeared at 7-00, since then? The volume of nectar become less and less until 15:00, but the concentration of the sugar for the flower raised with the time. At the same time, new branches secreted more nectar than the old ones, the new branches of five years old tree secreted more nectar than ten years old tree during the full-bloom stage. The pollen quantity of whole flower is about 241 000, and the pollen ovule ratio is about 4 918 ~6 694, the outcrossing index is five, so the breeding system is obligate xenogamy, this suggested that insect pollination will benefit to the pollination of Chinese wolfberry.

  7. Breeding systems in some representatives of the genus Lycium (Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Minne

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of the ovule and the embryo sac of five of the 17 species of Lycium and of one hybrid, recorded for southern Africa, was investigated. All specimens of four of the species and the hybrid (between a hermaphroditic and a functionally dioecious species were found to be functionally dioecious: they express only one sex, although both male and female organs are present in the same tlower. One species was hermaphroditic. The embryo sacs of all species, and of the hybrid, were of the normal eight-nucleate Polygonum type. The structure of the ovary and the development of the embryo sac are similar to those of L europaeum L. The absence of unreduced embryo sacs indicates that apomixis does not occur at any ploidy level in the species studied.

  8. Breeding systems in some representatives of the genus Lycium (Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Minne

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of the ovule and the embryo sac of five of the 17 species of Lycium and of one hybrid, recorded for southern Africa, was investigated. All specimens of four of the species and the hybrid (between a hermaphroditic and a functionally dioecious species were found to be functionally dioecious: they express only one sex, although both male and female organs are present in the same tlower. One species was hermaphroditic. The embryo sacs of all species, and of the hybrid, were of the normal eight-nucleate Polygonum type. The structure of the ovary and the development of the embryo sac are similar to those of L europaeum L. The absence of unreduced embryo sacs indicates that apomixis does not occur at any ploidy level in the species studied.

  9. Isolationand structure elucidation of coumarin and cinamate derivatives from Lycium ruthenicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Valizadeh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Lyciumspecies is a popular medicinal plant in the traditional Chinese medicine and Lycium ru-thenicum is a native medicinal plant of Iran. Lycium genus has several biologically important properties too. Investigation of chemical composition of ethyl acetate extract of this plant is the goal of this study. Two coumarins (Scopoletin and Sculetin and Methyl-2-hydroxy-4-undecanoxy-trans-cinamate were isolated and characterized as the major constituents using 1H NMR, 13C NMR and FT-IR spectroscopic data, MS spectrometry, elemental analysis and by comparison with the literature values. Phytochemical investigation of Lyciumruthenicum demonstrated the presence of important biologically active compounds. This is the first phyto-chemical study of this species in Iran.

  10. Cloning of a cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase gene from Lycium chinense Mill. and enhanced salt tolerance by overexpressing in tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guangxia; Wang, Gang; Ji, Jing; Gao, Hailing; Guan, Wenzhu; Wu, Jiang; Guan, Chunfeng; Wang, Yurong

    2014-06-10

    To evaluate the physiological importance of cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging system, a full-length cDNA clone, named LmAPX, encoding a cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase was isolated from Lycium chinense Mill. using homologous cloning, then the expression of LmAPX under salt stress was investigated. After sequencing and related analysis, the LmAPX cDNA sequence was 965 bp in length and had an open reading frame (ORF) of 750 bp coding for 250 amino acids. Furthermore, the LmAPX sequence was sub-cloned into prokaryotic expression vector pET28a and the recombinant proteins had a high expression level in Escherichia coli. Results from a southern blot analysis indicated that three inserts of this gene existed in the tobacco genome encoding LmAPX. Compared with the control plants (wild-type and empty vector control), the transgenic plants expressing the LmAPX gene exhibited lower amount of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and relatively higher values of ascorbate peroxidase activity, proline content, and net photosynthetic rate (Pn) under the same salt stress. These results suggested that overexpression of the LmAPX gene could decrease ROS production caused by salt stress and protect plants from oxidative stress.

  11. Comparative Analysis of Aroma Compounds in Lycium chinense Juice and in Lycium chinense Wine by HS-GC-MS%采用HS-GC-MS法对枸杞汁发酵前后香气成分的比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琦; 张惠玲; 周广志

    2015-01-01

    The volatile compounds in Lycium chinense juice and Lycium chinense wine were extracted by HS-SPME, the aroma compounds among them were then analyzed by GC-MS, and the aroma composition and their relative content between Lycium chinense juice and Lycium chinense wine were compared. The results suggested that, there was significant different in aroma varieties and aroma composition between Ly-cium chinense juice and Lycium chinense wine, 31 peaks in Lycium chinense juice and 58 peaks in Lycium chinense wine were detected respec-tively, and 13 kinds of compounds in Lycium chinense juice and 32 kinds of compounds in Lycium chinense wine were identified respectively. The facts proved that after the fermentation, the varieties and the content of flavoring compounds in Lycium chinense juice got increased.%采用顶空固相微萃取(HS-SPME)法提取枸杞汁和枸杞酒样品中的挥发性成分,采用气相色谱质谱联用技术(GC-MS)对其中的香气化合物进行鉴定,并对二者香气组成和相对含量进行对比。结果表明,枸杞汁和枸杞酒中香气种类和组成具有明显差异,在枸杞汁和枸杞酒中分别检测出31个和58个峰,鉴定出13种和32种化合物。枸杞汁经过发酵,其风味物质的种类和含量得到增加。

  12. 吡虫啉在枸杞中的残留动态%Residues Dynamics of Imidacloprid in Lycium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳; 王晓菁; 牛艳; 吴燕

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate residues dynamics of imidacloprid in lycium, field trials for imidacloprid residue in lycium were conducted in Ningxia, Neimenggu and Gansu. The results showed that the residues and degradation dynamics of imidacloprid in lycium completely fitted to the first-order reaction kinetic equation. The half-life of degradation for imidacloprid was 3. 0 to 3. 4 d in fresh lycium berries,2. 9 to 5. 0 d in dry fruits. According to the recommended application dosage, the final residue ranged from 0. 004 2 to 0. 403 mg/kg of imidacloprid in lycium. The maximum residue limit was recommended 1 mg/kg in lycium.%为了评价吡虫啉在枸杞上使用后的残留动态,在宁夏、内蒙古和甘肃同时进行残留动态试验.结果表明,吡虫啉在枸杞中的残留消解完全符合一级反应动力学方程式,在枸杞鲜果上的半衰期为3.0~3.4 d,在枸杞干果上的半衰期为2.9~5.0 d;按推荐剂量施用的情况下,在枸杞中的残留为0.004 2~0.403mg/kg.吡虫啉在枸杞中最高残留限量(MRL值)推荐值为1 mg/kg.

  13. Berberine and a Berberis lycium extract inactivate Cdc25A and induce {alpha}-tubulin acetylation that correlate with HL-60 cell cycle inhibition and apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Musa [Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad (Pakistan); Institute of Clinical Pathology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14 (Austria); Giessrigl, Benedikt; Vonach, Caroline; Madlener, Sibylle [Institute of Clinical Pathology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Prinz, Sonja [Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14 (Austria); Herbaceck, Irene; Hoelzl, Christine [Department of Medicine I, Institute of Cancer Research, Medical University of Vienna, Borschkegasse 8a (Austria); Bauer, Sabine; Viola, Katharina [Institute of Clinical Pathology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Mikulits, Wolfgang [Department of Medicine I, Institute of Cancer Research, Medical University of Vienna, Borschkegasse 8a (Austria); Quereshi, Rizwana Aleem [Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad (Pakistan); Knasmueller, Siegfried; Grusch, Michael [Department of Medicine I, Institute of Cancer Research, Medical University of Vienna, Borschkegasse 8a (Austria); Kopp, Brigitte [Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14 (Austria); Krupitza, Georg, E-mail: georg.krupitza@meduniwien.ac.at [Institute of Clinical Pathology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2010-01-05

    Berberis lycium Royle (Berberidacea) from Pakistan and its alkaloids berberine and palmatine have been reported to possess beneficial pharmacological properties. In the present study, the anti-neoplastic activities of different B. lycium root extracts and the major constituting alkaloids, berberine and palmatine were investigated in p53-deficient HL-60 cells. The strongest growth inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effects were found in the n-butanol (BuOH) extract followed by the ethyl acetate (EtOAc)-, and the water (H{sub 2}O) extract. The chemical composition of the BuOH extract was analyzed by TLC and quantified by HPLC. 11.1 {mu}g BuOH extract (that was gained from 1 mg dried root) contained 2.0 {mu}g berberine and 0.3 {mu}g/ml palmatine. 1.2 {mu}g/ml berberine inhibited cell proliferation significantly, while 0.5 {mu}g/ml palmatine had no effect. Berberine and the BuOH extract caused accumulation of HL-60 cells in S-phase. This was preceded by a strong activation of Chk2, phosphorylation and degradation of Cdc25A, and the subsequent inactivation of Cdc2 (CDK1). Furthermore, berberine and the extract inhibited the expression of the proto-oncogene cyclin D1. Berberine and the BuOH extract induced the acetylation of {alpha}-tubulin and this correlated with the induction of apoptosis. The data demonstrate that berberine is a potent anti-neoplastic compound that acts via anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic mechanisms independent of genotoxicity.

  14. Breaking the resistance of Escherichia coli: Antimicrobial activity of Berberis lycium Royle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Tauseef Ahmad; Kamili, Azra N; Chishti, M Z; Ahad, Shazia; Tantry, Mudasir A; Hussain, P R; Johri, R K

    2017-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of root bark of Berberis lycium and its principal component berberine was tested against a panel of microbial strains using agar well diffusion test and further analyzed using micro-broth dilution method. Preliminary analysis, on the basis of zone of Inhibition (ZOI) showed that the methanolic extract of B. lycium was highly effective against Escherichia coli (ZOI 41 ± 1 mm). Among the bacterial strains E. coli was found to be most susceptible and among fungi Candida albicans was the most susceptible for berberine as well as the crude methanolic extract of the plant. Methanolic extract of the plant was more effective for E. coli (MIC 1.7 ± 1.18; MBC 2.4 ± 1.18) than berberine (MIC 3.5 ± 0.57) (p resistant colonies after 72 h when tested with berberine but the development of such colonies was not observed with the methanolic extract of the plant. This could be due to the presence of resistance breaking molecules in the crude methanolic extract of B. lycium. Also the MIC index of crude methanolic extract was 1.39 for E. coli, which showed the mode of action to be bactericidal. HPLC analysis revealed the presence of berberine at highest concentration in methanolic extract of the plant, followed by aqueous extract. Potentiation of this berberine by resistance breaking molecules in the crude extract could be a possible explanation for its strong effectiveness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 响应面法优化枸杞多糖提取的研究%Study on Optimization of the Extraction Technology of Lycium Barbarum Polysaccharide by Response Surface Methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琳; 鄢瑞明; 曾凡骏

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the method of polysaccharide extraction was hot water extraction and discussing the crushing of raw materials, decolor, pre-soaked in the three factors of pre-experimental extraction to the effect of the follow-up. With anthrone - sulfuric acid method, the content of LBP was tested under the 620nm and the yield was calculated. Box - Behnken statistical design technology was used to optimize the method of LBP extraction. With the response surface optimization, the optimum conditions were: extraction temperature 87℃, liquid ratio 1:26, extraction time 7h. On the condition, the highest yield of LBP was 8.2%. The results were not only had the best extraction conditions for LBP, but also the results of response surface design experiment was much higher the traditional orthogonal in the degree of accuracy. The reference was provided for flarge-scale factory production in the future.%实验采用热水浸提法提取多糖,以蒽酮—硫酸法在620nm下检测枸杞多糖的含量,计算出得率.采用Box -Behnken统计设计技术优化枸杞多糖提取方法,得到的最佳工艺条件是:提取温度87℃,料液比1∶26,提取时间7h,一次提取枸杞多糖得率最高可达8.2%.不仅得出了枸杞多糖的最佳提取条件,而且采用响应面设计实验得到的结果相对传统的正交实验准确度更高,为以后大规模工厂化生产提供了参考.

  16. Studies of polyamine metabolism in somatic embryo-genesis of Lycium barbarum%枸杞体细胞胚发生过程中内源多胺代谢动态的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢更妹; 黄惠英; 王亚馥

    2002-01-01

    完全脱分化的枸杞继代愈伤组织在转入分化培养后第1天就开始启动分化,接着体细胞转变为胚性细胞,继而分裂形成多细胞原胚、球形胚和成熟胚等.与此同时,Put含量迅速上升形成第1个峰值,随后有所下降,但到多细胞原胚期Put含量又上升,并达到最高峰,为对照的6倍.Spd只在胚性细胞分化早期出现,Spm仅在体细胞胚发育晚期存在.外源Put不仅可提高体细胞胚发生频率,而且使3种内源多胺含量均有所提高.加入多胺生物合成抑制剂DFMA后,多胺水平下降,体细胞胚发生几乎完全被抑制.补充外源Put后,多胺的生物合成得到部分恢复,DFMA对体细胞胚发生的抑制效应也被部分解除.结果表明,维持一定量的多胺水平是枸杞体细胞胚发生的必要因素.

  17. 宁夏枸杞蚜虫发生规律及其气象等级预报%Occurrence of Aphis sp. on Lycium barbarum L. and Its Meteorological Grades Forecast in Ningxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静; 张宗山; 马力文; 黄峰; 卫建国; 张玉兰

    2015-01-01

    根据人工气候箱内不同温度条件下2次枸杞蚜虫饲养试验,确定枸杞蚜虫发育起始温度,建立蚜虫发育速率与温度的关系方程,以5.0℃作为枸杞蚜虫发育的起点温度,利用该方程对1991-2012年宁夏枸杞蚜虫繁衍动态和全年可繁殖世代数进行推算。根据2006-2008年田间蚜虫调查的虫口密度与气象因子建立的统计关系,确定枸杞蚜虫发生程度的气象指标和为害等级预报模型,并用2012年中宁田间调查情况进行验证。结果表明,宁夏枸杞蚜虫平均起始发生期为3月27日,终止时间为10月下旬,全年可繁殖21~25代,为害高峰时段为第3~12代,干旱、晴天条件下枸杞蚜虫更易发展,多雨、高湿环境抑制枸杞蚜虫的发展。预报模型回代准确率88.2%,异地检验准确率100%,效果良好,说明模型和气象指标可用于监测、预测枸杞蚜虫的繁殖世代数和为害的气象等级。%The initial growth temperature of aphis sp. was defined according to 2 feeding experiments under different temperature treatments in the HGP ̄280H type climatic cabinet,the equation between growth rate of aphis sp. and temperature was established based on the initial growth temperature. The breeding date of each generation and annual total generations from 1991 to 2012 were estimated by using the equation,taking 5. 0℃ as aphis sp. initial growth threshold temperature. The meteorological indicators and prediction model on aphis sp. hazard grades were determined, according to the statistic relationship between population density and its meteorological factors from 2006 to 2008,and verified by using investigated data in Zhongning in 2012. The result showed that the average initial occurring date of aphis sp. was on March 27 and ending date was in later of October. Aphis sp. could breeding 21 ̄23 generations each year, of which 3 ̄12 generations was serious damaged. Drying and sunshine was benefit to them growth and development,and rainy and high humidity inhibited them development. The accuracy of the model and meteorological indicators was 88. 2% and the accuracy of off ̄site observed data was 100% . Those models and meteorological indexes were suitable for monitoring aphis sp. growth state and forecasting hazard grades.

  18. 枸杞蔗糖合成酶基因cDNA分离及表达分析%Isolation and Expression Analysis of Sucrose Synthase Gene cDNA from Lycium barbarum L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽娟; 石晶; 王彦才

    2013-01-01

    以“宁杞1号”为试材,根据已知植物物种蔗糖合成酶基因(Susy)保守区序列设计引物,进行Lb Susy基因保守区的克隆,并根据保守片段核苷酸序列,利用RACE技术扩增基因全长.然后分析Lb Sus基因生物学信息,同时利用Real-time PCR检测Susy基因在枸杞不同组织器官中的表达量.结果表明:经RT-PCR扩增得到长度为2 926 bp的基因片段,克隆到pGM-TEasy载体中,命名为Lb Susy(GenBank:KC907702).推导氨基酸序列与番茄、欧洲桤木等蔗糖合成酶基因氨基酸序列同源性为100%~84%.运用PSORT服务器亚细胞定位分析表明,Lb Susy编码的蔗糖合成酶蛋白质定位于线粒体.Real-time PCR表达分析显示,Lb Susy基因在枸杞茎中表达量最高,在根中表达水平较低.

  19. Male function for ensuring pollination and reproductive success in Berberis lycium Royle: A novel mechanism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Supriya Sharma; Verma Susheel

    2016-03-01

    In Berberis lycium anthers on alternate stamens dehisce, thus prolonging the male function so that pollination is affected and reproduction is ensured. The large pollen sac of each bithecous anther after the appearance of longitudinal dehiscence slit moves away from the filament while remaining attached at the tip of the connective and then orients in such a way that pollen-laden surface faces the stigma. No pollen is available to receptive stigma as pollen grains remain stuck to the anther sac. They do not get dispersed even by wind. Pollination and consequently reproduction is ensured through the intervention of insect, which does not affect pollen transfer to the stigma directly but by touching the base of the staminal filament while foraging nectar secreted by nectaries at the base of corolla, thus leading to staminal movement. This makes the dehisced anthers stick to the stigma and deposit pollen there.

  20. Untersuchungen zum Inhaltsstoffspektrum der Blätter und Stängel von Lycium anatolicum (A. Baytop et R. Mill)

    OpenAIRE

    Schlegl, Regina

    2009-01-01

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit sollte mit Lycium anatolicum, eines in der Türkei endemischen Nachtschattengewächses, der bisherige Kenntnisstand zum Inhaltsstoffspektrum der Gattung Lycium bestätigt und erweitert werden. Hierzu wurden Extrakte aus getrockneten Stängeln und Blättern hergestellt und umfassend phytochemisch aufgearbeitet. Die Auftrennung der Extrakte erfolgte über offene Säulenchromatographie mit den stationären Phasen Kieselgel, Sephadex LH-20 und RP-18. Die abschließende Auftre...

  1. Endophytic Fungi from Lycium chinense Mill and Characterization of Two New Korean Records of Colletotrichum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Chandra Paul

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Chinese boxthorn or matrimony vine (Lycium chinense Mill is found primarily in southeastern Europe and Asia, including Korea. The dried ripe fruits are commonly used as oriental medicinal purposes. Endophytic fungi were isolated from surface sterilized tissues and fruits of the medicinal plant in 2013 to identify the new or unreported species in Korea. Among 14 isolates, 10 morphospecies were selected for molecular identification with the internal transcribed spacer (ITS gene. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all isolates belonged to Ascomycota including the genera Acremonium, Colletotrichum, Cochliobolus, Fusarium, Hypocrea and Nemania. Two Colletotrichum species were identified at the species level, using three genes including internal transcribed spacer (ITS, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH and Actin (ACT for PCR and molecular data analysis along with morphological observations. The fungal isolates, CNU122031 and CNU122032 were identified as Colletotrichum fructicola and C. brevisporum, respectively. Morphological observations also well supported the molecular identification. C. brevisporum is represented unrecorded species in Korea and C. fructicola is the first record from the host plant.

  2. New glycosidic constituents from fruits of Lycium chinense and their antioxidant activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Chung

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Potential biologically active new constituents labd-3β, 9β-diol-3α-d-glucopyranosyl-(2a → 1b-α-d-glucopyranosyl-(2b → 1c-α-d-glucopyranosyl-(2c → 1d-α-d-arabinofuranosyl-2d-p-hydroxybenzoate (1 and α-d-glucuronopyranosyl (2 → 1′-α-d-glucuronopyranosyl (2′ → 1″-α-d-glucopyranosyl-2″-n-octadec-9‴-enoate (2 along with β-sitosterol-β-d-glucoside were isolated from the fruits of Lycium chinense. Their chemical structures were elucidated using detailed spectroscopic studies. The structure assignments are based on two-dimensional (2D-NMR techniques including COSY, HSQC, HMBC and NOESY experiments. Compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated for antioxidant activities with three assay protocols such as diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power and the phosphomolybdenum activity, compound 2 showed more potential as compared with 1.

  3. Cloning and Characterization of a Lycium chinense Carotenoid Isomerase Gene Enhancing Carotenoid Accumulation in Transgenic Tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李招娣; 季静; 王罡

    2015-01-01

    Carotenoid isomerase(CRTISO)is a key enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of cis-lycopene to all-trans lycopene. In this study, we isolated and characterized the CRTISO gene from Lycium chinense (LcCRTISO) for the first time. The open reading frame of LcCRTISO was 1 815 bp encoding a protein of 604 amino acids with a molecular mass of 66.24 kDa. Amino acid sequence analysis revealed that the LcCRTISO had a high level of simi-larity to other CRTISO. Phylogenetic analysis displayed that LcCRTISO kept a closer relationship with the CRTISO of plants than with those of other species. Semi-quantitative PCR analysis indicated that LcCRTISO gene was expressed in all tissues tested with the highest expression in maturing fruits. The overexpression of LcCRTISO gene in transgenic tobacco resulted in an increase of total carotenoids in the leaves withβ-carotene and lutein being the predominants. The results obtained here clearly suggested that the LcCRTISO gene was a promising candidate for carotenoid production.

  4. Protective Effect of Lycium ruthenicum Murr. Against Radiation Injury in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yabin Duan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The protective effect of Lycium ruthenicum Murr. against radiation injury was examined in mice. Kunming mice were randomly divided into a control group, model group, positive drug group and L. ruthenicum high dose (8 g/kg, L. ruthenicum middle dose (4 g/kg, L. ruthenicum low dose (2 g/kg treatment groups, for which doses were administered the third day, seventh day and 14th day after irradiation. L. ruthenicum extract was administered orally to the mice in the three treatment groups and normal saline was administered orally to the mice in the control group and model group for 14 days. The positive group was treated with amifostine (WR-2721 at 30 min before irradiation. Except for the control group, the groups of mice received a 5 Gy quantity of X-radiation evenly over their whole body at one time. Body weight, hemogram, thymus and spleen index, DNA, caspase-3, caspase-6, and P53 contents were observed at the third day, seventh day, and 14th day after irradiation. L. ruthenicum could significantly increase the total red blood cell count, hemoglobin count and DNA contents (p < 0.05. The spleen index recovered significantly by the third day and 14th day after irradiation (p < 0.05. L. ruthenicum low dose group showed a significant reduction in caspase-3 and caspase-6 of serum in mice at the third day, seventh day, and 14th day after irradiation and L. ruthenicum middle dose group experienced a reduction in caspase-6 of serum in mice by the seventh day after irradiation. L. ruthenicum could decrease the expression of P53. The results showed that L. ruthenicum had protective effects against radiation injury in mice.

  5. The Extract of Lycium depressum Stocks Enhances Wound Healing in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naji, Siamak; Zarei, Leila; Pourjabali, Masoumeh; Mohammadi, Rahim

    2017-06-01

    In diabetes, impaired wound healing and other tissue abnormalities are considered major concerns. The aim of the present study was to assess the wound-healing activity of methanolic extracts of the extract of Lycium depressum leaves. A total of 60 healthy male Wistar diabetic rats weighing approximately 160 to 180 g and 7 weeks of age were randomized into 10 groups for incision and excision wound models: sham surgery group (SHAM), including creation of wounds and no treatment; base formulation group (FG) with creation of wounds and application of base formulation ointment; treatment group 1 (TG1) with 1 g of powder extract of the plant material in ointment; treatment group 2 (TG2) with 2 g; and treatment group 4 (TG3) with 4 g of powder extract of the plant material in ointment. A wound was induced by an excision- and incision-based wound model in male rats. The mature green leaves of L depressum were collected and authenticated. Extractions of dried leaves were carried out. For wound-healing activity, the extracts were applied topically in the form of ointment and compared with control groups. The healing of the wound was assessed based on excision, incision, hydroxyproline estimation, and biomechanical and biochemical studies. The extract of L depressum leaves enhanced wound contraction, decreased epithelialization time, increased hydroxyproline content, and improved mechanical indices and histological characteristics in treatment groups compared with SHAM and FG ( P < .05). These findings permit the conclusion the extract of L depressum benefits parameters of wound healing in a diabetes induced model.

  6. Transcriptome profiling of the UV-B stress response in the desert shrub Lycium ruthenicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haikui; Feng, Yang; Wang, Lina; Yonezawa, Takahiro; Crabbe, M James C; Zhang, Xiu; Zhong, Yang

    2015-03-01

    Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) is a natural component of the solar radiation. Due to its high energy, low dosages of UV-B can bring huge potential damage effect to organisms. Despite much research that has analyzed the gene expression changes of plants that under UV-B radiation, the transcriptome response of Lycium ruthenicum under the UV-B induction is still un-available. The aim of our study was to identify UV-B responsive genes and gain an insight into the underlying genetic basis of the pathobiology of UV-B related damage. We collected leaf samples from L. ruthenicum with and without UV-B exposure, and then performed a transcriptome profiling to comprehensively investigate their expression signatures. By employing the high throughput RNA-sequencing analysis of samples with and without UV-B exposure, we identified 1,913 up-regulated and 536 down-regulated genes at least by twofold changes. The activity of antioxidant enzyme related genes, including the superoxide dismutase, was decreased, genes related to the synthesis of secondary metabolites and defense responses, such as cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, chalcone-flavanone isomerase and dihydroflavonol reductase were also downregulated. The expression patterns of 14 randomly selected genes resulted from quantitative real-time PCR were basically consistent with their transcript abundance changes identified by RNA-sequencing. We found that several biological pathways related to biotic and abiotic stresses, including cell defense, photosynthesis processes, energy metabolism, were involved in the process of UV-B stress response. A genome-wide screening of gene deregulation under UV-B induction would provide an insight into the understanding of the molecular bases and pathogenesis of UV-B responses.

  7. First Report of Anthracnose Caused by Colletotrichum fioriniae on Chinese Matrimony Vine in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oo, May Moe; Tweneboah, Solomon

    2016-01-01

    A fungus, Colletotrichum fioriniae, was isolated for the first time from fruits of Chinese matrimony vine (Lycium chinense Mill.) in Korea. It was classified as C. fioriniae based on the morphological characteristics and nucleotide sequence of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase and β-tubulin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of C. fioriniae causing anthracnose of Chinese matrimony vine in Korea. PMID:28154492

  8. First Report of Anthracnose Caused by Colletotrichum fioriniae on Chinese Matrimony Vine in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oo, May Moe; Tweneboah, Solomon; Oh, Sang-Keun

    2016-12-01

    A fungus, Colletotrichum fioriniae, was isolated for the first time from fruits of Chinese matrimony vine (Lycium chinense Mill.) in Korea. It was classified as C. fioriniae based on the morphological characteristics and nucleotide sequence of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase and β-tubulin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of C. fioriniae causing anthracnose of Chinese matrimony vine in Korea.

  9. Application of Digupi in Toothache Treatment%小议地骨皮在治疗牙痛中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾晓娜; 张敏芬; 李江全

    2012-01-01

    Digupi is the dry velamen of solanaceae plant Lycium ( Lyciutn chinensis Mill. )or Lycium barbarum L. And it has been regarded as a taste of efficient Chinese traditional medicine to clear away deficiency-heat and remove bone-heat and hectic fever. In addition, Digupi can also effectively improve the symptoms of toothache, especially for those caused by wind-pathogen, dental caries or deficiency-fire. Pharmacological studies indicate that Digupi has analgesic and bacteriostatic action. According to the literature and modern pharmacology study reports, Digupi can be used in most common toothache and various dental pathological changes.%地骨皮为茄科植物枸杞Lycium chinensis Mill.或宁夏枸杞L.barbarumL.的干燥根皮,一直被视为清虚热、除骨蒸之佳品.此外,地骨皮还具有治疗牙痛的功效,针对风虫牙痛及虚火牙痛疗效尤佳.现代药理研究表明,地骨皮具有镇痛、抑菌等作用.根据文献和现代药理研究报道,地骨皮可用于治疗各型常见牙痛及多种牙痛变.

  10. 枸杞在低温香肠中的应用%The Application of Lycium chinense Mill to the Making of Low Temperature Sausage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑立红; 李凤英; 肖月娟

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve the nutritional value of low temperature sausage, the Lycium chinense Mill was added in making low temperature sausage. NO2- remnant of low temperature sausage added with different dos- age of l_/ycium chinense Mill was determined using the spectrophotometer. The best adding method and optimum adding dose of Lycium chinense Mill were confirmed by measuring red value and light value of the sausage com- bined with sense test. The results showed that the best addition form of Lycit~m chinense Mill was pasty; the optimum adding dose of Lycium chinense Mill was 50 g/kg of meat. While the adding amount of sodium nitrite was 0.150 g/kg,the residue of sodium nitrite in Lycium chinense Mill sausage was 0.031 4 g/kg. Lycium chinense Mill can not only improve the sensory quality and nutrition of low temperature sausage, but also improve the safety by reducing the NO2- remnant.%为了增加香肠制品的营养保健功能,以瘦猪肉为主要原料,将功能性食品原料枸杞添加于肉中制成枸杞香肠。运用WSC-S测色色差仪测定枸杞香肠的亮度、红度、黄度值,用分光光度计测定枸杞香肠的亚硝酸钠残留量,并结合感官鉴评,确定枸杞的最佳添加状态和最佳添加量。结果表明:枸杞的最佳添加状态为浆状液,最佳添加量为50 g/kg(肉馅中,以下同);当亚硝酸钠添加量为0.15 g/kg时,枸杞香肠中的亚硝酸钠残留量仅为0.031 4 g/kg。枸杞的添加,既能增加香肠的感官品质,又能增加营养功能,还能在一定程度上降低亚硝酸钠的残留,增加了肉制品的安全性。

  11. Mapeo de genes ribosómicos y heterocromatina en seis especies de Lycium de sudamérica (solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Blanco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El clado Lycieae (Solanaceae reune 92 especies, actualmente agrupadas en un único género, Lycium. Se realizó un estudio citogenético en seis especies sudamericanas de este género, usándose por primera vez en el grupo la técnica de FISH, además de la técnica de bandeo CMA/DAPI. Se emplearon ápices radicales de las siguientes especies: L. boerhaviifolium (previamente Grabowskia, L. bridgesii (previamente Phrodus, el tetraploide L. chilense y los diploides L. cestroides, L. ciliatum y L. tenuispinosum. Se confirmó el número básico x=12. La técnica de bandeo reveló la presencia de una banda CMA+/DAPI- asociada a NORs en el primer par metacéntrico en las especies diploides, y en los dos primeros pares m en la tetraploide. Además, L. tenuispinosum mostró una banda intercalar CMA+/DAPI- en uno de sus cromosomas, en tanto que en L. bridgesii se encontraron bandas terminales e intercalares en todos los cromosomas. Con la técnica de FISH se observó que los loci 18-5,8-26S fueron consistentes con los bloques CMA+/DAPI-/NORs. Las especies diploides presentaron siempre un par cromosómico m portador de genes ADNr 5S, mientras que la especie tetraploide presentó dos pares, concordando con su nivel de ploidía. En las especies estudiadas, la diversificación no fue acompañada por rearreglos cromosómicos estructurales significativos, excepto L. bridgesii, que se destaca por poseer una fórmula cariotípica distinta y un mayor porcentaje de heterocromatina.Mapping of ribosomal genes and heterochromatin in Lycium of South America (Solanaceae. The clade Lycieae (Solanaceae embraces 92 species, currently gathered in a single genus, Lycium. A study was conducted in six South American species of this genus, using the FISH technique for the first time in the group, in addition to the CMA/DAPI banding technique. Root tips of the following species were employed: L. boerhaviifolium (previously Grabowskia, L. bridgesii (previously Phrodus, the

  12. Hepatoprotective effects of Lycium chinense Miller fruit and its constituent betaine in CCl4-induced hepatic damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Meejung; Park, Jong Sang; Chae, Sungwook; Kim, Seungjoon; Moon, Changjong; Hyun, Jin Won; Shin, Taekyun

    2014-07-01

    The hepatoprotective activities of Lycium chinense Miller (LC) fruit extract and its component betaine were investigated under carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The treatment of LC fruit extract significantly suppressed the increase of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in the sera of CCl4 injured rats, and restored the decreased levels of anti-oxidant enzymes such as total antioxidant capacity (TAC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and suppressed the expression of inflammatory mediators including inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and -2. To visualize the potential activity of betaine, a component of LC fruit, betaine was substituted for LC extract in CCl4 injured rats. The biochemical profile in CCl4 injured rats co-treated with betaine matched those of LC fruit treated CCl4 injured rats. The ameliorative effects of LC extract, as well as betaine, were also confirmed by histopathological examination. Collectively, the present findings imply that LC fruit, via its component betaine, mitigate CCl4-induced hepatic injury by increasing antioxidative activity and decreasing inflammatory mediators including iNOS and COX-1/COX-2.

  13. Chemical Constituents of the Fruits of Lycium ruthenicum%黑果枸杞果实化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳发; 吉腾飞; 苏亚伦; 李进; 刘华

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究黑果枸杞Lycium ruthenicum Murr.果实的化学成分.方法:采用大孔树脂层析、Sephadex LH-20和高效液相色谱法对其化学成分进行分离纯化,通过理化性质和波谱数据分析鉴定化合物结构.结果:从黑果枸杞果实中分离得到9个化合物,分别为:N-mono-cinnamoyl-putrescine(1)、petunidin-3-trans-p-coumaroylrutinoside-5-glucoside(2),4-(p-cumaroyl)-methyl-L-rhamnoside(3)、p-香豆酸(4)、阿魏酸(5)、芦丁(6)、槲皮素(7)、原儿茶酸(8)、锦葵花素(9).结论:化合物1~9均为首次从该植物中分离得到.%Objective:To study the chemical constituents of the fruits of Lycium ruthenicum Murr..Methods :Isolation and purification were carried out on macroporous resin column,Sephadex LH-20 and HPLC.The structures of the compounds were identified by physicochemical properties and spectral analysis.Results:Nine compounds were isolated and identified as N-mono-cinnamoyl-putres-cine(l) ,petunidin-3-traras-p-coumaroylrutinoside-5-glucoside(2) ,4-(p-cumaroyl)-methyl-L-rhamnoside(3) ,p-coumarinic acid(4) ,ferulic acid(5),rutin(6) ,quercetin(7) ,protocatechuric acid(8) ,malvidin(9).Conclusion:Compound 1-9 are obtained from Ly-cium ruthenicum for the first time.

  14. Polysaccharides from wolfberry prevents corticosterone-induced inhibition of sexual behavior and increases neurogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benson Wui-Man Lau

    Full Text Available Lycium barbarum, commonly known as wolfberry, has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of infertility and sexual dysfunction. However, there is still a scarcity of experimental evidence to support the pro-sexual effect of wolfberry. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP on male sexual behavior of rats. Here we report that oral feeding of LBP for 21 days significantly improved the male copulatory performance including increase of copulatory efficiency, increase of ejaculation frequency and shortening of ejaculation latency. Furthermore, sexual inhibition caused by chronic corticosterone was prevented by LBP. Simultaneously, corticosterone suppressed neurogenesis in subventricular zone and hippocampus in adult rats, which could be reversed by LBP. The neurogenic effect of LBP was also shown in vitro. Significant correlation was found between neurogenesis and sexual performance, suggesting that the newborn neurons are associated with reproductive successfulness. Blocking neurogenesis in male rats abolished the pro-sexual effect of LBP. Taken together, these results demonstrate the pro-sexual effect of LBP on normal and sexually-inhibited rats, and LBP may modulate sexual behavior by regulating neurogenesis.

  15. Anti-Ulcerogenic Properties of Lycium chinense Mill Extracts against Ethanol-Induced Acute Gastric Lesion in Animal Models and Its Active Constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opeyemi J. Olatunji

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to explore the gastroprotective properties of the aerial part of Lycium chinense Mill (LCA against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa lesions in mice models. Administration of LCA at doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight prior to ethanol consumption dose dependently inhibited gastric ulcers. The gastric mucosal injury was analyzed by gastric juice acidity, glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD, malondialdehyde (MDA, myeloperoxidase (MPO activities. Furthermore, the levels of the inflammatory mediators, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and interleukin-1β (IL-1β in serum were also analyzed using ELISA. Pathological changes were also observed with the aid of hematoxylin-eosin (HE staining. Our results indicated that LCA significantly reduced the levels of MPO, MDA and increased SOD and GSH activities. Furthermore, LCA also significantly inhibited the levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in the serum of ulcerated mice in a dose dependent manner. Immunohistological analysis indicated that LCA also significantly attenuated the overexpression of nuclear factor-κB in pretreated mice models. This findings suggests Lycium chinense Mill possesses gastroprotective properties against ethanol-induced gastric injury and could be a possible therapeutic intervention in the treatment and management of gastric ulcers.

  16. Positive feedback regulation of a Lycium chinense-derived VDE gene by drought-induced endogenous ABA, and over-expression of this VDE gene improve drought-induced photo-damage in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Chunfeng; Ji, Jing; Zhang, Xuqiang; Li, Xiaozhou; Jin, Chao; Guan, Wenzhu; Wang, Gang

    2015-03-01

    Violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE) plays an important role in protecting the photosynthetic apparatus from photo-damage by dissipating excessively absorbed light energy as heat, via the conversion of violaxanthin (V) to intermediate product antheraxanthin (A) and final product zeaxanthin (Z) under light stress. We have cloned a VDE gene (LcVDE) from Lycium chinense, a deciduous woody perennial halophyte, which can grow in a large variety of soil types. The amino acid sequence of LcVDE has high homology with VDEs in other plants. Under drought stress, relative expression of LcVDE and the de-epoxidation ratio (Z+0.5A)/(V+A+Z) increased rapidly, and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) also rose. Interestingly, these elevations induced by drought stress were reduced by the topical administration of abamine SG, a potent ABA inhibitor via inhibition of NCED in the ABA synthesis pathway. Until now, little has been done to explore the relationship between endogenous ABA and the expression of VDE genes. Since V serves as a common precursor for ABA, these data support the possible involvement of endogenous ABA in the positive feedback regulation of LcVDE gene expression in L. chinense under drought stress. Moreover, the LcVDE may be involved in modulating the level of photosynthesis damage caused by drought stress. Furthermore, the ratio of (Z+0.5A)/(V+A+Z) and NPQ increased more in transgenic Arabidopsis over-expressing LcVDE gene than the wild types under drought stress. The maximum quantum yield of primary photochemistry of PSII (Fv/Fm) in transgenic Arabidopsis decreased more slowly during the stressed period than that in wild types under the same conditions. Furthermore, transgenic Arabidopsis over-expressing LcVDE showed increased tolerance to drought stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. The Diterpenoid 7-Keto-Sempervirol, Derived from Lycium chinense, Displays Anthelmintic Activity against both Schistosoma mansoni and Fasciola hepatica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jennifer; Brown, Martha; Peak, Emily; Bartholomew, Barbara; Nash, Robert J.; Hoffmann, Karl F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Two platyhelminths of biomedical and commercial significance are Schistosoma mansoni (blood fluke) and Fasciola hepatica (liver fluke). These related trematodes are responsible for the chronic neglected tropical diseases schistosomiasis and fascioliasis, respectively. As no vaccine is currently available for anti-flukicidal immunoprophylaxis, current treatment is mediated by mono-chemical chemotherapy in the form of mass drug administration (MDA) (praziquantel for schistosomiasis) or drenching (triclabendazole for fascioliasis) programmes. This overreliance on single chemotherapeutic classes has dramatically limited the number of novel chemical entities entering anthelmintic drug discovery pipelines, raising significant concerns for the future of sustainable blood and liver fluke control. Methodology/ Principle Findings Here we demonstrate that 7-keto-sempervirol, a diterpenoid isolated from Lycium chinense, has dual anthelmintic activity against related S. mansoni and F. hepatica trematodes. Using a microtiter plate-based helminth fluorescent bioassay (HFB), this activity is specific (Therapeutic index = 4.2, when compared to HepG2 cell lines) and moderately potent (LD50 = 19.1 μM) against S. mansoni schistosomula cultured in vitro. This anti-schistosomula effect translates into activity against both adult male and female schistosomes cultured in vitro where 7-keto-sempervirol negatively affects motility/behaviour, surface architecture (inducing tegumental holes, tubercle swelling and spine loss/shortening), oviposition rates and egg morphology. As assessed by the HFB and microscopic phenotypic scoring matrices, 7-keto-sempervirol also effectively kills in vitro cultured F. hepatica newly excysted juveniles (NEJs, LD50 = 17.7 μM). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) evaluation of adult F. hepatica liver flukes co-cultured in vitro with 7-keto-sempervirol additionally demonstrates phenotypic abnormalities including breaches in tegumental integrity and

  18. Comparative Profiling of miRNAs and Target Gene Identification in Distant-Grafting between Tomato and Lycium (Goji Berry)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaldun, A. B. M.; Huang, Wenjun; Lv, Haiyan; Liao, Sihong; Zeng, Shaohua; Wang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Local translocation of small RNAs between cells is proved. Long distance translocation between rootstock and scion is also well documented in the homo-grafting system, but the process in distant-grafting is widely unexplored where rootstock and scion belonging to different genera. Micro RNAs are a class of small, endogenous, noncoding, gene silencing RNAs that regulate target genes of a wide range of important biological pathways in plants. In this study, tomato was grafted onto goji (Lycium chinense Mill.) to reveal the insight of miRNAs regulation and expression patterns within a distant-grafting system. Goji is an important traditional Chinese medicinal plant with enriched phytochemicals. Illumina sequencing technology has identified 68 evolutionary known miRNAs of 37 miRNA families. Moreover, 168 putative novel miRNAs were also identified. Compared with control tomato, 43 (11 known and 32 novels) and 163 (33 known and 130 novels) miRNAs were expressed significantly different in shoot and fruit of grafted tomato, respectively. The fruiting stage was identified as the most responsive in the distant-grafting approach and 123 miRNAs were found as up-regulating in the grafted fruit which is remarkably higher compare to the grafted shoot tip (28). Potential targets of differentially expressed miRNAs were found to be involved in diverse metabolic and regulatory pathways. ADP binding activities, molybdopterin synthase complex and RNA helicase activity were found as enriched terms in GO (Gene Ontology) analysis. Additionally, “metabolic pathways” was revealed as the most significant pathway in KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) analysis. The information of the small RNA transcriptomes that are obtained from this study might be the first miRNAs elucidation for a distant-grafting system, particularly between goji and tomato. The results from this study will provide the insights into the molecular aspects of miRNA-mediated regulation in the medicinal plant

  19. The diterpenoid 7-keto-sempervirol, derived from Lycium chinense, displays anthelmintic activity against both Schistosoma mansoni and Fasciola hepatica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Edwards

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Two platyhelminths of biomedical and commercial significance are Schistosoma mansoni (blood fluke and Fasciola hepatica (liver fluke. These related trematodes are responsible for the chronic neglected tropical diseases schistosomiasis and fascioliasis, respectively. As no vaccine is currently available for anti-flukicidal immunoprophylaxis, current treatment is mediated by mono-chemical chemotherapy in the form of mass drug administration (MDA (praziquantel for schistosomiasis or drenching (triclabendazole for fascioliasis programmes. This overreliance on single chemotherapeutic classes has dramatically limited the number of novel chemical entities entering anthelmintic drug discovery pipelines, raising significant concerns for the future of sustainable blood and liver fluke control. METHODOLOGY/ PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Here we demonstrate that 7-keto-sempervirol, a diterpenoid isolated from Lycium chinense, has dual anthelmintic activity against related S. mansoni and F. hepatica trematodes. Using a microtiter plate-based helminth fluorescent bioassay (HFB, this activity is specific (Therapeutic index = 4.2, when compared to HepG2 cell lines and moderately potent (LD50 = 19.1 μM against S. mansoni schistosomula cultured in vitro. This anti-schistosomula effect translates into activity against both adult male and female schistosomes cultured in vitro where 7-keto-sempervirol negatively affects motility/behaviour, surface architecture (inducing tegumental holes, tubercle swelling and spine loss/shortening, oviposition rates and egg morphology. As assessed by the HFB and microscopic phenotypic scoring matrices, 7-keto-sempervirol also effectively kills in vitro cultured F. hepatica newly excysted juveniles (NEJs, LD50 = 17.7 μM. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM evaluation of adult F. hepatica liver flukes co-cultured in vitro with 7-keto-sempervirol additionally demonstrates phenotypic abnormalities including breaches in tegumental

  20. Comparative profiling of miRNAs and target gene identification in distant-grafting between tomato and Lycium (goji berry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A B M Khaldun

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Local translocation of small RNAs between cells is proved. Long distance translocation between rootstock and scion is also well documented in the homo-grafting system, but the process in distant-grafting is widely unexplored where rootstock and scion belonging to different genera. Micro RNAs are a class of small, endogenous, noncoding, gene silencing RNAs that regulate target genes of a wide range of important biological pathways in plants. In this study, tomato was grafted onto goji (Lycium chinense Mill. to reveal the insight of miRNAs regulation and expression patterns within a distant-grafting system. Goji is an important traditional Chinese medicinal plant with enriched phytochemicals. Illumina sequencing technology has identified 68 evolutionary known miRNAs of 37 miRNA families. Moreover, 168 putative novel miRNAs were also identified. Compared with control tomato, 43 (11 known and 32 novels and 163 (33 known and 130 novels miRNAs were expressed significantly different in shoot and fruit of grafted tomato, respectively. The fruiting stage was identified as the most responsive in the distant-grafting approach and 123 miRNAs were found as up-regulating in the grafted fruit which is remarkably higher compare to the grafted shoot tip (28. Potential targets of differentially expressed miRNAs were found to be involved in diverse metabolic and regulatory pathways. ADP binding activities, molybdopterin synthase complex and RNA helicase activity were found as enriched terms in GO (Gene Ontology analysis. Additionally, ‘metabolic pathways’ was revealed as the most significant pathway in KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis. The information of the small RNA transcriptomes that are obtained from this study might be the first miRNAs elucidation for a distant-grafting system, particularly between goji and tomato. The results from this study will provide the insights into the molecular aspects of miRNA-mediated regulation in the

  1. Characterization of Polyphenols from Lycium ruthenicum Fruit by UPLC-Q-TOF/MS(E) and Their Antioxidant Activity in Caco-2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Lv, Haiyang; Wang, Fengzhong; Wang, Yi

    2016-03-23

    The fruit of Lycium ruthenicum Murr. (LRF) has long been used in folk medicine. Nevertheless, detailed information related to its polyphenol compositions remains scarce. In this study, we confirmed that the total phenolic and anthocyanin contents of LRF fruit extracts (LRFEs) were 4906.5 ± 60.6 mg of gallic acid equivalents/100 g DW and 787.6 ± 34.1 mg of cyanindin-3-glucoside equivalents/100 g DW, respectively. A characterization of LRFEs was performed by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry using an MS(E) data acquisition. A total of 26 polyphenols were tentatively identified, of which 19 represent the first reports of these polyphenols in LRFEs. Furthermore, the cellular antioxidant array showed that LRFEs could protect Caco-2 cells against H2O2-induced oxidative damage based on microscopic fluorometric imaging.

  2. Study on anti-aging effect of Lycium ruthenicum Murr.%黑果枸杞抗衰老作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田磊; 蒋宝平; 樊晓峰

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of Lycium ruthenicum Murr. on the learning,memory and antioxi-dant ability of aging mice induced by D-galactose. Methods Aging model was induced by subcutaneously injecting mice with D-galactose. At 6 weeks after administration of aqueous extract of Lycium ruthenicum Murr.,the water maze was used to determine the function of learning and memory,the analytic kit was used to measure the activity of super-oxide dismutase ( SOD),the contents of malondialdehyde ( MDA) and lipid peroxidation ( LPO) in brain of mice,as well as the activity of SOD,the contents of MDA and glutathione peroxidase ( GSH-Px) in serum of mice. Results Lycium ruthenicum Murr. could reduce the escape latency,swimming total path,shorten the time in the near station,sig-nificantly shorten the time and swimming path in the distant station area to stay,increase the residence swimming path in the area close to the table and the average swimming speed of aging model mice in a water maze. Besides,it could reduce MDA content and increase GSH-Px content and SOD activity in serum,increase SOD activity and reduce LPO and MDA contents in brain (P<0. 05,P<0. 01). Conclusion Lycium ruthenicum Murr. has anti-aging effect on ag-ing model mice,and the mechanism may be related to improving learning and memory and enhancing antioxidant ability in aging mice.%目的 观察黑果枸杞对D-半乳糖诱导的小鼠衰老模型的学习记忆力及抗氧化能力的影响. 方法 注射5% D-半乳糖制备小鼠衰老模型,灌胃给予黑果枸杞6周后,水迷宫法测定模型小鼠的空间学习记忆能力,试剂盒法测定脑中丙二醛(MDA)、过氧化脂质(LPO)含量及超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活力,以及血清中谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶( GSH-Px)、MDA含量及SOD活力. 结果 黑果枸杞能缩短衰老模型小鼠在水迷宫的逃避潜伏期、游泳总路程、近台区停留时间、远台区停留时间、远台区游泳路程,增加衰老小鼠平均游泳速度

  3. 枸杞多糖对肥胖大鼠肾脏的保护作用及机制的初步研究%Study on the Protective Effect of Lycium Barbarum Polysaccharide (LBP) on Kidney and Its Mechanism in Obese Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈武; 马卫成; 徐锦龙; 徐爱仁

    2013-01-01

    Object we: To investigate the protective effect of kidney and mechanism of LBP in obese rats. Methods: LBP continuous gavage for 12 weeks in obese rats,then serum levels of TC,TG,HDL,LDL,FBG,FINS,Cr,BUN and kidney LDL, Ox — LDL were all determined, and the ISI was calculated. Results: LBP could lower lipid and blood glucose, and improve insulin resistance, improve kidney function, reduce the role of the kidney tissue LDL and Ox - LDL. Conclusion: LBP had a protective role for kidney in obese rats and its mechanism might be associated with reducing kidney tissues of Ox - LDL.%目的:探讨枸杞多糖对肥胖大鼠肾脏的保护作用及其机制.方法:制备肥胖大鼠模型,枸杞多糖连续灌胃12周,测定血清TC、TG、HDL、LDL、FBG、FINS、Cr、BUN及肾脏LDL与Ox-LDL,并计算ISI.结果:枸杞多糖具有降脂、降糖、改善胰岛素抵抗、改善肾功能、降低肾脏组织LDL与Ox-LDL的作用.结论:枸杞多糖对肥胖大鼠肾脏具有一定的保护作用,其机制可能与减少肾脏组织Ox-LDL有一定的关系.

  4. Effects of Lycium Barbarum Polysaccharides on Blood Pressures and Fetus Development of Hypertensive Pregnant Mice%枸杞多糖对实验性高血压妊娠小鼠血压和胎鼠发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘正军; 张晓蕾; 周建武; 王建成

    2009-01-01

    目的:检测枸杞多糖对实验性高血压妊娠小鼠血压和胎鼠发育的影响.方法:提取宁夏枸杞多糖;冷刺激诱导建立孕小鼠高血压模型.将小鼠分为5组:正常妊娠对照组(A组)、冷刺激妊娠组(模型组,B组)、冷刺激+不同浓度多糖组(实验组,C-E组).C、D、E组分别灌胃给予枸杞多糖5 mg/kg、10mg/kg、20mg/kg,qd×18 d;A组、B组相应地给予等量生理盐水,连续饲养18 d.妊娠小鼠颈动脉插管记录血压,剖宫检测胎盘、胎鼠重,全长、体长.结果:B组血压显著高于A组(P0.05).B组胎盘、胎鼠重,全长、体长显著低于A组(P0.05).结论:枸杞多糖对实验性高血压妊娠小鼠有降低血压、保护胎儿发育的作用.

  5. The Aphrodisiac Effect of Honey-Lycium Barbarum-Tomato Juice in D-galactose Induced Aging Mice Models%蜂蜜枸杞番茄汁对D-半乳糖所致衰老小鼠的壮阳作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈有军; 孙秀婷; 严群超; 刘均

    2016-01-01

    目的 研究蜂蜜枸杞番茄汁对D-半乳糖所致衰老小鼠的壮阳作用.方法 取NIH小鼠50只随机分为对照组、模型组、蜂蜜枸杞番茄汁高(24.804 g/kg)、中(12.402 g/kg)、低(6.201 g/kg)剂量组,分别灌胃给样40 d.考察蜂蜜枸杞番茄汁对D-半乳糖衰老模型小鼠血清中丙二醛(MDA)水平、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性、血清和睾丸组织中睾酮水平、精液乳酸脱氢酶(LDH)水平以及精子活动率的影响.结果 模型组小鼠血清中MDA水平高于对照组,血清中SOD活性、血清及睾丸中睾酮水平、精囊腺中LDH水平及精子活动率低于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);蜂蜜枸杞番茄汁高剂量组小鼠血清中睾酮水平高于模型组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);蜂蜜枸杞番茄汁中剂量组小鼠血清中MDA水平低于模型组,SOD活性高于模型组,精囊腺中LDH水平及精子活动率高于模型组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);蜂蜜枸杞番茄汁低剂量组小鼠血清中SOD活性、血清及睾丸中睾酮水平、精囊腺中精子活动率高于模型组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 蜂蜜枸杞番茄汁对D-半乳糖所致衰老小鼠具有壮阳作用.

  6. Molecular cloning and identification of a flavanone 3-hydroxylase gene from Lycium chinense, and its overexpression enhances drought stress in tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xinyu; Diao, Jinjin; Ji, Jing; Wang, Gang; Guan, Chunfeng; Jin, Chao; Wang, Yurong

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids, as plant secondary metabolites, are widespread throughout the plant kingdom and involved in many physiological and biochemical processes. Drought resistance is attributed to flavonoids with respect to protective functions in the cell wall and membranes. The flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H) gene which encodes flavanone 3-hydroxylase, is essential in flavonoids biosynthetic pathway. Lycium chinense (L. chinense) is a deciduous woody perennial halophyte that grows under a large variety of environmental conditions and survives under extreme drought stress. A novel cDNA sequence coding a F3H gene in Lycium chinense (LcF3H, GenBank: KJ636468.1) was isolated. The open reading frame of LcF3H comprised 1101 bp encoding a polypeptide of 366 amino acids with a molecular weight of about 42 kDa and an isoelectric point of 5.32. The deduced LcF3H protein showed high identities with other plant F3Hs, and the conserved motifs were found in LcF3H at similar positions like other F3Hs. The recombinant protein converted naringen into dihydrokaempferol in vitro. Since studies have shown that amongst flavonoids, flavan-3-ols (catechin and epicatechin) have direct free radical scavenging activity to maintain the normal physiological function of cells in vivo, these data support the possible relationship between the oxidative damage and the regulation of LcF3H gene expression in L. chinense under drought stress. In order to better understand the biotechnological potential of LcF3H, gene overexpression was conducted in tobacco. The content of flavan-3-ols and the tolerance to drought stress were increased in LcF3H overexpressing tobacco. Analysis of transgenic tobacco lines also showed that antioxidant enzyme activities were increased meanwhile the malondialdehyde (MDA) content and the content of H2O2 were reduced comparing to nontransformed tobacco plants. Furthermore, the photosynthesis rate was less decreased in the transgenetic plants. These results suggest that LcF3H

  7. LcMKK, a MAPK kinase from Lycium chinense, confers cadmium tolerance in transgenic tobacco by transcriptional upregulation of ethylene responsive transcription factor gene

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CHUNFENG GUAN; JING JI; XIAOZHOU LI; CHAO JIN; GANG WANG

    2016-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic element to plants. Ethylene is an important phytohormone in the regulation of plant growth, development and stress response. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation has been observed in plants exposed to Cd stress and was suggested to be involved in ethylene biosynthesis. We hypothesized that there may be a link between MAPK cascades and ethylene signalling in Cd-stressed plants. To test this hypothesis, the expression of LcMKK, LchERF and LcGSH1 genes, endogenous ethylene accumulation, GSH content and Cd concentration in Lycium chinense with or without Cd stress treatment were studied. Our results showed that LcMKK gene expression can be induced by the treatment of Cd in L. chinense. The transgenic tobacco expressing 35S::LcMKK showed greater tolerance to Cd stress and enhanced expression of NtERF and NtGSH1 genes, indicating that LcMKK is associated with the enhanced expression level of ERF and GSH synthesis-related genes in tobacco. We also found that endogenous ethylene and GSH content can be induced by Cd stress inL. chinense, and inhibited by cotreatment with PD98059, an inhibitor of MAPK kinase. Evidences presented here suggest that under Cd stress, GSH accumulation occurred at least partially by enhanced LcMKK gene expression and the ethylene signal transduction pathways might be involved in this accumulation.

  8. [Effect of lycium bararum polysaccharides on angiotensin II-induced senescence of human umbilical vein endothelial cells and expressions of P53 and P16].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ling; Wang, Xue-ni; Liu, Ze; Wang, Lu-ni; Wu, Jun; Wang, Wei; Feng, Ju-xiang

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the role of lycium bararum polysaccharides (LBP) on angiotensin II (AngII)-induced senescence of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and expressions of P53 and P16 and explore the mechanism of LBP against aging. HUVECs cultured in vitro were stimulated with 1×10(-6) mmol/L AngII to induce cell senescence, which was identified using β-gal staining. Flow cytometry was used for analyzing the cell cycle changes, and the cell viability was assessed using CCK-8 method. Western blotting was employed to detect the expression of P53 and P16 in the exposed cells. Compared with the control cells, the cells positive for β-gal staining was significantly increased in AngII group, and showed cell cycle arrest at G(0)/G(1) phase with decreased S-phase cell percentage and cell viability. The expression levels of P53 and P16 were significantly increased in the cells with AngII exposure (PP16 (P<0.05). LBP can delay AngII-induced aging of HUVECs possibly by down-regulating the expression of P53 and P15.

  9. Chemical composition of Lycium europaeum fruit oil obtained by supercritical CO2 extraction and evaluation of its antioxidant activity, cytotoxicity and cell absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Antonella; Maxia, Andrea; Putzu, Danilo; Atzeri, Angela; Era, Benedetta; Fais, Antonella; Sanna, Cinzia; Piras, Alessandra

    2017-09-01

    We studied the total phenols and flavonoids, liposoluble antioxidants, fatty acid and triacylglycerol profiles, and oxidative status of oil obtained from Lycium europaeum fruits following supercritical CO2 extraction (at 30MPa and 40°C). Linoleic (52%), palmitic (18%), oleic (13%), and α-linolenic (6%) were the main oil fatty acids, while trilinolein and palmitodilinolein/oleodilinolein represented the main triacylglycerols. The oil was characterized by high levels of all-trans-zeaxanthin and all-trans-β-carotene (755 and 332μg/g of oil, respectively), α-tocopherol (308μg/g of oil), total phenols (13.6mg gallic acid equivalents/g of oil), and total flavonoids (6.8mg quercetin equivalents/g of oil). The oil showed radical scavenging activities (ABTS and DPPH assays) and inhibited Caco-2 cell growth. Moreover, the incubation of differentiated Caco-2 cells with a non-toxic oil concentration (100μg/mL) induced a significant intracellular accumulation of essential fatty acids. The results qualify L. europaeum oil as a potential source for food/pharmaceutical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Lycium chinensis Mill attenuates glutamate induced oxidative toxicity in PC12 cells by increasing antioxidant defense enzymes and down regulating ROS and Ca(2+) generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunji, Opeyemi J; Chen, Hongxia; Zhou, Yifeng

    2016-03-11

    Lycium chinensis Mill is a famous traditional Chinese medicine which displays several medicinal activities including antioxidant and neuroprotective activities. However, the mechanism of action towards the neuroprotective action has not been fully elucidated. This work was aimed at investigating the neuroprotective effects of L. chinensis Mill against glutamate-induced oxidative neurotoxicity in PC12 cells. Oxidative cell death was induced with 5mM glutamate in PC12 cells. Cell viability, LDH release, intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, GSH-Px, CAT and SOD antioxidant enzyme levels were measured. Our results indicated that pretreatment of PC12 cells with L. chinensis Mill extracts markedly attenuated the loss of cell viability, the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Ca(2+) overload, ROS generation, and cell apoptosis induced by glutamate toxicity. Furthermore, L. chinensis Mill extracts also significantly increased the levels of innate antioxidant enzymes GSH-Px, SOD and CAT in glutamate-induced PC12 cells. Conclusively, our results provided substantial evidence that L. chinensis Mill protected PC12 cells against glutamate-induced cell death by attenuating ROS generation, Ca(2+) influx, and increased the antioxidant defense capacity of PC12 cells against oxidative stress damages, suggesting the possible potential of extracts from the plant as sources of bioactive molecules in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders.

  11. Determination of Antioxidant and Lipid-lowering Ingredients in Flavonoids of Lycium Ruthenicum Murr. leaf%黑果枸杞叶总黄酮抗氧化和降血脂成分测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕海英; 林丽; 潘云; 李淑珍; 李志成

    2012-01-01

    黄酮类化合物属于植物次生代谢产物,具有多种生物活性。其中一些兼有抗氧化和降血脂作用,对预防动脉粥样硬化具有广阔的应用前景。本实验以黑果枸杞(LyciumruthenicumMurr.)叶为材料,从中提取叶总黄酮,利用薄层层析和高效液相色谱法检测黑果枸杞叶总黄酮中的具有抗氧化和降血脂功能的化学成分。结果表明:其中包含有芦丁0.8870%、槲皮素0.0414%、木犀草素0.0411%、异鼠李素0.0258%和山奈素0.0448%,这5种黄酮成分总量为1.04%,占黑果枸杞叶总黄酮含量的37.14%。说明黑果枸杞叶总黄酮的抗氧化和降血脂活性可能是这5种黄酮成分发挥作用的结果。%Flavonoids are plant secondary metabolites, with a variety of biological activity. Some fal- conoid effected on both antioxidant and lipid--lowering, therefore, they have broad application prospects on the prevention of atherosclerosis. In this study, falconoid were extracted from the leaf of Lycium rutheni- cum Murr. and their antioxidant and lipid--lowering components were measured, using thin--layer chro- matography and high performance liquid chromatography. The results showed that. flavonoids in Lycium ruthenicum Murr. contained rutin of 0. 8870%, quercetin of 0. 0414%, luteolin of 0. 0411%, is or hamnet in of 0. 0258% and kaempferol of 0. 0448 %, the total amount of five falconoid was 1.04%, accounting for 37.14% of total falconoid in Lycium ruthenicum Murr. Antioxidant and lipid--lowering activity in fla- vonoids of Lycium ruthenicum Murr. Maybe the result of these five falconoid having played an effect.

  12. Research advances on the usage of traditional Chinese medicine for neuroprotection in glaucoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-song Mi; Jing-xiang Zhong; Raymond Chuen-Chung Chang; Kwok-Fai So

    2013-01-01

    Progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and their axons is the main pathogenesis of glaucoma.The cause of glaucoma is not fully understood,but the neurodegeneration of glaucoma involves many mechanisms such as oxidative stress,glutamate toxicity and ischemia/reperfusion insult.In order to target these mechanisms,multiple neuroprotective interventions have been investigated to prevent the death of RGCs.Of note are some tonic herbs from the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) pharmacopeia that have shown neuroprotective effects in glaucoma.TCM differs from Western medicine in that TCM exhibits complicated bioactive components,triggering many signaling pathways and extensive actions on vital organs.Modern scientific approaches have demonstrated some of their underlying mechanisms.In this review,we used Lycium barbarum and Ginkgo biloba as examples to elaborate the characteristics of TCM and their potential applications in neuroprotection in glaucoma.

  13. 黑果枸杞果醋发酵工艺研究%Study on Fermentation Technology of Lycium ruthenicum Murr. Vinegar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海魁; 刘雅琴

    2009-01-01

    [Objective]The study aimed to dicuss fermentation technology parameters of Lycium ruthenicum Murr.vinegar.[Method] Alcohol fermentation and acetic fermentation technology were studied using ofrthogonal test, and the best condition were confirmed. [Result] The study showed that the optimal fermentation technology of alcohol fermentation was sugar concentration of 15%,yeast inoculum of 0.1%,fermentation temperature of 30 ℃.The optimal fermentation technology of acetic fermentation was alcohol content of 10%,fermentation temperature of 30 ℃,shaker speed of 150 r/min. [Conclusion] The fruit vinegar had a good flavor with fruit aroma and was a kind of healthy fruit vinegar.%[目的]探讨黑果枸杞果醋发酵工艺参数.[方法]采用正交试验设计分别对酒精发酵和醋酸发酵工艺进行研究 ,确定了最优发酵条件.[结果]酒精发酵最佳工艺组合为:糖含量15%,酵母接种量0.1%,发酵温度30 ℃;醋酸发酵最佳工艺组合为:初始酒度10%,发酵温度30 ℃,摇床转速150 r/min.[结论]该条件下制得的黑果枸杞果醋风味纯正,具有水果香味,是一种价值较高的营养保健型果醋.

  14. Identification of microRNAs and target genes in the fruit and shoot tip of Lycium chinense: a traditional Chinese medicinal plant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A B M Khaldun

    Full Text Available Although Lycium chinense (goji berry is an important traditional Chinese medicinal plant, little genome information is available for this plant, particularly at the small-RNA level. Recent findings indicate that the evolutionary role of miRNAs is very important for a better understanding of gene regulation in different plant species. To elucidate small RNAs and their potential target genes in fruit and shoot tissues, high-throughput RNA sequencing technology was used followed by qRT-PCR and RLM 5'-RACE experiments. A total of 60 conserved miRNAs belonging to 31 families and 30 putative novel miRNAs were identified. A total of 62 significantly differentially expressed miRNAs were identified, of which 15 (14 known and 1 novel were shoot-specific, and 12 (7 known and 5 novel were fruit-specific. Additionally, 28 differentially expressed miRNAs were recorded as up-regulated in fruit tissues. The predicted potential targets were involved in a wide range of metabolic and regulatory pathways. GO (Gene Ontology enrichment analysis and the KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database revealed that "metabolic pathways" is the most significant pathway with respect to the rich factor and gene numbers. Moreover, five miRNAs were related to fruit maturation, lycopene biosynthesis and signaling pathways, which might be important for the further study of fruit molecular biology. This study is the first, to detect known and novel miRNAs, and their potential targets, of L. chinense. The data and findings that are presented here might be a good source for the functional genomic study of medicinal plants and for understanding the links among diversified biological pathways.

  15. Effect of Water Based Infusion of Aloe barbedensis, Pimpinella anisum, Berberis lycium, Trigonella foenum-graecum and Allium sativum on The Performance of Broiler Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazal Raziq, Sarzamin Khan*, Naila Chand, Asad Sultan, Muhammad Mushtaq, Rafiullah, Sayed Muhammad Suhail1 and Alam Zeb2

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Present study explored the potentials of medicinal plants (Aloe barbedensis, Pimpinella anisum, Berberis lycium, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Allium sativum mixture in broiler chicks at a ratio of 1:3:1:2:1, respectively. For this purpose 240 chicks were randomly assigned into four major groups, namely; A, B, C and D. Each group was further divided into two subgroups with three replicates of 10 chicks each. One of the subgroups was vaccinated against Newcastle disease (ND, Infectious bronchitis (IB and Infectious bursal disease (IBD according to locally adopted vaccination schedule keeping the other subgroup as non vaccinated control. Experimental birds in groups A, B, and C were provided with mentioned infusion @ 20, 10 and 5ml per liter of drinking water while group D was maintained as control. Relevant data were recorded throughout the experiment and or at the termination of the experiment and subjected to statistical analysis. Significantly low mean feed intake (3258.3g and better FCR (1.87 was recorded in group A. Other parameters like weight gain (1739.7g, antibody titer against ND (7.1, IBD (3300.5 and high density lipoprotein (71.6 g/dl were significantly increased in chicks from group A. Similarly, blood cholesterol (145.6 g/dl, triglyceride (145.8 g/dl and low density lipoprotein (57.5 g/dl were significantly reduced in group A. Overall vaccinated group had higher (P<0.05 antibody titer 7.2, 1796.2, 3202.8 against ND, IB and IBD, respectively compared to non-vaccinated group and had no influence on lipid profile. It was concluded that the infusion from the above plants in mentioned composition may not only be effectively used for improved broiler performance and better immunity but also to reduce the cholesterol level.

  16. Chemical constituents of endophytic fungi RER4 from Lycium ruthenicum%黑果枸杞内生真菌RER4化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨秀芳; 王鹏飞; 马养民

    2015-01-01

    根据形态学特征和ITS序列对分离自黑果枸杞根部的内生真菌RER4进行鉴定,结果该真菌鉴定为米曲霉(Aspergillus oryzae)。采用大米固体培养基对RER4进行发酵,利用多种色谱方法从乙酸乙酯提取物中分离纯化得到8个化合物,借助ESI‐MS、NMR等波谱技术鉴定其结构分别为:麦角甾醇(1)、尿黑酸内酯(2)、6‐柠檬酸甲酯(3)、琥珀酸(4)、1,5‐柠檬酸二甲酯(5)、赤薛醇(6)、甘露醇(7)、阿拉伯糖醇(8)。其中化合物尿黑酸内酯首次从米曲霉发酵物中分离得到。%The fungus strain RER4 isolated from the root of Lycium ruthenicum .Was identi‐fied as A spergillus oryz ae by its morphological characteristics and internal transcrised spacer (ITS) sequence analyses .Solid state fermentation was used to culture the endophytic fungi RER4 on the rice medium ,8 compounds were isolated and purified from the eyhyl acetate ex‐tract of endophytic fungi RER4 by various chromatographic methods and their structures were ergosterol ,5‐hydroxy‐benzofuran‐2 (3H )‐one ,3‐hydroxy‐3‐(methoxycarb onyl) pen‐tanedi‐oic acid ,succinic acid ,2‐hydroxy‐4‐methoxy‐2‐(2‐meth oxy‐2‐oxoethyl )‐4‐oxobutan‐oic acid ,erythritol ,mannitol ,adonitol by ESI‐MS and NMR .Among compound 5‐hydroxy‐benzofuran‐2(3H)‐one was firstly isolated from the medium of Aspergillus oryzae .

  17. The effects of exogenous antioxidant germanium (Ge) on seed germination and growth of Lycium ruthenicum Murr subjected to NaCl stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Hou, Long-yu; Li, Qing-mei; Jiang, Ze-ping; Liu, Duo; Zhu, Yan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present the results of a study on the effects of exogenous antioxidant germanium (Ge) on seed germination and seedling growth, and its role as a radical scavenger that regulates related enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT), under salt stress. Seeds were incubated in 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 mM NaCl to determine the salt tolerance of the Lycium ruthenicum Murr seedlings and from the results, the critical and ultimate salt concentrations were chosen for the next experiment. Subsequently, two treatments (seeds soaked in Ge and Ge added to salt) with four concentrations of GeO2 (0, 5, 10 and 20 μM) were used with the critical (150 mM) and ultimate salt concentrations (250 mM). The results demonstrated that salt alone inhibited seed germination significantly (≥150 mM) and reduced seedling growth (≥200 mM). The addition of exogenous Ge to the salt solution, as well as soaking the seeds in Ge, attenuated the salt stress effects in a manner dependent on the dose of Ge, as indicated by the increased percentage of seeds that germinated and improved seedling growth. The addition of Ge also showed a significant reversal of salt stress on the activities of antioxidant enzymes, with a decrease in SOD and POD activity, but an increase in CAT activity with 150 mM NaCl, and enhancement of SOD, POD and CAT with 250 mM NaCl. Correspondingly, the level of malondialdehyde was decreased significantly by each Ge treatment under salt stress. Further, for L. ruthenicum, adding 10 Ge and seeds soaked in 5 Ge were the most effective treatments. To our knowledge, this is the first report to show the protective effects of exogenous Ge against salt-induced oxidative damage in L. ruthenicum seed germination and seedling growth. Thus, L. ruthenicum can be used in areas with salty soil and Ge can promote the plants' salt tolerance.

  18. 枸杞色素抑制脂多糖致大鼠葡萄膜炎作用与机制的研究%Study on inhibitory effect of lycium pigment on lipopolysaccharide-induced uveitis in rats and its mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晋; 赵飞飞; 白双; 郑婕; 郑萍; 戴贵东

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the inhibitory effect of lycium pigment on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced uveitis in rats and its mechanism.Method:The rat uveitis model was established by 30-day oral administration of lycium pigment (50,100,200 mg · kg-1) and footpad injection of LPS.Ocular tissues were collected for a histopathological inspection.The protein,nitric oxide and ADMA in aqueous humor,level of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in retina,activities of serum total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC),superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX),and content of malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined by using Western blot,ELISA and biochemical methods.Result:According to the pathological study,lycium pigment (50,100,200 mg · kg-1) could notably reduce the inflammatory cell infiltration around corpus ciliare matrix of uveitis rats,and the concentration of protein and nitric oxide,and increased ADMA in aqueous humor.Lycium pigment (100,200 mg· kg-1) could significantly inhibit the expression of iNOS in ocular tissues.In addition,lycium pigment (100,200 mg · kg-1) also decrease the activities of serum T-AOC,SOD,GSH-PX,and the content of lipid peroxide MDA.Conclusion:Lycium pigment has the inhibitory effect on LPS-induced uveitis in rats.Its mechanism is related to the regulation of nitric oxide/ADMA pathway and the improvement of oxidation resistance.%目的:探讨枸杞色素(lycium pigment)抑制脂多糖(LPS)致大鼠葡萄膜炎的作用及其机制.方法:枸杞色素(50,100,200 mg·kg-1)灌胃给药30 d后,足跖注射LPS建立大鼠葡萄膜炎模型.眼组织进行病理学检测;房水蛋白、一氧化氮和非对称性二甲基精氨酸(ADMA),眼组织诱导型一氧化氮合酶(iNOS)以及血清总抗氧化能力(T-AOC)、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GSH-PX)和脂质过氧化物丙二醛(MDA)分别采用Western blot、酶联免疫(ELISA)和生物化学等方法进行测定.结果:病理

  19. A Study on Relativity Between Dielectric Properties of Lycium Chinense and Storage Period%枸杞果实介电特性与贮藏时间相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓龙; 康宁波; 李丹; 刘晓丽; 贾永华; 李锋; 王永忠; 潘志广

    2015-01-01

    The correlation analyse were used to research the relation between electrical properties and test frequency of Lycium chinense varieties .Then , it were also be used to research the relation between electrical properties and storage time.it found the well-kept foundation for research the relation between electrical properties and internal quality of ly -cium chinense.The result showed:The electrical properties changed regularly with test frequency.The complex impendence,inductance, resistance decreased with the increase of test frequency .It showed some difference only in the stage of low frequency among Lycium chinense varieties .The complex impendence , resistance , loss factor were positively correlated with storage time .Capacity , dielectric constant wew negative correlated with storage time .At the same time , capacity , dielectric constant , loss factor showed a big difference among varieties when it been storaged .%研究了不同枸杞品种果实介电参数与测定频率、贮藏时间的相关性,并就此相关性进行了探讨,为下一步研究枸杞果实介电参数与内部品质间的相关性打下良好理论基础。研究结果表明:枸杞果实介电参数值会随测试频率的增加而呈规律性变化,阻抗Z、电感 L、电阻R 值随测试频率的增加而减小;在全频率段,各处理组介电参数值无明显差异性,其显著差异性主要表现在低频阶段。3.98 MHz 频率下,阻抗 Z、电阻 R、介质损耗因子ε″与贮藏时间线性正相关,电容C、介电常数ε′与贮藏时间线性负相关。各枸杞品种的电容 C、介电常数ε′、介质损耗因子ε″随贮藏时间的变化值均存在显著差异性。

  20. Anti-inflammatory Activity of Berry Fruits in Mice Model of Inflammation is Based on Oxidative Stress Modulation

    OpenAIRE

    Nardi,Geisson Marcos; Farias Januario, Adriana Graziele; Freire, Cassio Geremia; Megiolaro, Fernanda; Schneider, Kétlin; Perazzoli, Marlene Raimunda Andreola; Do Nascimento, Scheley Raap; Gon, Ana Cristina; Mariano, Luísa Nathália Bolda; Wagner, Glauber; Niero, Rivaldo; Locatelli, Claudriana

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many fruits have been used as nutraceuticals because the presence of bioactive molecules that play biological activities. Objective: The present study was designed to compare the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of methanolic extracts of Lycium barbarum (GOJI), Vaccinium macrocarpon (CRAN) and Vaccinium myrtillus (BLUE). Materials and Methods: Mices were treated with extracts (50 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.), twice a day through 10 days. Phytochemical analysis was performed by hi...

  1. High-performance liquid chromatography separation of cis-trans anthocyanin isomers from wild Lycium ruthenicum Murr. employing a mixed-mode reversed-phase/strong anion-exchange stationary phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hongli; Liu, Yanfang; Guo, Zhimou; Yang, Fan; Wang, Jixia; Li, Xiaolong; Peng, Xiaojun; Liang, Xinmiao

    2015-01-21

    The cis-trans isomerism is a common phenomenon for acylated anthocyanins. Nevertheless, few studies reported effective methods for the preparation of isomeric anthocyanins from natural products. In this work, a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to efficiently purify anthocyanin isomers from Lycium ruthenicum Murr. based on a mixed-mode reversed-phase/strong anion-exchange column (named XCharge C8SAX). Four commercially available columns were evaluated with a pair of isomeric anthocyanins, and the results demonstrated that the XCharge C8SAX column exhibited improved selectivity and column efficiency for the isomers. The chromatographic parameters, including pH, organic content, and ionic strength, were investigated. Optimal separation quality for the anthocyanin isomers was achieved on the XCharge C8SAX column. Six pure anthocyanins, including two pairs of cis-trans isomeric anthocyanins with one new anthocyanin, were purified from L. ruthenicum and identified. All of the results indicated that this method is an effective way to separate anthocyanins, especially for cis-trans isomers.

  2. Microbial Biodiversity in Rhizosphere ofLycium bararumL. Relative to Cultivation History%不同种植年限宁夏枸杞根际微生物多样性变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纳小凡; 郑国琦; 彭励; 雷川怡; 杨红艳; 马玉; 赵强; 石硕矾

    2016-01-01

    为了解长期人工种植枸杞根际土壤微生物的种群结构变化特征,利用Illumina MiSeq测序平台分别对种植5 a、10 a和15 a宁夏枸杞根际土壤微生物基因组总DNA中16S和18S rDNA基因的部分区域进行测序,经UPARSE pipeline和RDP classifier软件进行聚类分析和物种注释.结果表明,长期种植宁夏枸杞不会改变其根际土壤pH,但会导致根际土壤全磷、有效磷、全盐含量和电导率升高.测序结果表明,不同种植年限枸杞根际土壤细菌群落α多样性无显著变化,但真菌群落多样性在种植10 a枸杞中较种植5 a时显著降低(p<0.05),表明根际细菌群落多样性受种植年限影响较小.从门的分类水平看,酸杆菌门、放线菌门、拟杆菌门、厚壁菌门、绿弯菌门、泉古菌门、蓝菌门、芽单胞菌门、变形菌门以及真菌子囊菌门、担子菌门、接合菌门的比例在不同种植年限的枸杞根际土壤中显著改变(p<0.05).属水平的分析也表明,共有27个细菌属和16个真菌属的比例发生改变(p<0.05),这些结果表明枸杞根际土壤微生物群落组成受种植年限的影响更大.相关性分析结果表明,种植年限、土壤全磷及有效磷含量是影响枸杞根际微生物群落结构的主要因子.%The rhizosphere is a critical interface where exchange of substance takes place between plants roots and their surrounding soil. In the rhizosphere,interactions between the plant and soil microbes, though affected by a series of factors,such as physic-chemical properties of the rhizospheric soil,genotype of their host plant,can be beneficial to growth of the plant,the microbes or both. However,it is still not very clear how long-term cultivation ofLycium bararumL. would affect soil microbial community structure in the rhizosphere of the plant. Therefore,rhizospheric soil samples were collected fromLycium bararum L. fields different in cultivation history(5 a,10 a and 15 a)in a farm of

  3. 枸杞多糖的功能性及应用开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹东恢; 郭宏文

    2015-01-01

    枸杞多糖是枸杞的主要活性成分之一,近年来因其具有抗肿瘤和抗氧化等功能作用成为研究的热点。本文论述了枸杞多糖所具有的生物活性的研究进展,对枸杞多糖目前的研究中存在的问题及相关产业的开发进行探讨与展望。%As the major biological activity components, Lycium barbarum polysaccharides have attracted tremendous attentions due to their antitumor and immunoregulation functions. Current research progress in the structure characterization and biological activities of polysaccharides from Lycium barbarum are reviewed in this paper.Meanwhile, problems encountered during the investigations ofLycium barbarum polysaccharidesare also discussed, which will provide a useful guidance for future studies.

  4. Study on Natural Distribution and Biological Characteristics of Lycium ruthenicum in Yanqi Basin%焉耆盆地黑果枸杞自然分布特点及其生物特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何文革; 那松曹克图; 吾其尔; 吴春焕; 赵洁; 王瑛; 李玉霞

    2015-01-01

    对新疆焉耆盆地黑果枸杞的自然分布及其生物特性进行了研究,结果表明:黑果枸杞是典型的根蘖类无性系植物,并兼具有性和无性两套繁殖系统,其自然分布涵盖了焉耆盆地平原荒漠和低地草甸2类8个亚类的草地类型,占盆地10个亚类草地类型的80%,并在农区广泛分布,为焉耆盆地的广布种;其根系由水平根和地下垂直茎以及季节性分生存在的不定根组成;其有性繁育系统为异交型,并具花的色泽变化和“两花两果”特性;其无性繁育由水平根以根蘖克隆的形式繁殖;其单体群落中看似独立的植株个体,却是由地下由水平根相连的一个有机“整体”,并具有相同的遗传基因;其植株具有夏眠及被掩埋后仍能存活并变性的特性。%Natural distribution and biological characteristics of Lycium ruthenicum in Xinjiang Yanqi Basin was studied.The results showed that Lycium ruthenicum was typical clonal plant which belonged to root sucker class,and had two sets of reproductive system,sexual and asexual.Its natural distribution covered 2 classes and 8 subclasses of the desert plains of Yanqi Basin and lowland meadow grassland types,accounting for 80%of the 10 subgenera grassland types in basin,and widely distributed in rural areas in Yanqi Basin.The root was composed of horizontal root and vertical underground stem and adventitious root which meristematic existed seasonal.The sexual breeding system were outcrossing,with flowers color change and "two flowers of two fruit" characteristics,the asexual breeding system reproduction by cloning root suckers with horizontal root.The monomer seemed independent individual plants in the community,but connected by underground horizontal root of an organic"whole",and had the same genetic. Plant with properties that after aestivation and buried still could survive and degeneration.

  5. Natural Distribution and Biological Characteristics of Lycium ruthenicum in Yanqi Basin of Xinjiang%新疆焉耆盆地黑果枸杞自然分布特点及其生物特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Natural distribution and biological characteristics of Lycium ruthenicum in Xinjiang Yanqi Ba-sin were studled. The results shows: Lycium ruthenicum is a typical clonal plant which belongs to root sucker class, and has two sets of reproductive system, sexual and asexual. Its natural distribution covers 2 classes and 8 subclasses of the desert plains of Yanqi basin and lowland meadow grassland types, ac-counting for 80% of the 10 subgenera grassland types in basin, and widely distributed in rural areas, in Yanqi Basin. The root is composed of horizontal root and vertical underground stem and adventitious root which meristematic existing seasonal; the sexual breeding system are outcrossing, with flowers color change and"two flowers of two fruit" characteristics, the asexual breeding system reproduction by cloning root suckers with horizontal root. The monomer seemingly independent individual plants in the communi-ty, but connected by underground horizontal root of an organic integrity, and have the same genetic. It has summer hibernation properties and can survive after buried.%对新疆焉耆盆地黑果枸杞的自然分布及其生物特性进行了研究。结果表明:黑果枸杞是典型的根蘖类无性系植物,并兼具有性和无性两套繁殖系统,其自然分布涵盖了焉耆盆地平原荒漠和低地草甸2类8个亚类的草地类型,占盆地10个亚类草地类型的80%,并在农区广泛分布,为焉耆盆地的广布种;其根系由水平根和地下垂直茎以及季节性分生存在的不定根组成;其有性繁育系统为异交型,并具花的色泽变化和“两花两果”特性;其无性繁育由水平根以根蘖克隆的形式繁殖;其单体群落中看似独立的植株个体,却是由地下由水平根相连的一个有机“整体”,并具有相同的遗传基因;其植株具有夏眠及被掩埋后仍能存活并变性的特性。

  6. Cloning and Expression Analysis of LmP5CS Gene from Lycium chinense Miller%枸杞LmP5CS基因的克隆及表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯远航; 王罡; 季静; 关春峰; 金超

    2013-01-01

    Proline is the important osmotic regulation substances in plants and plays a critical role in improving the stress tolerance of plants. The materials is Lycium chinense Miller, which proline content changes significantly after salt stress. After 1.5% NaCl stress, full length cDNA sequence of a putative Al-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase gene( P5CS) was cloned from Lycium chinense Miller leaves using RT-PCR and 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends ( RACE), named LmP5CS, and construct expression vector pH7m24GW, 3rc -LmP5CS. Sequence analysis showed that the complete open reading frame (ORF) of this gene is 2154 bp, encoding for a protein of 717 amino acids with an isoelectric point of 6.07 and a molecular weight of 77.5 kDa. After 200 mmol / L NaCl stress, protein expression level increased at first and decreased subsequently, proline content changed in accordance with that. The semi-quantitative PCR result suggests that LmP5CS plays an important role in proline content change responses to salt stress.%目的:为进一步研究枸杞抗逆境胁迫的机制,并为转基因育种,提供理论依据.提高农作物的抗逆性提供优质的基因资源.方法:提选取盐胁迫后脯氨酸含量变化较大的耐盐植物枸杞为材料,用1.5% NaCl处理后,提取枸杞叶片总RNA,利用RT-PCR及3′RACE方法克隆获得吡咯啉-5-羧酸合成酶(delta 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase,P5CS)基因的全长cDNA,命名为LmP5 CS,构建pH7m24GW,3 rc-LmP5 CS植物表达载体.结果:LmP5 CS基因的ORF长2 154 bp,编码1个等电点为6.07、分子量为77.5kDa、由717个氨基酸组成的蛋白.枸杞在200 mmol/LNaCl盐胁迫下,LmP5CS基因表达量随处理时间,有先升高后降低的趋势,9h基因表达量最高,脯氨酸含量变化与之一致.结论:LmP5 CS基因在盐胁迫下脯氨酸含量的变化中起关键作用.

  7. A combination of various functional food ingredients as a weight management program: randomized, placebo-controlled, and double-blind human clinical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harunobu Amagase

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:Background: Lycium barbarum increased the postprandial energy expenditure (PPEE. Negative energy balance caused by the systematic procedure (TAIslim® System, including increasing metabolic rate through physical activity, use of Lycium barbarum-containing TAIslim (Product A, and decreasing caloric intake by consuming a chewable confection (TAIslim SKINNY=Product B, and a meal replacement shake (TAIslim SHAKE=Product C, would be successful for weight loss.Methods: We examined TAIslim System on anthropometrics, appetite in Study 1 and PPEE in Study 2, both in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind manner. 1 A total of 67 participants were randomized into 2 groups (placebo or TAIslim System. Intake procedures were: Product A, 60 ml (20 kcal b.i.d. immediately before breakfast and lunch, Product B, 1 chew (20 kcal t.i.d. between meals and after dinner; Product C, 40.5 g (158 kcal as breakfast. A calorie-restricted diet with multi-vitamin supplementation and daily exercise was required. Anthropometric parameters were assessed at baseline, 4, 8, and 12 w. 2 Appetite was measured using a subjective visual analog scale during the initial 3-7 days of intake. 3 For PPEE evaluation, 12 participants consumed a single bout of TAIslim System products or placebo, and took part in 6 study sessions. EE was measured by an indirect calorimeter immediately before (baseline and at 1, 2, and 4 h post-intake of samples.Results: 1 Body weight was significantly reduced by 6.2±0.7%, compared to pre-intervention with TAIslim System (P<0.01. Waist circumference, total body fat, blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose levels were also significantly reduced by TAIslim System, in a range of 3.8-9.9%. TAIslim System was significantly more effective than the placebo (P<0.05. The placebo group showed -0.1-3.9% reduction from pre-intervention with no significant difference. 2 TAIslim Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2011, 1(12:555-573System also

  8. Adsorption Behavior of AB-8 Resin for Anthocyanins from Lycium ruthenicum Murray%AB-8大孔树脂吸附黑枸杞中花青素行为研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宏; 付燕秋; 韩静; 赵宇明; 刘栋

    2016-01-01

    通过平衡吸附实验、等温吸附实验及柱吸附实验,研究了黑枸杞中花青素在AB-8大孔树脂中的吸附行为及吸附机理。结果表明:AB-8大孔树脂对花青素的吸附可用Elovich动力学模型描述,且吸附符合Freundlich及Langmuir等温吸附模型,Freundlich模型的线性拟合性更好;此外,花青素的等温吸附焓变为正值且绝对值小于40 kJ/mol,吉布斯自由能为负值,熵变为正,说明吸附过程为多层物理吸附,吸附可自发进行;由粒子内部扩散模型和Boyd模型可知吸附机理很复杂,主要受粒子扩散的影响;Adams-Bohart模型分析表明,在柱吸附分离纯化花青素过程中,应减小流动相的流量和床层高度,增加花青素质量浓度。%The adsorption performance of AB-8 resin for anthocyanin from Lycium ruthenicum Murray and adsorption mechanism were analyzed by equilibrium adsorption experiment, isothermal adsorption experiment and column adsorption experiment. The results showed that the adsorption kinetics process of AB-8 resin for anthocyanin could well fit with Elovich kinetic model. The linear straight of regression displayed that the Freundlich model was more suitable. Moreover, the enthalpy changes were positive and the absolute value was less than 40 kJ/mol. This indicated the adsorptions of AB-8 resin for anthocyanins were endothermic and physical changes. The Gibbs free energy changes were negative. It indicated that the adsorption process occurred spontaneously. The positive value of entropy changes indicated the increased randomness during the adsorption process. The adsorption mechanism was complicated and the adsorption process was mainly affected by particle diffusion. Adams-Bohart model analysis showed that in the process of column adsorption purification anthocyanins, the flow of mobile phase and the bed height should be reduced and the quality of anthocyanin concentrations should be increased.

  9. 枸杞多糖的超滤分级及理化性质的研究%The physicochemical properties of lycium barbanan polysaccharide fractions obtained by ultrafiltration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张民; 唐秀丽; 王芳

    2013-01-01

    In order to explore the effect of separation methods on physicochemical properties of lycium barbanan polysaccharide (LBP) ,the LBP was separated by ultrafiltration membranes with different ranges of molecular weight,the physicochemical properties of fractions such as composition,micro shape and thermodynamic property were studied. Results showed that the molecular weight of fractions obtained by ultrafiltration were 2. 03 × 106 ( LBP - 8) ,3. 62 × 106 (LBP3-1),3.10 ×104 ( LBP1 -4). And the monosaccharide composition were fucose,rhamonose,arabi-nose,xylose,glucose,mannose and galactose,except that LBP1 - 4 with no rhamonose and LBP - 8 have no rhamonose or glucose. They were also different in content of total carbohydrate,uronic acid,protein,neutral sugar and micro shape and thermodynamic property.%探究了超滤法分离对枸杞多糖理化性质的影响.采用截留分子量不同的超滤膜分离枸杞多糖,检测各个组分的分子量范围、多糖组成、多糖形貌和热力学性质,探究超滤分级对枸杞多糖理化性质的影响.超滤方法可以实现枸杞多糖的分级分离,得到分子量大小分别为2.03×106(LBP-8),3.62×106(LBP3-1),3.10×104(LBPI-4)的多糖组分,主要有岩藻糖、鼠李糖、阿拉伯糖、木糖、葡萄糖、甘露糖和半乳糖组成,都不含有核糖,LBP1-4不含有鼠李糖,LBP-8不含鼠李糖和葡萄糖.其总糖含量、半乳糖醛酸含量、中性糖含量、蛋白质含量,多糖形貌和热力学性质均显示差异性.

  10. 枸杞对乳酸杆菌体外保存活力及体内定植的影响%Effects of Chinese wolfberry(Lycium chinense Mill.)on the preservation and colonization of Lactobacillus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞君

    2012-01-01

    To study the effects of Chinese wolfberry on the preservation and colonization of Lactobarillus. Preservation effect of Chinese wolf-berry on Lactobacillus cells were observed when MRS broth was supplemented with different concentration hydrolysate of Chinese wolfberry. Mice received orally antibiotics in the drinking water ad lib to induce microflora dysbiosis. On the sixth day, the mice cured by Lactobacillus or Lactobacillus combined Lycium chinense. After five days, indicator bacteria were counted to determine the effect Lydutn chinense on colonization of Lactobacillus. Cell grown on MRS containing hydrolysate of Chinese wolfberry showed a cell concentration is significantly higher than control group. Results demonstrated that the number of Lactobacillus was significantly higher in the feces of the mice fed Lactobacillus and Chinese wolfberry. Chinese wolfberry can promote the preservation and colonization of Lactobacillus.%研究了枸杞对乳酸杆菌保存和体内定植的影响.采用MRS液体培养基中添加不同浓度的枸杞水解产物,观察一个月内常温下培养基中乳酸杆菌活菌数的变化.实验小鼠用抗生素脱污染,导致菌群失调后,分别用单一乳酸杆菌治疗、乳酸杆菌与枸杞联合治疗5d后,统计不同治疗组中指示菌的变化,确定枸杞对乳酸杆菌在体内定植的影响.结果表明,添加不同体积分数的枸杞水解产物后,MRS液体培养基中乳酸杆菌的存活数高于对照组;实验小鼠用不同方式治疗后,联合治疗组乳酸杆菌的数量高于单一乳酸杆菌治疗组.枸杞对乳酸杆菌的保存及体内定植具有促进作用.

  11. 不同产地野生黑果枸杞资源果实多酚组成分析%The Polyphenols Composition of Lycium ruthenicum Murr. from Different Places

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫亚美; 戴国礼; 冉林武; 罗青; 李晓莺; 秦垦; 巫鹏举; 曾晓雄; 曹有龙

    2014-01-01

    [Objective] Lycium ruthenicum Murr. is grown in the northwest of China, and its fruits is used in medicinal foods for treatments of heart disease, abnormal menstruation and menopause. In the past few years, the polyphenols (especially anthocyanins) are proved to be the main effective components in Lycium ruthenicum Murr. Composition determination and evaluation of anthocyanin and other polyphenols of wild L. ruthenicum fruit in different origin, so as to provide the basis for the breeding and utilization of it.[Method]The contents of total polyphenols, total flavones and total anthocyanins were analyzed using spectrophotometer and the composition of the polyphenol extracts was analyzed using HPLC and HPLC-MS. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) was also used to classify the tested results.[Result]Total contents of polyphenols, flavones and anthocyanins of the L. ruthenicum Murr.s were 8.25-87.77 mg GAE·g-1 dry fruit, 18.03-60.44 mg RE·g-1 dry fruit, and 8.21-31.46 mg·g-1 dry fruit, respectively. The samples from Wutumeiren Gomud of Qinghai, Ganhezi of Xinjiang, Baluntai town of Xinjiang, and Helan12-1 of Ningxia had the higher value of total polyphenols, total flavones and total anthocyanins. Through HPLC-ESI-MS analysis, a total of 19 polyphenols were identified in the tested L. ruthenicum Murr, including 7 acylated anthocyanins, and petunidin-3-O-rutinoside (cis-p-coumaroyl)-5-O-glucoside was found to be the main anthocyanin in L. ruthenicum Murr. Twenty polyphenols were found in all kinds of L. ruthenicum Murr, while Petunidin-3-O-rutinoside (cis-p-coumaroyl)-5-O-glucoside was the main composition of the polyphenols in fruits of L. ruthenicum Murr. The polyphenols fingerprints of L. ruthenicum Murr. from 26 different places were similar, excluding a few of samples. The results of HCA according to the contents of polyphenols, flavones and anthocyanins in L. ruthenicum Murr. were clustered into7 kinds. In the sixth and seventh kinds, all the contents of

  12. Protein and alkaloid patterns of the floral nectar in some solanaceous species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerchner, András; Darók, Judit; Bacskay, Ivett; Felinger, Attila; Jakab, Gábor; Farkas, Ágnes

    2015-09-01

    The family Solanaceae includes several melliferous plants, which tend to produce copious amounts of nectar. Floral nectar is a chemically complex aqueous solution, dominated by sugars, but minor components such as amino acids, proteins, flavonoids and alkaloids are present as well. This study aimed at analysing the protein and alkaloid profile of the nectar in seven solanaceous species. Proteins were examined with SDS-PAGE and alkaloids were analyzed with HPLC. The investigation of protein profile revealed significant differences in nectar-protein patterns not only between different plant genera, but also between the three Nicotiana species investigated. SDS-PAGE suggested the presence of several Nectarin proteins with antimicrobial activity in Nicotiana species. The nectar of all tobacco species contained the alkaloid nicotine, N. tabacum having the highest nicotine content. The nectar of Brugmansia suaveolens, Datura stramonium, Hyoscyamus niger and Lycium barbarum contained scopolamine, the highest content of which was measured in B. suaveolens. The alkaloid concentrations in the nectars of most solanaceous species investigated can cause deterrence in honeybees, and the nectar of N. rustica and N. tabacum can be considered toxic for honeybees.

  13. Effect of a complex lutein formula in an animal model for light-induced retinal degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yin-Pin; Ke, Chia-Ying; Kuo, Chih-Chieh; Lee, Yih-Jing

    2016-08-31

    Several retinal degenerative diseases cause vision loss and retinal cell death. Currently, people face prolonged exposure to digital screens, rendering vision protection from light exposure a critical topic. In this study, we designed a complex lutein formula (CLF) by combining several natural compounds: Calendula officinalis, Lycium barbarum, Vaccinium myrtillus, Cassia obtusifolia, and Rhodiola rosea. In addition, we evaluated the protective effects of the formula on retinal functions in an animal model for light-induced retinal degeneration. We employed electroretinography to analyse retinal function, and conducted a histological examination of the morphological changes in the retina treated under various conditions. We revealed that the retinal function in animals exposed to light for 7 days decreased significantly; however, the retinal function of animals that had received the CLF exhibited superior performance, despite light exposure. In addition, a greater portion of the outer nuclear layer (ONL) (i.e. the nuclei of photoreceptors) in these animals was preserved compared with the animals that had not received the formula after 7 days of light exposure. These results revealed that our dietary CLF supplement attenuated retinal function loss resulting from long-term light exposure.

  14. 柴达木盆地不同盐生境下黑果枸杞形态结构比较%Morphological Structure Comparison of Lycium ruthenium at Different Salt Habitats in Qaidam Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛菊平; 朱春云

    2015-01-01

    对柴达木盆地5个盐生境的黑果枸杞进行了形态结构比较,探讨黑果枸杞为适应环境的响应。结果表明,不同盐分生境植株形态特征差异明显。全盐含量高、 K+含量高、 Cl-/SO42-毫克当量比大的氯化物-硫酸盐型土壤中植株高大,冠幅小而紧凑,叶片长条形,横切面圆形,高度肉质化,叶肉栅栏组织形成“环栅型”结构,叶脉不明显,无叶柄,枝刺尖利、坚硬;全盐含量低、 Na+含量高、 Cl-/SO42-毫克当量比值小的硫酸盐-氯化物型土壤中植株形态反之。但人工栽培后, K+为主, Cl-/SO42-毫克当量比大的硫酸盐-氯化物型土壤中植株较高,叶变为披针形,栅栏组织呈条形,叶脉明显,具短小叶柄,枝刺变长、变软。%For understanding the morphological structure changes of Lycium ruthenium to adapt to the environment , the plant morphological structure and soil salt of L.ruthenium which grew at 5 different environment was studied in Qaidam Basin.The results showed that the plant morphological characteristics under different saline environment were significantly different.The high salt content, high content of K+, Cl-/SO4 2-mEq ratio and chloride-sulfate in the soil plant tall, the crown was small and compact, the leaf shape was long and thin strip, the transver sesection was circular , leaves became highly succulent , palisade tissue in mesophyll was “ring fence” type structure , leaf veins were not obviously, no petiole, branches were sharp, hard branch spines; Low salt content, high content of Na+and small Cl-/SO4 2-mEq ratio, type of sulfate-chloride in soil , the plant was contrary to the above.How-ever, after artificial cultivation, in high content of K+, high Cl-/SO4 2-mEq ratio, type of sulfate-chloride in soil, the plant was higher, lanceolate leaf with white short nap, normal palisade tissue structure with obvious veins, short petiole, longer and

  15. 不同灌溉定额对枸杞光合特性及产量的影响%Effects of Different Irrigation Quota on Photosynthesis Characteristics and Yield of Lycium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李智; 尹娟; 郑艳军

    2016-01-01

    针对宁夏灌溉水资源紧缺的生产实际,以覆膜滴灌枸杞为研究对象,设置不同灌溉定额进行田间试验,研究了不同灌溉定额对枸杞光合特性及产量的影响。结果表明:①净光合速率日变化,低水分呈双峰型,高水分呈抛物线型;蒸腾速率日变化呈单峰型,不同水分处理的蒸腾速率峰值出现时间点不同;胞间CO2浓度随着灌水量的增加而降低;②灌溉定额2700 m3/hm2时叶绿素相对含量最大,为67.2,灌溉定额3600 m3/hm2时最小,为64;③灌溉定额2700 m3/hm2时产量最高,为10440 kg/hm2,灌溉定额3600 m3/hm2时产量最低,为7126.2kg/hm2,灌水量在一定范围内可增产,但超出2700 m3/hm2,产量与灌溉定额不呈正相关关系。%Aim at the production practice of irrigation water resources shortage in Ningxia.The study was conducted to research the effect of different irrigation quota on photosynthesis characteristics and yield of lycium.The results showed that:①the net photo-synthetic rate of the low and high water treatment respectively showed the double peak and parabola type;the transpiration rate vari-ation showed a single-peak curve,the peak value appeared at different time for different treatments;intercellular CO2 concentration decreased with soil water content threshold increased.②The minimum value of the chlorophyll relative content was 67.2,when the irrigation quota was 2700 m3/hm2 ,and the maximum value was 64,when the irrigation quota was 3 600 m3/hm2;③The optimal yield was 10 440 kg/hm2 ,when the irrigation quota was 2 700 m3/hm2 ,and the lowest yield was 7 126.2 kg/hm2 when the irrigation quota was 3 600 m3/hm2;the irrigation could increase yield,but the yield was not positively correlated with irrigation when the irri-gation amount was more than 2700 m3/hm2 .

  16. Thioredoxin-interacting Protein as a Common Regulation Target for Multiple Drugs in Clinical Therapy/Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengxing Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Initially identified in HL60 cells treated with Vitamin D3, thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP is considered as a major redox regulator and a potential connector between cellular redox state and metabolism. TXNIP plays an important role in the control of glucose and lipid metabolism, and it has been defined as a tumor suppressor gene in various solid tumors and hematological malignancies. This review gives an overview of the mechanism of various medicines including Lycium barbarum polysaccharide, Quercetin, trans-resveratrol, metformin, purple sweet potato color, nobiletin, taurine, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, and Theophylline, and their potential applications in the clinical treatment of many diseases.

  17. What Causes Thyroid Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention What Causes Thyroid Cancer? Thyroid cancer is linked with a number of ... inside a cell, without an outside cause. Papillary thyroid cancer Several DNA mutations (changes) have been found in ...

  18. What Causes a Toothache?

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    ... directly to your desktop! more... What Causes a Toothache? Article Chapters What Causes a Toothache? Why Does ... bite. Tooth eruption may be the cause of tooth or jaw pain in babies and school-age children. TMJ, sinus ...

  19. 新疆产药用植物黑果枸杞有性生殖产出差异的繁殖生态学研究%Reproductive Ecology Research on Populations of a Medicinal Plant (Lycium ruthenicum Murr.) from Xinjiang Reveals Factors Affecting Fruit Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿力同·其米克; 金晓芳; 叶忠铭; 王青锋; 陈进明; 杨春锋

    2014-01-01

    由于黑果枸杞(Lycium ruthenicum)果实具有重要的保健价值,近年来倍受关注,但其野生资源正遭受着前所未有的采伐压力.目前关于影响黑果枸杞果实产量的有性生殖过程研究较少,本实验对新疆库尔勒地区6个不同生境的野生黑果枸杞居群开展了繁殖生态学观察,并对各居群的访花频率、访花昆虫种类、柱头花粉落置、胚珠数、座果率、结实率和单株果实产量等指标进行了比较分析.结果表明,访花频率与结实率、座果率具有显著正相关关系,说明传粉者是限制黑果枸杞有性生殖的关键因素之一;传粉者种类越丰富的居群其有性生殖产出越高,揭示了传粉昆虫的多样性和丰富度是影响黑果枸杞繁殖成功的重要限制因子.此外,和静县华侨农场和焉耆县霍拉山河沟的黑果枸杞居群生殖产出明显与其传粉成功率相偏离,进一步分析表明,风沙侵蚀和人为采伐对植株的破坏是影响这两个居群果实产量的重要原因.本研究结果对于野生黑果枸杞居群的保护及其人工规模栽培提供了重要的参考依据.%Recently,Lycium ruthenicum attracted substantial attention due to the high value of its fruits to human health.As a result,the wild resources are at high risk of loss and detailed studies on the sexual reproductive ecology of this important medicinal plant should be conducted for better conservation.We investigated factors affecting reproductive output of the plant using six wild populations from Xinjiang.We compared differences in pollination frequency,pollinator composition,stigmatic pollen load,and ovule production among the populations,as well as correlations with reproductive output namely,fruit set,seed set and fruit production per plant.Results indicated that pollination frequency was significantly correlated with fruit set and seed set,and populations with high diversity in pollinator types had higher reproductive output

  20. Metabolic Signatures of Kidney Yang Deficiency Syndrome and Protective Effects of Two Herbal Extracts in Rats Using GC/TOF MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linjing Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Kidney Yang Deficiency Syndrome (KDS-Yang, a typical condition in Chinese medicine, shares similar clinical signs of the glucocorticoid withdrawal syndrome. To date, the underlying mechanism of KDS-Yang has been remained unclear, especially at the metabolic level. In this study, we report a metabolomic profiling study on a classical model of KDS-Yang in rats induced by hydrocortisone injection to characterize the metabolic transformation using gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry. WKY1, a polysaccharide extract from Astragalus membranaceus and Lycium barbarum, and WKY2, an aqueous extract from a similar formula containing Astragalus membranaceus, Lycium barbarum, Morinda officinalis, Taraxacum mongolicum, and Cinnamomum cassia presl, were used separately for protective treatments of KDS-Yang. The changes of serum metabolic profiles indicated that significant alterations of key metabolic pathways in response to abrupt hydrocortisone perturbation, including decreased energy metabolism (lactic acid, acetylcarnitine, lipid metabolism (free fatty acids, 1-monolinoleoylglycerol, and cholesterol, gut microbiota metabolism (indole-3-propionic acid, biosynthesis of catecholamine (norepinephrine, and elevated alanine metabolism, were attenuated or normalized with different degrees by the pretreatment of WKY1 or WKY2, which is consistent with the observations in which the two herbal agents could ameliorate biochemical markers of serum cortisone, adrenocorticotropic (ACTH, and urine 17-hydroxycorticosteroids (17-OHCS.

  1. Progress of Wolfberry Wine Nutritional Value and Health Functions%枸杞果酒的营养价值及保健功能的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵维芯; 蔡树东

    2016-01-01

    枸杞果酒作为一种饮品,不仅口感深受不同人群的喜欢,并且具有丰富的营养价值和良好的保健效果,本文主要针对枸杞果酒丰富的营养价值和保健功能进行综述,以期为新型枸杞果酒的研发及其功能因子的研发奠定一定的理论基础。%With the improvement of people’s living standards,today,health has become a central issue. Lycium barbarum wine as a beverage,is not only a beverage preferred by different group of people,but also has a wealth of good nutritional value and health effects. This paper focuses on reviews on the rich of nutritive value and health function in lycium barbarum fruit wine,in order to offer the theoretical basis for new medlar fruit wine research and detect functional factors.

  2. What Causes Bronchitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Bronchitis? Acute Bronchitis Infections or lung irritants cause acute bronchitis. The ... fire, also may lead to acute bronchitis. Chronic Bronchitis Repeatedly breathing in fumes that irritate and damage ...

  3. What Causes Lactose Intolerance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications What causes lactose intolerance? Skip sharing on social media links Share ... lactase in the body is the cause of lactose intolerance. The names for the three types of ...

  4. Causes of Pediatric Cardiomyopathy

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    Search ABOUT THE DISEASE CAUSES Although pediatric cardiomyopathy is one of the leading causes of cardiac death in children, an explanation for why it occurs remains unknown. Most cases are familial ...

  5. What Causes Cardiomyopathy?

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    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Cardiomyopathy? Cardiomyopathy can be acquired or inherited. “Acquired” means ... case when the disease occurs in children. Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy usually is inherited. It’s caused by ...

  6. What Causes Menstrual Irregularities?

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    ... Publications What causes menstrual irregularities? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Menstrual irregularities can be caused by a variety of conditions, including pregnancy, hormonal imbalances, infections, malignancies, diseases, trauma, and certain ...

  7. What Causes Atherosclerosis?

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    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Atherosclerosis? The exact cause of atherosclerosis isn't known. ... Rate This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is atherosclerosis? 05/22/2014 Describes how the build-up ...

  8. What Causes Anemia?

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    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Anemia? The three main causes of anemia are: Blood ... the blood and can lead to anemia. Aplastic Anemia Some infants are born without the ability to ...

  9. What Causes Cystic Fibrosis?

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    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Cystic Fibrosis? A defect in the CFTR gene causes cystic ... in the severity of the disease. How Is Cystic Fibrosis Inherited? Every person inherits two CFTR genes—one ...

  10. What Causes Sarcoidosis?

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    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Sarcoidosis? The cause of sarcoidosis isn't known. More ... Content: NEXT >> Featured Video Living With and Managing Sarcoidosis 05/18/2011 This video—presented by the ...

  11. What Causes Down Syndrome?

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    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications What causes Down syndrome? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ... Down Syndrome Registry​ . Chromosomal Changes That Can Cause Down Syndrome Research shows that three types of chromosomal changes ...

  12. Causes of High Cholesterol

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    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Causes of High Cholesterol Updated:Jul 5,2017 If you have high ... and procedures related to heart disease and stroke. Cholesterol • Home • About Cholesterol • HDL, LDL, and Triglycerides • Causes ...

  13. Incidence Causes and Outcome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    causes and outcome of obstructed labor in Jimma University Specialized Hospital. METHODS: ... Obstructed labor is an important cause of ... and outcome on the mother and baby. Data .... to this hospital after onset of labor as compared to the.

  14. What Causes Heart Disease?

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    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Heart Disease? Research suggests that coronary heart disease (CHD) begins with damage to the lining and ... causing coronary microvascular disease (MVD). Coronary MVD is heart disease that affects the heart's tiny arteries. The cause ...

  15. Causes and effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cone, Carol L; Feldman, Mark A; DaSilva, Alison T

    2003-07-01

    Most companies make charitable donations, but few approach their contributions with an eye toward enhancing their brands. Those that do take such an approach commit talent and know-how, not just dollars, to a pressing but carefully chosen social need and then tell the world about the cause and their service to it. Through the association, both the business and the cause benefit in ways they could not otherwise. Organizations such as Avon, ConAgra Foods, and Chevrolet have recognized that a sustained cause-branding program can improve their reputations, boost their employees' morale, strengthen relations with business partners, and drive sales. And the targeted causes receive far more money than they could have from direct corporate gifts alone. The authors examine these best practices and offer four principles for building successful cause-branding programs. First, they say, a company should select a cause that advances its corporate goals. That is, unless the competitive logic for supporting the cause is clear, a company shouldn't even consider putting its finite resources behind it. Second, a business should commit to a cause before picking its charitable partners. Otherwise, a cause-branding program may become too dependent on its partners. Third, a company should put all its assets to work, especially its employees. It should leverage the professional skills of its workers as well as its other assets such as distribution networks. And fourth, a company should promote its philanthropic initiatives through every possible channel. In addition to using the media, it should communicate its efforts through the Web, annual reports, direct mail, and so on. Cause branding is a way to turn the obligations of corporate citizenship into a valuable asset. When the cause is well chosen, the commitment genuine, and the program well executed, the cause helps the company, and the company helps the cause.

  16. Ginsenoside Rb1, Rg1 and three extracts of traditional Chinese medicine attenuate ultraviolet B-induced G1 growth arrest in HaCaT cells and dermal fibroblasts involve down-regulating the expression of p16, p21 and p53.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Yun-Gui; Wang, Yan-Fei

    2011-08-01

    The aims of this study were to confirm whether traditional Chinese medicine ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1), ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1), polygonum multiflorum (PM), ginkgo extract (GE) and lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) can attenuate G1 growth arrest of HaCaT cells and dermal fibroblasts induced by 10 subcytotoxic ultraviolet B (UVB) exposures, and to explore the possible mechanism in terms of the expression of cell-cycle regulatory proteins p16, p21 and p53. Ten subcytotoxic exposures to UVB induced G1 growth arrest of HaCaT cells and dermal fibroblasts. Cell-cycle analysis was performed using flow cytometry, and mRNA levels of p16, p21 and p53 were detected by a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and protein levels were detected using Western blot analysis. Five types of traditional Chinese medicine attenuated UVB-induced G1 growth arrest. The mRNA and protein levels of p16, p21 and p53 in HaCaT cells and dermal fibroblasts increased after UVB irradiation, but pretreatment with five types of traditional Chinese medicine decreased the expression of p16, p21 and p53. These results indicated that five types of traditional Chinese medicine can attenuate G1 growth arrest of HaCaT cells and dermal fibroblasts induced by UVB exposures, which was caused by down-regulating the expression of cell-cycle regulatory proteins p16, p21 and p53. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. CAUSES OF OCCUPATIONAL INJURIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KINGMA, J

    1994-01-01

    The causes of occupational injuries (N = 2,365) were investigated. Accidents with machinery and hand tools were the two main causes (49.9%). 89% of the patients with occupational injuries were male. The highest risk group were in the age category of 19 years or less (51.9%). This age group also show

  18. Empyema caused by trichomonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kevin L; Doherty, Dennis E; Ribes, Julie; Seabolt, John P; Bensadoun, Eric S

    2003-01-01

    Empyema is one of the potential complications of lower respiratory tract infections. Very rarely, in predisposed individuals, empyema can be caused by Trichomonas species, of which Trichomonas tenax appears to be the most common cause. Here, we present a case of trichomonal empyema in a 56-year-old man and review the available literature of this rare occurrence.

  19. Causes of Child Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Deveci,S.Erhan; Açık, Yasemin

    2014-01-01

    Child abuse is an important public health problem that is present almost in every society and environment at different level and intensities. For implementation of child abuse protection measures it is necessary to investigate its causes. In this review, causes of child abuse was attempted to investigate with respects to the society and institution, family and individual and child related factors.

  20. Causes of Paralysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is caused by a virus that attacks the nerves which control motor function. > Spina bifida A neural tube defect that causes incomplete closure in the spinal column. > Spinal cord injury Involves damage to the nerves within the bony protection of the spinal canal. > ...

  1. Do Allergies Cause Asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Happens in the Operating Room? Do Allergies Cause Asthma? KidsHealth > For Kids > Do Allergies Cause Asthma? A A A en español ¿Las alergias provocan ... kinds of allergies are more likely to have asthma. Do you have allergies that affect your nose ...

  2. What Causes Bad Breath?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness What Causes Bad Breath? KidsHealth > For Teens > What Causes Bad Breath? A A A en español ¿Qué es lo que provoca el mal aliento? Bad breath, or halitosis , can be a major problem, ...

  3. What Causes Raynaud's?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... primary and secondary. In primary Raynaud’s (also called Raynaud’s disease), the cause isn't known. Primary Raynaud's is ... examples of diseases and conditions that can cause Raynaud's include: Rheumatoid (RU-ma-toyd) ... (SHOW-gren's) syndrome, dermatomyositis (DER-ma-to-mi-o-SI-tis), ...

  4. Causes of Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... iron can build up in and damage the pancreas and other organs. Hormonal diseases Some hormonal diseases cause the body to produce too much of certain hormones, which sometimes cause insulin resistance and diabetes. ... of the pancreas Pancreatitis , pancreatic cancer, and trauma can all harm ...

  5. A Survey of Studies on Anti-tumor Effects of LBP and Its Mechanisms%枸杞多糖的抗肿瘤作用及其机理研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭培培

    2011-01-01

    Lycium barbarum is a traditional Chinese medicine,which owns many medical values.LBP is the main active ingredient of Lycium barbarum,which can benefit health in anti-aging,antifatigue and so on.LBP'anti-tumor effects are introduced in the treatment of liver cancer,cervical cancer,prostate cancer,liver ascites cancer,ovarian cancer,colon cancer,cancer of the esophagus,leukemia and lung cancer,the mechanisms of which are also stated,mainly containing adjusting inmmune system and inducing the apoptosis,regulating genes and anti-oxidization.All of these are expected to be referred to for Lycium barbarum's further exploitation.%枸杞是传统常用中药,具有多种药用价值。枸杞多糖是枸杞中的主要活性成分,具有抗衰老、抗疲劳等多种保健功能,本文概述了其在肝癌、宫颈癌、前列腺癌、肝腹水癌、卵巢癌、大肠癌、食管癌、血癌、肺癌等方面的抗肿瘤作用并对其可能存在的机制如免疫系统调节机制、细胞凋亡诱导机制、基因表达调控机制、抗氧化机制做了阐述,以期为枸杞的进一步开发利用提供参考。

  6. What Causes COPD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes COPD? Long-term exposure to lung irritants that damage ... Rate This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is COPD? 05/22/2014 Describes how COPD, or chronic ...

  7. Can Lupus Cause Depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lupus Living well with lupus Can lupus cause depression? Life with lupus can be challenging. With symptoms ... treatable illness called clinical depression. Symptoms of Clinical Depression People are considered clinically depressed when they have ...

  8. What Causes Thalassemias?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Thalassemias? Your body makes three types of blood cells: ... have inherited faulty genes from both parents. Alpha Thalassemias You need four genes (two from each parent) ...

  9. Viral causes of diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodgame, R W

    2001-09-01

    Viruses are important causes of diarrhea. In healthy adults, the main clinical manifestation is acute, self-limited gastroenteritis. Advances in molecular diagnostics have shown that epidemics of acute gastroenteritis most frequently are due to caliciviruses spread through contaminated food or through person-to-person contact. Application of similar technology is needed to make a definitive statement about the role of such candidate viruses as rotavirus, astrovirus, and adenovirus as the cause of nonepidemic acute gastroenteritis in adults. Rarely a previously healthy adult gets acute CMV colitis. CMV and EBV mainly cause diarrhea in immunocompromised patients, however. Advances in prophylaxis and treatment have reduced the frequency and severity of these diseases. Acute infantile gastroenteritis is caused by rotavirus, calcivirus, astrovirus, and adenovirus. These viral diseases of the gut are seen by the physician as routine and rare clinical problems.

  10. What Causes Polycythemia Vera?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body to make more of the hormone erythropoietin (EPO). High levels of EPO can prompt your body to make more red ... secondary polycythemia. Rarely, tumors can make and release EPO, or certain blood problems can cause the body ...

  11. Causes of Ataxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Donate to the National Ataxia Foundation Causes of Ataxia The hereditary ataxias are genetic, which means they ... the disease is inherited as a recessive gene. Ataxia Gene Identified in 1993 The first ataxia gene ...

  12. What Causes Hemophilia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Hemophilia? A defect in one of the genes that ... the hemophilia gene is inherited. Inheritance Pattern for Hemophilia—Example 1 The image shows one example of ...

  13. Rare causes of osteoporosis

    OpenAIRE

    Marcucci, Gemma; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disease characterized by loss of bone mass and strength, resulting in increased risk of fractures. It is classically divided into primary (post-menopausal or senile), secondary and idiopathic forms. There are many rare diseases, that cause directly or indirectly osteoporosis. The identification and classification of most of these rare causes of osteoporosis is crucial for the specialists in endocrinology and not, in order to prevent this bone complication and ...

  14. Causes of vertigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violetta Aleksandrovna Tolmacheva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vertigo is the second common complaint next to headache, which makes a patient seek medical care. Neurological, auricular, cardiac, mental, and other diseases may be a cause of dizziness. Since vertigo is interdisciplinary in nature, there are frequently problems of establishing its origin. Vertigo is commonly associated with vascular pathology of the head and neck, which results in the hyperdiagnosis of cerebrovascular diseases. At the same time, little attention is given to the patient's psychoemotional sphere and ENT pathology. Large-scale studies have demonstrated that vertigo most frequently results from psychogenic causes and vestibular apparatus diseases.

  15. Darwin's Sacred Cause

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    of scholarly specialists and been appropriated by money makers. One could not help thinking about this as, in the autumn of 2008, the publisher began hyping Darwin's Sacred Cause as ‘one of the major contributions to the worldwide Darwin anniversary celebrations in 2009' Udgivelsesdato: February...

  16. Causes, Treatments and Consequences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    groups in Africa. All Yoruba ... and Oduduwa as the founder of their race. Al- ... and with the various members of staff in a .... in the womb, and causes a lot of pain and sorrow ... have given up, God can still make you conceive, ... I was careless when I did my second abortion. ..... who feel embarrassed to walk around with an.

  17. Infestation caused by acanthocephala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Crotti

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available An on-line case of infestation caused by M. moniliformis is descripted. This rodents’ worm, belonging to acanthocephala, can be rarely responsible of human intestinal pathology. The case is the pretext for a brief revision on this parasitosis. So, biological, epidemiological, clinical and diagnostical findings are reported.

  18. Anaphylaxis caused by banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savonius, B; Kanerva, L

    1993-04-01

    An anaphylactic reaction following ingestion of banana occurred in a 32-year-old female cook. The sensitization to banana occurred simultaneously with the development of occupational asthma caused by grain flour. The patient was sensitized to a wide range of airborne and ingestible proteins but not to rubber latex.

  19. [Causes of camptocormia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glocker, F X; Berninger, U G

    2013-08-01

    In this society with an ever increasing number of the elderly there is an increasing number of causes of a bent spine syndrome (camptocormia/dropped head syndrome). The causes include neurological, neuro-orthopedic, rheumatological and psychiatric disorders. Parkinson's disease, dystonia and neuromuscular diseases (motor neuron disease, myositis and muscular dystrophy) with weakness of the axial muscles may result in bent spine syndrome and is often combined with a dropped head. Disc herniation, hypertrophic spondylosis or pseudospondylolisthesis with spinal narrowing may lead to an abnormal flexion of the trunk. Ankylosing spondylitis can produce a disabling bent spine syndrome. Camptocormia may also be mimicked by osteoporotic fractures of the vertebral bones with wedge-shaped vertebrae. In some cases camptocormia is related to a psychogenic disorder.

  20. What Causes Lupus Flares?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, David; Kirou, Kyriakos A

    2016-03-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), the prototypic systemic autoimmune disease, follows a chronic disease course, punctuated by flares. Disease flares often occur without apparent cause, perhaps from progressive inherent buildup of autoimmunity. However, there is evidence that certain environmental factors may trigger the disease. These include exposure to UV light, infections, certain hormones, and drugs which may activate the innate and adaptive immune system, resulting in inflammation, cytotoxic effects, and clinical symptoms. Uncontrolled disease flares, as well as their treatment, especially with glucocorticoids, can cause significant organ damage. Tight surveillance and timely control of lupus flares with judicial use of effective treatments to adequately suppress the excessive immune system activation are required to bring about long term remission of the disease. We hope that new clinical trials will soon offer additional effective and target-specific biologic treatments for SLE.

  1. Labor Informality: General Causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Sandoval Betancour

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the main causes of labor informality in order to verify the validity of classical theories that explain unemployment in market economies and its relationship to informality. Methodologically, the project was based, in the empirical part, on international statistics, comparing the evolution of labor market structure in a combined sample of highly industrialized countries and other less industrialized ones. Empirical evidence supports the conclusion that the classical economic theory of Marxist origin is inefficient to explain the causes of unemployment in contemporary market economies, as well as it fails to satisfactorily explain informality. On the contrary, we conclude that the theory in question is more relevant to explain informality in centrally planned economies where this phenomenon has been present even more significantly than in free market economies.

  2. Tracing Actual Causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-08

    process described by the model. A signature S = 〈U ,V,R〉 specifies a set of endogenous variables (V), a set of exogenous vari- ables (U) and a range R(X...we need a language for modeling causal processes (circuits, sys- tems, etc.) that generate caused and causative events. Fol- lowing prior work on...causation [Halpern and Pearl, 2005; Halpern, 2015; Pearl, 2000], we model causal processes as structural equations, which we recap briefly. Variables A, B

  3. Anaerobic Digestion Foaming Causes

    OpenAIRE

    Ganidi, Nafsika

    2008-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion foaming has been encountered in several sewage treatment plants in the UK. Foaming has raised major concerns for the water utilities due to significant impacts on process efficiency and operational costs. Several foaming causes have been suggested over the past few years by researchers. However, the supporting experimental information is limited and in some cases site specific. The present report aimed to provide a better understanding of the anaerobic di...

  4. Ischemia causes muscle fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D. M.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether ischemia, which reduces oxygenation in the extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscle, causes a reduction in muscle force production. In eight subjects, muscle oxygenation (TO2) of the right ECR was measured noninvasively and continuously using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) while muscle twitch force was elicited by transcutaneous electrical stimulation (1 Hz, 0.1 ms). Baseline measurements of blood volume, muscle oxygenation and twitch force were recorded continuously, then a tourniquet on the upper arm was inflated to one of five different pressure levels: 20, 40, 60 mm Hg (randomized order) and diastolic (69 +/- 9.8 mm Hg) and systolic (106 +/- 12.8 mm Hg) blood pressures. Each pressure level was maintained for 3-5 min, and was followed by a recovery period sufficient to allow measurements to return to baseline. For each respective tourniquet pressure level, mean TO2 decreased from resting baseline (100% TO2) to 99 +/- 1.2% (SEM), 96 +/- 1.9%, 93 +/- 2.8%, 90 +/- 2.5%, and 86 +/- 2.7%, and mean twitch force decreased from resting baseline (100% force) to 99 +/- 0.7% (SEM), 96 +/- 2.7%, 93 +/- 3.1%, 88 +/- 3.2%, and 86 +/- 2.6%. Muscle oxygenation and twitch force at 60 mm Hg tourniquet compression and above were significantly lower (P ischemia leading to a 7% or greater reduction in muscle oxygenation causes decreased muscle force production in the forearm extensor muscle. Thus, ischemia associated with a modest decline in TO2 causes muscle fatigue.

  5. Ischemia causes muscle fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D. M.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether ischemia, which reduces oxygenation in the extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscle, causes a reduction in muscle force production. In eight subjects, muscle oxygenation (TO2) of the right ECR was measured noninvasively and continuously using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) while muscle twitch force was elicited by transcutaneous electrical stimulation (1 Hz, 0.1 ms). Baseline measurements of blood volume, muscle oxygenation and twitch force were recorded continuously, then a tourniquet on the upper arm was inflated to one of five different pressure levels: 20, 40, 60 mm Hg (randomized order) and diastolic (69 +/- 9.8 mm Hg) and systolic (106 +/- 12.8 mm Hg) blood pressures. Each pressure level was maintained for 3-5 min, and was followed by a recovery period sufficient to allow measurements to return to baseline. For each respective tourniquet pressure level, mean TO2 decreased from resting baseline (100% TO2) to 99 +/- 1.2% (SEM), 96 +/- 1.9%, 93 +/- 2.8%, 90 +/- 2.5%, and 86 +/- 2.7%, and mean twitch force decreased from resting baseline (100% force) to 99 +/- 0.7% (SEM), 96 +/- 2.7%, 93 +/- 3.1%, 88 +/- 3.2%, and 86 +/- 2.6%. Muscle oxygenation and twitch force at 60 mm Hg tourniquet compression and above were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than baseline value. Reduced twitch force was correlated in a dose-dependent manner with reduced muscle oxygenation (r = 0.78, P < 0.001). Although the correlation does not prove causation, the results indicate that ischemia leading to a 7% or greater reduction in muscle oxygenation causes decreased muscle force production in the forearm extensor muscle. Thus, ischemia associated with a modest decline in TO2 causes muscle fatigue.

  6. [Causes of depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Francisco Alonso

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes four nosological categories of depressive disorder according to the fundamental or prime cause: endogen depression, situative depression, psychogen depression and somatogen (also pharmacogen or addictive) depression. Recent advances in neurobiology provide the commun pathogenic mechanism distribuited in neurochemical, neuroendocrine and neuroinmune factors, with at the end a cellular and molecular sequence beyond the synapse. There is an increased risk of depression multiplied by three or four in the elderly, obese, unemployed and inmigrant and it is very frequent in terminally ill patients with a pervasive desire for death. Finally, eight personalized preventive guidelines enable to decrease the individual risk of depression in more than a fifty per cent.

  7. Homology and causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Valen, L M

    1982-09-01

    Homology is resemblance caused by a continuity of information. In biology it is a unified developmental phenomenon. Homologies among and within individuals intergrade in several ways, so historical homology cannot be separated sharply from repetitive homology. Nevertheless, the consequences of historical and repetitive homologies can be mutually contradictory. A detailed discussion of the rise and fall of the "premolar-analogy" theory of homologies of mammalian molar-tooth cusps exemplifies such a contradiction. All other hypotheses of historical homology which are based on repetitive homology, such as the foliar theory of the flower considered phyletically, are suspect.

  8. Iatrogenic causes of infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoysman, R; Segal, L

    1990-01-01

    The Authors review the list of the iatrogenic causes of infertility. In their opinion the more delicate the structure, the more heavy the price paid to clumsy or erroneous investigation. Such eventual incompetence may lead to further damage of the already existing situation. The Authors however look at the future with relative optimism: incidents become rarer, specialists in gynecology and infertility pay more attention to the delicacy of genital structures and there is an encouraging tendency to refer to infertility specialists those cases who need adequate work-up of their condition.

  9. Chorea caused by toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyasaki, Janis M

    2011-01-01

    Chorea is uncommonly caused by toxins. Anecdotal evidence from cases of toxin-induced chorea assists in our understanding of neurodegenerative diseases associated with chorea. Beginning in medieval Europe with ergotism and the "fire that twisted people," spanning to crack dancing in contemporary times and the coexistence of alcohol abuse with chorea, toxins may exert direct effects to enhance mesolimbic dopamine transmission or indirect effects through gamma-aminobutyric acid modulation. The following chapter will discuss toxins associated with chorea and the presumed pathophysiology underlying the movement disorders in these case series.

  10. Darwin's Sacred Cause

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    As we are being flooded by Darwin lollipops, t-shirts, quills and stamps it is becoming increasingly difficult to be heard or seen in the commercialised celebration in 2009. Some are in the business for the science, but a lot are in it for profit. Accordingly, the Darwin industry has left the hands...... of scholarly specialists and been appropriated by money makers. One could not help thinking about this as, in the autumn of 2008, the publisher began hyping Darwin's Sacred Cause as ‘one of the major contributions to the worldwide Darwin anniversary celebrations in 2009' Udgivelsesdato: February...

  11. Cervicogenic causes of vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hain, Timothy C

    2015-02-01

    Herein we discuss the recent literature concerning cervicogenic vertigo including vertigo associated with rotational vertebral artery syndrome, as well as whiplash and degenerative disturbances of the cervical spine. We conclude with a summary of progress regarding diagnostic methods for cervicogenic vertigo. Several additional single case studies of the exceedingly rare rotational vertebral artery syndrome have been added to the literature over the last year. Concerning whiplash and degenerative disturbances of the cervical spine, four reviews were published concerning using physical therapy as treatment, and two reviews reported successful surgical management. Publications regarding diagnostic methodology remain few and unconvincing, but the cervical torsion test appears the most promising. Little progress has been made over the last year concerning cervicogenic vertigo. As neck disturbances combined with dizziness are commonly encountered in the clinic, the lack of a diagnostic test that establishes that a neck disturbance causes vertigo remains the critical problem that must be solved.

  12. [Cellulite - causes, prevention, treatment ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janda, Katarzyna; Tomikowska, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Cellulite is a multifactorial etiology ailment. It changes the skin topography by the formation of the skin surface's appearance, changes described as "orange peel". This prob- lem concerns 85-98% of women, and for them it is one of the most intolerable aesthetic imperfections. In the past few years the interest of scientists in this problem has clearly increased. Several theories on the pathophysiology of cel- lulite have been produced A number of different thera- peutic regimens have been developed using modern tech- nology. However, despite the many treatment options for cellulite, it is extremely important that patients should be aware that only multidirectional treatment can bring sat- isfactory results. The aim of this review was to describe the causes of cellulite, and its prevention and treatment.

  13. The causes of epistasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Visser, J. Arjan G. M.; Cooper, Tim F.; Elena, Santiago F.

    2011-01-01

    Since Bateson's discovery that genes can suppress the phenotypic effects of other genes, gene interactions—called epistasis—have been the topic of a vast research effort. Systems and developmental biologists study epistasis to understand the genotype–phenotype map, whereas evolutionary biologists recognize the fundamental importance of epistasis for evolution. Depending on its form, epistasis may lead to divergence and speciation, provide evolutionary benefits to sex and affect the robustness and evolvability of organisms. That epistasis can itself be shaped by evolution has only recently been realized. Here, we review the empirical pattern of epistasis, and some of the factors that may affect the form and extent of epistasis. Based on their divergent consequences, we distinguish between interactions with or without mean effect, and those affecting the magnitude of fitness effects or their sign. Empirical work has begun to quantify epistasis in multiple dimensions in the context of metabolic and fitness landscape models. We discuss possible proximate causes (such as protein function and metabolic networks) and ultimate factors (including mutation, recombination, and the importance of natural selection and genetic drift). We conclude that, in general, pleiotropy is an important prerequisite for epistasis, and that epistasis may evolve as an adaptive or intrinsic consequence of changes in genetic robustness and evolvability. PMID:21976687

  14. Causes for "ghost" manifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borok, S.; Goldfarb, I.; Gol'dshtein, V.

    2009-05-01

    ;71:359-82; Flockerzi D. Tutorial: intrinsic low-dimensional manifolds and slow attractors. Magdeburg: Max-Planck-Institut; 2001-2005. ; Flockerzi D, Heineken W. Comment on "Identification of low order manifolds: validating the algorithm of Maas and Pope". Chaos 1999;9:108-23; Flockerzi D, Heineken W. Comment on "Identification of low order manifolds: validating the algorithm of Maas and Pope". Chaos 2006;16:048101]. The present work studies the causes for the "ghost" manifolds appearance for the case of a two-dimensional singularly perturbed system.

  15. Mycorrhizal status of Lycium europaeum in the coastal dunes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2013-11-30

    Nov 30, 2013 ... This portion of the Atlantic coastal contains also the reserve of Sidi ..... landside by a dense forest of Juniperus phoenicea that is extended through the .... fungal diversity determines plant biodiversity, ecosystem variability and.

  16. Gastrointestinal causes of abdominal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsicano, Elizabeth; Vuong, Giao Michael; Prather, Charlene M

    2014-09-01

    Gastrointestinal causes of abdominal pain are numerous. These causes are reviewed in brief here, divided into 2 categories: acute abdominal pain and chronic abdominal pain. They are further subcategorized by location of pain as it pertains to the abdomen.

  17. Endometriosis: Does It Cause Infertility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Society for Reproductive Medicine Endometriosis: Does It Cause Infertility? This fact sheet was developed in collaboration with ... a surgical procedure called laparoscopy. Does endometriosis cause infertility? If you have endometriosis, it may be more ...

  18. Drugs that may cause impotence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impotence caused by medications; Drug-induced erectile dysfunction; Prescription medicines and impotence ... Many medicines and recreational drugs can affect a man's sexual arousal and sexual performance. What causes impotence in one ...

  19. Potential health benefits and quality of dried fruits: Goji fruits, cranberries and raisins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeszka-Skowron, Magdalena; Zgoła-Grześkowiak, Agnieszka; Stanisz, Ewa; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka

    2017-04-15

    Dried fruits are important snacks and additives to other foods due to their taste and nutritional advantages. Therefore there is an important goal to control the quality of the food on the market for consumer's safety. Antioxidant activity of goji fruits (Lycium barbarum), cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon and oxycoccus) and raisins (Vitis vinifera) were studied using the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and Folin-Ciocalteu assays. Cu, Mn and Ge influencing antioxidant activity were determined together with selected toxic metals (Cd, Ni and Pb). Contamination with fungi was studied by quantification of their marker - ergosterol and important mycotoxins (aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2, and ochratoxin A) were also determined. Antioxidant activity of all tested dried fruits was confirmed with goji fruits being the most profitable for consumers. Contamination of the tested fruits with toxic metals and mycotoxins was low. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Identification of monomenthyl succinate, monomenthyl glutarate, and dimenthyl glutarate in nature by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiserodt, Richard D; Adedeji, Jide; John, T V; Dewis, Mark L

    2004-06-01

    Menthol, menthone, and other natural compounds provide a cooling effect and a minty flavor and have found wide application in chewing gum and oral care products. Monomenthyl succinate, monomenthyl glutarate, and dimenthyl glutarate provide a cooling effect without the burning sensation associated with menthol. Additionally, because they do not have a distinct flavor, they can be used in applications other than mint flavors. Because these menthyl esters have not been reported in nature, we undertook to identify a natural source for these cooling compounds. Using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, monomenthyl succinate was identified in Lycium barbarum and Mentha piperita, and monomenthyl glutarate and dimenthyl glutarate were identified in Litchi chinesis. The identifications were based on the correlation of mass spectrometric and chromatographic retention time data for the menthyl esters in the extracts with authentic standards which resulted in a 99.980% confidence in the identifications.

  1. The Causes of School Fear

    OpenAIRE

    Hrbáčková, Martina

    2008-01-01

    My bachelor thesis addresses fear of school, especially its causes. It also briefly defines scolinophobia and anxiety related to fear. The causes of school fear are divided into three ranges: child´s personality, family and school environment. The causes of school fear should be sought within the individual himself, but also in the family. I concentrate especially on education of children, which can have the effect of arousing fear. The biggest part on the origin of fear has the school enviro...

  2. Windsurfing hazard caused by needlefish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouvillain, J L; Donica, A; Gane, C; Zekhnini, C; Garron, E; Uzel, A P

    2013-11-01

    Very amusing and entertaining for the traveler, marine activities in tropical countries can be dangerous. More and more trauma caused by hazardous marine animals have been reported in recent years in the world, after maritime accidents including water sports like windsurfing, kite surfing, swimming, diving, and injuries caused by sting or contact with a marine animal. Rays and stone-fish frequently cause trauma, but there are not many cases of injury by needlefish. This case reports a case of penetrating wound of the left foot caused by a Caribbean needlefish occurred during a session of windsurfing in Martinique.

  3. Causes of automotive turbocharger faults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan FILIPCZYK

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of examinations of turbocharger damages. The analysis of the causes of faults in 100 engines with turbochargers of cars, buses and trucks has been carried out. The incidence and structure of turbocharged engine faults has been compared to the causes of faults of naturally aspirated engines. The cause of damage, the possibility of early detection, the time between overhaul and the impact on engine operation for each case of fault was carried out as well. The results of examinations allowed to determine the most common causes of damages and how to prevent them.

  4. Causes of banking crises revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, J.G.

    2010-01-01

    We examine to what extent there exists heterogeneity in the causes of a banking crisis. For this purpose, we use a random coefficient logit model including 110 countries between 1970 and 2007. We conclude that there exists significant heterogeneity in the causes of a banking crisis. We find that a h

  5. Deaths: leading causes for 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Melonie

    2012-10-26

    This report presents final 2009 data on the 10 leading causes of death in the United States by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal death are also presented. This report supplements the Division of Vital Statistics' annual report of final mortality statistics. Data in this report are based on information from all death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2009. Causes of death classified by the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) are ranked according to the number of deaths assigned to rankable causes. Cause-of-death statistics are based on the underlying cause of death. In 2009, the 10 leading causes of death were, in rank order: Diseases of heart; Malignant neoplasms; Chronic lower respiratory diseases; Cerebrovascular diseases; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Alzheimer's disease; Diabetes mellitus; Influenza and pneumonia; Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis; and Intentional self-harm (suicide). These causes accounted for approximately 75% of all deaths occurring in the United States. Differences in the rankings are evident by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant death for 2009 were, in rank order: Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities; Disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight, not elsewhere classified; Sudden infant death syndrome; Newborn affected by maternal complications of pregnancy; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Newborn affected by complications of placenta, cord and membranes; Bacterial sepsis of newborn; Respiratory distress of newborn; Diseases of the circulatory system; and Neonatal hemorrhage. Important variations in the leading causes of infant death are noted for the neonatal and postneonatal periods.

  6. Deaths: leading causes for 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Melonie

    2013-12-20

    This report presents final 2010 data on the 10 leading causes of death in the United States by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal death are also presented. This report supplements the Division of Vital Statistics' annual report of final mortality statistics. Data in this report are based on information from all death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2010. Causes of death classified by the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) are ranked according to the number of deaths assigned to rankable causes. Cause-of-death statistics are based on the underlying cause of death. In 2010, the 10 leading causes of death were, in rank order: Diseases of heart; Malignant neoplasms; Chronic lower respiratory diseases; Cerebrovascular diseases; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Alzheimer's disease; Diabetes mellitus; Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis; Influenza and pneumonia; and Intentional self-harm (suicide). These 10 causes accounted for 75% of all deaths occurring in the United States. Differences in the rankings are evident by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant death for 2010 were, in rank order: Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities; Disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight, not elsewhere classified; Sudden infant death syndrome; Newborn affected by maternal complications of pregnancy; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Newborn affected by complications of placenta, cord and membranes; Bacterial sepsis of newborn; Respiratory distress of newborn; Diseases of the circulatory system; and Necrotizing enterocolitis of newborn. Important variations in the leading causes of infant death are noted for the neonatal and post-neonatal periods. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source

  7. Deaths: Leading Causes for 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Melonie

    2015-08-31

    This report presents final 2012 data on the 10 leading causes of death in the United States by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal death are also presented. This report supplements "Deaths: Final Data for 2012," the National Center for Health Statistics' annual report of final mortality statistics. Data in this report are based on information from all death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2012. Causes of death classified by the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) are ranked according to the number of deaths assigned to rankable causes. Cause-of-death statistics are based on the underlying cause of death. In 2012, the 10 leading causes of death were, in rank order: Diseases of heart; Malignant neoplasms; Chronic lower respiratory diseases; Cerebrovascular diseases; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Alzheimer's disease; Diabetes mellitus; Influenza and pneumonia; Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis; and Intentional self-harm (suicide). These causes accounted for 74% of all deaths occurring in the United States. Differences in the rankings are evident by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant death for 2012 were, in rank order: Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities; Disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight, not elsewhere classified; Sudden infant death syndrome; Newborn affected by maternal complications of pregnancy; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Newborn affected by complications of placenta, cord and membranes; Bacterial sepsis of newborn; Respiratory distress of newborn; Diseases of the circulatory system; and Neonatal hemorrhage. Important variations in the leading causes of infant death are noted for the neonatal and postneonatal periods.

  8. Deaths: Leading Causes for 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Melonie

    2016-02-16

    This report presents final 2013 data on the 10 leading causes of death in the United States by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal death are also presented. This report supplements "Deaths: Final Data for 2013," the National Center for Health Statistics’ annual report of final mortality statistics. Data in this report are based on information from all death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2013. Causes of death classified by the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD–10) are ranked according to the number of deaths assigned to rankable causes. Cause-of-death statistics are based on the underlying cause of death. In 2013, the 10 leading causes of death were, in rank order: Diseases of heart; Malignant neoplasms; Chronic lower respiratory diseases; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Cerebrovascular diseases; Alzheimer’s disease; Diabetes mellitus; Influenza and pneumonia; Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis; and Intentional self-harm (suicide). They accounted for 74% of all deaths occurring in the United States. Differences in the rankings are evident by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant death for 2013 were, in rank order: Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities; Disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight, not elsewhere classified; Newborn affected by maternal complications of pregnancy; Sudden infant death syndrome; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Newborn affected by complications of placenta, cord and membranes; Bacterial sepsis of newborn; Respiratory distress of newborn; Diseases of the circulatory system; and Neonatal hemorrhage. Important variations in the leading causes of infant death are noted for the neonatal and postneonatal periods. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as

  9. Deaths: Leading Causes for 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Melonie

    2015-07-27

    This report presents final 2011 data on the 10 leading causes of death in the United States by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal death are also presented. This report supplements ‘‘Deaths: Final Data for 2011,’’ the National Center for Health Statistics’ annual report of final mortality statistics. Data in this report are based on information from all death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2011. Causes of death classified by the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD–10) are ranked according to the number of deaths assigned to rankable causes. Cause-of-death statistics are based on the underlying cause of death. In 2011, the 10 leading causes of death were, in rank order: Diseases of heart; Malignant neoplasms; Chronic lower respiratory diseases; Cerebrovascular diseases; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Alzheimer’s disease; Diabetes mellitus; Influenza and pneumonia; Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis; and Intentional self-harm (suicide). They accounted for 74% of all deaths occurring in the United States. Differences in the rankings are evident by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant death for 2011 were, in rank order: Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities; Disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight, not elsewhere classified; Sudden infant death syndrome; Newborn affected by maternal complications of pregnancy; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Newborn affected by complications of placenta, cord and membranes; Bacterial sepsis of newborn; Respiratory distress of newborn; Diseases of the circulatory system; and Neonatal hemorrhage. Important variations in the leading causes of infant death are noted for the neonatal and postneonatal periods. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission

  10. THE FUNDAMENTS OF EXPLANATORY CAUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Mihaela VLĂDILĂ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The new Criminal Code in the specter of the legal life the division of causes removing the criminal feature of the offence in explanatory causes and non-attributable causes. This dichotomy is not without legal and factual fundaments and has been subjected to doctrinaire debates even since the period when the Criminal Code of 1969 was still in force. From our perspective, one of the possible legal fundaments of the explanatory causes results from that the offence committed is based on the protection of a right at least equal with the one prejudiced by the action of aggression, salvation, by the legal obligation imposed or by the victim’s consent.

  11. Other Causes of Leg Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include: A muscle cramp (also called a charley horse), frequently caused by the following: Dehydration or low ... overstretched muscle (strain) Hairline crack in the bone (stress fracture) Inflamed tendon (tendinitis) Shin splints—pain in ...

  12. Addison's Disease: Symptoms and Causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) Nausea, diarrhea or vomiting Abdominal pain Muscle or joint pains Irritability Depression Body hair loss ... in both men and women. They cause sexual development in men, and influence muscle mass, libido and ...

  13. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS): Causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patients and in persons with related disorders like fibromyalgia. Cortisol suppresses inflammation and cellular immune activation, and ... 1994 Case Definition Causes Who's at Risk? Symptoms Diagnosis Patient Examination Process Step 1 Step 2 Step ...

  14. Cradle Cap: Symptoms and Causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cradle cap Symptoms and causes By Mayo Clinic Staff Common signs of cradle cap include: Patchy scaling or thick crusts on the ... on the ears, eyelids, nose and groin. Cradle cap is common in newborns. It usually isn't ...

  15. Human Caused Fire and Acres

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — Number of wildland fires and acres burned as a result of human causes, from 2001 through 2008 (updated annually). Displayed by the eleven Geographic Areas used by...

  16. Does Excessive Pronation Cause Pain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Christian Gammelgaard; Nielsen, RG; Rathleff, M;

    Excessive pronation could be an inborn abnormality or an acquired foot disorder caused by overuse, inadequate supported shoes or inadequate foot training. When the muscles and ligaments of the foot are insufficient it can cause an excessive pronation of the foot. The current treatment consist of ...... is in pain but the effect of this treatment has not been documented. Therefore the authors wanted to investigate if it was possible to measure a change in foot posture after af given treatment.......Excessive pronation could be an inborn abnormality or an acquired foot disorder caused by overuse, inadequate supported shoes or inadequate foot training. When the muscles and ligaments of the foot are insufficient it can cause an excessive pronation of the foot. The current treatment consist...

  17. Does excessive pronation cause pain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Christian Gammelgaard; Nielsen, R.G.; Rathleff, M.;

    2008-01-01

    Excessive pronation could be an inborn abnormality or an acquired foot disorder caused by overuse, inadequate supported shoes or inadequate foot training. When the muscles and ligaments of the foot are insufficient it can cause an excessive pronation of the foot. The current treatment consist of ...... pronation patients recieve antipronation training often if the patient is in pain but wanted to investigate if it was possible to measure a change in foot posture after af given treatment.......Excessive pronation could be an inborn abnormality or an acquired foot disorder caused by overuse, inadequate supported shoes or inadequate foot training. When the muscles and ligaments of the foot are insufficient it can cause an excessive pronation of the foot. The current treatment consist...

  18. Cervicomedullary neurocysticercosis causing obstructive hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Doris D; Huang, Michael C

    2015-09-01

    We present a 45-year-old man with tussive headache and blurred vision found to have obstructive hydrocephalus from a neurocysticercal cyst at the cervicomedullary junction who underwent surgical removal of the cyst. We performed a suboccipital craniectomy to remove the cervicomedullary cyst en bloc. Cyst removal successfully treated the patient's headaches without necessitating permanent cerebrospinal fluid diversion. Neurocysticercosis is the most common parasite infection of the central nervous system causing seizures and, less commonly, hydrocephalus. Intraventricular cysts or arachnoiditis usually cause hydrocephalus in neurocysticercosis but craniocervical junction cysts causing obstructive hydrocephalus are rare. Neurocysticercosis at the craniocervical junction may cause Chiari-like symptoms. In the absence of arachnoiditis and leptomeningeal enhancement, surgical removal of the intact cyst can lead to favorable outcomes.

  19. Research Areas: Causes of Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the exposures and risk factors that cause cancer, as well as the genetic abnormalities associated with the disease, has helped us to reduce certain exposures and to ameliorate their harmful effects.

  20. Nongenetic causes of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chade, A R; Kasten, M; Tanner, C M

    2006-01-01

    Study of the nongenetic causes of Parkinson's disease (PD) was encouraged by discovery of a cluster of parkinsonism produced by neurotoxic pyridine 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) in the 1980s. Since that time, epidemiologic investigations have suggested risk factors, though their results do not establish causality. Pesticide exposure has been associated with increased risk in many studies. Other proposed risks include rural residence and certain occupations. Cigarette smoking, use of coffee/caffeine, and non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) all appear to lower risk of PD, while dietary lipid and milk consumption, high caloric intake, and head trauma may increase risk. The cause of PD is likely multifactorial. Underlying genetic susceptibility and combinations of risk and protective factors likely all contribute. The combined research effort by epidemiologists, geneticists, and basic scientists will be needed to clarify the cause(s) of PD.

  1. What Causes High Blood Cholesterol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes High Blood Cholesterol? Many factors can affect the cholesterol levels in your blood. You can control some ... but not others. Factors You Can Control Diet Cholesterol is found in foods that come from animal ...

  2. Could Anemia Cause Hearing Loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162793.html Could Anemia Cause Hearing Loss? Iron deficiency might keep ear ... Hearing loss may be linked to iron deficiency anemia -- a combination of low levels of iron and ...

  3. What Causes High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Causes of High Blood Pressure Changes, either from genes or the environment, in ... and blood vessel structure and function. Biology and High Blood Pressure Researchers continue to study how various changes in ...

  4. What Causes Heart Valve Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a heart attack or injury to the heart. Rheumatic Fever Untreated strep throat or other infections with strep bacteria that progress to rheumatic fever can cause heart valve disease. When the body ...

  5. Facebook Bullying Can Cause Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160991.html Facebook Bullying Can Cause Depression Social media attacks have ' ... Sept. 15, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Negative experiences on Facebook can increase the odds of depression in young ...

  6. Infant Reflux: Symptoms and Causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the stomach contents to have enough acid to irritate the throat or esophagus and to cause signs ... as: GERD. The reflux has enough acid to irritate and damage the lining of the esophagus. Pyloric ...

  7. What Causes Thrombocythemia and Thrombocytosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Thrombocythemia and Thrombocytosis? Primary Thrombocythemia In this condition, faulty stem cells ... scarring of the bone marrow can occur. Secondary Thrombocytosis This condition occurs if another disease, condition, or ...

  8. Dementia due to metabolic causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... interact Pneumonia , urinary tract infections , and skin infections Pressure sores Symptoms of the underlying problem (such as loss ... in mental status or a life-threatening emergency. Prevention Treating the underlying cause may reduce the risk ...

  9. Science 101: What Causes Wind?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, William C.

    2010-01-01

    There's a quick and easy answer to this question. The Sun causes wind. Exactly how the Sun causes wind takes a bit to explain. We'll begin with what wind is. You've no doubt heard that wind is the motion of air molecules, which is true. Putting aside the huge leap of faith it takes for us to believe that we are experiencing the motion of millions…

  10. Science 101: What Causes Wind?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, William C.

    2010-01-01

    There's a quick and easy answer to this question. The Sun causes wind. Exactly how the Sun causes wind takes a bit to explain. We'll begin with what wind is. You've no doubt heard that wind is the motion of air molecules, which is true. Putting aside the huge leap of faith it takes for us to believe that we are experiencing the motion of millions…

  11. Uncommon Causes of Cerebral Microbleeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorbakhsh-Sabet, Nariman; Pulakanti, Varun Chandi; Zand, Ramin

    2017-10-01

    Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are small and round perivascular hemosiderin depositions detectable by gradient echo sequences or susceptibility-weighted imaging. Cerebral microbleeds are common among patients with hypertension, cerebral ischemia, or cerebral amyloid angiopathy. In this article, we describe uncommon causes of CMBs. We searched Pubmed with the keyword CMBs for relevant studies and looked for different uncommon causes of CMBs. CMBs have several uncommon etiologies including posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, infective endocarditis, brain radiation therapy, cocaine abuse, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, traumatic brain injury, intravascular lymphomatosis or proliferating angio-endotheliomatosis, moyamoya disease, sickle cell anemia/β-thalassemia, cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy subcortical infarcts, and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), genetic syndromes, or obstructive sleep apnea. Understanding the uncommon causes of CMBs is not only helpful in diagnosis and prognosis of some of these rare diseases, but can also help in better understanding different pathophysiology involved in the development of CMBs. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Does Excessive Pronation Cause Pain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Carsten Møller; Olesen Gammelgaard, Christian; Nielsen, R. G.;

    2008-01-01

    Excessive pronation could be an inborn abnormality or an acquired foot disorder caused by overuse, inadequate supported shoes or inadequate foot training. When the muscles and ligaments of the foot are insufficient it can cause an excessive pronation of the foot. The current treatment consist...... of antipronation shoes or insoles, which latest was studied by Kulce DG., et al (2007). So far there have been no randomized controlled studies showing methods that the effect of this treatment has not been documented. Therefore the authors can measure the effect of treatments with insoles. Some of the excessive...

  13. Occupational asthma caused by ethanolamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savonius, B; Keskinen, H; Tuppurainen, M; Kanerva, L

    1994-12-01

    Amino alcohols are used in various industries, often as minor constituents of compounds to modify the properties of the compound. Generally, they are considered to be safe, but they have been known to cause local skin irritation at higher concentrations in solutions. We report on three cases of occupational asthma caused by ethanolamines: two metal workers exposed to a cutting fluid containing triethanolamine, and one cleaner exposed to a detergent containing monoethanolamine. The diagnosis was based on work-related symptoms and on a chamber challenge with the suspected agent. Persistence of the symptoms after exposure ended was a common feature of the three cases.

  14. Muscle Deoxygenation Causes Muscle Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D.

    1999-01-01

    Muscle fatigue is a common musculoskeletal disorder in the work place, and may be a harbinger for more disabling cumulative trauma disorders. Although the cause of fatigue is multifactorial, reduced blood flow and muscle oxygenation may be the primary factor in causing muscle fatigue during low intensity muscle exertion. Muscle fatigue is defined as a reduction in muscle force production, and also occurs among astronauts who are subjected to postural constraints while performing lengthy, repetitive tasks. The objectives of this research are to: 1) develop an objective tool to study the role of decreased muscle oxygenation on muscle force production, and 2) to evaluate muscle fatigue during prolonged glovebox work.

  15. Endocarditis caused by Haemophilus aegyptius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porath, A; Wanderman, K; Simu, A; Vidne, B; Alkan, M

    1986-08-01

    Endocarditis due to Haemophilus is uncommon. This is the first reported case caused by Haemophilus aegyptius. The course of the disease was complicated by pericarditis, congestive heart failure, and myocardial abscess formation. Surgical removal of the damaged aortic valve was not beneficial. The biologic properties of the organism included urea degradation, absence of indole metabolism, and absence of the enzyme ornithine decarboxylase.

  16. Do Cell Phones Cause Cancer?

    CERN Document Server

    Leikind, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Do cell phones, household electrical power wiring or appliance, or high voltage power lines cause cancer? Fuggedaboudit! No way! When pigs fly! When I'm the Pope! Don't text while you're driving, however, or eat your cell phone. All organisms absorb microwave radiation directly as thermal energy. In living organisms, the organisms' thermal control systems, including the blood flow, and various cooling mechanisms, such as sweating in humans, that work to maintain a stable body temperature rapidly transfer the absorbed energy to the environment. Any temperature rise is small or even unobserved. Any proposed mechanism by which cell phone radiation might cause cancer must begin with this fact. But the amount of radiation absorbed from a cell phone is less than that produced by normal metabolic processes, and much less than that produced by, for example, exercise. None of these normal metabolic processes cause cancer. Therefore, the much smaller amounts of energy from cell phones doesn't cause cancer either. All f...

  17. Disease Outbreaks Caused by Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craun, Gunther F.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the disease outbreaks caused by drinking polluted water, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the waterborn outbreaks included are: (1) cholera; (2) gastroenteritis; (3) giardiasis; and (4) typhoid fever and salmonellosis. A list of 66 references is also presented. (HM)

  18. Mycetoma caused by Nocardia brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kar P

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available One case of actinomycetoma caused by Nocardia brasiliensis presented with a swelling on the right ankle with multiple sinuses discharging sero-sanguinous material without any granules. He was treated successfully with dapsone followed by surgical excision of the swelling and skin graft.

  19. Science 101: What Causes Friction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Defining friction and asking what causes it might seem like a trivial question. Friction seems simple enough to understand. Friction is a force between surfaces that pushes against things that are moving or tending to move, and the rougher the surfaces, the greater the friction. Bill Robertson answers this by saying, "Well, not exactly".…

  20. What Caused the Great Depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Jean; O'Driscoll, Timothy G.

    2007-01-01

    Economists and historians have struggled for almost 80 years to account for the American Great Depression, which began in 1929 and lasted until the early years of World War II. In this article, the authors discuss three major schools of thought on the causes of the Great Depression and the long failure of the American economy to return to full…

  1. Water Pollution (Causes, Mechanisms, Solution).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandberg, Carl

    Written for the general public, this book illustrates the causes, status, problem areas, and prediction and control of water pollution. Water pollution is one of the most pressing issues of our time and the author communicates the complexities of this problem to the reader in common language. The purpose of the introductory chapter is to show what…

  2. Cyberbullying: Causes, Effects, and Remedies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Dianne L.; Mitchell, Sidney N.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present research exploring the pervasiveness and causes of cyberbullying, the psychological impact on students, and the responses to cyberbullying from students and administrators. The goal is to give school leaders a greater understanding of this phenomenon and suggest steps to deal with this challenging…

  3. Water Pollution (Causes, Mechanisms, Solution).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandberg, Carl

    Written for the general public, this book illustrates the causes, status, problem areas, and prediction and control of water pollution. Water pollution is one of the most pressing issues of our time and the author communicates the complexities of this problem to the reader in common language. The purpose of the introductory chapter is to show what…

  4. Cyberbullying: Causes, Effects, and Remedies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Dianne L.; Mitchell, Sidney N.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present research exploring the pervasiveness and causes of cyberbullying, the psychological impact on students, and the responses to cyberbullying from students and administrators. The goal is to give school leaders a greater understanding of this phenomenon and suggest steps to deal with this challenging…

  5. Organizational Conflict: Causes and Manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Eugene

    1979-01-01

    No group (within an organization) can be entirely harmonious, but conflict is not an altogether disruptive factor. A delicate balance is required to obtain the advantages and restrict the disadvantages of organizational conflict. The causes and forms of organizational conflict are examined. (JMD)

  6. Fighting for a Common Cause

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Cause China and Russia conduct joint antiterrorism exercises with no ulterior motives The Peace Mission 2009, a joint military exercise that was held on July 22-26 by China and Russia, was meant to convey one message: that both countries are firmly resolved to rooting out the "three evil forces" of terrorism, extremism and separatism. About 1300 service people from the army

  7. Rare cause of subcutaneous emphysema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prober, A.; Tverskoy, M.

    1986-12-01

    A rare cause of subcutaneous emphysema is described which developed in two patients after epidural anaesthesia. Only two case reports could be found in literature describing similar conditions. The anaesthesia is performed using the 'loss of resistance' technique with injection of air for the identification of the epidural space. Possible explanations for the development of the emphysema are discussed.

  8. Care Causes and Contributing Factors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    d'urgence offerts aux femmes admises dans quatre maternités de référence du Bénin ainsi que les causes et déterminants .... décédées au cours de la grossesse, .... les conditions d'admission et les types complications selon le niveau de.

  9. What Causes Sudden Cardiac Arrest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heart pumps little or no blood to the body. V-fib is fatal if not treated within a few minutes. Other problems with the heart's electrical system also can cause SCA. For example, SCA can occur if the rate of the heart's electrical signals becomes very slow and stops. SCA also can ...

  10. Acquired causes of intestinal malabsorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, F.

    This review focuses on the acquired causes, diagnosis, and treatment of intestinal malabsorption. Intestinal absorption is a complex process that depends on many variables, including the digestion of nutrients within the intestinal lumen, the absorptive surface of the small intestine, the membrane

  11. Restless Legs Syndrome -- Causes and Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overview & Facts Causes & Symptoms Self-Tests & Diagnosis Treatment Restless Legs Syndrome - Causes & Symptoms Causes What causes of restless legs syndrome varies from person to person. In some cases ...

  12. Ureterosciatic Hernia Causes Obstructive Uropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Ju Tsai

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive uropathy can be caused by urolithiasis, fibrotic ureteral stricture, inflammatory ureteritis with polyp formations, ureteral malignancy and various forms of external compression. Ureteral herniation is a relatively rare cause of obstructive uropathy and has been reported with herniation sites including inguinal canal, femoral canal and sciatic foramen. Most ureteral herniations occur in the inguinal area. In the literature, previous cases of sciatic ureter have been treated with observation in asymptomatic patients or with surgery in patients with obstructive uropathy or clinical symptomatology. We report the case of a 91-year-old female with asymptomatic hydronephrosis of the left kidney due to extremely rare ureterosciatic herniation. Her global renal function was acceptable. As she was elderly and a poor surgical candidate, watchful waiting was recommended after discussion with the patient and her family.

  13. Unusual Cause of Knee Locking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazi Huri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of partial intrasubstance tear of popliteus tendon as an unusual cause of pseudolocking of the knee. A 13-year-old semiprofessional soccer player applied to our clinic with a locked right knee in spite of the therapy applied (cold pack, NSAID, and immobilization in another institution 20 days after the injury. Significant extension loss was observed in his right knee with 30∘–90∘ ROM. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and arthroscopy confirmed the intrasubstance tear of popliteus tendon and synovitis. The ruptured part of the tendon was debrided, and the inflammatory tissue around the tendon, which may lead to pseudolocking, was gently removed with a shaver in order to regain the normal ROM. The patient was discharged with full ROM and weight bearing first day after the surgery. To our knowledge, this is the first case demonstrating intrasubstance tear of popliteus tendon causing pseudolocking of the knee.

  14. Alarm Fatigue: Causes and Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilken, Marc; Hüske-Kraus, Dirk; Klausen, Andreas; Koch, Christian; Schlauch, Wolfgang; Röhrig, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    The term "Alarm fatigue" is commonly used to describe the effect which a high number of alarms can have on caregivers: Frequent alarms, many of which are avoidable, can lead to inadequate responses, severely impacting patient safety. In the first step of a long-term effort to address this problem, both the direct and indirect impact of alarms, as well as possible causes of unnecessary alarms were focused. Models of these causes and impacts were developed using a scoping review which included guided interviews with experts from medical informatics, clinicians and medical device manufacturers. These models can provide the methodical grounds for the definition of targeted interventions and the assessment of their effects.

  15. Toxic agents causing cerebellar ataxias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manto, Mario

    2012-01-01

    The cerebellum is particularly vulnerable to intoxication and poisoning, especially so the cerebellar cortex and Purkinje neurons. In humans, the most common cause of a toxic lesion to the cerebellar circuitry is alcohol related, but the cerebellum is also a main target of drug exposure (such as anticonvulsants, antineoplastics, lithium salts, calcineurin inhibitors), drug abuse and addiction (such as cocaine, heroin, phencyclidine), and environmental toxins (such as mercury, lead, manganese, toluene/benzene derivatives). Although data for the prevalence and incidence of cerebellar lesions related to intoxication and poisoning are still unknown in many cases, clinicians should keep in mind the list of agents that may cause cerebellar deficits, since toxin-induced cerebellar ataxias are not rare in daily practice. Moreover, the patient's status may require immediate therapies when the intoxication is life-threatening. 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Pediatric genetic diseases causing glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichhpujani, Parul; Singh, Rohan B.

    2014-01-01

    Glaucomatous optic neuropathy may be considered as an endpoint of multiple systemic factors. Genetic conditions commonly causing glaucoma in children and adolescents include Axenfeld-Reiger syndrome, aniridia, Marfan syndrome, Weill-Marchessani syndrome, Sturge-Weber syndrome, Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome, nevus of Ota, congenital rubella and neurofibromatosis type 1. In the recent years, with the advancements in genetic research our understanding of the fundamental causes of glaucoma associated with inherited disorders has improved. In addition to intraocular pressure reduction, it is important for the clinician to be familiar with the multiple systemic associations with glaucoma, to re-evaluate treatment frequently, and to target the underlying disease process, if present. PMID:27625878

  17. Does Drug Use Cause Poverty?

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Kaestner

    1998-01-01

    In this study, I examine the effect of drug use on poverty. The main objective of the paper is to provide descriptive empirical information about the relationship between drug use and poverty, and to explore, in a preliminary fashion, the question of whether drug use causes poverty. Toward this end, I present the results of both descriptive and multivariate analyses of the relationship between drug use and poverty for two national samples of young adults. One sample is drawn from the National...

  18. Mexican Migration: Assessing Root Causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    66 Figure 4 is derived from John Scott, “Metas y Mecanismo ,” Centro de Investigacion y Docencia Economicas...John Scott, “Metas y Mecanismo ,” 4. 31 Another explanation for the increase in migration concerns neither the Mexican economy nor the Mexican...Dominant Regime,” 135. 82 John Scott, “Metas y Mecanismo ,” 5. 83 World Bank: Mexican Health Foundation, “Trends and Empirical Causes of Violent

  19. A rare cause of osteonecrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Agostinis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionHereditary hemochromatosis (HH is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the HFE gene, which increase intestinal iron absorption. The prevalence of C282Y homozygosity, which causes the disorder, is 0.5% in Caucasian populations. The clinical manifestations are related to excess iron in the tissues, especially the liver, heart, pancreas, pituitary, and skin. They include fatigue, loss of libido or impotence in males, liver disease, skin pigmentation, diabetes mellitus, cardiac enlargement—with or without heart failure, and conduction defects. The classic triad of cirrhosis, diabetes mellitus, and skin pigmentation (“bronze diabetes” results from a combination of iron deposits and melanin. It occurs late in the disease, when the total body iron content is more than five times the normal value, about 20 grams. Left untreated, approximately half of all patients with HH eventually develop arthralgia or arthropathy. Chondrocalcinosis, chronic pseudo-osteoarthritis, and osteoporosis are the major rheumatic manifestations of HH. The cause of the arthropathy is still unknown. Iron deposits within joints may trigger a number of pathologic events, such as free radical generation and crystal deposition, which stimulate immune complex formation and inflammation.Materials and methodsWe describe the case of a 48-year-old male suffering from chronic bilateral ankle pain.ResultsThe work-up revealed osteonecrosis of ankle. The patient also presented high plasma ferritin levels and homozygosity for the C282Y mutation. Other than HH, which was confirmed by liver biopsy, the patient had no other risk factors for osteonecrosis.DiscussionHH represents a rare cause of osteonecrosis, and there are no prior reports of aseptic osteonecrosis of the ankle in a patient with this disease. The pathogenetic mechanism remains unknown.

  20. Mutations in ANKH cause chondrocalcinosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendleton, Adrian; Johnson, Michelle D; Hughes, Anne; Gurley, Kyle A; Ho, Andrew M; Doherty, Michael; Dixey, Josh; Gillet, Pierre; Loeuille, Damien; McGrath, Rodney; Reginato, Antonio; Shiang, Rita; Wright, Gary; Netter, Patrick; Williams, Charlene; Kingsley, David M

    2002-10-01

    Chondrocalcinosis (CC) is a common cause of joint pain and arthritis that is caused by the deposition of calcium-containing crystals within articular cartilage. Although most cases are sporadic, rare familial forms have been linked to human chromosomes 8 (CCAL1) or 5p (CCAL2) (Baldwin et al. 1995; Hughes et al. 1995; Andrew et al. 1999). Here, we show that two previously described families with CCAL2 have mutations in the human homolog of the mouse progressive ankylosis gene (ANKH). One of the human mutations results in the substitution of a highly conserved amino acid residue within a predicted transmembrane segment. The other creates a new ATG start site that adds four additional residues to the ANKH protein. Both mutations segregate completely with disease status and are not found in control subjects. In addition, 1 of 95 U.K. patients with sporadic CC showed a deletion of a single codon in the ANKH gene. The same change was found in a sister who had bilateral knee replacement for osteoarthritis. Each of the three human mutations was reconstructed in a full-length ANK expression construct previously shown to regulate pyrophosphate levels in cultured cells in vitro. All three of the human mutations showed significantly more activity than a previously described nonsense mutation that causes severe hydroxyapatite mineral deposition and widespread joint ankylosis in mice. These results suggest that small sequence changes in ANKH are one cause of CC and joint disease in humans. Increased ANK activity may explain the different types of crystals commonly deposited in human CCAL2 families and mutant mice and may provide a useful pharmacological target for treating some forms of human CC.

  1. Women trafficking: causes, concerns, care!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khowaja, Shaneela Sadaruddin; Tharani, Ambreen Jawed; Agha, Ajmal; Karamaliani, Rozina Sherali

    2012-08-01

    Pakistan is both a country of origin and destination as far as women trafficking is concerned. Poverty, gender discrimination, lack of education, and ignorance about legal rights are some of the underlying causes. Available data suggest several areas of concern, like, for instance: direct health effects, maladaptive coping leading to the use of illicit drugs, and inaccessibility to healthcare facilities. Therefore, numerous interventions would be required at three levels: the prevention of trafficking, the protection of victims and the prosecution of the traffickers.

  2. Ascariasis cholecystitis: An unusual cause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shetty Balakrishna

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ascariasis is the most common helminthic infection to infest man. Usually the adult worm lives in the small intestine. Rarely it migrates through the ampulla of vater and enters the common bile duct. We are reporting a case of gall bladder ascariasis causing acute cholecystitis treated by laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Presence of Ascaris lumbricoides in gallbladder is rare entity as it is difficult to reach there due to the narrow and tortuous cystic duct.

  3. Earthquakes - Volcanoes (Causes and Forecast)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiapas, E.

    2009-04-01

    EARTHQUAKES - VOLCANOES (CAUSES AND FORECAST) ELIAS TSIAPAS RESEARCHER NEA STYRA, EVIA,GREECE TEL.0302224041057 tsiapas@hol.gr The earthquakes are caused by large quantities of liquids (e.g. H2O, H2S, SO2, ect.) moving through lithosphere and pyrosphere (MOHO discontinuity) till they meet projections (mountains negative projections or projections coming from sinking lithosphere). The liquids are moved from West Eastward carried away by the pyrosphere because of differential speed of rotation of the pyrosphere by the lithosphere. With starting point an earthquake which was noticed at an area and from statistical studies, we know when, where and what rate an earthquake may be, which earthquake is caused by the same quantity of liquids, at the next east region. The forecast of an earthquake ceases to be valid if these components meet a crack in the lithosphere (e.g. limits of lithosphere plates) or a volcano crater. In this case the liquids come out into the atmosphere by the form of gasses carrying small quantities of lava with them (volcano explosion).

  4. Endocrine causes of secondary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sica, Domenic A

    2008-07-01

    Secondary hypertension is common in clinical practice if a broad definition is applied. Various patterns of hypertension exist in the patient with an endocrine source of their disease, including new-onset hypertension in a previously normotensive individual, a loss of blood pressure control in a patient with previously well-controlled blood pressure, and/or labile blood pressure in the setting of either of these 2 patterns. A thorough history and physical exam, which can rule out concomitant medications, alcohol intake, and over-the-counter medication use, is an important prerequisite to the workup for endocrine causes of hypertension. Endocrine forms of secondary hypertension, such as pheochromocytoma and Cushing's disease, are extremely uncommon. Conversely, primary aldosteronism now occurs with sufficient frequency so as to be considered "top of the list" for secondary endocrine causes in otherwise difficult-to-treat or resistant hypertension. Primary aldosteronism can be insidious in its presentation since a supposed hallmark finding, hypokalemia, may be variable in its presentation. It is important to identify secondary causes of hypertension that are endocrine in nature because surgical intervention may result in correction or substantial improvement of the hypertension.

  5. EARTHQUAKES - VOLCANOES (Causes - Forecast - Counteraction)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiapas, Elias

    2014-05-01

    Earthquakes and volcanoes are caused by: 1)Various liquid elements (e.g. H20, H2S, S02) which emerge from the pyrosphere and are trapped in the space between the solid crust and the pyrosphere (Moho discontinuity). 2)Protrusions of the solid crust at the Moho discontinuity (mountain range roots, sinking of the lithosphere's plates). 3)The differential movement of crust and pyrosphere. The crust misses one full rotation for approximately every 100 pyrosphere rotations, mostly because of the lunar pull. The above mentioned elements can be found in small quantities all over the Moho discontinuity, and they are constantly causing minor earthquakes and small volcanic eruptions. When large quantities of these elements (H20, H2S, SO2, etc) concentrate, they are carried away by the pyrosphere, moving from west to east under the crust. When this movement takes place under flat surfaces of the solid crust, it does not cause earthquakes. But when these elements come along a protrusion (a mountain root) they concentrate on its western side, displacing the pyrosphere until they fill the space created. Due to the differential movement of pyrosphere and solid crust, a vacuum is created on the eastern side of these protrusions and when the aforementioned liquids overfill this space, they explode, escaping to the east. At the point of their escape, these liquids are vaporized and compressed, their flow accelerates, their temperature rises due to fluid friction and they are ionized. On the Earth's surface, a powerful rumbling sound and electrical discharges in the atmosphere, caused by the movement of the gasses, are noticeable. When these elements escape, the space on the west side of the protrusion is violently taken up by the pyrosphere, which collides with the protrusion, causing a major earthquake, attenuation of the protrusions, cracks on the solid crust and damages to structures on the Earth's surface. It is easy to foresee when an earthquake will occur and how big it is

  6. [Morgagni hernia causing cardiac tamponade].

    Science.gov (United States)

    S Breinig; Paranon, S; Le Mandat, A; Galinier, P; Dulac, Y; Acar, P

    2010-10-01

    Morgagni hernia is a rare malformation (3% of diaphragmatic hernias). This hernia is usually asymptomatic in children. We report on a case revealed by an unusual complication. Severe cyanosis was due to right-to-left atrial shunt through the foramen ovale assessed by 2D echocardiography. Diagnosis of the Morgagni hernia was made with CT scan. The intrathoracic liver compressed the right chambers of the heart causing tamponade. Cardiac compression was reversed after surgery and replacement of the liver in the abdomen. Six months after the surgery, the infant was symptom-free with normal size right chambers of the heart.

  7. What causes amyotrophic lateral sclerosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sarah; Al Khleifat, Ahmad; Al-Chalabi, Ammar

    2017-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a neurodegenerative disease predominantly affecting upper and lower motor neurons, resulting in progressive paralysis and death from respiratory failure within 2 to 3 years. The peak age of onset is 55 to 70 years, with a male predominance. The causes of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis are only partly known, but they include some environmental risk factors as well as several genes that have been identified as harbouring disease-associated variation. Here we review the nature, epidemiology, genetic associations, and environmental exposures associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. PMID:28408982

  8. An unusual cause for halitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathgate, Gabriella; Ali, Haythem; Aboul Enein, Mohamed; Poynter, Liam

    2016-04-19

    This report describes an unusual cause for halitosis and an unusual treatment for the underlying problem. Halitosis is a symptom which can result from a diverse range of underlying pathologies, most frequently those affecting the oral cavity or respiratory tract. Uncommonly, it arises due to pathology within the upper gastrointestinal tract. The case of a patient presenting with severe persistent halitosis attributable to mesh erosion occurring 8 years after redo laparoscopic hiatus hernia repair is described. Full external healing of the erosion tract was observed such that no symptomatic oesophageal perforation resulted. Mesh erosion is typically managed with surgical intervention. In this case, the infected mesh was successfully removed endoscopically.

  9. Trapezoid fracture caused by assault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malshikare V

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this report we describe an open fracture of trapezoid and break in anterior cortex of capitate due to assault in a young adult male. Direct impact force of a sharp object to the first web space caused the above fractures. Open reduction and internal fixation of the trapezoid was carried out using Kirschner wires. Cut extensor tendons, extensor retaniculum, capsule, adductor pollicis muscle, first dorsal interosseous muscle, soft tissue and overlying skin were sutured primarily. Three months after the operation the patient has made a complete recovery. There is no similar case reported in the literature.

  10. The true cause of magnetostriction

    CERN Document Server

    Mnyukh, Yuri

    2011-01-01

    The cause of magnetostriction is revealed by analyzing this phenomenon in a polydomain crystal of Fe. It is based on the two fundamentals: (a) magnetization is a rearrangement of spins by rearrangement of the crystal structure, and (b) the {\\alpha}-Fe has a tetragonal rather than cubic structure. The magnetostriction results from the structural rearrangement, induced by application of magnetic field. that makes the direction of longer crystallographic axis of the participated domains coincide with, or become closer to, the direction of the applied magnetic field.

  11. What causes amyotrophic lateral sclerosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sarah; Al Khleifat, Ahmad; Al-Chalabi, Ammar

    2017-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a neurodegenerative disease predominantly affecting upper and lower motor neurons, resulting in progressive paralysis and death from respiratory failure within 2 to 3 years. The peak age of onset is 55 to 70 years, with a male predominance. The causes of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis are only partly known, but they include some environmental risk factors as well as several genes that have been identified as harbouring disease-associated variation. Here we review the nature, epidemiology, genetic associations, and environmental exposures associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

  12. Causes and Countermeasures of Chinglish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Min

    2014-01-01

    “The so-called Chinglish is the kind of mixed language, neither Chinese nor English, it may also be cal ed English with Chinese Characteristics.” They are deformities in English which are not consistent with the English expression (except a smal number which have been included in the English dictionary). It may also be grammatical y correct, but the usage of the words, phrases or expressions is different from the Standard English. This paper explores the causes of Chinglish from the perspective of Chinese and Western thinking differences, and comes up with strategies to help English learners get a better understanding of Chinglish, thereby effectively overcome it.

  13. Occupational allergies caused by latex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Debra D Fett; Sobczak, Steven C; Yunginger, John W

    2003-05-01

    Allergy to natural rubber latex is an important cause of occupational allergy in healthcare workers. Disposable medical gloves are the major reservoir of latex allergens, particularly powdered gloves, in healthcare delivery settings. Diagnosis of latex allergy requires a history of exacerbation of cutaneous, respiratory, ocular, or systemic signs and symptoms after exposure to natural rubber latex products; and evidence of sensitization by patch testing, skin testing, measurement of latex-specific IgE antibodies, or challenge testing. Optimal management of latex allergy involves education concerning cross-reacting allergens, reduction of cutaneous or mucosal contact with dipped rubber products, and minimization of exposure to latex aeroallergens in work environments.

  14. Mutations in XRCC4 cause primordial dwarfism without causing immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Shinta; Kurosawa, Aya; Adachi, Noritaka

    2016-08-01

    In successive reports from 2014 to 2015, X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 4 (XRCC4) has been identified as a novel causative gene of primordial dwarfism. XRCC4 is indispensable for non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), the major pathway for repairing DNA double-strand breaks. As NHEJ is essential for V(D)J recombination during lymphocyte development, it is generally believed that abnormalities in XRCC4 cause severe combined immunodeficiency. Contrary to expectations, however, no overt immunodeficiency has been observed in patients with primordial dwarfism harboring XRCC4 mutations. Here, we describe the various XRCC4 mutations that lead to disease and discuss their impact on NHEJ and V(D)J recombination.

  15. [Liver damage caused by drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmeyer, G; Weik, C

    1999-05-01

    The liver has a central role in the metabolism of many drugs, since this organ is the main site of biotransformation of endo- and xenobiotics. Water-soluble drugs have a small volume of distribution and can be eliminated unchanged in the urine. By contrast, lipid-soluble drugs have a larger volume of distribution and require conversion to water-soluble metabolites for their elimination in urine or bile. The liver with its specific receptors, transporters and enzymes is responsible for the uptake, transformation and excretion of the lipophilic drugs. While most of the drugs are transformed into stable metabolites, other drugs form reactive, potentially toxic, metabolites producing liver cell damage. Liver injury caused by drugs may mimic almost any kind of liver disease. Clinical findings are gastrointestinal symptoms with nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain, cholestatic liver injury with jaundice and pruritus of severe inflammatory and cirrhotic liver damage with signs of liver failure, encephalopathy and cerebral edema. The morphological changes vary from hepatitis, cholestasis, fatty liver, granulomatous hepatitis, peri-/portal inflammation, to fibrosis with cirrhotic alterations and vascular lesions and tumors. The most commonly used drugs causing severe liver injury are discussed in detail. These are anabolics, oral contraceptives, antituberculous and antifungal agents, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, ring substituted amphetamins ("designer drugs"), antiarrhythmics and antibiotics.

  16. Zika virus causes testicular atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uraki, Ryuta; Hwang, Jesse; Jurado, Kellie Ann; Householder, Sarah; Yockey, Laura J.; Hastings, Andrew K.; Homer, Robert J.; Iwasaki, Akiko; Fikrig, Erol

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus that has recently been found to cause fetal infection and neonatal abnormalities, including microcephaly and neurological dysfunction. ZIKV persists in the semen months after the acute viremic phase in humans. To further understand the consequences of ZIKV persistence in males, we infected Ifnar1−/− mice via subcutaneous injection of a pathogenic but nonlethal ZIKV strain. ZIKV replication persists within the testes even after clearance from the blood, with interstitial, testosterone-producing Leydig cells supporting virus replication. We found high levels of viral RNA and antigen within the epididymal lumen, where sperm is stored, and within surrounding epithelial cells. Unexpectedly, at 21 days post-infection, the testes of the ZIKV-infected mice were significantly smaller compared to those of mock-infected mice, indicating progressive testicular atrophy. ZIKV infection caused a reduction in serum testosterone, suggesting that male fertility can be affected. Our findings have important implications for nonvector-borne vertical transmission, as well as long-term potential reproductive deficiencies, in ZIKV-infected males. PMID:28261663

  17. [Tonic pupil caused by ischemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, H

    1989-01-01

    Tonic pupil is usually an idiopathic condition. In some cases, the cause of the ciliary ganglion lesion leading to tonic pupils is obvious. Rarely ischemia causes a lesion of the ciliary ganglion or the short ciliary nerves due to the good blood supply of the ciliary ganglion. Only two cases of tonic pupils in the course of giant cell arteritis are mentioned in the literature, but tonic pupils are probably much more common with this disease. Five cases are demonstrated here. All had associated ischemic optic neuropathy, and stagnation of the blood flow in the supratrochlear artery could be demonstrated in two cases by Doppler sonography. Tonic pupils may also occur when an oclusion of the internal carotid artery resolves, probably because of transient stasis of the orbital blood flow. In another case, tonic pupils were associated with choroidal ischemia (proved by video fluorescent angiography) of unknown origin. The diagnosis of tonic pupils was made by pharmacological testing for cholinergic hypersensitivity with 0.1% pilocarpine.

  18. Antibiotic associated diarrhoea: Infectious causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayyagari A

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Nearly 25% of antibiotic associated diarrhoeas (AAD is caused by Clostridium difficile, making it the commonest identified and treatable pathogen. Other pathogens implicated infrequently include Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella oxytoca, Candida spp. and Salmonella spp. Most mild cases of AAD are due to non-infectious causes which include reduced break down of primary bile acids and decrease metabolism of carbohydrates, allergic or toxic effects of antibiotic on intestinal mucosa and pharmacological effect on gut motility. The antibiotics most frequently associated with C. difficile associated diarrhoea are clindamycin, cephalosporin, ampicillin and amoxicillin. Clinical presentation may vary from mild diarrhoea to severe colitis and pseudomembranous colitis associated with high morbidity and mortality. The most sensitive and specific diagnostic test for C. difficile infection is tissue culture assay for cytotoxicity of toxin B. Commercial ELISA kits are available. Though less sensitive, they are easy to perform and are rapid. Withdrawal of precipitating antibiotic is all that is needed for control of mild to moderate cases. For severe cases of AAD, oral metronidazole is the first line of treatment, and oral vancomycin is the second choice. Probiotics have been used for recurrent cases.

  19. Occupational asthma caused by palladium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daenen, M.; Rochette, F.; Demedts, M.; Nemery, B. [K.U. Leuven, Pneumology (Belgium); Rogiers, P. [A.Z. St-Lucas, Brugge (Belgium); Walle, C. Van de [Siemens, Oostkamp (Belgium)

    1999-01-01

    Occupational exposure to complex platinum salts is a well-known cause of occupational asthma. Although there is evidence that platinum refinery workers may also be sensitized to other precious metals, such as palladium or rhodium, no instances of occupational asthma due to an isolated sensitization to palladium have been reported. A case is reported of occupational rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma in a previously healthy worker exposed to the fumes of an electroplating bath containing palladium. There was no exposure to platinum. Sensitization to palladium was documented by skin-prick tests. The skin-prick test was positive with Pd(NH{sub 3}){sub 4}Cl{sub 2}, but not with (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}PdCl{sub 4}. Corresponding salts of platinum were all negative. A bronchial provocation test with Pd(NH{sub 34})Cl{sub 2} (0.0001 % for a total of 315 s, followed by 0.001 % for a total of 210 s) led to an early decrease in forced expiratory volume in one second (-35%). A similar exposure (0.001 % for a total of 16 min) in an unrelated asthmatic gave no reaction. This case shows that an isolated sensitization to palladium can occur and that respiratory exposure to palladium is a novel cause of metal-induced occupational asthma. (au) 24 refs.

  20. Do We Know What Causes Kaposi Sarcoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Prevention Do We Know What Causes Kaposi Sarcoma? Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is caused by infection with a ... Sarcoma? Can Kaposi Sarcoma Be Prevented? More In Kaposi Sarcoma About Kaposi Sarcoma Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  1. Anxiety: A Cause of High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions High blood pressure (hypertension) Can anxiety cause high blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Anxiety doesn't cause long-term high blood pressure (hypertension). But episodes of anxiety can cause dramatic, ...

  2. Ten Leading Causes of Death and Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drug Overdose Traumatic Brain Injury Violence Prevention Ten Leading Causes of Death and Injury Recommend on Facebook ... Treated in Hospital Emergency Departments, United States – 2014 Leading Causes of Death Charts Causes of Death by ...

  3. Do We Know What Causes Testicular Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Factors, and Prevention Do We Know What Causes Testicular Cancer? The exact cause of most testicular cancers is ... Cancer? Can Testicular Cancer Be Prevented? More In Testicular Cancer About Testicular Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  4. Does Corruption Cause Aid Fatigue?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauhr, Monika; Charron, Nicholas; Nasiritousi, Naghmeh

    2013-01-01

    Does perceived corruption in recipient countries reduce support for foreign aid in donor countries? This under-explored yet salient question is examined using the 2009 Eurobarometer survey for the 27 EU countries. We suggest that perceived corruption can cause aid fatigue but that this relationship...... is highly contextualized. The results show that perceptions about corruption in developing countries reduce overall support for aid among respondents in donor countries. However, this effect is mitigated by country and contextual-level effects and different understandings of what we call the “aid-corruption...... paradox,” namely that the need for foreign aid is often the greatest in corrupt environments. Three different dynamics of the aid-corruption paradox influence support for aid: moral, pragmatic, and strategic understandings. In EU-15 countries, the effect of perceived corruption in recipient states on aid...

  5. [Myocardial infarction caused by exertion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, F; Weber, S

    1997-01-01

    Myocardial infarction is the main cause of sudden death during physical exercise, particularly in subjects over 40 and may even occur in high-performance young athletes. Sports and physical activity have a beneficial effect in preventing cardiovascular diseases, but certain rules of prudence must be followed to avoid the risk of a severe coronary event. Myocardial infarction always occurs in particularly susceptible subjects with several risk factors, predominantly smoking, hypercholesterolemia, family history of atherosclerosis. Dietary factors, either before, during or after the exercise, are always found. Distribution of coronary lesions differs with age. Before 40 years, the coronary network is normal in 40% of the cases. The infarction is partially explained by platelet hyperaggregahility and coronary spasms at exercise or in the post-exercise period.

  6. Osteomyelitis caused by Achromobacter xylosoxidans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Shinha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Achromobacter xylosoxidans is an aerobic, nonfermenting gram-negative rod and described as a waterborne bacterium since it habits aquatic environments ubiquitously. It has frequently been isolated from aquatic surroundings in the hospital and from various human body sites. Although occasionally considered a non-pathogen, A. xylosoxidans has been associated with outbreaks of nosocomial infection due to contaminated fluids. Moreover, a wide variety of infectious etiologies due to A. xylosoxidans has been reported primarily in immunocompromised individuals. Heightened awareness of this bacterium and associated clinical importance is warranted for clinicians since its broad disease spectrum in humans and frequent multi-drug resistance may result in an increased mortality rate. In this report, we describe a case of osteomyelitis caused by A. xylosoxidans in a patient with a history of diabetes mellitus.

  7. Osteomyelitis caused by Achromobacter xylosoxidans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinha, Takashi; Oguagha, Ifeanyi C

    2015-01-01

    Achromobacter xylosoxidans is an aerobic, nonfermenting gram-negative rod and described as a waterborne bacterium since it habits aquatic environments ubiquitously. It has frequently been isolated from aquatic surroundings in the hospital and from various human body sites. Although occasionally considered a non-pathogen, A. xylosoxidans has been associated with outbreaks of nosocomial infection due to contaminated fluids. Moreover, a wide variety of infectious etiologies due to A. xylosoxidans has been reported primarily in immunocompromised individuals. Heightened awareness of this bacterium and associated clinical importance is warranted for clinicians since its broad disease spectrum in humans and frequent multi-drug resistance may result in an increased mortality rate. In this report, we describe a case of osteomyelitis caused by A. xylosoxidans in a patient with a history of diabetes mellitus.

  8. Heroin overdose: causes and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner-Smith, M; Darke, S; Lynskey, M; Hall, W

    2001-08-01

    Over the past decade fatal opioid overdose has emerged as a major public health issue internationally. This paper examines the risk factors for overdose from a biomedical perspective. While significant risk factors for opioid overdose fatality are well recognized, the mechanism of fatal overdose remains unclear. Losses of tolerance and concomitant use of alcohol and other CNS depressants clearly play a major role in fatality; however, such risk factors do not account for the strong age and gender patterns observed consistently among victims of overdose. There is evidence that systemic disease may be more prevalent in users at greatest risk of overdose. We hypothesize that pulmonary and hepatic dysfunction resulting from such disease may increase susceptibility to both fatal and non-fatal overdose. Sequelae of non-fatal overdose are recognized in the clinical literature but few epidemiological data exist describing the burden of morbidity arising from such sequelae. The potential for overdose to cause persisting morbidity is reviewed.

  9. Coordination failure caused by sunspots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beugnot, Julie; Gürgüç, Zeynep; Øvlisen, Frederik Roose

    2012-01-01

    In a coordination game with Pareto-ranked equilibria, we study whether a sunspot can lead to either coordination on an inferior equilibrium (mis-coordination) or to out-of equilibrium behavior (dis-coordination). While much of the literature searches for mechanisms to attain coordination...... on the efficient equilibrium, we consider sunspots as a potential reason for coordination failure. We conduct an experiment with a three player 2x2x2 game in which coordination on the efficient equilibrium is easy and should normally occur. In the control session, we find almost perfect coordination on the payoff......-dominant equilibrium, but in the sunspot treatment, dis-coordination is frequent. Sunspots lead to significant inefficiency, and we conclude that sunspots can indeed cause coordination failure....

  10. Pyopneumopericardium caused by mediastinal granuloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gula, Lorne J; Malthaner, Richard A; Quantz, Mackenzie A

    2002-07-01

    We report the case of a previously healthy 32-year-old man who was seen with flulike symptoms, dyspnea, and chest pain. The diagnosis was pyopneumopericardium, and pericardial tap revealed 1.3 L of purulent material. Computed tomography of the chest demonstrated a calcified mass inferior to the carina. Urgent exploration through a right thoracotomy revealed that the mass was adherent to the esophagus and pericardium. The subcarinal mass was resected. Pathological study demonstrated granulomatous lymph nodes, which were likely due to histoplasmosis. This is among the first reports of granulomatous erosion into the pericardium causing pyopneumopericardium. The patient made a good recovery, and his case demonstrates the importance of early imaging and mediastinal exploration for pyopneumopericardium.

  11. Contact dermatitis caused by preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Elizabeth; Baquerizo Nole, Katherine L; Tosti, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Preservatives are biocidal chemicals added to food, cosmetics, and industrial products to prevent the growth of microorganisms. They are usually nontoxic and inexpensive and have a long shelf life. Unfortunately, they commonly cause contact dermatitis. This article reviews the most important classes of preservatives physicians are most likely to encounter in their daily practice, specifically isothiazolinones, formaldehyde and formaldehyde-releasers, iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, methyldibromoglutaronitrile, and parabens. For each preservative mentioned, the prevalence of sensitization, clinical presentation of contact dermatitis, patch testing concentrations, cross reactions, and related legislation will be discussed. Mandatory labeling of preservatives is required in some countries, but not required in others. Until policies are made, physicians and patients must be proactive in identifying potential sensitizers and removing their use. We hope that this article will serve as a guide for policy makers in creating legislation and future regulations on the use and concentration of certain preservatives in cosmetics and industrial products.

  12. Endocarditis caused by Abiotrophia defectiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma M Al-Jasser

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A 35-year–old man with pre-existing rheumatic heart disease and aortic regurgitation (AR presented with intermittent fever, ankle swelling and clinical evidence of endocarditis. Transoesophageal echocardiogram (TEE revealed vegetations and destruction of the aortic valve (AV. Blood cultures grew a gram positive coccobacillus which was phenotypically identified as Abiotrophia defectvia (A.defectiva. A diagnosis of infective endocarditis (IE due to A.defectiva was made. Treatment, with penicillin and gentamicin, was administered for 4 weeks. Mechanical valve replacement was required few days after starting the antibiotic therapy. The patient had a favorable outcome on follow up.Although A.defectiva is an uncommon cause of endocarditis, early and correct identification of this pathogen is important to improve the outcome and the prognosis of patients with IE due to this organism.

  13. The causes of whale strandings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, D O

    1982-03-01

    Strandings of cetaceans (whales and dolphins) is probably the result of a sequence of events rather than a simple cause-and-effect relationship. Strandings of solitary animals are more common than massed and generally thought to be due to severe disease. Mass strandings (three to several hundred individuals) are less common, but very spectacular. Mass strandings are considered to be due to a complex of factors in which behavioural factors are probably important, severe disease making an unimportant, or negligible contribution. There may be interaction of physical conditions (weather, tides, currents, coastline) and biological conditions (predators, feeding, disturbance of echolocation and disease) which result in stranding. One postulated reason for stranding is that it is dependent on instinctive behaviour, deeply located in subcortical areas of the brain, which provokes cetaceans to seek refuge ashore when under stress.

  14. Causes of secondary pediatric osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Maria Luisa

    2013-06-01

    Secondary osteoporosis is increasingly observed in both adult and pediatric patients affected by many heterogeneous diseases. Most forms of secondary osteoporosis derive from one or more of the following causes: malnutrition, malabsorption, immobilization and/or reduced mechanical load, vitamin D deficiency, chronic inflammation, hormonal derangements, and chronic use of glucocorticoids and other drugs. Considering the lack of symptoms in the early phases, both the risk and the presence of secondary osteoporosis tend to be underestimated, and as a consequence, appropriate prevention/treatment measures are often delayed or not taken at all. Failure to accumulate an appropriate bone mass for gender and age or to build an architecturally "strong" bone must always be suspected when a child or adolescent presents with frequent and/or low-trauma fractures, chronic bone pain, or an incidental finding of "osteopenia" on plain X-rays. Known risk factors must always be considered.

  15. Genetic causes of male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stouffs, Katrien; Seneca, Sara; Lissens, Willy

    2014-05-01

    Male infertility, affecting around half of the couples with a problem to get pregnant, is a very heterogeneous condition. Part of patients are having a defect in spermatogenesis of which the underlying causes (including genetic ones) remain largely unknown. The only genetic tests routinely used in the diagnosis of male infertility are the analyses for the presence of Yq microdeletions and/or chromosomal abnormalities. Various other single gene or polygenic defects have been proposed to be involved in male fertility. Yet, their causative effect often remains to be proven. The recent evolution in the development of whole genome-based techniques may help in clarifying the role of genes and other genetic factors involved in spermatogenesis and spermatogenesis defects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Nattrassia mangiferae causing fungal keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kindo A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of fungal keratitis caused by the coelomycetous fungus Nattrassia mangiferae in a 70 year old gentleman, agriculturist by occupation, with a history of injury to his right eye. The scraping showed narrow septate fungal hyphae on a KOH mount, isolation of a fast growing black mould, which demonstrated hyphae and arthroconidia of varying widths typical of the Scytalidium synanamorph (S. dimidiatum. The formation of the pycnidia, which at maturity, expressed conidia. The patient was started on topical itraconazole one hourly and topical atropine thrice a day. The patient was lost to follow up hence we are not able to comment on the final outcome of the patient.

  17. Infections caused by Chlamydophila pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choroszy-Król, Irena; Frej-Mądrzak, Magdalena; Hober, Martyna; Sarowska, Jolanta; Jama-Kmiecik, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    High affinity to the epithelial lining of the airways makes Chlamydophila pneumoniae a common etiological agent of respiratory tract infections (RTI). It causes among others: pharyngitis, tracheitis, sinusitis, otitis media, bronchitis and bronchiolitis, and pneumonia. It is estimated that Chlamydophila pneumoniae infection is responsible for about 20% of lower respiratory tract infections. Chlamydophila pneumoniae infection may play an important role in the pathogenesis and course of bronchial asthma. The recent results indicate that Chlamydophila pneumoniae infection may be a factor responsible for 4-16% of COPD (Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) exacerbations. A relationship of chlamydial infection with atherosclerosis raises huge interest. A connection of Chlamydophila pneumoniae infection with other non-communicable diseases such as lung cancer, arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, sarcoidosis and erythema nodosum is also recognized, although the role of these bacteria has not been fully understood in any of the listed diseases.

  18. Can cardiac surgery cause hypopituitarism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Flverly; Burger, Ines; Poll, Eva Maria; Reineke, Andrea; Strasburger, Christian J; Dohmen, Guido; Gilsbach, Joachim M; Kreitschmann-Andermahr, Ilonka

    2012-03-01

    Apoplexy of pituitary adenomas with subsequent hypopituitarism is a rare but well recognized complication following cardiac surgery. The nature of cardiac on-pump surgery provides a risk of damage to the pituitary because the vascular supply of the pituitary is not included in the cerebral autoregulation. Thus, pituitary tissue may exhibit an increased susceptibility to hypoperfusion, ischemia or intraoperative embolism. After on-pump procedures, patients often present with physical and psychosocial impairments which resemble symptoms of hypopituitarism. Therefore, we analyzed whether on-pump cardiac surgery may cause pituitary dysfunction also in the absence of pre-existing pituitary disease. Twenty-five patients were examined 3-12 months after on-pump cardiac surgery. Basal hormone levels for all four anterior pituitary hormone axes were measured and a short synacthen test and a growth hormone releasing hormone plus arginine (GHRH-ARG)-test were performed. Quality of life (QoL), depression, subjective distress for a specific life event, sleep quality and fatigue were assessed by means of self-rating questionnaires. Hormonal alterations were only slight and no signs of anterior hypopituitarism were found except for an insufficient growth hormone rise in two overweight patients in the GHRH-ARG-test. Psychosocial impairment was pronounced, including symptoms of moderate to severe depression in 9, reduced mental QoL in 8, dysfunctional coping in 6 and pronounced sleep disturbances in 16 patients. Hormone levels did not correlate with psychosocial impairment. On-pump cardiac surgery did not cause relevant hypopituitarism in our sample of patients and does not serve to explain the psychosocial symptoms of these patients.

  19. Can Violence cause Eating Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juli, Maria Rosaria

    2015-09-01

    The origin and course of eating disorders and nutrition have a multifactorial etiology and should therefore take into consideration: psychological factors, evolutionary, biological and socio-cultural (Juli 2012). Among the psychological factors we will focus on violence (in any form) and in particular on the consequences that they have on women, which vary in severity. Recent studies show that women get sick more than men, both from depression and eating disorders, with a ratio of 2:1; this difference begins in adolescence and continues throughout the course of life (Niolu 2010). The cause of this difference remains unclear. Many studies agree that during adolescence girls have negative feelings more frequently and for a longer duration caused by stressful life events and difficult circumstances, such as abuse or violence. This results in an increased likelihood of developing a symptom that will be connected to eating disorders and/or depression. As far as the role of food is concerned in eating disorders, it has a symbolic significance and offers emotional comfort. Eating means to incorporate and assimilate, and even in an ideal sense, the characteristics of the foods become part of the individual. Feelings that lead to binges with food are normally a result of feelings related to abuse or violence and lead to abnormal behavior which leads to binging and the final result being that the person is left feeling guilty and ashamed. Research confirms that 30% of patients who have been diagnosed with eating disorders, especially bulimia, have a history of sexual abuse during childhood. Ignoring the significance of this factor can result in the unleashing of this disease as the patient uses the disorder as his expressive theater (Mencarelli 2008). Factors that contribute to the possibility of developing an eating disorder are both the age of the patient at the time of the abuse and the duration of the abuse. The psychological effects that follow may include dissociative

  20. Modeling Multiple Causes of Carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, T D

    1999-01-24

    multiple causes of carcinogenesis and shifts the risk-assessment logic to considerations of "what dose does?" in contrast to the current process of the substance-specific question of "what dose is?" Whether reactive oxygen is the proximate or contributing cause of disease or simply a better estimate of biologically effective dose, it has enormous advantages for improved risk- and policy-based decisions. Various estimates of immune system modulation will be given based on radiobiology.

  1. Genetic causes of spermatogenic failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Annelien Massart; Willy Lissens; Herman Tournaye; Katrien Stouffs

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 10%-15% of couples are infertile,and a male factor is involved in almost half of these cases.This observation is due in part to defects in spermatogenesis,and the underlying causes,including genetic abnormalities,remain largely unknown.Until recently,the only genetic tests used in the diagnosis of male infertility were aimed at detecting the presence of microdeletions of the long arm of the Y chromosome and/or chromosomal abnormalities.Various other single-gene or polygenic defects have been proposed to be involved in male fertility.However,their causative effects often remain unproven.The recent evolution in the development of whole-genome-based techniques and the large-scale analysis of mouse models might help in this process.Through knockout mouse models,at least 388 genes have been shown to be associated with spermatogenesis in mice.However,problems often arise when translating this information from mice to humans.

  2. Environmental Degradation: Causes and Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Tyagi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The subject of environmental economics is at the forefront of the green debate: the environment can no longer be viewed as an entity separate from the economy. Environmental degradation is of many types and have many consequences. To address this challenge a number of studies have been conducted in both developing and developed countries applying different methods to capture health benefits from improved environmental quality. Minimizing exposure to environmental risk factors by enhancing air quality and access to improved sources of drinking and bathing water, sanitation and clean energy is found to be associated with significant health benefits and can contribute significantly to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals of environmental sustainability, health and development. In this paper, I describe the national and global causes and consequences of environmental degradation and social injustice. This paper provides a review of the literature on studies associated with reduced environmental risk and in particular focusing on reduced air pollution, enhanced water quality and climate change mitigation.

  3. Dyscalculia: Characteristics, Causes, and Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin R. Price

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Developmental Dyscalculia (DD is a learning disorder affecting the ability to acquire school-level arithmetic skills, affecting approximately 3-6% of individuals. Progress in understanding the root causes of DD and how best to treat it have been impeded by lack of widespread research and variation in characterizations of the disorder across studies. However, recent years have witnessed significant growth in the field, and a growing body of behavioral and neuroimaging evidence now points to an underlying deficit in the representation and processing of numerical magnitude information as a potential core deficit in DD. An additional product of the recent progress in understanding DD is the resurgence of a distinction between ‘primary’ and ‘secondary’ developmental dyscalculia. The first appears related to impaired development of brain mechanisms for processing numerical magnitude information, while the latter refers to mathematical deficits stemming from external factors such as poor teaching, low socio-economic status, and behavioral attention problems or domain-general cognitive deficits. Increased awareness of this distinction going forward, in combination with longitudinal empirical research, offers great potential for deepening our understanding of the disorder and developing effective educational interventions.

  4. Lymphoma caused by intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Mitsuko L; Schiestl, Robert H

    2014-09-01

    The intestinal microbiota and gut immune system must constantly communicate to maintain a balance between tolerance and activation: on the one hand, our immune system should protect us from pathogenic microbes and on the other hand, most of the millions of microbes in and on our body are innocuous symbionts and some can even be beneficial. Since there is such a close interaction between the immune system and the intestinal microbiota, it is not surprising that some lymphomas such as mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma have been shown to be caused by the presence of certain bacteria. Animal models played an important role in establishing causation and mechanism of bacteria-induced MALT lymphoma. In this review we discuss different ways that animal models have been applied to establish a link between the gut microbiota and lymphoma and how animal models have helped to elucidate mechanisms of microbiota-induced lymphoma. While there are not a plethora of studies demonstrating a connection between microbiota and lymphoma development, we believe that animal models are a system which can be exploited in the future to enhance our understanding of causation and improve prognosis and treatment of lymphoma.

  5. Spondylodiscitis Caused by Enterobacter agglomerans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayaweera Arachchige Asela Sampath Jayaweera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available All over the globe, the incidence of vertebral infection is rising. Nowadays, compared to tuberculous variety, pyogenic spondylodiscitis incidence is high. The increase in the susceptible population and improved diagnostics summatively contributed to this. In clinical grounds, differentiation of pyogenic and tuberculous spondylodiscitis is well defined. Enterobacter agglomerans is a hospital contaminant and associated with infections in immunocompromised individuals and intravenous lines. It causes a wide array of infections. Enterobacter agglomerans spondylodiscitis is unusual and there are, around the globe, only less than 31 suspected cases that have been previously reported. Enterobacter agglomerans histology mimics tuberculous rather than pyogenic spondylodiscitis. A 65-year-old farming lady, while being in hospital, developed sudden onset spastic paraparesis with hyperreflexia. Later blood culture revealed Enterobacter agglomerans with 41-hour incubation in 99.9% probability from Ramel identification system. Her initial ESR was 120 mm/first hour. Isolate was susceptible to ciprofloxacin and intravenous followed with oral therapy shows a drastic ESR fall and improved clinical response. Differentiation of tuberculous and pyogenic spondylodiscitis is very much important in management point of view. Therefore, blood culture has a role in diagnosis of spondylodiscitis. ESR can be used as important inflammatory marker in monitoring the response to treatment. Retrospectively, ESR would aid in reaching a definitive diagnosis.

  6. Reduced pallidal output causes dystonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi eNambu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Dystonia is a neurological disorder characterized by sustained or repetitive involuntary muscle contractions and abnormal postures. In the present article, we will introduce our recent electrophysiological studies in hyperkinetic transgenic mice generated as a model of DYT1 dystonia and in a human cervical dystonia patient, and discuss the pathophysiology of dystonia on the basis of these electrophysiological findings. Recording of neuronal activity in the awake state of DYT1 dystonia model mice revealed reduced spontaneous activity with bursts and pauses in both internal (GPi and external (GPe segments of the globus pallidus. Electrical stimulation of the primary motor cortex evoked responses composed of excitation and subsequent long-lasting inhibition, the latter of which was never observed in normal mice. In addition, somatotopic arrangements were disorganized in the GPi and GPe of dystonia model mice. In a human cervical dystonia patient, electrical stimulation of the primary motor cortex evoked similar long-lasting inhibition in the GPi and GPe. Thus, reduced GPi output may cause increased thalamic and cortical activity, resulting in the involuntary movements observed in dystonia.

  7. Childhood obesity: causes and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Krushnapriya; Sahoo, Bishnupriya; Choudhury, Ashok Kumar; Sofi, Nighat Yasin; Kumar, Raman; Bhadoria, Ajeet Singh

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed as well as in developing countries. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. Overweight and obese children are likely to stay obese into adulthood and more likely to develop non-communicable diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising prevalence of obesity worldwide. In general, overweight and obesity are assumed to be the results of an increase in caloric and fat intake. On the other hand, there are supporting evidence that excessive sugar intake by soft drink, increased portion size, and steady decline in physical activity have been playing major roles in the rising rates of obesity all around the world. Childhood obesity can profoundly affect children's physical health, social, and emotional well-being, and self esteem. It is also associated with poor academic performance and a lower quality of life experienced by the child. Many co-morbid conditions like metabolic, cardiovascular, orthopedic, neurological, hepatic, pulmonary, and renal disorders are also seen in association with childhood obesity.

  8. Onychomycosis caused by Trichosporon mucoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Rizzitelli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of onychomycosis caused by Trichosporon mucoides in a man with diabetes is presented. The infection was characterized by a brown–black pigmentation of the nail plates and subungual hyperkeratosis of the first three toes of both feet. Onychogryphosis was also visible on the third left toe. Direct microscopic examinations revealed wide and septate hyphae and spores. Three cultures on Sabouraud–gentamicin–chloramphenicol 2 agar and chromID Candida agar produced white, creamy, and smooth colonies that were judged to be morphologically typical of T. mucoides. Microscopic examinations of the colonies showed arthroconidia and blastoconidia. The urease test was positive. A sugar assimilation test on yeast nitrogen base agar showed assimilation of galactitol, sorbitol, and arabinitol. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF confirmed the diagnosis of T. mucoides infection. The patient was treated with topical urea and oral itraconazole. Three months later, a mild improvement was observed. The patient was subsequently lost to follow-up.

  9. [Anaphylaxis caused by royal jelly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger, A; Rubira, N; Nogueiras, C; Guspi, R; Baltasar, M; Cadahia, A

    1995-01-01

    Royal jelly is the food on which are fed and which causes them to develop into queen bees. It is claimed to have rejuvenating virtues for human beings. This report describes a 15-year-old atopic woman who presented, 15 minutes after the intake of royal jelly, local angioedema, generalised urticaria, dysphonia and bronchospasm. She was given antihistaminics and corticoesteroids and responded well. The ingested product contains royal jelly, lactose and potassium sorbate. No anaphylactic reactions to lactose and sorbates have been described previously. Prick test to common food allergens hymenoptera venoms and pollens were negative. RAST to meletin was also negative. Blood eosinophils were 600 and total IgE 465. Non-commercial prepared specific IgE to royal jelly was positive (0.8 KU/l). Prick by prick was positive to 1/10 dilution, being negative in controls (undiluted). No oral provocation test was performed due to the risk of anaphylaxis. No reported cases of royal jelly allergy were founded in a review of the medical literature. Concluding, it is the first described case of IgE anaphylactic reaction due to royal jelly.

  10. Trypanosomatid parasites causing neglected diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaum, K; Honek, J; Cadmus, C M C v C; Efferth, T

    2010-01-01

    Parasitic diseases such as Kala azar (visceral leishmaniasis), Chagas disease human (American trypanosomiasis) and African sleeping sickness (African trypanosomiasis) are affecting more than 27 million people worldwide. They are categorized amongst the most important neglected diseases causing approximately 150,000 deaths annually. As no vaccination is available, treatment is solely dependent on chemotherapeutic drugs. This review provides a comprehensive insight into the treatment of Kala azar, Chagas disease and African sleeping sickness. In addition to established drugs, novel small molecule- based therapeutic approaches are discussed. Drugs currently used for the treatment of Kala azar include pentavalent antimonials, Amphotericin B, Miltefosine, and Paromomycin. Liposomal formulations such as AmBisome provide promising alternatives. Furthermore, antiproliferative compounds might open new avenues in Kala azar treatment. Regarding Chagas disease, chemotherapy is based on two drugs, Nifurtimox and Benznidazole. However, sequencing of T. cruzi genome in the year 2005 raises a hope for new drug targets. Proteases, sterols and sialic acids are potential promising drug targets. Suramin, Pentamidine, Melarsporol and Eflornithine are well-established drugs to treat African sleeping sickness. New treatment options include combination therapy of Eflornithine and Nifurtimox, a Chagas disease therapeutic.. However, all approved chemotherapeutic compounds for trypanosomatid diseases suffer from high toxicity. Further, increasing resistance limits their efficacy and compliance.

  11. Childhood obesity: causes and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krushnapriya Sahoo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed as well as in developing countries. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. Overweight and obese children are likely to stay obese into adulthood and more likely to develop non-communicable diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising prevalence of obesity worldwide. In general, overweight and obesity are assumed to be the results of an increase in caloric and fat intake. On the other hand, there are supporting evidence that excessive sugar intake by soft drink, increased portion size, and steady decline in physical activity have been playing major roles in the rising rates of obesity all around the world. Childhood obesity can profoundly affect children′s physical health, social, and emotional well-being, and self esteem. It is also associated with poor academic performance and a lower quality of life experienced by the child. Many co-morbid conditions like metabolic, cardiovascular, orthopedic, neurological, hepatic, pulmonary, and renal disorders are also seen in association with childhood obesity.

  12. Offshore Blowouts, Causes and Trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holand, P.

    1996-02-01

    The main objective of this doctoral thesis was to establish an improved design basis for offshore installations with respect to blowout risk analyses. The following sub objectives are defined: (1) Establish an offshore blowout database suitable for risk analyses, (2) Compare the blowout risk related to loss of lives with the total offshore risk and risk in other industries, (3) Analyse blowouts with respect to parameters that are important to describe and quantify blowout risk that has been experienced to be able to answer several questions such as under what operations have blowouts occurred, direct causes, frequency of occurrence etc., (4) Analyse blowouts with respect to trends. The research strategy applied includes elements from both survey strategy and case study strategy. The data are systematized in the form of a new database developed from the MARINTEK database. Most blowouts in the analysed period occurred during drilling operations. Shallow gas blowouts were more frequent than deep blowouts and workover blowouts occurred more often than deep development drilling blowouts. Relatively few blowouts occurred during completion, wireline and normal production activities. No significant trend in blowout occurrences as a function of time could be observed, except for completion blowouts that showed a significantly decreasing trend. But there were trends regarding some important parameters for risk analyses, e.g. the ignition probability has decreased and diverter systems have improved. Only 3.5% of the fatalities occurred because of blowouts. 106 refs., 51 figs., 55 tabs.

  13. Common Cause Abduction : Its Scope and Limits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dziurosz-Serafinowicz, Patryk

    2012-01-01

    Patryk Dziurosz-Serafmowicz, Common Cause Abduction: Its Scope and Limits This article aims to analyze the scope and limits of common cause abduction which is a version of explanatory abduction based on Hans Reichenbach's Principle of the Common Cause. First, it is argued that common cause abduction

  14. 7 CFR 276.6 - Good cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Good cause. 276.6 Section 276.6 Agriculture... cause. (a) When a State agency has failed to comply with provisions of the Act, the regulations issued... cause for the noncompliance. FNS shall evaluate good cause in these situations on a case-by-case...

  15. 49 CFR 850.20 - Cause or probable cause determinations from Board investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cause or probable cause determinations from Board... INVESTIGATIONS § 850.20 Cause or probable cause determinations from Board investigation. After an investigation conducted by the Board under § 850.15, the Board determines cause or probable cause and issues a report...

  16. Hypothyroidism: Does It Cause Joint Pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypothyroidism: Does it cause joint pain? Can hypothyroidism cause joint pain? I have hypothyroidism and have been experiencing severe arthritis-like pain in my shoulders and hips. Answers from Todd B. ...

  17. Hypothyroidism: Can It Cause Peripheral Neuropathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypothyroidism: Can it cause peripheral neuropathy? Can hypothyroidism cause peripheral neuropathy and, if so, how is it treated? Answers from Todd B. Nippoldt, M.D. Hypothyroidism — a condition in which your ...

  18. Rogue Genes May Cause Some ALS Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166795.html Rogue Genes May Cause Some ALS Cases Most people with ... 21, 2017 WEDNESDAY, June 21, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Gene mutations may cause up to 17 percent of ...

  19. FastStats: Leading Causes of Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Leading Causes of Death Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Number of deaths for leading causes of death Heart disease: 633,842 • Cancer: ...

  20. Sjogren's Syndrome: Can It Cause Recurrent UTIs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it cause recurrent UTIs? Since being diagnosed with Sjogren's syndrome last year, I've had three urinary tract infections. Is there any evidence that Sjogren's syndrome causes recurrent UTIs? Answers from April Chang-Miller, ...

  1. Rhinofacial zygomycosis caused by conidiobolus coronatus

    OpenAIRE

    Nayak, D. R.; Pillai, S; Rao, L

    2004-01-01

    Fungal infections are common in a tropical country like India. Among the Zygomycosis infections, those caused by Mucorales are more prevalent. However, there exists another order of zygomycetes, the Entomophthorales, which rarely cause clinical disease. We report a rare cause of fungal infection of the maxillo-facial region and the oropharynx in a previously healthly male adult caused by Conidiobolus coronata of the order Entomophthorales to highlight the clinical presentation and treatment o...

  2. BUCKLE: A Model of Unobserved Cause Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhmann, Christian C.; Ahn, Woo-kyoung

    2007-01-01

    Dealing with alternative causes is necessary to avoid making inaccurate causal inferences from covariation data. However, information about alternative causes is frequently unavailable, rendering them unobserved. The current article reviews the way in which current learning models deal, or could deal, with unobserved causes. A new model of causal…

  3. Burn Injury Caused by Laptop Computers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dry skin, with no blisters, on his left leg was reported [Figure 1]. ... can indeed cause it. in very rare cases, the condition can cause damage leading to skin cancer. ... After an extensive work‑up, burning caused by use of a laptop was observed.

  4. 46 CFR 4.40-20 - Cause or probable cause determinations from Board investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cause or probable cause determinations from Board... Board Marine Casualty Investigations § 4.40-20 Cause or probable cause determinations from Board investigation. After an investigation conducted by the Board under § 4.40-15, the Board determines cause...

  5. More on the Cause-Effect Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janik, Jerzy A.

    2007-06-01

    Does every event have a cause? An answer is not simple. The notion of cause contains a particular being y acting on being x plus everything that may be called the boundary conditions. These may form necessary and suffcient conditions giving rise to a strong cause, or only necessary conditions, giving rise to a weak cause. These matters are discussed in this article with particular attention being paid to the argumentation of Thomas Aquinas known as prima via. Prima via is the analysis of a cause-effect sequence which leads (according to Thomas) to a First Cause (First Mover). It seems that the extrapolation of the cause-effect sequence to infinity is permissible from the logical point of view. But the possibility of weak causes seems to destroy the cause-effect "line". Here it is perhaps useful to "escape" to the metaphysical abstraction which looks at things sub ratione entitatis. If we ignore space and time (which is characteristic of this abstraction) we are led to believe that the IS of cause is finally unavoidable, which means that from the vantage point of this abstraction, i.e. from the point of view of IS, all causes are strong.

  6. [Odontogenic maxillary sinusitis caused by dental restoration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kiminori

    2014-06-01

    We report herein on 5 patients with odontogenic maxillary sinusitis caused by a dental restoration (caries cutting, cavity preparation, inlay restoration). Odontogenic maxillary sinusitis was noted following dental restoration. Even though the pulp cavity and dental pulp were intact, the odontogenic maxillary sinusitis occurred caused by an apical lesion. Infection by way of the dentinal tubules was suggested to be a cause of the pathophysiology. Endoscopic sinus surgery was indicated in patients with intractable odontogenic maxillary sinusitis caused by the dental restoration. Cone-beam x-ray CT was useful for the accurate diagnosis of odontogenic maxillary sinusitis caused by a dental restoration. Physicians should thus be aware of the possibility that a tooth, which has undergone dental restoration, may cause odontogenic maxillary sinusitis.

  7. Mullerian anomalies: a cause of primary amenorrhea

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background: The objectives of this study were to determine the etiologic causes of amenorrhea, the prevalence of mullerian anomalies as a cause of primary amenorrhea and the different varieties of mullerian anomalies causing primary amenorrhea. Methods: This study included all the women presenting with primary amenorrhea who presented to the department of obstetrics and gynecology, Sir T Hospital and Government Medical College, Bhavnagar from 1st January 2010 to 30th June 2012. Results: The c...

  8. Infectious discitis caused by Enterobacter cloacae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solans, R; Simeon, P; Cuenca, R; Fonollosa, V; Bago, J; Vilardell, M

    1992-01-01

    The case is reported of a patient who developed a vertebral osteomyelitis caused by Enterobacter cloacae. The organism was isolated in cultures of blood and vertebral puncture biopsy samples. The patient was satisfactorily treated with trimethroprim and sulphamethoxazole. Enterobacter cloacae, a Gram negative organism, has been confirmed as the cause of bacteremia in patients with burns, urinary infections, in adults with pneumonia, and in children with joint infections. Spondylodiscitis caused by Enterobacter cloacae has not previously been described. Images PMID:1632668

  9. An unusual cause of gastrointestinal bleed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C K Adarsh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal (GI bleed often brings the patient to the emergency medical service with great anxiety. Known common causes of GI bleed include ulcers, varices, Mallory-Weiss among others. All causes of GI bleed should be considered however unusual during the evaluation. Aortoenteric fistula (AEF is one of the unusual causes of GI bleed, which has to be considered especially in patients with a history of abdominal surgery in general and aortic surgery in particular.

  10. Imaging Interplanetary Disturbances Causing Forbush Decreases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    NUMBER Imaging Interplanetary Disturbances Causing Forbush Decreases 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61102F • 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...3-10 AUG 05. 14. ABSTRACT Forbush decreases (FDs) in neutron monitor (NM) counting rates are caused by enhanced magnetic fields in interplanetary...VS-HA-TR-2007-1044 29th International Cosmic Ray Conference Pune (2005) 2, 267-270 Imaging Interplanetary Disturbances Causing Forbush Decreases S.W

  11. An unusual cause of anemia and encephalopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjeev Kumar Sharma; Dharma Choudhary; Anil Handoo; Gaurav Dhamija; Gaurav Kharya; Vipin Khandelwal; Mayank Dhamija; Sweta Kothari

    2015-01-01

    The authors present here an interesting case of recent onset anemia that was associated with an encephalopathy of the unusual cause.Although severe anemia can theoretically result in anemic hypoxia and can then lead to hypoxic encephalopathy, it is not a primary cause of encephalopathy. More frequently anemia can contribute together with other multiple causes of encephalopathy, such as infections, metabolic abnormalities, trauma, hepatic dysfunction, hypertension, toxins.

  12. Megaloblastic Anemias: Nutritional and Other Causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Ralph; Datta Mitra, Ananya

    2017-03-01

    Vitamin B12 and folate deficiencies are major causes of megaloblastic anemia. Causes of B12 deficiency include pernicious anemia, gastric surgery, intestinal disorders, dietary deficiency, and inherited disorders of B12 transport or absorption. The prevalence of folate deficiency has decreased because of folate fortification, but deficiency still occurs from malabsorption and increased demand. Other causes include drugs and inborn metabolic errors. Clinical features of megaloblastic anemia include anemia, cytopenias, jaundice, and megaloblastic marrow morphology. Neurologic symptoms occur in B12 deficiency, but not in folate deficiency. Management includes identifying any deficiency, establishing its cause, and replenishing B12 or folate parenterally or orally. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Hemolytic anemia caused by chemicals and toxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This list is not all-inclusive. Alternative Names Anemia - hemolytic - caused by chemicals or toxins References Michel M. Autoimmune and intravascular hemolytic anemias. In: Goldman L, Schafer ...

  14. Intestinal perforation caused by multiple magnet ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nergul Corduk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple magnet ingestion is rare, but can cause serious gastrointestinal complications. We report a case of 7-year-old girl with multiple intestinal perforations caused by multiple magnet ingestion. The aim of this report is to draw attention to magnetic toys, results of magnet ingestion and the importance of timing of operation.

  15. How does climate change cause extinction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Abigail E; Aiello-Lammens, Matthew E; Fisher-Reid, M Caitlin; Hua, Xia; Karanewsky, Caitlin J; Ryu, Hae Yeong; Sbeglia, Gena C; Spagnolo, Fabrizio; Waldron, John B; Warsi, Omar; Wiens, John J

    2013-01-07

    Anthropogenic climate change is predicted to be a major cause of species extinctions in the next 100 years. But what will actually cause these extinctions? For example, will it be limited physiological tolerance to high temperatures, changing biotic interactions or other factors? Here, we systematically review the proximate causes of climate-change related extinctions and their empirical support. We find 136 case studies of climatic impacts that are potentially relevant to this topic. However, only seven identified proximate causes of demonstrated local extinctions due to anthropogenic climate change. Among these seven studies, the proximate causes vary widely. Surprisingly, none show a straightforward relationship between local extinction and limited tolerances to high temperature. Instead, many studies implicate species interactions as an important proximate cause, especially decreases in food availability. We find very similar patterns in studies showing decreases in abundance associated with climate change, and in those studies showing impacts of climatic oscillations. Collectively, these results highlight our disturbingly limited knowledge of this crucial issue but also support the idea that changing species interactions are an important cause of documented population declines and extinctions related to climate change. Finally, we briefly outline general research strategies for identifying these proximate causes in future studies.

  16. The Good Cause. Theoretical Perspectives on Corruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, de G.; Maravić, von P.; Wagenaar, F.P.

    From conceptualization to ideas on practical policy recommendations, The Good Cause presents a state-of-the-art study on the causes of corruption. A cohort of internationally-recognized researchers from the various academic fields that study corruption come together to explain their different theore

  17. Thoracic empyema caused by Campylobacter rectus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Tomoyuki; Urata, Teruo; Nemoto, Daisuke; Hitomi, Shigemi

    2017-03-01

    We report a case of thoracic empyema caused by Campylobacter rectus, an organism considered as a periodontal pathogen but rarely recovered from extraoral specimens. The patient fully recovered through drainage of purulent pleural fluid and administration of antibiotics. The present case illustrates that C. rectus can be a cause of not only periodontal disease but also pulmonary infection.

  18. Acute esophageal necrosis caused by alcohol abuse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tetsu Endo; Juichi Sakamoto; Ken Sato; Miyako Takimoto; Koji Shimaya; Tatsuya Mikami; Akihiro Munakata; Tadashi Shimoyama; Shinsaku Fukuda

    2005-01-01

    Acute esophageal necrosis (AEN) is extremely rare and the pathogenesis of this is still unknown. We report a case of AEN caused by alcohol abuse. In our case, the main pathogenesis could be accounted for low systemic perfusion caused by severe alcoholic lactic acidosis. After the healing of AEN, balloon dilatation was effective to manage the stricture.

  19. Secondary peritonitis caused by Streptomyces viridis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Datta (Priya); S. Arora (Shilpa); A. Jain (Ashok); J. Chander (Jagdish); W.W.J. van de Sande (Wendy)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractStreptomyces organisms are soil inhabitants rarely causing nonmycetomic infections. We describe a case of secondary peritonitis caused by Streptomyces viridis in a chronic alcoholic patient who presented with fever, abdominal distension, and pain in the abdomen. The most likely source of

  20. Case to Cause: Back to the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramovitz, Mimi; Sherraden, Margaret S.

    2016-01-01

    This article reopens the historic debate about the roles of micro and macro practice in social work and encourages the profession to find ways to achieve a better balance between case and cause in education, practice, and research. To this end, it traces the history of the case versus cause debate including conceptual frameworks for rebalancing…

  1. Genes Causing Male Infertility in Humans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lawrence C. Layman

    2002-01-01

    There are an accumulating number of identified gene mutations that cause infertility in humans. Most of the known gene mutations impair normal puberty and subsequently cause infertility by either hypothalamic /pituitary deficiency of important tropic factors to the gonad or by gonadal genes.

  2. A rare cause of Cushing's syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkestad, Lars; Andersen, Marianne Skovsager; Nielsen, Anne Lerberg;

    2014-01-01

    Excess glucocorticoid levels cause Cushing's syndrome (CS) and may be due to pituitary, adrenal or ectopic tumours. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels are useful in identifying adrenal tumours. In rare cases, ACTH-producing phaeochromocytomas are the cause of CS. We present two cases of ACTH...

  3. The Good Cause. Theoretical Perspectives on Corruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, de G.; Maravić, von P.; Wagenaar, F.P.

    From conceptualization to ideas on practical policy recommendations, The Good Cause presents a state-of-the-art study on the causes of corruption. A cohort of internationally-recognized researchers from the various academic fields that study corruption come together to explain their different

  4. Interstitial lung disease probably caused by imipramine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Prasanna R; Ravi, Ranjani; Gouda, Sinddalingana; Stanley, Weena; Hande, Manjunath H

    2014-01-01

    Drugs are rarely associated with causing interstitial lung disease (ILD). We report a case of a 75-year-old woman who developed ILD after exposure to imipramine. To our knowledge, this is one of the rare cases of ILD probably caused due to imipramine. There is need to report such rare adverse effects related to ILD and drugs for better management of ILD.

  5. Identification of microcracks caused by autogenous shrinkage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lura, Pietro; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Guang, Ye

    2005-01-01

    Detection and quantification of microcracks caused by restrained autogenous shrinkage in high-performance concrete is difficult. Available techniques either lack the required resolution or may cause further cracks indistinguishable from the original ones. The new technique presented in this paper...... microscopy, electron probe micro analysis, EPMA, and scanning electron microscopy, SEM. A preliminary analysis of the observed microcracks is presented in this paper....

  6. Fatigue in traffic : causes and effects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2006-01-01

    The role of fatigue must not be underestimated when studying the causes of crashes. Crashes in which driver fatigue plays a role are not only a matter of having spent too long behind the wheel; fatigue can also be caused by too little sleep, stress, or the time of the day. According to a conservativ

  7. Infectious keratitis caused by Aspergillus tubingensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kredics, L.; Varga, J.; Kocsube, S.; Rajaraman, R.; Raghavan, A.; Doczi, I.; Bhaskar, M.; Nemeth, T.M.; Antal, Z.; Venkatapathy, N.; Vagvolgyi, C.; Samson, R.A.; Chockaiya, M.; Palanisamy, M.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To report 2 cases of keratomycosis caused by Aspergillus tubingensis. METHODS: The therapeutic courses were recorded for 2 male patients, 52 and 78 years old, with fungal keratitis caused by black Aspergillus strains. Morphological examination of the isolates was carried out on malt extract

  8. Systemic causes of heavy menstrual bleeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschueren, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) is a common problem in fertile women. In addition to local factors, such as a polyp or a uterine fibroid, systemic causes may lead to HMB. These systemic causes are discussed in this thesis. For years, women with HMB were tested underlying thyroid disorder, but our res

  9. Causes of Male Dropout Rate in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ud Din, Muhammad Naseer; Dad, Hukam; Iqbal, Javid; Shah, Syed Shafqat Ali; Niazi, Muhammad Imran

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to seek the cause of male students' dropout rate at the primary level of F.R. Peshawar. The main objectives of the study were: 1) to study the teacher problems and attitudes of the dropouts, 2) to determine the factors that cause dropouts, 3) to study the government's strategy of dropouts, and 4) to provide suggestions to overcome…

  10. Irreversible brain damage caused by methamphetamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Moeller

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine is an addictive scene substance usage of which is increasing rapidly. While methamphetamine often causes neuropsychiatric symptoms like anxiety, psychosis and hallucinations, reports of structural ongoing cerebral alterations are rare. We here report a case of this kind of damage caused through methamphetamine use.

  11. Genetic Causes of Cerebrovascular Disorders in Childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E.C. Meuwissen (Marije)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Cerebrovascular disorders in childhood comprise ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke. This thesis comprises a escription of genetic causes of childhood cerebrovascular disorders. Two examples of genetic causes of ischemic stroke, comprising a case of ACTA2 mutation an

  12. Interpreting Causes of Personal Stress with "Cheese"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Karl L.

    2008-01-01

    Attempts to identify the root causes of individual stress have been made for centuries. The result has been the development of a myriad of approaches and explanations as to the cause of stress by psychologists, educators, researchers, and self-help authors. Each approach carries a degree of validity in the context that individuals experience…

  13. Diagnosis of reversible causes of coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlow, Jonathan A; Rabinstein, Alejandro; Traub, Stephen J; Wijdicks, Eelco F M

    2014-12-06

    Because coma has many causes, physicians must develop a structured, algorithmic approach to diagnose and treat reversible causes rapidly. The three main mechanisms of coma are structural brain lesions, diffuse neuronal dysfunction, and, rarely, psychiatric causes. The first priority is to stabilise the patient by treatment of life-threatening conditions, then to use the history, physical examination, and laboratory findings to identify structural causes and diagnose treatable disorders. Some patients have a clear diagnosis. In those who do not, the first decision is whether brain imaging is needed. Imaging should be done in post-traumatic coma or when structural brain lesions are probable or possible causes. Patients who do not undergo imaging should be reassessed regularly. If CT is non-diagnostic, a checklist should be used use to indicate whether advanced imaging is needed or evidence is present of a treatable poisoning or infection, seizures including non-convulsive status epilepticus, endocrinopathy, or thiamine deficiency.

  14. Social class and cause of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erikson, Robert; Torssander, Jenny

    2008-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that causes of death differ in their relationship to social class, but we lack a more comprehensive description of this variation. The present study provides a detailed and extensive list of social class differences for a large number of specific causes of death. All deaths between 1991 and 2003 in Sweden were linked with information on household social class from 1990. Relative death risks and excess mortality in groups of causes according to the European shortlist were estimated separately for men and women in eight classes using Cox Regression. A clear mortality gradient among employees was found for the majority of causes, from low-relative death risks among higher managerial and professional occupations to relatively high risks for the unskilled working class. There is considerable variation in the strength of the association, from causes such as malignant melanoma, breast cancer and transport accidents among women, where no clear class differences were found. At the other extreme, mental and behavioural disorders, endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases and diseases of the respiratory system all show steep slopes for both men and women. Circulatory diseases and cancer together account for 15-20% of excess mortality. Exceptions to the general pattern--causes of death in which higher social classes are exposed to greater death risks or in which there is no mortality gradient--are practically non-existent. There is nevertheless significant variation in the strength of the class differences in specific causes.

  15. Analyzing delay causes in Egyptian construction projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. Marzouk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Construction delays are common problems in civil engineering projects in Egypt. These problems occur frequently during project life-time leading to disputes and litigation. Therefore, it is essential to study and analyze causes of construction delays. This research presents a list of construction delay causes retrieved from literature. The feedback of construction experts was obtained through interviews. Subsequently, a questionnaire survey was prepared. The questionnaire survey was distributed to thirty-three construction experts who represent owners, consultants, and contractor’s organizations. Frequency Index, Severity Index, and Importance Index are calculated and according to the highest values of them the top ten delay causes of construction projects in Egypt are determined. A case study is analyzed and compared to the most important delay causes in the research. Statistical analysis is carried out using analysis of variance ANOVA method to test delay causes, obtained from the survey. The test results reveal good correlation between groups while there is significant difference between them for some delay causes and finally roadmap for prioritizing delay causes groups is presented.

  16. Analyzing delay causes in Egyptian construction projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzouk, Mohamed M; El-Rasas, Tarek I

    2014-01-01

    Construction delays are common problems in civil engineering projects in Egypt. These problems occur frequently during project life-time leading to disputes and litigation. Therefore, it is essential to study and analyze causes of construction delays. This research presents a list of construction delay causes retrieved from literature. The feedback of construction experts was obtained through interviews. Subsequently, a questionnaire survey was prepared. The questionnaire survey was distributed to thirty-three construction experts who represent owners, consultants, and contractor's organizations. Frequency Index, Severity Index, and Importance Index are calculated and according to the highest values of them the top ten delay causes of construction projects in Egypt are determined. A case study is analyzed and compared to the most important delay causes in the research. Statistical analysis is carried out using analysis of variance ANOVA method to test delay causes, obtained from the survey. The test results reveal good correlation between groups while there is significant difference between them for some delay causes and finally roadmap for prioritizing delay causes groups is presented.

  17. Infectious causes of fever of unknown origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Alastair C; Moore, David A

    2015-06-01

    The causes of fever of unknown origin (FUO) are changing because advances in clinical practice and diagnostics have facilitated the identification of some infections. A variety of bacterial infections can cause FUO, and these can be divided into those that are easy to identify using culture and those that require serological or molecular tests for identification. A number of viral, parasitic and fungal infections can also cause prolonged fever. This article summarises the clinical features and diagnostic strategy of these infections. © Royal College of Physicians 2015. All rights reserved.

  18. Treatment of Infections Caused by Rhodococcus equi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giguère, Steeve

    2017-04-01

    Pneumonia caused by Rhodococcus equi remains an important cause of disease and death in foals. The combination of a macrolide (erythromycin, azithromycin, or clarithromycin) with rifampin remains the recommended therapy for foals with clinical signs of infection caused by R equi. Most foals with small, subclinical ultrasonographic pulmonary lesions associated with R equi recover without therapy, and administration of antimicrobial agents to these subclinically affected foals does not hasten lesion resolution relative to administration of a placebo. Resistance to macrolides and rifampin in isolates of R equi is increasing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Hip labral cyst caused by psoas impingement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tey, Marc; Alvarez, Sonia; Ríos, Jose L

    2012-08-01

    Hip labral impingement can cause labral tears and secondary paralabral cyst formation. Femoroacetabular impingement is the main cause of labral impingement, but other conditions such as iliopsoas tendon impingement are described. There is no description of labral cyst resulting from psoas impingement treated arthroscopically in the literature. We present the case of a young sportsman with groin pain caused by psoas impingement with a labral tear and secondary paralabral cyst who was treated arthroscopically by cyst debridement, psoas tenotomy, and labral repair. Copyright © 2012 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Burn Injury Caused by Laptop Computers

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, G

    2013-01-01

    Laptop burn is a real condition and medical reports indicate that using a laptop across the legs can indeed cause it. in very rare cases, the condition can cause damage leading to skin cancer. A 24-year-old man presented with an asymptomatic reddish brown pigmentation on the thighs. After an extensive work-up, burning caused by use of a laptop was observed. Burning was induced in 3 days by using laptop for 4 h daily. Laptop should be used in properly ventilated and air-conditioned rooms. The ...

  1. Lactational mastitis caused by Streptococcus lactarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tena, Daniel; Fernández, Cristina; López-Garrido, Beatriz; Pérez-Balsalobre, Mercedes; Losa, Cristina; Medina-Pascual, María José; Sáez-Nieto, Juan Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Human infections caused by Streptococcus lactarius have not been previously reported. In the present report, we describe a lactational mastitis caused by this organism. The infection occurred in a 28-year-old breast-feeding female, with a 10-days history of moderate pain on the right breast. The patient was cured after antibiotic treatment with levofloxacin for 21 days. Our case shows that S. lactarius should be considered as a cause of lactational mastitis. The introduction of molecular microbiology techniques can be extremely useful for knowing the implication of streptococci in lactational mastitis.

  2. Common Cause Failures and Ultra Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2012-01-01

    A common cause failure occurs when several failures have the same origin. Common cause failures are either common event failures, where the cause is a single external event, or common mode failures, where two systems fail in the same way for the same reason. Common mode failures can occur at different times because of a design defect or a repeated external event. Common event failures reduce the reliability of on-line redundant systems but not of systems using off-line spare parts. Common mode failures reduce the dependability of systems using off-line spare parts and on-line redundancy.

  3. Occupational respiratory disease caused by acrylates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savonius, B; Keskinen, H; Tuppurainen, M; Kanerva, L

    1993-05-01

    Acrylates are compounds used in a variety of industrial fields and their use is increasing. They have many features which make them superior to formerly used chemicals, regarding both their industrial use and their possible health effects. Contact sensitization is, however, one of their well known adverse health effects but they may also cause respiratory symptoms. We report on 18 cases of respiratory disease, mainly asthma, caused by different acrylates, 10 cases caused by cyanoacrylates, four by methacrylates and two cases by other acrylates.

  4. Pediatric cervicofacial lymphadenitis caused by Bartonella henselae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindeboom, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic cervicofacial lymphadenitis in children is often caused by nontuberculous mycobacterium or Bartonella henselae species (known as cat scratch disease). Methods Bartonella henselae infection was diagnosed in 53 of 427 children with cervicofacial lymphadenopathy by polymerase chain r

  5. Mutations in ANTXR1 Cause GAPO Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stranecky, V.; Hoischen, A.; Hartmannova, H.; Zaki, M.S.; Chaudhary, A.; Zudaire, E.; Noskova, L.; Baresova, V.; Pristoupilova, A.; Hodanova, K.; Sovova, J.; Hulkova, H.; Piherova, L.; Hehir-Kwa, J.Y.; Silva, D. De; Senanayake, M.P.; Farrag, S.; Zeman, J.; Martasek, P.; Baxova, A.; Afifi, H.H.; Croix, B. St.; Brunner, H.G.; Temtamy, S.; Kmoch, S.

    2013-01-01

    The genetic cause of GAPO syndrome, a condition characterized by growth retardation, alopecia, pseudoanodontia, and progressive visual impairment, has not previously been identified. We studied four ethnically unrelated affected individuals and identified homozygous nonsense mutations (c.262C>T [

  6. Topical Pain Relievers May Cause Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Consumer Updates Topical Pain Relievers May Cause Burns Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... rare, have ranged from mild to severe chemical burns with use of such brand-name topical muscle ...

  7. Renal abscess caused by Salmonella Typhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarjeet Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella typhi is a true pathogen, which is capable of causing both intestinal and extraintestinal infections. Unusual presentations of Salmonella should always be kept in mind as this organism can cause disease in almost any organ of the body. S. typhi has been reported to cause the life-threatening infections such as meningitis, endocarditis, myocarditis, empyema, and hepatic abscess. Renal involvement by S. typhi is a relatively rare presentation. We report a case of renal abscess caused by S. typhi in an afebrile, 10-year-old child who did not have any clinical history of enteric fever. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of isolation of S. typhi from the renal abscess, and interestingly this isolate was found to be resistant to quinolones.

  8. Understanding Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA): Treatment and Causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Understanding Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) Treatment and Causes Past Issues / Summer 2014 Table of Contents How Is Rheumatoid Arthritis Treated? Doctors have many ways to treat this ...

  9. CDC WONDER: Mortality - Multiple Cause of Death

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mortality - Multiple Cause of Death data on CDC WONDER are county-level national mortality and population data spanning the years 1999-2009. Data are based on...

  10. CDC WONDER: Mortality - Multiple Cause of Death

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mortality - Multiple Cause of Death data on CDC WONDER are county-level national mortality and population data spanning the years 1999-2006. These data are...

  11. CDC WONDER: Mortality - Underlying Cause of Death

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CDC WONDER Mortality - Underlying Cause of Death online database is a county-level national mortality and population database spanning the years since 1979. Data...

  12. IMPROVING CAUSE DETECTION SYSTEMS WITH ACTIVE LEARNING

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — IMPROVING CAUSE DETECTION SYSTEMS WITH ACTIVE LEARNING ISAAC PERSING AND VINCENT NG Abstract. Active learning has been successfully applied to many natural language...

  13. Do We Know What Causes Stomach Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... occur in the stomach lining. In chronic atrophic gastritis , the normal glands of the stomach are either ... damaged by cells of the immune system). Atrophic gastritis is often caused by H pylori infection. It ...

  14. Periodontal (Gum) Disease: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for providing oral care. NIDCR > OralHealth > Topics > Gum (Periodontal) Diseases > Periodontal (Gum) Disease: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatments Periodontal ( ... U.S. currently have some form of the disease. Periodontal diseases range from simple gum inflammation to serious disease ...

  15. Ophthalmia neonatorum caused by Neisseria cinerea.

    OpenAIRE

    Bourbeau, P; Holla, V; Piemontese, S

    1990-01-01

    Neisseria cinerea is an organism that has only recently been implicated as a human pathogen. In this case, N. cinerea was identified as the cause of ophthalmia neonatorum (conjunctivitis) in a 2-day-old girl.

  16. Ophthalmia neonatorum caused by Neisseria cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourbeau, P; Holla, V; Piemontese, S

    1990-07-01

    Neisseria cinerea is an organism that has only recently been implicated as a human pathogen. In this case, N. cinerea was identified as the cause of ophthalmia neonatorum (conjunctivitis) in a 2-day-old girl.

  17. Identifying Causes of Job Performance Deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herem, Maynard A.

    1979-01-01

    A model to guide the search for types of performance deficiencies is set forth within the general framework of systems theory. Five types of problems, singly or in combination, are discussed as causes of deficiencies. (Author)

  18. Common Cause Failure Modeling: Aerospace Versus Nuclear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott, James E.; Britton, Paul; Ring, Robert W.; Hark, Frank; Hatfield, G. Spencer

    2010-01-01

    Aggregate nuclear plant failure data is used to produce generic common-cause factors that are specifically for use in the common-cause failure models of NUREG/CR-5485. Furthermore, the models presented in NUREG/CR-5485 are specifically designed to incorporate two significantly distinct assumptions about the methods of surveillance testing from whence this aggregate failure data came. What are the implications of using these NUREG generic factors to model the common-cause failures of aerospace systems? Herein, the implications of using the NUREG generic factors in the modeling of aerospace systems are investigated in detail and strong recommendations for modeling the common-cause failures of aerospace systems are given.

  19. CASE REPORT Extramedullary haematopoiesis causing spinal cord ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extramedullary haematopoiesis (EMH) is a rare cause of spinal cord compression. ... 6-week history of progressive muscle weakness, back pain, paraesthesia and spasm in ... The patient also underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

  20. Did Economic Inequality Cause the Economic Crisis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Danilo Sukovic

    2014-01-01

    ... that occurred during the last three decades. The global economic crisis that emerged in 2008 gave a new impetus to this research because numerous scientific studies appeared in which inequalities were given as one of the key causes...

  1. Inherited Causes of Exocrine Pancreatic Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter R Durie

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The exocrine pancreas is functionally immature at birth. Protease function is probably adequate, but lipase activity approximates 5% to 10% of adult values in the newborn and remains low in infancy. Pancreatic amylase secretion is essentially absent at birth and remains low through the first years of life. Functional disturbances of the exocrine pancreas are less frequent in childhood than in adult life. Causes of pancreatic dysfunction in childhood can be divided in two general categories: hereditary conditions, which directly affect the pancreas; and acquired disorders, in which loss of pancreatic function is a secondary phenomenon. Most inherited causes of pancreatic dysfunction are due to a generalized disorder. Cystic fibrosis is, by far, the most common inherited cause of disturbed pancreatic function among Caucasian children. All other inherited causes of exocrine pancreatic dysfunction (eg, Johanson-Blizzard syndrome are uncommon or rare.

  2. Postcataract surgery endophthalmitis caused by acinetobacter lwoffii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Rupak; Das, Debmalya; Kumar, Saurabh; Mukherjee, Anjan

    2015-01-01

    Acinetobacter lwoffii is a rare cause of endophthalmitis. We report a case of acute postoperative endophthalmitis in a female, who was treated successfully with pars plana vitrectomy and intravitreal antibiotics.

  3. Liquorice: a root cause of secondary hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Calum N.

    2017-01-01

    We describe a patient presenting with hypertension and hypokalaemia who was ultimately diagnosed with liquorice- induced pseudohyperaldosteronism. This rare cause of secondary hypertension illustrates the importance of a methodical approach to the assessment of hypertension. PMID:28210494

  4. Symptoms and Causes of Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of sugars or bile acids may cause symptoms. Mental Health Problems Psychological, or mental health, problems such ... Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información de la salud en español Health Statistics Healthy Moments Radio Broadcast ...

  5. ADHD Diet: Do Food Additives Cause Hyperactivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Huxsahl, M.D. Food additives include artificial colors, artificial sweeteners and preservatives. There's no solid evidence that food additives cause attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, ... reactions to artificial food colors in children. Nutrition Reviews. 2013;71: ...

  6. USFA NFIRS 2013 Fire Incident & Cause Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2013 Fire Causes & Incident data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration’s (USFA) National Fire Data Center’s (NFDC’s) National Fire Incident Reporting...

  7. Do We Know What Causes Breast Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research? Breast Cancer About Breast Cancer How Does Breast Cancer Form? Changes or mutations in DNA can cause ... requests, please contact permissionrequest@cancer.org . More In Breast Cancer About Breast Cancer Risk and Prevention Early Detection ...

  8. Disease Caused by Chemical and Physical Agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    2011286 Relationship between the methylation and mutation of p53 gene and endemic arsenism caused by coal-burning. ZHANG Aihua(張愛華),et al.Dept Toxicol,Guiyang Med Coll,Guiyang 550004.Abstract:Objective To explore the influence of arsenic pollution caused by coal-burning on methylation(promoter and exon 5) and mutation(exon 5) of human p53 gene,and to analyze the

  9. [Fever of unknown origin. Infectious causes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzberger, B; Schneidewind, A; Hanses, F; Birkenfeld, G; Müller-Schilling, M

    2012-12-01

    Infectious diseases remain one of the most important causes of fever of unexplained origin (FUO). We review the spectrum of infectious diseases in the different clinical situations of patients with FUO, namely in classical FUO, in patients with HIV infection, in health care-associated or nosocomial FUO, and in immunocompromised patients with FUO. The most important question is which clinical features make a specific disease a candidate to cause FUO.

  10. The social causes for improving innovation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingqing Shao

    2010-01-01

    Innovadon and ralated economic and social categories have been at the centre of poficy discussions on the future of Chinese economy and society.The purpose of this paper is to illustrate three macro-causes on a extent cause of the term innovation.Many experts have discussed how to inprove the innovation of people,especially on specific fields.This paper is to discfibe the macroscopical function of economy and the government of improving innovation.

  11. Septic arthritis caused by Kingella kingae.

    OpenAIRE

    Gay, R M; Lane, T W; Keller, D C

    1983-01-01

    A normal part of the oral flora, Kingella kingae has seldom been recognized as the cause of serious clinical infections. We report a case of documented septic arthritis caused by K. kingae in an otherwise healthy infant. We suggest that it may be more common than thought based on the general unfamiliarity with this organism and the fact that several dozen clinical isolates have been identified by reference laboratories.

  12. Why Airplanes Crash: Causes of Accidents Worldwide

    OpenAIRE

    Oster, Clinton V.; John S. Strong; Zorn, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we report the results of a detailed examination of the causes of 700 fatal aviation accidents that occurred worldwide between 1990 and 2006 in commercial passenger service. We look at both scheduled and nonscheduled and both domestic and international service. We also categorize the accident aircraft as large jets, regional and medium jets, small jets, turboprops, and piston powered aircraft. We find that the mix of causes of those accidents vary substantially across regions of...

  13. Cunninghamella echinulata causing fatally invasive fungal sinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Robert E; Meriden, Zina; Sutton, Deanna A; Thompson, Elizabeth H; Neofytos, Dionissios; Zhang, Sean X

    2013-08-01

    We report a fatal case of invasive fungal sinusitis caused by Cunninghamella echinulata in a febrile, neutropenic 15-year-old male with relapsing acute leukemia. The isolate was recovered from a nasal biopsy from the right middle meatus, and microscopic examination of the tissue revealed angioinvasion and necrosis. Human infection caused by this organism has not been well documented; however, this report alerts us to its life-threatening potential.

  14. Diagnosing vascular causes of renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelo, J G

    1995-10-15

    The incidence of renal failure due to vascular diseases is increasing. Two reasons for this are the epidemic of atherosclerotic vascular disease in the aging population and the widespread use of vasoactive drugs that can adversely affect renal function. These vascular causes of renal failure include vasomotor disorders such as that associated with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, small-vessel diseases such as cholesterol crystal embolization, and large-vessel diseases such as renal artery stenosis. These causes of azotemia are less familiar to physicians than more classic causes, such as acute tubular necrosis, and are less likely to be recognized in their early stages. This article describes the various vascular diseases that impair renal function and outlines the steps necessary to identify them. Although some of these conditions, such as renal artery stenosis, can gradually impair function, the vascular causes of acute renal failure are emphasized in this article. Because the vasculitides primarily cause renal failure through secondary glomerulonephritis, they are mentioned only briefly. Extensive testing is rarely necessary because the cause is usually suspected through syndrome recognition. The diagnosis can then be confirmed by the results of one or two additional tests or by improved renal function after treatment.

  15. Modeling lifetime data with multiple causes using cause specific reversed hazard rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paduthol Godan Sankaran

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce and study cause specific reversed hazard rates in the context of left censored lifetime data with multiple causes. Nonparametric inference procedure for left censored lifetime data with multiple causes using cause specific reversed hazard rate is discussed. Asymptotic properties of the estimators are studied. Simulation studies are conducted to assess the efficiency of the estimators. Further, the proposed method is applied to mice mortality data (Hoel 1972 and Australian twin data (Duffy et al. 1990.

  16. Physico-chemical characteristics and antioxidant activity of goji fruits jam and jelly during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela ISTRATI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s, when the news about antioxidants and their benefits to health has begun to spread to the general public, statements about the benefits of antioxidants ranged from preventing colds to cancer treatment. Fruits and vegetables are excellent sources of antioxidants. Since the beginning of the 21st century, goji berries have become increasingly popular in Europe and North America and have been promoted in advertisements and in the media as an anti-aging remedy. Goji is a relatively new name given to Lycium Barbarum and Lycium chinense, two nearby species, with a long history of use as medicinal and food plants in East Asia, particularly in China. In the present paper are presented analysis results of Goji fruits and food products made from goji fruits (jam and jelly. Storage conditions are important factors for jams and jelly quality. The objective of this study was to monitor the physicochemical stability, antioxidant activity and sensorial profile of goji fruits jam and jelly. Special attention was paid to total phenolic and flavonoid content, antioxidant activity, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, pH and sensorial characteristics. Our results showed the antioxidant activity of the goji fruit, values which correlate well with the results obtained for total phenolic (351±7.25 mg GAE/100g and flavonoid content (53.06±1.23 mg QE/100g. The antioxidant activity of the goji fruits was maintained also in the finished products obtained in the present study jam (60.98 % and jelly (41.96 %. Both goji fruits jam and goji fruits jelly showed no significant variations of physico-chemical characteristics and sensorial parameter scores after storage at refrigeration temperature for 10 days.

  17. Allovahlkampfia spelaea Causing Keratitis in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolba, Mohammed Essa Marghany; Huseein, Enas Abdelhameed Mahmoud; Farrag, Haiam Mohamed Mahmoud; Mohamed, Hanan El Deek; Kobayashi, Seiki; Suzuki, Jun; Ali, Tarek Ahmed Mohamed; Sugano, Sumio

    2016-01-01

    Background Free-living amoebae are present worldwide. They can survive in different environment causing human diseases in some instances. Acanthamoeba sp. is known for causing sight-threatening keratitis in humans. Free-living amoeba keratitis is more common in developing countries. Amoebae of family Vahlkampfiidae are rarely reported to cause such affections. A new genus, Allovahlkampfia spelaea was recently identified from caves with no data about pathogenicity in humans. We tried to identify the causative free-living amoeba in a case of keratitis in an Egyptian patient using morphological and molecular techniques. Methods Pathogenic amoebae were culture using monoxenic culture system. Identification through morphological features and 18S ribosomal RNA subunit DNA amplification and sequencing was done. Pathogenicity to laboratory rabbits and ability to produce keratitis were assessed experimentally. Results Allovahlkampfia spelaea was identified as a cause of human keratitis. Whole sequence of 18S ribosomal subunit DNA was sequenced and assembled. The Egyptian strain was closely related to SK1 strain isolated in Slovenia. The ability to induce keratitis was confirmed using animal model. Conclusions This the first time to report Allovahlkampfia spelaea as a human pathogen. Combining both molecular and morphological identification is critical to correctly diagnose amoebae causing keratitis in humans. Use of different pairs of primers and sequencing amplified DNA is needed to prevent misdiagnosis. PMID:27415799

  18. Cause of East-West Earth Asymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Scalera, Giancarlo

    2015-01-01

    The different slope of the Wadati-Benioff zones oriented towards east and west is considered a main asymmetry of the Earth's globe. Under the Americas they have angles of about 30o, while under the Pacific east coasts (Asia, Japan) the angles are steeper. In the framework of plate tectonics geodynamics the cause of this difference can be identified in the tidal drag that would cause a global shift of the lithosphere towards west. But this solution has been many times criticized on the basis of the irrelevance of the tidal forces with respect to viscous friction. Instead, it is possible to show that in a different framework, in which sudden extrusions of mantle materials occur by local phase change toward a more unpacked lattice, the value of the Coriolis fictitious force can rise of several magnitude orders, becoming the main cause of the east-west asymmetry of the Wadati-Benioff zones, which might be ascribed entirely to internal causes of the planet (its rotation and geodynamics) and not to external causes ...

  19. Allovahlkampfia spelaea Causing Keratitis in Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Essa Marghany Tolba

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Free-living amoebae are present worldwide. They can survive in different environment causing human diseases in some instances. Acanthamoeba sp. is known for causing sight-threatening keratitis in humans. Free-living amoeba keratitis is more common in developing countries. Amoebae of family Vahlkampfiidae are rarely reported to cause such affections. A new genus, Allovahlkampfia spelaea was recently identified from caves with no data about pathogenicity in humans. We tried to identify the causative free-living amoeba in a case of keratitis in an Egyptian patient using morphological and molecular techniques.Pathogenic amoebae were culture using monoxenic culture system. Identification through morphological features and 18S ribosomal RNA subunit DNA amplification and sequencing was done. Pathogenicity to laboratory rabbits and ability to produce keratitis were assessed experimentally.Allovahlkampfia spelaea was identified as a cause of human keratitis. Whole sequence of 18S ribosomal subunit DNA was sequenced and assembled. The Egyptian strain was closely related to SK1 strain isolated in Slovenia. The ability to induce keratitis was confirmed using animal model.This the first time to report Allovahlkampfia spelaea as a human pathogen. Combining both molecular and morphological identification is critical to correctly diagnose amoebae causing keratitis in humans. Use of different pairs of primers and sequencing amplified DNA is needed to prevent misdiagnosis.

  20. Diabetic Ketoacidosis: Pattern of Precipitating Causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Uddin Ahmed

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA is one of the most common acute complications of diabetes mellitus (DM. DKA is a recognised presenting feature of type 1 DM, but it commonly complicates previously diagnosed diabetic patients of all types, specially if they get infection or discontinue treatment. Objective: To describe the precipitating causes of DKA. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was done from September to November, 2010 in Bangladesh Institute of Research & Rehabilitation in Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders (BIRDEM. Diagnosed DKA cases were evaluated clinically and by laboratory investigations for identification of precipitating causes. Results: Out of 50 patients, 28 were female. Mean age was 38.3 years. Forty patients (80% were known diabetics and 10 (20% were detected diabetic first time during this admission. Severe DKA cases were less common. Infection (20, 40% was the commonest precipitating cause followed by noncompliance (14, 28%. In 7 (14% cases no cause could be identified. Other less common causes included acute myocardial infarction, acute pancreatitis, stroke and surgery. Conclusion: Infection and noncompliance were the major precipitants of DKA. So, it is assumed that many DKA cases might be prevented by proper counselling regarding adherence to medication and sick days’ management.

  1. Atopy and cause-specific mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaaby, T; Husemoen, L L N; Thuesen, Betina Heinsbæk

    2014-01-01

    followed by linkage to the Danish Registry of Causes of Death to obtain information on mortality status and cause of death (median follow-up time 11.3 years). The relative mortality risk was estimated by Cox regression and expressed as hazard ratios, HRs (95% confidence intervals, CIs). RESULTS: A total....... OBJECTIVES: We investigated the association of atopy with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. METHODS: We included a total of 14 849 individuals from five Danish population-based cohorts with measurements of atopy defined as serum-specific IgE positivity against inhalant allergens. Participants were...... of 1776 person died during follow-up. The mortality risk for atopics vs. non-atopics was: for all-cause mortality (HR = 1.03, 95% CI: 0.90, 1.17); neoplasms (HR = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.69, 1.06); endocrine, nutritional and metabolic disorders (HR = 1.48, 95% CI: 0.71, 3.08); mental and behavioural disorders (HR...

  2. Management of female infertility from hormonal causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciano, Antony A; Lanzone, Antonio; Goverde, Angelique J

    2013-12-01

    Hormonal causes of female infertility involve ovulatory dysfunctions that may result from dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, peripheral endocrine glands, nonendocrine organs, or metabolic disorders. It is important to think of anovulation not as a diagnosis but as a symptom of a metabolic or endocrine disorder that requires a thorough diagnostic evaluation to identify the specific cause and to implement effective therapies that assure the best possible pregnancy outcome and avoid long-term adverse health consequences. In most instances, the medical history points to the underlying dysfunction, which can usually be confirmed with laboratory or imaging tests. For more challenging cases, more extensive evaluations may be needed, including perturbation studies. Nevertheless, the management of anovulatory infertility is gratifying because its causes are often manifest and the treatment usually results in resumption of ovulatory cycles, restoration of fertility, and healthy offspring through natural conception without requiring expensive and intrusive assisted reproductive technologies. © 2013.

  3. Does soccer ball heading cause retinal bleeding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, William F; Feldman, Kenneth W; Weiss, Avery H; Tencer, Alan F

    2002-04-01

    To define forces of youth soccer ball heading (headers) and determine whether heading causes retinal hemorrhage. Regional Children's Hospital, youth soccer camp. Male and female soccer players, 13 to 16 years old, who regularly head soccer balls. Dilated retinal examination, after 2-week header diary, and accelerometer measurement of heading a lofted soccer ball. Twenty-one youth soccer players, averaging 79 headers in the prior 2 weeks, and 3 players who did not submit header diaries lacked retinal hemorrhage. Thirty control subjects also lacked retinal hemorrhage. Seven subjects heading the ball experienced linear cranial accelerations of 3.7 +/- 1.3g. Rotational accelerations were negligible. Headers, not associated with globe impact, are unlikely to cause retinal hemorrhage. Correctly executed headers did not cause significant rotational acceleration of the head, but incorrectly executed headers might.

  4. Sexual maldevelopment and sex reversal, chromosomal causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magenis, R Ellen

    2006-01-01

    The SRY gene on the Y chromosome is the testis determining factor (TDF). It is therefore the initial male determining factor. However, phenotypic sex determination includes a cascade of genes located on autosomes as well as sex chromosomes. Aberrations of these genes may cause sexual maldevelopment or sex reversal. Abnormalities may include single gene mutations and gene loss or gain-changes may involve only sex organs or may be part of syndromes. These changes may also arise as chromosome abnormalities involving contiguous genes. Eight cases with chromosomal abnormalities involving different causative mechanisms are described herein. The most common cause is nondisjunction, including loss or gain of sex chromosomes. Less common causes are mispairing and crossing over in meiosis, chromosome breaks with repair, nonhomologous pairing due to low copy repeats and crossing over, and translocation (familial or de novo) with segregation. Cases include: [see: text].

  5. Cause-specific mortality after stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Ulla Brasch; Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Andersen, Klaus Kaae

    2013-01-01

    We investigated cause-specific mortality in relation to age, sex, stroke severity, and cardiovascular risk factor profile in the Copenhagen Stroke Study cohort with 10 years of follow-up. In a Copenhagen community, all patients admitted to the hospital with stroke during 1992-1993 (n = 988) were...... registered on admission. Evaluation included stroke severity, computed tomography scan, and a cardiovascular risk profile. Cause of death within 10 years according to death certificate information was classified as stroke, heart/arterial disease, or nonvascular disease. Competing-risks analyses were...... performed by cause-specific Cox regression after multiple imputation of missing data, assuming that values were missing at random. Death was due to stroke in 310 patients (31%), to heart/arterial disease in 209 patients (21%), and to nonvascular diseases in 289 patients (29%); 180 patients were still alive...

  6. Septic arthritis caused by Kingella kingae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J M; Bass, J W

    1983-10-01

    Kingella kingae is a slow-growing, fastidious gram-negative coccobacillus that is a normal inhabitant of the oropharynx of man, but it has rarely been implicated as a human pathogen. Two cases of septic arthritis caused by this organism are reported along with a review of seven previously reported cases of infections caused by this organism. Bone and joint infections predominate. Gram's-stained smears of pus from bone or joint fluid aspirate have been negative for organisms, and a delay of growth in cultures with initial difficulty in classification of the isolate is characteristic. Kingella kingae organisms have been uniformly sensitive to the penicillins and all other commonly used antibiotics that were tested. Response to treatment was good in all nine patients found to have infections caused by this organism.

  7. Lightning-caused fires in Central Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieto Solana, Hector; Aguado, Inmaculada; García, Mariano;

    2012-01-01

    Lightning-caused fire occurrence has been modelled for two different Spanish regions, Madrid andAragon, based on meteorological, terrain, and vegetation variables. The model was built on two very contrasting regions, one presenting low number of lightning-caused fires whereas the other presented...... a high occurrence. The research was conducted between May and September, which happens to be the most lightning-fire prone period in Spain, for a three year interval starting in 2002 up to 2004. A time-invariant model for lightning-caused fire occurrence was developed for each region at a spatial...... resolution of 3 km ×3 km. The probabilistic models were based on the logistic regression, aiming to explain the probability of having at least a lightning-fire during the three year period. Results showed that the number of thunderstorms during the three-year period was the most significantvariable...

  8. Intraparenchymal pneumocephalus caused by ethmoid sinus osteoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamide, Tomoya; Nakada, Mitsutoshi; Hayashi, Yutaka; Hayashi, Yasuhiko; Uchiyama, Naoyuki; Hamada, Jun-Ichiro

    2009-11-01

    We report a 57-year-old man with intraparenchymal pneumocephalus caused by ethmoid sinus osteoma. He had a history of severe allergic rhinitis, which caused him to frequently blow his nose, and he was referred to our hospital with headache and mild left hemiparesis. CT scans revealed a large volume of intraparenchymal air entrapped in the right frontal lobe related to an osteoma in the ethmoid sinus. The osteoma eroded the upper wall of the sinus and extended into the anterior cranial fossa. At operation, we observed that the osteoma had protruded intracranially through the skull base, disrupted the dura and extended into the frontal lobe. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a patient with intraparenchymal pneumocephalus caused by an ethmoid sinus osteoma.

  9. An uncommon cause of anaemia: Sheehan's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchardt, Thomas; Namberger, Konrad; Weiss, Lukas; Egle, Alexander; Faber, Viktoria; Greil, Richard

    2010-12-01

    Ischemic pituitary necrosis due to severe postpartum haemorrhage called Sheehan's syndrome is a rare cause of hypopituitarism in the western world, but much more common in developing countries. A 45-year-old female patient being a war refugee from Chechnya with severe anaemia and fatigue was diagnosed at our outpatient department with Sheehan's syndrome after severe postpartum haemorrhage and emergency hysterectomy 15 years ago. Panhypopituitarism was adequately treated with substitution of hydrocortisone, thyroxine and transdermal oestrogen which resulted in haemoglobin increase to nearly normal levels and symptoms improved immediately. Severe anaemia caused by panhypopituitarism shows the importance of the hormonal system for erythropoiesis. Clinical and basic scientific evidence indicates thyroidal hormones to be the main cause.

  10. Acute compartment syndrome caused by uncontrolled hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Anar; Amin, Hari; Salzman, Matthew; Morgan, Farah

    2017-06-01

    Acute compartment syndrome is increased tissue pressure exceeding perfusion pressure in a closed compartment resulting in nerve and muscle ischemia. Common precipitating causes are crush injuries, burns, substance abuse, osseous or vascular limb trauma. This is a case of 42year old female with history of hypothyroidism who presented to emergency room with acute onset of severe pain and swelling in right lower extremity. Physical examination was concerning for acute compartment syndrome of right leg which was confirmed by demonstration of elevated compartmental pressures. No precipitating causes were readily identified. Further laboratory testing revealed uncontrolled hypothyroidism. Management included emergent fasciotomy and initiating thyroid hormone replacement. This case represents a rare association between acute compartment syndrome and uncontrolled hypothyroidism. We also discuss the pathogenesis of compartment syndrome in hypothyroid patients and emphasize the importance of evaluating for less common causes, particularly in setting of non-traumatic compartment syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Root Causes of the Housing Bubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaizoji, Taisei

    In this chapter we investigate root causes of the recent US housing bubble which has been caused a serious downturn in US economic growth since autumn of 2008. We propose a simple model of housing markets in order to indicate the possible determinants of recent housing prices. Utilizing the model, we verify a number of hypotheses which have been proposed in the recent literature on the housing bubbles. We suggest that the main causes of the housing bubble from 2000 to 2006 are (1) non-elastic housing supply in the metropolitan areas, and (2) declines in the mortgage loan rate and the housing premium by the massive mortgage credit expansion. We also suggest that these factors were strongly influenced by policies that governments and the Federal Reserve Board performed.

  12. Causes of Red Eye-Uveitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selçuk Sızmaz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Uveitis, being an important cause of ocular morbidity, must be taken into consideration in the differential diagnosis and the management of patients with red eye. Uveitis entities can demonstrate variable clinical features. Patients presenting with uveitis must undergo careful systemic evaluation for exact diagnosis and treatment. Studies for standardization of uveitis with variable clinical pictures are emerging. Acute anterior uveitis and panuveitis can cause red eye. The purpose of this current study is to summarize the clinical features and laboratory investigations that could help the differential diagnosis of acute anterior uveitis and panuveitis cases. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: Supplement 57-62

  13. [Problems caused by poisonous tropical marine animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lääveri, Tinja; Räisänen-Sokolowski, Anne; Jama, Timo

    2014-01-01

    A Finnish physician encounters problems caused by tropical marine animals either during her/his own travelling or while treating travelers who have returned home. Certain species of medusae and cone shells as well as the stings by some fish species are life-threateningly poisonous. A person stung or bitten by any of the most dangerous species must immediately be admitted to the hospital. Foreign material remaining in tissues after stings by echinoderms and spiky fish may cause problems months after the actual injury. The injuries become easily infected, and antimicrobial drug therapy must thus cover gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria as well.

  14. Uterine rotation: a cause of intestinal obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Mesa, Ernesto; Narbona, Isidoro; Cohen, Isaac; Villegas, Emilia; Cuenca, Celia

    2013-01-01

    Intestinal obstruction is an uncommon surgical emergency during pregnancy that affects seriously the prognosis of gestation. The underlying cause can be identified in the majority of cases and usually consists of adhesions secondary to previous abdominal or pelvic surgery, followed in order of frequency by intestinal volvuli. In recent years there have been no reports in which the gravid uterus has been the cause of intestinal obstruction. We report the case of a woman in week 33 + 4 of pregnancy who developed extrinsic compression of the colon secondary to uterine rotation and pelvic impaction of the head of the fetus.

  15. Does the Minimum Wage Cause Inefficient Rationing?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何满辉; 梁明秋

    2008-01-01

    By not allowing wages to dearthe labor market,the minimum wage could cause workers with low reservation wages to be rationed out while equally skilled woTkers with higher reservation wages are employed.I find that proxies for reservation wages of unskilled workers in high-impact stales did not rise relative to reservation wages in other states,suggesting that the increase in the minimum wage did not cause jobs to be allocated less efficiently.However,even if rationing is efficient,the minimum wage can still entail other efficiency costs.

  16. Image processing in diabetic related causes

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Amit

    2016-01-01

    This book is a collection of all the experimental results and analysis carried out on medical images of diabetic related causes. The experimental investigations have been carried out on images starting from very basic image processing techniques such as image enhancement to sophisticated image segmentation methods. This book is intended to create an awareness on diabetes and its related causes and image processing methods used to detect and forecast in a very simple way. This book is useful to researchers, Engineers, Medical Doctors and Bioinformatics researchers.

  17. [Modern pneumatic weapons and injuries they cause].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozachenko, I N

    2013-01-01

    The data on the history of development and further improvement of pneumatic weapons are presented with special reference to specific features of different types and varieties of these weapons, cartridges for them, and the sphere of their application. Investigations into peculiarities of damages caused by high-capacity pneumatic weapons to the objects of forensic medical expertise affected from different distances are reviewed. Results of forensic medical expertise and clinical studies on the structure of body injuries inflicted by gunshots from pneumatic weapons to the human body are discussed. The author emphasizes the necessity of developing up-to-date terminology and classification of gunshot injuries caused by shooting from pneumatic weapons.

  18. Forced migrations caused by climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neven Tandarić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The consequences of climate change are becoming more and more pronounced, causing various environmental and social changes. One of the major and globally most noticeable changes is the intensification of forced migration caused by climate change. Such forced migrants, due to international legislation that has no built-in criteria to regulate the status of refugees due to environmental reasons and also climate change, cannot achieve this status and are becoming a problem of the entire international community, leading to significant social, economic, political and cultural changes at a global scale.

  19. 不同贮藏方式对河西走廊四种茄科植物种子萌发的影响%Effects of storage condition on the seed germination of four Solanaceae species in Hexi Corridor, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王桔红; 陈文; 马瑞君

    2013-01-01

    The storage condition of plant seeds after their dispersal is critical to the seed germination.This paper studied the effects of four storage conditions (dry-stored at room temperature,and placed on litter,covered with litter,and covered with soil in winter) on the seed germination of four Solanaceae species (Lycium ruthenicumr,L.barbarum var.auranticarpum,Solanum alatum,and Darura stramonium) in Hexi Corridor,aimed to better understand the seed germination characteristics of these species and how these species adapting to their habitats.Covering seeds with soil (1 cm) and litter in winter could significantly increase the germination percentage of L.ruthenicumr and L.barbarum var.auranticarpum seeds up to 96.5% and 75.5%,and 65.3% and 53.7%,respectively,and accelerate the germination.In the meantime,the non-germinated seeds of L.ruthenicumr and L.barbarum var.auranticarpum could still keep higher viability.Placing on litter in winter and dry-storing at room temperature could increase the germination percentage of L.ruthenicumr seeds by 57.5%,while the non-germinated seeds could loss their viability by 47.5% and 31%,respectively.Placing on litter in winter made the germination percentage of L.barbarum var.auranticarpum seeds being 39.3%,and partial non-germinated seeds (38%) lost their viability.Atter stored under the four storage conditions,the germination percentage of S.alatum seeds was more than 90% while that of D.stramonium seeds was less than 10%,but the non-germinated seeds of D.stramonium still kept 50.5%-81.5% viability.Both L.ruthenicumr and L.barbarum var.auranticarpum displayed the consistency in the responses of seed germination to various storage conditions,i.e.,the seeds of the two species under soil-and litter cover in winter had a significantly higher germination percentage,the germination was accelerated,and the germination duration was shortened,as compared with those under placed on litter in winter or dry-stored at

  20. What cause the gender wage among countries ?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯家琦

    2015-01-01

    This paper attempts to figure out the surface reasons and the potential reasons resulting in the gender wage gap between Japan, the US and Sweden. This paper starts from three points which are occupation segregation, human capital and discrimination. After writing this literature review, I realize that the biggest problem which cause the big gender wage gap difference is discrimination.

  1. Lightning-caused fires in Central Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieto Solana, Hector; Aguado, Inmaculada; García, Mariano;

    2012-01-01

    a high occurrence. The research was conducted between May and September, which happens to be the most lightning-fire prone period in Spain, for a three year interval starting in 2002 up to 2004. A time-invariant model for lightning-caused fire occurrence was developed for each region at a spatial...

  2. Prostatic Abscess Caused by Streptococcus mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chau Nguyen

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available The first reported case of prostatic abscess caused by Streptococcus mutans isolated in pure culture is described. Urethral dilation for obstruction was unsuccessful, so suprapubic cystostomy was performed. Perineal aspiration under ultrasonic guidance resulted in 10 mL of pus containing pure Strep mutans. Diagnosis of prostatic abscess is difficult since the clinical manifestations are nonspecific.

  3. Infraclavicular subpectoral lipoma causing thoracic outlet syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Elia

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Although benign soft tissue tumors infraclavicular subpectoral lipomas may exert pressure on neurovascular surrounding structures during their progressive expansion and cause TOS. Therefore, a thorough preoperative study by radiological imaging such as MRI or neurophysiological test should always be performed in order to prevent unintentional lesions of the involved axillo-subclavicular plexus and plan correct surgical procedure.

  4. Prenatal hydronephrosis caused by aberrant renal vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenz, K; Thorup, Jørgen Mogens; Rabol, A;

    1996-01-01

    With routine use of obstetric ultrasonography, fetal low-grade hydronephrosis is commonly detected, but may resolve spontaneously after birth. Two cases are presented to illustrate that in some cases such findings can express intermittent hydronephrosis caused by aberrant renal vessels. Renal...

  5. Enamel surface changes caused by hydrogen sulfide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao Yamaguchi

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Our findings suggested that H 2 S occurring inside the mouth causes changes to the crystal structure of the enamel surface that can lead to tooth wear, but that it does not diminish the effects of dental bonding in adhesive restorations.

  6. Physical exertion may cause high troponin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agewall, Stefan; Tjora, Solve

    2011-11-15

    It is important to measure troponin levels when acute myocardial infarct is suspected. Many other factors that affect the heart can cause an increase in troponin levels, for example extreme physical exertion. Recent studies have shown that more normal physical activity can also lead to increase in troponin levels in healthy individuals.

  7. An Unusual Cause of Postpartum Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaddash, Ibrahim; Hawatmeh, Amer; Altheeb, Zaid; Hamdan, Aiman; Shamoon, Fayez

    2017-01-01

    Peripartum cardiomyopathy is a weakness of the heart muscle. It is an idiopathic cardiomyopathy that presents with heart failure secondary to left ventricular systolic dysfunction toward the end of pregnancy or in the months after delivery, in the absence of any other cause of heart failure. It is a rare condition that can carry mild or severe symptoms. PMID:28074806

  8. An unusual cause of postpartum heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Khaddash

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripartum cardiomyopathy is a weakness of the heart muscle. It is an idiopathic cardiomyopathy that presents with heart failure secondary to left ventricular systolic dysfunction toward the end of pregnancy or in the months after delivery, in the absence of any other cause of heart failure. It is a rare condition that can carry mild or severe symptoms.

  9. Nosocomial dermatitis caused by Dermanyssus gallinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellanger, A P; Bories, C; Foulet, F; Bretagne, S; Botterel, F

    2008-03-01

    The mite Dermanyssus gallinae may cause pruritic dermatitis in humans. We describe a case of nosocomial infestation with D. gallinae from an abandoned pigeon nest suspended on the front wall of the Hôpital Henri Mondor near a window. Close surveillance and regular destruction of pigeon nests could prevent these incidents of infection in humans.

  10. Cavitary Pulmonary Zygomycosis Caused by Rhizopus homothallicus▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Marak, Rungmei S. K.; Shivaprakash, M. R.; Gupta, Sunita; Garg, Rajiv; Sakhuja, V.; Singhal, Sanjay; Baghela, Abhishek; Dixit, Ajai; Garg, M. K.; Padhye, Arvind A.

    2010-01-01

    We report the first two proven cases of cavitary pulmonary zygomycosis caused by Rhizopus homothallicus. The diagnosis in each case was based on histology, culture of the causal agent, and the nucleotide sequence of the D1/D2 region of the 28S ribosomal DNA. PMID:20200286

  11. Cavitary pulmonary zygomycosis caused by Rhizopus homothallicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Marak, Rungmei S K; Shivaprakash, M R; Gupta, Sunita; Garg, Rajiv; Sakhuja, V; Singhal, Sanjay; Baghela, Abhishek; Dixit, Ajai; Garg, M K; Padhye, Arvind A

    2010-05-01

    We report the first two proven cases of cavitary pulmonary zygomycosis caused by Rhizopus homothallicus. The diagnosis in each case was based on histology, culture of the causal agent, and the nucleotide sequence of the D1/D2 region of the 28S ribosomal DNA.

  12. Treating burns caused by hydrofluoric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Anthony

    2011-06-01

    Hydrofluoric acid is an ingredient of many common household and industrial solutions. Even seemingly minor burns caused by this acid can have catastrophic effects if they are treated inappropriately or late. This article describes the signs and symptoms, the pathophysiology and the emergency management of hydrofluoric acid burns.

  13. Mass extinctions caused by large bolide impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, L.W.

    1987-07-01

    Evidence indicates that the collision of Earth and a large piece of Solar System derbris such as a meteoroid, asteroid or comet caused the great extinctions of 65 million years ago, leading to the transition from the age of the dinosaurs to the age of the mammals.

  14. Urinothorax: an unexpected cause of severe dyspnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortora, Alessandra; Casciani, Emanuele; Kharrub, Zaher; Gualdi, Gianfranco

    2006-05-01

    We report an unusual cause of the pleural effusion due to extravasation of urine from the retroperitoneal space into the thoracic cavity. In our case, the urinoma occurred owing to obstructing urinary tract lesion due to opaque stone. Although rare, urinothorax should be considered when pleural effusion occurs in patients with urinary tract obstruction accompanied by retroperitoneal urinoma.

  15. Invasive Disease Caused by Nontypeable Haemophilus Influenzae

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-11-12

    Dr. Elizabeth Briere discusses Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae which causes a variety of infections in children and adults.  Created: 11/12/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/17/2015.

  16. Diagnostic Inflation Causes and a Suggested Cure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batstra, Laura; Frances, Allen

    2012-01-01

    There have been a striking diagnostic inflation and a corresponding increase in the use of psychotropic drugs during the past 30 years. DSM-5, scheduled to appear in May 2013, proposes another grand expansion of mental illness. In this article, we will review the causes of diagnostic exuberance and

  17. Undertreatment of depression; causes and recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormel, O; Martel, M; Nolen, WA

    2003-01-01

    Efficacious forms of treatment for depression are available, but too many people suffering from depression are either treated inadequately or not at all. This undertreatment may play a role in the failure to reduce in the prevalence of depression. Possible causes of undertreatment include delayed he

  18. Facial Baroparesis Caused by Scuba Diving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Kamide

    2012-01-01

    tympanic membrane and right facial palsy without other neurological findings. But facial palsy was disappeared immediately after myringotomy. We considered that the etiology of this case was neuropraxia of facial nerve in middle ear caused by over pressure of middle ear.

  19. Infectious endocarditis caused by Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Trine Kiilerich; Arpi, Magnus; Fritz-Hansen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Although Escherichia coli is among the most common causes of Gram-negative bacteraemia, infectious endocarditis (IE) due to this pathogen is rare. A 67-y-old male without a previous medical history presented with a new mitral regurgitation murmur and persisting E. coli bacteraemia in spite of broad...

  20. Schoolchildren's Social Representations on Bullying Causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornberg, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate schoolchildren's social representations on the causes of bullying. Individual qualitative interviews were conducted with 56 schoolchildren recruited from five elementary schools in Sweden. Mixed methods (grounded theory as well as descriptive statistic methods) were used to analyze data. According to…

  1. Contact dermatitis caused by ECG electrode paste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, R J; Rosen, T

    1980-12-01

    A case of contact dermatitis caused by ECG electrode cream is presented and the pertinent literature is reviewed. Our patient was found to be allergic to propylene glycol. Patch-testing remains an invaluable tool in the evaluation of patients suspected of being allergic to ECG paste, creams, and gels.

  2. Unusual cause of neonatal intestinal obstruction | Zikavska ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unusual cause of neonatal intestinal obstruction. ... In some cases, diagnosis can be made prenatally but in others manifestation occurs after birth. The aim of this article is to ... Stenosis may result from extrinsic or intrinsic factors. It arises from ...

  3. Fibula physeal fracture causing syndesmotic diastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, N A; Mangwani, J

    2014-03-01

    We report an unusual physeal fibula fracture seen in a 12 year old child. The fragment was rotated and incarcerated in the distal tibiofibular joint causing syndesmotic diastasis. The fragment required open reduction and the fibula was stabilised with k-wires. The patient made an excellent recovery.

  4. Respiratory allergy caused by house dust mites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calderón, Moisés A; Linneberg, Allan; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    The house dust mite (HDM) is a major perennial allergen source and a significant cause of allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma. However, awareness of the condition remains generally low. This review assesses the links between exposure to HDM, development of the allergic response, and pathologic ...

  5. Dysphagia Caused by Chronic Laryngeal Edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delides, Alexander; Sakagiannis, George; Maragoudakis, Pavlos; Gouloumi, Αlina-Roxani; Katsimbri, Pelagia; Giotakis, Ioannis; Panayiotides, John G

    2015-10-01

    A rare case of a young female with chronic diffuse laryngeal edema causing severe swallowing difficulty is presented. The patient was previously treated with antibiotics and steroids with no improvement. Diagnosis was made with biopsy of the epiglottis under local anesthesia in the office.

  6. Analysis of Causes of English Ambiguous Sentences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亮

    2012-01-01

      Ambiguity is a very pervasive phenomenon in Eng-lish. Based on modern linguistics, this thesis studies the definition of English ambiguous sentences and focuses on the classification of the causes of English ambiguous sentences from phonological, lexical, syntactic and structural, pragmatic levels.

  7. Organic Causes of Weight Gain and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 18-21yrs. Healthy Living Healthy Living Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Sleep Safety & ... Tobacco Treatments Injuries & Emergencies Vaccine Preventable Diseases ... Children > Health Issues > Conditions > Obesity > Organic Causes of Weight Gain and Obesity Health ...

  8. Granulomatous peritonitis caused by glove starch.

    OpenAIRE

    Michowitz, M.; Stavorovsky, M.; Ilie, B.

    1983-01-01

    Corn starch particles are used as a surgical glove lubricant. At present there is no better alternative for this lubricant. Implantation of corn starch particles into the peritoneal cavity can induce foreign body reactions, starch peritonitis and starch granulomata, and may cause adhesions and intestinal obstruction. Starch peritonitis should be treated conservatively.

  9. DISEASE CAUSED BY CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL AGENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    2003161 Study on mechanism of carcinogenic effect and genetic damage of arsenism caused by burning coal. ZHANG Aihua(张爱华), et al. Dept Prev Med, Guiyang Med Coll, Guiyang 550004. Guiyang 550009. Chin J Endemiol 2003; 22( 1): 12-15.

  10. Eosinophilic cholecystitis caused by Ascaris lumbricoides

    OpenAIRE

    Montiel-Jarquín, Alvaro

    2008-01-01

    Eosinophilic cholecystitis is caused by the accumulation of eosinophils in the gallbladder wall and diagnosis is usually made based on histopathologic studies. The purpose of this paper is to comment on a case report published in World J Gastroenterol 2007 July; 13 (27): 3760-3762, about eosinophilic cholecystitis along with pericarditis without histopathological studies, which are considered necessary for its diagnosis.

  11. Contact dermatitis caused by dimethylfumarate in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Balbo, A; Gotelli, M J; Mac Cormack, W P; Kogan, N; Gotelli, C

    2011-07-01

    For the first time in Argentina, we describe an outbreak of contact dermatitis. New pairs of shoes caused intense pruritus, pain, and eruption, followed by edema, blisters, and a severe negative impact on the epidermal barrier of the feet. We identify dimethylfumarate as the causal agent and suggest an analytical method for its fast identification.

  12. Causes and CT findings of adult intussusception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Kyung Ah; Byun, Jae Young; Lee, Jae Mun; Ha, Hyun Kwon; Kim, Hyun; Park, Young Ha; Kim, II Sun; Kim, Jong Woo; Bahk, Yong Whee; Shinn, Kyung Sub [Catholic University Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-03-15

    Adult intussusception is a rare condition, unlike in children. There is an identifiable bowel lesion as a leading point in most of cases. Retrospectively we reviewed 22 patients with adult intussusception, and analyzed CT scans of 13 patients during the last 5 years. Twenty of the 22 patients had various causes of intussusception and 7 patients were associated with primary malignancy, 5 patients with benign tumor, and 4 patients with adhesive band. CT scans of 13 cases all showed characteristic target appearance or sausage-like soft tissue mass within the bowel, suggesting intussusception. In eleven of the 13 patients(84.6%) an intussuscepting mass was identified on CT scan as the lead point. Specific diagnosis for the cause of intussusception could be made by CT in four of 13 cases (three lipomas and one mucocele). In conclusion, CT is useful not only for the diagnosis but also for the evaluation of the leading causes of intussusception. Especially, CT could determined the exact causes of intussusception in cases of lipoma and mucocele.

  13. Prevention of pulsations caused by flexible risers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belfroid S.P.C; Golliard, J.; Korst, H.J.C.

    2013-01-01

    In the last few decades, flexible risers have increasingly been used in the offshore oil and gas industry. In gas applications these risers can generate high amplitude tonal pressure fluctuations when the gas velocity reaches a threshold value. The resulting pressure fluctuations can then cause high

  14. Unusual causes of intrahepatic cholestatic liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elias E Mazokopakis; John A Papadakis; Diamantis P Kofteridis

    2007-01-01

    We report five cases with unusual causes of intrahepatic cholestasis,including consumption of Teucrium polium (family Lamiaceae) in the form of tea,Stauffer's syndrome,treatment with tamoxifen citrate for breast cancer,infection with Coxiella Burnetii (acute Q fever),and infection with Brucella melitensis (acute brucellosis).

  15. Trigonalgia: An overlooked cause of bladder pain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S. Aminu

    2015-12-04

    Dec 4, 2015 ... Trigonalgia: An overlooked cause of bladder pain. S. Aminu ... Bladder pain is a very important type of chronic pelvic pain syn- drome. .... in women: relevance and application of the fear-avoidance model of pain. Phys Ther ...

  16. Megaloblastic anemia--a rare cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Sanjib Kr; Aggarwal, Anju; Mittal, Hema

    2011-10-01

    A 2- year- old boy presented with non responsive megaloblastic anemia, growth failure and developmental delay. Blood levels of B(12), folic acid and iron were normal. Tandem mass spectroscopy for common inborn errors of metabolism did not reveal any abnormality. There was an increased excretion of orotic acid in urine. The authors report this as a rare cause of megaloblastic anemia.

  17. Causes and Treatment of Insomnia among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Jack R.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    As much as 13 percent of the adolescent population may suffer from chronic insomnia, which can impair the victim's daily existence and affect personal life, school performance, and school attendance. The prevalence of adolescent insomnia, and its cause, diagnosis, and treatment are examined. (Author/CB)

  18. ACTN1 mutations cause congenital macrothrombocytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunishima, Shinji; Okuno, Yusuke; Yoshida, Kenichi; Shiraishi, Yuichi; Sanada, Masashi; Muramatsu, Hideki; Chiba, Kenichi; Tanaka, Hiroko; Miyazaki, Koji; Sakai, Michio; Ohtake, Masatoshi; Kobayashi, Ryoji; Iguchi, Akihiro; Niimi, Gen; Otsu, Makoto; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Miyano, Satoru; Saito, Hidehiko; Kojima, Seiji; Ogawa, Seishi

    2013-03-01

    Congenital macrothrombocytopenia (CMTP) is a heterogeneous group of rare platelet disorders characterized by a congenital reduction of platelet counts and abnormally large platelets, for which CMTP-causing mutations are only found in approximately half the cases. We herein performed whole-exome sequencing and targeted Sanger sequencing to identify mutations that cause CMTP, in which a dominant mode of transmission had been suspected but for which no known responsible mutations have been documented. In 13 Japanese CMTP-affected pedigrees, we identified six (46%) affected by ACTN1 variants cosegregating with CMTP. In the entire cohort, ACNT1 variants accounted for 5.5% of the dominant forms of CMTP cases and represented the fourth most common cause in Japanese individuals. Individuals with ACTN1 variants presented with moderate macrothrombocytopenia with anisocytosis but were either asymptomatic or had only a modest bleeding tendency. ACTN1 encodes α-actinin-1, a member of the actin-crosslinking protein superfamily that participates in the organization of the cytoskeleton. In vitro transfection experiments in Chinese hamster ovary cells demonstrated that altered α-actinin-1 disrupted the normal actin-based cytoskeletal structure. Moreover, transduction of mouse fetal liver-derived megakaryocytes with disease-associated ACTN1 variants caused a disorganized actin-based cytoskeleton in megakaryocytes, resulting in the production of abnormally large proplatelet tips, which were reduced in number. Our findings provide an insight into the pathogenesis of CMTP.

  19. An unusual cause of suicidal ideations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Daniel; Stockton, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    While the differential for suicidal ideations is broad, it is known that pathologic brain issues are a cause. Here, a case is presented of a gentleman who had an unusual growth into his frontal lobe leading to the suicidal ideations. The fact that he is chronically immunosuppressed likely led to this unique situation. PMID:26421161

  20. The Young Drinking Driver: Cause or Effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Patricia F.; Waller, Marcus B.

    Drunk driving is a major public health problem and young people suffer disproportionately high rates of morbidity and mortality as a result of drinking and driving. Motor vehicle injuries are the leading cause of death for persons aged 15-24 in this country, and alcohol is implicated in many of these deaths. Countermeasures to drinking and driving…