WorldWideScience

Sample records for lychee fruit litchi

  1. Effects of leaf, shoot and fruit development on photosynthesis of lychee trees (Litchi chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieke, S; Menzel, C M; Lüdders, P

    2002-09-01

    Changes in gas exchange with leaf age and fruit growth were determined in lychee trees (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) growing in subtropical Queensland (27 degrees S). Leaves expanded in a sigmoid pattern over 50 days during spring, with net CO2 assimilation (A) increasing from -4.1 +/- 0.9 to 8.3 +/- 0.5 micromol m-2 s-1 as the leaves changed from soft and red, to soft and light green, to hard and dark green. Over the same period, dark respiration (Rd) decreased from 5.0 +/- 0.8 to 2.0 +/- 0.1 micromol CO2 m-2 s-1. Net CO2 assimilation was above zero about 30 days after leaf emergence or when the leaves were half fully expanded. Chlorophyll concentrations increased from 0.7 +/- 0.2 mg g-1 in young red leaves to 10.3 +/- 0.7 mg g-1 in dark green leaves, along with stomatal conductance (gs, from 0.16 +/- 0.09 to 0.47 +/- 0.17 mol H2O m-2 s-1). Fruit growth was sigmoidal, with maximum values of fresh mass (29 g), dry mass (6 g) and fruit surface area (39 cm2) occurring 97 to 115 days after fruit set. Fruit CO2 exchange in the light (Rl) and dark (Rd) decreased from fruit set to fruit maturity, whether expressed on a surface area (10 to 3 micromol CO2 m-2 s-1 and 20 to 3 micromol CO2 m-2 s-1, respectively) or on a dry mass basis (24 to 2 nmol CO2 g-1 s-1 and 33 to 2 nmol CO2 g-1 s-1, respectively). Photosynthesis never exceeded respiration, however, the difference between Rl and Rd was greatest in young green fruit (4 to 8 micromol CO2 m-2 s-1). About 90% of the carbon required for fruit growth was accounted for in the dry matter of the fruit, with the remainder required for respiration. Fruit photosynthesis contributed about 3% of the total carbon requirement of the fruit over the season. Fruit growth was mainly dependent on CO2 assimilation in recently expanded dark green leaves.

  2. 78 FR 58154 - Importation of Litchi Fruit From Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... for a maximum of 5 millimeters of stem on the imported litchi fruit was included in Australia's market... Australia's market access request, it had been intended only as part of a general description of Australia's... ] State Horticultural Society, 118,\\3\\ and a paper entitled ``Is It Still Profitable to Grow Lychee in...

  3. 76 FR 81401 - Importation of Litchi Fruit From Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... litchi fruit with up to 5 millimeters of stem into the continental United States from Australia. The threshold allowing for a maximum of 5 millimeters of stem on the imported litchi fruit was included in... punctiferalis). Litchi fruit moth (Cryptophlebia ombrodelta). Orange fruit borer (Isotenes miserana). The...

  4. Quantification of Methylenecyclopropyl Compounds and Acyl Conjugates by UPLC-MS/MS in the Study of the Biochemical Effects of the Ingestion of Canned Ackee (Blighia sapida) and Lychee (Litchi chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Johannes; Terhardt, Michael; Sander, Stefanie; Janzen, Nils

    2017-03-29

    Consumption of ackee (Blighia sapida) and lychee (Litchi chinensis) fruit has led to severe poisoning. Considering their expanded agricultural production, toxicological evaluation has become important. Therefore, the biochemical effects of eating 1 g/kg canned ackee, containing 99.2 μmol/kg hypoglycin A, and 5 g/kg canned lychee, containing 1.3 μmol/kg hypoglycin A, were quantified in a self-experiment. Using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, hypoglycin A, methylenecyclopropylacetyl-glycine, and methylenecyclopropylformyl-glycine, as well as the respective carnitine conjugates, were found in urine after ingesting ackee. Hypoglycin A and its glycine derivative were also present in urine after eating lychee. Excretion of physiological acyl conjugates was significantly increased in the ackee experiment. Ingestion of ackee led to up to 15.1 nmol/L methylenecyclopropylacetyl-glycine and traces of methylenecyclopropylformyl-carnitine in the serum. These compounds were not found in the serum after eating lychee. Hypoglycin A accumulated in the serum in both experiments.

  5. Conservação das sementes de lichia (Litchi chinensis Conservation of lychee (Litchi chinensis seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Kiyoshi Yamanishi

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o comportamento das sementes de lichia após o armazenamento. Utilizou-se de nove tratamentos (0; 1; 3; 5; 7; 9; 11; 13 e 15 dias de armazenamento em câmara de germinação, à temperatura de 10ºC e UR= 80-85%. A semeadura foi realizada em bandejas de poliestireno com substrato composto por Plantmax Hortaliças® + Osmocote® 14-14-14 (5g/L de substrato. A taxa de emergência (E% e o índice de velocidade de emergência (IVG das plântulas da testemunha (0 dia de armazenamento não diferiram significativamente daqueles obtidos nos demais tratamentos. O período de armazenamento das sementes não afetou a taxa de emergência nem o IVE das plântulas de lichia até o limite estudado (15 dias.Lychee seeds were evaluated after different periods of storage. There were nine treatments (0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13 and 15 days of storage in a germination chamber at the temperature of 10ºC and RH = 80-85%. The seeds were sown in polystyrene trays containing Plantmax® growth medium combined with 0.05% of inorganic fertilizer Osmocote®14-14-14. The germination rate (% and the germination speed index of the seedlings in the control (0 days of storage didn't differ significantly from the other treatments. The storage period up to 15 days didn't affect either the germination rate or the germination speed index of the lychee seedlings.

  6. Variability in leaf damage among cultivars of lychee, host of Myllocerus undecimpustulatus undatus Marshall adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Sri Lankan weevil has imposed heavy damage on the canopy of various ornamental and fruit trees since it was first detected in South Florida in 2000. One of the more heavily damaged fruit trees is lychee, Litchi chinensis (Sapindales: Sapindaceae). As part of a study to better understand host cho...

  7. Reduction in Activity/Gene Expression of Anthocyanin Degradation Enzymes in Lychee Pericarp is Responsible for the Color Protection of the Fruit by Heat and Acid Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Fang; ZHANG Zhao-qi; ZHANG Xue-lian; WU Zhen-xian; YIN Hui-fang; PANG Xue-qun

    2013-01-01

    Heat and acid treatments were reported to be a promising substitute for SO2 fumigation in color protection of postharvest lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) fruits, but the mechanism was not clear. In the present study, hot water (70°C) dipping followed by immersion in 2%HCl (heat-acid) substantially protected the red color of the fruit during storage at 25°C and inhibited anthocyanin degradation while hot water dipping alone (heat) led to rapidly browning and about 90%loss in anthocyanin content. The pH values in the pericarp of the heat-acid treated fruit dropped to 3.2, while the values maintained around 5.0 in the heat-treated and control fruit. No significantly different pH values were detected among the arils of heat-acid, heat treated and control fruit. Heat-acid treatment dramatically reduced the activities of anthocyanin degradation enzyme (ADE), peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase in the pericarp. A marked reduction in LcPOD gene expression was also detected in heat-acid treated fruit, in contrast, induction was found in heat treated fruit. The pericarp of heat-acid treated fruit exhibited significantly lower respiration rate but faster water loss than that of the untreated or heat treated fruit. Taken together, heat treatment triggered quick browning and anthocyanin loss in lychee fruit, while heat-acid treatment protected the fruit color by a great reduction in the activities/gene expression of anthocyanin degradation enzymes and acidification of lychee pericarp.

  8. Comparison of physical and chemical properties of high pressure- and heat-treated Lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) in syrup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dajanta, Katekan; Apichartsrangkoon, Arunee; Somsang, Soontaree

    2012-03-01

    Lychee usually has white flesh, but its flesh is very sensitive to thermal and enzymatic impairment and ultimately changes in color. This investigation was intended to study the magnitude of color change in lychee by high pressure and thermal processing. The lychee was packed in syrup prior to being processed. Pressurized lychee was performed at 600 MPa at 30°C or 50°C for 20 min, while the pasteurized sample was heated at 90°C for 3 min. It was found that pressurization induced lower color L*, a* and b* values, including low anthocyanin content. For enzymatic activities, high pressure could reduce the activity of polyphenoloxidase by 33-51%, whereas pasteurization markedly reduced that activity by 90%.

  9. An improved pollen collection and cryopreservation method for highly recalcitrant tropical fruit species of mango (Mangifera indica L.) and litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, Rekha; Malik, S K; Rajan, S

    2010-01-01

    An improved method for pollen collection from freshly dehiscing anthers of mango (Mangifera indica L.) and litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) using the organic solvent cyclohexane has been devised. Using this method pollen quantity sufficient for large scale pollinations could be collected and stored for future use. Transport of pollen in viable conditions over long distances, from site of collection (field genebank) to cryolab was successfully devised for both these fruit species. Cryopreservation was successfully applied to achieve long-term pollen storage over periods of up to four years. Pollen viability was tested using in vitro germination, the fluorochromatic reaction (FCR) method and by fruit set following field pollination. On retesting, four year cryostored pollen of different mango and litchi varieties showed high percentage viability as good as fresh control pollens. Pollens of more than 180 cultivars of mango and 19 cultivars of litchi have been stored in the cryogenebank using the technology developed, thus facilitating breeding programmes over the long-term.

  10. The anti-inflammatory effects of flavanol-rich lychee fruit extract in rat hepatocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryota Yamanishi

    Full Text Available Flavanol (flavan-3-ol-rich lychee fruit extract (FRLFE is a mixture of oligomerized polyphenols primarily derived from lychee fruit and is rich in flavanol monomers, dimers, and trimers. Supplementation with this functional food has been shown to suppress inflammation and tissue damage caused by high-intensity exercise training. However, it is unclear whether FRLFE has in vitro anti-inflammatory effects, such as suppressing the production of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α and the proinflammatory mediator nitric oxide (NO, which is synthesized by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS. Here, we analyzed the effects of FRLFE and its constituents on the expression of inflammatory genes in interleukin 1β (IL-1β-treated rat hepatocytes. FRLFE decreased the mRNA and protein expression of the iNOS gene, leading to the suppression of IL-1β-induced NO production. FRLFE also decreased the levels of the iNOS antisense transcript, which stabilizes iNOS mRNA. By contrast, unprocessed lychee fruit extract, which is rich in flavanol polymers, and flavanol monomers had little effect on NO production. When a construct harboring the iNOS promoter fused to the firefly luciferase gene was used, FRLFE decreased the luciferase activity in the presence of IL-1β, suggesting that FRLFE suppresses the promoter activity of the iNOS gene at the transcriptional level. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays indicated that FRLFE reduced the nuclear transport of a key regulator, nuclear factor κB (NF-κB. Furthermore, FRLFE inhibited the phosphorylation of NF-κB inhibitor α (IκB-α. FRLFE also reduced the mRNA levels of NF-κB target genes encoding cytokines and chemokines, such as TNF-α. Therefore, FRLFE inhibited NF-κB activation and nuclear translocation to suppress the expression of these inflammatory genes. Our results suggest that flavanols may be responsible for the anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects of FRLFE and may be

  11. Efeitos da aplicação de reguladores vegetais e do ácido bórico, em estacas de lichieira (Litchi chinensis Sonn. Effects of growth regulators and boric acid on lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn. cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Leonel

    1993-05-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se as interações entre os ácidos indol-butírico, alfa-naftaleno-acético e bórico no desenvolvimento de calos e na sobrevivência das estacas de lichieira (Litchi chinensis Sonn.. As estacas apresentavam 25 cm de comprimento e 4 folhas cortadas pela metade, sendo retiradas em duas épocas diferentes (janeiro e abril e colocadas para enraizar em bandejas de isopor, tendo como substrato vermiculita e em condições de câmara de nebulização. Foi feita imersão de 2,5 cm da base das estacas, em soluções aquosas por l minuto. Os tratamentos utilizados corresponderam a 5.000 e 2.000 ppm de IBA; 3.000 e 1.500 ppra de NAA; 150 microgramas/ml de H3BO3; IBA 5.000 e 2.000 ppm + H3BO(3150 microgramas/ml; NAA 3.000 e 1.500 ppm + H3BO3 150 microgramas/ml e H2O. Avaliou-se a formação de calos e a sobrevivência das estacas após 120 dias do plantio. Através dos resultados obtidos, foi possível concluir que dos tratamentos utilizados, nenhum foi efetivo na formação de raízes, havendo somente a formação de calos. A melhor época para a retirada de estacas correspondeu ao mês de abril.Interactions between indolebutyric, naphtalen acetic and boric acids were studied on "callus" development and survival in lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn. cuttings. The cuttings were twenty five cm long with four leaves cut in half and taken in two different periods (January and April Styrofoam trays, with vermiculite as substratum kept under intermittent mist were used as rooting media. Cuttings were imersed up to 2.5 cm from the base in water solutions, for one minute. The treatments were: 5,000 and 2,000 ppm of IBA; 3,000 and 1,500 ppm of NAA; 150 micrograms/ml H3BO3; IBA 5,000 and 2,000 ppm plus H3BO3 150 micrograms/ml; NAA 3,000 and 1,500 ppm plus boron 150 micrograms/ml and II2O. "Callus" formation and cutting survival were evaluated 120 days after planting. It was concluded that no treatments were effective on root formation, however, "callus

  12. 76 FR 65985 - Importation of Litchi and Longan Fruit From Vietnam Into the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... produced free of disease caused by P. litchii. Paragraph (b) of proposed Sec. 319.56-54 would set out... be in a situation to introduce the disease because free water is required for the spores to infect a... of disease caused by Phytophthora litchii. (b) Treatment. Litchi and longan fruit must be...

  13. Influence of the use of acids and films in post-harvest lychee conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Fabíola Pereira da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn. has a high commercial value; however, it has a short shelf-life because of its rapid pericarp browning. The objective of this study was to evaluate the shelf-life of 'Bengal' lychee fruits stored after treatment with hydrochloric acid and citric acid, associated with cassava starch and plastic packaging. Uniformly red pericarp fruits were submitted to treatments: 1-(immersion in citric acid 100 mM for 5 minutes + cassava starch 30 g L-1 for 5 minutes, 2-(immersion in hydrochloric acid 1 M for 2 minutes + starch cassava 30 g L-1 for 5 minutes, 3-(immersion in citric acid 100 mM for 5 minutes + polyvinyl chloride film (PVC, 14 µm thick and 4-(immersion in hydrochloric acid 1 M for 2 minutes + PVC film. During 20 days, the fruits were evaluated for mass loss, pericarp color, pH, soluble solids and titratable acidity, vitamin C of the pulp and pericarp and activities of polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase of the pericarp. The treatment with hydrochloric acid associated with PVC was the most effective in maintaining the red color of the pericarp for a period of 20 days and best preservation of the fruit. The cassava starch associated with citric acid, and hydrochloric acid did not reduce the mass loss and did not prevent the browning of lychee fruit pericarp.

  14. CHITOSAN ON DELAYING OF THE DARKENING OF THE PERICARP IN LYCHEE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Cristina Rosa de Lins

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available After harvest of lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn. pericarp browning occurs rapidly, this causes the fruit to submit short postharvest life. This study evaluated the effect of different concentrations of chitosan in delaying the browning of the pericarp and in maintaining the postharvest quality of lychees. Fruits of litchi ‘Bengal’ uniformly red pericarp were immersed for one minute in solution with different concentrations of chitosan (0 g.L-1, 5 g.L-1, 10 g.L-1, 15 g.L-1 and 20 g.L-1. After drying the environment, the fruits were packed in polystyrene trays, covered with plastic wrap for 12 mm thick and stored at 19.0 ± 2.4°C and 75 ± 5% RH. Every two days, during eight days, the fruits were evaluated for weight loss, color of the pericarp, soluble solids and titratable acidity and vitamin C from the pulp of the pericarp and pulp. The weight loss increased linearly during the period of storage, independent of the concentration predominantly of chitosan. The concentrations of 5 and 10 g.L-1 were the most effective in keeping the color of the pericarp for up to four days, without compromising other characteristics.

  15. An Intracellular Laccase Is Responsible for Epicatechin-Mediated Anthocyanin Degradation in Litchi Fruit Pericarp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fang; Zhang, Xue-lian; Luo, Hong-hui; Zhou, Jia-jian; Gong, Yi-hui; Li, Wen-jun; Shi, Zhao-wan; He, Quan; Wu, Qing; Li, Lu; Jiang, Lin-lin; Cai, Zhi-gao; Oren-Shamir, Michal; Zhang, Zhao-qi; Pang, Xue-qun

    2015-12-01

    In contrast to the detailed molecular knowledge available on anthocyanin synthesis, little is known about its catabolism in plants. Litchi (Litchi chinensis) fruit lose their attractive red color soon after harvest. The mechanism leading to quick degradation of anthocyanins in the pericarp is not well understood. An anthocyanin degradation enzyme (ADE) was purified to homogeneity by sequential column chromatography, using partially purified anthocyanins from litchi pericarp as a substrate. The purified ADE, of 116 kD by urea SDS-PAGE, was identified as a laccase (ADE/LAC). The full-length complementary DNA encoding ADE/LAC was obtained, and a polyclonal antibody raised against a deduced peptide of the gene recognized the ADE protein. The anthocyanin degradation function of the gene was confirmed by its transient expression in tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) leaves. The highest ADE/LAC transcript abundance was in the pericarp in comparison with other tissues, and was about 1,000-fold higher than the polyphenol oxidase gene in the pericarp. Epicatechin was found to be the favorable substrate for the ADE/LAC. The dependence of anthocyanin degradation by the enzyme on the presence of epicatechin suggests an ADE/LAC epicatechin-coupled oxidation model. This model was supported by a dramatic decrease in epicatechin content in the pericarp parallel to anthocyanin degradation. Immunogold labeling transmission electron microscopy suggested that ADE/LAC is located mainly in the vacuole, with essential phenolic substances. ADE/LAC vacuolar localization, high expression levels in the pericarp, and high epicatechin-dependent anthocyanin degradation support its central role in pigment breakdown during pericarp browning.

  16. Biological and phytopharmacological descriptions of Litchi chinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eswar Kumar Kilari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants remain a vital source of drugs and at present, much emphasis is given to nutraceuticals. Herbal medicines have been the basis of treatment and cure for various diseases and physiological conditions in the traditional methods practiced such as ayurveda and homeopathy. Litchi chinensis belongs to the Sapindaceae family and is well-known in the Indian traditional system for its traditional uses. The parts of the plant used are leaves, flowers, fruits, seed, pulp, and pericarp. All parts of the plant are rich sources of phytochemicals––epicatechin; procyanidin A2 and procyanidin B2; leucocyanidin; cyanidin glycoside, malvidin glycoside, and saponins; butylated hydroxytoluene; isolariciresinol; kaempferol; rutin; and stigmasterol. In the present review, we explore the lychee's description, traditional medicinal uses, and phytoconstituents, and investigate the pharmacological activities in various parts of the lychee to show its importance in ethanopharmacology. This is so that this review can serve as a ready-to-use material for further research on the plant.

  17. Biochemical effects of the flavanol-rich lychee fruit extract on the melanin biosynthesis and reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Kazuya; Okura, Masae; Sumikawa, Yasuyuki; Hida, Tokimasa; Kuno, Atsushi; Horio, Yoshiyuki; Yamashita, Toshiharu

    2016-10-01

    An ingredient of fruit polyphenol, resveratrol, is known to have an inhibitory effect on melanogenesis. In order to examine the functional differences between resveratrol and other fruit polyphenols, we compared biochemical effects of a resveratrol-free polyphenol, flavanol-rich lychee fruit extract (FRLFE), with other phenolic compounds including resveratrol. FRLFE as well as hydroquinone and resveratrol suppressed growth of B16F1 melanoma cells more significantly than rhododendrol or arbutin. Resveratrol suppressed mushroom tyrosinase at the lowest concentration (23.0 μmol/L) among the compounds tested. FRLFE and hydroquinone suppressed tyrosinase at almost the same concentration (half maximal inhibitory concentration [IC50 ], 83.5 and 94.6 μmol/L, respectively), which was higher than rhododendrol, ascorbic acid and arbutin (IC50 , 245, 345 and 421 μmol/L, respectively). Western blot analysis revealed that although resveratrol decreased expressions of tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein 1, FRLFE did not affect their expressions. Both FRLFE and resveratrol suppressed antimycin A-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in melanocytic cells. Resveratrol-mediated ROS suppression was inhibited by nicotinamide, a SIRT1 inhibitor. However, FRLFE-mediated suppression was not affected by nicotinamide. Moreover, FRLFE directly decreased superoxide in vitro, as detected by superoxide dismutase-like scavenging activity assay. These results suggest that FRLFE can protect melanocytes from cytotoxicity caused by an excess amount of melanin and ROS in a different manner from resveratrol.

  18. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of Expansin Genes from Litchi chinensis Fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Wang-jin; JIANG Yue-ming

    2003-01-01

    Using PCR degenerate primers, designed with reference to the sequences of the conserved amino acids of known expansins, to amplify cDNA fragments in litchi fruit by RT-PCR, two different cDNA fragments, named as Lc-Expl and Lc-Exp2, were cloned. Lc-Expl and Lc-Exp2 was respectively composed of 531 bp encoding 177 amino acids and 537 bp encoding 179 amino acids. Eight cysteine residues and three tryptopban residues, which is supposed to be the characteristics of expansins, are conserved in both Lc-Expl and e-Exp2. In addition, the homology between the two expansins is 71.6% at nucleotide acid sequences and 76.3% at amino acid sequences. The homology of Lc-Expl with Fa-Exp2 or Pp-Expl was 92.7% or 92.1%, but that of Lc-Exp2 with Fa-Exp2 or Pp-Expl was only 77.4% or 76.3% at amino acid sequences.

  19. Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of the Volatile Composition of the Flower and Fruit of Solanum sisymbriifolium (Litchi Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardalan Pasdaran, Arsalan Pasdaran, Nazim Mamedov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam. is used as traditional remedy in South America, recently this plant considered as new edible source. Berries and flower of S. sisymbriifolium have a characteristic fragrance. The pleasant fragrance of the S. sisymbriifolium could be considered as a source of food additive or preservative. Methods: The essential oils of the flower and fruit of S. sisymbriifolium Lam. (litchi tomato were isolated by hydrodistillation method and tested for antibacterial and antioxidant potentials also these volatile oils analyzed by the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID.The antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of fruits and flowers were tested against Staphylococcus aureus using the well diffusion method and their free-radical-scavenging activity were assessed by the 2, 2-diphenyl-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH assay. Results: The essential oil of flower was characterized by a high content of aldehydes and aliphatic hydrocarbons (66.8% and the essential oil of the fruit has high amount of fatty acids and their derivatives (80.1%. Heptadecane (37.9 % and 9,12,15-octadecatrienal (22.7% were the main compounds in flower whereas the fruits essential oil contained hexadecanoic acid (77.4% and ambrettolide (7.4%. The essential oils showed antibacterial activity against S. aureus in 60 and 80 µg/mL for fruit and flower, respectively. In antioxidant activity assay fruit essential oil (with100 µg/mL showed better activity in compression to flower essential oil with 83.33% activity. Conclusion: This study showed that litchi tomato can be considered as a new source of edible compounds. Flower showed suitable antioxidant and antibacterial activity. This study also can be present an overview about chemical marker compounds of Solanum genus.

  20. Evaluation of nutritional and antioxidant properties of the tropical fruits banana, litchi, mango, papaya, passion fruit and pineapple cultivated in Réunion French Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septembre-Malaterre, Axelle; Stanislas, Giovédie; Douraguia, Elisabeth; Gonthier, Marie-Paule

    2016-12-01

    Much attention is paid to the beneficial action of fruits against obesity-related oxidative stress. This study evaluated nutritional and antioxidant properties of banana, litchi, mango, papaya, passion fruit and pineapple from Réunion French Island. Results showed that total amounts of carbohydrates, vitamin C and carotenoids were 7.7-67.3g glucose equivalent, 4.7-84.9mg ascorbic acid equivalent and 26.6-3829.2μg β-carotene equivalent/100g fresh weight, respectively. Polyphenols were detected as the most abundant antioxidants (33.0-286.6mg gallic acid equivalent/100g fresh weight) with the highest content from passion fruit. UPLC-MS analysis led to identify epigallocatechin and quercetin derivatives from banana and litchi, ferulic, sinapic, syringic and gallic acids from pineapple and mango, and piceatannol from passion fruit. Polyphenol-rich extracts protected red blood cells and preadipose cells against oxidative stress. Altogether, these findings highlight nutritional benefits of French tropical fruits and their possible interest to improve antioxidant capacities of the body during obesity.

  1. Issatchenkia hanoiensis, a new yeast species isolated from frass of the litchi fruit borer Conopomorpha cramerella Snellen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Nguyen Vu; Dao, Anh Hai; Lachance, Marc-André

    2003-10-01

    The new ascogenous yeast species Issatchenkia hanoiensis was discovered in the frass of the litchi fruit borer Conopomorpha cramerella Snellen. The yeast forms unconjugated persistent asci containing one to two roughened ascospores. The yeast has a CoQ-7 system, which is typical for the genus Issatchenkia. The closest species to I. hanoiensis as indicated by analysis of the partial ribosomal DNA large-subunit (D1/D2) sequence is the asexual species Candida pseudolambica. The two share 94.2% similarity in the sequenced region. Other species of Issatchenkia were also among the closest relatives of I. hanoiensis, the level of similarity ranging from 89.8% to 94.1%. The type culture is strain HB1.3.13=CBS 9198=NRRL Y-27509.

  2. Comparison of the effect of oligonol, a new lychee fruit-derived low molecular form of polyphenol, and epigallocatechin-3-gallate on lipolysis in rat primary adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, Junetsu; Kitadate, Kentaro; Nishioka, Hiroshi; Fujii, Hajime; Sakurai, Takuya; Kizaki, Takako; Izawa, Tetsuya; Ishida, Hitoshi; Ohno, Hideki

    2011-03-01

    Several polyphenols have been shown to be beneficial in preventing the accumulation of body fat in mammals. This paper reports that adding oligonol, a lychee fruit-derived low-molecular form of polyphenol mixture, has a greater effect on lipolysis in primary adipocytes compared with tea (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) alone, accompanied by a significant increase in activation of extracellular signalling-related kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). However, neither phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase 1/2 (MEK1/2), a molecule upstream of ERK1/2, nor the level of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a molecule downstream of ERK1/2 was significantly changed between oligonol and EGCG, although the addition of oligonol and EGCG significantly increased the levels of phosphorylated MEK1/2 and HO-1 compared with the non-treated control cells. These results suggest that the coordinated direct effect of mixed polyphenol, which comprises oligonol, on ERK1/2 plays a key role in a greater lipolytic response to oligonol than EGCG alone. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Comparison of Effects on Gene Expression Activity of Low-Molecular-Weight Lychee Fruit Polyphenol (Oligonol®, Adenosine, and Minoxidil in Human Dermal Papilla Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Wakame

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oligonol® (OLG is a functional food product and ingredient for cosmetics derived from a lychee fruit polyphenol. It has been reported to act on the skin as an anti-inflammatory and prevent UVB-induced skin damage. Aim: In this study, with the aim of exploring new functionalities of OLG on the scalp, we investigated the effect of OLG on human dermal papilla cells by comparing with adenosine and minoxidil at the genetic level. Method: OLG, adenosine, and minoxidil were applied to human dermal papilla cell lines for 24 h, after which VEGF, FGF-7, WNT5a, and WNT10a mRNA expressions were measured by real-time PCR analysis. Additionally, using DNA microarrays, we investigated the effect on 205 inflammation-related genes. Result: Consequently, in human dermal papilla cell lines, FGF-7 and WNT10a mRNA expression were observed in 100 µg/mL OLG-supplemented cells. The results of the DNA microarray analysis showed that 10 genes were suppressed by OLG. Conclusions: OLG may be expected to affect function of human dermal papilla cell by regulating the expression of genes related to cell proliferation and inflammation.

  4. Pré-resfriamento em água de lichia 'B3' mantida em armazenamento refrigerado Hydrocooling of 'B3' lychee fruit maintained in cold storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Saavedra del Aguila

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento visou a estudar o efeito de diferentes temperaturas e tempos de pré-resfriamento em água sobre a qualidade de lichias 'B3', após a frigoconservação. Os tratamentos foram: T1 = controle (sem pré-resfriamento; T2 = imersão por cinco minutos em água a 2,5°C; T3 = imersão por 10 minutos em água a 2,5°C; T4 = imersão por 20 minutos em água a 2,5°C; T5 = imersão por sete minutos em água a 6°C; T6 = imersão por 20 minutos em água a 8°C e T7 = imersão por 10 minutos em água a 10°C. Após a aplicação dos respectivos tratamentos, os frutos foram acondicionados em filmes de polietileno de 24µm, selados e posteriormente armazenados a 5°C e 90% UR, por um período de sete dias, seguido por três dias de comercialização simulada a 20°C e 70% UR. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente ao acaso, com tratamentos fatoriais de 7x3 (tratamentosxtempo. Foram utilizadas quatro repetições por tratamento, sendo cada uma composta por 150g de frutos. Determinaram-se: perda de massa fresca, coloração (L*, a e b, escurecimento (% e podridões (%. De acordo com os resultados, o pré-resfriamento com água reduz a percentagem de escurecimento, o decréscimo da luminosidade (L* e os valores de a. Por outro lado, esse tratamento favorece o surgimento de altos índices de podridão.This project studied the effects of different precooling temperatures and times with water on lychee 'B3' fruit quality cold storage. The treatments were: T1 = control (without precooling; T2 = immersed in water at 2.5°C for five minutes; T3 = immersed in water at 2.5°C for ten minutes; T4 = immersed in water at 2.5°C for 20 minutes; T5 = immersed in water at 6°C for seven minutes; T6 = immersed in water at 8°C for 20 minutes and T7 = immersed in water at 10°C for ten minutes. After treatments application, the fruits were then placed into polyethylene bags of 24µm, sealed, and stored for seven days at 5°C and 90% RH, plus 3 days at 20

  5. Effects of different fresh-keeping transportation modes on quality of litchi fruit%不同保鲜运输方式对荔枝果实品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨松夏; 吕恩利; 陆华忠; 曾志雄; 唐本源

    2014-01-01

    Litchi is special fruit in China. It is important and difficult to keep fresh for litchi during transportation after harvest because it matures in hot seasons and will deteriorate rapidly while stored and transported in normal atmospheric temperature. Foam box with ice, refrigeration, and controlled atmosphere are three main fresh-keeping transportation modes for litchi at present. In order to obtain the effects of different fresh-keeping transportation modes on the quality of litchi fruit, the experiments of these three fresh-keeping transportation modes for “Feizixiao” litchi were carried out based on fresh-keeping transportation platform for fruits and vegetables. The developed fresh-keeping transportation platform can adjust temperature, relative humidity and oxygen volume fraction automatically and intelligently according to initial parameters setting and real time feedback from container to create a suitable fresh-keeping environment for litchi. The main processing of the three experiments is conducted as follows. For the experiment of ice-added transportation in foam box, litchi was packaged with polyethylene bags and then put into foam boxes with appropriate crushed ice (mass proportion of ice to fruit was about 0.30) to maintain low temperature. While for the refrigerated transportation experiment, litchi was packaged with perforated polyethylene bags (aperture ratio was 5%) and then put into plastic baskets, keeping the container environment temperature of 3-5℃ and relative humidity of 90%-95%. The package type of the controlled atmosphere transportation experiment was the same as that of the refrigerated transportation experiment and the two experiments were at the same temperature and relative humidity in container, but the oxygen volume fraction should be set to 3%-5%. On this basis, the foam boxes or plastic baskets with packaged litchi were fixed on the vibration device workbench located in the container of fresh-keeping transportation platform

  6. Bioactive phytochemicals and antioxidant activity in fresh and dried lychee fractions1

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Fruit of the lychee cv. Bengal are approximately 50% peel and seeds, which are discarded. These by-products have antioxidant compounds which are capable of blocking the harmful effects of free radicals in the body. Bioactive compounds (ascorbic acid, beta-carotene, lycopene and phenols) and antioxidant activity were evaluated in different extracts, both fresh and dried at 45 °C, of the skin, pulp and seeds of the lychee, which were subjected to principal component analysis to clarify which of...

  7. In vitro regeneration of lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Callogenesis was obtained in all media supplemented with auxin, but was most prominent in media .... wetting of the aerial portions of the plant. Young leaves from the .... There were clear exudates at the interface between the medium and the ...

  8. Comparative Analysis on Fruit Qualities of Litchi Varieties from Guangdong Province%广东省17个不同荔枝品种果实品质比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温靖; 徐玉娟; 肖更生; 吴继军; 陈于陇; 余元善

    2016-01-01

    Fruits of 17 litchi cultivars were used as materials for studying the fruit quality, main contents, physical﹣chemical properties, and nutrients. Results showed that Baila,Jizui,Zhenzhu,Guiwei,Nuomici, and Baitangyin were appropriate varieties for litchi juice processing due to its excellent color and lustre, typical litchi flavor, appropriate sugar acid ratio, and low browning level during the thermal treatment.%以17个荔枝品种的果实为试材,利用常规的加工特性分析方法,进行了果实的理化指标和营养成分分析。结果表明,17种荔枝品种中白腊、鸡嘴、珍珠、桂味、糯米糍和白糖罂6个品种的色泽良好,具有典型的荔枝风味、糖酸比适宜、热处理褐变程度轻,是最适宜加工果汁的优良品种。

  9. Effects of Storage and Exogenous Ga3 on Lychee Seed Germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Orika Ono

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of storage time and exogenous gibberellic acid on lychee seeds germination were studied. The seeds were removed from ripe fruits, washed, dried, stored at 8°C for 0, 15 and 30 days, and soaked during 24 hours in water and GA3 at 50, 100 and 200 mg.L-1 solutions. As the storage period increased, the germination capacity was lost, and the seeds had a short germinability after 30-day storage period. Gibberellic acid had not significant effect on enhancing both the germination percentage and rate.O trabalho teve como objetivo estudar os efeitos do tempo de armazenamento e de tratamentos com ácido giberélico, no processo germinativo de sementes de lichieira (Litchi chinensis Sonn.. As sementes foram retiradas de frutos maduros, lavadas, secas à sombra e colocadas para germinar imediatamente ou então, armazenadas em geladeira (8°C por 15 e 30 dias. Os tratamentos corresponderam à imersão das sementes por 24 horas nas seguintes soluções com aeração: água, GA3 a 50, 100 e 200 mg.L-1. Através dos resultados obtidos, observou-se que as sementes perderam o poder germinativo, à medida que aumentou-se o tempo de armazenamento, sendo a porcentagem de germinação muito baixa (7% aos 30 dias de armazenamento. O tempo médio de germinação foi menor após 15 dias de armazenamento.

  10. Attraction of the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, to avocado, lychee, and essential oil Lures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendra, Paul E; Montgomery, Wayne S; Niogret, Jerome; Peña, Jorge E; Capinera, John L; Brar, Gurpreet; Epsky, Nancy D; Heath, Robert R

    2011-09-01

    The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, is an exotic wood-boring insect that vectors the mycopathogen responsible for laurel wilt, a lethal vascular disease of trees in the Lauraceae. High mortality has occurred in native Persea species in the southeastern U.S., and the vector-pathogen complex poses an imminent threat to the production of commercial avocado, P. americana, in south Florida. There is a critical need for effective attractants to detect, monitor, and control this invasive pest. This study combined field tests and laboratory bioassays to evaluate the response of female X. glabratus to host-based volatiles from wood of avocado (cultivars of West Indian, Guatemalan, and Mexican races); from wood of lychee (Litchi chinensis, a presumed non-host that is high in the sesquiterpene α-copaene, a putative attractant); and to commercial lures containing manuka and phoebe oils, two reported attractive baits. Volatile collections and GC-MS analyses were performed to quantify the sesquiterpene content of test substrates. In the field, traps baited with lychee wood captured more beetles than those with wood from avocado cultivars; traps baited with phoebe oil lures captured more beetles than those with manuka oil lures (the current monitoring tool). In field and laboratory tests, X. glabratus did not show a preference among avocado races in either attraction or host acceptance (initiation of boring). In choice tests, lychee was more attractive than avocado initially, but a higher percentage of beetles bored into avocado, suggesting that lychee emits more powerful olfactory/visual cues, but that avocado contains more of the secondary cues necessary for host recognition. Emissions of α-copaene, β-caryophyllene, and α-humulene were correlated with field captures, and lychee wood may be a source of additional semiochemicals for X. glabratus.

  11. HYDROTHERMAL TREATMENT IN PREVENTION BROWNING OF LYCHEE PERICARP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Gonçalves Pires Matias1

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The browning of litchi pericarp (Litchi chinensis Sonn. occurs rapidly after harvest, limiting the marketing period of the fruits. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of hot water treatments in preventing browning of the pericarp and the maintenance of postharvest quality of litchi fruit. Fruits of litchi cv. Bengal uniformly red pericarp were submitted to immersion in water at tree temperature (45, 50 and 55°C x five soaking times (0, 4, 8, 12 and 16 minutes in a completely randomized design with tree replications and five fruit per replicate. After drying, the fruits were packed in polystyrene trays, covered with plastic wrap with 12 mm thick and stored in the lab benches at room temperature (19.0 ± 2.4°C and 75 ± 5% RH to simulate the exposure conditions at supermarket counters. Every two days, during eight days, were evaluated the weight loss, color of the pericarp, soluble solids, titratable acidity of the pulp and ascorbic acid content of the pericarp and pulp. It was observed that the weight loss was higher in fruits that were not subjected to hydrothermal treatment. Fruits subjected to 50°C during 16 minutes and 55°C in all immersion times were evaluated only until the 4th day, thereafter, these fruits are not suitable for commercialization. Immersion at 45°C during four minutes was the most effective in maintaining the red color of the pericarp and did not affect the quality measured during the experimental period.

  12. Flavanol-rich lychee fruit extract alleviates diet-induced insulin resistance via suppressing mTOR/SREBP-1 mediated lipogenesis in liver and restoring insulin signaling in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hung-Wen; Wei, Chu-Chun; Chen, Yen-Ju; Chen, Yun-An; Chang, Sue-Joan

    2016-10-01

    An elevated intracellular lipid contents resulted from lipid oversupply links obesity to insulin resistance. Flavanol-rich lychee fruit extract, oligonol, exhibited anti-obesity property in vitro and in vivo; however, the effects of oligonol on peripheral lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity have not been fully investigated. We hypothesized that oligonol alleviated insulin resistance via decreasing intracellular lipid contents in peripheral tissues. Dietary oligonol supplementation (20 or 200 mg/kg bw) reduced glucose and insulin levels, improved oral glucose tolerance, and suppressed inflammatory markers, MCP-1 and IL-6, in High-Fat diet (HFD) induced obese mice. Marked decreases in subcutaneous and visceral fat area, adipocyte size, and adipocyte released hormones including leptin and resistin by high-dose oligonol treatment were associated with downregulation of PPARγ gene expression. Significantly reduced intrahepatocellular lipid contents and hepatic triglyceride levels by oligonol (both doses) were associated with downregulation of mTOR/SREBP-1-mediated de novo lipogenesis. In skeletal muscle, oligonol enhanced Sirtuin1 protein expression and AMPKα activation, consequently resulted in reductions of intramuscular lipid contents and triglyceride levels and restoration of IRS-1 and AS160 phosphorylation. Oligonol reduced intracellular lipid contents in liver and skeletal muscle and suppressed inflammatory markers, thereby alleviating HFD-induced insulin resistance. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Quality profile of litchi (Litchi chinensis) cultivars from India and effect of radiation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajare, Sachin N.; Saxena, Sudhanshu; Kumar, Sanjeev; Wadhawan, Surbhi; More, Varsha; Mishra, B.B.; Narayan Parte, Madan; Gautam, Satyendra [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Sharma, Arun, E-mail: ksarun@barc.gov.i [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2010-09-15

    Litchi (Litchi chinensis) is a non-climacteric tropical fruit. The fruit has a short shelf-life making its marketing difficult. Physical, biochemical, microbiological, and organoleptic properties of two major commercially grown Indian cultivars of litchi, 'Shahi' and 'China' were studied. The effect of gamma radiation processing and low temperature storage on the above parameters was evaluated to standardize the optimal process parameters for shelf-life extension of litchi. Physical and biochemical parameters analyzed included weight, moisture, pH, titratable acidity, texture, color, total and reducing sugar, total soluble solids, vitamin C, and flavonoid content. Weight, moisture content, and pH in the fresh fruit ranged between 21-26 g, 74-77%, and 3.7-4.4, respectively, whereas, total and reducing sugar ranged 10-15, and 10-13 g%, respectively. In 'Shahi' vitamin C content was found to be around 17-19 mg%, whereas, in 'China' it was 22-28 mg%. Flavonoid content was in the range of 26-34 {mu}g catechin equivalents/g of fresh fruit. Total surface and internal bacterial load was around 4 and 3 log cfu/g, respectively. Surface yeast-mold count (YMC) was {approx}3 log cfu/g whereas internal YMC was {approx}2 log cfu/g. Radiation treatment reduced microbial load in a dose dependent manner. Treatment at 0.5 kGy did not significantly affect the quality parameters of the fruit. Treated fruits retained the 'good' organoleptic rating during storage. Thus, radiation treatment (0.5 kGy) in combination with low temperature (4 {sup o}C) storage achieved a shelf-life of 28 days for litchi fruit.

  14. Brand Marketing Strategies in the Export of Maoming Litchi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The thesis gives the brief overview of the development of Maoming litchi industry:it has the largest scale base and the output keeps going up;it has varieties of species and lots of famous special products;its standardized mass production ensures the safety of the products;the products go to market early with a broad range of sales;it has industrialized fruit production and deep product processing technology. After an introduction to the general situation of the export of litchis in China,the thesis introduces the current situation of the export of litchis in Maoming in terms of the continuously increasing exportations and the continuous expansion of the market and then,based on these,the thesis analyzes the existing problems in the export of Maoming Litchi:first,lack of brand awareness results in products with no brand;second,the instability of quality acts as a drawback to the exportation;third,fresh litchis are the main exportations,and the packaging and transportation technology of products are weak and thus the overseas markets are by no means well-explored. In order to adapt to the accelerating economic globalization,seize new opportunities for economic development,promote litchi exports from sluggish to healthy development and thus come to the successful transition of Maoming City as an agricultural city to a strong city in agricultural science and technology,corresponding strategies of the brand marketing of Maoming Litchi are put forward in the thesis:first,to enhance brand awareness and make it a famous brand;second,to build bases for litchis’ export and make Chinese litchis known worldwide;third,to pay intensive attention to the preservation of litchis and propel industrial management;fourth,to improve the market distribution system and open up the international market.

  15. Florescimento e frutificação de lichieiras em função do anelamento de ramos Flowering and fruiting of lychee trees in response to girdling of branches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliseo García-Pérez

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito do anelamento de ramos sobre o florescimento e frutificação de lichieiras 'Bengal' com 17 anos de idade. Os tratamentos constaram de anelamento em ramos ou pernadas principais e ramos de 6; 4 e 2 cm de diâmetro, além do controle. O delineamento utilizado foi em blocos casualizados, com cinco repetições. As avaliações quanto à floração foram: percentagem de floração e comprimento de inflorescências por quadrante e árvore; quanto à frutificação, avaliaram-se: vingamento de frutos maduros por panícula, massa, diâmetros longitudinal e equatorial dos frutos, sólidos solúveis totais, época de colheita e rendimento. O anelamento nos ramos principais induziu maior florescimento, sem alterar as características das inflorescências; não houve diferenças no vingamento de frutos, mas o aumento na floração incrementou o rendimento por árvore, com significativa antecipação da colheita.The effects of girdling of branches on flowering and fruiting of 17 years old 'Bengal' lychee trees were evaluated. The treatments consisted of girdling of main branches, and branches with 6, 4 and 2 cm of diameter and the control. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design, with 5 replicates. The evaluations in relation to flowering were: flowering per tree and per quadrant and length of flower panicles; in relation to fruiting were: fruit set per panicle, fruit weight, longitudinal and equatorial diameters, soluble solids, harvest time and production. The girdling in the main branches induced larger flowering, without influence on the flower panicles characteristics, there were no differences in the fruit set, but with an increasing in the flowering, it increased the production, with significant anticipation of the harvest.

  16. Quality Detection of Litchi Stored in Different Environments Using an Electronic Nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai Xu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to explore the utility of an electronic nose to detect the quality of litchi fruit stored in different environments. In this study, a PEN3 electronic nose was adopted to test the storage time and hardness of litchi that were stored in three different types of environment (room temperature, refrigerator and controlled-atmosphere. After acquiring data about the hardness of the sample and from the electronic nose, linear discriminant analysis (LDA, canonical correlation analysis (CCA, BP neural network (BPNN and BP neural network-partial least squares regression (BPNN-PLSR, were employed for data processing. The experimental results showed that the hardness of litchi fruits stored in all three environments decreased during storage. The litchi stored at room temperature had the fastest rate of decrease in hardness, followed by those stored in a refrigerator environment and under a controlled-atmosphere. LDA has a poor ability to classify the storage time of the three environments in which litchi was stored. BPNN can effectively recognize the storage time of litchi stored in a refrigerator and a controlled-atmosphere environment. However, the BPNN classification of the effect of room temperature storage on litchi was poor. CCA results show a significant correlation between electronic nose data and hardness data under the room temperature, and the correlation is more obvious for those under the refrigerator environment and controlled-atmosphere environment. The BPNN-PLSR can effectively predict the hardness of litchi under refrigerator storage conditions and a controlled-atmosphere environment. However, the BPNN-PLSR prediction of the effect of room temperature storage on litchi and global environment storage on litchi were poor. Thus, this experiment proved that an electronic nose can detect the quality of litchi under refrigeratored storage and a controlled-atmosphere environment. These results provide a useful

  17. Quality Detection of Litchi Stored in Different Environments Using an Electronic Nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Sai; Lü, Enli; Lu, Huazhong; Zhou, Zhiyan; Wang, Yu; Yang, Jing; Wang, Yajuan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to explore the utility of an electronic nose to detect the quality of litchi fruit stored in different environments. In this study, a PEN3 electronic nose was adopted to test the storage time and hardness of litchi that were stored in three different types of environment (room temperature, refrigerator and controlled-atmosphere). After acquiring data about the hardness of the sample and from the electronic nose, linear discriminant analysis (LDA), canonical correlation analysis (CCA), BP neural network (BPNN) and BP neural network-partial least squares regression (BPNN-PLSR), were employed for data processing. The experimental results showed that the hardness of litchi fruits stored in all three environments decreased during storage. The litchi stored at room temperature had the fastest rate of decrease in hardness, followed by those stored in a refrigerator environment and under a controlled-atmosphere. LDA has a poor ability to classify the storage time of the three environments in which litchi was stored. BPNN can effectively recognize the storage time of litchi stored in a refrigerator and a controlled-atmosphere environment. However, the BPNN classification of the effect of room temperature storage on litchi was poor. CCA results show a significant correlation between electronic nose data and hardness data under the room temperature, and the correlation is more obvious for those under the refrigerator environment and controlled-atmosphere environment. The BPNN-PLSR can effectively predict the hardness of litchi under refrigerator storage conditions and a controlled-atmosphere environment. However, the BPNN-PLSR prediction of the effect of room temperature storage on litchi and global environment storage on litchi were poor. Thus, this experiment proved that an electronic nose can detect the quality of litchi under refrigeratored storage and a controlled-atmosphere environment. These results provide a useful reference for future

  18. patrial characterization of soluble peroxidase in pericatp of litchi fruit%荔枝果皮过氧化酶的纯化与性质研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宫钦嵌; 田世平

    2002-01-01

    荔枝果皮采后褐变是影响这一重要热带水果经济价值的主要问题,酚类物质的酶促氧化一直被认为是造成植物组织褐变的关键因素,其中多酚氧化酶被研究得最多.过氧化物酶在植物体中分布很广,能够氧化多种底物,在荔枝果皮中的含量也很高.非结合性过氧化物酶已经被证明在果实的采后成熟与老化过程中参与多种过程.在这项研究中,用磷酸缓冲液提取荔枝果皮的非结合性过氧化物酶,并通过硫酸铵沉淀,DEAFSephadex A-50离子交换柱层析以及Sephadex G-100凝胶过滤进行纯化.对得到的酶溶液进行了酶学性质的研究,发现荔枝果皮过氧化物酶具有较高的热稳定性和高的最适反应pH值(6.8),能够氧化许多底物尤其是单酚和各种多酚类物质,反应抑制剂专一性与其他植物来源的过氧化物酶略有不同显示了过氧化物酶参与荔枝果皮褐变过程的可能性,并为提高荔枝采后贮藏性提供了新的思路.%Soluble peroxidase in pericarp of litchi (Litchi chinensis sonn. Cv. Heiye) fruit was extracted by phosphate buffer and purified by annonium sulfate precipitation, ion exchange chromatography using DEAE Sephadex A-50column, and gel filtration using Sephadex G-100 column. The specific activity of the purified enzyme increased 65.70 fold over the crude extract with 45.66% recovery. The effects of pH and temperature on activity of peroxidase(POD) were assayed. The Km for H2O2 and 4-methylcatechol were detemined by Lineweaver Burk plots. Several compounds including phonelic compounds were used as the substrates of the enzyme for specificity study. The effects of various inhibitors on this peroxidsae were also assayed.

  19. [Ecological control effects of Litchi chinensis-Desmodium intortum complex plant ecosystem on litchi pests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Gecheng; Yang, Yueping; Liu, Deguang; Xiong, Jinjun; Huang, Mingdu

    2006-01-01

    An investigation on the community structure and dynamics of litchi pests and their natural enemies in constructed Litchi chinensis-Desmodium intortum complex plant ecosystem and single L. chinensis ecosystem showed that the total amount of litchi pests in the complex plant ecosystem was 61.27% of that in the single ecosystem in whole year, and only 50.45% in May, the key time for fruit development, which suggested that there was an interaction between D. intortum and L. chinensis. D. intortum and L. chinensis had a few common pests, but many common natural enemies. D. intortum florescence in winter provided shelter and substitutive food for the natural enemies of pests to survive in the extreme environmental conditions in winter. L. chinensis florescence was on the heel of D. intortum florescence, which provided better conditions for the natural enemies to survive and multiply. During florescence and fruit development stages of L. chinensis (from March to June), the predator/prey ratio in complex plant system was 4.22, 2.34, 2.2 and 20.63 times of that in single plant system in March, April, May and June, respectively, indicating the good control effect on pests of L. chinensis.

  20. Bioactive phytochemicals and antioxidant activity in fresh and dried lychee fractions1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela de Rezende Queiroz

    Full Text Available Fruit of the lychee cv. Bengal are approximately 50% peel and seeds, which are discarded. These by-products have antioxidant compounds which are capable of blocking the harmful effects of free radicals in the body. Bioactive compounds (ascorbic acid, beta-carotene, lycopene and phenols and antioxidant activity were evaluated in different extracts, both fresh and dried at 45 °C, of the skin, pulp and seeds of the lychee, which were subjected to principal component analysis to clarify which of the compounds are responsible for this activity. Principal component analysis explained 82.90% of the variance of the antioxidant profile of the lychee. The peel displayed higher levels of phenols, ascorbic acid, beta-carotene and antioxidant activity, while the seeds stood out due to their levels of lycopene. With drying, there was a decrease in the levels of ascorbic acid and beta-carotene and in antioxidant activity, with an increase in the levels of phenols and lycopene. The antioxidant activity found in the peel and seeds of the lychee is high, and is mainly due to ascorbic acid and beta-carotene, as demonstrated by principal component analysis, allowing the use of these fractions as sources of natural antioxidants.

  1. Litchi chinensis: medicinal uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Sabrin R M; Mohamed, Gamal A

    2015-11-04

    -diabetic, anti-obesity, hepato-protective, and immunomodulatory activities. From the toxicological perspective, litchi fruit juice and extracts have been proven to be safe at a dose 1 g/kg. Phytochemical investigations indicated that phenolics were the major bioactive components of L. chinensis with potential pharmacological activities. The ethnopharmacological relevance of L. chinensis is fully justified by the most recent findings indicating it is a useful medicinal and nutritional agent for treating a wide range of human disorders and aliments. Further investigations are needed to fully understand the mode of action of the active constituents and to fully exploit its preventive and therapeutic potentials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Induction of Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest in Human Colorectal Carcinoma by Litchi Seed Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Hsu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Litchi (Litchi chinensis fruit products possess rich amounts of flavanoids and proanthocyanidins. Its pericarp has been shown to inhibit breast and liver cancer cell growth. However, the anticolorectal cancer effect of Litchi seed extract has not yet been reported. In this study, the effects of polyphenol-rich Litchi seed ethanol extract (LCSP on the proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis of two colorectal cancer cell lines Colo320DM and SW480 were examined. The results demonstrated that LCSP significantly induced apoptotic cell death in a dose-dependent manner and arrested cell cycle in G2/M in colorectal carcinoma cells. LCSP also suppressed cyclins and elevated the Bax : Bcl-2 ratio and caspase 3 activity. This study provides in vitro evidence that LCSP serves as a potential chemopreventive agent for colorectal cancer.

  3. Combination of microwave-assisted extraction and ultrasonic-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for separation and enrichment of pyrethroids residues in Litchi fruit prior to HPLC determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Xie, Xiujuan; Zhang, Yi; Huang, Yuanxiang; Zhou, Shiyu; Zhang, Wei; Lin, Yuyang; Fan, Huajun

    2018-02-01

    A novel method for simultaneous determination of pyrethroids residues in Litchi fruit has been developed by HPLC-UV detection using microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) coupled with ultrasonic-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (UADLLME). Extraction conditions of MAE and UADLLME were respectively investigated by single-factor experiments and response surface methodology. Optimized experimental conditions included 310μL of chlorobenzene as extraction solvent, 1.3mL of ethanol as dispersive solvent and 3min of extraction time for UADLLME. In the case of MAE, extraction temperature of 70°C, extraction time of 4min and solvent-to-materials ratio of 40:1 were adopted. Results demonstrated that the proposed method had good performance with linearity of 0.0050-4.98mg/L, recovery of 83.3-91.5%, RSDs below 5.6% and detection limit (LOD) of 1.15-2.46μg/L for six pyrethroids, offering higher extraction efficiency and larger enrichment factor. MAE-UADLLME provided a sensitive and efficient alternative to determination of trace amounts of pesticides residues in food samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of Temporal Modeling for Forecasting and Prediction of the Incidence of Lychee, Tessaratoma papillosa (Hemiptera: Tessaratomidae), Using Time-Series (ARIMA) Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boopathi, T.; Singh, S. B.; Manju, T.; Ramakrishna, Y.; Akoijam, R. S.; Chowdhury, Samik; Singh, N. Hemanta; Ngachan, S. V.

    2015-01-01

    The most destructive enemy of the lychee, Litchi chinensis Sonn. (Sapindales: Sapindaceae), in India is a stink bug, Tessaratoma papillosa (Drury) (Hemiptera: Tessaratomidae). The population of T. papillosa on lychee trees varied from 1.43 ± 0.501 to 9.85 ± 3.924 insects per branch in this study. An increase in the temperature and a decrease in the relative humidity during summer months (April to July) favor the population buildup of T. papillosa. A forecasting model to predict T. papillosa incidences in lychee orchards was developed using the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model of time-series analysis. The best-fit model for the T. papillosa incidence was ARIMA (1,1), where the P-value was significant at 0.01. The highest T. papillosa incidences were predicted for April in 2010, January in 2011, May in 2012, and February in 2013. A model based on time series offers longer-term forecasting. The forecasting model, ARIMA (1,1), developed in this study will predict T. papillosa incidences in advance, thus providing functional guidelines for effective planning of timely prevention and control measures.

  5. Effects of Food Antioxidants on the Antifungal Activities and Fresh-keeping of Litchi Fruits%食品添加剂对荔枝采后病原菌的抑菌活性及其保鲜效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵超; 王家保; 胡美姣; 李敏; 杨凤珍; 高兆银; 张新春

    2011-01-01

    研究18种食品添加剂对荔枝采后病原菌的抑菌活性及保鲜效果,结果表明:在100μg/mL浓度下,邻苯基苯酚钠、叔丁基对苯二酚、脱氢醋酸钠、3-叔-4-羟基苯甲醚、联苯对3种病原菌的平均抑菌活性大于70%,其它13种食品添加剂的平均抑菌活性小于50%.在常温下,维生素E、甘草抗氧化剂对荔枝具有较好的保鲜效果,防效大于38%,邻苯基苯酚钠、异抗坏血酸钙、叔丁基对苯二酚有促进荔枝果皮褐变的作用,其他13种食品添加剂对荔枝的防腐保鲜效果介于0~30%之间.在低温贮藏条件下,维生素E、甘草抗氧化剂处理的荔枝花色苷降解较对照缓慢,能显著抑制PPO、POD酶活性,延缓SOD酶活性下降,从而延缓荔枝果实的衰老.%The antifungal activities of 18 food additives against postharvest pathogenic fungi and their preservation effect on litchi fruit were studied. The results showed at the concentration of 100 μg/ml, the average antifungal activity of sodium o-phenylphenolate, tertiary butylhydroquinone, sodium dehydroacetate, 3-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole and biphenyls on 3 pathogens was toeater than 70%, and other 13 food additives was less than 50%. At room temperature fruits treated with vitamin E and licorice root antioxidant had better fresh keeping effect, and the control effect was over 38%. The browning speed of pericarp accelerated after treated with sodium o-phenylphenolate, calcium erythorbate and 3-tert- butyl-4-hydroxyanisole, and the fresh keeping effect of the rest 13 food additives was between 0~30%. At lower storage temperature, compared to the control, the treatment of Vitamin E and licorice mot antioxidant significantly reduced the activities of PPO and POD, maintained higher activity of superoxide dismutase(SOD) , and significantly delayed fruit consenescence.

  6. Litchi Flavonoids: Isolation, Identification and Biological Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueming Jiang

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The current status of the isolation, identification, biological activity, utilization and development prospects of flavonoids found in litchi fruit pericarp (LFP tissues is reviewed. LFP tissues account for approximately 15% by weight of the whole fresh fruit and are comprised of significant amount of flavonoids. The major flavonoids in ripe LFP include flavonols and anthocyanins. The major flavanols in the LFP are reported to be procyanidin B4, procyanidin B2 and epicatechin, while cyanindin-3-rutinside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, quercetin-3-rutinosde and quercetin-3-glucoside are identified as the important anthocyanins. Litchi flavanols and anthocyanins exhibit good potential antioxidant activity. The hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion scavenging activities of procyanidin B2 are greater than those of procyanidin B4 and epicatechin, while epicatechin has the highest α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH· scavenging activity. In addition to the antioxidant activity, LFP extract displays a dose- and time-dependent inhibitory effect on human breast cancer, which could be attributed, in part, to its inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis in cancer cells through upregulation and down-regulation of multiple genes. Furthermore, various anticancer activities are observed for epicatechin, procyanidin B2, procyanidin B4 and the ethyl acetate fraction of LFP tissue extracts. Procyanidin B4 and the ethyl acetate fraction show a stronger inhibitory effect on HELF than MCF-7 proliferation, while epicatechin and procyanidin B2 have lower cytotoxicities towards MCF-7 and HELF than paclitaxel. It is therefore suggested that flavonoids from LFP might be potentially useful components for functional foods and/or anti-breast cancer drugs.

  7. Transcriptomes of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and litchi host interaction after tree girdling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo eShu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Trunk girdling can increase carbohydrate content above the girdling site and is an important strategy for inhibiting new shoot growth to promote flowering in cultivated litchi (Litchi chinenis Sonn.. However, girdling inhibits carbohydrate transport to the root in nearly all of the fruit development periods and consequently decreases root absorption. The mechanism through which carbohydrates regulate root development in arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM remains largely unknown. Carbohydrate content, AM colonization, and transcriptome in the roots were analyzed to elucidate the interaction between host litchi and AM fungi when carbohydrate content decreases. Girdling decreased glucose, fructose, sucrose, quebrachitol and starch contents in the litchi mycorrhizal roots, thereby reducing AM colonization. RNA-seq achieved approximately 60 million reads of each sample, with an average length of reads reaching 100 bp. Assembly of all the reads of the 30 samples produced 671,316 transcripts and 381,429 unigenes, with average lengths of 780 and 643 bp, respectively. Litchi (54,100 unigenes and AM fungi unigenes (33,120 unigenes were achieved through sequence annotation during decreased carbohydrate content. Analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEG showed that flavonoids, alpha-linolenic acid, and linoleic acid are the main factors that regulate AM colonization in litchi. However, flavonoids may play a role in detecting the stage at which carbohydrate content decreases; alpha-linolenic acid or linoleic acid may affect AM formation under the adaptation process. Litchi trees stimulated the expression of defense-related genes and downregulated symbiosis signal-transduction genes to inhibit new AM colonization. Moreover, transcription factors of the AP2, ERF, Myb, WRKY, bHLH families, and lectin genes altered maintenance of litchi mycorrhizal roots in the post-symbiotic stage for carbohydrate starvation. Similar to those of the litchi host, the E3 ubiquitin

  8. The effects of biological control of Bacillus subtilis strains on downy mildew and anthracnose diseases of harvested litchi fruits%枯草芽胞杆菌对离体荔枝果实霜疫霉病、炭疽病的防治效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄庶识; 黄曦; 张荣灿; 许兰兰; 雷富; 黄荣韶

    2011-01-01

    Four antagonistic bacteria strains, OR-1, OR-2, OR-3 and ON-6, which were isolated and screened from soil under litchi trees and identified as Bacillus subtilis morphologically and molecularly, were used to evaluate the control effect on downy mildew and anthracnose diseases of harvested litchi fruits. The results showed that all 4 strains had obvious inhibiting action on mycelial growth of Peronophy-thora litchii and Colletrichum gloeosporiodes, among them, ON-6 strain had the highest inhibitory rate to mycelial growth of two litchi pathogenic fungi, the ratio were 92.34% and 70. 36% respectively; the next best was ON-1, its ratio were 82. 93% and 54. 61% severally. The browning index of the four strains treatment groups was lower than that of the control group and fungicide groups significantly ( P <0.05 ) , in which OR-1 strain had the best impact. Metabolites of four B. subtilis strains had a better effect in pre-venting P. litchii and C. gloeosporiodes on the surface of fresh fruits than those of CK group and fungicide groups at room temperature for 3 -4 d or at 4 X. for 40 d significantly (P < 0. 05 ) , which ON-6 strain showed best at room temperature, likewise, ON-6 and ON-3 strains showed best at 4 °C , indicated that the four B. subtilis strains could inhibit litchi pathogenic fungi on the surface of fruits determinately, and extend the period of storage and delay the fresh fruits to brown stain at room temperature or at 4 t.%为了进一步明确从土壤中筛选得到的拮抗细菌OR-1、OR-2、OR-3、ON-6的分类地位和生防效果,采用形态学观察、理化特性结合分子生物学方法,鉴定这4株细菌皆为枯草芽胞杆菌Bacillussubitilis.拮抗菌对荔枝霜疫霉菌、炭疽菌菌丝生长均具有明显抑制作用,ON-6菌株的发酵液对菌丝生长的抑制率最高,分别为92.34%和70.36%,其次是OR-1菌株.拮抗菌处理组褐变指数均小于对照组以及杀菌剂处理组,且差异达显著水平(P<0.05),OR

  9. Methyl-inositol, γ-aminobutyric acid and other health benefit compounds in the aril of litchi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zi-Chen; Yang, Zhuan-Ying; Li, Jian-Guo; Chen, Hou-Bin; Huang, Xu-Ming; Wang, Hui-Cong

    2016-11-01

    The available components in the flesh of litchi seem insufficient to interpret its wide and significant physiological effects. Some unusual compounds, including myo-inositol, inositol methyl derivatives and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were identified as main constituents in the flesh of litchi. Their concentrations varied among cultivars but remain relatively constant during development. Litchi flesh was shown to contain moderate myo-inositol (0.28-0.78 mg g(-1) FW), ascorbic acid (0.08-0.39 mg g(-1) FW) and phenolics (0.47-1.60 mg g(-1) FW), but abundant l-quebrachitol (1.6-6.4 mg g(-1) FW) and GABA (1.7-3.5 mg g(-1) FW). The concentration of GABA in the flesh of litchi was about 100 times higher than in other fruits. And l-quebrachitol is not a common component in fruits. The biological and physiological activities of inositols, inositol derivatives and GABA have been extensively documented. These compounds are probably important compositional characteristic contributing to the widely shown health benefits of litchi.

  10. Genome-wide digital transcript analysis of putative fruitlet abscission related genes regulated by ethephon in litchi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caiqin eLi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The high level of physiological fruitlet abscission in litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn. causes severe yield loss. Cell separation occurs at the fruit abscission zone (FAZ and can be triggered by ethylene. However, a deep knowledge of the molecular events occurring in the FAZ is still unknown. Here, genome-wide digital transcript abundance (DTA analysis of putative fruit abscission related genes regulated by ethephon in litchi were studied. More than 81 million high quality reads from seven ethephon treated and untreated control libraries were obtained by high-throughput sequencing. Through DTA profile analysis in combination with Gene Ontology and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses, a total of 2,730 statistically significant candidate genes were involved in the ethephon-promoted litchi fruitlet abscission. Of these, there were 1,867 early-responsive genes whose expressions were up- or down-regulated from 0 to 1 d after treatment. The most affected genes included those related to ethylene biosynthesis and signaling, auxin transport and signaling, transcription factors, protein ubiquitination, ROS response, calcium signal transduction and cell wall modification. These genes could be clustered into 4 groups and 13 subgroups according to their similar expression patterns. qRT-PCR displayed the expression pattern of 41 selected candidate genes, which proved the accuracy of our DTA data. Ethephon treatment significantly increased fruit abscission and ethylene production of fruitlet. The possible molecular events to control the ethephon-promoted litchi fruitlet abscission were prompted out. The increased ethylene evolution in fruitlet would suppress the synthesis and polar transport of auxin and trigger abscission signaling. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time to monitor the gene expression profile occurring in the FAZ-enriched pedicel during litchi fruit abscission induced by ethephon on the genome-wide level. This study will contribute to

  11. Vacuum Drying for Extending Litchi Shelf-Life: Vitamin C, Total Phenolics, Texture and Shelf-Life Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter Reis, Felipe; de Oliveira, Aline Caroline; Gadelha, Gabriella Giani Pieretti; de Abreu, Marcela Breves; Soares, Hillary Isabelle

    2017-06-01

    In an attempt to obtain shelf-stable litchi fruit with preserved nutritional quality and good sensory features, quarters of peeled and pitted fruits were vacuum dried at 50, 60 and 70 °C at a constant pressure of 8.0 kPa. The product was assessed for its vitamin C, total phenolics and texture (hardness). In addition, the product with the best texture was assessed for its shelf-life by means of accelerated testing. Results suggest that vacuum dried litchi retained almost 70% of the vitamin C and total phenolics when compared to frozen fruits (control). Vitamin C and phenolic compounds content significantly decreased with drying, while no difference was found between different drying temperatures. Hardness increased with drying temperature. The sample dried at 70 °C presented crispness, which is a desired quality feature in dried fruit products. This sample was subjected to shelf-life evaluation, whose result suggests a shelf-life of eight months at 23 °C. Total color change (CIE ΔE00) was the expiry criterion. Vacuum drying was a suitable technique for producing shelf-stable litchi fruit with good texture while preserving its desirable original nutrients. Consumption of vacuum dried litchi may be beneficial to health due to its remarkable content of phenolic compounds and vitamin C.

  12. Antioxidant Efficacy of Litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn. Pericarp Extract in Sheep Meat Nuggets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun K. Das

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the efficacy of litchi fruit pericarp (LFP extract (0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% concentration in retarding lipid oxidation of cooked sheep meat nuggets was evaluated and compared to butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT, 100 ppm. The total phenolic content and antioxidant potential of LFP extracts were determined. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS values were evaluated to assess the potential of LFP extracts as natural antioxidants for oxidative stability of cooked nuggets during 12 days of refrigerated storage. Results show that total phenolics content in 10 mg LFP powder was comparable to 100 ppm BHT, but 15 mg LFP powder had significantly higher (p < 0.05 total phenolics content and reducing power than the synthetic antioxidant. LFP extract did not affect pH, cooking yield and the sensory attributes of cooked nuggets. Non-treated control and nuggets with 1.0% LFP extract had significantly lower total phenolics than nuggets with 1.5% extract and BHT. TBARS values were significantly lower (p < 0.05 throughout the storage period in cooked meat nuggets containing either LFP extract or BHT than in non-treated control. Results indicate that LFP extracts are promising sources of natural antioxidants and can potentially be used as functional food additives in meat products at 1.5% without affecting products’ acceptability.

  13. Antioxidant Efficacy of Litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) Pericarp Extract in Sheep Meat Nuggets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Arun K.; Rajkumar, Vincent; Nanda, Pramod K.; Chauhan, Pranav; Pradhan, Soubhagya R.; Biswas, Subhasish

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the efficacy of litchi fruit pericarp (LFP) extract (0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% concentration) in retarding lipid oxidation of cooked sheep meat nuggets was evaluated and compared to butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT, 100 ppm). The total phenolic content and antioxidant potential of LFP extracts were determined. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values were evaluated to assess the potential of LFP extracts as natural antioxidants for oxidative stability of cooked nuggets during 12 days of refrigerated storage. Results show that total phenolics content in 10 mg LFP powder was comparable to 100 ppm BHT, but 15 mg LFP powder had significantly higher (p content and reducing power than the synthetic antioxidant. LFP extract did not affect pH, cooking yield and the sensory attributes of cooked nuggets. Non-treated control and nuggets with 1.0% LFP extract had significantly lower total phenolics than nuggets with 1.5% extract and BHT. TBARS values were significantly lower (p cooked meat nuggets containing either LFP extract or BHT than in non-treated control. Results indicate that LFP extracts are promising sources of natural antioxidants and can potentially be used as functional food additives in meat products at 1.5% without affecting products’ acceptability. PMID:27213457

  14. Differential expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in relation to anthocyanin accumulation in the pericarp of Litchi chinensis Sonn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Zan Wei

    Full Text Available Litchi has diverse fruit color phenotypes, yet no research reflects the biochemical background of this diversity. In this study, we evaluated 12 litchi cultivars for chromatic parameters and pigments, and investigated the effects of abscisic acid, forchlorofenron (CPPU, bagging and debagging treatments on fruit coloration in cv. Feizixiao, an unevenly red cultivar. Six genes encoding chalcone synthase (CHS, chalcone isomerase (CHI, flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR, anthocyanidin synthase (ANS and UDP-glucose: flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT were isolated from the pericarp of the fully red litchi cv. Nuomici, and their expression was analyzed in different cultivars and under the above mentioned treatments. Pericarp anthocyanin concentration varied from none to 734 mg m(-2 among the 12 litchi cultivars, which were divided into three coloration types, i.e. non-red ('Kuixingqingpitian', 'Xingqiumili', 'Yamulong'and 'Yongxing No. 2', unevenly red ('Feizixiao' and 'Sanyuehong' and fully red ('Meiguili', 'Baila', Baitangying' 'Guiwei', 'Nuomici' and 'Guinuo'. The fully red type cultivars had different levels of anthocyanin but with the same composition. The expression of the six genes, especially LcF3H, LcDFR, LcANS and LcUFGT, in the pericarp of non-red cultivars was much weaker as compared to those red cultivars. Their expression, LcDFR and LcUFGT in particular, was positively correlated with anthocyanin concentrations in the pericarp. These results suggest the late genes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway were coordinately expressed during red coloration of litchi fruits. Low expression of these genes resulted in absence or extremely low anthocyanin accumulation in non-red cultivars. Zero-red pericarp from either immature or CPPU treated fruits appeared to be lacking in anthocyanins due to the absence of UFGT expression. Among these six genes, only the expression of UFGT was found significantly correlated

  15. Differential expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in relation to anthocyanin accumulation in the pericarp of Litchi chinensis Sonn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yong-Zan; Hu, Fu-Chu; Hu, Gui-Bing; Li, Xiao-Jing; Huang, Xu-Ming; Wang, Hui-Cong

    2011-04-29

    Litchi has diverse fruit color phenotypes, yet no research reflects the biochemical background of this diversity. In this study, we evaluated 12 litchi cultivars for chromatic parameters and pigments, and investigated the effects of abscisic acid, forchlorofenron (CPPU), bagging and debagging treatments on fruit coloration in cv. Feizixiao, an unevenly red cultivar. Six genes encoding chalcone synthase (CHS), chalcone isomerase (CHI), flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR), anthocyanidin synthase (ANS) and UDP-glucose: flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT) were isolated from the pericarp of the fully red litchi cv. Nuomici, and their expression was analyzed in different cultivars and under the above mentioned treatments. Pericarp anthocyanin concentration varied from none to 734 mg m(-2) among the 12 litchi cultivars, which were divided into three coloration types, i.e. non-red ('Kuixingqingpitian', 'Xingqiumili', 'Yamulong'and 'Yongxing No. 2'), unevenly red ('Feizixiao' and 'Sanyuehong') and fully red ('Meiguili', 'Baila', Baitangying' 'Guiwei', 'Nuomici' and 'Guinuo'). The fully red type cultivars had different levels of anthocyanin but with the same composition. The expression of the six genes, especially LcF3H, LcDFR, LcANS and LcUFGT, in the pericarp of non-red cultivars was much weaker as compared to those red cultivars. Their expression, LcDFR and LcUFGT in particular, was positively correlated with anthocyanin concentrations in the pericarp. These results suggest the late genes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway were coordinately expressed during red coloration of litchi fruits. Low expression of these genes resulted in absence or extremely low anthocyanin accumulation in non-red cultivars. Zero-red pericarp from either immature or CPPU treated fruits appeared to be lacking in anthocyanins due to the absence of UFGT expression. Among these six genes, only the expression of UFGT was found significantly correlated with the

  16. Fluctuation traits of Litchi wholesale price in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, F. F.; Qi, W. E.; Ouyang, X.

    2017-07-01

    This paper chose the wholesale price of litchi as research object based on the daily data of 11 main sales markets in China -- Beijing, Chengdu, Guangzhou, Hefei, Jiaxing, Nanjing, Shanghai, Shenyang, Changsha, Zhengzhou and Chongqing from April 1, 2012 to September 30, 2016. After analyzing the fluctuation characteristics with BP filter method and H-P filter method, and the fluctuation trends of litchi wholesale price in China obtained by BP filter are roughly consistent with the trends obtained by H-P filter. The main conclusions are as follows: there is strong cyclicality in the fluctuation of litchi wholesale price; the period of fluctuations of litchi wholesale prices are not repeatable; litchi wholesale price fluctuates asymmetrically in one fluctuation cycle.

  17. Identification of MicroRNAs and Their Target Genes Related to the Accumulation of Anthocyanins in Litchi chinensis by High-Throughput Sequencing and Degradome Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Lai, Biao; Hu, Bing; Qin, Yonghua; Hu, Guibing; Zhao, Jietang

    2017-01-01

    Litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) is an important subtropical fruit in southern China and the fruit pericarp has attractive red skin at maturity, which is provided by anthocyanins accumulation. To understand the anthocyanin biosynthesis at post-transcriptional level, we investigated the roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) during fruit coloring. In the present study, four small RNA libraries and a mixed degradome library from pericarps of ‘Feizixiao’ litchi at different developmental phases were constructed and sequenced by Solexa technology. A total of 78 conserved miRNAs belonging to 35 miRNA families and 41 novel miRNAs were identified via high-throughput sequencing, and 129 genes were identified as their targets by the recently developed degradome sequencing. miR156a and a novel microRNA (NEW41) were found to be differentially expressed during fruit coloring, indicating they might affect anthocyanin biosynthesis through their target genes in litchi. qRT-PCR analysis confirmed the expression changes of miR156a and the novel microRNA (NEW41) were inversely correlated with the expression profiles of their target genes LcSPL1/2 and LcCHI, respectively, suggesting regulatory roles of these miRNAs during anthocyanin biosynthesis. The target genes of miR156a, LcSPL1/2, encode transcription factors, as evidenced by a localization in the nucleus, that might play roles in the regulation of transcription. To further explore the relationship of LcSPL1/2 with the anthocyanin regulatory genes, yeast two-hybrid and BiFC analyses showed that LcSPL1 proteins could interact with LcMYB1, which is the key regulatory gene in anthocyanin biosynthesis in litchi. This study represents a comprehensive expression profiling of miRNAs in anthocyanin biosynthesis during litchi fruit maturity and confirmed that the miR156- SPLs module was conserved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in litchi. PMID:28119728

  18. Bacterial cellulose production from the litchi extract by Gluconacetobacter xylinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-Yan; Huang, Chao; Guo, Hai-Jun; Xiong, Lian; Luo, Jun; Wang, Bo; Lin, Xiao-Qing; Chen, Xue-Fang; Chen, Xin-De

    2016-01-01

    Although litchi has both nutrient and edible value, the extremely short preservation time limited its further market promotion. To explore processed litchi products with longer preservation time, litchi extract was selected as an alternative feedstock for production of bacterial cellulose (BC). After 2 weeks of static fermentation, 2.53 g/L of the BC membrane was obtained. The trace elements including magnesium (Mg) and sodium (Na) in the litchi extract were partly absorbed in the BC membrane, but no potassium (K) element was detected in it, curiously. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) photographs exhibited an ultrafine network nanostructure for the BC produced in the litchi extract. Analysis of the fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the pellicles to be a cellulosic material. Interestingly, X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed the BC membrane obtained from litchi extract had higher crystallinity of 94.0% than that from HS medium. Overall, the work showed the potential of producing high value-added polymer from litchi resources.

  19. LEAF AREA ESTIMATION IN LITCHI BY MEANS OF ALLOMETRIC RELATIONSHIPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PABLO SOUTO OLIVEIRA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Obtaining leaf area is critical in several agronomic studies, being one of the important instruments to assess plant growth. The aim of this study was to estimate equations and select the most appropriate in determining leaf area in litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.. From the linear dimensions of length (L and maximum width (W of leaf limb, equations were estimated using linear, quadratic, potential and exponential models. The linear regression equation using the product of the length by maximum width, given by Y = 0.2885 + 0.662 (L.W is the one that best expresses the leaf area estimation of litchi tree.

  20. Acute, subchronic and genotoxicity studies conducted with Oligonol, an oligomerized polyphenol formulated from lychee and green tea extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Hajime; Nishioka, Hiroshi; Wakame, Koji; Magnuson, Bernadene A; Roberts, Ashley

    2008-12-01

    Oligonol is a phenolic product derived from lychee fruit extract and green tea extract, containing catechin-type monomers and oligomers of proanthocyanidins, produced by a manufacturing process which converts polyphenol polymers into oligomers. The safety of Oligonol was assessed in acute and subchronic studies and genotoxicity assays. In a single dose acute study of Oligonol, male and female rats were administered 2000mg/kg body weight (bw) Oligonol in water by gavage. Oligonol caused no adverse effects and body weight gain and food consumption were within normal range, thus the LD(50) of Oligonol was determined to be greater than 2000mg/kg. A 90 day subchronic study (100, 300 and 1000mg/kgbw/day, oral gavage) in male and female rats reported no significant adverse effects in food consumption, body weight, mortality, clinical chemistry, haematology, gross pathology and histopathology. Similarly, no adverse effects were observed in mice fed diets providing 2, 20 or 200mg/kgbw Oligonol or 200mg/kgbw lychee polyphenol for 90 days. Oligonol did not show any potential to induce gene mutations in reverse mutation tests using Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1537 and Escherichia coli WP2uvrA strains. Oligonol did not induce chromosomal aberrations in cultured Chinese hamster lung cells, but it showed increased polyploidy. In a micronucleus assay in mice, Oligonol did not induce any micronuclei or suppress bone marrow, indicating it does not cause chromosome aberrations. The results from these safety studies and previous reports support the safety of Oligonol for human consumption.

  1. Healthful and nutritional components in select Florida tropical fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourteen tropical fruits from south Florida (red guava, white guava, carambola, red pitaya (red dragon), white pitaya (white dragon), mamey, sapodilla, lychee, longan, green mango, ripe mango, green papaya and ripe papaya) were evaluated for phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, ascorbic acid (v...

  2. Structural elucidation and cellular antioxidant activity evaluation of major antioxidant phenolics in lychee pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Dongxiao; Ti, Huihui; Zhang, Ruifen; Zhang, Mingwei; Wei, Zhengchen; Deng, Yuanyuan; Guo, Jinxin

    2014-09-01

    Lychee pulp contains phenolic compounds that are strong antioxidants, but the identities of the major antioxidants present are unknown. In the present study, the major contributors to the antioxidant activity of fresh lychee pulp were identified and their cellular antioxidant activities were investigated. Aqueous acetone extracts of lychee pulp were fractionated on polyamide resin, and those fractions with the largest antioxidant and radical scavenging activities were selected using cellular antioxidant activity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity assays. Three compounds that were major contributors to the antioxidant activity in these fractions were obtained by reverse-phase preparative HPLC and identified as quercetin 3-O-rutinoside-7-O-α-L-rhamnosidase (quercetin 3-rut-7-rha), quercetin 3-O-rutinoside (rutin) and (-)-epicatechin using NMR spectroscopy, HMBC, and ESI-MS spectrometry. The concentration of quercetin 3-rut-7-rha was 17.25mg per 100g of lychee pulp fresh weight. This is the first report of the identification and cellular antioxidant activity of quercetin 3-rut-7-rha from lychee pulp.

  3. Total antioxidant activity and fiber content of select Florida-grown tropical fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahattanatawee, Kanjana; Manthey, John A; Luzio, Gary; Talcott, Stephen T; Goodner, Kevin; Baldwin, Elizabeth A

    2006-09-20

    Fourteen tropical fruits from south Florida (red guava, white guava, carambola, red pitaya (red dragon), white pitaya (white dragon), mamey sapote, sapodilla, lychee, longan, green mango, ripe mango, green papaya, and ripe papaya) were evaluated for antioxidant activity, total soluble phenolics (TSP), total ascorbic acid (TAA), total dietary fiber (TDF), and pectin. ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, radical scavenging activity) assays were used to determine antioxidant activity. The TSP, ORAC, and DPPH ranged from 205.4 to 2316.7 g gallic acid equiv/g puree, pitaya (dragonfruit), lychee, and mamey sapote, these fruit being thus far uncharacterized in the literature.

  4. Real-time evaluation of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity in lychee pericarp based on weighted combination of spectral data and image features as determined by fuzzy neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi-Chao; Sun, Da-Wen; Wang, Nan-Nan; Xie, Anguo

    2015-07-01

    A novel method of using hyperspectral imaging technique with the weighted combination of spectral data and image features by fuzzy neural network (FNN) was proposed for real-time prediction of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity in lychee pericarp. Lychee images were obtained by a hyperspectral reflectance imaging system operating in the range of 400-1000nm. A support vector machine-recursive feature elimination (SVM-RFE) algorithm was applied to eliminating variables with no or little information for the prediction from all bands, resulting in a reduced set of optimal wavelengths. Spectral information at the optimal wavelengths and image color features were then used respectively to develop calibration models for the prediction of PPO in pericarp during storage, and the results of two models were compared. In order to improve the prediction accuracy, a decision strategy was developed based on weighted combination of spectral data and image features, in which the weights were determined by FNN for a better estimation of PPO activity. The results showed that the combined decision model was the best among all of the calibration models, with high R(2) values of 0.9117 and 0.9072 and low RMSEs of 0.45% and 0.459% for calibration and prediction, respectively. These results demonstrate that the proposed weighted combined decision method has great potential for improving model performance. The proposed technique could be used for a better prediction of other internal and external quality attributes of fruits.

  5. Characterization and preparation of oligomeric procyanidins from Litchi chinensis pericarp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Yong; Zheng, Yan; Li, Xiaopeng; Li, Shuyi; Xie, Bijun; Sun, Zhida

    2016-07-01

    The main purpose of this study is to characterize and prepare A-type oligomeric procyanidins from litchi pericarp (Litchi chinensis Baila). The variety of oligomeric procyanidins was characterized by LC-ESI-MS analysis. There were (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, twelve dimers and six trimers of procyanidins were found in litchi pericarp extracts, and A-type procyanidins were much more abundant than B-type procyanidins. The main flavan-3-ol monomer and oligomeric procyanidins in litchi pericarp were (-)-epicatechin, A-type dimers (A1 and A2) and trimer (epicatechin-(4β-8, 2β-O-7)-epicatechin- (4β-8)-epicatechin). Procyanidin A1 (epicatechin-(4β-8, 2β-O-7)-catechin) was identified by NMR in litchi pericarp for the first time. (-)-Epicatechin and oligomeric procyanidins were prepared by the combination of AB-8 column chromatography and Toyopearl HW-40S column chromatography. The results showed that each fraction predominantly owned a single compound and gave a high yield with (-)-epicatechin, A-type dimers (A1 and A2) and trimer, suggesting a useful method to obtain pure (-)-epicatechin and A-type oligomeric procyanidins.

  6. LcMYB1 is a key determinant of differential anthocyanin accumulation among genotypes, tissues, developmental phases and ABA and light stimuli in Litchi chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Biao; Li, Xiao-Jing; Hu, Bing; Qin, Yong-Hua; Huang, Xu-Ming; Wang, Hui-Cong; Hu, Gui-Bing

    2014-01-01

    The red coloration of litchi fruit depends on the accumulation of anthocyanins. The anthocyanins level in litchi fruit varies widely among cultivars, developmental stages and environmental stimuli. Previous studies on various plant species demonstrate that anthocyanin biosynthesis is controlled at the transcriptional level. Here, we describe a litchi R2R3-MYB transcription factor gene, LcMYB1, which demonstrates a similar sequence as other known anthocyanin regulators. The transcription levels of the LcMYB1 and anthocyanin biosynthetic genes were investigated in samples with different anthocyanin levels. The expression of LcMYB1 was strongly associated with tissue anthocyanin content. LcMYB1 transcripts were only detected in anthocyanin-accumulating tissues and were positively correlated with anthocyanin accumulation in the pericarps of 12 genotypes. ABA and sunlight exposure promoted, whereas CPPU and bagging inhibited the expression of LcMYB1 and anthocyanin accumulation in the pericarp. Cis-elements associated with light responsiveness and abscisic acid responsiveness were identified in the promoter region of LcMYB1. Among the 6 structural genes tested, only LcUFGT was highly correlated with LcMYB1. These results suggest that LcMYB1 controls anthocyanin biosynthesis in litchi and LcUFGT might be the structural gene that is targeted and regulated by LcMYB1. Furthermore, the overexpression of LcMYB1 induced anthocyanin accumulation in all tissues in tobacco, confirming the function of LcMYB1 in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis. The upregulation of NtAn1b in response to LcMYB1 overexpression seems to be essential for anthocyanin accumulation in the leaf and pedicel. In the reproductive tissues of transgenic tobacco, however, increased anthocyanin accumulation is independent of tobacco's endogenous MYB and bHLH transcriptional factors, but associated with the upregulation of specific structural genes.

  7. [Climatic risk zoning for banana and litchi's chilling injury in South China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Huo, Zhi-guo; He, Nan; Xiao, Jing-jing; Wen, Quan-pei

    2010-05-01

    Based on the 1951-2006 climatic observation data from 224 meteorological stations in South China (Guangdong Province, Guangxi Autonomous Region, and Fujian Province) and the historical information about the chilling injury losses of banana and litchi, the accumulated harmful chilling for the processes with minimum daily temperature zoning for banana and litchi's chilling injury were drawn, and the spatial variation of climatic risk for banana and litchi's chilling injury was commented. The results indicated that in the study area, climate warming might lead to the decrease of cold resistance of banana and litchi, which could increase the disaster risk of chilling injury. The geographical distribution of climatic risk probability for banana and litchi's chilling injury showed a zonal pattern. According to the integrated climatic risk index, the banana and litchi's chilling injury region was divided into three risk types, i.e., high risk, moderate risk, and low risk, which provided an important basis for the adjustment of agricultural production structure.

  8. 荔枝粉的喷雾干燥工艺优化%Optimization of Spray Drying Processing Technology of Litchi Powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    海金萍; 吴豪廸; 徐国祥; 张钟

    2015-01-01

    Litchi fruit pulp was made into dry powder by spray drying method. The influence of the type and dosage of dry aid, the inlet temperature, inlet flow rate, inlet concentration and inlet air temperature on the effects of spray drying was studied. The spray drying processing conditions of litchi powder were optimized by L9 (33) orthogonal test on the basis of single factor experiment. The results showed that optimum technical parameters to make litchi fruit power were: maltodextrin as dry aid with dosage of 45 g/100 mL , inlet air temperature of 170 ℃, inlet flow rate of 7 mL/min, inlet mass fraction of 25%. The litchi fruit powder under this optimum process conditions kept the original color, flavor and fibre quality of litchi with uniform granularity and good reconstituability. The moisture content was 3.0%, the color difference was dL+38.9 and the powder quantity was 2.45 g/20 mL.%采用喷雾干燥法将荔枝果浆干制成粉.研究助干剂的种类及用量、入料温度、入料流量、入料质量分数、进风温度等因素对喷雾干燥效果的影响.在单因素试验基础上,通过L9(33)正交试验优化了喷雾干燥法制备荔枝粉的工艺条件.结果为:以麦芽糊精为助干剂,添加量45 g/100 mL;进风温度170 ℃;入料流量7 mL/min;入料质量分数25 %.依此最佳工艺条件所制得的荔枝果粉保持了荔枝原有的色泽、风味和纤维质,粒度均匀,冲调性好,水分含量3.0%,色差值dL+38.9,该工艺条件下出粉量2.45 g/20 mL.

  9. Effect of Fertilizer Application Strategy on the Growth,Quality and Yield of Litchi%肥料运筹对荔枝生长、品质及产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国良; 姚丽贤; 杨苞梅; 何兆桓; 周昌敏; 黄连喜; 国彬; 涂仕华

    2011-01-01

    The effect of different fertilizer content on the growth, quality and yield of Litchi was carried out. The results showed that the foliar N, P and K nutrient contents of ‘Guiwei' Litchi in the mature autumn branches increased, the autumn branches of ‘Feizixiao' Litchi were longer and wider in heavy dressing at postharvest application period. There were some differences among total content of amino acids, pharmacodynamic amino acids and essential amino acids in variable treatments. The soluble sugar, soluble proteins, soluble solids and the total content of amino acids of ‘Guiwei' Litchi fruits increased with the increasing postharvest application while ‘Feizixiao' Litchi fruits with high quality, high yield and high plantation benefited by applying 45 % of the use rate. The same high yields and plantation benefited by applying 45% the use rate in ‘Guiwei' Litchi. The Litchi production and income decreased when postharvest application use rate increased or decreased.%开展了在荔枝不同生育期施以不同量肥料对其生长、品质及产量的影响研究,结果表明:重施采后肥能提高‘桂味'荔枝老熟秋梢叶片中N、P、K含量,促进‘妃子笑'荔枝老熟秋梢伸长长粗.不同施肥比例处理的荔枝果实中总氨基酸、药效氨基酸和必需氨基酸含量存在差别.‘桂味'荔枝果实可溶性糖、蛋白和固形物以及总游离氨基酸含量随采后肥施用量的增加而增加.‘妃子笑'荔枝以采后肥45%处理的果实品质最佳.‘桂味'和‘妃子笑'荔枝采后肥施用量为全年施肥量45%处理的其产量最高,效益最好.采后肥施肥量降低或提高均不同程度减产减收.

  10. RNA-seq analysis of apical meristem reveals integrative regulatory network of ROS and chilling potentially related to flowering in Litchi chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xingyu; Li, Jingjing; Chen, Houbin; Hu, Jiaqi; Liu, Pengxu; Zhou, Biyan

    2017-08-31

    Litchi is an important woody fruit tree. Floral initiation in litchi is triggered by low temperatures. However, defective flowering is a major challenge for litchi production in times of climate change and global warming. Previous studies have shown that the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by methyl viologen dichloride hydrate (MV) promotes flowering. In this study, potted trees were transferred to growth chambers for low-temperature (LT), medium-temperature (MT), and high-temperature (HT) treatments. Trees at MT were subjected to ROS treatment to promote flowering, and those at LT were induced to flower. RNA-sequencing was applied to obtain a global transcriptome of the apical meristem and reveal potential gene networks controlling the transformation from vegetative meristems (VM) into inflorescence meristems (IM). We assembled 73,117 unigenes with a mean size of 790 bp and 11741 unigenes were identified as both chilling and ROS responsive genes (CRRGs), of which 48 were identified as flowering-related CRRGs, 59 were plant hormone signal transduction CRRGs, and 146 were plant hormone biosynthesis-related CRRGs. Genes co-expression network analysis indicated inner relationships, suggesting that ROS and chilling promotes the VM to IM transition through a regulatory gene network of transcription factors, hormones, and flowering regulators.

  11. Optimization of processing technology of lychee-coconut granule sweet corn yoghurt%荔枝椰果果粒甜玉米酸奶制备技术的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王蕊

    2012-01-01

    为了提高果粒酸奶的品质,采用单因素实验和正交设计方法对果粒的色泽、果粒添加量以及含果粒甜玉米酸奶稳定性进行研究。实验结果表明,以0.2%CA+0.2%Vc+0.2%CaCl2组成的复合护色剂对荔枝果肉褐变具有较强的抑制作用;果粒(荔枝果肉与椰果质量比为1:1)添加量8%时,产品感官品质最好;0.1%果胶+0.15%明胶+0.4%羟丙基二淀粉磷酸酯+0.2%羧甲基纤维素,添加到果粒酸奶中,产品具有良好的稳定性、悬浮性及较好的流动性,入口爽滑不粘不糊。%In order to improve the quality of fruit granule yoghurt,factors to affect the quality of lychee-coconut sweet corn yogurt including fruit color,added amount of fruit granule and stability of fruit sweet corn yoghurt were investigated by the single factor and orthogonal design. As a result,the compound protecting-color agent (0.2% CA acid+0.2% Vc+0.2% CaCl2) had a strong inhibitory effect on flesh browning of lychee. Furthermore, the sensory quality of fruit granule sweet corn yogurt was the best when the amount of 8% fruit granule(lychee: coconut= 1:1 ) was added. In addition,when 0.1% pectin, 0.15% gelatin, 0.4% hydroxypropyl starch phosphate and 0.2% carboxymethyl cellulose were added to the fruit granule yogurt,the product had good stability, suspension, mobility and non-stick taste.

  12. Uso do ácido ascórbico no controle do escurecimento do pericarpo de lichia Use of ascorbic acid in the control of browning in the pericarp of lychees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danieele Fabíola Pereira da Silva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Um dos maiores problemas na pós-colheita da lichia é o escurecimento do pericarpo, o qual tem sido atribuído à degradação da antocianina. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes doses de ácido ascórbico na prevenção do escurecimento do pericarpo e na manutenção da qualidade pós-colheita de lichia. Frutos de lichieira 'Bengal' com o pericarpo completamente vermelho foram imersos em solução com diferentes doses de ácido ascórbico (0; 5; 10; 15 e 30 mM, por 5 minutos. Após secagem à temperatura ambiente, foram acondicionados em bandejas de poliestireno, armazenados em câmara fria a 5 ± 1,2°C e 90 ± 5% de UR e avaliados a cada 4 dias, durante 12 dias. Observou-se que a perda de massa fresca foi maior nos frutos não tratados com ácido ascórbico. Independentemente da dose, o ácido ascórbico teve pouco efeito na retenção da cor vermelha do pericarpo de lichia. A atividade das enzimas polifenoloxidase e peroxidase no pericarpo foi maior com as menores doses de ácido ascórbico (0; 5 e 10 mM, entretanto observou-se escurecimento a partir do quarto dia no pericarpo dos frutos tratados com este ácido. O ácido ascórbico também não foi eficiente na manutenção da qualidade interna dos frutos.One of the biggest problems in postharvest of lychees is the pericarp browning, which has been attributed to anthocyanins degradation. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of different doses of ascorbic acid to prevent pericarp browning and on the maintenance of postharvest quality of lychees. Fruits of 'Bengal' lychee with completely red pericarp were immersed in solution with different doses of ascorbic acid (0, 5, 10, 15 and 30 mM for 5 minutes. After dried, the fruits were packed in polystyrene trays, stored in cold chamber at 5 ± 1,2°C e 90 ± 5% de RH and evaluated every other 4 days for 12 days. It was observed that the loss of fresh weight was higher in non-treated with ascorbic acid

  13. Litchi freshness rapid non-destructive evaluating method using electronic nose and non-linear dynamics stochastic resonance model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Xiaoguo; Liu, Wei; Hui, Guohua

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, litchi freshness rapid non-destructive evaluating method using electronic nose (e-nose) and non-linear stochastic resonance (SR) was proposed. EN responses to litchi samples were continuously detected for 6 d Principal component analysis (PCA) and non-linear stochastic resonance (SR) methods were utilized to analyze EN detection data. PCA method could not totally discriminate litchi samples, while SR signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) eigen spectrum successfully discriminated all litchi samples. Litchi freshness predictive model developed using SNR eigen values shows high predictive accuracy with regression coefficients R(2) = 0 .99396.

  14. Comparison of leaf epidermis and pollen micromorphology among Dimocarpus longana and Litchi chinensis cultivars in Western Guangdong%粤西龙眼与荔枝叶表皮和花粉微形态的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘锴栋; 袁长春; 陈燕; 肖政权; 刘柱

    2013-01-01

    Summary Longan (Dimocarpus longana Lour.) and litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) are famous and special fruits in tropical and subtropical zones.Longan and litchi originate in China,which have been cultivated for more than 2 000 years and both hold abundant germplasm resources.There have been many scientific researches on longan and litchi.However,few systematic studies were conducted on comparison of leaf epidermis and pollen grains between longan and litchi.Therefore,the aim of this study is to compare the differences of leaf epidermis and pollen micromorphology among longan and litchi cultivars,and then to study their phylogenetic relationship. The ultrastructures of leaf epidermis and pollen grains from six longan and six litchi cultivars in Western Guangdong Province were examined using scanning electron microscope, and their relationship with the phylogenetic evolution of the genuses was investigated. The results showed that numerous protuberances could be observed on the lower epidermis. The protuberances of litchi were dome-shaped, and those of longan were long-shaped. There were significant differences in the stomatal densities and sizes of longan and litchi cultivars.The stomatal densities of six longan cultivars were 31 6.30 406.00 No./mm2 ,while those of six litchi cultivars were 5 1 9.00 655.20 No./mm2 .The stomatal lengths of six longan cultivars were 1 1.1 6 21.33 μm,while those of six litchi cultivars were 10.38 1 7.28 μm.The pollen grains of longan and litchi were tricolporate,belonged to N3 P4 C5 type according to Erdtmans NPC system.These pollen grains were sub-spheroidal or wide ellipse in equatorial view,and 3-lobed sub-spheroidal or triangle in polar view.The polar axis lengths of pollen grains in six longan cultivars were 18.31 19.85 μm,while those in six litchi cultivars were 1 6.1 9 18.07 μm.The equatorial axis lengths of pollen grains in six longan cultivars was 21.36 24.33 μm,while those in six litchi cultivars were 1 9.22 21.47

  15. Hexavalent Chromium Removal by Litchi chinensis Sonn Peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Acosta-Rodriguez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: We studied the Chromium (VI removal capacity in aqueous solution by the litchi peel. Approach: We use the diphenylcarbazide method to evaluate the metal concentration. Results: The highest biosorption of the metal (50 mg L-1 occurs within 6 min, at pH of 1 and 28°C. According to temperature, the highest removal was observed at 40 and 50°C, in 45 min, when the metal (1 g L-1 was completely adsorbed. At the analyzed concentrations of Cr (VI, litchi peel, showed excellent removal capacity, besides it removes efficiently the metal in situ (100% removal, 5 days of incubation, 5 and 10 g of biomass. After 1 h of incubation the studied biomass reduces 1.0 g of Cr (VI with the simultaneous production of Cr (III. Conclusion: The shell can be used to eliminate it from industrial wastewater."

  16. Study on the Litchi Freezing Pattern and Fast Freezing Technology%荔枝冻结规律探讨及速冻加工技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴锦铸; 胡卓炎; 黄志良; 欧阳建忠

    2001-01-01

    The main problems existing in litchi quick freezing process are browning reaction, peel breaking, and juice leakage. The litchi freezing pattern was studied through analyzing the freezing curve at different temperature, freezing rate and juice leakage. The results show that the three freezing stages are not obvious. The frozen point of litchi is - 3. 0℃. The maximal crystal forming temperature ranges from - 3℃ to - 15℃. The author propose peeled fruit quick freezing technology, which can avoid browning reaction, reduce fruit peel breaking and juice leakage, enhance the quality of frozen fruit.%果皮褐变、裂果和汁液流失多是目前荔枝速冻生产的难题。本文通过测定荔枝在不同冻结温度下的冻结曲线及其结冰率和汁液流失率等情况,探讨荔枝冻结规律,为提高速冻荔枝商品质量提供参考。试验结果表明:荔枝冻结过程3个阶段不明显;冻结点约为-3.0℃;最大冰晶生成带约在-3~-15℃。建议荔枝速冻采用去皮速冻工艺,这样既可避免果皮褐变问题,又可解决速冻与裂果的矛盾,减少汁液流失,提高速冻荔枝的商品价值,同时方便食用或加工其它制品。

  17. Transformation of chemical constituents of lychee wine by simultaneous alcoholic and malolactic fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dai; Liu, Shao-Quan

    2016-04-01

    This work examined for the first time the impact of malolactic fermentation (MLF) on the chemical constituents of lychee wine. Oenococcus oeni Viniflora Oenos (MLF inducer) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae MERIT.ferm were co-inoculated into lychee juice to induce simultaneous alcoholic fermentation (AF) and MLF. MLF did not affect sugar utilisation and ethanol production statistically (8.54% v/v for MLF and 9.27% v/v for AF). However, MLF resulted in dramatic degradation of malic and citric acids with concomitant increases of lactic acid, ethyl lactate and pH. The final concentrations of acetic and succinic acids between AF and MLF wines had no significant difference. The MLF wine contained significantly higher amounts of amino acids than the AF wine. More importantly, MLF significantly elevated the levels of potent aroma-active compounds including isoamyl acetate, linalool, geraniol and cis-rose oxide (to levels above or near respective detection thresholds), suggesting that MLF is an effective way of retaining the original lychee flavour.

  18. 我国荔枝上的一种新害虫%A new insect pest, Pseudococcus baliteus Lit (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae), discovered on Litchi chinensis (Sapindaceae) from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何衍彪; 詹儒林; 李伟才; 武三安; 许再福

    2011-01-01

    本文简要记述了在广东省廉江市荔枝上发现的一种新害虫——榕树粉蚧Pseudococcus baliteus Lit的形态特征、寄主和分布.这是榕树粉蚧在中国的首次纪录.%A new insect pest, Pseudococcus baliteus Lit, damaged on the fruit of Litchi chinensis from Guangdong, China was found. It is the first record of this species from China. Its characters, host and distribution were presented in the paper.

  19. Effect of Long-term Drip Fertigation on Root Growth of Lychee and Soil pH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Through field experiment,we explore the impact of long-term drip fertigation on growth and distribution of lychee root and changes of soil pH in different layers of soil in lychee garden.The results show that drip fertigation can significantly promote the growth of lychee roots,and increase the contact area of root and soil;if it experiences six years of drip fertigation successively,the dry weight of root,root length and surface area of root in soil in drip fertigation area,will be 2.29 times,2.17 times and 2.25 times that in non-drip fertigation area,respectively.The lychee root is mainly distributed in 0-40 cm layer of soil,but there is conspicuous difference between drip fertigation area and non-drip fertigation area in terms of root distribution in 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm layer of soil.Drip fertigation is more favorable for the root to go deep inside the soil.Under long-term drip fertigation,the soil acidification in lychee garden is prominent,and in comparison with non-drip fertigation area,there is the greatest decline in soil pH in 10-20 cm layer of soil in drip fertigation area,reaching 1.47 units.

  20. Carbohydrate Stress Affecting Fruitlet Abscission and Expression of Genes Related to Auxin Signal Transduction Pathway in Litchi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang-Jin Lu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Auxin, a vital plant hormone, regulates a variety of physiological and developmental processes. It is involved in fruit abscission through transcriptional regulation of many auxin-related genes, including early auxin responsive genes (i.e., auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (AUX/IAA, Gretchen Hagen3 (GH3 and small auxin upregulated (SAUR and auxin response factors (ARF, which have been well characterized in many plants. In this study, totally five auxin-related genes, including one AUX/IAA (LcAUX/IAA1, one GH3 (LcGH3.1, one SAUR (LcSAUR1 and two ARFs (LcARF1 and LcARF2, were isolated and characterized from litchi fruit. LcAUX/IAA1, LcGH3.1, LcSAUR1, LcARF1 and LcARF2 contain open reading frames (ORFs encoding polypeptides of 203, 613, 142, 792 and 832 amino acids, respectively, with their corresponding molecular weights of 22.67, 69.20, 11.40, 88.20 and 93.16 kDa. Expression of these genes was investigated under the treatment of girdling plus defoliation which aggravated litchi fruitlet abscission due to the blockage of carbohydrates transport and the reduction of endogenous IAA content. Results showed that transcript levels of LcAUX/IAA1, LcGH3.1 and LcSAUR1 mRNAs were increased after the treatment in abscission zone (AZ and other tissues, in contrast to the decreasing accumulation of LcARF1 mRNA, suggesting that LcAUX/IAA1, LcSAUR1 and LcARF1 may play more important roles in abscission. Our results provide new insight into the process of fruitlet abscission induced by carbohydrate stress and broaden our understanding of the auxin signal transduction pathway in this process at the molecular level.

  1. A novel translabial platform utilizing bioexcipients from Litchi chinesis for the delivery of rosiglitazone maleate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Satheesh Madhav

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to formulate drug-loaded bio-lipstrips using novel bioexcipients isolated from the fruit pulp of Litchi chinesis (biomaterial L and to explore the potentiality of lip skin as a novel translabial drug delivery system. The biomaterial, prepared by a simplified economical process and purified by hot dialysis, was subjected to various physicochemical evaluations along with spectral analysis including UV, FT-IR, Mass and 1H NMR. The lipstrip formulated with the novel bioexcipients was screened for its functional properties, including filmability using a film-casting method, and bio/muco-adhesitivity using a shear-stress method, the Park and Robinson method and a rotating cylinder method. Rosiglitazone-loaded bio-lipstrips were formulated by using biomaterial L as a strip former and dextrose as a flexicizer. The formulated strips were subjected to various evaluations, including thickness, folding endurance, in-vitro release and in-vivo release. The release of rosiglitazone maleate was maintained over 24 h, which was confirmed in in-vitro and in-vivo release experiments. Our results reveal that this biopolymer possesses promising stripability as well as bio-adhesitivity. The formulated bio-lipstrips are feasible for delivering rosiglitazone maleate by translabial administration.

  2. Removal of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solutions by litchi pericarp and its leachate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘轶敏; 姜瑞雪; 杨继利; 郑昊; 尹儿琴

    2016-01-01

    The adsorption capacity of Pb(II) on litchi pericarps was investigated as a function of temperature, pH, and adsorbent dose using batch experiments. The experimental data obtained were evaluated using adsorption equilibrium isotherms and a kinetic model. Additionally, the removal of Pb(II) in leachate of litchi pericarps was also evaluated. The results show that litchi pericarps exhibit a high adsorption capacity to Pb(II), with the maximum removal efficiency occurring at a temperature of 25 °C, a pH of 6.0−7.0 and an adsorbent dosage of 10 g/L. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms and the pseudo-second-order kinetic model can all fit the equilibrium adsorption satisfactorily, with correlation coefficients (R2) of 0.9935, 0.9918 and 1.0, respectively. An average removal efficiency of 66.65% is found for Pb(II) in leachate of litchi pericarps.

  3. 荔枝干品质评价指标体系的建立%Establishment of Quality Evaluation Index System for Dehydrated Litchi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    符勇; 陶菲; 郜海燕; 曹颖; 陈杭君; 林河通

    2013-01-01

    通过对荔枝干的品质指标进行分析,确定不同品质指标对荔枝干品质的影响,为荔枝干品质评价指标的筛选提供理论依据,并优选出具有干制优势的荔枝品种.通过测定33个品种的荔枝汁液外流率、果实质量、可食率、色泽、破壳率、总糖、总酸、蛋白质、糖酸比等11个品质指标,对其进行主成分分析和聚类分析,结果发现:荔枝干多个品质指标间存在相对独立性或密切相关性;经主成分分析,6个主成分的累计贡献率达88.80%,可反映荔枝干品质的绝大部分信息;聚类分析结果表明,11个主要品质指标可聚为6类,最终将品质指标简化为糖酸比、可食率、果皮色泽L*值、汁液外流率、果实质量和蛋白质含量6个指标.建立了荔枝加工品质评价体系模型,并优选出品质较好的加工品种:“鸡嘴”、“糯米糍”和“仙进俸”.%Qualities of dehydrated litchi were analyzed to determine the influences of various potential processing characteristics on quality of dehydrated litchi, and provide the theoretical basis for the selection of evaluation index on processing quality. Thus, cultivars suitable for processing were selected according to the evaluation model. The processing quality indices of 33 dehydrated litchi cultivars, which include single fruit weight, edible ratio, color, total sugar, total acid, were analyzed and determined. The principal component analysis and cluster analysis were performed on these indices and cultivars. Relative independence or high relativity were found among these quality indices of dehydrated litchi. The principle component analysis showed that the accumulated contribution rate of 6 principle components was 88.80%, which reflected almost all the needed information of the quality on dehydrated litchi; Meanwhile, The cluster analysis showed that the 11 major quality indices were clustered into 6 categories. Therefore, the quality indices were

  4. 贵妃红荔枝引种试验初报%A Preliminary Report on Introduction of Litchi cv. Guifeihong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高贤玉; 左艳秀; 张惠云; 王跃全; 尚海风; 张熙源; 龙亚芹; 高鹏; 罗心平

    2012-01-01

    贵妃红荔枝是广西农业科学院于2005年选育并通过广西农作物新品种审定的优良新品种.2006年以高接换种方法引入云南怒江干热河谷地区试种。贵妃红荔枝在怒江干热种植区种植3a后,与原产地相比,其单果重量为原产地的96.9%,果肉重量为原产地的93%,可溶性固形物为原产地的98.5%,可食率为原产地的96.7%。根据测量数据显示,初步认为其引种后的果实性状达到原产地水平,引种成功。%The new litchi variety Guifeihong was selected and bred by Guangxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences in 2005. In 2006, Guifeihong was introduced by the top grafting of litchi in Nujiang dry-hot valley of Yunnan. Three years later, compare Nujiang dry-hot valley with the origin of Guifeihong litchi, the weight of single fi-uit for 96.9 %, the pulp heavy weight for 93 %, soluble solids for 98.5 %, edible rate for 96.7 %. According to the prospecting data, the fruit character is similar to the country of origin. The introduction was successful.

  5. 荔枝贮藏技术研究%Studies on Storage Techniques of Litchi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王向阳

    2001-01-01

    试验应用气调、防腐、高温预处理和冷藏技术保鲜荔枝。发现荔枝充气5%CO2和5%O2,再用0.04mm厚的聚丙烯包装,在2℃下冷藏,对果皮护色效果最好。其防腐效果也很好。用聚丙烯包装,自发气调,在2℃冷藏,也有很好的保鲜效果。NaHCO3浸果可显著减轻腐烂。应用54℃500×10-6多菌灵热水处理2min,也可显著减轻腐烂,在冷藏初期对果皮有一定的护色效果。%The experiment was carried out with MAP,preserves,heatwater treatment,and cool storage for lychee.The results was showed that:Lychee was sealed in 0.04mm thickness polypropene and modifyed initial gas with 5%CO2 and 5%O2,then it was stored in 2℃ cool room.This treatment had optimum effect on retarding browning of lychee peel,and redused rot rate significantly.Lychee was sealed in 0.04mm thickness polypropene and was stored in 2℃ cool room,It could keep Lychee good quality also.The treatment of dipping in 2.5%NaHCO3 redused rot rate significantly.54℃ 500mg/kg Bavistin heat water treatment for 2 min redused rot rate significantly too.Both treatment had some effects of retarding browning of lychee peel at first of cooling storage

  6. 荔枝花芽分化研究进展%Progresses in Research of Litchi Floral Differentiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈厚彬; 苏钻贤; 张荣; 张红娜; 丁峰; 周碧燕

    2014-01-01

    亚热带常绿果树荔枝(Litchi chinensis Sonn.)经济栽培区域局限于南、北半球17°-32°两个狭窄的纬度带内。在基于多品种的产业结构中,几乎所有荔枝品种均出现过成花障碍。文中从品种成花状况、花芽分化阶段性表现、影响花芽分化的因素、成花机理及成花调控等方面做了综合评述。认为:荔枝必须具备完全成熟的末端枝梢,在停长状态下接受为时相当长的冬季低温成花诱导,之后在冬末或初春气温回升和解除水分胁迫时发生花发端,在暖和而不酷热(表现为昼温高而夜温低)的天气下才能完成花穗与花的分化;花芽分化过程表现明显的阶段性和节奏性,任一阶段条件不满足均可导致花芽分化失败;影响荔枝花芽分化的外因主要包括末端枝梢状态、温度和水分;梢内碳水化合物积累、内源激素含量影响成花。为解决生产中成花不稳定问题,确保在极端和边缘天气条件下实现良好的花芽分化,应研究荔枝花芽分化中各因素作用的分子生理机制,并对嫩梢不能接受成花诱导、低温诱导信号的感受与传导及促进成花和花性分化的机制加强研究,探索针对荔枝花芽分化不同阶段的营养、水分、生长物质及物理调控措施。%The commercial production of litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.), a subtropical evergreen fruit tree, has been restricted in the two narrow areas of 17o-32o latitude in the north and south hemispheres. Within the multiple cultivars-based industrial structures, unreliable flowering has taken place in almost all litchi cultivars.The flowering status of varieties, flower bud differentiation stage performance, influence factors, flower bud differentiation mechanism and flowering regulationare reviewed in this paper. It is considered that, litchi trees must have fully matured terminal shoots in autumn and be florally induced under chill

  7. Pós-colheita de lichia 'Bengal' tratada com etileno e 1-metilciclopropeno Postharvest of lychee 'Bengal' treated with ethylene and 1-methylcyclopropene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Vaz de Lima

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar as respostas fisiológicas e bioquímicas associadas ao uso de etileno e 1-metilciclopropeno (1-MCP na conservação pós-colheita de lichias, assim como a influência desses tratamentos isolados ou combinados no escurecimento desses frutos. Após a colheita, foram aplicados os seguintes tratamentos: sem aplicação de 1-MCP ou etileno; etileno (20µL L-1, por 6 horas; 1-MCP (300nL L-1, por 12 horas e etileno (20µL L-1, por 6 horas + 1-MCP (300nL L-1, por 6 horas. Após os tratamentos, os frutos foram armazenados a 5°C e 90% UR durante 30 dias, sendo avaliados a cada 10 dias (+3 dias de comercialização simulada a 25°C e 65% UR. Avaliou-se a produção de etileno, taxa respiratória, sólidos solúveis (SS, perda de massa fresca, coloração (luminosidade - L* e a* e atividade da polifenoloxidase (PPO. A produção de etileno e taxa respiratória não apresentaram diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos e os SS decresceram ao longo do armazenamento, mas também sem diferenças entre os tratamentos. A atividade da enzima PPO foi aumentada, sendo correlacionada com os índices decrescentes de L* e a* presentes nos frutos, ocorrendo, paralelamente, aumento da perda de massa dos frutos. Conclui-se que o escurecimento do pericarpo da lichia está relacionado à perda de massa fresca e aumento da atividade da PPO e que nenhum dos tratamentos utilizados evitou o escurecimento dos frutos.The objective was to determine the physiological and biochemical changes associated with the use of ethylene and 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP on postharvest conservation of lychees as well as the influence of these treatments alone or in combination on skin browning of fruit. After harvest, it was applied the following treatments: without application of 1-MCP or ethylene, ethylene (20mL L-1 for 6 hours, 1-MCP (300nL L-1 for 12h and ethylene (20mL L-1 for 6 hours + 1-MCP (300nL L-1 for 6 hours. After treatments, fruits were stored at 5

  8. Transformation of Litchi Pericarp-Derived Condensed Tannin with Aspergillus awamori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Lin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Condensed tannin is a ubiquitous polyphenol in plants that possesses substantial antioxidant capacity. In this study, we have investigated the polyphenol extraction recovery and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH scavenging activity of the extracted polyphenol after litchi pericarp is treated with Aspergillus awamori, Aspergillus sojae or Aspergillus oryzae. We have further explored the activity of A. awamori in the formation of condensed tannin. The treatment of A. awamori appeared to produce the highest antioxidant activity of polyphenol from litchi pericarp. Further studies suggested that the treatment of A. awamori releases the non-extractable condensed tannin from cell walls of litchi pericarp. The total extractable tannin in the litchi pericarp residue after a six-time extraction with 60% ethanol increased from 199.92 ± 14.47–318.38 ± 7.59 μg/g dry weight (DW after the treatment of A. awamori. The ESI-TOF-MS and HPLC-MS2 analyses further revealed that treatment of A. awamori degraded B-type condensed tannin (condensed flavan-3-ol via C4–C8 linkage, but exhibited a limited capacity to degrade the condensed tannin containing A-type linkage subunits (C4–C8 coupled C2–O–C7 linkage. These results suggest that the treatment of A. awamori can significantly improve the production of condensed tannin from litchi pericarp.

  9. Effect of Steam Blanching and Drying on Phenolic Compounds of Litchi Pericarp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessy, Honest N E; Hu, Zhuoyan; Zhao, Lei; Zhou, Molin

    2016-06-03

    The effects of different treatment methods on the stability and antioxidant capacity of the bioactive phenolic compounds of litchi pericarps were investigated. Fresh litchi pericarps were open air-dried, steam-blanched for 3 min in combination with hot air oven drying at 60 and 80 °C, and unblanched pericarps were dried in a hot air oven at 40, 60, 70 and 80 °C until equilibrium weight was reached. The total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins and individual procyanidins, and antioxidant activity were analyzed. The combination of blanching and drying at 60 °C significantly (p phenolic compounds, individual procyanidins, and the extracts' antioxidant capacity compared with the unblanched hot air oven-dried and open air-dried pericarps. Drying of fresh unblanched litchi pericarps in either open air or a hot air oven caused significant losses (p phenolic compounds and individual procyanidins, leading to a reduction in the antioxidant activity. A similar increase, retention or reduction was reflected in flavonoids, proanthocyanidins and anthocyanins because they are sub-groups of phenolic compounds. Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryldydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging capacity of the treated pericarps were significantly correlated (r ≥ 0.927, p phenolic compounds. Thus, the combination of steam blanching and drying treatments of fresh litchi pericarps could produce a stable and dry litchi pericarp that maintains phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity as a raw material for further recovery of the phytochemicals.

  10. A comparison of the effectiveness of methods of deterring pteropodid bats from feeding on commercial fruit in Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatamo E.A. Raharimihaja

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We compared the effectiveness of methods of deterring Pteropus rufus from feeding on commercial fruit in east central and southeastern Madagascar in 2012–2013 during the Litchi chinensis harvest. Two of the three methods used, installing plastic flags and ringing bells in the trees, were derived from those used by litchi growers in the southeast.  We improved and standardized these methods and compared their effectiveness with an organic product made from dried blood and vegetable oil (Plantskydd® with a taste and odour aimed at deterring mammal feeding.  The bats damaged from 440–7,040 g of litchi fruits per tree and two of the three methods reduced the fruit lost to bats: the plastic flags and the organic deterrent.  There were significant differences in the damage levels between the study sites and between our three methods of deterrence.  The plastic flags and bell ringing methods were significantly less effective in reducing the fruit bat damage compared to the taste deterrent.  The latter was most effective when it had enough time to dry and adhere to the fruits after spraying and before rain.  Its effectiveness was further demonstrated in flight cage experiments during which Rousettus madagascariensis avoided litchis treated with Plantskydd®.  Analysis of bat faecal samples revealed no feeding preference but the collected samples contained large numbers of Ficus seeds, suggesting that the bats feed extensively on Ficus fruits rather than on fruit of economic importance.  Apart from fruit ripeness, tree productivity or other phenological factors did not affect the amount of fruit eaten by the bats.   More fruits were damaged by birds than bats at both study sites. 

  11. Tratamento térmico na manutenção da coloração de lichias Thermal treatment in lychee color maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Vacaro de Souza

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a influência do tratamento térmico na coloração de frutos de lichia. Os frutos foram tratados por 0; 5; 10; 15; 20 e 25 minutos de imersão em água a 45ºC, embalados em bandejas de poliestireno expandido e filme de policloreto de vinila 0,020mm e armazenados em B.O.D. a 5ºC e 90±5 % de UR. O delineamento experimental foi em esquema inteiramente casualizado, com 6 tempos de armazenamento para as análises de coloração e enzimática, e até atingirem o limite de comercialização para a análise da vida útil, sendo os frutos analisados a cada 3 dias, com 3 repetições e 10 frutos por unidade experimental. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: análise visual do escurecimento, coloração e atividade específica da polifenol oxidase e da peroxidase. Os tratamentos usando 5 e 10 minutos de imersão foram os que apresentaram melhores resultados na manutenção da coloração dos frutos e na diminuição da atividade enzimática.The objective of the work was to evaluate the influence of the thermal treatment in the color of lychee fruits. The fruits were treated by 0; 5; 10; 15; 20 and 25 minutes of water immersion at 45ºC, packaged in expanded polystyrene trays and film of polyvinyl chloride 0.020mm, stored in B.O.D. at 5ºC and 90±5 % of UR. The experimental delineation was in a completely randomized scheme, with 6 times of storage for the color and enzymatic analysis, until they reached the limit for the marketing for the analysis of the shelf-life, and the fruits were analyzed every 3 days, with 3 replications and 10 fruits in each experimental unity. The evaluated parameters were: visual analysis of the browning, color and specific activity of the polyphenol oxidase and the peroxidase. The treatments using 5 and 10 minutes of immersion showed the best results in maintaining the color of the fruits and in the reduction of the enzymatic activity.

  12. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part VI. Mushrooms, tomatoes, minor fruits and vegetables, dried fruits, and nuts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, P.

    1988-01-01

    In this concluding article in the series on the technological feasibility of ionizing radiation treatment for shelf life improvement of fruits and vegetables, the present status of research on several commodities that have not been dealt with earlier is discussed. The commodities include mushrooms, tomatoes, pineapples, lychees, longans, rambutans, mangostenes, guavas, sapotas, loquats, ber, soursops, passion fruits, persimmons, figs, melons, cucumbers, aubergines, globe artichokes, endives, lettuce, ginger, carrots, beet roots, turnips, olives, dates, chestnuts, almonds, pistachios, and other dried fruits and nuts. Changes induced by irradiation on metabolism, chemical constituents, and organoleptic qualities are considered while evaluating the shelf life. The commodities have been grouped into those showing potential benefits and those not showing any clear advantages from radiation treatment. Shelf life improvement of mushrooms and insect disinfestation in dried fruits, nuts, and certain fresh fruits appears to have immediate potential for commercial application. 194 references.

  13. Isolation and identification of male medfly attractive components inLitchi chinensis stems andFicus spp. stem exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warthen, J D; McInnis, D O

    1989-06-01

    Short-range attraction/feeding stimulation of male Mediterranean fruit flies [Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), (Diptera: Tephritidae)] to a stem extract of a host plant,Litchi chinensis Sonn. (Sapindaceae), and to milky exudates from stems of nonhost plants,Ficus retusa L. andF. benjamina L. (Moraceae), were attributed to the presence of the sesquiterpene α-copaene. The presence of α-copaene in the milky exudate from stems ofF. benghalensis L. is also suggested as eliciting similar behavioral responses in male medflies. The presence of minor quantities of α-ylangene in the plants and its contributory effects to the behavioral response of male medflies is discussed. Short-range attraction/feeding stimulation of male medflies to equal amounts of α-ylangene-free α-copaene samples (94.5%+), prepared from α-copaene-enriched angelica seed oil and copaiba oil, respectively, showed no difference in intensity of response. α-Ylangene elicited a slightly less intense response for male medflies than α-copaene.

  14. Sequencing of the Litchi Downy Blight Pathogen Reveals It Is a Phytophthora Species With Downy Mildew-Like Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Wenwu; Wang, Yang; Shen, Danyu; Li, Delong; Pu, Tianhuizi; Jiang, Zide; Zhang, Zhengguang; Zheng, Xiaobo; Tyler, Brett M; Wang, Yuanchao

    2016-07-01

    On the basis of its downy mildew-like morphology, the litchi downy blight pathogen was previously named Peronophythora litchii. Recently, however, it was proposed to transfer this pathogen to Phytophthora clade 4. To better characterize this unusual oomycete species and important fruit pathogen, we obtained the genome sequence of Phytophthora litchii and compared it to those from other oomycete species. P. litchii has a small genome with tightly spaced genes. On the basis of a multilocus phylogenetic analysis, the placement of P. litchii in the genus Phytophthora is strongly supported. Effector proteins predicted included 245 RxLR, 30 necrosis-and-ethylene-inducing protein-like, and 14 crinkler proteins. The typical motifs, phylogenies, and activities of these effectors were typical for a Phytophthora species. However, like the genome features of the analyzed downy mildews, P. litchii exhibited a streamlined genome with a relatively small number of genes in both core and species-specific protein families. The low GC content and slight codon preferences of P. litchii sequences were similar to those of the analyzed downy mildews and a subset of Phytophthora species. Taken together, these observations suggest that P. litchii is a Phytophthora pathogen that is in the process of acquiring downy mildew-like genomic and morphological features. Thus P. litchii may provide a novel model for investigating morphological development and genomic adaptation in oomycete pathogens.

  15. Alleviative effects of litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn. flower on lipid peroxidation and protein degradation in emulsified pork meatballs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Ding

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To avoid or retard the lipid peroxidation of meat products, antioxidants are commonly added. Considering the safety and health of additives in meat products, consumers prefer natural antioxidants rather than synthetic ones. Gentisic acid and epicatechin were identified as the major phenolic acid and flavonoid, respectively, of litchi flowers (LFs. The physicochemical properties of pork meatballs with or without dried LF powders (0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5%, w/w and tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ; 0.01%, w/w were analyzed during a 4-week frozen storage period. LF and TBHQ decreased (p < 0.05 thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS values but increased (p < 0.05 thiol group contents in meatballs. LF added to meatballs improved (p < 0.05 texture and water-holding capacity (centrifugation/purge losses more than in the control group upon the storage. Although LF powders made meatballs redder and darker (p < 0.05 than the control and TBHQ groups, they did not affect the preference of panelists. The addition of 0.5% LF powders exhibited the best (p < 0.05 overall sensory panel acceptance. LFs may be an effective natural antioxidant to reduce lipid and protein oxidation for frozen cooked meat products.

  16. Effect of Steam Blanching and Drying on Phenolic Compounds of Litchi Pericarp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honest N. E. Kessy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different treatment methods on the stability and antioxidant capacity of the bioactive phenolic compounds of litchi pericarps were investigated. Fresh litchi pericarps were open air–dried, steam-blanched for 3 min in combination with hot air oven drying at 60 and 80 °C, and unblanched pericarps were dried in a hot air oven at 40, 60, 70 and 80 °C until equilibrium weight was reached. The total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins and individual procyanidins, and antioxidant activity were analyzed. The combination of blanching and drying at 60 °C significantly (p < 0.05 improved the release of phenolic compounds, individual procyanidins, and the extracts′ antioxidant capacity compared with the unblanched hot air oven-dried and open air–dried pericarps. Drying of fresh unblanched litchi pericarps in either open air or a hot air oven caused significant losses (p < 0.05 in phenolic compounds and individual procyanidins, leading to a reduction in the antioxidant activity. A similar increase, retention or reduction was reflected in flavonoids, proanthocyanidins and anthocyanins because they are sub-groups of phenolic compounds. Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryldydrazyl (DPPH radical-scavenging capacity of the treated pericarps were significantly correlated (r ≥ 0.927, p < 0.01 with the total phenolic compounds. Thus, the combination of steam blanching and drying treatments of fresh litchi pericarps could produce a stable and dry litchi pericarp that maintains phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity as a raw material for further recovery of the phytochemicals.

  17. Effect of Tea tree oil, Eugenol and Citral on keeping quality of litchi%茶树油、丁香酚、柠檬醛在荔枝保鲜中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟业俊; 徐欣源; 刘成梅; 刘伟

    2011-01-01

    本文研究了茶树油、丁香酚和柠檬醛的挥发性香氛对荔枝的保鲜作用。采用复配方法探究三种香料对荔枝的协同保鲜效果。结果表明:在冷藏(4±1℃)过程中,茶树油和丁香酚、柠檬醛的挥发性香氛可抑制荔枝果实腐败,延缓果皮衰老和果肉维生素C含量的降低,对保持荔枝果实的感官品质也具有积极作用;且三者复配后效果更佳,贮藏至18天,复配组荔枝的腐败率、果皮相对渗透率、维生素含量分别为对照组的56.0%、72.8%、124.8%,果皮颜色、果实滋味、果实气味和整体评价分别比对照组高2.4、3.3、2.6和3.4分。%The preservation effect of volatile fragrance of tea tree oil, eugenol and citral "to litchi decay and the synergistic inhibition (of these three combined) were studied. The results showed that with the refrigeration storage condition (4±1℃), volatile fragrance of tea tree oil, eugenot and citral had a inhibition and retard effect on the rise in the rot rate of litchi and the decrease of Vitamin C content in pulp, meanwhile, they also showed a positive anti-aging and preservation quality for keeping fresh of litchi. All of these positive abilities enhanced after these three spices mixed. After 18 days storage, the rot rate, pericarp relative leakage and Vitamin C content in litchi treated with composite solution are 56.0%, 72.8%, 124.8% of the values of the control group, and the evaluation scores on skin color, fruit taste, smell and overall were 2.4, 3.3, 2.6 and 3.4 points respectively higher than the control group.

  18. Combined effect of dimethyl dicarbonate (DMDC) and nisin on indigenous microorganisms of litchi juice and its microbial shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yuanshan; Wu, Jijun; Xiao, Gengsheng; Xu, Yujuan; Tang, Daobang; Chen, Yulong; Zhang, Yousheng

    2013-08-01

    The individual and combined influences of dimethyl dicarbonate (DMDC) and nisin (200 IU/mL) at mild heat on the inactivation of indigenous microorganisms in litchi juice, including bacteria, molds and yeasts (M&Y), were investigated. The fresh litchi juice with or without nisin were exposed to 250 mg/L DMDC at 30, 40, or 45 °C for 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, or 6 h. A complete inactivation of M&Y in the litchi juice with or without nisin was achieved as exposed to 250 mg/L DMDC at 30, 40, or 45 °C for 0.5 h. The bacteria, especially Bacillus sp. and Leuconstoc mesenteroides showed higher resistance than M&Y in the litchi juice. Bacillus sp. and Leuconstoc mesenteroides in the litchi juice was not completely inactivated by 250 mg/L DMDC at 30, 40, or 45 °C. However, nisin addition can enhanced the inactivation of these bacteria by DMDC, and nisin and DMDC also showed a synergistic effect on the inactivation of bacteria. M&Y and bacteria were not detected in the litchi juice added with 200 IU/mL nisin as exposed to 250 mg/L DMDC at 45 °C for 3 h. In addition, microbial shelf life of the litchi juice during storage at 4 °C also was evaluated as treated by 250 mg/L DMDC or combination with nisin at 45 °C for 3 h.

  19. Glycemia and peak incremental indices of six popular fruits in Taiwan: healthy and Type 2 diabetes subjects compared

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Ya-Yen; Wu, Pin-Ching; Weng, Shuen-Fu; Liu, Jen-Fang

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the glycemic index and peak incremental indices of six popular fruits in Taiwan, comparing healthy subjects (n = 20) and patients with Type 2 diabetes (n = 17). The six kinds of fruits tested were grapes, Asian pears, guavas, golden kiwifruit, lychees and bananas. Glycemic index values were tested according to the standard glycemic index testing protocol. The glycemic index and peak incremental indices were calculated according to published formulas. In T...

  20. 分光光度法测定荔枝壳的铁含量%Determination of Iron Content in Lychee Exocarp by Spectrophotometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈碧琼; 涂华

    2013-01-01

    为探索分光光度计法测定荔枝壳中铁含量的可行性,用V(HNO3)∶V(HClO1)=5∶1湿法消化荔枝壳,利用分光光度法测定铁的含量.结果表明:分光光度法测定荔枝壳中铁含量的加标回收率为98.0%~99.8%,相对标准偏差(RSD)为0.7%~2.3%,铁平均含量为106.4 mg/kg.结论:用分光光度法测量荔枝壳中铁的含量快速、准确,灵敏度高,操作简便,易推广,可用于荔枝壳铁的质量控制.%To explore the determining feasibility of iron content in lychee exocarp with spectrophotometer, the authors used mixed acid(VHNO3: VHClO1 = 5: 1) to digest lychee exocarp, and then determined the iron content in lychee exocarp by spectrophotometry. The results showed that the recovery rate was 98. 0% -99. 8%, the relative standard deviation (RSD) was 0. 1% ~ 2.3%. The average concentration of iron was 106. 4 mg/kg. Conclusion; Spectrophotometry was a fast and simple method with high accuracy and sensitivity, which could be popularized widely, It can be used for the quality control of iron in lychee exocarp.

  1. Investigation on the litchi germplasm resources in the lower reach of Minjiang river of China%岷江下游四川地区荔枝资源调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘忠; 廖明安; 任雅君; 夏永秀; 梁梓; 黄娇

    2011-01-01

    Litchi(Litchi chinensis Sonn.) germplasm resources of the Minjiang valley in China were investigated from 2006 to 2010.The results demonstrated that ancient litchi trees were distributed along the Minjiang river and its tributaries like Qingyijiang and Dadu river from latitude 29°05' N to 29°48' N and the elevation from 340 m to 600 m above the sea level.The ages of the all ancient litchi trees are over 100 years.According to the shapes of the exocarp,the germplasms can be identified as 6 types including the protruding and hard protuberances,the hairlike protuberances and the smooth protuberances.The average fruit mass of different types is from 9.2 g to 25.5g,The range of edible ratio is 44.3% to 72.5%.The mature time is from late June to middle July.The fruit shapes are of the round,the heart and the ellipse and so on.The color of the fruit includes red,green,pink-red and other complex colors.These ancient litchi trees with some diversity are important resources both in biology and culture.%通过对岷江下游四川成都、乐山、眉山、宜宾等地区荔枝古树的调查,结果表明,荔枝古树主要沿岷江及其支流青衣江、大渡河的河谷分布,从北纬29°05'到北纬29°48',从海拔340 m至600 m均有栽植。现存数量658株,荔枝古树为高大乔木,树龄在100 a以上。果实成熟期6月下旬到7月中旬。果实形状有圆形、心形、椭圆形等。果皮颜色有红色、粉红色和红黄、红绿等复合色。按照果实表皮特点分为6个类型包括龟裂片隆起型、龟裂片突起尖锐型和龟裂片平坦型等3个大类。荔枝古树不同类型间平均单果质量最小为9.2 g,最大为25.5 g,可食率最低44.3%,最高72.5%。这些荔枝古树具有一定的多样性。岷江下游的荔枝古树不仅是重要的生物资源,同时也是重要的文化资源,加强保护具有重要意义。

  2. The measurement and evaluation of sulphur dioxide in dried longan, dried litchi, dried longan pulp and fresh longan in Guangxi market%广西市售龙眼(荔枝)干、桂圆肉、保鲜龙眼中SO2残留量测定及评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘守廷; 蒋天成; 叶开富; 罗平; 李健梅; 陶弋; 谭芳维; 唐琼

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To understand the situation of sulphur dioxide in dried longan, dried litchi, dried longan pulp and fresh longan available in Guangxi, and provide reference basis for the market regulators to strengthen food safety supervision. Methods: Sixty - four samples of dried longan, dried litchi, dried longan pulp and fresh fruits collected in the trading market from 2011 to 2012 were determined according to the second method of distillation method in Determination of Sulphite in Foods by GB/G5009. 34 -2003. Results: There were 43 samples consistent with the state standards and the qualified rate was 67%. The highest was fresh fruits (100% ) , followed by dried longan (75% ), dried litchi (69%) and dried longan pulp (50% ). Conclusion: In Guangxi, there are 33% of the dried longan, dried litchi and dried longan pulp exceeding the state health standard, performing different levels of SO2 residues, especially in the dried longan pulp, which is 8. 6 times of the state health standard.%目的:了解广西市售龙眼(荔枝)干、桂圆肉、保鲜龙眼中SO2的残留情况,为市场监管部门加强食品安全监督提供参考.方法:2010年-2012年随机抽取广西市场上的保鲜龙眼、龙眼(荔枝)干、桂圆肉64个样品,按GB/T5009.34-2003《食品中亚硫酸盐的测定》第二法测定SO2残留量.结果:符合国家卫生标准的43份,合格率67%,其合格率从高到低依次为保鲜龙眼(100%)>龙眼干(75%)>荔枝干(69%)>桂圆肉(50%).结论:广西市售龙眼(荔枝)干、桂圆肉中,超国家卫生标准的达33%,不同程度地存在SO2残留量超标的情况,桂圆肉中最高SO2残留量超国家卫生标准8.6倍.

  3. Production of quercetin, kaempferol and their glycosidic derivatives from the aqueous-organic extracted residue of litchi pericarp with Aspergillus awamori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sen; Zhu, Qinqin; Wen, Lingrong; Yang, Bao; Jiang, Guoxiang; Gao, Haiyan; Chen, Feng; Jiang, Yueming

    2014-02-15

    Our previous work exhibited Aspergillus awamori fermentation of the litchi pericarp increased significantly antioxidant activity and DNA protection effect. In this present study, the litchi pericarp and its aqueous-organic extracted residues were fermented by A. awamori in order to elucidate the enhanced beneficial effects. The study identified that rutin which present in litchi pericarp could be deglycosylated to form quercetin and quercetin-3-glucoside after the fermentation. Application the standard compounds (rutin, quercetin 3-glucoside, quercetin, kaempferol-3-glucoside and kaempferol) further revealed the effective biotransformation by A. awamori fermentation. It was hypothesised that rutin was initially dehydroxylated to form kaempferol-3-rutinoside and then deglycosylated to form kaempferol-3-glucoside and kaempferol. To our best knowledge, it is the first report on dehydroxylated effect of polyphenols caused by A. awamori fermentation. Thus, A. awamori fermentation can provide an effective way to produce health benefiting value-added products from litchi pericarp in food industry.

  4. Spore population, colonization, species diversity and factors influencing the association of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi with litchi trees in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinod; Kumar, Rajesh; Kumar, Ajit; Anal, Dubedi

    2016-01-01

    Abundance and diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in association with litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) trees were studied during 2012-2013, where orchard soil had high pH (7.42-9.53) and salinity (0.07- 0.39 dSm(-1)). A total of 105 rhizospheric soil and root samples were collected considering variables like location, age of tree, cultivar and production management. Results showed that spore count was in the range of 1-22 g(-1) soil. All the examined root segments had colonization of AMF, which ranged between 3.3 to 90.0%. AMF community comprised of Glomus mosseae, G. intaradices, G. constricta, G. coronatum, G. fasciculatum, G. albidum, G. hoi, G. multicauli, Acaulospora scrobiculata, A. laevis, Rhizophagus litchi and Entrophosphora infrequens. Higher spore density and AMF colonization were observed at medium level (13-28 kg ha(-1)) of available phosphorus that decreased ('r' = -0.21 for spore density, -0.48 for root colonization) with increasing soil phosphorus. While nitrogen did not influence the AMF association, a weak negative linear relationship with AMF colonization ('r' = -0.30) was apparent in the medium level (112-200 kg ha(-1)) of potash. Micronutrients (Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn and B) did not affect spore density (zero or a very weak linear correlation) but influenced root colonization ('r' = -0.53 to -0.44), the effect being more prominent above critical limits. Nutritionally sufficient, irrigated litchi orchards had greater spore count (46% samples having 5-22 spores g(-1) soil) and colonization (> 50% in 37.4% roots examined) than nutrient deficient, non-irrigated orchards, indicating essentiality of a threshold nutrients and moisture regime for the association. AMF symbiosis was influenced by cultivar (greater in 'China'), but tree age was not correlated to mycorrhizal association. A consortium of native species coupled with the understanding of nutrient effects on AMF would be useful for field application in litchi.

  5. Effects of simulated acid rain on fertility of litchi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Dong-liang; LIU Xing-hui; GUO Su-zhi

    2005-01-01

    The regulatory role of calcium in fertility of pollen and pistil under simulated acid rein was investigated. The germination percentage of pollen treated with acid rain of pH 4.5 was 9.42% lower than that of control, and that of pH 3.5, pH 2.5 and pH 1.5 were 22.47 %, 45.49% and 71.62%, respectively. Simultaneously, the injury character of pollen was obviously observed when flowers were treated with acid rain of pH 3.5. The difference in fruit setting rate between the female flower treated with acid rain of pH 4.0 and the control was significant at p < 0.05. Ca(NO3 )2 of 0.2-0.4 mmol/L could promote pollen germination under the stress of acid rain. The beneficial function was reduced when calcium concentration surpassed 0.8 mmol/L. Spraying 2 mmol/L Ca(NO3 )2 reduced the injury of acid rain to pistil and increased fruit-setting rate significantly. The physiological importance of calcium during pollen germination and pistil development was also discussed.

  6. 荔枝壳多糖特性研究%Characterization of Litchi Pericarp Polysaccharide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宝; 赵谋明; 刘洋; 李宝珍

    2005-01-01

    多糖是荔枝壳的重要活性成分,本研究采用阴离子交换柱和凝胶过滤柱对荔枝壳多糖进行分离纯化.凝胶渗透色谱测定其分子量为14000 Dal.通过气相色谱测定其单糖组成为甘露糖、半乳糖和少量的阿拉伯糖,分子链由1,2键、1,3键和1,6键组成,不含1,4键.红外光谱分析表明甘露糖以β-D-甘露糖形式存在,不含羧基基团.%Polysaccharide was an important functional composition in litchi pericarp. Anion exchange column and gel filtration column were used to isolate and purify the major polysaccharide extracted from litchi pericarp. The profile of gel permeation chromatography (GPC) showed its molecular weight as 14000 Dal. Monose composition of the major polysaccharide was determined by using gas chromatography (GC).It mainly comprised mannose and galactose,and arabinose. Its structure was further identified by using infrared (IR) spectra.

  7. 改良CTAB法从采后荔枝(Litchi chinensis Sonn.)果皮中提取总RNA%Extracting Total RNA from Pericarp of Postharvest Litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) Fruit by Improved CTAB Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王家保; 徐碧玉; 杜中军; 赖建勋; 金志强

    2006-01-01

    成熟荔枝果实的果皮中多酚、花色素苷、多糖、蛋白质等物质含量较高。内源RNAase活性也上升,使得从中提取高质量RNA较为困难。丁晓东0999)、张以顺等(2004)曾分别探索了从荔枝果实组织中提取总RNA的方法。但用这些方法都不能从荔枝果皮中得到高产率或高质量的总RNA。在综合比较多种方法的基础上。本实验对CTAB法(山蓝等,2002)作了改良.成功地从采后荔枝果皮中提取了可用于反转录的RNA。

  8. 7 CFR 319.56-47 - Certain fruits from Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... indica), mangosteen (Garcinia mangoestana L.), pineapple (Ananas comosus), and rambutan (Nephelium...) Growing conditions. Litchi, longan, mango, mangosteen, pineapple, and rambutan must be grown in a... Thailand. (b) Treatment. Litchi, longan, mango, mangosteen, pineapple, and rambutan must be treated...

  9. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, and Antibacterial Activity of Wood Vinegar from Litchi chinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyh-Ferng Yang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant and antibacterial activities of wood vinegar from Litchi chinensis, and its components have been studied. The chemical compositions of wood vinegar were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. A total of 17 chemical compounds were identified, representing 83.96% of the compositions in the wood vinegar. Three major components, included 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (syringol, 29.54%, 2-methoxyphenol (guaiacol, 12.36%, and 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxytoluene (11.07%, were found in the wood vinegar. Antioxidant activities of the acids were investigated from the aspects of 1,1-Diphyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radicals scavenging capacity, superoxide anion radical scavenging capacity, and reducing power. The pyroligneous acid exhibited high antioxidant activity which was comparable to the reference standards (vitamin C and butylated hydroxyl toluene at the same dose with IC50 values of 36.5 ppm calculated by the DPPH radical scavenging assay, 38.38 g Trolox equivalent/100 g DW by the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC assay, and 67.9 by the reducing power analysis. Antibacterial activity was evaluated using the disc diffusion and microdilution methods against a group of clinically antibiotic resistant isolates. The major components exhibited broad spectrum inhibition against all the bacterial strains with a range of disc inhibition zoon between 15–19 mm. The minimum inhibition concentration and minimum bactericide concentration against the test strains was ranging in 0.95–3.80 μL/100 μL and 1.90–3.80 μL/100 μL, respectively. Most of the antibiotic resistant strains were more susceptible to the wood vinegar than the non-antibiotic resistant strain except the strain of ornithine resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Based on the chemical profile, it was considered that the strongest antioxidant and antibacterial activity of Litchi chinensis wood vinegar was due to its highly phenolic compositions. This study revealed

  10. Morphological characterization and gene expression profiling during bud development in a tropical perennial, Litchi chinensis Sonn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huifeng Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Tropical evergreen perennials undergo recurrent flush growth, and their terminal buds alternate between growth and dormancy. In sharp contrast to intensive studies on bud development in temperate deciduous trees, there is little information about bud development regulation in tropical trees. In this study, litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn. was used as a model tropical perennial for morphological characterization and transcriptomic analysis of bud development. Litchi buds are naked with apical meristem embraced by rudimentary leaves, which are brown at dormant stage (Stage I. They swell and turn greenish as buds break (Stage II, and as growth accelerates, the rudimentary leaves elongate and open exposing the inner leaf primodia. With the outgrowth of the needle-like leaflets, bud growth reaches a maximum (Stage III. When leaflets expand, bud growth cease with the abortion of the rudimentary leaves at upper positions (Stage IV. Then buds turn brown and reenter dormant status. Budbreak occurs again when new leaves become hard green. Buds at four stages (Stage I to IV were collected for respiration measurements and in-depth RNA sequencing. Respiration rate was lowest at Stage I and highest at Stage II, decreasing towards growth cessation. RNA sequencing obtained over 5 Gb data from each of the bud samples and de novo assembly generated a total of 59999 unigenes, 40119 of which were annotated. Pair-wise comparison of gene expression between stages, gene profiling across stages, GO/KEGG enrichment analysis, and the expression patterns of 17 major genes highlighted by principal component (PC analysis displayed significant changes in stress resistance, hormone signal pathways, circadian rhythm, photosynthesis, cell division, carbohydrate metabolism, programmed cell death during bud development, which might be under epigenetic control involving chromatin methylation. The qPCR results of 8 selected unigenes with high PC scores agreed with the RPKM values

  11. ADSORPTION PROPERTIES OF LYCHEE EXOCARP ON CR(VI)%荔枝壳对Cr(VI)的吸附性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈艺敏; 陈建福

    2015-01-01

    为考察荔枝壳对废水中 Cr(VI)的吸附性能,用电镜对荔枝壳进行表征,并考察了 pH、吸附剂用量、时间和温度对吸附性能的影响。结果表明荔枝壳表面粗糙、凹凸不平,对Cr(VI)具有较强的吸附能力。在温度25℃下,震荡吸附3 h,荔枝壳对Cr(VI)去除率可达91.5%。荔枝壳对Cr(VI)吸附的动力学和热力学研究结果表明,该吸附过程符合准二级吸附动力学模型和Langmuir等温方程。%In order to investigate the adsorption properties of lychee exocarp on Cr(VI), the surface characteristics of lychee exocarp was revealed by SEM and the effects of pH, dosage, time and temperature on adsorption were investigated. The results indicated that the surface of lychee exocarp was rough and had strong adsorption ability to Cr(VI). At the temperature of 25℃, the removal efficiency of Cr(VI) reached 91.5% after 3 hours. According to the results of kinetic and thermodynamic studies, the adsorption process was consistent with pseudo-second-order adsorption model and Langmuir isothermal equation.

  12. 荔枝低分子量多糖的分离纯化及抗氧化吸湿保湿性能分析%Purification, antioxidant, hygroscopicity and moisture retention activity of low molecular weight polysaccharide fromLitchi chinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景永帅; 张丹参; 吴兰芳; 戎欣玉; 杜红霞; 许伟涛

    2016-01-01

    为进一步开发和利用荔枝中的多糖成分,该文对荔枝低分子量多糖组分进行分离纯化,并对其理化性质、抗氧化和吸湿保湿性进行研究。采用超声波辅助提取、分级醇沉、DEAE-cellulose 52和Sephadex G-100柱分离纯化荔枝多糖;紫外-可见光谱扫描法、比旋光度法、渗透凝胶色谱法3种方法验证纯度;高效凝胶渗透色谱法测定相对分子量,高效阴离子交换色谱测定单糖组成;清除DPPH自由基和羟基自由基评价体外抗氧化活性;体外法测定吸湿保湿性。结果表明:荔枝多糖经分离纯化后获得组分荔枝多糖PLC-1,经3种方法验证PLC-1为精多糖,相对分子量为2.35×104 Da,是由半乳糖、鼠李糖、葡萄糖组成,摩尔比为:1.00∶3.52∶5.89。抗氧化活性研究结果表明PLC-1对DPPH和羟基自由基呈良好的量效关系,半数清除浓度IC50分别为0.41和0.31 mg/mL。吸湿保湿性的结果表明,PLC-1具有良好的吸湿和保湿性,在32 h时的吸湿率为58.3%,32 h时的失水率为45.3%,荔枝多糖PLC-1为具抗氧化和吸湿保湿活性的多糖,研究结果可为荔枝的深加工和进一步研究开发提供一定的理论基础。%Litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.), a tropical/subtropical fruit originally from China, is cultivated all over the world with warm climates. It has become one of the most popular fruits in the world due to its delicious flavor and abundant nutrition. As a good source of minerals, dietary fiber, and phytochemicals, litchi has been employed in traditional Chinese medicine. In addition, litchi has also been used to produce various types of health products and foods, such as medicinal beverages, drinks, or soups. Litchi fruit’s pericarp tissues contain a lot of flavonoids, polysaccharides, and various proteins. Polysaccharides are a kind of biomacromolecules composed of more than 10 monosaccharide units, which generally exist in plants, animals

  13. Association of acute toxic encephalopathy with litchi consumption in an outbreak in Muzaffarpur, India, 2014: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Shrivastava, Aakash; Kumar, Anil; Jerry D Thomas; Laserson, Kayla F.; Bhushan, Gyan; Carter, Melissa D.; Chhabra, Mala; Mittal, Veena; Khare, Shashi; Sejvar, James J.; Dwivedi, Mayank; Isenberg, Samantha L.; Johnson, Rudolph; Pirkle, James L.; Sharer, Jon D

    2017-01-01

    Background: Outbreaks of unexplained illness frequently remain under-investigated. In India, outbreaks of an acute neurological illness with high mortality among children occur annually in Muzaffarpur, the country's largest litchi cultivation region. In 2014, we aimed to investigate the cause and risk factors for this illness. Methods: In this hospital-based surveillance and nested age-matched case-control study, we did laboratory investigations to assess potential infectious and non-infec...

  14. Lychee Seed Saponins Improve Cognitive Function and Prevent Neuronal Injury via Inhibiting Neuronal Apoptosis in a Rat Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiuling; Wu, Jianming; Yu, Chonglin; Tang, Yong; Liu, Jian; Chen, Haixia; Jin, Bingjin; Mei, Qibing; Cao, Shousong; Qin, Dalian

    2017-01-01

    Lychee seed is a traditional Chinese medicine and possesses many activities, including hypoglycemia, liver protection, antioxidation, antivirus, and antitumor. However, its effect on neuroprotection is still unclear. The present study investigated the effects of lychee seed saponins (LSS) on neuroprotection and associated mechanisms. We established a rat model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) by injecting Aβ25–35 into the lateral ventricle of rats and evaluated the effect of LSS on spatial learning and memory ability via the Morris water maze. Neuronal apoptosis was analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin stain and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (Tdt)-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling analysis, and mRNA expression of caspase-3 and protein expressions of Bax and Bcl-2 by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting, respectively. The results showed that LSS remarkably improved cognitive function and alleviated neuronal injury by inhibiting apoptosis in the hippocampus of AD rats. Furthermore, the mRNA expression of caspase-3 and the protein expression of Bax were downregulated, while the protein expression of Bcl-2 and the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax were increased by LSS. We demonstrate that LSS significantly improves cognitive function and prevent neuronal injury in the AD rats via regulation of the apoptosis pathway. Therefore, LSS may be developed as a nutritional supplement and sold as a drug for AD prevention and/or treatment. PMID:28165366

  15. Lychee Seed Saponins Improve Cognitive Function and Prevent Neuronal Injury via Inhibiting Neuronal Apoptosis in a Rat Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuling Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Lychee seed is a traditional Chinese medicine and possesses many activities, including hypoglycemia, liver protection, antioxidation, antivirus, and antitumor. However, its effect on neuroprotection is still unclear. The present study investigated the effects of lychee seed saponins (LSS on neuroprotection and associated mechanisms. We established a rat model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD by injecting Aβ25–35 into the lateral ventricle of rats and evaluated the effect of LSS on spatial learning and memory ability via the Morris water maze. Neuronal apoptosis was analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin stain and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (Tdt-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling analysis, and mRNA expression of caspase-3 and protein expressions of Bax and Bcl-2 by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. The results showed that LSS remarkably improved cognitive function and alleviated neuronal injury by inhibiting apoptosis in the hippocampus of AD rats. Furthermore, the mRNA expression of caspase-3 and the protein expression of Bax were downregulated, while the protein expression of Bcl-2 and the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax were increased by LSS. We demonstrate that LSS significantly improves cognitive function and prevent neuronal injury in the AD rats via regulation of the apoptosis pathway. Therefore, LSS may be developed as a nutritional supplement and sold as a drug for AD prevention and/or treatment.

  16. Model analytical and verification of heat and moisture characteristics in litchi drying%荔枝干燥热湿特性模型解析与验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李长友; 赵懿琨; 马兴灶

    2014-01-01

    The dynamic characteristics of temperature and moisture distribution within litchi, which is the key influence on drying quality formation and energy-consumption, is the important technical foundation problem for litchi postpartum processing. In order to reveal the dynamic characteristics of temperature and moisture distribution within litchi in unsteady drying process, guide the drying process design, improve the drying quality, and reduce drying energy, based on the diffusion model, the characteristic parameter of litchi is studied. Meanwhile, the drying characteristics representation of litchi is investigated on the basis of the drying characteristics test on litchi peel, pulp, and kernel. When the relative humidity is 10 percent and temperatures range from 35℃ to 50℃, the drying constant and dry basis equilibrium moisture content is researched, and the results are 0.5965 h-1-0.6717 h-1 and 7.55 percent-60.92 percent, respectively. While the relative humidity is 60 percent, and the temperature is 40℃ and 50℃, the researchers have determined that the drying constant is 0.076 h-1 and 0.098 h-1, respectively, and that the dry basis equilibrium moisture contents is 211.35 percent and 141.06 percent, respectively. The results show that the drying conditions have great influence on the drying characteristic parameters of litchi. The water vapor pressure inside litchi exists at an extreme value point during litchi drying, and after that, the drying process is closed to isothermal processes. At the beginning of litchi drying (within 20 min), the internal temperature difference of litchi is the greatest. The thermal conductivity coefficients of peel, pulp, and kernel have some differences, but in the same drying time, they have less effect on the internal temperature distribution of litchi. By using the Lars transformation, the heat conductivity and thermal balance equations are solved simultaneously, and the internal temperature, water vapor partial pressure

  17. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of some fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Dhan; Upadhyay, Garima; Pushpangadan, P; Gupta, Charu

    2011-01-01

    Phenols, a major group of antioxidant phytochemicals, have profound importance due to their biological and free radical scavenging activities. To identify their potential sources extracts of some fruits and their different parts were studied for total phenolic contents (TPC), antioxidant (AOA) and free radical scavenging activities (FRSA). The amount of TPC varied from 10.5 (Carissa carandus, fruit peel) to 343.2 mg/g (Caesalpinia Mexicana, fruits) and AOA from 20.3% (Musa paradisiacal, fruits) to 96.7% (Caesalpinia Mexicana, fruits). Fruits of Caesalpinia Mexicana, Acacia auriculiformis, fruit pericarp green fibres of Cocus nucifera, and fruits of Emblica officinalis were found to have high TPC (73.1-343.2 mg/g) and high AOA (68.5-96.7%). Promising fruits were studied for their FRSA and reducing power (RP) measured by DPPH assay where the fruits of Caesalpinia mexicana, fruit pericarp fibres of Cocus nucifera, fruits of Emblica officinalis showed very low IC50 ranging from 0.009 to 0.016 mg/ml, EC50 from 0.39 to 0.70 mg/mg DPPH and reasonably high values (142.1-256.3) of anti radical power (ARP), indicating their strong FRSA and reducing power (RP) as evident by their low ASE/ml values (0.42-1.08). They also showed better inhibition of lipid peroxidation measured by using ferric thiocyanate assay and by using egg yolk compared to the reference standard quercetin. The ferrous and ferric ion chelating capacity of the promising fruits and their underutilized parts in terms of IC50 varied from 0.12 (Emblica officinalis, fruits) to 2.44 mg/ml (Mangifera indica, Seed kernel) and 0.22 (Caesalpinia Mexicana, fruits) to 2.59 mg/ml (Litchi chinensis, fruit peel) respectively. Fruit pulp, peel and seeds of Litchi chinensis with reasonable amount of phenols (48.3, 43.9, 50.1 mg/ml) showed low ARP (23.5, 38.3, 33.8) and ASE/ml (3.13, 2.18, 2.62) respectively in contrast to Aegle marmelos with comparatively lower phenols (35.1 mg/g) exhibited good ARP (57.4) and RP (1.67 ASE

  18. Heavy Metal Contents and Physical Parameters of Aegiceras corniculatum, Brassica juncea, and Litchi chinensis Honeys from Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandita Sarker

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to determine the heavy metal levels and the physicochemical parameters (pH, electrical conductivity (EC, and ash, moisture, and total sugar content of honeys from Bangladesh. Three different floral honeys were investigated, namely, khalsi (Aegiceras corniculatum, mustard (Brassica juncea, and litchi (Litchi chinensis honeys. The heavy metals in the honeys were determined by using a High Temperature Dry Oxidation method followed by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. The mean pH, EC, and ash, moisture, and total sugar contents of the investigated honeys were 3.6, 0.51 mS/cm, 0.18%, 18.83%, and 68.30%, respectively. Iron was the most abundant among all the investigated heavy metals, ranging from 13.51 to 15.44 mg/kg. The mean concentrations of Mn and Zn in the investigated honeys were 0.28 mg/kg and 2.99 mg/kg, respectively. Cd was below the detection limit, and lead was found in some honey samples, but their contents were below the recommended Maximum Acceptable Level. Cr was also found in all of the samples, but its concentration was within the limit. The physicochemical analysis of the honey samples yielded levels within the limits set by the international honey legislation, indicating that the honey samples were of good quality and had acceptable values for maturity, purity, and freshness.

  19. 几种处理对采后荔枝果皮水分变化与褐变的影响%Effect of Several Treatments on Water Content and Browning of the Pericarp of Postharvest Litchi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凌云; 孙进华; 李博; 王家保

    2013-01-01

    研究不同处理对采后荔枝果皮水分变化及果皮褐变的影响.结果表明:HgC12能够抑制果皮圆片失水,以0.2 mmol/L作用最显著.50μmol/L Forskolin对果皮失水起促进作用,其它处理无显著影响.0.2mmol/L HgCl2和果实套袋都能抑制果实失重,减缓果皮含水量下降,且能延缓果皮褐变进程.讨论HgC12抑制果皮失水的机理.%The effect of several treatments on water content and browning of the pericarp of postharvest litchi was studied in this paper. The results showed that HgCl2 could inhibit peel dehydrate, and the most significant effect was observed at 0.2 mmol/L. Forskolin increased the peel water loss when the concentration was 50 μmol/L, while the other treatment had no significant influence. Fruit bagging and 0.2 mmol/L HgCl2 could inhibit fruit weight loss, slow down the decrease of percicarp water content and delay the process of pericarp browning. Finally, the mechanism of the inhibition effect of HgCl2 on water loss of pericarp was discussed.

  20. 荔枝核皂苷对老年痴呆大鼠的干预作用研究%Intervention activity of lychee seed saponin against rats with senile dementia and its mechinisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娟; 王海涛

    2012-01-01

    目的:建立老年痴呆(Alzheimer's disease,AD)大鼠模型,探讨荔枝核皂苷对AD大鼠的治疗作用及其机制.方法:50只SD大鼠分为:对照组、模型对照组和低、中、高剂量荔枝核皂苷治疗组,共5组,每组10只;Morris水迷宫实验检测各组大鼠的逃避潜伏时间和平台跨越次数;Western blot实验检测各组脑组织β淀粉样蛋白(β-amyloid protein,Aβ)的表达变化;流式细胞仪检测各组脑组织活性氧(ROS)表达的改变.结果:AD大鼠模型组与对照组比较,逃避潜伏时间出现显著性地延长(P<0.01),平台跨越次数显著性地减少(P<0.01).荔枝核皂苷治疗后AD大鼠的逃避潜伏时间和平台跨越次数得到显著性地改善(P<0.05).AD大鼠脑组织Aβ的表达水平显著高于正常对照组,高、中、低剂量荔枝核皂苷治疗组可以剂量依赖性地降低模型鼠脑组织中Aβ的表达水平.对照组、模型对照组、低剂量荔枝核皂苷治疗组、中剂量荔枝核皂苷治疗组、高剂量荔枝核皂苷治疗组ROS表达水平的相对值分别为6.12±0.61、9.54±1.42、8.33±1.26、7.68±1.14、7.23±0.73,模型组显著高于对照组(P<0.01),荔枝核皂苷治疗可以显著降低模型组脑组织中ROS的表达水平(P<0.05).结论:荔枝核皂苷具有抗AD大鼠痴呆的活性,减少AD大鼠脑组织Aβ和ROS的生成是其主要的作用机制.%AIM: To investigate the activity and mechanisms of lychee seed saponin against rats with senile dementia (AD). METHODS: The 50 AD rats were randomly divided into control group, AD model group, low-dose lychee seed saponin group, medium-dose lychee seed saponin group, and high-dose lychee seed sapo- nin group, respectively. Morris water maze examination was used to detect learning and memory ability. The protein expression was detected by Western blot analysis. The level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was determined by flow cytometer analysis. RESULTS:The escape latency of rats was

  1. Diversity and temporal dynamics of a litchi orchard arthropod community in Guangzhou%广州荔枝园节肢动物群落多样性及时空动态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟翔; 欧阳革成; 刘慧; 黄寿山; 郭明昉

    2015-01-01

    Objectives] To provide a theoretical basis for forecasting and scientific biological control of major litchi orchard pests. [Methods] The structure and dynamics of the arthropod community in a litchi orchard in Conghua, Guangzhou was investigated in the field from 2012 to 2013. [Results] 3 542 arthropod specimens, belonging to 15 orders, 113 families and 204 species, were recorded. The main taxa were Hymenoptera, Homoptera and Araneae. Herbivorous species were predominant. Different micro-environments within the orchard could have a different community composition; the index of arthropod community diversity was higher in the canopy than in the herb layer but arthropod abundance in the canopy was lower than in the herb layer. There were two obvious peaks in species abundance with the main peak occurring between April and June. Herbivorous insects significantly increased during the green fruit and ripening periods. Seasonal variation in community composition was also relatively obvious in the canopy and herb layer. The dominant pest species were Tessaratoma papillosa, Cletus punctiger, Conopomorpha sinensis, Eriophyes litchii and Thalassodes proquadraria, and the dominant natural enemies were Leucauge magnifica, Oxyopes sertatus, Chrysopa carnea, Menochilus sexmaculataand Propylea japonica. [Conclusion] Litchi orchards have high arthropod species diversity. The number and occurrence of dominant pests and their predatory natural enemies are closely related to the growth and development of litchi fruit.%【目的】调查研究荔枝园节肢动物群落多样性及时空动态,为荔枝园主要害虫的预测预报和以天敌为主的科学防治提供理论依据。【方法】2012―2013年以广州市从化区黄围村的荔枝园为样地进行节肢动物群落系统调查及多样性动态规律分析。【结果】调查共获得节肢动物标本3542号,分属于15目113科204种。其中,以膜翅目、同翅目和蜘蛛目为主要类群。在营

  2. Fruit Juice.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Effect of Homogenization, Stabilizer and Amylase Treatment on Viscosity of Passion. Fruit Juice. ... viscosity during storage of sweetened, pasteurized passion fruit juice were investigated. .... minutes after which the temperature was.

  3. 超滤在荔枝汁澄清中的应用%Application of Ultrafiltration in Clarified Litchi Juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈穗; 谌国莲; 孙远明

    2001-01-01

    Litchi juice was clarified by hollow fiber membrane ultrafilter. After ultrafiltration, the juice was very clear and its transmittance was 99.5 %. Some nutritional ingredients and aroma compounds basically remained in the ultrafiltered juice. The effects of operating parameters on the permeate flux of the ultrafilter were also studied.%首次采用聚砜中空纤维膜对荔枝汁进行超滤澄清处理,超滤后果汁澄清透明,透光率达99.5%,无混浊现象,较好地保持了原汁的营养成分与风味,试验还探讨了超滤工艺参数对膜透过速率的影响。

  4. Status and Countermeasures of Litchi Quality Security in China%我国荔枝质量安全现状及其对策措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗金辉; 李建国; 谢艺贤

    2011-01-01

    The status and problems of litchi quality security in China were overviewed, with analyzing the main factors influencing litchi quality security of pesticides residues, and with discussing the key technologies to control pests and diseases including agriculture and physical control, biological and chemical control. Finally, the countermeasures and suggestions were put forward to improve titchi quality security in China.%分析我国荔枝质量安全现状和存在问题,论述荔枝病虫害及防治的关键技术:农业及物理防治、生物防治和化学防治,提出提高我国荔枝质量安全水平的对策与建议。

  5. 荔枝生产中农药使用对蜜蜂的影响分析%Impact Analysis of Pesticide Application in Litchi Production on Bees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王思威; 刘艳萍; 孙海滨

    2016-01-01

    针对我国荔枝生长各阶段的病虫害发生和防治的农药种类,综合分析了对收获期荔枝农药残留量及在花期采粉采蜜的蜜蜂的影响,明确了影响荔枝残留量超标和蜜蜂种群生长发育及行为的施药因子,提出了参照农药合理使用准则施药以防止荔枝上农药残留量超标、选择合理的用药时期以防止蜜蜂种群失调的对策。%According to the diseases and insect pests occurrence and the pesticides prevention and control at different stages of litchi growth in China,we comprehensively analyzed the effects on pesticide residue of litchi and the honey at flowering stage .Drug application factors affecting the litchi residues and the growth of bee population were detected.Countermeasures were put forward,such as selecting rational drug use according to the applying rules of pesticides.

  6. Glycemia and peak incremental indices of six popular fruits in Taiwan: healthy and Type 2 diabetes subjects compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ya-Yen; Wu, Pin-Ching; Weng, Shuen-Fu; Liu, Jen-Fang

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the glycemic index and peak incremental indices of six popular fruits in Taiwan, comparing healthy subjects (n = 20) and patients with Type 2 diabetes (n = 17). The six kinds of fruits tested were grapes, Asian pears, guavas, golden kiwifruit, lychees and bananas. Glycemic index values were tested according to the standard glycemic index testing protocol. The glycemic index and peak incremental indices were calculated according to published formulas. In Type 2 diabetes subjects, the glycemic index values of grapes, Asian pears, guavas, golden kiwifruit, lychees and bananas were 49.0 ± 4.5, 25.9 ± 2.9, 32.8 ± 5.2, 47.0 ± 6.5, 60.0 ± 8.0 and 41.3 ± 3.5. In healthy subjects, the glycemic index values were 49.1 ± 7.3, 18.0 ± 5.4, 31.1 ± 5.1, 47.3 ± 12.1, 47.9 ± 6.8 and 35.1 ± 5.6. There was no significant difference in glycemic index values between healthy and Type 2 diabetes subjects. There was also no significant difference in PII when comparing healthy subjects and subjects with Type 2 diabetes. In conclusion, glycemic index and peak incremental indices in healthy subjects can be approximately the same for Type 2 diabetes.

  7. 荔枝果汁红茶菌发酵工艺条件的探讨%Investigation on the cultivation conditions of kombucha fermentation of Litchi Juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王柳玲; 胡卓炎; 余小林; 赵雷; 方祥; 梁芹

    2013-01-01

    为了探索荔枝果汁红茶菌发酵果醋的适宜条件,探讨了红茶菌接种量、荔枝果汁初始可溶性固形物含量、发酵温度和初始pH值等因素对荔枝果汁红茶菌发酵液的总酸含量、pH、可溶性固形物含量、还原糖转化率等指标的影响,并通过响应曲面分析和期望函数优化途径,获得荔枝果汁红茶菌发酵优化的工艺条件.结果表明:发酵温度32℃,荔枝果汁初始可溶性固形物浓度为14°Brix,红茶菌接种量10%,发酵6d后,发酵液总酸含量可达2.48 g/100 mL,pH值为3.04.%In order to obtain the cultivation conditions of kombucha fermentation for litchi juice,effects of fermentation conditions including kombucha inoculation concentration,initial total suluble solid content,fermentation temperature,and initial pH value of litchi juice on acid content,pH,total suluble solids content,reducing sugar consumption rate of the fermented litchi juice were investigated.Response surface methodology and desirability function approach was applied to obtain the optimal cultivation conditions.Results showed that the kombucha cultivation conditions for litchi juice were selected as 10% of inoculums concentration,14°Brix of initial soluble solid content,30℃ of fermentation temperature,after 6 days of kombucha fermentation of litchi juice,the content of acid was increased to 2.48g/100 mL,pH value was 3.04.

  8. An analysis of volatile components in‘Guanyinlü ’ litchi by headspace solid-phase microextraction with GC-MS%‘观音绿’荔枝香气成分的顶空固相微萃取GC-MS分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马锞; 谷超; 尹君乐; 胡锐清; 罗诗; 王泽槐; 李建国

    2015-01-01

    Objective]The volatile components from ‘Guanyinlü’ litchi fruit were detected .[Method]Qualitative and quantitative analyses were carried out using headspace solid-phase microextraction ( HS SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS).[Result and conclusion]A total of 66 vol-atile components were detected in ripe ‘Guanyinlü’ litchi fruits, including 20 alkenes, 11 esters, 11 al-cohols, 3 ketones, 6 alkanes, 4 aldehydes, 2 aromatic compounds and 10 others, among which the major components were D-limonene;2-buten-1-ol, 3-methyl;cyclohexene, 1-methyl-4-(1-methyle thylidene);β-myrcene;ethyl acetate;2-buten-1-ol, 3-methyl-, acetate;2,6-octadien-1-ol,3,7-dimethyl-,( Z);3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol;1-octen-3-ol;azulene, 1,2,3,5,6,7,8,8a-octahydro-1, 4-dimethyl-7-(1-methyle-thenyl)-, [1S-(1α,7α,8aβ)]-.The quality of ‘Guanyinlü’ litchi might be related to the presence and relative content of the alkene of aroma components .%目的探明‘观音绿’荔枝的香气成分。方法采用顶空固相微萃取法( Headspace solid-phase microextraction , HS SPME)和气-质联用( GC-MS)技术对‘观音绿’荔枝的香气物质进行定性和定量分析。结果和结论在‘观音绿’成熟荔枝果实中共检出66种化合物,其中:烯类20种,醇类11种,酯类11种,酮类3种,烃类6种,醛类4种,芳香族化合物2种,其他化合物10种。‘观音绿’荔枝的主要香气成分是柠檬烯、甲基丁烯醇、萜品油烯、月桂烯、乙酸乙酯、梨醇酯、橙花醇、3-甲基-3-丁烯-1-醇、1-辛烯-3-醇、δ-愈创木烯等。‘观音绿’荔枝品质特优可能与其香气成分中烯类的种类和相对含量有关。

  9. Study on the Controlling Process of Freezing Point in Fresh-cut Litchi Pulp%鲜切荔枝果肉冰点调节工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴汶飞; 余小林; 胡卓炎; 周宇

    2011-01-01

    Effects of different freezing point regulators including sucrose, sorbitol and glucose on the freezing point of fresh - cut litchi pulp were evaluated and optimized by response surface methodology. Results showed that the optimal conditions were: sorbitol content 6.24% , glucose content 7.31% and sucrose content 40.93%. Under the optimal conditions, the freezing point of the fresh -cut litchi pulp decreased to -4.15℃ , close to the predicted val ue of -4.13℃. The optimal freezing point of the fresh - cut litchi pulp was reduced by 1.3℃ comparing to the control group.%研究了蔗糖、山梨醇、葡萄糖3种冰点调节剂对降低鲜切荔枝果肉冰点的效果及复配浓度的影响。在单因素实验的基础上,以鲜切荔枝果肉的冰点为响应值,通过响应曲面法建立回归模型,得到山梨醇、葡萄糖、蔗糖3种冰点调节剂的优化复配浓度为:山梨醇6.24%,葡萄糖7.31%,蔗糖40.93%。鲜切荔枝果肉经此优化复配浓度在3cc、浸渍3h处理后,其冰点可降至-4.15℃,与模型预测值(-4.13℃)接近,比未处理果肉的冰点降低了1.3℃。

  10. Mathematical Modeling of Hot Air Drying of Thin Layer Litchi Flesh%荔枝果肉热风干燥薄层模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关志强; 王秀芝; 李敏; 蒋小强; 谢晶

    2012-01-01

    The influences of drying temperature and hot air speed on the moisture ratio MR and the drying velocity U of litchi were studied by self-building heat pump drying device. The results showed that drying process of litchi occurred in the falling rate period, and the moisture transfer was controlled by internal diffusion. Nine different dynamic models were fitted nonlinearly by using the drying test data of litchi in the heat pump device. The results of comparing the values of the correlation coefficient R , the reduced chi-square X2 and the root mean square error eRMSE and the verification testing showed the Page model was the best suitable to descript the relationship of litchi moisture and drying time by hot air drying. The effective moisture diffusion coefficient Deff and the activation energy Ea were also obtained by experiments under different conditions, the values of Deff would increase with the addition of drying temperature and hot air speed, the average value of Ea was 29. 939 kJ/mol.%利用热泵干燥装置探讨了热风温度和热风风速对荔枝果肉干燥水分比MR和干燥速率U的影响.结果表明:荔枝果肉薄层热风干燥是内部水分扩散控制的降速干燥过程.对9种常见食品薄层干燥模型进行试验数据非线性拟合,通过比较评价决定系数R2、卡方x2和标准误差eRMSE以及试验验证,结果显示Page模型是描述荔枝果肉薄层热风干燥过程的最优模型.不同干燥条件下有效水分扩散系数Deff和活化能Ea的求解结果表明,有效水分扩散系数Deff随热风温度和风速的增加而变大,平均活化能Ea为29.939 kJ/mol.

  11. Two LcbHLH transcription factors interacting with LcMYB1 in regulating late structural genes of anthocyanin biosynthesis in Nicotiana and Litchi chinensis during anthocyanin accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biao eLai

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanin biosynthesis requires the MYB-bHLH-WD40 protein complex to activate the late biosynthetic genes. LcMYB1 was thought to act as key regulator in anthocyanin biosynthesis of litchi. However, basic helix-loop-helix proteins (bHLHs as partners have not been identified yet. The present study describes the functional characterization of three litchi bHLH candidate anthocyanin regulators, LcbHLH1, LcbHLH2 and LcbHLH3. Although these three litchi bHLHs phylogenetically clustered with bHLH proteins involved in anthcoyanin biosynthesis in other plant, only LcbHLH1 and LcbHLH3 were found to localize in the nucleus and physically interact with LcMYB1. The transcription levels of all these bHLHs were not coordinated with anthocyanin accumulation in different tissues and during development. However, when co-infiltrated with LcMYB1, both LcbHLH1 and LcbHLH3 enhanced anthocyanin accumulation in tobacco leaves with LcbHLH3 being the best inducer. Significant accumulation of anthocyanins in leaves transformed with the combination of LcMYB1 and LcbHLH3 were noticed, And this was associated with the up-regulation of two tobacco endogenous bHLH regulators, NtAn1a and NtAn1b, and late structural genes, like NtDFR and NtANS. Significant activity of the ANS promoter was observed in transient expression assays either with LcMYB1-LcbHLH1 or LcMYB1-LcbHLH3, while only minute activity was detected after transformation with only LcMYB1. In contrast, no activity was measured after induction with the combination of LcbHLH2 and LcMYB1. Higher DFR expression was also oberseved in paralleling with higher anthocyanins in co-transformed lines. LcbHLH1 and LcbHLH3 are essential partner of LcMYB1 in regulating the anthocyanin production in tobacco and probably also in litchi. The LcMYB1-LcbHLH complex enhanced anthocyanin accumulation may associate with activating the transcription of DFR and ANS.

  12. Development and validation of a comprehensive model for map of fruits based on enzyme kinetics theory and arrhenius relation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangaraj, S; K Goswami, T; Mahajan, P V

    2015-07-01

    MAP is a dynamic system where respiration of the packaged product and gas permeation through the packaging film takes place simultaneously. The desired level of O2 and CO2 in a package is achieved by matching film permeation rates for O2 and CO2 with respiration rate of the packaged product. A mathematical model for MAP of fresh fruits applying enzyme kinetics based respiration equation coupled with the Arrhenious type model was developed. The model was solved numerically using MATLAB programme. The model was used to determine the time to reach to the equilibrium concentration inside the MA package and the level of O2 and CO2 concentration at equilibrium state. The developed model for prediction of equilibrium O2 and CO2 concentration was validated using experimental data for MA packaging of apple, guava and litchi.

  13. Identification of the Major Flavanols in Litchi Pericarp%荔枝壳主要黄烷醇类物质分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宝; 赵谋明; 刘洋; 李宝珍

    2005-01-01

    本研究采用乙醇溶液提取荔枝壳中的黄酮,并利用不同有机溶剂进行分级.通过反相液相色谱对主要单体成分P1,P2和P3分离纯化.经紫外可见光扫描分析表明为黄烷醇类物质.通过核磁共振波谱和质谱分析证明P1,P2和P3分别为表儿茶素,原花青素B2和原花青素B4.%Litchi pericarp contains significant amounts of polyphenolic compounds. Solvent classification of crude flavonoids extracts from litchi pericarp was used in this research. The results showed ethyl acetate fraction gathered the most flavonoids. The major flavonoids (P1, P2 and P3)were isolated by using reverse phase liquid chromatography. Ultraviolet and visible light scanning analysis showed they were flavanols. Nuclear magnetic resonance( NMR) spectra and mass spectra(MS) analysis further indicated P1, P2 and P3 were proanthocyanidin B4, proanthocyanidin B2 and epicatechin, respectively.

  14. Improved Growth of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus as well as Increased Antioxidant Activity by Biotransforming Litchi Pericarp Polysaccharide with Aspergillus awamori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to increase the bioactivity of litchi pericarp polysaccharides (LPPs biotransformed by Aspergillus awamori. Compared to the non-A. awamori-fermented LPP, the growth effects of A. awamori-fermented LPP on Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus were four and two times higher after 3 days of fermentation, respectively. Increased 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and DNA protection activity of litchi pericarp polysaccharides were also achieved after A. awamori fermentation. Moreover, the relative content of glucose and arabinose in LPP after fermentation decreased from 58.82% to 22.60% and from 18.82% to 10.09%, respectively, with a concomitant increase in the relative contents of galactose, rhamnose, xylose, and mannose. Furthermore, lower molecular weight polysaccharides were obtained after A. awamori fermentation. It can be concluded that A. awamori was effective in biotransforming LPP into a bioactive mixture with lower molecular weight polysaccharides and higher antioxidant activity and relative galactose content.

  15. Study on Enzymatic Characteristics of Polyphenol Oxidase (PPO) in Litchi Pulp%荔枝果肉多酚氧化酶酶学性质研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春丽; 杨跃寰; 陈欲云

    2011-01-01

    [目的]为研究荔枝果肉多酚氧化酶(PPO)的作用机制,控制荔枝果肉在贮藏和加工过程中的酶促褐变提供理论依据.[方法]从荔枝果肉中提取多酚氧化酶,并对其酶学性质进行研究.[结果]荔枝果肉PPO的最适反应温度为55 ℃,对热稳定性较强,90 ℃水浴保温30 min后剩余相对酶活为22.6%;pH值为7.0时该酶的活力最强,在pH值6.5~8.0范围内酶活力较稳定;邻苯二酚与该酶的结合能力最强,其次为4-甲基儿茶酚;谷胱甘肽为该酶的最好抑制剂,其次为半胱氨酸、抗坏血酸、NaF和亚硫酸钠;SnCl2和FeSO4对该酶活性有抑制作用,而CuSO4、MgCl2和CaCl2对其活性有促进作用.[结论]该研究确定了荔枝果肉多酚氧化酶的最适作用条件.%[ Objective ] The aim was to provide the theoretical basis for studying the action mechanism of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in litchi pulp and controlling the enzymatic browning of litchi pulp during storage and processing. [ Method] Polyphenol oxicdase was extracted from litchi pulp and its enzymatic characteristics were studied. [ Result ] The optimum temperature of PPO in litchi pulp was 55 ℃ and its thermostability was good. After 30 min of water bathing at 90 ℃ ,the remaining relative enzyme activity was 22.6%. The enzyme activity was the strongest when pH value was 7.0. And the enzyme activity was stable when pH value was 6.5 - 8.0. The binding ability of catechol with the enzyme was the strongest, followed by 4-methyl catechol. Glutathione was the best inhibitor of the enzyme, followed by cysteine,ascorbic acid, NaF and sodium sulfite.SnCI2 and FeSO4 could inhibit the enzyme activity. But CuSO4, MgCI2 and CaCI2 could increase the enzyme activity. [ Conclusion ] This study identiffed the optimum conditiorns of polyphenol oxidase in litchi pulp.

  16. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE OPTIMAL ALLOCATION OF TROPICAL FRUIT INDUSTRYS PRODUCTION FACTORS IN GUANGDONG%广东荔枝、香蕉产业生产要素优化配置比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺梅英

    2012-01-01

    该文以广东主产区的香蕉、荔枝为例,研究热带水果生产要素的优化配置.实证分析表明:1996~2009年广东荔枝科技贡献率为29.26%、香蕉科技贡献率为54.84%,远远低于1991 ~2007年中国柑橘科技贡献率65.58%、美国柑橘科技贡献率89.57%.广东荔枝生产需要加大单位面积用工投入及农药的使用,提高荔枝单位面积化肥、农家肥利用效率;香蕉生产需要加大单位面积化肥、农药投入量,提高香蕉单位面积用工效率及农家肥利用率.%Taking banana and litchi as an example, this paper studied the optimal allocation of tropical fruit industry's production factors in Guangdong. Empirical analysis showed that the contribution rate of scientific and technological for litchi in Guangdong from 1996 to 2009 was 29. 26% , while it was 54. 84% for banana, far lower than that for the orange in China from 1991 to 2007 (65. 58% ), and that in U. S. from 1991 to 2007 (89. 57% ). The production of banana in Guangdong needed to increase fertilizer and pesticide inputs per unit area, and improve labor efficiency and manure utilization, while the production of litchi needed to increase employment investment and the use of pesticides per unit area, and improve the use efficiency of fertilizers and manure per unit area.

  17. Research update USDA-PBARC and CTAHR

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new management method was developed for consistent flowering and fruiting of ‘Kaimana’ lychee at the USDA/ARS PBARC lychee orchard. This method consisted of pruning lychee trees after harvest followed by a foliar fertilizer application one week after pruning. Average production of ‘Kaimana’ tree...

  18. Enraizamento de estacas semilenhosas de lichieira utilizando ácido indolbutírico Rooting of semi-hardwood litchi cuttings using indolbutiric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Miranda Carvalho

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o enraizamento de estacas semilenhosas de lichieira ( Litchi chinensis Sonn. da cultivar Bengal, empregando ácido indolbutírico (AIB e sistema de nebulização intermitente. As estacas apicais foram coletadas nos meses de outubro (Primavera, janeiro (Verão e abril (Outono, acondicionadas adequadamente e transferidas para uma estufa com nebulização intermitente, onde receberam as aplicações de : 0; 1.000; 2.000; 3.000 e 4.000 mg L-1 de AIB, com imersão da base das estacas, durante 10 segundos, e de 200 mg L-1 de AIB, com imersão das bases por 24 horas, em aeração. Em seguida, foram colocadas para enraizar em substrato de vermiculita, com casca de arroz carbonizada, na proporção de 1:1. Após 100 dias, foram obtidos os dados referentes à porcentagem de estacas vivas com folhas, porcentagem de estacas enraizadas por parcela, comprimento médio de raiz por estaca enraizada (cm, número médio de raízes formadas por estaca enraizada, massa média da matéria fresca das raízes (g, massa média da matéria seca das raízes(g. Pelos resultados, concluiu-se que não há necessidade da aplicação do AIB para o enraizamento de estacas de lichieira, cultivar Bengal, e que a melhor época de coleta das mesmas é o verão.The objective of the work was to study the rooting of semi-hardwood litchi cuttings (Litchi chinensis Sonn. of Bengal cultivar using indolbutiric acid (IBA in an intermittent nebulization system. The apical cuttings were collected in October (spring in Brazil, January (summer and April (fall. The cuttings were properly arranged and transferred to greenhouse with intermittent mist and treated with 0, 1000, 2000, 3000 and 4000 mg L-1 indolbutiric acid applications, having the cuttings bases been immersed during 10 seconds and with 200 mg L-1 indolbutiric acid application, having the bases been immersed for 24 hours in aeration. They were put to rooting in vermiculite substratum with 1

  19. Specific detection of benzimidazole resistance in Colletotrichum gloeosporioides from fruit crops by PCR-RFLP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Wen-Hsin; Chung, Wen-Chuan; Peng, Mun-Tsu; Yang, Hong-Ren; Huang, Jenn-Wen

    2010-02-28

    Anthracnose diseases, caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, are a worldwide problem and are especially important in Taiwan owing to the severe economic damage they cause to tropical fruits that are grown for local consumption and export. Benzimidazoles are systemic fungicides widely used for controlling these diseases in Taiwan. Thirty-one isolates of C. gloeosporioides from mango and strawberry grown in Taiwan were examined for their sensitivity to benzimidazole fungicides. The responses of the isolates grown on benzimidazole-amended culture media were characterized as sensitive, moderately resistant, resistant or highly resistant. Analysis of point mutations in the beta-tubulin gene by DNA sequencing of PCR-amplified fragments revealed a substitution of GCG for GAG at codon 198 in resistant and highly resistant isolates and a substitution of TAC for TTC at codon 200 in moderately resistant isolates. A set of specific primers, TubGF1 and TubGR, was designed to amplify a portion of the beta-tubulin gene for the detection of benzimidazole-resistant C. gloeosporioides. Bsh1236I restriction maps of the amplified beta-tubulin gene showed that the resistant isolate sequence, but not the sensitive isolate sequence, was cut. The PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was validated to detect benzimidazole-resistant and benzimidazole-sensitive C. gloeosporioides isolates recovered from avocado, banana, carambola, dragon fruit, grape, guava, jujube, lychee, papaya, passion fruit and wax apple. This method has the potential to become a valuable tool for monitoring the occurrence of benzimidazole-resistant C. gloeosporioides and for assessment of the need for alternative management practices. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. In-vitro cancer cell cytotoxicity and alpha amylase inhibition effect of seven tropical fruit residues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Priti Gupta; Ira Bhatnagar; Se-Kwon Kim; Ajay Kumar Verma; Anubhuti Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To determine quantitative phytochemical, anticancer and antidiabetic effect of seven Indian tropical fruit residues. Methods:In-vitro cytotoxic activity (IC50) was evaluated against cervical cancer cells (HeLa), breast cancer cells (MCF-7), hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG-2) and bone sarcoma cells (MG-63) and alpha amylase inhibition assay was used for antidiabetic activity. Results: Results of phytochemical analysis revealed that all residues contained remarkable amount of alkaloid, saponin, tannin and flavonoid. Notable cancer cell growth inhibition was observed for the extract from Carissa carandas pomace and Litchi sinensis seeds with IC50 values ranged from 56.72 to 89.24 μg/mL. Alpha amylase inhibition assay was measured at six different concentrations (5, 10, 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/mL) by using different solvent extract. Results showed that Carissa carandas possessed best activity with IC50 value as 29.66 mg/mL followed by other residues in methanol extract. Conclusions:Study suggests that these fruit residues demonstrate promising antidiabetic and anticancer activity that substantiated its ethno medicinal use and may provide new molecules for the treatment of these diseases.

  1. 外源腐胺对糯米糍荔枝座果的影响%Effects of Exogenous Putrescine Application on Fruit Set of 'Nuomici' Litchi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘顺枝; 李建国; 王泽槐; 罗诗; 尹金华

    2002-01-01

    试验研究了腐胺(Put)在不同时期、不同浓度和不同次数喷施对糯米糍荔枝座果的影响.结果表明,以盛花期喷施30~40mg/L的腐胺1次,对提高糯米糍荔枝的座果率效果最好,而对果实体积和单果重没有明显影响.

  2. 广西荔枝鲜果首次出口欧洲%The Guangxi Fresh Fruit Litchi Is Exported to Europe for the First Time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宏鹰; 少鸿

    2005-01-01

    广西三桂食品有限公司与以色列哈普灵顿公司合作,从广西组织荔枝鲜果出口欧洲。据悉,这是广西首家农产品加工企业组织的荔枝鲜果出口,标志着该区农产品加工企业已具备直接出口荔枝鲜果的能力。

  3. Adsorption Behavior of Modified Lychee Exocarp for Cu(Ⅱ) in Wastewater%改性荔枝壳对废水中 Cu(Ⅱ)的吸附性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈艺敏; 陈建福

    2015-01-01

    The lychee exocarp modified by NaOH was used to adsorb Cu (Ⅱ) from aqueous solution .The factors affecting the amount of copper adsorbed and the percent copper removal including the initial Cu (Ⅱ) concentration , dosage ,pH value and temperature were investigated in this study .The analysis of dynamics and thermodynamics found that the adsorption process was consistent with the pseudo -second-order model and Langmuir equation .The SEM images showed the surface of lychee exocarp cracked and became rougher after adsorption ,which indicated that the chemical structure of adsorbent was damaged after adsorption .It was also revealed that the main chemical functional groups affecting Cu (Ⅱ) adsorption were hydroxyl and amide by FT-IR analysis and the diffraction peaks became sharper after adsorption meaning enhanced crystallinity by XRD analysis .%采用NaOH浸泡的方法制备荔枝壳吸附剂,考察了初始Cu(Ⅱ)质量浓度、荔枝壳用量、pH值和吸附温度对Cu(Ⅱ)的吸附量及去除率的影响。动力学和热力学研究结果发现,该吸附过程符合准二级吸附动力学模型和Langmuir吸附等温线。从电镜图片可以看到,荔枝壳吸附后表面开裂变得更加粗糙,说明荔枝壳在吸附铜离子后,其化学结构受到破坏。红外光谱分析表明荔枝壳吸附铜离子的主要基团可能为羟基和酰胺基,XRD分析发现吸附后的衍射峰比吸附前的峰要尖锐,说明荔枝壳吸附铜离子后结晶性增强。

  4. 南方3种果树叶片蛋白质和硝态氮动态观察%Dynamic variation of protein and nitrate nitrogen in leaves of three types of southern fruit trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱宇林; 覃秀顺

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究果树叶片贮藏蛋白质的动态变化规律和氮素积累与降解的调控机理,探讨硝态氮与蛋白质代谢的相关性,为果树的合理施肥和科学管理提供依据.[方法]以南方常绿果树芒果、龙眼和荔枝的秋梢叶片为材料,采用考马斯亮蓝染色法和水杨酸法分别测定其春季期间的总蛋白质含量和硝态氮含量.[结果]芒果、龙眼、荔枝3种南方果树的秋梢叶片中总蛋白质含量均呈前期下降后期上升的“V”字型变化趋势,但平均含量差异较大,龙眼含量最高,为18.03 mg/g,芒果为11.57 mg/g,而荔枝仅有2.53 mg/g;硝态氮含量变化规律不明显,龙眼和荔枝叶片中的硝态氮含量在各阶段都呈现大幅上升的变化趋势,而芒果为先下降后上升.[结论]硝态氮与蛋白质代谢的相关性不显著,叶片中的营养贮藏蛋白质可能是果树早春生长的重要氮源,叶片中蛋白质含量的变动变化可作为果树合理施肥的一个重要指标,但不同树种蛋白质含量水平存在差异.%[Objective]Dynamic variation of protein and mechanism of nitrogen accumulation and degradation in southern fruit tress were studied in the experiment, and correlation analysis was conducted between nitrate nitrogen and protein metabolism to provide references for rational fertilization and scientific management of fruit trees. [Method]Using the leaves of autumn shoots from three evergreen fruit trees: mango, longan and litchi as test material, total protein content and nitrate-N content in leaves during spring and summer were determined by Commassie Brilliant Blue Staining and Salicylic Acid methods, resepctively. [ Result ]The results showed that the total protein content in the leaves of mango, longan and litchi all decreased firstly and increased afterwards with "V"type variation, the average protein content in leaves of three fruit trees followed the trend: longan (18.03 mg/g)>mango( 11.57 mg/g)>litchi (2.53 mg

  5. Analysis of the Effect of High Yield of Feizixiao Litchi after Implements Spiral Girdling techniques Under the Bad Weather Condition%不良天气条件下妃子笑荔枝螺旋环剥增产效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏小曼; 黄汝红; 杨兰英; 谢仁忠

    2011-01-01

    When the Litchi Chinese Sonn.cv. Feizixiao is going to enter the flower bud differentiation period , implements the spiral girdling, observes its growth periods and the yields and its components. The results showed that the effec of high yield is obvious after implements spiral girdling techniques under the bad aweather conditions, the reasons are as follow: ( 1 ) when the fall and the winter temperature is exceptionally, the spiral girdleing can inhibit the growing of the winter shoots and promote the flower bud differentiation, beneficial to the blossom and the bear fruit; (2) the spiral girdleing can postpone the flowering season, evading the adverse effec for the low temperature and continuous rainning; (3) when the Spring temperature is exceptionally high, the spiral girdling can inhibit blossom clusters form leaf lets and promote the flower formation.%在妃子笑荔枝将要进入花芽分化期时实施螺旋环剥,观测其各生育期及产量构成要素。结果表明螺旋环剥在不良天气条件下的增产效果明显.其原因是:在秋、冬季气温偏高的天气条件下,螺旋环剥能抑制冬梢抽发,促进花芽分化,有利开花结果;螺旋环剥能推迟花期,有利于避过花期低温连阴雨天气的不良影响;春季气温偏高的天气条件下,螺旋环剥能抑制“冲梢”,利于花穗发育。

  6. 3种不同发酵方式对荔枝果醋挥发性风味成分的影响%Effect on volatile aromatic components in litchi vinegar of three different fermentation ways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈利民; 肖更生; 吴继军; 徐玉娟; 唐道邦; 杨韦杰

    2012-01-01

    采用顶空固相微萃取-气质联用技术,对液体深层发酵、静置发酵和摇床发酵3种发酵方式所得的荔枝果醋的挥发性风味成分进行了分析比较,根据Nist数据库检索和参照相关文献的保留指数等方法,分别鉴定出34、32、22种挥发性风味成分,占各自总挥发性成分的91.16%、89.14%和94.34%.酸类、酯类和醇类是3种发酵方式发酵果醋主要的挥发性风味成分,含量较高的分别为乙酸、丁二酸二乙酯和苯乙醇等.3种发酵方式果醋中有13种相同的挥发性风味成分.酯类在Lsu果醋挥发性风味成分中含量最高(38.41%),而酸类在Lsh果醋挥发性风味成分中含量最高(73.34%)%Three kinds of litchi vinegar respectively accomplished fermentation with Liquid Submerged fermentation (Lsu), Liquid Standing fermentation (Lst) and Liquid Shaking fermentation (Lsh). Volatile aromatic components in the three kinds of litchi vinegar were analyzed and compared by HS-SPME combined with GC-MS. According to the methods of searching Nist database and retention indices with relevant literatures, 34, 32and 22 kinds of volatile aromatic components with total relative contents of 91.16%, 89.14% and 94.34% were identified from litchi vinegars with three different fermentation ways, respectively. Acids, esters and alcohols were major aromatic components in these volatile aromatic components of the three kinds of litchi vinegar, such as, acetic acid, butanedioic acid, diethyl ester and phenylethyl alcohol. In addition, 13 volatile common aromatic components exist in the three kinds of litchi vinegar. Furthermore, the content of esters fermented with Lsu was the highest in the three kinds of vinegar, reaching up to 38.41% ,while the content of acids fermented with Lsh was the highest in the three kinds of vinegar, reaching up to 73.34%.

  7. 两种浓缩工艺荔枝汁的挥发性风味物质%Effects of Two Different Condensation Methods on Volatile Aromatic Compounds in Litchi Juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵芳; 吴继军; 曹清明; 徐玉娟; 肖更生; 温靖; 唐道邦; 林羡

    2012-01-01

    Two different condensation methods, rotary thin film vacuum evaporation and freeze-thawing, were separately used to condense litchi juice, producing 6 samples. The volatile aromatic compounds in litchi juice and 6 condensed samples were comparatively analyzed by headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME and GC-MS). The condensed litchi juice samples showed variations in volatile aromatic compound profiles. Compared with freeze- thawing, rotary thin film vacuum evaporation resulted in a reduction of the number of volatile compounds found in condensed litchi juice. The litchi juice condensed by rotary thin film vacuum evaporation had a cooked taste and lacked most of the volatile compounds found in original litchijuice and more volatile compounds were found in the distillate in large quantities. In contrast, the litchi juice condensed by freeze-thawing was found to maintain most of the volatile compounds found in original litchi juice in large quantifies and have no cooked taste and all volatile compounds except alcohol were found in the distillate in very small quantities.%采用真空旋转蒸发和结冰-解冻两种方法浓缩荔枝汁,共得到6种液体。运用顶空固相微萃取和气相色谱-质谱联用法对这6种液体和荔枝原汁的挥发性风味物质进行对比分析。同时将两种浓缩方法进行比较。结果表明:不同浓缩方法得到的荔枝汁挥发性风味物质的种类有所不同,真空旋转蒸发浓缩得到的浓缩荔枝汁挥发性风味物质种类总数少,且有煮熟味,失去了荔枝原汁大部分挥发性风味物质,而其馏出液中含有很多挥发性风味物质,种类和数量较多。而结冰。解冻浓缩法得到浓缩汁的挥发性风味物质种类和数量丰富,无煮熟味,基本保留了荔枝的原有风味,而其剩余液中除乙醇外的挥发性风味物质相对含量很少。

  8. Iron-based adsorbent prepared from Litchi peel biomass via pyrolysis process for the removal of pharmaceutical pollutant from synthetic aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foletto, Vitória Segabinazzi; Ferreira, Ananda Bulegon; da Cruz Severo, Eric; Collazzo, Gabriela Carvalho; Foletto, Edson Luiz; Dotto, Guilherme Luiz

    2017-03-10

    A porous iron-based adsorbent obtained from litchi peel via pyrolysis process was prepared in this work, in order to evaluate its adsorptive potential for the removal of a pharmaceutical dye (amaranth) from aqueous solution. The material was characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, and scanning electron microscopy. Several isotherm and kinetic models were tested aiming to represent the amaranth dye adsorption. The prepared sample presented magnetic property, and a mesoporous texture constituted of graphite and three iron-based phases. The adsorption kinetics of amaranth on the adsorbent followed the pseudo-second-order model, whereas the equilibrium data were in good agreement with the BET isotherm, being represented by a sigmoid-shaped adsorption isotherm. The maximum adsorption capacity for the amaranth dye was found to be 44.87 mg g(-1), demonstrating that the material prepared in this work showed to be a promising adsorbent for the removal of amaranth from aqueous solution.

  9. A Puf RNA-binding protein encoding gene PlM90 regulates the sexual and asexual life stages of the litchi downy blight pathogen Peronophythora litchii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Liqun; Ye, Wenwu; Situ, Junjian; Chen, Yubin; Yang, Xinyu; Kong, Guanghui; Liu, Yaya; Tinashe, Runyanga J; Xi, Pinggen; Wang, Yuanchao; Jiang, Zide

    2017-01-01

    Sexual and asexual reproduction are two key processes in the pathogenic cycle of many filamentous pathogens. However in Peronophythora litchii, the causal pathogen for the litchi downy blight disease, critical regulator(s) of sexual or asexual differentiation has not been elucidated. In this study, we cloned a gene named PlM90 from P. litchii, which encodes a putative Puf RNA-binding protein. We found that PlM90 was highly expressed during asexual development, and much higher than that during sexual development, while relatively lower during cyst germination and plant infection. By polyethylene glycol (PEG)-mediated protoplast transformation, we generated three PlM90-silenced transformants and found a severely impaired ability in sexual spore production and a delay in stages of zoospore release and encystment. However, the pathogenicity of P. litchii was not affected by PlM90-silencing. Therefore we conclude that PlM90 specifically regulates the sexual and asexual differentiation of P. litchii.

  10. 高密度二氧化碳对荔枝汁品质的影响%Effect of Dense Phase Carbon Dioxide on the Quality of Litchi Juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐玉娟; 温靖; 肖更生; 吴继军; 陈于陇; 余元善; 唐道邦; 潘思轶

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of dense phase carbon dioxide(DPCD) as a non-thermal sterilization technology on the quality and physio-chemical properties of litchi juice,freshly prepared litchi juice was subjected to DPCD treatment at 8 MPa and 36 ℃ for 10 min.The changes of pH,soluble solid content,conductivity,browning degree,vitamin C and free amino acids were evaluated.The results showed that DPCD treatment had a significant effect on pH,total acidity and PPO,but had no obvious effect on other indicators.Slight increases in reducing sugar,total polyphenol content and free amino acid content in DPCD-treated litchi juice were observed.%为探讨高密度二氧化碳(DPCD)非热杀菌技术对荔枝汁品质的影响,将新鲜荔枝汁经DPCD处理(8MPa、3 6℃、1 0 m in)后,测定p H值、可溶性固形物含量、电导率、褐变度、V C含量和游离氨基酸含量等指标的变化。结果表明:DPCD处理对荔枝汁的pH值、总酸度和多酚氧化酶(PPO)活性有显著影响,经DPCD处理后荔枝汁的还原糖、总多酚和游离氨基酸的含量略有增加,其他指标没有明显变化。

  11. An Effective Method for Extracting Total RNA from Young Embryo of Seedless Litchi%一种有效提取无核荔枝幼胚总RNA的方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兴地; 郑学勤

    2008-01-01

    A total RNA extraction method for young embryo of seedless litchi was introduced.CRAB,Phenol(saturated with water),chloroform,Guanidine isothiecyanate were used as main extraction reagents.Polyphenolic compounds were removed effectively by added PVP into the extraction buffer solution.RNA was purified intensively by phenol,chloroform extraction,and ethanol deposition after deposited by LiCl.Both the results of formaldehyde denatured agarose gel electrophoresis and ultraviolet spectrophotometer analysis showed high integrity and purity of RNA.So the quality of extracted RNA could meet the demand of most molecular biology experiments that require higher quality RNA.

  12. 荔枝果肉不同极性多酚提取及其抗氧化活性比较%COMPARISON OF THE CONTENT AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF DIFFERENT POLARITY PHENOLICS OF LITCHI PULP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张粹兰; 张名位; 廖森泰; 魏振承; 张雁; 唐小俊; 张瑞芬; 邓媛元

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate phenolic content and the antioxidant activity of the phenolics present in pulp of litchi ( Litchi chinensis), 60% ethanol and 80% acetone were used to extract polyphenols. The polyphenols were obtained according to the polarity of extraction solution, while the antioxidant activities of different polyphenol extracts were e-valuated using DPPH, FRAP and ABTS diammonium salt. The results showed that the ABTS antioxidant activity of the polyphenol extracted by 80% acetone was significantly higher than that by 60% ethanol(P <0.05) ,and phenolic content of the two litchi polyphenol extracts was not significantly different. The water layer had the highest polyphenol content, followed by n - butyl alcohol layer. The ethyl acetate of polyphenol extract exhibited the highest antioxidant activity, followed by n - butyl alcohol extract. The activity of acetone extracted polyphenol was significantly higher than the ethanol extract of polyphenols (P <0.05). Through the effective separation of different polarity polyphenols and evaluation of antioxidant activity, the study formed the foundation for the research of the highly active polyphenols of litchi pulp.%分别选用体积分数为60%乙醇和80%丙酮从荔枝果内中提取多酚,并用石油醚、乙酸乙酯、正丁醇和水等4种不同极性溶剂对其多酚提取物进行分部萃取,采用DPPH自由基法、FRAP法和ABTS法比较荔枝果肉不同极性多酚的体外抗氧化活性差异.结果表明,采用80%丙酮提取的荔枝果肉多酚提取物的ABTS抗氧化活性显著强于60%乙醇提取物的(P<0.05),而两者总酚含量差异不显著;2种多酚提取物中不同极性分部以水部的总酚得率最高,正丁醇部的次之(P<0.05);4种极性分部的抗氧化活性以乙酸乙酯部的活性最强,正丁醇部的其次(P<0.05).由此表明,荔枝果肉多酚提取物中不同极性分部的总酚含量和抗氧化活性存在显著差异.

  13. Effects of Shading and Girdling on Shoot Growth and Photosynthesis in Litchi%遮荫和环剥对荔枝枝梢生长和光合生理的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫伟平; 周琳耀; 张静逸; 黄俊波; 贝学文; 付欣雨; 王惠聪; 黄旭明

    2013-01-01

    以12年生‘黑叶’荔枝(Litchi chinensis Sonn.‘Heiye’)为研究材料,进行遮荫、环剥及遮荫+环剥处理,观测这些处理对新梢生长,以及叶片净光合速率、叶片光系统Ⅱ (PSⅡ)最大光量子效率(Fv/Fm)和淀粉含量的影响.结果表明:遮荫处理和环剥处理均能显著抑制枝梢生长,降低叶片的净光合速率,但两种处理抑制光合作用的机制各异.其中,环剥处理导致叶绿素含量降低,产生永久性光抑制,显示光系统Ⅱ (PSⅡ)受到破坏,因此,环剥处理导致光合作用的降低与光反应系统的破坏有关;遮荫下叶片最大光化学效率Fv/Fm维持正常,淀粉含量降低,但即使在相同的人工光源下,光合作用速率同样低于对照,可能主要与暗反应系统活性减弱有关;而遮荫可显著缓解环剥对光反应系统的破坏效应.%In this study, adaptability of litchi to shading as well as the interaction effects of girdling and shading were examined using 12-year-old 'Heiye' litchi ( Litchi chinensis Sonn.' Heiye') trees. Within the same tree, shoots were treated with girdling, shading and their combination with ungirdled and exposed shoots as the control. Shoot length, leaf gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured at determined dates after the treatments. The results showed that the shoot growth and leaf photosynthesis were significantly inhibited by both shading and girdling treatments, while the mechanisms of photosynthesis inhibition of these two treatments seemed different. Girdling treatment significantly lowered leaf chlorophyll content as well as photosynthetic rate with the occurrence of chronic photoinhibition, an indicator of photosystemⅡ (PS Ⅱ ) damage. In shading treatment, Fv/Fm maintained normal but shaded leaves had a lower photosynthetic rate measured even with the same artificial light compared with the control. The reduction of photosynthesis was therefore chiefly due to the impairment of dark

  14. Influence of Concentration Process of Litchi Juice Freezing on the Growth of Ice Crystals%荔枝汁冷冻浓缩过程中浓度对冰晶生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾杨; 曾新安; 彭郦

    2009-01-01

    为了研究荔枝汁在冷冻浓缩处理过程中初始浓度(可溶性固形物含量)对冰晶生长规律的影响,采用华南理工大学自主研制的冷冻浓缩设备,测定冰晶生成过程中温度和粒度的变化.结果表明:随着浓度的增大冰点温度不断下降,生成冰晶质量分数也不断下降,但是平均粒径却随浓度先升高再下降,浓度在10-20° Brix附近生成的冰晶平均粒径最佳,有利于浓缩分离操作.%In order to investigate the effect of original concentration (soluble solid content) on the quality of ice crystals during the litchi juice freezing concentration process, the temperature and particle size were detected. Results showed that the freezing point and ice mass fraction decreased by increasing the concentration of litchi juice. But average granule diameter increased with the concentration and then decreased. The best average granule diameter was obtained when the concentration was from 10 to 20°Brix. The crystals were better separated from the solution under the above concentration.

  15. 荔枝多糖级分的溶液性质研究%Study on the solution properties of polysaccharide fractions from litchi pulp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄菲; 张瑞芬; 刘慧娟; 董丽红; 赖婷; 张名位

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the solution properties of 4 polysaccharide fractions from litchi pulp. Methods Atomic force microscopy (AFM), circular dichroism (CD), iodine-potassium iodide reaction and laser particle size analyzer were used to analyze the solution conformation, structure and particle size of 4 polysaccharide fractions. Results AFM showed that LP1 was sphere-like conformation in solution. LP2 showed many large spherical particles aggregates. LP3 contained both spherical particles and rod-like structure. LP4 contained spherical particles and branched crosslinking structure. CD spectroscopy showed that there was an asymmetric structure in LP3, which would be a triple helix structure. LP1–4 existed longer and more branched side chains. The average particle sizes of LP1–4 were 189.2, 193.9, 244.6 and 275.5 nm, and their particle dispersion index were 0.301, 0.463, 0.479 and 0.518, respectively. LP1 was random coil and existed no aggregation in solution while LP2-4 existed a greater aggregation behavior in solution. Conclusion Four litchi polysaccharide fractions have different structural characteristics as well as different solution properties.%目的:研究荔枝多糖级分在溶液中的构象,以丰富荔枝多糖的结构信息。方法采用原子力显微镜(AFM)、圆二色谱(CD)、碘-碘化钾反应和激光粒度仪等方法分析各个级分的形态、结构以及粒径大小。结果AFM分析表明LP1–4均含有分散的球状颗粒; LP2还含有较大的球状聚集物; LP3则出现部分蠕虫链状; LP4含有部分无规线团和支链交联状。CD分析发现LP3中含有不对称结构,推测其为三股螺旋结构。碘-碘化钾实验发现LP1–4均存在较长的侧链和较多的支链。LP1–4的平均粒度分别是189.2、193.9、244.6和275.5 nm;分散指数分别是0.301、0.463、0.479和0.518; LP1在溶液中呈无规卷曲状且未发生聚集, LP2–4则在溶液中有较大的聚集行为。结论4

  16. 荔枝皮中原花青素提取工艺优化及其黄烷-3-醇HPLC分析%Optimization ofconditions on extraction procyanidins and flavan-3-ol of HPLC analysis from litchi pericarp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘新; 余小平; 游江舟; 娄彬

    2012-01-01

    To optimize the ultrasonic-assisted extraction of proantho-cyanidins of litchi pericarp and the contents of flavan-3-ol of were studied from litchi pericarp. Box-Behnken design (BBD) was applied to evaluate the effects of four independent variables(the smash degree, the ratio of solvent to material, ultrasonic duration and ultrasonic power ) on the absorbance values of proanthocyanidins of litchi pericarp. Under the optimized conditions, the contents of flavan-3-ol of were analyzed by the methods of catalytic colorimetry with ferric i-ons and HPLC analysis from litchi pericarp. The results showed that the optimal conditions were as follows: the smash degree of litchi pericarp was 71. 91 mesh, the ratio of solvent to material was 29. 97 : 1 (V : m) , ultrasonic duration was 21. 75 min, ultrasonic power was 390. 48 W with the ultrasonic extraction method. Under the above conditions, the confirmed tests absorbance value of proanthocyanidins was 2. 157 Abs, which was close relation with the predicted absorbance value of proanthocyanidins was 2. 189 86 Abs. The contents of flavan-3-ol showed that procyanidins was 89. 32 mg/g, gallic acid was 1. 11 mg/g, epigallocatechin was 87. 09 mg/g, catechin was 3. 37 mg/g, epicatechin was 31. 15 mg/g and epicatechin-gallate was 7. 02 mg/g by the methods of catalytic colorimetry with ferric ions and HPI-C analysis.%优化荔枝皮中原花青素超声波辅助提取工艺,并对其黄烷-3-醇类成份进行分析定量.用Box-Behnken Design设计考察荔枝皮粉碎度、料液比、超声时间和超声波功率4个因素对荔枝皮中原花青素提取的影响程度.在最佳工艺参数条件下,超声破碎荔枝皮1次,采用铁盐催化比色法和HPLC法分析得出荔枝皮黄烷-3-醇类成份及含量.荔枝皮中原花青素超声波辅助提取最佳工艺参数为荔枝皮粉碎度71.91目、料液比1∶29.97(m ∶V)、超声时间21.75 min和超声波功率390.48W.在最佳提取工艺参数下超声

  17. Marketing Novel Fruit Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ’T Riet, Van Jonathan; Onwezen, M.C.; Bartels, Jos; Lans, Van Der I.A.; Kraszewska, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the influence of four different marketing claims and price information on consumers’ product choices for novel fruits and novel fruit products, using a choice experiment. In total, 1,652 people in Greece (n = 400), the Netherlands (n = 419), Poland (n =

  18. Marketing Novel Fruit Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ’T Riet, Van Jonathan; Onwezen, M.C.; Bartels, Jos; Lans, Van Der I.A.; Kraszewska, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the influence of four different marketing claims and price information on consumers’ product choices for novel fruits and novel fruit products, using a choice experiment. In total, 1,652 people in Greece (n = 400), the Netherlands (n = 419), Poland (n = 42

  19. Optimization of Flask and Static Fermentation Technology for Litchi Vinegar%荔枝果醋摇瓶和静止发酵工艺条件的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈利民; 吴继军; 徐玉娟; 唐道邦; 余元善; 肖更生

    2012-01-01

    以荔枝酒为原料,研究初始酒度、接种量、温度、装液量对摇瓶发酵(Liquid Flask fermentation,Lfl)和静止发酵(Liquid Static fermcntation,Lst)2种液态醋酸发酵方式的影响.以总酸产量为优化指标,首先根据单因素实验确定影响总酸产量的因素和水平,然后通过正交试验分别获得了摇瓶和静止发酵生产荔枝果醋的较优工艺条件.荔枝果醋摇瓶发酵工艺条件为:初始酒度7% (v/v)、接种量5%、温度27℃、装液量100 mL/500 mL,在此条件下,荔枝果醋总酸含量为69.72 g/L,酒精转酸率为95.48%.静止醋酸发酵工艺条件为:初始酒度9%(v/v)、接种量5%、温度27℃、装液量100 mL,在此条件下,荔枝果醋总酸含量为73.66 g,/L,酒精转酸率为78.46%.%Litchi wine was used as the raw material to study the effects of initial alcoholicity, inoculation amount, temperature and volume loading on Liquid Flask fermentation ( Lfl) and Liquid Static fermentation ( Lst). The research index was determined by the total acidity. The factors and levels which affecting total a-cidity were determined by single - factor experiment, then the optimum conditions for Lfl and Lst were obtained through the orthogonal test respectively. The Lfl parameters were as follows: initial alcoholicity, 7% , inoculation amount, 5% , temperature, 27 ℃ and the volume loading in 500 mL flask, 100 mL. Under these conditions, Litchi vinegar had 69.72 g/L acidity, the inversion rale was 95.48%. The Lst parameters were; initial alcoholicity, 9% , inoculation amount, 5% , temperature, 27 ℃ and the volume loading in 500 mL flask, 100 mL. Under these conditions, Litchi vinegar had 73.66 g/L acidity, the inversion rate was 78.46%.

  20. Consumer acceptance of novel fruits and fruit products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, T.; Benninga, J.; Rakowska, J.; Bartels, J.

    2010-01-01

    The task of the Deliverable 1.3.7 Report on case studies of fruit innovations is to provide information on consumers' acceptance of innovative fruit and fruit products selected for case studies in Deliverable 1.3.2 List of selected fruit innovations, and to validate findings from previous stages of

  1. Caribbean Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Small Fruit in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tephritid fruit flies are among the most important pests of fruits and vegetables worldwide. The Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), is a tephritid pest that became established in Florida following introduction in 1965. Populations of this fruit fly also occur in Puerto Rico and Cuba, ...

  2. FRUIT NUTRITIVE FACTOR NETWORK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanqing QU; Yumei JIANG; Daren HE

    2009-01-01

    As an research example of the widely existing cooperation-competition systems, the authors present an empirical investigation on a fruit nutritive factor network. It is described by a node-weighted bipartite graph. The fruit nutritive factors are defined as the nodes, and two nodes are connected by an edge if at least one fruit contains these two nutritive factors. The fruits are defined as the collaboration acts. The node-weight Writ, which signifies the "importance degree" of each actor node, is defined as the content of a nutritive factor in a fruit. The empirical investigation results show some unique features.The node-weight distributions take so-called "shifted power law" function forms, but the act-weight distribution takes a normal form. The degree and act-degree distributions show impulsive-spectrum like forms. These observations may be helpful for the study of fruits. The network description method proposed in this article may be universal for a kind of cooperation-competition systems.

  3. Optimization of Processing Parameters for Carbonated Litchi Beverages using Desirability Function Approach%荔枝果汁饮料碳酸化处理的工艺参数优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭丹; 胡卓炎; 梁琳侦; 余恺; 余小林

    2012-01-01

    Response surface methodology was applied to analyze the effect of caibonation conditions including of litchi juice syrup content, caibonation time and pressure on sensory scores of sweetness, acidity, caibonation, flavour and overall acceptability for carbonated litchi beverages. The conditions of preparation were established by means of a Box-Behnken for litchi juice syrup content, carbonation time and pressure in the range of 20%-40% (V/V), 5-15min and 0.5-0.23 Mpa, respectively. The response variables were fitted to models using multiple regression analysis. The results showed that the determination coefficient R2 of models was 0.970, 0.855, 0.977, 0.949 and 0.899 for Y, (sweetness), Y2 (acidity), Y3 (carbonation), Y4 (flavor) and Y5 (overall acceptability), respectively. By using the approach of desirability function, the optimum carbonation conditions were found to obtain desirable scores for all these sensory attributes simultaneously, which were: the litchi juice syrup content of 28%~30% (V/V), carbonation time of 12-15 min and caibonation pressure of 0.21-0.23 Mpa. Under these conditions, the scores from the verification experiments were 3.1 for sweetness, 3.0 for acidity, 3.5 for carbonation, 4.0 for flavour and 4.0 for overall acceptability, which were in good agreement with the predicted values.%采用Box-Behnken试验设计,对果汁糖浆用量比例(20%~40%,V/V)、碳酸化时间(5~15 min)及碳酸化压力(0.5~0.23MPa)三个因素对含汽荔枝果汁饮料的感官属性指标进行响应面分析,并建立相应的二次多项式响应曲面模型.结果表明,样品的甜度Y1、酸度Y2、刹口感Y3、风味Y4以及总体接受度Y5的响应曲面模型的决定系数R2分别为0.970、0.855、0.977、0.949和0.899,较好地拟合了碳酸化处理参数对感官属性指标的响应值.利用期望函数途径对响应曲面模型Y1~Y5进行模拟计算,获得碳酸化处理参数优化的工艺条件:果汁糖浆用量28%~30

  4. Study on High-sugar Fermentation of Litchi Wine by Adding External Nitrogen Source%外氮源调控荔枝酒高糖发酵技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张斌; 毛露甜; 丁运华

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the fermenting performance of yeast strain R2 and DV10 inoculating with litchi juice at low temperature (12℃) and high sugar concentration (340 g/L) was investigated. Ammonium sulfate was added to supplement the fermenting nitrogen source to settle the problem of slow yeast fermentation under high osmotic pressure, and the change rule of total sugar, alcohol content and higher alcohol content in the fermenting process were investigated. The results showed that, the addition of ammonium sulfate could obviously promote sugar con-sumption, increase ethanol and ester content, and reduce the yield of higher alcohols and volatile acids. For example, higher alcohol content in litchi juice fermented by strain R2 with the addition of ammonium sulfate at 20 d, 25 d and 30 d decreased by 37.52%,22.42%and 22.40%re-spectively than the control group;higher alcohol content in litchi juice fermented by strain DV10 with the addition of ammonium sulfate at 20 d, 25 d and 30 d decreased by 39.63%,24.02%and 20.16%respectively than the control group. Besides, wine samples with the addition of ammonium sulfate got higher sensory evaluation scores. The experiments also demonstrated that yeast strain R2 was more beneficial than yeast strain DV10 to litchi juice fermentation at low temperature and high sugar concentration, and the addition of ammonium sulfate was help-ful for high-sugar fermentation as well as wine quality improvement.%研究了荔枝汁接种R2酵母和DV10酵母后在低温(12℃)下的高糖(340 g/L)发酵能力.为了解决菌种在高渗透压下起酵迟缓的问题,通过添加硫酸铵补充发酵氮源强化菌种的发酵能力,考察了发酵过程中总糖、酒精度和高级醇等的含量变化规律.结果表明,添加硫酸铵可以明显促进发酵过程对糖的消耗,提升乙醇和酯类物质得率,降低高级醇和挥发酸生成量.添加硫酸铵的R2发酵果汁比空白样的高级醇含量在20 d、25 d及30 d

  5. Fruits and Photosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Alexandra Deaquiz-Oyola

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Growth and fruit development are conditioned by environmental factors such as solar radiation, temperature, relative humidity and rainfall, affecting phenology and metabolic processes, which are reflected in its quality and  size. Besides the variety, the age of the plant species, cultural practices, the amount of CO2, plant growth regulators and nutrition also influence this process of maturation. Moreover, the photosynthetic process occurs in immature fruits same manner as in the leaves, however, when the ripening process starts it changes because chlorophyll is degraded and other pigments intervene such as carotenoids, α-carotene and β-carotene, which contain antioxidants good for human health.

  6. Modelling fruit set, fruit growth and dry matter partitioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcelis, L.F.M.; Heuvelink, E.

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses how fruit set, fruit growth and dry matter partitioning can be simulated by models where sink strength (assimilate demand) and source strength (assimilate supply) are the key variables. Although examples are derived from experiments on fruit vegetables such as tomato, sweet pepp

  7. A Remote Alarm System Against Theft for Litchi Orchard Based on GPRS%基于GPRS的荔枝园防盗远程监测系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐宇; 骆少明; 黄伟锋; 张培锋; 王克强

    2017-01-01

    Aiming at the security management difficulties in large-scale litchi orchards with labors shortage , a remote an-ti-theft alarm system based GPRS was proposed in this paper .The system was composed of single chip microcomputer module ,GPRS communication module , sensor module , display module and alarm module .The human body infrared in-duction probe was adopted to monitor orchard information in real time .The GPRS communication module was used to send abnormal location information to the users ’ mobile phones .Results showed that average data transmission time was 29 .19 s.Two modes could normally alarm in adjacent installation mode of six sensors .One mode was that the sensor spacing was 3 cm with 30 °sensor angle and 40 cm-distance between the people to the sensor .Another mode was that the sensor spac-ing was 6 cm with 30 °sensor angle and 70 cm-distance between the people to the sensor .This system was safe and agile , and it has more advantages over traditional monitoring systems .%针对种植规模大的荔枝园劳动力短缺以致安保管理困难的问题,提出了一种基于 GPRS 网络的防盗远程监测系统。该系统由单片机控制模块、GPRS通信模块、传感器模块、显示模块、报警模块及远程数据中心6部分组成,借助GPRS 数据业务,实时地将荔枝园现场的防盗信息发送至远程数据中心,实现对异常情况的报警。测试结果表明:系统的平均数据传输时间为29.91s,6种传感器相邻安装模式中能正常报警的模式有两种。一种模式是传感器间距为3cm且夹角为30°,人到传感器距离为40cm;另一种模式是传感器间距为6cm 且夹角为30°,人到传感器距离为70 cm。该系统安全性高,使用灵活,相比传统的监控系统更有优势。

  8. Emerging fruit crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundreds of fruit species with commercial potential are currently in a status of low economic importance. Some, such as quince (Cydonia oblonga L.), pomegranate (Punica granatum L.), and figs (Ficus carica L.) , have been cultivated for thousands of years. Others have only been locally collected an...

  9. Chilling injury in mangosteen fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choehom, R.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2003-01-01

    Major components of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) fruit quality include pericarp hardening, and shrinkage of both the stem and the sepals (calyx). At room temperature in South-East Asia (29±308C) the fruit remains acceptable for about 6±8.d. To determine optimum storage temperature, fruit were

  10. PHARMACOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE OF CITRUS FRUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amita Tomar *, Mridula Mall and Pragya Rai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the pharmacological importance of citrus fruits. Citrus fruits are used for various pharmacological importance. According to literature the citrus fruit possess anti-cancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective properties.

  11. Fruit antioxidants during vinegar processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakir, Sena; Toydemir, Gamze; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Beekwilder, Jules; Capanoglu, Esra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vinegars based on fruit juices could conserve part of the health-associated compounds present in the fruits. However, in general very limited knowledge exists on the consequences of vinegar-making on different antioxidant compounds from fruit. In this study vinegars derived from apple an

  12. In vitro regeneration of 'Feizixiao' litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    of the leaf blade and eventually obtained regenerated plants. By „Heli‟ ... design with 10 replications (0.1 g of fresh callus per replicate) for each treatment was ... root tip of air layering seedlings were used as a diploid control. Histograms of ...

  13. Bringing back the fruit into fruit fly-bacteria interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, A; Jurkevitch, E; Yuval, B

    2008-03-01

    Female Mediterranean fruit flies (Ceratitis capitata) oviposit in fruits, within which the larvae develop. This development is associated with rapid deterioration of the fruit, and frequently with invasion by secondary pests. Most research on the associations between medflies and microorganisms has focused on the bacteria inhabiting the digestive system of the adult fly, while the role of the fruit in mediating, amplifying or regulating the fruit fly microflora has been largely neglected. In this study, we examine the hypothesis that the host fruit plays a role in perpetuating the fly-associated bacterial community. Using direct and cultured-based approaches, we show that this community is composed in its very large majority of diazotrophic and pectinolytic Enterobacteriaceae. Our data suggest that this fly-associated enterobacterial community is vertically transmitted from the female parent to its offspring. During oviposition, bacteria are transferred to the fruit, establish and proliferate within it, causing its decay. These results show that the host fruit is indeed a central partner in the fruit fly-bacterial interaction as these transmitted bacteria are amplified by the fruit, and subsequently maintained throughout the fly's life. This enterobacterial community may contribute to the fly's nitrogen and carbon metabolism, affecting its development and ultimately, fitness.

  14. Myxobacteria Fruiting Body Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yi

    2006-03-01

    Myxobacteria are social bacteria that swarm and glide on surfaces, and feed cooperatively. When starved, tens of thousands of cells change their movement pattern from outward spreading to inward concentration; they form aggregates that become fruiting bodies, inside which cells differentiate into nonmotile, environmentally resistant spores. Traditionally, cell aggregation has been considered to imply chemotaxis, a long-range cell interaction mediated by diffusing chemicals. However, myxobacteria aggregation is the consequence of direct cell-contact interactions. I will review our recent efforts in modeling the fruiting body formation of Myxobacteria, using lattice gas cellular automata models that are based on local cell-cell contact signaling. These models have reproduced the individual phases in Myxobacteria development such as the rippling, streaming, early aggregation and the final sporulation; the models can be unified to simulate the whole developmental process of Myxobacteria.

  15. Putin's Visit Bears Fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The Russian President's trip to China marks progress in overall cooperation between the two countries If one word could be used to describe Russian President Vladimir Putin's recent visit to China, it would be "fruitful." During his brief two-day stay, which began March 21, Putin had a compact agenda-he met with his Chinese counterpart, President Hu Jintao, Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao and China's top legis-

  16. BIOTECHNOLOGY IN FRUIT GROWING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Jurković

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Research studies in the area of biotechnologies in fruit growing started at the Agricultural Institute Osijek in 2006 with the establishment of the first experimental in vitro laboratory for micropropagation. The laboratory started an active research related to the Project "Biotechnological methods in fruit tree identification, selection and propagation" Project is part of program "Preservation and revitalization of grape and fruit autochthonous cultivars". The goal of this research is to determine genetic differences between autochthonous and introduced cultivars of cherry as well as cultivars and types of sour cherry, to find and optimize a method for fast recovery of clonal material. A great number of cherry cultivars and types within the population of cv. Oblacinska sour cherry exists in Croatia. A survey with the purpose of selecting autochthonous cultivars for further selection has been done in previous research. Differences have been found in a number of important agronomic traits within the populations of cv. Oblačinska sour cherry. Autochthonous cherry cultivars are suspected to be synonyms of known old cultivars which were introduced randomly and have been naturalized under a local name. Identification and description of cultivars and types of fruits is based on special visible properties which were measurable or notable. In this approach difficulties arise from the effect of non-genetic factors on expression of certain traits. Genetic-physiological problem of S allele autoincompatibility exists within cherry cultivars. Therefore it is necessary to put different cultivars in the plantation to pollinate each other. Apart form the fast and certain sort identification independent of environmental factors, biotechnological methods based on PCR enable faster virus detection compared with classical serologic methods and indexing and cover a wider range of plant pathogens including those undetectable by other methods. Thermotherapy and

  17. 无核荔枝半胱氨酸蛋白酶抑制剂基因克隆及序列分析%Cloning and Sequence Analysis of a Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitor Gene of Seedless Litchi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兴地; 刘娜; 李明芳; 郑学勤

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective] This study aimed to clone the cysteine proteinase inhibitor gene of seedless litchi and analyze the sequence. [ Method] According to the EST sequence of cysteine proteinase inhibitor in constructed SSH subtractive library of seedless litchi abortion, nucleotide sequence of the cysteine proteinase inhibitor gene was obtained by using RACE technology and analyzed by using bioinformatics software. [ Result] A cysteine protease inhibitor gene was obtained with the sequence of 635 bp containing a 321 bp open reading frame. It was predicted that the encoded protein contained 106 amino acids with conserved domain of cysteine proteinase inhibitor and had relatively high homology with the cysteine proteinase inhibitor gene of several species. [ Conclusion] This study had laid the foundation for further exploring the physiological functions of this cysteine proteinase inhibitor gene in plants.%[目的]对无核荔枝的半胱氨酸蛋白酶抑制剂基因进行克隆,并对其序列下进行分析.[方法]根据构建的无核荔枝胚败育SSH消减文库的半胱氨酸蛋白酶抑制剂EST序列,通过RACE技术获得半胱氨酸蛋白酶抑制基因的核苷酸序列并应用生物信息学软件进行分析.[结果]获得一个635 bp的半胱氨酸蛋白酶抑制基因序列,预测该序列含有321 bp的开放阅读框,推导其编码的蛋白质含106个氨基酸,具有半胱氨酸蛋白酶抑制剂保守区,与多个物种的半胱氨酸蛋白酶抑制剂基因具有较高的同源性.[结论]为进一步研究半胱氨酸蛋白酶抑制剂在植物中的生理功能奠定了基础.

  18. Determination of volatile aroma compounds in litchi vinegar by HS-SPME-GC/MS%顶空固相微萃取-气质联用测定荔枝果醋中挥发性成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李巍青; 王浩; 蒋丽婷; 李理

    2011-01-01

    采用顶空固相微萃取结合气质联用法测定了荔枝果醋中的挥发性成分,共检测出34种物质,包括酸类、醇类、醛酮类、酯类、烃类化合物以及少量其它化合物.采用面积归一法进行分析可知:主要成分为醋酸(61.6%)、乙酸乙酯(7.91%)、3-羟基-2-丁酮(6.44%)、乙酸异戊酯(2.97%)、乙酸苯乙酯(2.87%)、邻苯二甲酸二异丁酯(2.25%)、(2R,3R)-(-)-2,3-丁二醇(2.09%)、醋酸异丁酯(1.74%)、2,3-丁二醇(1.61%)、辛酸乙酯(1.42%)、乙酸-2-甲基丁酯(1.37%)、乙醇(1.25%).%The volatile compounds of Litchi vinegar were extracted by solid phase micro extraction and were identified by the analysis of gas chro-matography-mass spectrometry. About 34 different components were identified including acids, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, esters, hydrocarbons and a few other compounds. The percentage of each component was determined by area normalization. It was indicated that the main volatile components in the Litchi vinegar were acetic acid (61.6%), ethyl acetate (7.91%), 3-hydroxy-2-butanone (6.44%), isoamyl acetate (2.97%), phenethyl acetate (2.87%), diisobutyl phthalate (2.25%), (2R,3R)-(-)-2,3-butanediol (2.09%), isobutyl acetate (1.74%), 2,3-butanediol (1.61%), octanoic acid ethyl ester (1.42%), acetic acid 2-methylbutyl ester (1.37%), ethyl alcohol (1.25%).

  19. Effects of fruit thinning on fruit drop, leaf carbohydrates concentration, fruit carbohydrates concentration, leaf nutrient concentration and fruit quality in Pummelo cultivar Thong Dee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongnart Nartvaranant

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of fruit thinning on fruit drop, leaf carbohydrates concentration, fruit carbohydrates concentration, leaf nutrient concentration and fruit quality in pummelo cultivar Thong Dee growing in Nakhon Pathom province, Thailand, were studied during January-August 2013. The results showed that 50% fruit thinning by hand at 1 month after fruit set increased percent of fruit retention throughout fruit development. At 2 month after fruit set, 50% fruit thinning gave 62% of fruit retention, which were significantly higher than no thinning (36.60%, whereas, 50% fruit thinning gave 40% of fruit retention at 6 month after fruit set, which significantly higher than no thinning (20.2%. A significant difference in leaf carbohydrate concentration was found in 3-6 month after fruit set. At 3 months after fruit set, 50% fruit thinning gave significantly higher leaf carbohydrate concentration (81.80 mg.g-1 than no thinning (73.56 mg.g-1, whereas, at 6 month after fruit set, 50% fruit thinning gave significantly higher leaf carbohydrate concentration (128.92 mg.g-1 than no thinning (102.90 mg.g-1. Although, 50% fruit thinning gave no effect on peel and pulp dry weight including peel and pulp carbohydrates concentration during fruit development. For plant nutrient analysis, 50% fruit thinning gave significantly higher leaf nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and potassium (K concentration than no thinning during 3-6 month after fruit set. However, 50% fruit thinning had no effect on fruit weight, fruit circumstance, fruit diameter, titratable acidity (TA and total soluble solid (TSS. It was concluded that 50% fruit thinning increased percent of fruit retention and may have an effect on the accumulation of leaf carbohydrates, leaf N, leaf P and leaf K concentrations in pummelo cultivar Thong Dee.

  20. Foliar fertilization as an alternative to hand thinning fruit in chlorate treated Dimocarpus longan Lour. trees in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longan, Dimocarpus longan Lour, is a member of the Sapindaceae, a family that also includes lychee, and rambutan. The discovery of potassium chlorate (KClO3) induced flowering solved the problem of alternate bearing and enabled the grower to produce off-season longan. Chlorate treatments commonly i...

  1. Antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhuo; Xi, Wanpeng; Hu, Yan; Nie, Chao; Zhou, Zhiqin

    2016-04-01

    Citrus is well-known for its nutrition and health-promotion values. This reputation is derived from the studies on the biological functions of phytochemicals in Citrus fruits and their derived products in the past decades. In recent years, the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits and their roles in the prevention and treatment of various human chronic and degenerative diseases have attracted more and more attention. Citrus fruits are suggested to be a good source of dietary antioxidants. To have a better understanding of the mechanism underlying the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, we reviewed a study on the antioxidant activity of the phytochemicals in Citrus fruits, introduced methods for antioxidant activity evaluation, discussed the factors which influence the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, and summarized the underlying mechanism of action. Some suggestions for future study were also presented.

  2. Dried fruit and dental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Michèle Jeanne

    2016-12-01

    A comprehensive review of the literature has found that the common perceptions that dried fruits are "sticky", adhere to teeth, and are detrimental to dental health on account of their sugar content are based on weak evidence. There is a lack of good quality scientific data to support restrictive advice for dried fruit intake on the basis of dental health parameters and further research is required. A number of potentially positive attributes for dental health, such as the need to chew dried fruits which encourages salivary flow, and the presence of anti-microbial compounds and of sorbitol, also require investigation to establish the extent of their effects and whether they balance against any potentially negative attributes of dried fruit. Advice on dried fruit consumption should also take account of the nutritional benefits of dried fruit, being high in fibre, low in fat and containing useful levels of micronutrients.

  3. 一种适于提取荔枝花与幼果组织总RNA的方法%A practical method for extracting total RNA from flower and fruit of Litchi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    禤维言; 郑学勤

    2009-01-01

    介绍了一种从荔枝花与幼果组织中提取高质量和较高产量的总RNA的方法,该方法提取的总RNA可以满足构建cDNA文库、开展RT-PCR、Northern杂交分析、基因表达差示分析等方面研究的要求.

  4. Fruit photosynthesis in Satsuma mandarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiratsuka, Shin; Suzuki, Mayu; Nishimura, Hiroshi; Nada, Kazuyoshi

    2015-12-01

    To clarify detailed characteristics of fruit photosynthesis, possible gas exchange pathway and photosynthetic response to different environments were investigated in Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu). About 300 mm(-2) stomata were present on fruit surface during young stages (∼10-30 mm diameter fruit) and each stoma increased in size until approximately 88 days after full bloom (DAFB), while the stomata collapsed steadily thereafter; more than 50% stomata deformed at 153 DAFB. The transpiration rate of the fruit appeared to match with stoma development and its intactness rather than the density. Gross photosynthetic rate of the rind increased gradually with increasing CO2 up to 500 ppm but decreased at higher concentrations, which may resemble C4 photosynthesis. In contrast, leaf photosynthesis increased constantly with CO2 increment. Although both fruit and leaf photosynthesis were accelerated by rising photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), fruit photosynthesis was greater under considerably lower PPFD from 13.5 to 68 μmolm(-2)s(-1). Thus, Satsuma mandarin fruit appears to incorporate CO2 through fully developed and non-collapsed stomata, and subject it to fruit photosynthesis, which may be characterized as intermediate status among C3, C4 and shade plant photosynthesis. The device of fruit photosynthesis may develop differently from its leaf to capture CO2 efficiently.

  5. Fruit protected cultivation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Huajun; Wang Saoming; Wang Jiaxi

    2003-01-01

    Protected fruit cultivation in China has developed very quickly from the early 1990s, and now it is animportant branch in fruit cultivation. A brief review including fruit species, developing history, growing area, output, anddistribution in the whole country is made in the paper. Characteristics of the dominant kinds of greenhouse,environmental control methods, and standards of temperature, humidity, light and CO2 for different fruit species arepresented. Information on varieties, growing benefits, special management practices and other aspects of the main fruitspecies used for protected cultivation are also presented.

  6. Processing technology of high-calcium healthy litchi beverage fermented by Bifidobacteria%高钙益生菌保健荔枝饮品开发工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗威; 罗立新

    2011-01-01

    研究了双歧杆菌发酵荔枝果汁开发高钙荔枝保健饮品的工艺.在单因素分析的基础上通过正交优化得到最佳工艺条件为:CaCO3添加量1.0g/L,培养时间20h,接种量5%,胡萝卜汁添加量10%,培养温度36℃.最佳工艺条件下进行10L中试发酵,所得产品各项榆测指标均较好.%The processing technology of high-calcium healthy litchi beverage fermented by Bifidobacteria was studied. Based on single factor analysis,the optimal fermentation parameters were obtained by orthogonal experiment as follows: CaCO3 1.0g/L, fermentation time 20h, inoculum 5%, carrot juice 10% and fermentation temperature 36℃. All measurement indicators could meet standards well when the fermentation was conducted at 10L pilot scale under the optimal conditions.

  7. 几种不同干燥方法对荔枝肉干燥品质的影响%Effects of Different Drying Methods on the Drying Quality of Peeled Litchi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈桂芬; 崔政伟

    2012-01-01

    作者对剥壳荔枝用热风干燥法、热风微波耦合干燥法、微波真空干燥法及真空冷冻干燥法进行干燥,分别取其最优的干燥工艺并进行对比,通过测定不同干燥方法的蛋白质、还原糖的成分和色泽,分析干燥产品的质量,据此可根据不同的需求选择不同的干燥方法.%In this manuscript, the peeled litchi was dried by hot air drying,hot air microwave coupling drying, microwave vacuum drying and vacuum freeze-drying. The index including protein content,the reducing sugars concentration and colour were compared in the four drying methods. It was found that different drying methods should be chosen according to the different formations on different conditions.

  8. Focus on Fruits: 10 Tips to Eat More Fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vitamin C, and folate. Focus on whole fruits—fresh, canned, frozen, or dried—instead of juice. The sugar naturally found in fruit does not count as ... fruits to sweeten a recipe instead of adding sugar. 3 Think about ... (in water or 100% juice) as well as fresh, so that you always have a supply on ...

  9. Memorizing fruit: The effect of a fruit memory-game on children's fruit intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkvord, Frans; Anastasiadou, Dimitra Tatiana; Anschütz, Doeschka

    2017-03-01

    Food cues of palatable food are omnipresent, thereby simulating the intake of unhealthy snack food among children. As a consequence, this might lead to a higher intake of energy-dense snacks and less fruit and vegetables, a habit that increases the risk of developing chronic diseases. The aim of this experimental study is to examine whether playing a memory game with fruit affects fruit intake among young children. We used a randomized between-subject design with 127 children (age: 7-12 y) who played a memory-game, containing either fruit (n = 64) or non-food products (n = 63). While playing the memory-game in a separate room in school during school hours, free intake of fruit (mandarins, apples, bananas, and grapes) was measured. Afterwards, the children completed self-report measures, and length and weight were assessed. The main finding is that playing a memory-game containing fruit increases overall fruit intake (P = 0.016). Children who played the fruit version of the memory-game ate more bananas (P = 0.015) and mandarins (P = 0.036) than children who played the non-food memory-game; no effects were found for apples (P > 0.05) and grapes (P > 0.05). The findings suggest that playing a memory-game with fruit stimulates fruit intake among young children. This is an important finding because children eat insufficient fruit, according to international standards, and more traditional health interventions have limited success. Healthy eating habits of children maintain when they become adults, making it important to stimulate fruit intake among children in an enjoyable way. Nederlands Trial Register TC = 5687.

  10. Deconstructing a fruit serving: comparing the antioxidant density of select whole fruit and 100% fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Kristi Michele; Murray, Elizabeth

    2013-10-01

    Research suggests phytonutrients, specifically phenolic compounds, within fruit may be responsible for the putatively positive antioxidant benefits derived from fruit. Given the prominence of fruit juice in the American diet, the purpose of this research was to assess the antioxidant density of fresh fruit and 100% fruit juice for five commonly consumed fruits and juices and to compare the adequacy of 100% juice as a dietary equivalent to whole fruit in providing beneficial antioxidants. Antioxidant density was measured using an oxygen radical absorbance capacity method on six samples assayed in triplicate for each fruit (grape, apple, orange, grapefruit, pineapple), name-brand 100% juice, and store-brand 100% juice. One-way analysis of variance and Tukey's honestly significant difference or Student t test were used to assess significance (Ppineapple juice was higher than fresh grape or pineapple fruit; however, both fresh grapes and commercial grape juice contained significantly more (Pfiber with approximately 35% less sugar. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Rapid separation of polysaccharides using a novel spiral coil column by high-speed countercurrent chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weili; Wu, Tao

    2016-04-01

    The separation of polysaccharides is time consuming. We developed and optimized a type-J counter-current chromatography system with a novel tri-rotor spiral coil column for the rapid separation of polysaccharides. The optimal composition of an aqueous PEG1000/K2 HPO4 /KH2 PO4 system was found to be 14:16:14 w/w/w where the lower phase was the mobile phase. Optimal performance was achieved at a column rotational speed, temperature, and flow rate of 1200 rpm, 45°C, and 3.0 mL/min, respectively. The mobile phase was pumped from the inner terminal in a ''head-to-tail'' elution mode. Polysaccharide LCP-1 (10.7 mg) was successfully obtained in high purity in one step from 50.0 mg of a crude polysaccharide extracted from the lychee fruit (Litchi chinensis) within 100 min. LCP-1 possess a number-average molecular weight and weight-average molecular weight of 1.05 × 10(5) and 1.59 × 10(5) kDa, respectively. The monosaccharide composition consists of the molar ratio of glucose, galactose, and arabinose of 1.3:3.5:1.

  12. Smart Shopping for Veggies and Fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safety Newsroom Dietary Guidelines Communicator’s Guide 10 Tips: Smart Shopping for Veggies and Fruits You are here ... for Veggies and Fruits Print Share 10 Tips: Smart Shopping for Veggies and Fruits It is possible ...

  13. Anthocyanins Present in Some Tropical Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many tropical fruits are rich in anthocyanins, though limited information is available about the characterization and quantification of these anthocyanins. The identification of anthocyanin pigments in four tropical fruits was determined by ion trap mass spectrometry. Fruits studied included acero...

  14. Sorbitol, Rubus fruit, and misconception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jungmin

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear how the misunderstanding that Rubus fruits (e.g., blackberries, raspberries) are high in sugar alcohol began, or when it started circulating in the United States. In reality, they contain little sugar alcohol. Numerous research groups have reported zero detectable amounts of sugar alcohol in fully ripe Rubus fruit, with the exception of three out of 82 Rubus fruit samples (cloudberry 0.01 g/100 g, red raspberry 0.03 g/100 g, and blackberry 4.8 g/100 g(∗); (∗)highly unusual as 73 other blackberry samples contained no detectable sorbitol). Past findings on simple carbohydrate composition of Rubus fruit, other commonly consumed Rosaceae fruit, and additional fruits (24 genera and species) are summarised. We are hopeful that this review will clarify Rosaceae fruit sugar alcohol concentrations and individual sugar composition; examples of non-Rosaceae fruit and prepared foods containing sugar alcohol are included for comparison. A brief summary of sugar alcohol and health will also be presented.

  15. The Hopi Fruit Tree Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyhuis, Jane

    Referring as often as possible to traditional Hopi practices and to materials readily available on the reservation, the illustrated booklet provides information on the care and maintenance of young fruit trees. An introduction to fruit trees explains the special characteristics of new trees, e.g., grafting, planting pits, and watering. The…

  16. Fruit Calcium: Transport and Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradleigh eHocking

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Calcium has well-documented roles in plant signaling, water relations and cell wall interactions. Significant research into how calcium impacts these individual processes in various tissues has been carried out; however, the influence of calcium on fruit ripening has not been thoroughly explored. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on how calcium may impact fruit development, physical traits and disease susceptibility through facilitating developmental and stress response signaling, stabilizing membranes, influencing water relations and modifying cell wall properties through cross-linking of de-esterified pectins. We explore the involvement of calcium in hormone signaling integral to ripening and the physiological mechanisms behind common disorders that have been associated with fruit calcium deficiency (e.g. blossom end rot in tomatoes or bitter pit in apples. This review works towards an improved understanding of how the many roles of calcium interact to influence fruit ripening, and proposes future research directions to fill knowledge gaps. Specifically, we focus mostly on grapes and present a model that integrates existing knowledge around these various functions of calcium in fruit, which provides a basis for understanding the physiological impacts of sub-optimal calcium nutrition in grapes. Calcium accumulation and distribution in fruit is shown to be highly dependent on water delivery and cell wall interactions in the apoplasm. Localized calcium deficiencies observed in particular species or varieties can result from differences in xylem morphology, fruit water relations and pectin composition, and can cause leaky membranes, irregular cell wall softening, impaired hormonal signaling and aberrant fruit development. We propose that the role of apoplasmic calcium-pectin crosslinking, particularly in the xylem, is an understudied area that may have a key influence on fruit water relations. Furthermore, we believe that improved

  17. Gibberellin metabolism in isolated pea fruit tissue and intact fruits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maki, S.; Brenner, M.L. (Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul (USA))

    1989-04-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) have been shown by others to be required for normal development of pea fruit. Whether the pericarp of the developing pea fruit produces GAs in situ is not known. To determine if the pericarp has the capacity to produce GAs during fruit growth, the metabolism of the first two committed GAs in the biosynthetic pathway, ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12}-aldehyde and ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12} was examined in tissue obtained from pollinated, parthenocarpic, and control fruit over 4 days from treatment. ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12}-aldehyde was converted primarily to conjugates, including ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12}-aldehyde conjugate. ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12} was converted to ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 53} in all tissue, but by day 4 only tissue from pollinated or parthenocarpic fruits showed sustained formation of ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 53}. When ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12} is applied to 4-day-old fruits attached to the plants, the major product obtained after 24 hours is ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 20} (as identified by GC-MS). No transport to the developing seed was observed. These results indicate that the elongating fruit tissue has the capacity to produce GAs.

  18. Fruits and vegetables dehydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ita, A.; Flores, G.; Franco, F.

    2015-01-01

    Dehydration diagrams were determined by means of Differential Thermal Analysis, DTA, and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis, TGA, curves of several simultaneous fruits and vegetables, all under the same conditions. The greater mass loss is associated with water containing in the structure of the investigated materials at low temperature. In poblano chile water is lost in a single step. The banana shows a very sharply two stages, while jicama can be observed although with a little difficulty three stages. The major mass loss occurs in the poblano chile and the lower in banana. The velocity and temperature of dehydration vary within a small range for most materials investigated, except for banana and cactus how are very different.

  19. The phenotypic diversity and fruit characterization of winter squash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2010-01-11

    Jan 11, 2010 ... variation in fruit shape, fruit colour, fruit brightness, fruit dimension and fruit ... The Cucurbita genus is of American origin. ... typic information in the development of breeding popula- ...... Origin and evolution of the cultivated.

  20. 影响荔枝果肉酶促褐变主要酶性质的比较研究%Comparative Research on Chracterization of Main Enzymes Affecting Enzymatic Browning of Litchi Pulp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春丽; 陈欲云

    2014-01-01

    This thesis did a comparative study on chracterization of Polyphenolxidase and Peroxidaseduring the enzymatic browning of litchi pulp. The activity of POD is far greater than the activity of PPO,however, the thermal stability of PPO was higher than that of PPO, therefore the polyphenol oxidase was adopted as the indicator of inactivating enzyme. And the activity of peroxidase can be completely inhibited by the glutathione , but the activity of polyphenol oxidase e can be inhibited transiently by the glutathione.The polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase of the pH stability was the same, at the pH less than 5 that under acidic conditions, two kinds of enzyme activity and stability dropped, thereby inhibiting the enzymatic browning.%比较研究了在荔枝果肉酶促褐变过程中,多酚氧化酶和过氧化物两种酶的性质。在荔枝果肉中过氧化物酶的活性远远大于多酚氧化酶的活性。但是PPO的热稳定性高于POD的热稳定性,应以多酚氧化酶作为灭酶的指标;并且有化学抑制剂可以完全抑制过氧化物酶活性,但对多酚氧化酶却具有抑制暂时性。pH对多酚氧化酶和过氧化物酶的稳定性影响基本一致,在pH小于5的酸性条件下活性和稳定性下降,因而在酸性条件下,可有效抑制酶促褐变。

  1. Inhibitory Effects of Tea Tree Oil, Eugenol and Citral on Aspergillus niger in Litchi%茶树油、丁香酚和柠檬醛志荔枝黑曲霉的抑制作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟业俊; 徐欣源; 刘成梅; 孙健; 吴建永; 刘桃英

    2012-01-01

    研究茶树油、丁香酚和柠檬醛的挥发性香氛对荔枝致腐真菌黑曲霉的抑制作用,采用复配方法探究3种香料对黑曲霉的协同抑菌性。结果表明:丁香酚和柠檬醛的挥发性香氛对黑曲霉有较强的抑制作用,最低抑菌浓度分别为0.3μL/cm^3和0.4μL/cm^3;茶树油挥发性香氛抑制黑曲霉的作用稍差,但与丁香酚和柠檬醛复配后协同抑菌作用增强。%The inhibitory and synergistic inhibitory effects of volatile aromatic components from tea tree oil, eugenol and citral on rot-causing fungi such as AspergiUus niger in litchi were studied. The results showed that the volatile aromatic components from eugenol and citral had strong inhibitory effect on Aspergillus niger with minimum inhibition concentrations of 0.3 μL/cm^3 (air volume) and 0.4 μL/cm^3 (air volume), respectively. The anti-fungal effect of tea tree oil was weak, while its inhibitory effect could be enhanced in the attendance of eugenol and citral.

  2. 21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fruit juice. 73.250 Section 73.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible fruits, or by...

  3. Glucides of Cnidium monnieri fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitajima, J; Ishikawa, T; Aoki, Y

    2001-10-01

    From the fruit of Cnidium monnieri Cusson (Umbelliferae), two glucides were isolated together with other known glucides. Their structures were clarified as glycerol 2-O-alpha-L-fucopyranoside and D-quinovitol (6-deoxy-D-glucitol), respectively.

  4. Managing the Fruit Fly Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeszenszky, Arleen W.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a sophisticated version of the fruit fly experiment for teaching concepts about genetics to biology students. Provides students with the opportunity to work with live animals over an extended period. (JRH)

  5. Contribution of fruit research in the developments in Dutch fresh fruit chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, M.J.; Peppelman, G.

    2004-01-01

    Due to the poor financial results of the fruit industry in the last decade, the changing trade structures and more consumer-driven fruit chains, Dutch fruit growers change their market behaviour. In these circumstances, the fruit industry itself and the applied fruit research are also changing.

  6. Health Benefits of Fruits and Vegetables1

    OpenAIRE

    Slavin, Joanne L; Lloyd, Beate

    2012-01-01

    Fruits and vegetables are universally promoted as healthy. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 recommend you make one-half of your plate fruits and vegetables. Myplate.gov also supports that one-half the plate should be fruits and vegetables. Fruits and vegetables include a diverse group of plant foods that vary greatly in content of energy and nutrients. Additionally, fruits and vegetables supply dietary fiber, and fiber intake is linked to lower incidence of cardiovascular disease and...

  7. The tropical fruit and nut collections and research activities at the USDA-ARS Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center, Tropical Plant Genetic Resource and Disease Research unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Hawaii, consistency and reliability are important factors determining the success of a crop, for example, longan generated the highest income return for the farmers among the Sapindaceae (lychee, longan and rambutan) group in 2006 because of the use of potassium chlorate for off-season production...

  8. Food irradiation in the United States: irradiation as a phytosanitary treatment for fresh fruits and vegetables and for the control of microorganisms in meat and poultry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Ralph T. E-mail: Ralph.T.Ross@usda.gov; Engeljohn, Dan

    2000-03-01

    Recently there has been a renewed focus on food irradiation in the United States (US) for the disinfestation of fresh fruits and vegetables to eliminate pests from imported agricultural commodities that could threaten the economic viability of American agriculture and for the control of bacterium E. coli 0157:H7 in beef, a pathogen that threatens the safety of the US domestic food supply. In January 1999 USDA/APHIS published in the Federal Register a rule which authorized irradiation as a guarantee treatment for papayas for movement from Hawaii to the US mainland. This treatment was never used for a number of reasons. However, in December, 1993, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published its final rule to terminate production and consumption of methyl bromide, the only remaining broad spectrum fumigant for disinfesting agricultural commodities for pests of quarantine significance on imported and exported commodities. With increased global trade pressures and the possible loss of methyl bromide as a fumigant for regulatory pests treatment made it imperative that practical treatment options be explored including irradiation. In May 1996, USDA/APHIS published a Notice of Policy which sets forth a policy statement that share positions and policies of USDA concerning the use of irradiation as a phytosanitary treatment. Subsequently in July, 1997, USDA/APHIS amended its Hawaiian regulation by increasing the dose required for papayas intended for interstate movement and by allowing carambolas and litchis also to move interstate as well. Fruits from Hawaii to the US mainland are currently being irradiated and distributed in commerce throughout the US Irradiation treatments now afford movement of many exotic fruits to the US mainland that could not be done earlier due to the lack of available treatment methods. To help combat this potential public health problem, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved treating red meat products. This process has been

  9. Bioactivities and Health Benefits of Wild Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Xu, Dong-Ping; Zhou, Tong; Zhou, Yue; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-08-04

    Wild fruits are exotic or underutilized. Wild fruits contain many bioactive compounds, such as anthocyanins and flavonoids. Many studies have shown that wild fruits possess various bioactivities and health benefits, such as free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer activity. Therefore, wild fruits have the potential to be developed into functional foods or pharmaceuticals to prevent and treat several chronic diseases. In the present article, we review current knowledge about the bioactivities and health benefits of wild fruits, which is valuable for the exploitation and utilization of wild fruits.

  10. Recent advances in fruit crop genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang XU,Chaoyang LIU,Manosh Kumar BISWAS,Zhiyong PAN,Xiuxin DENG

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, dramatic progress has been made in the genomics of fruit crops. The publication of a dozen fruit crop genomes represents a milestone for both functional genomics and breeding programs in fruit crops. Rapid advances in high-throughput sequencing technology have revolutionized the manner and scale of genomics in fruit crops. Research on fruit crops is encompassing a wide range of biological questions which are unique and cannot be addressed in a model plant such as Arabidopsis. This review summarizes recent achievements of research on the genome, transcriptome, proteome, miRNAs and epigenome of fruit crops.

  11. Molecular Regulation of Fruit Ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia eOsorio

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Fruit ripening is a highly coordinated developmental process that coincides with seed maturation. The ripening process is regulated by thousands of genes that control progressive softening and/or lignification of pericarp layers, accumulation of sugars, acids, pigments, and release of volatiles. Key to crop improvement is a deeper understanding of the processes underlying fruit ripening. In tomato, mutations blocking the transition to ripe fruits have provided insights into the role of ethylene and its associated molecular networks involved in the control of ripening. However, the role of other plant hormones is still poorly understood. In this review, we describe how plant hormones, transcription factors and epigenetic changes are intimately related to provide a tight control of the ripening process. Recent findings from comparative genomics and system biology approaches are discussed.

  12. Allergies to fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Rivas, Montserrat; Benito, Cristina; González-Mancebo, Eloína; de Durana, Dolores Alonso Díaz

    2008-12-01

    Allergic reactions to fruits and vegetables are frequently observed in older children and adolescents. They can result from a primary sensitization to food allergens or from a primary sensitization to inhalant allergens such as pollens or latex. In the case of fruit allergies, the stability of the allergens involved is crucial to the sensitization pathway and in the clinical presentation of the food allergy. Two patients allergic to fruits are presented and discussed in the light of the allergens involved. Patient 1 was a 14 yr-old girl with a grass and olive pollen allergy who developed oropharyngeal symptoms typical of the oral allergy syndrome (OAS) with multiple fruits from taxonomically unrelated families, and who was sensitized to profilin. Patient 2 was an 8 yr-old girl, with no pollen allergies, who developed systemic reactions to peach and apple, and who was sensitized to non-specific lipid transfer proteins (LTP). Profilins are labile allergens present in pollens and foods, and sensitization occurs through the respiratory route to pollen profilin. The cross-reactive IgE antibodies generated can elicit local reactions in the oropharyngeal mucosa (OAS) when exposed to fruit profilins. In contrast, LTPs are a family of stable allergens that resist thermal treatment and enzymatic digestion, and can thus behave as true food allergens inducing primary (non-pollen related) sensitizations and triggering systemic reactions. These two cases represent two distinct patterns of sensitization and clinical expression of fruit allergies that are determined by the panallergens involved (LTPs and profilins) and their intrinsic physicochemical properties. Additionally, these two cases also show the improved diagnostic value of Component Resolved Diagnosis, and strengthen its utility in the routine diagnosis and management of patients.

  13. Analysis of relationship among three Sapindaceae fruit trees based on leaf anatomical characteristics%基于叶片解剖特征分析三种无患子科果树的亲缘关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永福; 黄鹤平; 银立新; 陈泽斌; 华金珠; 牛燕芬; 刘佳妮

    2016-01-01

    Ten germplasms of three Sapindaceae fruit trees were analyzed by their leaf transection and epidermal struc-ture,using paraffin method and tissue segregation procedure. On this basis, genetic relationship among these 10 germ-plasms was examined preliminarily by cluster analysis in SPSS. The results showed that the leaves of 10 accessions were bifacial type,and their leaf transection structures all consists of epidermis, mesophyll and vein. The midvein thickness had significantly different as longan was the greatest in three fruit trees, longli in the middle and litchi was the least. Midvein transverse of litchi was rounded triangular, longan approximate semicircle, and longli was approximately flat circular. Among the difference materials, the range of leaf thickness, upper and lower epidermis, palisade tissue and sponge tissue were 175.23- 318.84, 11.18- 25.13, 7.49- 20.43, 50.01- 124.59 and 84- 173.64 μm, respectively.Palisade tissue cell had 2-3 layers in all materials. In addition, VDP, P / S, RT and RL were 2.65-5.77, 0.52-0.82, 28.89%-39.95% and 44.89%-55.57%, respectively. Epidermal cell of litchi was small, polygon, anticlinal wall arc, lower epidermal without trichomes, and stoma was long oval; epidermal cell of longan was big, irregular, anticlinal wall sinuate, lower epidermal with trichomes, and stoma was oval or suborbicular; epidermal cell morphology of longli was similar with longan, but its anticlinal wall was corrugated. The cluster analysis found that 10 accessions were firstly di-vided into 2 categories, which are Litchi and Dimocarpus. And then the Sanyuehong and longli were separated as sub-group in each category.%采用石蜡切片和组织离析法,对3种无患子科果树的10份种质叶片横切及表皮解剖特征进行观察,并采用聚类分析对其亲缘关系进行初步研究。结果表明:10份试材均为异面叶,叶横切结构分为表皮、叶肉和叶脉3部分。中脉厚度总体上龙眼最大、龙荔次之、荔

  14. Antioxidant activities and infrared spectroscopic properties of extract from litchi seeds%荔枝核提取物抗氧化活性及红外光谱特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江敏; 胡小军; 陈晓林; 李土珍

    2011-01-01

    以荔枝核为原料,以95%的乙醇为提取剂,在超声波的作用下得到荔枝核乙醇提取物。利用提取物对DPPH自由基和羟自由基的清除能力评价其抗氧化活性;同时测定了提取物的总还原能力和总的抗氧化性。最后通过红外光谱对提取物进行了定性分析。实验结果表明:荔枝核提取物具有很强的抗氧化活性,其抗氧化能力大5-BHT,小于维生素C;荔枝核提取物清除DPPH·和·OH的IC50分别为0.032、0.160mg/mL。每克荔枝核提取物总抗氧化能力相当于210mgVc的总抗氧化能力:从红外光谱的结果可知,荔枝核提取物主要为黄酮类物质。%The dried samples of litchi seeds were cut into small pieces and soaked in 95% (v/v) ethanolic aqueous solution under the ultrasonic for some time. The extract was decanted,filtered under vacuum, concentrated in a rotary evaporator,and then lyophilized. The resulting extracts were employed for the current study. DPPH radical and hydroxyl radical scavenging assays were carried out to evaluate the antioxidant potential of the extract. Total reducing power and antioxidant capacity of the extract were determined at the same time. Qualitative analysis of the extract was studied by infrared spectroscopic. The experiment results showed that the extract could play an important role in the antioxidant activity. The order of antioxidant was Vc〉 extract〉BHT. The IC50 values of extract against DPPH radical and hydroxyl radical were 0.032mg/mL and 0.160mg/mL, respectively. Total antioxidant capacity of per gram extract was equal to 210mg Vc. Main component of the extract was flavonoid from infrared spectroscopic.

  15. Fruit Flies Help Human Sleep Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Fruit Flies Help Human Sleep Research Past Issues / Summer 2007 ... courtesy of NIGMS Neuroscientist Chiara Cirelli uses experimental fruit flies to study sleep. Although it may be tough ...

  16. A fruit quality gene map of Prunus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ogundiwin, Ebenezer A; Peace, Cameron P; Gradziel, Thomas M; Parfitt, Dan E; Bliss, Fredrick A; Crisosto, Carlos H

    2009-01-01

    ... to marketing and consumption. Here we present an integrated fruit quality gene map of Prunus containing 133 genes putatively involved in the determination of fruit texture, pigmentation, flavor, and chilling injury resistance...

  17. Glycemic Index values of some Jaffna fruits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Selladurai Pirasath; Kulasingam Thayananthan; Sandrasekarampillai Balakumar; Vasanthy Arasaratnam

    2012-01-01

    .... This study aimed to evaluate the glycemic index (GI) values of fruits such as ‘Kathali’ (Yellow plantain), ‘Kappal’ (Golden plantain), and ‘Itharai’ (Green plantain) varieties of plantains, jack fruit and papaya...

  18. The Whole Truth about Whole Fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HealthDay News) -- Fresh fruits are loaded with fiber, antioxidants and other great nutrients. And studies show that ... t forget to eat a fruit's peel or skin when edible -- it's a powerhouse of nutrients. None ...

  19. Gezond fruit ook goed voor economie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mes, J.J.

    2012-01-01

    Als mensen meer fruit gaan eten, gaat naast hun gezondheid ook de sector erop vooruit. Dus moet er meer aanbod komen van gezond, duurzaam, kwalitatief hoogstaand en betaalbaar fruit in Europa. Dat kan onder meer door betere rassen te veredelen.

  20. Bioactivities and Health Benefits of Wild Fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Ya Li; Jiao-Jiao Zhang; Dong-Ping Xu; Tong Zhou; Yue. Zhou; Sha Li; Hua-Bin Li

    2016-01-01

    Wild fruits are exotic or underutilized. Wild fruits contain many bioactive compounds, such as anthocyanins and flavonoids. Many studies have shown that wild fruits possess various bioactivities and health benefits, such as free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer activity. Therefore, wild fruits have the potential to be developed into functional foods or pharmaceuticals to prevent and treat several chronic diseases. In the present article, we rev...

  1. Acylphloroglucinol biosynthesis in strawberry fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenolics have health-promoting properties and are a major group of metabolites in fruit crops. Through reverse genetic analysis of the functions of four ripening-related genes in the octoploid strawberry, Fragaria ×ananassa, we discovered four acylphloroglucinol (APG)-glucosides as native strawberr...

  2. Subtropical Fruit Fly Invasions into Temperate Fruit Fly Territory in California's San Joaquin Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subtropical fruit fly species including peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders); melon fly, B. cucurbitae (Coquillett); oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis (Hendel); and Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Weidemann, have been detected in the past decade in the San Joaquin Valley of Califo...

  3. Residuen op groenten en fruit ter discussie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltering, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    De nVWA en het RIVM doen al jaren onderzoek naar residuen van giftige stoffen op groenten en fruit. Uit onderzoek blijkt dat met name peuters en baby’s meer groenten en fruit binnenkrijgen dan eerder werd gedacht. Met meer groenten en fruit zouden ze ook meer residuen binnenkrijgen. Ernst Woltering

  4. Residuen op groenten en fruit ter discussie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltering, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    De nVWA en het RIVM doen al jaren onderzoek naar residuen van giftige stoffen op groenten en fruit. Uit onderzoek blijkt dat met name peuters en baby’s meer groenten en fruit binnenkrijgen dan eerder werd gedacht. Met meer groenten en fruit zouden ze ook meer residuen binnenkrijgen. Ernst Woltering

  5. Genomics of Tropical Fruit Tree Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genetic improvement of tropical fruit trees is limited when compared to progress achieved in temperate fruit trees and annual crops. Tropical fruit tree breeding programs require significant resources to develop new cultivars that are adapted to modern shipping and storage requirements. The use...

  6. Increasing tomato fruit quality by enhancing fruit chloroplast function. A double-edged sword?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocaliadis, Maria Florencia; Fernández-Muñoz, Rafael; Pons, Clara; Orzaez, Diego; Granell, Antonio

    2014-08-01

    Fruits are generally regarded as photosynthate sinks as they rely on energy provided by sugars transported from leaves to carry out the highly demanding processes of development and ripening; eventually these imported photosynthates also contribute to the fruit organoleptic properties. Three recent reports have revealed, however, that transcriptional factors enhancing chloroplast development in fruit may result in higher contents not only of tomato fruit-specialized metabolites but also of sugars. In addition to suggesting new ways to improve fruit quality by fortifying fruit chloroplasts and plastids, these results prompted us to re-evaluate the importance of the contribution of chloroplasts/photosynthesis to fruit development and ripening.

  7. Acylphloroglucinol Biosynthesis in Strawberry Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chuankui; Ring, Ludwig; Hoffmann, Thomas; Huang, Fong-Chin; Slovin, Janet; Schwab, Wilfried

    2015-11-01

    Phenolics have health-promoting properties and are a major group of metabolites in fruit crops. Through reverse genetic analysis of the functions of four ripening-related genes in the octoploid strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa), we discovered four acylphloroglucinol (APG)-glucosides as native Fragaria spp. fruit metabolites whose levels were differently regulated in the transgenic fruits. The biosynthesis of the APG aglycones was investigated by examination of the enzymatic properties of three recombinant Fragaria vesca chalcone synthase (FvCHS) proteins. CHS is involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis during ripening. The F. vesca enzymes readily catalyzed the condensation of two intermediates in branched-chain amino acid metabolism, isovaleryl-Coenzyme A (CoA) and isobutyryl-CoA, with three molecules of malonyl-CoA to form phlorisovalerophenone and phlorisobutyrophenone, respectively, and formed naringenin chalcone when 4-coumaroyl-CoA was used as starter molecule. Isovaleryl-CoA was the preferred starter substrate of FvCHS2-1. Suppression of CHS activity in both transient and stable CHS-silenced fruit resulted in a substantial decrease of APG glucosides and anthocyanins and enhanced levels of volatiles derived from branched-chain amino acids. The proposed APG pathway was confirmed by feeding isotopically labeled amino acids. Thus, Fragaria spp. plants have the capacity to synthesize pharmaceutically important APGs using dual functional CHS/(phloriso)valerophenone synthases that are expressed during fruit ripening. Duplication and adaptive evolution of CHS is the most probable scenario and might be generally applicable to other plants. The results highlight that important promiscuous gene function may be missed when annotation relies solely on in silico analysis.

  8. Memorizing fruit: The effect of a fruit memory-game on children's fruit intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folkvord, F.; Anastasiadou, D.T.; Anschutz, D.J.

    2017-01-01

    Food cues of palatable food are omnipresent, thereby simulating the intake of unhealthy snack food among children. As a consequence, this might lead to a higher intake of energy-dense snacks and less fruit and vegetables, a habit that increases the risk of developing chronic diseases. The aim of

  9. Assessment of fruit density and leaf number: fruit to optimize crop load of mangosteen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayan Sdoodee

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available To optimize crop load of mangosteen, fruit density and leaf number: fruit were assessed using a framework of quadrat cube (0.5 x 0.5 x 0.5 m in 2 consecutive years (2004-2005. Twenty-four 14-year-old uniform trees, field grown at Songkhla province, were selected to arrange 4 levels of crop loads: 1 Extremely low crop load (T1 = 264±5 fruit pt-1, 2 Low crop load (T2 = 826±36 fruit pt-1, 3 Medium crop load (T3 = 1190±27 fruit pt-1 and 4 High crop load (T4 = 1719±36 fruit pt-1. By placing the quadrat cube on the tree canopy, leaves quadrat-1 and fruits quadrat-1 were counted. Relationship between fruits quadrat-1 and fruit number pt-1 was found, and leaf number: fruit was also related to fruit yield pt-1. These results indicate that the assessment of fruit density and leaf number: fruit is of benefit for crop load management. Thus, 9 fruits quadrat-1 and 18 leaves: fruit are recommended to optimize crop load of mangosteen.

  10. Puncture resistance in 'Sharwil' avocado to oriental fruit fly and Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) oviposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follett, Peter A

    2009-06-01

    The physiological basis for host antibiosis or nonpreference to a quarantine pest is often not understood. Studies are needed on the mechanisms that impart resistance to better understand how resistance might fail. Experiments were conducted to examine the infestability of 'Sharwil' avocados by oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), after harvest and to quantify the effect of avocado skin hardness on resistance to infestation by oriental fruit fly. Infestation rate increased with decreasing fruit firmness, but fruit were generally poor hosts. Fruit with a patch of skin removed produced more flies than intact fruit, suggesting that skin puncture resistance was an important deterrent to oviposition. This study showed that fruit can be infested within 1 d after harvest, suggesting that fruit should be transferred to fruit fly-proof containers as they are harvested to minimize the risk of attack. Although risk of infestation is negatively correlated with fruit firmness, even some hard fruit may become infested. Therefore, fruit firmness cannot be used alone as an indicator to ensure fruit fly-free 'Sharwil' avocados. Measuring fruit firmness may be a useful component of a multiple component systems approach as an additional safeguard to reduce risk of infestation.

  11. Proteome Regulation during Olea europaea Fruit Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianco, Linda; Alagna, Fiammetta; Baldoni, Luciana

    2013-01-01

    of the biosynthesis of compounds affecting the quality of the drupes as well as the final composition of the olive oil. Proteomics offers the possibility to dig deeper into the major changes during fruit development, including the important phase of ripening, and to classify temporal patterns of protein accumulation...... characterization of the olive fruit proteome during development, providing new insights into fruit metabolism and oil accumulation process.......Background: Widespread in the Mediterranean basin, Olea europaea trees are gaining worldwide popularity for the nutritional and cancer-protective properties of the oil, mechanically extracted from ripe fruits. Fruit development is a physiological process with remarkable impact on the modulation...

  12. Health Benefits of Fruits and Vegetables1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Joanne L.; Lloyd, Beate

    2012-01-01

    Fruits and vegetables are universally promoted as healthy. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 recommend you make one-half of your plate fruits and vegetables. Myplate.gov also supports that one-half the plate should be fruits and vegetables. Fruits and vegetables include a diverse group of plant foods that vary greatly in content of energy and nutrients. Additionally, fruits and vegetables supply dietary fiber, and fiber intake is linked to lower incidence of cardiovascular disease and obesity. Fruits and vegetables also supply vitamins and minerals to the diet and are sources of phytochemicals that function as antioxidants, phytoestrogens, and antiinflammatory agents and through other protective mechanisms. In this review, we describe the existing dietary guidance on intake of fruits and vegetables. We also review attempts to characterize fruits and vegetables into groups based on similar chemical structures and functions. Differences among fruits and vegetables in nutrient composition are detailed. We summarize the epidemiological and clinical studies on the health benefits of fruits and vegetables. Finally, we discuss the role of fiber in fruits and vegetables in disease prevention. PMID:22797986

  13. Fruit load governs transpiration of olive trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustan, Amnon; Dag, Arnon; Yermiyahu, Uri; Erel, Ran; Presnov, Eugene; Agam, Nurit; Kool, Dilia; Iwema, Joost; Zipori, Isaac; Ben-Gal, Alon

    2016-03-01

    We tested the hypothesis that whole-tree water consumption of olives (Olea europaea L.) is fruit load-dependent and investigated the driving physiological mechanisms. Fruit load was manipulated in mature olives grown in weighing-drainage lysimeters. Fruit was thinned or entirely removed from trees at three separate stages of growth: early, mid and late in the season. Tree-scale transpiration, calculated from lysimeter water balance, was found to be a function of fruit load, canopy size and weather conditions. Fruit removal caused an immediate decline in water consumption, measured as whole-plant transpiration normalized to tree size, which persisted until the end of the season. The later the execution of fruit removal, the greater was the response. The amount of water transpired by a fruit-loaded tree was found to be roughly 30% greater than that of an equivalent low- or nonyielding tree. The tree-scale response to fruit was reflected in stem water potential but was not mirrored in leaf-scale physiological measurements of stomatal conductance or photosynthesis. Trees with low or no fruit load had higher vegetative growth rates. However, no significant difference was observed in the overall aboveground dry biomass among groups, when fruit was included. This case, where carbon sources and sinks were both not limiting, suggests that the role of fruit on water consumption involves signaling and alterations in hydraulic properties of vascular tissues and tree organs.

  14. On Modern Fruit Production in Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lanhua; ZHAO; Yilong; PIAO

    2015-01-01

    Japan’s fruit tree production technology is in the world leading level. In order to understand Japan’s fruit tree production,by through visits to Japan and data collection,this paper analyzes the changes in Japan’s fruit tree cultivation area,regional distribution of fruit tree cultivation,main cultivars and market circulation in recent years. The results show that Japan’s fruit tree cultivation area underwent great volatility in the 1980 s and 1990 s and it has been stabilized in recent years; the cultivation area of principal fruit tree is reduced,while the cultivation area of new fruit trees and characteristic fruit tree varieties is increased; the regionalization of fruit tree is obvious and the main cultivars are clear. Japan’s principal fruit price goes through slight fluctuations during the year while the price of cherries and peaches goes through great fluctuations. It is concluded that Japan’s fruit tree industry is stably developed.

  15. Sustainable irrigation in fruit trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristos Xiloyannis

    Full Text Available Water management in fruit growing, particularly in areas with high water deficit, low rainfall and limited availability of water for irrigation should aid to save water by: i the choice of high efficiency irrigation methods and their correct management; ii the proper choice of the specie, cultivar and rootstock to optimise plant water use; iii the proper choice of the architecture of the canopy and it’s correct management in order to improve water use efficiency; iv the application of regulated deficit irrigation at growth stages less sensitive to water deficit; v strengthening the role of technical assistance for a rapid transfer of knowledge to the growers on the sustainable use of water in fruit growing.

  16. A workplace feasibility study of the effect of a minimal fruit intervention on fruit intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alinia, Sevil; Lassen, Anne Dahl; Krogholm, Kirstine Suszkiewicz

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The main purpose of the study was to investigate the feasibility of using workplaces to increase the fruit consumption of participants by increasing fruit availability and accessibility by a minimal fruit programme. Furthermore, it was investigated whether a potential increase in fruit....... Vegetable, total energy and macronutrient intake remained unchanged through the intervention period for both groups. Conclusions: The present study showed that it is feasible to increase the average fruit intake at workplaces by simply increasing fruit availability and accessibility. Increased fruit intake...... intake would affect vegetable, total energy and nutrient intake. Design: A 5-month, controlled, workplace study where workplaces were divided into an intervention group (IG) and a control group (CG). At least one piece of free fruit was available per person per day in the IG. Total fruit and dietary...

  17. Proteomics in the fruit tree science arena: new insights into fruit defense, development, and ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molassiotis, Athanassios; Tanou, Georgia; Filippou, Panagiota; Fotopoulos, Vasileios

    2013-06-01

    Fruit tree crops are agricultural commodities of high economic importance, while fruits also represent one of the most vital components of the human diet. Therefore, a great effort has been made to understand the molecular mechanisms covering fundamental biological processes in fruit tree physiology and fruit biology. Thanks to the development of cutting-edge "omics" technologies such as proteomic analysis, scientists now have powerful tools to support traditional fruit tree research. Such proteomic analyses are establishing high-density 2DE reference maps and peptide mass fingerprint databases that can lead fruit science into a new postgenomic research era. Here, an overview of the application of proteomics in key aspects of fruit tree physiology as well as in fruit biology, including defense responses to abiotic and biotic stress factors, is presented. A panoramic view of ripening-related proteins is also discussed, as an example of proteomic application in fruit science.

  18. [Effects of fruit bag color on the microenvironment, yield and quality of tomato fruits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Gao, Fang-sheng; Xu, Kun; Xu, Ning

    2013-08-01

    In order to clarify the ecological and biological effects of fruit bagging, tomato variety JYK was taken as the test material to study the changes of the microenvironment in different color fruit bags and the effects of these changes on the fruit development, yield and quality, with the treatment without fruit bagging as the control (CK). The results showed that bagging with different color fruit bags had positive effects in decreasing the light intensity of the microenvironment and increasing its temperature and humidity, and thus, increased the single fruit mass and promoted the harvest stage advanced. Black bag had the best effects in increasing microenvironment temperature and fruit mass, with the single fruit mass increased by 27.2% and the harvest period shortened by 10 days, compared with CK. The fruit maturation period in colorless bag, blue bag and red bag was shortened by 8, 3 and 2 days, and the single mass was increased by 11.8%, 6.4% and 4.8%, respectively. Moreover, the coloring and lycopene content of the fruits with different color bags bagging were improved, but the fruit rigidity and fruit soluble solid, soluble protein, and soluble sugar contents were decreased. Therefore, bagging with different color bags could improve the yield of tomato fruits, but decrease the fruit nutritional quality.

  19. Predicting fruit consumption: cognitions, intention, and habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brug, Johannes; de Vet, Emely; de Nooijer, Jascha; Verplanken, Bas

    2006-01-01

    To study predictors of fruit intake in a sample of 627 adults. Potential predictors of fruit intake were assessed at baseline, and fruit intake was assessed at two-week follow-up with self-administered questionnaires distributed by e-mail. The study was conducted among Dutch adult members of an Internet research panel. A random sample of 627 adults aged 18-78. Attitudes, subjective norms, self-efficacy, expected pros and cons, habit strength, intention, and fruit intake. Fruit intake was assessed with a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Hierarchical linear and logistic regression analyses. Alpha strength were significantly associated with the intention to eat two or more servings of fruit per day. Age, intentions, and habit strength were significant predictors of consumption of two or more servings of fruit per day. The results confirm that Theory of Planned Behavior constructs predict fruit intake, and that habit strength and different self-efficacy expectations may be additional determinants relevant to fruit intake. Because habitual behavior is considered to be triggered by environmental cues, fruit promotion interventions should further explore environmental change strategies.

  20. Why fruits go to the dark side

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, H. Martin

    2011-11-01

    The colours of fleshy fruits are usually attributed to attract seed dispersers to the plant. A cursory look at the gaudy colours of fleshy fruits on offer in a local fruit stall gives the impression that plants use primarily bright colours to attract fruit consumer. This impression is misleading; many small fruits 'go to the dark side' and become dark purple or black when ripe. Intermingled in foliage, these colours, which are produced by anthocyanins, can be fairly inconspicuous and are thus not easily reconciled with a signalling function to attract seed dispersers. In this review I therefore discuss complementary hypotheses on the function and evolution of fruit colouration. First, I focus on the evidence that fruit colours indeed function as signals to attract seed dispersers. I then show that anthocyanins, the most prevalent fruit pigments, are important dietary antioxidants that can be selected by blackcaps ( Sylvia atricapilla) which are important avian seed dispersers of many European plants. Moreover, the consumption of anthocyanins increases the likelihood that blackcaps mount an immune response during immune challenges. As a next step, I review evidence that anthocyanins accumulate in fruit skin in response to abiotic factors, in particular high illumination coupled with low temperature favour the increase of anthocyanins. Finally, I show that anthocyanins can also be selected for by fruit antagonists, consumers that do not disperse seeds. In particular, high contents of anthocyanins strongly reduce fungal growth in fruit tissue. Taken together, there are various selective pressures which likely influence fruit colour evolution. Currently, the relative importance of each of these selective agents is unknown. There is consequently a need to develop a more encompassing framework on fruit colour evolution.

  1. Combined Treatments Reduce Chilling Injury and Maintain Fruit Quality in Avocado Fruit during Cold Quarantine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velu Sivankalyani

    Full Text Available Quarantine treatment enables export of avocado fruit (Persea americana to parts of the world that enforce quarantine against fruit fly. The recommended cold-based quarantine treatment (storage at 1.1°C for 14 days was studied with two commercial avocado cultivars 'Hass' and 'Ettinger' for 2 years. Chilling injuries (CIs are prevalent in the avocado fruit after cold-quarantine treatment. Hence, we examined the effect of integrating several treatments: modified atmosphere (MA; fruit covered with perforated polyethylene bags, methyl jasmonate (MJ; fruit dipped in 2.5 μM MJ for Hass or 10 μM MJ for Ettinger for 30 s, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP; fruit treated with 300 ppb 1-MCP for 18 h and low-temperature conditioning (LTC; a gradual decrease in temperature over 3 days on CI reduction during cold quarantine. Avocado fruit stored at 1°C suffered from severe CI, lipid peroxidation, and increased expression of chilling-responsive genes of fruit peel. The combined therapeutic treatments alleviated CI in cold-quarantined fruit to the level in fruit stored at commercial temperature (5°C. A successful therapeutic treatment was developed to protect 'Hass' and 'Ettinger' avocado fruit during cold quarantine against fruit fly, while maintaining fruit quality. Subsequently, treated fruit stored at 1°C had a longer shelf life and less decay than the fruit stored at 5°C. This therapeutic treatment could potentially enable the export of avocado fruit to all quarantine-enforcing countries. Similar methods might be applicable to other types of fruit that require cold quarantine.

  2. Combined Treatments Reduce Chilling Injury and Maintain Fruit Quality in Avocado Fruit during Cold Quarantine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivankalyani, Velu; Feygenberg, Oleg; Maorer, Dalia; Zaaroor, Merav; Fallik, Elazar; Alkan, Noam

    2015-01-01

    Quarantine treatment enables export of avocado fruit (Persea americana) to parts of the world that enforce quarantine against fruit fly. The recommended cold-based quarantine treatment (storage at 1.1°C for 14 days) was studied with two commercial avocado cultivars 'Hass' and 'Ettinger' for 2 years. Chilling injuries (CIs) are prevalent in the avocado fruit after cold-quarantine treatment. Hence, we examined the effect of integrating several treatments: modified atmosphere (MA; fruit covered with perforated polyethylene bags), methyl jasmonate (MJ; fruit dipped in 2.5 μM MJ for Hass or 10 μM MJ for Ettinger for 30 s), 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP; fruit treated with 300 ppb 1-MCP for 18 h) and low-temperature conditioning (LTC; a gradual decrease in temperature over 3 days) on CI reduction during cold quarantine. Avocado fruit stored at 1°C suffered from severe CI, lipid peroxidation, and increased expression of chilling-responsive genes of fruit peel. The combined therapeutic treatments alleviated CI in cold-quarantined fruit to the level in fruit stored at commercial temperature (5°C). A successful therapeutic treatment was developed to protect 'Hass' and 'Ettinger' avocado fruit during cold quarantine against fruit fly, while maintaining fruit quality. Subsequently, treated fruit stored at 1°C had a longer shelf life and less decay than the fruit stored at 5°C. This therapeutic treatment could potentially enable the export of avocado fruit to all quarantine-enforcing countries. Similar methods might be applicable to other types of fruit that require cold quarantine.

  3. Microbiological Spoilage of Fruits and Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Margaret; Hankinson, Thomas R.; Zhuang, Hong; Breidt, Frederick

    Consumption of fruit and vegetable products has dramatically increased in the United States by more than 30% during the past few decades. It is also estimated that about 20% of all fruits and vegetables produced is lost each year due to spoilage. The focus of this chapter is to provide a general background on microbiological spoilage of fruit and vegetable products that are organized in three categories: fresh whole fruits and vegetables, fresh-cut fruits and vegetables, and fermented or acidified vegetable products. This chapter will address characteristics of spoilage microorganisms associated with each of these fruit and vegetable categories including spoilage mechanisms, spoilage defects, prevention and control of spoilage, and methods for detecting spoilage microorganisms.

  4. Biologically active substances of stone crop fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Makarkina

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Stone fruit crops are successfully cultivated in many regions of Russia. Their fruits contain a great diversity of biologically active and mineral substances. The stone fruit varietal collection of the All Russia Research Institute of Fruit Crop Breeding has been estimated on the content of biologically active substances (ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds in fruits: 80 sour cherry varieties, 28 sweet cherry varieties, 29 plum varieties and 24 apricot varieties. High cultivar variability of the content of ascorbic acid and P-active sub-stances in fruits has been determined in each crop. The best genotypes have been singled out according to each biochemical component and a complex of characters.

  5. Advances in transgenic vegetable and fruit breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, João Silva; Ortiz Rios, Rodomiro Octavio

    2014-01-01

    Vegetables and fruits are grown worldwide and play an important role in human diets because they provide vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber, and phytochemicals. Vegetables and fruits are also associated with improvement of gastrointestinal health, good vision, and reduced risk of heart disease, stroke, chronic diseases such as diabetes, and some forms of cancer. Vegetable and fruit production suffers from many biotic stresses caused by pathogens, pests, and weeds and requires high amounts of p...

  6. Combined production of broilers and fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Lindhard Pedersen, H.; Olsen, A.; Pedersen, B; Korsgaard, M.; Horsted, K

    2004-01-01

    Combined production of broilers and fruit trees is a subject often discussed in organic fruit production in Denmark. Very little research has been carried out on this type of production system. In organic production in Denmark, nearly no pesticides are allowed, so the need for alternative pest control is large. Apple sawfly (Hoplocampa testudinea) and pear midge (Contarinia pyrivora) cause big crop losses in apples and pears respectively, in unsprayed organic fruit production. ...

  7. Advances in transgenic vegetable and fruit breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, João Silva; Ortiz Rios, Rodomiro Octavio

    2014-01-01

    Vegetables and fruits are grown worldwide and play an important role in human diets because they provide vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber, and phytochemicals. Vegetables and fruits are also associated with improvement of gastrointestinal health, good vision, and reduced risk of heart disease, stroke, chronic diseases such as diabetes, and some forms of cancer. Vegetable and fruit production suffers from many biotic stresses caused by pathogens, pests, and weeds and requires high amounts of p...

  8. Looking forward to genetically edited fruit crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamangala Kanchiswamy, Chidananda; Sargent, Daniel James; Velasco, Riccardo; Maffei, Massimo E; Malnoy, Mickael

    2015-02-01

    The availability of genome sequences for many fruit crops has redefined the boundaries of genetic engineering and genetically modified (GM) crop plants. However commercialization of GM crops is hindered by numerous regulatory and social hurdles. Here, we focus on recently developed genome-editing tools for fruit crop improvement and their importance from the consumer perspective. Challenges and opportunities for the deployment of new genome-editing tools for fruit plants are also discussed.

  9. PRODUCTIVITY, FRUIT PHYSICOCHEMICAL QUALITY AND DISTINCTIVENESS OF PASSION FRUIT POPULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NATAN RAMOS CAVALCANTE

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The productivity and physicochemical quality evaluation is important, as it identifies superior populations. However, launching products requires following the descriptors according to DHE test instructions. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate three passion fruit populations with high productivity and physicochemical quality characteristics for commercial launch. The experiment was conducted at the State University of Mato Grosso experimental area, located in the municipality of Tangará da Serra, MT. The experimental design was complete randomized block design with four replicates and ten plants per plot. The physicochemical characteristics were submitted to analysis of variance and compared by the Tukey test. For the distinctiveness test, 25 descriptors were evaluated, where quantitative data have been converted into multicategoric data to obtain the dissimilarity matrix. From the dissimilarity matrix, groups were formed using the Tocher and UPGMA methods, Livestock and Supply Department. The highest productivity and number of fruits were verified for BRS Rubi Cerrado cultivar and UNEMAT S10 population. Populations and cultivars presented physicochemical characteristics that meet the required quality for both fresh consumption and industry use. Based on the distinction test among genotype, it was observed that the descriptors were effective for population differentiation. UNEMAT S10 population has characteristics that distinguish it from other cultivars and populations evaluated, and presents high agronomic performance; therefore, it can be launched as a commercial cultivar.

  10. Gene expression in developing watermelon fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechter, W Patrick; Levi, Amnon; Harris, Karen R; Davis, Angela R; Fei, Zhangjun; Katzir, Nurit; Giovannoni, James J; Salman-Minkov, Ayelet; Hernandez, Alvaro; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Tadmor, Yaakov; Portnoy, Vitaly; Trebitsh, Tova

    2008-01-01

    Background Cultivated watermelon form large fruits that are highly variable in size, shape, color, and content, yet have extremely narrow genetic diversity. Whereas a plethora of genes involved in cell wall metabolism, ethylene biosynthesis, fruit softening, and secondary metabolism during fruit development and ripening have been identified in other plant species, little is known of the genes involved in these processes in watermelon. A microarray and quantitative Real-Time PCR-based study was conducted in watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai var. lanatus] in order to elucidate the flow of events associated with fruit development and ripening in this species. RNA from three different maturation stages of watermelon fruits, as well as leaf, were collected from field grown plants during three consecutive years, and analyzed for gene expression using high-density photolithography microarrays and quantitative PCR. Results High-density photolithography arrays, composed of probes of 832 EST-unigenes from a subtracted, fruit development, cDNA library of watermelon were utilized to examine gene expression at three distinct time-points in watermelon fruit development. Analysis was performed with field-grown fruits over three consecutive growing seasons. Microarray analysis identified three hundred and thirty-five unique ESTs that are differentially regulated by at least two-fold in watermelon fruits during the early, ripening, or mature stage when compared to leaf. Of the 335 ESTs identified, 211 share significant homology with known gene products and 96 had no significant matches with any database accession. Of the modulated watermelon ESTs related to annotated genes, a significant number were found to be associated with or involved in the vascular system, carotenoid biosynthesis, transcriptional regulation, pathogen and stress response, and ethylene biosynthesis. Ethylene bioassays, performed with a closely related watermelon genotype with a similar

  11. Morocco - Fruit Tree Productivity, Extension Component

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The emphasis of this performance evaluation is primarily on the economic and financial assessment of one specific activity of the Fruit Tree Productivity Project,...

  12. Roles of Abscisic Acid in Fruit Ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutthiwal SETHA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abscisic acid (ABA is a plant growth regulator, and it plays a variety of important roles throughout a plant’s life cycle. These roles include seed development and dormancy, plant response to environmental stresses, and fruit ripening. ABA concentration is very low in unripe fruit, but it increases as a fruit ripens, so it is therefore believed that ABA plays an important role in regulating the rate of fruit ripening. This article reviews the effect of ABA on ripening and quality of climacteric and non-climacteric fruits. The effects of ABA application on fruit ripening are subsequently discussed. Moreover, it is found that during fruit ripening, ABA also contributes to other functions, such as ethylene and respiratory metabolism, pigment and color changes, phenolic metabolism and nutritional contents, cell wall metabolism and fruit softening, and sugar and acid metabolism. These processes are all discussed as part of the relationship between ABA and fruit ripening, and the possibilities for its commercial application and use are highlighted.

  13. Proximate Analysis of Dragon Fruit (Hylecereus polyhizus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruzainah A. Jaafar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Dragon fruit (Hylecereus polyhizus is well known for the rich nutrient contents and it is commercially available worldwide for improving many health problems. Several studies show the proximity value of red pitaya fruits but the nutrient composition of the stem has not been extensively studied. Approach: This study was carried out to measure the proximate analysis of moisture content, water activity, ash, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, glucose and ascorbic acids content in premature and mature of dragon fruit. The dried powder was produced from the stem of dragon fruit and the proximate analysis of dragon fruit stem was compared between freeze drying process and drying oven process. Results: Results of this study showed that 96% moisture; 0.270 g of protein; 0.552 g L-1 glucose and 132.95 mg L-1 ascorbic acid of dragon fruit stem found higher than the fruit flesh of the dragon fruit. Conclusion: The premature stem had higher values than the mature stem of the dragon fruit which may helpful in preventing the risk factors of certain diseases.

  14. Anaphylaxis after accidental ingestion of kiwi fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawrońska-Ukleja, Ewa; Różalska, Anna; Ukleja-Sokołowska, Natalia; Zbikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Bartuzi, Zbigniew

    2013-06-01

    Numerous cases of anaphylaxis after ingestion of kiwi fruit, after the skin tests and during oral immunotherapy were described. The article describes the case of severe anaphylactic reaction that occurred in a 55-year-old patient after accidental ingestion of kiwi. Allergy to kiwi fruit was confirmed by a native test with fresh kiwi fruit. After the test, the patient experienced generalized organ response in the form of headache, general weakness and rashes on the neck and breast, and dyspnea. The patient had significantly elevated levels of total IgE and IgE specific to kiwi fruit.

  15. Gene expression in developing watermelon fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernandez Alvaro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cultivated watermelon form large fruits that are highly variable in size, shape, color, and content, yet have extremely narrow genetic diversity. Whereas a plethora of genes involved in cell wall metabolism, ethylene biosynthesis, fruit softening, and secondary metabolism during fruit development and ripening have been identified in other plant species, little is known of the genes involved in these processes in watermelon. A microarray and quantitative Real-Time PCR-based study was conducted in watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. & Nakai var. lanatus] in order to elucidate the flow of events associated with fruit development and ripening in this species. RNA from three different maturation stages of watermelon fruits, as well as leaf, were collected from field grown plants during three consecutive years, and analyzed for gene expression using high-density photolithography microarrays and quantitative PCR. Results High-density photolithography arrays, composed of probes of 832 EST-unigenes from a subtracted, fruit development, cDNA library of watermelon were utilized to examine gene expression at three distinct time-points in watermelon fruit development. Analysis was performed with field-grown fruits over three consecutive growing seasons. Microarray analysis identified three hundred and thirty-five unique ESTs that are differentially regulated by at least two-fold in watermelon fruits during the early, ripening, or mature stage when compared to leaf. Of the 335 ESTs identified, 211 share significant homology with known gene products and 96 had no significant matches with any database accession. Of the modulated watermelon ESTs related to annotated genes, a significant number were found to be associated with or involved in the vascular system, carotenoid biosynthesis, transcriptional regulation, pathogen and stress response, and ethylene biosynthesis. Ethylene bioassays, performed with a closely related watermelon

  16. Molecular Progress in Research on Fruit Astringency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Astringency is one of the most important components of fruit oral sensory quality. Astringency mainly comes from tannins and other polyphenolic compounds and causes the drying, roughening and puckering of the mouth epithelia attributed to the interaction between tannins and salivary proteins. There is growing interest in the study of fruit astringency because of the healthy properties of astringent substances found in fruit, including antibacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antiallergenic, hepatoprotective, vasodilating and antithrombotic activities. This review will focus mainly on the relationship between tannin structure and the astringency sensation as well as the biosynthetic pathways of astringent substances in fruit and their regulatory mechanisms.

  17. Monoterpenoids from Acanthopanax sessiliflorus Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Xue Kuang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Three new acyclic monoterpenoids named (2E-3,7-dimethylocta-2,6-dienoate-6-O-a-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1®6-b-D-glucopyranoside (1, (3Z,6E-3,7-dimethyl-3,6-octadiene-1,2,8-triol (2 and (6E-7-methyl-3-methylene-6-octene-1,2,8-triol (3 were isolated from Acanthopanax sessiliflorus fruits, along with three known monoterpenoid compounds. The structures of the new compounds were determined by means of extensive spectroscopic analysis (1D, 2D NMR and HRESIMS and chemical methods.

  18. Cacao seeds are a "Super Fruit": A comparative analysis of various fruit powders and products

    OpenAIRE

    Mann Julie; Payne Mark J; Hurst Jeffrey W; Preston Amy G; Crozier Stephen J; Hainly Larry; Miller Debra L

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Numerous popular media sources have developed lists of "Super Foods" and, more recently, "Super Fruits". Such distinctions often are based on the antioxidant capacity and content of naturally occurring compounds such as polyphenols within those whole fruits or juices of the fruit which may be linked to potential health benefits. Cocoa powder and chocolate are made from an extract of the seeds of the fruit of the Theobroma cacao tree. In this study, we compared cocoa powder...

  19. Effect of electrical conductivity, fruit pruning, and truss position on quality in greenhouse tomato fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fanasca, S.; Martino, A.; Heuvelink, E.; Stanghellini, C.

    2007-01-01

    The combined effects of electrical conductivity (an EC of 2.5 dS m-1 or 8 dS m-1 in the root zone) and fruit pruning (three or six fruit per truss) on tomato fruit quality were studied in a greenhouse experiment, planted in January 2005. Taste-related attributes [dry matter content (DM), total solub

  20. ProfitFruit: Decision Support System for Evaluation of Investments in Fruit Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, P.F.M.M.; Groot, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Innovative techniques were developed in the Isafruit project in order to create a more ecological sustainable way of fruit growing. Before fruit growers will consider implementation of these innovations they need information concerning their economic sustainability. The economic model ProfitFruit is

  1. Yield and fruit quality traits of dragon fruit lines and cultivars grown in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragon fruit or pitahaya (Hylocereus undatus and Selenicereus megalanthus) is a member of the Cactaceae family and native to the tropical forest regions of Mexico, Central, and South America. The fruit was practically unknown 15 years ago but it occupies a growing niche in Europe’s exotic fruit mar...

  2. [Spectral navigation technology and its application in positioning the fruits of fruit trees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Lei; Zhao, Zhi-Min

    2010-03-01

    An innovative technology of spectral navigation is presented in the present paper. This new method adopts reflectance spectra of fruits, leaves and branches as one of the key navigation parameters and positions the fruits of fruit trees relying on the diversity of spectral characteristics. The research results show that the distinct smoothness as effect is available in the spectrum of leaves of fruit trees. On the other hand, gradual increasing as the trend is an important feature in the spectrum of branches of fruit trees while the spectrum of fruit fluctuates. In addition, the peak diversity of reflectance rate between fruits and leaves of fruit trees is reached at 850 nm of wavelength. So the limit value can be designed at this wavelength in order to distinguish fruits and leaves. The method introduced here can not only quickly distinguish fruits, leaves and branches, but also avoid the effects of surroundings. Compared with the traditional navigation systems based on machine vision, there are still some special and unique features in the field of positioning the fruits of fruit trees using spectral navigation technology.

  3. Fruit polyphenols, immunity and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Gallego, Javier; García-Mediavilla, M Victoria; Sánchez-Campos, Sonia; Tuñón, María J

    2010-10-01

    Flavonoids are a large class of naturally occurring compounds widely present in fruits, vegetables and beverages derived from plants. These molecules have been reported to possess a wide range of activities in the prevention of common diseases, including CHD, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, gastrointestinal disorders and others. The effects appear to be related to the various biological/pharmacological activities of flavonoids. A large number of publications suggest immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties of these compounds. However, almost all studies are in vitro studies with limited research on animal models and scarce data from human studies. The majority of in vitro research has been carried out with single flavonoids, generally aglycones, at rather supraphysiological concentrations. Few studies have investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of physiologically attainable flavonoid concentrations in healthy subjects, and more epidemiological studies and prospective randomised trials are still required. This review summarises evidence for the effects of fruit and tea flavonoids and their metabolites in inflammation and immunity. Mechanisms of effect are discussed, including those on enzyme function and regulation of gene and protein expression. Animal work is included, and evidence from epidemiological studies and human intervention trials is reviewed. Biological relevance and functional benefits of the reported effects, such as resistance to infection or exercise performance, are also discussed.

  4. 76 FR 26654 - Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist AGENCY: Animal and... from Mediterranean fruit fly quarantined areas in the United States with a certificate if the fruit is... quarantine regulations to remove trapping requirements for Mediterranean fruit fly for Hass avocados...

  5. Fruit ripening phenomena--an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanna, V; Prabha, T N; Tharanathan, R N

    2007-01-01

    Fruits constitute a commercially important and nutritionally indispensable food commodity. Being a part of a balanced diet, fruits play a vital role in human nutrition by supplying the necessary growth regulating factors essential for maintaining normal health. Fruits are widely distributed in nature. One of the limiting factors that influence their economic value is the relatively short ripening period and reduced post-harvest life. Fruit ripening is a highly coordinated, genetically programmed, and an irreversible phenomenon involving a series of physiological, biochemical, and organoleptic changes, that finally leads to the development of a soft edible ripe fruit with desirable quality attributes. Excessive textural softening during ripening leads to adverse effects/spoilage upon storage. Carbohydrates play a major role in the ripening process, by way of depolymerization leading to decreased molecular size with concomitant increase in the levels of ripening inducing specific enzymes, whose target differ from fruit to fruit. The major classes of cell wall polysaccharides that undergo modifications during ripening are starch, pectins, cellulose, and hemicelluloses. Pectins are the common and major components of primary cell wall and middle lamella, contributing to the texture and quality of fruits. Their degradation during ripening seems to be responsible for tissue softening of a number of fruits. Structurally pectins are a diverse group of heteropolysaccharides containing partially methylated D-galacturonic acid residues with side chain appendages of several neutral polysaccharides. The degree of polymerization/esterification and the proportion of neutral sugar residues/side chains are the principal factors contributing to their (micro-) heterogeneity. Pectin degrading enzymes such as polygalacturonase, pectin methyl esterase, lyase, and rhamnogalacturonase are the most implicated in fruit-tissue softening. Recent advances in molecular biology have provided a

  6. Microbial and preservative safety of fresh and processed fruit salads ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbial and preservative safety of fresh and processed fruit salads, fruit soft drinks and ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... of fruits and vegetables to the local market and 0.13 million tonnes to export market.

  7. Peroxidase gene expression during tomato fruit ripening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biggs, M.S.; Flurkey, W.H.; Handa, A.K.

    1987-04-01

    Auxin oxidation has been reported to play a critical role in the initiation of pear fruit ripening and a tomato fruit peroxidase (POD) has been shown to have IAA-oxidase activity. However, little is known about changes in the expression of POD mRNA in tomato fruit development. They are investigating the expression of POD mRNA during tomato fruit maturation. Fruit pericarp tissues from six stages of fruit development and ripening (immature green, mature green, breaker, turning, ripe, and red ripe fruits) were used to extract poly (A)/sup +/ RNAs. These RNAs were translated in vitro in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system using L-/sup 35/S-methionine. The /sup 35/S-labeled products were immunoprecipitated with POD antibodies to determine the relative proportions of POD mRNA. High levels of POD mRNA were present in immature green and mature green pericarp, but declined greatly by the turning stage of fruit ripening. In addition, the distribution of POD mRNA on free vs bound polyribosomes will be presented, as well as the presence or absence of POD mRNA in other tomato tissues.

  8. 21 CFR 150.140 - Fruit jelly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... agents. (4) Pectin, in a quantity which reasonably compensates for deficiency, if any, of the natural... agents except those derived from animal fats. (8) Mint flavoring and artificial green coloring, in case..., and artificial red coloring in case the fruit juice ingredient or combination of fruit...

  9. Fruits, vegetables and coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauchet, Luc; Amouyel, Philippe; Dallongeville, Jean

    2009-09-01

    Diet plays an important part in the maintenance of optimal cardiovascular health. This Review summarizes the evidence for a relationship between fruit and vegetable consumption and the occurrence of coronary heart disease. This evidence is based on observational cohort studies, nutrition prevention trials with fruit and vegetables, and investigations of the effects of fruit and vegetables on cardiovascular risk factors. Most of the evidence supporting a cardioprotective effect comes from observational epidemiological studies; these studies have reported either weak or nonsignificant associations. Controlled nutritional prevention trials are scarce and the existing data do not show any clear protective effects of fruit and vegetables on coronary heart disease. Under rigorously controlled experimental conditions, fruit and vegetable consumption is associated with a decrease in blood pressure, which is an important cardiovascular risk factor. However, the effects of fruit and vegetable consumption on plasma lipid levels, diabetes, and body weight have not yet been thoroughly explored. Finally, the hypothesis that nutrients in fruit and vegetables have a protective role in reducing the formation of atherosclerotic plaques and preventing complications of atherosclerosis has not been tested in prevention trials. Evidence that fruit and vegetable consumption reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease remains scarce thus far.

  10. Paradoxical Effects of Fruit on Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Satya P.; Chung, Hea J.; Kim, Hyeon J.; Hong, Seong T.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is exponentially increasing regardless of its preventable characteristics. The current measures for preventing obesity have failed to address the severity and prevalence of obesity, so alternative approaches based on nutritional and diet changes are attracting attention for the treatment of obesity. Fruit contains large amounts of simple sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose, etc.), which are well known to induce obesity. Thus, considering the amount of simple sugars found in fruit, it is reasonable to expect that their consumption should contribute to obesity rather than weight reduction. However, epidemiological research has consistently shown that most types of fruit have anti-obesity effects. Thus, due to their anti-obesity effects as well as their vitamin and mineral contents, health organizations are suggesting the consumption of fruit for weight reduction purposes. These contradictory characteristics of fruit with respect to human body weight management motivated us to study previous research to understand the contribution of different types of fruit to weight management. In this review article, we analyze and discuss the relationships between fruit and their anti-obesity effects based on numerous possible underlying mechanisms, and we conclude that each type of fruit has different effects on body weight. PMID:27754404

  11. Testing for Mutagens Using Fruit Flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebl, Eric C.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a laboratory employed in undergraduate teaching that uses fruit flies to test student-selected compounds for their ability to cause mutations. Requires no prior experience with fruit flies, incorporates a student design component, and employs both rigorous controls and statistical analyses. (DDR)

  12. Paradoxical Effects of Fruit on Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satya P. Sharma

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is exponentially increasing regardless of its preventable characteristics. The current measures for preventing obesity have failed to address the severity and prevalence of obesity, so alternative approaches based on nutritional and diet changes are attracting attention for the treatment of obesity. Fruit contains large amounts of simple sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose, etc., which are well known to induce obesity. Thus, considering the amount of simple sugars found in fruit, it is reasonable to expect that their consumption should contribute to obesity rather than weight reduction. However, epidemiological research has consistently shown that most types of fruit have anti-obesity effects. Thus, due to their anti-obesity effects as well as their vitamin and mineral contents, health organizations are suggesting the consumption of fruit for weight reduction purposes. These contradictory characteristics of fruit with respect to human body weight management motivated us to study previous research to understand the contribution of different types of fruit to weight management. In this review article, we analyze and discuss the relationships between fruit and their anti-obesity effects based on numerous possible underlying mechanisms, and we conclude that each type of fruit has different effects on body weight.

  13. Lepidoptera associated with avocado fruit in Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    A total of about 1,098 specimens representing 10 moth species from four families were reared from harvested avocado fruit in Guatemala. Two species were reared from small immature avocados and grown to maturity on unopened avocado flower clusters after small fruit desiccated: (1) Argyrotaenia urbana...

  14. Handbook of Fruit and Vegetable Flavors

    OpenAIRE

    Hui, YH; Chen, F; Nollet, LML; Guiné, Raquel; Martín-Belloso, O.; Mínguez-Mosquera, MI; Poliyath, D; Pessoa, FLP; Le Quéré, J-L; Sidhu, JS; N. Sinha; Stanfield, P

    2010-01-01

    Acting as chemical messengers for olfactory cells, food flavor materials are organic compounds that give off a strong, typically pleasant smells. Handbook of Fruit and Vegetable Flavors explores the flavor science and technology of fruits and vegetables, spices, and oils by first introducing specific flavors and their commercialization, then detailing the technical aspects, including biology, biotechnology, chemistry, physiochemistry, processing, analysis, extraction, commodities, and require...

  15. World temperate fruit production: characteristics and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge B. Retamales

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last 30 years world population has increased 70% but per capita global fruit consumption is only 20% higher. Even though tropical and temperate fruit have similar contributions to the 50 kg/person/year of US consumption of fresh fruit, in the last 30 years this has been slightly greater for temperate fruit. Within fruit consumption, the largest expansion has been for organic fruit which increased more than 50% in the 2002-2006 period. The largest expansion of area planted in the 1996-2006 has been for kiwi (29% and blueberries (20%, while apples (-24% and sour cherries (-13% have had the largest reductions. Nearly 50% of the total global volume of fruit is produced by 5 countries: China, USA, Brazil, Italy and Spain. The main producer (China accounts for 23% of the total. While the main exporters are Spain, USA and Italy, the main importers are Germany, Russia and UK. Demands for the industry have evolved towards quality, food safety and traceability. The industry faces higher productions costs (labor, energy, agrichemicals. The retailers are moving towards consolidation while the customers are changing preferences (food for health. In this context there is greater pressure on growers, processors and retailers. Emerging issues are labor supply, climate change, water availability and sustainability. Recent developments in precision agriculture, molecular biology, phenomics, crop modelling and post harvest physiology should increase yields and quality, and reduce costs for temperate fruit production around the world.

  16. Paradoxical Effects of Fruit on Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Satya P; Chung, Hea J; Kim, Hyeon J; Hong, Seong T

    2016-10-14

    Obesity is exponentially increasing regardless of its preventable characteristics. The current measures for preventing obesity have failed to address the severity and prevalence of obesity, so alternative approaches based on nutritional and diet changes are attracting attention for the treatment of obesity. Fruit contains large amounts of simple sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose, etc.), which are well known to induce obesity. Thus, considering the amount of simple sugars found in fruit, it is reasonable to expect that their consumption should contribute to obesity rather than weight reduction. However, epidemiological research has consistently shown that most types of fruit have anti-obesity effects. Thus, due to their anti-obesity effects as well as their vitamin and mineral contents, health organizations are suggesting the consumption of fruit for weight reduction purposes. These contradictory characteristics of fruit with respect to human body weight management motivated us to study previous research to understand the contribution of different types of fruit to weight management. In this review article, we analyze and discuss the relationships between fruit and their anti-obesity effects based on numerous possible underlying mechanisms, and we conclude that each type of fruit has different effects on body weight.

  17. Dispersers shape fruit diversity in Ficus (Moraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomáscolo, Silvia B; Levey, Douglas J; Kimball, Rebecca T; Bolker, Benjamin M; Alborn, Hans T

    2010-08-17

    Seed dispersal by vertebrates is one of the most common and important plant-animal mutualisms, involving an enormous diversity of fruiting plants and frugivorous animals. Even though plant reproduction depends largely on seed dispersal, evolutionary ecologists have been unable to link co-occurring traits in fruits with differences in behavior, physiology, and morphology of fruit-eating vertebrates. Hence, the origin and maintenance of fruit diversity remains largely unexplained. Using a multivariate phylogenetic comparative test with unbiased estimates of odor and color in figs, we demonstrate that fruit traits evolve in concert and as predicted by differences in the behavior, physiology (perceptive ability) and morphology of their frugivorous seed dispersers. The correlated evolution of traits results in the convergence of general appearance of fruits in species that share disperser types. Observations at fruiting trees independently confirmed that differences in fig traits predict differences in dispersers. Taken together, these results demonstrate that differences among frugivores have shaped the evolution of fruit traits. More broadly, our results underscore the importance of mutualisms in both generating and maintaining biodiversity.

  18. 27 CFR 24.202 - Dried fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... reduce the density to 22 degrees Brix. If the dried fruit liquid after restoration is found to be... degrees Brix. After addition of water to the dried fruit, the resulting liquid may be ameliorated with... Brix. (26 U.S.C. 5387)...

  19. 75 FR 10634 - Agricultural Inspection and AQI User Fees Along the U.S./Canada Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ... electronic items. Wood packaging material can carry pests such as wood-boring insects. Noxious weed seeds... fruit flies on mangoes from Mexico and Morocco, longans and litchis from various Asian countries,...

  20. Cacao seeds are a "Super Fruit": A comparative analysis of various fruit powders and products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mann Julie

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous popular media sources have developed lists of "Super Foods" and, more recently, "Super Fruits". Such distinctions often are based on the antioxidant capacity and content of naturally occurring compounds such as polyphenols within those whole fruits or juices of the fruit which may be linked to potential health benefits. Cocoa powder and chocolate are made from an extract of the seeds of the fruit of the Theobroma cacao tree. In this study, we compared cocoa powder and cocoa products to powders and juices derived from fruits commonly considered "Super Fruits". Results Various fruit powders and retail fruit products were obtained and analyzed for antioxidant capacity (ORAC (μM TE/g, total polyphenol content (TP (mg/g, and total flavanol content (TF (mg/g. Among the various powders that were tested, cocoa powder was the most concentrated source of ORAC and TF. Similarly, dark chocolate was a significantly more concentrated source of ORAC and TF than the fruit juices. Conclusions Cocoa powder and dark chocolate had equivalent or significantly greater ORAC, TP, and TF values compared to the other fruit powders and juices tested, respectively. Cacao seeds thus provide nutritive value beyond that derived from their macronutrient composition and appear to meet the popular media's definition of a "Super Fruit".

  1. Cacao seeds are a "Super Fruit": A comparative analysis of various fruit powders and products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, Stephen J; Preston, Amy G; Hurst, Jeffrey W; Payne, Mark J; Mann, Julie; Hainly, Larry; Miller, Debra L

    2011-02-07

    Numerous popular media sources have developed lists of "Super Foods" and, more recently, "Super Fruits". Such distinctions often are based on the antioxidant capacity and content of naturally occurring compounds such as polyphenols within those whole fruits or juices of the fruit which may be linked to potential health benefits. Cocoa powder and chocolate are made from an extract of the seeds of the fruit of the Theobroma cacao tree. In this study, we compared cocoa powder and cocoa products to powders and juices derived from fruits commonly considered "Super Fruits". Various fruit powders and retail fruit products were obtained and analyzed for antioxidant capacity (ORAC (μM TE/g)), total polyphenol content (TP (mg/g)), and total flavanol content (TF (mg/g)). Among the various powders that were tested, cocoa powder was the most concentrated source of ORAC and TF. Similarly, dark chocolate was a significantly more concentrated source of ORAC and TF than the fruit juices. Cocoa powder and dark chocolate had equivalent or significantly greater ORAC, TP, and TF values compared to the other fruit powders and juices tested, respectively. Cacao seeds thus provide nutritive value beyond that derived from their macronutrient composition and appear to meet the popular media's definition of a "Super Fruit".

  2. Novel trends to revolutionize preservation and packaging of fruits/fruit products: microbiological and nanotechnological perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalia, Anu; Parshad, Vir R

    2015-01-01

    Fruit preservation and packaging have been practiced since ages to maintain the constant supply of seasonal fruits over lengthened periods round the year. However, health and safety issues have attracted attention in recent decades. The safety and quality assurance of packaged fruits/fruit products are vital concerns in present day world-wide-integrated food supply chains. The growing demand of minimally or unprocessed packaged fruits has further aggravated the safety concerns which fuelled in extensive research with objectives to develop novel techniques of food processing, preservation, and packaging as well as for rapid, accurate, and early detection of contaminant products/microbes. Nevertheless, fruits and fruit-based products have yet to observe a panoramic introduction. Tropics and subtropics are the stellar producers of a variety of fruits; majority if not all is perishable and prone to postharvest decay. This evoked the opportunity to critically review the global scenario of emerging and novel techniques for fruit preservation and packaging, hence providing insight for their future implementation. This review would survey key nanotechnology innovations applied in preservation, packaging, safety, and storage of fruits and fruit-based products. The challenges and pros and cons of wider application of these innovative techniques, their commercial potential, and consumer acceptability have also been discussed.

  3. Biodiversity of wild fruit species of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bošnjaković Dušica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Several field collecting trips in the 2009-2011 period confirmed that forest fruit species are an inexhaustible genofond of extremely important varieties that yield fruit of excellent quality and high nutritive value, with wide range of applications, including nutritional, medicinal and food production. The aim of this work was to develop long term interactive and integrated strategy for selection of wild fruit species through different breeding methods, as well as popularization of selected products and their integration into intensive fruit growing. The most important morphological, ecological, and biological characteristics were studied and presented for Cornus mas, Sambucus nigra, Morus sp. and Rosa sp. For each studied fruit species, advanced selections for cultivar release has been reported.

  4. Volatile host fruit odors as attractants for the oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, M L; Duan, J J; Messing, R H

    2000-02-01

    We examined the responses of oriental fruit flies, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel, to the odors of different stages and types of fruit presented on potted trees in a field cage. Females were most attracted to odors of soft, ripe fruit. Odors of common guava were more attractive to females than papaya and starfruit, and equally as attractive as strawberry guava, orange, and mango. In field tests, McPhail traps baited with mango, common guava, and orange captured equal numbers of females. Traps baited with mango were compared with 2 commercially available fruit fly traps. McPhail traps baited with mango captured more females than visual fruit-mimicking sticky traps (Ladd traps) and equal numbers of females as McPhail traps baited with protein odors. Results from this study indicate that host fruit volatiles could be used as lures for capturing oriental fruit flies in orchards.

  5. The effects of foliar application of K, Ca and Mg on the contents of these elements in pericarp and its colouration of Feizixiao litchi%叶面K、Ca和Mg营养对妃子笑荔枝果皮相应元素含量和着色的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晓超; 苏阳; 高丹; 周开兵

    2015-01-01

    在妃子笑荔枝果皮着色的过程中,叶面喷施不同肥料均能提高果皮相应元素的含量.各施肥处理和CK(喷施清水)果皮的水溶性Ca含量与水溶性K含量、全Ca含量与水溶性K含量、全Mg含量与全Ca含量间的偏相关系数均呈显著正相关,且全K、全Ca、全Mg、水溶性K、水溶性Ca和水溶性Mg含量的复相关系数呈显著相关.喷施Mg肥解决了果皮"滞绿"的问题,喷施Ca和Mg的混合肥及K、Ca和Mg的混合肥解决了果肉"退糖"的问题.各施肥处理和CK果皮的花色素苷含量与其水溶性Mg、全Mg和全Ca含量均呈一元指数函数正相关,果皮叶绿素含量与其水溶性Mg和全Ca含量均呈一元指数函数负相关.可见,果皮Ca和Mg在促进果皮着色时相互增益.%In the course of pericarp colouration of Feizixiao litchi ( Litchi chinensis Sonn. cv. Feizixiao) , foliar application with the nutrients all improved the contents of corresponding elements in pericarp. There existed significant positive partial correlations be-tween the contents of water-soluble Ca and water-soluble K, the contents of total Ca and water-soluble K, the contents of total Ca and water-soluble K, the contents of total Mg and total Ca. And there existed significant positive multiple correlations among total and water-soluble contents of K, Ca and Mg. Application of Mg prevented stay-green phenomenon of pericarp, and application of Ca+Mg and K+Ca+Mg prevented sugar-withdrawing phenomenon of the flesh. The contents of cyanin in pericarp positively correlated with the contents of water-soluble Mg, total Mg, total Ca in single element exponential fuction in all treatments( P<0.05) , while the content of chlorophyll in pericarp negtively correlated with the contents of water-soluble Mg and total Ca. These suggested that the contents of Ca and Mg in pericarp have a positive interaction for the colouration.

  6. Fruit and vegetables and cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, T J

    2011-01-04

    The possibility that fruit and vegetables may help to reduce the risk of cancer has been studied for over 30 years, but no protective effects have been firmly established. For cancers of the upper gastrointestinal tract, epidemiological studies have generally observed that people with a relatively high intake of fruit and vegetables have a moderately reduced risk, but these observations must be interpreted cautiously because of potential confounding by smoking and alcohol. For lung cancer, recent large prospective analyses with detailed adjustment for smoking have not shown a convincing association between fruit and vegetable intake and reduced risk. For other common cancers, including colorectal, breast and prostate cancer, epidemiological studies suggest little or no association between total fruit and vegetable consumption and risk. It is still possible that there are benefits to be identified: there could be benefits in populations with low average intakes of fruit and vegetables, such that those eating moderate amounts have a lower cancer risk than those eating very low amounts, and there could also be effects of particular nutrients in certain fruits and vegetables, as fruit and vegetables have very varied composition. Nutritional principles indicate that healthy diets should include at least moderate amounts of fruit and vegetables, but the available data suggest that general increases in fruit and vegetable intake would not have much effect on cancer rates, at least in well-nourished populations. Current advice in relation to diet and cancer should include the recommendation to consume adequate amounts of fruit and vegetables, but should put most emphasis on the well-established adverse effects of obesity and high alcohol intakes.

  7. Fruit and vegetables and cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, T J

    2011-01-01

    The possibility that fruit and vegetables may help to reduce the risk of cancer has been studied for over 30 years, but no protective effects have been firmly established. For cancers of the upper gastrointestinal tract, epidemiological studies have generally observed that people with a relatively high intake of fruit and vegetables have a moderately reduced risk, but these observations must be interpreted cautiously because of potential confounding by smoking and alcohol. For lung cancer, recent large prospective analyses with detailed adjustment for smoking have not shown a convincing association between fruit and vegetable intake and reduced risk. For other common cancers, including colorectal, breast and prostate cancer, epidemiological studies suggest little or no association between total fruit and vegetable consumption and risk. It is still possible that there are benefits to be identified: there could be benefits in populations with low average intakes of fruit and vegetables, such that those eating moderate amounts have a lower cancer risk than those eating very low amounts, and there could also be effects of particular nutrients in certain fruits and vegetables, as fruit and vegetables have very varied composition. Nutritional principles indicate that healthy diets should include at least moderate amounts of fruit and vegetables, but the available data suggest that general increases in fruit and vegetable intake would not have much effect on cancer rates, at least in well-nourished populations. Current advice in relation to diet and cancer should include the recommendation to consume adequate amounts of fruit and vegetables, but should put most emphasis on the well-established adverse effects of obesity and high alcohol intakes. PMID:21119663

  8. A multilevel analysis of fruit growth of two tomato cultivars in response to fruit temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okello, Robert C O; de Visser, Pieter H B; Heuvelink, Ep; Lammers, Michiel; de Maagd, Ruud A; Struik, Paul C; Marcelis, Leo F M

    2015-03-01

    Fruit phenotype is a resultant of inherent genetic potential in interaction with impact of environment experienced during crop and fruit growth. The aim of this study was to analyze the genetic and physiological basis for the difference in fruit size between a small ('Brioso') and intermediate ('Cappricia') sized tomato cultivar exposed to different fruit temperatures. It was hypothesized that fruit heating enhances expression of cell cycle and expansion genes, rates of carbon import, cell division and expansion, and shortens growth duration, whereas increase in cell number intensifies competition for assimilates among cells. Unlike previous studies in which whole-plant and fruit responses cannot be separated, we investigated the temperature response by varying fruit temperature using climate-controlled cuvettes, while keeping plant temperature the same. Fruit phenotype was assessed at different levels of aggregation (whole fruit, cell and gene) between anthesis and breaker stage. We showed that: (1) final fruit fresh weight was larger in 'Cappricia' owing to more and larger pericarp cells, (2) heated fruits were smaller because their mesocarp cells were smaller than those of control fruits and (3) no significant differences in pericarp carbohydrate concentration were detected between heated and control fruits nor between cultivars at breaker stage. At the gene level, expression of cell division promoters (CDKB2, CycA1 and E2Fe-like) was higher while that of the inhibitory fw2.2 was lower in 'Cappricia'. Fruit heating increased expression of fw2.2 and three cell division promoters (CDKB1, CDKB2 and CycA1). Expression of cell expansion genes did not corroborate cell size observations.

  9. Predicting fruit fly's sensing rate with insect flight simulations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Song Chang; Z. Jane Wang

    2014-01-01

    .... Interpreting our findings together with experimental results on fruit flies' reaction time and sensory motor reflexes, we conjecture that fruit flies sense their kinematic states every wing beat...

  10. Palm fruit chemistry and nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundram, Kalyana; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi; Tan, Yew-Ai

    2003-01-01

    The palm fruit (Elaies guineensis) yields palm oil, a palmitic-oleic rich semi solid fat and the fat-soluble minor components, vitamin E (tocopherols, tocotrienols), carotenoids and phytosterols. A recent innovation has led to the recovery and concentration of water-soluble antioxidants from palm oil milling waste, characterized by its high content of phenolic acids and flavonoids. These natural ingredients pose both challenges and opportunities for the food and nutraceutical industries. Palm oil's rich content of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids has actually been turned into an asset in view of current dietary recommendations aimed at zero trans content in solid fats such as margarine, shortenings and frying fats. Using palm oil in combination with other oils and fats facilitates the development of a new generation of fat products that can be tailored to meet most current dietary recommendations. The wide range of natural palm oil fractions, differing in their physico-chemical characteristics, the most notable of which is the carotenoid-rich red palm oil further assists this. Palm vitamin E (30% tocopherols, 70% tocotrienols) has been extensively researched for its nutritional and health properties, including antioxidant activities, cholesterol lowering, anti-cancer effects and protection against atherosclerosis. These are attributed largely to its tocotrienol content. A relatively new output from the oil palm fruit is the water-soluble phenolic-flavonoid-rich antioxidant complex. This has potent antioxidant properties coupled with beneficial effects against skin, breast and other cancers. Enabled by its water solubility, this is currently being tested for use as nutraceuticals and in cosmetics with potential benefits against skin aging. A further challenge would be to package all these palm ingredients into a single functional food for better nutrition and health.

  11. A non-climacteric fruit gene CaMADS-RIN regulates fruit ripening and ethylene biosynthesis in climacteric fruit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Dong

    Full Text Available MADS-box genes have been reported to play a major role in the molecular circuit of developmental regulation. Especially, SEPALLATA (SEP group genes play a central role in the developmental regulation of ripening in both climacteric and non-climacteric fruits. However, the mechanisms underlying the regulation of SEP genes to non-climacteric fruits ripening are still unclear. Here a SEP gene of pepper, CaMADS-RIN, has been cloned and exhibited elevated expression at the onset of ripening of pepper. To further explore the function of CaMADS-RIN, an overexpressed construct was created and transformed into ripening inhibitor (rin mutant tomato plants. Broad ripening phenotypes were observed in CaMADS-RIN overexpressed rin fruits. The accumulation of carotenoid and expression of PDS and ZDS were enhanced in overexpressed fruits compared with rin mutant. The transcripts of cell wall metabolism genes (PG, EXP1 and TBG4 and lipoxygenase genes (TomloxB and TomloxC accumulated more abundant compared to rin mutant. Besides, both ethylene-dependent genes including ACS2, ACO1, E4 and E8 and ethylene-independent genes such as HDC and Nor were also up-regulated in transgenic fruits at different levels. Moreover, transgenic fruits showed approximately 1-3 times increase in ethylene production compared with rin mutant fruits. Yeast two-hybrid screen results indicated that CaMADS-RIN could interact with TAGL1, FUL1 and itself respectively as SlMADS-RIN did in vitro. These results suggest that CaMADS-RIN affects fruit ripening of tomato both in ethylene-dependent and ethylene-independent aspects, which will provide a set of significant data to explore the role of SEP genes in ripening of non-climacteric fruits.

  12. Ultra-efficient photocatalytic deprivation of methylene blue and biological activities of biogenic silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Arif Ullah; Yuan, Qipeng; Wei, Yun; Khan, Zia Ul Haq; Tahir, Kamran; Khan, Shahab Ullah; Ahmad, Aftab; Khan, Shafiullah; Nazir, Sadia; Khan, Faheem Ullah

    2016-06-01

    Phytosynthesis of metal nanoparticles is considered as a safe, cost-effective, and green approach. In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were successfully synthesized using the aqueous extract of Lychee (Litchi chinensis) fruit peel and an aqueous solution of silver nitrate (AgNO3). The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by several analytical techniques i.e. UV-Vis Spectroscopy, XRD (X-ray diffraction spectroscopy), EDX (electron dispersive X-ray), SAED (selected area electron diffraction), HRTEM (high-resolution transmission electron microscopy), and FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy). HRTEM and XRD results indicated that the prepared AgNPs are spherical in shape, well dispersed and face centered cubic crystalline. AgNPs showed potent antibacterial properties against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were 125μg against E. coli and 62.5μg against both S. aureus and B. subtilis. AgNPs induce efficient cell constituent release from bacterial cells, which indicates the deterioration of cytoplasmic membrane. Moreover, antioxidant studies on the as-synthesized nanoparticles reveal efficient scavenging of the stable or harmful DPPH free radical. The cytotoxicity assay confirmed that biosynthesized AgNPs are nontoxic to normal healthy RBCs. AgNPs exhibited consistent release of Ag(+) determined by ICP-AES analysis. AgNPs exhibited extraordinary photocatalytic degradation (99.24%) of methylene blue. On the other hand, commercial silver nanoparticles have moderate biological activities against the tested bacterial strains and negligible photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue. The significant biological and photocatalytic activities of the biosynthesized silver nanoparticles are attributed to their small size, spherical morphology and high dispersion.

  13. Model-assisted analysis of spatial and temporal variations in fruit temperature and transpiration highlighting the role of fruit development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibault Nordey

    Full Text Available Fruit physiology is strongly affected by both fruit temperature and water losses through transpiration. Fruit temperature and its transpiration vary with environmental factors and fruit characteristics. In line with previous studies, measurements of physical and thermal fruit properties were found to significantly vary between fruit tissues and maturity stages. To study the impact of these variations on fruit temperature and transpiration, a modelling approach was used. A physical model was developed to predict the spatial and temporal variations of fruit temperature and transpiration according to the spatial and temporal variations of environmental factors and thermal and physical fruit properties. Model predictions compared well to temperature measurements on mango fruits, making it possible to accurately simulate the daily temperature variations of the sunny and shaded sides of fruits. Model simulations indicated that fruit development induced an increase in both the temperature gradient within the fruit and fruit water losses, mainly due to fruit expansion. However, the evolution of fruit characteristics has only a very slight impact on the average temperature and the transpiration per surface unit. The importance of temperature and transpiration gradients highlighted in this study made it necessary to take spatial and temporal variations of environmental factors and fruit characteristics into account to model fruit physiology.

  14. Inheritance of warty fruit texture and fruit color in bottle gourd [Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Emina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bottle gourd [Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl.] is one of the most interesting species in the plant kingdom, due to the diversity of fruit shapes, sizes and ways of use. Warty genotypes are rare compared to non warty genotypes. Considering unusual external appearance of warty fruits, we focused our research on the investigation of its inheritance patterns. By crossing different bottle gourd phenotypes, we studied the mode of inheritance and identified and verified genes responsible for the fruit skin color and warty phenotype segregation. Two parental lines, LAG 70 (with warty fruit of light green color and LAG 71 (smooth fruit, variegated, F1, F2 and backcrosses populations along with both parents were evaluated. Genetic analysis indicated that warty fruit type is a result of monogenic inheritance, whereby the warty fruit type is dominant (Wt trait over to the non-warty fruit type (wt. The mode of inheritance of fruit color was controlled by recessive epistasis, with a ratio of 9 variegated (A-, B-, 3 dark green colored (aaB- and 4 light green colored (aabb fruits in the F2 generation.

  15. Vegetables, fruit, and cancer prevention: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, K A; Potter, J D

    1996-10-01

    In this review of the scientific literature on the relationship between vegetable and fruit consumption and risk of cancer, results from 206 human epidemiologic studies and 22 animal studies are summarized. The evidence for a protective effect of greater vegetable and fruit consumption is consistent for cancers of the stomach, esophagus, lung, oral cavity and pharynx, endometrium, pancreas, and colon. The types of vegetables or fruit that most often appear to be protective against cancer are raw vegetables, followed by allium vegetables, carrots, green vegetables, cruciferous vegetables, and tomatoes. Substances present in vegetables and fruit that may help protect against cancer, and their mechanisms, are also briefly reviewed; these include dithiolthiones, isothiocyanates, indole-3-carbinol, allium compounds, isoflavones, protease inhibitors, saponins, phytosterols, inositol hexaphosphate, vitamin C, D-limonene, lutein, folic acid, beta carotene, lycopene, selenium, vitamin E, flavonoids, and dietary fiber. Current US vegetable and fruit intake, which averages about 3.4 servings per day, is discussed, as are possible noncancer-related effects of increased vegetable and fruit consumption, including benefits against cardiovascular disease, diabetes, stroke, obesity, diverticulosis, and cataracts. Suggestions for dietitians to use in counseling persons toward increasing vegetable and fruit intake are presented.

  16. Polysaccharide based edible coating on sapota fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Joslin; Athmaselvi, K. A.

    2016-10-01

    Sapota fruits are highly perishable and have short shelf life at the ambient conditions. The edible coatings have been used on different agricultural products in order to extend their post harvest life. In the present study, the polysaccharide based edible coating made up of sodium alginate and pectin (2%) was studied on the shelf life of sapota fruits. The coating of the fruits is done by dipping method with two dipping time (2 and 4 min). The both control and coated sapota fruits were stored at refrigerated temperature (4±1°C). The physico-chemical analysis including acidity, total soluble solids, ascorbic acid, pH, weight loss, colour and firmness were measured on 1, 8, 15, 23 and 30th day of storage. There was significant difference (p≤0.05) in these physico-chemical parameters between control and coated sapota fruits with 2 and 4 min dipping time. The sensory analysis of control and coated sapota fruits showed that, the polysaccharide coating with 2 minutes dipping time was effective in maintaining the organoleptic properties of the fruits.

  17. Fruit evolution and diversification in campanulid angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Jeremy M; Donoghue, Michael J

    2013-11-01

    With increases in both the size and scope of phylogenetic trees, we are afforded a renewed opportunity to address long-standing comparative questions, such as whether particular fruit characters account for much of the variation in diversity among flowering plant clades. Studies to date have reported conflicting results, largely as a consequence of taxonomic scale and a reliance on potentially conservative statistical measures. Here we examine a larger and older angiosperm clade, the Campanulidae, and infer the rates of character transitions among the major fruit types, emphasizing the evolution of the achene fruits that are most frequently observed within the group. Our analyses imply that campanulids likely originated bearing capsules, and that all subsequent fruit diversity was derived from various modifications of this dry fruit type. We also found that the preponderance of lineages bearing achenes is a consequence of not only being a fruit type that is somewhat irreversible once it evolves, but one that also seems to have a positive association with diversification rates. Although these results imply the achene fruit type is a significant correlate of diversity patterns observed across campanulids, we conclude that it remains difficult to confidently and directly view this character state as the actual cause of increased diversification rates. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  18. Genomics-assisted breeding in fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Minamikawa, Mai F; Kajiya-Kanegae, Hiromi; Ishimori, Motoyuki; Hayashi, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Recent advancements in genomic analysis technologies have opened up new avenues to promote the efficiency of plant breeding. Novel genomics-based approaches for plant breeding and genetics research, such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and genomic selection (GS), are useful, especially in fruit tree breeding. The breeding of fruit trees is hindered by their long generation time, large plant size, long juvenile phase, and the necessity to wait for the physiological maturity of the plant to assess the marketable product (fruit). In this article, we describe the potential of genomics-assisted breeding, which uses these novel genomics-based approaches, to break through these barriers in conventional fruit tree breeding. We first introduce the molecular marker systems and whole-genome sequence data that are available for fruit tree breeding. Next we introduce the statistical methods for biparental linkage and quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping as well as GWAS and GS. We then review QTL mapping, GWAS, and GS studies conducted on fruit trees. We also review novel technologies for rapid generation advancement. Finally, we note the future prospects of genomics-assisted fruit tree breeding and problems that need to be overcome in the breeding.

  19. Satisfying America's Fruit Gap: Summary of an Expert Roundtable on the Role of 100% Fruit Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Fulgoni, Victor L; Murray, Robert; Pivonka, Elizabeth; Wallace, Taylor C

    2017-07-01

    The 2015 to 2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGAs) recognize the role of 100% fruit juice in health and in helping people meet daily fruit recommendations and state that 100% fruit juice is a nutrient-dense beverage that should be a primary choice, along with water and low-fat/fat-free milk. The DGAs note that children are consuming 100% fruit juice within recommendations (that is, 120 to 180 mL/d for children aged 1 to 6 y and 236 to 355 mL/d for children aged 7 to 18 y). Evidence shows that compared to nonconsumers, those who consume 100% fruit juice come closer to meeting daily fruit needs and have better diet quality. In children, 100% fruit juice is associated with increased intakes of nutrients such as vitamin C, folate, and potassium. When consumed within the DGA recommendations, 100% fruit juice is not associated with overweight/obesity or childhood dental caries and does not compromise fiber intake. Preliminary data suggest that polyphenols in some 100% fruit juices may inhibit absorption of naturally occurring sugars. Given its role in promoting health and in helping people meet fruit needs, experts participating in a roundtable discussion agreed that there is no science-based reason to restrict access to 100% fruit juice in public health nutrition policy and programs such as the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Reducing or eliminating 100% fruit juice could lead to unintended consequences such as reduced daily fruit intake and increased consumption of less nutritious beverages (for example, sugar-sweetened beverages). © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  20. 东莞低效荔枝林林下植被结构和多样性%Understory vegetation community structure and diversity in low-value lichee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) plantation in Dongguan of South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱剑云; 解丹丹; 叶永昌; 苏志尧

    2011-01-01

    对东莞大岭山撂荒的荔枝林(品种为"妃子笑")林下植被进行样方调查,分析了荔枝林林下植物群落的结构、多样性及生态位特征,并提出撂荒荔枝林未来发展的对策.共记录到林下植被102种,隶属于50科85属.其中,蕨类植物13种,隶属于9科9属;双子叶植物65种,隶属于31科52属;单子叶植物24种,隶属于10科24属.林下植被以灌木和乔木(幼苗)为优势生活型.灌木层与草本层物种多度分布差异不显著,其物种丰富度、均匀度、Shannon-Wiener指数、Simpson指数差异亦均不显著.林下层优势物种中有春花(Raphiolepisindica)等8种灌木,芒萁(Dicranopterisdichotoma)等7种草本,玉叶金花(Mussaendapubescens)等5种藤本.灌木层主要种群的生态位宽度与生态位重叠值变化范围分别为0.909~1.450、0.567~0.955,草本层分别为0.945~1.566、0.270~0.984.所调查的荔枝林林下自然演替的植被物种丰富,区系成分为亚热带地带性种类,结构亦较为复杂.因此,在荔枝产业面临转型的阶段,对于立地条件或荔枝品质较差不再经营的林分,可维持植被现状,或向生态公益林方向改造,以利于东莞荔枝产业的可持续发展.%Using field survey from an abandoned lichee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) plantation in Dalingshan, Dongguan City,the community structure, diversity and niche characteristics of understory vegetation were analyzed. The field survey recorded 102 understory plant species, which belonged to 50 families and 85 genera. Thirteen ferns species of the vegetation mosaic belonged to 9 families and 9 genera; 65 dicotyledons belonged to 31 families and 52 genera; and 24 monocots belonged to 10families and 24 genera. Shrubs and tree seedlings dominated the understory vegetation. There was no significant difference in species abundance between the shrub and herbaceous layers. No significant difference was also noted in the indices of species richness, evenness, Shannon

  1. Antioxidant Properties of Some Dried Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilge Ertekin Filiz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of various dried fruits were investigated. Total phenolic content of dried fruits (apple, quince, peach, orange, grapefruit, kiwi, banana, watermelon, cantaloupe, strawberries and tomatoes were between 219-5386 mg GAE/kg in dry matter (dm. TEAC and ORAC values of the samples were between 7.01-126 µmol TE/g dm and 11.69-211 µmol TE/g dm, respectively. Dried fruits can be considered as an important source of antioxidant components in diet with the higher antioxidant properties.

  2. Global gene expression analysis of apple fruit development from the floral bud to ripe fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McArtney Steve

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apple fruit develop over a period of 150 days from anthesis to fully ripe. An array representing approximately 13000 genes (15726 oligonucleotides of 45–55 bases designed from apple ESTs has been used to study gene expression over eight time points during fruit development. This analysis of gene expression lays the groundwork for a molecular understanding of fruit growth and development in apple. Results Using ANOVA analysis of the microarray data, 1955 genes showed significant changes in expression over this time course. Expression of genes is coordinated with four major patterns of expression observed: high in floral buds; high during cell division; high when starch levels and cell expansion rates peak; and high during ripening. Functional analysis associated cell cycle genes with early fruit development and three core cell cycle genes are significantly up-regulated in the early stages of fruit development. Starch metabolic genes were associated with changes in starch levels during fruit development. Comparison with microarrays of ethylene-treated apple fruit identified a group of ethylene induced genes also induced in normal fruit ripening. Comparison with fruit development microarrays in tomato has been used to identify 16 genes for which expression patterns are similar in apple and tomato and these genes may play fundamental roles in fruit development. The early phase of cell division and tissue specification that occurs in the first 35 days after pollination has been associated with up-regulation of a cluster of genes that includes core cell cycle genes. Conclusion Gene expression in apple fruit is coordinated with specific developmental stages. The array results are reproducible and comparisons with experiments in other species has been used to identify genes that may play a fundamental role in fruit development.

  3. Avian fruit removal: effects of fruit variation, crop size, and insect damage

    OpenAIRE

    Jordano, Pedro

    1987-01-01

    Avian dispersal of seeds of the wild olive tree (Olea europaea var. sylvestris) was studied in Mediterranean shrubland, southern Spain. Fourteen species of small fru­ givorous birds in the genera Sylvia, Turdus, Sturnus, and Erithacus accounted for 97.4% of the fruits consumed by birds. The significance of each bird species as an Olea fruit consumer was closely related to its abundance in the area and was not associated with its dependence on the fruit for food; this resu...

  4. Trichoderma rot on ‘Fallglo’ Tangerine Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    In September 2009, brown rot symptoms were observed on ‘Fallglo’ fruit after 7 weeks of storage. Fourteen days prior to harvest, fruit were treated by dipping into one of four different fungicide solutions. Control fruit were dipped in tap water. After harvest, the fruit were degreened with 5 ppm et...

  5. Understanding the effects of slip pruning on pineapple fruit quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fassinou Hotegni, V.N.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Agbossou, E.K.; Struik, P.C.

    2016-01-01

    Pineapple fruit quality is important especially when fruits are exported to international markets. Fruits should meet minimum requirements such as a weight of at least 0.7 kg, a ratio between the crown length and infructescence (fruit without the crown) length ranging from 0.5 to 1.5, and a Brix

  6. Application of comptuter technology in fruit science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pang Xiaoming; Wan Shuyuan; Hu Chungen

    2003-01-01

    This paper summarized the application of computer technology in fruit science, including crop modelling,expert system, decision support system (DSS), computer vision (CV), the Internet, 3 "S" technology, etc. The existingproblems and prospects are also discussed in the paper.

  7. Taste-modifying protein from miracle fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, K; Beidler, L M

    1968-09-20

    The active principle of miracle fruit (Synsepalum dulcificum) is a basic glycoprotein with a probable molecular weight of 44,000. Application of the protein to the tongue modifies the taste so that one tastes sour substances as sweet.

  8. DNA polymerase activity of tomato fruit chromoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, E C; Carrillo, N

    1990-11-26

    DNA polymerase activity was measured in chromoplasts of ripening tomato fruits. Plastids isolated from young leaves or mature red fruits showed similar DNA polymerase activities. The same enzyme species was present in either chloroplasts or chromoplasts as judged by pH and temperature profiles, sensitivities towards different inhibitors and relative molecular mass (Mr 88 kDa). The activities analyzed showed the typical behaviour of plastid-type polymerases. The results presented here suggest that chromoplast maintain their DNA synthesis potential in fruit tissue at chloroplast levels. Consequently, the sharp decrease of the plastid chromosome transcription observed at the onset of fruit ripening could not be due to limitations in the availability of template molecules. Other mechanisms must be involved in the inhibition of chromoplast RNA synthesis.

  9. ASSESSMENT OF IMPACT DAMAGE TO APPLE FRUITS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... Department of Agricultural and Bio-Environmental Engineering, Auchi ... An impact damage assessment of fresh apple fruits was carried out to ascertain the effects of ... mestic and inter-state transportation Berardinelli et.

  10. Anthocyanin analyses of Vaccinium fruit dietary supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccinium fruit ingredients within dietary supplements were identified by comparisons with anthocyanin analyses of known Vaccinium profiles (demonstration of anthocyanin fingerprinting). Available Vaccinium supplements were purchased and analyzed; their anthocyanin profiles (based on HPLC separation...

  11. Europeanen aan het fruit door keteninnovatie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubbeldam, R.; Wiersinga, R.C.

    2009-01-01

    Europeanen eten te weinig fruit. Om de fruitconsumptie te stimuleren en de volksgezondheid te verbeteren, werken ruim zestig kennispartners en bedrijven samen in het Europese onderzoeksprogramma ISAfruit. Wageningen UR participeert hierin met onder meer onderzoek naar trends en consumentgedreven ket

  12. Serbia on the international fruit market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorović Milutin T.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains a comparative analysis of some of the most important indicators of both global and domestic fruit market. It shows the results of a study on the volume, dynamics and the structure of production, as well as the trade of fruit at the global level, that is continents and some countries. It also defines leading producers, trends in the international trade, and leading exporters and importers of these products. Besides, it analyses the position of Serbia in the international fruit market based on the spectre of the aforementioned criteria. Subsequently, balances, structure and regional trends in Serbian foreign trade exchange of fresh and processed fruit has been analyzed. Additionally, attention has been focused on the requirements, possibilities, measures and development trends of domestic production and export of analyzed products. .

  13. Minimally processed fruit salad enriched with Lactobacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    paula

    2015-06-17

    Jun 17, 2015 ... compounds in the preservation of color ... of probiotic microorganisms in minimally processed fruit. (Rößle et al., 2010a, b; ... MATERIALS AND METHODS ..... (2009). The use of packaging techniques to maintain freshness in.

  14. Pineapple Fruit Collapse: Newly Emerging Disease of Pineapple Fruit in Lampung, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Prasetyo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Pineapple fruit collapse: newly emerging disease of pineapple fruit in Lampung, Indonesia Recently, a new disease on pineapple fruit has occurred in Lampung. Symptoms of the disease are complex. Fruits rotted and exuded copious liquid from the inter- fruitlet tissues accompanied by gas bubbles. Open spaces were formed inside the rotten fruit. Dissection of diseased fruit showed many cavities within its sceletal fibres and bad odour was exerted from the rotten tissues. A bacterial entity was isolated  from the diseased materials. In a pathogenicity test, the isolated bacteria caused the same symptom as mentioned. In the growing-on test the crown of the heavily infected fruit  showed  heart rot symptom.  Those  indicated that the disease was pineapple fruit collapse. Both symptoms were known related to the same causal agent, Erwinia chrysanthemi (pineapple strain Dickeya sp.. In our opinion, this is the first report of pineapple fruit collapse in Indonesia.

  15. Report about star fruit fruits damaged by Amazona albifrons Sparman, in Tabasco, Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saúl Sánchez-Soto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine, the animal species causing damage to inmature fruits of Averrhoa carambola, in a home garden. The study was conducted in a home garden with two star fruit trees in Cardenas, Tabasco, Mexico (18°00’10.9’’ N, 93°25’52.2’’ W. The loss of fruits was registered from June 21st to August 2nd, 2015 based on weekly evaluations. 12 637 fruits were toppled by the bird Amazona albifrons Sparman (Psitaciformes: Psittacidae, which is distributed from Mexico to Costa Rica.

  16. Bird fruit preferences match the frequency of fruit colours in tropical Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Qiong; Goodale, Eben; Quan, Rui-chang

    2014-07-17

    While many factors explain the colour of fleshy fruits, it is thought that black and red fruits are common in part because frugivorous birds prefer these colours. We examined this still controversial hypothesis at a tropical Asian field site, using artificial fruits, fresh fruits, four wild-caught resident frugivorous bird species, and hand-raised naïve birds from three of the same species. We demonstrate that all birds favored red artificial fruits more than yellow, blue, black and green, although the artificial black colour was found subsequently to be similar to the artificial blue colour in its spectral reflectance. Wild-caught birds preferred both black and red fleshy natural fruits, whereas hand-raised naïve birds preferred black to red natural fleshy fruits and to those of other colours. All birds avoided artificial and naturally ripe green fruits. The inter-individual variation in colour choice was low and the preferences were constant over time, supporting the hypothesis that bird colour preferences are a contributing factor driving fruit colour evolution in tropical Asia.

  17. Bird fruit preferences match the frequency of fruit colours in tropical Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Qiong; Goodale, Eben; Quan, Rui-chang

    2014-01-01

    While many factors explain the colour of fleshy fruits, it is thought that black and red fruits are common in part because frugivorous birds prefer these colours. We examined this still controversial hypothesis at a tropical Asian field site, using artificial fruits, fresh fruits, four wild-caught resident frugivorous bird species, and hand-raised naïve birds from three of the same species. We demonstrate that all birds favored red artificial fruits more than yellow, blue, black and green, although the artificial black colour was found subsequently to be similar to the artificial blue colour in its spectral reflectance. Wild-caught birds preferred both black and red fleshy natural fruits, whereas hand-raised naïve birds preferred black to red natural fleshy fruits and to those of other colours. All birds avoided artificial and naturally ripe green fruits. The inter-individual variation in colour choice was low and the preferences were constant over time, supporting the hypothesis that bird colour preferences are a contributing factor driving fruit colour evolution in tropical Asia. PMID:25033283

  18. Bioactive Phenols in Small Fruits and Berries

    OpenAIRE

    Guiné, R. P. F.

    2016-01-01

    Bioactive compounds are extra nutritional constituents occurring naturally in plant foods in small amounts, however in quantities enough to produce bioactive effects. Among bioactive compounds the phenolic compounds are a very large set of molecules, which include several groups such as for example flavonoids, phenolic acids or tannins. Small fruits and berries include a wide diversity of fruits, like grapes, strawberries, blackberries, blueberries, raspberries, cherries, hardi kiwi, gooseber...

  19. Proteome regulation during Olea europaea fruit development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Bianco

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Widespread in the Mediterranean basin, Olea europaea trees are gaining worldwide popularity for the nutritional and cancer-protective properties of the oil, mechanically extracted from ripe fruits. Fruit development is a physiological process with remarkable impact on the modulation of the biosynthesis of compounds affecting the quality of the drupes as well as the final composition of the olive oil. Proteomics offers the possibility to dig deeper into the major changes during fruit development, including the important phase of ripening, and to classify temporal patterns of protein accumulation occurring during these complex physiological processes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this work, we started monitoring the proteome variations associated with olive fruit development by using comparative proteomics coupled to mass spectrometry. Proteins extracted from drupes at three different developmental stages were separated on 2-DE and subjected to image analysis. 247 protein spots were revealed as differentially accumulated. Proteins were identified from a total of 121 spots and discussed in relation to olive drupe metabolic changes occurring during fruit development. In order to evaluate if changes observed at the protein level were consistent with changes of mRNAs, proteomic data produced in the present work were compared with transcriptomic data elaborated during previous studies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study identifies a number of proteins responsible for quality traits of cv. Coratina, with particular regard to proteins associated to the metabolism of fatty acids, phenolic and aroma compounds. Proteins involved in fruit photosynthesis have been also identified and their pivotal contribution in oleogenesis has been discussed. To date, this study represents the first characterization of the olive fruit proteome during development, providing new insights into fruit metabolism and oil accumulation process.

  20. Fruit and vegetable consumption and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leenders, Max; Sluijs, Ivonne; Ros, Martine M

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the relation between fruit and vegetable consumption and mortality was investigated within the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition. Survival analyses were performed, including 451,151 participants from 10 European countries, recruited between 1992 and 2000 ...... body mass index and suggested in smokers. Inverse associations were stronger for raw than for cooked vegetable consumption. These results support the evidence that fruit and vegetable consumption is associated with a lower risk of death....

  1. Glycemic Index values of some Jaffna fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Selladurai Pirasath; Kulasingam Thayananthan; Sandrasekarampillai Balakumar; Vasanthy Arasaratnam

    2012-01-01

    Background: The incidence of diabetes mellitus has recently increased in developing countries. Scientific data on glycemic index values of common meals is essential to modify the diets for diabetes mellitus patients. This study aimed to evaluate the glycemic index (GI) values of fruits such as ‘Kathali’ (Yellow plantain), ‘Kappal’ (Golden plantain), and ‘Itharai’ (Green plantain) varieties of plantains, jack fruit and papaya. The results will be helpful to physicians and the general public t...

  2. 热带亚热带水果胶孢炭疽菌对多菌灵的抗药性测定%Carbendazim Resistance of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides on Tropical and Subtropical Fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新怡; 李雪; 高兆银

    2014-01-01

    893 isolates of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides collected from 18 tropical and subtropical fruits in Hainan Province were characterized for resistance to carbendazim by mycelia growth method. The results showed that the isolates had serious resistance to carbendazim with resistance frequency of 11.87%, and 9.63% isolates belonged to high level resistance. The EC50 value and EC90 value of test isolates ranged from 0.03 μg/mL to 12 511.80 μg/mL and 0.15 μg/mL to 1 123 446.50 μg/mL, and the EC50max/EC50min and EC90max/EC90 min reached 4.17×105 and 7.49×106. The resistant isolates were collected from 14 fruits such as mango, litchi and longan. To avoid the resistance of the pathogen to fungicides, and increase the control effect, Benzimidazole fungicides should be cautiously used and different mechanism's fungicides should be used by turns.%采用生长速率法对来自海南18种热带亚热带水果的893株胶孢炭疽菌(C. gloeosporioides)进行多菌灵抗药性测定。结果表明:在供试菌株中,11.87%的菌株对多菌灵产生了不同程度的抗性,且高抗菌株达9.63%,具有抗多菌灵的 C. gloeosporioides 菌株主要来自芒果、荔枝和龙眼等14种水果。多菌灵对供试菌株的毒力存在差异, EC50值的最高值与最低值相差4.17×105倍, EC90值的最高值与最低值相差7.49×106倍。建议在热带亚热带水果病害防治中,慎用多菌灵等苯并咪唑类杀菌剂,选择作用机制不同的杀菌剂交替使用,延缓抗药性的产生,提高杀菌剂的防效。

  3. Effect of hydro cooling and packaging on the shelf life of cold stored ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fruits were destalked such that the fruit stalk was 2 mm from fruit base and selected for uniformity ..... temperature storage of 5 ºC also contributed for slowing rot development. Peel color .... of litchi fruit. South. China Institute of Botany April 2004.

  4. Identification and Classification of Fruit Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjit K N

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Diseases in fruit cause major problem in agricultural industry and also causes economic loss.The diseases in fruits reduce the yield and also deteriorate the variety and its withdraw from the cultivation.So, earlier detection of symptoms of fruit disease is required.In this paper a solution for identification and classification of fruit diseases is proposed and experimentally validated.Ten different fruits has been selected with few of their diseases . The image processing based proposed approach is composed of following main steps,first step is segmentation using K-means and C-Means clustering algorithms,Second step is conducted a performance evaluation of segmentation algorithm by measuring the parameters such as Measure of overlapping (MOL, Measure of under-segmentation (MUS, Measure of over segmentation (MOS, Dice similarity measure (DSM, Error-rate (ER. The segmentation performance is calculated based on the comparison between the manually segmented ground truth G and segmentation result S generated by the image segmentation approach. After segmentation features are extracted using GLCM. The k Nearest Neighbours Algorithm classifier is used to classify the diseases in fruits .The collected database consists of 34 classes with 243 images .The experiment has been conducted on database of 34 classes having training samples of 30,50,70 percent of database .The result of classification has relatively higher accuracy in all cases when segmented using K-Means than C-Means clustering algorithms

  5. Fruit flesh betacyanin pigments in hylocereus cacti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wybraniec, Sławomir; Mizrahi, Yosef

    2002-10-09

    Determination of profiles and total contents of betacyanins in cactus fruits of Hylocereus species using chromatographic and spectrophotometric method is described. The investigated species were H. polyrhizus, H. purpusii, H. costaricensis, H. sp. 487 (all red-flesh species and hybrids made among them), and the white- or red-flesh species H. undatus. Hybrids included hybrid 1 (H. undatus white-flesh clone and H. sp. 487), hybrid 35 (H. sp. 487 and H. polyrhizus), and the reciprocal hybrid hybrid 95 (H. polyrhizus and H. sp. 487). Fruits of H. polyrhizus exhibited the highest relative concentration (expressed as percentage of the total HPLC peak area) of hylocerenin, a recently discovered pigment, and a high relative concentration of phyllocactin. Hylocerenin and isohylocerenin, present in fruits at relative concentrations of 11.7 and 5.8%, respectively, are probably responsible for the fluorescent color of the fruit pulp. H. costaricensis fruits have a much higher content of phyllocactin (63.9%), which is almost 4 times higher than the betanin content. These differences in pigment concentrations might explain the differences in red hues of the flesh of these fruits.

  6. Psychosocial determinants of fruit and vegetable consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brug, J; Lechner, L; De Vries, H

    1995-12-01

    Psychosocial correlates of fruit and vegetable consumption were studied in an adult Dutch population (n = 367) based on the ASE model of attitudes, social influence and self-efficacy. Attitudes were a summation of beliefs about taste, different health consequences, and costs in time and money. Social influences were measured through the social stimulation respondents expected to get from important others to consume adequate amounts of fruit and vegetables and by asking the subjects about the behaviour of important others. Self-efficacy reflected the respondents' ability to consume adequate amounts of fruit and vegetables in various situations. Self-efficacy and attitudes were consistently and significantly associated with consumption of boiled or otherwise heated vegetables, of salads, and of fruit. Furthermore, respondents reporting low consumption of these food groups had lower self-efficacy expectations and less positive attitudes than subjects with relatively high consumption of fruit and vegetables. It is concluded that nutrition education aimed at stimulating fruit and vegetable consumption should focus especially on changing attitudes and self efficacy expectations.

  7. Pesticide bioconcentration modelling for fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraíba, Lourival Costa

    2007-01-01

    The model presented allows simulating the pesticide concentration evolution in fruit trees and estimating the pesticide bioconcentration factor in fruits. Pesticides are non-ionic organic compounds that are degraded in soils cropped with woody species, fruit trees and other perennials. The model allows estimating the pesticide uptake by plants through the water transpiration stream and also the time in which maximum pesticide concentration occur in the fruits. The equation proposed presents the relationships between bioconcentration factor (BCF) and the following variables: plant water transpiration volume (Q), pesticide transpiration stream concentration factor (TSCF), pesticide stem-water partition coefficient (K(Wood,W)), stem dry biomass (M) and pesticide dissipation rate in the soil-plant system (k(EGS)). The modeling started and was developed from a previous model "Fruit Tree Model" (FTM), reported by Trapp and collaborators in 2003, to which was added the hypothesis that the pesticide degradation in the soil follows a first order kinetic equation. The FTM model for pesticides (FTM-p) was applied to a hypothetic mango plant cropping (Mangifera indica) treated with paclobutrazol (growth regulator) added to the soil. The model fitness was evaluated through the sensitivity analysis of the pesticide BCF values in fruits with respect to the model entry data variability.

  8. Current trends of tropical fruit waste utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheok, Choon Yoong; Mohd Adzahan, Noranizan; Abdul Rahman, Russly; Zainal Abedin, Nur Hanani; Hussain, Norhayati; Sulaiman, Rabiha; Chong, Gun Hean

    2016-05-31

    Recent rapid growth of the world's population has increased food demands. This phenomenon poses a great challenge for food manufacturers in maximizing the existing food or plant resources. Nowadays, the recovery of health benefit bioactive compounds from fruit wastes is a research trend not only to help minimize the waste burden, but also to meet the intensive demand from the public for phenolic compounds which are believed to have protective effects against chronic diseases. This review is focused on polyphenolic compounds recovery from tropical fruit wastes and its current trend of utilization. The tropical fruit wastes include in discussion are durian (Durio zibethinus), mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.), rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum), mango (Mangifera indica L.), jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus), papaya (Carica papaya), passion fruit (Passiflora edulis), dragon fruit (Hylocereus spp), and pineapple (Ananas comosus). Highlights of bioactive compounds in different parts of a tropical fruit are targeted primarily for food industries as pragmatic references to create novel innovative health enhancement food products. This information is intended to inspire further research ideas in areas that are still under-explored and for food processing manufacturers who would like to minimize wastes as the norm of present day industry (design) objective.

  9. "FruitZotic": A Sensory Approach to Introducing Preschoolers to Fresh Exotic Fruits at Head Start Locations in Western Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Srimathi; Smith, Rebecca; Foley, Christine; Del Sole, Sarah; White, Alissa; Sheldon, Lisa A.; Mietlcki-Floyd, Shirley; Severin, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    FruitZotic incorporated fruit stories (exotic-fruits-literacy), a "See, Smell, Hear, Touch and Taste" (sensory) segment and a question-prompted discussion. Three take-home components incorporating the exotic fruits were: Coloring Activity, Recipes, and Fact Sheets. Sensory based nutrition education can increase familiarity with exotic…

  10. 21 CFR 145.135 - Canned fruit cocktail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... § 145.3 are: (a) Water. (b) Fruit juice(s) and water. (c) Fruit juice(s). Such packing media may be used... juice(s) and water”; or “slightly sweetened fruit juice(s)”, as the case may be. (b) When the density of... sirup”; “lightly sweetened fruit juice(s) and water”; or “lightly sweetened fruit juice(s)”, as the......

  11. Characterization of dragon fruit (Hylocereus spp.) components with valorization potential

    OpenAIRE

    Liaotrakoon, Wijitra

    2013-01-01

    Dragon fruit (Hylocereus spp.), also known as pitaya or pitahaya, is increasingly gaining interest in many countries, including Thailand which is a country with a climate ideal for breeding different varieties of tropical and subtropical fruits in general, and dragon fruit more specifically. The benefits of dragon fruit for human health can be explained by its essential nutrients such as vitamins, minerals, complex carbohydrates, dietary fibres and antioxidants. Dragon fruit is also an essent...

  12. Modeling the response of peach fruit growth to water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Génard, M; Huguet, J G

    1996-04-01

    We applied a semi-mechanistic model of fresh matter accumulation to peach fruit during the stage of rapid mesocarp development. The model, which is based on simple hypotheses of fluid flows into and out of the fruit, assumes that solution flow into the fruit increases with fruit weight and transpiration per unit weight, and decreases with the maximum daily shrinkage of the trunk, which was used as an indicator of water stress. Fruit transpiration was assumed to increase with fruit size and with radiation. Fruit respiration was considered to be related to fruit growth and to temperature. The model simulates variability in growth among fruits according to climatic conditions, degree of water stress and weight of the fruit at the beginning of the simulation. We used data obtained from well-watered and water-stressed trees grown in containers to estimate model parameters and to test the model. There was close agreement between the simulated and measured values. A sensitivity analysis showed that initial fruit weight partly determined the variation in growth among fruits. The analysis also indicated that there was an optimal irradiance for fruit growth and that the effect of high global radiation on growth varied according to the stage of fruit development. Water stress, which was the most important factor influencing fruit growth, rapidly depressed growth, particularly when applied late in the season.

  13. Empowerment Strategy Through Salak Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sucihatiningsih Dian Wisika Prajanti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This articles aims to understand the practice of empowerment through assistance to salak farmers. The study includes 60 salak fruit farmers which are taken as the samples. Descriptive analysis is used to analyze the obtained data from the study. The research result shows that most respondents have the relative low level of empowerment. The empowerment level from business aspect explain that most of the respondent (73% are never and could not got the financial assistant to develop their business. Likewise, it could be happen in the technological access, most of the respondent (56,7% explain that in the production process the technology that used is base on traditional and hereditary. So, it is depend on labour relieves when the production and harvest process. Furthermore, the research shows that a low level of a capability to access the market information. It could be seen that most of the farmers (38,3% directly selling their product to the consumers and 33,3% sell their product to the broker. The empowerment from non economic aspect could be seen from the low ability of lobbying aspect, like the asking for a relieves from their colleagues at the local government officer (10%, financial institution like cooperation, bank and etc (25%, society figures (32,1%, employees (32,1%, non government institution/ academision (10% and a families (93,3%. To empower the farmers in order to make them sustainable, it is necessary to built a partnership by empowerment strategy. The empowerment strategy that involves industry as the farmers’ partner is carried out to improve the empowerment of the farmers of salak fruits.Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengeksplorasi praktek pemberdayaan melalui pendampingan petani buah salak. Sebanyak 60 orang petani salak diambil sebagai sampel. Analisis deskriptif telah digunakan untuk menganalisis data dalam penelitian ini. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sebagian besar masyarakat di daerah penelitian mengaku pada

  14. Glycemic Index values of some Jaffna fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selladurai Pirasath

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of diabetes mellitus has recently increased in developing countries. Scientific data on glycemic index values of common meals is essential to modify the diets for diabetes mellitus patients. This study aimed to evaluate the glycemic index (GI values of fruits such as ‘Kathali’ (Yellow plantain, ‘Kappal’ (Golden plantain, and ‘Itharai’ (Green plantain varieties of plantains, jack fruit and papaya. The results will be helpful to physicians and the general public to decide the benefits ofthe consumption of fruits, particularly by diabetic and coronary heart disease patients.Methods: Healthy volunteers (20 Nos. of 21.05(±0.92 years, 53.90 (±9.36 kg body weights, 153.92 (±9.15 m heights, and 20.55 (±2.22 kgm-2body mass indexes were selected with their written consent. After overnight fasting, 75g glucose and each test fruit containing 75g digestible carbohydrate were administered at different instances and blood glucose levels were measured half hourly for two hours. The glycemic response and GI values were calculated and analyzed by Randomized Complete Block Design using SAS analytical package.Results: The mean GI values of the ‘Kathali’, ‘Kappal’, ‘Itharai’ varieties of plantains, jack fruit and papaya were 54.45 (±9.26, 50.43 (±5.79, 48.47 (±10.13, 65.36 (±8.00 and 34.80 (±12.78 % respectively. The GI value of papaya differed significantly (P<0.05 from other fruits. The GI value of ‘Itharai’ variety of plantain differed significantly (P<0.05 from other fruits except the ‘Kappal’ varietyof plantain.Conclusion: The three varieties of plantains and papaya were low GI fruits, and jack fruit was found to be an intermediate GI fruit. The presence of dietary fiber, esp. soluble fiber, reduces the glycemicresponse and glycemic index of foods.

  15. Assessment of the water stress effects on peach fruit quality and size using a fruit tree model, QualiTree

    OpenAIRE

    Alcobendas, Rosalía; Alarcón, Juan José; VALSESIA, Pierre; Génard, Michel; Nicolás, Emilio

    2013-01-01

    Low water availability has increased the use of regulated deficit irrigation strategies in fruit orchards.However, these water restrictions may have implications on fruit growth and quality. The current paperassesses the suitability of an existing fruit tree model (QualiTree) for describing the effects of water stresson peach fruit growth and quality. The model was parameterised and calibrated for a mid-late maturingpeach cultivar (‘Catherine’). Mean and variability over time of fruit and veg...

  16. Fleshy-fruits phenology: temporal variability on quantity and quality of animal-dispersed fruits in a cerrado-savanna

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Camargo, Maria Gabriela G.; Cazetta, Eliana; Schaefer, Martin; Morellato, L. Patrícia C.

    2014-05-01

    Time and quantity and quality of fruits and seeds produced are limiting factors for the recruitment of new individuals and maintenance plant species. Furthermore, species that produced fruits dispersed by animals have an important role as a source of food for different groups of animals and relay on them to dispersed their seeds. In most of the Brazilian cerrado-savanna, as in others tropical vegetations, there is a predominance of animal-dispersed species, however there is a lack of information about fruit production and its availability over time on tropical savannas. Beyond the comprehension of fruiting patterns and their relation to biotic and abiotic factors, the fruit production over time can be associated with data on fruit quality such as the fruit color and nutritional content. Those combined informations allow us to evaluate the quantity and quality of resources available in a plant community for frugivores and seed predators. For a cerrado-savanna woody community in southeastern Brazil, subjected to a marked seasonal climate, we intended to describe: (i) fruit availability over time (in number and biomass); (ii) nutritional content; and (ii) fruit color patterns over a year. We counted fortnightly the number of ripe fruits and estimated fruit biomass over a year. For the nutritional content, we evaluated the percentage of protein, lipids and carbohydrates in the pulp or aril of fleshy-fruits. We classified fruit colors in red, black, yellow, dark-red, blue and multicolored (when the fruit display is composed by a combination of two non-green colors or more). We observed a period of the highest fruit production in the wet season, with two peaks of production, and a decline in the dry season, a possible period of scarcity. As expected, fruit nutritional content followed mainly the fruiting pattern in biomass. For lipids there was a different seasonal pattern in which lipid-rich fruits were produced mainly at the end of the wet season while fruits with less

  17. Socio-economic status and fruit juice consumption in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shupler, Matthew; Raine, Kim D

    2017-06-16

    The role of socio-economic status (SES) in fruit juice and fruit drink consumption is not well understood in a Canadian context. This study examines the relationship between SES and Canadian fruit juice and fruit drink consumption. The Canadian Community Health Survey (2011-2012), a cross-sectional survey that employs multistage cluster sampling, provided relevant data for a sample of 103 125 Canadians, aged 12 and older, living in the 10 provinces. Household income level decile, ranked at the health region level, was used as a surrogate measure of SES. Fruit juice and fruit drink consumption data were collected via self-report in telephone/in-person interviews. Multivariable gamma regression was used to model the relationship between SES and frequency of fruit juice and fruit drink consumption, adjusting for age, sex, diabetes status, daily fruit and vegetable consumption, education level, racial identity and physical activity. A negative relationship was found, with a decreasing daily rate of fruit juice and fruit drink consumption associated with increasing SES. In the adjusted model, Canadians in the lowest SES category consumed fruit juice and fruit drinks at an average daily rate 1.18 times (95% CI: 1.14-1.23) that of Canadians in the highest SES category. The negative association between health region-adjusted SES and fruit juice and fruit drink consumption highlights the potentially important role of socio-economic factors at a local level. Canadian policy that aims to lower fruit juice and fruit drink consumption, and thus sugar intake, should target financial avenues (such as making fruit juice less financially attractive by lowering the cost of whole fruit and vegetables) in addition to communicating health benefits.

  18. Determination of fruit characteristics, fatty acid profile and total antioxidant capacity of Mespilus germanica L. fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hale Seçilmiş Canbay

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine fruit characteristics, fatty acid profile and total antioxidant capacitiy of first cultured Mespilus germanica L. Methods: A total of 15 fruits were taken randomly from four directions of adult trees. Then the physical and chemical properties of first cultured medlar fruit (Istanbul/Turkey were measured by using refractometer, colorimeter, spectrophotometer and gas chromatograph mass spectrometer, respectivly. Results: In the fruit studied, the results showed that palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, arachidic acid and behenic acid were the most abundant fatty acids (FAs, and the main FA was palmitic acid [(35.35 ± 1.20%]. The percentage of linoleic acid and stearic acid in this fruit oil were (29.10 ± 1.70% and (8.53 ± 0.25%, respectively. As a result of the analysis, the total antioxidant capacity of medlar fruit was (1.1 ± 0.2 mmol trolox equivalents/L. Conclusions: The present study has demonstrated the concentrations of FAs and the antioxidantive capacity of first cultured Istanbul medlar fruits by using many tested methods. It is proved that in our daily life, medlar fruit plays a significant role with its nutrition and health effect.

  19. Using implicit associations towards fruit consumption to understand fruit consumption behaviour and habit strength relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, G.-J.; Keer, M.; Conner, M.; Rhodes, R.

    2012-01-01

    An implicit association test (IAT) was used to investigate how habit strength, implicit attitudes and fruit consumption interrelate. Fifty-two participants completed a computerized IAT and provided measures of fruit consumption and related habit strength. Implicit attitudes moderated the habit

  20. Using implicit associations towards fruit consumption to understand fruit consumption behaviour and habit strength relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, G.-J.; Keer, M.; Conner, M.; Rhodes, R.

    2012-01-01

    An implicit association test (IAT) was used to investigate how habit strength, implicit attitudes and fruit consumption interrelate. Fifty-two participants completed a computerized IAT and provided measures of fruit consumption and related habit strength. Implicit attitudes moderated the habit stren

  1. Assessment of the strategies of organic fruit production and fruit drying in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier Pillot

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic agriculture in Uganda is developing at a fast pace and despite this trend Uganda is still unable to produce enough fresh and dry organic fruits mainly pineapple to meet the exporters demand. This current research investigated the strategies of farmers at production level by assessing the pros and cons of fruit growing, organic agriculture and fruit drying in order to understand the underlying causal factor for the low production of organic dry fruits in a major fruit producing district of Uganda.The study was carried out in two separate and distinctive areas; one which only produces and export fresh organic pineapple and the other which exports dried fruits (mainly pineapple and papaya. About 10% of the farmers in the two study areas were surveyed using questionnaires which were further followed by semi-structured interviews and participatory rural appraisals activities with various types of farmers in order to understand the different decisions and strategies of farmers.82% and 74% of farmers in the two study areas grew fruits as it gave better economic returns and for 77% and 90% respectively in the two study areas, the reasons for growing fruit was the ease of selling compared to other crops. All the farmers were relying on coffee husk for growing organic pineapples. However, 50% of the farmers want to grow pineapples (either organic or conventional but couldn't afford to buy coffee husk. Fruit drying was mainly a strategy to utilize cheap fruits during harvesting seasons for value addition. 71% and 42% of farmers in the two study areas wanted to dry fruits but it was beyond their economic capacity to buy the driers.Decision of the farmers whether to grow fruits or cereals, organic or conventional agriculture and selling the fruits as fresh or dry were dependent mainly on the economic, knowledge and resource availability of each type of practices. It is concluded that the main barrier for an increase in the production of organic dried

  2. Influence of fruit ripening acceleration measures on flowering and fruiting of small-sized tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Dobromilska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigations were carried out in 2001-2003 at the Horticulture Experimental Station, University of Agriculture in Szczecin. The influence of truss cutting and application of Ethrel preparation on the flowering and acceleration of ripening of small-sized tomato fruit was studied. The experiment focused on the following factors: methods of acceleration of tomato fruit ripening (truss cutting, Ethrel preparation, truss cutting + Ethrel preparation and tomato cultivars ('Cheresita F1', 'Favorita F1'. The applied methods had no influence on the number of flowers and germs of the small-sized tomato. The truss cutting increased the percentage of set fruits compared to the number of flowers. The application of Ethrel preparation along with truss cutting significantly increased the early yield of tomato fruits. The Ethrel and truss cutting accelerated the small-sized tomato harvesting by 12 days. Cv. 'Cheresita F1' produced a larger number of flowers, germs and fruits than 'Favorita F1'.

  3. Potential health benefits and quality of dried fruits: Goji fruits, cranberries and raisins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeszka-Skowron, Magdalena; Zgoła-Grześkowiak, Agnieszka; Stanisz, Ewa; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka

    2017-04-15

    Dried fruits are important snacks and additives to other foods due to their taste and nutritional advantages. Therefore there is an important goal to control the quality of the food on the market for consumer's safety. Antioxidant activity of goji fruits (Lycium barbarum), cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon and oxycoccus) and raisins (Vitis vinifera) were studied using the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and Folin-Ciocalteu assays. Cu, Mn and Ge influencing antioxidant activity were determined together with selected toxic metals (Cd, Ni and Pb). Contamination with fungi was studied by quantification of their marker - ergosterol and important mycotoxins (aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2, and ochratoxin A) were also determined. Antioxidant activity of all tested dried fruits was confirmed with goji fruits being the most profitable for consumers. Contamination of the tested fruits with toxic metals and mycotoxins was low. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The positive effect of skin transpiration in peach fruit growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandi, Brunella; Manfrini, Luigi; Losciale, Pasquale; Zibordi, Marco; Corelli-Grappadelli, Luca

    2010-09-01

    The effect of fruit transpiration on the mechanisms driving peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) daily growth was investigated. In peach, fruit water losses increase during the season and might play a key role in determining fruit growth. Skin transpiration was reduced during the cell expansion stage by enclosing fruit in plastic bags fitted with holes. In the first year, diameter changes of bagged and control fruit were precisely monitored for 15 days, and percentage dry matter and soluble solids content were determined during the experiment and at harvest. In the second year, midday fruit water potential, daily patterns of fruit growth and of vascular and transpiration flows were monitored. Bagging reduced fruit daily growth on some days, and negatively affected both fruit dry matter percentage and soluble solids content. Fruit transpiration rate was reduced during the midday hours, thus increasing midday fruit water potential and lowering xylem inflows. In accordance with the Münch hypothesis on traslocation, these conditions likely decreased the necessary gradient needed for the transport of phloem sap to sink organs, as in the afternoon, bagged fruit showed lower phloem inflows. These data suggest that skin transpiration in peach has a positive effect on fruit growth, as it enhances fruit phloem import.

  5. Susceptibility of low-chill blueberry cultivars to Mediterranean fruit fly, oriental fruit fly, and melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follett, Peter A; Zee, Francis T; Hamasaki, Randall T; Hummer, Kim; Nakamoto, Stuart T

    2011-04-01

    No-choice tests were conducted to determine whether fruit of southern highbush blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum L., hybrids are hosts for three invasive tephritid fruit flies in Hawaii. Fruit of various blueberry cultivars was exposed to gravid female flies of Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (oriental fruit fly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Mediterranean fruit fly), or Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillet (melon fly) in screen cages outdoors for 6 h and then held on sand in the laboratory for 2 wk for pupal development and adult emergence. Each of the 15 blueberry cultivars tested were infested by oriental fruit fly and Mediterranean fruit fly, confirming that these fruit flies will oviposit on blueberry fruit and that blueberry is a suitable host for fly development. However, there was significant cultivar variation in susceptibility to fruit fly infestation. For oriental fruit fly, 'Sapphire' fruit produced an average of 1.42 puparia per g, twice as high as that of the next most susceptible cultivar 'Emerald' (0.70 puparia per g). 'Legacy', 'Biloxi', and 'Spring High' were least susceptible to infestation, producing only 0.20-0.25 oriental fruit fly puparia per g of fruit. For Mediterranean fruit fly, 'Blue Crisp' produced 0.50 puparia per g of fruit, whereas 'Sharpblue' produced only 0.03 puparia per g of fruit. Blueberry was a marginal host for melon fly. This information will aid in development of pest management recommendations for blueberry cultivars as planting of low-chill cultivars expands to areas with subtropical and tropical fruit flies. Planting of fruit fly resistant cultivars may result in lower infestation levels and less crop loss.

  6. Dried fruits quality assessment by hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serranti, Silvia; Gargiulo, Aldo; Bonifazi, Giuseppe

    2012-05-01

    Dried fruits products present different market values according to their quality. Such a quality is usually quantified in terms of freshness of the products, as well as presence of contaminants (pieces of shell, husk, and small stones), defects, mould and decays. The combination of these parameters, in terms of relative presence, represent a fundamental set of attributes conditioning dried fruits humans-senses-detectable-attributes (visual appearance, organolectic properties, etc.) and their overall quality in terms of marketable products. Sorting-selection strategies exist but sometimes they fail when a higher degree of detection is required especially if addressed to discriminate between dried fruits of relatively small dimensions and when aiming to perform an "early detection" of pathogen agents responsible of future moulds and decays development. Surface characteristics of dried fruits can be investigated by hyperspectral imaging (HSI). In this paper, specific and "ad hoc" applications addressed to propose quality detection logics, adopting a hyperspectral imaging (HSI) based approach, are described, compared and critically evaluated. Reflectance spectra of selected dried fruits (hazelnuts) of different quality and characterized by the presence of different contaminants and defects have been acquired by a laboratory device equipped with two HSI systems working in two different spectral ranges: visible-near infrared field (400-1000 nm) and near infrared field (1000-1700 nm). The spectra have been processed and results evaluated adopting both a simple and fast wavelength band ratio approach and a more sophisticated classification logic based on principal component (PCA) analysis.

  7. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of common fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jie; Chu, Yi-Fang; Wu, Xianzhong; Liu, Rui Hai

    2002-12-01

    Consumption of fruits and vegetables has been associated with reduced risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. Phytochemicals, especially phenolics, in fruits and vegetables are suggested to be the major bioactive compounds for the health benefits. However, the phenolic contents and their antioxidant activities in fruits and vegetables were underestimated in the literature, because bound phenolics were not included. This study was designed to investigate the profiles of total phenolics, including both soluble free and bound forms in common fruits, by applying solvent extraction, base digestion, and solid-phase extraction methods. Cranberry had the highest total phenolic content, followed by apple, red grape, strawberry, pineapple, banana, peach, lemon, orange, pear, and grapefruit. Total antioxidant activity was measured using the TOSC assay. Cranberry had the highest total antioxidant activity (177.0 +/- 4.3 micromol of vitamin C equiv/g of fruit), followed by apple, red grape, strawberry, peach, lemon, pear, banana, orange, grapefruit, and pineapple. Antiproliferation activities were also studied in vitro using HepG(2) human liver-cancer cells, and cranberry showed the highest inhibitory effect with an EC(50) of 14.5 +/- 0.5 mg/mL, followed by lemon, apple, strawberry, red grape, banana, grapefruit, and peach. A bioactivity index (BI) for dietary cancer prevention is proposed to provide a new alternative biomarker for future epidemiological studies in dietary cancer prevention and health promotion.

  8. Metabolic engineering of aroma components in fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragüez, Irene; Valpuesta, Victoriano

    2013-10-01

    Plants have the ability to produce a diversity of volatile metabolites, which attract pollinators and seed dispersers and strengthen plant defense responses. Selection by plant breeders of traits such as rapid growth and yield leads, in many cases, to the loss of flavor and aroma quality in crops. How the aroma can be improved without affecting other fruit attributes is a major unsolved issue. Significant advances in metabolic engineering directed at improving the set of volatiles that the fruits emit has been aided by the characterization of enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of flavor and aroma compounds in some fruits. However, before this technology can be successfully applied to modulate the production of volatiles in different crops, further basic research is needed on the mechanisms that lead to the production of these compounds in plants. Here we review the biosynthesis and function of volatile compounds in plants, and the attempts that have been made to manipulate fruit aroma biosynthesis by metabolic engineering. In addition, we discuss the possibilities that molecular breeding offers for aroma enhancement and the implications of the latest advances in biotechnological modification of fruit flavor and aroma.

  9. Proteomic responses of fruits to environmental stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhulong eChan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruits and vegetables are extremely susceptible to decay and easily lose commercial value after harvest. Different strategies have been developed to control postharvest decay and prevent quality deterioration during postharvest storage, including cold storage, controlled atmosphere, and application of biotic and abiotic stimulus. In this review, mechanisms related to protein level responses of host side and pathogen side were characterized. Protein extraction protocols have been successfully developed for recalcitrant, low protein content fruit tissues. Comparative proteome profiling and functional analysis revealed that defense related proteins, energy metabolism and antioxidant pathway played important roles in fruits in response to storage conditions and exogenous elicitor treatments. Secretome of pathogenic fungi has been well investigated and the results indicated that hydrolytic enzymes were the key virulent factors for the pathogen infection. These protein level changes shed new light on interaction among fruits, pathogens and environmental conditions. Potential postharvest strategies to reduce risk of fruit decay were further proposed based on currently available proteomic data.

  10. Wolbachia in Anastrepha fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscrato, Virginia E; Braz, Antônio S K; P Perondini, André L; Selivon, Denise; Marino, Celso L

    2009-09-01

    Endosymbiotic bacteria of the genus Wolbachia are widespread among arthropods and cause a variety of reproductive abnormalities, such as cytoplasmic incompatibility, thelytokous parthenogenesis, male-killing, and host feminization. In this study, we used three sets of Wolbachia-specific primers (16S rDNA, ftsZ, and wsp) in conjunction with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), cloning and sequencing to study the infection of fruit flies (Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata) by Wolbachia. The flies were collected at several localities in Brazil and at Guayaquil, Ecuador. All of the fruit flies studied were infected with Wolbachia supergroup A, in agreement with the high prevalence of this group in South America. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the wsp gene was the most sensitive gene for studying the relationships among Wolbachia strains. The Wolbachia sequences detected in these fruit flies were similar to those such as wMel reported for other fruit flies. These results show that the infection of Anastrepha fruit flies by Wolbachia is much more widespread than previously thought.

  11. Color back projection for fruit maturity evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Lee, Dah-Jye; Desai, Alok

    2013-12-01

    In general, fruits and vegetables such as tomatoes and dates are harvested before they fully ripen. After harvesting, they continue to ripen and their color changes. Color is a good indicator of fruit maturity. For example, tomatoes change color from dark green to light green and then pink, light red, and dark red. Assessing tomato maturity helps maximize its shelf life. Color is used to determine the length of time the tomatoes can be transported. Medjool dates change color from green to yellow, and the orange, light red and dark red. Assessing date maturity helps determine the length of drying process to help ripen the dates. Color evaluation is an important step in the processing and inventory control of fruits and vegetables that directly affects profitability. This paper presents an efficient color back projection and image processing technique that is designed specifically for real-time maturity evaluation of fruits. This color processing method requires very simple training procedure to obtain the frequencies of colors that appear in each maturity stage. This color statistics is used to back project colors to predefined color indexes. Fruit maturity is then evaluated by analyzing the reprojected color indexes. This method has been implemented and used for commercial production.

  12. Hygroscopic behavior of buriti (Mauritia flexuosa fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington dos Santos Melo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to perform an analysis of the characterization of buriti fruit (Mauritia flexuosa. Each part of the fruit (peel, pulp, and fibrous part was analyzed and their hygroscopic behavior was evaluated to establish the drying and storage conditions. Adsorption and desorption isotherms were obtained at 25 °C to the monolayer value was estimated, and the application of the Halsey, Handerson, Kuhn, Mizrahi, Oswin, Smith, BET, and GAB models was evaluated to the prediction of the isotherms. The fruit pulp was classified as rich in high quality oil, and like the peel and the fibrous part, it was also considered as rich in dietary fiber. The isotherms of the fruit parts were classified as type II, and their microbiological stability (a w < 0.6 can be maintained at 25 °C if the moisture content is lower than 8.5, 7.3, and 11.0 g H2O.100 g-1 of dry matter (d.m., respectively. The hygroscopic behavior showed that in order to ensure stability, the fruit parts should be packaged with low water vapor permeability. The monolayer demonstrated that the peel, pulp, and the fibrous part cannot be dried under moisture content lower than 5.9, 5.0, and 6.4 g H2O.100 g-1 d.m., respectively. GAB was the most adequate model to describe their isotherms.

  13. Social attraction mediated by fruit flies' microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venu, Isvarya; Durisko, Zachary; Xu, Jianping; Dukas, Reuven

    2014-04-15

    Larval and adult fruit flies are attracted to volatiles emanating from food substrates that have been occupied by larvae. We tested whether such volatiles are emitted by the larval gut bacteria by conducting tests under bacteria-free (axenic) conditions. We also tested attraction to two bacteria species, Lactobacillus brevis, which we cultured from larvae in our lab, and L. plantarum, a common constituent of fruit flies' microbiome in other laboratory populations and in wild fruit flies. Neither larvae nor adults showed attraction to axenic food that had been occupied by axenic larvae, but both showed the previously reported attraction to standard food that had been occupied by larvae with an intact microbiome. Larvae also showed significant attraction to volatiles from axenic food and larvae to which we added only either L. brevis or L. plantarum, and volatiles from L. brevis reared on its optimal growth medium. Controlled learning experiments indicated that larvae experienced with both standard and axenic used food do not perceive either as superior, while focal larvae experienced with simulated used food, which contains burrows, perceive it as superior to unused food. Our results suggest that flies rely on microbiome-derived volatiles for long-distance attraction to suitable food patches. Under natural settings, fruits often contain harmful fungi and bacteria, and both L. brevis and L. plantarum produce compounds that suppress the growth of some antagonistic fungi and bacteria. The larval microbiome volatiles may therefore lead prospective fruit flies towards substrates with a hospitable microbial environment.

  14. 40 CFR 180.511 - Buprofezin; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... byproducts 20.0 Cotton, undelinted seed 0.35 Custard apple 0.30 Feijoa 0.30 Fruit, citrus, group 10 2.5 Fruit... 6.0 Loganberry 0.30 Lychee 0.30 Mango 0.90 Milk 0.01 Okra 4.0 Olive 3.5 Olive, oil 4.8 Papaya...

  15. Genetic diversity analysis of fruit characteristics of hawthorn germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, K; Guo, Y S; Wang, G; Zhao, Y H; Dong, W X

    2015-12-07

    One hundred and six accessions of hawthorn intraspecific resources, from the National Germplasm Repository at Shenyang, were subjected to genetic diversity and principal component analysis based on evaluation data of 15 fruit traits. Results showed that the genetic diversity of hawthorn fruit traits varied. Among the 15 traits, the fruit shape variable coefficient had the most obvious evaluation, followed by fruit surface state, dot color, taste, weight of single fruit, sepal posture, peduncle form, and metula traits. These are the primary traits by which hawthorn could be classified in the future. The principal component demonstrated that these traits are the most influential factors of hawthorn fruit characteristics.

  16. Fruit and Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Allan Stubbe; Viggers, Lone; Gregersen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    Health professionals often advise subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D) to restrict fruit intake. We show here that there is no supportive scientific evidence for this. At least 19 studies have tested intake of fruit on postprandial glucose in T2D. Only two long-term intervention studies have...... investigated the impact of fruit intake on glycemic control in T2D. The studies show that fruit has neutral or positive glycemic effects. By restraining fruit intake, T2D subjects add an additional risk of disease and premature death. Further, there is no evidence to support that fructose contained in fruit...

  17. Pepper Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Preferences for Specific Pepper Cultivars, Plant Parts, Fruit Colors, Fruit Sizes, and Timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Dakshina R; Martin, Cliff G

    2016-03-04

    Peppers (Capsicum spp.) are an important crop in the USA, with about 32,000 ha cultivated in 2007, which resulted in $588 million in farm revenue. The pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most troublesome insect pest of peppers in the southern United States. It is therefore urgent to find different vulnerabilities of pepper cultivars, fruit and plants parts, fruit colors and sizes, and timing to infestation by A. eugenii. Also relevant is testing whether fruit length and infestation state affect fruit numbers, weights, and proportions of fruit that are infested. Counts of A. eugenii adults and marks from oviposition and feeding suggested that C. chinense Jacquin "Habanero" was least susceptible, and C. annuum L. cultivars "SY" and "SR" were most susceptible. Comparison of plant parts and fruit sizes revealed that A. eugenii preferred the peduncle, calyx, and top of pepper fruits over the middle, bottom, leaves, or remainder of flowers. Anthonomus eugenii does not discriminate between green or yellow fruit color nor vary diurnally in numbers. Based on adult counts, medium to extra-large fruits (≥1.5 cm long) attracted more weevils than small fruits (eugenii by reduced susceptibility or by synchronous fruit drop of infested fruits. Our results are potentially helpful in developing scouting programs including paying particular attention to the preferred locations of adults and their sites of feeding and oviposition on the fruit. The results also suggested the potential value of spraying when the fruits are still immature to prevent and control infestation.

  18. Nutritional composition of minor indigenous fruits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shajib, Md. Tariqul Islam; Kawser, Mahbuba; Miah, Md. Nuruddin

    2013-01-01

    In line of the development of a food composition database for Bangladesh, 10 minor indigenous fruits were analysed for their nutrient composition comprising ascorbic acid, carotenoids and mineral values. Nutrient data obtained have been compared with published data reported in different literatures......, book and United States Department of Agriculture-National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference. Ascorbic acid was highest in Wood apple and lowest in Roselle. Monkey jack contained the highest amount of carotenoids, zinc and copper. Content of calcium, magnesium and phosphorous were found highest...... values of these minor fruits would make awareness among the people for their mass consumption for healthy life and to grow more minor fruit trees from extinction in order to maintain biodiversity....

  19. Flavonoids as fruit and vegetable intake biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogholm, Kirstine Suszkiewicz

    Most validation studies show that the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) is rather low in precision and accuracy, and there is an ongoing debate regarding the applicability of such self-reported data with regard to diet-disease relationships. However, no other method has so far been able to replace...... of fruit and vegetable intakes. In Paper I, the urinary recovery of the 7 flavonoids in morning spot urine (i.e. all urine voids from midnight including the first morning void) was also found to respond to moderate increases in the intake of fruits and vegetables. However, the association was somewhat...... weaker than in 24h urine samples, indicating that the 24h urinary recovery of the 7 flavonoids is a stronger biomarker of the intake of fruit and vegetables than the urinary recovery of the 7 flavonoids in morning spot urine. In Paper II, the biokinetic profiles of some of the most important dietary...

  20. Bioactive Compounds Found in Brazilian Cerrado Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso Bailão

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Functional foods include any natural product that presents health-promoting effects, thereby reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Cerrado fruits are considered a source of bioactive substances, mainly phenolic compounds, making them important functional foods. Despite this, the losses of natural vegetation in the Cerrado are progressive. Hence, the knowledge propagation about the importance of the species found in Cerrado could contribute to the preservation of this biome. This review provides information about Cerrado fruits and highlights the structures and pharmacologic potential of functional compounds found in these fruits. Compounds detected in Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (pequi, Dipteryx alata Vog. (baru, Eugenia dysenterica DC. (cagaita, Eugenia uniflora L. (pitanga, Genipa americana L. (jenipapo, Hancornia speciosa Gomes (mangaba, Mauritia flexuosa L.f. (buriti, Myrciaria cauliflora (DC Berg (jabuticaba, Psidium guajava L. (goiaba, Psidium spp. (araçá, Solanum lycocarpum St. Hill (lobeira, Spondias mombin L. (cajá, Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum, among others are reported here.

  1. Bioactive Compounds Found in Brazilian Cerrado Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailão, Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso; Devilla, Ivano Alessandro; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso; Borges, Leonardo Luiz

    2015-10-09

    Functional foods include any natural product that presents health-promoting effects, thereby reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Cerrado fruits are considered a source of bioactive substances, mainly phenolic compounds, making them important functional foods. Despite this, the losses of natural vegetation in the Cerrado are progressive. Hence, the knowledge propagation about the importance of the species found in Cerrado could contribute to the preservation of this biome. This review provides information about Cerrado fruits and highlights the structures and pharmacologic potential of functional compounds found in these fruits. Compounds detected in Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (pequi), Dipteryx alata Vog. (baru), Eugenia dysenterica DC. (cagaita), Eugenia uniflora L. (pitanga), Genipa americana L. (jenipapo), Hancornia speciosa Gomes (mangaba), Mauritia flexuosa L.f. (buriti), Myrciaria cauliflora (DC) Berg (jabuticaba), Psidium guajava L. (goiaba), Psidium spp. (araçá), Solanum lycocarpum St. Hill (lobeira), Spondias mombin L. (cajá), Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum), among others are reported here.

  2. Gibberellic acid contribution to tomato fruit size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Antonio Ayub

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of assessing the behavior of tomato fruits subjected to increasing concentrations of gibberellic acid (GA3, research was carried out in the municipality of Irati, Paraná State, Brazil, within a commercial area of tomato crops, cultivar Fanny, in September under the crossing fence system with a single branch per plant. The adopted treatments were as follows: 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120ppm of GA3, applied whenever the diameter of the fi rst fruits of the second clusters reached roughly 10 mm. At harvest when the fruits had achieved 30 to 50% of reddish color, the fresh mass, length, and longitudinal and transversal diameters were measured. The application of 120ppm of GA3 provided maximum fresh mass and dimensions.

  3. Bacterial contamination of cucumber fruit through adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reina, Laura D; Fleming, Henry P; Breidt, Frederick

    2002-12-01

    In this study, the adhesion of bacteria to fresh cucumber surfaces in aqueous suspension was shown to be dependent on time of incubation, inoculum species and concentration, and temperature. The adhesion of bacteria to the fruit in wash water was less extensive at lower temperatures and shorter exposure times. Various species of bacteria were adsorbed to cucumber surfaces in the following relative order: Salmonella Typhimurium > Staphylococcus aureus > Lactobacillus plantarum > Listeria monocytogenes. Cells were adsorbed at all temperatures tested (5, 15, 25, and 35 degrees C) at levels that depended on incubation time, but the numbers of cells adsorbed were larger at higher incubation temperatures. Levels of adhesion of bacteria to dewaxed fruit were higher for L. monocytogenes and lower for Salmonella Typhimurium, L. plantarum, and S. aureus than were levels of adhesion to waxed fruit.

  4. DeepFruits: A Fruit Detection System Using Deep Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, Inkyu; Ge, Zongyuan; Dayoub, Feras; Upcroft, Ben; Perez, Tristan; McCool, Chris

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to fruit detection using deep convolutional neural networks. The aim is to build an accurate, fast and reliable fruit detection system, which is a vital element of an autonomous agricultural robotic platform; it is a key element for fruit yield estimation and automated harvesting. Recent work in deep neural networks has led to the development of a state-of-the-art object detector termed Faster Region-based CNN (Faster R-CNN). We adapt this model, through transfer learning, for the task of fruit detection using imagery obtained from two modalities: colour (RGB) and Near-Infrared (NIR). Early and late fusion methods are explored for combining the multi-modal (RGB and NIR) information. This leads to a novel multi-modal Faster R-CNN model, which achieves state-of-the-art results compared to prior work with the F1 score, which takes into account both precision and recall performances improving from 0.807 to 0.838 for the detection of sweet pepper. In addition to improved accuracy, this approach is also much quicker to deploy for new fruits, as it requires bounding box annotation rather than pixel-level annotation (annotating bounding boxes is approximately an order of magnitude quicker to perform). The model is retrained to perform the detection of seven fruits, with the entire process taking four hours to annotate and train the new model per fruit. PMID:27527168

  5. DeepFruits: A Fruit Detection System Using Deep Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, Inkyu; Ge, Zongyuan; Dayoub, Feras; Upcroft, Ben; Perez, Tristan; McCool, Chris

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to fruit detection using deep convolutional neural networks. The aim is to build an accurate, fast and reliable fruit detection system, which is a vital element of an autonomous agricultural robotic platform; it is a key element for fruit yield estimation and automated harvesting. Recent work in deep neural networks has led to the development of a state-of-the-art object detector termed Faster Region-based CNN (Faster R-CNN). We adapt this model, through transfer learning, for the task of fruit detection using imagery obtained from two modalities: colour (RGB) and Near-Infrared (NIR). Early and late fusion methods are explored for combining the multi-modal (RGB and NIR) information. This leads to a novel multi-modal Faster R-CNN model, which achieves state-of-the-art results compared to prior work with the F1 score, which takes into account both precision and recall performances improving from 0 . 807 to 0 . 838 for the detection of sweet pepper. In addition to improved accuracy, this approach is also much quicker to deploy for new fruits, as it requires bounding box annotation rather than pixel-level annotation (annotating bounding boxes is approximately an order of magnitude quicker to perform). The model is retrained to perform the detection of seven fruits, with the entire process taking four hours to annotate and train the new model per fruit.

  6. Phenolic compounds in hawthorn (Crataegus grayana) fruits and leaves and changes during fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pengzhan; Kallio, Heikki; Yang, Baoru

    2011-10-26

    Phenolics in the fruits and leaves of Crataegus grayana were identified by HPLC-UV-ESI-MS. The contents of these compounds and their changes during autumn were also analyzed. Epicatechin [1-7 mg/g dry mass (DM) in fruits and 1-10 mg/g DM in leaves), procyanidins B2 (2-4 and 1-8 mg/g DM) and C1 (2-4 and 1-8 mg/g DM), hyperoside (0.5-1 and 2-11 mg/g DM), and a quercetin-pentoside (0.3-0.5 and 2-6 mg/g DM) were the major phenolics in both fruits and leaves. C-Glycosyl flavones were present in leaves (2-5 mg/g DM), whereas only trace levels were found in fruits. Ideain and 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid were found only in fruits. An additional 11 phenolics were identified/tentatively identified. Total phenolic contents reached highest levels by the end of August in fruits and by the end of September in leaves. The compositional profiles of phenolics in fruits and leaves of C. grayana were different from those of other Crataegus species.

  7. DeepFruits: A Fruit Detection System Using Deep Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inkyu Sa

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel approach to fruit detection using deep convolutional neural networks. The aim is to build an accurate, fast and reliable fruit detection system, which is a vital element of an autonomous agricultural robotic platform; it is a key element for fruit yield estimation and automated harvesting. Recent work in deep neural networks has led to the development of a state-of-the-art object detector termed Faster Region-based CNN (Faster R-CNN. We adapt this model, through transfer learning, for the task of fruit detection using imagery obtained from two modalities: colour (RGB and Near-Infrared (NIR. Early and late fusion methods are explored for combining the multi-modal (RGB and NIR information. This leads to a novel multi-modal Faster R-CNN model, which achieves state-of-the-art results compared to prior work with the F1 score, which takes into account both precision and recall performances improving from 0 . 807 to 0 . 838 for the detection of sweet pepper. In addition to improved accuracy, this approach is also much quicker to deploy for new fruits, as it requires bounding box annotation rather than pixel-level annotation (annotating bounding boxes is approximately an order of magnitude quicker to perform. The model is retrained to perform the detection of seven fruits, with the entire process taking four hours to annotate and train the new model per fruit.

  8. Using genomics to improve fruit quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Claudio; Orellana, Ariel

    2013-01-01

    New fruit varieties are needed to satisfy consumers, and the industry is facing new challenges in order to respond to these demands. The emergence of genomic tools is releasing information on polymorphisms that can be utilized to expedite breeding processes in species that are difficult to breed, given the long periods of time required to get new varieties. The present review describes the current stages of the ongoing efforts that are being taken to apply these technologies to obtain varieties with improved fruit quality in species of the family Rosaceae.

  9. Solar drying of jack fruit almonds

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre J. de M. Queiroz; Dantas,Hermeval J; Figueirêdo,Rossana M. F. de; Karla dos S Melo

    2011-01-01

    Dryers heated by solar energy have been constructed and used in drying whole and half jack fruit almonds. The samples were dried during the day in direct sun and in the conventional solar dryer prepared for this purpose. Another piece of equipment was built for reception and accumulation of sun energy in a body of water, which was used as a heat source for night drying. The drying with the sun energy was compared with artificial drying. The jack fruit almonds were dried whole, half, with pell...

  10. Fungal infections of Adonis vernalis L. fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljaljević-Grbić Milica V.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Yellow pheasant´s Eye is a herbaceous plant from dry ressy areas. Owing to habitat destruction and over- collection for ornamental and medical purposes A. vernalis L. has became scarce in central and south Europe. The reasons for A. vernalis threatened are manyfold. The low seeds germination rate is significant. According to our investigation the main cause of fruit destruction is fungal infection. From the surface of the fruits, collected in Deliblato Sands, the following micromycetes has been isolated and determinated: Fusarium solani (Mart Sacc., Fusarium sporotrichioides Sherb., Alternaria sp. and Drechslera sp. Histologycal analysis showed the presence of conidiomata and conidia Phoma sp. in the seeds.

  11. Gibberellins control fruit patterning in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, Nicolas; Girin, Thomas; Sorefan, Karim; Fuentes, Sara; Wood, Thomas A; Lawrenson, Tom; Sablowski, Robert; Østergaard, Lars

    2010-10-01

    The Arabidopsis basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins INDEHISCENT (IND) and ALCATRAZ (ALC) specify tissues required for fruit opening that have major roles in seed dispersal and plant domestication. Here, we show that synthesis of the phytohormone gibberellin is a direct and necessary target of IND, and that ALC interacts directly with DELLA repressors, which antagonize ALC function but are destabilized by gibberellin. Thus, the gibberellin/DELLA pathway has a key role in patterning the Arabidopsis fruit, and the interaction between DELLA and bHLH proteins, previously shown to connect gibberellin and light responses, is a versatile regulatory module also used in tissue patterning.

  12. A fruit quality gene map of Prunus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bliss Fredrick A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prunus fruit development, growth, ripening, and senescence includes major biochemical and sensory changes in texture, color, and flavor. The genetic dissection of these complex processes has important applications in crop improvement, to facilitate maximizing and maintaining stone fruit quality from production and processing through to marketing and consumption. Here we present an integrated fruit quality gene map of Prunus containing 133 genes putatively involved in the determination of fruit texture, pigmentation, flavor, and chilling injury resistance. Results A genetic linkage map of 211 markers was constructed for an intraspecific peach (Prunus persica progeny population, Pop-DG, derived from a canning peach cultivar 'Dr. Davis' and a fresh market cultivar 'Georgia Belle'. The Pop-DG map covered 818 cM of the peach genome and included three morphological markers, 11 ripening candidate genes, 13 cold-responsive genes, 21 novel EST-SSRs from the ChillPeach database, 58 previously reported SSRs, 40 RAFs, 23 SRAPs, 14 IMAs, and 28 accessory markers from candidate gene amplification. The Pop-DG map was co-linear with the Prunus reference T × E map, with 39 SSR markers in common to align the maps. A further 158 markers were bin-mapped to the reference map: 59 ripening candidate genes, 50 cold-responsive genes, and 50 novel EST-SSRs from ChillPeach, with deduced locations in Pop-DG via comparative mapping. Several candidate genes and EST-SSRs co-located with previously reported major trait loci and quantitative trait loci for chilling injury symptoms in Pop-DG. Conclusion The candidate gene approach combined with bin-mapping and availability of a community-recognized reference genetic map provides an efficient means of locating genes of interest in a target genome. We highlight the co-localization of fruit quality candidate genes with previously reported fruit quality QTLs. The fruit quality gene map developed here is a

  13. Biological effects of fruit and vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, L. O.; Krath, B.; Ravn-Haren, Gitte

    2006-01-01

    , providing 600hairspg fruit and vegetables/d or in the controls a carbohydrate-rich drink to balance energy intake. Surrogate markers of oxidative damage to DNA, protein and lipids, enzymic defence and lipid metabolism were determined in blood and urine. It was found that a high intake of fruit......, enzyme inducers, apoptosis inducers etc. In human intervention studies the dose levels achieved tend to be lower than the levels found to be effective in animals and sampling from target organs is often not possible. A controlled dietary human intervention study was performed with forty-three volunteers...

  14. Occurrence, characterization and management of fruit rot of immature cucumber fruits under arid greenhouse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDULLAH M AL-SADI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken to characterize and manage pathogens associated with fruit rot of immature cucumber fruits in greenhouses in Oman. A survey over 5 growing seasons from 2008 to 2010 in 99 different greenhouses in Oman showed that the disease is prevalent in 91 (92% greenhouses and results in losses of 10 to 60% (avg. 33% of immature fruits per plant. Incidence of the disease was not found to be affected by growing seasons, which could be attributed to the limited fluctuations in ambient temperatures in greenhouses. Isolations from diseased cucumber fruits yielded Alternaria alternata (isolation frequency = 52%, Fusarium equiseti (40%, Cladosporium tenuissium (27%, Botrytis cinerea (6%, Fusarium solani (6%, Corynespora cassiicola (3%, Aspergillus spp. (2%, Curvularia sp. (1% and Bipolaris sp. (1%. With the exception of Curvularia and Bipolaris species, all other fungi were pathogenic on cucumber fruits, with Fusarium equiseti being the most aggressive, followed by Corynespora cassiicola, Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria alternata. Cladosporium and Aspergillus spp. were found to be weakly pathogenic. Comparing the efficacy of foliar and soil applications of carbendazim fungicide on fruit rot of cucumber showed that foliar applications significantly reduced fruit rot and increased cucumber yield when compared to soil application or to control (P < 0.01. This appears to be the first report of the association of Corynespora cassiicola and Fusarium equiseti with fruit rot of immature greenhouse cucumbers. This is also the first report in Oman for the association of Cladosporium tenuissimum with fruit rot of immature cucumbers. Findings are discussed in terms of factors affecting disease control in greenhouses using carbendazim.

  15. 浊点萃取-热喷雾火焰炉原子吸收光谱法测定荔枝和桂圆肉中痕量Pb和Cd%Determination of Lead and Cadmium in Litchi and Longan Samples by Cloud Point Extraction Coupled with Thermospray Flame Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨方文; 曾楚杰; 罗济文; 周能

    2011-01-01

    为测定荔枝和桂圆肉中的Pb和Cd。采用浊点萃取-热喷雾火焰炉原子吸收光谱法对该样品进行分析,考查二乙基二硫代氨基甲酸钠(DDTC)浓度、溶液pH值、TritonX-100浓度、加热时间、水浴温度、干扰离子等实验条件对浊点萃取效率的影响。在最优试验条件下,即pH5.0、温度100℃、萃取时间15min、TritonX-100体积分数0.3%、DDTC质量浓度0.02g/100mL、进样速率0.3mL/min,该方法对Pb和Cd的富集倍数分别为30倍和26倍;方法的检出限对Pb和Cd分别为2ng/mL和0.1ng/mL,相对标准偏差分别为5.2%和3.6%。利用该方法对荔枝和桂圆中的铅和镉进行测定,结果令人满意。%A sensitive method based on cloud point extraction(CPE) coupled with thermospray flame furnace atomic absorption spectrometry(TS-FF-AAS) was proposed for the determination of trace lead and cadmium in litchi and longan samples.Factors affecting the cloud point extraction of lead and cadmium,such as sodium diethyldithiocarbamate(DDTC) concentration,pH,TritonX-100 concentration,extraction time and interference ions were investigated.Results indicated that the optimal extraction parameters were pH 5.0,extraction temperature of 100 ℃,extraction time of 15 min,Triton X-100 concentration of 0.3%,DDTC concentration of 0.02 g/100 mL and sample flow rate of 0.3 mL/min.Under the optimal conditions,Pb and Cd were enriched by 30 folds and 26 folds,respectively.The limits of detection of Pb and Cd were 2 ng/mL and 0.1 ng/mL,and the relative standard deviations(RSDs) were 5.2% and 3.6%,respectively.The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of lead and cadmium in litchi and longan samples.

  16. Establishment and verification of energy consumption model of fruits and vegetables fresh-keeping transportation container with controlled atmosphere by liquid nitrogen injection%液氮充注式果蔬气调保鲜运输箱能耗模型建立与验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨松夏; 吕恩利; 陆华忠; 吕盛坪; 岑康华

    2014-01-01

    consuming of electrical appliances, cold consuming of fruits and vegetables, heat transferring by door opening, aperture heat leaking, container pre-cooling, and solar radiation in transportation, the equilibrium states of fresh-keeping environment in the container is broken. In addition, heat and mass transferring between the inside and outside of the container has begun. At this time, the fresh-keeping equipments started to keep the equilibrium states of fresh-keeping environment, and then energy consumption was generated. The fresh-keeping equipments of controlled atmosphere fresh-keeping transportation container by liquid nitrogen injection consist of refrigeration, humidification, and controlled atmosphere system, and the energy consumption generated from these three equipments. Finally, the energy consumption model was established based on the analysis of the heat and mass transfer and energy consumption in refrigerating, humidifying, and injecting. After the energy consumption model was set up, the verification experiment was carried out using litchi as testing material and was based on fresh-keeping transportation platform with controlled atmosphere by liquid nitrogen injection for fruits and vegetables. The fresh-keeping transportation platform can adjust the temperature, relative humidity, and oxygen volume fraction in the container automatically and intelligently through refrigeration, humidification, and controlled atmosphere system, creating a suitable fresh-keeping environment for the litchi. Results indicated that the energy consumption was mainly composed of the controlled atmosphere energy, refrigerating energy consumption, and humidifying energy. The theoretical energy consumption obtained through the energy consumption model was basically consistent to the experimental energy consumption with the average relative error of 11.86%±4.29%. The theoretical liquid nitrogen consumption value was basically consistent to the experimental liquid nitrogen

  17. Characteristic factors of appearance and flavor of Nuomici Nanshan litchi%“南山荔枝”糯米糍外观、味感的特色因子

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗美中; 郑彦婕; 黎永乐; 孟海鸥; 郑燕燕; 彭建清; 李楚彬

    2012-01-01

    The Nuomici Nanshan lichi samples with geographical indication from Shenzhen and the samples which were the same kind of species as Nanshan lichi but non-geographical indicaton from Huiyang and Zengcheng which near to Shenzhen were collected and campared on the analysis of 22 appearance and flavor indices. The content of saccharose was more than 50% of total sugar, indicated as a main factor of sweet taste, while the tartaric acid and malic acid as the mainly organic acid was closely related with the acidity of Nuomici. With principal component regression, three kind of samples from different places got a reasonable classification, in which the single fruit weight, fresh weight, fruit juice weight, thickness of fruit peel, reducing sugar, total sugar and tartaric acid were the 7 key factors, while also the characteristic factors of appearance and flavor of the geographical indication Nuomici Nanshan lichi.%采集了地理标志保护产品深圳"南山荔枝"糯米糍样品,对其22项外观、味感指标进行分析,同时与惠阳、增城两地同一品系的非地理标志保护糯米糍进行比较。3个产地糯米糍荔枝蔗糖含量均占总糖的50%以上,是构成糯米糍荔枝甜味的主要因素;有机酸主要为酒石酸和苹果酸,是构成酸味的主要因素。通过主成分分析法对3个产地荔枝样品进行分类,3个产地的样品得到合理分类,其中单果质量、果肉质量、果汁质量、果皮厚度、还原糖、总糖、酒石酸等7个指标是决定样品分类的关键因素,也是地理标志保护产品"南山荔枝"糯米糍外观与味感的特色因子。

  18. CHARACTERIZATION OF ENDOPHYTIC MICROFLORA OF ROSA CANINA FRUITS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katarína Rovná; Ladislav Bakay; Jana Petrová; Margarita Terentjeva; Jana Cerná; Miroslava Kacániová

    2015-01-01

      There aren't a lot of studies about the bacterial communities associated with the Rosa canina and the aim of this study was to characterize endophytic bacteria from fruit of Rosa canina. The fruits of R...

  19. No Fruit Juice Before Age 1, Pediatricians Say

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_165826.html No Fruit Juice Before Age 1, Pediatricians Say Plus, they support ... toddlers into tantrums. One recommendation is that fruit juice be limited for toddlers and older children, and ...

  20. Fruit Juice for Kids: A Serving a Day OK

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164260.html Fruit Juice for Kids: A Serving a Day OK Review ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Pediatricians have long suggested that fruit juice may prompt weight gain in children, but a ...

  1. 76 FR 37312 - Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-27

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Reestablishment of the U.S. Department of... industry's needs. The Deputy Administrator of the Agricultural Marketing Service's Fruit and...

  2. Strawberry Anthracnose Ripe Fruit Rot and Management Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Louws, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Briefly describes anthracnose symptoms on ripe strawberry fruit, then recommends ways to manage for the anthracnose, including removal and burying or burning infected and nearby plants, avoiding overhead irrigation, and picking fruits from the infected areas last.

  3. The phenotypic diversity and fruit characterization of winter squash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... fruit characterization of winter squash ( Cucurbita maxima ) populations from the Black Sea Region of Turkey. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... fruit brightness, skin thickness , flesh thickness and colour in the Black Sea region of Turkey.

  4. The role of fruit consumption in the prevention of obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge; Alinia, Sevil

    2009-01-01

    The global obesity epidemic is associated with a sedentary lifestyle and diets rich in high-fat, high-energy foods. The potential role of fruit in preventing overweight and obesity is related to their relatively low energy density, high content of dietary fibre, and associated increasing satiety...... effect. The physical disruption of fruit is of considerable importance for satiety, as shown in studies in which fruit juices were less satisfying compared to sugar-equivalent intakes of purees and whole fruits. The potential role of fruit in the prevention of overweight and obesity may be connected...... to the dietary pattern of fruit intake, and with the possibility that fruit intake may substitute for other, more energy-dense foods. The majority of human prospective cohort studies in adults suggest a preventive effect of increased fruit intake oil body weight gain; whereas a few studies have suggested...

  5. Liven Up Your Meals with Vegetables and Fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drying out. Grilled fruits like peaches, pineapple, or mangos add variety to a cookout. 2 Take your ... vegetables, add fruit, egg, cottage cheese, beans, or seeds from the salad bar for a variety of ...

  6. "Eat Fresh Vegetables, Fruit, and Whole Grain Products"

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on. Feature: Diverticulitis "Eat fresh vegetables, fruit, and whole grain products." Past Issues / Winter 2010 Table of Contents ... once again eat fresh vegetables and fruit and whole grain products. My two episodes of diverticulitis were not ...

  7. Pepper Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae Preferences for Specific Pepper Cultivars, Plant Parts, Fruit Colors, Fruit Sizes, and Timing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dakshina R. Seal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Peppers (Capsicum spp. are an important crop in the USA, with about 32,000 ha cultivated in 2007, which resulted in $588 million in farm revenue. The pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, is the most troublesome insect pest of peppers in the southern United States. It is therefore urgent to find different vulnerabilities of pepper cultivars, fruit and plants parts, fruit colors and sizes, and timing to infestation by A. eugenii. Also relevant is testing whether fruit length and infestation state affect fruit numbers, weights, and proportions of fruit that are infested. Counts of A. eugenii adults and marks from oviposition and feeding suggested that C. chinense Jacquin “Habanero” was least susceptible, and C. annuum L. cultivars “SY” and “SR” were most susceptible. Comparison of plant parts and fruit sizes revealed that A. eugenii preferred the peduncle, calyx, and top of pepper fruits over the middle, bottom, leaves, or remainder of flowers. Anthonomus eugenii does not discriminate between green or yellow fruit color nor vary diurnally in numbers. Based on adult counts, medium to extra-large fruits (≥1.5 cm long attracted more weevils than small fruits (<1.5 cm. However based on proportions of fruit numbers or fruit weights that were infested, there were no differences between large and small fruits. Choice of pepper cultivar can thus be an important part of an IPM cultural control program designed to combat A. eugenii by reduced susceptibility or by synchronous fruit drop of infested fruits. Our results are potentially helpful in developing scouting programs including paying particular attention to the preferred locations of adults and their sites of feeding and oviposition on the fruit. The results also suggested the potential value of spraying when the fruits are still immature to prevent and control infestation.

  8. Simultaneous transcriptome analysis of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and tomato fruit pathosystem reveals novel fungal pathogenicity and fruit defense strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkan, Noam; Friedlander, Gilgi; Ment, Dana; Prusky, Dov; Fluhr, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides breaches the fruit cuticle but remains quiescent until fruit ripening signals a switch to necrotrophy, culminating in devastating anthracnose disease. There is a need to understand the distinct fungal arms strategy and the simultaneous fruit response. Transcriptome analysis of fungal-fruit interactions was carried out concurrently in the appressoria, quiescent and necrotrophic stages. Conidia germinating on unripe fruit cuticle showed stage-specific transcription that was accompanied by massive fruit defense responses. The subsequent quiescent stage showed the development of dendritic-like structures and swollen hyphae within the fruit epidermis. The quiescent fungal transcriptome was characterized by activation of chromatin remodeling genes and unsuspected environmental alkalization. Fruit response was portrayed by continued highly integrated massive up-regulation of defense genes. During cuticle infection of green or ripe fruit, fungi recapitulate the same developmental stages but with differing quiescent time spans. The necrotrophic stage showed a dramatic shift in fungal metabolism and up-regulation of pathogenicity factors. Fruit response to necrotrophy showed activation of the salicylic acid pathway, climaxing in cell death. Transcriptome analysis of C. gloeosporioides infection of fruit reveals its distinct stage-specific lifestyle and the concurrent changing fruit response, deepening our perception of the unfolding fungal-fruit arms and defenses race.

  9. Increases in fruit intakes in older low consumers of fruit following two community-based repeated exposure interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, K M

    2013-03-14

    The present study investigated the value of two repeated exposure interventions for increasing intakes of fruit in older people. A total of ninety-five participants (aged 65 years and over) were randomised to receive either one (E1), five (E5) or five plus (E5+) exposures to fruit over a 5-week period. Fruit exposures occurred in community-based church and social groups, through fruit-tasting sessions involving familiar fruits and novel fruit products and dishes (E1, E5, E5+), and through fruit provision (E5+). Daily intakes of fruit and vegetables were assessed before and after all interventions. Liking for all fruits was also measured during repeated exposure (E5, E5+). In low consumers of fruit (one portion/d or less), fruit intakes increased significantly in the repeated exposure groups (E5, E5+) (t(30) = 5·79, Polder low consumers of fruit, although no benefits of additional fruit provision were found. Repeated exposure was also easy to implement, of low cost and enjoyable.

  10. IMPROVEMENT OF WAYS OF FRUIT TREES WATER SUPPLY

    OpenAIRE

    Gegechkori B. S.; Chumakov S. S.; Orlenko S. J.

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, fruit trees are subjected to influence of abiotic stress-factors. The reaction of fruit plants on the influence of media plays an important role. Experiments were conducted in two (Northern and Central) fruit zones of the Krasnodar region since 2013 to 2015, there was shown the possibility of application of hydroabsorbents as a stable source of water supply of fruit trees in specific natural conditions of the South of Russia in the conditions of field experiment. There were shown th...

  11. Seed dispersal anachronisms: rethinking the fruits extinct megafauna ate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo R Guimarães

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Some neotropical, fleshy-fruited plants have fruits structurally similar to paleotropical fruits dispersed by megafauna (mammals > 10(3 kg, yet these dispersers were extinct in South America 10-15 Kyr BP. Anachronic dispersal systems are best explained by interactions with extinct animals and show impaired dispersal resulting in altered seed dispersal dynamics. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We introduce an operational definition of megafaunal fruits and perform a comparative analysis of 103 Neotropical fruit species fitting this dispersal mode. We define two megafaunal fruit types based on previous analyses of elephant fruits: fruits 4-10 cm in diameter with up to five large seeds, and fruits > 10 cm diameter with numerous small seeds. Megafaunal fruits are well represented in unrelated families such as Sapotaceae, Fabaceae, Solanaceae, Apocynaceae, Malvaceae, Caryocaraceae, and Arecaceae and combine an overbuilt design (large fruit mass and size with either a single or few ( 100 seeds. Within-family and within-genus contrasts between megafaunal and non-megafaunal groups of species indicate a marked difference in fruit diameter and fruit mass but less so for individual seed mass, with a significant trend for megafaunal fruits to have larger seeds and seediness. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Megafaunal fruits allow plants to circumvent the trade-off between seed size and dispersal by relying on frugivores able to disperse enormous seed loads over long-distances. Present-day seed dispersal by scatter-hoarding rodents, introduced livestock, runoff, flooding, gravity, and human-mediated dispersal allowed survival of megafauna-dependent fruit species after extinction of the major seed dispersers. Megafauna extinction had several potential consequences, such as a scale shift reducing the seed dispersal distances, increasingly clumped spatial patterns, reduced geographic ranges and limited genetic variation and increased among

  12. FRUITS IN DIVAN OF NEDIM / NEDIM DIVANI’NDA MEYVELER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazilet ÇÖPLÜOĞLU (M.A.H.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study fruit names in Nedim’s divan weredetermined and the similes of fruit names wereexamined. In Nedim’s divan fruit names on the wholewere used for expressing the lover’s body. In this respect,similies were made between almond – eye, apple – chin,pistachio – lip, cherry – lip, pomegranate – breast, orange– chin, breast; peach – cheek. The couplets whichcontain fruit names are given and also an index of thefruit names.

  13. The flavor of pomegranate fruit: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayuoni-Kirshinbaum, Lina; Porat, Ron

    2014-01-15

    Despite the increasing commercial importance of pomegranate, especially because of its recently discovered health-promoting benefits, relatively little is yet known regarding its sensory quality and flavor preferences, or about the biochemical constituents that determine its sensory characteristics. The perceived flavor of pomegranate fruit results from the combination of various taste, aroma and mouthfeel sensations. The taste is governed mainly by the presence of sugars (glucose and fructose) and organic acids (primarily citric and malic acids). The aroma evolves from the presence of dozens of volatiles, including alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, and terpenes, which provide a mixture of various 'green', 'woody', 'earthy', 'fruity', 'floral', 'sweet' and 'musty' notes. In addition, the sensory satisfaction during the eating of pomegranate arils is complemented by various mouthfeel sensations, including seed hardness and astringency sensations. In the present review we will describe the sensory quality and flavor preferences of pomegranate fruit, including the genetic diversity in flavor characteristics among distinct varieties. In addition, we will describe the dynamic changes that occur in fruit flavor during fruit ripening and postharvest storage.

  14. Sterilant gas disinfection of fruits and vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerous foodborne outbreaks have been associated with the consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables. Commercial aqueous wash treatments for fresh produce are limited in their ability to inactivate and/or remove human pathogen contaminants. Gases can penetrate into crevices and niches on produce wh...

  15. 7 CFR 917.4 - Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fruit. 917.4 Section 917.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... production area exhibiting the characteristics of a peach and subject to cultural practices common to...

  16. High pressure effects on fruits and vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, R.A.H.; Matser, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The chapter provides an overview on different high pressure based treatments (high pressure pasteurization, blanching, pressure-assisted thermal processing, pressure-shift freezing and thawing) available for the preservation of fruits and vegetable products and extending their shelf life. Pressure t

  17. Degradation of apple fruit xyloglucan by endoglucanase.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vincken, J.P.; Beldman, G.; Niessen, W.M.A.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    1996-01-01

    A purified, alkali-extractable apple fruit xyloglucan (APfxg) was treated by endoglucanase (endoIV) from Trichoderma viride. The degradation products were fractionated by size-exclusion chromatography on BioGel P-2; the pentamer to dodecamer fractions were further fractionated by semi-preparative hi

  18. Radiation preservation of strawberry fruit: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaranta, H.O.; Piccini, J.L.

    1984-04-01

    This paper reviews the up-to-date literature on strawberry fruit preservation by irradiation, including microbiological and nutritional aspects, as well as chemical alterations in its components through analysis of vitamin content, carbohydrates, amino acids and fatty acids present, estimation of content of volatiles, and influence of irradiation on shelf-life and appearance.

  19. Spoilage of fruit juices by filamentous fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contamination of molds in fruit juices has risen in recent years. Even though there are many critical control points in the processing protocols that are noted and maintained, there remains a problem with dairy and juices packed in paperboard cartons. This talk discusses the work involved in the dis...

  20. LEAF DISC REGENERATION OF PASSION FRUIT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1993-09-04

    Sep 4, 1993 ... species of sub tropical vines, most of which climb by tendrils (Kuhne ... no known cure, hence the need to propagate virus- ... rootstock in areas where grafted passion fruit ..... as wild-type tumours could be induced on in vivo.

  1. High pressure effects on fruits and vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, R.A.H.; Matser, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The chapter provides an overview on different high pressure based treatments (high pressure pasteurization, blanching, pressure-assisted thermal processing, pressure-shift freezing and thawing) available for the preservation of fruits and vegetable products and extending their shelf life. Pressure

  2. INDIGENOUS FRUIT TREES IN SOUTHERN NIGERIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    species of plant or animal by removing it from an unsafe or threatened habitat and placing it ... fi'uit and medicinal trees (setting of cuttings, marcots) and production ... the atmosphere is responsible for global warming, conservation of fruit trees ...

  3. Fruit and vegetable films and uses thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present invention is directed to monolayer, bilayer, and multilayer films made from fruit, vegetable or a combination thereof, which films have the thinness, strength, flexibility and crispness to serve as alternates or substitutes for seaweed-based films such as nori, while providing nutrition ...

  4. The fruit flies (Tephritidae) of Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirteen species of Tephritidae are newly recorded from Ontario, and alternative format keys are provided to the 31 genera and 72 species of fruit fly now known from, or likely to occur, in the province. Standard dichotomous keys to genera, and simplified field keys to genera and species are provide...

  5. Potential of mathematical modeling in fruit quality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-01-18

    Jan 18, 2010 ... estimate seasonal changes in quality traits as fruit size, dry matter, water content and the concentration of sugars and ... The global goodness-of-fit of a model is computed by averaging the ... into account climate variables such as radiation, salinity, .... and on exponential light extinction (Beer-Lambert Law).

  6. Proteins in olive fruit and oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montealegre, Cristina; Esteve, Clara; García, Maria Concepción; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Marina, Maria Luisa

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a comprehensive review grouping the information on the extraction, characterization, and quantitation of olive and olive oil proteins and providing a practical guide about these proteins. Most characterized olive proteins are located in the fruit, mainly in the seed, where different oleosins and storage proteins have been found. Unlike the seed, the olive pulp contains a lower protein content having been described a polypeptide of 4.6 kDa and a thaumain-like protein. Other important proteins studied in olive fruits have been enzymes which could play important roles in olives characteristics. Part of these proteins is transferred from the fruit to the oil during the manufacturing process of olive oil. In fact, the same polypeptide of 4.6 kDa found in the pulp has been described in the olive oil and, additionally, the presence of other proteins and enzymes have also been described. Protein profiles have recently been proposed as an interesting strategy for the varietal classification of olive fruits and oils. Nevertheless, there is still a lot of knowledge without being explored requiring new studies focused on the determination and characterization of these proteins.

  7. Sanitizer competency and fruit surface topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    All sanitizers and sanitizing protocols are not created equal. For the fresh produce market the lack of a comprehensive disinfection method is problematic especially in the face of the increasing recalls of fresh fruit, vegetables and unpasteurized juices. Research has shown that sanitizers and how ...

  8. Degradation of apple fruit xyloglucan by endoglucanase.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vincken, J.P.; Beldman, G.; Niessen, W.M.A.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    1996-01-01

    A purified, alkali-extractable apple fruit xyloglucan (APfxg) was treated by endoglucanase (endoIV) from Trichoderma viride. The degradation products were fractionated by size-exclusion chromatography on BioGel P-2; the pentamer to dodecamer fractions were further fractionated by semi-preparative

  9. Dehulling of coriander fruit before oil extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is a summer annual traditionally grown for use as fresh green herb, spice or for its essential oil. The essential oil is obtained by steam distillation of crushed fruit and the residue is utilized as feed or processed further to recover the triglyceride. The triglyc...

  10. Constituents from fruits of Cupressus sempervirens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Preeti; Khan, Mohammad F; Kumar, Manmeet; Tamarkar, Akhilesh K; Srivastava, Arvind K; Arya, Kamal R; Maurya, Rakesh

    2010-04-01

    Two new phenolic glycosides (1, 2), along with fourteen known compounds (3-16) have been isolated from the fruit of Cupressus sempervirens. The structures of these compounds were determined by spectroscopic analysis and were evaluated for their inhibitory activity against glycogen phosphorylase and glucose-6-phosphatase enzymes. Compounds 14 showed a moderate inhibition against glucose-6-phosphatase and 15 against glycogen phosphorylase enzymes.

  11. Polyphenols and Volatiles in Fruits of Two Sour Cherry Cultivars, Some Berry Fruits and Their Jams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka Levaj

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports about the content of polyphenols and volatiles in fresh fruits of two sour cherry cultivars (Marasca and Oblačinska, some berry fruits (strawberry Maya, raspberry Willamette and wild blueberry and the corresponding low sugar jams. Phenolic compounds (hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids, flavan 3-ols and flavonols were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Those found in the fruits were also found in the jams. Jams contained lower amounts of polyphenols than fresh fuits, but their overall retention in jams was relatively high. Among fruits, sour cherry Marasca had the highest level of polyphenols, while sour cherry Marasca jam and raspberry Willamette jam had the highest level of polyphenols among jams. The major flavonoid in all investigated fruits, except in sour cherry Oblačinska, was (–-epicatechin. Sour cherry Marasca had the highest level of (–-epicatechin (95.75 mg/kg, and it also contained very high amounts of flavonols, derivatives of quercetin and kaempferol. Hydroxybenzoic acids (HBAs were not found in sour cherries Marasca and Oblačinska, but were found in berry fruits and jams. Phenolic compound (+-gallocatechin was found only in Marasca fruit and jam. Ellagic acid was found in the highest concentration in raspberry Willamette fruit and jam. Hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs were found in all the investigated fruits, with the exception of a derivative of ferulic acid, which was not found in strawberry. Derivatives of caffeic, p-coumaric and chlorogenic acids were found in all the investigated fruits, with chlorogenic acid being the most abundant, especially in sour cherry Marasca. Volatiles were determined by gas chromatography (GC and expressed as the peak area of the identified compounds. All investigated volatiles of fresh fruit were also determined in the related jams with relatively high retention. Sour cherries Marasca and Oblačinska contained the same volatile compounds, but

  12. State Indicator Report on Fruits and Vegetables, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The "State Indicator Report on Fruits and Vegetables, 2009" provides for the first time information on fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption and policy and environmental support within each state. Fruits and vegetables, as part of a healthy diet, are important for optimal child growth, weight management, and chronic disease…

  13. Fruit abscission by Physalis species as defense against frugivory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit abscission as a response to herbivory is well-documented in many plant species, but its effect on further damage by mobile herbivores that survive fruit abscission is relatively unstudied. Physalis plants abscise fruit containing feeding larvae of their main frugivore, Heliothis subflexa Guen...

  14. Gene expression profiles of auxin metabolism in maturing apple fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variation exists among apple genotypes in fruit maturation and ripening patterns that influences at-harvest fruit firmness and postharvest storability. Based on the results from our previous large-scale transcriptome profiling on apple fruit maturation and well-documented auxin-ethylene crosstalk, t...

  15. Register of new fruit and nut cultivars, list 48: strawberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Brooks and Olmo Registry of Fruit and Nut Varieties is a compilation of fruit and nut variety descriptions first published in 1952 and cataloging cultivars from 1920 through 1950. A second edition was published in 1972, and a third was published in 1997. Since then, fruit and nut variety descrip...

  16. QUALITY OF PITAIA FRUITS SUBMITTED TO FIELD BAGGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA CLAUDIA COSTA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In recent years, with the change in consumer profile, the demand for foods with low levels or even without pesticides has increased. Bagging fruits in the field is considered one of the oldest and effective phytosanitary practices, being an alternative to chemical control. The aim of the present work was to test some types of packaging in the bagging of pitaia fruits during their development in the plant in order to maintain quality. Red pitaia plant fruits [Hylocereus undatus (Haw. Britton & Rose] five years post-planting were used. The experimental design used was random blocks, with 5 treatments, 4 repetitions and 10 fruits per plot. Treatments consisted of control (without bagging, newspaper bag, Kraft paper bag, waxed paper bag and Non-woven bag (NW. The following characteristics were evaluated: percentage of remaining fruits up to harvest; percentage of damaged fruits; fruit mass; longitudinal and transverse diameter; pulp yield; peel thickness; soluble solids content (SS; pH; titratable acidity (TA and SS/TA ratio. There was no difference among treatments for most of the characteristics analyzed, except for percentage of remaining fruits on the plant and percentage of damaged fruits. Bagging does not alter the physical and chemical characteristics of red pitaia fruits. NW and newspaper bags are more effective in bagging pitaia fruits due to greater permanence in the fruit during its development in the plant.

  17. External fruit morphology of southern African Arundineae (Arundinoideae: Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Barker

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Fruits of a number of taxa of all indigenous southern African arundinoid genera were examined by means of SEM. Size, shape, compression, surface sculpturing, embryo anti hilum features were recorded and fruits of all genera are illustrated. Results are compared to existing descriptions. The genera are placed in five informal groups according to similarities noted in the fruits.

  18. Impact of organic and inorganic fertilizers on growth, fruit yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akanbi W B

    2015-08-05

    Aug 5, 2015 ... TC and control (non-fertilized plant) on the growth, fruit yield, nutritional and lycopene ... improving the growth, fruit yield and nutritional contents of any of the three tomato varieties studied. .... were compared using Duncan's multiple range test (P ≤ 0.05). .... In case of fruit diameter, Ogbomoso had the.

  19. Fruit tree model for uptake of organic compounds from soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, Stefan; Rasmussen, D.; Samsoe-Petersen, L.

    2003-01-01

    soils, regressions or models are in use, which were not intended to be used for tree fruits. A simple model for uptake of neutral organic contaminants into fruits is developed. It considers xylem and phloem transport to fruits through the stem. The mass balance is solved for the steady...

  20. Fruit dry matter concentration: a new quality metric for apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, John W; Harker, F Roger; Tustin, D Stuart; Johnston, Jason

    2010-12-01

    In the fresh apple market fruit must be crisp and juicy to attract buyers to purchase again. However, recent studies have shown that consumer acceptability could be further enhanced by improving taste. This study evaluates the use of fruit dry matter concentration (DMC) as a new fruit quality metric for apple. Fruit samples collected at harvest, in the two main fruit growing regions of New Zealand, showed a variation in mean fruit DMC from 130 to 156 g kg(-1) with 'Royal Gala' and with 'Scifresh' from 152 to 176 g kg(-1). Individual fruit DMC showed a larger range, from 108 to 189 g kg(-1) with 'Royal Gala' and from 125 to 201 g kg(-1) with 'Scifresh'. Fruit DMC proved a more reliable predictor of total soluble solids after 12 weeks of air storage at 0.5 °C than TSS at harvest for both 'Royal Gala' and 'Scifresh'. Fruit DMC was also positively related to flesh firmness, although this relationship was not as strong as that seen with soluble solids and was more dependent on cultivar. Consumer studies showed that consumer preference was positively related to fruit DMC of 'Royal Gala' apples. Fruit DMC can therefore be measured before or at harvest, and be used to predict the sensory potential for the fruit after storage. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Apple fruit responses following exposure to nitric oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exogenous nitric oxide (.NO) applied as gas or generated from .NO releasing compounds has physiological activity in cut apple fruit tissues. Studies were conducted to characterize .NO production by whole fruit as well as to assess responses of whole fruit to exogenous .NO. .NO and ethylene product...

  2. Effect of liberibacter infection (huanglongbing disease) of citrus on orange fruit physiology and fruit/fruit juice quality: chemical and physical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Elizabeth; Plotto, Anne; Manthey, John; McCollum, Greg; Bai, Jinhe; Irey, Mike; Cameron, Randall; Luzio, Gary

    2010-01-27

    More than 90% of oranges in Florida are processed, and since Huanglongbing (HLB) disease has been rumored to affect fruit flavor, chemical and physical analyses were conducted on fruit and juice from healthy (Las -) and diseased (Las +) trees on three juice processing varieties over two seasons, and in some cases several harvests. Fruit, both asymptomatic and symptomatic for the disease, were used, and fresh squeezed and processed/pasteurized juices were evaluated. Fruit and juice characteristics measured included color, size, solids, acids, sugars, aroma volatiles, ascorbic acid, secondary metabolites, pectin, pectin-demethylating enzymes, and juice cloud. Results showed that asymptomatic fruit from symptomatic trees were similar to healthy fruit for many of the quality factors measured, but that juice from asymptomatic and especially symptomatic fruits were often higher in the bitter compounds limonin and nomilin. However, values were generally below reported taste threshold levels, and only symptomatic fruit seemed likely to cause flavor problems. There was variation due to harvest date, which was often greater than that due to disease. It is likely that the detrimental flavor attributes of symptomatic fruit (which often drop off the tree) will be largely diluted in commercial juice blends that include juice from fruit of several varieties, locations, and seasons.

  3. Semi-Dried Fruits and Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze Uysal Seçkin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Since ancient times, the preservation of fruit and vegetables is an ancient method of drying. Sun drying method has been used more widely. In general, consumer-ready products are dried fruits, while the dried vegetables are the foods subjected to the rehydration processes such as boiling, heating and baking before consumption. In recent years, new products with high eating quality have been attempted to achieve without losing characteristic of raw material. With the improving of food technology, using developed methods (pH reduction with reducing aw, slight heating, preservatives use etc. as protective agent, and using a combination of a low rate as an alternative to traditional food preservation process, products have been obtained without changing original characteristics of food. ‘Semi-dried 'or 'medium moist 'products with little difference between the taste and texture of the product with a damp have gained importance in recent years in terms of consumer preferences. Vegetables or fruits, which have water activity levels between 0.50 and 0.95 and the moisture content of between 26% and 60%, are called 'medium moist fruit or vegetables'. Two different manufacturing process to obtain a semi-dried or intermediate moisture products are applied. First, fully dried fruits and vegetables to be rehydrated with water are brought to the desired level of their moisture content. Second, in the first drying process, when the product moisture content is reduced to the desired level, the drying process is finished. The semi-dried products are preferred by consumers because they have a softer texture in terms of eating quality and like fresh products texture.

  4. [Vitamin C in fruits and vegetables].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosheleva, O V; Kodentsova, V M

    2013-01-01

    Strong opinion about reducing vitamin C content in traditional cultivars of fruits and vegetables as a result of intensive farming practices, on the one hand, and depletion of soil, waste of fertilizers, on the other hand, takes place. The aim of the study was to assess changes in vitamin C content in fresh vegetables, fruits and berries from the 40s of last century to the present. Available national and foreign data from official tables of the chemical composition tables published in different years, including the most typical values, based on the results conducted in a number of research institutes, laboratories and university departments, as well as some original investigations and unpublished own results were used to analyze possible changes of vitamin C content in fruits and vegetables. For comparison we take into consideration only results from the most common and affordable since the last century method of visual titration, which has a relative error of 20%. Analysis of vitamin C content conducted according 5-58 studies from the 40s of the last century to the present, for 32 types of greens and vegetables (potatoes, various types of cabbage and onion, garlic, carrot, turnip, tomato, pepper, eggplant, cucumber, squash, peas, turnip, garden radish, parsnip, rhubarb, parsley, dill, lettuce, onion, spinach, sorrel), and according to 6-50 studies of 24 sorts of fruits (apple, pear, mandarin, orange, lemon, grapefruit, pineapple, banana, watermelon, cantaloupe, grapes, peach, apricot, plum, cherry, blackberry, blueberry, strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, gooseberry, black currant, red and white) has been done. It was found that the average content of vitamin varies slightly. Deviations from the average for all the years of research do not exceed the standard deviation. Analysis of longitudinal data did not confirm a vitamin C decrease. This means that vitamin value C of fruits and vegetables remains approximately constant, due to the successful selection of new

  5. Exposure to captan in fruit growing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cock, J; Heederik, D; Kromhout, H; Boleij, J S; Hoek, F; Wegh, H; Tjoe Ny, E

    1998-03-01

    This study characterized occupational exposure to pesticides in fruit growing in The Netherlands to assess determinants of exposure. Large-scale exposure surveys were carried out during application of pesticides and during reentry activities. Data on contamination inside the fruit growers' homes were obtained, and total potential exposure for the fruit grower and his family during the growing and harvesting season was estimated. Repeated measurements on the same subject were collected to study components of exposure variability. Relative contribution of the respiratory route and different skin sites to total exposure were assessed. Captan was used as a marker for exposure. Inhalable dust exposure was measured with a personal monitor and potential dermal exposure with skin pads and hand rinsing. Dislodgeable foliar residue was measured by taking leaf punches. For respiratory exposure and potential dermal exposure, differences were observed between several tasks. Workers were categorized according to tasks performed depending on the exposure measure(s) (e.g., hands, forehead, inhalable dust) considered relevant for a specific study purpose. In general, within-worker variability of all exposure measurements was larger than between-worker variability. Variability in dermal exposure on the same body location was small relative to variability between different body locations. Differences in total exposure, including exposure inside the home, between the fruit grower and the son were small. Exposure of the wife was two to three times lower than for the fruit grower and the son. As exposure per unit of time was in the same order of magnitude for different tasks, individual time spent on these tasks is crucial for estimating total potential exposure. Repeated measurements are necessary to estimate individual exposure accurately because of the large within-worker variability.

  6. Microwave-assisted Extraction of Flavonoids from the Leaves of Gossampinus malabarica (DC.) Merr%微波辅助提取木棉叶总黄酮研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁云贞; 彭金云; 韦方立

    2012-01-01

    [目的]确定从木棉叶中提取总黄酮的优化务件.[方法]通过单因素试验和正交试验对微波辅助提取木棉叶总黄酮的工艺条件进行了探讨,研究了溶剂浓度、料液比、微波功率及微波处理时间对黄酮提取的影响.[结果]木棉叶中总黄酮微波辅助提取的最佳条件为乙醇的体积分数70%,料液比1∶50 g/ml,微波功率为240W,微波处理时间为60s,在此条件下木棉叶中总黄酮含量为6.11%.[结论]微波提取总黄酮的方法简便、高效,可用于木棉叶的质量控制.%Litchi residue is a by-products of Lychee processing industry. Litchi residues contain a lot of sugar, pectin and other nutrients in which microbial can growth well. Developing litchi residue resources can avoid environmental pollution as well as make full use of biological resources. The extraction of active substance, the fermentation for fuel alcohol production, and. preparation of the biodiesel and feeds using litchi residue were discussed, respectively. The utilization prospect of comprehensive development of litchi residues was forecasted.

  7. Yeasts and yeast-like organisms associated with fruits and blossoms of different fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadkertiová, Renáta; Molnárová, Jana; Vránová, Dana; Sláviková, Elena

    2012-12-01

    Yeasts are common inhabitants of the phyllosphere, but our knowledge of their diversity in various plant organs is still limited. This study focused on the diversity of yeasts and yeast-like organisms associated with matured fruits and fully open blossoms of apple, plum, and pear trees, during 2 consecutive years at 3 localities in southwest Slovakia. The occurrence of yeasts and yeast-like organisms in fruit samples was 2½ times higher and the yeast community more diverse than that in blossom samples. Only 2 species (Aureobasidium pullulans and Metschnikowia pulcherrima) occurred regularly in the blossom samples, whereas Galactomyces candidus, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Hanseniaspora uvarum, M. pulcherrima, Pichia kluyveri, Pichia kudriavzevii, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were the most frequently isolated species from the fruit samples. The ratio of the number of samples where only individual species were present to the number of samples where 2 or more species were found (consortium) was counted. The occurrence of individual species in comparison with consortia was much higher in blossom samples than in fruit samples. In the latter, consortia predominated. Aureobasidium pullulans, M. pulcherrima, and S. cerevisiae, isolated from both the fruits and blossoms, can be considered as resident yeast species of various fruit tree species cultivated in southwest Slovakia localities.

  8. Fruit-related terms and images on food packages and advertisements affect children's perceptions of foods' fruit content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Rebecca; Martin-Biggers, Jennifer; Berhaupt-Glickstein, Amanda; Quick, Virginia; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2015-10-01

    To determine whether food label information and advertisements for foods containing no fruit cause children to have a false impression of the foods' fruit content. In the food label condition, a trained researcher showed each child sixteen different food label photographs depicting front-of-food label packages that varied with regard to fruit content (i.e. real fruit v. sham fruit) and label elements. In the food advertisement condition, children viewed sixteen, 30 s television food advertisements with similar fruit content and label elements as in the food label condition. After viewing each food label and advertisement, children responded to the question 'Did they use fruit to make this?' with responses of yes, no or don't know. Schools, day-care centres, after-school programmes and other community groups. Children aged 4-7 years. In the food label condition, χ 2 analysis of within fruit content variation differences indicated children (n 58; mean age 4·2 years) were significantly more accurate in identifying real fruit foods as the label's informational load increased and were least accurate when neither a fruit name nor an image was on the label. Children (n 49; mean age 5·4 years) in the food advertisement condition were more likely to identify real fruit foods when advertisements had fruit images compared with when no image was included, while fruit images in advertisements for sham fruit foods significantly reduced accuracy of responses. Findings suggest that labels and advertisements for sham fruit foods mislead children with regard to the food's real fruit content.

  9. Altered cell wall disassembly during ripening of Cnr tomato fruit : implications for cell wall adhesion and fruit softening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orfila, C.; Huisman, M.M.H.; Willats, W.G.T.; Alebeek, van G.J.W.M.; Schols, H.A.; Seymour, G.B.; Knox, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    The Cnr (Colourless non-ripening) tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) mutant has an aberrant fruit-ripening phenotype in which fruit do not soften and have reduced cell adhesion between pericarp cells. Cell walls from Cnr fruit were analysed in order to assess the possible contribution of pectic

  10. Susceptibility of low-chill blueberry cultivars to oriental fruit fly, mediterranean fruit fly, and melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forced infestation studies were conducted to determine if fruits of southern highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L. hybrids) are hosts for three invasive tephritid fruit flies. Fruits of 17 blueberry cultivars were exposed to gravid female flies of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (oriental frui...

  11. Yeasts and lactic acid bacteria microbiota from masau (Ziziphus mauritiana) fruits and their fermented fruit pulp in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyanga, L.K.; Nout, M.J.R.; Gadaga, T.H.; Theelen, R.M.C.; Boekhout, T.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2007-01-01

    Masau are Zimbabwean wild fruits, which are usually eaten raw and/ or processed into products such as porridge, traditional cakes, mahewu and jam. Yeasts, yeast-like fungi, and lactic acid bacteria present on the unripe, ripe and dried fruits, and in the fermented masau fruits collected from Muzarab

  12. Changes of Endogenous Hormone Contents in Fruit, Seeds and Their Effects on the Fruit Development of Rosa roxburghii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Wei-guo; AN Hua-ming; LIU Guo-qin; HE Song-tao; LIU Jin-ping

    2003-01-01

    The fruit of cultivar Guinong5 (Rosa roxburghii Tratt. ) was used to investigate the regularity of its growth and development, and the changes of endogenous hormone contents during the period of the growth and development. The result showed that contents of GA1+3, IAA and ZRs in the flower receptacle of young fruit were high and then decreased, contents of GA1+3 and IAA in seeds increased with its development until maturity. The contents of ZRs and ABA in the flower receptacle of young fruits and seeds were high, and then had a tendency of descent with the development of fruits. The contents of GA1+3, IAA, ZRs and ABA in flower receptacle of young fruit with normal fertilization were much higher than those of in non-fertilization fruits. In the flower receptacle of malformed fruits, the contents of GA1+3, IAA and ZRs in normally developing flower receptacle were significantly higher than those in malformed fruits. The growth and development of fruits depended largely on the seeds, development because the seeds in the fruits with non-fertilization failed to be formed or even formed but irreproducible, which would lead to the decrease of GA1+3, IAA contents and the abnormal development of fruits. Therefore the fruits deformed and dropped inevitably.

  13. Deliverable 5.2 Study report on consumer motivations and behaviours for fruits and fruit products in the Balkans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsema, S.J.; Snoek, H.M.

    2010-01-01

    It is unclear whether fruit consumption in Western Balkan countries (WBC) meets recommended levels from a health perspective. A better understanding consumers' perception of health and motives and barriers of fruit is necessary to get insight in the fruit consumption. The aim of WP 5 is therefore to

  14. Performance of a procedure for yield estimation in fruit orchards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aravena Zamora, Felipe; Potin, Camila; Wulfsohn, Dvora-Laio

    for fruit yield estimation. In the Spring of 2009 we estimated the total number of fruit in several rows in each of 14 commercial fruit orchards growing apple, kiwi, and table grapes in central Chile. Survey times were 10-100 minutes for apples, 85 minutes for table grapes, and up to 150 minutes for kiwis....... At harvest in the Fall, the fruit were counted to obtain the true yield. Yields ranged from lows of several thousand (grape bunches), to highs of more than 40 thousand fruit (apples, kiwis). In 11 orchards, true errors less than 10% were obtained. In two highly variable orchards we obtained absolute true...

  15. Fruit growth of Minneola tangelo (Citrus paradisi x C. reticulata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Esterhuizen

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available The influence of gibberellic acid (GA₃ on the fruit growth pattern of the Minneola tungelo was investigated. The growth pattern follows a S-curve, similar to other citrus cultivars but the growth rate differs. GA₃, applied at low concentrations caused a slightly slower fruit growth rate compared to controls, resulting in smaller fruit. In the case of GA₃ , applied at 15ppm, fruit numbers exceeded those of the control. GA₃ treatment of fruit resulted in a slight decrease in average seed con­tent. GA₃, had no significant effect on juice quality.

  16. Functional Genomics of Allergen Gene Families in Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Maghuly

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Fruit consumption is encouraged for health reasons; however, fruits may harbour a series of allergenic proteins that may cause discomfort or even represent serious threats to certain individuals. Thus, the identification and characterization of allergens in fruits requires novel approaches involving genomic and proteomic tools. Since avoidance of fruits also negatively affects the quality of patients’ lives, biotechnological interventions are ongoing to produce low allergenic fruits by down regulating specific genes. In this respect, the control of proteins associated with allergenicity could be achieved by fine tuning the spatial and temporal expression of the relevant genes.

  17. Revised irradiation doses to control melon fly, Mediterranean fruit fly, and oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and a generic dose for tephritid fruit flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follett, Peter A; Armstrong, John W

    2004-08-01

    Currently approved irradiation quarantine treatment doses for Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillet), melon fly; Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Mediterranean fruit fly; and Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), oriental fruit fly, infesting fruits and vegetables for export from Hawaii to the continental United States are 210, 225, and 250 Gy, respectively. Irradiation studies were initiated to determine whether these doses could be reduced to lower treatment costs, minimize any adverse effects on quality, and support a proposed generic irradiation dose of 150 Gy for fruit flies. Dose-response tests were conducted with late third instars of wild and laboratory strains of the three fruit fly species, both in diet and in fruit. After x-ray irradiation treatment, data were taken on adult emergence, and adult female fecundity and fertility. Melon fly was the most tolerant of the three species to irradiation, and oriental fruit fly was more tolerant than Mediterranean fruit fly. Laboratory and wild strains of each species were equally tolerant of irradiation, and larvae were more tolerant when irradiated in fruit compared with artificial diet. An irradiation dose of 150 Gy applied to 93,666 melon fly late third instars in papayas resulted in no survival to the adult stage, indicating that this dose is sufficient to provide quarantine security. Irradiation doses of 100 and 125 Gy applied to 31,920 Mediterranean fruit fly and 55,743 oriental fruit fly late third instars, respectively, also resulted in no survival to the adult stage. Results support a proposed generic irradiation quarantine treatment dose of 150 Gy for all tephritid fruit flies.

  18. Habitual intake of fruit juice predicts central blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pase, Matthew P; Grima, Natalie; Cockerell, Robyn; Pipingas, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Despite a common perception that fruit juice is healthy, fruit juice contains high amounts of naturally occurring sugar without the fibre content of the whole fruit. Frequent fruit juice consumption may therefore contribute to excessive sugar consumption typical of the Western society. Although excess sugar intake is associated with high blood pressure (BP), the association between habitual fruit juice consumption and BP is unclear. The present study investigated the association of fruit juice consumption with brachial and central (aortic) BP in 160 community dwelling adults. Habitual fruit juice consumption was measured using a 12 month dietary recall questionnaire. On the same day, brachial BP was measured and central (aortic) BP was estimated through radial artery applanation. Frequency of fruit juice consumption was classified as rare, occasional or daily. Those who consumed fruit juice daily, versus rarely or occasionally, had significantly higher central systolic BP (F (2, 134) = 6.09, p fruit juice daily rather than rarely or occasionally. In conclusion, more frequent fruit juice consumption was associated with higher central BPs.

  19. Date fruit: chemical composition, nutritional and medicinal values, products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhen-Xing; Shi, Lu-E; Aleid, Salah M

    2013-08-15

    Date fruit has served as a staple food in the Arab world for centuries. Worldwide production of date fruit has increased almost threefold over the last 40 years, reaching 7.68 million tons in 2010. Date fruit can provide many essential nutrients and potential health benefits to the consumer. Date fruit goes through four ripening stages named kimri, khalal, rutab and tamer. The main chemical components of date fruit include carbohydrates, dietary fibre, enzymes, protein, fat, minerals, vitamins, phenolic acids and carotenoids. The chemical composition of date fruit varies according to ripening stage, cultivar, growing environment, postharvest conditions, etc. The nutritional and medicinal activities of date fruit are related to its chemical composition. Many studies have shown that date fruit has antioxidant, antimutagenic, anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, anticancer and immunostimulant activities. Various date fruit-based products such as date syrup, date paste, date juice and their derived products are available. Date by-products can be used as raw materials for the production of value-added products such as organic acids, exopolysaccharides, antibiotics, date-flavoured probiotic-fermented dairy produce, bakery yeasts, etc. In this paper the chemical composition and nutritional and medicinal values of date fruit as well as date fruit-based products are reviewed.

  20. Effects of fruit pre-harvest bagging on fruit quality of peach (Prunus persica Batsch cv. Hujingmilu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Jia, Hui-Juan; Zhang, Xiao-Meng

    2006-06-01

    Experiments were conducted to test the effects of pre-harvest bagging on fruit ripening and quality of peach (Prunus persica Batsch cv. Hujingmilu). Young fruits, at 50 days after full bloom (DAFB), were covered with bags made of single-, double-, and triple-layers of orange paper bag with 27.0%, 13.9% and 8.2% sunlight transmission, respectively. Ethylene production and respiration rate were measured, and fruit quality was analyzed at 111, 114, 117, 120 (firm-ripe stage) and 124 DAFB (full-ripe stage). Single- and triple-layer bagged fruits had higher ethylene production rates than double-layer bagged and un-bagged fruits. The skin of un-bagged fruit had higher brightness (L-value) but smaller hue angle (h degrees) at the full-ripe stage compared with that of bagged fruit. Flesh firmness of un-bagged fruit was higher than that of bagged fruit until the firm-ripe stage, although triple-layer bagged fruit had higher firmness than un-bagged fruit at the full-ripe stage. Total soluble solids in juice of single-layer bagged fruit were a little higher than those of other treated fruits at the full-ripe stage. Single-layer bagged fruit showed the highest level of gamma-decalactone, a main characteristic aroma of peach and total lactones at the firm-ripe and full-ripe stages. It was concluded that 'Hujingmilu' peach had high quality with abundant aromas when the fruits were bagged with single-layer orange paper bags at 50 DAFB. The biosynthesis of gamma-decalactone and other aromas may be affected by light to some extent.

  1. Evaluations of the health benefits of eating more fruit depend on the amount of fruit previously eaten, variety, and timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Rachel J; Rothman, Alexander J

    2016-10-01

    Though research has demonstrated that people generally perceive fruits to be healthy foods, little is known about how people think about the health benefits associated with eating increasing quantities of fruit. The purpose of this paper is to examine how evaluations of healthiness change as participants consider eating increasing quantities of fruit, and to explore how additional contextual features (i.e., variety and timing) can be leveraged to improve evaluations. In two within-subjects experiments, participants rated how good or bad for one's health it would be to eat increasing quantities of either the same fruit or a variety of fruits. In study 1, all participants were instructed to imagine eating the fruit over the course of the day. In study 2, the temporal distribution of the fruit (throughout the day, during a single meal) was manipulated. In general, both studies demonstrated that evaluations of overall healthiness for eating increasing quantities of the same fruit tended to diminish beyond two pieces of fruit, whereas the overall healthiness of eating increasing quantities of a variety of fruit remained stable. Study 2 demonstrated that evaluations of healthiness increased as additional fruit was considered when a variety of fruit was imagined to be eaten throughout the day. Thus, the health benefits that people assign to eating increasing quantities of fruit seem to increase, but only if eating a variety of fruits throughout the day is considered. This study suggests that evaluations of the healthiness of fruit are not made in isolation; evaluations of healthiness are contextualized by what has been eaten previously and when it was eaten.

  2. The role of fruit consumption in the prevention of obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge; Alinia, Sevil

    2009-01-01

    effect. The physical disruption of fruit is of considerable importance for satiety, as shown in studies in which fruit juices were less satisfying compared to sugar-equivalent intakes of purees and whole fruits. The potential role of fruit in the prevention of overweight and obesity may be connected...... the opposite, in the case of fruit juices. Prospective studies oil children are few and inconclusive, but suggest associations between fruit intake and body weight that are related to the initial nutritional status. In behavioural intervention studies, subjects are often advised to undergo several changes......The global obesity epidemic is associated with a sedentary lifestyle and diets rich in high-fat, high-energy foods. The potential role of fruit in preventing overweight and obesity is related to their relatively low energy density, high content of dietary fibre, and associated increasing satiety...

  3. Quality properties of fruits as affected by drying operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omolola, Adewale O; Jideani, Afam I O; Kapila, Patrick F

    2017-01-02

    The increasing consumption of dried fruits requires further attention on the quality parameters. Drying has become necessary because most fruits are highly perishable owing to their high moisture content and the need to make them available all year round and at locations where they are not produced. In addition to preservation, the reduced weight and bulk of dehydrated products decreases packaging, handling and transportation costs. Quality changes associated with drying of fruit products include physical, sensory, nutritional, and microbiological. Drying gives rise to low or moderate glycemic index (GI) products with high calorie, vitamin and mineral contents. This review examines the nutritional benefits of dried fruits, protective compounds present in dried fruits, GI, overview of some fruit drying methods and effects of drying operations on the quality properties such as shrinkage, porosity, texture, color, rehydration, effective moisture diffusivity, nutritional, sensory, microbiological and shelf stability of fruits.

  4. Seasonal distributions of the western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) among host and nonhost fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Wee L

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal distributions of the western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), in sweet cherry (Prunus avium (L.) L.) (major host), black hawthorn (occasional developmental host) (Crataegus douglasii Lindley), and other trees were determined in a ponderosa pine ecosystem in Washington state, USA. The hypothesis that most fly dispersal from cherry trees occurs after fruit senesce or drop was tested, with emphasis on movement to black hawthorn trees. Sweet cherry fruit developed earlier than black hawthorn, bitter cherry (common host), choke cherry, and apple fruit. Flies were usually captured first in sweet cherry trees but were caught in bitter cherry and other trees throughout the season. Peak fly capture periods in sweet cherry began around the same time or slightly earlier than in other trees. However, peak fly capture periods in black hawthorn and other nonsweet cherry trees continued after peak periods in sweet cherry ended, or relative fly numbers within sweet cherry declined more quickly than those within other trees. Larvae were reared from sweet and bitter cherry but not black hawthorn fruit. Results provide partial support for the hypothesis in that although R. indifferens commonly disperses from sweet cherry trees with fruit, it could disperse more, or more flies are retained in nonsweet cherry trees after than before sweet cherries drop. This could allow opportunities for the flies to use other fruit for larval development. Although R. indifferens infestation in black hawthorn was not detected, early season fly dispersal to this and other trees and fly presence in bitter cherry could make fly management in sweet cherry difficult.

  5. Phytosanitary irradiation of peach fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae) in apple fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Guoping; Li, Baishu; Gao, Meixu; Liu, Bo; Wang, Yuejin; Liu, Tao; Ren, Lili

    2014-10-01

    Peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii Matsumura, is a serious pest of many pome and stone fruits and presents a quarantine problem in some export markets. It is widely distributed in pome fruit production areas in China, Japan, Korea, North Korea and the Far Eastern Federal District of Russia. In this investigation, gamma radiation dose-response tests were conducted with late eggs (5-d-old) and various larval stages, followed by large-scale confirmatory tests on the most tolerant stage in fruit, the fifth instar. The dose-response tests, with the target radiation dose of 20 (late eggs), 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, and 160 Gy (late fifth instars in vitro) respectively applied to all stages, showed that the tolerance to radiation increased with increasing age and developmental stage. The fifth instar (most advanced instar in fruits) was determined to be the most tolerant stage requiring an estimated minimum absorbed dose of 208.6 Gy (95% CI: 195.0, 226.5 Gy) to prevent adult emergence at 99.9968% efficacy (95% confidence level). In the confirmatory tests, irradiation was applied to 30,850 late fifth instars in apple fruits with a target dose of 200 Gy (171.6-227.8 Gy measured), but only 4 deformed adults emerged that died 2 d afterwards without laying eggs. A dose of 228 Gy may be recommended as a phytosanitary irradiation treatment under ambient atmosphere for the control of peach fruit moth on all commodities with an efficacy of 99.9902% at 95% confidence level.

  6. Why don't poor men eat fruit? Socioeconomic differences in motivations for fruit consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechey, Rachel; Monsivais, Pablo; Ng, Yin-Lam; Marteau, Theresa M

    2015-01-01

    Those of lower socioeconomic status (SES) tend to have less healthy diets than those of higher SES. This study aimed to assess whether differences in motivations for particular foods might contribute to socioeconomic differences in consumption. Participants (n = 732) rated their frequency of consumption and explicit liking of fruit, cake and cheese. They reported eating motivations (e.g., health, hunger, price) and related attributes of the investigated foods (healthiness, expected satiety, value for money). Participants were randomly assigned to an implicit liking task (Single Category Implicit Association Task) for one food category. Analyses were conducted separately for different SES measures (income, education, occupational group). Lower SES and male participants reported eating less fruit, but no SES differences were found for cheese or cake. Analyses therefore focused on fruit. In implicit liking analyses, results (for income and education) reflected patterning in consumption, with lower SES and male participants liking fruit less. In explicit liking analyses, no differences were found by SES. Higher SES participants (all indicators) were more likely to report health and weight control and less likely report price as motivators of food choices. For perceptions of fruit, no SES-based differences were found in healthiness whilst significant interactions (but not main effects) were found (for income and education) for expected satiety and value for money. Neither liking nor perceptions of fruit were found to mediate the relationship between SES and frequency of fruit consumption. There is evidence for social patterning in food motivation, but differences are modified by the choice of implicit or explicit measures. Further work should clarify the extent to which these motivations may be contributing to the social and gender patterning in diet. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. INTEGRATING PHYSIOLOGY AND ARCHITECTURE IN MODELS OF FRUIT EXPANSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikolaj Cieslak

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Architectural properties of a fruit, such as its shape, vascular patterns, and skin morphology, play a significant role in determining the distributions of water, carbohydrates, and nutrients inside the fruit. Understanding the impact of these properties on fruit quality is difficult because they develop over time and are highly dependent on both genetic and environmental controls. We present a 3D functional-structural fruit model that can be used to investigate effects of the principle architectural properties on fruit quality. We use a three step modeling pipeline in the OpenAlea platform: (1 creating a 3D volumetric mesh representation of the internal and external fruit structure, (2 generating a complex network of vasculature that is embedded within this mesh, and (3 integrating aspects of the fruit’s function, such as water and dry matter transport, with the fruit’s structure. We restrict our approach to the phase where fruit growth is mostly due to cell expansion and the fruit has already differentiated into different tissue types. We show how fruit shape affects vascular patterns and, as a consequence, the distribution of sugar/water in tomato fruit. Furthermore, we show that strong interaction between tomato fruit shape and vessel density induces, independently of size, an important and contrasted gradient of water supply from the pedicel to the blossom end of the fruit. We also demonstrate how skin morphology related to microcracking distribution affects the distribution of water and sugars inside nectarine fruit. Our results show that such a generic model permits detailed studies of various, unexplored architectural features affecting fruit quality development.

  8. Antioxidant Activity of Mulberry Fruit Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Amarowicz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds were extracted from the fruits of Morus nigra and Morus alba using methanol and acetone. The sugar-free extracts (SFEs were prepared using Amberlite XAD-16 column chromatography. All of the SFEs exhibited antioxidant potential as determined by ABTS (0.75–1.25 mmol Trolox/g, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (EC50 from 48 μg/mL to 79 μg/mL, and reducing power assays. However, a stronger activity was noted for the SFEs obtained from Morus nigra fruits. These extracts also possessed the highest contents of total phenolics: 164 mg/g (methanolic SFE and 173 mg/g (acetonic SFE. The presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids in the extracts was confirmed using HPLC method and chlorogenic acid and rutin were found as the dominant phenolic constituents in the SFEs.

  9. Antioxidant activity of mulberry fruit extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfan, Muhammad; Khan, Rasool; Rybarczyk, Anna; Amarowicz, Ryszard

    2012-01-01

    Phenolic compounds were extracted from the fruits of Morus nigra and Morus alba using methanol and acetone. The sugar-free extracts (SFEs) were prepared using Amberlite XAD-16 column chromatography. All of the SFEs exhibited antioxidant potential as determined by ABTS (0.75-1.25 mmol Trolox/g), DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) (EC(50) from 48 μg/mL to 79 μg/mL), and reducing power assays. However, a stronger activity was noted for the SFEs obtained from Morus nigra fruits. These extracts also possessed the highest contents of total phenolics: 164 mg/g (methanolic SFE) and 173 mg/g (acetonic SFE). The presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids in the extracts was confirmed using HPLC method and chlorogenic acid and rutin were found as the dominant phenolic constituents in the SFEs.

  10. Biological effects of fruit and vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, L. O.; Krath, B.; Ravn-Haren, Gitte

    2006-01-01

    , enzyme inducers, apoptosis inducers etc. In human intervention studies the dose levels achieved tend to be lower than the levels found to be effective in animals and sampling from target organs is often not possible. A controlled dietary human intervention study was performed with forty-three volunteers...... and vegetables tends to increase the stability of lipids towards oxidative damage. Markers of oxidative enzymes indicate a steady increase in glutathione peroxidase (GPX1) activity in erythrocytes during intervention with fruit and vegetables but there is no effect on GPX1 transcription levels in leucocytes....... No change occurs in glutathione-conjugating or -reducing enzyme activities in erythrocytes or plasma, and there are no effects on the transcription of genes involved in phase 2 enzyme induction or DNA repair in leucocytes. Fruit and vegetable intake decreases the level of total cholesterol and LDL...

  11. Pharmacognostical evaluation of Citrus jambhiri Lush. fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil Y Chaudhari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Citrus jambhiri Lush., commonly known as Jambīra Nimbū in Sanskrit is medium to large indigenous tree with spreading habit, less spiny than lemon and belonging to the family Rutaceae. In Ayurveda, it is used in many pharmaceutical procedures of purification (Śodhana, calcination (Māraṇa etc., Though it is an important plant, till date, no pharmacognostical reports have been available on its fruit. Materials and Methods: Study of fruit and its powder, histochemical tests and preliminary physicochemical investigations were done. Results and Conclusion: Results showed prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, aerenchyma cells, oil globules, pitted vessels, scalariform vessels, juicy sac, etc., Preliminary physicochemical analysis revealed loss on drying (1.1%, ash value (1.4%, alcohol soluble extract (28.6%, and water soluble extract (53.3%. These observations can be of use in future studies.

  12. Estimating Orientation of Flying Fruit Flies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi En Cheng

    Full Text Available The recently growing interest in studying flight behaviours of fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, has highlighted the need for developing tools that acquire quantitative motion data. Despite recent advance of video tracking systems, acquiring a flying fly's orientation remains a challenge for these tools. In this paper, we present a novel method for estimating individual flying fly's orientation using image cues. Thanks to the line reconstruction algorithm in computer vision field, this work can thereby focus on the practical detail of implementation and evaluation of the orientation estimation algorithm. The orientation estimation algorithm can be incorporated into tracking algorithms. We rigorously evaluated the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed algorithm by running experiments both on simulation data and on real-world data. This work complements methods for studying the fruit fly's flight behaviours in a three-dimensional environment.

  13. PRICE TRANSMISSION IN SELECTED MALAYSIAN FRUITS MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Mohamed Arshad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The market for fresh produce such as fruits in Malaysia is alleged to be inefficient due to poor flow of information between market levels and uncompetitive market particularly at the wholesale and retail levels. Due to these structural problems, pricing efficiency is questionable, in that they are not integrated. This study intends to examine the cointegration and causality relationships between the farm and retail prices in the Malaysian market of fruits. To that end, the bivariate cointegration approach, using Granger causality tests, is applied. The study uses monthly data from January 2000 through December 2010. The results show that there is evidence of long run bidirectional causal relationship between farm and retail prices for banana and watermelon. However, the analysis revealed a long run unidirectional relationship from farm prices to retail prices with no evidence of reverse or feedback causality running from farm price to retail prices for jackfruit and durian.

  14. Cardioprotective activity of fruits of Sechium edule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosanam Neeraja

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the study of the ethanolic extract of fruits of Sechium edule for cardioprotective activity. Cardioprotective activity of the ethanolic extract of fruits of Sechium edule was determined by the administration of isoproterenol (60 mg/kg, s.c for two days. Pretreatment with Sechium edule (200 mg/kg, p.o and 100 mg/kg, p.o for 28 days in significantly (P<0.01 reduce the levels of serum SGOT, SGPT, ALP, LDH, CK, Total Cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, VLDL-C and increase the levels of HDL-C. Histopathological studies of the hearts of ISO treated rats have showed infiltration of inflammatory cells and continuity in muscle fiber was lacking suggesting an irreversible cell injury. Animals treated with ethanolic extract of Sechium edule showed less degenerative changes compared to ISO - treated animals.

  15. Hypersensitivity manifestations to the fruit mango

    OpenAIRE

    Sareen, Richa; SHAH, ASHOK

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study are 1) To review the published data and document the current knowledge on allergic manifestations to the fruit mango 2) To highlight the two distinct clinical presentations of hypersensitivity reactions caused by mango 3) To discuss the role of cross-reactivity 4) To increase awareness of potentially life threatening complications that can be caused by allergy to mango. An extensive search of the literature was performed in Medline/PubMed with the key terms "mango...

  16. Phytoconstituents from Vitex agnus-castus fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Nong; Friesen, J. Brent; Webster, Donna; Nikolic, Dejan; van Breemen, Richard B.; Wang, Z. Jim; Fong, Harry H.S.; Farnsworth, Norman R.; Pauli, Guido F.

    2011-01-01

    A new labdane-diterpene, viteagnusin I (1), together with 23 known phytoconstituents were isolated from the fruits of Vitex agnus-castus L, and their structures characterized by spectroscopic method (NMR and MS). The known compounds include ten flavonoids, five terpenoids, three neolignans, and four phenolic compounds, as well as one glyceride. Biological evaluation identified apigenin, 3-methylkaempferol, luteolin, and casticin as weak ligands of delta and mu opioid receptors, exhibiting dose-dependent receptor binding. PMID:21163339

  17. Effectiveness of Citrus Fruits on Helicobacter pylori

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    It is known that Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric carcinoma. Due to the increased side effects of the treatment regimens and the development of antimicrobial resistance, a number of natural compounds have been tested as potential alternatives. In this review, we will examine the current knowledge on the effect of Citrus fruits and their derivatives against H. pylori, highlighting the remaining outstanding questions on the development of novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:28408943

  18. Plastid Proteomic Analysis in Tomato Fruit Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miho Suzuki

    Full Text Available To better understand the mechanism of plastid differentiation from chloroplast to chromoplast, we examined proteome and plastid changes over four distinct developmental stages of 'Micro-Tom' fruit. Additionally, to discover more about the relationship between fruit color and plastid differentiation, we also analyzed and compared 'Micro-Tom' results with those from two other varieties, 'Black' and 'White Beauty'. We confirmed that proteins related to photosynthesis remain through the orange maturity stage of 'Micro-Tom', and also learned that thylakoids no longer exist at this stage. These results suggest that at a minimum there are changes in plastid morphology occurring before all related proteins change. We also compared 'Micro-Tom' fruits with 'Black' and 'White Beauty' using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. We found a decrease of CHRC (plastid-lipid-associated protein and HrBP1 (harpin binding protein-1 in the 'Black' and 'White Beauty' varieties. CHRC is involved in carotenoid accumulation and stabilization. HrBP1 in Arabidopsis has a sequence similar to proteins in the PAP/fibrillin family. These proteins have characteristics and functions similar to lipocalin, an example of which is the transport of hydrophobic molecules. We detected spots of TIL (temperature-induced lipocalin in 2D-PAGE results, however the number of spots and their isoelectric points differed between 'Micro-Tom' and 'Black'/'White Beauty'. Lipocalin has various functions including those related to environmental stress response, apoptosis induction, membrane formation and fixation, regulation of immune response, cell growth, and metabolism adjustment. Lipocalin related proteins such as TIL and HrBP1 could be related to the accumulation of carotenoids, fruit color and the differentiation of chromoplast.

  19. Volatile Constituents of Romanian Coriander Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Tsagkli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils of Romanian coriander fruits ( cultivar “Sandra” were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by means of GC and GC-MS. Sixty compounds were identified in the total essential oils. Monoterpenes were the most dominant class of compounds, with linalool (48.4-54.3% being the major component. Other significant compounds were γ-terpinene (9.2-12.1%, α-pinene (5.5-9.3% and limonene (4.7-6.3%.

  20. Application of irradiated chitosan for fruit preservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lan, K.N. [Post-harvest Technology Institute, 4, Ngo Quyen-Ha Noi (Viet Nam); Lam, N.D. [Ha Noi Radiation Center, VAEC, 5T-160, Nghiado, Tuliem, Ha Noi (Viet Nam); Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2000-03-01

    Preliminary test of mango (Mangifera indica) preservation by irradiated chitosan coating has been investigated. The coating by using irradiated chitosan in 1.5% solution has extended the shelf life of mango from 7 to 15 days. At the 15th day mango coated by irradiated chitosan has been keeping good color, natural ripening, without spoilage, weight loss 10%, whereas the mango without coating was spoiled completely and the coating of fruit with unirradiated chitosan inhibited the ripening. (author)

  1. Plastid Proteomic Analysis in Tomato Fruit Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Miho; Takahashi, Sachiko; Kondo, Takanori; Dohra, Hideo; Ito, Yumihiko; Kiriiwa, Yoshikazu; Hayashi, Marina; Kamiya, Shiori; Kato, Masaya; Fujiwara, Masayuki; Fukao, Yoichiro; Kobayashi, Megumi; Nagata, Noriko; Motohashi, Reiko

    2015-01-01

    To better understand the mechanism of plastid differentiation from chloroplast to chromoplast, we examined proteome and plastid changes over four distinct developmental stages of 'Micro-Tom' fruit. Additionally, to discover more about the relationship between fruit color and plastid differentiation, we also analyzed and compared 'Micro-Tom' results with those from two other varieties, 'Black' and 'White Beauty'. We confirmed that proteins related to photosynthesis remain through the orange maturity stage of 'Micro-Tom', and also learned that thylakoids no longer exist at this stage. These results suggest that at a minimum there are changes in plastid morphology occurring before all related proteins change. We also compared 'Micro-Tom' fruits with 'Black' and 'White Beauty' using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. We found a decrease of CHRC (plastid-lipid-associated protein) and HrBP1 (harpin binding protein-1) in the 'Black' and 'White Beauty' varieties. CHRC is involved in carotenoid accumulation and stabilization. HrBP1 in Arabidopsis has a sequence similar to proteins in the PAP/fibrillin family. These proteins have characteristics and functions similar to lipocalin, an example of which is the transport of hydrophobic molecules. We detected spots of TIL (temperature-induced lipocalin) in 2D-PAGE results, however the number of spots and their isoelectric points differed between 'Micro-Tom' and 'Black'/'White Beauty'. Lipocalin has various functions including those related to environmental stress response, apoptosis induction, membrane formation and fixation, regulation of immune response, cell growth, and metabolism adjustment. Lipocalin related proteins such as TIL and HrBP1 could be related to the accumulation of carotenoids, fruit color and the differentiation of chromoplast.

  2. Water scarcity conditions affect peach fruit size and polyphenol contents more severely than other fruit quality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmati, Mitra; Vercambre, Gilles; Davarynejad, Gholamhossein; Bannayan, Mohammad; Azizi, Majid; Génard, Michel

    2015-03-30

    The literature abounds with the impacts of drought conditions on the concentration of non-structural compounds (NSC) in peach fruits without distinction as to the direct effect of drought on fruit metabolism and its indirect effect through dilution. Moreover, there is a need to investigate the sensitivity of the fruit composition to progressive water deficit in semi-arid conditions, as well as the origin of variations in fruit composition - not only in carbohydrates and organic acids, but also in secondary metabolites such as polyphenols. The increase in stress intensity resulted in smaller fruits and a reduction in yield. Drought increased fruit dry matter content, structural dry matter (SDM) content and firmness due to lower water import to fruits, although drought reduced fruit surface conductance and its transpiration. Drought significantly affected the concentrations of each NSC either through the decrease in dilution and/or modifications of their metabolism. The increase in hexoses and sorbitol concentrations of fruits grown under drought conditions resulted in an increase in the sweetness index but not near harvest. Malic acid concentration and content:SDM ratio increased as drought intensified, whereas those of citric and quinic acids decreased. Polyphenol concentration and content increased under severe drought. The increase in stress intensity strongly affected fruit mass. The concentration of total carbohydrates and organic acid at harvest increased mainly through a decrease in fruit dilution, whereas the concentrations of polyphenols were also strongly affected through an impact on their metabolism. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations in relation to region, trap type, season, and availability of fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Victoria Y; Miller, Gina T; Stewart-Leslie, Judy; Rice, Richard E; Phillips, Phil A

    2006-12-01

    Olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), was monitored with adult captures by season and trap type, and was related to fruit volume and nonharvested fruit to elucidate the occurrence of the newly introduced pest in California. The highest numbers of adults captured in ChamP traps in olive trees, Olea europaea, were in October in an inland valley location, and in September in a coastal location. Comparisons of trap types showed that the number of olive fruit fly adults captured in Pherocon AM traps in a commercial orchard was significantly greater than in ChamP traps. A significantly greater number of females were captured in Pherocon AM traps with bait packets and pheromone lures than traps with pheromone lures alone, while a significantly greater number of adults and males were captured in traps with pheromone lures alone. Significantly more adults were captured in ChamP traps with bait packets and pheromone lures versus traps with bait packets alone. Fruit volume increased by four times from mid-June to mid-November. Olive fruit fly was found to oviposit on small olive fruit fruit set, the maximum number of ovipositional sites per fruit occurred in October, and the greatest number of pupae and adults were reared from fruit collected in September and October. The highest numbers of pupae were collected from nonharvested fruit in March when high numbers of adults were captured in the same orchard.

  4. LC-MS/MS法测定浓缩果汁中2-氨基苯并咪唑、多菌灵、噻菌灵、甲基硫菌灵的残留量%Determination of 2-aminobenzimidazole,carbendazim,triabendazole,thiophanate-methyl in concentrated fruit juice by LC-MS/MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文雯; 刘晓松; 郑玲; 宁恩创

    2012-01-01

    A liquid chromatography with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for quantitative determination of 2-aminobenzimidazole,carbendazim,triabendazole,thiophanate-methyl in concentrated fruit juice. Apple,mango,pineapple,pear,orange,lychee,passion fruit juice concentrate were selected as samples. The samples were extracted by acetonitrile and purified by PSA column. With methanol-10mmol/L ammonium acetate (containing 0.1% volume concentration of formic acid) as mobile phase gradient elution,extractions of samples were separated by ZORBAX Eclipse XDB-C18 column and detected by electrospray tandem mass spectrometry with ESI+ and multiple reaction monitoring(MRM) modes. Results showed that the mean recoveries ranged from 70.3%~109.8% with relative standard deviations in the range of 0.1%~10.9% when the spiked concentrations of 2-amino-benzimidazole were 2,4,20μg/kg and thiophene benomyl,carbendazim,thiophanate-methyl were 1,2,10μg/kg respectively. And the limits of detections of 2-amino-benzimidazole,carbendazim,thiabendazole,thiophanate-methyl were 2,1,1,1μg/kg. This method can be used to accurately and efficiently detect these four fungicides residues in concentrated fruit juice so it can be an important measure to monitor and control the quality of concentrated fruit juice.%建立了同时测定浓缩果汁中2-氨基苯并咪唑、噻菌灵、多菌灵、甲基硫菌灵的LC-MS/MS检测法。选取苹果、芒果、菠萝、梨、橙、荔枝、西番莲7种浓缩果汁进行了研究,样品采用乙腈提取,经PSA(乙二胺基N-丙基柱)柱净化后用LC-MS/MS测定。色谱条件是以甲醇-10mmol/L的乙酸铵(含0.1%体积浓度的甲酸)为流动相进行梯度洗脱,待测物经ZORBAX Eclipse XDB-C18柱分离,最后用电喷雾正离子(ESI+)和多反应监测模式(MRM)进行MS测定。结果表明,当2-氨基苯并咪唑添加水平为2、4、20μg/kg,噻菌灵、多菌灵、甲基硫菌灵添加水平为1、2、10

  5. Bioethanol Quality Improvement of Coffee Fruit Leather

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edahwati Luluk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Indonesia’s dependence on petroleum is to be reduced and even eliminated. To overcome the problem of finding the needed alternative materials that can produce ethanol, in this case as a substitute material or a transport fuel mix, boosting the octane number, and gasoline ethanol (gasohol can be conducted. In the red coffee processing (cooking that will produce 65% and 35% of coffee beans, coffee leather waste is a source of organic material with fairly high cellulose content of 46.82%, 3.01% of pectin and 7.68% of lignin. In this case, its existence is abundant in Indonesia and optimally utilized. During the coffee fruit peeling, the peel waste is only used as a mixture of animal feed or simply left to rot. The purpose of this study was to produce and improve the quality of the fruit skin of bioethanol from coffee cellulose. However, to improve the quality of bioethanol, the production of the lignin content in the skin of the coffee fruit should be eliminated or reduced. Hydrolysis process using organosolve method is expected to improve the quality of bioethanol produced. In particular, the use of enzyme Saccharomyces and Zymmomonas will change the resulting sugar into bioethanol. On one hand, by using batch distillation process for 8 hours with Saccharomyces, bioethanol obtains high purity which is 39.79%; on the other hand, by using the same batch distillation process with Zymmomonas, the bioethanol obtains 38.78%.

  6. Pointillist structural color in Pollia fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignolini, Silvia; Rudall, Paula J; Rowland, Alice V; Reed, Alison; Moyroud, Edwige; Faden, Robert B; Baumberg, Jeremy J; Glover, Beverley J; Steiner, Ullrich

    2012-09-25

    Biological communication by means of structural color has existed for at least 500 million years. Structural color is commonly observed in the animal kingdom, but has been little studied in plants. We present a striking example of multilayer-based strong iridescent coloration in plants, in the fruit of Pollia condensata. The color is caused by Bragg reflection of helicoidally stacked cellulose microfibrils that form multilayers in the cell walls of the epicarp. We demonstrate that animals and plants have convergently evolved multilayer-based photonic structures to generate colors using entirely distinct materials. The bright blue coloration of this fruit is more intense than that of any previously described biological material. Uniquely in nature, the reflected color differs from cell to cell, as the layer thicknesses in the multilayer stack vary, giving the fruit a striking pixelated or pointillist appearance. Because the multilayers form with both helicoidicities, optical characterization reveals that the reflected light from every epidermal cell is polarized circularly either to the left or to the right, a feature that has never previously been observed in a single tissue.

  7. Native carotenoids composition of some tropical fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, Enrique; Giuffrida, Daniele; Menchaca, Dania; Dugo, Paola; Torre, Germana; Meléndez-Martinez, Antonio J; Mondello, Luigi

    2013-10-15

    Many tropical fruits can be considered a reservoir of bioactive substances with a special interest due to their possible health-promoting properties. The interest in carotenoids from a nutritional standpoint has recently greatly increased, because of their important health benefits. Here we report the native carotenoids composition in six tropical fruits from Panama, which is considered a region of great biodiversity. The native carotenoid composition was directly investigated by an HPLC-DAD-APCI-MS methodology, for the first time. In Corozo 32 different carotenoids were detected, including a high content of β-carotene and lycopene. Sastra showed the highest content of zeaxanthin among the fruit investigated. In Sapote 22 different carotenoids were detected, including β-carotene and 10 different zeaxanthin-di-esters. Frutita showed a very high content of the apo-carotenoid β-citraurin, and of a number of its esters. In Maracuyà chino 14 carotenoids were detected, including a high amounts of mono-esterified lauric acid with β-cryptoxanthin and with cryptocapsin. Mamey rojo was characterised by ketocarotenoids with κ rings, both hydroxylated and not hydroxylated.

  8. Developing fruit-based nutritious snack bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Edson P; Siqueira, Heloisa H; do Lago, Rafael Carvalho; Rosell, Cristina M; Vilas Boas, Eduardo V de Barros

    2014-01-15

    Marolo (Annona crassiflora Mart) is a typical savannah fruit that is very nutritious and highly appreciated. However, its consumption has been limited to fresh fruit. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential use of marolo flour in the production of healthy snack bars to valorise this fruit and provide an alternative ready-to-eat nutritious product. Snack bars containing increasing amounts of marolo flour (5 g 100 g(-1), 10 g 100 g(-1), 15 g 100 g(-1), 20 g 100 g(-1), expressed in w/w) were produced and the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics were determined. Levels up to 20% marolo flour can be incorporated in snack bars with some minor changes in pH and moisture content but with an increase of 2.4-fold in dietary fibre content and also 1.3-fold of vitamin C, minerals and antioxidant activity. In addition, up to 10% marolo flour improves significantly the sensory properties of the snack bars, namely appearance, taste, texture and overall acceptance. Marolo flour can be considered an alternative flour for obtaining healthy snack bars, with increased nutritional and sensory quality. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Nutritional quality of 18 date fruit varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Hosam M; Ibrahim, Wissam H

    2011-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze and compare the chemical and physical properties of 18 varieties of the date fruits from date palm (Phoenix dactylifera), which are regarded as popular fruit commodities among the populace of the Middle Eastern peninsula. Dietary fiber, proximate analysis, micronutrients (micro-elements and macro-elements) and physical properties (weight, length, and density) of the selected 18 leading varieties of dates cultivated in the United Arab Emirates-namely Khalas, Barhe, Lulu, Shikat alkahlas, Sokkery, Bomaan, Sagay, Shishi, Maghool, Sultana, Fard, Maktoomi, Naptit saif, Jabri, Khodary, Dabbas, Raziz and Shabebe-were determined and compared. Significant differences (P date fruits, depending on the variety, contain significant but quite variable amounts of macro-elements and micro-elements. The macro-elements measured are calcium, phosphorous, sodium, potassium and magnesium, while the essential micro-elements and the possibly essential micro-elements are iron, zinc, copper, manganese, cobalt and molybdenum, and aluminum, arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, nickel, lead, strontium and vanadium, respectively.

  10. Biotechnology of temperate fruit trees and grapevines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laimer, Margit; Mendonça, Duarte; Maghuly, Fatemeh; Marzban, Gorji; Leopold, Stephan; Khan, Mahmood; Balla, Ildiko; Katinger, Hermann

    2005-01-01

    Challenges concerning fruit trees and grapevines as long lived woody perennial crops require adapted biotechnological approaches, if solutions are to be found within a reasonable time frame. These challenges are represented by the need for correct identification of genetic resources, with the foreseen use either in conservation or in breeding programmes. Molecular markers provide most accurate information and will be the major solution for questions about plant breeders rights. Providing healthy planting material and rapid detection of newly introduced pathogens by reliable methods involving serological and molecular biological tools will be a future challenge of increases importance, given the fact that plant material travels freely in the entire European Union. But also new breeding goals and transgenic solutions are part of the biotechnological benefits, e.g. resistance against biotic and abiotic stress factors, modified growth habits, modified nutritional properties and altered processing and storage qualities. The successful characterization of transgenic grapevines and stone fruit trees carrying genes of viral origin in different vectors constructed under ecological consideration, will be presented. Beyond technical feasibility, efficiency of resistance, environmental safety and Intellectual Property Rights, also public acceptance needs consideration and has been addressed in a specific project. The molecular determination of internal quality parameters of food can also be addressed by the use of biotechnological tools. Patient independent detection tools for apple allergens have been developed and should allow to compare fruits from different production systems, sites, and genotypes for their content of health threatening compounds.

  11. Production of Star Fruit Alcoholic Fermented Beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valim, Flávia de Paula; Aguiar-Oliveira, Elizama; Kamimura, Eliana Setsuko; Alves, Vanessa Dias; Maldonado, Rafael Resende

    2016-12-01

    Star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) is a nutritious tropical fruit. The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of a star fruit alcoholic fermented beverage utilizing a lyophilized commercial yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The study was conducted utilizing a 2(3) central composite design and the best conditions for the production were: initial soluble solids between 23.8 and 25 °Brix (g 100 g(-1)), initial pH between 4.8 and 5.0 and initial concentration of yeast between 1.6 and 2.5 g L(-1). These conditions yielded a fermented drink with an alcohol content of 11.15 °GL (L 100 L(-1)), pH of 4.13-4.22, final yeast concentration of 89 g L(-1) and fermented yield from 82 to 94 %. The fermented drink also presented low levels of total and volatile acidities.

  12. Spotting Fruit versus Picking Fruit as the Selective Advantage of Human Colour Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Bompas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The spatiochromatic properties of the red–green dimension of human colour vision appear to be optimized for picking fruit in leaves at about arms' reach. However, other evidence suggests that the task of spotting fruit from a distance might be more important. This discrepancy may arise because the task a system (e.g. human trichromacy is best at is not necessarily the same task where the largest advantage occurs over the evolutionary alternatives (dichromacy or anomalous trichromacy. We tested human dichromats, anomalous trichromats and “normal” trichromats in a naturalistic visual search task in which they had to find fruit pieces in a bush at 1, 4, 8 or 12 m viewing distance. We found that the largest advantage (in terms of either performance ratio or performance difference of normal trichromacy over both types of colour deficiency was for the largest viewing distance. We infer that in the evolution of human colour vision, spotting fruit from a distance was a more important selective advantage than picking fruit at arms' reach.

  13. Tomato Fruits Show Wide Phenomic Diversity but Fruit Developmental Genes Show Low Genomic Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Vijee; Gupta, Soni; Thomas, Sherinmol; Mickey, Hanjabam; Charakana, Chaitanya; Chauhan, Vineeta Singh; Sharma, Kapil; Kumar, Rakesh; Tyagi, Kamal; Sarma, Supriya; Gupta, Suresh Kumar; Kilambi, Himabindu Vasuki; Nongmaithem, Sapana; Kumari, Alka; Gupta, Prateek; Sreelakshmi, Yellamaraju; Sharma, Rameshwar

    2016-01-01

    Domestication of tomato has resulted in large diversity in fruit phenotypes. An intensive phenotyping of 127 tomato accessions from 20 countries revealed extensive morphological diversity in fruit traits. The diversity in fruit traits clustered the accessions into nine classes and identified certain promising lines having desirable traits pertaining to total soluble salts (TSS), carotenoids, ripening index, weight and shape. Factor analysis of the morphometric data from Tomato Analyzer showed that the fruit shape is a complex trait shared by several factors. The 100% variance between round and flat fruit shapes was explained by one discriminant function having a canonical correlation of 0.874 by stepwise discriminant analysis. A set of 10 genes (ACS2, COP1, CYC-B, RIN, MSH2, NAC-NOR, PHOT1, PHYA, PHYB and PSY1) involved in various plant developmental processes were screened for SNP polymorphism by EcoTILLING. The genetic diversity in these genes revealed a total of 36 non-synonymous and 18 synonymous changes leading to the identification of 28 haplotypes. The average frequency of polymorphism across the genes was 0.038/Kb. Significant negative Tajima'D statistic in two of the genes, ACS2 and PHOT1 indicated the presence of rare alleles in low frequency. Our study indicates that while there is low polymorphic diversity in the genes regulating plant development, the population shows wider phenotype diversity. Nonetheless, morphological and genetic diversity of the present collection can be further exploited as potential resources in future.

  14. Influence of different tropical fruits on biological and behavioral aspects of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M. Costa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Influence of different tropical fruits on biological and behavioral aspects of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Tephritidae. Studies on Ceratitis capitata, a world fruit pest, can aid the implementation of control programs by determining the plants with higher vulnerability to attacks and plants able to sustain their population in areas of fly distribution. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of eight tropical fruits on the following biological and behavioral parameters of C. capitata: emergence percentage, life cycle duration, adult size, egg production, longevity, fecundity, egg viability, and oviposition acceptance. The fruits tested were: acerola (Malpighia glabra L., cashew (Anacardium occidentale L., star fruit (Averrhoa carambola L., guava (Psidium guajava L., soursop (Annona muricata L., yellow mombin (Spondias mombin L., Malay apple (Syzygium malaccense L., and umbu (Spondias tuberosa L.. The biological parameters were obtained by rearing the recently hatched larvae on each of the fruit kinds. Acceptance of fruits for oviposition experiment was assessed using no-choice tests, as couples were exposed to two pieces of the same fruit. The best performances were obtained with guava, soursop, and star fruit. Larvae reared on cashew and acerola fruits had regular performances. No adults emerged from yellow mombin, Malay apple, or umbu. Fruit species did not affect adult longevity, female fecundity, or egg viability. Guava, soursop, and acerola were preferred for oviposition, followed by star fruit, Malay apple, cashew, and yellow mombin. Oviposition did not occur on umbu. In general, fruits with better larval development were also more accepted for oviposition.

  15. Fruit image segmentation based on evolutionary algorithm%基于演化算法的水果图像分割

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭红星; 邹湘军; 陈琰; 杨磊; 熊俊涛; 陈燕

    2014-01-01

    traditional evolutionary algorithm. In the crossover phase, it uses a single-point crossover method. In the mutation phase, the selected mutation probability was 0.2, which was obtained by comparing the results of different experiments. In the termination phase, the termination condition of the evolutionary algorithm in this paper was that the number of the current iteration had reached the maximum number set by the user in advance. The experimental results showed that the proposed fruit image evolutionary segmentation algorithm was obviously superior to the traditional evolutionary algorithm, and was better in terms of stability, segmentation effect, running speed, etc, and the segmentation threshold value was stabilized within three pixels. Compared with the Otsu segmentation algorithm, K-means clustering segmentation algorithm, fuzzy C-means clustering segmentation algorithm, and Bayesian classification segmentation algorithm, the fruit image evolutionary segmentation algorithm was the best segmentation effect and had the least run time. The average run time of the evolutionary algorithm was 0.08735 seconds, which was less than the other 4 algorithms. The evolutionary segmentation algorithm could be used for citrus, litchi, apple, and other fruits image segmentation and so the algorithm has certain universal utility. The algorithm was achieved by the demand of vision real-time positioning of the fruit picking robot and had provided a new basis algorithm for the image segmentation and its real-time research.%为了满足水果采摘机器人对图像分割算法实时性和自适应性的要求,在传统演化算法的基础上,提出了一种基于蜂王交配结合精英选择、截断选择分阶段的改进演化算法对水果图像进行分割。在设计选择策略时,将迭代过程划分为前中后3个阶段,分别采用蜂王交配算法、精英选择策略和截断选择策略来进行适应值的选择,这样既保证了种群的多样性,又克

  16. The Physiological Mechanism of Postphloem Sugar Transport in Citrus Fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jun-wei; ZHANG Shang-long; ZHANG Liang-cheng; Ruan Yong-ling; XIE Ming; TAO Jun

    2003-01-01

    The dynamics of translocation and partitioning of 14C-phothsynthates, the concentration of sucrose in fruit tissues and the effects of the membrane carrier- and ATPase-specific inhibitors on 14C-sucrose uptake by juice sacs of the satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc. cv. Miyagawa wase) fruit were examined at the stage of fruit enlargement and fruit full ripe. Kinetic data of 14C-photosynthate translocation indicated that the rate of photosynthate transport into juice sacs decreased with fruit maturation and sugar accumulation. Along the photosynthate translocation path, i.e. from vascular bundles to segment epidermis then to juice sacs, a descending sugar gradient was observed. With fruit maturation and sugar accumulation in juice sacs, the 14C photosynthate gradient increased, whereas the static sucrose concentration gradient decreased with fruit maturation and sugar accumulation. The higher gradient of specific 14C radioactivity was considered to favor diffusion and sugar transport into juice sacs at the later stage of fruit development. The rate of uptake 14C-sucrose by juice sacs of satsuma mandarin fruit was markedly reduced by PCMBS, EB, DNP and NO-3 treatment. The above results suggested the participation of a carrier-mediated, energy-dependent sugar active transport process in juice sacs of satsuma mandarin fruit.

  17. An area wide control of fruit flies in Mauritius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sookar, P.; Permalloo, S.; Gungah, B.; Alleck, M.; Seewooruthun, S.I.; Soonnoo, A.R., E-mail: ento@intnet.m, E-mail: moa-entomology@mail.gov.m [Ministry of Agro Industry and Fisheries Reduit, Republic of Mauritius (Mauritius)

    2006-07-01

    An area-wide National Fruit Fly Control Programme (NFFCP) was initiated in 1994, funded by the European Union until 1999 and now fully financed by the Government of Mauritius. The NFFCP targets some 75,000 backyard fruit trees owners mainly. The bait application and male annihilation techniques (BAT e MAT) are currently being applied against the fruit flies attacking fleshy fruits and are targeting selected major fruit growing areas in the north, north-east, central and western parts of the island. Successful control has been achieved using these two techniques as demonstrated by trap catches and fruit samplings. The level of fruit fly damage to fruits has been reduced. Presently, the bait-insecticide mixture is being supplied free of charge to the public. The current status of the area-wide suppression programme is such that continuous use of BAT/MAT is a never ending process and as such is not viable. In this context, a TC project on Feasibility studies for integrated use of sterile insect technique for area wide tephritid fruit fly control.Studies are also being carried out on mass rearing of the peach fruit fly for small scale trials on SIT so as to eventually integrate this control method in our area-wide control programme. (author)

  18. The comparative characteristics of snake and kiwi fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorinstein, Shela; Haruenkit, Ratiporn; Poovarodom, Sumitra; Park, Yong-Seo; Vearasilp, Suchada; Suhaj, Milan; Ham, Kyung-Sik; Heo, Buk-Gu; Cho, Ja-Yong; Jang, Hong Gi

    2009-08-01

    In the time of globalization many of the tropical fruits can be find at the markets of Europe and North America. Most customers are not familiar with the nutritional and proliferative values of these fruits. Therefore, a less known snake fruit was compared with better known kiwi fruit, using fluorometry, FT-IR spectroscopy, several radical scavenging and proliferative assays and statistical evaluation. It was found similarity between snake fruit (cultivar Sumalee) and kiwi fruit (cultivar Hayward) in the contents of polyphenols (8.15-7.91, mg GAE g(-1) DW), antioxidant values by DPPH (11.28-10.24, microMTE g(-1) DW), and antiproliferative activities on both human cancer cell lines (Calu-6 for human pulmonary carcinoma, and SMU-601 for human gastric carcinoma, 90.5-87.6 and 89.3-87.1%, cell survival, respectively). In conclusion, snake fruit cultivar Sumalee is comparable with kiwi fruit cultivar Hayward. Two fruits can be used as supplements to the normal diet. Consumption of a combination of both fruits could be recommended in order to receive the best results.

  19. Characterization of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum fruits from outstanding mexican selections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Guadalupe Hernández Arenas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Fruits of five regional selections of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L. were characterized to identify those with international marketing quality to promote their propagation in Mexico, improvement and conservation in germoplasm bank. The fruits were harvested in June, July, and August 2008 and, after each harvest, were assessed for shape (length/diameter, firmness, fruit weight, number of fruits per kilogram, weight and percentage of pericarp, seed and aril, total soluble solids, total sugars, vitamin C content, pH, and titratable acidity. In addition, a sensorial evaluation was carried out with 31 panelists who graded each selection for color, sweetness, and acidity. Fruits of five selections were ovoid, and with the following characteristics: firmness values from 43.7 to 51.0 N, fruit weight ranged from 22.4 to 34.7 g, registering from 28.9 to 45.0 fruits per kg; pericarp weight from 10.5 to 17.3 g (45.9 to 49.9% of the total fruit weight; total seed weight from 2.2 to 2.5 g (7.0 to 10.0%; average arils weight from 8.9 to 13.1 g (37.5 to 41.4%. The fruits had high contents of total soluble solids (17.8 to 20.4 ºBrix, total sugars (211.95 to 242.70 mg/100g in the edible portion, vitamin C (37.9 to 69.1 mg/100 g, pH 5.0, and titratable acidity of 0.20 to 0.28%. The fruits from the RT-01 and RT-05 selections had better attributes in fruit weight, total soluble solids and titratable acidity and were better accepted by the panelists. Harvest date significantly affects rambutan fruit quality; at the middle and end of the season harvested fruits had better qualitative characteristics for the marketing.

  20. Fruit and vegetable intake of schoolchildren in Quetzaltenango, Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro-Bethancourt, Gabriela; Doak, Colleen M; Solomons, Noel

    2009-02-01

    To determine if fruit and vegetable consumption among high- and low-socioeconomic status (HSES-LSES) urban schoolchildren in Quetzaltenango, Guatemala, was adequate according to World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. Cross-sectional data from 449 third- and fourth-grade girls and boys from 12 elementary schools were collected, analyzed, and presented by socioeconomic status and gender. Public schoolchildren were classified as LSES (n = 219) and private schoolchildren were classified as HSES (n = 230). Dietary fruit/vegetable intake of each student was determined based on a 24-hour recall pictorial record and personal interview. All food items containing fruits or vegetables (including beverages) were classified and tabulated. Frequency of fruit/vegetable intake was calculated based on "mentions" (number of times a fruit or vegetable item was reportedly consumed), and nutritional adequacy was assessed for each group by mean and median values and compared to WHO daily recommended fruit/vegetable intake (400 g). Based on World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) exclusion guidelines, the fruit/vegetable contribution to total energy was estimated. Of the 247 different food items identified, 93 (37.7%) contained a fruit or vegetable. Total food mentions (n = 6 512) included 637 fruit items and 701 vegetable items. Although mean fruit/vegetable intake in grams was 461.3 (standard deviation, +/- 332.5), more than half (56.3%) of the subjects fell below the 400-g recommended daily level. Estimated fruit/vegetable contribution to total energy was 21.2% for HSES and 19.1% for LSES. This study revealed inadequate fruit/vegetable intake among the study sample. For compliance with global recommendations, interventions promoting fruit/vegetable intake are needed.

  1. Developments and trends in fruit bar production and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrego, C E; Salgado, N; Botero, C A

    2014-01-01

    Fruits serve as a source of energy, vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber. One of the barriers in increasing fruit and vegetables consumption is time required to prepare them. Overall, fruit bars have a far greater nutritional value than the fresh fruits because all nutrients are concentrated and, therefore, would be a convenience food assortment to benefit from the health benefits of fruits. The consumers prefer fruit bars that are more tasted followed by proper textural features that could be obtained by establishing the equilibrium of ingredients, the proper choosing of manufacturing stages and the control of the product final moisture content. Fruit bar preparations may include a mixture of pulps, fresh or dried fruit, sugar, binders, and a variety of minor ingredients. Additionally to the conventional steps of manufacturing (pulping, homogenizing, heating, concentrating, and drying) there have been proposed the use of gelled fruit matrices, dried gels or sponges, and extruders as new trends for processing fruit bars. Different single-type dehydration or combined methods include, in order of increasing process time, air-infrared, vacuum and vacuum-microwave drying convective-solar drying, convective drying, and freeze drying are also suggested as alternative to solar traditional drying stage. The dehydration methods that use vacuum exhibited not only higher retention of antioxidants but also better color, texture, and rehydration capacity. Antioxidant activity resulting from the presence of phenolic compounds in the bars is well established. Besides this, fruit bars are also important sources of carbohydrates and minerals. Given the wide range of bioactive factors in fresh fruits that are preserved in fruit bars, it is plausible that their uptake consumption have a positive effect in reducing the risk of many diseases.

  2. Physiochemical behaviour changes during ripening in fruits of Trewia nudiflora Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil Ghai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fruit ripening occurs with loss of fruit firmness and progressive degradation of the middle lamella and primary cell wall. The fruits of Trewia nudiflora Linn. were collected at different stages of fruit ripening and changes in physicochemical properties were determined. With ripening from immature green to fully ripe fruits, there was increase in fruit index with textural softening, loss of fruit firmness, decrease in cell wall polysaccharides as acetone insoluble solids and decrease in galacturonic acid.

  3. FRUITFUL: Integrated supply-chain information system for fruit produce between South Africa and the Netherlands

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Polderijk, JJ

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available .J. POLDERDIJK1, F.E. VAN DYK2, D. FERREIRA3, G.W. GUIS4 AND S. KELLER5 1 Agrotechnology and Food Innovations, P.O. Box 17, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands. E-mail: anneke.polderdijk@wur.nl 2 CSIR Transportek, P.O. Box 320, Stellenbosch 7599, South Africa.... Nijhoff (eds.), Agro-food chains and networks for development, 129-140. © 2006 Springer. Printed in the Netherlands CHAPTER 11 FRUITFUL Integrated supply-chain information system for fruit produce between South Africa and The Netherlands J...

  4. [Effects of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF) on the plant growth, fruit yield, and fruit quality of cucumber under salt stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bing; Guo, Shi-Rong; He, Chao-Xing; Yan, Yan; Yu, Xian-Chang

    2012-01-01

    By adopting organic substrate culture, and salt-sensitive cucumber variety 'Jinchun No. 2' was used as test material, this paper studied the effects of inoculating arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF) on the plant growth, fruit yield, and fruit quality of cucumber under salt stress. AMF-inoculation could effectively promote the plant growth and nutrient uptake, and improve the fruit yield and fruit nutrient quality, compared with ordinary cultivation. Under salt stress, the plant growth was inhibited, and the plant N, P, K, Cu, and Zn contents and K+/Na+ ratio, fruit yield, and fruit soluble protein, total sugar, vitamin C, and nitrate contents decreased, while inoculation with AMF could mitigate the inhibitory effect of salt stress on the plant growth, made the plant N, P, K, Cu, and Zn contents increased by 7.3%, 11.7%, 28.2%, 13.5%, and 9.9%, respectively, and made the plant K+/Na+ ratio, fruit yield, and fruit soluble protein, total sugar, and vitamin C contents have an obvious increase and the fruit nitrate content have a significant decrease. It was suggested that AMF could promote the plant growth and nutrient uptake of cucumber under salt stress, increase the plant salt-tolerance, and improve the fruit yield and its nutrient quality.

  5. Insulin secretion stimulating effects of mogroside V and fruit extract of luo han kuo (Siraitia grosvenori Swingle) fruit extract..

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Zheng, Yan; Ebersole, Jeff; Huang, Chi-fu

    2009-11-01

    Luo han kuo fruit (Siraitia grosvenori Swingle), a fruit native to China, has been used as a natural sweetening agent for centuries and has been reported to be beneficial for diabetic population. However, limited research has been conducted to elucidate the relationship between the sweetening action and biological parameters that may be related to potential health benefits of LHK fruit (Luo Han Kuo fruit). The present study examined the effect of LHK fruit and its chemical components on insulin secretion using an in vitro cell model system. Mogroside V is the most abundant and the sweetest chemical component among the mogrosides in LHK fruit. The experimental data demonstrated that the crude LHK extract stimulated the secretion of insulin in pancreatic beta cells; furthermore, pure mogroside V isolated from LHK fruit also exhibited a significant activity in stimulating insulin secretion by the beta cells, which could partially be responsible for the insulin secretion activity of LHK fruit and fruit extract. The current study supports that LHK fruit/extract has the potential to be natural sweetener with a low glycemic index, and that mogroside V, possible other related mogrosides, can provide a positive health impact on stimulating insulin secretion.

  6. Impact of soil management practices on yield, fruit quality, and antioxidant contents of pepper at four stages of fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonious, George F

    2014-01-01

    Peppers, a significant component of the human diet in many regions of the world, provide vitamins A (β-carotene) and C, and are also a source of many other antioxidants such as capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, and phenols. Enhancing the concentration of antioxidants in plants grown in soil amended with recycled waste has not been completely investigated. Changes in pepper antioxidant content in relation to soil amendments and fruit development were investigated. The main objectives of this investigation were to: (i) quantify concentrations of capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, β-carotene, ascorbic acid, phenols, and soluble sugars in the fruits of Capsicum annuum L. (cv. Xcatic) grown under four soil management practices: yard waste (YW), sewage sludge (SS), chicken manure (CM), and no-much (NM) bare soil and (ii) monitor antioxidant concentrations in fruits of plants grown under these practices and during fruit ripening from green into red mature fruits. Total marketable pepper yield was increased by 34% and 15% in SS and CM treatments, respectively, compared to NM bare soil; whereas, the number of culls (fruits that fail to meet the requirements of foregoing grades) was lower in YW compared to SS and CM treatments. Regardless of fruit color, pepper fruits from YW amended soil contained the greatest concentrations of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin. When different colored pepper fruits (green, yellow, orange, and red) were analyzed, orange and red contained the greatest β-carotene and sugar contents; whereas, green fruits contained the greatest concentrations of total phenols and ascorbic acid.

  7. Expression of ipt gene driven by tomato fruit specific promoter and its effects on fruit development of tomato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Fruit specific promoter (2A12) from Lycopersicom esculentum and cDNA of isopentenyl-transferase (ipt) from Ti plasmid of Agrobacterium tumerfaciens C58 were cloned by PCR procedure respectively. Two plant expression vectors with 2A12/gus or 2A12/ipt were respectively constructed. These two chimeric genes were transferred into tomato by Agrobacterium mediated procedure. The results of Southern hybridization showed that the fusion genes had been integrated into tomatoes. The result of gus histochemical staining showed that 2A12 had high fruit specific expressive capability in transgenic tomato. The ipt expression resulted in accumulation of high level of cytokinins (CTKs) in fruit lead to developmental changes in fruits and seeds. The fruit of ipt transformed tomato had the hyperplastic placenta with very few seeds or even seedless. The shelf life of transgenic fruits elongated for 1-2 weeks. The ratio of fruit set, the dry weight of fruit and the crude protein content in fruit were increased, while the soluble sugar of fruits decreased.

  8. Assessing the impact of deforestation of the Atlantic rainforest on ant-fruit interactions: a field experiment using synthetic fruits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gabriela D Bieber

    Full Text Available Ants frequently interact with fleshy fruits on the ground of tropical forests. This interaction is regarded as mutualistic because seeds benefit from enhanced germination and dispersal to nutrient-rich microsites, whereas ants benefit from consuming the nutritious pulp/aril. Considering that the process of deforestation affects many attributes of the ecosystem such as species abundance and composition, and interspecific interactions, we asked whether the interaction between ants and fallen fleshy fruits in the Brazilian Atlantic forest differs between human-created fragments and undisturbed forests. We controlled diaspore type and quantity by using synthetic fruits (a plastic 'seed' covered by a lipid-rich 'pulp', which were comparable to lipid-rich fruits. Eight independent areas (four undisturbed forests, and four disturbed forest fragments were used in the field experiment, in which we recorded the attracted ant species, ant behaviour, and fruit removal distance. Fruits in undisturbed forest sites attracted a higher number of species than those in disturbed forests. Moreover, the occurrence of large, fruit-carrying ponerine ants (Pachycondyla, Odontomachus; 1.1 to 1.4 cm was higher in undisturbed forests. Large species (≥3 mm of Pheidole (Myrmicinae, also able to remove fruits, did not differ between forest types. Following these changes in species occurrence, fruit displacement was more frequent in undisturbed than in disturbed forests. Moreover, displacement distances were also greater in the undisturbed forests. Our data suggest that fallen fleshy fruits interacting with ants face different fates depending on the conservation status of the forest. Together with the severe loss of their primary dispersers in human-disturbed tropical forest sites, vertebrate-dispersed fruits may also be deprived of potential ant-derived benefits in these habitats due to shifts in the composition of interacting ant species. Our data illustrate the use of

  9. Mitigation of effects of extreme drought during stage III of peach fruit development by summer pruning and fruit thinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Gerardo; Mata, Mercè; Arbones, Amadeu; Solans, Josep R; Girona, Joan; Marsal, Jordi

    2006-04-01

    A water deficit during stage III of fruit growth was established with the aim of determining if it is possible to achieve an improvement in tree water status by summer pruning and fruit thinning. The experiment was set up as a randomized block split-plot design across trials (irrigation) where pruning was assigned to the main plot and fruit thinning to the sub-plots. The irrigation treatments were (1) standard full irrigation (FI), and (2) suppression of irrigation during stage III of fruit growth until leaves visibly withered (LWI); the pruning treatments were (1) experimental summer pruning (EP), and (2) standard summer pruning (CP); and three fruit thinning intensities were applied to facilitate analysis of the effects of the treatments in relation to fruit load. Changes in amount of light intercepted and in tree stem water potential (Psi stem) were evaluated. The EP treatment reduced the amount of light intercepted by the tree. In the FI treatment, there was a significant reduction in fruit growth measured as both water accumulation and dry mass accumulation. Under FI conditions, reductions in fruit load as a result of EP were not accompanied by a significant improvement in Psi stem. In the LWI treatment, EP produced a significant improvement of 0.17 MPa in Psi stem, but there was no improvement in fruit growth compared with CP trees. A reduction in fruit load from 350 (commercial load) to 150 per tree significantly improved Psi stem by 0.3 MPa at the end of stage III of fruit growth. These results indicate that improvements in water status in response to pruning may be insufficient to promote fruit growth if the pruned trees are unable to provide an adequate supply of assimilates to the developing fruits.

  10. Assessing the impact of deforestation of the Atlantic rainforest on ant-fruit interactions: a field experiment using synthetic fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieber, Ana Gabriela D; Silva, Paulo S D; Sendoya, Sebastián F; Oliveira, Paulo S

    2014-01-01

    Ants frequently interact with fleshy fruits on the ground of tropical forests. This interaction is regarded as mutualistic because seeds benefit from enhanced germination and dispersal to nutrient-rich microsites, whereas ants benefit from consuming the nutritious pulp/aril. Considering that the process of deforestation affects many attributes of the ecosystem such as species abundance and composition, and interspecific interactions, we asked whether the interaction between ants and fallen fleshy fruits in the Brazilian Atlantic forest differs between human-created fragments and undisturbed forests. We controlled diaspore type and quantity by using synthetic fruits (a plastic 'seed' covered by a lipid-rich 'pulp'), which were comparable to lipid-rich fruits. Eight independent areas (four undisturbed forests, and four disturbed forest fragments) were used in the field experiment, in which we recorded the attracted ant species, ant behaviour, and fruit removal distance. Fruits in undisturbed forest sites attracted a higher number of species than those in disturbed forests. Moreover, the occurrence of large, fruit-carrying ponerine ants (Pachycondyla, Odontomachus; 1.1 to 1.4 cm) was higher in undisturbed forests. Large species (≥3 mm) of Pheidole (Myrmicinae), also able to remove fruits, did not differ between forest types. Following these changes in species occurrence, fruit displacement was more frequent in undisturbed than in disturbed forests. Moreover, displacement distances were also greater in the undisturbed forests. Our data suggest that fallen fleshy fruits interacting with ants face different fates depending on the conservation status of the forest. Together with the severe loss of their primary dispersers in human-disturbed tropical forest sites, vertebrate-dispersed fruits may also be deprived of potential ant-derived benefits in these habitats due to shifts in the composition of interacting ant species. Our data illustrate the use of synthetic fruits

  11. Over-expression ofGhDWF4 gene improved tomato fruit quality and accelerated fruit ripening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Shu-e; LUO Ming; LI Fang; LI Xian-bi; HONG Qi-bin; ZHAI Yun-lan; HU Ming-yu; WEI Ting; DENG Sha-sha; PEI Yan

    2015-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs), a class of steroidal phytohormones are essential for many biological processes in plant. However, little is known about their roles in fruit development. Tomato is a highly valuable vegetable and has been adopted as the model species for studying fruit growth, development, and ripening. To understand the role of endogenous BRs in the de-velopment of tomato fruit, the expression patterns of three homologues ofDWF4 gene were investigated and the transgenic tomato plants were generated in which theGhDWF4 gene from upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) was ectopicaly expressed. The contents of main quality components were analyzed in fruits of transgenic tomato line and non-transgenic line (control plant, CP) when the fruit was mature.SlCYP90B3 that possesses high homology withGhDWF4 preferentialy expressed in mature fruit. Signiifcantly higher contents of soluble sugar, soluble proteins, and vitamin C were obtained in fruit of transgenic tomato lines compared with those in the CP. Furthermore, overexpressingGhDWF4 promoted fruit growth and ripening. The weight per fruit was increased by about 23% in transgenic lines. In addition, overexpressingGhDWF4 promoted the germination of transgenic tomato seeds and hypocotyl elongation of seedlings. These results indicated that overexpressingGhDWF4 gene in tomato could increase the contents of many nutrients in fruit and accelerate fruit ripening. It is suggested that increased endogenous BRs in fruit affect the growth and development of tomato fruit and therefore improved the nutrient quality of tomato.

  12. Avocado fruit protoplasts: a cellular model system for ripening studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percival, F W; Cass, L G; Bozak, K R; Christoffersen, R E

    1991-12-01

    Mesocarp protoplasts were isolated from mature avocado fruits (Persea americana cv. Hass) at varying stages of propylene-induced ripening. Qualitative changes in the pattern of radiolabel incorporation into polypeptides were observed in cells derived from fruit at the different stages. Many of these differences correlate with those observed during radiolabeling of polypeptides from fresh tissue slices prepared from unripe and ripe fruit. Protoplasts isolated from fruit treated with propylene for one day or more were shown to synthesize cellulase (endo-ß-1,4-glucanase) antigen, similar to the intact propylene-treated fruit. These results suggest that the isolated protoplasts retain at least some biochemical characteristics of the parent tissue. The cells may also be used in transient gene expression assays. Protoplasts isolated from preclimacteric and climacteric fruit were equally competent in expressing a chimeric test gene, composed of the CaMV 35S RNA promoter fused to the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene, which was introduced by electroporation.

  13. Strawberry Accessions with Reduced Drosophila suzukii Emergence From Fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiaoyun; Bräcker, Lasse; Bölke, Nadine; Plata, Camila; Zeitlmayr, Sarah; Metzler, Dirk; Olbricht, Klaus; Gompel, Nicolas; Parniske, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Drosophila suzukii is threatening soft fruit production worldwide due to the females’ ability to pierce through the intact skin of ripe fruits and lay eggs inside. Larval consumption and the associated microbial infection cause rapid fruit degradation, thus drastic yield and economic loss. Cultivars that limit the proliferation of flies may be ideal to counter this pest; however, they have not yet been developed or identified. To search for potential breeding material, we investigated the rate of adult D. suzukii emergence from individual fruits (fly emergence) of 107 accessions of Fragaria species that had been exposed to egg-laying D. suzukii females. We found significant variation in fly emergence across strawberries, which correlated with accession and fruit diameter, and to a lesser extent with the strawberry species background. We identified accessions with significantly reduced fly emergence, not explained by their fruit diameter. These accessions constitute valuable breeding material for strawberry cultivars that limit D. suzukii spread. PMID:28066452

  14. Metabolism of carotenoids and apocarotenoids during ripening of raspberry fruit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beekwilder, J; van der Meer, IM; Simicb, A

    2008-01-01

    Carotenoids are important lipophilic antioxidants in fruits. Apocarotenoids such as α-ionone and β-ionone, which are breakdown products of carotenoids, are important for the flavor characteristics of raspberry fruit, and have also been suggested to have beneficial effects on human health. Raspberry...... is one of the few fruits where fruit ripening is accompanied by the massive production of apocarotenoids. In this paper, changes in levels of carotenoids and apocarotenoids during raspberry fruit ripening are described. In addition, the isolation and characterization of a gene encoding a carotenoid...... cleavage dioxygenase (CCD), which putatively mediates the degradation of carotenoids to apocarotenoids during raspberry fruit ripening, is reported. Such information helps us to better understand how these compounds are produced in plants and may also enable us to develop novel strategies for improved...

  15. Metabolism of carotenoids and apocarotenoids during ripening of raspberry fruit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beekwilder, J; van der Meer, IM; Simicb, A

    2008-01-01

    Carotenoids are important lipophilic antioxidants in fruits. Apocarotenoids such as α-ionone and β-ionone, which are breakdown products of carotenoids, are important for the flavor characteristics of raspberry fruit, and have also been suggested to have beneficial effects on human health. Raspberry...... is one of the few fruits where fruit ripening is accompanied by the massive production of apocarotenoids. In this paper, changes in levels of carotenoids and apocarotenoids during raspberry fruit ripening are described. In addition, the isolation and characterization of a gene encoding a carotenoid...... cleavage dioxygenase (CCD), which putatively mediates the degradation of carotenoids to apocarotenoids during raspberry fruit ripening, is reported. Such information helps us to better understand how these compounds are produced in plants and may also enable us to develop novel strategies for improved...

  16. Optical and mechanical nondestructive tests for measuring tomato fruit firmness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manivel-Chávez, Ricardo A.; Garnica-Romo, M. G.; Arroyo-Correa, Gabriel; Aranda-Sánchez, Jorge I.

    2011-08-01

    Ripening is one of the most important processes to occur in fruits which involve changes in color, flavor, and texture. An important goal in quality control of fruits is to substitute traditional sensory testing methods with reliable nondestructive tests (NDT). In this work we study the firmness of tomato fruits by using optical and mechanical NDT. Optical and mechanical parameters, measured along the tomato shelf life, are shown.

  17. Squeezing Fact from Fiction about 100% Fruit Juice123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Roger; Drewnowski, Adam; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Toner, Cheryl D; Welland, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Total fruit intake in the United States is ~1 cup equivalent per day, or one-half of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommendation for adults. Two-thirds of the fruit consumed is whole fruit and one-third is 100% juice. The nutritional value of whole fruit, with the exception of fiber and vitamin C, may be retained with appropriate juice production methods and storage conditions. One-hundred percent fruit juice consumption is associated with a number of health benefits, such as improved cardiovascular health and decreased obesity, although some of these and other potential benefits are controversial. Comprehensive analyses of the evidence by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics in 2014, the US Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee in 2010, and the Australian Dietary Guidelines of 2013 concluded that 100% fruit juice is not related to adiposity in children when consumed in appropriate amounts for age and energy needs. However, some reports suggest the consumption of fruit juice contributes to unhealthful outcomes, particularly among children. A dietary modeling study on the best ways to meet the fruit intake shortfall showed that a combination of whole fruit and 100% juice improved dietary density of potassium and vitamin C without significantly increasing total calories. Notably, 100% juice intake was capped at amounts consistent with the 2001 American Pediatric Association guidance. The preponderance of evidence supports the position that 100% fruit juice delivers essential nutrients and phytonutrients, provides year-round access to a variety of fruits, and is a cost-effective way to help people meet fruit recommendations. PMID:25770266

  18. Squeezing fact from fiction about 100% fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Roger; Drewnowski, Adam; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Toner, Cheryl D; Welland, Diane

    2015-03-01

    Total fruit intake in the United States is ~1 cup equivalent per day, or one-half of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommendation for adults. Two-thirds of the fruit consumed is whole fruit and one-third is 100% juice. The nutritional value of whole fruit, with the exception of fiber and vitamin C, may be retained with appropriate juice production methods and storage conditions. One-hundred percent fruit juice consumption is associated with a number of health benefits, such as improved cardiovascular health and decreased obesity, although some of these and other potential benefits are controversial. Comprehensive analyses of the evidence by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics in 2014, the US Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee in 2010, and the Australian Dietary Guidelines of 2013 concluded that 100% fruit juice is not related to adiposity in children when consumed in appropriate amounts for age and energy needs. However, some reports suggest the consumption of fruit juice contributes to unhealthful outcomes, particularly among children. A dietary modeling study on the best ways to meet the fruit intake shortfall showed that a combination of whole fruit and 100% juice improved dietary density of potassium and vitamin C without significantly increasing total calories. Notably, 100% juice intake was capped at amounts consistent with the 2001 American Pediatric Association guidance. The preponderance of evidence supports the position that 100% fruit juice delivers essential nutrients and phytonutrients, provides year-round access to a variety of fruits, and is a cost-effective way to help people meet fruit recommendations. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. The health benefits of chocolate enrichment with dried fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Özlem Ça&#&#nd&#; Semih Ötleş

    2009-01-01

    One of the most popular food all over the world is chocolate and it has highly nutritious energy, fast metabolism and good digestibility. Nowadays, most important trend is healthy foods. Develop a chocolate product that will be be nutritional for many more people. It is well known that dried fruits has high nutritious values and health benefits. Dried fruits are good sources to developed chocolates. This paper aims to review health importance and usage of dried fruits in chocolate.

  20. DRIS: concepts and applications on nutritional diagnosis in fruit crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourão Filho Francisco de Assis Alves

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition and fertilization are important factors in determining fruit yield and fruit quality. There are several methods for plant nutritional status diagnosis, among them, two are relevant and named as Sufficiency Range Approach (SRA and Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS. This research reports the main concepts and applications of DRIS in nutritional diagnosis of fruit crops, comparing it with current nutritional diagnosis methods, indicating advantages and disadvantages, and possible limitations to be investigated.