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Sample records for lychee fruit litchi

  1. Potassium nutrition on lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aburto-González, C.A

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn is a potential alternative crop for areas with subtropical climate. In Mexico, cv. ‘Brewster’ dominates 98 % in terms of established surface; however, it has many problems to maintain stable production through its production cycles. Worldwide, yield per hectare ranges from 1 to 15 t. In Mexico, yields also fluctuate in that range. Researches who have worked with it agree that much of the problem that leads to low yields is the lack of a proper nutrition program. All existing information regarding the fertilization of this crop has been generated in other countries, mainly India, USA and Australia. Its need for K+ is higher compared to N and P. Since K+ is a nutrient that has an impact on yield and fruit quality, this paper review focuses on studies that have been done on potassium nutrition on lychee and concludes that more research is needed to take correct decision about the amount and time for potassium application.

  2. Isozyme variation in lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A genetic diversity analysis involving 49 lychee (Litchi chinensis SOM.) accessions using eight enzyme systems encoding 12 loci (Zdh-I, Zdh-2, Mdh-2, Per-l, Pgi-2, Pgm-1, Pgm-2, Sk& Tpi-1, Tpi-2, Ugpp-1, and Ugpp-2) revealed moderate to high levels of genetic variability. Cluster analysis of the iso...

  3. Similarities in the aroma chemistry of Gewürztraminer variety wines and lychee (Litchi chinesis sonn.) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, P K; Acree, T E

    1999-02-01

    GC/O analysis of canned lychees indicated that cis-rose oxide, linalool, ethyl isohexanoate, geraniol, furaneol, vanillin, (E)-2-nonenal, beta-damascenone, isovaleric acid, and (E)-furan linalool oxide were the most odor potent compounds detected in the fruit extracts. However, on the basis of calculated odor activity values (OAVs), cis-rose oxide, beta-damascenone, linalool, furaneol, ethyl isobutyrate, (E)-2-nonenal, ethyl isohexanoate, geraniol, and delta-decalactone were determined to be the main contributors of canned lychee aroma. When these results were compared with GC/O results of fresh lychees and Gewürztraminer wine, 12 common odor-active volatile compounds were found in all three products. These included cis-rose oxide, ethyl hexanoate/ethyl isohexanoate, beta-damascenone, linalool, ethyl isobutyrate, geraniol, ethyl 2-methylbutyrate, 2-phenylethanol, furaneol, vanillin, citronellol, and phenethyl acetate. On the basis of OAVs, cis-rose oxide had the highest values among the common odorants in the three products, indicating its importance to the aroma of both lychee fruit and Gewürztraminer wines. Other compounds that had significant OAVs included beta-damascenone, linalool, furaneol, ethyl hexanoate, and geraniol. This indicated that while differences exist in the aroma profile of lychee and Gewürztraminer, the common odorants detected in both fruit and wine, particularly cis-rose oxide, were responsible for the lychee aroma in Gewürztraminer wine. When headspace SPME was used as a rapid analytical tool to detect the levels of selected aroma compounds deemed important to lychee aroma in Gewürztraminer-type wines, cis-rose oxide, linalool, and geraniol were found to be at relatively higher levels in Gewürztraminers. No cis-rose oxide was detected in the control wines (Chardonnay and Riesling), while lower levels were detected in the Gewürztraminer-hybrid wine Traminette. Gewürztraminers produced in the Alsace region showed differences in the

  4. In vitro regeneration of lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    In vitro plantlet regeneration in the main commercial variety of lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn. cv Tai So) in Mauritius was achieved from callus cultures derived from young, tender leaf explants on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium. Callogenesis was obtained in all media supplemented with auxin, but was most prominent ...

  5. Chemical, physical-chemical, and sensory characteristics of lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn) wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Juliana Alvarenga; de Oliveira Lima, Luiz Carlos; Nunes, Cleiton Antônio; Dias, Disney Ribeiro; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2011-01-01

    Four lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn) wines (prepared with 3 yeast strains [UFLA CA11, UFLA CA1183, and UFLA CA1174]) and a spontaneous fermentation (SPON) were done in order to add value to the fruit while preventing waste arising from the short shelf life of lychee. The fermentation was monitored daily by analyzing the soluble solids, pH, acidity, ethanol, and sugar. At the end of fermentation, the wines were subjected to chemical, physical-chemical, and sensory analysis. The wines prepared showed greater variations in the qualitative than in the quantitative analysis of their constituents. The sensory analysis indicated that the wines fermented by yeast UFLA CA1183 and UFLA CA11 had rates of acceptance above 75%. The principal components analysis separated the wines into 2 groups according to the analyzed compounds. Based on these analyses, the wine produced by inoculation with UFLA CA1183 proved to be the most suitable for the production of lychee wines. Development of new products and adding value to fruits. Importance of selection of specific yeasts for production of fruit wine. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Enraizamento de estacas de lichia (Litchi chinensis Sonn. Rooting of lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn. cuttings

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    S. Leonel

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se os efeitos de auxilias exógenas e ácido bórico, no enraizamento de estacas de lichia (Litchi chinensis Sonn.. As estacas foram uniformizadas, com 25 cm de comprimento e 4 folhas cortadas pela metade. Cerca de 2,5 cm da base das mesmas foi mergulhado nos tratamentos: H2O; Boro 150 µg/ml; IBA 5.000 ppm, IBA 2.000 ppm; IBA 5.000 ppm + Boro 150 µg/ml; IBA 2.000 ppm + Boro 150 µg/ml; NAA 3.000 ppm; NAA 1.500 ppm; NAA 3.000 ppm + Boro 150 µg/ml; NAA 1.500 ppm + Boro 150 µ/g/ml. A estaquia foi realizada no mês de setembro (Hemisfério sul, sendo que as estacas foram colocadas em bandejas de isopor, tendo como substrato vermiculita e mantidas sob nebulização intermitente. Os resultados obtidos permitiram concluir que o IBA 5.000 ppm por 1 minuto foi o tratamento mais efetivo, proporcionando 83,33% de estacas enraizadas em 120 dias, enquanto o tratamento testemunha (H2O, apresentou somente 16,67% de estacas enraizadas.The effects of exogen auxins and boric add were studied on lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn. cuttings. Cuttings were standardized to twenty-five cm length, with four leaves, cut in half. The bases of the cuttings were dipped of 2,5 cm in water solutions, resulting in the following treatments: H2O; Boron 150 µg/ml; IBA 5,000 ppm; IBA 2,000 ppm; IBA 5,000 ppm plus boron 150 µg/ml; IBA 2,000 ppm plus boron 150 µg/ml; NAA 3,000 ppm; NAA 1,500 ppm; NAA 3,000 ppm plus boron 150 µg/ml; NAA 1,500 ppm plus boron 150 µg/ml. Cutting was performed in September (southern hemisphere and the cuttings were place in styrofoam trays, using vermiculite as substratum and kept under intermittent mist It was concluded that 5,000 ppm IBA for one minute was the best treatment to improve rooting (83,33%, while the control (H2O showed only 16,67% of rooted cuttings.

  7. Characterization of key aroma-active compounds in lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.

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    Shi Feng

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Volatile compounds in ‘Sweetheart’ lychee were examined using gas chromatography-olfactometry/mass spectrometry (GC-O/MS. Solvent assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE technique was used to identify the aroma-active compounds in lychee. Further characterization of the most important odorants in ‘Sweetheart’ lychee was achieved using aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA. Thirty-one key aroma-active odorants were identified in the flavor dilution (FD factor range of 2–1024. Methional (cooked potato and geraniol (sweet, floral exhibited the highest FD factors of 1024 and 512, respectively, these were followed by furaneol (sweet, caramel, nerol (floral, sweet, dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS (preserved vegetable, sulfury, linalool (floral, (E,Z-2,6 nonadienal (cucumber and nerolidol (metalic, sesame oil. Furthermore, the flavor profile of ‘Sweetheart’ lychee was described by sensory analysis. Floral, tropical fruit, peach/apricot and honey were scored with relatively high scores for each aroma attribute. The sweetness rating was the highest score among all the attributes. Keywords: AEDA, Aroma-active compounds, GC-MS/O, SAFE, Sensory analysis

  8. Characterization of key aroma-active compounds in lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shi; Huang, Mingyang; Crane, Jonathan Henry; Wang, Yu

    2018-04-01

    Volatile compounds in 'Sweetheart' lychee were examined using gas chromatography-olfactometry/mass spectrometry (GC-O/MS). Solvent assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) technique was used to identify the aroma-active compounds in lychee. Further characterization of the most important odorants in 'Sweetheart' lychee was achieved using aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Thirty-one key aroma-active odorants were identified in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 2-1024. Methional (cooked potato) and geraniol (sweet, floral) exhibited the highest FD factors of 1024 and 512, respectively, these were followed by furaneol (sweet, caramel), nerol (floral, sweet), dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS) (preserved vegetable, sulfury), linalool (floral), (E,Z)-2,6 nonadienal (cucumber) and nerolidol (metalic, sesame oil). Furthermore, the flavor profile of 'Sweetheart' lychee was described by sensory analysis. Floral, tropical fruit, peach/apricot and honey were scored with relatively high scores for each aroma attribute. The sweetness rating was the highest score among all the attributes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Outbreak of acute hypoglycemic encephalopathy associated with litchi consumption, Muzaffarpur, India, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Seasonal outbreaks of an acute neurologic illness with high mortality among young children occur annually in Muzaffarpur, Bihar, the largest litchi (lychee) fruit cultivation region in India. A wide range of infectious and non-infectious etiologies, including an association with litchi...

  10. Conservação das sementes de lichia (Litchi chinensis Conservation of lychee (Litchi chinensis seeds

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    Osvaldo Kiyoshi Yamanishi

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o comportamento das sementes de lichia após o armazenamento. Utilizou-se de nove tratamentos (0; 1; 3; 5; 7; 9; 11; 13 e 15 dias de armazenamento em câmara de germinação, à temperatura de 10ºC e UR= 80-85%. A semeadura foi realizada em bandejas de poliestireno com substrato composto por Plantmax Hortaliças® + Osmocote® 14-14-14 (5g/L de substrato. A taxa de emergência (E% e o índice de velocidade de emergência (IVG das plântulas da testemunha (0 dia de armazenamento não diferiram significativamente daqueles obtidos nos demais tratamentos. O período de armazenamento das sementes não afetou a taxa de emergência nem o IVE das plântulas de lichia até o limite estudado (15 dias.Lychee seeds were evaluated after different periods of storage. There were nine treatments (0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13 and 15 days of storage in a germination chamber at the temperature of 10ºC and RH = 80-85%. The seeds were sown in polystyrene trays containing Plantmax® growth medium combined with 0.05% of inorganic fertilizer Osmocote®14-14-14. The germination rate (% and the germination speed index of the seedlings in the control (0 days of storage didn't differ significantly from the other treatments. The storage period up to 15 days didn't affect either the germination rate or the germination speed index of the lychee seedlings.

  11. Effect of gamma irradiation on sensory attributes of Litchi (Litchi chinensis) fruit Var. Rose scented

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, Neha; Joshi, Sanjay; Singh, C.P.; Surendra Kumar; Rajput, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    Present investigation was an attempt to enhance shelf life of litchi fruit var. Rose Scented with integrated treatments of 1% NaCl soln., 2% wax solution and gamma radiation. Out of all, 1% NaCl coated + irradiated samples (1kGy), proved to be the best with enhanced shelf life of 24 days at 4°C (shelf life at ambient temperature without any treatment being 3-4 days). Organoleptic evaluation was done to judge the acceptability of the stored litchi samples. (author)

  12. Improved preservation effects of litchi fruit by combining chitosan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improved preservation effects of litchi fruit by combining chitosan coating with ascorbic acid treatment during postharvest storage. ... Moreover, increased activities of super oxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) and contents of AsA and glutathione were observed in pulp of treated fruit, thus leading to lowered contents ...

  13. Improved preservation effects of litchi fruit by combining chitosan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-05-31

    May 31, 2010 ... and attractive red color of anthocyanins at full maturity. (Holcroft and Mitcham, 1996). Tragically .... An Amplex Red Hydrogen Peroxide Assay kit (Molecular. Probes, Invitrogen Detection Technologies, ..... control of rotting and browning of litchi fruit by hot benomyl and plastic film. Sci. Hortic. 16: 253-262.

  14. Yield Performance of six lychee cultivars grown at two locations in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    The globalization of the economy, increased ethnic diversity, and a greater demand for healthy and more diverse food production have increased the demand for tropical fruits. There is a lack of formal experimentation to determine yield performance and fruit quality traits of lychee (Litchi chinensi...

  15. Phylogeny and redescription of Dolabra nepheliae on rambutan and litchi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) and lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) are tropical trees in the Sapindaceae that produce delicious edible fruits and are increasingly cultivated in tropical areas. Recently these trees have been afflicted with a stem canker disease caused by the ascomycete Dolabra nep...

  16. 76 FR 65985 - Importation of Litchi and Longan Fruit From Vietnam Into the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... alleviate negative effects of increased foreign competition through alternative marketing arrangements or marketing channels. Executive Order 12988 This proposed rule would allow litchi and longan fruit to be...

  17. Desenvolvimento do fruto da lichieira (Litchi chinensis Sonn. 'Bengal' Fruit development in 'Bengal' litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.

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    Luiz Carlos Chamhum Salomão

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o desenvolvimento do fruto da lichieira (Litchi chinensis Sonn. 'Bengal'. Realizaram-se amostragens semanais, com início aos 35 dias após a antese e término no início da senescência dos frutos. A partir do 77º dia após a antese, os frutos foram decompostos em pericarpo, semente e arilo. A antese ocorreu na primeira semana de setembro. Foram ajustados modelos sigmoidais simples para acúmulo de matéria seca, comprimento e diâmetro. Para o acúmulo de matéria seca, uma fase inicial, de crescimento lento, prolongou-se até o 63º dia após a antese e coincidiu com um período de intensa queda natural de frutos. Do 63º ao 98º dia após a antese, houve uma fase de rápido acúmulo de matéria seca. Até o 77º dia, pericarpo e semente foram os principais responsáveis pelo acúmulo de matéria seca. Oitenta e oito por cento do comprimento e 65% do diâmetro máximos foram atingidos nesse período. Do 84º ao 98º dia após a antese, o desenvolvimento do fruto foi determinado basicamente pelo arilo. As dimensões e a matéria seca do fruto estabilizaram-se a partir do 98º dia após a antese. O ponto de colheita comercial dos frutos, caracterizado pela coloração avermelhada do pericarpo, ocorreu a partir do 112º dia após a antese. Verificou-se um quadro senescente nos frutos a partir do 119º dia após a antese.It was studied the fruit development in 'Bengal' litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.. The samples were taken weekly 35 days after anthesis until the beginning of fruit senescence. From the 77th day after anthesis, fruits were decomposed in pericarp, aril and seed. Anthesis occurred in the first week of September. The fruit dry matter, length and diameter followed a single-sigmoid pattern. For dry matter accumulation, an initial phase, of slow growth, ended the 63rd day after anthesis and was coincident with a period of intense fruit drop. The next phase occurred from the 63rd to the 98th day and showed a rapid dry matter

  18. Disinfestation of litchi stem-end borer Conopomorpha sinensis Bradley with irradiation for export of litchi fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Meiying; Liu Xiuqiong; Hou Renhuan; Li Xiaodong; Yao Zhenwei; Lou Xuemei; Weng Qunfang

    1999-01-01

    Larvae of the litchi stem-end borer, Conopomorpha sinensis Bradley, in litchi fruits were exposed to 60 Co gamma irradiation doses ranging from 0-400 Gy as a quarantine treatment. Criterion of effectiveness of the irradiation dose was based on preventing adults emerging from treated fruits infested with the larvae. Probit analysis showed that the irradiation dose that caused 99.5% mortality of larvae was 254 Gy (220-289 Gy) and 99.9968% mortality of the 3rd instars was 267 Gy (184-351 Gy) with 95% fiducial limits. The mortality of litchi stem-end borer increased when the irradiation treatment was coupled with extended cool storage (76 deg. C). Hatching of eggs was decreased with increasing dosages to the eggs of 250-600 Gy. Prepupae treated at 300-600 Gy were more radiosensitive than 4-5 days old pupae. The results of visual quality observation indicated that the rotten fruit rate of litchi fruits was reduced by 250-350 Gy treatment. (author)

  19. A Micro-Damage Detection Method of Litchi Fruit Using Hyperspectral Imaging Technology

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    Juntao Xiong

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The non-destructive testing of litchi fruit is of great significance to the fresh-keeping, storage and transportation of harvested litchis. To achieve quick and accurate micro-damage detection, a non-destructive grading test method for litchi fruits was studied using 400–1000 nm hyperspectral imaging technology. The Huaizhi litchi was chosen in this study, and the hyperspectral data average for the region of interest (ROI of litchi fruit was extracted for spectral data analysis. Then the hyperspectral data samples of fresh and micro-damaged litchi fruits were selected, and a partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA was used to establish a prediction model for the realization of qualitative analysis for litchis with different qualities. For the external validation set, the mean per-type recall and precision were 94.10% and 93.95%, respectively. Principal component analysis (PCA was used to determine the sensitive wavelength for recognition of litchi quality characteristics, with the results of wavelengths corresponding to the local extremum for the weight coefficient of PC3, i.e., 694, 725 and 798 nm. Then the single-band images corresponding to each sensitive wavelength were analyzed. Finally, the 7-dimension features of the PC3 image were extracted using the Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM. Through image processing, least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM modeling was conducted to classify the different qualities of litchis. The model was validated using the experiment data, and the average accuracy of the validation set was 93.75%, while the external validation set was 95%. The results indicate the feasibility of using hyperspectral imaging technology in litchi postpartum non-destructive detection and classification.

  20. Lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) Pulp Phenolic Extract Provides Protection against Alcoholic Liver Injury in Mice by Alleviating Intestinal Microbiota Dysbiosis, Intestinal Barrier Dysfunction, and Liver Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Juan; Zhang, Ruifen; Zhou, Qiuyun; Liu, Lei; Huang, Fei; Deng, Yuanyuan; Ma, Yongxuan; Wei, Zhencheng; Tang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Mingwei

    2017-11-08

    Liver injury is the most common consequence of alcohol abuse, which is promoted by the inflammatory response triggered by gut-derived endotoxins produced as a consequence of intestinal microbiota dysbiosis and barrier dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate whether modulation of intestinal microbiota and barrier function, and liver inflammation contributes to the hepatoprotective effect of lychee pulp phenolic extract (LPPE) in alcohol-fed mice. Mice were treated with an ethanol-containing liquid diet alone or in combination with LPPE for 8 weeks. LPPE supplementation alleviated ethanol-induced liver injury and downregulated key markers of inflammation. Moreover, LPPE supplementation reversed the ethanol-induced alteration of intestinal microbiota composition and increased the expression of intestinal tight junction proteins, mucus protecting proteins, and antimicrobial proteins. Furthermore, in addition to decreasing serum endotoxin level, LPPE supplementation suppressed CD14 and toll-like receptor 4 expression, and repressed the activation of nuclear factor-κB p65 in the liver. These data suggest that intestinal microbiota dysbiosis, intestinal barrier dysfunction, and liver inflammation are improved by LPPE, and therefore, the intake of LPPE or Litchi pulp may be an effective strategy to alleviate the susceptibility to alcohol-induced hepatic diseases.

  1. Recognition and Matching of Clustered Mature Litchi Fruits Using Binocular Charge-Coupled Device (CCD Color Cameras

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    Chenglin Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Recognition and matching of litchi fruits are critical steps for litchi harvesting robots to successfully grasp litchi. However, due to the randomness of litchi growth, such as clustered growth with uncertain number of fruits and random occlusion by leaves, branches and other fruits, the recognition and matching of the fruit become a challenge. Therefore, this study firstly defined mature litchi fruit as three clustered categories. Then an approach for recognition and matching of clustered mature litchi fruit was developed based on litchi color images acquired by binocular charge-coupled device (CCD color cameras. The approach mainly included three steps: (1 calibration of binocular color cameras and litchi image acquisition; (2 segmentation of litchi fruits using four kinds of supervised classifiers, and recognition of the pre-defined categories of clustered litchi fruit using a pixel threshold method; and (3 matching the recognized clustered fruit using a geometric center-based matching method. The experimental results showed that the proposed recognition method could be robust against the influences of varying illumination and occlusion conditions, and precisely recognize clustered litchi fruit. In the tested 432 clustered litchi fruits, the highest and lowest average recognition rates were 94.17% and 92.00% under sunny back-lighting and partial occlusion, and sunny front-lighting and non-occlusion conditions, respectively. From 50 pairs of tested images, the highest and lowest matching success rates were 97.37% and 91.96% under sunny back-lighting and non-occlusion, and sunny front-lighting and partial occlusion conditions, respectively.

  2. Effect of pyrogallol on the physiology and biochemistry of litchi fruit during storage

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    Jing Guoxing

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn. fruit are highly perishable and have a very short shelf life, easily turning brown and decaying. This study investigated the efficiency of pyrogallol, a catechin on the physiology and biochemistry in relation to storage life of litchi fruit. Results Fruit were treated with pyrogallol at 1 mM and then stored at ambient temperature (25°C or low temperature (4°C. Compared with control, pyrogallol significantly reduced pericarp browning and delayed the rotting of fruit day 4 at 25°C, and on day 30 at 4°C. The chemical treatment reduced respiration rate and the activities of peroxidase (POD and polyphenol oxidase (PPO, and delayed the loss of membrane permeability. Pyrogallol increased the activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, delayed the loss of anthocyanin and phenolics, and maintained high 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrlhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power. High performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC analysis clearly indicated that treated fruit contained higher concentration of the four phenolic compounds procyanidin B1, (+-catechin, (−-epicatechin and (−-epicatechin-3-gallate. Conclusions The application of pyrogallol partially reducing pericarp browning and changed quality-related physiological activities and, thus, pyrogallol could have beneficial effects on pericarp browning and fruit decay control, and could be helpful for litchi fruit postharvest storage.

  3. Biological and Phytopharmacological Descriptions of Litchi Chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilari, Eswar Kumar; Putta, Swathi

    2016-01-01

    Plants remain a vital source of drugs and at present, much emphasis is given to nutraceuticals. Herbal medicines have been the basis of treatment and cure for various diseases and physiological conditions in the traditional methods practiced such as ayurveda and homeopathy. Litchi chinensis belongs to the Sapindaceae family and is well-known in the Indian traditional system for its traditional uses. The parts of the plant used are leaves, flowers, fruits, seed, pulp, and pericarp. All parts of the plant are rich sources of phytochemicals--epicatechin; procyanidin A2 and procyanidin B2; leucocyanidin; cyanidin glycoside, malvidin glycoside, and saponins; butylated hydroxytoluene; isolariciresinol; kaempferol; rutin; and stigmasterol. In the present review, we explore the lychee's description, traditional medicinal uses, and phytoconstituents, and investigate the pharmacological activities in various parts of the lychee to show its importance in ethanopharmacology. This is so that this review can serve as a ready-to-use material for further research on the plant.

  4. Efeitos da aplicação de reguladores vegetais e do ácido bórico, em estacas de lichieira (Litchi chinensis Sonn. Effects of growth regulators and boric acid on lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn. cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Leonel

    1993-05-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se as interações entre os ácidos indol-butírico, alfa-naftaleno-acético e bórico no desenvolvimento de calos e na sobrevivência das estacas de lichieira (Litchi chinensis Sonn.. As estacas apresentavam 25 cm de comprimento e 4 folhas cortadas pela metade, sendo retiradas em duas épocas diferentes (janeiro e abril e colocadas para enraizar em bandejas de isopor, tendo como substrato vermiculita e em condições de câmara de nebulização. Foi feita imersão de 2,5 cm da base das estacas, em soluções aquosas por l minuto. Os tratamentos utilizados corresponderam a 5.000 e 2.000 ppm de IBA; 3.000 e 1.500 ppra de NAA; 150 microgramas/ml de H3BO3; IBA 5.000 e 2.000 ppm + H3BO(3150 microgramas/ml; NAA 3.000 e 1.500 ppm + H3BO3 150 microgramas/ml e H2O. Avaliou-se a formação de calos e a sobrevivência das estacas após 120 dias do plantio. Através dos resultados obtidos, foi possível concluir que dos tratamentos utilizados, nenhum foi efetivo na formação de raízes, havendo somente a formação de calos. A melhor época para a retirada de estacas correspondeu ao mês de abril.Interactions between indolebutyric, naphtalen acetic and boric acids were studied on "callus" development and survival in lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn. cuttings. The cuttings were twenty five cm long with four leaves cut in half and taken in two different periods (January and April Styrofoam trays, with vermiculite as substratum kept under intermittent mist were used as rooting media. Cuttings were imersed up to 2.5 cm from the base in water solutions, for one minute. The treatments were: 5,000 and 2,000 ppm of IBA; 3,000 and 1,500 ppm of NAA; 150 micrograms/ml H3BO3; IBA 5,000 and 2,000 ppm plus H3BO3 150 micrograms/ml; NAA 3,000 and 1,500 ppm plus boron 150 micrograms/ml and II2O. "Callus" formation and cutting survival were evaluated 120 days after planting. It was concluded that no treatments were effective on root formation, however, "callus

  5. 76 FR 81401 - Importation of Litchi Fruit From Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... to Docket No. APHIS-2009-0084, Regulatory Analysis and Development, PPD, APHIS, Station 3A-03.8, 4700...; however, both litchis and longans are commercially grown in the State of Florida and the climatic... economic effects of this action on small entities. The analysis is summarized below. Copies of the full...

  6. The anti-inflammatory effects of flavanol-rich lychee fruit extract in rat hepatocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryota Yamanishi

    Full Text Available Flavanol (flavan-3-ol-rich lychee fruit extract (FRLFE is a mixture of oligomerized polyphenols primarily derived from lychee fruit and is rich in flavanol monomers, dimers, and trimers. Supplementation with this functional food has been shown to suppress inflammation and tissue damage caused by high-intensity exercise training. However, it is unclear whether FRLFE has in vitro anti-inflammatory effects, such as suppressing the production of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α and the proinflammatory mediator nitric oxide (NO, which is synthesized by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS. Here, we analyzed the effects of FRLFE and its constituents on the expression of inflammatory genes in interleukin 1β (IL-1β-treated rat hepatocytes. FRLFE decreased the mRNA and protein expression of the iNOS gene, leading to the suppression of IL-1β-induced NO production. FRLFE also decreased the levels of the iNOS antisense transcript, which stabilizes iNOS mRNA. By contrast, unprocessed lychee fruit extract, which is rich in flavanol polymers, and flavanol monomers had little effect on NO production. When a construct harboring the iNOS promoter fused to the firefly luciferase gene was used, FRLFE decreased the luciferase activity in the presence of IL-1β, suggesting that FRLFE suppresses the promoter activity of the iNOS gene at the transcriptional level. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays indicated that FRLFE reduced the nuclear transport of a key regulator, nuclear factor κB (NF-κB. Furthermore, FRLFE inhibited the phosphorylation of NF-κB inhibitor α (IκB-α. FRLFE also reduced the mRNA levels of NF-κB target genes encoding cytokines and chemokines, such as TNF-α. Therefore, FRLFE inhibited NF-κB activation and nuclear translocation to suppress the expression of these inflammatory genes. Our results suggest that flavanols may be responsible for the anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects of FRLFE and may be

  7. Anoxia Treatment for Delaying Skin Browning, Inhibiting Disease Development and Maintaining the Quality of Litchi Fruit

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    Yueming Jiang

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Litchi fruit has a very short shelf life after harvest, so marketers and consumers alike desire longer periods of storage, transportation and distribution. To extend shelf life, anoxia treatments were used for the fruit. Litchi fruit were exposed to pure N2 for 0, 3, 6, 12 or 24 h. They were then kept individually in closed but vented containers for 6 days in the dark at 20 °C and 95–100 % relative humidity. Exposure of litchi fruit to N2 for 3 or 6 h markedly delayed skin browning, reduced rot development and maintained higher concentrations of total soluble solids, titratable acidity and ascorbic acid after 6 days of storage. Anoxia treatment for 24 h reduced browning index, but it accelerated disease development, compared to the control. Thus, a pre-storage pure N2 treatment for 3 or 6 h can be an effective means of reducing rotting while maintaining the physical quality of the fruit.

  8. Genome-Wide Identification of Histone Modifiers and Their Expression Patterns during Fruit Abscission in Litchi

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    Jianguo Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Modifications to histones, including acetylation and methylation processes, play crucial roles in the regulation of gene expression in plant development as well as in stress responses. However, limited information on the enzymes catalyzing histone acetylation and methylation in non-model plants is currently available. In this study, several histone modifier (HM types, including six histone acetyltransferases (HATs, 11 histone deacetylases (HDACs, 48 histone methyltransferases (HMTs, and 22 histone demethylases (HDMs, are identified in litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn. cv. Feizixiao based on similarities in their sequences to homologs in Arabidopsis (A. thaliana, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, and rice (Oryza sativa. Phylogenetic analyses reveal that HM enzymes can be grouped into four HAT, two HDAC, two HMT, and two HDM subfamilies, respectively, while further expression profile analyses demonstrate that 17 HMs were significantly altered during fruit abscission in two field treatments. Analyses reveal that these genes exhibit four distinct patterns of expression in response to fruit abscission, while an in vitro assay was used to confirm the HDAC activity of LcHDA2, LcHDA6, and LcSRT2. Our findings are the first in-depth analysis of HMs in the litchi genome, and imply that some are likely to play important roles in fruit abscission in this commercially important plant.

  9. Cloning and Characterization of a Flavonol Synthase Gene From Litchi chinensis and Its Variation Among Litchi Cultivars With Different Fruit Maturation Periods

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    Wei Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Litchi (Litchi chinensis is an important subtropical fruit tree with high commercial value. However, the short and centralized fruit maturation period of litchi cultivars represents a bottleneck for litchi production. Therefore, the development of novel cultivars with extremely early fruit maturation period is critical. Previously, we showed that the genotypes of extremely early-maturing (EEM, early-maturing (EM, and middle-to-late-maturing (MLM cultivars at a specific locus SNP51 (substitution type C/T were consistent with their respective genetic background at the whole-genome level; a homozygous C/C genotype at SNP51 systematically differentiated EEM cultivars from others. The litchi gene on which SNP51 was located was annotated as flavonol synthase (FLS, which catalyzes the formation of flavonols. Here, we further elucidate the variation of the FLS gene from L. chinensis (LcFLS among EEM, EM, and MLM cultivars. EEM cultivars with a homozygous C/C genotype at SNP51 all contained the same 2,199-bp sequence of the LcFLS gene. For MLM cultivars with a homozygous T/T genotype at SNP51, the sequence lengths of the LcFLS gene were 2,202–2,222 bp. EM cultivars with heterozygous C/T genotypes at SNP51 contained two different alleles of the LcFLS gene: a 2,199-bp sequence identical to that in EEM cultivars and a 2,205-bp sequence identical to that in MLM cultivar ‘Heiye.’ Moreover, the coding regions of LcFLS genes of other MLM cultivars were almost identical to that of ‘Heiye.’ Therefore, the LcFLS gene coding region may be used as a source of diagnostic SNP markers to discriminate or identify genotypes with the EEM trait. The expression pattern of the LcFLS gene and accumulation pattern of flavonol from EEM, EM, and MLM cultivars were analyzed and compared using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC for mature leaves, flower buds, and fruits, 15, 30, 45, and 60 days after anthesis. Flavonol

  10. Enzymatic browning and antioxidant activities in harvested litchi fruit as influenced by apple polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengke; Huber, Donald J; Qu, Hongxia; Yun, Ze; Wang, Hui; Huang, Zihui; Huang, Hua; Jiang, Yueming

    2015-03-15

    'Guiwei' litchi fruit were treated with 5 ga.i. L(-1) apple polyphenols (APP) and then stored at 25°C to investigate the effects on pericarp browning. APP treatment effectively reduced pericarp browning and retarded the loss of red colour. APP-treated fruit exhibited higher levels of anthocyanins and cyanidin-3-rutinoside, which correlated with suppressed anthocyanase activity. APP treatment also maintained membrane integrity and reduced oxidative damage, as indicated by a lower relative leakage rate, malondialdehyde content, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. The data suggest that decompartmentalisation of peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase and respective browning substrates was reduced. In addition, APP treatment enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase), as well as non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity (DPPH radical-scavenging activity and reducing power), which might be beneficial in scavenging ROS. We propose that APP treatment is a promising safe strategy for controlling postharvest browning of litchi fruit. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of the use of acids and films in post-harvest lychee conservation

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    Danielle Fabíola Pereira da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn. has a high commercial value; however, it has a short shelf-life because of its rapid pericarp browning. The objective of this study was to evaluate the shelf-life of 'Bengal' lychee fruits stored after treatment with hydrochloric acid and citric acid, associated with cassava starch and plastic packaging. Uniformly red pericarp fruits were submitted to treatments: 1-(immersion in citric acid 100 mM for 5 minutes + cassava starch 30 g L-1 for 5 minutes, 2-(immersion in hydrochloric acid 1 M for 2 minutes + starch cassava 30 g L-1 for 5 minutes, 3-(immersion in citric acid 100 mM for 5 minutes + polyvinyl chloride film (PVC, 14 µm thick and 4-(immersion in hydrochloric acid 1 M for 2 minutes + PVC film. During 20 days, the fruits were evaluated for mass loss, pericarp color, pH, soluble solids and titratable acidity, vitamin C of the pulp and pericarp and activities of polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase of the pericarp. The treatment with hydrochloric acid associated with PVC was the most effective in maintaining the red color of the pericarp for a period of 20 days and best preservation of the fruit. The cassava starch associated with citric acid, and hydrochloric acid did not reduce the mass loss and did not prevent the browning of lychee fruit pericarp.

  12. Effects of UV-C Light Exposure and Refrigeration on Phenolic and Antioxidant Profiles of Subtropical Fruits (Litchi, Longan, and Rambutan in Different Fruit Forms

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    Peilong Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to investigate how UV-C irradiation and refrigeration affect shelf-life and antioxidant level of litchi, longan, and rambutan. Three forms (whole, dehulled, and destoned of fresh fruits were treated by refrigeration and UV-C irradiations. After processing, deterioration rate, phenolics compounds, and antioxidant capacity were quantified. The deterioration rate was recorded as decay index. The results showed that both refrigeration and UV-C exposure extended the shelf-life of the fruits. The refrigeration enriched antioxidant levels of litchi but caused nutritional degradation in longan and rambutan; UV-C radiation enriched litchi antioxidant contents but was related to reduction of antioxidant capacity in longan and rambutan. Removing hulls and stones was associated with the decrease of antioxidants in litchi. The effects on antioxidant levels varied from fruit to fruit, resulting from hormesis phenomenon. The change of phytochemical levels was hypothesized as an accumulative process. The effects of fruit forms were not consistent in different fruits, which could be multifactorially influenced.

  13. Long-term drought modifies the fundamental relationships between light exposure, leaf nitrogen content and photosynthetic capacity in leaves of the lychee tree (Litchi chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damour, Gaëlle; Vandame, Marc; Urban, Laurent

    2008-09-08

    Drought has dramatic negative effects on plants' growth and crop productivity. Although some of the responses and underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood, there is increasing evidence that drought may have a negative effect on photosynthetic capacity. Biochemical models of leaf photosynthesis coupled with models of radiation transfer have been widely used in ecophysiological studies, and, more recently, in global change modeling. They are based on two fundamental relationships at the scale of the leaf: (i) nitrogen content-light exposure and (ii) photosynthetic capacity-nitrogen content. Although drought is expected to increase in many places across the world, such models are not adapted to drought conditions. More specifically, the effects of drought on the two fundamental relationships are not well documented. The objective of our study was to investigate the effects of a long-term drought imposed slowly on the nitrogen content and photosynthetic capacity of leaves similarly exposed to light, from 3-year-old lychee trees cv. Kwaï Mi. Leaf nitrogen and non-structural carbohydrate concentrations were measured along with gas exchanges and the light-saturated rate of photosynthetic electron transport (J(max)) after a 5.5-month-long period of drought. Leaf nitrogen content on a mass basis remained stable, while the leaf mass-to-area ratio (LMA) increased with increasing water stress. Consequently, the leaf nitrogen content on an area basis (N(a)) increased in a non-linear fashion. The starch content decreased, while the soluble sugar content increased. Stomata closed and net assimilation decreased to zero, while J(max) and the ratio J(max)/N(a) decreased with increasing water stress. The drought-associated decrease in photosynthetic capacity can be attributed to downregulation of photosynthetic electron transport and to reallocation of leaf nitrogen content. It is concluded that modeling photosynthesis in drought conditions will require, first, the modeling

  14. Evaluation of nutritional and antioxidant properties of the tropical fruits banana, litchi, mango, papaya, passion fruit and pineapple cultivated in Réunion French Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septembre-Malaterre, Axelle; Stanislas, Giovédie; Douraguia, Elisabeth; Gonthier, Marie-Paule

    2016-12-01

    Much attention is paid to the beneficial action of fruits against obesity-related oxidative stress. This study evaluated nutritional and antioxidant properties of banana, litchi, mango, papaya, passion fruit and pineapple from Réunion French Island. Results showed that total amounts of carbohydrates, vitamin C and carotenoids were 7.7-67.3g glucose equivalent, 4.7-84.9mg ascorbic acid equivalent and 26.6-3829.2μg β-carotene equivalent/100g fresh weight, respectively. Polyphenols were detected as the most abundant antioxidants (33.0-286.6mg gallic acid equivalent/100g fresh weight) with the highest content from passion fruit. UPLC-MS analysis led to identify epigallocatechin and quercetin derivatives from banana and litchi, ferulic, sinapic, syringic and gallic acids from pineapple and mango, and piceatannol from passion fruit. Polyphenol-rich extracts protected red blood cells and preadipose cells against oxidative stress. Altogether, these findings highlight nutritional benefits of French tropical fruits and their possible interest to improve antioxidant capacities of the body during obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Anticancer activity of litchi fruit pericarp extract against human breast cancer in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiujie; Yuan Shulan; Wang Jing; Lin Ping; Liu Guanjian; Lu Yanrong; Zhang Jie; Wang, Wendong; Wei Yuquan

    2006-01-01

    Litchi fruit pericarp (LFP) extract contains significant amounts of polyphenolic compounds and exhibits powerful antioxidative activity against fat oxidation in vitro. The purpose of this study is to confirm the anticancer activity of LFP extract on human breast cancer in vitro and in vivo, and to elucidate the mechanism of its activity. Human breast cancer cells were tested in vitro for cytotoxicity, colony formation inhibition, BrdU incorporation, and gene expression profiling after treatment with LFP extract. Seven nude mice bearing human breast infiltrating duct carcinoma orthotopically were tested for its anticancer activity and expression of caspase-3 in vivo by oral administration of 0.3% (0.3 mg/ml) of LFP water-soluble crude ethanolic extract (CEE) for 10 weeks. LFP extract demonstrated a dose- and time-dependent inhibitory effect on cell growth (IC 5 = 80 μg/ml), and it significantly inhibited colony formation and BrdU incorporation of human breast cancer cells. Oligonucleotide microarray analysis identified 41(1.22%) up-regulated and 129 (3.84%) down-regulated genes after LFP water-soluble CEE treatment; the predominantly up-regulated genes were involved in various biological functions including cell cycle regulation and cell proliferation, apoptosis, signal transduction and transcriptional regulation, and extracellular matrix/adhesion molecules; and down-regulated genes were mainly associated with adhesion, invasion, and malignancy of cancer cells. A 40.70% tumor mass volume reduction and significant increase of casepase-3 protein expression were observed in vivo experiment. The findings in this study suggested that LFP extract might have potential anticancer activity on both ER positive and negative breast cancers, which could be attributed, in part, to its DNA damage effect, proliferating inhibition and apoptosis induction of cancer cells through up-regulation and down-regulation of multiple genes involved in cell cycle regulation and cell

  16. Dolabra nepheliae on rambutan and lychee represents a novel lineage of phytopathogenic Eurotiomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossman, Amy Y; Schoch, Conrad L; Farr, David F; Nishijima, Kate; Keith, Lisa; Goenaga, Ricardo

    2010-07-01

    Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) and lychee (Litchi chinensis) are tropical trees in the Sapindaceae that produce delicious edible fruits and are increasingly cultivated in tropical regions. These trees are afflicted with a stem canker disease associated with the ascomycete Dolabra nepheliae. Previously known from Asia and Australia, this fungus was recently reported from Hawaii and Puerto Rico. The sexual and asexual states of Dolabra nepheliae are redescribed and illustrated. In addition, the ITS and large subunit of the nuclear ribosomal DNA plus fragments from the genes RPB2, TEF1, and the mitochondrial small ribosomal subunit were sequenced for three isolates of D. nepheliae and compared with other sequences of ascomycetes. It was determined that D. nepheliae represents a new lineage within the Eurotiomycetes allied with Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, the causal agent of Petri grapevine decline.

  17. Longli is not a hybrid of longan and lychee as revealed by genome size analysis and trichome morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lychee, longan, longli, and rambutan are closely related, commercially important fruit trees in the Sapindaceae family. Longli fruits are morphologically similar to both lychee and longan, displaying a yellow-brown pericarp like longan, and small, sharp protuberances like lychee. These similarities ...

  18. A Simple and Rapid Determination of ATP, ADP and AMP Concentrations in Pericarp Tissue of Litchi Fruit by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

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    Weibo Jiang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and rapid method using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was developed to determine levels of adenosine triphosphate (ATP, adenosine diphosphate (ADP and adenosine monophosphate (AMP in litchi fruit pericarp tissue. This HPLC method used acetonitrile gradient elution and shortened the time required for determinations of adenosine phosphates. This analysis exhibited good repeatability (coefficients of variation 1.28–1.80 % and recovery rate (94.7–97.1 %. The correlation coefficients of ATP, ADP and AMP with their peak areas at a range of 0–80 ng were 0.9946, 0.9994 and 0.9974, respectively. This method was applied to determine levels of adenosine phosphates in pericarp tissue of litchi fruit at harvest. There were 27.4 μg/g of ATP, 35.4 μg/g of ADP and 7.9 μg/g of AMP on a fresh mass basis.

  19. Comparison of Effects on Gene Expression Activity of Low-Molecular-Weight Lychee Fruit Polyphenol (Oligonol®, Adenosine, and Minoxidil in Human Dermal Papilla Cells

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    Koji Wakame

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oligonol® (OLG is a functional food product and ingredient for cosmetics derived from a lychee fruit polyphenol. It has been reported to act on the skin as an anti-inflammatory and prevent UVB-induced skin damage. Aim: In this study, with the aim of exploring new functionalities of OLG on the scalp, we investigated the effect of OLG on human dermal papilla cells by comparing with adenosine and minoxidil at the genetic level. Method: OLG, adenosine, and minoxidil were applied to human dermal papilla cell lines for 24 h, after which VEGF, FGF-7, WNT5a, and WNT10a mRNA expressions were measured by real-time PCR analysis. Additionally, using DNA microarrays, we investigated the effect on 205 inflammation-related genes. Result: Consequently, in human dermal papilla cell lines, FGF-7 and WNT10a mRNA expression were observed in 100 µg/mL OLG-supplemented cells. The results of the DNA microarray analysis showed that 10 genes were suppressed by OLG. Conclusions: OLG may be expected to affect function of human dermal papilla cell by regulating the expression of genes related to cell proliferation and inflammation.

  20. Pré-resfriamento em água de lichia 'B3' mantida em armazenamento refrigerado Hydrocooling of 'B3' lychee fruit maintained in cold storage

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    Juan Saavedra del Aguila

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento visou a estudar o efeito de diferentes temperaturas e tempos de pré-resfriamento em água sobre a qualidade de lichias 'B3', após a frigoconservação. Os tratamentos foram: T1 = controle (sem pré-resfriamento; T2 = imersão por cinco minutos em água a 2,5°C; T3 = imersão por 10 minutos em água a 2,5°C; T4 = imersão por 20 minutos em água a 2,5°C; T5 = imersão por sete minutos em água a 6°C; T6 = imersão por 20 minutos em água a 8°C e T7 = imersão por 10 minutos em água a 10°C. Após a aplicação dos respectivos tratamentos, os frutos foram acondicionados em filmes de polietileno de 24µm, selados e posteriormente armazenados a 5°C e 90% UR, por um período de sete dias, seguido por três dias de comercialização simulada a 20°C e 70% UR. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente ao acaso, com tratamentos fatoriais de 7x3 (tratamentosxtempo. Foram utilizadas quatro repetições por tratamento, sendo cada uma composta por 150g de frutos. Determinaram-se: perda de massa fresca, coloração (L*, a e b, escurecimento (% e podridões (%. De acordo com os resultados, o pré-resfriamento com água reduz a percentagem de escurecimento, o decréscimo da luminosidade (L* e os valores de a. Por outro lado, esse tratamento favorece o surgimento de altos índices de podridão.This project studied the effects of different precooling temperatures and times with water on lychee 'B3' fruit quality cold storage. The treatments were: T1 = control (without precooling; T2 = immersed in water at 2.5°C for five minutes; T3 = immersed in water at 2.5°C for ten minutes; T4 = immersed in water at 2.5°C for 20 minutes; T5 = immersed in water at 6°C for seven minutes; T6 = immersed in water at 8°C for 20 minutes and T7 = immersed in water at 10°C for ten minutes. After treatments application, the fruits were then placed into polyethylene bags of 24µm, sealed, and stored for seven days at 5°C and 90% RH, plus 3 days at 20

  1. Global Liver Gene Expression Analysis on a Murine Metabolic Syndrome Model Treated by Low-molecular-weight Lychee Fruit Polyphenol (Oligonol®).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Hironobu; Uehara, Kaori; Nagashima, Takayuki; Nakata, Akifumi; Sato, Keisuke; Mihara, Yoshihiro; Komatsu, Ken-Ich; Takanari, Jun; Shimizu, Shigeomi; Wakame, Koji

    2016-07-01

    Oligonol® (OLG) is a low-molecular-weight lychee fruit polyphenol mainly containing catechin-type monomers and oligomers of proanthocyanidins. Dietary OLG supplementation reportedly improves lipid metabolism disorder and lowers the visceral fat level in animal and human studies. Thus, we investigated the mechanism behind the protective and beneficial effects of OLG on a Western diet (WD)-induced metabolic syndrome (MetS) of a murine model. Using the C57BL/6J mouse for the MetS model, mice were divided into three groups: control (normal diet: ND), Western diet (WD) and WD + 0.5% OLG (OLG) groups. The WD group was fed a high-calorie (high fructose plus high fat) diet for 12 weeks to develop MetS. At week 12, all mice were sacrificed and the blood and liver were obtained for histological and biological examinations and RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). Body weight, liver weight, plasma triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (T-Cho) and alanine aminotransferase (ATS) levels of both OLG groups were significantly lower than those of the WD group. On histological examination of the liver, the area of fatty deposits was shown to be suppressed by OLG administration. Expression gene analysis in the liver of WD- versus OLG-fed mice by RNA-Seq showed that 464/45,706 genes exhibited a significant change of expression (corrected p-value metabolism-related genes Lpin1, Adig and Cidea were regulated by OLG administration. OLG may function to suppress MetS and the progression of geriatric diseases in WD-fed mice by regulating the expression of lipid metabolism, inflammation and tumor-related genes in the liver. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  2. THE LYCHEE TREE PROPAGATION BY LAYERING

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    LEILA CRISTINA ROSA LINS

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the influence of season and different substrates on rooting of air layers of lychee (Litchi chinensisSonn. for the production of seedlings to ensure the formation of uniform and productive orchards. Air layers were done in plants of the Bengal cultivar using leafy and healthy woody branches, with about 0.010 to 0.015 m in diameter, in which were performed complete girdling with 0.020 m wide at a distance of 0.30 to 0.40 m below the apex. Then the branches were wrapped in moistened substrate. The layering was made at six times of theyear (January, March, May, July, September and November and two substrates were used (coconut fiber and sphagnum in a 6 x 2 factorial design in a randomized block with ten replicates. After 90 days, layers were separated from the matrix plant and evaluated for rooting and callus formation, root number, considering only the primary roots, length, area and volume of the roots, beyond the dry weight of roots and calluses. The months of January, March, September and November showed the best results for all analyzed variables related to rooting. With respect to the substrates, the only difference was in January and March to the root number and dry weight of roots, where the sphagnum showed the best results. The month of July was more conducive to the formation of calluses. The period between September and March was more suitable to the propagation of lychee, when there were rooting percentages above 90%, in addition to the formation of large amount of roots.

  3. Oligonol, a low-molecular-weight polyphenol derived from lychee fruit, attenuates diabetes-induced renal damage through the advanced glycation end product-related pathway in db/db mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan Hum; Yokozawa, Takako; Noh, Jeong Sook

    2014-08-01

    This study was conducted to examine whether oligonol, a low-molecular-weight polyphenol derived from lychee fruit, has an ameliorative effect on diabetes-induced alterations, such as advanced glycation end product (AGE) formation or apoptosis in the kidneys of db/db mice with type 2 diabetes. Oligonol [10 or 20 mg/(kg body weight · d), orally] was administered every day for 8 wk to prediabetic db/db mice, and its effect was compared with vehicle-treated db/db and normal control mice (m/m). The administration of oligonol decreased the elevated renal glucose concentrations and reactive oxygen species in db/db mice (P factor-α (P related variables, representing renoprotective effects against the development of diabetic complications in db/db mice with type 2 diabetes. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Shelf life extension of litchi (Litchi chinensis) and overcoming quarantine barriers to international trade using radiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautam, Satyendra; Saxena, Sudhanshu; Kumar, Sanjeev; Hajare, Sachin N.; Wadhawan, Surbhi; Mishra, B.B.; More, Varsha S.; Sharma, Arun

    2010-01-01

    Litchi (Litchi chinensis) has a very short shelf life of 2-3 days at ambient temperature limiting its marketability. Gamma radiation processing in combination with low temperature storage was explored as a method to achieve shelf life extension and fulfill quarantine requirement for export during storage physics, biochemical, microbiological, organoleptic, antioxidant and radioprotective properties of two major commercially grown Indian cultivars of litchi, 'Shahi' and 'China', were analysed. Radiation treatment reduced microbial load in a dose dependent manner. Radiation (0.5kGy) treated and low temperature stored fruits retained the 'good' organoleptic rating till 28 days of storage while maintaining other quality attributes. (author)

  5. Quality profile of litchi ( Litchi chinensis) cultivars from India and effect of radiation processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajare, Sachin N.; Saxena, Sudhanshu; Kumar, Sanjeev; Wadhawan, Surbhi; More, Varsha; Mishra, B. B.; Narayan Parte, Madan; Gautam, Satyendra; Sharma, Arun

    2010-09-01

    Litchi ( Litchi chinensis) is a non-climacteric tropical fruit. The fruit has a short shelf-life making its marketing difficult. Physical, biochemical, microbiological, and organoleptic properties of two major commercially grown Indian cultivars of litchi, 'Shahi' and 'China' were studied. The effect of gamma radiation processing and low temperature storage on the above parameters was evaluated to standardize the optimal process parameters for shelf-life extension of litchi. Physical and biochemical parameters analyzed included weight, moisture, pH, titratable acidity, texture, color, total and reducing sugar, total soluble solids, vitamin C, and flavonoid content. Weight, moisture content, and pH in the fresh fruit ranged between 21-26 g, 74-77%, and 3.7-4.4, respectively, whereas, total and reducing sugar ranged 10-15, and 10-13 g%, respectively. In 'Shahi' vitamin C content was found to be around 17-19 mg%, whereas, in 'China' it was 22-28 mg%. Flavonoid content was in the range of 26-34 μg catechin equivalents/g of fresh fruit. Total surface and internal bacterial load was around 4 and 3 log cfu/g, respectively. Surface yeast-mold count (YMC) was ˜3 log cfu/g whereas internal YMC was ˜2 log cfu/g. Radiation treatment reduced microbial load in a dose dependent manner. Treatment at 0.5 kGy did not significantly affect the quality parameters of the fruit. Treated fruits retained the "good" organoleptic rating during storage. Thus, radiation treatment (0.5 kGy) in combination with low temperature (4 °C) storage achieved a shelf-life of 28 days for litchi fruit.

  6. Quality profile of litchi (Litchi chinensis) cultivars from India and effect of radiation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajare, Sachin N.; Saxena, Sudhanshu; Kumar, Sanjeev; Wadhawan, Surbhi; More, Varsha; Mishra, B.B.; Narayan Parte, Madan; Gautam, Satyendra [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Sharma, Arun, E-mail: ksarun@barc.gov.i [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2010-09-15

    Litchi (Litchi chinensis) is a non-climacteric tropical fruit. The fruit has a short shelf-life making its marketing difficult. Physical, biochemical, microbiological, and organoleptic properties of two major commercially grown Indian cultivars of litchi, 'Shahi' and 'China' were studied. The effect of gamma radiation processing and low temperature storage on the above parameters was evaluated to standardize the optimal process parameters for shelf-life extension of litchi. Physical and biochemical parameters analyzed included weight, moisture, pH, titratable acidity, texture, color, total and reducing sugar, total soluble solids, vitamin C, and flavonoid content. Weight, moisture content, and pH in the fresh fruit ranged between 21-26 g, 74-77%, and 3.7-4.4, respectively, whereas, total and reducing sugar ranged 10-15, and 10-13 g%, respectively. In 'Shahi' vitamin C content was found to be around 17-19 mg%, whereas, in 'China' it was 22-28 mg%. Flavonoid content was in the range of 26-34 {mu}g catechin equivalents/g of fresh fruit. Total surface and internal bacterial load was around 4 and 3 log cfu/g, respectively. Surface yeast-mold count (YMC) was {approx}3 log cfu/g whereas internal YMC was {approx}2 log cfu/g. Radiation treatment reduced microbial load in a dose dependent manner. Treatment at 0.5 kGy did not significantly affect the quality parameters of the fruit. Treated fruits retained the 'good' organoleptic rating during storage. Thus, radiation treatment (0.5 kGy) in combination with low temperature (4 {sup o}C) storage achieved a shelf-life of 28 days for litchi fruit.

  7. In vitro regeneration of 'Feizixiao' litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    Different developmental stages of SEs were obtained from the callus on MS ... methods. Key words: litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.), anther culture, callus, regeneration, somatic embryogenesis. ...... Induction and maintenance of the embryogenic.

  8. Effects of Storage and Exogenous Ga3 on Lychee Seed Germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Orika Ono

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of storage time and exogenous gibberellic acid on lychee seeds germination were studied. The seeds were removed from ripe fruits, washed, dried, stored at 8°C for 0, 15 and 30 days, and soaked during 24 hours in water and GA3 at 50, 100 and 200 mg.L-1 solutions. As the storage period increased, the germination capacity was lost, and the seeds had a short germinability after 30-day storage period. Gibberellic acid had not significant effect on enhancing both the germination percentage and rate.O trabalho teve como objetivo estudar os efeitos do tempo de armazenamento e de tratamentos com ácido giberélico, no processo germinativo de sementes de lichieira (Litchi chinensis Sonn.. As sementes foram retiradas de frutos maduros, lavadas, secas à sombra e colocadas para germinar imediatamente ou então, armazenadas em geladeira (8°C por 15 e 30 dias. Os tratamentos corresponderam à imersão das sementes por 24 horas nas seguintes soluções com aeração: água, GA3 a 50, 100 e 200 mg.L-1. Através dos resultados obtidos, observou-se que as sementes perderam o poder germinativo, à medida que aumentou-se o tempo de armazenamento, sendo a porcentagem de germinação muito baixa (7% aos 30 dias de armazenamento. O tempo médio de germinação foi menor após 15 dias de armazenamento.

  9. Brand Marketing Strategies in the Export of Maoming Litchi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The thesis gives the brief overview of the development of Maoming litchi industry:it has the largest scale base and the output keeps going up;it has varieties of species and lots of famous special products;its standardized mass production ensures the safety of the products;the products go to market early with a broad range of sales;it has industrialized fruit production and deep product processing technology. After an introduction to the general situation of the export of litchis in China,the thesis introduces the current situation of the export of litchis in Maoming in terms of the continuously increasing exportations and the continuous expansion of the market and then,based on these,the thesis analyzes the existing problems in the export of Maoming Litchi:first,lack of brand awareness results in products with no brand;second,the instability of quality acts as a drawback to the exportation;third,fresh litchis are the main exportations,and the packaging and transportation technology of products are weak and thus the overseas markets are by no means well-explored. In order to adapt to the accelerating economic globalization,seize new opportunities for economic development,promote litchi exports from sluggish to healthy development and thus come to the successful transition of Maoming City as an agricultural city to a strong city in agricultural science and technology,corresponding strategies of the brand marketing of Maoming Litchi are put forward in the thesis:first,to enhance brand awareness and make it a famous brand;second,to build bases for litchis’ export and make Chinese litchis known worldwide;third,to pay intensive attention to the preservation of litchis and propel industrial management;fourth,to improve the market distribution system and open up the international market.

  10. HYDROTHERMAL TREATMENT IN PREVENTION BROWNING OF LYCHEE PERICARP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Gonçalves Pires Matias1

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The browning of litchi pericarp (Litchi chinensis Sonn. occurs rapidly after harvest, limiting the marketing period of the fruits. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of hot water treatments in preventing browning of the pericarp and the maintenance of postharvest quality of litchi fruit. Fruits of litchi cv. Bengal uniformly red pericarp were submitted to immersion in water at tree temperature (45, 50 and 55°C x five soaking times (0, 4, 8, 12 and 16 minutes in a completely randomized design with tree replications and five fruit per replicate. After drying, the fruits were packed in polystyrene trays, covered with plastic wrap with 12 mm thick and stored in the lab benches at room temperature (19.0 ± 2.4°C and 75 ± 5% RH to simulate the exposure conditions at supermarket counters. Every two days, during eight days, were evaluated the weight loss, color of the pericarp, soluble solids, titratable acidity of the pulp and ascorbic acid content of the pericarp and pulp. It was observed that the weight loss was higher in fruits that were not subjected to hydrothermal treatment. Fruits subjected to 50°C during 16 minutes and 55°C in all immersion times were evaluated only until the 4th day, thereafter, these fruits are not suitable for commercialization. Immersion at 45°C during four minutes was the most effective in maintaining the red color of the pericarp and did not affect the quality measured during the experimental period.

  11. Analysis for Difficulty during Freeze-Drying Feizixiao Lychees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared to other cultivar lychees, volume density of Feizixiao lychee was higher due to serious shrinkage during freeze-drying (FD. Guiwei lychee and Nuomici lychee were used for comparison in order to illuminate the reason of the aforementioned phenomenon. Lower prefreezing temperature could not improve the volume density of Feizixiao lychee. Microstructure results show that pulp cell of Feizixiao lychee (tail was smaller and more compact than Guiwei and Nuomici lychee pulp cell. In addition, there is a membrane around the surface of Feizixiao lychee pulp. And the microstructure of Feizixiao lychee tip pulp cell is different from tail pulp cell. Membrane and tip pulp cell are both smaller and more compact than tail pulp cell. These structure differences hinder the moisture removing of Feizixiao lychee during FD. Removing the membrane and tip pulp could not improve the volume density of Feizixiao lychee. Ultrasound treatment for 30 min could significantly enhance the volume density of Feizixiao lychee.

  12. Biological and Phytopharmacological Descriptions of Litchi Chinensis

    OpenAIRE

    Kilari, Eswar Kumar; Putta, Swathi

    2016-01-01

    Plants remain a vital source of drugs and at present, much emphasis is given to nutraceuticals. Herbal medicines have been the basis of treatment and cure for various diseases and physiological conditions in the traditional methods practiced such as ayurveda and homeopathy. Litchi chinensis belongs to the Sapindaceae family and is well-known in the Indian traditional system for its traditional uses. The parts of the plant used are leaves, flowers, fruits, seed, pulp, and pericarp. All parts o...

  13. The preference choices of Conopomorpha sinensis Bradley (Lepidoptera: Gracilariidae) for litchi based on its host surface characteristics and volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiang; Hu, Junjie; Li, Yanhua; Dai, Jianqing; Guo, Mingfang; Ouyang, Gecheng

    2018-01-31

    Conopomorpha sinensis Bradley is a host-specific pest of Litchi chinensis and Euphoria longan. Here, we demonstrated that C. sinensis has evolved special physical and chemical mechanisms for host plant location that enable it to survive and reproduce. Females favored laying their eggs on the convex surface of litchi fruit that had particular volatile characteristics. Experiments using a H-type olfactometer showed that female C. sinensis were attracted to litchi flowers, tender shoots, immature fruits, and mature fruits, with the highest attraction rate to mature fruits (74.67 ± 2.31%). There were no significant differences in the attraction of male C. sinensis to different litchi tissues. Further oviposition preference tests using the pericarp, pulp, and seeds of mature litchi fruits revealed that female C. sinensis prefer to lay their eggs on the pericarp. Litchi volatiles were found to be important in attracting C. sinensis to fruits for oviposition. Analysis of volatiles from different litchi tissues by HS-SPME-GC-MS revealed 31 similar volatiles, some of which may be important in the oviposition preference choices of C. sinensis on litchi fruit.

  14. Florescimento e frutificação de lichieiras em função do anelamento de ramos Flowering and fruiting of lychee trees in response to girdling of branches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliseo García-Pérez

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito do anelamento de ramos sobre o florescimento e frutificação de lichieiras 'Bengal' com 17 anos de idade. Os tratamentos constaram de anelamento em ramos ou pernadas principais e ramos de 6; 4 e 2 cm de diâmetro, além do controle. O delineamento utilizado foi em blocos casualizados, com cinco repetições. As avaliações quanto à floração foram: percentagem de floração e comprimento de inflorescências por quadrante e árvore; quanto à frutificação, avaliaram-se: vingamento de frutos maduros por panícula, massa, diâmetros longitudinal e equatorial dos frutos, sólidos solúveis totais, época de colheita e rendimento. O anelamento nos ramos principais induziu maior florescimento, sem alterar as características das inflorescências; não houve diferenças no vingamento de frutos, mas o aumento na floração incrementou o rendimento por árvore, com significativa antecipação da colheita.The effects of girdling of branches on flowering and fruiting of 17 years old 'Bengal' lychee trees were evaluated. The treatments consisted of girdling of main branches, and branches with 6, 4 and 2 cm of diameter and the control. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design, with 5 replicates. The evaluations in relation to flowering were: flowering per tree and per quadrant and length of flower panicles; in relation to fruiting were: fruit set per panicle, fruit weight, longitudinal and equatorial diameters, soluble solids, harvest time and production. The girdling in the main branches induced larger flowering, without influence on the flower panicles characteristics, there were no differences in the fruit set, but with an increasing in the flowering, it increased the production, with significant anticipation of the harvest.

  15. LcMYB1 Is a Key Determinant of Differential Anthocyanin Accumulation among Genotypes, Tissues, Developmental Phases and ABA and Light Stimuli in Litchi chinensis

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Biao; Li, Xiao-Jing; Hu, Bing; Qin, Yong-Hua; Huang, Xu-Ming; Wang, Hui-Cong; Hu, Gui-Bing

    2014-01-01

    The red coloration of litchi fruit depends on the accumulation of anthocyanins. The anthocyanins level in litchi fruit varies widely among cultivars, developmental stages and environmental stimuli. Previous studies on various plant species demonstrate that anthocyanin biosynthesis is controlled at the transcriptional level. Here, we describe a litchi R2R3-MYB transcription factor gene, LcMYB1, which demonstrates a similar sequence as other known anthocyanin regulators. The transcription level...

  16. MULTI-TEMPORAL ASSESSMENT OF LYCHEE TREE CROP STRUCTURE USING MULTI-SPECTRAL RPAS IMAGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Johansen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The lychee tree is native to China and produce small fleshy fruit up to 5 cm in diameter. Lychee production in Australia is worth > $20 million annually. Pruning of trees encourages new growth, has a positive effect on fruiting of lychee, makes fruit-picking easier, and may increase yield, as it increases light interception and tree crown surface area. The objective of this research was to assess changes in tree structure, i.e. tree crown circumference, width, height and Plant Projective Cover (PPC using multi-spectral Remotely Piloted Aircraft System (RPAS imagery collected before and after pruning of a lychee plantation. A secondary objective was to assess any variations in the results as a function of various flying heights (30, 50 and 70 m. Pre- and post-pruning results showed significant differences in all measured tree structural parameters, including an average decrease in: tree crown circumference of 1.94 m; tree crown width of 0.57 m; tree crown height of 0.62 m; and PPC of 14.8 %. The different flying heights produced similar measurements of tree crown width and PPC, whereas tree crown circumference and height measurements decreased with increasing flying height. These results show that multi-spectral RPAS imagery can provide a suitable means of assessing pruning efforts undertaken by contractors based on changes in tree structure of lychee plantations and that it is important to collect imagery in a consistent manner, as varying flying heights may cause changes to tree structural measurements.

  17. Bioactive phytochemicals and antioxidant activity in fresh and dried lychee fractions1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela de Rezende Queiroz

    Full Text Available Fruit of the lychee cv. Bengal are approximately 50% peel and seeds, which are discarded. These by-products have antioxidant compounds which are capable of blocking the harmful effects of free radicals in the body. Bioactive compounds (ascorbic acid, beta-carotene, lycopene and phenols and antioxidant activity were evaluated in different extracts, both fresh and dried at 45 °C, of the skin, pulp and seeds of the lychee, which were subjected to principal component analysis to clarify which of the compounds are responsible for this activity. Principal component analysis explained 82.90% of the variance of the antioxidant profile of the lychee. The peel displayed higher levels of phenols, ascorbic acid, beta-carotene and antioxidant activity, while the seeds stood out due to their levels of lycopene. With drying, there was a decrease in the levels of ascorbic acid and beta-carotene and in antioxidant activity, with an increase in the levels of phenols and lycopene. The antioxidant activity found in the peel and seeds of the lychee is high, and is mainly due to ascorbic acid and beta-carotene, as demonstrated by principal component analysis, allowing the use of these fractions as sources of natural antioxidants.

  18. Influence of the use of acids and films in post-harvest lychee conservation Influência da utilização de ácidos e filmes na conservação pós-colheita de lichia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Fabíola Pereira da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn. has a high commercial value; however, it has a short shelf-life because of its rapid pericarp browning. The objective of this study was to evaluate the shelf-life of 'Bengal' lychee fruits stored after treatment with hydrochloric acid and citric acid, associated with cassava starch and plastic packaging. Uniformly red pericarp fruits were submitted to treatments: 1-(immersion in citric acid 100 mM for 5 minutes + cassava starch 30 g L-1 for 5 minutes, 2-(immersion in hydrochloric acid 1 M for 2 minutes + starch cassava 30 g L-1 for 5 minutes, 3-(immersion in citric acid 100 mM for 5 minutes + polyvinyl chloride film (PVC, 14 µm thick and 4-(immersion in hydrochloric acid 1 M for 2 minutes + PVC film. During 20 days, the fruits were evaluated for mass loss, pericarp color, pH, soluble solids and titratable acidity, vitamin C of the pulp and pericarp and activities of polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase of the pericarp. The treatment with hydrochloric acid associated with PVC was the most effective in maintaining the red color of the pericarp for a period of 20 days and best preservation of the fruit. The cassava starch associated with citric acid, and hydrochloric acid did not reduce the mass loss and did not prevent the browning of lychee fruit pericarp.A lichia (Litchi chinensis Sonn. possui alto valor comercial no mercado, entretanto, apresenta vida útil pós-colheita curta, por causa do rápido escurecimento do pericarpo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a vida útil pós-colheita de lichias 'Bengal', armazenadas após tratamento com ácido clorídrico e ácido cítrico, associados a fécula de mandioca e embalagem plástica. Frutos com pericarpos uniformemente vermelhos foram submetidos aos tratamentos: 1-( imersão em ácido cítrico 100 mM por 5 minutos + fécula de mandioca 30 g/L por 5 minutos; 2-( imersão em ácido clorídrico 1 M por 2 minutos + fécula de mandioca 30 g/L por 5 minutos; 3-( imers

  19. Foliar application of calcium chloride and borax affects the fruit skin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of foliar application of calcium chloride and borax calcium on fruit skin strength and cracking incidence in litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) fruit was investigated at 25 days interval and also the evaluation of fruit skin calcium and boron contents, skin strength, ion leakage from skin discs and fruit cracking in four ...

  20. Transcriptomes of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Litchi Host Interaction after Tree Girdling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Bo; Li, Weicai; Liu, Liqin; Wei, Yongzan; Shi, Shengyou

    2016-01-01

    Trunk girdling can increase carbohydrate content above the girdling site and is an important strategy for inhibiting new shoot growth to promote flowering in cultivated litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.). However, girdling inhibits carbohydrate transport to the root in nearly all of the fruit development periods and consequently decreases root absorption. The mechanism through which carbohydrates regulate root development in arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) remains largely unknown. Carbohydrate content, AM colonization, and transcriptome in the roots were analyzed to elucidate the interaction between host litchi and AM fungi when carbohydrate content decreases. Girdling decreased glucose, fructose, sucrose, quebrachitol, and starch contents in the litchi mycorrhizal roots, thereby reducing AM colonization. RNA-seq achieved approximately 60 million reads of each sample, with an average length of reads reaching 100 bp. Assembly of all the reads of the 30 samples produced 671,316 transcripts and 381,429 unigenes, with average lengths of 780 and 643 bp, respectively. Litchi (54,100 unigenes) and AM fungi unigenes (33,120 unigenes) were achieved through sequence annotation during decreased carbohydrate content. Analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEG) showed that flavonoids, alpha-linolenic acid, and linoleic acid are the main factors that regulate AM colonization in litchi. However, flavonoids may play a role in detecting the stage at which carbohydrate content decreases; alpha-linolenic acid or linoleic acid may affect AM formation under the adaptation process. Litchi trees stimulated the expression of defense-related genes and downregulated symbiosis signal-transduction genes to inhibit new AM colonization. Moreover, transcription factors of the AP2, ERF, Myb, WRKY, bHLH families, and lectin genes altered maintenance of litchi mycorrhizal roots in the post-symbiotic stage for carbohydrate starvation. Similar to those of the litchi host, the E3 ubiquitin ligase complex

  1. influence of foliar applications of calcium chloride and borax on fruit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. A Rab

    2011-12-16

    Dec 16, 2011 ... The influence of foliar application of calcium chloride and borax calcium on fruit skin strength and cracking incidence in litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) fruit was investigated at 25 days interval and also the evaluation of fruit skin calcium and boron contents, skin strength, ion leakage from skin discs and.

  2. Vacuum Drying for Extending Litchi Shelf-Life: Vitamin C, Total Phenolics, Texture and Shelf-Life Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter Reis, Felipe; de Oliveira, Aline Caroline; Gadelha, Gabriella Giani Pieretti; de Abreu, Marcela Breves; Soares, Hillary Isabelle

    2017-06-01

    In an attempt to obtain shelf-stable litchi fruit with preserved nutritional quality and good sensory features, quarters of peeled and pitted fruits were vacuum dried at 50, 60 and 70 °C at a constant pressure of 8.0 kPa. The product was assessed for its vitamin C, total phenolics and texture (hardness). In addition, the product with the best texture was assessed for its shelf-life by means of accelerated testing. Results suggest that vacuum dried litchi retained almost 70% of the vitamin C and total phenolics when compared to frozen fruits (control). Vitamin C and phenolic compounds content significantly decreased with drying, while no difference was found between different drying temperatures. Hardness increased with drying temperature. The sample dried at 70 °C presented crispness, which is a desired quality feature in dried fruit products. This sample was subjected to shelf-life evaluation, whose result suggests a shelf-life of eight months at 23 °C. Total color change (CIE ΔE 00 ) was the expiry criterion. Vacuum drying was a suitable technique for producing shelf-stable litchi fruit with good texture while preserving its desirable original nutrients. Consumption of vacuum dried litchi may be beneficial to health due to its remarkable content of phenolic compounds and vitamin C.

  3. 78 FR 9027 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Litchi, Longan, and Rambutan From the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... from the Philippines. Based on the findings of a pest risk analysis, which we made available to the... commodities that, based on the findings of a pest risk analysis (PRA), can be safely imported subject to one... plant pests or noxious weeds via the importation of fresh fruit of litchi, longan, and rambutan from the...

  4. Antioxidant Efficacy of Litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) Pericarp Extract in Sheep Meat Nuggets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Arun K.; Rajkumar, Vincent; Nanda, Pramod K.; Chauhan, Pranav; Pradhan, Soubhagya R.; Biswas, Subhasish

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the efficacy of litchi fruit pericarp (LFP) extract (0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% concentration) in retarding lipid oxidation of cooked sheep meat nuggets was evaluated and compared to butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT, 100 ppm). The total phenolic content and antioxidant potential of LFP extracts were determined. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values were evaluated to assess the potential of LFP extracts as natural antioxidants for oxidative stability of cooked nuggets during 12 days of refrigerated storage. Results show that total phenolics content in 10 mg LFP powder was comparable to 100 ppm BHT, but 15 mg LFP powder had significantly higher (p < 0.05) total phenolics content and reducing power than the synthetic antioxidant. LFP extract did not affect pH, cooking yield and the sensory attributes of cooked nuggets. Non-treated control and nuggets with 1.0% LFP extract had significantly lower total phenolics than nuggets with 1.5% extract and BHT. TBARS values were significantly lower (p < 0.05) throughout the storage period in cooked meat nuggets containing either LFP extract or BHT than in non-treated control. Results indicate that LFP extracts are promising sources of natural antioxidants and can potentially be used as functional food additives in meat products at 1.5% without affecting products’ acceptability. PMID:27213457

  5. Antioxidant Efficacy of Litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn. Pericarp Extract in Sheep Meat Nuggets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun K. Das

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the efficacy of litchi fruit pericarp (LFP extract (0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% concentration in retarding lipid oxidation of cooked sheep meat nuggets was evaluated and compared to butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT, 100 ppm. The total phenolic content and antioxidant potential of LFP extracts were determined. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS values were evaluated to assess the potential of LFP extracts as natural antioxidants for oxidative stability of cooked nuggets during 12 days of refrigerated storage. Results show that total phenolics content in 10 mg LFP powder was comparable to 100 ppm BHT, but 15 mg LFP powder had significantly higher (p < 0.05 total phenolics content and reducing power than the synthetic antioxidant. LFP extract did not affect pH, cooking yield and the sensory attributes of cooked nuggets. Non-treated control and nuggets with 1.0% LFP extract had significantly lower total phenolics than nuggets with 1.5% extract and BHT. TBARS values were significantly lower (p < 0.05 throughout the storage period in cooked meat nuggets containing either LFP extract or BHT than in non-treated control. Results indicate that LFP extracts are promising sources of natural antioxidants and can potentially be used as functional food additives in meat products at 1.5% without affecting products’ acceptability.

  6. Differential expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in relation to anthocyanin accumulation in the pericarp of Litchi chinensis Sonn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Zan Wei

    Full Text Available Litchi has diverse fruit color phenotypes, yet no research reflects the biochemical background of this diversity. In this study, we evaluated 12 litchi cultivars for chromatic parameters and pigments, and investigated the effects of abscisic acid, forchlorofenron (CPPU, bagging and debagging treatments on fruit coloration in cv. Feizixiao, an unevenly red cultivar. Six genes encoding chalcone synthase (CHS, chalcone isomerase (CHI, flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR, anthocyanidin synthase (ANS and UDP-glucose: flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT were isolated from the pericarp of the fully red litchi cv. Nuomici, and their expression was analyzed in different cultivars and under the above mentioned treatments. Pericarp anthocyanin concentration varied from none to 734 mg m(-2 among the 12 litchi cultivars, which were divided into three coloration types, i.e. non-red ('Kuixingqingpitian', 'Xingqiumili', 'Yamulong'and 'Yongxing No. 2', unevenly red ('Feizixiao' and 'Sanyuehong' and fully red ('Meiguili', 'Baila', Baitangying' 'Guiwei', 'Nuomici' and 'Guinuo'. The fully red type cultivars had different levels of anthocyanin but with the same composition. The expression of the six genes, especially LcF3H, LcDFR, LcANS and LcUFGT, in the pericarp of non-red cultivars was much weaker as compared to those red cultivars. Their expression, LcDFR and LcUFGT in particular, was positively correlated with anthocyanin concentrations in the pericarp. These results suggest the late genes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway were coordinately expressed during red coloration of litchi fruits. Low expression of these genes resulted in absence or extremely low anthocyanin accumulation in non-red cultivars. Zero-red pericarp from either immature or CPPU treated fruits appeared to be lacking in anthocyanins due to the absence of UFGT expression. Among these six genes, only the expression of UFGT was found significantly correlated

  7. Fluctuation traits of Litchi wholesale price in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, F. F.; Qi, W. E.; Ouyang, X.

    2017-07-01

    This paper chose the wholesale price of litchi as research object based on the daily data of 11 main sales markets in China -- Beijing, Chengdu, Guangzhou, Hefei, Jiaxing, Nanjing, Shanghai, Shenyang, Changsha, Zhengzhou and Chongqing from April 1, 2012 to September 30, 2016. After analyzing the fluctuation characteristics with BP filter method and H-P filter method, and the fluctuation trends of litchi wholesale price in China obtained by BP filter are roughly consistent with the trends obtained by H-P filter. The main conclusions are as follows: there is strong cyclicality in the fluctuation of litchi wholesale price; the period of fluctuations of litchi wholesale prices are not repeatable; litchi wholesale price fluctuates asymmetrically in one fluctuation cycle.

  8. Evaluation of nutritional and biochemical properties of litchi (Litchi chinensis) and its quarantine treatment and shelf-life extension using radiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajare, Sachin N.; Saxena, Sudhanshu; Kumar, Sanjeev; Wadhawan, Surbhi; More, Varsha; Mishra, B.B.; Parte, Madan Narayan; Gautam, Satyendra; Sharma, Arun

    2009-01-01

    Combination of gamma irradiation and dip treatment on shelf life extension of two major cultivars of litchi namely, Shahi, and China was studied for improving market availability of the fruit and to overcome quarantine barrier for international trade. An extension in shelf life up to 28 days was achieved at 4 deg C, whereas, control fruits last around 10 days at 4 deg C. Physicochemical and nutritional parameters such as moisture content, acidity (pH), total soluble solid, total and reducing sugars, vitamin C content, phenolics, flavonoids, antioxidant activities, browning associated enzymatic activities, microbiological and sensory attributes were studied during the storage period. It was observed that low dose of gamma radiation did not affect significantly any of these parameters. Further, a novel combination dip treatment was developed which resulted in shelf life extension up to 60 days with complete inhibition of pericarp browning. (author)

  9. Comparison of the free and bound phenolic profiles and cellular antioxidant activities of litchi pulp extracts from different solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of fruits could be underestimated if the bound phenolic compounds are not considered. In the present study, the extraction efficiencies of various solvents were investigated in terms of the total content of the free and bound phenolic compounds, as well as the phenolic profiles and antioxidant activities of the extracts. Methods Five different solvent mixtures were used to extract the free phenolic compounds from litchi pulp. Alkaline and acidic hydrolysis methods were compared for the hydrolysis of bound phenolic compounds from litchi pulp residue. The phenolic compositions of the free and bound fractions from the litchi pulp were identified using HPLC-DAD. The antioxidant activities of the litchi pulp extracts were determined by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assays. Results Of the solvents tested, aqueous acetone extracted the largest amount of total free phenolic compounds (210.7 mg GAE/100 g FW) from litchi pulp, followed sequentially by aqueous mixtures of methanol, ethanol and ethyl acetate, and water itself. The acid hydrolysis method released twice as many bound phenolic compounds as the alkaline hydrolysis method. Nine phenolic compounds were detected in the aqueous acetone extract. In contrast, not all of these compounds were found in the other four extracts. The classification and content of the bound phenolic compounds released by the acid hydrolysis method were higher than those achieved by the alkaline hydrolysis. The aqueous acetone extract showing the highest ORAC value (3406.9 μmol TE/100 g FW) for the free phenolic extracts. For the CAA method, however, the aqueous acetone and methanol extracts (56.7 and 55.1 μmol QE/100 g FW) showed the highest levels of activity of the five extracts tested. The ORAC and CAA values of the bound phenolic compounds obtained by acid hydrolysis were 2.6- and 1.9-fold higher than those obtained using the

  10. Influence of the substrate in germination of lychee seeds Influência do substrato na germinação de sementes de lichia

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    Renata Aparecida de Andrade

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The lychee is, all over the world, considered as the "queen of the fruits" due to the delicacy of its appearance and flavor. Although it was only recently that it started to have economical importance in Brazil, the lychee is already calling the attention of numerous farmers, mainly those who cultivate citric fruits and/or sugarcane in the State of São Paulo, due to the constant and at the same time growing necessity of finding new alternative crops. Considering that the commercial cultivation of lychee plants in the field requires the previous obtainment of rootstocks viewing to reduce the genetic variability and the length of the juvenile period displayed by plants resulting directly from the seeds, finding ways to improve the germination performance of lychee seeds for the production of rootstock plants is of considerable economic importance. Thus, the objective of this experiment was to test five substrates for the germination of lychee seeds: (1 vermiculite, (2 washed sand, (3 filter paper, (4 carbonized rice hull, and (5 sphagnum. The results showed that the period of time required by a lychee seed to germinate is a short one thus reinforcing the importance of providing a suitable substrate for the germination to take place. It was found that the substrates which apparently allowed the best combinations of water and oxygen availability for the seeds - washed sand and carbonized rice hull - were those leading to the fastest and highest germination values.A lichia é considerada em todo o mundo como a rainha das frutas, por sua aparência e sabor delicado. Atualmente, a cultura vem despertando interesse, principalmente no Estado de São Paulo, onde, em virtude dos problemas enfrentados pelos agricultores, destacando-se os de laranja e cana-de-açúcar, a procura por alternativas agrícolas vem se intensificando ainda mais. A propagação através de sementes não é recomendada comercialmente, pois as plantas de pé-franco s

  11. Healthful and nutritional components in select Florida tropical fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourteen tropical fruits from south Florida (red guava, white guava, carambola, red pitaya (red dragon), white pitaya (white dragon), mamey, sapodilla, lychee, longan, green mango, ripe mango, green papaya and ripe papaya) were evaluated for phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, ascorbic acid (v...

  12. 78 FR 58154 - Importation of Litchi Fruit From Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... for the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) and the NPPO to work collaboratively to... than Australia. The commenter concluded that, from a regulatory flexibility standpoint, it would be..., Taiwan, and Thailand, and therefore based our assessment of the potential economic impact of the rule on...

  13. LcMYB1 is a key determinant of differential anthocyanin accumulation among genotypes, tissues, developmental phases and ABA and light stimuli in Litchi chinensis.

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    Biao Lai

    Full Text Available The red coloration of litchi fruit depends on the accumulation of anthocyanins. The anthocyanins level in litchi fruit varies widely among cultivars, developmental stages and environmental stimuli. Previous studies on various plant species demonstrate that anthocyanin biosynthesis is controlled at the transcriptional level. Here, we describe a litchi R2R3-MYB transcription factor gene, LcMYB1, which demonstrates a similar sequence as other known anthocyanin regulators. The transcription levels of the LcMYB1 and anthocyanin biosynthetic genes were investigated in samples with different anthocyanin levels. The expression of LcMYB1 was strongly associated with tissue anthocyanin content. LcMYB1 transcripts were only detected in anthocyanin-accumulating tissues and were positively correlated with anthocyanin accumulation in the pericarps of 12 genotypes. ABA and sunlight exposure promoted, whereas CPPU and bagging inhibited the expression of LcMYB1 and anthocyanin accumulation in the pericarp. Cis-elements associated with light responsiveness and abscisic acid responsiveness were identified in the promoter region of LcMYB1. Among the 6 structural genes tested, only LcUFGT was highly correlated with LcMYB1. These results suggest that LcMYB1 controls anthocyanin biosynthesis in litchi and LcUFGT might be the structural gene that is targeted and regulated by LcMYB1. Furthermore, the overexpression of LcMYB1 induced anthocyanin accumulation in all tissues in tobacco, confirming the function of LcMYB1 in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis. The upregulation of NtAn1b in response to LcMYB1 overexpression seems to be essential for anthocyanin accumulation in the leaf and pedicel. In the reproductive tissues of transgenic tobacco, however, increased anthocyanin accumulation is independent of tobacco's endogenous MYB and bHLH transcriptional factors, but associated with the upregulation of specific structural genes.

  14. LcMYB1 is a key determinant of differential anthocyanin accumulation among genotypes, tissues, developmental phases and ABA and light stimuli in Litchi chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Biao; Li, Xiao-Jing; Hu, Bing; Qin, Yong-Hua; Huang, Xu-Ming; Wang, Hui-Cong; Hu, Gui-Bing

    2014-01-01

    The red coloration of litchi fruit depends on the accumulation of anthocyanins. The anthocyanins level in litchi fruit varies widely among cultivars, developmental stages and environmental stimuli. Previous studies on various plant species demonstrate that anthocyanin biosynthesis is controlled at the transcriptional level. Here, we describe a litchi R2R3-MYB transcription factor gene, LcMYB1, which demonstrates a similar sequence as other known anthocyanin regulators. The transcription levels of the LcMYB1 and anthocyanin biosynthetic genes were investigated in samples with different anthocyanin levels. The expression of LcMYB1 was strongly associated with tissue anthocyanin content. LcMYB1 transcripts were only detected in anthocyanin-accumulating tissues and were positively correlated with anthocyanin accumulation in the pericarps of 12 genotypes. ABA and sunlight exposure promoted, whereas CPPU and bagging inhibited the expression of LcMYB1 and anthocyanin accumulation in the pericarp. Cis-elements associated with light responsiveness and abscisic acid responsiveness were identified in the promoter region of LcMYB1. Among the 6 structural genes tested, only LcUFGT was highly correlated with LcMYB1. These results suggest that LcMYB1 controls anthocyanin biosynthesis in litchi and LcUFGT might be the structural gene that is targeted and regulated by LcMYB1. Furthermore, the overexpression of LcMYB1 induced anthocyanin accumulation in all tissues in tobacco, confirming the function of LcMYB1 in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis. The upregulation of NtAn1b in response to LcMYB1 overexpression seems to be essential for anthocyanin accumulation in the leaf and pedicel. In the reproductive tissues of transgenic tobacco, however, increased anthocyanin accumulation is independent of tobacco's endogenous MYB and bHLH transcriptional factors, but associated with the upregulation of specific structural genes.

  15. Oxidative C-H activation of amines using protuberant lychee-like goethite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goethite with protuberant lychee morphology has been synthesized that accomplishes C-H activation of N-methylanilines to generate α-aminonitriles; the catalyst takes oxygen from air and uses it as a cooxidant in the process. Inspired by nature, we aspired to design a protocol for...

  16. Outbreak of Sudden Death with Acute Encephalitis Syndrome Among Children Associated with Exposure to Lychee Orchards in Northern Bangladesh, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammed Saiful; Sharif, Ahmad Raihan; Sazzad, Hossain M S; Khan, A K M Dawlat; Hasan, Murshid; Akter, Shirina; Rahman, Mahmudur; Luby, Stephen P; Heffelfinger, James D; Gurley, Emily S

    2017-09-01

    Recurrent outbreaks of acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) among children in lychee growing areas in Asia highlight the need to better understand the etiology and the context. We conducted a mixed-methods study to identify risk factors for disease, and behaviors and practices around lychee cultivation in an AES outbreak community in northern Bangladesh in 2012. The outbreak affected 14 children; 13 died. The major symptoms included unconsciousness, convulsion, excessive sweating, and frothy discharge. The median time from illness onset to unconsciousness was 2.5 hours. The outbreak corresponded with lychee harvesting season. Multiple pesticides including some banned in Bangladesh were frequently used in the orchards. Visiting a lychee orchard within 24 hours before onset (age-adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 11.6 [1.02-109.8]) and 3 days (aOR = 7.2 [1.4-37.6]), and family members working in a lychee orchard (aOR = 7.2 [1.7-29.4]) and visiting any garden while pesticides were being applied (aOR = 4.9 [1.0-19.4]) in 3 days preceding illness onset were associated with illness in nearby village analysis. In neighborhood analysis, visiting an orchard that used pesticides (aOR = 8.4 [1.4-49.9]) within 3 days preceding illness onset was associated with illness. Eating lychees was not associated with illness in the case-control study. The outbreak was linked to lychee orchard exposures where agrochemicals were routinely used, but not to consumption of lychees. Lack of acute specimens was a major limitation. Future studies should target collection of environmental and food samples, acute specimens, and rigorous assessment of community use of pesticides to determine etiology.

  17. Generation of volatile compounds in litchi wine during winemaking and short-term bottle storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuwen; Zhu, Baoqing; Tu, Cui; Duan, Changqing; Pan, Qiuhong

    2011-05-11

    Evolution of volatile components during litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) winemaking was monitored, and aroma profiles of litchi wines bottle aged for 5 months at ambient temperature (25-28 °C) and low temperature (8-10 °C) were compared via headspace solid phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The majority of terpenoids deriving from litchi juice decreased, even disappeared along with alcoholic fermentation, while terpenol oxides, ethers, and acetates came into being and increased. Ethyl octanote, isoamyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl butanoate, cis-rose oxide, and trans-rose oxide had the highest odor activity values (OAVs) in young litchi wines. Six aromatic series were obtained by grouping OAVs of odor-active compounds with similar odor descriptions to establish the aroma profile for young litchi wines, and floral and fruity attributes were two major aroma series. Compared to ambient temperature when bottle aging, lower temperature benefited key aroma retention and expectantly extended the shelf life of young litchi wines.

  18. Uso do ácido ascórbico no controle do escurecimento do pericarpo de lichia Use of ascorbic acid in the control of browning in the pericarp of lychees

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    Danieele Fabíola Pereira da Silva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Um dos maiores problemas na pós-colheita da lichia é o escurecimento do pericarpo, o qual tem sido atribuído à degradação da antocianina. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes doses de ácido ascórbico na prevenção do escurecimento do pericarpo e na manutenção da qualidade pós-colheita de lichia. Frutos de lichieira 'Bengal' com o pericarpo completamente vermelho foram imersos em solução com diferentes doses de ácido ascórbico (0; 5; 10; 15 e 30 mM, por 5 minutos. Após secagem à temperatura ambiente, foram acondicionados em bandejas de poliestireno, armazenados em câmara fria a 5 ± 1,2°C e 90 ± 5% de UR e avaliados a cada 4 dias, durante 12 dias. Observou-se que a perda de massa fresca foi maior nos frutos não tratados com ácido ascórbico. Independentemente da dose, o ácido ascórbico teve pouco efeito na retenção da cor vermelha do pericarpo de lichia. A atividade das enzimas polifenoloxidase e peroxidase no pericarpo foi maior com as menores doses de ácido ascórbico (0; 5 e 10 mM, entretanto observou-se escurecimento a partir do quarto dia no pericarpo dos frutos tratados com este ácido. O ácido ascórbico também não foi eficiente na manutenção da qualidade interna dos frutos.One of the biggest problems in postharvest of lychees is the pericarp browning, which has been attributed to anthocyanins degradation. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of different doses of ascorbic acid to prevent pericarp browning and on the maintenance of postharvest quality of lychees. Fruits of 'Bengal' lychee with completely red pericarp were immersed in solution with different doses of ascorbic acid (0, 5, 10, 15 and 30 mM for 5 minutes. After dried, the fruits were packed in polystyrene trays, stored in cold chamber at 5 ± 1,2°C e 90 ± 5% de RH and evaluated every other 4 days for 12 days. It was observed that the loss of fresh weight was higher in non-treated with ascorbic acid

  19. A novel translabial platform utilizing bioexcipients from Litchi chinesis for the delivery of rosiglitazone maleate

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    N.V. Satheesh Madhav

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to formulate drug-loaded bio-lipstrips using novel bioexcipients isolated from the fruit pulp of Litchi chinesis (biomaterial L and to explore the potentiality of lip skin as a novel translabial drug delivery system. The biomaterial, prepared by a simplified economical process and purified by hot dialysis, was subjected to various physicochemical evaluations along with spectral analysis including UV, FT-IR, Mass and 1H NMR. The lipstrip formulated with the novel bioexcipients was screened for its functional properties, including filmability using a film-casting method, and bio/muco-adhesitivity using a shear-stress method, the Park and Robinson method and a rotating cylinder method. Rosiglitazone-loaded bio-lipstrips were formulated by using biomaterial L as a strip former and dextrose as a flexicizer. The formulated strips were subjected to various evaluations, including thickness, folding endurance, in-vitro release and in-vivo release. The release of rosiglitazone maleate was maintained over 24 h, which was confirmed in in-vitro and in-vivo release experiments. Our results reveal that this biopolymer possesses promising stripability as well as bio-adhesitivity. The formulated bio-lipstrips are feasible for delivering rosiglitazone maleate by translabial administration.

  20. A comparative analysis of property of lychee polyphenoloxidase using endogenous and exogenous substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian; Shi, John; Zhao, Mouming; Xue, Sophia Jun; Ren, Jiaoyan; Jiang, Yueming

    2008-06-01

    Lychee polyphenoloxidase (PPO) was extracted and partially purified using ammonium sulphate precipitation and dialysis. The comparative analysis of PPO property was performed using its endogenous substrate (-)-epicatechin and exogenous substrate catechol. The pH optima for activity and activation temperature profiles of lychee PPO were very different when the enzyme reacted with endogenous and exogenous substrates. The addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt into the endogenous or exogenous substrate-enzyme system exhibited the same lowest inhibition of the PPO activity. However, l-cysteine was most effective in inhibiting enzymatic activity in the endogenous substrate-enzyme system while ascorbic acid was the best inhibitor in the exogenous substrate-enzyme system. Fe(2+) greatly accelerated the enzymatic reaction between endogenous substrate and PPO, but Cu(2+) exerted the same effect on the reaction between exogenous substrate and PPO. Based on the kinetic analysis, lychee PPO could strongly bind endogenous substrate but it possessed a higher catalytic efficiency to exogenous substrate. Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Acetate metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae at different temperatures during lychee wine fermentation

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    Yu-hui Shang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain 2137 involved in lychee wine production was used to investigate acetate metabolism at different temperatures during lychee wine fermentation. Fermentation tests were conducted using lychee juice supplemented with acetic acid. The ability of yeast cells to metabolize acetic acid was stronger at 20 °C than at 25 °C or 30 °C. The addition of acetic acid suppressed the yeast cell growth at the tested temperatures. The viability was higher and the reactive oxygen species concentration was lower at 20 °C than at 30 °C; this result indicated that acid stress adaptation protects S. cerevisiae from acetic-acid-mediated programmed cell death. The acetic acid enhanced the thermal death of yeast at high temperatures. The fermentation temperature modified the metabolism of the yeasts and the activity of related enzymes during deacidification, because less acetaldehyde, less glycerol, more ethanol, more succinic acid and more malic acid were produced, with higher level of acetyl–CoA synthetase and isocitrate lyase activity, at 20 °C.

  2. Potential for lychee crop in Mata Norte Pernambucana - Brazil | Potencial para cultivo de lichia na Mata Norte Pernambucana - Brasil

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    Nina Iris Verslype

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lychee crops occurs mainly in South and Southeast regions of Brazil. In this study, the digital terrain modeling (DTM of the micro-region Mata Norte Pernambucana, was designed to identify the districts that have potential for lychee crop, through the parameters of average altitude, precipitation and temperature. The districts analyzed were Aliança, Buenos Aires, Camutanga, Carpina, Condado, Ferreiros, Goiâna, Itambé, Itaquitinga, Lagoa do Carro, Lagoa do Itaenga, Macaparana, Nazaré da Mata, Paudalho, Timbaúba, Tracunhaém and Vicência. The analysis of climate, wind power and altitude in Mata Norte Pernambucana, has revealed that some districts of the micro-region have potential for lychee crops, which is a product with great financial return, and may contribute to increase economy and quality of life in the micro-region.

  3. Transformation of Litchi Pericarp-Derived Condensed Tannin with Aspergillus awamori

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    Sen Lin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Condensed tannin is a ubiquitous polyphenol in plants that possesses substantial antioxidant capacity. In this study, we have investigated the polyphenol extraction recovery and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH scavenging activity of the extracted polyphenol after litchi pericarp is treated with Aspergillus awamori, Aspergillus sojae or Aspergillus oryzae. We have further explored the activity of A. awamori in the formation of condensed tannin. The treatment of A. awamori appeared to produce the highest antioxidant activity of polyphenol from litchi pericarp. Further studies suggested that the treatment of A. awamori releases the non-extractable condensed tannin from cell walls of litchi pericarp. The total extractable tannin in the litchi pericarp residue after a six-time extraction with 60% ethanol increased from 199.92 ± 14.47–318.38 ± 7.59 μg/g dry weight (DW after the treatment of A. awamori. The ESI-TOF-MS and HPLC-MS2 analyses further revealed that treatment of A. awamori degraded B-type condensed tannin (condensed flavan-3-ol via C4–C8 linkage, but exhibited a limited capacity to degrade the condensed tannin containing A-type linkage subunits (C4–C8 coupled C2–O–C7 linkage. These results suggest that the treatment of A. awamori can significantly improve the production of condensed tannin from litchi pericarp.

  4. Delayed progression of diabetic cataractogenesis and retinopathy by Litchi chinensis in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilari, Eswar Kumar; Putta, Swathi

    2017-03-01

    The study was carried out to evaluate the effect of the aqueous fruit pericarp extract of Litchi chinensis (APLC) on parameters which leads to diabetic cataractogenesis and retinopathy in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The objective of the study is to evaluate the APLC for in vivo antioxidant activity and its role in inhibiting the polyol pathway and formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). The diabetic animals were treated with L. chinensis for a period of 12 weeks. At the end of 12 weeks, the animals were killed and the biochemical pathways involved in the pathogenesis of cataract such as oxidative stress by protein content, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), and polyolpathway by aldose reductase (AR) in lens homogenates, alterations in protein carbonyl content (PCO) and AGEs in both serum and lens the APLC-treated diabetic rats were compared against diabetic control rats. Cataract progression due to hyperglycemia was monitored by slit lamp bio microscope and classified into four stages. Fundoscope test and retinal histopathology were done for assessing retinopathy. Statistically significant reduction in glucose, and elevation of protein content, SOD, CAT, and GSH levels and decreased levels of AR and PCO in lens homogenate and significant reduction in AGEs serum and lens homogenate were observed. Slit lamp examination, fundoscope, and histopathology showed improvement in retinal changes in APLC-treated rats compared to diabetic control animals. The treatment with APLC found to delay the progression of diabetic cataractogenesis and retinopathy, which might be due to its antioxidant activity, because of the presence of active phytochemicals in APLC.

  5. Optimized ultra-high-pressure-assisted extraction of procyanidins from lychee pericarp improves the antioxidant activity of extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruifen; Su, Dongxiao; Hou, Fangli; Liu, Lei; Huang, Fei; Dong, Lihong; Deng, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yan; Wei, Zhencheng; Zhang, Mingwei

    2017-08-01

    To establish optimal ultra-high-pressure (UHP)-assisted extraction conditions for procyanidins from lychee pericarp, a response surface analysis method with four factors and three levels was adopted. The optimum conditions were as follows: 295 MPa pressure, 13 min pressure holding time, 16.0 mL/g liquid-to-solid ratio, and 70% ethanol concentration. Compared with conventional ethanol extraction and ultrasonic-assisted extraction methods, the yields of the total procyanidins, flavonoids, and phenolics extracted using the UHP process were significantly increased; consequently, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity and cellular antioxidant activity of UHP-assisted lychee pericarp extracts were substantially enhanced. LC-MS/MS and high-performance liquid chromatography quantification results for individual phenolic compounds revealed that the yield of procyanidin compounds, including epicatechin, procyanidin A2, and procyanidin B2, from lychee pericarp could be significantly improved by the UHP-assisted extraction process. This UHP-assisted extraction process is thus a practical method for the extraction of procyanidins from lychee pericarp.

  6. Reduction of Allergenicity of Litchi chinensis Flowers Pollen Protein Conjugated with Polysaccharide by Maillard Reaction

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    Ranajit Kumar Shaha

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Allergy to pollen from gymnosperms is well documented in the west. The objective was to define the allergologic protein from Litchi chinensis (Litchi pollen and conjugate the protein with polysaccharides by Maillard reaction to reduce the allergic effect of that protein. Methods: Total soluble proteins were extracted from the pollen of Litchi flower pollen and subjected to ammonium sulphate precipitation at 80% saturation. Pollen antigen from Litchi chinensis (Litchi was prepared by gel cutting method and characterized by biochemical and designated by LFPP. The homogeneity of this protein was demonstrated by a single band on SDS-PAGE. The protein then conjugated with galactomannan through Maillard Reaction. The resulting purified pollen protein and conjugated protein were administered to the Swiss albino mice as amount of 5.8mg/kg body weight. Results: The total protein was then separated on a 12% SDS-Polyacrylamide gel which revealed 5 bands between molecular weight range of 29kDa and 69kDa. Each band was recovered from the gel by electroelution and sent for skin tests. 28kDa proteins was the only allergenic protein while others were not shown reactivity in patients. Intraperitoneal injection of the purified protein (LFPP caused a significant rise in the levels of neutrophils (38-81% and eosinophils (3-14% compared to control (P < 0.001 whereas conjugated protein caused only a 2% increase of both neutrophils and eosinophils level. On the other hand treatment with LFPP-galactomannan conjugate causes no such change in physical appearance with eosinophils and neutrophils level. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that the protein extracted and purified from Litchi flowers pollen has been recognized as a new allergen from Bangladesh for the first time and the allergic effects can be reduced by conjugation with polysaccharides.

  7. A comparison of the effectiveness of methods of deterring pteropodid bats from feeding on commercial fruit in Madagascar

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    Tatamo E.A. Raharimihaja

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We compared the effectiveness of methods of deterring Pteropus rufus from feeding on commercial fruit in east central and southeastern Madagascar in 2012–2013 during the Litchi chinensis harvest. Two of the three methods used, installing plastic flags and ringing bells in the trees, were derived from those used by litchi growers in the southeast.  We improved and standardized these methods and compared their effectiveness with an organic product made from dried blood and vegetable oil (Plantskydd® with a taste and odour aimed at deterring mammal feeding.  The bats damaged from 440–7,040 g of litchi fruits per tree and two of the three methods reduced the fruit lost to bats: the plastic flags and the organic deterrent.  There were significant differences in the damage levels between the study sites and between our three methods of deterrence.  The plastic flags and bell ringing methods were significantly less effective in reducing the fruit bat damage compared to the taste deterrent.  The latter was most effective when it had enough time to dry and adhere to the fruits after spraying and before rain.  Its effectiveness was further demonstrated in flight cage experiments during which Rousettus madagascariensis avoided litchis treated with Plantskydd®.  Analysis of bat faecal samples revealed no feeding preference but the collected samples contained large numbers of Ficus seeds, suggesting that the bats feed extensively on Ficus fruits rather than on fruit of economic importance.  Apart from fruit ripeness, tree productivity or other phenological factors did not affect the amount of fruit eaten by the bats.   More fruits were damaged by birds than bats at both study sites. 

  8. Alleviative effects of litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) flower on lipid peroxidation and protein degradation in emulsified pork meatballs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yi; Wang, Sheng-Yao; Yang, Deng-Jye; Chang, Ming-Hsu; Chen, Yi-Chen

    2015-09-01

    To avoid or retard the lipid peroxidation of meat products, antioxidants are commonly added. Considering the safety and health of additives in meat products, consumers prefer natural antioxidants rather than synthetic ones. Gentisic acid and epicatechin were identified as the major phenolic acid and flavonoid, respectively, of litchi flowers (LFs). The physicochemical properties of pork meatballs with or without dried LF powders (0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5%, w/w) and tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ; 0.01%, w/w) were analyzed during a 4-week frozen storage period. LF and TBHQ decreased (p meatballs. LF added to meatballs improved (p meatballs redder and darker (p < 0.05) than the control and TBHQ groups, they did not affect the preference of panelists. The addition of 0.5% LF powders exhibited the best (p < 0.05) overall sensory panel acceptance. LFs may be an effective natural antioxidant to reduce lipid and protein oxidation for frozen cooked meat products. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Alleviative effects of litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn. flower on lipid peroxidation and protein degradation in emulsified pork meatballs

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    Yi Ding

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To avoid or retard the lipid peroxidation of meat products, antioxidants are commonly added. Considering the safety and health of additives in meat products, consumers prefer natural antioxidants rather than synthetic ones. Gentisic acid and epicatechin were identified as the major phenolic acid and flavonoid, respectively, of litchi flowers (LFs. The physicochemical properties of pork meatballs with or without dried LF powders (0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5%, w/w and tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ; 0.01%, w/w were analyzed during a 4-week frozen storage period. LF and TBHQ decreased (p < 0.05 thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS values but increased (p < 0.05 thiol group contents in meatballs. LF added to meatballs improved (p < 0.05 texture and water-holding capacity (centrifugation/purge losses more than in the control group upon the storage. Although LF powders made meatballs redder and darker (p < 0.05 than the control and TBHQ groups, they did not affect the preference of panelists. The addition of 0.5% LF powders exhibited the best (p < 0.05 overall sensory panel acceptance. LFs may be an effective natural antioxidant to reduce lipid and protein oxidation for frozen cooked meat products.

  10. Sequencing of the Litchi Downy Blight Pathogen Reveals It Is a Phytophthora Species With Downy Mildew-Like Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Wenwu; Wang, Yang; Shen, Danyu; Li, Delong; Pu, Tianhuizi; Jiang, Zide; Zhang, Zhengguang; Zheng, Xiaobo; Tyler, Brett M; Wang, Yuanchao

    2016-07-01

    On the basis of its downy mildew-like morphology, the litchi downy blight pathogen was previously named Peronophythora litchii. Recently, however, it was proposed to transfer this pathogen to Phytophthora clade 4. To better characterize this unusual oomycete species and important fruit pathogen, we obtained the genome sequence of Phytophthora litchii and compared it to those from other oomycete species. P. litchii has a small genome with tightly spaced genes. On the basis of a multilocus phylogenetic analysis, the placement of P. litchii in the genus Phytophthora is strongly supported. Effector proteins predicted included 245 RxLR, 30 necrosis-and-ethylene-inducing protein-like, and 14 crinkler proteins. The typical motifs, phylogenies, and activities of these effectors were typical for a Phytophthora species. However, like the genome features of the analyzed downy mildews, P. litchii exhibited a streamlined genome with a relatively small number of genes in both core and species-specific protein families. The low GC content and slight codon preferences of P. litchii sequences were similar to those of the analyzed downy mildews and a subset of Phytophthora species. Taken together, these observations suggest that P. litchii is a Phytophthora pathogen that is in the process of acquiring downy mildew-like genomic and morphological features. Thus P. litchii may provide a novel model for investigating morphological development and genomic adaptation in oomycete pathogens.

  11. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part VI. Mushrooms, tomatoes, minor fruits and vegetables, dried fruits, and nuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.

    1988-01-01

    In this concluding article in the series on the technological feasibility of ionizing radiation treatment for shelf life improvement of fruits and vegetables, the present status of research on several commodities that have not been dealt with earlier is discussed. The commodities include mushrooms, tomatoes, pineapples, lychees, longans, rambutans, mangostenes, guavas, sapotas, loquats, ber, soursops, passion fruits, persimmons, figs, melons, cucumbers, aubergines, globe artichokes, endives, lettuce, ginger, carrots, beet roots, turnips, olives, dates, chestnuts, almonds, pistachios, and other dried fruits and nuts. Changes induced by irradiation on metabolism, chemical constituents, and organoleptic qualities are considered while evaluating the shelf life. The commodities have been grouped into those showing potential benefits and those not showing any clear advantages from radiation treatment. Shelf life improvement of mushrooms and insect disinfestation in dried fruits, nuts, and certain fresh fruits appears to have immediate potential for commercial application. 194 references

  12. Gamma irradiation of fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyers, M.

    1983-08-01

    At a Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on Food Irradiation (JECFI) meeting held in 1976, recommendations were made to rationalize the unnecessarily elaborate wholesomeness evaluation procedures for irradiated foodstuffs. Irradiation at the commercially recommended doses did not adversely affect the constituents of mangoes, papayas, litchis and strawberries at the edible-ripe stage. These favourable radiation-chemical results justified the development of a theoretical model mango which could be used for extrapolation of wholesomeness data from an individual fruit species to all others within the same diet class. Several mathematical models of varying orders of sophistication were evolved. In all of them, it was assumed that the radiant energy entering the system reacted solely with water. The extent of the reaction of the other components of the model fruit with the primary water radicals was then determined. No matter which mathematical treatment was employed, it was concluded that the only components which would undergo significant modification would be the sugars. In order to extrapolate these data from the mango to other fruits, mathematical models of three fruits containing less sugar than the mango, viz. the strawberry, tomato and lemon, were compiled. With these models, the conclusion was reached that the theoretical degradation spectra of these fruits were qualitatively similar to the degradation pattern of the model mango. Theory was again substantiated by the practical demonstration of the protective effect of the sugars in the tomato and lemon. The decrease in radiation damage was enhanced by the mutual protection of the components of the whole synthetic fruits with ultimate protection being afforded by the biological systems of the real fruits

  13. Tratamento térmico na manutenção da coloração de lichias Thermal treatment in lychee color maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Vacaro de Souza

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a influência do tratamento térmico na coloração de frutos de lichia. Os frutos foram tratados por 0; 5; 10; 15; 20 e 25 minutos de imersão em água a 45ºC, embalados em bandejas de poliestireno expandido e filme de policloreto de vinila 0,020mm e armazenados em B.O.D. a 5ºC e 90±5 % de UR. O delineamento experimental foi em esquema inteiramente casualizado, com 6 tempos de armazenamento para as análises de coloração e enzimática, e até atingirem o limite de comercialização para a análise da vida útil, sendo os frutos analisados a cada 3 dias, com 3 repetições e 10 frutos por unidade experimental. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: análise visual do escurecimento, coloração e atividade específica da polifenol oxidase e da peroxidase. Os tratamentos usando 5 e 10 minutos de imersão foram os que apresentaram melhores resultados na manutenção da coloração dos frutos e na diminuição da atividade enzimática.The objective of the work was to evaluate the influence of the thermal treatment in the color of lychee fruits. The fruits were treated by 0; 5; 10; 15; 20 and 25 minutes of water immersion at 45ºC, packaged in expanded polystyrene trays and film of polyvinyl chloride 0.020mm, stored in B.O.D. at 5ºC and 90±5 % of UR. The experimental delineation was in a completely randomized scheme, with 6 times of storage for the color and enzymatic analysis, until they reached the limit for the marketing for the analysis of the shelf-life, and the fruits were analyzed every 3 days, with 3 replications and 10 fruits in each experimental unity. The evaluated parameters were: visual analysis of the browning, color and specific activity of the polyphenol oxidase and the peroxidase. The treatments using 5 and 10 minutes of immersion showed the best results in maintaining the color of the fruits and in the reduction of the enzymatic activity.

  14. Induced mutation in tropical fruit trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-05-15

    This publication is based on an FAO/IAEA coordinated research project (CRP) and provides insight into the application of induced mutation and in vitro techniques for the improvement of well known fruit trees such as citrus, mango, avocado and papaya, as well as more exotic fruit trees such as litchi, annona, jujube, carambola, pitanga and jaboticaba. The latter are of particular importance due to their adaptation to harsh environments and their high potential as basic food and micronutrient providers for populations in poorer and more remote regions. The findings of the CRP show that application of radiation induced mutation techniques in tropical and subtropical fruit trees can contribute to improving nutritional balance food security, and to enhancing the economic status of growers.

  15. Induced mutation in tropical fruit trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-05-01

    This publication is based on an FAO/IAEA coordinated research project (CRP) and provides insight into the application of induced mutation and in vitro techniques for the improvement of well known fruit trees such as citrus, mango, avocado and papaya, as well as more exotic fruit trees such as litchi, annona, jujube, carambola, pitanga and jaboticaba. The latter are of particular importance due to their adaptation to harsh environments and their high potential as basic food and micronutrient providers for populations in poorer and more remote regions. The findings of the CRP show that application of radiation induced mutation techniques in tropical and subtropical fruit trees can contribute to improving nutritional balance food security, and to enhancing the economic status of growers

  16. Research of Litchi Diseases Diagnosis Expertsystem Based on Rbr and Cbr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bing; Liu, Liqun

    To conquer the bottleneck problems existing in the traditional rule-based reasoning diseases diagnosis system, such as low reasoning efficiency and lack of flexibility, etc.. It researched the integrated case-based reasoning (CBR) and rule-based reasoning (RBR) technology, and put forward a litchi diseases diagnosis expert system (LDDES) with integrated reasoning method. The method use data mining and knowledge obtaining technology to establish knowledge base and case library. It adopt rules to instruct the retrieval and matching for CBR, and use association rule and decision trees algorithm to calculate case similarity.The experiment shows that the method can increase the system's flexibility and reasoning ability, and improve the accuracy of litchi diseases diagnosis.

  17. Uso de tratamento hidrotérmico e ácido clorídrico na qualidade de lichia 'Bengal' Use of hydrothermal and acid treatment in the quality of litchi 'Bengal'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Toews Doll Hojo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Um dos maiores problemas na pós-colheita da lichia é o escurecimento do pericarpo, cuja cor vermelha se torna totalmente escurecida em 48 horas, sob 25 ºC. Tecnologias que possam controlar o escurecimento do pericarpo são valiosas, e é o foco principal da pesquisa na área de pós-colheita. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a vida útil de lichias 'Bengal', armazenadas a 20 ºC e 82 %UR após o tratamento hidrotérmico e/ou imersão em solução de HCl. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 4 x 7, com 3 repetições, onde o primeiro fator correspondeu aos tratamentos: testemunha; imersão em HCl a 1%, por 6 minutos; tratamento hidrotérmico, com imersão em água a 52 ºC por 1 minuto, seguido de resfriamento em água a 10 ºC, por 6 minutos; e tratamento hidrotérmico, seguido de resfriamento em HCl a 1%, a 10 ºC, por 6 minutos. O segundo fator foram os períodos de armazenamento: 0; 1; 2; 3;6; 9 e 12 dias. A combinação entre tratamento hidrotérmico (52 ºC por 1 minuto e resfriamento em HCl a 1% permite conservar a coloração das lichias 'Bengal' por até dois dias. Mesmo assim há escurecimento em 25% da superfície.One of the biggest problems in postharvest litchi pericarp browning is, the color red becomes totally dark in 48 hours at 25 º C. Technologies that can control the browning of the pericarp are valuable, and is the main focus of research in post-harvest. The aim of this study was to evaluate the shelf life of lychee 'Bengal', stored at 20 ° C and 82% RH after the hydrothermal treatment and/or immersion in HCl solution. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 4 x 7, with three replications, where the first factor was the treatment: control, immersion in HCl 1%, for 6 minutes; hydrothermal treatment, soaking in water at 52 ° C for 1 minutes, followed by immersion in water at 10 º C for 6 minutes, and hydrothermal treatment and subsequent cooling in 1% HCl, 10

  18. 76 FR 5779 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh Litchi From the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ...] Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh Litchi From the Republic of.... ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: We are advising the public that we have prepared a pest risk analysis that... are making the pest risk analysis available to the public for review and comment. DATES: We will...

  19. 77 FR 13260 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Litchi, Longan, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ...] Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Litchi, Longan, and Rambutan From... we have prepared a pest risk analysis that evaluates the risks associated with the importation into... the pest risk analysis available to the public for review and comment. DATES: We will consider all...

  20. 76 FR 81469 - Notice of Decision to Authorize Importation of Fresh Litchi From the Republic of South Africa...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... Republic of South Africa into the continental United States. Based on the findings in a pest risk analysis... importation of commodities that, based on the findings of a pest risk analysis (PRA), can be safely imported... risks of introducing or disseminating plant pests or noxious weeds via the importation of litchi from...

  1. Radiation preservation and test marketing of fruits and vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhicheng, Xu; Dong, Cai; Fuying, He; Deyao, Zhao

    1993-07-01

    To develop the technology for radiation preservation of fruits and vegetables, many varieties of fruits and vegetables had been researched. Results showed that the low dose irradiation is useful to preservation of fruits and vegetables. On the besis of research, 1900 tons garlic, 950 tons onion, 500 tons potatoes, 710 tons apples and 1000 kg litchi had been irradiated in commercial scale. The quality control standards of irradiated garlic, onion and potato had been established and used for commercial scale irradiation. In order to collect consumers in store response to irradiated foods, a special counter was set up for selling irradiated apples in Nan Jing Road (W), Shanghai. 634 sheets of consumer in-store respense investigation forms have been returned and analysed. These results showed that when consumer understands the benefit of irradiation preservation such as higher quality, greater safety, longer shelf-live, wide product availability, or good prices for value, consumer would willingly buy irradiated food.

  2. Radiation preservation and test marketing of fruits and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zhicheng; Cai Dong; He Fuying; Zhao Deyao

    1993-01-01

    To develop the technology for radiation preservation of fruits and vegetables, many varieties of fruits and vegetables had been researched. Results showed that low dose irradiation is useful to preserve fruits and vegetables. On the basis of research, 1900 tons of garlic, 950 tons onion, 500 tons potatoes, 710 tons apples and 1000 kg litchi had been irradiated on a commercial scale. The quality control standards of irradiated garlic, onion and potato had been established and used for commercial scale irradiation. In order to collect consumers in-store response to irradiated foods, a special counter was set up for selling irradiated apples in Nan Jing Road (W), Shanghai. 634 sheets of consumer in-store response investigation forms have been returned and analysed. These results showed that when consumer understands the benefit of irradiation preservation such as higher quality, greater safety, longer shelf-life, wide product availability, or good prices for value, consumer would willingly buy irradiated food. (author)

  3. Tipo de porta-enxerto e anelamento de ramos no pegamento da enxertia em lichieira (Litchi chinensis Sonn. Evaluation of the performance of grafting in different rootstocks and girdling of litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTONIO BALDO GERALDO MARTINS

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado em condições de ripado, com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho da enxertia a inglês simples, em dois tipos de porta-enxerto (pé-franco e alporquia, em combinação com três tipos de anelamento do ramo (sem anelamento, e ramos anelados duas e quatro semanas antes da retirada do garfo, em lichia. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com seis tratamentos e três repetições. Foi somente observada diferença significativa para o tipo pé-franco, que revelou os melhores resultados.This research work was carried out in the experimental area to evaluate the performance of grafting technique in two types of rootstocks (air layering and seedling with three types of girdling (without girdling and girdling shoot, two and four weeks before grafts retreat in litchi. The experimental design was a complete randomized with six treatments and three replications. There was statistical difference for the type of rootstocks that showed better results.

  4. Morphological characterization and gene expression profiling during bud development in a tropical perennial, Litchi chinensis Sonn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huifeng Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Tropical evergreen perennials undergo recurrent flush growth, and their terminal buds alternate between growth and dormancy. In sharp contrast to intensive studies on bud development in temperate deciduous trees, there is little information about bud development regulation in tropical trees. In this study, litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn. was used as a model tropical perennial for morphological characterization and transcriptomic analysis of bud development. Litchi buds are naked with apical meristem embraced by rudimentary leaves, which are brown at dormant stage (Stage I. They swell and turn greenish as buds break (Stage II, and as growth accelerates, the rudimentary leaves elongate and open exposing the inner leaf primodia. With the outgrowth of the needle-like leaflets, bud growth reaches a maximum (Stage III. When leaflets expand, bud growth cease with the abortion of the rudimentary leaves at upper positions (Stage IV. Then buds turn brown and reenter dormant status. Budbreak occurs again when new leaves become hard green. Buds at four stages (Stage I to IV were collected for respiration measurements and in-depth RNA sequencing. Respiration rate was lowest at Stage I and highest at Stage II, decreasing towards growth cessation. RNA sequencing obtained over 5 Gb data from each of the bud samples and de novo assembly generated a total of 59999 unigenes, 40119 of which were annotated. Pair-wise comparison of gene expression between stages, gene profiling across stages, GO/KEGG enrichment analysis, and the expression patterns of 17 major genes highlighted by principal component (PC analysis displayed significant changes in stress resistance, hormone signal pathways, circadian rhythm, photosynthesis, cell division, carbohydrate metabolism, programmed cell death during bud development, which might be under epigenetic control involving chromatin methylation. The qPCR results of 8 selected unigenes with high PC scores agreed with the RPKM values

  5. 7 CFR 319.56-47 - Certain fruits from Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... indica), mangosteen (Garcinia mangoestana L.), pineapple (Ananas comosus), and rambutan (Nephelium...) Growing conditions. Litchi, longan, mango, mangosteen, pineapple, and rambutan must be grown in a... Thailand. (b) Treatment. Litchi, longan, mango, mangosteen, pineapple, and rambutan must be treated for...

  6. Efficacy of irradiation vs thermal methods as quarantine treatments for tropical fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moy, J.H.

    1993-01-01

    Ionizing radiation can be effectively applied to fruits and vegetables for several purposes. The most feasible and potentially useful application is probably for disinfestation as a quarantine treatment. All stages of a fruit fly will become sterile upon being irradiated at a minimum dose of 0.15 kGy, the dose level approved by the USDA in January 1989 for treating Hawaiian papayas as a quarantine procedure. Research on irradiation of several tropical fruits such as papayas, mangoes, lychees showed that the chemical, sensory and nutrient qualities of these fruits were well retained at 1.0 kGy, and the fruits would ripen normally or slightly delayed. Irradiation studies have proved the efficacy of the process to disinfest tropical fruits of fruit flies. Market test of irradiated Hawaiian papayas in 1987 showed that consumers preferred irradiated papayas over hot water treated papayas by 11 to 1. Thus the only hurdle to overcome in using irradiation for tropical fruits is to convince the consumers that irradiated fruits are wholesome and safe for human consumption, which has been proven with scientific data obtained during the past three decades, and further proven with the marketing of irradiated fruits in the U.S.A. since early 1992. (author)

  7. Adsorption of malachite green by magnetic litchi pericarps: A response surface methodology investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hao; Qi, Jinqiu; Jiang, Ruixue; Gao, Yan; Li, Xiaochen

    2015-10-01

    In this work, we synthesized a novel magnetic adsorbent containing litchi pericarps, denoted as MLP, for the removal of malachite green (MG) from solution. The factors influencing MG adsorption, such as contact time, adsorbent dosage, and initial dye concentration, were optimized using the Box-Behnken response surface methodology (RSM). The adsorption isotherms as well as the kinetics and thermodynamics of the adsorption of MG onto MLP are discussed. The results showed that MLP has a maximum adsorption efficiency of 99.5% when the temperature, pH, contact time, adsorbent dosage, and initial MG concentration were optimally set as 25 °C, 6.0, 66.69 min, 5.14 g/L, and 150 mg/L, respectively. The best model to describe this process is the Langmuir isotherm, with the maximum adsorption capacity being 70.42 mg/g. In addition, the kinetics of MG adsorption onto MLP followed a pseudo-second-order model; moreover, thermodynamic analysis suggested that MG adsorption onto MLP is spontaneous and endothermic. Finally, it was found that the new magnetic adsorbent can be separated easily and rapidly from mixed solutions in the presence of an external magnetic field. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Lychee Seed Saponins Improve Cognitive Function and Prevent Neuronal Injury via Inhibiting Neuronal Apoptosis in a Rat Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuling Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Lychee seed is a traditional Chinese medicine and possesses many activities, including hypoglycemia, liver protection, antioxidation, antivirus, and antitumor. However, its effect on neuroprotection is still unclear. The present study investigated the effects of lychee seed saponins (LSS on neuroprotection and associated mechanisms. We established a rat model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD by injecting Aβ25–35 into the lateral ventricle of rats and evaluated the effect of LSS on spatial learning and memory ability via the Morris water maze. Neuronal apoptosis was analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin stain and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (Tdt-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling analysis, and mRNA expression of caspase-3 and protein expressions of Bax and Bcl-2 by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. The results showed that LSS remarkably improved cognitive function and alleviated neuronal injury by inhibiting apoptosis in the hippocampus of AD rats. Furthermore, the mRNA expression of caspase-3 and the protein expression of Bax were downregulated, while the protein expression of Bcl-2 and the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax were increased by LSS. We demonstrate that LSS significantly improves cognitive function and prevent neuronal injury in the AD rats via regulation of the apoptosis pathway. Therefore, LSS may be developed as a nutritional supplement and sold as a drug for AD prevention and/or treatment.

  9. Radiation preservation of subtropical fruits in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodrick, H.T.; Thomas, A.C.

    1978-01-01

    Investigations on the radiation treatment of subtropical fruits were conducted over several seasons at the Atomic Energy Board in conjunction with the Citrus and Subtropical Fruit Research Institute, Nelspruit. In the case of mangoes irradiation, in combination with hot-water or heated-fungicide treatment, by controlling fungal and insect attack, makes possible the transport of fruits to Europe by sea and, with the additional advantage od delayed ripening, a marked improvement in national distribution is also achieved. A commercial feasibility study for mango processing is summarized and a pilot-plant operation for mangoes is also described. Promising results have also been obtained with respect to disease control and delayed senescence in papayas, and similar benefits to those described for mangoes can be achieved under local-market and export conditions. In the case of litchis, although work is in an early stage, effective disease control has been obtained with irradiation treatment. With regard to avocados, a greatly reduced dose with a mild heat treatment produced delayed ripening without significant adverse effects, and resulted in a shelf-life extension of several days. The results given in the report show that the irradiation of subtropical fruits holds considerable promise in terms of reduced losses, improved fruit quality, better distribution and large-scale exports. With the possibility of international clearances within the foreseeable future, commercialization of the process should follow in due course. (author)

  10. Heavy Metal Contents and Physical Parameters of Aegiceras corniculatum, Brassica juncea, and Litchi chinensis Honeys from Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandita Sarker

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to determine the heavy metal levels and the physicochemical parameters (pH, electrical conductivity (EC, and ash, moisture, and total sugar content of honeys from Bangladesh. Three different floral honeys were investigated, namely, khalsi (Aegiceras corniculatum, mustard (Brassica juncea, and litchi (Litchi chinensis honeys. The heavy metals in the honeys were determined by using a High Temperature Dry Oxidation method followed by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. The mean pH, EC, and ash, moisture, and total sugar contents of the investigated honeys were 3.6, 0.51 mS/cm, 0.18%, 18.83%, and 68.30%, respectively. Iron was the most abundant among all the investigated heavy metals, ranging from 13.51 to 15.44 mg/kg. The mean concentrations of Mn and Zn in the investigated honeys were 0.28 mg/kg and 2.99 mg/kg, respectively. Cd was below the detection limit, and lead was found in some honey samples, but their contents were below the recommended Maximum Acceptable Level. Cr was also found in all of the samples, but its concentration was within the limit. The physicochemical analysis of the honey samples yielded levels within the limits set by the international honey legislation, indicating that the honey samples were of good quality and had acceptable values for maturity, purity, and freshness.

  11. Current status of the South African research program on the radiation preservation of subtropical fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, A.C.; Brodrick, H.T.

    1977-05-01

    In July 1976, the Atomic Energy Board (AEB) entered into a Research Agreement with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This was done at the invitation of the Agency, as part of its function of coordinating research programs and assisting in broadening the contact of scientific investigators with similar interests. The relevant AEB research project is that involving radiation preservation of subtropical fruits, which forms part of the IAEA's coordinated program on Technological and Economic Feasibility of Food Irradiation. The report describes the results of several season's research carried out at the AEB in conjunction with the Citrus and Subtropical Fruit Research Institute, Nelspruit, on the radiation treatment of subtropical fruits. A commercial feasibility study for mango processing is summarised and plans for pilot-plant operation are described. Equally promising results have been obtained with respect to disease control and delayed senescence in papayas. Disease in litchis was also markedly reduced by irradiation treatment, but work on this fruit is still at an early stage. In the case of avocados, a greatly reduced dose, with a mild heat treatment, produced delayed ripening without significant adverse effects, and results in a shelf-life extention of about six days. The results obtained show that the irradiation of subtropical fruits holds considerable promise in terms of reduced losses, better fruit quality, improved distribution and large-scale exports [af

  12. fruit juice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Femi Olorunniji

    2013-08-31

    Aug 31, 2013 ... The soursop juice without treatment (T1) was used as the control while others in .... The fruits were washed carefully under flowing tap water, peeled, cut .... hygiene, pre and post harvest wounds on processed fruits, and the ...

  13. Two LcbHLH transcription factors interacting with LcMYB1 in regulating late structural genes of anthocyanin biosynthesis in Nicotiana and Litchi chinensis during anthocyanin accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biao eLai

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanin biosynthesis requires the MYB-bHLH-WD40 protein complex to activate the late biosynthetic genes. LcMYB1 was thought to act as key regulator in anthocyanin biosynthesis of litchi. However, basic helix-loop-helix proteins (bHLHs as partners have not been identified yet. The present study describes the functional characterization of three litchi bHLH candidate anthocyanin regulators, LcbHLH1, LcbHLH2 and LcbHLH3. Although these three litchi bHLHs phylogenetically clustered with bHLH proteins involved in anthcoyanin biosynthesis in other plant, only LcbHLH1 and LcbHLH3 were found to localize in the nucleus and physically interact with LcMYB1. The transcription levels of all these bHLHs were not coordinated with anthocyanin accumulation in different tissues and during development. However, when co-infiltrated with LcMYB1, both LcbHLH1 and LcbHLH3 enhanced anthocyanin accumulation in tobacco leaves with LcbHLH3 being the best inducer. Significant accumulation of anthocyanins in leaves transformed with the combination of LcMYB1 and LcbHLH3 were noticed, And this was associated with the up-regulation of two tobacco endogenous bHLH regulators, NtAn1a and NtAn1b, and late structural genes, like NtDFR and NtANS. Significant activity of the ANS promoter was observed in transient expression assays either with LcMYB1-LcbHLH1 or LcMYB1-LcbHLH3, while only minute activity was detected after transformation with only LcMYB1. In contrast, no activity was measured after induction with the combination of LcbHLH2 and LcMYB1. Higher DFR expression was also oberseved in paralleling with higher anthocyanins in co-transformed lines. LcbHLH1 and LcbHLH3 are essential partner of LcMYB1 in regulating the anthocyanin production in tobacco and probably also in litchi. The LcMYB1-LcbHLH complex enhanced anthocyanin accumulation may associate with activating the transcription of DFR and ANS.

  14. Fruit irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Food spoilage is a common problem when marketing agricultural products. Promising results have already been obtained on a number of food irradiating applications. A process is described in this paper where irradiation of sub-tropical fruits, especially mangoes and papayas, combined with conventional heat treatment results in effective insect and fungal control, delays ripening and greatly improves the quality of fruit at both export and internal markets

  15. Grupos de insetos visitantes florais da lichieira (Litchi chinensis Sonn. em Jaboticabal, estado de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Carlos Fernandes Martins

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste estudo foram identificar grupos de insetos visitantes de flores da lichieira (Litchi chinensis Sonn., determinar horários de maior visitação, analisar a influência da altura das inflorescências na ocorrência desses visitantes florais e verificar se a incidência de sol beneficia sua presença. O experimento foi desenvolvido na Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias da Universidade Estadual Paulista FCAV/UNESP. As observações ocorreram em agosto e setembro de 2008, totalizando cinco em todo o período. Foram estabelecidos dois períodos diários de observação das 10:00 às 12:00 h e 16:00 às 18:00 h, sendo observado quatro pontos na área. Os dados dos visitantes florais observados para as diferentes horas, alturas e radiação solar foram submetidos à análise de variância e as médias foram comparadas pelo teste de Tukey 5%. Foram observadas seis ordens de insetos: Hymenoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera e Neuroptera. O horário das 10:00 às 12:00 horas apresentou- se como mais propício para observação de insetos visitantes. Houve diferença nas observações das alturas de 0 a 0.5 e 1.6 m e 2.0 e também uma diferença nas observações de insetos visitantes florais da lichieira quando estas se encontravam em face sombra ou face sol na árvore.

  16. Improved growth of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus as well as Increased antioxidant activity by biotransforming litchi pericarp polysaccharide with Aspergillus awamori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sen; Wen, Lingrong; Yang, Bao; Jiang, Guoxiang; Shi, John; Chen, Feng; Jiang, Yueming

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to increase the bioactivity of litchi pericarp polysaccharides (LPPs) biotransformed by Aspergillus awamori. Compared to the non-A. awamori-fermented LPP, the growth effects of A. awamori-fermented LPP on Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus were four and two times higher after 3 days of fermentation, respectively. Increased 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and DNA protection activity of litchi pericarp polysaccharides were also achieved after A. awamori fermentation. Moreover, the relative content of glucose and arabinose in LPP after fermentation decreased from 58.82% to 22.60% and from 18.82% to 10.09%, respectively, with a concomitant increase in the relative contents of galactose, rhamnose, xylose, and mannose. Furthermore, lower molecular weight polysaccharides were obtained after A. awamori fermentation. It can be concluded that A. awamori was effective in biotransforming LPP into a bioactive mixture with lower molecular weight polysaccharides and higher antioxidant activity and relative galactose content.

  17. Improved Growth of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus as well as Increased Antioxidant Activity by Biotransforming Litchi Pericarp Polysaccharide with Aspergillus awamori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to increase the bioactivity of litchi pericarp polysaccharides (LPPs biotransformed by Aspergillus awamori. Compared to the non-A. awamori-fermented LPP, the growth effects of A. awamori-fermented LPP on Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus were four and two times higher after 3 days of fermentation, respectively. Increased 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and DNA protection activity of litchi pericarp polysaccharides were also achieved after A. awamori fermentation. Moreover, the relative content of glucose and arabinose in LPP after fermentation decreased from 58.82% to 22.60% and from 18.82% to 10.09%, respectively, with a concomitant increase in the relative contents of galactose, rhamnose, xylose, and mannose. Furthermore, lower molecular weight polysaccharides were obtained after A. awamori fermentation. It can be concluded that A. awamori was effective in biotransforming LPP into a bioactive mixture with lower molecular weight polysaccharides and higher antioxidant activity and relative galactose content.

  18. A comparative study on the effect of conventional thermal pasteurisation, microwave and ultrasound treatments on the antioxidant activity of five fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, Sangeeta; Mahnot, Nikhil Kumar; Mahanta, Charu Lata

    2016-06-01

    A comparative study on the effect of conventional thermal pasteurisation, microwave and ultrasound treatments on the phytochemical and antioxidant activities of juices from carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.), black jamun (Syzygium cumuni L.Skeels.), watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var lanatus), pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr) and litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) was carried out. Depending on the type of fruit sample and treatment, increase or decrease in phytochemical values was observed. Overall, sonication had a positive effect on the total flavonoid content in all the juice samples followed by microwave treatment with exceptions in some cases. High-performance liquid chromatography study showed the presence of different phenolic acids depending on the sample type. The phenolic acids in some processed carambola juice samples showed decrease or complete destruction, while in some cases, an increase or appearance of newer phenolic acid originally not detected in the fresh juice was observed as seen in conventional thermal pasteurisation, microwaved at 600 W and sonicated juices. Both microwaved and sonicated samples were found to have positive effect on the phenolic content and antioxidant activity with exceptions in some cases. Therefore, microwave and sonication treatment could be used in place of thermal pasteurisation depending on the sample requirements. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Assessing the proposed pre-last glacial maximum human occupation of North America at Coats-Hines-Litchy, Tennessee, and other sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tune, Jesse W.; Waters, Michael R.; Schmalle, Kayla A.; DeSantis, Larisa R. G.; Kamenov, George D.

    2018-04-01

    Genomic studies indicate that the first Pleistocene foragers who entered North America diverged from ancestral populations in Beringia sometime after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM); however, several archaeological sites in North America have been proposed to predate the LGM. We present the results of our excavation and analysis of one such site, Coats-Hines-Litchy, Tennessee, which show that this site is a paleontological locality containing a geofact assemblage that pre-dates the LGM. Other sites in North America that purportedly predate the LGM occur in geomorphic contexts that are also conducive to the formation of geofact assemblages. As such, we propose that the reported artifacts from these sites were created by natural processes. No sites in North America currently provide credible evidence of a pre-LGM occupation.

  20. Enraizamento de estacas semilenhosas de lichieira utilizando ácido indolbutírico Rooting of semi-hardwood litchi cuttings using indolbutiric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Miranda Carvalho

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o enraizamento de estacas semilenhosas de lichieira ( Litchi chinensis Sonn. da cultivar Bengal, empregando ácido indolbutírico (AIB e sistema de nebulização intermitente. As estacas apicais foram coletadas nos meses de outubro (Primavera, janeiro (Verão e abril (Outono, acondicionadas adequadamente e transferidas para uma estufa com nebulização intermitente, onde receberam as aplicações de : 0; 1.000; 2.000; 3.000 e 4.000 mg L-1 de AIB, com imersão da base das estacas, durante 10 segundos, e de 200 mg L-1 de AIB, com imersão das bases por 24 horas, em aeração. Em seguida, foram colocadas para enraizar em substrato de vermiculita, com casca de arroz carbonizada, na proporção de 1:1. Após 100 dias, foram obtidos os dados referentes à porcentagem de estacas vivas com folhas, porcentagem de estacas enraizadas por parcela, comprimento médio de raiz por estaca enraizada (cm, número médio de raízes formadas por estaca enraizada, massa média da matéria fresca das raízes (g, massa média da matéria seca das raízes(g. Pelos resultados, concluiu-se que não há necessidade da aplicação do AIB para o enraizamento de estacas de lichieira, cultivar Bengal, e que a melhor época de coleta das mesmas é o verão.The objective of the work was to study the rooting of semi-hardwood litchi cuttings (Litchi chinensis Sonn. of Bengal cultivar using indolbutiric acid (IBA in an intermittent nebulization system. The apical cuttings were collected in October (spring in Brazil, January (summer and April (fall. The cuttings were properly arranged and transferred to greenhouse with intermittent mist and treated with 0, 1000, 2000, 3000 and 4000 mg L-1 indolbutiric acid applications, having the cuttings bases been immersed during 10 seconds and with 200 mg L-1 indolbutiric acid application, having the bases been immersed for 24 hours in aeration. They were put to rooting in vermiculite substratum with 1

  1. Use of irradiation in combination with preservation techniques to extend the shelf-life of tropical fruits and their products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noomhorm, A.; Ilangantileke, S.G.; Upadhyay, I.P.; Karki, D.B.; Apintanapong, M.

    1998-01-01

    Gamma irradiation in combination with other treatment processes was investigated with a view to extending the shelf-life of some tropical fruits in fresh and processed conditions. A low dose of irradiation (0.6 kGy) combined with hot water treatment (at 55 deg. C for 20 min) extended the shelf-life of fresh mangoes from 15 to 32 days at 20 deg. C storage. The shelf-life of fresh lychees was extended to 16 days by irradiation (1 kGy) and storage at 5 deg. C through reducing the rotting and preserving the fruit colour. A shelf-life of up to 30 days was obtained by a combination of hot benomyl dipping of the lychess (at 55 deg. C for 2 min) and polyethylene packaging, whereas modified atmosphere storage in CO 2 did not control pericarp browning. Irradiation as a means of preservation was investigated in processed fruits such as semi-dried mangoes and longans, and mango puree. A minimum dose of 2 kGy extended the shelf-life of the semi-dried mangoes and longans for up to 75 days when stored at 14 deg. C, without mould growth, whereas these fruits deteriorated at 30 deg. C storage, as indicated by discoloration and a deterioration in the flavour. On the other hand, doses of up to 4 kGy and storage at a low temperature (5 deg. C) were necessary to maintain microorganism growth (as determined by the aerobic plate count) at the lowest level; no microorganisms were observed at 6 kGy and higher. The chemical attributes of the puree tended to remain unaffected by the irradiation treatment but were more sensitive to the storage duration and conditions. The puree was preserved for as long as 60 days at 5 deg. C, without compromising the keeping quality. (author)

  2. Fruit development and ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Graham B; Østergaard, Lars; Chapman, Natalie H; Knapp, Sandra; Martin, Cathie

    2013-01-01

    Fruiting structures in the angiosperms range from completely dry to highly fleshy organs and provide many of our major crop products, including grains. In the model plant Arabidopsis, which has dry fruits, a high-level regulatory network of transcription factors controlling fruit development has been revealed. Studies on rare nonripening mutations in tomato, a model for fleshy fruits, have provided new insights into the networks responsible for the control of ripening. It is apparent that there are strong similarities between dry and fleshy fruits in the molecular circuits governing development and maturation. Translation of information from tomato to other fleshy-fruited species indicates that regulatory networks are conserved across a wide spectrum of angiosperm fruit morphologies. Fruits are an essential part of the human diet, and recent developments in the sequencing of angiosperm genomes have provided the foundation for a step change in crop improvement through the understanding and harnessing of genome-wide genetic and epigenetic variation.

  3. Fruit fly eradication: Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Fruit exports account for 9% of Argentina's total agricultural exports and generate annually close to $450 million. This could be increased but for fruit flies that cause damage equivalent to 15% to 20% of present production value of fruit and also deny export access to countries imposing quarantine barriers. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, to eradicate the Mediterranean fruit fly using the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). (IAEA)

  4. Marketing Novel Fruit Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ’T Riet, Van Jonathan; Onwezen, M.C.; Bartels, Jos; Lans, Van Der I.A.; Kraszewska, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the influence of four different marketing claims and price information on consumers’ product choices for novel fruits and novel fruit products, using a choice experiment. In total, 1,652 people in Greece (n = 400), the Netherlands (n = 419), Poland (n =

  5. Brave new fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurter, N.

    1982-01-01

    Gamma rays are being used for artificially inducing mutations in deciduous fruits, so that improvements in characteristics and quality can be developed and new fruit cultivars sent out to compete on international markets. Progress in this field of research at Stellenbosch is described

  6. Prunus fruit juices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toydemir, Gamze; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.; Capanoglu, Esra

    2017-01-01

    The juice drinks obtained from Prunus fruit species, apricot (Prunus armeniaca), cherry (sweet cherry (Prunus avium) and sour cherry (Prunus cerasus)), peach (Prunus persica), and plum (Prunus domestica), are gaining increasing interest as a convenient alternative to fresh fruits. The conventional

  7. An inventory of recent innovations in fruit and fruit products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zajac, J.; Lans, van der I.A.

    2009-01-01

    The goals of this study were to make an inventory of recent and ongoing fruit and fruit product innovations, to assess what novelty or improvement they offer, and whether consumers could identify and/or recognise them. Researchers from 11 European countries submitted 386 examples of fruit and fruit

  8. Fruits and vegetables (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A healthy diet includes adding vegetables and fruit every day. Vegetables like broccoli, green beans, leafy greens, zucchini, cauliflower, cabbage, carrots, and tomatoes are low in calories and high in fiber, vitamins, and minerals. ...

  9. (Forssk) Fiori Fruits

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This fruit-producing deciduous shrub or small tree is prevalent in African and Southeast. Asian countries, with ... Gezira State, Sudan and then placed in plastic bags and ..... Eastern Africa. Rome: FAO ... International. Washington, DC, USA 1995.

  10. Hydroalcohol Fruit Peel Extract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L) fruit peel using 80 % ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model in rats. Methods: Male ... Conclusion: The study shows indicates the antiulcer properties of the methanol extracts of north white ... experimentation, Cimetidine was obtained from.

  11. Mediterranean fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Medfly, Ceratitis capitata), widespread in most tropical and subtropical area, lays eggs under the skin of fruit. Its larvae feed on the pulp, causing tremendous losses for agriculture. Insecticides, besides being hazardous for the environment, have proven too slow for effective pest control (eradication in 20 generations). This training film demonstrates in 7 detailed steps how the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) can lead to elimination of the insect population within 6 generations. It shows different stages of breeding and describes the sterilization of pupae by exposure to gamma rays provided by a cobalt 60 source

  12. Mediterranean fruit fly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-12-31

    The Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Medfly, Ceratitis capitata), widespread in most tropical and subtropical area, lays eggs under the skin of fruit. Its larvae feed on the pulp, causing tremendous losses for agriculture. Insecticides, besides being hazardous for the environment, have proven too slow for effective pest control (eradication in 20 generations). This training film demonstrates in 7 detailed steps how the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) can lead to elimination of the insect population within 6 generations. It shows different stages of breeding and describes the sterilization of pupae by exposure to gamma rays provided by a cobalt 60 source

  13. Impact of Fruit Smoothies on Adolescent Fruit Consumption at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Dylan; Price, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    We examine the impact of serving fruit smoothies during school breakfast on fruit consumption among middle school and high school students. We draw on observational plate-waste data over a 10-week period during which fruit smoothies were introduced for breakfast at two Utah schools. Our total sample includes 2,760 student-day observations. We find…

  14. Focus on Fruits: 10 Tips to Eat More Fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lunch, pack a tangerine, banana, or grapes to eat or choose fruits from a salad bar. Individual containers of fruits like peaches or applesauce are easy to carry and convenient for lunch. 7 Enjoy fruit at dinner, too At dinner, add crushed pineapple to coleslaw ...

  15. Integrated management of fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This film introduces species of fruit-flies and their reproduction cycle and suggests various methods for controlling insect pests (insect traps, treatment of infested fruits, chemical, legal, and biological control -sterile male technique

  16. Emerging fruit crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundreds of fruit species with commercial potential are currently in a status of low economic importance. Some, such as quince (Cydonia oblonga L.), pomegranate (Punica granatum L.), and figs (Ficus carica L.) , have been cultivated for thousands of years. Others have only been locally collected an...

  17. Fruit antioxidants during vinegar processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakir, Sena; Toydemir, Gamze; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Beekwilder, Jules; Capanoglu, Esra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vinegars based on fruit juices could conserve part of the health-associated compounds present in the fruits. However, in general very limited knowledge exists on the consequences of vinegar-making on different antioxidant compounds from fruit. In this study vinegars derived from apple

  18. (Solanum aethiopicum L.) fruits

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eggplant is grown in almost every region and is one of the most traded indigenous vegetables in local markets (Chadha, 2006). African eggplant fruits have relatively higher carbohydrate. (7.2 g/100g), fibers (2.0g/100g), calcium (28 mg/100g), iron (1.5 mg/100g) and considerable amount of beta carotene (0.35 mg/100g),.

  19. Biospeckle Supported Fruit Bruise Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Adilson M. Enes; Juliana A. Fracarolli; Inácio M. Dal Fabbro; Silvestre Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    This research work proposed a study of fruit bruise detection by means of a biospeckle method, selecting the papaya fruit (Carica papaya) as testing body. Papaya is recognized as a fruit of outstanding nutritional qualities, showing high vitamin A content, calcium, carbohydrates, exhibiting high popularity all over the world, considering consumption and acceptability. The commercialization of papaya faces special problems which are associated to bruise generation during harvesting, packing an...

  20. Fruits of neutron research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, C.

    1994-01-01

    Car windshields that don't break during accidents and jets that fly longer without making a refueling stop. Compact discs, credit cards, and pocket calculators. Refrigerator magnets and automatic car window openers. Beach shoes, food packaging, and bulletproof vests made of tough plastics. The quality and range of consumer products have improved steadily since the 1970s. One of the reasons: neutron research. Industries, employing neutron scattering techniques, to study materials properties, to act as diagnostics in tracing system performance, or as sources for radioactive isotopes used in medical fields for diagnostics or treatment, have all benefited from the fruits of advanced work with neutron sources

  1. Fruit photosynthesis in Satsuma mandarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiratsuka, Shin; Suzuki, Mayu; Nishimura, Hiroshi; Nada, Kazuyoshi

    2015-12-01

    To clarify detailed characteristics of fruit photosynthesis, possible gas exchange pathway and photosynthetic response to different environments were investigated in Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu). About 300 mm(-2) stomata were present on fruit surface during young stages (∼10-30 mm diameter fruit) and each stoma increased in size until approximately 88 days after full bloom (DAFB), while the stomata collapsed steadily thereafter; more than 50% stomata deformed at 153 DAFB. The transpiration rate of the fruit appeared to match with stoma development and its intactness rather than the density. Gross photosynthetic rate of the rind increased gradually with increasing CO2 up to 500 ppm but decreased at higher concentrations, which may resemble C4 photosynthesis. In contrast, leaf photosynthesis increased constantly with CO2 increment. Although both fruit and leaf photosynthesis were accelerated by rising photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), fruit photosynthesis was greater under considerably lower PPFD from 13.5 to 68 μmolm(-2)s(-1). Thus, Satsuma mandarin fruit appears to incorporate CO2 through fully developed and non-collapsed stomata, and subject it to fruit photosynthesis, which may be characterized as intermediate status among C3, C4 and shade plant photosynthesis. The device of fruit photosynthesis may develop differently from its leaf to capture CO2 efficiently. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Mass rearing methods for fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez Gordillo, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    The most common rearing methods used for mass rearing of fruit flies, with emphasis on those of economic importance in Mexico such as Anastrepha ludens (the Mexican fruit fly). Anastrepha obliqua (the mango and plum fruit fly) and the exotic fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (the Mediterranean fruit fly) are described here. (author)

  3. In vitro and cellular activities of the selected fruits residues for skin aging treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourith, Nattaya; Kanlayavattanakul, Mayuree; Chaikul, Puxvadee; Chansriniyom, Chaisak; Bunwatcharaphansakun, Pichaporn

    2017-05-01

    Peel extracts of litchi and rambutan, and that of tamarind seed coat were investigated in relation to their utility in skin-aging treatments. Standardized extracts of tamarind were significantly (p rambutan (IC50 = 29.57 ± 0.30 and 39.49 ± 0.52 μg/ml, respectively) and the quercetin standard (IC50 = 31.88 ± 0.15 μg/ml). Litchi extract proved significantly (p rambutan (31.08 ± 0.38% and 53.99 ± 6.18%). All extracts were safe to human skin fibroblasts and inhibit MMP-2, with litchi extract showing significantly (p < 0.01) enhanced inhibition over the standard, vitamin C (23.75 ± 2.74% and 10.42 ± 5.91% at 0.05 mg/ml, respectively). Extracts suppress melanin production in B16F10 melanoma cells through inhibition of tyrosinase and TRP-2, with litchi extract being the most potent, even more so than kojic acid (standard). These results highlight the potential for adding value to agro-industrial waste, as the basis for the sustainable production of innovative, safe, anti-aging cosmetic products.

  4. Foliar fertilization as an alternative to hand thinning fruit in chlorate treated Dimocarpus longan Lour. trees in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longan, Dimocarpus longan Lour, is a member of the Sapindaceae, a family that also includes lychee, and rambutan. The discovery of potassium chlorate (KClO3) induced flowering solved the problem of alternate bearing and enabled the grower to produce off-season longan. Chlorate treatments commonly i...

  5. The Hopi Fruit Tree Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyhuis, Jane

    Referring as often as possible to traditional Hopi practices and to materials readily available on the reservation, the illustrated booklet provides information on the care and maintenance of young fruit trees. An introduction to fruit trees explains the special characteristics of new trees, e.g., grafting, planting pits, and watering. The…

  6. Dry Fruits and Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Sohaib A

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Dry fruits are some of the essential foods a human body requires staying healthy. They are made after extracting water from them. These fruits are full of essential nutrients including minerals, vitamins, enzymes, fibers and protect the body from a number of different adversities. These fruits are also a source of healthy nutrition among diabetic people who are very concerned about what to eat and what not to eat. But besides their countless benefits, these dry fruits can cause a number of harms to the body and therefore, must be used in a balanced way. This article is based on healthy and unhealthy effects of dry fruits and their use in diabetes mellitus.

  7. Mandarin fruit quality: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Livnat; Yaniv, Yossi; Porat, Ron; Carmi, Nir

    2018-01-01

    During the last decade, there has been a continuous rise in consumption and global marketing of fresh, easy-to-peel mandarins, with current annual production of nearly 29 million tons. Nevertheless, most of the existing knowledge on quality traits of citrus fruit comes from research conducted on oranges and grapefruit, which are the main products for the citrus juice manufacturing industry; relatively little is yet known regarding the unique fruit quality traits of mandarins, nor about the great diversity in these traits among the various natural sub-groups and varieties of mandarins. In the present review we discuss the physiological, biochemical, and molecular factors governing key fruit quality attributes of mandarins, including fruit colour, size and shape, ease of peeling, seedlessness, flavour, and nutritional quality. Fruit colour, size, and shape contribute to external appearance; peelability and seedlessness to ease of consumption; and flavour and nutritional quality to internal quality. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Fruits and vegetables dehydration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Ita, A; Flores, G; Franco, F

    2015-01-01

    Dehydration diagrams were determined by means of Differential Thermal Analysis, DTA, and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis, TGA, curves of several simultaneous fruits and vegetables, all under the same conditions. The greater mass loss is associated with water containing in the structure of the investigated materials at low temperature. In poblano chile water is lost in a single step. The banana shows a very sharply two stages, while jicama can be observed although with a little difficulty three stages. The major mass loss occurs in the poblano chile and the lower in banana. The velocity and temperature of dehydration vary within a small range for most materials investigated, except for banana and cactus how are very different

  9. Fruits and vegetables dehydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ita, A.; Flores, G.; Franco, F.

    2015-01-01

    Dehydration diagrams were determined by means of Differential Thermal Analysis, DTA, and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis, TGA, curves of several simultaneous fruits and vegetables, all under the same conditions. The greater mass loss is associated with water containing in the structure of the investigated materials at low temperature. In poblano chile water is lost in a single step. The banana shows a very sharply two stages, while jicama can be observed although with a little difficulty three stages. The major mass loss occurs in the poblano chile and the lower in banana. The velocity and temperature of dehydration vary within a small range for most materials investigated, except for banana and cactus how are very different.

  10. Concentrações de ácido indolbutírico e tipos de substrato na propagação vegetativa de lichia Concentrations of indolebutyric acid and kinds of substrates in the vegetative propagation of litchi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronny Clayton Smarsi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, no presente trabalho, avaliar o efeito da aplicação de AIB e diferentes tipos de substratos na propagação vegetativa de lichia via técnica de alporquia. Os alporques foram realizados em ramos semilenhosos, sadios e vigorosos da cultivar Bengal, com 12 anos de idade. Os ramos foram anelados com 1,5 cm de largura, tratados com diferentes concentrações de AIB (0; 1.000; 2.000; 3.000 e 4.000 mg.L-1, distribuídos em solução com auxílio de pincel e cobertos com três diferentes tipos de substratos (plantmax®, húmus e esfagno umedecidos. Em seguida, foram envolvidos com plástico transparente e amarrados nas duas extremidades, para criar um ambiente úmido ao redor da lesão, favorável ao desenvolvimento de raízes, para a produção dos alporques. Após 84 dias, avaliaram-se o comprimento de raiz (cm, o número de raízes, expresso em notas de 0 a 5, e a porcentagem de calejamento e de enraizamento. Maior sucesso na propagação vegetativa de lichia, cultivar Bengal, via técnica de alporquia, foi obtido utilizando como substrato o plantmax® AIB entre 2.166 e 2.430 mg.L-1. A utilização de húmus combinado com concentrações entre 2.175 e 2.250 mg.L-1 de AIB também proporcionou bons resultados no desenvolvimento dos alporques. Por outro lado, menor sucesso no desenvolvimento dos alporques de lichia, cultivar Bengal, independentemente da concentração de AIB utilizada, foi obtido com esfagno.The objective of the present research was to evaluate the effect of the IBA application and different kinds of substrates in the vegetative propagation of litchi by air layering technique. The air layering had been done in semi-hardwood, healthy and vigorous branches of cultivar Bengal, in stock plants of 12 years old. The branches had been ring-girdled, 1,5 cm of width, and the exposed wound treated with different IBA concentrations (0, 1000, 2000, 3000 and 4000 mg.L-1, enclosed with three moistened substrates (plantmax®, humus

  11. In vitro and cellular activities of the selected fruits residues for skin aging treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NATTAYA LOURITH

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Peel extracts of litchi and rambutan, and that of tamarind seed coat were investigated in relation to their utility in skin-aging treatments. Standardized extracts of tamarind were significantly (p < 0.05 more efficient at O2 •- scavenging (IC50 = 27.44 ± 0.09 than those of litchi and rambutan (IC50 = 29.57 ± 0.30 and 39.49 ± 0.52 μg/ml, respectively and the quercetin standard (IC50 = 31.88 ± 0.15 μg/ml. Litchi extract proved significantly (p < 0.05 more effective for elastase and collagenase inhibition (88.29 ± 0.25% and 79.46 ± 0.92%, respectively than tamarind (35.43 ± 0.68% and 57.69 ± 5.97% or rambutan (31.08 ± 0.38% and 53.99 ± 6.18%. All extracts were safe to human skin fibroblasts and inhibit MMP-2, with litchi extract showing significantly (p < 0.01 enhanced inhibition over the standard, vitamin C (23.75 ± 2.74% and 10.42 ± 5.91% at 0.05 mg/ml, respectively. Extracts suppress melanin production in B16F10 melanoma cells through inhibition of tyrosinase and TRP-2, with litchi extract being the most potent, even more so than kojic acid (standard. These results highlight the potential for adding value to agro-industrial waste, as the basis for the sustainable production of innovative, safe, anti-aging cosmetic products.

  12. Medicinal Fruits in Holy Quran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Farhangi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fruits are one of the oldest forms of food known to man. There are many references to fruits in ancient literature. According to Quran, the fruits like grape, date, fig, olive and pomegranate are gifts and heavenly fruits of God.  Fresh and dry fruits are the natural staple food of man. They contain substantial quantities of essential nutrients in a rational proportion. Persons subsisting on this natural diet will always enjoy good health. Moreover, fresh and dry fruits are thus not only a good food but also a good medicine. Holy Quran is one of the reference books describing the importance of plants used for different ailments in various verses. There are several verses in Quran talking about the fruits in Paradise, including; date, olive, pomegranate, grape, banana and fig. What has been mentioned in the Quran is what scientists have achieved over the time, since the Quran is governed by logic. Although we do not know the reasons for many things in the Quran, we consider it as the foundation.

  13. The role of fruit colour in avian fruit selection: an objective approach

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Veronika

    2002-01-01

    To explain the prevalence of red and black fruits in fruit colour patterns, the following hypotheses were addressed, using reflectance spectra of fruits as colour assessment: 1. Birds prefer red and black fruits, or these hues are cues for food recognition in migrants or fledglings. 2. Fruit colours correlate with chemical compounds. 3. Fruit colours serve as advertisement for ripe fruits. Reflectance spectra are the most objective colour assessment currently possible. Birds show no colour pr...

  14. Evolution, Fruit Flies and Gerontology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 11. Evolution, Fruit Flies and Gerontology Evolutionary Biology Helps Unravel the Mysteries of Ageing. Amitabh Joshi. General Article Volume 1 Issue 11 November 1996 pp 51-63 ...

  15. Storage of irradiated strawberry fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popova, L.

    1977-01-01

    Pocahontas strawberries both of green house and field production have been stored at 3 deg C for 10 and 12 days, respectively, after treatment with 100000, 200000 and 300000 Roe in comparison with unirradiated fruits. No explicit correlation was observed regarding the keeping qualities of fruits, their chemical composition (dry matter, sugars, acids and vitamin C) when stored after a different gamma-ray irradiation. (S.P.)

  16. SELECTED INDIGENOUS WILD FRUITS INFLUENCE ON FEEDING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2015-01-12

    Jan 12, 2015 ... afternoon routine feeding. Data were collected on fruit choice to determine fruits preference; time spent to remove or break the fruits pericarp; and the position of the animal while ... of others irrespective of their nutritional quality. Time spent to remove or ... may exert selection pressures on fruit characteristics ...

  17. Prevention of metabolic diseases: fruits (including fruit sugars) vs. vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzma, Jessica N; Schmidt, Kelsey A; Kratz, Mario

    2017-07-01

    To discuss recent evidence from observational and intervention studies on the relationship between fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption and metabolic disease. Observational studies have consistently demonstrated a modest inverse association between the intake of fruit and leafy green vegetables, but not total vegetables, and biomarkers of metabolic disease as well as incident type 2 diabetes mellitus. This is in contrast to limited evidence from recently published randomized controlled dietary intervention trials, which - in sum - suggests little to no impact of increased F&V consumption on biomarkers of metabolic disease. Evidence from observational studies that fruit and leafy green vegetable intake is associated with lower type 2 diabetes risk and better metabolic health could not be confirmed by dietary intervention trials. It is unclear whether this discrepancy is because of limitations inherent in observational studies (e.g., subjective dietary assessment methods, residual confounding) or due to limitations in the few available intervention studies (e.g., short duration of follow-up, interventions combining whole fruit and fruit juice, or lack of compliance). Future studies that attempt to address these limitations are needed to provide more conclusive insight into the impact of F&V consumption on metabolic health.

  18. Pineapple Fruit Collapse: Newly Emerging Disease of Pineapple Fruit in Lampung, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Joko Prasetyo; Titik Nur Aeny

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pineapple fruit collapse: newly emerging disease of pineapple fruit in Lampung, Indonesia Recently, a new disease on pineapple fruit has occurred in Lampung. Symptoms of the disease are complex. Fruits rotted and exuded copious liquid from the inter- fruitlet tissues accompanied by gas bubbles. Open spaces were formed inside the rotten fruit. Dissection of diseased fruit showed many cavities within its sceletal fibres and bad odour was exerted from the rotten tissues. A bacterial...

  19. Phloem unloading in tomato fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damon, S.; Hewitt, J.; Bennett, A.B.

    1986-01-01

    To begin to identify those processes that contribute to the regulation of photosynthate partitioning in tomato fruit the path of phloem unloading in this tissue has been characterized. Assymetrically labelled sucrose ( 3 H-fructosyl sucrose) was applied to source leaves. Following translocation to the fruit the apoplast was sampled. The appearance of assymetric sucrose and 3 H-fructose in the apoplast indicates that phloem unloading is apoplastic and that extracellular invertase is active. Estimation of sucrose, glucose, and fructose concentrations in the apoplast were 1 mM, 40 mM, and 40 mM, respectively. Rates of uptake of sucrose, 1-fluorosucrose, glucose, and fructose across the plasma membrane were similar and non-saturating at physiological concentrations. These results suggest that, although extracellular invertase is present, sucrose hydrolysis is not required for uptake into tomato fruit pericarp cells. 1-fluorosucrose is used to investigate the role of sucrose synthase in hydrolysis of imported photosynthate

  20. Bioactivities and Health Benefits of Wild Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Wild fruits are exotic or underutilized. Wild fruits contain many bioactive compounds, such as anthocyanins and flavonoids. Many studies have shown that wild fruits possess various bioactivities and health benefits, such as free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer activity. Therefore, wild fruits have the potential to be developed into functional foods or pharmaceuticals to prevent and treat several chronic diseases. In the present article, we review current knowledge about the bioactivities and health benefits of wild fruits, which is valuable for the exploitation and utilization of wild fruits.

  1. The tropical fruit and nut collections and research activities at the USDA-ARS Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center, Tropical Plant Genetic Resource and Disease Research unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Hawaii, consistency and reliability are important factors determining the success of a crop, for example, longan generated the highest income return for the farmers among the Sapindaceae (lychee, longan and rambutan) group in 2006 because of the use of potassium chlorate for off-season production...

  2. Farmer preferences and the production strategies of agroforestry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    coffee and lychee above the currently emphasized citrus fruits. RÉSUMÉ ... have vanished from all but the steepest slopes by 2025 (Green and Sussman 1990). ... Madagascar Conservation & Development is the journal of Indian Ocean e-Ink.

  3. Food irradiation in the United States: irradiation as a phytosanitary treatment for fresh fruits and vegetables and for the control of microorganisms in meat and poultry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, Ralph T.; Engeljohn, Dan

    2000-01-01

    Recently there has been a renewed focus on food irradiation in the United States (US) for the disinfestation of fresh fruits and vegetables to eliminate pests from imported agricultural commodities that could threaten the economic viability of American agriculture and for the control of bacterium E. coli 0157:H7 in beef, a pathogen that threatens the safety of the US domestic food supply. In January 1999 USDA/APHIS published in the Federal Register a rule which authorized irradiation as a guarantee treatment for papayas for movement from Hawaii to the US mainland. This treatment was never used for a number of reasons. However, in December, 1993, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published its final rule to terminate production and consumption of methyl bromide, the only remaining broad spectrum fumigant for disinfesting agricultural commodities for pests of quarantine significance on imported and exported commodities. With increased global trade pressures and the possible loss of methyl bromide as a fumigant for regulatory pests treatment made it imperative that practical treatment options be explored including irradiation. In May 1996, USDA/APHIS published a Notice of Policy which sets forth a policy statement that share positions and policies of USDA concerning the use of irradiation as a phytosanitary treatment. Subsequently in July, 1997, USDA/APHIS amended its Hawaiian regulation by increasing the dose required for papayas intended for interstate movement and by allowing carambolas and litchis also to move interstate as well. Fruits from Hawaii to the US mainland are currently being irradiated and distributed in commerce throughout the US Irradiation treatments now afford movement of many exotic fruits to the US mainland that could not be done earlier due to the lack of available treatment methods. To help combat this potential public health problem, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved treating red meat products. This process has been

  4. Comparison of the nutrient content of fresh fruit juices vs commercial fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densupsoontorn, Narumon; Jirapinyo, Pipop; Thamonsiri, Nuchnoi; Wongarn, Renu; Phosuya, Panarat; Tritiprat, Amornrat; Patraarat, Siriphan; Pidatcha, Pannee; Suwannthol, Lerson

    2002-08-01

    To compare the types and quantities of carbohydrate, electrolytes, pH and osmolarity of fresh fruit juices and commercial fruit juices. Forty kinds of fresh fruits available in Thai markets were analyzed for types and quantities of carbohydrate, electrolyte, pH and osmolarity and compared with previously obtained data for commercial fruit juices. Most fresh fruit juices did not contain sucrose, whereas, commercial fruit juices mostly have sucrose in the range of 3-112 g/L. Although both fruit juices were acidic (pH varied from 3.6-6.7 and 3.2-5.8 of fresh juice and commercial juice), fresh fruit juices had a more neutral pH than commercial fruit juices. Apple, guava, orange, pear, and pineapple juices from commercial fruit juices had a high osmolarity compared with fresh fruit juices. All types of fresh fruit juices contained less sodium than commercial ones, whereas, most fresh fruit juices contained more potassium, phosphorus, and magnesium than commercial fluids. The nutrient content of fresh fruit juices and commercial fruit juices from the same kinds of fruits are not the same, possibly due to the manufacturing process. Therefore, physicians should know the composition of fruit juices in order to advise patients properly.

  5. 21 CFR 150.110 - Fruit butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., seeds, pits, and cores: Factor Referred to in Paragraph (d)(2) of This Section Name of fruit Apple 7.5.... Each such fruit ingredient in any such combination is an optional ingredient. (c) The following safe...

  6. Volatile sulfur compounds in tropical fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Cannon

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Global production and demand for tropical fruits continues to grow each year as consumers are enticed by the exotic flavors and potential health benefits that these fruits possess. Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs are often responsible for the juicy, fresh aroma of tropical fruits. This poses a challenge for analytical chemists to identify these compounds as most often VSCs are found at low concentrations in most tropical fruits. The aim of this review is to discuss the extraction methods, enrichment techniques, and instrumentation utilized to identify and quantify VSCs in natural products. This will be followed by a discussion of the VSCs reported in tropical and subtropical fruits, with particular attention to the odor and taste attributes of each compound. Finally, the biogenesis and enzymatic formation of specific VSCs in tropical fruits will be highlighted along with the contribution each possesses to the aroma of their respective fruit. Keywords: Tropical fruits, Volatile sulfur compounds, Extraction methods

  7. Fruit Crop Pests. MEP 312.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Leslie O.; And Others

    As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland this publication introduces the identification and control of common agricultural pests of fruit crops. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests in the categories of insects, weeds,…

  8. Sorbitol, Rubus fruit, and misconception

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is unclear how the misunderstanding that Rubus fruits (e.g., blackberries, raspberries) are high in sugar alcohol began, or when it started circulating in the United States. In reality, they contain little sugar alcohol. Numerous research groups have reported zero detectable amounts of sugar alco...

  9. Genetic control of fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walder, J.M.M.

    1987-01-01

    The sterile-insect technique for control of fruit-flies is studied. A brief historic of the technique is presented, as well as a short description of the methodology. Other aspects are discussed: causes of sterility in insects and the principles of insect population suppression by sterile-insect technique. (M.A.C.)

  10. Heterosis for flower and fruit traits in tomato (Lycopersicon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-07-05

    Jul 5, 2010 ... heterosis; LSD, least significant difference; CV, co-variance. ... The North West Frontier Province of the country .... Mean squares for flowers per cluster, fruits per cluster, fruit length, fruit width, fruit weight and yield per plant.

  11. Fruit load governs transpiration of olive trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bustan, Amnon; Dag, Arnon; Yermiyahu, Uri; Erel, Ran; Presnov, Eugene; Agam, Nurit; Kool, Dilia; Iwema, Joost; Zipori, Isaac; Ben-Gal, Alon

    2016-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that whole-tree water consumption of olives (Olea europaea L.) is fruit load-dependent and investigated the driving physiological mechanisms. Fruit load was manipulated in mature olives grown in weighing-drainage lysimeters. Fruit was thinned or entirely removed from

  12. Radiation processing of foods: fruits and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Post-harvest irradiation of fruits and vegetables improves their shelf-life by: (1) delaying ripening and senescence of fruits, (2) controlling fungal diseases, (3) inhibiting sprouting, and (4) disinfestation. Nutritional and quality aspects of irradiated fruits and vegetables are discussed. Commercial prospects are briefly described. (M.G.B.)

  13. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 11, No 10 (2012)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Foliar application of calcium chloride and borax affects the fruit skin strength and cracking incidence in litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) cultivars · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. I Haq, A Rab, 2445-2453 ...

  14. Consumer Preference Towards Fruit Leather Attributes of Madurese Exotic Tropical Fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Elys Fauziyah

    2018-01-01

    Madura island has high potential for producing tropical fruits, but it still not being well managed especially concerning with the value added Fruit leather is a product created by using various fruits and simple technology application. Fruit leather is categorized as new product on the market, therefore it is important to know consumer preference towards fruit leather attributes so that producer can design an acceptable product in the market. The research investigated attributes within the l...

  15. Testing fruit quality by photoacoustic spectroscopy assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popa, C; Dumitras, D C; Patachia, M; Banita, S

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted with the aim of testing the hypothesis that raspberry and strawberry fruits from nonorganic farming release more ethylene gas compounds compared to organic ones. At the same time, the experiments focused on evaluation of the potential and capabilities of the laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS) method in the assessment of fruit quality related to the effects of nitrogen. Ethylene gas can be harmful and carcinogenic, because it can accelerate the natural ripening process of physiologically mature fruits and makes the fruits more consistent in size. With the advantages of LPAS, we demonstrate that the concentration of ethylene from nonorganic raspberry and strawberry fruits is greater than from organic ones. (paper)

  16. Health Benefits of Fruits and Vegetables1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Joanne L.; Lloyd, Beate

    2012-01-01

    Fruits and vegetables are universally promoted as healthy. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 recommend you make one-half of your plate fruits and vegetables. Myplate.gov also supports that one-half the plate should be fruits and vegetables. Fruits and vegetables include a diverse group of plant foods that vary greatly in content of energy and nutrients. Additionally, fruits and vegetables supply dietary fiber, and fiber intake is linked to lower incidence of cardiovascular disease and obesity. Fruits and vegetables also supply vitamins and minerals to the diet and are sources of phytochemicals that function as antioxidants, phytoestrogens, and antiinflammatory agents and through other protective mechanisms. In this review, we describe the existing dietary guidance on intake of fruits and vegetables. We also review attempts to characterize fruits and vegetables into groups based on similar chemical structures and functions. Differences among fruits and vegetables in nutrient composition are detailed. We summarize the epidemiological and clinical studies on the health benefits of fruits and vegetables. Finally, we discuss the role of fiber in fruits and vegetables in disease prevention. PMID:22797986

  17. Fruit load governs transpiration of olive trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustan, Amnon; Dag, Arnon; Yermiyahu, Uri; Erel, Ran; Presnov, Eugene; Agam, Nurit; Kool, Dilia; Iwema, Joost; Zipori, Isaac; Ben-Gal, Alon

    2016-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that whole-tree water consumption of olives (Olea europaea L.) is fruit load-dependent and investigated the driving physiological mechanisms. Fruit load was manipulated in mature olives grown in weighing-drainage lysimeters. Fruit was thinned or entirely removed from trees at three separate stages of growth: early, mid and late in the season. Tree-scale transpiration, calculated from lysimeter water balance, was found to be a function of fruit load, canopy size and weather conditions. Fruit removal caused an immediate decline in water consumption, measured as whole-plant transpiration normalized to tree size, which persisted until the end of the season. The later the execution of fruit removal, the greater was the response. The amount of water transpired by a fruit-loaded tree was found to be roughly 30% greater than that of an equivalent low- or nonyielding tree. The tree-scale response to fruit was reflected in stem water potential but was not mirrored in leaf-scale physiological measurements of stomatal conductance or photosynthesis. Trees with low or no fruit load had higher vegetative growth rates. However, no significant difference was observed in the overall aboveground dry biomass among groups, when fruit was included. This case, where carbon sources and sinks were both not limiting, suggests that the role of fruit on water consumption involves signaling and alterations in hydraulic properties of vascular tissues and tree organs. PMID:26802540

  18. Fruit quality: new insights for biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Hernández, Andrés; Paredes-López, Octavio

    2012-01-01

    At ripening fruits undergo many changes which include the development of color and aroma and improvements in flavor and texture that make them attractive to potential consumers. Fruits provide an important source of health-related substances, plus minerals and vitamins, and the quality of a fruit is influenced by variety, nutritional status, and environmental conditions during plant growth and fruit development. Ripening is considered to be the main process in fruit development, and all studies had been focused on this process which included physicochemical, biochemical, and molecular analysis. With the development of genomic analysis the strategies to study fruit ripening have been changing and now there are new perspectives and opportunities. The objective of this review is to describe the state of the art in the studies related to fruit ripening with emphasis in molecular studies.

  19. Irradiation of fruit and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Beirne, David

    1987-01-01

    There is likely to be less economic incentive to irradiate fruits and vegetables compared with applications which increase the safety of foods such as elimination of Salmonella or decontamination of food ingredients. Of the fruit and vegetable applications, irradiation of mushrooms may offer the clearest economic benefits in North-Western Europe. The least likely application appears to be sprout inhibition in potatoes and onions, because of the greater efficiency and flexibility of chemical sprout inhibitors. In the longer-term, combinations between irradiation/MAP/other technologies will probably be important. Research in this area is at an early stage. Consumer attitudes to food irradiation remain uncertain. This will be a crucial factor in the commercial application of the technology and in the determining the balance between utilisation of irradiation and of technologies which compete with irradiation. (author)

  20. Sustainable irrigation in fruit trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristos Xiloyannis

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Water management in fruit growing, particularly in areas with high water deficit, low rainfall and limited availability of water for irrigation should aid to save water by: i the choice of high efficiency irrigation methods and their correct management; ii the proper choice of the specie, cultivar and rootstock to optimise plant water use; iii the proper choice of the architecture of the canopy and it’s correct management in order to improve water use efficiency; iv the application of regulated deficit irrigation at growth stages less sensitive to water deficit; v strengthening the role of technical assistance for a rapid transfer of knowledge to the growers on the sustainable use of water in fruit growing.

  1. Sustainable irrigation in fruit trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristos Xiloyannis

    Full Text Available Water management in fruit growing, particularly in areas with high water deficit, low rainfall and limited availability of water for irrigation should aid to save water by: i the choice of high efficiency irrigation methods and their correct management; ii the proper choice of the specie, cultivar and rootstock to optimise plant water use; iii the proper choice of the architecture of the canopy and it’s correct management in order to improve water use efficiency; iv the application of regulated deficit irrigation at growth stages less sensitive to water deficit; v strengthening the role of technical assistance for a rapid transfer of knowledge to the growers on the sustainable use of water in fruit growing.

  2. Automated Surveillance of Fruit Flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potamitis, Ilyas; Rigakis, Iraklis; Tatlas, Nicolaos-Alexandros

    2017-01-01

    Insects of the Diptera order of the Tephritidae family cause costly, annual crop losses worldwide. Monitoring traps are important components of integrated pest management programs used against fruit flies. Here we report the modification of typical, low-cost plastic traps for fruit flies by adding the necessary optoelectronic sensors to monitor the entrance of the trap in order to detect, time-stamp, GPS tag, and identify the species of incoming insects from the optoacoustic spectrum analysis of their wingbeat. We propose that the incorporation of automated streaming of insect counts, environmental parameters and GPS coordinates into informative visualization of collective behavior will finally enable better decision making across spatial and temporal scales, as well as administrative levels. The device presented is at product level of maturity as it has solved many pending issues presented in a previously reported study. PMID:28075346

  3. Automated Surveillance of Fruit Flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilyas Potamitis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Insects of the Diptera order of the Tephritidae family cause costly, annual crop losses worldwide. Monitoring traps are important components of integrated pest management programs used against fruit flies. Here we report the modification of typical, low-cost plastic traps for fruit flies by adding the necessary optoelectronic sensors to monitor the entrance of the trap in order to detect, time-stamp, GPS tag, and identify the species of incoming insects from the optoacoustic spectrum analysis of their wingbeat. We propose that the incorporation of automated streaming of insect counts, environmental parameters and GPS coordinates into informative visualization of collective behavior will finally enable better decision making across spatial and temporal scales, as well as administrative levels. The device presented is at product level of maturity as it has solved many pending issues presented in a previously reported study.

  4. Managing Sustainability in Fruit Production

    OpenAIRE

    Taragola, N.; Van Passel, S.; Zwiekhorst, W.

    2012-01-01

    As fruit growers are faced with a growing need for sustainable development, it is important to integrate sustainability into their management processes. This research applies and evaluates a self-analysis tool for entrepreneurs called the ‘sustainability scan’. The scan identifies 23 sustainability themes, divided according to the 3P-framework (People, Planet and Profit). In the scan, it is assumed that the management of these themes is at the core of sustainable entrepren...

  5. Are Fruit Juice Categories Separable?

    OpenAIRE

    Knight, Erika P.; House, Lisa; Lee, Jonq-Ying; Spreen, Thomas H.

    2008-01-01

    Supermarket shelves are saturated with numerous varieties and brands of juice beverages. This high level of assortment has dramatically changed beverage consumption patterns and trends throughout the United States. In fact, during 2004-2005, energy and sport drinks experienced significant increases in sales, 65.9% and 20.6 %, respectively. During the same period of time, refrigerated juice sales increased a mere 2.2%, shelved non-fruit drinks decreased 0.9%, bottled juices and cocktails both ...

  6. Radiation disinfestation of dry fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, I.; Sattar, A.; Wahid, M.; Jan, M.

    1985-01-01

    Dry fruits such as apricots, dates, figs, and raisins were irradiated in a Gamma Cell 220 (dose rate 0.04 kGy/min). Radiation doses used were 0.25, 0.50, and 1.00 kGy, and the samples were stored at room temperatures (25 to 40 0 C) after packaging in polyethylene pouches. Insect infestation and the changes in acidity, discoloration, ascorbic acid, and sugars were determined after 2,4,6,8,10, and 12 months. A radiation dose of 1.00 kGy completely inhibited infestation throughout the storage, while infestation in 0.50 and 0.25 kGy samples increased with storage time between 2 and 10 months. It was 100 percent in all fruits except raisins (60 percent) after 12 months. Tribolium species were predominant in all of the samples followed by the Caudra and Corcyra species. Discoloration increased, acidity and ascorbic acid contents decreased significantly (P < 0.05), and sugars were little affected during the entire storage. Radiation doses had insignificant influence on these nutrients except for the ascorbic acid, which was adversely affected, especially at higher doses (P < 0.05). Results of sensory evaluation of dried fruits showed 1.00 kGy treated samples rated as highest, 0.25 and 0.50 kGy as intermediates, and the control as lowest during different storage intervals

  7. Proteomics in the fruit tree science arena: new insights into fruit defense, development, and ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molassiotis, Athanassios; Tanou, Georgia; Filippou, Panagiota; Fotopoulos, Vasileios

    2013-06-01

    Fruit tree crops are agricultural commodities of high economic importance, while fruits also represent one of the most vital components of the human diet. Therefore, a great effort has been made to understand the molecular mechanisms covering fundamental biological processes in fruit tree physiology and fruit biology. Thanks to the development of cutting-edge "omics" technologies such as proteomic analysis, scientists now have powerful tools to support traditional fruit tree research. Such proteomic analyses are establishing high-density 2DE reference maps and peptide mass fingerprint databases that can lead fruit science into a new postgenomic research era. Here, an overview of the application of proteomics in key aspects of fruit tree physiology as well as in fruit biology, including defense responses to abiotic and biotic stress factors, is presented. A panoramic view of ripening-related proteins is also discussed, as an example of proteomic application in fruit science.

  8. Frozen fruit skin prick test for the diagnosis of fruit allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garriga, Teresa; Guilarte, Mar; Luengo, Olga; Guillén, Mercé; Labrador-Horrillo, Moisés; Fadeeva, Tatiana; Sala, Anna; Cardona, Victória

    2010-12-01

    Diagnosis of fruit sensitisation by skin prick test (SPT) is fast and easy to perform. Nevertheless, some fruit is not available throughout the year. Freezing aliquots of these fresh fruits to be defrosted would be a good solution to perform SPT at any time. To compare the reproducibility of SPT with Rosaceae and Cucurbitaceae frozen fruit with fresh and commercial fruit extracts. SPT with the following fruit were performed: apricot, cherry, strawberry, nectarine, Japanese medlar, peach, (peel and pulp), yellow and red plum, melon and watermelon. We compared fresh fruit, commercial extract and fruit which had been frozen at -18 degrees C. Results were read by planimetry (Inmunotek prick-film) after 15 minutes. The study group comprised 48 patients (9 males, 39 females) with a mean age of 31, 6 +/- 2.0 years. Concordance of positive and negative results was extremely high and significant in all cases. Correlation between frozen fruit and commercial extract, frozen fruit and fresh and commercial extract and fresh fruit was statistically significant in all cases except for strawberry. The use of frozen fruit is a valid method, as the performance of the SPT is similar to that of fresh fruit. This enables diagnostic procedures with seasonal fruit at any time of the year.

  9. Combined Treatments Reduce Chilling Injury and Maintain Fruit Quality in Avocado Fruit during Cold Quarantine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivankalyani, Velu; Feygenberg, Oleg; Maorer, Dalia; Zaaroor, Merav; Fallik, Elazar; Alkan, Noam

    2015-01-01

    Quarantine treatment enables export of avocado fruit (Persea americana) to parts of the world that enforce quarantine against fruit fly. The recommended cold-based quarantine treatment (storage at 1.1°C for 14 days) was studied with two commercial avocado cultivars 'Hass' and 'Ettinger' for 2 years. Chilling injuries (CIs) are prevalent in the avocado fruit after cold-quarantine treatment. Hence, we examined the effect of integrating several treatments: modified atmosphere (MA; fruit covered with perforated polyethylene bags), methyl jasmonate (MJ; fruit dipped in 2.5 μM MJ for Hass or 10 μM MJ for Ettinger for 30 s), 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP; fruit treated with 300 ppb 1-MCP for 18 h) and low-temperature conditioning (LTC; a gradual decrease in temperature over 3 days) on CI reduction during cold quarantine. Avocado fruit stored at 1°C suffered from severe CI, lipid peroxidation, and increased expression of chilling-responsive genes of fruit peel. The combined therapeutic treatments alleviated CI in cold-quarantined fruit to the level in fruit stored at commercial temperature (5°C). A successful therapeutic treatment was developed to protect 'Hass' and 'Ettinger' avocado fruit during cold quarantine against fruit fly, while maintaining fruit quality. Subsequently, treated fruit stored at 1°C had a longer shelf life and less decay than the fruit stored at 5°C. This therapeutic treatment could potentially enable the export of avocado fruit to all quarantine-enforcing countries. Similar methods might be applicable to other types of fruit that require cold quarantine.

  10. Combined Treatments Reduce Chilling Injury and Maintain Fruit Quality in Avocado Fruit during Cold Quarantine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maorer, Dalia; Zaaroor, Merav; Fallik, Elazar; Alkan, Noam

    2015-01-01

    Quarantine treatment enables export of avocado fruit (Persea americana) to parts of the world that enforce quarantine against fruit fly. The recommended cold-based quarantine treatment (storage at 1.1°C for 14 days) was studied with two commercial avocado cultivars ‘Hass’ and ‘Ettinger’ for 2 years. Chilling injuries (CIs) are prevalent in the avocado fruit after cold-quarantine treatment. Hence, we examined the effect of integrating several treatments: modified atmosphere (MA; fruit covered with perforated polyethylene bags), methyl jasmonate (MJ; fruit dipped in 2.5 μM MJ for Hass or 10 μM MJ for Ettinger for 30 s), 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP; fruit treated with 300 ppb 1-MCP for 18 h) and low-temperature conditioning (LTC; a gradual decrease in temperature over 3 days) on CI reduction during cold quarantine. Avocado fruit stored at 1°C suffered from severe CI, lipid peroxidation, and increased expression of chilling-responsive genes of fruit peel. The combined therapeutic treatments alleviated CI in cold-quarantined fruit to the level in fruit stored at commercial temperature (5°C). A successful therapeutic treatment was developed to protect ‘Hass’ and ‘Ettinger’ avocado fruit during cold quarantine against fruit fly, while maintaining fruit quality. Subsequently, treated fruit stored at 1°C had a longer shelf life and less decay than the fruit stored at 5°C. This therapeutic treatment could potentially enable the export of avocado fruit to all quarantine-enforcing countries. Similar methods might be applicable to other types of fruit that require cold quarantine. PMID:26501421

  11. Development of passion fruit juice beverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiang-hao; Duan, Zhen-hua; Yang, Yu-xia; Huang, Xin-hui; Xu, Cheng-ling; Huang, Zhi-zhuo

    2017-12-01

    In this experiment, the whole fruit of passion fruit was used as raw material. The effects of the ratio of material to liquid (RML), the amount of sucrose addition and the pH on the quality of passion fruit juice beverage were investigated by single factor test. And the optimum process conditions of passion fruit juice beverage were determined by orthogonal test. The results show that the optimum process paramenters were as follow: RML was 1:3, pH was 4.0 and sucrose addition was 8%. Under such optimal conditions, the color of passion fruit juice beverage was red, the flavor of passion fruit was rich and it tasted pleasant.

  12. 137Cs behaviour in fruit trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monte, L.; Quaggia, S.; Pompei, F.; Fratarcangeli, S.

    1989-01-01

    The results of measurements carried out during the period 1987-1988, to evaluate the levels of 137 Cs and 134 Cs contamination in fruit samples and in various components of fruit-trees have been reported. It has been demonstrated that, in the case of an accidental contamination of the air, the contamination of fruit is mainly due to the foliar translocation of radionuclide. Data of radioactivity content in fruits collected through a period of three years show that the radioactivity content in fruit diminishes exponentially. Rough estimates of ''translocation coefficient'' defined as the ratio (radionuclide concentration in fruit)/(radionuclide deposition on soil), and of the ''biological half time'' have been carried out in the case of hazel-nut, walnut, apple, chestnut and olive

  13. Microbiological Spoilage of Fruits and Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Margaret; Hankinson, Thomas R.; Zhuang, Hong; Breidt, Frederick

    Consumption of fruit and vegetable products has dramatically increased in the United States by more than 30% during the past few decades. It is also estimated that about 20% of all fruits and vegetables produced is lost each year due to spoilage. The focus of this chapter is to provide a general background on microbiological spoilage of fruit and vegetable products that are organized in three categories: fresh whole fruits and vegetables, fresh-cut fruits and vegetables, and fermented or acidified vegetable products. This chapter will address characteristics of spoilage microorganisms associated with each of these fruit and vegetable categories including spoilage mechanisms, spoilage defects, prevention and control of spoilage, and methods for detecting spoilage microorganisms.

  14. Phenylpropenes: Occurrence, Distribution, and Biosynthesis in Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Ross G

    2018-03-14

    Phenylpropenes such as eugenol, chavicol, estragole, and anethole contribute to the flavor and aroma of a number of important herbs and spices. They have been shown to function as floral attractants for pollinators and to have antifungal and antimicrobial activities. Phenylpropenes are also detected as free volatiles and sequestered glycosides in a range of economically important fresh fruit species including apple, strawberry, tomato, and grape. Although they contribute a relatively small percentage of total volatiles compared with esters, aldehydes, and alcohols, phenylpropenes have been shown to contribute spicy anise- and clove-like notes to fruit. Phenylpropenes are typically found in fruit throughout development and to reach maximum concentrations in ripe fruit. Genes involved in the biosynthesis of phenylpropenes have been characterized and manipulated in strawberry and apple, which has validated the importance of these compounds to fruit aroma and may help elucidate other functions for phenylpropenes in fruit.

  15. Nutritional composition of minor indigenous fruits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shajib, Md. Tariqul Islam; Kawser, Mahbuba; Miah, Md. Nuruddin

    2013-01-01

    In line of the development of a food composition database for Bangladesh, 10 minor indigenous fruits were analysed for their nutrient composition comprising ascorbic acid, carotenoids and mineral values. Nutrient data obtained have been compared with published data reported in different literatur...... values of these minor fruits would make awareness among the people for their mass consumption for healthy life and to grow more minor fruit trees from extinction in order to maintain biodiversity....

  16. Looking forward to genetically edited fruit crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamangala Kanchiswamy, Chidananda; Sargent, Daniel James; Velasco, Riccardo; Maffei, Massimo E; Malnoy, Mickael

    2015-02-01

    The availability of genome sequences for many fruit crops has redefined the boundaries of genetic engineering and genetically modified (GM) crop plants. However commercialization of GM crops is hindered by numerous regulatory and social hurdles. Here, we focus on recently developed genome-editing tools for fruit crop improvement and their importance from the consumer perspective. Challenges and opportunities for the deployment of new genome-editing tools for fruit plants are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Consumer Preference Towards Fruit Leather Attributes of Madurese Exotic Tropical Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elys Fauziyah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Madura island has high potential for producing tropical fruits, but it still not being well managed especially concerning with the value added Fruit leather is a product created by using various fruits and simple technology application. Fruit leather is categorized as new product on the market, therefore it is important to know consumer preference towards fruit leather attributes so that producer can design an acceptable product in the market. The research investigated attributes within the levels that become consumer preference in purchasing fruit leather product. There were 60 samples respondents taken accidentally at Bangkalan Plaza Shopping area. Method being used was conjoint analysis. Result showed that fruit leather being chosen by consumers as preference are gummy, mixed fruit taste, yellow color small roll shape, at 100 grams and in a plastic tube package.

  18. Optimization of fruit punch using mixture design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S Bharath; Ravi, R; Saraswathi, G

    2010-01-01

    A highly acceptable dehydrated fruit punch was developed with selected fruits, namely lemon, orange, and mango, using a mixture design and optimization technique. The fruit juices were freeze dried, powdered, and used in the reconstitution studies. Fruit punches were prepared according to the experimental design combinations (total 10) based on a mixture design and then subjected to sensory evaluation for acceptability. Response surfaces of sensory attributes were also generated as a function of fruit juices. Analysis of data revealed that the fruit punch prepared using 66% of mango, 33% of orange, and 1% of lemon had highly desirable sensory scores for color (6.00), body (5.92), sweetness (5.68), and pleasantness (5.94). The aroma pattern of individual as well as combinations of fruit juices were also analyzed by electronic nose. The electronic nose could discriminate the aroma patterns of individual as well as fruit juice combinations by mixture design. The results provide information on the sensory quality of best fruit punch formulations liked by the consumer panel based on lemon, orange, and mango.

  19. Mutation breeding in Philippine fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espino, R.R.C.

    1987-09-01

    Studies were made to establish standard conditions for mutation induction by gamma-irradiation to be performed in combination with in-vitro culture for banana and citrus spp. Besides this, radio-sensitivity of seeds and/or plantlets of mango, sugar apple, soursop, lanzones and Jack fruit was investigated and primary observation on the occurrence of mutation was made. For the mutagenesis of banana shoot tip cultures, radio-sensitivity of plantlets derived from the culture as well as fresh-cultured shoots was examined and phenotypes indicative of mutation, such as chlorophyl streaking, slow growth, pigmentation and varied bunch orientation were recorded. Isozyme analysis for mutated protein structure was not conclusive. In the in-vitro culture of Citrus spp., seeds placed on fresh media as well as germinating seeds and two-leaf stage seedlings in test tubes were examined for their radio-sensitivity. Irradiated materials were propagated for further observation. In these two crops, basic methodology for mutation induction with combined use of in-vitro culture and gamma-irradiation was established. In mango, sugar apple, soursop, lanzones and Jack fruit, basic data on radiosensitivity were obtained. In mango, leaf abnormalities were observed after the treatment of scions

  20. Microbial and preservative safety of fresh and processed fruit salads ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The producers and traders of fresh fruit and the processers should implement quality management practices and safety standards in farming, fresh fruit, processing and storage. This is to ensure safety, enhance consumption of fruits and fruit products for health of consumers and eliminate wastage. Key words: Fresh fruit, ...

  1. [Spectral navigation technology and its application in positioning the fruits of fruit trees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Lei; Zhao, Zhi-Min

    2010-03-01

    An innovative technology of spectral navigation is presented in the present paper. This new method adopts reflectance spectra of fruits, leaves and branches as one of the key navigation parameters and positions the fruits of fruit trees relying on the diversity of spectral characteristics. The research results show that the distinct smoothness as effect is available in the spectrum of leaves of fruit trees. On the other hand, gradual increasing as the trend is an important feature in the spectrum of branches of fruit trees while the spectrum of fruit fluctuates. In addition, the peak diversity of reflectance rate between fruits and leaves of fruit trees is reached at 850 nm of wavelength. So the limit value can be designed at this wavelength in order to distinguish fruits and leaves. The method introduced here can not only quickly distinguish fruits, leaves and branches, but also avoid the effects of surroundings. Compared with the traditional navigation systems based on machine vision, there are still some special and unique features in the field of positioning the fruits of fruit trees using spectral navigation technology.

  2. ProfitFruit: Decision Support System for Evaluation of Investments in Fruit Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, P.F.M.M.; Groot, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Innovative techniques were developed in the Isafruit project in order to create a more ecological sustainable way of fruit growing. Before fruit growers will consider implementation of these innovations they need information concerning their economic sustainability. The economic model ProfitFruit is

  3. Yield and fruit quality traits of dragon fruit lines and cultivars grown in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragon fruit or pitahaya (Hylocereus undatus and Selenicereus megalanthus) is a member of the Cactaceae family and native to the tropical forest regions of Mexico, Central, and South America. The fruit was practically unknown 15 years ago but it occupies a growing niche in Europe’s exotic fruit mar...

  4. Fruit load governs transpiration of olive trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustan, Amnon; Dag, Arnon; Yermiyahu, Uri; Erel, Ran; Presnov, Eugene; Agam, Nurit; Kool, Dilia; Iwema, Joost; Zipori, Isaac; Ben-Gal, Alon

    2016-03-01

    We tested the hypothesis that whole-tree water consumption of olives (Olea europaea L.) is fruit load-dependent and investigated the driving physiological mechanisms. Fruit load was manipulated in mature olives grown in weighing-drainage lysimeters. Fruit was thinned or entirely removed from trees at three separate stages of growth: early, mid and late in the season. Tree-scale transpiration, calculated from lysimeter water balance, was found to be a function of fruit load, canopy size and weather conditions. Fruit removal caused an immediate decline in water consumption, measured as whole-plant transpiration normalized to tree size, which persisted until the end of the season. The later the execution of fruit removal, the greater was the response. The amount of water transpired by a fruit-loaded tree was found to be roughly 30% greater than that of an equivalent low- or nonyielding tree. The tree-scale response to fruit was reflected in stem water potential but was not mirrored in leaf-scale physiological measurements of stomatal conductance or photosynthesis. Trees with low or no fruit load had higher vegetative growth rates. However, no significant difference was observed in the overall aboveground dry biomass among groups, when fruit was included. This case, where carbon sources and sinks were both not limiting, suggests that the role of fruit on water consumption involves signaling and alterations in hydraulic properties of vascular tissues and tree organs. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. A Fruitful Endeavor: Modeling ALS in the Fruit Fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casci, Ian; Pandey, Udai Bhan

    2014-01-01

    For over a century Drosophila melanogaster, commonly known as the fruit fly, has been instrumental in genetics research and disease modeling. In more recent years, it has been a powerful tool for modeling and studying neurodegenerative diseases, including the devastating and fatal amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The success of this model organism in ALS research comes from the availability of tools to manipulate gene/protein expression in a number of desired cell-types, and the subsequent recapitulation of cellular and molecular phenotypic features of the disease. Several Drosophila models have now been developed for studying the roles of ALS-associated genes in disease pathogenesis that allowed us to understand the molecular pathways that lead to motor neuron degeneration in ALS patients. Our primary goal in this review is to highlight the lessons we have learned using Drosophila models pertaining to ALS research. PMID:25289585

  6. Proteome Regulation during Olea europaea Fruit Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianco, Linda; Alagna, Fiammetta; Baldoni, Luciana

    2013-01-01

    Background: Widespread in the Mediterranean basin, Olea europaea trees are gaining worldwide popularity for the nutritional and cancer-protective properties of the oil, mechanically extracted from ripe fruits. Fruit development is a physiological process with remarkable impact on the modulation...

  7. The Mexican Fruit Fly Eradication Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes F, Jesus; Santiago M, Guillermo; Hernandez M, Porfirio [Comision Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The goal of the Mexican Fruit Fly Eradication Programme is to control, suppress or eradicate from Mexico four species of fruit flies of economic and quarantine importance (Anastrepha ludens Loew, A. obliqua Macquart, A. serpentina Wied. and A. striata Schiner). These pests cause damage amounting to US$710 million per year. In addition to this cost, there are other expenses from pest control actions and the loss of international markets, because fruit importing countries have established stringent quarantine measures to restrict the entry of these pests. For purposes of the programme's implementation, Mexico was divided into three working zones, defined by agro-ecological characteristics, the number of fruit fly species present and the size of fruit growing regions. In addition, a cost:benefit analysis was carried out which indicated that the rate of return, in a 12-year time frame, might be as much as 33:1 in Northern Mexico, and 17:1 in the rest of the country, for an area over 100,000 hectares. Eradication technology involves: 1) surveys of pest populations by trapping and host fruit harvesting to monitor the presence and density of fruit flies, 2) reduction of pest populations applying cultural practices and using selective bait sprays, 3) mass release of sterile flies and augmentative release of parasitoids to eliminate populations and, 4) enforcement of quarantine measures to protect fruit fly free areas.

  8. The Mexican Fruit Fly Eradication Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes F, Jesus; Santiago M, Guillermo; Hernandez M, Porfirio

    2000-01-01

    The goal of the Mexican Fruit Fly Eradication Programme is to control, suppress or eradicate from Mexico four species of fruit flies of economic and quarantine importance (Anastrepha ludens Loew, A. obliqua Macquart, A. serpentina Wied. and A. striata Schiner). These pests cause damage amounting to US$710 million per year. In addition to this cost, there are other expenses from pest control actions and the loss of international markets, because fruit importing countries have established stringent quarantine measures to restrict the entry of these pests. For purposes of the programme's implementation, Mexico was divided into three working zones, defined by agro-ecological characteristics, the number of fruit fly species present and the size of fruit growing regions. In addition, a cost:benefit analysis was carried out which indicated that the rate of return, in a 12-year time frame, might be as much as 33:1 in Northern Mexico, and 17:1 in the rest of the country, for an area over 100,000 hectares. Eradication technology involves: 1) surveys of pest populations by trapping and host fruit harvesting to monitor the presence and density of fruit flies, 2) reduction of pest populations applying cultural practices and using selective bait sprays, 3) mass release of sterile flies and augmentative release of parasitoids to eliminate populations and, 4) enforcement of quarantine measures to protect fruit fly free areas

  9. Peroxidase gene expression during tomato fruit ripening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggs, M.S.; Flurkey, W.H.; Handa, A.K.

    1987-01-01

    Auxin oxidation has been reported to play a critical role in the initiation of pear fruit ripening and a tomato fruit peroxidase (POD) has been shown to have IAA-oxidase activity. However, little is known about changes in the expression of POD mRNA in tomato fruit development. They are investigating the expression of POD mRNA during tomato fruit maturation. Fruit pericarp tissues from six stages of fruit development and ripening (immature green, mature green, breaker, turning, ripe, and red ripe fruits) were used to extract poly (A) + RNAs. These RNAs were translated in vitro in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system using L- 35 S-methionine. The 35 S-labeled products were immunoprecipitated with POD antibodies to determine the relative proportions of POD mRNA. High levels of POD mRNA were present in immature green and mature green pericarp, but declined greatly by the turning stage of fruit ripening. In addition, the distribution of POD mRNA on free vs bound polyribosomes will be presented, as well as the presence or absence of POD mRNA in other tomato tissues

  10. 7 CFR 917.4 - Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 917.4 Fruit. Fruit means the edible product of the following kinds of trees: (a) All varieties of peaches grown in the production area; (b) All hybrids grown in the... as recommended by the committee and approved by the Secretary; and (c) All varieties of pears except...

  11. Lepidoptera associated with avocado fruit in Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    A total of about 1,098 specimens representing 10 moth species from four families were reared from harvested avocado fruit in Guatemala. Two species were reared from small immature avocados and grown to maturity on unopened avocado flower clusters after small fruit desiccated: (1) Argyrotaenia urbana...

  12. Paradoxical Effects of Fruit on Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satya P. Sharma

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is exponentially increasing regardless of its preventable characteristics. The current measures for preventing obesity have failed to address the severity and prevalence of obesity, so alternative approaches based on nutritional and diet changes are attracting attention for the treatment of obesity. Fruit contains large amounts of simple sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose, etc., which are well known to induce obesity. Thus, considering the amount of simple sugars found in fruit, it is reasonable to expect that their consumption should contribute to obesity rather than weight reduction. However, epidemiological research has consistently shown that most types of fruit have anti-obesity effects. Thus, due to their anti-obesity effects as well as their vitamin and mineral contents, health organizations are suggesting the consumption of fruit for weight reduction purposes. These contradictory characteristics of fruit with respect to human body weight management motivated us to study previous research to understand the contribution of different types of fruit to weight management. In this review article, we analyze and discuss the relationships between fruit and their anti-obesity effects based on numerous possible underlying mechanisms, and we conclude that each type of fruit has different effects on body weight.

  13. Antimicrobial packaging for fresh-cut fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresh-cut fruits are minimally processed produce which are consumed directly at their fresh stage without any further kill step. Microbiological quality and safety are major challenges to fresh-cut fruits. Antimicrobial packaging is one of the innovative food packaging systems that is able to kill o...

  14. CHARACTERIZATION OF RIPENING STAGES OF MYRTLE FRUIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DYALLA RIBEIRO DE ARAUJO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The myrtle (Eugenia gracillima Kiaersk. is a native fruit species in the Chapada of Araripe, state of Pernambuco, Brazil. The fruits are collected from the wild and are consumed fresh or processed as pulp, juice, jelly, liquor or desserts. Myrtle fruit production is of significant socioeconomic value for the region and, therefore, the description of myrtle fruit ripening stages may contribute to the development of its production chain. As a result, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the physical, quality and ripening changes of myrtle fruits at different developmental stages. The fruits were picked at five distinctive stages and evaluated for longitudinal and transverse diameters; fresh, dry and water mass; water contents; soluble solids (SS; titratable acidity (TA; pH; SS/TA ratio; carbohydrates (starch, total, reducing and nonreducing sugars; ascorbic acid; total pectin, soluble pectins and percentage of pectin solubilization; polymeric, oligomeric and dimeric phenolics; total anthocyanins, carotenoids and chlorophyll; and yellow flavonoids. Along fruit ripening processes increases in SS, anthocyanins and carotenoids, in the SS/TA ratio and of percentages of pectin solubilization were determined. On the other hand, decreases in TA and total chlorophyll were observed. The ripening stage at which peel color is completely dark red (ripening stage 4 is most appropriate to harvest myrtle fruits for human consumption.

  15. Parthenocarpic fruit development in Capsicum annuum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiwari, A.

    2011-01-01

    Key words: Parthenocarpy, Capsicum, fruit set, hormones, cell division, cell expansion,

    auxin, gibberellin, temperature, carpel-like structures, genotype

    Parthenocarpy (fruit set without fertilization) is a much desired trait in sweet pepper

    (Capsicum

  16. Ionizing energy treatment of fruit and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigney, C.J.

    1983-01-01

    The potential of ionising energy treatment of fresh fruit and vegetables may be considered within four major use areas. The shelf life of such fruits as bananas, mangoes and pawpaws can be extended by a direct physiological effect on the fruit. This treatment renders the fruit less sensitive to ethylene, a natural senescence-promoting chemical, and retards the onset of the climactric rise in respiration which is associated with fruit ripening. Postharvest decay caused by radio-sensitive organisms can also be controlled by low irradiation treatments, although this is only applicable in cases where the host fruit is less sensitive to the treatment than the decay causing organism. The sprouting of onions and potatoes can be controlled by a single low dose treatment which has a direct effect on the meristematic tissue. By killing insects of quarantine significance the interstate and export marketing of Australian fresh fruit may be expanded, with a consequent expansion of these horticultural industries. Ionising energy treatment of fruit and vegetables is therefore a valuable postharvest tool to improve the quality of fresh produce on local and export markets

  17. World temperate fruit production: characteristics and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge B. Retamales

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last 30 years world population has increased 70% but per capita global fruit consumption is only 20% higher. Even though tropical and temperate fruit have similar contributions to the 50 kg/person/year of US consumption of fresh fruit, in the last 30 years this has been slightly greater for temperate fruit. Within fruit consumption, the largest expansion has been for organic fruit which increased more than 50% in the 2002-2006 period. The largest expansion of area planted in the 1996-2006 has been for kiwi (29% and blueberries (20%, while apples (-24% and sour cherries (-13% have had the largest reductions. Nearly 50% of the total global volume of fruit is produced by 5 countries: China, USA, Brazil, Italy and Spain. The main producer (China accounts for 23% of the total. While the main exporters are Spain, USA and Italy, the main importers are Germany, Russia and UK. Demands for the industry have evolved towards quality, food safety and traceability. The industry faces higher productions costs (labor, energy, agrichemicals. The retailers are moving towards consolidation while the customers are changing preferences (food for health. In this context there is greater pressure on growers, processors and retailers. Emerging issues are labor supply, climate change, water availability and sustainability. Recent developments in precision agriculture, molecular biology, phenomics, crop modelling and post harvest physiology should increase yields and quality, and reduce costs for temperate fruit production around the world.

  18. Consumption patterns and demographic factors influence on fruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The consumption pattern variables (Table 3) of the different fruit juice classifications were ..... Elepu G, Nabisubi J, Sserunkuuma D. Segmentation of processed fruit juice consumers in urban .... Liquid fruit market report. [homepage on the ...

  19. FCDD: A Database for Fruit Crops Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Rupal; Jasrai, Yogesh; Pandya, Himanshu; Chaudhari, Suman; Samota, Chand Mal

    2014-01-01

    Fruit Crops Diseases Database (FCDD) requires a number of biotechnology and bioinformatics tools. The FCDD is a unique bioinformatics resource that compiles information about 162 details on fruit crops diseases, diseases type, its causal organism, images, symptoms and their control. The FCDD contains 171 phytochemicals from 25 fruits, their 2D images and their 20 possible sequences. This information has been manually extracted and manually verified from numerous sources, including other electronic databases, textbooks and scientific journals. FCDD is fully searchable and supports extensive text search. The main focus of the FCDD is on providing possible information of fruit crops diseases, which will help in discovery of potential drugs from one of the common bioresource-fruits. The database was developed using MySQL. The database interface is developed in PHP, HTML and JAVA. FCDD is freely available. http://www.fruitcropsdd.com/

  20. FRUIT QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME BLUEBERRY GENOTYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Ancu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In Romania the blueberry breeding program started in 1982 and till now was conducted by dr. Paulina Mladin. For inducing the variability, different genetic resources of American blueberry cultivars (V. corymbosum, V. angustifolium were involved in a high number of crosses. For identify the genotype with the best fruit quality, some biometric quality indicators (average fruit weight, size index and basically chemical compounds of fruits including ascorbic acid, dry matter, ash, soluble solids, total sugar, titratable acidity, tanoid substances, pectic substances, protein crude, phosphorus and potassium were determined. Of the eleven chemical studied properties who reflected the fruits quality, for five of them were found no statistically significant differences. The purpose of this paper work was to evaluate fruit quality and to identify the valuable genotypes resulted from Romanian blueberry breeding program.

  1. Fruit Sorting Using Fuzzy Logic Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elamvazuthi, Irraivan; Sinnadurai, Rajendran; Aftab Ahmed Khan, Mohamed Khan; Vasant, Pandian

    2009-08-01

    Fruit and vegetables market is getting highly selective, requiring their suppliers to distribute the goods according to very strict standards of quality and presentation. In the last years, a number of fruit sorting and grading systems have appeared to fulfill the needs of the fruit processing industry. However, most of them are overly complex and too costly for the small and medium scale industry (SMIs) in Malaysia. In order to address these shortcomings, a prototype machine was developed by integrating the fruit sorting, labeling and packing processes. To realise the prototype, many design issues were dealt with. Special attention is paid to the electronic weighing sub-system for measuring weight, and the opto-electronic sub-system for determining the height and width of the fruits. Specifically, this paper discusses the application of fuzzy logic techniques in the sorting process.

  2. Cacao seeds are a "Super Fruit": A comparative analysis of various fruit powders and products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, Stephen J; Preston, Amy G; Hurst, Jeffrey W; Payne, Mark J; Mann, Julie; Hainly, Larry; Miller, Debra L

    2011-02-07

    Numerous popular media sources have developed lists of "Super Foods" and, more recently, "Super Fruits". Such distinctions often are based on the antioxidant capacity and content of naturally occurring compounds such as polyphenols within those whole fruits or juices of the fruit which may be linked to potential health benefits. Cocoa powder and chocolate are made from an extract of the seeds of the fruit of the Theobroma cacao tree. In this study, we compared cocoa powder and cocoa products to powders and juices derived from fruits commonly considered "Super Fruits". Various fruit powders and retail fruit products were obtained and analyzed for antioxidant capacity (ORAC (μM TE/g)), total polyphenol content (TP (mg/g)), and total flavanol content (TF (mg/g)). Among the various powders that were tested, cocoa powder was the most concentrated source of ORAC and TF. Similarly, dark chocolate was a significantly more concentrated source of ORAC and TF than the fruit juices. Cocoa powder and dark chocolate had equivalent or significantly greater ORAC, TP, and TF values compared to the other fruit powders and juices tested, respectively. Cacao seeds thus provide nutritive value beyond that derived from their macronutrient composition and appear to meet the popular media's definition of a "Super Fruit".

  3. Cacao seeds are a "Super Fruit": A comparative analysis of various fruit powders and products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mann Julie

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous popular media sources have developed lists of "Super Foods" and, more recently, "Super Fruits". Such distinctions often are based on the antioxidant capacity and content of naturally occurring compounds such as polyphenols within those whole fruits or juices of the fruit which may be linked to potential health benefits. Cocoa powder and chocolate are made from an extract of the seeds of the fruit of the Theobroma cacao tree. In this study, we compared cocoa powder and cocoa products to powders and juices derived from fruits commonly considered "Super Fruits". Results Various fruit powders and retail fruit products were obtained and analyzed for antioxidant capacity (ORAC (μM TE/g, total polyphenol content (TP (mg/g, and total flavanol content (TF (mg/g. Among the various powders that were tested, cocoa powder was the most concentrated source of ORAC and TF. Similarly, dark chocolate was a significantly more concentrated source of ORAC and TF than the fruit juices. Conclusions Cocoa powder and dark chocolate had equivalent or significantly greater ORAC, TP, and TF values compared to the other fruit powders and juices tested, respectively. Cacao seeds thus provide nutritive value beyond that derived from their macronutrient composition and appear to meet the popular media's definition of a "Super Fruit".

  4. Cacao seeds are a "Super Fruit": A comparative analysis of various fruit powders and products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Numerous popular media sources have developed lists of "Super Foods" and, more recently, "Super Fruits". Such distinctions often are based on the antioxidant capacity and content of naturally occurring compounds such as polyphenols within those whole fruits or juices of the fruit which may be linked to potential health benefits. Cocoa powder and chocolate are made from an extract of the seeds of the fruit of the Theobroma cacao tree. In this study, we compared cocoa powder and cocoa products to powders and juices derived from fruits commonly considered "Super Fruits". Results Various fruit powders and retail fruit products were obtained and analyzed for antioxidant capacity (ORAC (μM TE/g)), total polyphenol content (TP (mg/g)), and total flavanol content (TF (mg/g)). Among the various powders that were tested, cocoa powder was the most concentrated source of ORAC and TF. Similarly, dark chocolate was a significantly more concentrated source of ORAC and TF than the fruit juices. Conclusions Cocoa powder and dark chocolate had equivalent or significantly greater ORAC, TP, and TF values compared to the other fruit powders and juices tested, respectively. Cacao seeds thus provide nutritive value beyond that derived from their macronutrient composition and appear to meet the popular media's definition of a "Super Fruit". PMID:21299842

  5. Radioactivity of some dried fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmedova, G.; Mamatkulov, O.B.; Hushmuradov, Sh.H.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Radioactivity radiation from natural and artificial sources often acts at the same time in complicated combinations and without exception on all inhabitants of our planet. Natural and artificial radioactive isotopes pass into living organism by biological chain: soil-water-air-plants-foodstuffs-person and can be sources of inside irradiation. Accumulation of radionuclides in living organism in large quantities limit permissible concentration (LPC) can lead to pathological changes in organism. With above mentioned at the radioecological investigations, researches and control of changes of radionuclides concentration in environmental objects have important interests. Investigations of determination of radioactivity of environmental objects, which began in 1960 by professor Muso Muminov are continued in the department of nuclear physics of Samarkand State University. We work out semiconducting gamma-spectrometric method of determination of radionuclides concentration in weak -active environmental samples. We investigated radioactivity of different samples of natural environment and generalized results. In this work the results of investigation of radioactivity of same dried fruits are presented. The spectra of γ-radiation of following dried fruits as grapes, apricot, apple and peach was investigated. In measured gamma-radiation spectra of these samples gamma-transitions of 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K natural radionuclides and product of 137 Cs division. The specific gamma-activities these radionuclides were determined. The 40 K have most specific activity and 137 Cs - least. The calculated quantities of specific gamma-activity of radionuclides in gamma-spectra of investigated samples can replace to following row: 40 K > 232 Th > 226 Ra > 137 Cs

  6. Fruits, vegetables, 100% juices, and cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamport, Daniel J; Saunders, Caroline; Butler, Laurie T; Spencer, Jeremy Pe

    2014-12-01

    Although reviews of the association between polyphenol intake and cognition exist, research examining the cognitive effects of fruit, vegetable, and juice consumption across epidemiological and intervention studies has not been previously examined. For the present review, critical inclusion criteria were human participants, a measure of fruit, vegetable, or 100% juice consumption, an objective measure of cognitive function, and a clinical diagnosis of neuropsychological disease. Studies were excluded if consumption of fruits, vegetables, or juice was not assessed in isolation from other food groups, or if there was no statistical control for education or IQ. Seventeen of 19 epidemiological studies and 3 of 6 intervention studies reported significant benefits of fruit, vegetable, or juice consumption for cognitive performance. The data suggest that chronic consumption of fruits, vegetables, and juices is beneficial for cognition in healthy older adults. The limited data from acute interventions indicate that consumption of fruit juices can have immediate benefits for memory function in adults with mild cognitive impairment; however, as of yet, acute benefits have not been observed in healthy adults. Conclusions regarding an optimum dietary intake for fruits, vegetables, and juices are difficult to quantify because of substantial heterogeneity in the categorization of consumption of these foods. © 2014 International Life Sciences Institute.

  7. Genomics-assisted breeding in fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Minamikawa, Mai F; Kajiya-Kanegae, Hiromi; Ishimori, Motoyuki; Hayashi, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Recent advancements in genomic analysis technologies have opened up new avenues to promote the efficiency of plant breeding. Novel genomics-based approaches for plant breeding and genetics research, such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and genomic selection (GS), are useful, especially in fruit tree breeding. The breeding of fruit trees is hindered by their long generation time, large plant size, long juvenile phase, and the necessity to wait for the physiological maturity of the plant to assess the marketable product (fruit). In this article, we describe the potential of genomics-assisted breeding, which uses these novel genomics-based approaches, to break through these barriers in conventional fruit tree breeding. We first introduce the molecular marker systems and whole-genome sequence data that are available for fruit tree breeding. Next we introduce the statistical methods for biparental linkage and quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping as well as GWAS and GS. We then review QTL mapping, GWAS, and GS studies conducted on fruit trees. We also review novel technologies for rapid generation advancement. Finally, we note the future prospects of genomics-assisted fruit tree breeding and problems that need to be overcome in the breeding.

  8. Fruit evolution and diversification in campanulid angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Jeremy M; Donoghue, Michael J

    2013-11-01

    With increases in both the size and scope of phylogenetic trees, we are afforded a renewed opportunity to address long-standing comparative questions, such as whether particular fruit characters account for much of the variation in diversity among flowering plant clades. Studies to date have reported conflicting results, largely as a consequence of taxonomic scale and a reliance on potentially conservative statistical measures. Here we examine a larger and older angiosperm clade, the Campanulidae, and infer the rates of character transitions among the major fruit types, emphasizing the evolution of the achene fruits that are most frequently observed within the group. Our analyses imply that campanulids likely originated bearing capsules, and that all subsequent fruit diversity was derived from various modifications of this dry fruit type. We also found that the preponderance of lineages bearing achenes is a consequence of not only being a fruit type that is somewhat irreversible once it evolves, but one that also seems to have a positive association with diversification rates. Although these results imply the achene fruit type is a significant correlate of diversity patterns observed across campanulids, we conclude that it remains difficult to confidently and directly view this character state as the actual cause of increased diversification rates. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  9. [Nutrition value of tropical and subtropical fruits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubtsov, G G; Bessonov, V V; Baĭkov, V G; Makhova, N N; Sheviakova, L V; Bogachuk, M N; Baĭgarin, E K; Iao Bru, Lazar

    2013-01-01

    The article is devoted to the study of the chemical composition of tropical and subtropical fruit (avocado, papaya and mango), which are now in great numbers are on the appeared on the Russian market. Due to use technology tropical and subtropical fruits can be implemented in almost all areas and regions of the country. Relatively low cost makes these products quite popular among the people. In domestic scientific literature there are no systematic data describing the chemical composition of these tropical and subtropical fruits sold in the domestic market, while the information needed to calculate food and energy value of diets and culinary products derived from tropical and subtropical fruit. Avocado fruits are sources of insoluble dietary fiber content of which was equal to 12.2%, as well as minerals. The study of the fatty acid composition of lipids avocados showed high content of oleic acid fruit, which accounts for 53.2% of total fatty acids in these fruits. Which makes them a valuable source of unsaturated fatty acids.

  10. Model-assisted analysis of spatial and temporal variations in fruit temperature and transpiration highlighting the role of fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordey, Thibault; Léchaudel, Mathieu; Saudreau, Marc; Joas, Jacques; Génard, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Fruit physiology is strongly affected by both fruit temperature and water losses through transpiration. Fruit temperature and its transpiration vary with environmental factors and fruit characteristics. In line with previous studies, measurements of physical and thermal fruit properties were found to significantly vary between fruit tissues and maturity stages. To study the impact of these variations on fruit temperature and transpiration, a modelling approach was used. A physical model was developed to predict the spatial and temporal variations of fruit temperature and transpiration according to the spatial and temporal variations of environmental factors and thermal and physical fruit properties. Model predictions compared well to temperature measurements on mango fruits, making it possible to accurately simulate the daily temperature variations of the sunny and shaded sides of fruits. Model simulations indicated that fruit development induced an increase in both the temperature gradient within the fruit and fruit water losses, mainly due to fruit expansion. However, the evolution of fruit characteristics has only a very slight impact on the average temperature and the transpiration per surface unit. The importance of temperature and transpiration gradients highlighted in this study made it necessary to take spatial and temporal variations of environmental factors and fruit characteristics into account to model fruit physiology.

  11. 76 FR 43804 - Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... dorsalis), peach fruit fly (Anastrepha zonata), and sapote fruit fly (Anastrepha serpentina) in the... obliqua, Anastrepha serpentina, and Anastrepha striata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Mexico. J. Econ. Entomol...

  12. Model-assisted analysis of spatial and temporal variations in fruit temperature and transpiration highlighting the role of fruit development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibault Nordey

    Full Text Available Fruit physiology is strongly affected by both fruit temperature and water losses through transpiration. Fruit temperature and its transpiration vary with environmental factors and fruit characteristics. In line with previous studies, measurements of physical and thermal fruit properties were found to significantly vary between fruit tissues and maturity stages. To study the impact of these variations on fruit temperature and transpiration, a modelling approach was used. A physical model was developed to predict the spatial and temporal variations of fruit temperature and transpiration according to the spatial and temporal variations of environmental factors and thermal and physical fruit properties. Model predictions compared well to temperature measurements on mango fruits, making it possible to accurately simulate the daily temperature variations of the sunny and shaded sides of fruits. Model simulations indicated that fruit development induced an increase in both the temperature gradient within the fruit and fruit water losses, mainly due to fruit expansion. However, the evolution of fruit characteristics has only a very slight impact on the average temperature and the transpiration per surface unit. The importance of temperature and transpiration gradients highlighted in this study made it necessary to take spatial and temporal variations of environmental factors and fruit characteristics into account to model fruit physiology.

  13. Satisfying America's Fruit Gap: Summary of an Expert Roundtable on the Role of 100% Fruit Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Fulgoni, Victor L; Murray, Robert; Pivonka, Elizabeth; Wallace, Taylor C

    2017-07-01

    The 2015 to 2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGAs) recognize the role of 100% fruit juice in health and in helping people meet daily fruit recommendations and state that 100% fruit juice is a nutrient-dense beverage that should be a primary choice, along with water and low-fat/fat-free milk. The DGAs note that children are consuming 100% fruit juice within recommendations (that is, 120 to 180 mL/d for children aged 1 to 6 y and 236 to 355 mL/d for children aged 7 to 18 y). Evidence shows that compared to nonconsumers, those who consume 100% fruit juice come closer to meeting daily fruit needs and have better diet quality. In children, 100% fruit juice is associated with increased intakes of nutrients such as vitamin C, folate, and potassium. When consumed within the DGA recommendations, 100% fruit juice is not associated with overweight/obesity or childhood dental caries and does not compromise fiber intake. Preliminary data suggest that polyphenols in some 100% fruit juices may inhibit absorption of naturally occurring sugars. Given its role in promoting health and in helping people meet fruit needs, experts participating in a roundtable discussion agreed that there is no science-based reason to restrict access to 100% fruit juice in public health nutrition policy and programs such as the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Reducing or eliminating 100% fruit juice could lead to unintended consequences such as reduced daily fruit intake and increased consumption of less nutritious beverages (for example, sugar-sweetened beverages). © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  14. Modelling Chemical Preservation of Plantain Hybrid Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogueri Nwaiwu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available New plantain hybrids plants have been developed but not much has been done on the post-harvest keeping quality of the fruits and how they are affected by microbial colonization. Hence fruits from a tetraploid hybrid PITA 2 (TMPx 548-9 obtained by crossing plantain varieties Obino l’Ewai and Calcutta 4 (AA and two local triploid (AAB plantain landraces Agbagba and Obino l’Ewai were subjected to various concentrations of acetic, sorbic and propionic acid to determine the impact of chemical concentration, chemical type and plantain variety on ripening and weight loss of plantain fruits. Analysis of titratable acidity, moisture content and total soluble solids showed that there were no significant differences between fruits of hybrid and local varieties. The longest time to ripening from harvest (24 days was achieved with fruits of Agbagba treated with 3% propionic acid. However, fruits of PITA 2 hybrid treated with propionic and sorbic acid at 3% showed the longest green life which indicated that the chemicals may work better at higher concentrations. The Obino l’Ewai cultivar had the highest weight loss for all chemical types used. Modelling data obtained showed that plantain variety had the most significant effect on ripening and indicates that ripening of the fruits may depend on the plantain variety. It appears that weight loss of fruits from the plantain hybrid and local cultivars was not affected by the plantain variety, chemical type. The chemicals at higher concentrations may have an effect on ripening of the fruits and will need further investigation.

  15. Radiation preservation of dry fruits and nuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jan, M.; Sattar, A.; Ahmad, W.A.; Khan, I.

    1990-06-01

    Present studies were conducted to investigate insect infestation and oxidative changes of packaging materials. Dry fruits and nuts such as apricots, dates raisins, almonds, pinenuts and walnuts were used for these experiments. Insect infestation and other physico-chemical parameters were used for quality evaluation of the stored dry fruits and nuts. The effect of irradiation and polyethylene (PE) thickness on the over all acceptance of dry fruits on their color, texture, taste and flavor were evaluated. Radiation treatment and low temperature independently inhibited insect infestation during storage. (A.B.)

  16. [Study on Flavonoids in Buddleja lindleyana Fruits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hao; Ren, Ya-shuo; Wu, De-ling; Xu, Feng-qing; Zhang, Wei

    2015-04-01

    To study the flavonoids in the fruits of Buddleja lindleyana. The compounds were separated by repeated silica gel, RP-18 and Sephadex LH-20. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of chemical evidence and spectral data. Five flavonoids were isolated and identified as luteolin (1), tricin (2), acacetin (3), acacetin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (4) and linarin(5). Compounds 3,4 and 5 are isolated from fruits of Buddleja lindleyana for the first time. Compound 2 is isolated from fruits of Buddleja lindleyana for the first time.

  17. [Star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) toxic encephalopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signaté, A; Olindo, S; Chausson, N; Cassinoto, C; Edimo Nana, M; Saint Vil, M; Cabre, P; Smadja, D

    2009-03-01

    Ingestion of star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) can induce severe intoxication in subjects with chronic renal failure. Oxalate plays a key role in the neurotoxicity of star fruit. We report the cases of two patients with unknown chronic renal insufficiency who developed severe encephalopathy after ingestion of star fruit. The two patients developed intractable hiccups, vomiting, impaired consciousness and status epilepticus. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging showed cortical and thalamic hyperintense lesions related to epileptic status. They improved after being submitted to continuous hemofiltration which constitutes the most effective treatment during the acute phase.

  18. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part V. Temperate fruits: pome fruits, stone fruits, and berries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.

    1986-01-01

    The current status of research on the application of ionizing radiation for improving the storage of temperate fruits, i.e., apple, pear, peach, nectarine, apricot, cherry, plum, strawberry, bilberry, cranberry, raspberry, and black currant, is reviewed. Changes in fruit metabolism, chemical composition, texture, and organoleptic quality attributes are discussed with reference to the irradiation dose. The feasibility of using radiation either alone or in conjunction with heat treatment, refrigeration, and controlled atmospheres (CA) for the control of storage decay caused by fungal pathogens is considered. Areas of further research are suggested before irradiation could be considered for practical application in some of these temperate fruits. The recent trends in the possible use of irradiation for disinfestation of certain pome and stone fruits and the prospects for the commercial utilization of irradiation for improving the market life of strawberries are discussed. 156 references

  19. Radioactivity distribution in each part of the fruit trees from radioactive fall out (8). Prediction of peach fruit radiocaesium concentration by thinning fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takata, Daisuke; Yasunaga, Eriko; Sato, Mamoru; Abe, Kazuhiro; Kobayashi, Natsuko I.; Tanoi, Keitaro

    2014-01-01

    To explore the predictability of radiocaesium concentration in the mature peach fruits based on the radiocaesium concentration in the young superfluous fruits picked at the fruit thinning period, the change in the radiocaesium concentration as well as potassium ("4"0K) in peach fruits associated with fruit growth was monitored during the second year after the accident of the nuclear power plant in Fukushima. Radiocaesium concentration was found to be highest in the fruit 15 days after the full bloom stage, followed by the gradual decrease before harvest. In addition, variation of radiocaesium and "4"0K concentration with time was shown to be different in leaves and fruits. Finally, the young fruits 60 days after the full bloom date and the ripe fruits were taken from 24 orchards in Fukushima to compare their radiocaesium levels. The predictability of radiocaesium concentration and some considerations for practical use are discussed. (author)

  20. Global gene expression analysis of apple fruit development from the floral bud to ripe fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McArtney Steve

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apple fruit develop over a period of 150 days from anthesis to fully ripe. An array representing approximately 13000 genes (15726 oligonucleotides of 45–55 bases designed from apple ESTs has been used to study gene expression over eight time points during fruit development. This analysis of gene expression lays the groundwork for a molecular understanding of fruit growth and development in apple. Results Using ANOVA analysis of the microarray data, 1955 genes showed significant changes in expression over this time course. Expression of genes is coordinated with four major patterns of expression observed: high in floral buds; high during cell division; high when starch levels and cell expansion rates peak; and high during ripening. Functional analysis associated cell cycle genes with early fruit development and three core cell cycle genes are significantly up-regulated in the early stages of fruit development. Starch metabolic genes were associated with changes in starch levels during fruit development. Comparison with microarrays of ethylene-treated apple fruit identified a group of ethylene induced genes also induced in normal fruit ripening. Comparison with fruit development microarrays in tomato has been used to identify 16 genes for which expression patterns are similar in apple and tomato and these genes may play fundamental roles in fruit development. The early phase of cell division and tissue specification that occurs in the first 35 days after pollination has been associated with up-regulation of a cluster of genes that includes core cell cycle genes. Conclusion Gene expression in apple fruit is coordinated with specific developmental stages. The array results are reproducible and comparisons with experiments in other species has been used to identify genes that may play a fundamental role in fruit development.

  1. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN YIELD AND FRUIT QUALITY OF PASSION FRUIT C03 PROGENIES UNDER DIFFERENT NUTRITIONAL LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS LACY SANTOS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study was conducted to evaluate different fertilization-management strategies in ten progenies of passion fruit from the third recurrent selection cycle and their effects on yield and fruit-quality traits. For this purpose, we adopted the strategy of correlations analysis, using the phenotypic and path correlations in different environmental conditions characterized by three levels of fertilization. The trial was set up as a randomized-block design in a split-plot arrangement with progenies representing the plots and three levels of potassium-nitrogen fertilization as the sub-plots, with three replicates. Path analysis showed that number of fruits was the variable of highest correlation with fruit diameter at fertilization I. Fruit weight and pulp weight were correlated with each other and with other traits like fruit length and fruit diameter at the three fertilization levels, except for number of fruits, which was correlated with nitrogen and potassium only at fertilization II. Path analysis also revealed that fruit diameter (3.125 showed the highest direct effect on yield at fertilization I. However, fruit weight and number of fruits showed, at fertilization II, the highest direct effects of 2.964 and 1.134 on yield, respectively, and number of fruits had a high phenotypic correlation and direct effect on yield at the three fertilization levels: 0.528 at fertilization I; 2.206 at fertilization II; and 0.928 at fertilization III. The results demonstrate the greater direct effect obtained with fertilization II, suggesting that the level adopted at fertilization II can provide satisfactory gains in yield and is thus recommended for the population in question.

  2. Serbia on the international fruit market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorović Milutin T.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains a comparative analysis of some of the most important indicators of both global and domestic fruit market. It shows the results of a study on the volume, dynamics and the structure of production, as well as the trade of fruit at the global level, that is continents and some countries. It also defines leading producers, trends in the international trade, and leading exporters and importers of these products. Besides, it analyses the position of Serbia in the international fruit market based on the spectre of the aforementioned criteria. Subsequently, balances, structure and regional trends in Serbian foreign trade exchange of fresh and processed fruit has been analyzed. Additionally, attention has been focused on the requirements, possibilities, measures and development trends of domestic production and export of analyzed products. .

  3. Smart Shopping for Veggies and Fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... make it easier to pass on the tempting snack foods. You’ll have more of your food budget for vegetables and fruits. Try canned or frozen Compare the price and the number of servings from fresh, canned, ...

  4. Enhanced Preservation of Fruits Using Nanotechnology (CIFSRF ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Taking new technologies to market Research on scaling up will identify suitable, ... volumes of fruits -packaging for different market requirements -extending the ... A new IDRC-supported project will help improve water conservation and use for ...

  5. Anthocyanin analyses of Vaccinium fruit dietary supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccinium fruit ingredients within dietary supplements were identified by comparisons with anthocyanin analyses of known Vaccinium profiles (demonstration of anthocyanin fingerprinting). Available Vaccinium supplements were purchased and analyzed; their anthocyanin profiles (based on HPLC separation...

  6. Pineapple Fruit Collapse: Newly Emerging Disease of Pineapple Fruit in Lampung, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Prasetyo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Pineapple fruit collapse: newly emerging disease of pineapple fruit in Lampung, Indonesia Recently, a new disease on pineapple fruit has occurred in Lampung. Symptoms of the disease are complex. Fruits rotted and exuded copious liquid from the inter- fruitlet tissues accompanied by gas bubbles. Open spaces were formed inside the rotten fruit. Dissection of diseased fruit showed many cavities within its sceletal fibres and bad odour was exerted from the rotten tissues. A bacterial entity was isolated  from the diseased materials. In a pathogenicity test, the isolated bacteria caused the same symptom as mentioned. In the growing-on test the crown of the heavily infected fruit  showed  heart rot symptom.  Those  indicated that the disease was pineapple fruit collapse. Both symptoms were known related to the same causal agent, Erwinia chrysanthemi (pineapple strain Dickeya sp.. In our opinion, this is the first report of pineapple fruit collapse in Indonesia.

  7. Report about star fruit fruits damaged by Amazona albifrons Sparman, in Tabasco, Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saúl Sánchez-Soto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine, the animal species causing damage to inmature fruits of Averrhoa carambola, in a home garden. The study was conducted in a home garden with two star fruit trees in Cardenas, Tabasco, Mexico (18°00’10.9’’ N, 93°25’52.2’’ W. The loss of fruits was registered from June 21st to August 2nd, 2015 based on weekly evaluations. 12 637 fruits were toppled by the bird Amazona albifrons Sparman (Psitaciformes: Psittacidae, which is distributed from Mexico to Costa Rica.

  8. FRUITFUL: Integrated supply-chain information system for fruit produce between South Africa and the Netherlands

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Polderijk, JJ

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available and improved quality performance, which would strengthen the market position of South-African fruit and that of related fruit supply 130 J.J. POLDERDIJK ET AL. chains on the world market. As a result of this, stakeholders in the fruit export supply chain... choice between an overarching system that would replace existing systems and a decentralized system focusing on interfaces between existing facilities. SOUTH-AFRICAN FRUIT EXPORT INDUSTRY South Africa’s climate and soil condition provide ideal...

  9. Becquerel in raw fruit and vegetables?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilgeist, M.

    1989-01-01

    After a general introduction and definition of the basic terms, the quantity of radionuclides of natural and artificial origin in our environment is shown. The specific activity of Cs-134 and Cs-137 in fruit and vegetables before and after the accident in Chernobyl is demonstrated. Finally, the quantity of the radioactivity consumed by the human being with fruit and vegetable is compared with the values of the total food consumption. (orig./HP) [de

  10. High hydrostatic pressure processing of tropical fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Maria Lúcia M; Valente Mesquita, Vera L; Chiaradia, Ana Cristina N; Fernandes, Antônio Alberto R; Fernandes, Patricia M B

    2010-02-01

    Interest in the nonthermal method of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) for food preservation has increased recently due to the possibility of inactivating microorganisms and enzymes while maintaining product sensorial and nutritional properties. This work deals with HHP use for the preservation of tropical fruit products. HHP is shown to be a practical approach to obtaining high-quality tropical fruit products that are both nutritive and safe.

  11. Proteome regulation during Olea europaea fruit development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Bianco

    Full Text Available Widespread in the Mediterranean basin, Olea europaea trees are gaining worldwide popularity for the nutritional and cancer-protective properties of the oil, mechanically extracted from ripe fruits. Fruit development is a physiological process with remarkable impact on the modulation of the biosynthesis of compounds affecting the quality of the drupes as well as the final composition of the olive oil. Proteomics offers the possibility to dig deeper into the major changes during fruit development, including the important phase of ripening, and to classify temporal patterns of protein accumulation occurring during these complex physiological processes.In this work, we started monitoring the proteome variations associated with olive fruit development by using comparative proteomics coupled to mass spectrometry. Proteins extracted from drupes at three different developmental stages were separated on 2-DE and subjected to image analysis. 247 protein spots were revealed as differentially accumulated. Proteins were identified from a total of 121 spots and discussed in relation to olive drupe metabolic changes occurring during fruit development. In order to evaluate if changes observed at the protein level were consistent with changes of mRNAs, proteomic data produced in the present work were compared with transcriptomic data elaborated during previous studies.This study identifies a number of proteins responsible for quality traits of cv. Coratina, with particular regard to proteins associated to the metabolism of fatty acids, phenolic and aroma compounds. Proteins involved in fruit photosynthesis have been also identified and their pivotal contribution in oleogenesis has been discussed. To date, this study represents the first characterization of the olive fruit proteome during development, providing new insights into fruit metabolism and oil accumulation process.

  12. Dehydration of core/shell fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Y.; Yang, Xiaosong; Cao, Y.; Wang, Z.; Chen, B.; Zhang, Jian J.; Zhang, H.

    2015-01-01

    Dehydrated core/shell fruits, such as jujubes, raisins and plums, show very complex buckles and wrinkles on their exocarp. It is a challenging task to model such complicated patterns and their evolution in a virtual environment even for professional animators. This paper presents a unified physically-based approach to simulate the morphological transformation for the core/shell fruits in the dehydration process. A finite element method (FEM), which is based on the multiplicative decomposition...

  13. Proteome regulation during Olea europaea fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Linda; Alagna, Fiammetta; Baldoni, Luciana; Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte; Perrotta, Gaetano

    2013-01-01

    Widespread in the Mediterranean basin, Olea europaea trees are gaining worldwide popularity for the nutritional and cancer-protective properties of the oil, mechanically extracted from ripe fruits. Fruit development is a physiological process with remarkable impact on the modulation of the biosynthesis of compounds affecting the quality of the drupes as well as the final composition of the olive oil. Proteomics offers the possibility to dig deeper into the major changes during fruit development, including the important phase of ripening, and to classify temporal patterns of protein accumulation occurring during these complex physiological processes. In this work, we started monitoring the proteome variations associated with olive fruit development by using comparative proteomics coupled to mass spectrometry. Proteins extracted from drupes at three different developmental stages were separated on 2-DE and subjected to image analysis. 247 protein spots were revealed as differentially accumulated. Proteins were identified from a total of 121 spots and discussed in relation to olive drupe metabolic changes occurring during fruit development. In order to evaluate if changes observed at the protein level were consistent with changes of mRNAs, proteomic data produced in the present work were compared with transcriptomic data elaborated during previous studies. This study identifies a number of proteins responsible for quality traits of cv. Coratina, with particular regard to proteins associated to the metabolism of fatty acids, phenolic and aroma compounds. Proteins involved in fruit photosynthesis have been also identified and their pivotal contribution in oleogenesis has been discussed. To date, this study represents the first characterization of the olive fruit proteome during development, providing new insights into fruit metabolism and oil accumulation process.

  14. Genomics-assisted breeding in fruit trees

    OpenAIRE

    Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Minamikawa, Mai F.; Kajiya-Kanegae, Hiromi; Ishimori, Motoyuki; Hayashi, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Recent advancements in genomic analysis technologies have opened up new avenues to promote the efficiency of plant breeding. Novel genomics-based approaches for plant breeding and genetics research, such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and genomic selection (GS), are useful, especially in fruit tree breeding. The breeding of fruit trees is hindered by their long generation time, large plant size, long juvenile phase, and the necessity to wait for the physiological maturity of the pl...

  15. An overview of quarantine for fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frampton, E.R.

    2000-01-01

    What is meant by 'quarantine for fruit flies'? The Collins dictionary describes 'quarantine' as a period of isolation or detention, especially of persons or animals arriving from abroad, to prevent the spread of disease. In providing an overview of quarantine for fruit flies, a broader definition needs to be applied, that is, the combination of activities required to maintain the fruit fly status of a particular geographical area - perhaps better referred to as a 'quarantine system'. Familiarity with New Zealand's quarantine system for fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) provides a useful basis for subsequent comparison with other countries' systems where some fruit fly species may be present. But, why have 'quarantine for fruit flies'? The multivoltine life history of many species. combined with a relatively long-lived adult stage and highly fecund females, results in a high potential for rapid population increase (Bateman 1979, Fletcher 1987). These factors and the close association of fruit flies with harvested fruit or vegetables explain the high quarantine profile of these insects. However, there is no international requirement for a country to have a quarantine system and unless there are natural quarantine barriers (e.g., mountain range, oceans, deserts) that can be utilised, effective quarantine by an individual country may be an impossible task. The implementation of a successful quarantine system is very expensive and therefore, it would be expected that any benefits attained outweigh the costs (Ivess 1998). Ivess (1998) listed the following benefits from the implementation of an effective quarantine system: minimising production costs (including post harvest treatments), maintaining competitive advantages for market access due to the ongoing freedom from particular pests of quarantine significance, an environment free from many pests harmful to plant health, the maintenance of ecosystems

  16. Investigation of fruit irradiation: bibliographical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna C, P.C.

    1991-01-01

    It was carried out a bibliographical review that embraces the years 1984-1987, on the relating works to the irradiation of some fruits like the apple, date, peach, plum, cherry, papaya, grape, banana, pear and strawberry. The purpose is to have a reference on the doses and the conditions used by several investigators for some fruits, as for its disinfestation and extension of shelf life. (Author)

  17. Trichoderma rot on ‘Fallglo’ Tangerine Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    In September 2009, brown rot symptoms were observed on ‘Fallglo’ fruit after 7 weeks of storage. Fourteen days prior to harvest, fruit were treated by dipping into one of four different fungicide solutions. Control fruit were dipped in tap water. After harvest, the fruit were degreened with 5 ppm et...

  18. Understanding the effects of slip pruning on pineapple fruit quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fassinou Hotegni, V.N.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Agbossou, E.K.; Struik, P.C.

    2016-01-01

    Pineapple fruit quality is important especially when fruits are exported to international markets. Fruits should meet minimum requirements such as a weight of at least 0.7 kg, a ratio between the crown length and infructescence (fruit without the crown) length ranging from 0.5 to 1.5, and a Brix

  19. 9578 influence of fruit maturity on antioxidant potential and chilling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mimi

    Fruits harvested earlier (OHD-7) recorded the highest ... associated with fruit consumption, the production and sale of fruits is a source of ... inducing CI resistance in carbon dioxide (CO2) treated peach fruits stored at 7 oC for ..... is used as a signal to trigger other defence mechanisms in plants, sometimes protecting.

  20. Evaluation of the postharvest quality of Cagaita fruits ( Eugenia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cagaita fruits are subject to seasonality and perishability. This work aims to use scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics, texture, color and physical structure of cagaita fruits coated with different chitosan concentrations. The fruits were divided as follows: T0 (uncoated fruits), ...

  1. Current trends of tropical fruit waste utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheok, Choon Yoong; Mohd Adzahan, Noranizan; Abdul Rahman, Russly; Zainal Abedin, Nur Hanani; Hussain, Norhayati; Sulaiman, Rabiha; Chong, Gun Hean

    2018-02-11

    Recent rapid growth of the world's population has increased food demands. This phenomenon poses a great challenge for food manufacturers in maximizing the existing food or plant resources. Nowadays, the recovery of health benefit bioactive compounds from fruit wastes is a research trend not only to help minimize the waste burden, but also to meet the intensive demand from the public for phenolic compounds which are believed to have protective effects against chronic diseases. This review is focused on polyphenolic compounds recovery from tropical fruit wastes and its current trend of utilization. The tropical fruit wastes include in discussion are durian (Durio zibethinus), mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.), rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum), mango (Mangifera indica L.), jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus), papaya (Carica papaya), passion fruit (Passiflora edulis), dragon fruit (Hylocereus spp), and pineapple (Ananas comosus). Highlights of bioactive compounds in different parts of a tropical fruit are targeted primarily for food industries as pragmatic references to create novel innovative health enhancement food products. This information is intended to inspire further research ideas in areas that are still under-explored and for food processing manufacturers who would like to minimize wastes as the norm of present day industry (design) objective.

  2. Fruit and vegetable consumption: benefits and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclellan, Debbie L; Gottschall-Pass, Katherine; Larsen, Roberta

    2004-01-01

    Few people on Prince Edward Island meet the goal of consuming five or more servings of vegetables and fruit a day. The main objective of this qualitative study was to explore the perceptions of the nutritional benefits and barriers to vegetable and fruit intake among adult women in Prince Edward Island. Participants were 40 women aged 20-49, with or without children at home, who were or were not currently meeting the objective of eating five or more fruit and vegetable servings a day. In-home, one-on-one interviews were used for data collection. Thematic analysis was conducted on the transcribed interviews. Data were examined for trustworthiness in the context of credibility, transferability, and dependability. Most participants identified one or more benefits of eating fruit and vegetables; however, comments tended to be non-specific. The main barriers that participants identified were effort, lack of knowledge, sociopsychological and socioenvironmental factors, and availability. Internal influences, life events, and food rules were identified as encouraging women to include vegetables and fruit in their diets. Given the challenges of effecting meaningful dietary change, dietitians must look for broader dietary behavioural interventions that are sensitive to women's perceptions of benefits and barriers to fruit and vegetable intake.

  3. Pesticide bioconcentration modelling for fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraíba, Lourival Costa

    2007-01-01

    The model presented allows simulating the pesticide concentration evolution in fruit trees and estimating the pesticide bioconcentration factor in fruits. Pesticides are non-ionic organic compounds that are degraded in soils cropped with woody species, fruit trees and other perennials. The model allows estimating the pesticide uptake by plants through the water transpiration stream and also the time in which maximum pesticide concentration occur in the fruits. The equation proposed presents the relationships between bioconcentration factor (BCF) and the following variables: plant water transpiration volume (Q), pesticide transpiration stream concentration factor (TSCF), pesticide stem-water partition coefficient (K(Wood,W)), stem dry biomass (M) and pesticide dissipation rate in the soil-plant system (k(EGS)). The modeling started and was developed from a previous model "Fruit Tree Model" (FTM), reported by Trapp and collaborators in 2003, to which was added the hypothesis that the pesticide degradation in the soil follows a first order kinetic equation. The FTM model for pesticides (FTM-p) was applied to a hypothetic mango plant cropping (Mangifera indica) treated with paclobutrazol (growth regulator) added to the soil. The model fitness was evaluated through the sensitivity analysis of the pesticide BCF values in fruits with respect to the model entry data variability.

  4. Stability of fruit bases and chocolate fillings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joice Natali Miquelim

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Syrups with high sugar content and dehydrated fruits in its composition can be added to chocolate fillings to reduce the need of artificial flavor and dyes attributing a natural appeal to the product. Fruit bases were produced with lyophilized strawberry, passion fruit, and sliced orange peel. Rheological dynamic oscillatory tests were applied to determine the products stability and tendency of shelf life. Values of G´ G´´ were found for orange flavor during the 90 days of storage. It was observed that shear stress values did not vary significantly suggesting product stability during the studied period. For all fillings, it was found a behavior similar to the fruit base indicating that it has great influence on the filling behavior and its stability. The use of a sugar matrix in fillings provided good shelf life for the fruit base, which could be kept under room temperature conditions for a period as long as one year. The good stability and storage conditions allow the use of fruit base for handmade products as well as for industrialized products.

  5. Empowerment Strategy Through Salak Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sucihatiningsih Dian Wisika Prajanti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This articles aims to understand the practice of empowerment through assistance to salak farmers. The study includes 60 salak fruit farmers which are taken as the samples. Descriptive analysis is used to analyze the obtained data from the study. The research result shows that most respondents have the relative low level of empowerment. The empowerment level from business aspect explain that most of the respondent (73% are never and could not got the financial assistant to develop their business. Likewise, it could be happen in the technological access, most of the respondent (56,7% explain that in the production process the technology that used is base on traditional and hereditary. So, it is depend on labour relieves when the production and harvest process. Furthermore, the research shows that a low level of a capability to access the market information. It could be seen that most of the farmers (38,3% directly selling their product to the consumers and 33,3% sell their product to the broker. The empowerment from non economic aspect could be seen from the low ability of lobbying aspect, like the asking for a relieves from their colleagues at the local government officer (10%, financial institution like cooperation, bank and etc (25%, society figures (32,1%, employees (32,1%, non government institution/ academision (10% and a families (93,3%. To empower the farmers in order to make them sustainable, it is necessary to built a partnership by empowerment strategy. The empowerment strategy that involves industry as the farmers’ partner is carried out to improve the empowerment of the farmers of salak fruits.Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengeksplorasi praktek pemberdayaan melalui pendampingan petani buah salak. Sebanyak 60 orang petani salak diambil sebagai sampel. Analisis deskriptif telah digunakan untuk menganalisis data dalam penelitian ini. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sebagian besar masyarakat di daerah penelitian mengaku pada

  6. Characterization of dragon fruit (Hylocereus spp.) components with valorization potential

    OpenAIRE

    Liaotrakoon, Wijitra

    2013-01-01

    Dragon fruit (Hylocereus spp.), also known as pitaya or pitahaya, is increasingly gaining interest in many countries, including Thailand which is a country with a climate ideal for breeding different varieties of tropical and subtropical fruits in general, and dragon fruit more specifically. The benefits of dragon fruit for human health can be explained by its essential nutrients such as vitamins, minerals, complex carbohydrates, dietary fibres and antioxidants. Dragon fruit is also an essent...

  7. Do Small Canopy Gaps Created by Japanese Black Bears Facilitate Fruiting of Fleshy-Fruited Plants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kazuaki; Takahashi, Kaori; Washitani, Izumi

    2015-01-01

    Japanese black bears often break branches when climbing trees and feeding on fruit in canopies, thereby creating small canopy gaps. However, the role of black bear-created canopy gaps has not been evaluated in the context of multiple forest dynamics. Our hypothesis was that small canopy gaps created by black bears improve light conditions, which facilitates fruiting of adult fleshy-fruited plants located beneath the gaps, and also that this chain interaction depends on interactions among the size of gaps, improved light conditions, forest layers, and life form of plants. The rPPFD, size of black bear-created canopy gaps, and fruiting/non-fruiting of fleshy-fruited plants were investigated in five forest layers beneath black-bear-created canopy gaps and closed canopies of Mongolian oak (Quercus crispula). We found that light conditions improved beneath black bear-disturbed trees with canopy gaps of large size, and the effect of improvement of light conditions was reduced with descending forest layers. Fruiting of fleshy-fruited plants, especially woody lianas and trees, was facilitated by the improvement of light conditions accompanied by an increase in the size of black-bear-created gaps. Data from this study revealed that canopy disturbance by black bears was key for improving light conditions and accelerating fruiting of fleshy-fruited trees and woody lianas in the canopy layers in particular. Therefore, our hypothesis was mostly supported. Our results provide evidence that Japanese black bears have high potential as ecosystem engineers that increase the availability of resources (light and fruit in this study) to other species by causing physical state changes in biotic materials (branches of Q. crispula in this study).

  8. Do Small Canopy Gaps Created by Japanese Black Bears Facilitate Fruiting of Fleshy-Fruited Plants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuaki Takahashi

    Full Text Available Japanese black bears often break branches when climbing trees and feeding on fruit in canopies, thereby creating small canopy gaps. However, the role of black bear-created canopy gaps has not been evaluated in the context of multiple forest dynamics. Our hypothesis was that small canopy gaps created by black bears improve light conditions, which facilitates fruiting of adult fleshy-fruited plants located beneath the gaps, and also that this chain interaction depends on interactions among the size of gaps, improved light conditions, forest layers, and life form of plants. The rPPFD, size of black bear-created canopy gaps, and fruiting/non-fruiting of fleshy-fruited plants were investigated in five forest layers beneath black-bear-created canopy gaps and closed canopies of Mongolian oak (Quercus crispula. We found that light conditions improved beneath black bear-disturbed trees with canopy gaps of large size, and the effect of improvement of light conditions was reduced with descending forest layers. Fruiting of fleshy-fruited plants, especially woody lianas and trees, was facilitated by the improvement of light conditions accompanied by an increase in the size of black-bear-created gaps. Data from this study revealed that canopy disturbance by black bears was key for improving light conditions and accelerating fruiting of fleshy-fruited trees and woody lianas in the canopy layers in particular. Therefore, our hypothesis was mostly supported. Our results provide evidence that Japanese black bears have high potential as ecosystem engineers that increase the availability of resources (light and fruit in this study to other species by causing physical state changes in biotic materials (branches of Q. crispula in this study.

  9. Glycemic Index values of some Jaffna fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selladurai Pirasath

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of diabetes mellitus has recently increased in developing countries. Scientific data on glycemic index values of common meals is essential to modify the diets for diabetes mellitus patients. This study aimed to evaluate the glycemic index (GI values of fruits such as ‘Kathali’ (Yellow plantain, ‘Kappal’ (Golden plantain, and ‘Itharai’ (Green plantain varieties of plantains, jack fruit and papaya. The results will be helpful to physicians and the general public to decide the benefits ofthe consumption of fruits, particularly by diabetic and coronary heart disease patients.Methods: Healthy volunteers (20 Nos. of 21.05(±0.92 years, 53.90 (±9.36 kg body weights, 153.92 (±9.15 m heights, and 20.55 (±2.22 kgm-2body mass indexes were selected with their written consent. After overnight fasting, 75g glucose and each test fruit containing 75g digestible carbohydrate were administered at different instances and blood glucose levels were measured half hourly for two hours. The glycemic response and GI values were calculated and analyzed by Randomized Complete Block Design using SAS analytical package.Results: The mean GI values of the ‘Kathali’, ‘Kappal’, ‘Itharai’ varieties of plantains, jack fruit and papaya were 54.45 (±9.26, 50.43 (±5.79, 48.47 (±10.13, 65.36 (±8.00 and 34.80 (±12.78 % respectively. The GI value of papaya differed significantly (P<0.05 from other fruits. The GI value of ‘Itharai’ variety of plantain differed significantly (P<0.05 from other fruits except the ‘Kappal’ varietyof plantain.Conclusion: The three varieties of plantains and papaya were low GI fruits, and jack fruit was found to be an intermediate GI fruit. The presence of dietary fiber, esp. soluble fiber, reduces the glycemicresponse and glycemic index of foods.

  10. Nutritional Value of Tamarindus Indica Fruit Pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiteva, R.; Kitui, J.L

    2007-01-01

    In Kenya Tamarindus Indica (Tamarind) fruits are not fully utilized despite their abundance in Nyanza, Rift Valley and Eastern provinces. This study determined the nutritional composition of the edible fruit pulp to enhance utilization. The edible portion of Tamarindus indica fruit ('Ukwaju' in Kiswahili) was analysed for it's chemical and nutritional composition. The fruit was sampled from Kitui, Mwingi and Makueni districts of Ukambani, with an assumption that they could be climatically different. The analysis carried out included moisture content, sulphated ash, Vitamin C content, crude protein and minerals namely Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn. The energy contents were determined and total carbohydrates calculated. The results showed very low protein content of 0.01% for Kvisuni and Makindu divisions, while Katse and Kyanundu in Mwingi and TARDA in Makueni districts gave the highest value of 0.02% . This is a fairly low protein content compared with other indigenous fruits like Andasonia digitata (Baobab) with a value of 2.9%. The fat content was also low, especially for Makueni that had a value of 0.04% for the unripe fruits while Mwingi gave 0.04% for those fruits that were ripe. Vitamin C content was similar for the fruit from the three districts (8mg100g-1 ) sample. The fruits also contained an appreciable high internal energy level with Mbitini recording highest at 2.94 kcal. All samples had levels of Fe above 1mg100g-1 . Sodium was also available in all samples with TARDA sample having the highest (0.8mg/100g-1 ) . Potassium values were over 200 mg100g-1 s ample for all samples with TARDA leading (1050 mg100g-1 ) . Calcium in all samples was over 20 mg100g-1 w hile mg was 30 mg100g-1 w ith Makindu having the highest value of 75.2mg100g-1 . This fruit, therefore has the potential of providing nutrients and can be used as a food supplement

  11. First survey of fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and parasitoid diversity among myrtaceae fruit across the state of Bahia, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Lidia Nogueira; Santos, Mírian Silva; Dutra, Vivian Siqueira; Araujo, Elton Lucio; Costa, Marco Antonio; Silva, Janisete Gomes

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the diversity of fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) species that use myrtaceous fruit, particularly guava, as hosts in several localities in the state of Bahia and to determine the infestation rates, pupal viability rates, and fruit fly-parasitoid associations. Sampling of myrtaceous fruit was carried out in 24 municipalities in different regions in the state of Bahia. Four fruit fly species, Anastrepha fraterculus, Anastrepha zenildae, Anastrepha sor...

  12. Load modeling for sharp V-cutter cutting litchi ( Litchi chinensis Sonn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    harvesting. Cutting load is a key parameter for 'hand-held auto-picker' operation. However, there is still no suitable model for cutting load setting. Hence, a model describing the relationship among cutting load, blade angle and friction coefficient was developed for cutting operation by sharp V-cutters. The model was based ...

  13. The role of leaves and fruits in determining the specific cultivar characters of peach fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manolov, P.; Petrov, A.

    1982-01-01

    At the Institute of Fruit Growing, Plovdiv, triple buds were grafted on the crowns of 6 year-old peach trees in the following cultivar combinations: 1. Springtime (early8 ripening in the second half of June, white fleshed) on Rio oso gem (late, ripening in the first half of September, yellow fleshed); 2. Fillette (early, ripening in the second half of June, yellow fleshed) on Rio oso gem; 3. Rio oso gem on Springtime; 4. Rio oso gem on Fillette. At the begining of the following growing period the development of the grafted generative organs was fully dependent on assimilates produced by the leaves of the other cultivar. The interrelations between the leaves and the fruits in the various combinations were followed by biometrical and radio-isotopic ( 14 C) methods. Results substantiated the conclusion that the genetic information on the development of the specific cultivar characters such as flavour, arome, skin colour, fruit flesh texture and colour, fruit size and date of ripening was borne by the fruits themselves. The synthetic processes of the leaves during photosynthesis are not directly related with the synthetic processes producing the fruits' organic matter. The basic constructing substances were produced in the leaves and were transported to the fruits, where they were subjected to metabolic transformations in accordance with the biological characteristics of the cultivar and the phase of fruit development

  14. Using implicit associations towards fruit consumption to understand fruit consumption behaviour and habit strength relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, G.-J.; Keer, M.; Conner, M.; Rhodes, R.

    2012-01-01

    An implicit association test (IAT) was used to investigate how habit strength, implicit attitudes and fruit consumption interrelate. Fifty-two participants completed a computerized IAT and provided measures of fruit consumption and related habit strength. Implicit attitudes moderated the habit

  15. Determination of fruit characteristics, fatty acid profile and total antioxidant capacity of Mespilus germanica L. fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hale Seçilmiş Canbay

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine fruit characteristics, fatty acid profile and total antioxidant capacitiy of first cultured Mespilus germanica L. Methods: A total of 15 fruits were taken randomly from four directions of adult trees. Then the physical and chemical properties of first cultured medlar fruit (Istanbul/Turkey were measured by using refractometer, colorimeter, spectrophotometer and gas chromatograph mass spectrometer, respectivly. Results: In the fruit studied, the results showed that palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, arachidic acid and behenic acid were the most abundant fatty acids (FAs, and the main FA was palmitic acid [(35.35 ± 1.20%]. The percentage of linoleic acid and stearic acid in this fruit oil were (29.10 ± 1.70% and (8.53 ± 0.25%, respectively. As a result of the analysis, the total antioxidant capacity of medlar fruit was (1.1 ± 0.2 mmol trolox equivalents/L. Conclusions: The present study has demonstrated the concentrations of FAs and the antioxidantive capacity of first cultured Istanbul medlar fruits by using many tested methods. It is proved that in our daily life, medlar fruit plays a significant role with its nutrition and health effect.

  16. Differential inheritance of pepper (capsicum annum) fruit pigments results in black to violet fruit color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Color and appearance of fruits and vegetables are critical determinants of product quality and may afford high-value market opportunities. Exploiting the rich genetic diversity in Capsicum, we characterized the inheritance of black and violet immature fruit color and chlorophyll, carotenoid and ant...

  17. Assessment of the strategies of organic fruit production and fruit drying in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier Pillot

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic agriculture in Uganda is developing at a fast pace and despite this trend Uganda is still unable to produce enough fresh and dry organic fruits mainly pineapple to meet the exporters demand. This current research investigated the strategies of farmers at production level by assessing the pros and cons of fruit growing, organic agriculture and fruit drying in order to understand the underlying causal factor for the low production of organic dry fruits in a major fruit producing district of Uganda.The study was carried out in two separate and distinctive areas; one which only produces and export fresh organic pineapple and the other which exports dried fruits (mainly pineapple and papaya. About 10% of the farmers in the two study areas were surveyed using questionnaires which were further followed by semi-structured interviews and participatory rural appraisals activities with various types of farmers in order to understand the different decisions and strategies of farmers.82% and 74% of farmers in the two study areas grew fruits as it gave better economic returns and for 77% and 90% respectively in the two study areas, the reasons for growing fruit was the ease of selling compared to other crops. All the farmers were relying on coffee husk for growing organic pineapples. However, 50% of the farmers want to grow pineapples (either organic or conventional but couldn't afford to buy coffee husk. Fruit drying was mainly a strategy to utilize cheap fruits during harvesting seasons for value addition. 71% and 42% of farmers in the two study areas wanted to dry fruits but it was beyond their economic capacity to buy the driers.Decision of the farmers whether to grow fruits or cereals, organic or conventional agriculture and selling the fruits as fresh or dry were dependent mainly on the economic, knowledge and resource availability of each type of practices. It is concluded that the main barrier for an increase in the production of organic dried

  18. A workplace feasibility study of the effect of a minimal fruit intervention on fruit intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alinia, Sevil; Lassen, Anne Dahl; Krogholm, Kirstine Suszkiewicz

    2011-01-01

    intake would affect vegetable, total energy and nutrient intake. Design: A 5-month, controlled, workplace study where workplaces were divided into an intervention group (IG) and a control group (CG). At least one piece of free fruit was available per person per day in the IG. Total fruit and dietary...... intake was assessed, using two 24 h dietary recalls at baseline and at endpoint. Setting: Eight Danish workplaces were enrolled in the study. Five workplaces were in the IG and three were in the CG. Subjects: One hundred and twenty-four (IG, n 68; CG, n 56) healthy, mainly normal-weight participants were....... Vegetable, total energy and macronutrient intake remained unchanged through the intervention period for both groups. Conclusions: The present study showed that it is feasible to increase the average fruit intake at workplaces by simply increasing fruit availability and accessibility. Increased fruit intake...

  19. Hygroscopic behavior of buriti (Mauritia flexuosa fruit

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    Wellington dos Santos Melo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to perform an analysis of the characterization of buriti fruit (Mauritia flexuosa. Each part of the fruit (peel, pulp, and fibrous part was analyzed and their hygroscopic behavior was evaluated to establish the drying and storage conditions. Adsorption and desorption isotherms were obtained at 25 °C to the monolayer value was estimated, and the application of the Halsey, Handerson, Kuhn, Mizrahi, Oswin, Smith, BET, and GAB models was evaluated to the prediction of the isotherms. The fruit pulp was classified as rich in high quality oil, and like the peel and the fibrous part, it was also considered as rich in dietary fiber. The isotherms of the fruit parts were classified as type II, and their microbiological stability (a w < 0.6 can be maintained at 25 °C if the moisture content is lower than 8.5, 7.3, and 11.0 g H2O.100 g-1 of dry matter (d.m., respectively. The hygroscopic behavior showed that in order to ensure stability, the fruit parts should be packaged with low water vapor permeability. The monolayer demonstrated that the peel, pulp, and the fibrous part cannot be dried under moisture content lower than 5.9, 5.0, and 6.4 g H2O.100 g-1 d.m., respectively. GAB was the most adequate model to describe their isotherms.

  20. Dried fruits quality assessment by hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serranti, Silvia; Gargiulo, Aldo; Bonifazi, Giuseppe

    2012-05-01

    Dried fruits products present different market values according to their quality. Such a quality is usually quantified in terms of freshness of the products, as well as presence of contaminants (pieces of shell, husk, and small stones), defects, mould and decays. The combination of these parameters, in terms of relative presence, represent a fundamental set of attributes conditioning dried fruits humans-senses-detectable-attributes (visual appearance, organolectic properties, etc.) and their overall quality in terms of marketable products. Sorting-selection strategies exist but sometimes they fail when a higher degree of detection is required especially if addressed to discriminate between dried fruits of relatively small dimensions and when aiming to perform an "early detection" of pathogen agents responsible of future moulds and decays development. Surface characteristics of dried fruits can be investigated by hyperspectral imaging (HSI). In this paper, specific and "ad hoc" applications addressed to propose quality detection logics, adopting a hyperspectral imaging (HSI) based approach, are described, compared and critically evaluated. Reflectance spectra of selected dried fruits (hazelnuts) of different quality and characterized by the presence of different contaminants and defects have been acquired by a laboratory device equipped with two HSI systems working in two different spectral ranges: visible-near infrared field (400-1000 nm) and near infrared field (1000-1700 nm). The spectra have been processed and results evaluated adopting both a simple and fast wavelength band ratio approach and a more sophisticated classification logic based on principal component (PCA) analysis.

  1. Technological quality of irradiated Moroccan citrus fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussaid El Idrissi, M.; R'Kiek, C.; Farahat Laaroussi, S.; Zantar; Mouhib, M.; El Guerrouj, D.; Toukour, L.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of irradiation at doses of 125, 250, 375, and 500 Gy, commonly used for quarantine treatment, on the quality of Maroc-late orange, the most common export variety of Morocco was investigated. In the first study fruits were irradiated without any previous cold conditioning treatment as practiced by the export trade for quarantine purposes. In the second study fruits obtained from the normal chain after conditioning was irradiated. Storage of irradiated fruits was studied at room temperature and 10 deg. C at 0 deg. C in case of control fruits. The parameters studied included juice yield, total solids, reducing and total sugars, total acids and volatile acids, dry weight and weight loss. The results showed that irradiation did not affect the technological quality of citrus fruits during four weeks storage. The result thus far points to the possibility for the successful application of irradiation as an alternative quarantine treatment to the classical methods, which result in browning of the peel. The browning phenomenon could be controlled by waxing and will be the subject of a future study. (author)

  2. Color back projection for fruit maturity evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Lee, Dah-Jye; Desai, Alok

    2013-12-01

    In general, fruits and vegetables such as tomatoes and dates are harvested before they fully ripen. After harvesting, they continue to ripen and their color changes. Color is a good indicator of fruit maturity. For example, tomatoes change color from dark green to light green and then pink, light red, and dark red. Assessing tomato maturity helps maximize its shelf life. Color is used to determine the length of time the tomatoes can be transported. Medjool dates change color from green to yellow, and the orange, light red and dark red. Assessing date maturity helps determine the length of drying process to help ripen the dates. Color evaluation is an important step in the processing and inventory control of fruits and vegetables that directly affects profitability. This paper presents an efficient color back projection and image processing technique that is designed specifically for real-time maturity evaluation of fruits. This color processing method requires very simple training procedure to obtain the frequencies of colors that appear in each maturity stage. This color statistics is used to back project colors to predefined color indexes. Fruit maturity is then evaluated by analyzing the reprojected color indexes. This method has been implemented and used for commercial production.

  3. A brief history of fruits and frugivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Theodore H.; John Kress, W.

    2011-11-01

    In this paper we briefly review the evolutionary history of the mutualistic interaction between angiosperms that produce fleshy fruits and their major consumers: frugivorous birds and mammals. Fleshy fruits eaten by these vertebrates are widely distributed throughout angiosperm phylogeny. Similarly, a frugivorous diet has evolved independently many times in birds and mammals. Bird dispersal is more common than mammal-dispersal in all lineages of angiosperms, and we suggest that the evolution of bird fruits may have facilitated the evolution of frugivory in primates. The diets of fruit-eating bats overlap less with those of other kinds of frugivorous vertebrates. With a few exceptions, most families producing vertebrate-dispersed fruit appeared substantially earlier in earth history than families of their vertebrate consumers. It is likely that major radiations of these plants and animals have occurred in the past 30 Ma, in part driven by geological changes and also by the foraging behavior of frugivores in topographically complex landscapes. Overall, this mutualistic interaction has had many evolutionary and ecological consequences for tropical plants and animals for most of the Cenozoic Era. Loss of frugivores and their dispersal services will have a strong negative impact on the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of tropical and subtropical communities.

  4. Social attraction mediated by fruit flies' microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venu, Isvarya; Durisko, Zachary; Xu, Jianping; Dukas, Reuven

    2014-04-15

    Larval and adult fruit flies are attracted to volatiles emanating from food substrates that have been occupied by larvae. We tested whether such volatiles are emitted by the larval gut bacteria by conducting tests under bacteria-free (axenic) conditions. We also tested attraction to two bacteria species, Lactobacillus brevis, which we cultured from larvae in our lab, and L. plantarum, a common constituent of fruit flies' microbiome in other laboratory populations and in wild fruit flies. Neither larvae nor adults showed attraction to axenic food that had been occupied by axenic larvae, but both showed the previously reported attraction to standard food that had been occupied by larvae with an intact microbiome. Larvae also showed significant attraction to volatiles from axenic food and larvae to which we added only either L. brevis or L. plantarum, and volatiles from L. brevis reared on its optimal growth medium. Controlled learning experiments indicated that larvae experienced with both standard and axenic used food do not perceive either as superior, while focal larvae experienced with simulated used food, which contains burrows, perceive it as superior to unused food. Our results suggest that flies rely on microbiome-derived volatiles for long-distance attraction to suitable food patches. Under natural settings, fruits often contain harmful fungi and bacteria, and both L. brevis and L. plantarum produce compounds that suppress the growth of some antagonistic fungi and bacteria. The larval microbiome volatiles may therefore lead prospective fruit flies towards substrates with a hospitable microbial environment.

  5. Parenting style and adolescent fruit consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremers, Stef P J; Brug, Johannes; de Vries, Hein; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2003-08-01

    The importance of the social environment for dietary behaviour has been highlighted in the past decade. A type of environmental influence that has received increasing research attention in recent years is the influence that parents can have on their children's dietary behaviour through food-related parenting practices. Much of the work done so far, however, has reported inconsistent findings and poorly understood mechanisms of influence. The present study aimed to explore the possible environmental influence of general parenting style on adolescent food choice patterns. Data were collected at schools (N=643; mean age 16.5 years), using self-administered questionnaires on parenting style, fruit intake behaviour and fruit-specific cognitions. Consistent and theoretically predictable differences were found between adolescents who described their parents as authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent or neglectful. Fruit consumption and fruit-specific cognitions were most favourable among adolescents who were being raised with an authoritative parenting style. Children of parents with indulgent parenting styles consumed more fruit than adolescents from authoritarian or neglectful homes. Consequences of these results for the interpretation of earlier studies on the influence of parenting practices are discussed, and a research model is proposed for future studies of parental influences on adolescent dietary behaviours.

  6. Detection Of Irradiated Fruits And Assessment Of Quality Parameters Of The Stone Fruits During Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Magide, A.E.A.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was carried out in order to detect the irradiated fruits and assess the quality parameters of plums (Prunus domestica L., cv. Pioneer) and peaches (Prunus persica Bausch, cv. Swilling) fruits treated with gamma irradiation. This investigation was carried out during 2010 and 2011 seasons. The fruits were harvested at commercial maturity, irradiated with the doses 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0 kGy, stored under refrigerated conditions (0±1°C, RH 80%) then evaluated at intervals of 7, 10 and 21 days (the end cold storage period) followed by 5 days of storage under market condition (20±2°C, RH 80%). Electron spin resonance (ESR) was carried out for determination of free radicals by using dried layers of plum and peach kernels. Fruit characters included weight loss %, fruit firmness (kgf), discarded fruits %, soluble solid contents (SSC, ºBrix), total titratable acidity (TA%), respiration rate and sensory evaluation tastes. ESR results proved the possibility of identification of irradiated fruits by using dried stone kernels. The results showed that ESR intensities were sensitive for all applied doses even at low doses of 0.5 or 1.0 kGy which was applied for dis infestations, to extend the shelf-life of fruits or to detect the irradiated stored fresh samples was carried out at the 7th, 10th and 21st days. The linear relationship resulted between ESR intensity and applied doses showed high significant correlation coefficient (R2) for the irradiated samples. However, ESR intensity was decreased gradually during long storage period but can identify clearly the irradiated samples. Irradiation treatment at 0.5 kGy for P ioneer p lums and at 0.5 or 0.75 kGy for S willing p eaches was effective in slowing the rate of losing of fruits weight and decreasing the discarded fruits percentage. Furthermore, it has significant effects on reducing respiration rate, maintaining higher soluble solid contents and decreasing total titratable acidity. Referring to sensory

  7. Is the consumption of fruit cariogenic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Amit; Evans, Robin Wendell

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate possible risk factors for dental caries in primary school children. Children aged 10-12 years (n = 257) residing in Lithgow, a non-fluoridated community in New South Wales, Australia, were examined for caries experience in the permanent dentition. Information on dental practices, diet, residential movements, and socioeconomic status were obtained from self-completed questionnaires. Caries risk in the permanent teeth was associated with social disadvantage and diet. Among the dietary factors, the frequency of fruit consumption was associated with higher odds of caries experience (odds ratio: 1.52, 95% confidence intervals: 1.05, 2.21). Exposure to a high level of fruit consumption was suggestive of increased caries risk. Longitudinal studies are required to investigate the relationship between fruit consumption and dental caries. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. Flavonoids as fruit and vegetable intake biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogholm, Kirstine Suszkiewicz

    of fruit and vegetable intakes. In Paper I, the urinary recovery of the 7 flavonoids in morning spot urine (i.e. all urine voids from midnight including the first morning void) was also found to respond to moderate increases in the intake of fruits and vegetables. However, the association was somewhat...... weaker than in 24h urine samples, indicating that the 24h urinary recovery of the 7 flavonoids is a stronger biomarker of the intake of fruit and vegetables than the urinary recovery of the 7 flavonoids in morning spot urine. In Paper II, the biokinetic profiles of some of the most important dietary......-individual variation in the absorption and urinary recovery of the flavonoids, and this makes it very difficult to separate individuals according to intake by use of the flavonoid biomarker in urine. The intra-individual variation was on the contrary low, and Paper II therefore supports the assumption, that 24h...

  9. Flavonoids as fruit and vegetable intake biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogholm, Kirstine Suszkiewicz

    calculation of the bivariate correlation coefficients is the common approach when using only one reference method. Back in 2002, a strictly controlled dietary intervention study indicated that the sum of 7 different flavonoid aglycones excreted in 24h urine samples potentially could be used as a biomarker...... and cohort studies. The Ph.D. thesis contains four scientific papers. Paper I provides evidence that the sum of 7 flavonoids in 24h urine respond in a linear and sensitive manner to moderate increases in the intake of fruits and vegetables, and thus consolidates that the flavonoids are a valid biomarker...... of fruit and vegetable intakes. In Paper I, the urinary recovery of the 7 flavonoids in morning spot urine (i.e. all urine voids from midnight including the first morning void) was also found to respond to moderate increases in the intake of fruits and vegetables. However, the association was somewhat...

  10. Bioactive Compounds Found in Brazilian Cerrado Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailão, Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso; Devilla, Ivano Alessandro; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso; Borges, Leonardo Luiz

    2015-10-09

    Functional foods include any natural product that presents health-promoting effects, thereby reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Cerrado fruits are considered a source of bioactive substances, mainly phenolic compounds, making them important functional foods. Despite this, the losses of natural vegetation in the Cerrado are progressive. Hence, the knowledge propagation about the importance of the species found in Cerrado could contribute to the preservation of this biome. This review provides information about Cerrado fruits and highlights the structures and pharmacologic potential of functional compounds found in these fruits. Compounds detected in Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (pequi), Dipteryx alata Vog. (baru), Eugenia dysenterica DC. (cagaita), Eugenia uniflora L. (pitanga), Genipa americana L. (jenipapo), Hancornia speciosa Gomes (mangaba), Mauritia flexuosa L.f. (buriti), Myrciaria cauliflora (DC) Berg (jabuticaba), Psidium guajava L. (goiaba), Psidium spp. (araçá), Solanum lycocarpum St. Hill (lobeira), Spondias mombin L. (cajá), Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum), among others are reported here.

  11. THE STUDY OF NATIVE SMALL FRUITS BIOTYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Ancu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The breeding programs of the European countries are based on biotypes from wild flora, because they are the true sources of genes. These genes are able to print in the future cultivars resistance to diseases, pests and climatic stress, and also fruits with the best flavor and phytoterapeutic resources. In this aim, Research Institute for Fruit Growing Pitesti-Maracineni conducted numerous studies of exploring the wild flora in different areas of the country. Following these expeditions were identified numerous biotypes of cornelian cherry, rosehip and seabuckthorn. All these native biotypes were subjected to studies of phenology, productivity, and quality of fruits. These researches identified the highest productivity in the following biotypes: MS-40 (cornelian cherry, RC-CN (rose hip and MPR2P3 (seabuckthorn.

  12. Improving and Conserving Sahelian Fruits Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouedraogo, Moussa

    Native Sahelian fruit trees are well known for their economic value and their nutritional importance for local populations. Their products are a source of income and a source of calories, vitamins, minerals and antioxidants, especially vital for children. Fruit trees are crucial for the people...... in West Africa Sahel during the food shortage period, lasting 6-8 months a year in this region. However, the availability of fruit trees is declining due to increased demographic pressure and climate variability (drought) that is occurring with increasing frequency and intensity. Besides compromising...... the availability of important resources for rural people, reduced abundance of target species can lead to loss of genetic variation within species, which again can reduce the capacity of trees and shrubs to adapt to environmental change and reduce the gain farmers can realize from selection. Parkia biglobosa...

  13. Lead content of roadside fruit and berries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowles, G W.A.

    1976-01-01

    Blackberries, elderberries, hawthorn berries, holly berries and rose hips have been examined for their lead content, which has been shown to be directly related to the proximity of the growing fruit and berries to roads, the traffic density and the time of exposure. The maximum levels found (in ppm for undried fruit and berries) were blackberries 0.85, elderberries 6.77, hawthorn berries 23.8, holly berries 3.5 and rose hips 1.45. Very thorough washing with water removed 40-60% of the lead from heavily contaminated fruit and berries. When elderberries were used for winemaking over 60% of the lead was extracted and remained in solution in the wine. 25 references, 4 tables.

  14. Radiation preservation of dry fruits and nuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahid, M.; Sattar, A.; Jan, M.; Ahmad, A.; Khan, I.

    1988-01-01

    Dried fruits are considered a major source of income and foreign exchange in many countries. The spoilage of dried fruits and nuts by insect infestation, colour deterioration and chemical changes during storage are the serious problems especially under humid tropical conditions. The present work was undertaken to study the effect of irradiation in combination with different modified storage environments on insect infestation as well as chemical and sensory quality indices. The affect of gamma radiation dose of 1 KGy and storage environments such as air vacuum and carbon dioxide on insect infestation of dry fruits and nuts. In the case of un-irradiated samples, insect infestation progressed throughout the storage period especially in those kept under air. The vacuum storage was found better in checking infestation followed by CO/sub/2 and air. (orig./A.B.)

  15. Bioactive Compounds Found in Brazilian Cerrado Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso Bailão

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Functional foods include any natural product that presents health-promoting effects, thereby reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Cerrado fruits are considered a source of bioactive substances, mainly phenolic compounds, making them important functional foods. Despite this, the losses of natural vegetation in the Cerrado are progressive. Hence, the knowledge propagation about the importance of the species found in Cerrado could contribute to the preservation of this biome. This review provides information about Cerrado fruits and highlights the structures and pharmacologic potential of functional compounds found in these fruits. Compounds detected in Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (pequi, Dipteryx alata Vog. (baru, Eugenia dysenterica DC. (cagaita, Eugenia uniflora L. (pitanga, Genipa americana L. (jenipapo, Hancornia speciosa Gomes (mangaba, Mauritia flexuosa L.f. (buriti, Myrciaria cauliflora (DC Berg (jabuticaba, Psidium guajava L. (goiaba, Psidium spp. (araçá, Solanum lycocarpum St. Hill (lobeira, Spondias mombin L. (cajá, Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum, among others are reported here.

  16. Biological effects of fruit and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragsted, Lars O; Krath, Britta; Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Vogel, Ulla B; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Bo Jensen, Per; Loft, Steffen; Rasmussen, Salka E; Sandstrom, The late BrittMarie; Pedersen, Anette

    2006-02-01

    A strong and persistent effect of plant-derived foods on the prevention of lifestyle diseases has emerged from observational studies. Several groups of constituents in plants have been identified as potentially health promoting in animal studies, including cholesterol-lowering factors, antioxidants, enzyme inducers, apoptosis inducers etc. In human intervention studies the dose levels achieved tend to be lower than the levels found to be effective in animals and sampling from target organs is often not possible. A controlled dietary human intervention study was performed with forty-three volunteers, providing 600 g fruit and vegetables/d or in the controls a carbohydrate-rich drink to balance energy intake. Surrogate markers of oxidative damage to DNA, protein and lipids, enzymic defence and lipid metabolism were determined in blood and urine. It was found that a high intake of fruit and vegetables tends to increase the stability of lipids towards oxidative damage. Markers of oxidative enzymes indicate a steady increase in glutathione peroxidase (GPX1) activity in erythrocytes during intervention with fruit and vegetables but there is no effect on GPX1 transcription levels in leucocytes. No change occurs in glutathione-conjugating or -reducing enzyme activities in erythrocytes or plasma, and there are no effects on the transcription of genes involved in phase 2 enzyme induction or DNA repair in leucocytes. Fruit and vegetable intake decreases the level of total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, but does not affect sex hormones. In conclusion, it has been shown that total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, markers of peripheral lipid oxidation, and erythrocyte GPX1 activity are affected by high intakes of fruit and vegetables. This finding provides support for a protective role of dietary fruit and vegetables against CVD.

  17. Major gene mutations in fruit tree domestication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiegel-Roy, P.

    1989-01-01

    Though fruit gathering from the wild began long before domestication, fruit tree domestication started only after the establishment of grain agriculture. Banana, fig, date, grape and olive were among the first fruit trees domesticated. Most fruit trees are outbreeders, highly heterozygous and vegetatively propagated. Knowledge of genetics and economic traits controlled by major genes is limited. Ease of vegetative propagation has played a prominent part in domestication; advances in propagation technology will play a role in domestication of new crops. Changes toward domestication affected by major genes include self-fertility in peach, apricot and sour cherry, while the emergence of self-fertile almond populations is more recent and due probably to introgression from Amygdalus webbii. Self-compatibility in the sweet cherry has been attained only by pollen irradiation. A single gene controls sex in Vitis. Wild grapes are dioecious, with most domesticated cultivars hermaphrodite, and only a few females. In the papaya changes from dioecism to hermaphroditism have also occurred. Self-compatible systems have also been selected during domestication in Rubus. Changes towards parthenocarpy and seedlessness during domestication occurred in the banana, citrus, grape, fig and pineapple. In the banana, parthenocarpy is due to three complementary dominant genes; stenospermocarpy in the grape depends on two complementary recessive genes; parthenocarpy and sterility in citrus seems more complicated; however, it can be induced in genetic material of suitable background with ease by irradiation. Presence of persistent syconia in the fig is controlled by a mutant allele P dominant to wild +. Thornlessness in blackberry is recessive, while in the pineapple spineless forms are dominant. Changes affecting fruit composition owing to major genes include the disappearance of amygdalin present in bitter almonds (bitter kernel recessive to sweet), shell hardness in almond, and a recessive

  18. Fruit diet of Alouatta guariba and Brachyteles arachnoides in Southeastern Brazil: comparison of fruit type, color, and seed size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Milene Moura

    2008-01-01

    Fruit is an important food resource for neotropical primates. In this study I compare the fruit diet of sympatric brown howlers (Alouatta guariba) and southern muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides). Feeding behavior was studied over 12 months and fruit species consumed were identified and assigned to the categories fruit type, fruit color, and seed size. Observed-fruit feeding records were compared with expected records determined from local availability of the fruit of the tree species. I also determined dietary overlap. Fruit consumption occupied 8 and 12% of the feeding time of A. guariba and B. arachnoides, respectively. Fruit from eight tree species were consumed by the former and fruit from twenty-two species by the latter. Patterns of fruit selection of A. guariba and B. arachnoides varied widely. Although howlers and muriquis converge behaviorally by selecting fruit with common attributes (fleshy/unprotected, violet and brown/black-colored), unlike A. guariba, B. arachnoides fed on immature seeds of fleshy/protected and dry fruit. Large seeds were ingested, and defecated intact, by B. arachnoides only. There was little overlap of fruit diet even within categories that had been selected by both, suggesting that dietary divergence is occurring at the interspecific level. Different resource exploitation probably mediates the coexistence of A. guariba and B. arachnoides in low diversity, semideciduous forests, where the environment imposes narrow limits on primate food choices.

  19. Using genomics to improve fruit quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Claudio; Orellana, Ariel

    2013-01-01

    New fruit varieties are needed to satisfy consumers, and the industry is facing new challenges in order to respond to these demands. The emergence of genomic tools is releasing information on polymorphisms that can be utilized to expedite breeding processes in species that are difficult to breed, given the long periods of time required to get new varieties. The present review describes the current stages of the ongoing efforts that are being taken to apply these technologies to obtain varieties with improved fruit quality in species of the family Rosaceae.

  20. Ionising energy treatment of fresh fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigney, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    The main purposes of the ionising energy treatment of fresh fruit are: the extension of shelf life of the commodity due to a direct physiological effect on the particular product; the extension of shelf life of the commodity due to a reduction in the development of moulds and rots which would normally render the product worthless; and the killing of insect pests of quarantine significance, to allow for normal marketing of fresh fruit without the risk of introducing insect pests to previously pest-free areas

  1. A review of pruning fruit trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Koc, A. B.; Wang, X. N.; Jiang, Y. X.

    2018-05-01

    The focus of this review is to present the results of studies and articles about ways to prune fruit trees. Pruning should be done in late winter or early spring so that the infection risk can be significantly decreased. This review will also offer an overview of methods to prevent infections and speed up recovery on the trees. The following is an interpretation of why high-power ultrasonic assisted pruning in the fruits trees is needed and will elaborate on the efficiency, labor costs, and safety, as well as space, location, and some environmental issues.

  2. Excellent fruits of national research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-12-01

    This book introduces 100 excellent fruits of research and development in Korea. Such as. It show the titles of 100 excellent fruits about technology of hope to give people healthy life, technology of product and abundance to enrich resource, technology to make green growth and sound society, next service technology to communicate with network, new electron technology to brings life change, technology to draw innovation of industrial fields, technology to build higher value-added product with new fusion materials and technology to share and to create future knowledge.

  3. A fruit quality gene map of Prunus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bliss Fredrick A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prunus fruit development, growth, ripening, and senescence includes major biochemical and sensory changes in texture, color, and flavor. The genetic dissection of these complex processes has important applications in crop improvement, to facilitate maximizing and maintaining stone fruit quality from production and processing through to marketing and consumption. Here we present an integrated fruit quality gene map of Prunus containing 133 genes putatively involved in the determination of fruit texture, pigmentation, flavor, and chilling injury resistance. Results A genetic linkage map of 211 markers was constructed for an intraspecific peach (Prunus persica progeny population, Pop-DG, derived from a canning peach cultivar 'Dr. Davis' and a fresh market cultivar 'Georgia Belle'. The Pop-DG map covered 818 cM of the peach genome and included three morphological markers, 11 ripening candidate genes, 13 cold-responsive genes, 21 novel EST-SSRs from the ChillPeach database, 58 previously reported SSRs, 40 RAFs, 23 SRAPs, 14 IMAs, and 28 accessory markers from candidate gene amplification. The Pop-DG map was co-linear with the Prunus reference T × E map, with 39 SSR markers in common to align the maps. A further 158 markers were bin-mapped to the reference map: 59 ripening candidate genes, 50 cold-responsive genes, and 50 novel EST-SSRs from ChillPeach, with deduced locations in Pop-DG via comparative mapping. Several candidate genes and EST-SSRs co-located with previously reported major trait loci and quantitative trait loci for chilling injury symptoms in Pop-DG. Conclusion The candidate gene approach combined with bin-mapping and availability of a community-recognized reference genetic map provides an efficient means of locating genes of interest in a target genome. We highlight the co-localization of fruit quality candidate genes with previously reported fruit quality QTLs. The fruit quality gene map developed here is a

  4. Occurrence, characterization and management of fruit rot of immature cucumber fruits under arid greenhouse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDULLAH M AL-SADI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken to characterize and manage pathogens associated with fruit rot of immature cucumber fruits in greenhouses in Oman. A survey over 5 growing seasons from 2008 to 2010 in 99 different greenhouses in Oman showed that the disease is prevalent in 91 (92% greenhouses and results in losses of 10 to 60% (avg. 33% of immature fruits per plant. Incidence of the disease was not found to be affected by growing seasons, which could be attributed to the limited fluctuations in ambient temperatures in greenhouses. Isolations from diseased cucumber fruits yielded Alternaria alternata (isolation frequency = 52%, Fusarium equiseti (40%, Cladosporium tenuissium (27%, Botrytis cinerea (6%, Fusarium solani (6%, Corynespora cassiicola (3%, Aspergillus spp. (2%, Curvularia sp. (1% and Bipolaris sp. (1%. With the exception of Curvularia and Bipolaris species, all other fungi were pathogenic on cucumber fruits, with Fusarium equiseti being the most aggressive, followed by Corynespora cassiicola, Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria alternata. Cladosporium and Aspergillus spp. were found to be weakly pathogenic. Comparing the efficacy of foliar and soil applications of carbendazim fungicide on fruit rot of cucumber showed that foliar applications significantly reduced fruit rot and increased cucumber yield when compared to soil application or to control (P < 0.01. This appears to be the first report of the association of Corynespora cassiicola and Fusarium equiseti with fruit rot of immature greenhouse cucumbers. This is also the first report in Oman for the association of Cladosporium tenuissimum with fruit rot of immature cucumbers. Findings are discussed in terms of factors affecting disease control in greenhouses using carbendazim.

  5. Phytosanitary irradiation of peach fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae) in apple fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhan, Guoping; Li, Baishu; Gao, Meixu; Liu, Bo; Wang, Yuejin; Liu, Tao; Ren, Lili

    2014-01-01

    Peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii Matsumura, is a serious pest of many pome and stone fruits and presents a quarantine problem in some export markets. It is widely distributed in pome fruit production areas in China, Japan, Korea, North Korea and the Far Eastern Federal District of Russia. In this investigation, gamma radiation dose–response tests were conducted with late eggs (5-d-old) and various larval stages, followed by large-scale confirmatory tests on the most tolerant stage in fruit, the fifth instar. The dose-response tests, with the target radiation dose of 20 (late eggs), 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, and 160 Gy (late fifth instars in vitro) respectively applied to all stages, showed that the tolerance to radiation increased with increasing age and developmental stage. The fifth instar (most advanced instar in fruits) was determined to be the most tolerant stage requiring an estimated minimum absorbed dose of 208.6 Gy (95% CI: 195.0, 226.5 Gy) to prevent adult emergence at 99.9968% efficacy (95% confidence level). In the confirmatory tests, irradiation was applied to 30,850 late fifth instars in apple fruits with a target dose of 200 Gy (171.6–227.8 Gy measured), but only 4 deformed adults emerged that died 2 d afterwards without laying eggs. A dose of 228 Gy may be recommended as a phytosanitary irradiation treatment under ambient atmosphere for the control of peach fruit moth on all commodities with an efficacy of 99.9902% at 95% confidence level. - Highlights: • Dose–response tests were conducted on eggs and all larval stages. • Fifth instar is the most tolerant stage that could be shipped in fruits. • None normal-looking adult emerged from 30,850 fifth instars in confirmatory tests. • A minimum of 228 Gy is suggested for phytosanitary irradiation of peach fruit moth

  6. Effects of fruit thinning, covering of the fruit truss and CO2 enrichment on radial fruit cracking in tomato [Lycopersicon esculentum] production under rain shelter in cool uplands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, T.; Nomura, Y.; Shimazu, T.; Tanaka, I.

    2009-01-01

    Radial fruit cracking (RFC) can contribute to serious economic losses in tomato production under rain shelter in cool uplands. In order to investigate the effects of translocation and distribution of photosynthate to the fruits during the occurrence of RFC, tomato plants were grown under treatments with fruit thinning and CO2 enrichment, which regulate the strength of sink and source, and treatments with covering of the fruit truss, which decreases solar radiation incident on the fruit surface. The occurrence of RFC was increased by fruit thinning and CO2 enrichment, and decreased by covering of fruit truss. Time course of the percentage of RFC to total harvest showed a remarkable rise toward the end of August and toward the end of October in 2004, when harvested fruit weight was increasing. These finding suggest that RFC is attributed to excessive enlargement of the fruit by promotion of translocation and distribution of photosynthate from leaves (source) to fruits (sink) and the solar radiation incident on the fruits. In addition, the relation between RFC and the generation of a cork layer is considered

  7. Nutritive, Value of Selected' Forest/woodland' Edible "Fruits, Seeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition, reducing sugar and'vitamin'C of edible portioh:of fruit pulp of selected forest .... neuromuscular excitability, blood coagulation,. Uluguru Mountains in ..... for wider production of fruits, nuts or seeds. . Acknowledgement.

  8. Fruit tree model for uptake of organic compounds from soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, Stefan; Rasmussen, D.; Samsoe-Petersen, L.

    2003-01-01

    -state, and an example calculation is given. The Fruit Tree Model is compared to the empirical equation of Travis and Arms (T&A), and to results from fruits, collected in contaminated areas. For polar compounds, both T&A and the Fruit Tree Model predict bioconcentration factors fruit to soil (BCF, wet weight based......) of > 1. No empirical data are available to support this prediction. For very lipophilic compounds (log K-OW > 5), T&A overestimates the uptake. The conclusion from the Fruit Tree Model is that the transfer of lipophilic compounds into fruits is not relevant. This was also found by an empirical study...... with PCDD/F. According to the Fruit Tree Model, polar chemicals are transferred efficiently into fruits, but empirical data to verify these predictions are lacking....

  9. Strawberry Anthracnose Ripe Fruit Rot and Management Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Louws, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Briefly describes anthracnose symptoms on ripe strawberry fruit, then recommends ways to manage for the anthracnose, including removal and burying or burning infected and nearby plants, avoiding overhead irrigation, and picking fruits from the infected areas last.

  10. Modelling the South African fruit export infrastructure: A case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ortmann, FG

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A description is provided of work performed as part of the fruit logistics infrastructure project commissioned by the South African Deciduous Fruit Producers’ Trust and coordinated by the South African Council for Scientific and Industrial Research...

  11. Evaluation Of Growth And Development In Mango Fruits Cvs. Julie ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation Of Growth And Development In Mango Fruits Cvs. Julie And Peter To Determine Maturity. ... Two mango cultivars viz., Julie and Peter, were studied for growth and development of fruits in 2001 and 2002 ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  12. Effects of composite mango ( Mangifera indica ) fruit reject meal on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of composite mango ( Mangifera indica ) fruit reject meal on growth performance, digestibility and economics of production of rabbits. ... The experiment was conducted to determine the effect of mango fruit reject ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  13. Production and characterization of wine from mango fruit ( Mangifera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production and characterization of wine from mango fruit ( Mangifera indica ) varieties in Kenya. ... Six mature and unripe mango fruits were harvested three times from a farm in Katheka Kai Division, Machakos County ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  14. Effect of Pretreatments on Seed Viability During Fruit Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fiifi Baidoo

    and petri dishes on moist filter paper, gave 80% germination in variety gabonensis, 20 weeks after fruiting. .... Effect of pretreatments on seed germination of fruits of Irvingia gabonensis plucked from forest ...... A review of the tariff structure and.

  15. The role of fruit consumption in the prevention of obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge; Alinia, Sevil

    2009-01-01

    The global obesity epidemic is associated with a sedentary lifestyle and diets rich in high-fat, high-energy foods. The potential role of fruit in preventing overweight and obesity is related to their relatively low energy density, high content of dietary fibre, and associated increasing satiety...... effect. The physical disruption of fruit is of considerable importance for satiety, as shown in studies in which fruit juices were less satisfying compared to sugar-equivalent intakes of purees and whole fruits. The potential role of fruit in the prevention of overweight and obesity may be connected...... to the dietary pattern of fruit intake, and with the possibility that fruit intake may substitute for other, more energy-dense foods. The majority of human prospective cohort studies in adults suggest a preventive effect of increased fruit intake oil body weight gain; whereas a few studies have suggested...

  16. Economics Of Wholesale Marketing Of Tomato Fruits In Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economics Of Wholesale Marketing Of Tomato Fruits In Ibadan Metropolis Of Oyo State, Nigeria. ... fruits, determining marketing efficiency, margin and marketing costs associated with tomato marketing. ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  17. Fruits and Seeds Production of Irvingia Gabonensis (O' Rorke) and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fruits and Seeds Production of Irvingia Gabonensis (O' Rorke) and Its Economic Importance in Edo ... Journal of Agriculture and Social Research (JASR) ... Irvingia gabonensis is one of the most important indigenous fruit trees cultivated and ...

  18. The bromine content of some Dutch crops and fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Admiraal, P.; Kok, H.A.; Das, H.A.; Hoede, D.; Zonderhuis, J.

    1975-09-01

    The natural bromine-content of Dutch potatoes, vegetables and fruits was determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Results are given for 348 samples divided over 20 crops and fruits. The data are compared to values published in the literature

  19. ASSESSMENT OF IMPACT DAMAGE TO APPLE FRUITS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... measured in terms of bruise diameter is highly influenced by the drop height. ... other, packaging containers, parts of processing equip- ment and the tree. During ... Where E is the impact energy, m is the mass of the fruit, g is ...

  20. Fruits contamination in Poland after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubik, M.; Michalczuk, L.; Dzieciol, U.; Bem, H.; Kusmierek, E.

    1996-01-01

    The content of Cs 137, Cs 134 and Ru 106 have been measured in samples of different fruits, mushrooms and honey taken from many farms selected at whole territory of Poland. The research has been carried out during the period of 1986-1991. The soils contamination in farms and forests area has been also done. 2 figs, 2 tabs

  1. SELECTED INDIGENOUS WILD FRUITS INFLUENCE ON FEEDING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2015-01-12

    Jan 12, 2015 ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies & Management 8(1): 39 – 44, 2015. ... Dept of Wildlife and Ecotourism, Federal College of Wildlife Mgt., ... time spent to remove or break the fruits pericarp; and the position of the ...

  2. Detection of phytoplasmas of temperate fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laimer, Margit

    2009-01-01

    Phytoplasmas are associated with hundreds of plant diseases globally. Many fruit tree phytoplasmas are transmitted by insect vectors or grafting, are considered quarantine organisms and a major economic threat to orchards. Diagnosis can be difficult, but immunochemical and molecular methods have been developed.

  3. Fruit and vegetable films and uses thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present invention is directed to monolayer, bilayer, and multilayer films made from fruit, vegetable or a combination thereof, which films have the thinness, strength, flexibility and crispness to serve as alternates or substitutes for seaweed-based films such as nori, while providing nutrition ...

  4. Allergy to Rosaceae fruits without related pollinosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernández-Rivas, M.; van Ree, R.; Cuevas, M.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rosaceae fruit allergy is frequently associated with birch pollinosis in Central and Northern Europe and with grass pollen allergy in Central Spain. The main cross-reactive structures involved for birch pollinosis are Bet v 1 and profilin, and for grass pollinosis they are profilin and

  5. Proteins in olive fruit and oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montealegre, Cristina; Esteve, Clara; García, Maria Concepción; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Marina, Maria Luisa

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a comprehensive review grouping the information on the extraction, characterization, and quantitation of olive and olive oil proteins and providing a practical guide about these proteins. Most characterized olive proteins are located in the fruit, mainly in the seed, where different oleosins and storage proteins have been found. Unlike the seed, the olive pulp contains a lower protein content having been described a polypeptide of 4.6 kDa and a thaumain-like protein. Other important proteins studied in olive fruits have been enzymes which could play important roles in olives characteristics. Part of these proteins is transferred from the fruit to the oil during the manufacturing process of olive oil. In fact, the same polypeptide of 4.6 kDa found in the pulp has been described in the olive oil and, additionally, the presence of other proteins and enzymes have also been described. Protein profiles have recently been proposed as an interesting strategy for the varietal classification of olive fruits and oils. Nevertheless, there is still a lot of knowledge without being explored requiring new studies focused on the determination and characterization of these proteins.

  6. Radiation preservation of strawberry fruit: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quaranta, H.O.; Piccini, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    This paper reviews the up-to-date literature on strawberry fruit preservation by irradiation, including microbiological and nutritional aspects, as well as chemical alterations in its components through analysis of vitamin content, carbohydrates, amino acids and fatty acids present, estimation of content of volatiles, and influence of irradiation on shelf-life and appearance. (author)

  7. Fruit Flies Help Human Sleep Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... like us, without enough sleep, flies feel the effects of sleep deprivation. Cirelli has shown that they are a good model for researching human sleep. She has found fruit fly genes that seem to have a powerful effect on sleep. In time, her research could lead ...

  8. Coatings for minimally processed fruits and vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresh-cut fruit and vegetables are gaining increasing popularity and market share. Techniques to enhance stability of fresh cut produce are reviewed. Among these techniques, edibles coatings can provide protection against dehydration, microbial decay and decrease events related to physiological sene...

  9. Minimally processed fruit salad enriched with Lactobacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Minimal processing promotes browning of some vegetal tissues due to cell membrane disruption, which results in the release of oxidative enzymes. This study evaluated the efficiency of citric acid, ascorbic acid, sodium metabisulfite and L-cysteine hydrochloride to retard enzymatic browning of minimally processed fruit ...

  10. “health benefits” of fruit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    be based on the total polyphenol content provided by the “5-a-day” portions of fruit .... For instance, many of the radical species utilised in these assays ... of selected foods.16,30 The data generated by various TAC assays are also employed ...

  11. SUITABILITY OF CARAMBOLA ( AVERRHOA CARAMBOLA ) FRUIT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SUITABILITY OF CARAMBOLA ( AVERRHOA CARAMBOLA ) FRUIT JUICE AS A SUBSTRATE FOR WINE FERMENTATION. ... The analysis of the sugars showed glucose, fructose and sucrose as the predominant sugars present. Vitamin C content was substantially high (35 mg/100 g), but fat content was low (0.25%).

  12. Development of Cladium mariscus (L. Pohl. fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Marek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ovule and ovary development was investigated with the aim to establish from what is the scleroid cover of the Cladium mariscus fruit derived. It was proved, that like in other members of the Cyperaceae family, it derives from the ovary.

  13. High pressure effects on fruits and vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, R.A.H.; Matser, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The chapter provides an overview on different high pressure based treatments (high pressure pasteurization, blanching, pressure-assisted thermal processing, pressure-shift freezing and thawing) available for the preservation of fruits and vegetable products and extending their shelf life. Pressure

  14. Exploring the potential of an Andean fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivares Tenorio, Mary Luz

    2017-01-01

    Cape gooseberry is a fruit cultivated in Andean countries. Currently it is available some international markets, besides the domestic Andean market. Colombia is the major producer and export country at the moment. The value chain of cape gooseberry faces several barriers of technological and

  15. Simultaneous transcriptome analysis of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and tomato fruit pathosystem reveals novel fungal pathogenicity and fruit defense strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkan, Noam; Friedlander, Gilgi; Ment, Dana; Prusky, Dov; Fluhr, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides breaches the fruit cuticle but remains quiescent until fruit ripening signals a switch to necrotrophy, culminating in devastating anthracnose disease. There is a need to understand the distinct fungal arms strategy and the simultaneous fruit response. Transcriptome analysis of fungal-fruit interactions was carried out concurrently in the appressoria, quiescent and necrotrophic stages. Conidia germinating on unripe fruit cuticle showed stage-specific transcription that was accompanied by massive fruit defense responses. The subsequent quiescent stage showed the development of dendritic-like structures and swollen hyphae within the fruit epidermis. The quiescent fungal transcriptome was characterized by activation of chromatin remodeling genes and unsuspected environmental alkalization. Fruit response was portrayed by continued highly integrated massive up-regulation of defense genes. During cuticle infection of green or ripe fruit, fungi recapitulate the same developmental stages but with differing quiescent time spans. The necrotrophic stage showed a dramatic shift in fungal metabolism and up-regulation of pathogenicity factors. Fruit response to necrotrophy showed activation of the salicylic acid pathway, climaxing in cell death. Transcriptome analysis of C. gloeosporioides infection of fruit reveals its distinct stage-specific lifestyle and the concurrent changing fruit response, deepening our perception of the unfolding fungal-fruit arms and defenses race. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. Gas exchange in fruits related to skin condition and fruit ripening studied with diode laser spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Zhang, Hao; Lin, Huiying; Li, Tianqi; Mei, Liang; Svanberg, Katarina; Svanberg, Sune

    2016-12-01

    The concentration of the biologically active molecular oxygen gas is of crucial importance for fruits in the metabolic respiration, maturation, and ripening processes. In our study, oxygen content and oxygen transport in fruits, exemplified by apples and guavas, were studied noninvasively by gas in scattering media absorption spectroscopy. The technique is based on the fact that free gases typically have 10,000 times narrower absorption features than the bulk material. The technique was demonstrated in studies of the influence of the fruit skin in regulating the internal oxygen balance, by observing the signal response of the internal oxygen gas to a transient change in the ambient gas concentration on peeled and unpeeled fruits. In addition, the gas exchange rate at different ripening stages was also studied in intact guavas.

  17. Gas exchange in fruits related to skin condition and fruit ripening studied with diode laser spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Zhang, Hao; Lin, Huiying; Li, Tianqi; Mei, Liang; Svanberg, Katarina; Svanberg, Sune

    2016-12-01

    The concentration of the biologically active molecular oxygen gas is of crucial importance for fruits in the metabolic respiration, maturation, and ripening processes. In our study, oxygen content and oxygen transport in fruits, exemplified by apples and guavas, were studied noninvasively by gas in scattering media absorption spectroscopy. The technique is based on the fact that free gases typically have 10,000 times narrower absorption features than the bulk material. The technique was demonstrated in studies of the influence of the fruit skin in regulating the internal oxygen balance, by observing the signal response of the internal oxygen gas to a transient change in the ambient gas concentration on peeled and unpeeled fruits. In addition, the gas exchange rate at different ripening stages was also studied in intact guavas.

  18. Seed dispersal anachronisms: rethinking the fruits extinct megafauna ate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo R Guimarães

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Some neotropical, fleshy-fruited plants have fruits structurally similar to paleotropical fruits dispersed by megafauna (mammals > 10(3 kg, yet these dispersers were extinct in South America 10-15 Kyr BP. Anachronic dispersal systems are best explained by interactions with extinct animals and show impaired dispersal resulting in altered seed dispersal dynamics. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We introduce an operational definition of megafaunal fruits and perform a comparative analysis of 103 Neotropical fruit species fitting this dispersal mode. We define two megafaunal fruit types based on previous analyses of elephant fruits: fruits 4-10 cm in diameter with up to five large seeds, and fruits > 10 cm diameter with numerous small seeds. Megafaunal fruits are well represented in unrelated families such as Sapotaceae, Fabaceae, Solanaceae, Apocynaceae, Malvaceae, Caryocaraceae, and Arecaceae and combine an overbuilt design (large fruit mass and size with either a single or few ( 100 seeds. Within-family and within-genus contrasts between megafaunal and non-megafaunal groups of species indicate a marked difference in fruit diameter and fruit mass but less so for individual seed mass, with a significant trend for megafaunal fruits to have larger seeds and seediness. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Megafaunal fruits allow plants to circumvent the trade-off between seed size and dispersal by relying on frugivores able to disperse enormous seed loads over long-distances. Present-day seed dispersal by scatter-hoarding rodents, introduced livestock, runoff, flooding, gravity, and human-mediated dispersal allowed survival of megafauna-dependent fruit species after extinction of the major seed dispersers. Megafauna extinction had several potential consequences, such as a scale shift reducing the seed dispersal distances, increasingly clumped spatial patterns, reduced geographic ranges and limited genetic variation and increased among

  19. Seed Dispersal Anachronisms: Rethinking the Fruits Extinct Megafauna Ate

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães, Paulo R.; Galetti, Mauro; Jordano, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    Background: Some neotropical, fleshy-fruited plants have fruits structurally similar to paleotropical fruits dispersed by megafauna (mammals .103 kg), yet these dispersers were extinct in South America 10–15 Kyr BP. Anachronic dispersal systems are best explained by interactions with extinct animals and show impaired dispersal resulting in altered seed dispersal dynamics. Methodology/Principal Findings: We introduce an operational definition of megafaunal fruits and perform a comparativ...

  20. How Much Do Americans Pay for Fruits and Vegetables?

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, Jane; Frazao, Elizabeth; Itskowitz, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    Many Americans do not consume the recommended amount of fruits and vegetables. Almost half of Americans think eating more fruits and vegetables would make their diets healthier, so why don't they? One argument is that fruits and vegetables are expensive, especially when purchased fresh. According to an ERS study, a consumer can meet the recommendation of three servings of fruits and four servings of vegetables daily for 64 cents.

  1. Determinants of fruit and vegetable consumption among children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mette; Krølner, Rikke; Klepp, Knut-Inge

    2006-01-01

    In order to more effectively promote fruit and vegetable intake among children and adolescents, insight into determinants of intake is necessary. We conducted a review of the literature for potential determinants of fruit and vegetable intake in children and adolescents.......In order to more effectively promote fruit and vegetable intake among children and adolescents, insight into determinants of intake is necessary. We conducted a review of the literature for potential determinants of fruit and vegetable intake in children and adolescents....

  2. FRUITS IN DIVAN OF NEDIM / NEDIM DIVANI’NDA MEYVELER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazilet ÇÖPLÜOĞLU (M.A.H.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study fruit names in Nedim’s divan weredetermined and the similes of fruit names wereexamined. In Nedim’s divan fruit names on the wholewere used for expressing the lover’s body. In this respect,similies were made between almond – eye, apple – chin,pistachio – lip, cherry – lip, pomegranate – breast, orange– chin, breast; peach – cheek. The couplets whichcontain fruit names are given and also an index of thefruit names.

  3. Price Trends Are Similar for Fruits, Vegetables, and Snack Foods

    OpenAIRE

    Kuchler, Fred; Stewart, Hayden

    2008-01-01

    An increase in the price of fruits and vegetables relative to less healthy foods could reduce consumers’ incentives to purchase fruits and vegetables and result in less healthy diets. Whether such a change in relative prices and incentives has occurred in the United States is difficult to prove because of substantial quality improvements in many fresh fruits and vegetables. For commonly consumed fresh fruits and vegetables for which quality has remained fairly constant, analysis of price tren...

  4. Polyphenols and Volatiles in Fruits of Two Sour Cherry Cultivars, Some Berry Fruits and Their Jams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka Levaj

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports about the content of polyphenols and volatiles in fresh fruits of two sour cherry cultivars (Marasca and Oblačinska, some berry fruits (strawberry Maya, raspberry Willamette and wild blueberry and the corresponding low sugar jams. Phenolic compounds (hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids, flavan 3-ols and flavonols were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Those found in the fruits were also found in the jams. Jams contained lower amounts of polyphenols than fresh fuits, but their overall retention in jams was relatively high. Among fruits, sour cherry Marasca had the highest level of polyphenols, while sour cherry Marasca jam and raspberry Willamette jam had the highest level of polyphenols among jams. The major flavonoid in all investigated fruits, except in sour cherry Oblačinska, was (–-epicatechin. Sour cherry Marasca had the highest level of (–-epicatechin (95.75 mg/kg, and it also contained very high amounts of flavonols, derivatives of quercetin and kaempferol. Hydroxybenzoic acids (HBAs were not found in sour cherries Marasca and Oblačinska, but were found in berry fruits and jams. Phenolic compound (+-gallocatechin was found only in Marasca fruit and jam. Ellagic acid was found in the highest concentration in raspberry Willamette fruit and jam. Hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs were found in all the investigated fruits, with the exception of a derivative of ferulic acid, which was not found in strawberry. Derivatives of caffeic, p-coumaric and chlorogenic acids were found in all the investigated fruits, with chlorogenic acid being the most abundant, especially in sour cherry Marasca. Volatiles were determined by gas chromatography (GC and expressed as the peak area of the identified compounds. All investigated volatiles of fresh fruit were also determined in the related jams with relatively high retention. Sour cherries Marasca and Oblačinska contained the same volatile compounds, but

  5. Semi-Dried Fruits and Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze Uysal Seçkin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Since ancient times, the preservation of fruit and vegetables is an ancient method of drying. Sun drying method has been used more widely. In general, consumer-ready products are dried fruits, while the dried vegetables are the foods subjected to the rehydration processes such as boiling, heating and baking before consumption. In recent years, new products with high eating quality have been attempted to achieve without losing characteristic of raw material. With the improving of food technology, using developed methods (pH reduction with reducing aw, slight heating, preservatives use etc. as protective agent, and using a combination of a low rate as an alternative to traditional food preservation process, products have been obtained without changing original characteristics of food. ‘Semi-dried 'or 'medium moist 'products with little difference between the taste and texture of the product with a damp have gained importance in recent years in terms of consumer preferences. Vegetables or fruits, which have water activity levels between 0.50 and 0.95 and the moisture content of between 26% and 60%, are called 'medium moist fruit or vegetables'. Two different manufacturing process to obtain a semi-dried or intermediate moisture products are applied. First, fully dried fruits and vegetables to be rehydrated with water are brought to the desired level of their moisture content. Second, in the first drying process, when the product moisture content is reduced to the desired level, the drying process is finished. The semi-dried products are preferred by consumers because they have a softer texture in terms of eating quality and like fresh products texture.

  6. Quantitative indicators of fruit and vegetable consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Kozelová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The quantitative research of the market is often based on surveys and questionnaires which are finding out the behavior of customers in observed areas. Before purchasing process consumers consider where they will buy fruit and vegetables, what kind to choose and in what quantity of goods. Consumers' behavior is affected by the factors as: regional gastronomic traditions, price, product appearance, aroma, place of buying, own experience and knowledge, taste preferences as well as specific health issues of consumers and others. The consumption of fruit and vegetables brings into the human body biological active substances that favorably affect the health of consumers. In the presented research study we were interested in differences of consumers' behavior in the consumption of fruit and vegetables according to the place of residence and gender. In the survey 200 respondents has participated; their place of residence was city or village. The existence of dependences and statistical significance were examined by selected statistical testing methods. Firstly we analyzed the responses via statistical F-test whether observed random samples have the same variance. Then we applied two-sample unpaired t-test with equal variance and χ2-test of statistical independence. The statistical significance was tested by corresponding p values. Correlations were proved by the Cramer's V coefficient. We found that place of residence has no impact on the respondents' consumption of fruit. The gender of respondents does not affect their consumption of fruit. Equally, the gender does not affect the respondents' consumption of vegetables. Only in one observed case the significant differences proved that the place of respondent residence has impact on the consumption of vegetables. Higher consumption of vegetables is due to the fact that the majority of citizens, who live in villages, have a possibility to grow their own vegetables and, thus, the demand for it in village

  7. Efficacy of insecticides in fruit borer control and residues on sugar apple fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro da Silva Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Bahia is the Brazilian state with the largest production of sugar apple fruits (Annona squamosa L., and fruit borer (Cerconota anonella, Sepp. 1830 is a key crop pest. Insecticides are the main strategy for pest control even though there are no pesticides registered for this crop. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of insecticides to control fruit borer and determine the levels of insecticide residues in sugar apple fruits aiming at requesting the extension of authorization to use insecticide products in this crop. The experiment was conducted in an eight-year-old irrigated orchard (2 × 4 m located in Anagé, Bahia, Brazil. The experimental design was a randomized block design with 10 treatments (three insecticides with three doses and a control with water and 5 replications. Each plot was composed of four plants but only the two central ones were assessed. Insecticides and doses (g a.i. 100 L−1 water were Bacillus thuringiensis: 0.8, 1.7, and 2.5; triflumuron: 2.4, 3.6, and 4.8; and imidacloprid: 4.0, 10.0, and 16.0. Nine sprayings were carried out at fortnightly intervals with a costal sprayer with constant pressure, JA-2 nozzle, and with jet directed to the fruits. Ten assessments were performed in order to observe fruit borer presence in 30 previously marked fruits per plot. Imidacloprid, at the highest studied dose, was the only effective treatment. Analyses of imidacloprid residues, at 21 and 30 days after the highest dose application, indicated levels higher than the maximum limit allowed. Insecticides under the conditions tested do not meet the norms for requesting the extension of authorization to use insecticides for citrus in sugar apple fruits.

  8. When the BRANCHED network bears fruit: how carpic dominance causes fruit dimorphism in Aethionema

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lenser, T.; Tarkowská, Danuše; Novák, Ondřej; Wilhelmsson, P.; Bennett, T.; Rensing, S. A.; Strnad, Miroslav; Theissen, G.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 2 (2018), s. 352-371 ISSN 0960-7412 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Aethionema arabicum * auxin * branched1 * carpic dominance * cytokinin * fruit development * fruit dimorphism * molecular evolution * phytohormones * shoot branching Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 5.901, year: 2016

  9. modification of sequence of unit operations in mechanized palm fruit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    palm fruits processing sector, and requires less .... factory mill is a fully mechanized (non-labour ... in the digested fruit are to be all just touch- ing one ... fruits with human foot to pounding with pes- ... tural Service Bulletin 148 of Food and Agri-.

  10. Effect of hormone treatments on deformed fruit development in pear

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    erica

    2012-05-31

    May 31, 2012 ... of plant growth regulators applications and endogenous hormones on deformed pear fruit to clarify the relation- ship between shape and hormones in the fruit. MATERIALS AND METHODS. The experiments were conducted in 2008 using pear trees growing fruit demonstration farm in Jianning County.

  11. The availability of processed fruit products and their contents of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fruit, poverty and post-harvest losses due to lack of skills for processing and storage. The objectives of this research were to survey household consumption of foods especially processed fruit products in Nairobi, and analyze nutritional quality of processed fruit products. Three estates representing different income groups ...

  12. Geohelminth contamination of some common fruits and vegetables ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fruits and vegetables were bought directly from rural farmers between the hours of 07:00 and 09:00hrs. Separately, each fruit and about 200gram of each type of vegetable was carefully washed in 200ml of distilled water. Formol-ether concentration technique was employed to concentrate the parasites. Fruits examined ...

  13. Diospyros and the myth of the forbidden fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ng, F.S.P.

    2001-01-01

    In the genus Diospyros (Greek for ‘grain ∞ food of the gods’) there are fruits (persimmons) that are highly valued for eating, fruits used to poison fish, and fruits that are reputed to have poisoned people. To the last category belong the terrible trio of D. demona Bakh. (‘daemona’), D. insidiosa

  14. Storage temperature affects fruit quality attributes of Ber ( Ziziphus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fruit utilization is affected by quality attributes and shelf life. The quality of Jujube or Ber (Ziziphus mauritiana Lamk.) fruits after harvest depends on storage conditions used. In this study, different storage temperatures and durations were evaluated to determine the appropriate storage conditions of fresh fruits of Z.

  15. Barriers to fruit consumption: Driving forces behind consumer behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Briz, T.; Sijtsema, S.J.; Jasiulewicz, A.; Kyriakidi, A.; Dolors Guàrdia, M.; Berg, van den I.; Lans, van der I.A.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This study gives more insight in motives and barriers, i.e. positive and negative drivers, for European fruit consumption, as a basis to meet consumer requirements in developing new types of fruits and fruit products and to develop interventions. For that purpose, focus group discussions

  16. Morphological and Molecular Identification of Colletotrichum acutatum from Tomato Fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Svetlana Živković; Saša Stojanović; Žarko IVanović; Nenad Trkulja; Nenad Dolovac; Goran Aleksić; Jelica Balaž

    2010-01-01

    Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Colletotrichum acutatum, Colletotrichum coccodes, and Colletotrichum dematium are the four main species of Colletotrichum that cause tomato anthracnose. In Serbia, the occurrence of anthracnose on tomato fruit has been recorded during the last several years. Typical fruit symptoms include dark, sunken, and circular lesion with orange conidial masses. Pathogen isolates were obtained from a diseased tomato fruits, on PDA medium...

  17. Storage Methods Of Plantain ( Musa sp. AAB) Fruits Influenced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results showed that about 67% of fruits stored in plane, yellow and red Po were green after two weeks as against only 8% of fruits lined on LS. The inclusion of sawdust/salt hastened senescence and enhanced disease development. Severity of crown rot was generally lowest in blue polyethylene. Also, fruits stored in ...

  18. Register of New Fruit and Nut Cultivars List 46. Rambutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties 46 is a compilation of descriptions of new fruit and nut cultivars from around the world. In this edition, 8 newly released rambutan cultivars are described in terms of their origins, important fruit traits and yield. Of the eight described cultivars, one ...

  19. Antioxidant activity and HPTLC profile of Lagenaria siceraria fruits

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: The fruits of Lagenar a s cerar a Standl. (Cucurbitaceae) are widely used for medicinal and nutritional purposes in Africa. The health promoting ability of the fruits might be related to antioxidant properties of its constituents. In this study the antioxidant effect of fresh and dried fruits of L. s cerar a was evaluated by.

  20. Evaluation of the antibacterial activity of Syzygium cordatum fruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at evaluating the antibacterial activity of S. cordatum fruits and seeds against bacteria causing GIT infections. The harvested fruits were separated into fruit-pulp and seeds, dried and extracted with methanol using Soxhlet extraction. The extracts were phytochemically screened and micro dilution assay was ...

  1. 7 CFR 906.41 - Gift fruit shipments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Gift fruit shipments. 906.41 Section 906.41... LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Regulation § 906.41 Gift fruit shipments. The handling to any person of gift packages of fruit individually addressed to such person, in quantities...

  2. Glycaemic Response to some Commonly Eaten Fruits in Type 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: It is not known which of the commonly consumed fruits in Nigeria are suitable for persons with diabetes mellitus especially with regards to the attendant plasma glucose response (PGR) to consumption of such fruits. Objectives: To determine and compare the PGR to commonly eaten fruits in patients with ...

  3. Yeasts and yeast-like organisms associated with fruits and blossoms of different fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadkertiová, Renáta; Molnárová, Jana; Vránová, Dana; Sláviková, Elena

    2012-12-01

    Yeasts are common inhabitants of the phyllosphere, but our knowledge of their diversity in various plant organs is still limited. This study focused on the diversity of yeasts and yeast-like organisms associated with matured fruits and fully open blossoms of apple, plum, and pear trees, during 2 consecutive years at 3 localities in southwest Slovakia. The occurrence of yeasts and yeast-like organisms in fruit samples was 2½ times higher and the yeast community more diverse than that in blossom samples. Only 2 species (Aureobasidium pullulans and Metschnikowia pulcherrima) occurred regularly in the blossom samples, whereas Galactomyces candidus, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Hanseniaspora uvarum, M. pulcherrima, Pichia kluyveri, Pichia kudriavzevii, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were the most frequently isolated species from the fruit samples. The ratio of the number of samples where only individual species were present to the number of samples where 2 or more species were found (consortium) was counted. The occurrence of individual species in comparison with consortia was much higher in blossom samples than in fruit samples. In the latter, consortia predominated. Aureobasidium pullulans, M. pulcherrima, and S. cerevisiae, isolated from both the fruits and blossoms, can be considered as resident yeast species of various fruit tree species cultivated in southwest Slovakia localities.

  4. Area-wide pest management of fruit flies in Hawaiian fruits and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, Roger I.; Jang, Eric B.; Klungness, L. Michael

    2003-01-01

    Four economically important fruit flies have been accidentally introduced into Hawaii: melon fly, Mediterranean fruit fly, oriental fruit fly, and the so-called Malaysian (solanaceous) fruit fly. Over 400 different host fruits are attacked. These fruit flies inhibit development of a diversified tropical fruit and vegetable industry, require that commercial fruits undergo quarantine treatment prior to export, and in Hawaii provide a breeding reservoir for their introduction into the continental United States. These exotic pests a serious threat of establishment into new areas with movement of people and commodities throughout the U.S. and the world. For example, if the Mediterranean fruit fly became established in California, projected losses would exceed $1 billion per year due to trade embargoes, loss of jobs, increased pesticide use, and direct crop loss. Present fruit fly control measures in Hawaii relay heavily on the application of organophosphate and carbamate insecticides to crops. Overuse of these insecticides has been implicated with secondary pest outbreaks, negative effects on beneficial insects, environmental contamination and adverse effects on human health. In 1999 a 5 year Area-wide Pest Management (AWPM) program was funded (for FY2000) for management of fruit flies in Hawaii. The goal of the Fruit Fly AWPM program is to develop and integrate biologically based pest management approaches that will result in area-wide suppression and control of fruit flies throughout selected agricultural areas of Hawaii. The IPM program will integrate two or more technologies into a comprehensive package that is economically viable, environmentally acceptable and sustainable. The program will result in a reduction in the use of organophosphate insecticides, and further growth and development of diversified agriculture in Hawaii. The technologies include: 1) field sanitation, 2) protein bait sprays and/or traps, 3) male annihilation with male lures and attractants, 4

  5. Fruit-related terms and images on food packages and advertisements affect children's perceptions of foods' fruit content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Rebecca; Martin-Biggers, Jennifer; Berhaupt-Glickstein, Amanda; Quick, Virginia; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2015-10-01

    To determine whether food label information and advertisements for foods containing no fruit cause children to have a false impression of the foods' fruit content. In the food label condition, a trained researcher showed each child sixteen different food label photographs depicting front-of-food label packages that varied with regard to fruit content (i.e. real fruit v. sham fruit) and label elements. In the food advertisement condition, children viewed sixteen, 30 s television food advertisements with similar fruit content and label elements as in the food label condition. After viewing each food label and advertisement, children responded to the question 'Did they use fruit to make this?' with responses of yes, no or don't know. Schools, day-care centres, after-school programmes and other community groups. Children aged 4-7 years. In the food label condition, χ 2 analysis of within fruit content variation differences indicated children (n 58; mean age 4·2 years) were significantly more accurate in identifying real fruit foods as the label's informational load increased and were least accurate when neither a fruit name nor an image was on the label. Children (n 49; mean age 5·4 years) in the food advertisement condition were more likely to identify real fruit foods when advertisements had fruit images compared with when no image was included, while fruit images in advertisements for sham fruit foods significantly reduced accuracy of responses. Findings suggest that labels and advertisements for sham fruit foods mislead children with regard to the food's real fruit content.

  6. Susceptibility of low-chill blueberry cultivars to oriental fruit fly, mediterranean fruit fly, and melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forced infestation studies were conducted to determine if fruits of southern highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L. hybrids) are hosts for three invasive tephritid fruit flies. Fruits of 17 blueberry cultivars were exposed to gravid female flies of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (oriental frui...

  7. Effects of repeated exposure to either vegetables or fruits on infant's vegetable and fruit acceptance at the beginning of weaning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barends, C.; Vries, de J.; Mojet, J.; Graaf, de C.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of repeated exposure to either vegetables or fruits on an infant's vegetable and fruit acceptance during the first 18 days of weaning. We hypothesized that repeated exposure to a type of vegetable or fruit, would increase its intake. Furthermore, we expected that

  8. Yeasts and lactic acid bacteria microbiota from masau (Ziziphus mauritiana) fruits and their fermented fruit pulp in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyanga, L.K.; Nout, M.J.R.; Gadaga, T.H.; Theelen, R.M.C.; Boekhout, T.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2007-01-01

    Masau are Zimbabwean wild fruits, which are usually eaten raw and/ or processed into products such as porridge, traditional cakes, mahewu and jam. Yeasts, yeast-like fungi, and lactic acid bacteria present on the unripe, ripe and dried fruits, and in the fermented masau fruits collected from

  9. Ionizing radiation as a phytosanitary treatment against fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae): Efficacy in naturally versus artificially infested fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some phytosanitary irradiation treatments against tephritid fruit flies have been developed using artificial infestation of fruit without first comparing its effect on efficacy. In this study, efficacy was compared using infestation of grapefruit with Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), vi...

  10. Changes in antioxidant and fruit quality in hot water-treated ‘Hom Thong’ banana fruit during storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of hot water treatment on antioxidant phytochemicals and fruit quality were investigated in banana fruit of cv. Gros Michel (Musa acuminata, AAA Group, locally called cv. Hom Thong) by immersing fruits in hot water (50 'C) for 10 min, before storage at 25 'C for 10 days or 14 'C for 8 da...

  11. Deliverable 5.2 Study report on consumer motivations and behaviours for fruits and fruit products in the Balkans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsema, S.J.; Snoek, H.M.

    2010-01-01

    It is unclear whether fruit consumption in Western Balkan countries (WBC) meets recommended levels from a health perspective. A better understanding consumers' perception of health and motives and barriers of fruit is necessary to get insight in the fruit consumption. The aim of WP 5 is therefore to

  12. Physiological Responses and Fruit Retention of Carambola Fruit (Averrhoa carambola L. Induced by 2,4-D and GA3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BEKTI KURNIAWATI

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the problems in cultivation of carambola fruit is the high of flower and fruit drop during fruit development. To understand these problems and to improve fruit retention, the content of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA and total sugar in carambola fruit and leaves were analysed in response to application of gibberellic acid (GA3 and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D. The experiments used 1,5 year old of carambola plants (Averrhoa carambola L. var Dewi grown in polybag of 40 x 50 cm. GA3 with the concentration of 0, 20, 40, and 60 ppm and 2,4-D of 0, 5, 10, and 15 ppm were applied to the flower and the supporting leaves of carambola plant. The parameters analysed were number of flower drop, fruit formation, fruit retention, number of harvestable fruit per cluster, fruit weight per cluster, the content of sugar in the leaves and IAA in the fruit. The result showed that IAA content of the fruit increased in response to single as well as combination of GA3 and 2,4-D application. Sugar content of the leaves also increased in response to GA3 and 2,4-D application; however, the pattern was different with that of IAA. The best treatment to improve fruit retention was a single application of 10 ppm 2,4-D or 60 ppm GA3, and combined application of 5 ppm 2,4-D and 60 ppm GA3.

  13. Phytonutrient deficiency: the place of palm fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattanapenpaiboon, Naiyana; Wahlqvist, Mark W

    2003-01-01

    The oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is native to many West African countries, where local populations have used its oil for culinary and other purposes. Large-scale plantations, established principally in tropical regions (Asia, Africa and Latin America), are mostly aimed at the production of oil, which is extracted from the fleshy mesocarp of the palm fruit, and endosperm or kernel oil. Palm oil is different from other plant and animal oils in that it contains 50% saturated fatty acids, 40% unsaturated fatty acids, and 10% polyunsaturated fatty acids. The fruit also contains components that can endow the oil with nutritional and health beneficial properties. These phytonutrients include carotenoids (alpha-,beta-,and gamma-carotenes), vitamin E (tocopherols and tocotrienols), sterols (sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol), phospholipids, glycolipids and squalene. In addition, it is recently reported that certain water-soluble powerful antioxidants, phenolic acids and flavonoids, can be recovered from palm oil mill effluent. Owing to its high content of phytonutrients with antioxidant properties, the possibility exists that palm fruit offers some health advantages by reducing lipid oxidation, oxidative stress and free radical damage. Accordingly, use of palm fruit or its phytonutrient-rich fractions, particularly water-soluble antioxidants, may confer some protection against a number of disorders or diseases including cardiovascular disease, cancers, cataracts and macular degeneration, cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. However, whilst prevention of disease through use of these phytonutrients as in either food ingredients or nutraceuticals may be a worthwhile objective, dose response data are required to evaluate their pharmacologic and toxicologic effects. In addition, one area of concern about use of antioxidant phytonutrients is how much suppression of oxidation may be compatible with good health, as toxic free radicals are required for defence

  14. Why don't poor men eat fruit? Socioeconomic differences in motivations for fruit consumption☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechey, Rachel; Monsivais, Pablo; Ng, Yin-Lam; Marteau, Theresa M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Those of lower socioeconomic status (SES) tend to have less healthy diets than those of higher SES. This study aimed to assess whether differences in motivations for particular foods might contribute to socioeconomic differences in consumption. Methods: Participants (n = 732) rated their frequency of consumption and explicit liking of fruit, cake and cheese. They reported eating motivations (e.g., health, hunger, price) and related attributes of the investigated foods (healthiness, expected satiety, value for money). Participants were randomly assigned to an implicit liking task (Single Category Implicit Association Task) for one food category. Analyses were conducted separately for different SES measures (income, education, occupational group). Results: Lower SES and male participants reported eating less fruit, but no SES differences were found for cheese or cake. Analyses therefore focused on fruit. In implicit liking analyses, results (for income and education) reflected patterning in consumption, with lower SES and male participants liking fruit less. In explicit liking analyses, no differences were found by SES. Higher SES participants (all indicators) were more likely to report health and weight control and less likely report price as motivators of food choices. For perceptions of fruit, no SES-based differences were found in healthiness whilst significant interactions (but not main effects) were found (for income and education) for expected satiety and value for money. Neither liking nor perceptions of fruit were found to mediate the relationship between SES and frequency of fruit consumption. Conclusions: There is evidence for social patterning in food motivation, but differences are modified by the choice of implicit or explicit measures. Further work should clarify the extent to which these motivations may be contributing to the social and gender patterning in diet. PMID:25451584

  15. Phytosanitary irradiation of peach fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae) in apple fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Guoping; Li, Baishu; Gao, Meixu; Liu, Bo; Wang, Yuejin; Liu, Tao; Ren, Lili

    2014-10-01

    Peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii Matsumura, is a serious pest of many pome and stone fruits and presents a quarantine problem in some export markets. It is widely distributed in pome fruit production areas in China, Japan, Korea, North Korea and the Far Eastern Federal District of Russia. In this investigation, gamma radiation dose-response tests were conducted with late eggs (5-d-old) and various larval stages, followed by large-scale confirmatory tests on the most tolerant stage in fruit, the fifth instar. The dose-response tests, with the target radiation dose of 20 (late eggs), 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, and 160 Gy (late fifth instars in vitro) respectively applied to all stages, showed that the tolerance to radiation increased with increasing age and developmental stage. The fifth instar (most advanced instar in fruits) was determined to be the most tolerant stage requiring an estimated minimum absorbed dose of 208.6 Gy (95% CI: 195.0, 226.5 Gy) to prevent adult emergence at 99.9968% efficacy (95% confidence level). In the confirmatory tests, irradiation was applied to 30,850 late fifth instars in apple fruits with a target dose of 200 Gy (171.6-227.8 Gy measured), but only 4 deformed adults emerged that died 2 d afterwards without laying eggs. A dose of 228 Gy may be recommended as a phytosanitary irradiation treatment under ambient atmosphere for the control of peach fruit moth on all commodities with an efficacy of 99.9902% at 95% confidence level.

  16. Seasonal distributions of the western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) among host and nonhost fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Wee L

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal distributions of the western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), in sweet cherry (Prunus avium (L.) L.) (major host), black hawthorn (occasional developmental host) (Crataegus douglasii Lindley), and other trees were determined in a ponderosa pine ecosystem in Washington state, USA. The hypothesis that most fly dispersal from cherry trees occurs after fruit senesce or drop was tested, with emphasis on movement to black hawthorn trees. Sweet cherry fruit developed earlier than black hawthorn, bitter cherry (common host), choke cherry, and apple fruit. Flies were usually captured first in sweet cherry trees but were caught in bitter cherry and other trees throughout the season. Peak fly capture periods in sweet cherry began around the same time or slightly earlier than in other trees. However, peak fly capture periods in black hawthorn and other nonsweet cherry trees continued after peak periods in sweet cherry ended, or relative fly numbers within sweet cherry declined more quickly than those within other trees. Larvae were reared from sweet and bitter cherry but not black hawthorn fruit. Results provide partial support for the hypothesis in that although R. indifferens commonly disperses from sweet cherry trees with fruit, it could disperse more, or more flies are retained in nonsweet cherry trees after than before sweet cherries drop. This could allow opportunities for the flies to use other fruit for larval development. Although R. indifferens infestation in black hawthorn was not detected, early season fly dispersal to this and other trees and fly presence in bitter cherry could make fly management in sweet cherry difficult. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America 2014. This work is written by a US Government employee and is in the public domain in the US.

  17. Why don't poor men eat fruit? Socioeconomic differences in motivations for fruit consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechey, Rachel; Monsivais, Pablo; Ng, Yin-Lam; Marteau, Theresa M

    2015-01-01

    Those of lower socioeconomic status (SES) tend to have less healthy diets than those of higher SES. This study aimed to assess whether differences in motivations for particular foods might contribute to socioeconomic differences in consumption. Participants (n = 732) rated their frequency of consumption and explicit liking of fruit, cake and cheese. They reported eating motivations (e.g., health, hunger, price) and related attributes of the investigated foods (healthiness, expected satiety, value for money). Participants were randomly assigned to an implicit liking task (Single Category Implicit Association Task) for one food category. Analyses were conducted separately for different SES measures (income, education, occupational group). Lower SES and male participants reported eating less fruit, but no SES differences were found for cheese or cake. Analyses therefore focused on fruit. In implicit liking analyses, results (for income and education) reflected patterning in consumption, with lower SES and male participants liking fruit less. In explicit liking analyses, no differences were found by SES. Higher SES participants (all indicators) were more likely to report health and weight control and less likely report price as motivators of food choices. For perceptions of fruit, no SES-based differences were found in healthiness whilst significant interactions (but not main effects) were found (for income and education) for expected satiety and value for money. Neither liking nor perceptions of fruit were found to mediate the relationship between SES and frequency of fruit consumption. There is evidence for social patterning in food motivation, but differences are modified by the choice of implicit or explicit measures. Further work should clarify the extent to which these motivations may be contributing to the social and gender patterning in diet. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Population density of mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) on fruit orchards in south Baghdad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalaf, M. Z.; Shbar, A. K.; Naher, F. H.; Jabo, N. F.; Abdulhamza, B. H.; Abod, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    In the recent years the mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata distributed in the orchards of central Iraq and caused highly economic losses. This study was conducted in orchards in South Baghdad during 2009 and 2010 and made field survey of the insect in four types of orchards (Citrus, Apricot, Figs and Citrus and A mixture of fruit trees) and used for this purpose tephri traps supplied with Q-Lure and dimethyl dichlorovinyl phosphate (DDVP). The present preliminary study has shown that the Mediterranean fruit fly C.capitata has a year round presence in fruit orchards in central Iraq and reached its highest numerical density of the pest in citrus orchards during November and December were 345 and 363 insect / Trap per month in citrus orchards and the least numerical density during of January and February while the highest numerical density of the insect in orchards of orchards of apricot in Mrch 2010, Figs and Citrus in August 2009 and a Mixture of fruit trees in November 2009 were 45, 116, 311 Insect/ trap per month respectively. The population density of the pest was highest beginning 2010 compared with 2009 , but the high temperature degree (46 - o 5 2) in August 2010 caused a decrease in population density of this pest. C.capitata caused highly economic losses in citrus reaching 68, 71, 82% of the Mandarin, Kaki, Apricot fruits respectively. Currently in Iraq no control method to reduce the economic losses caused by this pest except the use of pesticides GF-120. Therefore, results of this study could be of benefit for orcharch owners when applying an integrated program for controlling fruit fly pests. (Author)

  19. Date fruit: chemical composition, nutritional and medicinal values, products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhen-Xing; Shi, Lu-E; Aleid, Salah M

    2013-08-15

    Date fruit has served as a staple food in the Arab world for centuries. Worldwide production of date fruit has increased almost threefold over the last 40 years, reaching 7.68 million tons in 2010. Date fruit can provide many essential nutrients and potential health benefits to the consumer. Date fruit goes through four ripening stages named kimri, khalal, rutab and tamer. The main chemical components of date fruit include carbohydrates, dietary fibre, enzymes, protein, fat, minerals, vitamins, phenolic acids and carotenoids. The chemical composition of date fruit varies according to ripening stage, cultivar, growing environment, postharvest conditions, etc. The nutritional and medicinal activities of date fruit are related to its chemical composition. Many studies have shown that date fruit has antioxidant, antimutagenic, anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, anticancer and immunostimulant activities. Various date fruit-based products such as date syrup, date paste, date juice and their derived products are available. Date by-products can be used as raw materials for the production of value-added products such as organic acids, exopolysaccharides, antibiotics, date-flavoured probiotic-fermented dairy produce, bakery yeasts, etc. In this paper the chemical composition and nutritional and medicinal values of date fruit as well as date fruit-based products are reviewed. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Relationship between fruit weight and the fruit-to-leaf area ratio, at the spur and whole-tree level, for three sweet cherry varieties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cittadini, E.D.; Ridder, de N.; Peri, P.L.; Keulen, van H.

    2008-01-01

    Fruit weight is the main quality parameter of sweet cherries and leaf area/fruit is the most important characteristic influencing fruit weight. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between Mean Fruit Weight (MFW) and the Fruit Number to Leaf Area Ratio (FNLAR) for `Bing¿,

  1. Quality properties of fruits as affected by drying operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omolola, Adewale O; Jideani, Afam I O; Kapila, Patrick F

    2017-01-02

    The increasing consumption of dried fruits requires further attention on the quality parameters. Drying has become necessary because most fruits are highly perishable owing to their high moisture content and the need to make them available all year round and at locations where they are not produced. In addition to preservation, the reduced weight and bulk of dehydrated products decreases packaging, handling and transportation costs. Quality changes associated with drying of fruit products include physical, sensory, nutritional, and microbiological. Drying gives rise to low or moderate glycemic index (GI) products with high calorie, vitamin and mineral contents. This review examines the nutritional benefits of dried fruits, protective compounds present in dried fruits, GI, overview of some fruit drying methods and effects of drying operations on the quality properties such as shrinkage, porosity, texture, color, rehydration, effective moisture diffusivity, nutritional, sensory, microbiological and shelf stability of fruits.

  2. Pharmacognostical evaluation of Citrus jambhiri Lush. fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil Y Chaudhari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Citrus jambhiri Lush., commonly known as Jambīra Nimbū in Sanskrit is medium to large indigenous tree with spreading habit, less spiny than lemon and belonging to the family Rutaceae. In Ayurveda, it is used in many pharmaceutical procedures of purification (Śodhana, calcination (Māraṇa etc., Though it is an important plant, till date, no pharmacognostical reports have been available on its fruit. Materials and Methods: Study of fruit and its powder, histochemical tests and preliminary physicochemical investigations were done. Results and Conclusion: Results showed prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, aerenchyma cells, oil globules, pitted vessels, scalariform vessels, juicy sac, etc., Preliminary physicochemical analysis revealed loss on drying (1.1%, ash value (1.4%, alcohol soluble extract (28.6%, and water soluble extract (53.3%. These observations can be of use in future studies.

  3. Pharmacognostical evaluation of Citrus jambhiri Lush. fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Swapnil Y; Harisha, C R; Galib, Ruknuddin; Prajapati, P K

    2014-01-01

    Citrus jambhiri Lush., commonly known as Jambīra Nimbū in Sanskrit is medium to large indigenous tree with spreading habit, less spiny than lemon and belonging to the family Rutaceae. In Ayurveda, it is used in many pharmaceutical procedures of purification (Śodhana), calcination (Māraṇa) etc., Though it is an important plant, till date, no pharmacognostical reports have been available on its fruit. Study of fruit and its powder, histochemical tests and preliminary physicochemical investigations were done. Results showed prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, aerenchyma cells, oil globules, pitted vessels, scalariform vessels, juicy sac, etc., Preliminary physicochemical analysis revealed loss on drying (1.1%), ash value (1.4%), alcohol soluble extract (28.6%), and water soluble extract (53.3%). These observations can be of use in future studies.

  4. Antioxidant Activity of Mulberry Fruit Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfan, Muhammad; Khan, Rasool; Rybarczyk, Anna; Amarowicz, Ryszard

    2012-01-01

    Phenolic compounds were extracted from the fruits of Morus nigra and Morus alba using methanol and acetone. The sugar-free extracts (SFEs) were prepared using Amberlite XAD-16 column chromatography. All of the SFEs exhibited antioxidant potential as determined by ABTS (0.75–1.25 mmol Trolox/g), DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) (EC50 from 48 μg/mL to 79 μg/mL), and reducing power assays. However, a stronger activity was noted for the SFEs obtained from Morus nigra fruits. These extracts also possessed the highest contents of total phenolics: 164 mg/g (methanolic SFE) and 173 mg/g (acetonic SFE). The presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids in the extracts was confirmed using HPLC method and chlorogenic acid and rutin were found as the dominant phenolic constituents in the SFEs. PMID:22408465

  5. Antioxidant Activity of Mulberry Fruit Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Amarowicz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds were extracted from the fruits of Morus nigra and Morus alba using methanol and acetone. The sugar-free extracts (SFEs were prepared using Amberlite XAD-16 column chromatography. All of the SFEs exhibited antioxidant potential as determined by ABTS (0.75–1.25 mmol Trolox/g, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (EC50 from 48 μg/mL to 79 μg/mL, and reducing power assays. However, a stronger activity was noted for the SFEs obtained from Morus nigra fruits. These extracts also possessed the highest contents of total phenolics: 164 mg/g (methanolic SFE and 173 mg/g (acetonic SFE. The presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids in the extracts was confirmed using HPLC method and chlorogenic acid and rutin were found as the dominant phenolic constituents in the SFEs.

  6. Quantitative indicators of fruit and vegetable consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Dagmar Kozelová; Dana Országhová; Milan Fiľa; Zuzana Čmiková

    2015-01-01

    The quantitative research of the market is often based on surveys and questionnaires which are finding out the behavior of customers in observed areas. Before purchasing process consumers consider where they will buy fruit and vegetables, what kind to choose and in what quantity of goods. Consumers' behavior is affected by the factors as: regional gastronomic traditions, price, product appearance, aroma, place of buying, own experience and knowledge, taste preferences as well as specific heal...

  7. Plastid Proteomic Analysis in Tomato Fruit Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miho Suzuki

    Full Text Available To better understand the mechanism of plastid differentiation from chloroplast to chromoplast, we examined proteome and plastid changes over four distinct developmental stages of 'Micro-Tom' fruit. Additionally, to discover more about the relationship between fruit color and plastid differentiation, we also analyzed and compared 'Micro-Tom' results with those from two other varieties, 'Black' and 'White Beauty'. We confirmed that proteins related to photosynthesis remain through the orange maturity stage of 'Micro-Tom', and also learned that thylakoids no longer exist at this stage. These results suggest that at a minimum there are changes in plastid morphology occurring before all related proteins change. We also compared 'Micro-Tom' fruits with 'Black' and 'White Beauty' using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. We found a decrease of CHRC (plastid-lipid-associated protein and HrBP1 (harpin binding protein-1 in the 'Black' and 'White Beauty' varieties. CHRC is involved in carotenoid accumulation and stabilization. HrBP1 in Arabidopsis has a sequence similar to proteins in the PAP/fibrillin family. These proteins have characteristics and functions similar to lipocalin, an example of which is the transport of hydrophobic molecules. We detected spots of TIL (temperature-induced lipocalin in 2D-PAGE results, however the number of spots and their isoelectric points differed between 'Micro-Tom' and 'Black'/'White Beauty'. Lipocalin has various functions including those related to environmental stress response, apoptosis induction, membrane formation and fixation, regulation of immune response, cell growth, and metabolism adjustment. Lipocalin related proteins such as TIL and HrBP1 could be related to the accumulation of carotenoids, fruit color and the differentiation of chromoplast.

  8. RESEARCH OF FRUIT CONSERVES’ CORROSIVE AGGRESSIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kuznecova

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion of metal canning containers is one of the obstacles in spreading its application for packing of food. Particularly aggressive to the metal container is fruit canned medium, containing organic acids.The basic material for the production of metal canning container is white tinplate. The main advantage of white tinplate is the tin compounds are harmless to human organism. For this reason, a white badge is used widely, usually used for production of canning containers, packaging beverages. Despite the fact that recently often used containers made of aluminum badge (foil, the basic material for manufacturing metal canning containers is steel white tinplate.Now applied for coating paints and varnishes do not provide anti-corrosion protection of inner surface of metal containers during storage. Preserving of canned fruit quality in metal containers is largely defined corrosion resistance of the containers. This is due to the fact that the metal transition to canned fruit in due courses of corrosion processes is lowering the nutritional value and deterioration taste of the product, and while allocation of hydrogen is accompanied by swelling and destruction of metal containers.We have investigated a number of anti-corrosion coatings based on Fe-Cr and Fe-Sn-Ti of their behavior in aggressive mediums canned fruit. For the purpose of modeling such mediums the solutions of most widespread organic acids were used. The research allowed conclude, that in surface solid solutions Fe-Sn-Ti increase the corrosion resistance of carbon steel in aqueous solutions of malic, citric and tartaric acids. This implies that the surface solid solutions’ formation can significantly improve corrosion resistance in aggressive canning mediums.

  9. Application of irradiated chitosan for fruit preservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lan, K.N. [Post-harvest Technology Institute, 4, Ngo Quyen-Ha Noi (Viet Nam); Lam, N.D. [Ha Noi Radiation Center, VAEC, 5T-160, Nghiado, Tuliem, Ha Noi (Viet Nam); Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2000-03-01

    Preliminary test of mango (Mangifera indica) preservation by irradiated chitosan coating has been investigated. The coating by using irradiated chitosan in 1.5% solution has extended the shelf life of mango from 7 to 15 days. At the 15th day mango coated by irradiated chitosan has been keeping good color, natural ripening, without spoilage, weight loss 10%, whereas the mango without coating was spoiled completely and the coating of fruit with unirradiated chitosan inhibited the ripening. (author)

  10. Quality determinants of fruit and vegetables productions

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Mezzetti; Cherubino Leonardi

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays, the main goal for modern horticultural production is the increase of quality. Furthermore, in consideration of the new consumer demand, always more attracted by a diet based on a larger consumption of fruit and vegetables without risks of pesticides residues and with increased nutritional value, new important features in addition to the traditional quality attributes are now requested. For a program of qualification and valorisation of modern horticultural productions, it is fundame...

  11. Antimicrobial Ellagitannin of Punica granatum Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machado Thelma de B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The ethyl acetate extract of Punica granatum fruits was fractionated by chromatographic techniques to afford the ellagitannin punicalagin. The substance was found to be active against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains and was identified by HPLC/UV and ¹HNMR. The antibacterial assays which guided the isolation of the tannin were conducted using the disc diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined by the dilution method according to NCCLS (National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards procedure.

  12. Electron spin resonance identification of irradiated fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raffi, J.J.; Agnel, J.-P.L.

    1989-01-01

    The electron spin resonance spectrum of achenes, pips, stalks and stones from irradiated fruits (stawberry, raspberry, red currant, bilberry, apple, pear, fig, french prune, kiwi, water-melon and cherry) always displays, just after γ-treatment, a weak triplet (a H ∼30 G) due to a cellulose radical; its left line (lower field) can be used as an identification test of irradiation, at least for strawberries, raspberries, red currants or bilberries irradiated in order to improve their storage time. (author)

  13. Taxonomy Icon Data: fruit fly [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster Arthropoda Drosophila_melanogaster_L.png Drosophila_mela...nogaster_NL.png Drosophila_melanogaster_S.png Drosophila_melanogaster_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/...taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Drosophila+melanogaster&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Drosophila+mela...nogaster&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Drosophila+mela...nogaster&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Drosophila+melanogaster&t=NS ...

  14. High pressure effects on fruits and vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Timmermans, R.A.H.; Matser, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The chapter provides an overview on different high pressure based treatments (high pressure pasteurization, blanching, pressure-assisted thermal processing, pressure-shift freezing and thawing) available for the preservation of fruits and vegetable products and extending their shelf life. Pressure treatment can be used for product modification through pressure gelatinization of starch and pressure denaturation of proteins. Key pressure–thermal treatment effects on vitamin, enzymes, flavor, co...

  15. RISK MANAGEMENT OF GERMAN FRUIT PRODUCERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annkatrin PORSCH

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Horticultural farms in Germany face substantial business risks. However, fruit farms often struggle to implement appropriate risk management processes, and the risk management literature widely has ignored this farm type. The aim of the study was to improve the assessment of risks by farmers and the choice of suitable risk management instruments. Therefore, a risk management process based on subjective probabilities and suitable for small and medium-sized farms was developed, considering the specific needs of family run businesses. An online survey was conducted to achieve a comprehensive view of the risk perception and risk management practices of German fruit producers. Price and production risks are the most relevant risk categories for fruit farmers. However, among single risk sources, those in the people risk category were seen as the most important. Results show significant interactions among risk categories and a significant correlation between loss experience and the rating of risk categories. The assumption that risk averse farmers generally rate risks higher than risk neutral or risk seeking farmers cannot be confirmed. Diversification seems to be the most important risk management instrument for many fruit producers, especially diversification of marketing channels, farm income, and production activities. Further research should focus on the apparent inconsistency between the satisfaction with instruments reported by farmers and the actual implementation of many of them (e.g., hail insurance and anti-hail net. Furthermore, there is a need for research, to develop decision models considering the interactions of risks and risk management instruments, loss experience and risk seeking attitudes.

  16. Application of irradiated chitosan for fruit preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan, K.N.; Lam, N.D.; Kume, Tamikazu

    2000-01-01

    Preliminary test of mango (Mangifera indica) preservation by irradiated chitosan coating has been investigated. The coating by using irradiated chitosan in 1.5% solution has extended the shelf life of mango from 7 to 15 days. At the 15th day mango coated by irradiated chitosan has been keeping good color, natural ripening, without spoilage, weight loss 10%, whereas the mango without coating was spoiled completely and the coating of fruit with unirradiated chitosan inhibited the ripening. (author)

  17. Physiological Responses and Fruit Retention of Carambola Fruit (Averrhoa carambola L.) Induced by 2,4-D and GA3

    OpenAIRE

    KURNLAWATI, BEKTI; HAMIM,

    2009-01-01

    One of the problems in cultivation of carambola fruit is the high of flower and fruit drop during fruit development. To understand these problems and to improve fruit retention, the content of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and total sugar in carambola fruit and leaves were analysed in response to application of gibberellic acid (GA3) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). The experiments used 1,5 year old of carambola plants (Averrhoa carambola L. var Dewi) grown in polybag of 40 x 50 cm. ...

  18. INTEGRATING PHYSIOLOGY AND ARCHITECTURE IN MODELS OF FRUIT EXPANSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikolaj Cieslak

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Architectural properties of a fruit, such as its shape, vascular patterns, and skin morphology, play a significant role in determining the distributions of water, carbohydrates, and nutrients inside the fruit. Understanding the impact of these properties on fruit quality is difficult because they develop over time and are highly dependent on both genetic and environmental controls. We present a 3D functional-structural fruit model that can be used to investigate effects of the principle architectural properties on fruit quality. We use a three step modeling pipeline in the OpenAlea platform: (1 creating a 3D volumetric mesh representation of the internal and external fruit structure, (2 generating a complex network of vasculature that is embedded within this mesh, and (3 integrating aspects of the fruit’s function, such as water and dry matter transport, with the fruit’s structure. We restrict our approach to the phase where fruit growth is mostly due to cell expansion and the fruit has already differentiated into different tissue types. We show how fruit shape affects vascular patterns and, as a consequence, the distribution of sugar/water in tomato fruit. Furthermore, we show that strong interaction between tomato fruit shape and vessel density induces, independently of size, an important and contrasted gradient of water supply from the pedicel to the blossom end of the fruit. We also demonstrate how skin morphology related to microcracking distribution affects the distribution of water and sugars inside nectarine fruit. Our results show that such a generic model permits detailed studies of various, unexplored architectural features affecting fruit quality development.

  19. Citrus fruits freshness assessment using Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekvapil, Fran; Brezestean, Ioana; Barchewitz, Daniel; Glamuzina, Branko; Chiş, Vasile; Cintă Pinzaru, Simona

    2018-03-01

    The freshness of citrus fruits commonly available in the market was non-destructively assessed by Raman spectroscopy. Intact clementine, mandarin and tangerine species were characterised concerning their carotenoids skin Raman signalling in a time course from the moment they were acquired as fresh stock, supplying the market, to the physical degradation, when they were no longer attractive to consumers. The freshness was found to strongly correlate to the peel Raman signal collected from the same area of the intact fruits in a time course of a maximum of 20days. We have shown that the intensity of the carotenoid Raman signal is indeed a good indicator of fruit freshness and introduced a Raman coefficient of freshness (C Fresh ), whose time course is linearly decreasing, with different slope for different citrus groups. Additionally, we demonstrated that the freshness assessment could be achieved using a portable Raman instrument. The results could have a strong impact for consumer satisfaction and the food industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Biotechnology of temperate fruit trees and grapevines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laimer, Margit; Mendonça, Duarte; Maghuly, Fatemeh; Marzban, Gorji; Leopold, Stephan; Khan, Mahmood; Balla, Ildiko; Katinger, Hermann

    2005-01-01

    Challenges concerning fruit trees and grapevines as long lived woody perennial crops require adapted biotechnological approaches, if solutions are to be found within a reasonable time frame. These challenges are represented by the need for correct identification of genetic resources, with the foreseen use either in conservation or in breeding programmes. Molecular markers provide most accurate information and will be the major solution for questions about plant breeders rights. Providing healthy planting material and rapid detection of newly introduced pathogens by reliable methods involving serological and molecular biological tools will be a future challenge of increases importance, given the fact that plant material travels freely in the entire European Union. But also new breeding goals and transgenic solutions are part of the biotechnological benefits, e.g. resistance against biotic and abiotic stress factors, modified growth habits, modified nutritional properties and altered processing and storage qualities. The successful characterization of transgenic grapevines and stone fruit trees carrying genes of viral origin in different vectors constructed under ecological consideration, will be presented. Beyond technical feasibility, efficiency of resistance, environmental safety and Intellectual Property Rights, also public acceptance needs consideration and has been addressed in a specific project. The molecular determination of internal quality parameters of food can also be addressed by the use of biotechnological tools. Patient independent detection tools for apple allergens have been developed and should allow to compare fruits from different production systems, sites, and genotypes for their content of health threatening compounds.

  1. Bioactive compounds in different acerola fruit cultivares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Aparecida de Carvalho Mariano-Nasser

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The increased consumption of acerola in Brazil was triggered because it is considered as a functional food mainly for its high ascorbic acid content, but the fruit also has high nutritional value, high levels of phenolic compounds, total antioxidant activity, anthocyanins and carotenoids in its composition. The objective was to evaluate the chemical, physical-chemical and antioxidant activity of eight varieties of acerola tree. The acerolas used in the research were the harvest 2015, 8 varieties: BRS 235 - Apodi, Mirandópolis, Waldy - CATI 30, BRS 238 - Frutacor, Okinawa, BRS 236 - Cereja, Olivier and BRS 237 - Roxinha, from the Active Bank Germplasm APTA Regional Alta Paulista in Adamantina - SP. Avaluated the following attributes: pH, titratable acidity, soluble solids, reducing sugar, instrumental color, ascorbic acid, total phenolics, flavonoids and antioxidant activity. The design was completely randomized, 8 varieties and 3 replications of 20 fruits each. Acerola fruit of the analyzed varieties prove to be good sources of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity, ensuring its excellent nutritional quality relative to combat free radicals. The variety BRS 236 - Cereja presents higher ascorbic acid content, antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds, and the lowest value for flavonoid, which was higher than the other cultivars, especially Olivier and Waldy CATI-30.

  2. Compositional changes during papaya fruit ripening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shattir, A. E.; Abu-Goukh, A.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate compositional changes during ripening of Baladi, Ekostika I and Ekostika II papaya fruit cultivars at 20±1°C and 85% -90% relative humidity. The fruits of the three cultivars exhibited a typical climacteric pattern of respiration with peak of respiration of 82,92 and 98 mg CO 2 / kg-hr, reached after 10 days in the three cultivars, respectively. Weight loss, total soluble solids (TSS), total sugars and ascorbic acid content progressively increased during ripening of the three papaya cultivars. More increase in TSS and total sugars was observed after the climacteric peak of respiration. Fruit tissue firmness and total phenolic compounds decreased continuously during ripening in the three cultivars. Reducing sugars, total protein and titratable acidity steadily increased to reach a peak, which coincided with climacteric peak of respiration, and subsequently decreased afterwards. The local Baladi cultivar had a lower respiration rate, more firm and less weight loss during ripening, which may indicate a longer shelf life than the other two introduced cultivars. On the other hand, the introduced cultivars were higher in TSS, total and reducing sugars and ascorbic acid content and lower in titratable acidity and phenolic compounds, which may reflect a better eating quality.(Author)

  3. Bioethanol Quality Improvement of Coffee Fruit Leather

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edahwati Luluk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Indonesia’s dependence on petroleum is to be reduced and even eliminated. To overcome the problem of finding the needed alternative materials that can produce ethanol, in this case as a substitute material or a transport fuel mix, boosting the octane number, and gasoline ethanol (gasohol can be conducted. In the red coffee processing (cooking that will produce 65% and 35% of coffee beans, coffee leather waste is a source of organic material with fairly high cellulose content of 46.82%, 3.01% of pectin and 7.68% of lignin. In this case, its existence is abundant in Indonesia and optimally utilized. During the coffee fruit peeling, the peel waste is only used as a mixture of animal feed or simply left to rot. The purpose of this study was to produce and improve the quality of the fruit skin of bioethanol from coffee cellulose. However, to improve the quality of bioethanol, the production of the lignin content in the skin of the coffee fruit should be eliminated or reduced. Hydrolysis process using organosolve method is expected to improve the quality of bioethanol produced. In particular, the use of enzyme Saccharomyces and Zymmomonas will change the resulting sugar into bioethanol. On one hand, by using batch distillation process for 8 hours with Saccharomyces, bioethanol obtains high purity which is 39.79%; on the other hand, by using the same batch distillation process with Zymmomonas, the bioethanol obtains 38.78%.

  4. Transcriptional analysis of apple fruit proanthocyanidin biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry-Kirk, Rebecca A.

    2012-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are products of the flavonoid pathway, which also leads to the production of anthocyanins and flavonols. Many flavonoids have antioxidant properties and may have beneficial effects for human health. PAs are found in the seeds and fruits of many plants. In apple fruit (Malus × domestica Borkh.), the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway is most active in the skin, with the flavan-3-ols, catechin, and epicatechin acting as the initiating units for the synthesis of PA polymers. This study examined the genes involved in the production of PAs in three apple cultivars: two heritage apple cultivars, Hetlina and Devonshire Quarrenden, and a commercial cultivar, Royal Gala. HPLC analysis shows that tree-ripe fruit from Hetlina and Devonshire Quarrenden had a higher phenolic content than Royal Gala. Epicatechin and catechin biosynthesis is under the control of the biosynthetic enzymes anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) and leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR1), respectively. Counter-intuitively, real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that the expression levels of Royal Gala LAR1 and ANR were significantly higher than those of both Devonshire Quarrenden and Hetlina. This suggests that a compensatory feedback mechanism may be active, whereby low concentrations of PAs may induce higher expression of gene transcripts. Further investigation is required into the regulation of these key enzymes in apple. Abbreviations:ANOVAanalysis of varianceANRanthocyanidin reductaseDADdiode array detectorDAFBdays after full bloomDFRdihydroflavonol reductaseLARleucoanthocyanidin reductaseLC-MSliquid chromatography/mass spectrometryPAproanthocyanidinqPCRreal-time quantitative PCR PMID:22859681

  5. Reconstructing the behavior of walking fruit flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Gordon; Bialek, William; Shaevitz, Joshua

    2010-03-01

    Over the past century, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has arisen as almost a lingua franca in the study of animal behavior, having been utilized to study questions in fields as diverse as sleep deprivation, aging, and drug abuse, amongst many others. Accordingly, much is known about what can be done to manipulate these organisms genetically, behaviorally, and physiologically. Most of the behavioral work on this system to this point has been experiments where the flies in question have been given a choice between some discrete set of pre-defined behaviors. Our aim, however, is simply to spend some time with a cadre of flies, using techniques from nonlinear dynamics, statistical physics, and machine learning in an attempt to reconstruct and gain understanding into their behavior. More specifically, we use a multi-camera set-up combined with a motion tracking stage in order to obtain long time-series of walking fruit flies moving about a glass plate. This experimental system serves as a test-bed for analytical, statistical, and computational techniques for studying animal behavior. In particular, we attempt to reconstruct the natural modes of behavior for a fruit fly through a data-driven approach in a manner inspired by recent work in C. elegans and cockroaches.

  6. Production of Star Fruit Alcoholic Fermented Beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valim, Flávia de Paula; Aguiar-Oliveira, Elizama; Kamimura, Eliana Setsuko; Alves, Vanessa Dias; Maldonado, Rafael Resende

    2016-12-01

    Star fruit ( Averrhoa carambola ) is a nutritious tropical fruit. The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of a star fruit alcoholic fermented beverage utilizing a lyophilized commercial yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ). The study was conducted utilizing a 2 3 central composite design and the best conditions for the production were: initial soluble solids between 23.8 and 25 °Brix (g 100 g -1 ), initial pH between 4.8 and 5.0 and initial concentration of yeast between 1.6 and 2.5 g L -1 . These conditions yielded a fermented drink with an alcohol content of 11.15 °GL (L 100 L -1 ), pH of 4.13-4.22, final yeast concentration of 89 g L -1 and fermented yield from 82 to 94 %. The fermented drink also presented low levels of total and volatile acidities.

  7. Spotting Fruit versus Picking Fruit as the Selective Advantage of Human Colour Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Bompas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The spatiochromatic properties of the red–green dimension of human colour vision appear to be optimized for picking fruit in leaves at about arms' reach. However, other evidence suggests that the task of spotting fruit from a distance might be more important. This discrepancy may arise because the task a system (e.g. human trichromacy is best at is not necessarily the same task where the largest advantage occurs over the evolutionary alternatives (dichromacy or anomalous trichromacy. We tested human dichromats, anomalous trichromats and “normal” trichromats in a naturalistic visual search task in which they had to find fruit pieces in a bush at 1, 4, 8 or 12 m viewing distance. We found that the largest advantage (in terms of either performance ratio or performance difference of normal trichromacy over both types of colour deficiency was for the largest viewing distance. We infer that in the evolution of human colour vision, spotting fruit from a distance was a more important selective advantage than picking fruit at arms' reach.

  8. A comprehensive survey of fruit grading systems for tropical fruits of Maharashtra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoje, Suchitra A; Bodhe, S K

    2015-01-01

    It is said that the backbone of Indian economy is agriculture. The contribution of the agriculture sector to the national GDP (Gross Domestic Products) was 14.6% in the year 2010. To attain a growth rate equivalent to that of industry (viz., about 9%), it is highly mandatory for Indian agriculture to modernize and use automation at various stages of cultivation and post-harvesting techniques. The use of computers in assessing the quality of fruits is one of the major activities in post-harvesting technology. As of now, this assessment is majorly done manually, except for a few fruits. Currently, the fruit quality assessment by machine vision in India is still at research level. Major research has been carried out in countries like China, Malaysia, UK, and Netherlands. To suit the Indian market and psychology of Indian farmers, it is necessary to develop indigenous technology. This paper is the first step toward evaluating the research carried out by the research community all over world for tropical fruits. For the purpose of survey, we have concentrated on the tropical fruits of the state of Maharashtra, while keeping in focus of the review image processing algorithms.

  9. Tomato Fruits Show Wide Phenomic Diversity but Fruit Developmental Genes Show Low Genomic Diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijee Mohan

    Full Text Available Domestication of tomato has resulted in large diversity in fruit phenotypes. An intensive phenotyping of 127 tomato accessions from 20 countries revealed extensive morphological diversity in fruit traits. The diversity in fruit traits clustered the accessions into nine classes and identified certain promising lines having desirable traits pertaining to total soluble salts (TSS, carotenoids, ripening index, weight and shape. Factor analysis of the morphometric data from Tomato Analyzer showed that the fruit shape is a complex trait shared by several factors. The 100% variance between round and flat fruit shapes was explained by one discriminant function having a canonical correlation of 0.874 by stepwise discriminant analysis. A set of 10 genes (ACS2, COP1, CYC-B, RIN, MSH2, NAC-NOR, PHOT1, PHYA, PHYB and PSY1 involved in various plant developmental processes were screened for SNP polymorphism by EcoTILLING. The genetic diversity in these genes revealed a total of 36 non-synonymous and 18 synonymous changes leading to the identification of 28 haplotypes. The average frequency of polymorphism across the genes was 0.038/Kb. Significant negative Tajima'D statistic in two of the genes, ACS2 and PHOT1 indicated the presence of rare alleles in low frequency. Our study indicates that while there is low polymorphic diversity in the genes regulating plant development, the population shows wider phenotype diversity. Nonetheless, morphological and genetic diversity of the present collection can be further exploited as potential resources in future.

  10. Effects of bagging materials and CaCl2 spray on fruit calcium concentration in fruit-bagged apple trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yim, Y.J.; Choi, J.S.; Kim, S.B.

    1989-01-01

    This experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of bagging materials and CaCl 2 spray on fruit Ca concentration in fruit-bagged apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.). No difference was noted in fruit Ca concentration among bagging materials during the growing season. And also, there was no difference in fruit Ca concentration between bagged and non-bagged fruits. The fruit flesh Ca concentration of bagged fruits was significantly lower than that of non-bagged fruits in the same tree, which 0.5 % CaCl 2 was sprayed 5 times in the late growing season. The radioactivity of 45 Ca was highest in the sprayed shoot leaves and bark, while only a trace amount was detected in the fruit and shoot proximate to the treated shoot 3 weeks after 3 times application of 45 CaCl 2 (5 micro Ci/ml). As a result, it is confirmed that the Ca once accumulated in a specific part is hardly retranslocated. Therefore, it is concluded that Ca foliar spray to the fruit-bagged tree has no influence on Ca concentration in the fruit

  11. Regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in peach fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Md Abdur; Busatto, Nicola; Trainotti, Livio

    2014-11-01

    MYB10.1 and MYB10.3, with bHLH3, are the likely regulators of anthocyanin biosynthesis in peach fruit. MYB10.1/2/3 forms a cluster on the same genomic fragment where the Anther color ( Ag ) trait is located. Anthocyanins are bioactive compounds responsible for the pigmentation of many plant parts such as leaves, flowers, fruits and roots, and have potential benefits to human health. In peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch], peel color is a key determinant for fruit quality and is regulated by flavonoids including anthocyanins. The R2R3 MYB transcription factors (TFs) control the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes with the help of co-activators belonging to the basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) and WD40 repeat families. In the peach genome six MYB10-like and three bHLH-like TFs were identified as candidates to be the regulators of the anthocyanin accumulation, which, in yellow flesh fruits, is highest in the peel, abundant in the part of the mesocarp surrounding the stone and lowest in the mesocarp. The expression of MYB10.1 and MYB10.3 correlates with anthocyanin levels of different peach parts. They also have positive correlation with the expression of key structural genes of the anthocyanin pathway, such as CHS, F3H, and UFGT. Functions of peach MYB10s were tested in tobacco and shown to activate key genes in the anthocyanin pathway when bHLHs were co-expressed as partners. Overexpression of MYB10.1/bHLH3 and MYB10.3/bHLH3 activated anthocyanin production by up-regulating NtCHS, NtDFR and NtUFGT while other combinations were not, or much less, effective. As three MYB10 genes are localized in a genomic region where the Ag trait, responsible for anther pigmentation, is localized, it is proposed they are key determinant to introduce new peach cultivars with higher antioxidant level and pigmented fruit.

  12. Influence of different tropical fruits on biological and behavioral aspects of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M. Costa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Influence of different tropical fruits on biological and behavioral aspects of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Tephritidae. Studies on Ceratitis capitata, a world fruit pest, can aid the implementation of control programs by determining the plants with higher vulnerability to attacks and plants able to sustain their population in areas of fly distribution. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of eight tropical fruits on the following biological and behavioral parameters of C. capitata: emergence percentage, life cycle duration, adult size, egg production, longevity, fecundity, egg viability, and oviposition acceptance. The fruits tested were: acerola (Malpighia glabra L., cashew (Anacardium occidentale L., star fruit (Averrhoa carambola L., guava (Psidium guajava L., soursop (Annona muricata L., yellow mombin (Spondias mombin L., Malay apple (Syzygium malaccense L., and umbu (Spondias tuberosa L.. The biological parameters were obtained by rearing the recently hatched larvae on each of the fruit kinds. Acceptance of fruits for oviposition experiment was assessed using no-choice tests, as couples were exposed to two pieces of the same fruit. The best performances were obtained with guava, soursop, and star fruit. Larvae reared on cashew and acerola fruits had regular performances. No adults emerged from yellow mombin, Malay apple, or umbu. Fruit species did not affect adult longevity, female fecundity, or egg viability. Guava, soursop, and acerola were preferred for oviposition, followed by star fruit, Malay apple, cashew, and yellow mombin. Oviposition did not occur on umbu. In general, fruits with better larval development were also more accepted for oviposition.

  13. Diallel cross analysis for fruit traits in watermelon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gvozdanović-Varga Jelica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Current demands of consumers and thus producers are important when targeting watermelon breeding programs, especially in programs aimed at improvement of fruit traits. A complete diallel set has been investigated for breeding values of six watermelon lines, via general and specific combining ability, relationships between general and specific combining ability, heritability and heterosis for fruit size, rind thickness, soluble solids and fruit shape. The lines P2 and P4 were good general combiners for fruit size. These lines also had high values of specific combining ability in direct and reciprocal crosses. The lines with negative general combining ability for fruit size (P1 and P5 can be used in breeding for small fruits (4-6 kg, good taste (high sugar content, desired rind thickness, desired fruit form and high fruit ratio. Relationships between general and specific combining ability indicated that the additive effect played an important role in the expression of fruit weight, rind thickness and sugar content, while fruit shape was inherited incompletely dominantly.

  14. An area wide control of fruit flies in Mauritius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sookar, P.; Permalloo, S.; Gungah, B.; Alleck, M.; Seewooruthun, S.I.; Soonnoo, A.R.

    2006-01-01

    An area-wide National Fruit Fly Control Programme (NFFCP) was initiated in 1994, funded by the European Union until 1999 and now fully financed by the Government of Mauritius. The NFFCP targets some 75,000 backyard fruit trees owners mainly. The bait application and male annihilation techniques (BAT e MAT) are currently being applied against the fruit flies attacking fleshy fruits and are targeting selected major fruit growing areas in the north, north-east, central and western parts of the island. Successful control has been achieved using these two techniques as demonstrated by trap catches and fruit samplings. The level of fruit fly damage to fruits has been reduced. Presently, the bait-insecticide mixture is being supplied free of charge to the public. The current status of the area-wide suppression programme is such that continuous use of BAT/MAT is a never ending process and as such is not viable. In this context, a TC project on Feasibility studies for integrated use of sterile insect technique for area wide tephritid fruit fly control.Studies are also being carried out on mass rearing of the peach fruit fly for small scale trials on SIT so as to eventually integrate this control method in our area-wide control programme. (author)

  15. An area wide control of fruit flies in Mauritius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sookar, P.; Permalloo, S.; Gungah, B.; Alleck, M.; Seewooruthun, S.I.; Soonnoo, A.R., E-mail: ento@intnet.m, E-mail: moa-entomology@mail.gov.m [Ministry of Agro Industry and Fisheries Reduit, Republic of Mauritius (Mauritius)

    2006-07-01

    An area-wide National Fruit Fly Control Programme (NFFCP) was initiated in 1994, funded by the European Union until 1999 and now fully financed by the Government of Mauritius. The NFFCP targets some 75,000 backyard fruit trees owners mainly. The bait application and male annihilation techniques (BAT e MAT) are currently being applied against the fruit flies attacking fleshy fruits and are targeting selected major fruit growing areas in the north, north-east, central and western parts of the island. Successful control has been achieved using these two techniques as demonstrated by trap catches and fruit samplings. The level of fruit fly damage to fruits has been reduced. Presently, the bait-insecticide mixture is being supplied free of charge to the public. The current status of the area-wide suppression programme is such that continuous use of BAT/MAT is a never ending process and as such is not viable. In this context, a TC project on Feasibility studies for integrated use of sterile insect technique for area wide tephritid fruit fly control.Studies are also being carried out on mass rearing of the peach fruit fly for small scale trials on SIT so as to eventually integrate this control method in our area-wide control programme. (author)

  16. Habitual intake of fruit juice predicts central blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pase, Matthew P; Grima, Natalie; Cockerell, Robyn; Pipingas, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Despite a common perception that fruit juice is healthy, fruit juice contains high amounts of naturally occurring sugar without the fibre content of the whole fruit. Frequent fruit juice consumption may therefore contribute to excessive sugar consumption typical of the Western society. Although excess sugar intake is associated with high blood pressure (BP), the association between habitual fruit juice consumption and BP is unclear. The present study investigated the association of fruit juice consumption with brachial and central (aortic) BP in 160 community dwelling adults. Habitual fruit juice consumption was measured using a 12 month dietary recall questionnaire. On the same day, brachial BP was measured and central (aortic) BP was estimated through radial artery applanation. Frequency of fruit juice consumption was classified as rare, occasional or daily. Those who consumed fruit juice daily, versus rarely or occasionally, had significantly higher central systolic BP (F (2, 134) = 6.09, p juice daily rather than rarely or occasionally. In conclusion, more frequent fruit juice consumption was associated with higher central BPs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Characterization of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum fruits from outstanding mexican selections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Guadalupe Hernández Arenas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Fruits of five regional selections of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L. were characterized to identify those with international marketing quality to promote their propagation in Mexico, improvement and conservation in germoplasm bank. The fruits were harvested in June, July, and August 2008 and, after each harvest, were assessed for shape (length/diameter, firmness, fruit weight, number of fruits per kilogram, weight and percentage of pericarp, seed and aril, total soluble solids, total sugars, vitamin C content, pH, and titratable acidity. In addition, a sensorial evaluation was carried out with 31 panelists who graded each selection for color, sweetness, and acidity. Fruits of five selections were ovoid, and with the following characteristics: firmness values from 43.7 to 51.0 N, fruit weight ranged from 22.4 to 34.7 g, registering from 28.9 to 45.0 fruits per kg; pericarp weight from 10.5 to 17.3 g (45.9 to 49.9% of the total fruit weight; total seed weight from 2.2 to 2.5 g (7.0 to 10.0%; average arils weight from 8.9 to 13.1 g (37.5 to 41.4%. The fruits had high contents of total soluble solids (17.8 to 20.4 ºBrix, total sugars (211.95 to 242.70 mg/100g in the edible portion, vitamin C (37.9 to 69.1 mg/100 g, pH 5.0, and titratable acidity of 0.20 to 0.28%. The fruits from the RT-01 and RT-05 selections had better attributes in fruit weight, total soluble solids and titratable acidity and were better accepted by the panelists. Harvest date significantly affects rambutan fruit quality; at the middle and end of the season harvested fruits had better qualitative characteristics for the marketing.

  18. Developments and trends in fruit bar production and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrego, C E; Salgado, N; Botero, C A

    2014-01-01

    Fruits serve as a source of energy, vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber. One of the barriers in increasing fruit and vegetables consumption is time required to prepare them. Overall, fruit bars have a far greater nutritional value than the fresh fruits because all nutrients are concentrated and, therefore, would be a convenience food assortment to benefit from the health benefits of fruits. The consumers prefer fruit bars that are more tasted followed by proper textural features that could be obtained by establishing the equilibrium of ingredients, the proper choosing of manufacturing stages and the control of the product final moisture content. Fruit bar preparations may include a mixture of pulps, fresh or dried fruit, sugar, binders, and a variety of minor ingredients. Additionally to the conventional steps of manufacturing (pulping, homogenizing, heating, concentrating, and drying) there have been proposed the use of gelled fruit matrices, dried gels or sponges, and extruders as new trends for processing fruit bars. Different single-type dehydration or combined methods include, in order of increasing process time, air-infrared, vacuum and vacuum-microwave drying convective-solar drying, convective drying, and freeze drying are also suggested as alternative to solar traditional drying stage. The dehydration methods that use vacuum exhibited not only higher retention of antioxidants but also better color, texture, and rehydration capacity. Antioxidant activity resulting from the presence of phenolic compounds in the bars is well established. Besides this, fruit bars are also important sources of carbohydrates and minerals. Given the wide range of bioactive factors in fresh fruits that are preserved in fruit bars, it is plausible that their uptake consumption have a positive effect in reducing the risk of many diseases.

  19. Foliar absorption and leaf-fruit transfer of 137Cs in fruit trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anguissola Scotti, I.; Silva, S.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of 137 Cs and 40 K have been carried out on the leaves and fruit of cherry, peach, pear and apple trees contaminated by the radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear accident. It has been shown that the activity of 137 Cs in leaves depends on the interception ability of the foliage, while the amount transferred from leaves to fruit seems to be related more to genetic factors of the individual species and cultivar than to the quantity present in the leaves. (author)

  20. Regularities in the supply of young peach fruits with 14C assimilates within a fruit-bearing branchlet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, A.; Manolov, P.

    1977-01-01

    A well expressed independence may be observed in nurturing young fruits of the Rio Ozo Gem variety with newly produced 14 C assimilates within a fruit-bearing branchlet. For an effective link between the individual lateral shoots and fruits both their around location and linear nearness to each other are of importance. Since the phloem fibre direction within several internaodes is nearly parallel to the branchlet axis, as a rule fruits are supplyed by the shoots situated on the same branchlet side. The negative influence of the distance between fruit and shoot is due mainly to the competition of near fruits located on the same phloem strip. Under the complex effect of these factors certain specialization is formed of the shoots arranged along the fruit-bearing branchlet, namely the upper shoots do service mainly to the upper part and the bottom ones to the basic part of it. At the same time, shoot removal tests showed that the said independence is not absolute in the carbohydrate nurture of the young fruits within the fruit-bearing branchlet. The function of an absent donor organ (a shoot) is taken over in this case by other donor organs to a greater degree than in a vegetative growth even if it would be exigently to go over from a longitudinal to a transversal transport. This shows that the young peach fruits about a month after blossoming have a greater mobilizing strength than the young growing leaves. (author)

  1. Assessing the impact of deforestation of the Atlantic rainforest on ant-fruit interactions: a field experiment using synthetic fruits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gabriela D Bieber

    Full Text Available Ants frequently interact with fleshy fruits on the ground of tropical forests. This interaction is regarded as mutualistic because seeds benefit from enhanced germination and dispersal to nutrient-rich microsites, whereas ants benefit from consuming the nutritious pulp/aril. Considering that the process of deforestation affects many attributes of the ecosystem such as species abundance and composition, and interspecific interactions, we asked whether the interaction between ants and fallen fleshy fruits in the Brazilian Atlantic forest differs between human-created fragments and undisturbed forests. We controlled diaspore type and quantity by using synthetic fruits (a plastic 'seed' covered by a lipid-rich 'pulp', which were comparable to lipid-rich fruits. Eight independent areas (four undisturbed forests, and four disturbed forest fragments were used in the field experiment, in which we recorded the attracted ant species, ant behaviour, and fruit removal distance. Fruits in undisturbed forest sites attracted a higher number of species than those in disturbed forests. Moreover, the occurrence of large, fruit-carrying ponerine ants (Pachycondyla, Odontomachus; 1.1 to 1.4 cm was higher in undisturbed forests. Large species (≥3 mm of Pheidole (Myrmicinae, also able to remove fruits, did not differ between forest types. Following these changes in species occurrence, fruit displacement was more frequent in undisturbed than in disturbed forests. Moreover, displacement distances were also greater in the undisturbed forests. Our data suggest that fallen fleshy fruits interacting with ants face different fates depending on the conservation status of the forest. Together with the severe loss of their primary dispersers in human-disturbed tropical forest sites, vertebrate-dispersed fruits may also be deprived of potential ant-derived benefits in these habitats due to shifts in the composition of interacting ant species. Our data illustrate the use of

  2. Assessing the impact of deforestation of the Atlantic rainforest on ant-fruit interactions: a field experiment using synthetic fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieber, Ana Gabriela D; Silva, Paulo S D; Sendoya, Sebastián F; Oliveira, Paulo S

    2014-01-01

    Ants frequently interact with fleshy fruits on the ground of tropical forests. This interaction is regarded as mutualistic because seeds benefit from enhanced germination and dispersal to nutrient-rich microsites, whereas ants benefit from consuming the nutritious pulp/aril. Considering that the process of deforestation affects many attributes of the ecosystem such as species abundance and composition, and interspecific interactions, we asked whether the interaction between ants and fallen fleshy fruits in the Brazilian Atlantic forest differs between human-created fragments and undisturbed forests. We controlled diaspore type and quantity by using synthetic fruits (a plastic 'seed' covered by a lipid-rich 'pulp'), which were comparable to lipid-rich fruits. Eight independent areas (four undisturbed forests, and four disturbed forest fragments) were used in the field experiment, in which we recorded the attracted ant species, ant behaviour, and fruit removal distance. Fruits in undisturbed forest sites attracted a higher number of species than those in disturbed forests. Moreover, the occurrence of large, fruit-carrying ponerine ants (Pachycondyla, Odontomachus; 1.1 to 1.4 cm) was higher in undisturbed forests. Large species (≥3 mm) of Pheidole (Myrmicinae), also able to remove fruits, did not differ between forest types. Following these changes in species occurrence, fruit displacement was more frequent in undisturbed than in disturbed forests. Moreover, displacement distances were also greater in the undisturbed forests. Our data suggest that fallen fleshy fruits interacting with ants face different fates depending on the conservation status of the forest. Together with the severe loss of their primary dispersers in human-disturbed tropical forest sites, vertebrate-dispersed fruits may also be deprived of potential ant-derived benefits in these habitats due to shifts in the composition of interacting ant species. Our data illustrate the use of synthetic fruits

  3. Weaver Ants to Control Fruit Fly Damage to Tanzanian Mangoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Nina

    in Australia and West Africa. In this study, small scale farmers did not think weaver ants protected their mangoes from fruit flies. Observational studies confirmed the farmers’ views. No volatile compounds, likely to be responsible for the weaver ants’ deterrent effect, were identified. This study focused...... mangoes varied a lot with zero infestation in some fruits and more than 100 pupae emerging from other fruits, indicating that other factors than the presence of weaver ants affect the fruit flies’ decision on where to oviposit. It was not uncommon for farmers to place newly harvested mangoes below mango...... not shown to be effectively deterring fruit flies, there is no great motivation for farmers to adopt weaver ants. Assuming the weaver ants could be managed in a way that made weaver ants deter fruit flies effectively there are still some economic aspects which should be studied further. It is necessary...

  4. Technology for production of shelf stable fruit cubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, B.B.; Jain, M.P.; Sharma, A.

    2009-01-01

    A technology has been developed for the production of intermediate moisture fruit cubes using a combination of osmotic dehydration and infrared drying. Fruits like pineapple, papaya, mango, banana and apple can be successfully converted into intermediate moisture products in the form of fruit cubes using this technology. The fruit cubes can blend very well as natural nutritious supplements with breakfast cereals and in certain food preparations like ice creams, milk shakes, jellies and custards. The product is microbiologically safe for consumption and can be stored at ambient storage condition for more than six months. This technology is an effective alternative for post harvest processing and preservation of ripened fruits. Fruit jam is an additional by-product generated by the process. This technology has been transferred to TT and CD, BARC

  5. Metabolism of carotenoids and apocarotenoids during ripening of raspberry fruit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beekwilder, J; van der Meer, IM; Simicb, A

    2008-01-01

    Carotenoids are important lipophilic antioxidants in fruits. Apocarotenoids such as α-ionone and β-ionone, which are breakdown products of carotenoids, are important for the flavor characteristics of raspberry fruit, and have also been suggested to have beneficial effects on human health. Raspberry...... is one of the few fruits where fruit ripening is accompanied by the massive production of apocarotenoids. In this paper, changes in levels of carotenoids and apocarotenoids during raspberry fruit ripening are described. In addition, the isolation and characterization of a gene encoding a carotenoid...... cleavage dioxygenase (CCD), which putatively mediates the degradation of carotenoids to apocarotenoids during raspberry fruit ripening, is reported. Such information helps us to better understand how these compounds are produced in plants and may also enable us to develop novel strategies for improved...

  6. The health benefits of chocolate enrichment with dried fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Özlem Ça&#&#nd&#; Semih Ötleş

    2009-01-01

    One of the most popular food all over the world is chocolate and it has highly nutritious energy, fast metabolism and good digestibility. Nowadays, most important trend is healthy foods. Develop a chocolate product that will be be nutritional for many more people. It is well known that dried fruits has high nutritious values and health benefits. Dried fruits are good sources to developed chocolates. This paper aims to review health importance and usage of dried fruits in chocolate.

  7. Nutritional and phytochemical study of Ilex paraguariensis fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Cogoi, Laura Carolina; Giacomino, M. Silvia; Pellegrino, Nestor; Anesini, Claudia Alejandra; Filip, Rosana

    2017-01-01

    Yerba mate is defined as the product constituted by the dried, slightly roasted, and milled leaves of Ilex paraguariensis. However, the fruits of this species are often found in the commercial product. Nowadays the fruits are considered a byproduct. The objective of this work was to obtain the preliminary data of minerals, lipids, methylxanthines and polyphenols in the ripe fruits of I. paraguariensis. The results showed a considerable amount of total dietary fiber ( g/100 g) and nutritionall...

  8. Diallel cross analysis for fruit traits in watermelon

    OpenAIRE

    Gvozdanović-Varga Jelica; Vasić Mirjana; Milić Dragan; Červenski Janko

    2011-01-01

    Current demands of consumers and thus producers are important when targeting watermelon breeding programs, especially in programs aimed at improvement of fruit traits. A complete diallel set has been investigated for breeding values of six watermelon lines, via general and specific combining ability, relationships between general and specific combining ability, heritability and heterosis for fruit size, rind thickness, soluble solids and fruit shape. The li...

  9. Squeezing fact from fiction about 100% fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Roger; Drewnowski, Adam; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Toner, Cheryl D; Welland, Diane

    2015-03-01

    Total fruit intake in the United States is ~1 cup equivalent per day, or one-half of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommendation for adults. Two-thirds of the fruit consumed is whole fruit and one-third is 100% juice. The nutritional value of whole fruit, with the exception of fiber and vitamin C, may be retained with appropriate juice production methods and storage conditions. One-hundred percent fruit juice consumption is associated with a number of health benefits, such as improved cardiovascular health and decreased obesity, although some of these and other potential benefits are controversial. Comprehensive analyses of the evidence by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics in 2014, the US Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee in 2010, and the Australian Dietary Guidelines of 2013 concluded that 100% fruit juice is not related to adiposity in children when consumed in appropriate amounts for age and energy needs. However, some reports suggest the consumption of fruit juice contributes to unhealthful outcomes, particularly among children. A dietary modeling study on the best ways to meet the fruit intake shortfall showed that a combination of whole fruit and 100% juice improved dietary density of potassium and vitamin C without significantly increasing total calories. Notably, 100% juice intake was capped at amounts consistent with the 2001 American Pediatric Association guidance. The preponderance of evidence supports the position that 100% fruit juice delivers essential nutrients and phytonutrients, provides year-round access to a variety of fruits, and is a cost-effective way to help people meet fruit recommendations. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. Quantification Model for Estimating Temperature Field Distributions of Apple Fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang , Min; Yang , Le; Zhao , Huizhong; Zhang , Leijie; Zhong , Zhiyou; Liu , Yanling; Chen , Jianhua

    2009-01-01

    International audience; A quantification model of transient heat conduction was provided to simulate apple fruit temperature distribution in the cooling process. The model was based on the energy variation of apple fruit of different points. It took into account, heat exchange of representative elemental volume, metabolism heat and external heat. The following conclusions could be obtained: first, the quantification model can satisfactorily describe the tendency of apple fruit temperature dis...

  11. Utilization of dried roselle calyces extract in fruit juice processing

    OpenAIRE

    Kilima, Beatrice Mgaya

    2014-01-01

    There has been an increased consumption of fruit juice as consumers have become aware of the nutritional and health benefits of fruit juices. This increased consumption goes together with the growth of varieties of fruit juices and beverages offered for sale. Among these products is roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) juice, or drink, which is a good source of anthocyanins, vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, ascorbic acid) and minerals (Ca, P, Fe). In addition, roselle is also used as flavo...

  12. Boron in combination with calcium reduces sunburn in apple fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Lötze, Elmi; Daiber, Stephan H.; Midgley, Stephanie J. E.

    2018-01-01

    Sunburn damage on apple fruit has been reported widely [1]. Sunburnincidence is expected to increase in future, specifically in the Western Capein South Africa, with very clear climate change predictions [2]. Sunburn thus hassignificant financial implications on profitability for the South Africanexport dominated apple industry, as sunburnt fruit is not accepted in the mainexport markets. In the United Kingdom, no visible sunburn on apples is allowed,whereas only fruit with class 1 sunburn (S...

  13. Osmotic dehydration of fruits and vegetables: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, Ashok Kumar; Singh, Satya Vir

    2012-01-01

    The main cause of perishability of fruits and vegetables are their high water content. To increase the shelf life of these fruits and vegetables many methods or combination of methods had been tried. Osmotic dehydration is one of the best and suitable method to increase the shelf life of fruits and vegetables. This process is preferred over others due to their vitamin and minerals, color, flavor and taste retention property. In this review different methods, treatments, optimization and effec...

  14. Performance of mushroom fruiting for large scale commercial production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mat Rosol Awang; Rosnani Abdul Rashid; Hassan Hamdani Mutaat; Mohd Meswan Maskom

    2012-01-01

    The paper described the determination of mushroom fruiting yield, which is vital to economics of mushroom production. Consistency in mushroom yields enabling an estimation to be made for revenues and hence profitability could be predicted. It has been reported by many growers, there are a large variation in mushroom yields over different times of production. To assess such claims we have run four batches of mushroom fruiting and the performance fruiting body productions are presented. (author)

  15. Economic and agricultural impact of mutation breeding in fruit trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiegel Roy, P.

    1990-01-01

    Constraints of conventional cross breeding in fruit trees, wide market acceptance of definite cultivars, especially in apple, pear, citrus and wine grape, and the increased impact of natural mutants provide incentives for mutation breeding. Only few induced mutants in fruit trees have been commercialized and are being planted on a large scale. The main method followed in mutation breeding of tree fruit has been acute irradiation of meristematic multicellular buds but, Chimera formation and reversion present a serious problem. 87 refs, 4 tabs

  16. Postharvest biochemical and physiological characterisation of imported avocado fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Donetti, Manuela

    2011-01-01

    Difficulties in controlling and forecasting avocado fruit ripening and the highly perishable nature of the crop once harvested, are the major causes of concern for avocado traders. In particular, the simultaneous presence of many suppliers may account for increased fruit variability during ripening. Avocado is a climacteric fruit with consistent ethylene production after harvest which is also related to high perishability. However, the mechanisms regulating ethylene biosynthesi...

  17. Ethylene-producing bacteria that ripen fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digiacomo, Fabio; Girelli, Gabriele; Aor, Bruno; Marchioretti, Caterina; Pedrotti, Michele; Perli, Thomas; Tonon, Emil; Valentini, Viola; Avi, Damiano; Ferrentino, Giovanna; Dorigato, Andrea; Torre, Paola; Jousson, Olivier; Mansy, Sheref S; Del Bianco, Cristina

    2014-12-19

    Ethylene is a plant hormone widely used to ripen fruit. However, the synthesis, handling, and storage of ethylene are environmentally harmful and dangerous. We engineered E. coli to produce ethylene through the activity of the ethylene-forming enzyme (EFE) from Pseudomonas syringae. EFE converts a citric acid cycle intermediate, 2-oxoglutarate, to ethylene in a single step. The production of ethylene was placed under the control of arabinose and blue light responsive regulatory systems. The resulting bacteria were capable of accelerating the ripening of tomatoes, kiwifruit, and apples.

  18. Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leenders, Max; Sluijs, Ivonne; Ros, Martine M

    2013-01-01

    % CI: 0.70, 1.54), and with a preventable proportion of 2.95%. This association was driven mainly by cardiovascular disease mortality (for the highest quartile, hazard ratio = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.77, 0.93). Stronger inverse associations were observed for participants with high alcohol consumption or high...... body mass index and suggested in smokers. Inverse associations were stronger for raw than for cooked vegetable consumption. These results support the evidence that fruit and vegetable consumption is associated with a lower risk of death....

  19. Phytoconstituents from Vitex agnus-castus fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Nong; Friesen, J Brent; Webster, Donna; Nikolic, Dejan; van Breemen, Richard B; Wang, Z Jim; Fong, Harry H S; Farnsworth, Norman R; Pauli, Guido F

    2011-06-01

    A new labdane-diterpene, viteagnusin I (1), together with 23 known phytoconstituents were isolated from the fruits of Vitex agnus-castus L, and their structures characterized by spectroscopic methods (NMR and MS). The known compounds include ten flavonoids, five terpenoids, three neolignans, and four phenolic compounds, as well as one glyceride. Biological evaluation identified apigenin, 3-methylkaempferol, luteolin, and casticin as weak ligands of delta and mu opioid receptors, exhibiting dose-dependent receptor binding. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Nonpolar compounds from Luffa aegyptiaca fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Nirmal S.A.; Kothawade P.C.; Datir S.B.; Pal S.C.; Mandal S.C.; Pattan S.R.

    2009-01-01

    The unsaponifiable and saponifiable constituents from the alcoholic extract of Luffa aegyptiaca fruit (Cucurbitaceae) were investigated by GC-MS. The results showed the presence of hydrocarbons viz., n-tricosane (0.41 %), n-tetracosane (0.83 %), nhexacosane (2.02 %), n-heptacosane (4.88 %), n-octacosane (2.57 %) and fatty acids viz., nanodecane-6-ol (17.65 %), eicosane-6-ol (2.54 %), dieicosane-6-ol (7.85 %), tetraeicosane-6-ol (1.75 %).

  1. Food Insecurity is Related to Home Availability of Fruit, 100% Fruit Juice, and Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Household food security is defined as access to enough food at all times for active, healthy living. Low food security may influence consumption because those households may lack sufficient resources to purchase more healthful items like fruit and vegetables. Because home availability is related to ...

  2. assessment of invasive fruit fly fruit infestation and damage in cabo

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    039o50.352' E and 246 masl), where B. invadensis widespread and well established (Cugala et al.,. 2011). Niuje and Koma-koma are well organised fruit production areas and Mahipa is a major mango and cashew production area in Cabo Delgado. Province. The choice of these host species was due to their abundance, ...

  3. Pre-harvest fruit drop, bunch weight and fruit quality of 'Rothana' and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl2

    2012-10-09

    Oct 9, 2012 ... Pre-harvest fruit drop is a serious problem of some date palm cultivars. During 2010 ... important subsistence crop in most of the hot arid regions. (Botes and .... diluted 10-fold with distilled water) and allowed to stand for 5 min before the ... made by F-test and the least significant differences (LSD) at P = 5%.

  4. Fruit specific variability in capsaicinoid accumulation and transcription of structural and regulatory genes in Capsicum fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyhaninejad, Neda; Curry, Jeanne; Romero, Joslynn; O'Connell, Mary A

    2014-02-01

    Accumulation of capsaicinoids in the placental tissue of ripening chile (Capsicum spp.) fruit follows the coordinated expression of multiple biosynthetic enzymes producing the substrates for capsaicin synthase. Transcription factors are likely agents to regulate expression of these biosynthetic genes. Placental RNAs from habanero fruit (Capsicum chinense) were screened for expression of candidate transcription factors; with two candidate genes identified, both in the ERF family of transcription factors. Characterization of these transcription factors, Erf and Jerf, in nine chile cultivars with distinct capsaicinoid contents demonstrated a correlation of expression with pungency. Amino acid variants were observed in both ERF and JERF from different chile cultivars; none of these changes involved the DNA binding domains. Little to no transcription of Erf was detected in non-pungent Capsium annuum or C. chinense mutants. This correlation was characterized at an individual fruit level in a set of jalapeño (C. annuum) lines again with distinct and variable capsaicinoid contents. Both Erf and Jerf are expressed early in fruit development, 16-20 days post-anthesis, at times prior to the accumulation of capsaicinoids in the placental tissues. These data support the hypothesis that these two members of the complex ERF family participate in regulation of the pungency phenotype in chile. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  5. Opalescent and cloudy fruit juices: formation and particle stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beveridge, Tom

    2002-07-01

    Cloudy fruit juices, particularly from tropical fruit, are becoming a fast-growing part of the fruit juice sector. The classification of cloud as coarse and fine clouds by centrifugation and composition of cloud from apple, pineapple, orange, guava, and lemon juice are described. Fine particulate is shown to be the true stable cloud and to contain considerable protein, carbohydrate, and lipid components. Often, tannin is present as well. The fine cloud probably arises from cell membranes and appears not to be simply cell debris. Factors relating to the stability of fruit juice cloud, including particle sizes, size distribution, and density, are described and discussed. Factors promoting stable cloud in juice are presented.

  6. The incorporation gene of tomato fruit firmness (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravković Jasmina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomato fruit firmness is a polygenetic trait and depends on firmness components pericarp thickness, firmness of epidermis and firmness of flash. The accumulation of favourable traits ratio for each component (towards the increase of expression the fruit firmness can be increased. This paper deals with aspects of increasing fruit firmness by increasing firmness of epidermis and thickness of pericarp. By using genotypes with rin (ripening inhibitor gene, we were able to accomplish great firmness of fruits, especially firmness of flash. The expression of these traits cause the asynchronization of maturing process so the fruits do not over mature or soften. Genetic effects have been evaluated by researching the average values of fruit firmness in six diallel parent lines (D-150, S-49, S-35, H-52, Kg-z and SP-109 and progeny (P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1 and BC2 by applying additive dominant model with three and six parameters (Mather and Jinks, 1982. Mean values of fruit firmness for parents and progeny were significantly different. Firmness of fruits is a trait influenced first of all by additive gene since they were found in all researched combinations. Epystatic gene effect was important in inheriting process for all three two-gene interactions. The stabile duplicate type of epystsase was found, which in this case reduces the unfavourable effects of dominant genes of parents with soft fruits. .

  7. Fruit salad as a new vehicle for probiotic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Maurício Furtado MARTINS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This work aimed to study the use of fruit salads as carriers for Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001. We evaluated the viability of this probiotic in fruit salads and the phsyico-chemical, microbiological and sensory properties of this food. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was used to verify microorganism adhesion on the fruit tissues. The viability of L. rhamnosus in fruit salads was 8.49 log CFU.g-1 after 120 hours. SEM images showed that fruit tissue provided protection for probiotic. Adhesion sites were observed in higher quantity in banana, apple and guava. The addition of L. rhamnosus did not alter texture of fruits (p > 0.05. Fruit salads containing probiotic had different values of pH and acidity compared to the control (p 0.05. Fruit salads containing L. rhamnosus showed counts of psychotrophic microorganisms of at least 2.0 log CFU.g-1 lower than control salad after 120 h of refrigerated storage. The fruit salad was well accepted by consumers. Therefore, this product can be used as a carrier for probiotic and an alternative to consuming functional foods.

  8. Potassium incorporation in fruits of South American tropical species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cid, Alberto S.; Anjos, Roberto M.; Macario, Kita D.; Veiga, Rodrigo; Lacerda, Thiago; Velasco, Hugo; Rizzoto, Marcos; Valladares, Daniel; Zamboni, Cibelle B.; Medeiros, Ilca M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: This work proposes the use of a new mathematical model liable for describing the temporal evolution of potassium concentration in fruits of tropical species. Studies of the potassium incorporation are important for two main reasons: a) from the physiological point of view, this flux characterizes the dynamics of the demand of this essential macro nutrient during the gestation period of the fruit; and b) from a radioecological perspective, potassium is a chemical analogue of cesium, particularly of 137 Cs, one of the most important contaminant deposited after accidental releases of radionuclides into the environment. Therefore, describing the potassium incorporation, we can obtain crucial information on how this radionuclide can enter to the human food chain trough fruits. Nutrients accumulation by fruits has been extensively studied for different trees. These investigations have been addressed to evaluate the nutritional status at different stages of the fruit development, estimating the amount of the soil nutrient removal and then to know the better time to program the control and supply of fertilizers. The fruit quality and its aptitude to the conservation are closely related with de nutrient content and the equilibrium between them. The rate of the weight increment in fruit is not uniform. The dry mass accumulation is small in the initial period, later a more expressive increment is observed and, finally during the maturation period, a lower dry mass accumulation was observed. The lengths in days of each one of these grown phases depend of the fruit type. A sigmoid grown model appears to be a very good approximation. The nutrient accumulations follow characteristics patterns along these fruit grown phases. When food-chain model are used to describe the radionuclide key transfer processes for dose assessment, the steady state radionuclide concentration is assumed in each compartment. In many cases that could be a strict simplification of the reality

  9. Non-climacteric ripening and sorbitol homeostasis in plum fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho-Youn; Farcuh, Macarena; Cohen, Yuval; Crisosto, Carlos; Sadka, Avi; Blumwald, Eduardo

    2015-02-01

    During ripening fruits undergo several physiological and biochemical modifications that influence quality-related properties, such as texture, color, aroma and taste. We studied the differences in ethylene and sugar metabolism between two genetically related Japanese plum cultivars with contrasting ripening behaviors. 'Santa Rosa' (SR) behaved as a typical climacteric fruit, while the bud sport mutant 'Sweet Miriam' (SM) displayed a non-climacteric ripening pattern. SM fruit displayed a delayed ripening that lasted 120 days longer than that of the climacteric fruit. At the full-ripe stage, both cultivars reached similar final size and weight but the non-climacteric fruits were firmer than the climacteric fruits. Fully ripe non-climacteric plum fruits, showed an accumulation of sorbitol that was 2.5 times higher than that of climacteric fruits, and the increase in sorbitol were also paralleled to an increase in sucrose catabolism. These changes were highly correlated with decreased activity and expression of NAD(+)-dependent sorbitol dehydrogenase and sorbitol oxidase and increased sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, suggesting an enhanced sorbitol synthesis in non-climacteric fruits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Seeking optimality in fruit pulping schedules: A case study*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.H. Van Vuuren

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of scheduling fruit pulping for the production of fruit juices is of great importance in the beverage industry. Decisions have to be made regarding available processing time, the disposal of fruit that will not be pulped before stock loss due to spoilage, the fulfilment of customer demand and an optimal financial position. Sheduling depends on the capacity of the work force, pulping machine limitations and delivery deadlines. However, the situation is often encountered where the plant manager has to decide which fruit batches (usually from stock piles of overwhelming proportions during the harvesting season are to be pulped in order to minimize losses due to fruit deterioration. Such decisions are usually done manually, based on intuition and experience. A mathematical model is presented here which constructs a pulping strategy while minimising cascading financial losses associated with fruit grade drops within the stock pile. It is shown in particular that a minimisation of fruit losses is not a good criterion for optimality, and that substantial financial gains may be accomplished when minimising financial losses in stead of fruit losses, which is currently standard practice at most fruit pulping plants.

  11. Chemical inhibitors of viviparous germination in the fruit of watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yoshiki; Nabeta, Kensuke; Matsuura, Hideyuki

    2010-09-01

    It is well known that the seeds of watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum and Nakai] have a high potential to germinate when the fruit has ripened. When removed from the mature fruit, the seeds can germinate under appropriate conditions. However, it is unclear why they cannot germinate in the flesh of the fruit. Here, we show that cis-ABA and its β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (ABA-β-GE) accumulate in the flesh of the fruit at levels high enough to inhibit seed germination. This result indicates the existence of chemical factors that inhibit viviparous seed germination of watermelon.

  12. Potassium incorporation in fruits of South American tropical species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cid, Alberto S.; Anjos, Roberto M.; Macario, Kita D.; Veiga, Rodrigo; Lacerda, Thiago [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Velasco, Hugo; Rizzoto, Marcos; Valladares, Daniel [Univesidad Nacional de San Luis (Argentina); Zamboni, Cibelle B.; Medeiros, Ilca M.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Full text: This work proposes the use of a new mathematical model liable for describing the temporal evolution of potassium concentration in fruits of tropical species. Studies of the potassium incorporation are important for two main reasons: a) from the physiological point of view, this flux characterizes the dynamics of the demand of this essential macro nutrient during the gestation period of the fruit; and b) from a radioecological perspective, potassium is a chemical analogue of cesium, particularly of {sup 137}Cs, one of the most important contaminant deposited after accidental releases of radionuclides into the environment. Therefore, describing the potassium incorporation, we can obtain crucial information on how this radionuclide can enter to the human food chain trough fruits. Nutrients accumulation by fruits has been extensively studied for different trees. These investigations have been addressed to evaluate the nutritional status at different stages of the fruit development, estimating the amount of the soil nutrient removal and then to know the better time to program the control and supply of fertilizers. The fruit quality and its aptitude to the conservation are closely related with de nutrient content and the equilibrium between them. The rate of the weight increment in fruit is not uniform. The dry mass accumulation is small in the initial period, later a more expressive increment is observed and, finally during the maturation period, a lower dry mass accumulation was observed. The lengths in days of each one of these grown phases depend of the fruit type. A sigmoid grown model appears to be a very good approximation. The nutrient accumulations follow characteristics patterns along these fruit grown phases. When food-chain model are used to describe the radionuclide key transfer processes for dose assessment, the steady state radionuclide concentration is assumed in each compartment. In many cases that could be a strict simplification of the

  13. The nutritional composition of fruit jams in the Malaysian market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N. Mohd Naeem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit jams are preserved fruits and sugars normally canned or sealed for long-term storage. Jam making involves the disruption of the fruit tissue followed by heating with added water and sugar to activate its pectin before being put into containers. Processes that expose foods to high levels of heat may cause some nutrient loss. Hence, the objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional composition of four commonly consumed fruit jams that are available in the Malaysian market. Different brands (n = 6 of each type of fruit jams (grape, apricot, blueberry and strawberry were sampled from supermarkets in Klang Valley, Malaysia. The sampling method used was stratified random sampling. The fruit jams were analyzed for the presence of 27 important nutrients using Association of Official Agricultural Chemists (AOAC official methods of analysis. This study showed that fruit jams are a good source of energy and carbohydrate. The fruits jams have very low levels of fatty acids. Fruit jams may provide an affordable and convenient source of energy and carbohydrate. The data can be utilized to contribute to the enhancement of Malaysia Food Composition Database.

  14. Increasing portion sizes of fruits and vegetables in an elementary school lunch program can increase fruit and vegetable consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Nicole; Reicks, Marla; Redden, Joseph P; Mann, Traci; Mykerezi, Elton; Vickers, Zata

    2015-08-01

    Increasing portion size can increase children's consumption of food. The goal of this study was to determine whether increasing the portion sizes of fruits and vegetables in an elementary school cafeteria environment would increase children's consumption of them. We measured each child's consumption of the fruit and vegetables served in a cafeteria line on a control day (normal cafeteria procedures) and on two intervention days. When we increased the portion size of 3 of the 4 fruits and vegetables by about 50%, children who took those foods increased their consumption of them. Although this was an effective strategy for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption among students who took those foods, many children chose not to take any fruits or vegetables. Further efforts are needed to increase children's selection and consumption of fruits and vegetables in an environment of competing foods of higher palatability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Altered cell wall disassembly during ripening of Cnr tomato fruit: implications for cell adhesion and fruit softening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orfila, C.; Huisman, M.M.H.; Willats, William George Tycho

    2002-01-01

    The Cnr (Colourless non-ripening) tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) mutant has an aberrant fruit-ripening phenotype in which fruit do not soften and have reduced cell adhesion between pericarp cells. Cell walls from Cnr fruit were analysed in order to assess the possible contribution of pectic...... polysaccharides to the non-softening and altered cell adhesion phenotype. Cell wall material (CWM) and solubilised fractions of mature green and red ripe fruit were analysed by chemical, enzymatic and immunochemical techniques. No major differences in CWM sugar composition were detected although differences were...... that was chelator-soluble was 50% less in Cnr cell walls at both the mature green and red ripe stages. Chelator-soluble material from ripe-stage Cnr was more susceptible to endo-polygalacturonase degradation than the corresponding material from wild-type fruit. In addition, cell walls from Cnr fruit contained...

  16. From root to fruit: RNA-Seq analysis shows that arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis may affect tomato fruit metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Inès, Zouari; Alessandra, Salvioli; Matteo, Chialva; Mara, Novero; Laura, Miozzi; Gian Carlo, Tenore; Paolo, Bagnaresi; Paola, Bonfante

    2014-01-01

    Background Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) establishes a beneficial symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. The formation of the mycorrhizal association in the roots leads to plant-wide modulation of gene expression. To understand the systemic effect of the fungal symbiosis on the tomato fruit, we used RNA-Seq to perform global transcriptome profiling on Moneymaker tomato fruits at the turning ripening stage. Results Fruits were collected at 55 days after flowering, from plants coloni...

  17. Palm fruit in traditional African food culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atinmo, Tola; Bakre, Aishat Taiwo

    2003-01-01

    The centre of origin of the oil palm is the tropical rain forest region of West Africa. It is considered to be the 200-300 kilometre wide coastal belt between Liberia and Mayumbe. The oil palm tree has remained the 'tree of life' of Yoruba land as well as of other parts of southern West Africa to which it is indigenous. The Yoruba are adept at spinning philosophical and poetical proverbs around such ordinary things as hills, rivers, birds, animals and domestic tools. Hundreds of the traditional proverbs are still with us, and through them one can see the picture of the environment that contributed to the moulding of the thoughts of the people. Yoruba riddles or puzzles were also couched in terms of the environment and the solutions to them were also environmental items. They have a popular saying: A je eran je eran a kan egungun, a je egungun je egungun a tun kan eran: 'A piece of meat has an outer layer of flesh, an intermediate layer of bone and an inner layer of flesh'. What is it? A palm fruit: it has an outer edible layer, the mesocarp; then a layer of shell, inedible, and the kernel inside, edible. The solution to this puzzle summarises the botanical and cultural characteristics of the palm fruit.

  18. Application of irradiated chitosan for fruit preservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kieu N. Lan [Post Harvest Technology Inst. of Vietnam (Viet Nam)

    2000-09-01

    Application of irradiated chitosan has been investigated for coating of fruit preservation. Anti-fungal activity of chitosan was induced by {gamma}-ray irradiation in dry condition at 25 kGy. The irradiated chitosan can suppress the growth of Aspergillus. spp. and Fusarium. spp. isolated from Vietnam mango. Fusarium. spp. was sensitive for irradiated chitosan than the other strains. The coating from irradiated chitosan solution at dose 31 kGy has prolonged the storage life of mango from 7 to 15 days. At the 15th day mango keeps good colour, natural ripening, without spoilage, weight loss 10%, whereas the control is spoiled completely and the sample of fruit with unirradiated chitosan coating could not ripe. The effect is due to the anti-fungal activity and change in physico-chemical properties of chitosan by irradiation. Radiation causes the decrease in viscosity affecting the gas permeability of coating film. The irradiated chitosan coating has positive effect on mango that is susceptible to chilling injury at low storage temperature. (author)

  19. Application of irradiated chitosan for fruit preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kieu N, Lan; Nguyen D, Lam; Yoshii, Fumio; Kume, Tamikazu

    2000-01-01

    Application of irradiated chitosan has been investigated for coating of fruit preservation. Anti-fungal activity of chitosan was induced by γ-ray irradiation in dry condition at 25 kGy. The irradiated chitosan can suppress the growth of Aspergillus. spp. and Fusarium. spp. isolated from Vietnam mango. Fusarium. spp. was sensitive for irradiated chitosan than the other strains. The coating from irradiated chitosan solution at dose 31 kGy has prolonged the storage life of mango from 7 to 15 days. At the 15th day mango keeps good colour, natural ripening, without spoilage, weight loss 10%, whereas the control is spoiled completely and the sample of fruit with unirradiated chitosan coating could not ripe. The effect is due to the anti-fungal activity and change in physico-chemical properties of chitosan by irradiation. Radiation causes the decrease in viscosity affecting the gas permeability of coating film. The irradiated chitosan coating has positive effect on mango that is susceptible to chilling injury at low storage temperature. (author)

  20. 7 CFR 905.149 - Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Fruit § 905.149 Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. (a) Tree run citrus fruit. Tree run citrus fruit as referenced in this section is defined in the Florida Department of... grower shall apply to ship tree run fruit using a Grower Tree Run Certificate Application, furnished by...

  1. Investigation situation of elimination germ in fruits and vegetables by ionizing irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wenbing

    2001-01-01

    Raw vegetables and fruits carry pathogens. Ingestion of raw vegetables and fruits can cause outbreaks of illness. Ionizing radiation of fruits and vegetables cna deactivate pathogens. The usage of ionizing radiation in sterilization of fruits and vegetables is a promising technology that can be used to improve the safety of ready-to-eat fruit and vegetable

  2. Characteristics of fruiting of Catalpa bignonioides under conditions of environmental pollution

    OpenAIRE

    М. V. Leppik

    2007-01-01

    Influence of the industrial air pollution on traits of Catalpa bignonioides Walt. fruiting has been studied. The fruiting quality of C. bignonioides plants became worse under environmental contamination by emissions of pipe factory and motor transport. The coefficient of fruiting was reduced owing to diminution of the fruits quantity. Moreover the dimensions and form of fruits changed.

  3. Characteristics of fruiting of Catalpa bignonioides under conditions of environmental pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. V. Leppik

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Influence of the industrial air pollution on traits of Catalpa bignonioides Walt. fruiting has been studied. The fruiting quality of C. bignonioides plantsbecame worse under environmental contamination by emissions of pipe factory and motor transport. The coefficient of fruiting was reduced owing to diminution of the fruits quantity. Moreover the dimensions and form of fruits changed.

  4. Fruit response to water-scarcity and biochemical changes : Water relations and biochemical changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez, P.; Galindo Egea, Alejandro; Collado-González, J.; Medina, S.; Corell, M.; Memmi, H.; Girón, I.F.; Centeno, A.; Martín-Palomo, M.J.; Cruz, Z.N.; Carbonell-Barrachina, A.A.; Hernandez, F.; Torrecillas, A.; Moriana, A.; Pérez-López, D.; Garcia Tejero, Ivan Francisco; Duran Zuazo, Victor Hugo

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to give a general idea of the fruit response to water-scarcity conditions, paying special attention to fruit water relations modification and fruit composition changes, which are key for fruit quality. The strengths and weaknesses of fruit water relations measurement

  5. Involvement of ethylene biosynthesis and signalling in fruit set and early fruit development in zucchini squash (Cucurbita pepo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Cecilia; Manzano, Susana; Megías, Zoraida; Garrido, Dolores; Picó, Belén; Jamilena, Manuel

    2013-09-22

    We have identified a kind of parthenocarpy in zucchini squash which is associated with an incomplete andromonoecy, i.e. a partial conversion of female into bisexual flowers. Given that andromonoecy in this and other cucurbit species is caused by a reduction of ethylene production in the female flower, the associated parthenocarpic development of the fruit suggested the involvement of ethylene in fruit set and early fruit development. We have compared the production of ethylene as well as the expression of 13 ethylene biosynthesis and signalling genes in pollinated and unpollinated ovaries/fruits of two cultivars, one of which is parthenocarpic (Cavili), while the other is non-parthenocarpic (Tosca). In the latter, unpollinated ovaries show an induction of ethylene biosynthesis and ethylene signal transduction pathway genes three days after anthesis, which is concomitant with the initiation of fruit abortion and senescence. Fruit set and early fruit development in pollinated flowers of both cultivars and unpollinated flowers of Cavili is coupled with low ethylene biosynthesis and signalling, which would also explain the partial andromonoecy in the parthenocarpic genotype. The reduction of ethylene production in the ovary cosegregates with parthenocarpy and partial andromonoecy in the selfing progeny of Cavili. Moreover, the induction of ethylene in anthesis (by ethephon treatments) reduced the percentage of bisexual parthenocarpic flowers in Cavili, while the inhibition of ethylene biosynthesis or response (by AVG and STS treatments) induces not only andromonoecy but also the parthenocarpic development of the fruit in both cultivars. Results demonstrate that a reduction of ethylene production or signalling in the zucchini flower is able to induce fruit set and early fruit development, and therefore that ethylene is actively involved in fruit set and early fruit development. Auxin and TIBA treatments, inducing fruit set and early fruit development in this species

  6. Brewer’s Yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Enhances Attraction of Two Invasive Yellowjackets (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) to Dried Fruit and Fruit Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gries, Regine; Borden, John; Palmero, Luis; Mattiacci, Analía; Masciocchi, Maité; Corley, Juan; Gries, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The German yellowjacket, Vespula germanica F., and common yellowjacket, Vespula vulgaris L. (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), are pests of significant economic, environmental, and medical importance in many countries. There is a need for the development and improvement of attractive baits that can be deployed in traps to capture and kill these wasps in areas where they are a problem. Yellowjackets are known to feed on fermenting fruit, but this resource is seldom considered as a bait due to its ephemeral nature and its potential attractiveness to nontarget species. We analyzed the headspace volatiles of dried fruit and fruit powder baits with and without Brewer’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, and we field tested these baits for their attractiveness to yellowjackets in Argentina. The addition of yeast to dried fruit and fruit powder changed the volatile compositions, increasing the number of alcohols and acids and decreasing the number of aldehydes. Dried fruit and fruit powder baits on their own were hardly attractive to yellowjackets, but the addition of yeast improved their attractiveness by 9- to 50-fold and surpassed the attractiveness of a commercial heptyl butyrate-based wasp lure. We suggest that further research be done to test additional varieties and species of yeasts. A dried fruit or fruit powder bait in combination with yeast could become a useful tool in the management of yellowjackets. PMID:28922898

  7. Salicylic Acid Induces Changes in Mango Fruit that Affect Oviposition Behavior and Development of the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamala Jayanthi Pagadala Damodaram

    Full Text Available The Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel is an important quarantine pest around the globe. Although measures for its control are implemented worldwide through IPM and male annihilation, there is little effect on their population. Hence, there is a need for new strategies to control this minacious pest. A strategy that has received negligible attention is the induction of 'natural plant defenses' by phytohormones. In this study, we investigated the effect of salicylic acid (SA treatment of mango fruit (cv. Totapuri on oviposition and larval development of B. dorsalis. In oviposition choice assays, gravid females laid significantly less eggs in SA treated compared to untreated fruit. Headspace volatiles collected from SA treated fruit were less attractive to gravid females compared to volatiles from untreated fruit. GC-MS analysis of the headspace volatiles from SA treated and untreated fruit showed noticeable changes in their chemical compositions. Cis-ocimene and 3-carene (attractants to B. dorsalis were reduced in the headspace volatiles of treated fruit. Further, reduced pupae formation and adult emergence was observed in treated fruit compared to control. Increased phenol and flavonoid content was recorded in treated fruit. We also observed differential expression of anti-oxidative enzymes namely catalase (CAT, polyphenoloxidase (PPO and peroxidase (POD. In summary, the results indicate that SA treatment reduced oviposition, larval development and adult emergence of B. dorsalis and suggest a role of SA in enhancing mango tolerance to B. dorsalis.

  8. Brewer's Yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Enhances Attraction of Two Invasive Yellowjackets (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) to Dried Fruit and Fruit Powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Tamara; Gries, Regine; Borden, John; Palmero, Luis; Mattiacci, Analía; Masciocchi, Maité; Corley, Juan; Gries, Gerhard

    2017-09-01

    The German yellowjacket, Vespula germanica F., and common yellowjacket, Vespula vulgaris L. (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), are pests of significant economic, environmental, and medical importance in many countries. There is a need for the development and improvement of attractive baits that can be deployed in traps to capture and kill these wasps in areas where they are a problem. Yellowjackets are known to feed on fermenting fruit, but this resource is seldom considered as a bait due to its ephemeral nature and its potential attractiveness to nontarget species. We analyzed the headspace volatiles of dried fruit and fruit powder baits with and without Brewer's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and we field tested these baits for their attractiveness to yellowjackets in Argentina. The addition of yeast to dried fruit and fruit powder changed the volatile compositions, increasing the number of alcohols and acids and decreasing the number of aldehydes. Dried fruit and fruit powder baits on their own were hardly attractive to yellowjackets, but the addition of yeast improved their attractiveness by 9- to 50-fold and surpassed the attractiveness of a commercial heptyl butyrate-based wasp lure. We suggest that further research be done to test additional varieties and species of yeasts. A dried fruit or fruit powder bait in combination with yeast could become a useful tool in the management of yellowjackets. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  9. Current status of tropical fruit breeding and genetics for three tropical fruit species cultivated in Japan: pineapple, mango, and papaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Tatsushi; Yamanaka, Shinsuke; Shoda, Moriyuki; Urasaki, Naoya; Yamamoto, Toshiya

    2016-01-01

    Tropical fruit crops are predominantly produced in tropical and subtropical developing countries, but some are now grown in southern Japan. Pineapple (Ananas comosus), mango (Mangifera indica) and papaya (Carica papaya) are major tropical fruits cultivated in Japan. Modern, well-organized breeding systems have not yet been developed for most tropical fruit species. Most parts of Japan are in the temperate climate zone, but some southern areas such as the Ryukyu Islands, which stretch from Kyushu to Taiwan, are at the northern limits for tropical fruit production without artificial heating. In this review, we describe the current status of tropical fruit breeding, genetics, genomics, and biotechnology of three main tropical fruits (pineapple, mango, and papaya) that are cultivated and consumed in Japan. More than ten new elite cultivars of pineapple have been released with improved fruit quality and suitability for consumption as fresh fruit. New challenges and perspectives for obtaining high fruit quality are discussed in the context of breeding programs for pineapple. PMID:27069392

  10. Changing how I feel about the food: experimentally manipulated affective associations with fruits change fruit choice behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Erin M; Kiviniemi, Marc T

    2014-04-01

    Fewer than half of Americans meet current recommendations for fruit and vegetable intake. The behavioral affective associations model posits that feelings and emotions associated with a behavior are a proximal influence on decision making. Cross-sectional evidence supports the model and suggests that affective associations predict fruit and vegetable consumption. The purpose of this study was to test whether a causal relation exists between affective associations about fruits and future fruit consumption behavior, as measured by a snack selection task. Following a baseline assessment of cognitive and affective variables, participants' (N = 161) affective associations about fruits were experimentally manipulated with an implicit priming paradigm. Images of fruits were repeatedly paired with positive, negative, or neutral affective stimuli. The key outcome measure was a behavioral choice task in which participants chose between fruit and a granola bar. Participants in the positive prime condition were three times more likely than those in the negative condition to select a piece of fruit over the granola bar alternative in the snack selection task. They were also twice as likely as those in the neutral condition to select fruit. There were no changes in self-reported affective associations or cognitive beliefs. These findings provide further evidence of the implicit and direct influence of affective associations on behavior, suggesting the need to both incorporate the role of affect in health decision making models, as well as the potential utility of intervention strategies targeting affective associations with health-related behaviors.

  11. Microarray analysis of gene expression profiles in ripening pineapple fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koia, Jonni H; Moyle, Richard L; Botella, Jose R

    2012-12-18

    Pineapple (Ananas comosus) is a tropical fruit crop of significant commercial importance. Although the physiological changes that occur during pineapple fruit development have been well characterized, little is known about the molecular events that occur during the fruit ripening process. Understanding the molecular basis of pineapple fruit ripening will aid the development of new varieties via molecular breeding or genetic modification. In this study we developed a 9277 element pineapple microarray and used it to profile gene expression changes that occur during pineapple fruit ripening. Microarray analyses identified 271 unique cDNAs differentially expressed at least 1.5-fold between the mature green and mature yellow stages of pineapple fruit ripening. Among these 271 sequences, 184 share significant homology with genes encoding proteins of known function, 53 share homology with genes encoding proteins of unknown function and 34 share no significant homology with any database accession. Of the 237 pineapple sequences with homologs, 160 were up-regulated and 77 were down-regulated during pineapple fruit ripening. DAVID Functional Annotation Cluster (FAC) analysis of all 237 sequences with homologs revealed confident enrichment scores for redox activity, organic acid metabolism, metalloenzyme activity, glycolysis, vitamin C biosynthesis, antioxidant activity and cysteine peptidase activity, indicating the functional significance and importance of these processes and pathways during pineapple fruit development. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis validated the microarray expression results for nine out of ten genes tested. This is the first report of a microarray based gene expression study undertaken in pineapple. Our bioinformatic analyses of the transcript profiles have identified a number of genes, processes and pathways with putative involvement in the pineapple fruit ripening process. This study extends our knowledge of the molecular basis of pineapple fruit

  12. Tephritids in fruit plantations in Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho V, H [Universidad de Costa Rica Escuela de Biologia, San Jose (Costa Rica)

    2005-07-01

    Full text: The diversity of tephritids captured in fruit orchards in Costa Rica during four years (2001- 2004) with Multilure{sup RM} Traps is presented. These were baited with different attractants (Torula, Nu-Lure and several synthetic mixtures) in a project to determine their capacity of attraction, in mixed plantations of coffee and citrus in the Grecia Canton (year 2001) and in the Corralar District (2002 and 2004); in a mango plantation in the Esparza Canton (2001 and 2003), in a guava orchard in Pocora District (2002 and 2004) and in a citrus plantation in the San Carlos Canton, (2003). In the Grecia Canton 4,545 fruit flies were captured: 3837 (84.42%) medflies, 634 (13,94%) Anastrepha ludens, 49 (1,07%) A. striata, 29 (0.06%) A. fraterculus. In Esparza Canton (2001) 2239 tephritids were captured: 1107 (49,44%) Medflies, 875 (39,07%) A. obliqua, 156 (6,96%) A. striata, 73 (3,26%) A. serpentina and 1 (0.04%) A. ludens. In Esparza (2003) 792 tephritids were captured: 518 (65.40%) medflies, 216 (27,27%) A. obliqua, 15 (1.89%) A. striata, 18 (2.27%) A. serpentina and 24 (3.03%) Hexachaeta obscura. In Corralar District (2002) 3873 tephritids were captured: 2323 (59.99%) medflies, 1416 (36.56%) A. ludens, 20 (0.51%) A. obliqua and 114 (2.94%) A. striata. In the same place (Corralar - 2004) 533 tephritids were captured: 270 (50.65%) medflies, 118 (22.13%) A. ludens, 19 (3.56%) A. obliqua, 5 (0.93%) A. striata, 105 (19.69%) of the genus Molynocoelya spp., 14 (2.62%) Paroxyna spp. and 2 (0.37%) Tetreuareta spp. In Pocora District (2002) 1542 tephritids were captured: 1526 (98.96%) A. striata, 3 (0.19%) A. obliqua, 6 (0.38%) A. fraterculus, 1 (0.064%) A. zuelianiae, 2 (0.12%) Pesudocrotaenia spp. and 1 (0.064%) Pyrgotoides spp. In the same place (2004) 9250 tephritidis was captured: 8071 (87.25%) A. striata, 935(10.10%) A. obliqua, 235 (2.54%) medflies, 6 (0.06%) A. serpentina, 2 (0.02%) A. cyclayae and 1 (0.01%) Hexachaeta obscura. In a citrus plantation in the San

  13. Liming and postharvest quality of carambola fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato de Mello Prado

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available To determine the effects of lime application on the postharvest quality of carambola fruit, an experiment with carambola trees cultivated on an acid soil was conducted at the Bebedouro, São Paulo, Brazil. The trees were treated with increasing doses of lime during the pre-planting period. Liming led to a increase in calcium concentration of carambola leaves and fruits. Adequate nutrition of the plant with calcium improved post-harvest fruit quality, permitting a longer (~ 2 days period of storage under ambient conditions.Tendo como objetivo avaliar os efeitos da aplicação de doses crescentes de calcário ao solo, na qualidade de frutos de caramboleira pela avaliação das alterações físico-químicas dos frutos após a colheita, foi instalado um experimento em Bebedouro-SP,Brasil, sobre um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico, ácido. Os tratamentos foram doses crescentes de calcário, em pré-plantio, como segue: D0 = zero; D1 = metade da dose; D2 = a dose; D3 = 1,5 vez a dose; e D4 = 2 vezes a dose para elevar V= 70%. No florescimento da caramboleira, avaliou-se o teor de cálcio na folha. Após a colheita dos frutos, determinou-se o teor de cálcio na polpa, o peso dos frutos, diâmetro transversal, comprimento, peso da polpa, % de polpa, ºBrix, acidez titulável e Ratio dos frutos. Diariamente, durante sete dias de armazenamento em condições ambiente, determinou-se a perda de massa fresca e a firmeza dos frutos. A calagem proporcionou um aumentou linear de cálcio nas folhas e nos frutos da caramboleira. A nutrição adequada da planta com cálcio melhorou a qualidade dos frutos pós-colheita, permitindo um período de armazenamento mais longo (~ 2 days, em condições ambiente.

  14. A preliminary study on the mechanism of fertilization and setting fruit of apple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xueming; Ma Huanpu; Wang Fengzhen; Li Wuxing; Shan Yongming

    1995-01-01

    The content of GA 3 , GA 4+7 , ABA, IAA, Z and ZR in the fruits and fruiting shoots treated with PP 333 , GA 3 was measured by GC and that of 15 N was measured by MS. The results showed that the number of fruits was increased, but the size of fruit and length of fruiting shoot were inhibited by PP 333 treatment. Opposite results were observed with GA 3 treatment although the number of fruits was higher than that in control. The content of CTK was consistent with the ability of setting fruit, but no relationship was found between the other hormones and setting fruit. Together with evidences of the high level of 15 N and total N or IAA + CTK/GA 4=7 in fruits and the low level of those in fruiting shoots after PP 333 treatment allow us to conclude that the mechanism of PP 333 on setting fruit probably is to inhibit biosynthesis of GAs, to increase the content of CTK, and to promote the ratio value of IAA + CTK/GA 4+7 , increasing and changing the status of nutrition. The distribution of 15 N is changed from the order of king fruit>fruiting shoot>lateral fruit to king fruit>lateral fruit>fruiting shoot. Thus the competition between fruits and shoots growth was weaken, which resulted in the higher ability of setting fruit than that in the control and GA 3 treatment

  15. Blood plasma glucose regulation in Wahlberg's epauletted fruit bat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Frugivores feed on fruits and nectars that contain different types of sugars in different proportions, which provide these animals with energy. Wahlberg's epauletted fruit bat (Epomophorus wahlbergi) has a high glucose intake irrespective of sugar concentration of nectar. It is not known how these bats regulate their blood ...

  16. Availability and consumption of fruits and vegetables in nine regions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjorn

    children studied did not eat vegetable and fruit in the week preceding the survey, respectively. .... refer to households who never saw a single fruit/ vegetable, even once ..... did not eat vegetables even once, let alone three times in a week is.

  17. Introduction of deciduous fruit tree growing in the tropical highlands ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    have ever been conducted to investigate the potential of temperate tree fruits .... year-old apple cultivars at altitudes of 1830 and 2500 m.a.s.l while tables 2 and 3 ..... breaking are established in addition to determining the best fruiting season.

  18. Storage temperature affects fruit quality attributes of Ber (Ziziphus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-03

    Sep 3, 2008 ... 2Department of Agricultural Research and Extension Services, Agronomy Research Institute, Box CY 550, Causeway, ... Fruit utilization is affected by quality attributes and shelf life. ... preserve fresh and dried fruits can ensure its availability ... Vitamin C was determined using titrimetric method with 2,6-.

  19. Effects of different irrigation regimes on vegetative growth, fruit yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-09-06

    Sep 6, 2010 ... This study was conducted during five growing seasons from 2004 to 2008 to investigate effects of different irrigation regimes on vegetative growth, fruit yield and quality of Salak apricot trees in semi- arid climatic conditions. ... is very important to know the critical stages of fruit development and the final ...

  20. Antihyperglycemic Activities of Leaves of Three Edible Fruit Plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae), Ficus hispida L.f. (Moraceae), and Syzygium samarangense (Blume) Merr. & L.M. Perry (Myrtaceae) are three common plants in Bangladesh, the fruits of which are edible. The leaves and fruits of A. carambola and F. hispida are used by folk medicinal practitioners for treatment of ...

  1. Cultivation and fruit body production of Lentinus squarrosulus Mont ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mycelia growth of Lentinus squarrosulus culture on the leaves and bark of common fruit trees were investigated. The effect of supplementing these fruit trees with 25% each of rice bran, horse dung, poultry droppings, cow dung, fresh cassava flour and oil palm waste fiber on the mycelia growth of this fungus was also ...

  2. Farming Systems Involving Fruit Crops Production And Research In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research interventions to expand the scope of the farmers have shown that greater efficiency of land utilization is exhibited. New areas of research for the evaluation, as well as suggests consideration for intercropping with fruit trees are suggested. The current challenges to fruit production were also identified, while the ...

  3. Neem ( Azadirachta indica a. Juss) fruit yield determination in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study determined fruit yield of Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) in the guinea savanna of Nigeria at Makurdi. Fifteen mature neem trees which had no overlapping canopies and had not been previously pruned were purposively selected out of 207 stands growing at the study site. All ripped fruits felling from the ...

  4. Problems of propagation and conservation of indigenous fruit trees ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical rainforests as natural resources are constantly in a state of flux, as several benefits can be derived from it, such as timber, fuel wood, rubber, fruits and nuts, dyes and some medicinal plants. Fruits are very important components of man's diet, containing a wide variety of amino acids, vitamins and minerals essential ...

  5. Properties of ( Parinari Curatellifolia) (Hacha or Chakata ) Fruit from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In most African countries, people in rural areas collect edible wild fruits that include (Parinari curatellifolia) for direct consumption or processing into food products especially during periods of food shortage. Parinari curatellifolia is a miombo woodland tree that bears green to grey oval shaped fruit that turns yellowish to ...

  6. Effect of Vacuum Frying on Quality Attributes of Fruits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayustaningwarno, Fitriyono; Dekker, Matthijs; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Verkerk, Ruud

    2018-01-01

    Vacuum frying of fruits enables frying at lower temperatures compared to atmospheric frying, thereby improving quality attributes of the fried product, such as oil content, texture, retention of nutrients, and color. Producing high-quality vacuum-fried fruit is a challenge, especially because of the

  7. Incidence of geohelminths on fruits and vegetable farms in Owena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geohelminths are soil-transmitted parasitic nematodes which present a potential public health hazard in Nigeria. The present study examined soil samples for the incidence of geohelminths on fruits and vegetable farms in Owena Community. Two hundred (200) soil samples were collected from five vegetable and fruits ...

  8. Storage of pineapple fruits under different conditions: implication on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was carried out at Abeokuta to investigate the effects of storage conditions popularly used in Abeokuta metropolis on freshly harvested pineapple fruits. The pineapple fruits were harvested from a farmer's field and stored for 40 days under three conditions: refridgeration (mean temperature 10 0 C), Ambient ...

  9. Effect of fruiting on micronutrients, antinutrients and toxic substances ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vegetable leaves were harvested at both market maturity (vegetative phase) and fruiting (reproductive phase), and were subjected to chemical analysis. ... at fruiting stage of vegetables grown on both control and nitrogen applied soil, while the nitrate and β-carotene concentration in T. occidentalis were significantly reduced ...

  10. Seasonality of nutrients in leaves and fruits of apple trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nachtigall Gilmar Ribeiro

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The nutrient accumulation curves of apple trees are good indicators of plant nutrient demand for each developmental stage. They are also a useful tool to evaluate orchard nutritional status and to estimate the amount of soil nutrient removal. This research aimed at evaluating the seasonality of nutrients in commercial apple orchards during the agricultural years of 1999, 2000, and 2001. Therefore, apple tree leaves and fruits of three cultivars 'Gala', 'Golden Delicious' and 'Fuji' were weekly collected and evaluated for fresh and dry matter, fruit diameter and macronutrient (N, P, K, Ca and Mg and micronutrient (B, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn concentrations. Leaf and fruit sampling started one or two weeks after full bloom, depending on the cultivar, and ended at fruit harvest or four weeks later (in the case of leaf sampling. In general, leaf concentrations of N, P, K, Cu, and B decreased; Ca increased; and Mg, Fe, Mn, and Zn did vary significantly along the plant vegetative cycle. In fruits, the initial nutrient concentrations decreased quickly, undergoing slow and continuous decreases and then remaining almost constant until the end of fruit maturation, indicating nutrient dilution, once the total nutrient accumulation increased gradually with fruit growth. Potassium was the nutrient present in highest quantities in apple tree fruits and thus, the most removed from the soil.

  11. REPEATABILITY OF FRUIT QUALITY TRAITS OF CACTUS PEAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VALTÂNIA XAVIER NUNES

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Repeatability analysis has been used to study traits in several crops, assisting in the definition of the minimum number needed to evaluate genotypes more efficiently and with less time and resource consumption. So far, however, no repeatability studies on cactus pear have been found in the literature. The objective of this study was to determine the coefficient of repeatability for cactus pear fruits traits and the minimum number of evaluations (fruit that can provide acceptable accuracy for the prediction of the true value. The experiment was conducted at the Federal Institute of Bahia/Campus Guanambi, with 150 fruits collected from three municipalities in the state of Bahia. The coefficients of repeatability were estimated by the methods of analysis of variance, principal components based on the covariance (PCCV and correlation (PCC matrices, and structural analysis based on the correlation matrix (SA. The analysis of variance showed that, except for fruit diameter, the effect of the production site (municipality was significant for all traits evaluated. The PCCV method was proven the most suitable for studying the repeatability of quality traits of cactus pear fruits. Seven fruits were required to determine, with 90% confidence, the traits length, diameter, fruit firmness, skin thickness, number of seeds, fruit mass, bark mass, pulp mass, pH, titratable acidity, soluble solids, SS/AT ratio, and pulp yield.

  12. Effects of relative humidity on banana fruit drop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saengpook, C.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2007-01-01

    Commercial ripening of banana fruit occurs at high relative humidity (RH), which prevents browning of damaged skin areas. In experiments with ripening at high RH (94 ± 1%) the individual fruit (fingers) of `Sucrier¿ (Musa acuminata, AA Group) banana exhibited a high rate of drop. The falling off of

  13. Phytosanitary irradiation and fresh fruit quality: Cultivar and maturity effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irradiation is an effective quarantine treatment for global trade of fresh produce. Variation in cultivars and maturity stages can impact the tolerance of fresh fruits to irradiation for the purposes of quarantine security. Tolerance thresholds for irradiated fruit are lacking for a large number of ...

  14. The phenotypic diversity and fruit characterization of winter squash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2010-01-11

    Jan 11, 2010 ... collected from different provinces of the Black Sea region in 2006 and 2007 and phenotypic ... Picture of the diversity fruit size, shape and color for Cucurbita maxima ... Fruit traits used winter squash (C. maxima Duch) population characterization. S/N ..... Group J: There were a total of 18 populations in this.

  15. Determination of ascorbic acid content of some tropical fruits by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ascorbic acid content of three common juicy tropical fruits, orange, water melon and cashew, were determined using iodometric titration method under three temperature regimes (refrigerated, room temperature, and heated to about 80 oC), representing the range of temperatures the fruits may be exposed to during ...

  16. Parasitic contamination of fruits and vegetables in Benin city, Edo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: The consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables helps in protecting the human body from diseases and also has a positive impact on body-weight regulation and related conditions, including diabetes and hypertension. This study was conducted to determine the parasitic contamination of fruits and vegetables in Benin ...

  17. Geohelminth contamination of some common fruits and vegetables ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The degree of contamination by helminths of some common vegetable and fruits sold in markets in Enugu metropolis was assessed between January and April 2002. The vegetables and fruits were bought directly from the rural farmers and checked for helminthes and larvae by the formalin-ether concentration method.

  18. Parasitic Contamination of Fruits and Vegetables Sold at Kaduna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The safety of fruits and vegetables sold in Kaduna metropolis, Nigeria for consumption was assessed with respect to their contamination by Ova and Cysts of parasites. Out of 320 samples of seven (7) varieties of vegetables and fruits examined from three different markets in Kaduna metropolis, 45 (14.00%) were positive ...

  19. Diabetic jelly-fruit marmalade with the chokeberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Lobosova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Studied the technology of getting jelly fruit marmalade on pectin with the sugar replacement to fructose and 30% apple puree to pureed fruits of chokeberry molded by “extrusion” by the vacuum filler in a continuous metallized film of the type “flow-pack”. Studied the gelation process of jelly masses. Investigated rheological characteristics of jelly mass with fruit and pureed fruits of chokeberry. Determined that the effective viscosity of marmalade mass decreases with increasing shear rate, with adding fructose. The greater the content of fructose in the formulations, the less the viscosity change with increasing shear rate. Replacing sugar with fructose allows to get jelly masses with lower viscosity. Determined values of plastic strength of jelly masses. It was found that replacement of sugar to fructose reduces the plastic strength, but in spite of this strength is sufficient to maintain a good jelly structure. Defined organoleptic and physical-chemical indicators of marmalade quality. In formulation was saddled pureed fruits of chokeberry, which significantly increase the nutritional value of products. Presented an innovative production line of fruit-jelly marmalade with a vacuum syringe of continuous action, delivering high performance with minimal cost of products, simplifies the manufacturing process because drying step is eliminated, shortened processes of curing and cooling. Fruit-jelly marmalade on fructose and pectin with pureed fruit of chokeberry is diabetic and functional.

  20. Technical Note: Assessment of Impact Damage to Apple Fruits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An impact damage assessment of fresh apple fruits was carried out to ascertain the effects of height and surfaces on bruise area and impact energy. Five different impact surfaces namely: Cardboard (E), wood (F), metal (G), plastic (H) and foam (I) were used for the experiment. The weighed fruits were dropped from different ...