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Sample records for ly beta line

  1. Approximate formulation of redistribution in the Ly-alpha, Ly-beta, H-alpha system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J.; Ballagh, R. J.; Hubeny, I.

    1989-01-01

    Simple approximate formulas are given for the coupled redistribution of Ly-alpha, Ly-beta, and H-alpha, by using well-defined approximations to an essentially exact formulation. These formulas incorporate all the essential physics including Raman scattering, lower state radiative decay, and correlated terms representing emission during a collision which must be retained in order that the emission coefficients are properly behaved in the line wings. Approximate expressions for the appropriate line broadening parameters are collected. Finally, practical expressions for the source functions are given. These are formulated through newly introduced nonimpact redistribution functions, which are shown to be reasonably approximated by existing (ordinary and generalized) redistribution functions.

  2. Radiance line ratios Ly-β/Ly-α, Ly-γ/Ly-α, Ly-δ/Ly-α, and Ly-ε/Ly-α for soft X-ray emissions following charge exchange between C{sup 6+} and Kr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrianarijaona, V.M. [Department of Physics, Pacific Union College, Angwin, CA 94508 (United States); Wulf, D.; McCammon, D. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Seely, D.G. [Department of Physics, Albion College, Albion, MI 49224 (United States); Havener, C.C. [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6372 (United States)

    2015-05-01

    The radiance line ratios Ly-β/Ly-α, Ly-γ/Ly-α, Ly-δ/Ly-α, and Ly-ε/Ly-α for soft X-ray emission following charge exchange (CX) between C{sup 6+} and Kr are reported for collision energies between approximately 320 and 46,000 eV/u. The corresponding collision velocities (250–3000 km/s) are characteristic of the solar wind. X-ray spectra were obtained at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Multicharged Ion Research Facility using a microcalorimeter X-ray detector with a resolution on the order of 10 eV FWHM. The measured Ly-ε/Ly-α is zero for all considered energies and suggests that very little, if any, capture to 6p occurs. The measured Ly-β/Ly-α and Ly-γ/Ly-α ratios intersect and form a well resolved node around (950 ± 50) km/s, which could be used as an astrophysical velocity indicative tool. The results reported here are compared to calculations for C{sup 6+} + H since no published theory for C{sup 6+} + Kr is known to exist. Double-electron-capture (DEC) and other multi-electron processes are possible. True double capture is estimated to be only 10% of the single-electron-capture (SEC)

  3. Redshift distribution of Lyα lines and metal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiański, M.; Doroshkevich, A. G.; Turchaninov, V.

    2000-11-01

    The observed redshift distribution of Lyα lines and metal systems is examined in order to discriminate and to trace the evolution of structure elements observed in the galaxy distribution, at small redshifts, and to test the theoretical description of structure evolution. We show that the expected evolution of a filamentary component of structure describes quite well the redshift distribution of metal systems and stronger Lyα lines with log(NHi)>=14, at z<=3. The redshift distribution of weaker Lyα lines can be attributed to the population of poorer structure elements (Zel'dovich pancakes), which were formed at high redshifts from the invisible dark matter and non-luminous baryonic matter, and which at lower redshifts are mainly merged and dispersed.

  4. Signatures of transition region explosive events in hydrogen Ly-beta profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, M; Tian, H; Chen, Y

    2010-01-01

    We search for signatures of transition region explosive events (EEs) in hydrogen Ly-beta profiles. Two rasters made by the SUMER (Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation) instrument on board SOHO in a quiet-Sun region and an equatorial coronal hole are selected for our study. Transition region explosive events are identified from profiles of C II 1037 Angstrom and O VI 1032 Angstrom, respectively. We compare Ly-beta profiles during EEs with those averaged in the entire quiet-Sun and coronal-hole regions. The relationship between the peak emission of Ly-beta profiles and the wing emission of C II and O VI during EEs is investigated. We find that the central part of Ly-beta profiles becomes more reversed and the distance of the two peaks becomes larger during EEs, both in the coronal hole and in the quiet Sun. The average Ly-beta profile of the EEs detected by C II has an obvious stronger blue peak. During EEs, there is a clear correlation between the increased peak emission of Ly-beta profiles and ...

  5. He II Ly{beta} GUNN-PETERSON ABSORPTION: NEW HST OBSERVATIONS AND THEORETICAL EXPECTATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syphers, David; Pieri, Matthew; Shull, J. Michael [CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Anderson, Scott F. [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Zheng, Wei; Kriss, Gerard A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Smith, Britton [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Meiksin, Avery [Scottish Universities Physics Alliance (SUPA), Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); York, Donald G., E-mail: David.Syphers@colorado.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Observations of He II Ly{alpha} Gunn-Peterson troughs have proved to be a valuable probe of the epoch of helium reionization at z {approx} 3. Since this optical depth can become unmeasurably large even for modest He II fractions, various alternate techniques have been proposed to push to higher redshift, and among the more promising is looking at higher-order Lyman-series troughs. We here report four new observations of the He II Ly{beta} trough, including new data on the only sightline with a prior Ly{beta} observation. However, the effective optical depth ratio {tau}{sub eff,{beta}}/{tau}{sub eff,{alpha}} is not simply predicted by f{sub {beta}}{lambda}{sub {beta}}/f{sub {alpha}}{lambda}{sub {alpha}} = 0.16, and we analyze cosmological simulations to find that the correct ratio for helium at z {approx} 3 is {approx_equal}0.35. In one case we infer {tau}{sub eff,{alpha}} > 8.8, strong evidence that helium was not fully reionized at z = 3.2-3.5, in agreement with previous measurements suggesting a later completion of reionization.

  6. A z ∼ 5.7 Lyα emission line with an ultrabroad red wing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Huan; Wang, JunXian [CAS Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Zheng, Zhen-Ya; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Infante, Leopoldo, E-mail: yanghuan@mail.ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: jxw@mail.ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: zzheng13@asu.edu, E-mail: smalhotr@asu.edu, E-mail: james.rhoads@asu.edu, E-mail: linfante@astro.puc.cl [Institute of Astrophysics, Ponticia Universidad Catolica, Santiago (Chile)

    2014-03-20

    Using the Lyα emission line as a tracer of high-redshift, star-forming galaxies, hundreds of Lyα emission line galaxies (LAEs) at z > 5 have been detected. These LAEs are considered to be low-mass young galaxies, critical to the re-ionization of the universe and the metal enrichment of the circumgalactic medium (CGM) and the intergalactic medium (IGM). It is assumed that outflows in LAEs can help both ionizing photons and Lyα photons escape from galaxies. However, we still know little about the outflows in high-redshift LAEs due to observational difficulties, especially at redshift >5. Models of Lyα radiative transfer predict asymmetric Lyα line profiles with broad red wings in LAEs with outflows. Here, we report a z ∼ 5.7 Lyα emission line with a broad red wing extending to >1000 km s{sup –1} relative to the peak of Lyα line, which has been detected in only a couple of z > 5 LAEs until now. If the broad red wing is ascribed to gas outflow instead of active galactic nucleus activity, the outflow velocity could be larger than the escape velocity (∼500 km s{sup –1}) of a typical halo mass of z ∼ 5.7 LAEs, which is consistent with the idea that outflows in LAEs disperse metals to CGM and IGM.

  7. A z ~ 5.7 Ly{\\alpha} Emission Line with an Ultra Broad Red Wing

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Huan; Zheng, Zhen-Ya; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E; Infante, Leopoldo

    2014-01-01

    Using Ly{\\alpha} emission line as a tracer of high redshift star forming galaxies, hundreds of Ly{\\alpha} emission line galaxies (LAEs) at z > 5 have been detected. These LAEs are considered to be low mass young galaxies, critical to the reionization of the universe and the metal enrichment of circumgalactic medium (CGM) and intergalactic medium (IGM). It is assumed that outflows in LAEs can help ionizing photons and Ly{\\alpha} photons escape out of galaxies. However we still know little about the outflows in high redshifts LAEs due to observational difficulties, especially at redshift > 5. Models of Ly{\\alpha} radiative transfer predict asymmetric Ly{\\alpha} line profiles with broad red wing in LAEs with outflows. Here we report a z ~ 5.7 Ly{\\alpha} emission line with a broad red wing extending to > 1000 km/s relative to the peak of Ly{\\alpha} line, which has been detected in only a couple of z > 5 LAEs till now. If the broad red wing is ascribed to gas outflow instead of AGN activity, the outflow velocity c...

  8. A High Fraction of Ly-alpha-Emitters Among Galaxies with Extreme Emission Line Ratios at z ~ 2

    CERN Document Server

    Erb, Dawn K; Steidel, Charles C; Strom, Allison L; Rudie, Gwen C; Trainor, Ryan F; Shapley, Alice E; Reddy, Naveen A

    2016-01-01

    Star-forming galaxies form a sequence in the [OIII]/H-beta vs. [NII]/H-alpha diagnostic diagram, with low metallicity, highly ionized galaxies falling in the upper left corner. Drawing from a large sample of UV-selected star-forming galaxies at z~2 with rest-frame optical nebular emission line measurements from Keck-MOSFIRE, we select the extreme ~5% of the galaxies lying in this upper left corner, requiring log([NII]/H-alpha) = 0.75. These cuts identify galaxies with 12 + log(O/H) 20 A. We compare the equivalent width distribution of a sample of 522 UV-selected galaxies at 2.0line ratios; this sample has mean (median) Ly-alpha equivalent width -1 (-4) A, and only 9% of these galaxies qualify as LAEs. The extreme galaxies typically have lower attenuation at Ly-alpha than those in the comparison sample, and have ~50% lower median oxygen abundances. Both factors are likely to facilitate the escape of Ly-alpha: in less dusty galaxies Ly-alpha photons are l...

  9. Redshift distribution of {\\bf Ly-$\\alpha$} lines and metal systems

    OpenAIRE

    Demianski, M.; Doroshkevich, A. G.; Turchaninov, V.

    2000-01-01

    The observed redshift distribution of Ly-$\\alpha$ lines and metal systems is examined in order to discriminate and to trace the evolution of structure elements observed in the galaxy distribution, at small redshifts, and to test the theoretical description of structure evolution. We show that the expected evolution of filamentary component of structure describes quite well the redshift distribution of metal systems and stronger Ly-$\\alpha$ lines with $\\log(N_{HI})\\geq$14, at $z\\leq$ 3. The re...

  10. The Properties of Lyα Nebulae: Gas Kinematics from Nonresonant Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yujin; Zabludoff, Ann; Jahnke, Knud; Davé, Romeel

    2014-10-01

    With the Very Large Telescope/X-shooter, we obtain optical and near-infrared spectra of six Lyα blobs at z ~ 2.3. For a total sample of eight Lyα blobs (including two that we have previously studied), the majority (6/8) have broadened Lyα profiles with shapes ranging from a single peak to symmetric or asymmetric double-peaked. The remaining two systems, in which the Lyα profile is not significantly broader than the [O III] or Hα emission lines, have the most spatially compact Lyα emission, the smallest offset between the Lyα and the [O III] or Hα line velocities, and the only detected C IV and He II lines in the sample, implying that a hard ionizing source, possibly an active galactic nucleus (AGN), is responsible for their lower optical depth. Using three measures—the velocity offset between the Lyα line and the nonresonant [O III] or Hα line (Δv Lyα), the offset of stacked interstellar metal absorption lines, and a new indicator, the spectrally resolved [O III] line profile—we study the kinematics of gas along the line of sight to galaxies within each blob center. These three indicators generally agree in velocity and direction and are consistent with a simple picture in which the gas is stationary or slowly outflowing at a few hundred km s-1 from the embedded galaxies. The absence of stronger outflows is not a projection effect: the covering fraction for our sample is limited to metal absorption line offsets suggest no significant bulk motion, we use a simple radiative transfer model to make the first column density measurement of gas in an embedded galaxy, finding it consistent with a damped Lyα absorption system. Overall, the absence of clear inflow signatures suggests that the channeling of gravitational cooling radiation into Lyα is not significant over the radii probed here. However, one peculiar system (CDFS-LAB10) has a blueshifted Lyα component that is not obviously associated with any galaxy, suggesting either displaced gas arising

  11. A CORRELATION BETWEEN Lyα SPECTRAL LINE PROFILE AND REST-FRAME UV MORPHOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vivian U; Hemmati, Shoubaneh; Darvish, Behnam; Mobasher, Bahram; Nayyeri, Hooshang; Mallery, Ryan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, 900 University Avenue, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Dickinson, Mark [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Mail Stop 169-221, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Spinrad, Hyron, E-mail: vivianu@ucr.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2015-12-10

    We explore the relationship between the spectral shape of the Lyα emission and the UV morphology of the host galaxy using a sample of 304 Lyα-emitting BVi-dropouts at 3 < z < 7 in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey and Cosmic Evolution Survey fields. Using our extensive reservoir of high-quality Keck DEIMOS spectra combined with Hubble Space Telescope WFC3 data, we measure the Lyα line asymmetries for individual galaxies and compare them to axial ratios measured from observed J- and H-band (restframe UV) images. We find that the Lyα skewness exhibits a large scatter at small elongation (a/b < 2), and this scatter decreases as the axial ratio increases. Comparison of this trend to radiative transfer models and various results from the literature suggests that these high-redshift Lyα emitters are not likely to be intrinsically round and symmetric disks, but they probably host galactic outflows traced by Lyα emitting clouds. The ionizing sources are centrally located, and the optical depth is a good indicator of the absorption and scattering events on the escape path of Lyα photons from the source. Our results find no evidence of evolution in Lyα asymmetry or axial ratio with look-back time.

  12. THE Lyα LINE PROFILES OF ULTRALUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES: FAST WINDS AND LYMAN CONTINUUM LEAKAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Crystal L.; Wong, Joseph [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA, 93106 (United States); Dijkstra, Mark [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, Postboks 1029, 0858 Oslo (Norway); Henry, Alaina [Astrophysics Science Division, Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Soto, Kurt T. [Institute for Astronomy, Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Danforth, Charles W., E-mail: cmartin@physics.ucsb.edu [CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, 389-UCB, Boulder, CO, 80309 (United States)

    2015-04-10

    We present new Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Origins Spectrograph far-ultraviolet (far-UV) spectroscopy and Keck Echellete optical spectroscopy of 11 ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs), a rare population of local galaxies experiencing massive gas inflows, extreme starbursts, and prominent outflows. We detect Lyα emission from eight ULIRGs and the companion to IRAS09583+4714. In contrast to the P Cygni profiles often seen in galaxy spectra, the Lyα profiles exhibit prominent, blueshifted emission out to Doppler shifts exceeding −1000 km s{sup −1} in three H ii-dominated and two AGN-dominated ULIRGs. To better understand the role of resonance scattering in shaping the Lyα line profiles, we directly compare them to non-resonant emission lines in optical spectra. We find that the line wings are already present in the intrinsic nebular spectra, and scattering merely enhances the wings relative to the line core. The Lyα attenuation (as measured in the COS aperture) ranges from that of the far-UV continuum to over 100 times more. A simple radiative transfer model suggests the Lyα photons escape through cavities which have low column densities of neutral hydrogen and become optically thin to the Lyman continuum in the most advanced mergers. We show that the properties of the highly blueshifted line wings on the Lyα and optical emission-line profiles are consistent with emission from clumps of gas condensing out of a fast, hot wind. The luminosity of the Lyα emission increases nonlinearly with the ULIRG bolometric luminosity and represents about 0.1–1% of the radiative cooling from the hot winds in the H ii-dominated ULIRGs.

  13. The Lyα Line Profiles of Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies: Fast Winds and Lyman Continuum Leakage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Crystal L.; Dijkstra, Mark; Henry, Alaina; Soto, Kurt T.; Danforth, Charles W.; Wong, Joseph

    2015-04-01

    We present new Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Origins Spectrograph far-ultraviolet (far-UV) spectroscopy and Keck Echellete optical spectroscopy of 11 ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs), a rare population of local galaxies experiencing massive gas inflows, extreme starbursts, and prominent outflows. We detect Lyα emission from eight ULIRGs and the companion to IRAS09583+4714. In contrast to the P Cygni profiles often seen in galaxy spectra, the Lyα profiles exhibit prominent, blueshifted emission out to Doppler shifts exceeding -1000 km s-1 in three H ii-dominated and two AGN-dominated ULIRGs. To better understand the role of resonance scattering in shaping the Lyα line profiles, we directly compare them to non-resonant emission lines in optical spectra. We find that the line wings are already present in the intrinsic nebular spectra, and scattering merely enhances the wings relative to the line core. The Lyα attenuation (as measured in the COS aperture) ranges from that of the far-UV continuum to over 100 times more. A simple radiative transfer model suggests the Lyα photons escape through cavities which have low column densities of neutral hydrogen and become optically thin to the Lyman continuum in the most advanced mergers. We show that the properties of the highly blueshifted line wings on the Lyα and optical emission-line profiles are consistent with emission from clumps of gas condensing out of a fast, hot wind. The luminosity of the Lyα emission increases nonlinearly with the ULIRG bolometric luminosity and represents about 0.1-1% of the radiative cooling from the hot winds in the H ii-dominated ULIRGs.

  14. Redshift distribution of {\\bf Ly-$\\alpha$} lines and metal systems

    CERN Document Server

    Demianski, M; Turchaninov, V I

    2000-01-01

    The observed redshift distribution of Ly-$\\alpha$ lines and metal systems is examined in order to discriminate and to trace the evolution of structure elements observed in the galaxy distribution, at small redshifts, and to test the theoretical description of structure evolution. We show that the expected evolution of filamentary component of structure describes quite well the redshift distribution of metal systems and stronger Ly-$\\alpha$ lines with $\\log(N_{HI})\\geq$14, at $z\\leq$ 3. The redshift distribution of weaker Ly-$\\alpha$ lines can be attributed to the population of poorer structure elements (Zel'dovich pancakes), which were formed at high redshifts from the invisible DM and non luminous baryonic matter, and at lower redshifts they mainly merged and dispersed.

  15. A Correlation Between Ly{\\alpha} Spectral Line Profile and Rest-Frame UV Morphology

    CERN Document Server

    U, Vivian; Darvish, Behnam; Mobasher, Bahram; Nayyeri, Hooshang; Dickinson, Mark; Stern, Daniel; Spinrad, Hyron; Mallery, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    We explore the relationship between the spectral shape of the Ly{\\alpha} emission and the UV morphology of the host galaxy using a sample of 304 Ly{\\alpha}-emitting BV i-dropouts at 3 < z < 7 in the GOODS and COSMOS fields. Using our extensive reservoir of high-quality Keck DEIMOS spectra combined with HST WFC3 data, we measure the Ly{\\alpha} line asymmetries for individual galaxies and compare them to axial ratios measured from observed J- and H-band (restframe UV) images. We find that the Ly{\\alpha} skewness exhibits a large scatter at small elongation (a/b < 2), and this scatter decreases as axial ratio increases. Comparison of this trend to radiative transfer models and various results from literature suggests that these high-redshift Ly{\\alpha} emitters are not likely to be intrinsically round and symmetric disks, but they probably host galactic outflows traced by Ly{\\alpha} emitting clouds. The ionizing sources are centrally located, with the optical depth a good indicator of the absorption and...

  16. Ly\\alpha\\ emission line reconstruction for high-$z$ QSOs

    CERN Document Server

    Greig, Bradley; McGreer, Ian D; Gallerani, Simona; Haiman, Zoltán

    2016-01-01

    We introduce an intrinsic Ly\\alpha\\ emission line profile reconstruction method for high-$z$ quasars (QSOs). This approach utilises a covariance matrix of emission line properties obtained from a large, moderate-$z$ ($2 \\leq z \\leq 2.5$), high signal to noise (S/N > 15) sample of BOSS QSOs. For each QSO, we complete a Monte Carlo Markov Chain fitting of the continuum and emission line properties and perform a visual quality assessment to construct a large database of robustly fit spectra. With this dataset, we construct a covariance matrix to describe the correlations between the high ionisation emission lines Ly\\alpha, C IV, Si IV + O IV] and C III], and find it to be well approximated by an $N$-dimensional Gaussian distribution. This covariance matrix characterises the correlations between the line width, peak height and velocity offset from systemic while also allowing for the existence of broad and narrow line components for Ly\\alpha\\ and C IV. We illustrate how this covariance matrix allows us to statist...

  17. A ghostly damped Ly α system revealed by metal absorption lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathivavsari, H.; Petitjean, P.; Zou, S.; Noterdaeme, P.; Ledoux, C.; Krühler, T.; Srianand, R.

    2017-03-01

    We report the discovery of the first 'ghostly' damped Ly α absorption system (DLA), which is identified by the presence of absorption from strong low-ion species at zabs = 1.704 65 along the line of sight to the quasar SDSS J113341.29-005740.0 with zem = 1.704 41. No Ly α absorption trough is seen associated with these absorptions because the DLA trough is filled with the leaked emission from the broad emission-line region of the quasar. By modelling the quasar spectrum and analysing the metal lines, we derive log N(H I)(cm-2) ∼21.0 ± 0.3. The DLA cloud is small (≤0.32 pc), thus not covering entirely the broad-line region and is located at ≥39 pc from the central active galactic nucleus (AGN). Although the DLA is slightly redshifted relative to the quasar, its metallicity ([S/H] = -0.41 ± 0.30) is intermediate between what is expected from infalling and outflowing gas. It could be possible that the DLA is part of some infalling material accreting on to the quasar host galaxy through filaments, and that its metallicity is raised by mixing with the enriched outflowing gas emanating from the central AGN. Current DLA surveys miss these 'ghostly' DLAs, and it would be important to quantify the statistics of this population by searching the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data base using metal absorption templates.

  18. A ghostly damped Ly$\\alpha$ system revealed by metal absorption lines

    CERN Document Server

    Fathivavsari, Hassan; Zou, Siwei; Noterdaeme, Pasquier; Ledoux, Cédric; Krühler, Thomas; Srianand, Raghunathan

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery of the first 'ghostly' damped Ly$\\alpha$ absorption system (DLA), which is identified by the presence of absorption from strong low-ion species at $z_{\\rm abs}=1.70465$ along the line of sight to the quasar SDSSJ113341.29$-$005740.0 with $z_{\\rm em}=1.70441$. No Ly$\\alpha$ absorption trough is seen associated with these absorptions because the DLA trough is filled with the leaked emission from the broad emission line region of the quasar. By modeling the quasar spectrum and analyzing the metal lines, we derive log$N$(HI)(cm$^{-2}$)$\\sim$21.0 $\\pm$ 0.3. The DLA cloud is small ($\\le$ 0.32 pc) thus not covering entirely the broad line region and is located at $\\ge$ 39 pc from the central active galactic nucleus (AGN). Although the DLA is slightly redshifted relative to the quasar, its metallicity ([S/H]=$-$0.41$\\pm$0.30) is intermediate between what is expected from infalling and outflowing gas. It could be possible that the DLA is part of some infalling material accreting onto the quasar...

  19. Synergy of CO/[CII]/Ly$\\alpha$ Line Intensity Mapping with the SKA

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Tzu-Ching; Santos, Mario; Silva, Marta; Aguirre, James; Doré, Olivier; Pritchard, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    We present the science enabled by cross-correlations of the SKA1-LOW 21-cm EoR surveys with other line mapping programs. In particular, we identify and investigate potential synergies with planned programs, such as the line intensity mapping of redshifted CO rotational lines, [CII] and Ly-$\\alpha$ emissions during reionization. We briefly describe how these tracers of the star-formation rate at $z \\sim 8$ can be modeled jointly before forecasting their auto- and cross-power spectra measurements with the nominal 21cm EoR survey. The use of multiple line tracers would be invaluable to validate and enrich our understanding of the EoR.

  20. Molecular Mechanism of Enhanced Anticancer Effect of Nanoparticle Formulated LY2835219 via p16-CDK4/6-pRb Pathway in Colorectal Carcinoma Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Tang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available LY2835219 is a dual inhibitor to CDK4 and CDK6. This study was to prepare LY2835219-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (CNP/LY and LY2835219-loaded hyaluronic acid-conjugated chitosan nanoparticles (HACNP/LY and revealed their anticancer effect and influence on p16-CDK4/6-pRb pathway against colon cell line. The nanoparticle sizes of CNP/LY and HACNP/LY were approximately 195±39.6 nm and 217±31.1 nm, respectively. The zeta potentials of CNP/LY and HACNP/LY were 37.3±1.5 mV and 30.3±2.2 mV, respectively. And the preparation process showed considerable drug encapsulation efficiency and loading efficiency. LY2835219, CNP/LY, and HACNP/LY inhibited HT29 cell proliferation with 0.68, 0.54, and 0.30 μM of IC50, respectively. G1 phase was arrested by LY2835219 and its formulations. Furthermore, inhibition of CDK4/6 by LY2835219 formulations induced CDK4, CDK6, cyclin D1, and pRb decrease and p16 increase at both protein and mRNA levels. Overall, nanoparticle formulated LY2835219 could enhance the cytotoxicity and cell cycle arrest, and HACNP/LY strengthened the trend furtherly compared to CNP/LY. It is the first time to demonstrate the anticancer effect and mechanism against HT29 by LY2835219 and its nanoparticles. The drug and its nanoparticle formulations delay the cell growth and arrest cell cycle through p16-CDK4/6-pRb pathway, while the nanoparticle formulated LY2835219 could strengthen the process.

  1. Lyα Line Formation in Starbursting Galaxies. I. Moderately Thick, Dustless, and Static H I Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sang-Hyeon; Lee, Hee-Won; Lee, Hyung Mok

    2001-06-01

    We investigate the Lyα line transfer in nearby and high-redshift starbursting galaxies, where the effects of high optical depths and the role of dust in the scattering medium are expected to be conspicuous and should be treated in a very careful manner. We present our first results in a dustless, static, and uniform H I media with moderate Lyα line center optical depths τ0=103-106. We assume the temperatures of the media to be T=101-104 K, and use a Monte Carlo technique. We investigate the basic processes of the line transfer and confirm the criterion of aτ0>103 for the validity of the diffusion approximation suggested by Neufeld in 1990, where a is the Voigt parameter. Adopting the model for evolution of a galactic supershell suggested by Tenorio-Tagle et al. in 1999, we performed calculations on the Lyα line formation for each evolutionary stage of an expanding supershell. The emergent Lyα profiles are characterized by the double peaks and the absorption trough at the line center. We found that the absorption troughs expected in most of the evolutionary stages are not wide enough to be observed with current instruments. However, the absorption trough in the Lyα emission profile from an expanding recombining supershell can be marginally detected.

  2. The Mean Metal-line Absorption Spectrum of Damped Lyα Systems in BOSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas-Ribas, Lluís; Miralda-Escudé, Jordi; Pérez-Ràfols, Ignasi; Arinyo-i-Prats, Andreu; Noterdaeme, Pasquier; Petitjean, Patrick; Schneider, Donald P.; York, Donald G.; Ge, Jian

    2017-09-01

    We study the mean absorption spectrum of the Damped Lyα (DLA) population at z ˜ 2.6 by stacking normalized, rest-frame-shifted spectra of ˜27,000 DLA systems from the DR12 of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS)/SDSS-III. We measure the equivalent widths of 50 individual metal absorption lines in five intervals of DLA hydrogen column density, five intervals of DLA redshift, and overall mean equivalent widths for an additional 13 absorption features from groups of strongly blended lines. The mean equivalent width of low-ionization lines increases with N H i , whereas for high-ionization lines the increase is much weaker. The mean metal line equivalent widths decrease by a factor ˜1.1-1.5 from z ˜ 2.1 to z ˜ 3.5, with small or no differences between low- and high-ionization species. We develop a theoretical model, inspired by the presence of multiple absorption components observed in high-resolution spectra, to infer mean metal column densities from the equivalent widths of partially saturated metal lines. We apply this model to 14 low-ionization species and to Al iii, S iii, Si iii, C iv, Si iv, N v, and O vi. We use an approximate derivation for separating the equivalent width contributions of several lines to blended absorption features, and infer mean equivalent widths and column densities from lines of the additional species N i, Zn ii, C ii*, Fe iii, and S iv. Several of these mean column densities of metal lines in DLAs are obtained for the first time; their values generally agree with measurements of individual DLAs from high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectra when they are available.

  3. Estrogen receptor beta agonist LY500307 fails to improve symptoms in men with enlarged prostate secondary to benign prostatic hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehrborn, C G; Spann, M E; Myers, S L; Serviss, C R; Hu, L; Jin, Y

    2015-03-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of LY500307, a selective estrogen receptor beta agonist, on lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in patients with enlarged prostate secondary to BPH. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel phase 2, efficacy and safety study, eligible patients with moderate to severe LUTS and prostatic enlargement (⩾30 ml) were randomized to placebo or LY500307 at 1, 3, 10 and 25 mg once daily for 24 weeks. Primary efficacy end point was change in total International Prostate Symptoms Score (IPSS) after 24 weeks. Secondary end points included changes in total prostate volume (TPV) that served as a proof of concept end point, as well as IPSS quality of life, maximum peak urine flow rate (Qmax) and PSA and safety (adverse events, laboratory test). A total of 414 patients were randomized when the study was terminated because of insufficient TPV reduction, based on a priori defined interim analysis. The IPSS mean change from baseline to end point was -3.4±6.8 in the placebo group and -1.3±6.6, -2.6±7.0, -3.7±6.7 and -4.4±5.7 in the 1, 3, 10 and 25 mg LY500307-treated groups, respectively (P>0.05). Similarly, no treatment effect was observed for any of the secondary efficacy measures. Incidence of adverse events was comparable between treatment groups, and no clinically meaningful changes in laboratory tests were observed. LY500307 was well tolerated in BPH patients with LUTS at doses up to 25 mg once daily for 24 weeks. The study was terminated early because of inadequate efficacy.

  4. Reversal of multidrug resistance in vincristine-resistant human gastric cancer cell line SGC7901/VCR by LY980503

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da-Long Wu; Ying Xu; Li-Xin Yin; Huan-Zhang Lu

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the reversal effect of LY980503,a benflumetol derivative, on multidrug resistance in vincristine (VCR) -resistant human gastric carcinoma cell line SGC7901/VCR.METHODS: Cells of a human gastric cancer cell line,SGC7901, and its VCR-resistant variant, SGC7901/VCR,were cultivated with LY980503 and/or doxorubicin (DOX).The cytotoxicity of drugs in vitro was assayed by MTT method. Based on the flow cytometric technology, the uptake of DOX was detected in these cells by measuring DOX -associated mean fluorescence intensity (MFI).RESULTS: SGC7901/VCR cells were 23.5 times more resistant to DOX in comparison with SGC7901 cells.LY980503 at the concentrations of 2.0 μmol/L -10 μmol/L had no obvious cytotoxicity to SGC7901 and SGC7901/VCR cells. After simultaneous treatment with LY980503 at the concentrations of 2.0, 4.0 and 10 μmol/L, the ICs0 of DOX to SGC7901/VCR cells decreased from 1.6± 0.12 μmol/L to 0.55 ± 0.024, 0.25 ± 0.032 and 0.11± 0.015 μmol/L, respectively, thus, increasing the DOX sensitivity by 2.9-fold (P < 0. 05), 6.4-fold (P < 0. 01)and 14.5-fold (P < 0. 01), respectively. In the uptake study of DOX, simultaneous incubation of SGC7901/VCR cells with LY980503 significantly increased the DOX -associated MFI in SGC7901/VCR cells. No such results were found in parental SGC7901 cells.CONCLUSION: LY980503 at non-cytotoxic concentrations can effectively circumvent resistance of SGC7901/VCR cells to DOX by increasing intracellular DOX accumulation.

  5. Extracellular production of beta-amylase by a halophilic isolate, Halobacillus sp. LY9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Yu, Hui-Ying

    2011-11-01

    A moderately halophilic strain LY9 with high amylolytic activity was isolated from soil sample obtained from Yuncheng, China. Biochemical and physiological characterization along with 16S rRNA sequence analysis placed the isolate in the genus Halobacillus. Amylase production started from the post-exponential phase of bacterial growth and reached a maximum level during the early-stationary phase. The isolate LY9 was found to secrete the amylase, the production of which depended on the salinity of the growth medium. Maximum amylase production was observed in the presence of 10% KCl or 10% NaCl. Maltose was the main product of soluble starch hydrolysis, indicating a β-amylase activity. The enzyme showed optimal activity at 60°C, pH 8.0, and 10-12.5% of NaCl. It was highly active over broad temperature (50-70°C), NaCl concentration (5.0-20.0%), and pH (4.0-12.0) ranges, indicating its thermoactive and alkali-stable nature. However, activity dropped off dramatically at low NaCl concentrations, showing the amylase was halophilic. Ca(2+) was found to stimulate the β-amylase activity, whereas ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), phenylarsine oxide (PAO), and diethyl pyrocarbonate (DEPC) strongly inhibited the enzyme, indicating it probably was a metalloenzyme with cysteine and histidine residues located in its active site. Moreover, the enzyme exhibited remarkable stability towards sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and Triton X-100. This is the first report of β-amylase production from moderate halophiles. The present study indicates that the extracellular β-amylase of Halobacillus sp. LY9 may have considerable potential for industrial application owing to its properties.

  6. Evidence for Power Law in the Spectrum of the Coronal Ly-alpha Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telloni, Daniele; Antonucci, Ester; Bruno, Roberto; D'Amicis, Raffaella

    Long time series of the intensity of the hydrogen Lyα line revealed the existence of f-2 power spectra in the corona at low and mid latitudes and very close to the Sun, at 1.7 solar radii. These observations are performed with the UltraViolet Coronagraph Spectrometer (UVCS) on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SoHO). A preliminary analysis indicates that this scaling extends for more than a decade and terminates at higher frequencies with a flat spectrum indicating the presence of white-noise fluctuations. The frequency corresponding to the knee which separates these two different spectral regimes moves to lower and lower values for observations performed at higher and higher heliographic latitudes. Low-frequency power spectra with a f-2 dependence may be due rapid changes (jumps) in the time series. If these coherent structures are removed from the time series, hydrogen coronal intensity power spectra seem to show a power law following the f-1 scaling which would suggest that 1/f interplanetary noise originates in corona.

  7. IL-2 induces beta2-integrin adhesion via a wortmannin/LY294002-sensitive, rapamycin-resistant pathway. Phosphorylation of a 125-kilodalton protein correlates with induction of adhesion, but not mitogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M; Svejgaard, A; Skov, S;

    1996-01-01

    beta2-integrin-dependent, homotypic adhesion in Ag-specific, human T cell lines. The IL-2 adhesion response is blocked by wortmannin and LY294002, inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol-3 (PI-3) kinase activity. In contrast, rapamycin strongly inhibits IL-2-induced proliferation without inhibiting IL-2......, and cytochalasin E almost completely inhibit cytokine-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of p125, whereas tyrosine phosphorylation of PI-3 kinase, Janus kinases, Stat3, Stat5, and other proteins is unaffected. In contrast, rapamycin has little effect on IL-2-induced phosphorylation of p125. Taken together......, these data suggest that 1) IL-2R ligation induces homotypic adhesion through a wortmannin/LY294002-sensitive, rapamycin-resistant pathway, 2) tyrosine kinases play a critical role in cytokine-induced adhesion, and 3) adhesion, but not mitogenesis, correlates with enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation...

  8. Resolving the Optical Emission Lines of Lyα Blob "B1" at z = 2.38: Another Hidden Quasar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overzier, R. A.; Nesvadba, N. P. H.; Dijkstra, M.; Hatch, N. A.; Lehnert, M. D.; Villar-Martín, M.; Wilman, R. J.; Zirm, A. W.

    2013-07-01

    We have used the SINFONI near-infrared integral field unit on the Very Large Telescope to resolve the optical emission line structure of one of the brightest (L Lyα ≈ 1044 erg s-1) and nearest (z ≈ 2.38) of all Lyα blobs (LABs). The target, known in the literature as object "B1", lies at a redshift where the main optical emission lines are accessible in the observed near-infrared. We detect luminous [O III] λλ4959, 5007 and Hα emission with a spatial extent of at least 32 × 40 kpc (4'' × 5''). The dominant optical emission line component shows relatively broad lines (600-800 km s-1, FWHM) and line ratios consistent with active galactic nucleus (AGN) photoionization. The new evidence for AGN photoionization, combined with previously detected C IV and luminous, warm infrared emission, suggest that B1 is the site of a hidden quasar. This is confirmed by the fact that [O II] is relatively weak compared with [O III] (extinction-corrected [O III]/[O II] of about 3.8), which is indicative of a high, Seyfert-like ionization parameter. From the extinction-corrected [O III] luminosity we infer a bolometric AGN luminosity of ~3 × 1046 erg s-1, and further conclude that the obscured AGN may be Compton-thick given existing X-ray limits. The large line widths observed are consistent with clouds moving within the narrow-line region of a luminous QSO. The AGN scenario is capable of producing sufficient ionizing photons to power the Lyα, even in the presence of dust. By performing a census of similar objects in the literature, we find that virtually all luminous LABs harbor obscured quasars. Based on simple duty-cycle arguments, we conclude that AGNs are the main drivers of the Lyα in LABs rather than the gravitational heating and subsequent cooling suggested by cold stream models. We also conclude that the empirical relation between LABs and overdense environments at high redshift must be due to a more fundamental correlation between AGNs (or massive galaxies) and

  9. Class I phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 activates autophagy and induces apoptosis through p53 pathway in gastric cancer cell line SGC7901

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chungen Xing; Baosong Zhu; Huihui Liu; Huihua Yao; Lifeng Zhang

    2008-01-01

    We aimed to study the effects of LY294002, an inhibitor of classIphosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PDK), on proliferation,apoptosis, and autophagy in gastric cancer cell line SGC7901.In this study, we showed that LY294002 inhibited the viability of gastric cancer SGC7901 cells.We also showed that LY294002 increased the expression of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3(LC3),and increased monodansylcadaverine(MDC)-labeled vesicles.LY294002 activated autophagy by activating p53 and caspase-3,and induced apoptosis by up-regulating p53 and p53-up-regulated modulator of apoptosis(PUMA).Therefore,LY294002 might induce cytotoxicity in SGC7901 cells through activation of p53 and the downstream point PUMA.These findings suggest that inhibition of the class I PI3K signaling pathway is a potential strategy for managing gastric cancers.

  10. Clinical development of galunisertib (LY2157299 monohydrate, a small molecule inhibitor of transforming growth factor-beta signaling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbertz S

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Stephan Herbertz,1 J Scott Sawyer,2 Anja J Stauber,2 Ivelina Gueorguieva,3 Kyla E Driscoll,4 Shawn T Estrem,2 Ann L Cleverly,3 Durisala Desaiah,2 Susan C Guba,2 Karim A Benhadji,2 Christopher A Slapak,2 Michael M Lahn21Lilly Deutschland GmbH, Bad Homburg, Germany; 2Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 3Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Company, Windlesham, Surrey, UK; 4Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Company, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β signaling regulates a wide range of biological processes. TGF-β plays an important role in tumorigenesis and contributes to the hallmarks of cancer, including tumor proliferation, invasion and metastasis, inflammation, angiogenesis, and escape of immune surveillance. There are several pharmacological approaches to block TGF-β signaling, such as monoclonal antibodies, vaccines, antisense oligonucleotides, and small molecule inhibitors. Galunisertib (LY2157299 monohydrate is an oral small molecule inhibitor of the TGF-β receptor I kinase that specifically downregulates the phosphorylation of SMAD2, abrogating activation of the canonical pathway. Furthermore, galunisertib has antitumor activity in tumor-bearing animal models such as breast, colon, lung cancers, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Continuous long-term exposure to galunisertib caused cardiac toxicities in animals requiring adoption of a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic-based dosing strategy to allow further development. The use of such a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model defined a therapeutic window with an appropriate safety profile that enabled the clinical investigation of galunisertib. These efforts resulted in an intermittent dosing regimen (14 days on/14 days off, on a 28-day cycle of galunisertib for all ongoing trials. Galunisertib is being investigated either as monotherapy or in combination with standard antitumor regimens (including nivolumab

  11. Modeling the Scattering Polarization of the Hydrogen Ly-alpha Line Observed by CLASP in a Filament Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepan, J.; Trujillo Bueno, J.; Gunar, S.; del Pino Aleman, T.; Heinzel, P.; Kano, R.; Ishikawa, R.; Narukage, M.; Bando, T.; Winebarger, Amy; Kobayashi, K.; Auchere, F.

    2016-01-01

    The 400 arcsec spectrograph slit of CLASP crossed predominantly quiet regions of the solar chromosphere, from the limb towards the solar disk center. Interestingly, in the CLASP slit-jaw images and in the SDO images of the He I line at 304 A, we can identify a filament channel (FC) extending over more than 60 arcsec crossing the spectrograph slit. In order to interpret the peculiar spatial variation of the Q/1 and U/1 signals observed by CLASP in the hydrogen Ly-alpha line (1216 A) and in the Si Ill line (1206 A) in such a filament channel, it is necessary to perform multi-dimensional radiative transfer modeling. In this contribution, we show the first results of the two-dimensional calculations we are carrying out in given filament models, with the aim of determining the filament thermal and magnetic structure by comparing the theoretical and the observed polarization signals.

  12. The BOSS Emission-Line Lens Survey. III. : Strong Lensing of Ly$\\alpha$ Emitters by Individual Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Shu, Yiping; Kochanek, Christopher S; Oguri, Masamune; Perez-Fournon, Ismael; Zheng, Zheng; Mao, Shude; Montero-Dorta, Antonio D; Brownstein, Joel R; Marques-Chaves, Rui; Menard, Brice

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the BOSS Emission-Line Lens Survey (BELLS) GALaxy-Ly$\\alpha$ EmitteR sYstems (BELLS GALLERY) Survey, which is a Hubble Space Telescope program to image a sample of galaxy-scale strong gravitational lens candidate systems with high-redshift Ly$\\alpha$ emitters (LAEs) as the background sources. The goal of the BELLS GALLERY Survey is to illuminate dark substructures in galaxy-scale halos by exploiting the small-scale clumpiness of rest-frame far-UV emission in lensed LAEs, and to thereby constrain the slope and normalization of the substructure mass function. In this paper, we describe in detail the spectroscopic strong-lens selection technique, which is based on methods adopted in the previous Sloan Lens ACS (SLACS) Survey, BOSS Emission-Line Lens Survey, and SLACS for the Masses Survey. We present the BELLS GALLERY sample of the 21 highest-quality galaxy-LAE candidates selected from $\\approx 1.4 \\times 10^6$ galaxy spectra in the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) of the Sloan Digital...

  13. Probing the N = Z Line via {beta} Decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markku Oinonen

    1999-12-31

    This contribution reports several beta-decay studies performed at ISOLDE On-Line Mass Separator at CERN recently for nuclei close to N = Z line. Beta decay of {sup 58}Zn provides a possibility to compare Gamow-Teller strength extracted from complementary beta-decay studies and charge-exchange reactions. Measurement on beta-decay half-life of {sup 70}Kr shows importance of experimental information in modeling the path of the astrophysical rp process. Decay of {sup 71}Kr is an example of a mirror beta decay and extends the systematics of these particular decays towards highly deformed region close to A = 80.

  14. A High Fraction of Lyα Emitters among Galaxies with Extreme Emission Line Ratios at z ~2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erb, Dawn K.; Pettini, Max; Steidel, Charles C.; Strom, Allison L.; Rudie, Gwen C.; Trainor, Ryan F.; Shapley, Alice E.; Reddy, Naveen A.

    2016-10-01

    Star-forming galaxies form a sequence in the [O iii] λ5007/{{H}}β versus [N ii] λ6584/{{H}}α diagnostic diagram, with low-metallicity, highly ionized galaxies falling in the upper left corner. Drawing from a large sample of UV-selected star-forming galaxies at z∼ 2 with rest-frame optical nebular emission line measurements from Keck-MOSFIRE, we select the extreme ∼5% of the galaxies lying in this upper left corner, requiring log([N ii]/{{H}}α ) ≤slant -1.1 and log([O iii]/{{H}}β ) ≥slant 0.75. These cuts identify galaxies with 12+{log}({{O/H}})≲ 8.0, when oxygen abundances are measured via the O3N2 diagnostic. We study the {Ly}α properties of the resulting sample of 14 galaxies. The mean (median) rest-frame {Ly}α equivalent width is 39 (36) Å, and 11 of the 14 objects (79%) are {Ly}α emitters (LAEs) with {W}{Lyα } \\gt 20 \\mathring{{A}} . We compare the equivalent width distribution of a sample of 522 UV-selected galaxies at 2.0\\lt z\\lt 2.6 identified without regard to their optical line ratios; this sample has mean (median) {Ly}α equivalent width ‑1 (‑4) Å, and only 9% of these galaxies qualify as LAEs. The extreme galaxies typically have lower attenuation at {Ly}α than those in the comparison sample and have ∼50% lower median oxygen abundances. Both factors are likely to facilitate the escape of {Ly}α : in less dusty galaxies {Ly}α photons are less likely to be absorbed during multiple scatterings, while the harder ionizing spectrum and higher ionization parameter associated with strong, low-metallicity star formation may reduce the covering fraction or column density of neutral hydrogen, further easing {Ly}α escape. The use of nebular emission line ratios may prove useful in the identification of galaxies with low opacity to {Ly}α photons across a range of redshifts. Based on data obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University

  15. The LyAlpha Line Profiles of Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies: Fast Winds and Lyman Continuum Leakage

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Crystal L; Henry, Alaina; Soto, Kurt T; Danforth, Charles W; Wong, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    We present new Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Origins Spectrograph far-ultraviolet (far-UV) spectroscopy and Keck Echellete optical spectroscopy of 11 ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs), a rare population of local galaxies experiencing massive gas inflows, extreme starbursts, and prominent outflows. We detect H Lyman alpha emission from 8 ULIRGs and the companion to IRAS09583+4714. In contrast to the P Cygni profiles often seen in galaxy spectra, the H Lyman alpha profiles exhibit prominent, blueshifted emission out to Doppler shifts exceeding -1000 km/s in three HII-dominated and two AGN-dominated ULIRGs. To better understand the role of resonance scattering in shaping the H Lyman alpha line profiles, we directly compare them to non-resonant emission lines in optical spectra. We find that the line wings are already present in the intrinsic nebular spectra, and scattering merely enhances the wings relative to the line core. The H Lyman alpha attenuation (as measured in the COS aperture) ranges from that ...

  16. Strong Ly$\\alpha$ Emission in the Proximate Damped Ly$\\alpha$ Absorption Trough toward the Quasar SDSS J095253.83$+$011422.0

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Peng; Pan, Xiang; Jiang, Ning; Shu, Xinwen; Wang, Huiyuan; Gu, Qiusheng; Li, Zhenzhen; Wu, Maochun; Shi, Xiheng; Ji, Tuo; Tian, Qiguo; Zhang, Shaohua

    2016-01-01

    SDSS J095253.83$+$011422.0 (SDSS J0952$+$0114) was reported by Hall et al. (2004) as an exotic quasar at $z_{em}=3.020$. In contrast to prominent broad metal--line emissions with FWHM$\\sim9000$~km~s$^{-1}$, only a narrow Ly$\\alpha$ emission line is present with FWHM$\\sim$1000~km~s$^{-1}$. The absence of broad Ly$\\alpha$ emission line has been a mystery for more than a decade. In this paper, we demonstrate that this is due to dark Proximate Damped Ly$\\alpha$ Absorption (PDLA) at $z_{abs}=3.010$ by identifying associated Lyman absorption line series from the damped Ly$\\beta$ up to Ly9, as well as the Lyman limit absorption edge. The PDLA cloud has a column density of $\\log N_{\\rm H\\,I}({\\rm cm}^{-2})=21.8\\pm0.2$, a metallicity of [Zn/H]$>-1.0$, and a spatial extent exceeding the Narrow Emission Line Region (NELR) of the quasar. With a luminosity of $L_{{\\rm Ly}\\alpha}\\sim10^{45}$~erg~s$^{-1}$, the residual Ly$\\alpha$ emission superposed on the PDLA trough is of two orders of magnitude stronger than previous rep...

  17. On the Heterogeneity of Metal-Line and Ly-Alpha Absorption in Galaxy "Halos" at z~0.7

    CERN Document Server

    Churchill, C W; Steidel, C C; Evans, J L; Churchill, Christopher W.; Kacprzak, Glenn G.; Steidel, Charles C.; Evans, Jessica L.

    2006-01-01

    We examine the properties of two galaxy "halos" at z ~ 0.7 in the TON 153 (z_em = 1.01) quasar field. The first absorber-galaxy pair (G1) is a z = 0.672, L_B = 4.3 L*_B, E/S0 galaxy probed at D = 58 kpc. G1 is associated with a remarkable five-component Ly-alpha complex having tau_LL < 0.4, W_r(Lya) = 2.8 A, and a velocity spread of v = 1420 km/s. We find no MgII, CIV, NV, nor OVI absorption in these clouds and infer metallicity upper limits of -3 < log(Z/Z_sun) < -1, depending upon assumptions of photoionized or collisionally ionized gas. The second absorber-galaxy pair (G2) is a z = 0.661, L_B = 1.8 L*_B, Sab galaxy probed at D = 103 kpc. G2 is associated with metal--enriched (log Z/Z_sun ~ -0.4) photoionized gas having N(HI) ~ 18.3 and a velocity spread of v = 200 km/s. The very different G1 and G2 systems both have gas-galaxy properties inconsistent with the standard luminosity dependent galaxy "halo" model commonly invoked for quasar absorption line surveys. We emphasize that mounting evidence i...

  18. The GLARE Survey II. Faint z=6 Ly-alpha Line Emitters in the HUDF

    CERN Document Server

    Stanway, Elizabeth R; Glazebrook, Karl; Abraham, Roberto G; Rhoads, James; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Crampton, David; Colless, Matthew; Chiu, Kuenley; 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2007.11469.x

    2008-01-01

    The galaxy population at z~6 has been the subject of intense study in recent years, culminating in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) -- the deepest imaging survey yet. A large number of high redshift galaxy candidates have been identified within the HUDF, but until now analysis of their properties has been hampered by the difficulty of obtaining spectroscopic redshifts for these faint galaxies. Our ''Gemini Lyman-Alpha at Reionisation Era'' (GLARE) project has been designed to undertake spectroscopic follow up of faint (z'5.5, and a further nine possible line emitters with detections at lower significance. We also place tight constraints on the equivalent width of Lyman-alpha emission for a further ten i'-drop galaxies and examine the equivalent width distribution of this faint spectroscopic sample of z~6 galaxies. We find that the fraction of galaxies with little or no emission is similar to that at z~3, but that the z~6 population has a tail of sources with high rest frame equivalent widths. Possible expla...

  19. Boosting Lyα and He II λ1640 Line Fluxes from Population III Galaxies: Stochastic IMF Sampling and Departures from Case-B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas-Ribas, Lluís; Dijkstra, Mark; Forero-Romero, Jaime E.

    2016-12-01

    We revisit calculations of nebular hydrogen Lyα and He ii λ1640 line strengths for Population III (Pop III) galaxies, undergoing continuous, and bursts of, star formation. We focus on initial mass functions (IMFs) motivated by recent theoretical studies, which generally span a lower range of stellar masses than earlier works. We also account for case-B departures and the stochastic sampling of the IMF. In agreement with previous work, we find that departures from case-B can enhance the Lyα flux by a factor of a few, but we argue that this enhancement is driven mainly by collisional excitation and ionization, and not due to photoionization from the n = 2 state of atomic hydrogen. The increased sensitivity of the Lyα flux to the high-energy end of the galaxy spectrum makes it more subject to stochastic sampling of the IMF. The latter introduces a dispersion in the predicted nebular line fluxes around the deterministic value by as much as a factor of ∼4. In contrast, the stochastic sampling of the IMF has less impact on the emerging Lyman Werner photon flux. When case-B departures and stochasticity effects are combined, nebular line emission from Pop III galaxies can be up to one order of magnitude brighter than predicted by “standard” calculations that do not include these effects. This enhances the prospects for detection with future facilities such as the James Webb Space Telescope and large, ground-based telescopes.

  20. Ly$\\alpha$ emission from Green Peas: the role of circumgalactic gas density, covering, and kinematics

    CERN Document Server

    Henry, Alaina; Martin, Crystal; Erb, Dawn

    2015-01-01

    We report Hubble Space Telescope/Cosmic Origins Spectrograph observations of the Ly$\\alpha$ emission and interstellar absorption lines in a sample of ten star-forming galaxies at z~0.2. Selected on the basis of high equivalent width optical emission lines, the sample, dubbed "Green Peas," make some of the best analogs for young galaxies in an early Universe. We detect Ly$\\alpha$ emission in all ten galaxies, and 9/10 show double-peaked line profiles suggestive of low H I column density. We measure Ly$\\alpha$/H$\\alpha$ flux ratios of 0.5-5.6, implying that 5% to 60% of Ly$\\alpha$ photons escape the galaxies. These data confirm previous findings that low-ionization metal absorption (LIS) lines are weaker when Ly$\\alpha$ escape fraction and equivalent width are higher. However, contrary to previously favored interpretations of this trend, increased Ly$\\alpha$ output cannot be the result of a varying H I covering: the Lyman absorption lines (Ly$\\beta$ and higher) show a covering fraction near unity for gas with N...

  1. Beta-amylase gene variability in introgressive wheat lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonyuk, Maksym; Navalikhina, Anastasiia; Ternovska, Tamara

    2017-05-01

    Variability of the beta-amylase gene in bread wheat, artificial amphidiploids, and derived introgression wheat lines was analyzed. Variation in homeologous beta-amylase sequences caused by the presence of MITE (Miniature Inverted-Repeat Transposable Element) and its footprint has been identified in bread wheat. The previously unknown location of MITE in Triticum urartu and T. aestivum L. beta-amylase gene has been found. These species have a MITE sequence in the third intron of beta-amylase, as opposed to Aegilops comosa and a number of other Triticeae species, which have it in the fourth intron. These two MITEs from Ae. comosa and T. aestivum were shown to have low identity scores. Miosa, an artificial amphidiploid, which has the M genome from Ae. comosa was shown to lose the MITE sequences. This loss might be caused by genomic shock due to allopolyploidization.

  2. Magnetic Fields and UV-line Variability in beta Cephei

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.S. Schnerr; H.F. Henrichs; S.P. Owocki; A. ud-Doula; R.H.D. Townsend

    2007-01-01

    We present results of numerical simulations of wind variability in the magnetic B1 IVe star beta Cephei. 2D-MHD simulations are used to determine the structure of the wind. From these wind models we calculate line profiles for different aspect angles to simulate rotation. The results are compared wi

  3. RESOLVING THE OPTICAL EMISSION LINES OF Ly{alpha} BLOB ''B1'' AT z = 2.38: ANOTHER HIDDEN QUASAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overzier, R. A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Nesvadba, N. P. H. [Institut d' Astrophysique Spatiale, CNRS, Universite Paris-Sud, F-91405 Orsay (France); Dijkstra, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Hatch, N. A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Lehnert, M. D. [GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, UMR 8111, CNRS, Universite Paris Diderot, 5 place Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon (France); Villar-Martin, M. [Centro de Astrobioloia (INTA-CSIC), Carretera de Ajalvir, km 4, E-28850 Torrejon de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain); Wilman, R. J. [Department of Physics, University of Durham, South Road, Durham DH13LE (United Kingdom); Zirm, A. W., E-mail: overzier@astro.as.utexas.edu [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2013-07-10

    We have used the SINFONI near-infrared integral field unit on the Very Large Telescope to resolve the optical emission line structure of one of the brightest (L{sub Ly{alpha}} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1}) and nearest (z Almost-Equal-To 2.38) of all Ly{alpha} blobs (LABs). The target, known in the literature as object {sup B}1{sup ,} lies at a redshift where the main optical emission lines are accessible in the observed near-infrared. We detect luminous [O III] {lambda}{lambda}4959, 5007 and H{alpha} emission with a spatial extent of at least 32 Multiplication-Sign 40 kpc (4'' Multiplication-Sign 5''). The dominant optical emission line component shows relatively broad lines (600-800 km s{sup -1}, FWHM) and line ratios consistent with active galactic nucleus (AGN) photoionization. The new evidence for AGN photoionization, combined with previously detected C IV and luminous, warm infrared emission, suggest that B1 is the site of a hidden quasar. This is confirmed by the fact that [O II] is relatively weak compared with [O III] (extinction-corrected [O III]/[O II] of about 3.8), which is indicative of a high, Seyfert-like ionization parameter. From the extinction-corrected [O III] luminosity we infer a bolometric AGN luminosity of {approx}3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 46} erg s{sup -1}, and further conclude that the obscured AGN may be Compton-thick given existing X-ray limits. The large line widths observed are consistent with clouds moving within the narrow-line region of a luminous QSO. The AGN scenario is capable of producing sufficient ionizing photons to power the Ly{alpha}, even in the presence of dust. By performing a census of similar objects in the literature, we find that virtually all luminous LABs harbor obscured quasars. Based on simple duty-cycle arguments, we conclude that AGNs are the main drivers of the Ly{alpha} in LABs rather than the gravitational heating and subsequent cooling suggested by cold stream models. We

  4. Three-dimensional radiative transfer simulations of the scattering polarization of the hydrogen Ly$\\alpha$ line in a MHD model of the chromosphere-corona transition region

    CERN Document Server

    Stepan, Jiri; Leenaarts, Jorrit; Carlsson, Mats

    2015-01-01

    Probing the magnetism of the upper solar chromosphere requires measuring and modeling the scattering polarization produced by anisotropic radiation pumping in UV spectral lines. Here we apply PORTA (a novel radiative transfer code) to investigate the hydrogen Ly$\\alpha$ line in a 3D model of the solar atmosphere resulting from a state of the art MHD simulation. At full spatial resolution the linear polarization signals are very significant all over the solar disk, with a large fraction of the field of view showing line-center amplitudes well above the 1% level. Via the Hanle effect the line-center polarization signals are sensitive to the magnetic field of the model's transition region, even when its mean field strength is only 15 G. The breaking of the axial symmetry of the radiation field produces significant forward-scattering polarization in Ly$\\alpha$, without the need of an inclined magnetic field. Interestingly, the Hanle effect tends to decrease such forward-scattering polarization signals in most of ...

  5. An HST/COS Observation of Broad Ly$\\alpha$ Emission and Associated Absorption Lines of the BL Lacertae Object H 2356-309

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Taotao; Buote, David A; Stocke, John T; Shull, J Michael; Canizares, Claude R; Gastaldello, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Weak spectral features in BL Lacertae objects (BL Lac) often provide a unique opportunity to probe the inner region of this rare type of active galactic nucleus. We present a Hubble Space Telescope/Cosmic Origins Spectrograph observation of the BL Lac H 2356-309. A weak Ly$\\alpha$ emission line was detected. This is the fourth detection of a weak Ly$\\alpha$ emission feature in the ultraviolet (UV) band in the so-called "high energy peaked BL Lacs", after Stocke et al. Assuming the line-emitting gas is located in the broad line region (BLR) and the ionizing source is the off-axis jet emission, we constrain the Lorentz factor ($\\Gamma$) of the relativistic jet to be $\\geq 8.1$ with a maximum viewing angle of 3.6$^\\circ$. The derived $\\Gamma$ is somewhat larger than previous measurements of $\\Gamma \\approx 3 - 5$, implying a covering factor of $\\sim$ 3% of the line-emitting gas. Alternatively, the BLR clouds could be optically thin, in which case we constrain the BLR warm gas to be $\\sim 10^{-5}\\rm\\ M_{\\odot}$. ...

  6. An HST/COS observation of broad Lyα emission and associated absorption lines of the BL Lacertae object H 2356-309

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Taotao [Department of Astronomy and Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Danforth, Charles W.; Stocke, John T.; Shull, J. Michael [CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, 389-UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Buote, David A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Canizares, Claude R. [Department of Physics and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Gastaldello, Fabio, E-mail: fangt@xmu.edu.cn [IASF-Milano, INAF, via Bassini 15, Milan I-20133 (Italy)

    2014-11-01

    Weak spectral features in BL Lacertae objects (BL Lacs) often provide a unique opportunity to probe the inner region of this rare type of active galactic nucleus. We present a Hubble Space Telescope/Cosmic Origins Spectrograph observation of the BL Lac H 2356-309. A weak Lyα emission line was detected. This is the fourth detection of a weak Lyα emission feature in the ultraviolet (UV) band in the so-called high-energy peaked BL Lacs, after Stocke et al. Assuming the line-emitting gas is located in the broad line region (BLR) and the ionizing source is the off-axis jet emission, we constrain the Lorentz factor (Γ) of the relativistic jet to be ≥8.1 with a maximum viewing angle of 3.°6. The derived Γ is somewhat larger than previous measurements of Γ ≈ 3-5, implying a covering factor of ∼3% of the line-emitting gas. Alternatively, the BLR clouds could be optically thin, in which case we constrain the BLR warm gas to be ∼10{sup –5} M {sub ☉}. We also detected two H I and one O VI absorption lines that are within |Δv| < 150 km s{sup –1} of the BL Lac object. The O VI and one of the H I absorbers likely coexist due to their nearly identical velocities. We discuss several ionization models and find a photoionization model where the ionizing photon source is the BL Lac object that can fit the observed ion column densities with reasonable physical parameters. This absorber can either be located in the interstellar medium of the host galaxy or in the BLR.

  7. The scattering polarization of the Ly-alpha lines of H I and He II taking into account PRD and J-state interference effects

    CERN Document Server

    Belluzzi, Luca; Stepan, Jiri

    2012-01-01

    Recent theoretical investigations have pointed out that the cores of the Ly-alpha lines of H I and He II should show measurable scattering polarization signals when observing the solar disk, and that the magnetic sensitivity, through the Hanle effect, of such linear polarization signals is suitable for exploring the magnetism of the solar transition region. Such investigations were carried out in the limit of complete frequency redistribution (CRD) and neglecting quantum interference between the two upper J-levels of each line. Here we relax both approximations and show that the joint action of partial frequency redistribution (PRD) and J-state interference produces much more complex fractional linear polarization (Q/I) profiles, with large amplitudes in their wings. Such wing polarization signals turn out to be very sensitive to the temperature structure of the atmospheric model, so that they can be exploited for constraining the thermal properties of the solar chromosphere. Finally, we show that the approxi...

  8. Green Pea Galaxies Reveal Secrets of Lyα Escape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Gronke, Max; Rhoads, James E.; Dijkstra, Mark; Jaskot, Anne; Zheng, Zhenya; Wang, Junxian

    2016-04-01

    We analyze archival Lyα spectra of 12 “Green Pea” galaxies observed with the Hubble Space Telescope, model their Lyα profiles with radiative transfer models, and explore the dependence of the Lyα escape fraction on various properties. Green Pea galaxies are nearby compact starburst galaxies with [O iii] λ5007 equivalent widths (EWs) of hundreds of Å. All 12 Green Pea galaxies in our sample show Lyα lines in emission, with an Lyα EW distribution similar to high-redshift Lyα emitters. Combining the optical and UV spectra of Green Pea galaxies, we estimate their Lyα escape fractions and find correlations between Lyα escape fraction and kinematic features of Lyα profiles. The escape fraction of Lyα in these galaxies ranges from 1.4% to 67%. We also find that the Lyα escape fraction depends strongly on metallicity and moderately on dust extinction. We compare their high-quality Lyα profiles with single H i shell radiative transfer models and find that the Lyα escape fraction anticorrelates with the derived H i column densities. Single-shell models fit most Lyα profiles well, but not the ones with the highest escape fractions of Lyα. Our results suggest that low H i column density and low metallicity are essential for Lyα escape and make a galaxy an Lyα emitter.

  9. Discovery of a broad O VIII Ly alpha line in the ultra-compact X-ray binary 4U 1543-624

    CERN Document Server

    Madej, O K

    2010-01-01

    We report the discovery of a broad emission feature at ~0.7 keV in the spectra of the ultra-compact X-ray binary 4U 1543-624, obtained with the high-resolution spectrographs of the XMM-Newton and Chandra satellites. We confirm the presence of the feature in the broad band MOS2 spectrum of the source. As suggested before in the literature, the donor star in this source is a CO or ONe white dwarf, which transfers oxygen-rich material to the accretor, conceivably a neutron star. The X-rays reprocessed in this oxygen-rich accretion disc could give a reflection spectrum with O VIII Ly alpha as the most prominent emission line. Apart from the feature at ~0.7 keV we confirm the possible presence of a weak emission feature at ~6.6 keV, which was reported in the literature for this data set. We interpret the feature at ~0.7 keV and ~6.6 keV as O VIII Ly alpha and Fe K alpha emission respectively, caused by X-rays reflected off the accretion disc in the strong gravitational field close to the accretor.

  10. DISCOVERY OF A DAMPED Lyα ABSORBER AT z = 3.3 ALONG A GALAXY SIGHT-LINE IN THE SSA22 FIELD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mawatari, K.; Inoue, A. K. [College of General Education, Osaka Sangyo University, 3-1-1, Nakagaito, Daito, Osaka, 574-8530 (Japan); Kousai, K.; Hayashino, T. [Research Center for Neutrino Science, General School of Science, Tohoku University, Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi, 980-8578 (Japan); Cooke, R.; Prochaska, J. X. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Yamada, T. [Astronomical Institute, Tohoku University, Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi, 980-8578 (Japan); Matsuda, Y., E-mail: mawatari@las.osaka-sandai.ac.jp [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa 2-21-1, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2016-02-01

    Using galaxies as background light sources to map the Lyα absorption lines is a novel approach to study Damped Lyα Absorbers (DLAs). We report the discovery of an intervening z = 3.335 ± 0.007 DLA along a galaxy sight-line identified among 80 Lyman Break Galaxy (LBG) spectra obtained with our Very Large Telescope/Visible Multi-Object Spectrograph survey in the SSA22 field. The measured DLA neutral hydrogen (H i) column density is log(N{sub H} {sub i}/cm{sup −2}) = 21.68 ± 0.17. The DLA covering fraction over the extended background LBG is >70% (2σ), yielding a conservative constraint on the DLA area of ≳1 kpc{sup 2}. Our search for a counterpart galaxy hosting this DLA concludes that there is no counterpart galaxy with star formation rate larger than a few M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}, ruling out an unobscured violent star formation in the DLA gas cloud. We also rule out the possibility that the host galaxy of the DLA is a passive galaxy with M{sub *} ≳ 5 × 10{sup 10}M{sub ⊙} or a heavily dust-obscured galaxy with E(B − V) ≳ 2. The DLA may coincide with a large-scale overdensity of the spectroscopic LBGs. The occurrence rate of the DLA is compatible with that of DLAs found in QSO sight-lines.

  11. The Influence of the Photoionizing Radiation Spectrum on Metal-Line Ratios in Ly $\\alpha$ Forest Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Giroux, M L; Giroux, Mark L.

    1997-01-01

    Recent measurements of Si IV/C IV ratios in the high-redshift Ly-alpha forest (Songaila & Cowie, AJ, 112, 335 [1996a]; Savaglio et al., A&A, in press [1997]) have opened a new window on chemical enrichment and the first generations of stars. However, the derivation of accurate Si/C abundances requires reliable ionization corrections, which are strongly dependent on the spectral shape of the metagalactic ionizing background and on the ``local effects'' of hot stars in nearby galaxies. Recent models have assumed power-law quasar ionizing backgrounds plus a decrement at 4 Ryd to account for He II attenuation in intervening clouds. However, we show that realistic ionizing backgrounds based on cosmological radiative transfer models produce more complex ionizing spectra between 1-5 Ryd that are critical to interpreting ions of Si and C. We also make a preliminary investigation of the effects of He II ionization front non-overlap. Because the attenuation and re-emission by intervening clouds enhance Si IV re...

  12. Hubble and FUSE studies of Ly-alpha absorbers at low redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Shull, J M

    2001-01-01

    Ultraviolet spectrographs aboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) have proved their value as sensitive probes of the low-density intergalactic medium (IGM) at low redshifts (z < 0.1). Recent observations in Ly-alpha, Ly-beta, and occasional higher Lyman lines show that warm photoionized gas in the low-z IGM may contain 20-25% of the baryons, with a N(HI)^-1.8 distribution in column density. Measurements of resonance lines of Si III, C III, C IV, and O VI suggest that the metallicity of these absorbers ranges from 1-10% of solar abundance down to values below 0.003 Z(solar). A comparison of Ly-beta/Ly-alpha ratios (FUSE and HST) yields a distribution of Doppler parameters with mean b = 31.4 +/- 7.4 km/s and median 28 km/s, comparable to values at z = 2-3. The curve-of-growth (CoG) b-values are considerably less than widths derived from Ly-alpha profile fitting, with mean b(CoG)/b(width) = 0.52, which suggests that low-z absorbers contain sizable non-ther...

  13. Beta-cell lines derived from transgenic mice expressing a hybrid insulin gene-oncogene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Efrat, S; Linde, S; Kofod, Hans

    1988-01-01

    Three pancreatic beta-cell lines have been established from insulinomas derived from transgenic mice carrying a hybrid insulin-promoted simian virus 40 tumor antigen gene. The beta tumor cell (beta TC) lines maintain the features of differentiated beta cells for about 50 passages in culture. The ...... both to immortalize a rare cell type and to provide a selection for the maintenance of its differentiated phenotype....

  14. A Candidate for an Intrinsic Dusty Absorber with a Metal-rich Damped Lyα Absorption Line System in the Quasar J170542.91+354340.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiang; Zhou, Hongyan; Ge, Jian; Jiang, Peng; Yang, Bin; Lu, Honglin; Ji, Tuo; Zhang, Shaohua; Shi, Xiheng

    2017-02-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the unusual damped Lyα absorption line system (DLA) toward the quasar SDSS J170542.91+354340.2 at a redshift of 2, previously reported by Noterdaeme et al. as one of the very few CO absorbers known to date at high z. This DLA is exceptional in that: (1) its extinction curve is similar to peculiar Milky Way sightlines penetrating star formation regions; (2) its absorption components are redshifted at a speed of several hundred km s‑1 compared to broad Balmer emission lines; (3) its gas-phase metallicity is super-solar as evaluated from more than 30 absorption lines; (4) detection of residual flux in the DLA trough and variability of {{C}} {{IV}} absorption is possible. Based on these facts, we argue that this dusty DLA is a good candidate for an intrinsic quasar 2175 Å absorber, and can originate from star formation regions of the quasar’s host galaxy. We discuss in detail the gas and dust properties, and the dust depletion. Follow-up observations, such as spectropolarimetry and optical/infrared spectroscopy, will help to confirm the system’s intrinsic nature and to explore how dust grains behave in the extreme environments proximate to quasars.

  15. $\\beta$-delayed proton decays near the proton drip line

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, S W; Huang, W X; Li, Z K; Pan Qiang Yan; Shu, N C; Wang, K; Wang, X D; Xie, Y X; Xing, Y B; Xu, F R; Yu, Y; 10.1103/PhysRevC.71.054318

    2005-01-01

    We briefly reviewed and summarized the experimental study on beta - delayed proton decays published by our group over the last 8 years, namely the experimental observation of beta -delayed proton decays of nine new nuclides in the rare-earth region near the proton drip line and five nuclides in the mass 90 region with N approximately=Z by utilizing the p- gamma coincidence technique in combination with a He-jet tape transport system. In addition, important technical details of the experiments were provided. The experimental results were compared to the theoretical predictions of some nuclear models, resulting in the following conclusions. (1) The experimental half- lives for /sup 85/Mo, /sup 92/Rh, as well as the predicted "waiting point" nuclei /sup 89/Ru and /sup 93/Pd were 5-10 times longer than the macroscopic-microscopic model predictions of Moller et al. At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 66,131(1997). These data considerably influenced the predictions of the mass abundances of the nuclides produced in the rp p...

  16. Base Line Design for a Beta/Beam Neutrino Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Benedikt, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The term beta-beam has been coined for the production of pure beams of electron neutrinos or their antiparticles through the decay of radioactive ions circulating in a storage ring. The neutrino source itself consists of a high-energy storage ring (gamma ~150), with long straight sections in line with the experiment(s). The radioactive ions (6He and 18Ne) will be produced in an ISOL type target system. Due to the short life times of around 1 s at rest, the beam needs to be accelerated as quickly as possible. For this a staged system of accelerators is proposed. The chain starts with a linac followed by a rapid cycling synchrotron for acceleration up to ~300 MeV/u. For further acceleration the existing PS and SPS machines are used. Finally, after acceleration to SPS top energy, the ions are transferred to a decay ring where they are merged with the existing bunches through a longitudinal stacking procedure. The baseline design of the beta-beam facility will be presented together with its major problems. Potent...

  17. Expression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) receptors and expression of TGF beta 1, TGF beta 2 and TGF beta 3 in human small cell lung cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damstrup, L; Rygaard, K; Spang-Thomsen, M;

    1993-01-01

    A panel of 21 small cell lung cancer cell (SCLC) lines were examined for the presence of Transforming growth factor beta receptors (TGF beta-r) and the expression of TGF beta mRNAs. By the radioreceptor assay we found high affinity receptors to be expressed in six cell lines. scatchard analysis...... of the binding data demonstrated that the cells bound between 4.5 and 27.5 fmol mg-1 protein with a KD ranging from 16 to 40 pM. TGF beta 1 binding to the receptors was confirmed by cross-linking TGF beta 1 to the TGF beta-r. Three classes of TGF beta-r were demonstrated, type I and type II receptors with M......(r) = 65,000 and 90,000 and the betaglycan (type III) with M(r) = 280,000. Northern blotting showed expression of TGF beta 1 mRNA in ten, TGF beta 2 mRNA in two and TGF beta 3 mRNA in seven cell lines. Our results provide, for the first time, evidence that a large proportion of a broad panel of SCLC cell...

  18. Green Pea Galaxies Reveal Secrets of Ly$\\alpha$ Escape

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Huan; Gronke, Max; Rhoads, James E; Jaskot, Anne; Zheng, Zhenya; Dijkstra, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Star-formation in galaxies generates a lot of Ly$\\alpha$ photons. Understanding the escape of Ly$\\alpha$ photons from galaxies is a key issue in studying high redshift galaxies and probing cosmic reionization with Ly$\\alpha$. To understand Ly$\\alpha$ escape, it is valuable to study analogs of high redshift Ly$\\alpha$ emitters in nearby universe. However, most nearby analogs have too small a Ly$\\alpha$ equivalent width and escape fraction compared to high redshift Ly$\\alpha$ emitters. One different group of nearby analogs are "Green Pea" galaxies, selected by their high equivalent width optical emission lines. Here we show that Green Pea galaxies have strong Ly$\\alpha$ emission lines and high Ly$\\alpha$ escape fraction (see also Henry et al. 2015), providing an opportunity to solve Ly$\\alpha$ escape problem. Green Peas have a Ly$\\alpha$ equivalent width distribution similar to high redshift Ly$\\alpha$ emitters. The Ly$\\alpha$ escape fraction correlates with many quantities of Ly$\\alpha$ profile, especially the...

  19. Suramin inhibits growth and transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) binding in osteosarcoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloen, P; Jennings, C L; Gebhardt, M C; Springfield, D S; Mankin, H J

    1994-01-01

    Autocrine production of growth factors has been shown to be involved in the multistep process of tumorigenesis. The ability of suramin, a polyanionic anti-parasitic drug, to block growth factor-induced cell proliferation makes it a potential antineoplastic drug. We studied the effects of suramin on seven osteosarcoma cell lines. Using clinically achievable concentrations of suramin (50-400 micrograms/ml), we found a time- and dose-dependent inhibition of [3H]thymidine incorporation. We also showed that suramin is able, dose-dependently, to prevent binding of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta 1 to its receptors. DNA synthesis inhibition by suramin was attenuated by TGF-beta 1 in some cell lines. Two cell lines that were inhibited by TGF-beta 1 were affected similarly by suramin as cell lines that were stimulated by TGF-beta 1. In conclusion, in five out of seven osteosarcoma cell lines, we showed a correlation between inhibition of growth factor-stimulated mitogenesis and binding of TGF-beta 1 to its receptor. Similar effects in TGF-beta 1-inhibited osteosarcoma cell lines suggest involvement of other mechanisms and/or growth factors. However, suramin proves to be a potent inhibitor of osteosarcoma cell proliferation in vitro.

  20. The Lyα-LyC Connection: Evidence for an Enhanced Contribution of UV-faint Galaxies to Cosmic Reionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Mark; Gronke, Max; Venkatesan, Aparna

    2016-09-01

    The escape of ionizing Lyman continuum (LyC) photons requires the existence of low-N H i sightlines, which also promote escape of Lyα. We use a suite of 2500 Lyα Monte-Carlo radiative transfer simulations through models of dusty, clumpy interstellar (“multiphase”) media from Gronke & Dijkstra, and compare the escape fractions of Lyα ({f}{{esc}}{{Ly}α }) and LyC radiation ({f}{{esc}}{{ion}}). We find that {f}{{esc}}{{ion}} and {f}{{esc}}{{Ly}α } are correlated: galaxies with a low {f}{{esc}}{{Ly}α } consistently have a low {f}{{esc}}{{ion}}, while galaxies with a high {f}{{esc}}{{Ly}α } exhibit a large dispersion in {f}{{esc}}{{ion}}. We argue that there is increasing observational evidence that Lyα escapes more easily from UV-faint galaxies. The correlation between {f}{{esc}}{{ion}} and {f}{{esc}}{{Ly}α } then implies that UV-faint galaxies contribute more to the ionizing background than implied by the faint-end slope of the UV luminosity function. In multiphase gases, the ionizing escape fraction is most strongly affected by the cloud covering factor, f cl, which implies that {f}{{esc}}{{ion}} is closely connected to the observed Lyα spectral line shape. Specifically, LyC-emitting galaxies typically having narrower, more symmetric line profiles. This prediction is qualitatively similar to that for “shell models.”

  1. GREEN PEA GALAXIES REVEAL SECRETS OF Lyα ESCAPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Huan; Wang, Junxian [CAS Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China (China); Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E. [Arizona State University, School of Earth and Space Exploration (United States); Gronke, Max; Dijkstra, Mark [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo (Norway); Jaskot, Anne [Smith College, Northampton, MA (United States); Zheng, Zhenya, E-mail: yanghuan@mail.ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: huan.y@asu.edu, E-mail: Sangeeta.Malhotra@asu.edu, E-mail: James.Rhoads@asu.edu [Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago (Chile)

    2016-04-01

    We analyze archival Lyα spectra of 12 “Green Pea” galaxies observed with the Hubble Space Telescope, model their Lyα profiles with radiative transfer models, and explore the dependence of the Lyα escape fraction on various properties. Green Pea galaxies are nearby compact starburst galaxies with [O iii] λ5007 equivalent widths (EWs) of hundreds of Å. All 12 Green Pea galaxies in our sample show Lyα lines in emission, with an Lyα EW distribution similar to high-redshift Lyα emitters. Combining the optical and UV spectra of Green Pea galaxies, we estimate their Lyα escape fractions and find correlations between Lyα escape fraction and kinematic features of Lyα profiles. The escape fraction of Lyα in these galaxies ranges from 1.4% to 67%. We also find that the Lyα escape fraction depends strongly on metallicity and moderately on dust extinction. We compare their high-quality Lyα profiles with single H i shell radiative transfer models and find that the Lyα escape fraction anticorrelates with the derived H i column densities. Single-shell models fit most Lyα profiles well, but not the ones with the highest escape fractions of Lyα. Our results suggest that low H i column density and low metallicity are essential for Lyα escape and make a galaxy an Lyα emitter.

  2. Comparative proteomic analysis of apomictic monosomic addition line of Beta corolliflora and Beta vulgaris L. in sugar beet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong; Bi, Ying-Dong; Yu, Li-Jie; Guo, De-Dong; Wang, Bai-Chen

    2009-11-01

    Apomixis refers to a process in which plants produce seed without fertilization through female syngamy that produces embryos genetically identical to the maternal parent. In sugar beet, interspecific hybrids between diploid Beta vulgaris and tetraploid Beta corolliflora were established and monosomic addition line M14 was selected because of the apomictic phenotype. By using two-dimensional electrophoresis gels we identified the proteins which were differently expressed between the M14 and B. vulgaris. A total of 27 protein spots which varied expressed between lines were isolated and successfully identified with MALDI-TOF MS. Among them five protein spots were found to be only presented in M14 and two protein spots only expressed in Beta. According to their functional annotations described in Swissprot database, these proteins were, respectively, involved in important biological pathways, such as cell division, functionally classified using the KEGG functional classification system. The result may be useful for us to better understand the genetic mechanism of apomixes.

  3. Alterations of expression and regulation of transforming growth factor beta in human cancer prostate cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchère, M; Saunier, E; Mestayer, C; Broshuis, M; Mowszowicz, I

    2002-11-01

    TGF beta can promote and/or suppress prostate tumor growth through multiple and opposing actions. Alterations of its expression, secretion, regulation or of the sensitivity of target cells can lead to a favorable environment for tumor development. To gain a better insight in TGF beta function during cancer progression, we have used different cultured human prostate cells: preneoplastic PNT2 cells, the androgen-dependent LNCaP and the androgen-independent PC3 and DU145 prostate cancer cell lines. We have studied by specific ELISA assays in conditioned media (CM), the secretion of TGF beta 1 and TGF beta 2 in basal conditions and after hormonal treatment (DHT or E2) and the expression of TGF beta 1 mRNA by Northern blot. We have also compared the effect of fibroblast CM on TGF beta secretion by the different cell types. Compared to PNT2 cells, cancer cell lines secrete lower levels of active TGF beta which are not increased in the presence of fibroblast CM. LNCaP cells respond to androgen or estrogen treatment by a 10-fold increase of active TGF beta secretion while PC3 and DU145 are unresponsive. In conclusion, prostate cancer cell lines have lost part of their ability to secrete and activate TGF beta, and to regulate this secretion through stromal-epithelial interactions. Androgen-sensitive cancer cells may compensate this loss by hormonal regulation.

  4. First on-line $\\beta$-NMR on oriented nuclei magnetic dipole moments of the $\

    CERN Document Server

    Giles, T; Stone, N J; Van Esbroeck, K; White, G; Wöhr, A; Veskovic, M; Towner, I S; Mantica, P F; Prisciandaro, J I; Morrissey, D J; Fedosseev, V; Mishin, V I; Köster, U; Walters, W B

    2000-01-01

    The first fully on-line use of the angular distribution of $\\beta$ - emission in detection of NMR of nuclei oriented at low temperatures is reported. The magnetic moments of the single valence particle, intermediate mass, isotopes $^{67}$Ni($\

  5. LY294002抑制小细胞肺癌干细胞样细胞自我更新%Inhibition of self-renewal of lung cancer stem cell like cells from small cell lung cancer cell line cultured in vitro by LY294002

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易恒仲; 龙灵芝; 周源; 曹建国; 张坚松

    2013-01-01

      目的:研究Akt活性抑制剂LY294002抑制源自人小细胞肺癌NCI-H446细胞系肺癌球形成细胞即肺癌干细胞样细胞(LCSLCs)自我更新作用。方法:体外培养NCI-H446细胞系细胞。以干细胞条件培养基用超低粘附6孔细胞培养板悬浮培养富集和扩增LCSLCs。裸鼠皮下成瘤实验鉴别LCSLCs高致瘤特性。Western blot分析LCSLCs中Akt蛋白磷酸化水平。肿瘤球形成试验检测LY294002对LCSLCs自我更新的影响。结果:干细胞条件培养基悬浮培养6d,NCI-H446细胞系细胞呈三维非粘附性球体生长。 LCSLCs具有高致瘤特性。与NCI-H446细胞系细胞比较,LCSLCs信号分子Akt组成性活化。 LY294002有效降低LCSLCs中Akt磷酸化水平,并以剂量依赖方式抑制LCSLCs肺癌球形成(P<0.05)。结论:靶向干预小细胞肺癌LCSLCs信号分子Akt组成性活化可能成为抑制肺癌干细胞特性治疗小细胞肺癌的新策略。%Objective To investigate LY294002, a inhibitor specific to Akt activities, suppress the self-re-newal of lung cancer stem cell like cells (LCSLCs) from small cell lung cancer cell line NCI-H446 cell line cul-tured in vitro. Methods Human small cell lung cancer NCI-H446 cell line was cultured in vitro. Cells were plat-ed in stem cell conditioned culture system allowed for sphere forming, namely LCSLCs. In vivo tumorigenicity ex-periments were used to examine height tumorigenicity of LCSLCs. The phosphorylation level of signaling molecule Akt protein was determined using Wester bolt. Tumor sphere formation assay was used to the inhibitory effects of LY294002 on the self-renewal of LCSLCs. Results The small cell lung cancer cells were plated in stem cell con-ditioned culture medium in 6-well plates at a density of 5,000 cells/well which allowed for the formation of colonies separated from each other for 6d. LCSLCs had the height tumorigenicity in vivo in nude mouse model. The phosphorylation level of signaling molecule

  6. C-4 155 nm line in beta Cephei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischel, D.

    1972-01-01

    The class of early B variable stars known as beta Cephei stars are characterized by short-period radial velocity and light variations. The coolest stars of this group have an effective temperature of about 20,000 K and the hottest, about 28,000 K. These stars are not related to the classical Cepheids whose temperatures are of the order of 6000 K. The amplitude of the radial velocity variation beta Cephei stars is in the tens of kilometers per second and the light variation is less than 0.2 mag, that is, less than 10 percent. The fastest pulsation interval is 3 hr and the slowest is 6 hr. The prototype beta Cephei has a period of 4 hr 34 min. Ultraviolet observations were taken using OAO 2 to investigate the relationship between the visual and the ultraviolet variations.

  7. Regulation of laminin beta2 chain gene expression in human cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durkin, M E; Nielsen, F C; Loechel, F

    2001-01-01

    The laminin beta2 chain is a basement membrane component expressed in a tissue- and developmental stage-specific manner. In this report we have examined the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of the human laminin beta2 chain in human tumor cell lines. Both the A204 rhabdomyosarcoma...... and clone A colon carcinoma cells express the laminin beta2 chain mRNA, but only the A204 cells secrete laminin heterotrimers containing the beta2 chain. Segments of the beta2 chain gene promoter region were cloned into luciferase reporter vectors, and their ability to stimulate transcription was tested...... by transient transfection. Sequences downstream of the transcription start site between nucleotides +91 and +120 were found to be essential for luciferase activity in the two cell lines. Additional positive regulatory regions were present further upstream, between nucleotides -164 to -667 and between...

  8. Effect of LY294002 on Glycolysis in Human Gastric Adenocarcinoma Cell Line BGC-823 and its Possible Mechanism%LY294002对人胃腺癌细胞株BGC-823糖酵解水平的影响及其机制探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁济钢; 陈敏; 李旭; 赵燕; 沈永华; 邹晓平

    2013-01-01

    背景:有氧糖酵解是肿瘤细胞的特征性表型之一,靶向糖酵解有望成为一种有效的肿瘤治疗策略.M2型丙酮酸激酶(PKM2)在肿瘤组织中呈高表达,参与肿瘤细胞的有氧糖酵解.缺氧诱导因子-1α(HIF-1α)是调控肿瘤细胞糖酵解相关基因表达的重要转录因子,而PI3K信号在肿瘤细胞中可上调HIF-1α表达.目的:探讨PI3K特异性抑制剂LY294002对人胃腺癌细胞增殖和糖酵解水平的影响及其可能机制.方法:以不同浓度LY294002(10~100 μmol/L)在不同条件下(常氧或缺氧)处理人胃腺癌细胞株BGC-823,CCK-8实验和流式细胞分析检测细胞增殖和细胞凋亡,蛋白质印迹法检测p-Akt、p-mTOR、HIF-1α、PKM2表达,比色法检测反映糖酵解水平的胞内乳酸脱氢酶活性和胞外乳酸浓度.结果:LY294002可呈浓度和时间依赖性地抑制BGC-823细胞增殖,在较高浓度时可诱导细胞早期凋亡.LY294002可呈浓度依赖性地抑制p-Akt、p-mTOR、HIF-1α表达,在较高浓度时可抑制PKM2表达,同时降低糖酵解水平.缺氧诱导可消除LY294002对HIF-1α、PKM2表达和糖酵解水平的抑制作用.结论:LY294002可通过阻断PI3K/Akt/mTOR信号通路抑制人胃腺癌细胞增殖及其糖酵解水平,而HIF-1α介导了糖酵解的抑制过程.%Background: Aerobic glycolysis is considered as a characteristic phenotype of cancer cells, which makes it to be a promising target for cancer therapy. Pyruvate kinase M2 isoform ( PKM2 ) is highly expressed and crucial for aerobic glycolysis in cancer cells. As an important transcription factor for glycolytic genes, hypoxia-inducible factor 1α ( HIF-1α ) is up-regulated by PDK signaling in cancer cells. Aims: To investigate the effect of LY294002, a specific PDK inhibitor, on proliferation and glycolysis in human gastric adenocarcinoma cells and its possible mechanism. Methods: Human gastric adenocarcinoma cell line BGC-823 was treated with LY294002 at different

  9. Pulsational mode-typing in line profile variables. I - Four Beta Cephei stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, A. J.; Smith, M. A.

    1980-01-01

    The detailed variations of line profiles in the Beta Cephei-type variable stars Gamma Pegasi, Beta Cephei, Delta Ceti and Sigma Scorpii are modeled throughout their pulsation cycles in order to classify the dominant pulsation mode as radial or nonradial. High-dispersion Reticon observations of the variables were obtained for the Si III line at 4567 A, and line profiles broadened by radial or nonradial pulsations, rotation and radial-tangential macroturbulence were calculated based on a model atmosphere. It is found that only a radial pulsation mode can reproduce the radial velocity amplitude, changes in line asymmetry and uniform line width observed in all four stars. Results are in agreement with the color-to-light arguments of Stamford and Watson (1978), and suggest that radial pulsation plays the dominant role in the observed variations in most Beta Cephei stars. Evidence for shocks or moving shells is also found in visual line data for Sigma Scorpii and an ultraviolet line of Beta Cephei, together with evidence of smooth, secular period changes in Beta Cephei and Delta Ceti.

  10. The Lyα Reference Sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostlin, Goran; Hayes, Matthew; Duval, Florent

    2014-01-01

    The Lyα Reference Sample (LARS) is a substantial program with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) that provides a sample of local universe laboratory galaxies in which to study the detailed astrophysics of the visibility and strength of the Lyαline of neutral hydrogen. Lyα is the dominant spectral...... are produced (whether or not they escape), we demanded an Hα equivalent width W(Hα) ≥100 Å. The final sample of 14 galaxies covers far-UV (FUV, λ ~ 1500 Å) luminosities that overlap with those of high-z Lyα emitters (LAEs) and Lyman break galaxies (LBGs), making LARS a valid comparison sample. We present......) but strongly asymmetric Lyα emission. Spectroscopy from the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on board HST centered on the brightest UV knot shows a moderate outflow in the neutral interstellar medium (probed by low ionization stage absorption features) and Lyα emission with an asymmetric profile. Radiative transfer...

  11. Mechanism of SNS-032-induced apoptosis of human diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cell line OCI-LY-19%SNS-032诱导弥漫性大B淋巴瘤OCI-LY-19细胞株凋亡及其作用机制的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师宪平; 蓝晓莹; 温创宇; 陈鑫; 刘焕亮; 黄美近

    2013-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the effects of SNS-032 on the apoptosis of human diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cell line OCI-LY-19 and its underlying mechanisms.METHODS:OCI-LY-19 cells were treated with different concentrations of SNS-032.The cell viability was measured by MTS assay.The cell death was analyzed by propidium iodide (PI) staining,and the cel apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry with Annexin V/PI staining.The expression of apoptosis-re-lated and prliferation-related proteins was analyzed by Western blotting.RESULTS:The viability and proliferation of OCI-LY-19 cells was inhibited by SNS-032 and the IC50 was 0.358 μmol/L.The percentage of apoptotie cells was increased by SNS-032 in a dose-and time-dependent manner.Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) protein was cleaved after SNS-032 treatment.The expression of apoptosis-related proteins,procaspase-3,procaspase-9,X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) and myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1),and proliferation-related proteins,protein serine/threonine kinase (Akt),phosphory-lated Akt (p-Akt),signal transductor and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5),phosphorylted STAT5 (p-STAT5) and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK),was down-regulated by SNS-032 in a dose-and time-dependent manner.Cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-9 expression levels were devated after SNS-032 treatment.The expression of total ERK was not obviously changed.CONCLUSION:SNS-032 can induce apoptosis of OCI-LY-19 cells and the mechanism may associate with the cleavage of PARP,the down-regulation of apoptosis-related proteins and the inhibition of proliferation-related JAK/STAT,MEK/ERK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways.%目的:研究SNS-032对弥漫性大B淋巴瘤细胞株OCI-LY-19凋亡的影响并探讨其作用机制.方法:应用MTS法观察不同浓度的SNS-032对OCI-LY-19细胞活力的影响;用PI单染法观察SNS-032对OCI-LY-19细胞诱导死亡的影响;Annexin V/PI双染流式

  12. Gamma and beta logging of underground sewer and process lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangel, M.J.; Martz, D.E.; Langner, G.H. Jr.

    1989-11-01

    The GammaSnake can be useful for locating uranium mill tailings used as backfill for sewer lines or storm drains where the lines can be readily accessed from a cleanout access port or other opening. The time required to determine if contamination is present using the GammaSnake method is considerably less than when using the delta gamma or drilling methods. There is, also, less potential hazard to the equipment operators when using the GammaSnake method. The GammaSnake method is generally limited to a distance of 100 feet or less. Used with the MAC-51B line locator, the GammaSnake method can provide useful information without extensive drilling or surveying. 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Acquired TGF beta 1 sensitivity and TGF beta 1 expression in cell lines established from a single small cell lung cancer patient during clinical progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, P; Damstrup, L; Rygaard, K;

    1996-01-01

    was found in GLC 16 and GLC 19. These cell lines were also growth inhibited by exogenously administrated TGF beta 1. TGF beta 1 mRNA and protein in its latent form was only expressed in the radiotherapy-resistant cell line, GLC 19. The results indicate that disease progression in this patient was paralleled...... by a gain in sensitivity to the growth inhibition by TGF beta 1 due to type II TGF beta receptor, and a gain of latent TGF beta 1 protein. Lack of type II receptor expression in GLC 14, which was also resistant to growth inhibition by exogenous TGF beta 1, was not due to gross structural changes in the type...

  14. Beta-delayed gamma and proton spectroscopy near the Z=N line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kankainen, A.; Eronen, T.; Hager, U.; Hakala, J.; Huang, W.; Huikari, J.; Jokinen, A.; Kopecky, S.; Moore, I.; Nieminen, A.; Penttilae, H.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Wang, Y.; Aeystoe, J. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Eliseev, S.A. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Inst. (Russian Federation); GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Fox, S.P.; Jenkins, D. [University of York, Department of Physics, Heslington (United Kingdom); Novikov, Yu.N.; Vorobjev, G.K. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Inst. (Russian Federation); St. Petersburg Univ. (Russian Federation); Popov, A.V.; Seliverstov, D.M. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Petersburg (Russian Federation); Schatz, H. [Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2005-09-01

    A series of beta decay experiments on nuclei near the Z=N line has been performed using the ISOL technique at the IGISOL facility in Jyvaeskylae and at ISOLDE, CERN. The decay properties of these neutron-deficient nuclei are important in astrophysics as well as in the studies of isospin symmetry. (orig.)

  15. Ly$\\alpha$ and UV Sizes of Green Pea Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Huan; Rhoads, James E; Leitherer, Claus; Wofford, Aida; Jiang, Tianxing; Wang, Junxian

    2016-01-01

    Green Peas are nearby analogs of high-redshift Ly$\\alpha$-emitting galaxies. To probe their Ly$\\alpha$ escape, we study the spatial profiles of Ly$\\alpha$ and UV continuum emission of 24 Green Pea galaxies using the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) on Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We extract the spatial profiles of Ly$\\alpha$ emission from their 2D COS spectra, and of UV continuum from both the 2D spectra and NUV images. The Ly$\\alpha$ emission shows more extended spatial profiles than the UV continuum in most Green Peas. The deconvolved Full Width Half Maximum (FWHM) of the Ly$\\alpha$ spatial profile is about 2 to 4 times that of the UV continuum in most cases. The Ly$\\alpha$ light shows significant offsets from the UV continuum in four galaxies and central absorption in one galaxy. We also compare the spatial profiles of Ly$\\alpha$ photons at blueshifted and redshifted velocities in eight Green Peas with sufficient data quality, and find the blue wing of the Ly$\\alpha$ line has a larger spatial extent than...

  16. Discovery of a Very Bright and Intrinsically Very Luminous, Strongly Lensed Lyα Emitting Galaxy at z = 2.82 in the BOSS Emission-Line Lens Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques-Chaves, Rui; Pérez-Fournon, Ismael; Shu, Yiping; Martínez-Navajas, Paloma I.; Bolton, Adam S.; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Oguri, Masamune; Zheng, Zheng; Mao, Shude; Montero-Dorta, Antonio D.; Cornachione, Matthew A.; Brownstein, Joel R.

    2017-01-01

    We report the discovery of a very bright (r = 20.16), highly magnified, and yet intrinsically very luminous Lyα emitter (LAE) at z=2.82. This system comprises four images in the observer plane with a maximum separation of ∼ 6\\prime\\prime and it is lensed by a z=0.55 massive early-type galaxy. It was initially identified in the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey Emission-Line Lens Survey for GALaxy-Lyα EmitteR sYstems survey, and follow-up imaging and spectroscopic observations using the Gran Telescopio Canarias and William Herschel Telescope confirmed the lensing nature of this system. A lens model using a singular isothermal ellipsoid in an external shear field reproduces the main features of the system quite well, yielding an Einstein radius of 2.″95 ± 0.″10, and a total magnification factor for the LAE of 8.8 ± 0.4. This LAE is one of the brightest and most luminous galaxy–galaxy strong lenses known. We present initial imaging and spectroscopy showing the basic physical and morphological properties of this lensed system. Based on observations made with the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) and William Herschel Telescope (WHT), in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the IAC, under Directors Discretionary Time (DDT programs IDs: GTC2016-054 and DDT2016-077).

  17. The Ly$\\alpha$ emission from high-$z$ galaxies hosting strong Damped Ly$\\alpha$ systems

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, Ravi; Noterdaeme, Pasquier; Petitjean, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    We study the average Ly$\\alpha$ emission associated with high-$z$ strong (log $N$(H I) $\\ge$ 21) damped Ly$\\alpha$ systems (DLAs). We report Ly$\\alpha$ luminosities ($L_{\\rm Ly\\alpha}$) for the full as well as various sub-samples based on $N$(H I), $z$, $(r-i)$ colours of QSOs and rest equivalent width of Si II$\\lambda$1526 line (i.e., $W_{1526}$). For the full sample, we find $L_{\\rm Ly\\alpha}$$< 10^{41} (3\\sigma)\\ \\rm erg\\ s^{-1}$ with a $2.8\\sigma$ level detection of Ly$\\alpha$ emission in the red part of the DLA trough. The $L_{\\rm Ly\\alpha}$ is found to be higher for systems with higher $W_{1526}$ with its peak, detected at $\\geq 3\\sigma$, redshifted by about 300-400 $\\rm km\\ s^{-1}$ with respect to the systemic absorption redshift, as seen in Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs) and Ly$\\alpha$ emitters. A clear signature of a double-hump Ly$\\alpha$ profile is seen when we consider $W_{1526} \\ge 0.4$ \\AA\\ and $(r-i) < 0.05$. Based on the known correlation between metallicity and $W_{1526}$, we interpret our...

  18. Effect of environmental estrogens on IL-1beta promoter activity in a macrophage cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruh, M F; Bi, Y; Cox, L; Berk, D; Howlett, A C; Bellone, C J

    1998-10-01

    Environmental estrogens or estrogen disrupters have recently received a great deal of attention because of their potential health impact on reproductive tissues. Few, if any, studies have been made on the impact of these compounds on the immune system. We sought to determine the activities of various environmental estrogens on the modulation of the interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) gene in a model monocytic cell line, hER + IL-1beta-CAT+. This cell line stably transfected with the human estrogen receptor, and an IL-1beta promoter construct fused to the CAT reporter gene allows us to monitor the effect of estrogenic compounds on IL-1beta promoter activity. 17beta-estradiol (E2) markedly enhanced lipopolysaccharide- (LPS) induced IL-1beta promoter-driven CAT activity in a dose-dependent manner. The mycotoxins alpha-zearalenol and zearalenone both exhibited full agonist activity, but at lower potencies, with EC50 values of 1.8 and 54 nM, respectively, compared with E2 at 0.5 nM. In addition, genistein was a very low-potency agonist, having an EC50 of 1.5 microM. Similar to the E2 response, the slope factors for alpha-zearalenol, zearalenone, and genistein were close to 3.0, suggesting positive cooperativity in the estrogenic response. The activity of the mycotoxins appeared to be mediated through the estrogen receptor, since both the antiestrogens H1285 and ICI 182,780 effectively inhibited their agonist activity in a dose-dependent manner. Representative environmental estrogenic compounds both from plant and industrial sources were also tested. Unlike the mycoestrogens, none of the compounds, with the exception of genistein, synergized with LPS to enhance IL-1beta promoter activity. When tested for antiestrogenic activity, the industrial compound 4-octylphenol was able to antagonize the response to E2; however, the response was three orders of magnitude less potent than H 1285. Naringenin, a plant flavonoid, showed little or no ability to antagonize the response to E2

  19. Detailed Characterization of H_beta emission line profile in low z SDSS quasars

    OpenAIRE

    Zamfir, S.; Sulentic, J. W.; Marziani, P; D. Dultzin

    2009-01-01

    We explore the properties of the H_beta emission line profile in a large, homogeneous and bright sample of N~470 low redshift quasars extracted from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (DR5). We approach the investigation from two complementary directions: composite/median spectra and a set of line diagnostic measures (asymmetry index, centroid shift and kurtosis) in individual quasars. The project is developed and presented in the framework of the so-called 4D Eigenvector 1 (4DE1) Parameter Space, with...

  20. The Lyα emission from high- z galaxies hosting strong damped Lyα systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Ravi; Srianand, Raghunathan; Noterdaeme, Pasquier; Petitjean, Patrick

    2017-02-01

    We study the average Lyα emission associated with high-z strong (log N(H I) ≥ 21) damped Lyα systems (DLAs). We report Lyα luminosities (LLyα) for the full as well as various sub-samples based on N(H I), z, (r - i) colours of QSOs and rest equivalent width of Si IIλ1526 line (i.e. W1526). For the full sample, we find LLyα level detection of Lyα emission in the red part of the DLA trough. The LLyα is found to be higher for systems with higher W1526 with its peak, detected at ≥3σ, redshifted by about 300-400 km s-1 with respect to the systemic absorption redshift, as seen in Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) and Lyα emitters. A clear signature of a double-hump Lyα profile is seen when we consider W1526 ≥0.4 Å and (r - i) radiation that is 4-10 times stronger than the metagalactic UV background at these redshifts. The relationship between the SFR and surface mass density of atomic gas seen in DLAs is similar to that of local dwarf and metal-poor galaxies. We show that the low-luminosity galaxies will contribute appreciably to the stacked spectrum if the size-luminosity relation seen for H I at low z is also present at high-z. Alternatively, large Lyα haloes seen around LBGs could also explain our measurements.

  1. A line-profile analysis of the large-amplitude beta Cephei star xi1 Canis Majoris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saesen, S.; Briquet, M.; Aerts, C.C.

    2006-01-01

    We present a detailed line-profile study of the beta Cephei star xi1 Canis Majoris, for which we have assembled numerous high-resolution spectra over a period of 4.5 years. It is the first time that the line-profile variations of this star have been analysed. We focused on the Si III line profiles c

  2. Expression and autoregulation of transforming growth factor beta receptor mRNA in small-cell lung cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, P; Spang-Thomsen, M; Poulsen, H S

    1996-01-01

    In small-cell lung cancer cell lines resistance to growth inhibition by transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta 1, was previously shown to correlate with lack of TGF-beta receptor I (RI) and II (RII) proteins. To further investigate the role of these receptors, the expression of mRNA for RI, RII...

  3. The z=0.0912 and z=0.2212 damped Ly alpha galaxies along the sight line toward the quasar OI 363

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turnshek, DA; Rao, S; Nestor, D; Lane, W; Monier, E; Bergeron, J; Smette, A

    2001-01-01

    New optical and infrared observations along the sight line toward the quasar OI 363 (0738+313) are presented and discussed. Excluding quasars selectively observed because they were known to be located behind gas-rich galaxies and systems which lack confirming UV spectroscopic observations of the

  4. Isolation and characterization of a new mutant human cell line unresponsive to alpha and beta interferons.

    OpenAIRE

    John, J.; McKendry, R; Pellegrini, S; Flavell, D; Kerr, I M; Stark, G R

    1991-01-01

    Previously we described human cell line 2fTGH, in which expression of guanine phosphoribosyltransferase is tightly controlled by the upstream region of interferon (IFN)-stimulated human gene 6-16. After mutagenesis of 2fTGH and selection with 6-thioguanine and IFN-alpha, we isolated 11.1, a recessive mutant that does not respond to IFN-alpha. We now describe U2, a second recessive mutant, selected similarly, that complements 11.1. U2 had no response to IFN-alpha or IFN-beta, and its response ...

  5. HST/COS Spectra of DF Tau and V4046 SGR: First Detection of Molecular Hydrogen Absorption Against the Ly$\\alpha$ Emission Line

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Hao; France, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    We report the first detection of molecular hydrogen (H$_{2}$) absorption in the Lyman-$\\alpha$ emission line profiles of two classical T Tauri stars (CTTSs), DF Tau and V4046 Sgr, observed by \\emph{HST}/COS. This absorption is the energy source for many of the Lyman-band H$_{2}$ fluorescent lines commonly seen in the far-ultraviolet spectra of CTTSs. We find that the absorbed energy in the H$_{2}$ pumping transitions from a portion of the Lyman-$\\alpha$ line significantly differ from the amount of energy in the resulting fluorescent emission. By assuming additional absorption in the H I Lyman-$\\alpha$ profile along our light of sight, we can correct the H$_{2}$ absorption/emission ratios so that they are close to unity. The required H I absorption for DF Tau is at a velocity close to the radial velocity of the star, consistent with H I absorption in the edge-on disk and interstellar medium. For V4046 Sgr, a nearly face-on system, the required absorption is between +100 km/s and +290 km/s, most likely resultin...

  6. Structure of the T cell receptor in a Ti alpha V beta 2, alpha V beta 8-positive T cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, X; Dietrich, J; Kuhlmann, J

    1994-01-01

    The T cell receptor (TcR) is composed of at least six different polypeptide chains consisting of the clonotypic Ti heterodimer (Ti alpha beta or Ti gamma delta) and the noncovalently associated CD3 chains (CD3 gamma delta epsilon zeta). The exact number of subunits constituting the TcR is still...... not known; however, it has been suggested that each TcR contains two Ti dimers. To gain insight into the structure of the TcR we constructed a Ti alpha V beta 2, alpha V beta 8-positive T cell line which expressed the endogenous human TiV beta 8 and the transfected mouse TiV beta 2 both in association...... with the endogenous Ti alpha and CD3 chains at the cell surface. Preclearing experiments with radioiodinated cell lysate prepared with digitonin lysis buffer demonstrated that depleting the lysate of Ti alpha V beta 8 by immunoprecipitation with anti V beta 8 monoclonal antibody (mAb) did not reduce the amount of Ti...

  7. Supplemental Report: Technetium-99 On-Line Monitoring by Beta Counting for Hanford Supernate Waste Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigg, R.A.

    2000-08-23

    SRTC is investigating approaches for near-real-time monitoring of 99Tc at selected points in the proposed pretreatment process for Hanford supernate waste solutions. The desired monitoring points include both the feed to and decontaminated product from a technetium-removal column. A Cs-removal column precedes technetium decontamination in the proposed process. Our earlier report (Ref. 1) showed that a simple flow-through beta counting system can easily meet 99Tc detection limit goals for solutions that do not contain interfering radionuclides; however, concentrations of residual interferences were too high in process solutions at the desired monitoring points. That is, technetium can not be measured without additional purification. In this supplement, ADS evaluated ion exchange cartridges to remove radionuclides that interfere with 99Tc beta measurements. Tests on radioactive standard solutions and on Hanford Envelope B (AZ-102) pretreated process solutions show that 99Tc passes through the cation removal cartridge to an on-line beta counter, and that interfering radionuclides were nearly totally removed. Envelope B solutions included both the process's Cs-removed feed to the Tc-removal column and product from the column. Analyses of these solutions before and after the cation exchange cartridge show that the concentration of the primary interference, 137Cs, was reduced to about 1/250th of the feed concentration.

  8. Intensity mapping of H-alpha, H-beta, [OII] and [OIII] lines at z<5

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Yan; Silva, Marta B; Zemcov, Michael; Feng, Chang; Santos, Mario G; Dore, Olivier; Chen, Xuelei

    2016-01-01

    Intensity mapping is now becoming a useful tool to study the large-scale structure of the universe through spatial variations in the integrated emission from galaxies and the intergalactic medium. We study intensity mapping of the H-alpha6563A, [OIII]5007A, [OII]3727A and H-beta4861A lines at 0.8lines are estimated using the observed luminosity functions (LFs), cosmological simulations, and the star formation rate density (SFRD) derived from observations at z<5. We calculate the intensity power spectra and consider the foreground contamination of other lines at lower redshifts. We use the proposed NASA small explorer SPHEREx (the Spectro-Photometer for the History of the Universe, Epoch of Reionization, and Ices Explorer) as a case study for the detectability of the intensity power spectra of the four emission lines. We also investigate the cross correlation with the 21-cm line probed by CHIME (the Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment), Ti...

  9. Observational challenges in Lyα intensity mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comaschi, P.; Yue, B.; Ferrara, A.

    2016-12-01

    Intensity mapping (IM) is sensitive to the cumulative line emission of galaxies. As such, it represents a promising technique for statistical studies of galaxies fainter than the limiting magnitude of traditional galaxy surveys. The strong hydrogen Lyα line is the primary target for such an experiment, as its intensity is linked to star formation activity and the physical state of the interstellar and intergalactic medium. However, to extract the meaningful information, one has to solve the confusion problems caused by interloping lines from foreground galaxies. We discuss here the challenges for a Lyα IM experiment targeting z > 4 sources. We find that the Lyα power spectrum can be, in principle, easily (marginally) obtained with a 40 cm space telescope in a few days of observing time up to z ≲ 8 (z ˜ 10) assuming that the interloping lines (e.g. Hα, [O II], [O III] lines) can be efficiently removed. We show that interlopers can be removed by using an ancillary photometric galaxy survey with limiting AB mag ˜26 in the near-infrared bands (Y, J, H, or K). This would enable detection of the Lyα signal from 5 sources. However, if a [C II] IM experiment is feasible, by cross-correlating the Lyα with the [C II] signal, the required depth of the galaxy survey can be decreased to AB mag ˜24. This would bring the detection at the reach of future facilities working in close synergy.

  10. Linking Ly-alpha and Low-Ionization Transitions at Low Optical Depth

    CERN Document Server

    Jaskot, A E

    2014-01-01

    We suggest that low optical depth in the Lyman continuum (LyC) may relate the Ly-alpha emission, C II and Si II absorption, and C II* and Si II* emission seen in high-redshift galaxies. We base this analysis on Hubble Space Telescope COS spectra of four Green Pea (GP) galaxies, which may be analogs of z>2 Ly-alpha emitters (LAEs). In the two GPs with the strongest Ly-alpha emission, the Ly-alpha line profiles do not show the typical effects of resonant scattering. Instead, the Ly-alpha profiles resemble the H-alpha line profiles of evolved star ejecta, suggesting that the Ly-alpha emission originates from a low column density and similar outflow geometry. The weak C II absorption and presence of non-resonant C II* emission in these GPs support this interpretation and imply a low LyC optical depth along the line of sight. In two additional GPs, weak Ly-alpha emission and strong C II absorption suggest a higher optical depth. These two GPs differ in their Ly-alpha profile shapes and C II* emission strengths, ho...

  11. Co-culture of clonal beta cells with GLP-1 and glucagon-secreting cell line impacts on beta cell insulin secretion, proliferation and susceptibility to cytotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Alastair D; Vasu, Srividya; Moffett, R Charlotte; Flatt, Peter R

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the direct effects on insulin releasing MIN6 cells of chronic exposure to GLP-1, glucagon or a combination of both peptides secreted from GLUTag L-cell and αTC1.9 alpha-cell lines in co-culture. MIN6, GLUTag and αTC1.9 cell lines exhibited high cellular hormone content and release of insulin, GLP-1 and glucagon, respectively. Co-culture of MIN6 cells with GLUTag cells significantly increased cellular insulin content, beta-cell proliferation, insulin secretory responses to a range of established secretogogues and afforded protection against exposure cytotoxic concentrations of glucose, lipid, streptozotocin or cytokines. Benefits of co-culture of MIN6 cells with αTC1.9 alphacells were limited to enhanced beta-cell proliferation with marginal positive actions on both insulin secretion and cellular protection. In contrast, co-culture of MIN6 with GLUTag cells plus αTC1.9 cells, markedly enhanced both insulin secretory responses and protection against beta-cell toxins compared with co-culture with GLUTag cells alone. These data indicate important long-term effects of conjoint GLP-1 and glucagon exposure on beta-cell function. This illustrates the possible functional significance of alpha-cell GLP-1 production as well as direct beneficial effects of dual agonism at beta-cell GLP-1 and glucagon receptors.

  12. Laboratory Measurements of White Dwarf Photospheric Spectral Lines: H$\\beta$

    CERN Document Server

    Falcon, Ross E; Bailey, J E; Gomez, T A; Montgomery, M H; Winget, D E; Nagayama, T

    2015-01-01

    We spectroscopically measure multiple hydrogen Balmer line profiles from laboratory plasmas to investigate the theoretical line profiles used in white dwarf atmosphere models. X-ray radiation produced at the Z Pulsed Power Facility at Sandia National Laboratories initiates plasma formation in a hydrogen-filled gas cell, replicating white dwarf photospheric conditions. Here we present time-resolved measurements of H$\\beta$ and fit this line using different theoretical line profiles to diagnose electron density, $n_{\\rm e}$, and $n=2$ level population, $n_2$. Aided by synthetic tests, we characterize the validity of our diagnostic method for this experimental platform. During a single experiment, we infer a continuous range of electron densities increasing from $n_{\\rm e}\\sim4$ to $\\sim30\\times10^{16}\\,$cm$^{-3}$ throughout a 120-ns evolution of our plasma. Also, we observe $n_2$ to be initially elevated with respect to local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE); it then equilibrates within $\\sim55\\,$ns to become co...

  13. Inactivation of the transforming growth factor beta type II receptor in human small cell lung cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, S; Nørgaard, P; Abrahamsen, N;

    1999-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) exerts a growth inhibitory effect on many cell types through binding to two types of receptors, the type I and II receptors. Resistance to TGF-beta due to lack of type II receptor (RII) has been described in some cancer types including small cell lung...... cancer (SCLC). The purpose of this study was to examine the cause of absent RII expression in SCLC cell lines. Northern blot analysis showed that RII RNA expression was very weak in 16 of 21 cell lines. To investigate if the absence of RII transcript was due to mutations, we screened the poly-A tract...... for mutations, but no mutations were detected. Additional screening for mutations of the RII gene revealed a GG to TT base substitution in one cell line, which did not express RII. This mutation generates a stop codon resulting in predicted synthesis of a truncated RII of 219 amino acids. The nature...

  14. Line C17: alpha and medium-level beta-gamma laboratory pilot facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calor, J.N.; Mauborgne, B.; Montuir, M. [CEA/VALRHO - site de Marcoule, Dept. de Recherche en Retraitement et en Vitrification (DRRV), 30 - Marcoule (France)

    2000-07-01

    The Process Development Laboratory (LDP) uses the ATALANTE C17 line for integral testing in order to develop and validate spent fuel reprocessing methods and for overall qualification of calculation codes. Line C 17 comprises shielded cells and glove boxes, equipped with centrifugal extractors and laboratory-scale mixer-settlers to test liquid-liquid extraction processes in an alpha and medium-level beta-gamma environment. The high reliability and precision of the process instrumentation and control system allow full control of operating parameters and comprehensive operating data recording, meeting the experimentation quality requirements necessary for qualifying calculation codes. Direct online spectrophotometric analysis at various points in the process provides real-time concentration data for vital elements, some of which are difficult to analyze offline because of their poor chemical stability. Online analyses, supplemented when necessary by gamma spectrometry, provide valuable process control input for reaching stabilized operating conditions. Fifteen radioactive test campaigns have been successfully completed since line C 17 was commissioned in June 1995. (authors)

  15. An abundant and heavily truncated non-LTR retrotransposon (LINE) family in Beta vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenke, Torsten; Holtgräwe, Daniela; Horn, Axel V; Weisshaar, Bernd; Schmidt, Thomas

    2009-12-01

    We describe a non-LTR retrotransposon family,BvL, of the long interspersed nuclear elements L1 clade isolated from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris). Characteristic molecular domains of three full-length BvL elements were determined in detail, showing that coding sequences are interrupted and most likely non-functionally. In addition,eight highly conserved endonuclease regions were defined by comparison with other plant LINEs. The abundant BvL family is widespread within the genus Beta, however, the vast majority of BvL copies are extremely 50 truncated indicating an error-prone reverse transcriptase activity. The dispersed distribution of BvL copies on all sugar beet chromosomes with exclusion of most heterochromatic regions was shown by fluorescent in situ hybridization. The analysis of BvL 30 end sequences and corresponding flanking regions, respectively, revealed the preferred integration of BvL into A/T-rich regions of the sugar beet genome, but no specific target sequences.

  16. The Green Peas: Searching for LyC Emitters at Low Redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaskot, Anne; Oey, Sally

    The escape fraction of Lyman continuum (LyC) radiation from galaxies remains one of the primary uncertainties in studies of reionization. However, few LyC-emitting galaxies are known. The recently identified, low-redshift ``Green Pea'' (GP) galaxies exhibit a number of similarities with high-redshift galaxies, and their optical emission lines suggest they may be some of the elusive LyC emitters. Recent HST COS and ACS observations of four GPs suggest further evidence for LyC escape and give new insights into the origins of Lyα and low-ionization UV lines in high-redshift galaxies. The Lyα emission and low-ionization emission and absorption lines provide a coherent physical picture of the neutral gas distribution in the GPs and may identify LyC emitters at high redshift. The rare, low-redshift GPs hint at possible factors that may enable LyC and Lyα escape from high-redshift galaxies.

  17. The evolution of the [OII], H{\\beta} and [OIII] emission-line luminosity functions

    CERN Document Server

    Comparat, Johan; Perez-Gonzalez, Violeta; Norberg, Peder; Newman, Jeffrey; Tresse, Laurence; Richard, Johan; Yepes, Gustavo; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Raichoor, Anand; Prada, Francisco; Maraston, Claudia; Yèche, Christophe; Delubac, Timothée; Jullo, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Emission-line galaxies (ELGs) are one of the main tracers of the large-scale structure to be targeted by the next-generation dark energy surveys. To provide a better understanding of the properties and statistics of these galaxies, we have collected spectroscopic data from the VVDS and DEEP2 deep surveys and estimated the galaxy luminosity functions (LFs) of three distinct emission lines, [OII], H$\\beta$ and [OIII] at redshifts ($0.2 < z < 1.3$). Our measurements are based on the largest sample so far. We present the first measurement of the \\Hb LF at these redshifts. We have also compiled LFs from the literature that were based on independent data or covered different redshift ranges, and we fit the entire set over the whole redshift range with analytic Schechter and Saunders models, assuming a natural redshift dependence of the parameters. We find that the characteristic luminosity ($L_*$) and density ($\\phi_*$) of all LFs increase with redshift. Using the Schechter model, we find that $L^*$ of [OII] ...

  18. Adaptive regulation of taurine and beta-alanine uptake in a human kidney cell line from the proximal tubule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, H; Jacobsen, Christian

    1997-01-01

    homeostasis occurs predominantly via changes in the activity of the high-affinity taurine transport system by alterations in the uptake capacity and with an unaffected half-saturation constant. An adaptive response was not observed for the structurally related beta-alanine. 3. Only colchicine, which......), mimicking the effects of diacylglycerol, induced inhibition of both beta-alanine and taurine uptake. By contrast, the Ca2(+)-ionophore A23187, mimicking the effects of IP3, only stimulated the uptake of taurine but not the influx of beta-alanine. However, the effect of PMA down-regulation and A23187 up......1. The underlying mechanisms involved in the adaptive regulation of beta-amino acid uptake in the human proximal tubule were examined by use of an immortalized human embryonic kidney epithelial cell line (IHKE). 2. The results indicated that the adaptive response to maintain whole-body taurine...

  19. Ly-6A is required for T cell receptor expression and protein tyrosine kinase fyn activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S K; Su, B; Maher, S E; Bothwell, A L

    1994-05-01

    To characterize the function of the Ly-6A antigen in T cell activation, antisense Ly-6 RNA was expressed in a stably transfected antigen-specific T cell clone. Reduced Ly-6A expression results in inhibition of responses to antigen, anti-TCR (anti-T cell receptor) crosslinking and concanavalin A plus recombinant interleukin 1 and causes impairment of in vitro fyn tyrosine kinase activity. More substantial reduction of Ly-6A results in reduction of TCR expression. Analysis of mRNA species indicates that the reduction is specific for the TCR beta chain. These data demonstrate that Ly-6A may regulate TCR expression and may be involved in early events of T cell activation via regulation of fyn tyrosine kinase activity.

  20. Amyloid beta resistance in nerve cell lines is mediated by the Warburg effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan T Newington

    Full Text Available Amyloid beta (Aβ peptide accumulation in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD is closely associated with increased nerve cell death. However, many cells survive and it is important to understand the mechanisms involved in this survival response. Recent studies have shown that an anti-apoptotic mechanism in cancer cells is mediated by aerobic glycolysis, also known as the Warburg effect. One of the major regulators of aerobic glycolysis is pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK, an enzyme which represses mitochondrial respiration and forces the cell to rely heavily on glycolysis, even in the presence of oxygen. Recent neuroimaging studies have shown that the spatial distribution of aerobic glycolysis in the brains of AD patients strongly correlates with Aβ deposition. Interestingly, clonal nerve cell lines selected for resistance to Aβ exhibit increased glycolysis as a result of activation of the transcription factor hypoxia inducible factor 1. Here we show that Aβ resistant nerve cell lines upregulate Warburg effect enzymes in a manner reminiscent of cancer cells. In particular, Aβ resistant nerve cell lines showed elevated PDK1 expression in addition to an increase in lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA activity and lactate production when compared to control cells. In addition, mitochondrial derived reactive oxygen species (ROS were markedly diminished in resistant but not sensitive cells. Chemically or genetically inhibiting LDHA or PDK1 re-sensitized resistant cells to Aβ toxicity. These findings suggest that the Warburg effect may contribute to apoptotic-resistance mechanisms in the surviving neurons of the AD brain. Loss of the adaptive advantage afforded by aerobic glycolysis may exacerbate the pathophysiological processes associated with AD.

  1. Crucial role of synovial lining macrophages in the promotion of transforming growth factor beta-mediated osteophyte formation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lent, P.L.E.M. van; Blom, A.B.; Kraan, P.M. van der; Holthuysen, A.E.M.; Vitters, E.L.; Rooijen, N. van; Smeets, R.L.L.; Nabbe, K.C.A.M.; Berg, W.B. van den

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate in vivo and in vitro whether macrophages have an intermediate role in transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta)-induced osteophyte formation. METHODS: In vivo, synovial lining macrophages were selectively depleted by injection of clodronate-laden liposomes 7 days prior to i

  2. Adaptive regulation of taurine and beta-alanine uptake in a human kidney cell line from the proximal tubule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, H; Jacobsen, Christian

    1997-01-01

    1. The underlying mechanisms involved in the adaptive regulation of beta-amino acid uptake in the human proximal tubule were examined by use of an immortalized human embryonic kidney epithelial cell line (IHKE). 2. The results indicated that the adaptive response to maintain whole-body taurine...

  3. Evolution of Ly Forest in Redshift Range 0.5 < < 3.4

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G. Q. Li; Z. F. Chen; Y. T. Zhou

    2014-09-01

    We collect 23 spectral data from literature, which is regarded as a relatively sufficient sample. The evolution index was calculated to study the evolution of Ly line density of Ly forest. This paper discusses the relationship between the evolution with the redshift in different interval threshold of column density. The results are in accordance with the results of previous research.

  4. Ly$\\alpha$ Emitters with Very Large Ly$\\alpha$ Equivalent Widths, EW$_{\\rm 0}$(Ly$\\alpha$) $\\simeq 200-400$ \\AA, at $z\\sim 2$

    CERN Document Server

    Hashimoto, Takuya; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Schaerer, Daniel; Nakajima, Kimihiko; Shibuya, Takatoshi; Ono, Yoshiaki; Rauch, Michael; Goto, Ryosuke

    2016-01-01

    We present physical properties of spectroscopically confirmed Ly$\\alpha$ emitters (LAEs) with very large rest-frame Ly$\\alpha$ equivalent widths EW$_{\\rm 0}$(Ly$\\alpha$). Although the definition of large EW$_{\\rm 0}$(Ly$\\alpha$) LAEs is usually difficult due to limited statistical and systematic uncertainties, we identify six LAEs selected from $\\sim 3000$ LAEs at $z\\sim 2$ with reliable measurements of EW$_{\\rm 0}$ (Ly$\\alpha$) $\\simeq 200-400$ \\AA\\ given by careful continuum determinations with our deep photometric and spectroscopic data. These large EW$_{\\rm 0}$(Ly$\\alpha$) LAEs do not have signatures of AGN, but notably small stellar masses of $M_{\\rm *} = 10^{7-8}$ $M_{\\rm \\odot}$ and high specific star-formation rates (star formation rate per unit galaxy stellar mass) of $\\sim 100$ Gyr$^{-1}$. These LAEs are characterized by the median values of $L({\\rm Ly\\alpha})=3.7\\times 10^{42}$ erg s$^{-1}$ and $M_{\\rm UV}=-18.0$ as well as the blue UV continuum slope of $\\beta = -2.5\\pm0.2$ and the low dust extinc...

  5. Reversal Effect of PI-3K/Akt Pathway Inhibitor LY294002 on Multidrug Resistance of Ovarian Cancer Cell Line A2780/Taxol%PI-3K/Akt抑制剂LY294002对卵巢癌细胞A2780/Taxol多药耐药性的逆转作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石小燕; 蔡晓军; 类建翔; 曹凤军; 潘东风; 陈萍

    2008-01-01

    背景与目的:磷脂酰肌醇(phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase,PI-3K)可抑制细胞凋亡,对PI-3K抑制剂的研究可以更好地了解PI-3K的促癌机制,为多种癌症如卵巢癌、乳腺癌等的基因治疗提供线索.本研究目的在于探讨PI-3K/Akt信号通路抑制剂LY294002对卵巢癌耐紫杉醇细胞株A2780/Taxol多药耐药的逆转作用.方法:用LY294002处理A2780/Taxol细胞,流式细胞术检测细胞凋亡,MTT法检测细胞对紫杉醇的药物敏感性.RT-PCR检测MDRI mRNA的表达,Western blot 方法分析LY294002作用前后磷酸化Akt及P-gP蛋白的表达.结果:10和50μmol/L LY294002干预A2780/Taxol细胞24h后,A2780/Taxol细胞凋亡率分别为(8.84±1.65)%和(20.78±2.47)%,显著高于未干预细胞的凋亡率(1.25±0.78)%(P<0.05);A2780/Taxol细胞对紫杉醇的半数抑制浓度(IC50)显著降低(P<0.01),相对逆转效率最高可达(78.08±0.37)%;MDR-1 mRNA、磷酸化Akt及P-gP蛋白均明显降低.结论:PI-3K/Akt信号通路的激活与卵巢癌细胞多药耐药的产生有关,PI-3K/Akt抑制剂LY294002可逆转卵巢癌细胞A2780/Taxol的多药耐药.

  6. The Rest-Frame Optical Spectroscopic Properties of Ly$\\alpha$-Emitters at $z\\sim2.5$: The Physical Origins of Strong Ly$\\alpha$ Emission

    CERN Document Server

    Trainor, Ryan F; Steidel, Charles C; Rudie, Gwen C

    2016-01-01

    We present rest-frame optical spectra of 60 faint ($R_{AB}\\sim 27$; $L\\sim0.1 L_*$) Ly$\\alpha$-selected galaxies (LAEs) at $z\\approx2.56$. The average LAE is consistent with the extreme low-metallicity end of the continuum-selected galaxy distribution at $z\\approx2-3$. In particular, the LAEs have extremely high [OIII] $\\lambda$5008/H$\\beta$ ratios (log([OIII]/H$\\beta$) $\\sim$ 0.8) and low [NII] $\\lambda$6585/H$\\alpha$ ratios (log([NII]/H$\\alpha$) $<-1.15$). Using the [OIII] $\\lambda$4364 auroral line, we find that the star-forming regions in faint LAEs are characterized by high electron temperatures ($T_e\\approx1.8\\times10^4$K), low oxygen abundances (12 + log(O/H) $\\approx$ 8.04, $Z_{neb}\\approx0.22Z_\\odot$), and high excitations with respect to more luminous galaxies. Our faintest LAEs have line ratios consistent with even lower metallicities, including six with 12 + log(O/H) $\\approx$ 6.9$-$7.4 ($Z_{neb}\\approx0.02-0.05Z_\\odot$). We interpret these observations in light of new models of stellar evoluti...

  7. The CALYMHA survey: Lyα luminosity function and global escape fraction of Lyα photons at z = 2.23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobral, David; Matthee, Jorryt; Best, Philip; Stroe, Andra; Röttgering, Huub; Oteo, Iván; Smail, Ian; Morabito, Leah; Paulino-Afonso, Ana

    2017-04-01

    We present the CAlibrating LYMan-α with Hα (CALYMHA) pilot survey and new results on Lyman α (Lyα) selected galaxies at z ∼ 2. We use a custom-built Lyα narrow-band filter at the Isaac Newton Telescope, designed to provide a matched volume coverage to the z = 2.23 Hα HiZELS survey. Here, we present the first results for the COSMOS and UDS fields. Our survey currently reaches a 3σ line flux limit of ∼4 × 10-17 erg s-1 cm-2, and a Lyα luminosity limit of ∼1042.3 erg s-1. We find 188 Lyα emitters over 7.3 × 105 Mpc3, but also find significant numbers of other line-emitting sources corresponding to He II, C III] and C IV emission lines. These sources are important contaminants, and we carefully remove them, unlike most previous studies. We find that the Lyα luminosity function at z = 2.23 is very well described by a Schechter function up to LLy α ≈ 1043 erg s-1 with L^{ast }=10^{42.59^{+0.16}_{-0.08}} erg s-1, φ ^{ast }=10^{-3.09^{+0.14}_{-0.34}} Mpc-3 and α = -1.75 ± 0.25. Above LLy α ≈ 1043 erg s-1, the Lyα luminosity function becomes power-law like, driven by X-ray AGN. We find that Lyα-selected emitters have a high escape fraction of 37 ± 7 per cent, anticorrelated with Lyα luminosity and correlated with Lyα equivalent width. Lyα emitters have ubiquitous large (≈40 kpc) Lyα haloes, ∼2 times larger than their Hα extents. By directly comparing our Lyα and Hα luminosity functions, we find that the global/overall escape fraction of Lyα photons (within a 13 kpc radius) from the full population of star-forming galaxies is 5.1 ± 0.2 per cent at the peak of the star formation history. An extra 3.3 ± 0.3 per cent of Lyα photons likely still escape, but at larger radii.

  8. COMPUTING INTRINSIC LY{alpha} FLUXES OF F5 V TO M5 V STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linsky, Jeffrey L. [JILA, University of Colorado and NIST, 440UCB Boulder, CO 80309-0440 (United States); France, Kevin; Ayres, Tom, E-mail: jlinsky@jilau1.colorado.edu [CASA, University of Colorado, 593UCB Boulder, CO 80309-0593 (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The Ly{alpha} emission line dominates the far-ultraviolet spectra of late-type stars and is a major source for photodissociation of important molecules including H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, and CO{sub 2} in exoplanet atmospheres. The incident flux in this line illuminating an exoplanet's atmosphere cannot be measured directly as neutral hydrogen in the interstellar medium (ISM) attenuates most of the flux reaching the Earth. Reconstruction of the intrinsic Ly{alpha} line has been accomplished for a limited number of nearby stars, but is not feasible for distant or faint host stars. We identify correlations connecting the intrinsic Ly{alpha} flux with the flux in other emission lines formed in the stellar chromosphere, and find that these correlations depend only gradually on the flux in the other lines. These correlations, which are based on Hubble Space Telescope spectra, reconstructed Ly{alpha} line fluxes, and irradiance spectra of the quiet and active Sun, are required for photochemical models of exoplanet atmospheres when intrinsic Ly{alpha} fluxes are not available. We find a tight correlation of the intrinsic Ly{alpha} flux with stellar X-ray flux for F5 V to K5 V stars, but much larger dispersion for M stars. We also show that knowledge of the stellar effective temperature and rotation rate can provide reasonably accurate estimates of the Ly{alpha} flux for G and K stars, and less accurate estimates for cooler stars.

  9. Isolation and characterization of a new mutant human cell line unresponsive to alpha and beta interferons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, J; McKendry, R; Pellegrini, S; Flavell, D; Kerr, I M; Stark, G R

    1991-08-01

    Previously we described human cell line 2fTGH, in which expression of guanine phosphoribosyltransferase is tightly controlled by the upstream region of interferon (IFN)-stimulated human gene 6-16. After mutagenesis of 2fTGH and selection with 6-thioguanine and IFN-alpha, we isolated 11.1, a recessive mutant that does not respond to IFN-alpha. We now describe U2, a second recessive mutant, selected similarly, that complements 11.1. U2 had no response to IFN-alpha or IFN-beta, and its response to IFN-gamma was partially defective. Although many genes did respond to IFN-gamma in U2, the 9-27 gene did not and the antiviral response of U2 cells to IFN-gamma was greatly reduced. Band shift assays showed that none of the transcription factors normally induced in 2fTGH cells by IFN-alpha (E and M) or IFN-gamma (G) were induced in U2. However, extracts of untreated U2 cells gave rise to a novel band that was increased by treatment with IFN-gamma but not IFN-alpha. Band shift complementation assays revealed that untreated and IFN-gamma-treated U2 cells lack the functional E gamma subunit of transcription factor E and that IFN-alpha-treated U2 cells do contain the functional E alpha subunit.

  10. Signatures of positive selection in LY96 gene in vertebrates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tonghai Dou; Maobin Fu; Yixia Wang; Yang Zhao; Zhengshi Wang; Zhengqian Bian; Yan Zhou

    2013-12-01

    As a secreted glycoprotein that binds to the extracellular domain of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), Lymphocyte Antigen 96 (LY96), also called myeloid differentiation 2 (MD2), is required for the activation of TLR4 by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and plays an important role in innate immunity, which is the first line of defence against microbial infections. Previous studies have proposed that mammalian toll-like receptors (TLRs) have evolved under diversifying selection due to their role in pathogen detection. Given the fact that LY96 is highly functionally linked to TLR4, it would be interesting to test whether LY96 is under the intense pressure of natural selection. To investigate the natural selection hypothesis, we compared the coding sequences from 13 vertebrates and evaluated the molecular evolution of LY96 gene in these species. Result shows that natural selection at exon 4 has indeed played a role in shaping the function of LY96 in the course of evolution. In addition to the study of Nakajima, we found the two branch nodes with Ka/Ks ratios greater than 1: the one leading to cow and pig and the other to rabbit and the primates.

  11. Growth suppression by transforming growth factor beta 1 of human small-cell lung cancer cell lines is associated with expression of the type II receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, P; Damstrup, L; Rygaard, K;

    1994-01-01

    was observed in two cell lines expressing only type III receptor and in TGF-beta-r negative cell lines. In two cell lines expressing all three receptor types, growth suppression was accompanied by morphological changes. To evaluate the possible involvement of the retinoblastoma protein (pRb) in mediating...... the growth-suppressive effect of TGF-beta 1, the expression of functional pRb, as characterised by nuclear localisation, was examined by immunocytochemistry. Nuclear association of pRb was only seen in two of the five TGF-beta 1-responsive cell lines. These results indicate that in SCLC pRb is not required...

  12. Iron and Nickel Line Diagnostics for the Galactic Center Diffuse Emission

    CERN Document Server

    Koyama, K; Inui, T; Nakajima, H; Matsumoto, H; Tsuru, T G; Takahashi, T; Maeda, Y; Yamazaki, N; Murakami, H; Yamauchi, S; Tsuboi, Y; Senda, A; Kataoka, J; Takahashi, H; Holt, S S; Brown, G V; Koyama, Katsuji; Hyodo, Yoshiaki; Inui, Tatsuya; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Hironori; Tsuru, Takeshi Go; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Yamazaki, Noriko; Murakami, Hiroshi; Yamauchi, Shigeo; Tsuboi, Yohko; Senda, Atsushi; Kataoka, Jun; Takahashi, Hiromitsu; Holt, Stephen S; Brown, Gregory V

    2006-01-01

    We have observed the diffuse X-ray emission from the Galactic center (GC) using the X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (XIS) on Suzaku. The high-energy resolution and the low-background orbit provide excellent spectra of the GC diffuse X-rays (GCDX). The XIS found many emission lines in the GCDX near the energy of K-shell transitions of iron and nickel. The most pronounced features are FeI K alpha at 6.4 keV and K-shell absorption edge at 7.1 keV, which are from neutral and/or low ionization states of iron, and the K-shell lines at 6.7 keV and 6.9 keV from He-like (FeXXV K alpha) and hydrogenic (FeXXVI Ly alpha) ions of iron. In addition, K alpha lines from neutral or low ionization nickel (NiI K alpha) and He-like nickel (NiXXVII K alpha), and FeI K beta, FeXXV K beta, FeXXVI Ly beta, FeXXV K gamma and FeXXVI Ly gamma are detected for the first time. The line center energies and widths of FeXXV K alpha and FeXXVI Ly alpha favor a collisional excitation (CE) plasma for the origin of the GCDX. The electron temperature...

  13. Characterization of stimulus-secretion coupling in the human pancreatic EndoC-βH1 beta cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotta E Andersson

    Full Text Available Studies on beta cell metabolism are often conducted in rodent beta cell lines due to the lack of stable human beta cell lines. Recently, a human cell line, EndoC-βH1, was generated. Here we investigate stimulus-secretion coupling in this cell line, and compare it with that in the rat beta cell line, INS-1 832/13, and human islets.Cells were exposed to glucose and pyruvate. Insulin secretion and content (radioimmunoassay, gene expression (Gene Chip array, metabolite levels (GC/MS, respiration (Seahorse XF24 Extracellular Flux Analyzer, glucose utilization (radiometric, lactate release (enzymatic colorimetric, ATP levels (enzymatic bioluminescence and plasma membrane potential and cytoplasmic Ca2+ responses (microfluorometry were measured. Metabolite levels, respiration and insulin secretion were examined in human islets.Glucose increased insulin release, glucose utilization, raised ATP production and respiratory rates in both lines, and pyruvate increased insulin secretion and respiration. EndoC-βH1 cells exhibited higher insulin secretion, while plasma membrane depolarization was attenuated, and neither glucose nor pyruvate induced oscillations in intracellular calcium concentration or plasma membrane potential. Metabolite profiling revealed that glycolytic and TCA-cycle intermediate levels increased in response to glucose in both cell lines, but responses were weaker in EndoC-βH1 cells, similar to those observed in human islets. Respiration in EndoC-βH1 cells was more similar to that in human islets than in INS-1 832/13 cells.Functions associated with early stimulus-secretion coupling, with the exception of plasma membrane potential and Ca2+ oscillations, were similar in the two cell lines; insulin secretion, respiration and metabolite responses were similar in EndoC-βH1 cells and human islets. While both cell lines are suitable in vitro models, with the caveat of replicating key findings in isolated islets, EndoC-βH1 cells have the

  14. The dynamical masses, densities, and star formation scaling relations of Lyα galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhoads, James E.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Richardson, Mark L. A.; McLinden, Emily M. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Finkelstein, Steven L. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Fynbo, Johan P. U. [DARK Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); Tilvi, Vithal S., E-mail: James.Rhoads@asu.edu [George P. and Cynthia W. Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physics, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    We present the first dynamical mass measurements for Lyα galaxies at high redshift, based on velocity dispersion measurements from rest-frame optical emission lines and size measurements from Hubble Space Telescope imaging, for nine galaxies drawn from four surveys. We use these measurements to study Lyα galaxies in the context of galaxy scaling relations. The resulting dynamical masses range from 10{sup 9} to 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}. We also fit stellar population models to our sample and use them to place the Lyα sample on a stellar mass versus line width relation. The Lyα galaxies generally follow the same scaling relation as star-forming galaxies at lower redshift, although, lower stellar mass fits are also acceptable in ∼1/3 of the Lyα galaxies. Using the dynamical masses as an upper limit on gas mass, we show that Lyα galaxies have unusually active star formation for their gas mass surface density. This behavior is consistent with what is observed in starburst galaxies, despite the typically smaller masses and sizes of the Lyα galaxy population. Finally, we examine the mass densities of these galaxies and show that their future evolution likely requires dissipational ('wet') merging. In short, we find that Lyα galaxies are low-mass cousins of larger starbursts.

  15. The size and geometry of the $Ly\\alpha$ clouds

    CERN Document Server

    D'Odorico, V; D'Odorico, S; Fontana, A; Giallongo, E; Shaver, P A

    1998-01-01

    Spectra of the QSO pair Q0307-195A,B have been obtained in the Ly-alpha forest (3660 - 3930 A) and C IV (4720 - 4850 A) regions with a FWHM resolution between 0.7 and 0.5 A. 46 lines have been detected in the spectrum of object A while 36 in the spectrum of object B, of them 29 and 20 were identified as Ly-alpha absorptions respectively. The present observations have been supplemented with data of comparable quality on other 7 QSO pairs available in the literature to give an enlarged sample of 217 Ly-alpha lines with rest equivalent width w_o > 0.3 A. The analysis of the hits (i.e. when an absorption line appears in both QSO spectra) and misses (i.e. when a line is seen in any of the QSO spectra, but no line is seen in the other), carried out with an improved statistical approach, indicates that the absorbers have typically a large size (h = H_0/100 km/s/Mpc, q_0 = 0.5): R = 362 h^{-1} kpc, with 95 % confidence limits 298< R <426 h^{-1} kpc and R = 412 h^{-1} kpc, with 95 % confidence limits 333< R &...

  16. Observational challenges in Ly-alpha intensity mapping

    CERN Document Server

    Comaschi, Paolo; Ferrara, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Intensity mapping (IM) is sensitive to the cumulative line emission of galaxies. As such it represents a promising technique for statistical studies of galaxies fainter than the limiting magnitude of traditional galaxy surveys. The strong hydrogen Ly-alpha line is the primary target for such an experiment, as its intensity is linked to star formation activity and the physical state of the interstellar (ISM) and intergalactic (IGM) medium. However, to extract the meaningful information one has to solve the confusion problems caused by interloping lines from foreground galaxies. We discuss here the challenges for a Ly-alpha IM experiment targeting z > 4 sources. We find that the Ly-alpha power spectrum can be in principle easily (marginally) obtained with a 40 cm space telescope in a few days of observing time up to z < 8 (z = 10) assuming that the interloping lines (e.g. H-alpha, [O II], [O III] lines) can be efficiently removed. We show that interlopers can be removed by using an ancillary photometric gala...

  17. Beta-delayed Proton Decay of Proton Drip-line Nucleus ~(142)Ho

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Unknown beta-delayed proton precursor~(142)Ho was synthesized in the reaction~(106)Cd(~(40)Ca,p3n)and identified for the first time by using a proton-gamma coincidence measurements in combination with a helium-jet fast tape transport system~([1~3]).Its beta-delayed proton spectrum was observed.The hal-life of~(142)Ho was

  18. Can galactic outflows explain the properties of Ly-alpha emitters?

    CERN Document Server

    Orsi, Alvaro; Baugh, Carlton M

    2011-01-01

    We study the properties of Ly-alpha emitters in a cosmological framework by computing the escape of Ly-alpha photons through galactic outflows. We combine the GALFORM semi-analytical model of galaxy formation with a Monte Carlo Ly-alpha radiative transfer code. The properties of Ly-alpha emitters at 0Ly-alpha line profiles predicted by the two outflow geometries in terms of their width, asymmetry and shift from the line centre for a set of outflows with different hydrogen column densities, expansion velocities and metallicities. In general, the Ly-alpha line profile of the Shell geometry is broader and more asymmetric, and the Ly-alpha escape fraction is lower than with the Wind geometry for the same set of parameters. In order to implement the outflow geometries in the semi-analytical model GALFORM, a number of free parameters ...

  19. Inefficiency in GM2 ganglioside elimination by human lysosomal beta-hexosaminidase beta-subunit gene transfer to fibroblastic cell line derived from Sandhoff disease model mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itakura, Tomohiro; Kuroki, Aya; Ishibashi, Yasuhiro; Tsuji, Daisuke; Kawashita, Eri; Higashine, Yukari; Sakuraba, Hitoshi; Yamanaka, Shoji; Itoh, Kohji

    2006-08-01

    Sandhoff disease (SD) is an autosomal recessive GM2 gangliosidosis caused by the defect of lysosomal beta-hexosaminidase (Hex) beta-subunit gene associated with neurosomatic manifestations. Therapeutic effects of Hex subunit gene transduction have been examined on Sandhoff disease model mice (SD mice) produced by the allelic disruption of Hexb gene encoding the murine beta-subunit. We demonstrate here that elimination of GM2 ganglioside (GM2) accumulated in the fibroblastic cell line derived from SD mice (FSD) did not occur when the HEXB gene only was transfected. In contrast, a significant increase in the HexB (betabeta homodimer) activity toward neutral substrates, including GA2 (asialo-GM2) and oligosaccharides carrying the terminal N-acetylglucosamine residues at their non-reducing ends (GlcNAc-oligosaccharides) was observed. Immunoblotting with anti-human HexA (alphabeta heterodimer) serum after native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (Native-PAGE) revealed that the human HEXB gene product could hardly form the chimeric HexA through associating with the murine alpha-subunit. However, co-introduction of the HEXA encoding the human alpha-subunit and HEXB genes caused significant corrective effect on the GM2 degradation by producing the human HexA. These results indicate that the recombinant human HexA could interspeciesly associate with the murine GM2 activator protein to degrade GM2 accumulated in the FSD cells. Thus, therapeutic effects of the recombinant human HexA isozyme but not human HEXB gene product could be evaluated by using the SD mice.

  20. Modeling the Lyα Forest in Collisionless Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorini, Daniele; Oñorbe, José; Lukić, Zarija; Hennawi, Joseph F.

    2016-08-01

    Cosmological hydrodynamic simulations can accurately predict the properties of the intergalactic medium (IGM), but only under the condition of retaining the high spatial resolution necessary to resolve density fluctuations in the IGM. This resolution constraint prohibits simulating large volumes, such as those probed by BOSS and future surveys, like DESI and 4MOST. To overcome this limitation, we present “Iteratively Matched Statistics” (IMS), a novel method to accurately model the Lyα forest with collisionless N-body simulations, where the relevant density fluctuations are unresolved. We use a small-box, high-resolution hydrodynamic simulation to obtain the probability distribution function (PDF) and the power spectrum of the real-space Lyα forest flux. These two statistics are iteratively mapped onto a pseudo-flux field of an N-body simulation, which we construct from the matter density. We demonstrate that our method can reproduce the PDF, line of sight and 3D power spectra of the Lyα forest with good accuracy (7%, 4%, and 7% respectively). We quantify the performance of the commonly used Gaussian smoothing technique and show that it has significantly lower accuracy (20%-80%), especially for N-body simulations with achievable mean inter-particle separations in large-volume simulations. In addition, we show that IMS produces reasonable and smooth spectra, making it a powerful tool for modeling the IGM in large cosmological volumes and for producing realistic “mock” skies for Lyα forest surveys.

  1. Measurements of H-beta, He D3, and Ca/+/ 8542-A line emission in quiescent prominences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landman, D. A.; Edberg, S. J.; Laney, C. D.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of H-beta, He D3, and Ca(+) 8542-A line emission in 18 quiescent prominences are presented which were performed with a 25-cm coronagraph/coude spectrograph system and an optical multichannel analyzer utilizing a Si-vidicon detector assembly mounted at the single-pass spectrograph port. The data obtained show that the line profiles deviate in the wings from those calculated on the basis of an isothermal atmosphere and a Gaussian absorption coefficient. Both a non-Gaussian microturbulence component and a temperature gradient from prominence-core to coronal values can successfully account for this phenomenon. The line widths from a given line of sight of prominence material are reduced on the basis of a common core emitting region with a temperature of 7500 to 11,600 K and a microturbulent velocity of 4.5 to 7.1 km/s for the isothermal model (these values are 5% to 10% less for the two-temperature model). It is noted that long-period low-amplitude oscillations in the D3 line width and intensity were observed when a specific line of sight in a quiescent prominence was followed. These oscillations are found to remain coherent for as many as 3 or 4 cycles and to be associated with prominence structural activation.

  2. Cold Accretion in Early Galaxy Formation and Its Lyα Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajima, Hidenobu; Li, Yuexing; Zhu, Qirong; Abel, Tom

    2015-03-01

    Lyα emission has played an important role in detecting high-redshift galaxies, including recently distant ones at redshifts z\\gt 7. It may also contain important information concerning the origin of these galaxies. Here, we investigate the formation of a typical L* galaxy and its observational signatures at the earliest stage by combining a cosmological hydrodynamic simulation with three-dimensional radiative transfer (RT) calculations using the newly improved AR{{T}2} code. Our cosmological simulation uses the Aquila initial condition, which zooms in on a Milky-Way-like halo with high resolutions, and our RT couples multi-wavelength continuum, Lyα line, and ionization of hydrogen. We find that the modeled galaxy starts to form at redshift z ∼ 24 through the efficient accretion of cold gas, which produces a strong Lyα line with a luminosity of {{L}Lyα }∼ {{10}42} erg {{s}-1} as early as z ∼ 14. The Lyα emission appears to trace the cold, dense gas. The lines exhibit asymmetric, single-peak profiles, and are shifted to the blue wing, a characteristic feature of gas inflow. Moreover, the contribution to the total Lyα luminosity from excitation cooling increases with redshift and becomes dominant at z ≳ 6. We predict that L* galaxies such as the modeled one may be detected at z ≲ 8 by the James Webb Space Telescope and Atacama Large Millimeter Array with a reasonable integration time. Beyond redshift 12, however, the Lyα line may only be observable by spectroscopic surveys. Our results suggest that the Lyα line is one of the most powerful tools to detect the first generation of galaxies and decipher their formation mechanism.

  3. beta-Lactam and glycopeptide antibiotics: first and last line of defense?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jovetic, S.; Yang Zhu, Yang; Marcone, G.L.; Marinelli, F.; Tramper, J.

    2010-01-01

    Most infections are caused by bacteria, many of which are ever-evolving and resistant to nearly all available antibiotics beta-Lactams and glycopeptides are used to combat these infections by inhibiting bacterial cell-wall synthesis This mechanism remains an interesting target in the search for new

  4. Cosmology with intensity mapping techniques using atomic and molecular lines

    CERN Document Server

    Fonseca, José; Santos, Mário G; Cooray, Asantha

    2016-01-01

    We present a systematic study of the intensity mapping technique using updated models for the different emission lines from galaxies and identify which ones are more promising for cosmological studies of the post reionization epoch. We consider the emission of ${\\rm Ly\\alpha}$, ${\\rm H\\alpha}$, H$\\beta$, optical and infrared oxygen lines, nitrogen lines, CII and the CO rotational lines. We then identify that ${\\rm Ly\\alpha}$, ${\\rm H\\alpha}$, OII, CII and the lowest rotational CO lines are the best candidates to be used as IM probes. These lines form a complementary set of probes of the galaxies emission spectra. We then use reasonable experimental setups from current, planned or proposed experiments to access the detectability of the power spectrum of each emission line. Intensity mapping of ${\\rm Ly\\alpha}$ emission from $z=2$ to 3 will be possible in the near future with HETDEX, while far-infrared lines require new dedicated experiments. We also show that the proposed SPHEREx satellite can use OII and ${\\r...

  5. TensorLy: Tensor Learning in Python

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kossaifi, Jean; Panagakis, Yannis; Pantic, Maja

    2016-01-01

    Tensor methods are gaining increasing traction in machine learning. However, there are scant to no resources available to perform tensor learning and decomposition in Python. To answer this need we developed TensorLy. TensorLy is a state of the art general purpose library for tensor learning. Writte

  6. TensorLy: Tensor learning in Python

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kossaifi, Jean; Panagakis, Yannis; Pantic, Maja

    2016-01-01

    Tensor methods are gaining increasing traction in machine learning. However, there are scant to no resources available to perform tensor learning and decomposition in Python. To answer this need we developed TensorLy. TensorLy is a state of the art general purpose library for tensor learning. Writt

  7. TensorLy: Tensor Learning in Python

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kossaifi, Jean; Panagakis, Yannis; Pantic, Maja

    2016-01-01

    Tensor methods are gaining increasing traction in machine learning. However, there are scant to no resources available to perform tensor learning and decomposition in Python. To answer this need we developed TensorLy. TensorLy is a state of the art general purpose library for tensor learning.

  8. T cell antigen receptor expression by subsets of Ly-2-L3T4- (CD8-CD4-) thymocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, A; Ewing, T; Owens, T

    1988-01-01

    The V beta 8-specific mAb F23.1 and KJ16 were used as fluorescent stains to test for TCR expression on the surface of subpopulations of early, CD4-CD8- (L3T4-Ly-2-) thymocytes from adult CBA mice. A surprisingly high proportion (27%) of Ly-2-L3T4- thymocytes were strongly F23.1 and KJ16 positive....

  9. Transforming growth factor beta 1 prevents cytokine-mediated inhibitory effects and induction of nitric oxide synthase in the RINm5F insulin-containing beta-cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabley, J G; Cunningham, J M; John, N; Di Matteo, M A; Green, I C

    1997-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine if the growth factor, transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF beta 1), could prevent induction of nitric oxide synthase and cytokine-mediated inhibitory effects in the insulin-containing, clonal beta cell line RINm5F. Treatment of RINm5F cells for 24 h with interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) (100 pM) induced expression of nitric oxide synthase and inhibited glyceraldehyde-stimulated insulin secretion. Combinations of IL-1 beta (100 pM), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (100 pM) and interferon-gamma (100 pM) reduced RINm5F cell viability (determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) reduction assay) and de novo protein synthesis, as measured by incorporation of radiolabelled amino acids into perchloric acid-precipitable protein. Pretreatment of RINm5F cells with TGF beta 1 (10 pM) for 18 or 24 h, prior to the addition of either IL-1 beta or combined cytokines, prevented cytokine-induced inhibition of insulin secretion, protein synthesis and the loss of cell viability. TGF beta 1 pretreatment inhibited cytokine-induced expression and activity of nitric oxide synthase in RINm5F cells as determined by Western blotting and by cytosolic conversion of radiolabelled arginine into labelled citrulline and nitric oxide. Chemically generated superoxide also induced expression of nitric oxide synthase possibly due to direct activation of the nuclear transcription factor NF kappa B, an effect prevented by both an antioxidant and TGF beta 1 pretreatment. In conclusion, the mechanism of action of TGF beta 1 in blocking cytokine inhibitory effects was by preventing induction of nitric oxide synthase.

  10. Hydrogen Lyman-alpha and Lyman-beta radiances and profiles in polar coronal holes

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, Hui; Curdt, Werner; Vial, Jean-Claude

    2009-01-01

    The hydrogen Lyman-alpha plays a dominant role in the radiative energy transport in the lower transition region, and is important for the stud- ies of transition-region structure as well as solar wind origin. We investigate the Ly-alpha profiles obtained by SUMER in coronal holes and quiet Sun. In a subset of these observations, also the Hi Lyman-beta, Si iii, and O vi lines were (quasi-) simultaneously recorded. We find that the distances between the two peaks of Ly-alpha profiles are larger in coronal holes than in the quiet Sun, indicating a larger opacity in coronal holes. This difference might result from the different magnetic structures or the different radiation fields in the two regions. Most of the Ly-beta profiles in the coronal hole have a stronger blue peak, in contrast to those in quiet-Sun regions. Whilst in both regions the Ly-alpha profiles are stronger in the blue peak. Although the asymmetries are likely to be produced by differential flows in the solar atmosphere, their detailed formation ...

  11. Lyα-Emitting Galaxies at Redshift z~ 4.5 in the LALA Cetus Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-Xian; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E.; Zhang, Hao-Tong; Finkelstein, Steven L.

    2009-11-01

    We present a large sample of Lyα-emitting galaxies (LAEs) spectroscopically confirmed at redshift z ≈ 4.5, based on Inamori-Magellan Areal Camera and Spectrograph spectroscopic observations of candidate z≈ 4.5 Lyα-emitting galaxies in the large area Lyman alpha (LALA) narrowband imaging survey Cetus field. We identify 110 of them as z ≈ 4.5 Lyα emitters based on single-line detections with no continuum emission blueward of the line. Six foreground galaxies are identified, either based on multiple lines or blueward continuum emission. The Lyα confirmation rate varies from <50% to 76% for candidates selected in different narrowband filters at slightly different redshifts. We find a drop in the LAE density at redshift 4.50 ± 0.03 from redshift 4.39 to 4.47 by a factor of 66%, which could be a large-scale void in the distribution of star-forming galaxies (~18 Mpc along the line of sight and ~80 Mpc across). The sample includes many objects with equivalent widths (EWs) gsim200 Å. These large EW candidates are spectroscopically confirmed at the same rate as candidates with more modest EWs. A composite spectrum of all 110 confirmed LAEs shows the characteristic asymmetry of the Lyα line. It also places new and stringent upper limits on the C IV 1549 Å/Lyα and He II 1640 Å/Lyα line ratios, providing a new upper limit on the fraction of active galactic nuclei in Lyα selected galaxy samples, and on the contribution of Pop III populations. Finally, we calculate the Lyα luminosity function for our z ≈ 4.5 sample, which is consistent with those at other redshifts, showing that there is no evolution in Lyα luminosity function from z = 3.1 to 6.6. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 meter Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  12. Rearrangement and expression of beta-T-cell receptor and immunoglobulin genes in established Ph1 chronic myelogenous leukemia cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenson, J; Koeffler, H P

    1989-01-01

    We have determined the arrangement and expression of immunoglobulin (Ig) and beta-T-cell receptor (TCR) genes in six established Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph1) chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) cell lines, and correlated these results with their phenotypic characteristics. Three cell lines with nonlymphoid characteristics, EM2, EM3, and K562, did not demonstrate rearrangement or expression of Ig or beta-TCR genes. A new cell line, MB, with a mature B-cell phenotype recently established in our laboratory, contained light and heavy chain immunoglobulin gene rearrangements and expressed mature Ig RNA. In a cell line with an early lymphoid phenotype, BV173, this analysis showed rearrangement of Ig heavy chain and beta-TCR genes, unrearranged Ig light chain DNA, and expression of only an immature beta-TCR transcript. This line provides evidence for T-cell lineage involvement in Ph1 CML. One cell line without markers of any cell type, KCL-22, demonstrated rearranged, unexpressed Ig heavy chain genes, suggesting these cells are at the very earliest stages of lymphoid differentiation. These lines should provide valuable tools to dissect the molecular biology of differentiation in CML and in early lymphocytes.

  13. The role of Ly49E receptor expression on murine intraepithelial lymphocytes in intestinal cancer development and progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Acker, Aline; Louagie, Els; Filtjens, Jessica; Taveirne, Sylvie; Van Ammel, Els; Kerre, Tessa; Elewaut, Dirk; Taghon, Tom; Vandekerckhove, Bart; Plum, Jean; Leclercq, Georges

    2016-11-01

    Ly49E is a member of the Ly49 family of NK receptors and is distinct from other members of this family on the basis of its structural properties, expression pattern and ligand recognition. Importantly, Ly49E receptor expression is high on small intestinal and colonic intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs). Intestinal IELs are regulators of the mucosal immune system and contribute to front-line defense at the mucosal barrier, including anti-tumor immune response. Whereas most Ly49 receptors have MHC class-I ligands, we showed that Ly49E is instead triggered by urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA). uPA has been extensively implicated in tumor development, where increased uPA expression correlates with poor prognosis. As such, we investigated the role of Ly49E receptor expression on intestinal IELs in the anti-tumor immune response. For this purpose, we compared Ly49E wild-type mice to Ly49E knockout mice in two established tumor models: Apc(Min/+)-mediated and azoxymethane-induced intestinal cancer. Our results indicate that Ly49E expression on IELs does not influence the development or progression of intestinal cancer.

  14. The Lyα reference sample. I. Survey outline and first results for Markarian 259

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Östlin, Göran; Hayes, Matthew; Duval, Florent; Sandberg, Andreas; Rivera-Thorsen, Thøger; Marquart, Thomas; Adamo, Angela; Melinder, Jens; Guaita, Lucia; Micheva, Genoveva [Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, Oscar Klein Centre, AlbaNova, Stockholm SE-106 91 (Sweden); Orlitová, Ivana [Observatoire de Genève, Université de Genève, Chemin des Maillettes 51, 1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Atek, Hakim [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Observatoire de Sauverny, CH-1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Cannon, John M.; Pardy, Stephen A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, 1600 Grand Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); Gruyters, Pieter [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Division of Astronomy and Space Physics, Uppsala University, Box 516, 75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Herenz, Edmund Christian [Leibniz-Institute for Astrophysics Potsdam (AIP), innoFSPEC, An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Kunth, Daniel [Institut d' Astrophysique Paris, 98bis Bd Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Laursen, Peter [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Mas-Hesse, J. Miguel [Centro de Astrobiologa (CSIC-INTA), Departamento de Astrofsica, POB 78, E-28691, Villanueva de la Cañada (Spain); Otí-Floranes, Héctor [Instituto de Astronoma, Universidad Nacional Autnoma de Mxico, Apdo. Postal 106, Ensenada B. C. 22800 (Mexico); and others

    2014-12-10

    The Lyα Reference Sample (LARS) is a substantial program with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) that provides a sample of local universe laboratory galaxies in which to study the detailed astrophysics of the visibility and strength of the Lyαline of neutral hydrogen. Lyα is the dominant spectral line in use for characterizing high-redshift (z) galaxies. This paper presents an overview of the survey, its selection function, and HST imaging observations. The sample was selected from the combined GALEX+Sloan Digital Sky Survey catalog at z = 0.028-0.19, in order to allow Lyα to be captured with combinations of long-pass filters in the Solar Blind Channel (SBC) of the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) onboard HST. In addition, LARS utilizes Hα and Hβ narrowband and u, b, i broadband imaging with ACS and the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3). In order to study galaxies in which large numbers of Lyα photons are produced (whether or not they escape), we demanded an Hα equivalent width W(Hα) ≥100 Å. The final sample of 14 galaxies covers far-UV (FUV, λ ∼ 1500 Å) luminosities that overlap with those of high-z Lyα emitters (LAEs) and Lyman break galaxies (LBGs), making LARS a valid comparison sample. We present the reduction steps used to obtain the Lyα images, including our LARS eXtraction software (LaXs), which utilizes pixel-by-pixel spectral synthesis fitting of the energy distribution to determine and subtract the continuum at Lyα. We demonstrate that the use of SBC long-pass-filter combinations increase the signal-to-noise ratio by an order of magnitude compared to the nominal Lyα filter available in SBC. To exemplify the science potential of LARS, we also present some first results for a single galaxy, Mrk 259 (LARS #1). This irregular galaxy shows bright and extended (indicative of resonance scattering) but strongly asymmetric Lyα emission. Spectroscopy from the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on board HST centered on the brightest UV knot shows a moderate

  15. A Deep Narrowband Imaging Search for CIV and He II Emission from Ly$\\alpha$ Blobs

    CERN Document Server

    Battaia, Fabrizio Arrigoni; Hennawi, Joseph F; Prochaska, J Xavier; Matsuda, Yuichi; Yamada, Toru; Hayashino, Tomoki

    2014-01-01

    We conduct a deep narrow-band imaging survey of 13 Ly$\\alpha$ blobs (LABs) located in the SSA22 proto-cluster at z~3.1 in the CIV and HeII emission lines in an effort to constrain the physical process powering the Ly$\\alpha$ emission in LABs. Our observations probe down to unprecedented surface brightness limits of 2.1 $-$ 3.4 $\\times$ 10$^{-18}$ erg s$^{-1}$ cm$^{-2}$ arcsec$^{-2}$ per 1 arcsec$^2$ aperture (5$\\sigma$) for the HeII$\\lambda$1640 and CIV$\\lambda$1549 lines, respectively. We do not detect extended HeII and CIV emission in any of the LABs, placing strong upper limits on the HeII/Ly$\\alpha$ and CIV/Ly$\\alpha$ line ratios, of 0.11 and 0.16, for the brightest two LABs in the field. We conduct detailed photoionization modeling of the expected line ratios and find that, although our data constitute the deepest ever observations of these lines, they are still not deep enough to rule out a scenario where the Ly$\\alpha$ emission is powered by the ionizing luminosity of an obscured AGN. Our models can ac...

  16. Studying Reionization with Ly-alpha Emitters

    CERN Document Server

    McQuinn, Matthew; Zaldarriaga, Matias; Dutta, Suvendra

    2007-01-01

    We show that observations of high-redshift Ly-alpha emitters (LAEs) have the potential to provide definitive evidence for reionization in the near future. Using 200 Mpc radiative transfer simulations, we calculate the effect that patchy reionization has on the line profile, on the luminosity function, and, most interestingly, on the clustering of emitters for several realistic models of reionization. Reionization increases the measured clustering of emitters, and we show that this enhancement would be essentially impossible to attribute to anything other than reionization. Our results motivate looking for the signature of reionization in existing LAE data. We find that for stellar reionization scenarios the angular correlation function of the 58 LAEs in the Subaru Deep Field z = 6.6 photometric sample is more consistent with a fully ionized universe (mean volume ionized fraction x_i = 1) than a universe with x_i 2-sigma confidence level. Measurements in the next year on Subaru will increase their z = 6.6 LAE ...

  17. Regulation of expression of two LY-6 family genes by intron retention and transcription induced chimerism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallya Meera

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regulation of the expression of particular genes can rely on mechanisms that are different from classical transcriptional and translational control. The LY6G5B and LY6G6D genes encode LY-6 domain proteins, whose expression seems to be regulated in an original fashion, consisting of an intron retention event which generates, through an early premature stop codon, a non-coding transcript, preventing expression in most cell lines and tissues. Results The MHC LY-6 non-coding transcripts have shown to be stable and very abundant in the cell, and not subject to Nonsense Mediated Decay (NMD. This retention event appears not to be solely dependent on intron features, because in the case of LY6G5B, when the intron is inserted in the artificial context of a luciferase expression plasmid, it is fully spliced but strongly stabilises the resulting luciferase transcript. In addition, by quantitative PCR we found that the retained and spliced forms are differentially expressed in tissues indicating an active regulation of the non-coding transcript. EST database analysis revealed that these genes have an alternative expression pathway with the formation of Transcription Induced Chimeras (TIC. This data was confirmed by RT-PCR, revealing the presence of different transcripts that would encode the chimeric proteins CSNKβ-LY6G5B and G6F-LY6G6D, in which the LY-6 domain would join to a kinase domain and an Ig-like domain, respectively. Conclusion In conclusion, the LY6G5B and LY6G6D intron-retained transcripts are not subjected to NMD and are more abundant than the properly spliced forms. In addition, these genes form chimeric transcripts with their neighbouring same orientation 5' genes. Of interest is the fact that the 5' genes (CSNKβ or G6F undergo differential splicing only in the context of the chimera (CSNKβ-LY6G5B or G6F-LY6G6C and not on their own.

  18. TensorLy: Tensor Learning in Python

    OpenAIRE

    Kossaifi, Jean; Panagakis, Yannis; Pantic, Maja

    2016-01-01

    Tensor methods are gaining increasing traction in machine learning. However, there are scant to no resources available to perform tensor learning and decomposition in Python. To answer this need we developed TensorLy. TensorLy is a state of the art general purpose library for tensor learning. Written in Python, it aims at following the same standard adopted by the main projects of the Python scientific community and fully integrating with these. It allows for fast and straightforward tensor d...

  19. Genetic value pollenizer lines of the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris var. altissima Doell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. О. Яценко

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The features of sugar beet polygerm seed populations were studied. The ways of creation of combinationaluable pollenizers line –– component hybrid on sterile base were improve. The environment conditions had influenced on reaction of different types of genic interactions in specific sets of hybrids. The positive effects of interaction is a part of heterosis effects. It is proved that plasticity and stability effect depend on environment condition where genotype realization occurs.

  20. WSRT detection of HI absorption in the z=3.4 damped Ly alpha system in PKS 0201+113

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deBruyn, AG; ODea, CP; Baum, SA

    1996-01-01

    We report the detection of a faint narrow HI absorption line at a redshift of 3.38 against the quasar PKS 0201+113 which itself has an emission redshift of 3.61. The absorption line redshift agrees, to within the errors, with that of a damped Ly alpha line. The line has a halfwidth of about 9 km s(-

  1. Elucidation of IL-1/TGF-beta interactions in mouse chondrocyte cell line by genome-wide gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takahashi, N; Rieneck, K; van der Kraan, P M;

    2005-01-01

    To elucidate the antagonism between interleukin-1 (IL-1) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) at the gene expression level, as IL-1 and TGF-beta are postulated to be critical mediators of cartilage degeneration/protection in rheumatic diseases.......To elucidate the antagonism between interleukin-1 (IL-1) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) at the gene expression level, as IL-1 and TGF-beta are postulated to be critical mediators of cartilage degeneration/protection in rheumatic diseases....

  2. Auger line shape and electron energy loss spectroscopy analysis of amorphous, microcrystalline, and. beta. -SiC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, A.J.; Mason, A.R.; Swartzlander, A.B.; Kazmerski, L.L. (Solar Energy Research Institute, Golden, CO (USA)); Saxena, N.; Fortmann, C.M.; Russell, T.W.F. (Institute of Energy Conversion, University of Delaware, Newark, DE (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) line shape analysis of the Si-{ital L}{sub 23}{ital VV} and C-{ital KLL} peaks has been performed in conjunction with electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) on Hg-sensitized photodeposited amorphous and microcyrstalline SiC films. Mixtures of SiH{sub 4}/CH{sub 3}SiH{sub 3} and SiH{sub 4}/(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}SiH{sub 2} with helium or hydrogen dilution were used for the depositions. AES line shape and EELS analyses were also performed on {beta}-SiC for comparison. Quantitative bulk compositional analysis to determine the Si and C concentrations in these films was performed with an electron microprobe (EMPA) using x-ray wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (WDS). AES and EELS results reveal the predominant Si--C bonding and relative crystallinity in the films as a function of deposition parameters, which includes the gas mixture, pressure, and H{sub 2}/He dilution. These parameters determine the H radical flux during growth, which leads to changes in the film structure.

  3. Transcriptional profiling of type 1 diabetes genes on chromosome 21 in a rat beta-cell line and human pancreatic islets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergholdt, R.; Karlsen, A.E.; Hagedorn, Peter;

    2007-01-01

    We recently finemapped a type 1 diabetes (T1D)-linked region on chromosome 21, indicating that one or more T1D-linked genes exist in this region with 33 annotated genes. In the current study, we have taken a novel approach using transcriptional profiling in predicting and prioritizing the most...... likely candidate genes influencing beta-cell function in this region. Two array-based approaches were used, a rat insulinoma cell line (INS-1alphabeta) overexpressing pancreatic duodenum homeobox 1 (pdx-1) and treated with interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta) as well as human pancreatic islets stimulated...... with a mixture of cytokines. Several candidate genes with likely functional significance in T1D were identified. Genes showing differential expression in the two approaches were highly similar, supporting the role of these specific gene products in cytokine-induced beta-cell damage. These were genes involved...

  4. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor, LY294002, induced senescence-like changes in human diploid fibroblasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李淑萍; 张宗玉; 童坦君

    2003-01-01

    Objective To reveal the role of Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3Ks) in regulating human diploid fibroblast (2BS cell) senescence as well as the possible mechanisms involved.Methods Using a PI3Ks specific inhibitor, LY294002, cell cycle, apoptosis, proliferation, senescence association β-galactosidase staining as well as senescence association CKIs, p16 INK4 and p21 Cip1 protein expressions were all measured in the low passages of 2BS cells.Results Both 25 μmol/L and 50 μmol/L concentrations of LY294002 could cause a significant decrease in cells entering into S phase, and this cell cycle of G 1 phase arrest was dose-dependent. Meanwhile, LY294002 contributed to apoptosis, caused 2BS cell growth arrest, and activated senescence association β-galactosidase (P<0.05). In addition, LY294002 could induce time-course expressions of p16 INK4 and p21 Cip1 in 2BS cell lines.Conclusions PI3Ks inhibitor LY294002 could induce senescence-like changes in 2BS cell lines. Two enescence associated CKIs,p16 INK4 and p21 Cip1, might be involved in this senescence phenotype proceeding in 2BS cell lines.

  5. On the decreasing fraction of Strong Ly$\\alpha$ Emitters around $z$ $\\sim$ $6$-$7$

    CERN Document Server

    Sadoun, Raphael; Miralda-Escudé, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    The fraction of galaxies with strong Ly$\\alpha$ emission has been observed to decrease rapidly with redshift at $z \\ge 6$, after a gradual increase at $z6$. We study this effect by modeling the ionization and Ly$\\alpha$ radiative transfer in the infall region and the IGM around a Ly$\\alpha$ emitting galaxy (LAE), for a spherical halo model with the mean density and radial velocity profiles in the standard $\\Lambda$CDM cosmological scenario. We find that the expected fast increase of the ionizing background intensity toward the end of the reionization epoch implies a rapid evolution of halo infall regions from being self-shielded against the external ionizing background to being mostly ionized. Whereas self-shielded infall regions can scatter the Ly$\\alpha$ photons over a much larger area than the commonly used apertures for observing LAEs, the same infalling gas is no longer optically thick to the Ly$\\alpha$ emission line after it is ionized by the external background, making the Ly$\\alpha$ emission more comp...

  6. A Halo Model Approach to the 21 cm and Lyα Cross-correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chang; Cooray, Asantha; Keating, Brian

    2017-09-01

    We present a halo-model-based approach to calculate the cross-correlation between 21 {cm} H i intensity fluctuations and {Ly}α emitters (LAE) during the epoch of reionization (EoR). Ionizing radiation around dark matter halos are modeled as bubbles with the size and growth determined based on the reionization photon production, among other physical parameters. The cross-correlation shows a clear negative-to-positive transition, associated with transition from ionized to neutral hydrogen in the intergalactic medium during EoR. The cross-correlation is subject to several foreground contaminants, including foreground radio point sources important for 21 {cm} experiments and low-z interloper emission lines, such as {{H}}α , O iii, and O ii, for {Ly}α experiments. Our calculations show that by masking out high fluxes in the {Ly}α measurement, the correlated foreground contamination on the 21 {cm}–{Ly}α cross-correlation can be dramatically reduced. We forecast the detectability of 21 {cm}–{Ly}α cross-correlation at different redshifts and adopt a Fisher matrix approach to estimate uncertainties on the key EoR parameters that have not been well constrained by other observations of reionization. This halo-model-based approach enables us to explore the EoR parameter space rapidly for different 21 {cm} and {Ly}α experiments.

  7. High value of the radiobiological parameter Dq correlates to expression of the transforming growth factor beta type II receptor in a panel of small cell lung cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, S; Krarup, M; Nørgaard, P;

    1998-01-01

    Our panel of SCLC cell lines have previously been examined for their radiobiological characteristics and sensitivity to treatment with TGF beta 1. In this study we examined the possible correlations between radiobiological parameters and the expression of the TGF beta type II receptor (TGF beta-r...... role for the repair of radiation induced DNA damage in SCLC....

  8. Foreground contamination in Ly-alpha intensity mapping during the epoch of reionization

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Yan; Cooray, Asantha; Santos, Mario G

    2013-01-01

    The intensity mapping of Ly-alpha emission during the epoch of reionization (EoR) will be contaminated by foreground emission lines from lower redshifts. We calculate the mean intensity and power spectrum of Ly-alpha emission at z~7, and estimate the uncertainties according to the relevant astrophysical processes. We find that the low-redshift emission lines from 6563 A H-alpha, 5007 A [OIII] and 3727 A [OII] will be the strong contaminants on the observed Ly-alpha power spectrum. We make use of both the star formation rate (SFR) and luminosity functions (LF) to estimate the mean intensity and power spectra of the three foreground lines at z~0.5 for H-alpha, z~0.9 for [OIII] and z~1.6 for [OII], as they will contaminate the Ly-alpha emission at z~7. The [OII] line is found to be the strongest. We analyze the masking of the bright survey pixels with a foreground line above some line intensity threshold as a way to reduce the contamination in the intensity mapping survey. We find that the foreground contaminati...

  9. Androgen receptors and hormone sensitivity of a human prostatic cancer cell line (PC-3) are modulated by natural beta-interferon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Sica (G.); G. Dell'Acqua (G.); F. Iacopino (F.); A. Fattorossi (A.); P. Marchetti (P.); Th.H. van der Kwast (Theo); M. Pavone-Macaluso (M.)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractAndrogen recptors are expressed at a low level in the cell line PC-3, which does not respond to either androgens or antiandrogens. If these cells are exposed to natural beta-interferon (β-IFN) a reduction in cell growth and an increase in androgen receptors, evaluated by both biochemical

  10. Differential regulation of porcine beta-defensins 1 and 2 upon Salmonella infection in the intestinal epithelial cell line IPI-2I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuizen, Edwin J A; Hendriks, Henno G C J M; Hogenkamp, Astrid; van Dijk, Albert; Gaastra, Wim; Tooten, Peter C J; Haagsman, Henk P

    2006-01-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells represent the first line of defence against pathogenic bacteria in the lumen of the gut. Besides acting as a physical barrier, epithelial cells orchestrate the immune response through the production of several innate immune mediator molecules including beta-defensins. Her

  11. Androgen receptors and hormone sensitivity of a human prostatic cancer cell line (PC-3) are modulated by natural beta-interferon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Sica (G.); G. Dell'Acqua (G.); F. Iacopino (F.); A. Fattorossi (A.); P. Marchetti (P.); Th.H. van der Kwast (Theo); M. Pavone-Macaluso (M.)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractAndrogen recptors are expressed at a low level in the cell line PC-3, which does not respond to either androgens or antiandrogens. If these cells are exposed to natural beta-interferon (β-IFN) a reduction in cell growth and an increase in androgen receptors, evaluated by both biochemical

  12. Activation of transgenic estrogen receptor-beta by selected phytoestrogens in a stably transduced rat serotonergic cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Dena A M; Kretzschmar, Georg; Müller, Nicole; Stanke, Nicole; Lindemann, Dirk; Vollmer, Günter

    2010-06-01

    Many flavonoids, a major group of phenolic plant-derived secondary metabolites, are known to possess estrogen-like bioactivities. However, little is known about their estrogenic properties in the central nervous system due to the lack of suitable cellular models expressing sufficient amounts of functional estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta). To overcome this deficit, we have created a cellular model, which is serotonergic in origin, to study properties of estrogenic substances by stably transducing RN46A-B14 cells derived from raphe nuclei region of the rat brain with a lentiviral vector encoding a human ERbeta. We clearly showed that the transgenic human ERbeta is a spontaneously expressed and a functional receptor. We have further assessed the estrogenicity of three different isoflavones and four different naringenin-type flavanones in this cell line utilizing a luciferase reporter gene assay. Genistein (GEN), Daidzein (DAI), Equol (EQ), Naringenin (NAR) and 8-prenylnaringenin (8-PN) showed strong estrogenic activity in a concentration-dependent manner as compared to 7-(O-prenyl)naringenin-4'-acetate (7-O-PN) which was only slightly estrogenic and 6-(1,1-dimethylallyl)naringenin (6-DMAN) that neither showed estrogenic nor anti-estrogenic activity in our model. All observed effects could be antagonized by the anti-estrogen fulvestrant. Moreover, co-treatment of cells with 17beta-estradiol (E2) and either GEN or DAI showed a slight additive effect as compared to EQ. On the other hand, 8-PN in addition to 7-O-PN, but not NAR and 6-DMAN, were able to slightly antagonize the responses triggered by E2. Our newly established cellular model may prove to be a useful tool in explicating basic physiological properties of ERbeta in the brain and may help unravel molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in serotonergic mood regulation by estrogen or potential plant-derived secondary metabolites.

  13. Elucidation of IL-1/TGF-beta interactions in mouse chondrocyte cell line by genome-wide gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takahashi, N; Rieneck, K; van der Kraan, P M;

    2005-01-01

    To elucidate the antagonism between interleukin-1 (IL-1) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) at the gene expression level, as IL-1 and TGF-beta are postulated to be critical mediators of cartilage degeneration/protection in rheumatic diseases....

  14. Pinpointing the molecular gas within an Lyα blob at z ∼ 2.7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yujin; Bertoldi, Frank; Bădescu, Toma [Argelander Institut für Astronomie, Universität Bonn, Auf dem Hügel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Walter, Fabian; Decarli, Roberto [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Weiss, Axel [Max-Planck-Insitut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Dey, Arjun [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Prescott, Moire K. M. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark)

    2014-04-01

    We present IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer observations of the CO(3-2) and CO(5-4) line transitions from an Lyα blob at z ∼ 2.7 in order to investigate the gas kinematics, determine the location of the dominant energy source, and study the physical conditions of the molecular gas. CO line and dust continuum emissions are detected at the location of a strong MIPS source that is offset by ∼1.''5 from the Lyα peak. Neither of these emission components is resolved with the 1.''7 beam, showing that the gas and dust are confined to within ∼7 kpc from this galaxy. No millimeter source is found at the location of the Lyα peak, ruling out a central compact source of star formation as the power source for the Lyα emission. Combined with a spatially resolved spectrum of Lyα and He II, we constrain the kinematics of the extended gas using the CO emission as a tracer of the systemic redshift. Near the MIPS source, the Lyα profile is symmetric, and its line center agrees with that of the CO line, implying that there are no significant bulk flows and that the photo-ionization from the MIPS source might be the dominant source of the Lyα emission. In the region near the Lyα peak, the gas is slowly receding (∼100 km s{sup –1}) with respect to the MIPS source, thus making the hyper-/superwind hypothesis unlikely. We find a sub-thermal line ratio between two CO transitions, I {sub CO(5-4)}/I {sub CO(3-2)} = 0.97 ± 0.21. This line ratio is lower than the average values found in high-z submillimeter galaxies and QSOs but is consistent with the value found in the Galactic center, suggesting that there is a large reservoir of low-density molecular gas that is spread over the MIPS source and its vicinity.

  15. Protein phosphatase 2A plays a critical role in interleukin-2-induced beta 2-integrin dependent homotypic adhesion in human CD4+ T cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brockdorff, J; Nielsen, M; Svejgaard, A

    1997-01-01

    Besides its function as a growth factor for T lymphocytes, interleukin 2 (IL-2) induces beta 2-integrin mediated adhesion, migration, and extravasation of T lymphocytes. It is, however, largely unknown how IL-2 receptors (IL-2R) are coupled to the beta 2-integrin adhesion pathway. Because IL-2 mo...... no inhibitory effect on cytokine induced adhesion at concentrations which strongly inhibited phosphatase activity. In conclusion, these data provide evidence that PP2A plays a critical role in IL-2-induced beta 2-integrin-dependent adhesion of human T cell lines.......Besides its function as a growth factor for T lymphocytes, interleukin 2 (IL-2) induces beta 2-integrin mediated adhesion, migration, and extravasation of T lymphocytes. It is, however, largely unknown how IL-2 receptors (IL-2R) are coupled to the beta 2-integrin adhesion pathway. Because IL-2...... modulates enzymatic activity and/or subcellular distribution of serine/threonine phosphatases 1 and 2A (PP1/PP2A) in T cells, we examined the role of these phosphatases in IL-2 induced homotypic adhesion in antigen specific human CD4+ T cell lines. We show that calyculin A, a potent inhibitor of PP1 and PP2...

  16. A submillimeter galaxy illuminating its circumgalactic medium: Lyα scattering in a cold, clumpy outflow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geach, J. E.; Coppin, K. E. K.; Smith, D. J. B. [Center for Astrophysics Research, Science and Technology Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Bower, R. G.; Alexander, D. M.; Swinbank, A. M. [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Blain, A. W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Bremer, M. N. [School of Physics, HH Wills Physics Laboratory, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Chapin, E. L. [XMM SOC, ESAC, Apartado 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain); Chapman, S. C. [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University Halifax, NS B3H 3J5 (Canada); Clements, D. L. [Astrophysics Group, Imperial College London, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Dunlop, J. S.; Koprowski, M. P.; Michałowski, M. J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Farrah, D. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Department of Physics, MC 0435, 910 Drillfield Drive, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Jenness, T. [Joint Astronomy Centre, 660 North A' ohoku Place University Park, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Robson, E. I. [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Scott, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Spaans, M. [Kapteyn Institute, University of Groningen, PO Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Van der Werf, P., E-mail: j.geach@herts.ac.uk [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, PO box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2014-09-20

    We report the detection at 850 μm of the central source in SSA22-LAB1, the archetypal 'Lyman-α Blob' (LAB), a 100 kpc scale radio-quiet emission-line nebula at z = 3.1. The flux density of the source, S {sub 850} = 4.6 ± 1.1 mJy, implies the presence of a galaxy or group of galaxies with a total luminosity of L {sub IR} ≈ 10{sup 12} L {sub ☉}. The position of an active source at the center of a ∼50 kpc radius ring of linearly polarized Lyα emission detected by Hayes et al. suggests that the central source is leaking Lyα photons preferentially in the plane of the sky, which undergo scattering in H I clouds at a large galactocentric radius. The Lyα morphology around the submillimeter detection is reminiscent of a biconical outflow, and the average Lyα line profiles of the two 'lobes' are dominated by a red peak, which is expected for a resonant line emerging from a medium with a bulk velocity gradient that is outflowing relative to the line center. Taken together, these observations provide compelling evidence that the central active galaxy (or galaxies) is responsible for a large fraction of the extended Lyα emission and morphology. Less clear is the history of the cold gas in the circumgalactic medium being traced by Lyα: is it mainly pristine material accreting into the halo that has not yet been processed through an interstellar medium (ISM), now being blown back as it encounters an outflow, or does it mainly comprise gas that has been swept-up within the ISM and expelled from the galaxy?.

  17. An Ultraluminous Lyα Emitter with a Blue Wing at z = 6.6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, E. M.; Cowie, L. L.; Songaila, A.; Barger, A. J.; Rosenwasser, B.; Wold, I. G. B.

    2016-07-01

    We report the detection of the most luminous high-redshift Lyα emitting galaxy (LAE) yet seen, with {log}L({{Ly}}α )=43.9\\quad {erg} {{{s}}}-1. The galaxy—COSMOS Lyα1, or COLA1—was detected in a search for ultraluminous LAEs with Hyper Suprime-Cam on the Subaru telescope. It was confirmed as lying at z = 6.593, based on a Lyα line detection obtained from follow-up spectroscopy with the DEIMOS spectrograph on Keck II. COLA1 is the first very high-redshift LAE to show a multi-component Lyα line profile with a blue wing, which suggests that it could lie in a highly ionized region of the intergalactic medium (IGM) and could have significant infall. If this interpretation is correct, then ultraluminous LAEs like COLA1 offer a unique opportunity to determine the properties of the H ii regions around these galaxies, which will help in understanding the ionization of the z ˜ 7 IGM.

  18. Broad Line Region Physical Conditions along the Quasar Eigenvector 1 Sequence

    CERN Document Server

    Marziani, P; Negrete, C A; Dultzin, D; Zamfir, S; Bachev, R

    2010-01-01

    [Abridged] We compare broad emission line profiles and estimate line ratios for all major emission lines between Ly-alpha and H-beta in a sample of six quasars. The sources were chosen with two criteria in mind: the existence of high quality optical and UV spectra as well as the possibility to sample the spectroscopic diversity in the 4D Eigenvector 1 context . In the latter sense each source occupies a region (bin) in the FWHM(H-beta) vs. optical FeII strength plane that is significantly different from the others. High S/N H-beta emission line profiles are used as templates for modeling the other lines (Ly-alpha, CIV 1549, HeII 1640, Al III 1860, Si III] 1892, and Mg II 2800). We can adequately model all broad lines assuming the existence of three components distinguished by blueshifted, unshifted and redshifted centroids (indicated as blue, broad and very broad component respectively). The broad component (high electron density, low ionization parameter; high column density) is present in almost all type-1 ...

  19. Long-term progression and therapeutic response of visceral metastatic disease non-invasively monitored in mouse urine using beta-human choriogonadotropin secreting tumor cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francia, Giulio; Emmenegger, Urban; Lee, Christina R; Shaked, Yuval; Folkins, Christopher; Mossoba, Miriam; Medin, Jeffrey A; Man, Shan; Zhu, Zhenping; Witte, Larry; Kerbel, Robert S

    2008-10-01

    Historically, the use of mouse models of metastatic disease to evaluate anticancer therapies has been hampered because of difficulties in detection and quantification of such lesions without sacrificing the mice, which in turn may also be dictated by institutional or ethical guidelines. Advancements in imaging technologies have begun to change this situation. A new method to non-invasively measure tumor burden, as yet untested to monitor spontaneous metastases, is the use of transplanted tumors expressing secretable human beta-chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG) that can be measured in urine. We describe examples of beta-hCG-transfected tumor cell lines for evaluating the effect of different therapies on metastatic disease, which in some cases involved monitoring tumor growth for >100 days. We used beta-hCG-tagged mouse B16 melanoma and erbB-2/Her-2-expressing human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 models, and drug treatments included metronomic low-dose cyclophosphamide chemotherapy with or without a vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2-targeting antibody (DC101) or trastuzumab, the erbB-2/Her-2-targeting antibody. Both experimental and spontaneous metastasis models were studied; in the latter case, an increase in urine beta-hCG always foreshadowed the development of lung, liver, brain, and kidney metastases. Metastatic disease was unresponsive to DC101 or trastuzumab monotherapy treatment, as assessed by beta-hCG levels. Our results also suggest that beta-hCG levels may be set as an end point for metastasis studies, circumventing guidelines, which have often hampered the use of advanced disease models. Collectively, our data indicates that beta-hCG is an effective noninvasive preclinical marker for the long term monitoring of untreated or treated metastatic disease.

  20. On the effect of the ionising background on the Ly{\\alpha} forest autocorrelation function

    CERN Document Server

    Gontcho, Satya Gontcho A; Busca, Nicolás G

    2014-01-01

    An analytical framework is presented to understand the effects of a fluctuating intensity of the cosmic ionising background on the correlations of the Ly{\\alpha} forest transmission fraction measured in quasar spectra. In the absence of intensity fluctuations, the Ly{\\alpha} power spectrum should have the expected cold dark matter power spectrum with redshift distortions in the linear regime, with a bias factor b_{\\delta} and a redshift distortion parameter {\\beta} that depend on redshift but are independent of scale. The intensity fluctuations introduce a scale dependence in both b_{\\delta} and {\\beta}, but keeping their product b_{\\delta}{\\beta} fixed. Observations of the Ly{\\alpha} correlations and cross-correlations with radiation sources like those being done at present in the BOSS survey of SDSS-III (Busca et al. 2013; Slosar et al. 2013; Font-Ribera et al. 2014) have the potential to measure this scale dependence, which reflects the biasing properties of the sources and absorbers of the ionising backgr...

  1. HI column density distribution function at z=0 : Connection to damped Ly alpha statistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaan, Martin; Verheijen, MAW; Briggs, FH

    We present a measurement of the HI column density distribution function f(N-HI) at the present epoch for column densities > 10(20) cm(-2). These high column densities compare to those measured in damped Ly alpha lines seen in absorption against background quasars. Although observationally rare, it

  2. A submillimeter galaxy illuminating its circumgalactic medium: Ly-alpha scattering in a cold, clumpy outflow

    CERN Document Server

    Geach, J E; Alexander, D M; Blain, A W; Bremer, M; Chapin, E L; Chapman, S C; Clements, D L; Coppin, K E K; Dunlop, J S; Farrah, D; Jenness, T; Koprowski, M P; Michalowski, M J; Robson, E I; Scott, D; Smith, D J B; Spaans, M; Swinbank, A M; van der Werf, P

    2014-01-01

    We report the detection at 850um of the central source in SSA22-LAB1, the archetypal Lyman-alpha Blob (LAB), a 100kpc-scale radio-quiet emission-line nebula at z=3.1. The flux density of the source, $S_{850}=4.6\\pm1.1$mJy implies the presence of a galaxy, or group of galaxies, with a total luminosity of $L_{\\rm IR}\\approx10^{12}L_\\odot$. The position of an active source at the center of a ~50kpc-radius ring of linearly polarized Ly-alpha emission detected by Hayes et al. (2011) suggests that the central source is leaking Ly-alpha photons preferentially in the plane of the sky, which undergo scattering in HI clouds at large galactocentric radius. The Ly-alpha morphology around the submillimeter detection is reminiscent of biconical outflow, and the average Ly-alpha line profiles of the two `lobes' are dominated by a red peak, expected for a resonant line emerging from a medium with a bulk velocity gradient that is outflowing relative to the line center. Taken together, these observations provide compelling evi...

  3. HI column density distribution function at z=0 : Connection to damped Ly alpha statistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaan, Martin; Verheijen, MAW; Briggs, FH

    1999-01-01

    We present a measurement of the HI column density distribution function f(N-HI) at the present epoch for column densities > 10(20) cm(-2). These high column densities compare to those measured in damped Ly alpha lines seen in absorption against background quasars. Although observationally rare, it a

  4. Effects of irradiation on TGF-{beta}{sub 1} mRNA expression and calcific nodule formation in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ju Seop; Kim, Kyoung A; Koh, Kwang Joon [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, and Institute of Oral Bio Science, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-09-15

    To investigate the effects of irradiation on transforming growth factor {beta}1 (TGF-{beta}{sub 1}) mRNA expression and calcific nodule formation in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cell line. Cells were cultured in alpha-minimum essential medium ({alpha}-MEM) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum and antibiotics. When the cells reached the level of 70-80% confluence, culture media were changed with {alpha}-MEM supplemented with 10% FBS, 5 mM {beta}-glycerol phosphate, and 50 {mu}g/mL ascorbic acid. Thereafter the cells were irradiated with a single dose of 2, 4, 6, 8 Gy at a dose rate of 1.5 Gy/min. The expression pattern of TGF-{beta}{sub 1} mRNA, calcium content and calcific nodule formation were examined on day 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, respectively, after the irradiation. The amount of TGF-{beta}{sub 1} mRNA expression decreased significantly on day 7 after irradiation of 4, 6, 8 Gy. It also decreased on day 14 after irradiation of 6, 8 Gy, and decreased on day 21 after irradiation of 8 Gy. The amount of calcium deposition decreased significantly on day 7 after irradiation of 4, 8 Gy (P<0.01) and showed a decreased tendency on day 14, 21 after irradiation of 4, 6, 8 Gy. The number of calcific nodules was decreased on day 7 after irradiation of 4, 8 Gy. Irradiation with a single dose of 4, 6, 8 Gy influences negatively the bone formation at the molecular level by affecting the TGF-{beta}{sub 1} mRNA expression that was associated with proliferation and the production of extracellular matrix in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cell line

  5. A hard ionizing spectrum in z=3-4 Ly-alpha emitters with intense [OIII] emission: Analogs of galaxies in the reionization era?

    CERN Document Server

    Nakajima, Kimihiko; Iwata, Ikuru; Inoue, Akio; Kusakabe, Haruka; Ouchi, Masami; Robertson, Brant

    2016-01-01

    We present Keck/MOSFIRE spectra of the diagnostic nebular emission lines [OIII]5007,4959, [OII]3727, and H-beta for a sample of 15 redshift z=3.1-3.7 Ly-alpha emitters (LAEs) and Lyman break galaxies (LBGs). In conjunction with spectra from other surveys, we confirm earlier indications that LAEs have a much higher [OIII]/[OII] line ratio than is seen in similar redshift LBGs. By comparing their distributions on a [OIII]/[OII] versus R23 diagram, we demonstrate that this difference cannot arise solely because of their lower metallicities but most likely is due to a harder ionizing spectrum. Using measures of H-beta and recombination theory, we demonstrate, for a subset of our LAEs, that xi_ion - the number of Lyman continuum photons per UV luminosity - is indeed 0.2-0.5 dex larger than for typical LBGs at similar redshifts. Using photoionization models we estimate the effect this would have on both [OIII]/[OII] and R23 and conclude such a hard spectrum can only partially explain such intense line emission. The...

  6. A novel dual-color reporter for identifying insulin-producing beta-cells and classifying heterogeneity of insulinoma cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Sook Lee

    Full Text Available Many research studies use immortalized cell lines as surrogates for primary beta- cells. We describe the production and use of a novel "indirect" dual-fluorescent reporter system that leads to mutually exclusive expression of EGFP in insulin-producing (INS(+ beta-cells or mCherry in non-beta-cells. Our system uses the human insulin promoter to initiate a Cre-mediated shift in reporter color within a single transgene construct and is useful for FACS selection of cells from single cultures for further analysis. Application of our reporter to presumably clonal HIT-T15 insulinoma cells, as well as other presumably clonal lines, indicates that these cultures are in fact heterogeneous with respect to INS(+ phenotype. Our strategy could be easily applied to other cell- or tissue-specific promoters. We anticipate its utility for FACS purification of INS(+ and glucose-responsive beta-like-cells from primary human islet cell isolates or in vitro differentiated pluripotent stem cells.

  7. A novel small molecular STAT3 inhibitor, LY5, inhibits cell viability, cell migration, and angiogenesis in medulloblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hui; Bid, Hemant Kumar; Jou, David; Wu, Xiaojuan; Yu, Wenying; Li, Chenglong; Houghton, Peter J; Lin, Jiayuh

    2015-02-06

    Signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling is persistently activated and could contribute to tumorigenesis of medulloblastoma. Numerous studies have demonstrated that inhibition of the persistent STAT3 signaling pathway results in decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis in human cancer cells, indicating that STAT3 is a viable molecular target for cancer therapy. In this study, we investigated a novel non-peptide, cell-permeable small molecule, named LY5, to target STAT3 in medulloblastoma cells. LY5 inhibited persistent STAT3 phosphorylation and induced apoptosis in human medulloblastoma cell lines expressing constitutive STAT3 phosphorylation. The inhibition of STAT3 signaling by LY5 was confirmed by down-regulating the expression of the downstream targets of STAT3, including cyclin D1, bcl-XL, survivin, and micro-RNA-21. LY5 also inhibited the induction of STAT3 phosphorylation by interleukin-6 (IL-6), insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, IGF-2, and leukemia inhibitory factor in medulloblastoma cells, but did not inhibit STAT1 and STAT5 phosphorylation stimulated by interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and EGF, respectively. In addition, LY5 blocked the STAT3 nuclear localization induced by IL-6, but did not block STAT1 and STAT5 nuclear translocation mediated by IFN-γ and EGF, respectively. A combination of LY5 with cisplatin or x-ray radiation also showed more potent effects than single treatment alone in the inhibition of cell viability in human medulloblastoma cells. Furthermore, LY5 demonstrated a potent inhibitory activity on cell migration and angiogenesis. Taken together, these findings indicate LY5 inhibits persistent and inducible STAT3 phosphorylation and suggest that LY5 is a promising therapeutic drug candidate for medulloblastoma by inhibiting persistent STAT3 signaling.

  8. Cervical Cancer Cell Line Secretome Highlights the Roles of Transforming Growth Factor-Beta-Induced Protein ig-h3, Peroxiredoxin-2, and NRF2 on Cervical Carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoidakis, Jerome; Makridakis, Manousos; Lygirou, Vasiliki; Mermelekas, George; Vougas, Konstantinos; Drakakis, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Cancer cells acquire unique secretome compositions that contribute to tumor development and metastasis. The aim of our study was to elucidate the biological processes involved in cervical cancer, by performing a proteomic analysis of the secretome from the following informative cervical cell lines: SiHa (HPV16+), HeLa (HPV18+), C33A (HPV−), and HCK1T (normal). Proteins were analyzed by 2D gel electrophoresis coupled to MALDI-TOF-MS. Enrichment of secreted proteins with characteristic profiles for each cell line was followed by the identification of differentially expressed proteins. Particularly, transforming growth factor-beta-induced protein ig-h3 (Beta ig-h3) and peroxiredoxin-2 (PRDX2) overexpression in the secretome of cancer cell lines was detected and confirmed by Western blot. Bioinformatics analysis identified the transcription factor NRF2 as a regulator of differentially expressed proteins in the cervical cancer secretome. NRF2 levels were measured by both Western blot and Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) in the total cell extract of the four cell lines. NRF2 was upregulated in SiHa and C33A compared to HCK1T. In conclusion, the secreted proteins identified in cervical cancer cell lines indicate that aberrant NRF2-mediated oxidative stress response (OSR) is a prominent feature of cervical carcinogenesis.

  9. Protective effects of St. John's wort extract and its component hyperforin against cytokine-induced cytotoxicity in a pancreatic beta-cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegazzi, Marta; Novelli, Michela; Beffy, Pascale; D'Aleo, Valentina; Tedeschi, Elisa; Lupi, Roberto; Zoratti, Elisa; Marchetti, Piero; Suzuki, Hisanori; Masiello, Pellegrino

    2008-01-01

    In both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, increased production of cytokines on autoimmune or metabolic basis is supposed to trigger an inflammatory process leading to dysfunction and death of pancreatic beta-cells. Therefore, anti-inflammatory pharmacological approaches aimed at blocking cytokine signalling pathways and consequent cytotoxicity in beta-cells are highly advisable. Based on previous evidence of cytokine antagonistic effects in other cell types, we explored the protective action of Hypericum perforatum (St-John's-wort) extract and its component hyperforin against cytokine-induced functional impairment and apoptosis in the INS-1E beta-cell line, searching for the underlying mechanisms. The results showed that either St-John's-wort extract or hyperforin (at 1-3 microM) prevented cytokine-induced impairment in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and protected cells against apoptosis in a dose-dependent fashion. Inducible-NO-synthase expression was also potently hindered by the vegetal compounds. Interestingly, cytokine-induced activations of the signal-transducer-and-activator-of-transcription-1 (STAT-1) and the nuclear-factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) were both down-regulated by SJW extract or HPF (range 0.5-5 microM) when evaluated by electrophoretic-mobility-shift-assay. Other transcription factors (CBF-1, SP-1) were unaffected. Components of SJW extract other than HPF were much less effective in down-regulating cytokine signalling. Significantly, inhibition of cytokine-elicited STAT-1 and NF-kappaB activation was confirmed in isolated rat and human islets incubated in the presence of these vegetal compounds. In conclusion, St-John's-wort extract and hyperforin are non-peptidyl compounds which, at low concentrations, target key mechanisms of cytokine-induced beta-cell injury, thereby improving beta-cell function and survival. Thus, they are potentially valuable for the prevention or limitation of beta-cell loss in diabetes.

  10. Assignment of the Raman lines in single crystal barium metaborate (beta-BaB sub 2 O sub 4)

    CERN Document Server

    Ney, P; Maillard, A; Polgar, K

    1998-01-01

    A Raman-scattering study performed on beta-BaB sub 2 O sub 4 (beta-BBO) at room temperature allows us to assign all the vibrational modes detected in the Raman spectra. The internal and external vibration modes are properly obtained by taking account of the light polarization, mode contamination and isotope effects. A correspondence between the lattice and the free-ring modes is also presented. (author)

  11. Properties of observed Ly-$\\alpha$ forest

    OpenAIRE

    Demianski, M.; Doroshkevich, A.; Turchaninov, V.

    2000-01-01

    The main observed properties of Ly-$\\alpha$ absorbers are investigated on the basis of theoretical model of formation and evolution of DM structure elements. This model is generally consistent with simulations of absorbers formation and with statistical description of structure evolution based on the Zel'dovich theory. The analysis of redshift variations of comoving linear number density of absorbers was performed in our previous paper. We show that the observed characteristics of Doppler par...

  12. Ly{alpha} ESCAPE FROM z {approx} 0.03 STAR-FORMING GALAXIES: THE DOMINANT ROLE OF OUTFLOWS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wofford, Aida; Leitherer, Claus [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Salzer, John, E-mail: wofford@stsci.edu [Astronomy Department, Indiana University, Swain West 408, 727 East Third Street, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States)

    2013-03-10

    The usefulness of H I Ly{alpha} photons for characterizing star formation in the distant universe is limited by our understanding of the astrophysical processes that regulate their escape from galaxies. These processes can only be observed in detail out to a few Multiplication-Sign 100 Mpc. Past nearby (z < 0.3) spectroscopic studies are based on small samples and/or kinematically unresolved data. Taking advantage of the high sensitivity of Hubble Space Telescope's Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS), we observed the Ly{alpha} lines of 20 H{alpha}-selected galaxies located at =0.03. The galaxies cover a broad range of luminosity, oxygen abundance, and reddening. In this paper, we characterize the observed Ly{alpha} lines and establish correlations with fundamental galaxy properties. We find seven emitters. These host young ({<=}10 Myr) stellar populations have rest-frame equivalent widths in the range 1-12 A, and have Ly{alpha} escape fractions within the COS aperture in the range 1%-12%. One emitter has a double-peaked Ly{alpha} with peaks 370 km s{sup -1} apart and a stronger blue peak. Excluding this object, the emitters have Ly{alpha} and O I {lambda}1302 offsets from H{alpha} in agreement with expanding-shell models and Lyman break galaxies observations. The absorbers have offsets that are almost consistent with a static medium. We find no one-to-one correspondence between Ly{alpha} emission and age, metallicity, or reddening. Thus, we confirm that Ly{alpha} is enhanced by outflows and is regulated by the dust and H I column density surrounding the hot stars.

  13. Expression of mixed lineage kinase-1 in pancreatic beta-cell lines at different stages of maturation and during embryonic pancreas development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeAizpurua, H J; Cram, D S; Naselli, G; Devereux, L; Dorow, D S

    1997-06-27

    Events controlling differentiation to insulin-secreting beta-cells in the pancreas are not well understood, although beta-cells are thought to arise from pluripotent ductal precursor cells. To search for signaling proteins that might be involved in beta-cell maturation, we analyzed protein kinase expression in two developmentally and functionally distinct pancreatic beta-cell lines, RIN-5AH and RIN-A12, by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. A number of tyrosine and serine/threonine kinases were identified in both lines. One protein kinase, mixed lineage kinase-1 (MLK-1), was expressed at both the RNA and protein levels in RIN-5AH cells, which display an immature beta-cell phenotype, but was not detected in the more mature RIN-A12 cells. Furthermore, levels of MLK-1 mRNA and protein were increased after brief stimulation of RIN-5AH cells with either the differentiation inducer, sodium butyrate, or with serum after serum starvation. These increases in expression were independent of phenotypic markers such as insulin secretion or surface expression of major histocompatibility class I- and A2B5-reactive ganglioside. In addition, increases in MLK-1 expression in the stimulated RIN-5AH cells were accompanied by phosphorylation of MLK-1 on serine but not tyrosine. Antisense oligonucleotides to two distinct regions of MLK-1 caused RIN-5AH cells, but not RIN-A12 cells, to adopt a highly undifferentiated morphology, with a reduction in DNA synthesis and MLK-1 protein levels and elevated glucagon mRNA levels, but with no effect on insulin mRNA. In an immunohistochemical survey of embryonic mouse tissues, we found that temporal expression of MLK-1 was regulated in a tissue-specific manner. In the embryonic pancreas, MLK-1 expression was evident in ductal cells from day 13 to 16 but was not detected in late stage gestation or neonatal pancreas. These data suggest that MLK-1 is regulated in immature pancreatic beta-cells and their ductal precursors at the level of

  14. Extended Ly$\\alpha$ emission around quasars with eclipsing damped Ly$\\alpha$ systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fathivavsari, Hassan; Noterdaeme, Pasquier; Pâris, Isabelle; Finley, Hayley; López, Sebastian; Srianand, Raghunathan

    2016-01-01

    We present spectroscopic observations of six high redshift ($z_{\\rm em}$ $>$ 2) quasars, which have been selected for their Lyman $\\alpha$ (Ly$\\alpha$) emission region being only partially covered by a strong proximate ($z_{\\rm abs}$ $\\sim$ $z_{\\rm em}$) coronagraphic damped Ly$\\alpha$ system (DLA). We detected spatially extended Ly$\\alpha$ emission envelopes surrounding these six quasars, with projected spatial extent in the range 26 $\\le$ $d_{\\rm Ly\\alpha}$ $\\le$ 51 kpc. No correlation is found between the quasar ionizing luminosity and the Ly$\\alpha$ luminosity of their extended envelopes. This could be related to the limited covering factor of the extended gas and/or due to the AGN being obscured in other directions than towards the observer. Indeed, we find a strong correlation between the luminosity of the envelope and its spatial extent, which suggests that the envelopes are probably ionized by the AGN. The metallicity of the coronagraphic DLAs is low and varies in the range $-$1.75 $<$ [Si/H] $<...

  15. Lyα luminosity functions at redshift z ≈ 4.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhen-Ya; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Finkelstein, Keely; Tilvi, Vithal; Rhoads, James E.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Wang, Jun-Xian; Miller, Neal; Hibon, Pascale; Xia, Lifang

    2013-06-01

    We present a spectroscopically confirmed sample of Lyman α emitting galaxies (LAEs) at z ˜ 4.5 in the Extended Chandra Deep Field-South (ECDFS), which we combine with a sample of z ˜ 4.5 LAEs from previous narrow-band surveys from the Large Area Lyman Alpha (LALA) survey to build a unified Lyα luminosity function. We spectroscopically observed 64 candidate LAEs in the ECDFS, confirming 46 objects as z ˜ 4.5 LAEs based on single-line detections with no continuum emission bluewards of the line, resulting in a Lyα confirmation rate of ˜70 per cent. We did not detect significant flux from neither the C IV λ1549 Å emission line nor the He II λ1640 Å emission line in individual LAE spectra. These lines were also undetected in a co-added spectrum, with the co-added line ratio of He II to Lyα constraining the Population III star formation rate (SFR) to be 3. Similar luminosity function differences have been used to infer evolution in the neutral gas fraction in the intergalactic medium at z > 6, yet here the difference is likely due to cosmic variance, given that the two samples are from adjoining line-of-sight volumes. Combining our new sample of LAEs with those from previous LALA narrow-band surveys at z = 4.5, we obtain one of the best measured Lyα luminosity functions to date, with our sample of over 200 spectroscopically confirmed Lyα galaxies yielding log10(L*) = 42.83 ± 0.06 (erg s-1) and log10(Φ*) = -3.48 ± 0.09 (Mpc-3). We compare our new luminosity function to others from the literature to study the evolution of the Lyα luminosity density at 0 < z < 7. We find tentative evidence for evolution in the product L*Φ*, which approximately tracks the cosmic SFR density, but since field-to-field and survey-to-survey variations are in some cases as large as the possible evolution, some caution is needed in interpreting this trend.

  16. Physical properties of z~4 LBGs: differences between galaxies with and without Ly-alpha emission

    CERN Document Server

    Pentericci, L; Fontana, A; Salimbeni, S; Santini, P; De Santis, C; Gallozzi, S; Giallongo, E

    2007-01-01

    We have analysed the physical properties of z~4 Lyman Break Galaxies observed in the GOODS-S survey, in order to investigate the possible differences between galaxies where the Ly-alpha is present in emission, and those where the line is absent or in absorption. The objects have been selected from their optical color and then spectroscopically confirmed by Vanzella et al. (2005). From the public spectra we assessed the nature of the Ly-alpha emission and divided the sample into galaxies with Ly-alpha in emission and objects without Ly-alpha line (i.e. either absent or in absorption). We have then used the complete photometry, from U band to mid infrared from the GOODS-MUSIC database, to study the observational properties of the galaxies, such as UV spectral slopes and optical to mid-infrared colors, and the possible differences between the two samples. Finally through standard spectral fitting tecniques we have determined the physical properties of the galaxies, such as total stellar mass, stellar ages and so...

  17. Glycerophosphoglycerol, Beta-Alanine, and Pantothenic Acid as Metabolic Companions of Glycolytic Activity and Cell Migration in Breast Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Hutschenreuther

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In cancer research, cell lines are used to explore the molecular basis of the disease as a substitute to tissue biopsies. Breast cancer in particular is a very heterogeneous type of cancer, and different subgroups of cell lines have been established according to their genomic profiles and tumor characteristics. We applied GCMS metabolite profiling to five selected breast cancer cell lines and found this heterogeneity reflected on the metabolite level as well. Metabolite profiles of MCF-7 cells belonging to the luminal gene cluster proved to be more different from those of the basal A cell line JIMT-1 and the basal B cell lines MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-435, and MDA-MB-436 with only slight differences in the intracellular metabolite pattern. Lactate release into the cultivation medium as an indicator of glycolytic activity was correlated to the metabolite profiles and physiological characteristics of each cell line. In conclusion, pantothenic acid, beta-alanine and glycerophosphoglycerol appeared to be related to the glycolytic activity designated through high lactate release. Other physiological parameters coinciding with glycolytic activity were high glyoxalase 1 (Glo1 and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH enzyme activity as well as cell migration as an additional important characteristic contributing to the aggressiveness of tumor cells. Metabolite profiles of the cell lines are comparatively discussed with respect to known biomarkers of cancer progression.

  18. THE LYMAN ALPHA REFERENCE SAMPLE. V. THE IMPACT OF NEUTRAL ISM KINEMATICS AND GEOMETRY ON Lyα ESCAPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera-Thorsen, Thøger E.; Hayes, Matthew; Östlin, Göran; Duval, Florent; Sandberg, Andreas; Guaita, Lucia; Adamo, Angela [Department of Astronomy, Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Centre, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Orlitová, Ivana [Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Boční II, CZ-14131 Prague (Czech Republic); Verhamme, Anne; Schaerer, Daniel [Geneva Observatory, University of Geneva, 51 Chemin des Maillettes, CH-1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Mas-Hesse, J. Miguel [Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC–INTA), Departamento de Astrofísica, P.O. Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Cañada (Spain); Cannon, John M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, 1600 Grand Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); Otí-Floranes, Héctor [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo. Postal 106, B. C. 22800 Ensenada (Mexico); Atek, Hakim [Laboratoire d’Astrophysique, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Observatoire, CH-1290 Sauverny (Switzerland); Herenz, E. Christian [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Kunth, Daniel, E-mail: trive@astro.su.se [Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095 CNRS and UPMC, 98 bis Bd Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); and others

    2015-05-20

    We present high-resolution far-UV spectroscopy of the 14 galaxies of the Lyα Reference Sample; a sample of strongly star-forming galaxies at low redshifts (0.028 < z < 0.18). We compare the derived properties to global properties derived from multi-band imaging and 21 cm H i interferometry and single-dish observations, as well as archival optical SDSS spectra. Besides the Lyα line, the spectra contain a number of metal absorption features allowing us to probe the kinematics of the neutral ISM and evaluate the optical depth and and covering fraction of the neutral medium as a function of line of sight velocity. Furthermore, we show how this, in combination with the precise determination of systemic velocity and good Lyα spectra, can be used to distinguish a model in which separate clumps together fully cover the background source, from the “picket fence” model named by Heckman et al. We find that no one single effect dominates in governing Lyα radiative transfer and escape. Lyα escape in our sample coincides with a maximum velocity-binned covering fraction of ≲0.9 and bulk outflow velocities of ≳50 km s{sup −1}, although a number of galaxies show these characteristics and yet little or no Lyα escape. We find that Lyα peak velocities, where available, are not consistent with a strong backscattered component, but rather with a simpler model of an intrinsic emission line overlaid by a blueshifted absorption profile from the outflowing wind. Finally, we find a strong anticorrelation between Hα equivalent width and maximum velocity-binned covering factor, and propose a heuristic explanatory model.

  19. Supermassive Black Holes with High Accretion Rates in Active Galactic Nuclei. VI. Velocity-resolved Reverberation Mapping of H$\\beta$ Line

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Pu; Hu, Chen; Qiu, Jie; Li, Yan-Rong; Huang, Ying-Ke; Wang, Fang; Bai, Jin-Ming; Bian, Wei-Hao; Yuan, Ye-Fei; Ho, Luis C; Wang, Jian-Min

    2016-01-01

    In the sixth of the series of papers reporting on a large reverberation mapping (RM) campaign of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with high accretion rates, we present velocity-resolved time lags of H$\\beta$ emission lines for nine objects observed in the campaign during 2012$-$2013. In order to correct the line-broadening caused by seeing and instruments before the analysis of velocity-resolved RM, we adopt Richardson-Lucy deconvolution to reconstruct their H$\\beta$ profiles. The validity and effectiveness of the deconvolution are checked out by Monte Carlo simulation. Five among the nine objects show clear dependence of time delay on velocity. Mrk 335 and Mrk 486 show signatures of gas inflow whereas the clouds in the broad-line regions (BLRs) of Mrk 142 and MCG +06-26-012 tend to be radial outflowing. Mrk 1044 is consistent with the case of virialized motions. The lags of the rest four are not velocity-resolvable. The velocity-resolved RM of super-Eddington accreting massive black holes (SEAMBHs) shows that t...

  20. Polarization of Rayleigh scattered Lyα in active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Seok-Jun; Lee, Hee-Won; Yang, Yujin

    2017-02-01

    The unification scheme of active galactic nuclei invokes an optically thick molecular torus component hiding the broad emission line region. Assuming the presence of a thick neutral component in the molecular torus characterized by a H I column density >1022 cm-2, we propose that far-UV radiation around Lyα can be significantly polarized through Rayleigh scattering. Adopting a Monte Carlo technique, we compute polarization of Rayleigh scattered radiation near Lyα in a thick neutral region in the shape of a slab and a cylindrical shell. It is found that radiation near Lyα Rayleigh reflected from a very thick slab can be significantly polarized in a fairly large range of wavelength Δλ ˜ 50 Å exhibiting a flux profile similar to the incident one. Rayleigh transmitted radiation in a slab is characterized by the central dip with a complicated polarization behaviour. The optically thick part near Lyα centre is polarized in the direction perpendicular to the slab normal, which is in contrast to weakly polarized wing parts in the direction parallel to the slab normal. A similar polarization flip phenomenon is also found in the case of a tall cylindrical shell, in which the spatial diffusion along the vertical direction near the inner cylinder wall for core photons leads to a tendency of the electric field aligned to the direction perpendicular to the vertical axis. Observational implications are briefly discussed including spectropolarimetry of the quasar PG 1630+377 by Koratkar et al. in 1990 where Lyα is strongly polarized with no other emission lines polarized.

  1. A Coherent Study of Emission Lines from Broad-Band Photometry: Specific Star-Formation Rates and [OIII]/H{\\beta} Ratio at 3 < z < 6

    CERN Document Server

    Faisst, A L; Hsieh, B C; Laigle, C; Salvato, M; Tasca, L; Cassata, P; Davidzon, I; Ilbert, O; Fevre, O Le; Masters, D; McCracken, H J; Steinhardt, C; Silverman, J D; De Barros, S; Hasinger, G; Scoville, N Z

    2016-01-01

    We measure the H{\\alpha} and [OIII] emission line properties as well as specific star-formation rates (sSFR) of spectroscopically confirmed 33 cannot be fully explained in a picture of cold accretion driven growth. We find a progressively increasing [OIII]{\\lambda}5007/H{\\beta} ratio out to z~6, consistent with the ratios in local galaxies selected by increasing H{\\alpha} EW (i.e., sSFR). This demonstrates the potential of using "local high-z analogs" to investigate the spectroscopic properties and relations of galaxies in the re-ionization epoch.

  2. A Luminosity Function of Lyα-emitting Galaxies at z ~ 4.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Steve; Rhoads, James E.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Stern, Daniel; Wang, JunXian; Dey, Arjun; Spinrad, Hyron; Jannuzi, Buell T.

    2007-12-01

    We present a catalog of 59 z~4.5 Lyα-emitting galaxies spectroscopically confirmed in a campaign of Keck DEIMOS follow-up observations to candidates selected in the Large Area Lyα (LALA) narrowband imaging survey. We targeted 97 candidates for spectroscopic follow-up by accounting for the variety of conditions under which we performed spectroscopy, we estimate a selection reliability of ~76%. Together with our previous sample of Keck LRIS confirmations, the 59 sources confirmed herein bring the total catalog to 73 spectroscopically confirmed z~4.5 Lyα-emitting galaxies in the ~0.7 deg2 covered by the LALA imaging. As with the Keck LRIS sample, we find that a nonnegligible fraction of the confirmed Lyα lines have rest-frame equivalent widths (Wrestλ) that exceed the maximum predicted for normal stellar populations: 17%-31% (93% confidence) of the detected galaxies show Wrestλ>190 Å, and 12%-27% (90% confidence) show Wrestλ>240 Å. We construct a luminosity function of z~4.5 Lyα emission lines for comparison to Lyα luminosity functions spanning 3.1Lyα luminosity function evolution from z~3 to z~6. This result supports the conclusion that the intergalactic medium remains largely reionized from the local universe out to z~6.5. It is somewhat at odds with the pronounced drop in the cosmic star formation rate density recently measured between z~3 and z~6 in continuum-selected Lyman-break galaxies, and therefore potentially sheds light on the relationship between the two populations. Based in part on observations made at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. Our data were obtained using community access telescope time made available under the National

  3. Usability Study and Improvement of The Äly Excel

    OpenAIRE

    Tolonen, Heli

    2014-01-01

    This Master’s thesis concentrates on a particular tool, called Äly Excel, which is used in health care centres in Finland. The Äly Excel is a Microsoft Excel based tool that helps to plan a health care personnel rota. The main goal of this work was to enhance usability of the Äly Excel. The development work was part of the Hyvä Potku project that is managed by Northern Ostrobothnia Hospital District. To find out the most important usability problems of the Äly Excel, usability tests were...

  4. The mannose receptor LY75 (DEC205/CD205) modulates cellular phenotype and metastatic potential of ovarian cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faddaoui, Adnen; Bachvarova, Magdalena; Plante, Marie; Gregoire, Jean; Renaud, Marie-Claude; Sebastianelli, Alexandra; Gobeil, Stephane; Morin, Chantale; Macdonald, Elizabeth; Vanderhyden, Barbara; Bachvarov, Dimcho

    2016-01-01

    The molecular basis of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) dissemination is still poorly understood. Previously, we identified the mannose receptor LY75 gene as hypomethylated in high-grade (HG) serous EOC tumors, compared to normal ovarian tissues. LY75 represents endocytic receptor expressed on dendritic cells and so far, has been primarily studied for its role in antigen processing and presentation. Here we demonstrate that LY75 is overexpressed in advanced EOC and that LY75 suppression induces mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET) in EOC cell lines with mesenchymal morphology (SKOV3 and TOV112), accompanied by reduction of their migratory and invasive capacity in vitro and enhanced tumor cell colonization and metastatic growth in vivo. LY75 knockdown in SKOV3 cells also resulted in predominant upregulation of functional pathways implicated in cell proliferation and metabolism, while pathways associated with cell signaling and adhesion, complement activation and immune response were mostly suppressed. Moreover, LY75 suppression had an opposite effect on EOC cell lines with epithelial phenotype (A2780s and OV2008), by directing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) associated with reduced capacity for in vivo EOC cell colonization, as similar/identical signaling pathways were reversely regulated, when compared to mesenchymal LY75 knockdown EOC cells. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a gene displaying such pleiotropic effects in sustaining the cellular phenotype of EOC cells and points to novel functions of this receptor in modulating EOC dissemination. Our data also support previous findings regarding the superior capacity of epithelial cancer cells in metastatic colonization of distant sites, compared to cancer cells with mesenchymal-like morphology. PMID:26871602

  5. The mannose receptor LY75 (DEC205/CD205) modulates cellular phenotype and metastatic potential of ovarian cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faddaoui, Adnen; Bachvarova, Magdalena; Plante, Marie; Gregoire, Jean; Renaud, Marie-Claude; Sebastianelli, Alexandra; Gobeil, Stephane; Morin, Chantale; Macdonald, Elizabeth; Vanderhyden, Barbara; Bachvarov, Dimcho

    2016-03-22

    The molecular basis of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) dissemination is still poorly understood. Previously, we identified the mannose receptor LY75 gene as hypomethylated in high-grade (HG) serous EOC tumors, compared to normal ovarian tissues. LY75 represents endocytic receptor expressed on dendritic cells and so far, has been primarily studied for its role in antigen processing and presentation. Here we demonstrate that LY75 is overexpressed in advanced EOC and that LY75 suppression induces mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET) in EOC cell lines with mesenchymal morphology (SKOV3 and TOV112), accompanied by reduction of their migratory and invasive capacity in vitro and enhanced tumor cell colonization and metastatic growth in vivo. LY75 knockdown in SKOV3 cells also resulted in predominant upregulation of functional pathways implicated in cell proliferation and metabolism, while pathways associated with cell signaling and adhesion, complement activation and immune response were mostly suppressed. Moreover, LY75 suppression had an opposite effect on EOC cell lines with epithelial phenotype (A2780s and OV2008), by directing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) associated with reduced capacity for in vivo EOC cell colonization, as similar/identical signaling pathways were reversely regulated, when compared to mesenchymal LY75 knockdown EOC cells.To our knowledge, this is the first report of a gene displaying such pleiotropic effects in sustaining the cellular phenotype of EOC cells and points to novel functions of this receptor in modulating EOC dissemination. Our data also support previous findings regarding the superior capacity of epithelial cancer cells in metastatic colonization of distant sites, compared to cancer cells with mesenchymal-like morphology.

  6. 3-D-geocoronal hydrogen density derived from TWINS Ly-{alpha}-data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoennchen, J.H.; Nass, U.; Lay, G.; Fahr, H.J. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Argelander Inst. fuer Astronomie

    2010-07-01

    Based on Ly-{alpha}-line-of-sight measurements taken with two Ly-{alpha} detectors onboard of the satellite TWINS1 (Two Wide-angle Imaging Neutral-atom Spectrometers) density profiles of the exospheric, neutral geocoronal hydrogen were derived for the time period between summer solstice and fall equinox 2008. With the help of specifically developed inversion programs from Ly-{alpha} line of sight intensities the three-dimensional density structure of the geocoronal hydrogen at geocentric distances r > 3 R{sub E} could be derived for the period mentioned characterized by very low solar 10.7 cm radiofluxes of {approx}65-70 [10{sup -22}Wm{sup -2} Hz{sup -1}]. The time-variable, solar ''line-centered''-Ly-{alpha}-flux was extracted on the basis of daily (terrestrial) NGDC 10.7 cm radioflux data using the models from Barth et al. (1990) and Vidal- Madjar (1975). The results for the geocoronal H-densities are compared here both with theoretical calculations based on a Monte- Carlo model by Hodges (1994) and with density profiles obtained with the Geocoronal Imager (GEO) by Oestgaard and Mende (2003). In our results we find a remarkably more pronounced day-/night-side asymmetry which clearly hints to the existence of a hydrogen geotail (i.e. a tail structure with comparatively higher hydrogen densities on the night side of the earth for geocentric distances>4 R{sub E}), and a only weakly pronounced polar depletion. These unexpected features we try to explain by new models in the near future. The derived 3-D-H-density structures are able to explain the line-of-sight (LOS) dependent Ly-{alpha} intensity variations for all LOS seen up to now with TWINS-LAD. The presented results are valid for the region with geocentric distances 3 R{sub E} Ly-{alpha}-scattering allowing the use of single scattering calculations. (orig.)

  7. 3-D-geocoronal hydrogen density derived from TWINS Ly-α-data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Zoennchen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on Ly-α-line-of-sight measurements taken with two Ly-α detectors onboard of the satellite TWINS1 (Two Wide-angle Imaging Neutral-atom Spectrometers density profiles of the exospheric, neutral geocoronal hydrogen were derived for the time period between summer solstice and fall equinox 2008. With the help of specifically developed inversion programs from Lyline of sight intensities the three-dimensional density structure of the geocoronal hydrogen at geocentric distances r>3 RE could be derived for the period mentioned characterized by very low solar 10.7 cm radiofluxes of ≈65–70 [10−22 W m−2 Hz−1]. The time-variable, solar "line-centered"-Ly-α-flux was extracted on the basis of daily (terrestrial NGDC 10.7 cm radioflux data using the models from Barth et al. (1990 and Vidal-Madjar (1975.

    The results for the geocoronal H-densities are compared here both with theoretical calculations based on a Monte-Carlo model by Hodges (1994 and with density profiles obtained with the Geocoronal Imager (GEO by Østgaard and Mende (2003. In our results we find a remarkably more pronounced day-/night-side asymmetry which clearly hints to the existence of a hydrogen geotail (i.e. a tail structure with comparatively higher hydrogen densities on the night side of the earth for geocenctric distances >4 RE, and a only weakly pronounced polar depletion. These unexpected features we try to explain by new models in the near future. The derived 3-D-H-density structures are able to explain the line-of-sight (LOS dependent Ly-α intensity variations for all LOS seen up to now with TWINS-LAD. The presented results are valid for the region with geocentric distances 3 RE<r<7 RE and are based on the reasonable assumption of an optically thin H-exosphere with respect to resonant Ly-α-scattering allowing the use of single

  8. Effects of Hyperglycemia on Angiotensin II Receptor Type 1 Expression and Insulin Secretion in an INS-1E Pancreatic Beta-Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwan Keung Leung

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Context A local pancreatic islet renin-angiotensin system has been identified and found to be upregulated in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Inhibition of this system improves beta-cell function and structure. The effects of hyperglycemia, a condition observed in diabetes, on angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R expression and beta-cell secretory function have yet to be explored. Objective This study investigated the effects of chronic hyperglycemia (glucotoxicity on the expression of AT1Rs, and possibly thereby on oxidative stress-induced insulin release, in an INS-1E beta-cell line. Settings INS-1E beta-cells cultured and incubated in different glucose concentrations with a varying time course. Main outcome measures Immunocytochemistry was employed for the precise localization of AT1Rs in INS-1E cells. The effects of hyperglycemia-induced AT1R expression changes in gene and protein levels were examined by real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. AT1R activation-mediated oxidative stress was assessed by changes in NADPH oxidase expression, and the level of superoxide production was determined by nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT assay. Glucotoxicity-induced AT1R activation- mediated secretory dysfunction was also assessed by insulin release from INS-1E cells Results AT1R immunoreactivity was found to be localized specifically on the cell membrane. Chronic hyperglycemia resulted in dose-dependent upregulation of AT1R gene and protein expression accompanied by concomitantly-enhanced oxidative stress. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion via AT1R activation was impaired by hyperglycemia. Conclusion These data indicate that hyperglycemia-induced AT1R activation impairs insulin secretion; this impairment may be mediated via AT1R-dependent oxidative stress.

  9. Rapid line-profile variability of H-alpha and H-beta in the A-type shell star HD 163296

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogodin, M. A.

    1994-02-01

    The results of the H-alpha and H-beta line profile investigation of an A0-shell star HD 163296 are presented. 47 high-resolution CCD spectra (35 for H-alpha and 12 for H-beta) were obtained on July 15-20, 1991 and on July 24-27, 1992. A considerable profile variability is found on time scales from one hour to a few days. The main properties of the night-to-night variations are strong change in shape of the entire line profile with the exception of the primary PCyg-absorption which remains relatively constant both in strength and in position. Two types of extremely rapid variations (tau approximately equal hours) are discovered: (a) positional shift of sharp spectral bumps, and (b) monotonous flux variations of different parts of a profile during a night. A qualitative explanation in the framework of the model for an envelope containing an active non-stable region formed by an equatorially concentrated stellar wind and an external cool shell is proposed for the observed variability. Some reasons for the extremely rapid profile changes are considered.

  10. Ly-alpha forest: efficient unbiased estimation of second-order properties with missing data

    CERN Document Server

    Vio, R; Stoyan, H; Stoyan, D

    2007-01-01

    Context. One important step in the statistical analysis of the Ly-alpha forest data is the study of their second order properties. Usually, this is accomplished by means of the two-point correlation function or, alternatively, the K-function. In the computation of these functions it is necessary to take into account the presence of strong metal line complexes and strong Ly-alpha lines that can hidden part of the Ly-alpha forest and represent a non negligible source of bias. Aims. In this work, we show quantitatively what are the effects of the gaps introduced in the spectrum by the strong lines if they are not properly accounted for in the computation of the correlation properties. We propose a geometric method which is able to solve this problem and is computationally more efficient than the Monte Carlo (MC) technique that is typically adopted in Cosmology studies. The method is implemented in two different algorithms. The first one permits to obtain exact results, whereas the second one provides approximate...

  11. Properties of observed Ly-$\\alpha$ forest

    CERN Document Server

    Demianski, M; Turchaninov, V I

    2000-01-01

    The main observed properties of Ly-$\\alpha$ absorbers are investigated on the basis of theoretical model of formation and evolution of DM structure elements. This model is generally consistent with simulations of absorbers formation and with statistical description of structure evolution based on the Zel'dovich theory. The analysis of redshift variations of comoving linear number density of absorbers was performed in our previous paper. We show that the observed characteristics of Doppler parameter can be related to the size of DM structure elements what allows us to explain the observed distribution of Doppler parameter. This distribution is found to be consistent with the Gaussian initial perturbations. The observed characteristics of entropy and column density, $N_{HI}$, confirm that merging of pancakes is the main evolutionary process at redshifts $z\\geq 2$. The observed sample of absorbers characterizes mainly the matter distribution within large low density regions and therefore it is difficult to recon...

  12. Novel approach of LY12 alloy brazing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛松柏; 钱乙余; 董健; 吕晓春

    2003-01-01

    The LY12 Al alloy was brazed with the adoption of the improved KF-CsF-AlF3 flux matching Ag-Al-Cu-Zn filler metal. The shear strength of brazed joint could reach 80% of that of the substrate and the tensile strength of butt brazed joint will be 70% of that of the substrate. This was the great progress against the traditional claim that Al alloy reinforced by heat treatment could not be brazed. The experimental results and theoretical analysis had proved that it was the key issue to remove the MgO oxide film below 503℃. The addition of rare earth La was the effective way to obtain better mechanical properties of the filler metal as well as brazed joints.

  13. Insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function in the offspring of type 2 diabetic patients: impact of line of inheritance.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Natali, Andrea

    2010-10-01

    What defects in glucose metabolism are present in offspring of type 2 diabetic patients (FHD(+) with a positive family history of diabetes) and to what extent they depend on line of inheritance are uncertain.

  14. Improvements to the on-line mass separator, RAMA, and the beta-delayed charged-particle emission of proton-rich sd shell nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ognibene, T.J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Nuclear Science Div.

    1996-03-01

    To overcome the extreme difficulties encountered in the experimental decay studies of proton drip line nuclei, several techniques have been utilized, including a helium-jet transport system, particle identification detectors and mass separation. Improvements to the ion source/extraction region of the He-jet coupled on-line Recoil Atom Mass Analyzer (RAMA) and its target/ion source coupling resulted in significant increases in RAMA efficiencies and its mass resolution, as well as reductions in the overall transit time. At the 88-Inch Cyclotron at LBNL, the decays of {sup 31}Cl, {sup 27}P and {sup 28}P, with half-lives of 150 msec, 260 msec and 270.3 msec, respectively, were examined using a he-jet and low-energy gas {Delta}E-gas {Delta}E-silicon E detector telescopes. Total beta-delayed proton branches of 0.3% and 0.07% in {sup 31}Cl and {sub 27}P, respectively, were estimated. Several proton peaks that had been previously assigned to the decay of {sup 31}Cl were shown to be from the decay of {sup 25}Si. In {sup 27}P, two proton groups at 459 {+-} 14 keV and 610 {+-} 11 keV, with intensities of 7 {+-} 3% and 92 {+-} 4% relative to the main (100%) group were discovered. The Gamow-Teller component of the preceding beta-decay of each observed proton transition was compared to results from shell model calculations. Finally, a new proton transition was identified, following the {beta}-decay of {sup 28}P, at 1,444 {+-} 12 keV with a 1.7 {+-} 0.5% relative intensity to the 100% group. Using similar low-energy detector telescopes and the mass separator TISOL at TRIUMF, the 109 msec and 173 msec activities, {sup 17}Ne and {sup 33}Ar, were studied. A new proton group with energy 729 {+-} 15 keV was observed following the beta-decay of {sup 17}Ne. Several discrepancies between earlier works as to the energies, intensities and assignments of several proton transitions from {sup 17}Ne and {sup 33}Ar were resolved.

  15. Solar Chromospheric Flares: Observations in Ly-lpha and Hlpha and Radiative Hydrodynamic Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio da Costa, Fatima

    2011-03-01

    This thesis is divided into two main parts: a multiwavelength observational study of solar flares, focusing mainly in the chromosphere in Ly-α and Hα, and an application of a radiative transfer code and a radiative hydrodynamic code, to compare the results obtained by observations with the simulated ones. The Ly-α emission is a very interesting line because it is a natural tracer of the solar activity in the chromosphere. The Transition Region And Coronal Explorer satellite observed a small number of flares in the Ly-α passband, but apart from this, these events have not often been observed in this strong chromospheric line. Because TRACE has a broad Ly-α channel, in order to estimate the "pure" Lyα emission, we had to apply an empirical correction. We found that there is a reasonable coverage in TRACE 1216 A and the TRACE 1600 A for two different flares: on 8 September 1999 and on 28 February 1999. Studying them we estimated, for the first time, the pure Ly-α flare signature, being on the order of 10^25 erg/s at the flare peak. The study of the first flare gave us the possibility to calculate the electron energy budget using the X-ray data from Yohkoh/HXT in the context of the collisional thick target model, finding that the Ly-α power is less than 10% of the power inferred by the electrons. The morphology and evolution of the second flare were described in different wavelengths by using imaging data acquired by TRACE and by BBSO in white light and in Hα. We studied the magnetic topology using the magnetic field provided by SOHO/MDI, extrapolating the photospheric magnetic field lines, assuming a potential field. We found different morphologies in the magnetic configuration before and after the flare, confirming the occurrence of a reconnection process. The Hα line is the most important line in the chromosphere. We studied the Hα emission of a flare which occurred on 3 July 2002 using some spectroscopical observations from the Ondrejov Observatory

  16. The Evolution of Ly-alpha Emitting Galaxies Between z = 2.1 and z = 3.1

    OpenAIRE

    Ciardullo, Robin; Gronwall, Caryl; Wolf, Christopher; McCathran, Emily; Bond, Nicholas A.; Gawiser, Eric; Guaita, Lucia; Feldmeier, John J.; Treister, Ezequiel; Padilla, Nelson; Francke, Harold; Matkovic, Ana; Altmann, Martin; Herrera, David

    2011-01-01

    We describe the results of a new, wide-field survey for z=3.1 Ly-alpha emission-line galaxies (LAEs) in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDF-S). By using a nearly top-hat 5010 Angstrom filter and complementary broadband photometry from the MUSYC survey, we identify a complete sample of 141 objects with monochromatic fluxes brighter than 2.4E-17 ergs/cm^2/s and observers-frame equivalent widths greater than ~ 80 Angstroms (i.e., 20 Angstroms in the rest-frame of Ly-alpha). The bright-en...

  17. LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minas Bakalchev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The perception of elements in a system often creates their interdependence, interconditionality, and suppression. The lines from a basic geometrical element have become the model of a reductive world based on isolation according to certain criteria such as function, structure, and social organization. Their traces are experienced in the contemporary world as fragments or ruins of a system of domination of an assumed hierarchical unity. How can one release oneself from such dependence or determinism? How can the lines become less “systematic” and forms more autonomous, and less reductive? How is a form released from modernistic determinism on the new controversial ground? How can these elements or forms of representation become forms of action in the present complex world? In this paper, the meaning of lines through the ideas of Le Corbusier, Leonidov, Picasso, and Hitchcock is presented. Spatial research was made through a series of examples arising from the projects of the architectural studio “Residential Transformations”, which was a backbone for mapping the possibilities ranging from playfulness to exactness, as tactics of transformation in the different contexts of the contemporary world.

  18. Crystal Structure of the FGFR4/LY2874455 Complex Reveals Insights into the Pan-FGFR Selectivity of LY2874455.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Daichao; Guo, Ming; Philips, Michael A; Qu, Lingzhi; Jiang, Longying; Li, Jun; Chen, Xiaojuan; Chen, Zhuchu; Chen, Lin; Chen, Yongheng

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant FGFR4 signaling has been documented abundantly in various human cancers. The majority of FGFR inhibitors display significantly reduced potency toward FGFR4 compared to FGFR1-3. However, LY2874455 has similar inhibition potency for FGFR1-4 with IC50 less than 6.4 nM. To date, there is no published crystal structure of LY2874455 in complex with any kinase. To better understand the pan-FGFR selectivity of LY2874455, we have determined the crystal structure of the FGFR4 kinase domain bound to LY2874455 at a resolution of 2.35 Å. LY2874455, a type I inhibitor for FGFR4, binds to the ATP-binding pocket of FGFR4 in a DFG-in active conformation with three hydrogen bonds and a number of van der Waals contacts. After alignment of the kinase domain sequence of 4 FGFRs, and superposition of the ATP binding pocket of 4 FGFRs, our structural analyses reveal that the interactions of LY2874455 to FGFR4 are largely conserved in 4 FGFRs, explaining at least partly, the broad inhibitory activity of LY2874455 toward 4 FGFRs. Consequently, our studies reveal new insights into the pan-FGFR selectivity of LY2874455 and provide a structural basis for developing novel FGFR inhibitors that target FGFR1-4 broadly.

  19. P17.63COMBINATION THERAPY WITH TEMOZOLOMIDE, INTERFERON-BETA, AND RIBAVIRIN IN GLIOMA CELL LINES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Y.; Sano, E.; Yamamuro, S.; Ogino, A.; Fukushima, T.; Tsumoto, K.; Ueda, T.; Yutaka, O.; Yoshino, A.; Yoichi, K.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Although Temozolomide (TMZ) with radiotherapy significantly improves the survival of newly diagnosed glioblastoma although most patients develop tumor progression within 1-2 years. The Japan Clinical Oncology Group (JCOG) are ongoing a phase II randomized study to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of TMZ and Interferon-β (IFN-β) combination therapy in glioblastoma patients. Meanwhile, Ribavirin (RBV) is a standard agent of treating of chronic hepatitis C together with interferon-α. Recently, an anti-tumor effect of RBV was reported in breast cancer and chronic myelocytic leukemia. We evaluated the effect of TMZ, IFN-β, and RBV combination therapy in glioma cell lines. METHODS: Glioma cell lines used were A-172, AM-38, T98G, U-87MG, U-138MG, U-251MG, and YH-13. Glioma cell lines were cultured in an incubator for 48 hours and administered with either 1. TMZ (10 µM) + IFN-β (10 IU/ml) or 2. TMZ (10 µM) + IFN-β (10 IU/ml) + RBV (10 µM). At 72 to 96 hours post-treatment, the number of remaining glioma cells were counted to evaluate the growth-inhibitory effects of each therapy. In addition, cell cycle changes by flow cytemetry and p53 activity with western blot analysis were examined from U-87 MG cell line. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: In all cell lines, the triple combination therapy enhanced the growth-inhibitory effect compared to dual combination therapy. Triple therapy led to distribution of G2/M phase of the cell cycle and accumulated p53 activety. Rivabirin enhanced antitumor effect of TMZ and IFN combination therapy in glioma cell lines.

  20. Escape of Lyα and continuum photons from star-forming galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajima, Hidenobu; Li, Yuexing; Zhu, Qirong; Abel, Tom; Gronwall, Caryl; Ciardullo, Robin

    2014-05-01

    A large number of high-redshift galaxies have been discovered via their narrow-band Lyα line or broad-band continuum colours in recent years. The nature of the escaping process of photons from these early galaxies is crucial to understand galaxy evolution and the cosmic reionization. Here, we investigate the escape of Lyα, non-ionizing UV-continuum (λ = 1300-1600 Å in rest frame), and ionizing photons (λ emissivity of Lyman Alpha Emitters (LAEs). By combining this relation with the observed luminosity functions of LAEs at different redshift, we estimate the contribution from LAEs to the reionization of intergalactic medium (IGM). Our result suggests that ionizing photons from LAEs alone are not sufficient to ionize IGM at z ≳ 6, but they can maintain the ionization of IGM at z ˜ 0-5.

  1. Retrovirus-mediated gene transfer of the cytokine genes interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha into human neuroblastoma cells: consequences for cell line behavior and immunomodulatory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coze, C; Leimig, T; Jimeno, M T; Mannoni, P

    2001-03-01

    We have investigated the value of a gene therapy approach for neuroblastoma (NB), based on retroviral transduction of the IL-1beta or TNF-alpha cytokine genes into human NB lines. Secretion of the corresponding cytokine, was demonstrated in all lines, although with considerable quantitative variations. Cytokine gene expression significantly reduced the proliferation index (p = 0.0001); this effect was associated with either terminal neuronal (one TNF-alpha line) or fibroblast-like differentiation (two IL-1beta lines), leading to growth arrest after a few weeks. Cell surface levels of CD54 and HLA class II remained unaffected, but HLA class I (p < 0.001) and CD58 expression (p = 0.01) increased on SKNSH after TNF-alpha gene transfer. Mononuclear cells from normal allogeneic donors cocultured with both IL-1beta (p < 0.001) and TNF-alpha lines (p < 0.01), showed a significant increase in the proportion of activated T cells (CD3+DR+); however, their cytotoxicity and proliferation rate remained unchanged. Immunotherapy of neuroblastoma will require identification of transduced lines in which cytokine secretion induces phenotypic changes in such a way as to augment their likely immunomodulatory properties without impeding cell growth. Because of the limited efficacy of IL-1beta or TNF-alpha gene transfer alone, further studies should focus on combination with other immunomodulatory agents, to improve their potential efficacy in neuroblastoma.

  2. Beta-elemene blocks epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 through Smad3-mediated down-regulation of nuclear transcription factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Zhang

    Full Text Available Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT is the first step required for breast cancer to initiate metastasis. However, the potential of drugs to block and reverse the EMT process are not well explored. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of beta-elemene (ELE, an active component of a natural plant-derived anti-neoplastic agent in an established EMT model mediated by transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1. We found that ELE (40 µg/ml blocked the TGF-β1-induced phenotypic transition in the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. ELE was able to inhibit TGF-β1-mediated upregulation of mRNA and protein expression of nuclear transcription factors (SNAI1, SNAI2, TWIST and SIP1, potentially through decreasing the expression and phosphorylation of Smad3, a central protein mediating the TGF-β1 signalling pathway. These findings suggest a potential therapeutic benefit of ELE in treating basal-like breast cancer.

  3. Enhancement of insulin release from the beta-cell line INS-1 by an ethanolic extract of Bauhinia variegata and its major constituent roseoside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankish, Neil; de Sousa Menezes, Fábio; Mills, Clive; Sheridan, Helen

    2010-07-01

    Plants of the genus Bauhinia are used in several countries worldwide for the treatment of diabetes, and several related species have been shown to have hypoglycaemic effects in vivo in both normoglycaemic and alloxan- and streptozotocin-treated animal models. In this study, the insulin-secreting cell line INS-1 was used to examine the effects of the crude ethanolic extract of leaves of B. variegata L. var. Candida Voidt and its major metabolite (6 S,7 E,9 R)-9-hydroxymegastigma-4,7-dien-3-one-9- beta-glycopyraroside (roseoside) on insulinotropic activity. The crude extracts and the major metabolite were shown to increase insulin secretion in a dose-dependant manner.

  4. Activating the Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway for the Treatment of Melanoma--Application of LY2090314, a Novel Selective Inhibitor of Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M Atkinson

    Full Text Available It has previously been observed that a loss of β-catenin expression occurs with melanoma progression and that nuclear β-catenin levels are inversely proportional to cellular proliferation, suggesting that activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway may provide benefit for melanoma patients. In order to further probe this concept we tested LY2090314, a potent and selective small-molecule inhibitor with activity against GSK3α and GSK3β isoforms. In a panel of melanoma cell lines, nM concentrations of LY2090314 stimulated TCF/LEF TOPFlash reporter activity, stabilized β-catenin and elevated the expression of Axin2, a Wnt responsive gene and marker of pathway activation. Cytotoxicity assays revealed that melanoma cell lines are very sensitive to LY2090314 in vitro (IC50 ~10 nM after 72hr of treatment in contrast to other solid tumor cell lines (IC50 >10 uM as evidenced by caspase activation and PARP cleavage. Cell lines harboring mutant B-RAF or N-RAS were equally sensitive to LY2090314 as were those with acquired resistance to the BRAF inhibitor Vemurafenib. shRNA studies demonstrated that β-catenin stabilization is required for apoptosis following treatment with the GSK3 inhibitor since the sensitivity of melanoma cell lines to LY290314 could be overcome by β-catenin knockdown. We further demonstrate that in vivo, LY2090314 elevates Axin2 gene expression after a single dose and produces tumor growth delay in A375 melanoma xenografts with repeat dosing. The activity of LY2090314 in preclinical models suggests that the role of Wnt activators for the treatment of melanoma should be further explored.

  5. Ly49 receptors: Innate and adaptive immune paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Munir A Rahim

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Ly49 receptors are type II C-type lectin-like membrane glycoproteins encoded by a family of highly polymorphic and polygenic genes within the mouse natural killer gene complex (NKC. This gene family is designated Klra, and includes genes that encode both inhibitory and activating Ly49 receptors in mice. Ly49 receptors recognize class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC-I and MHC-I-like proteins on normal as well as altered cells. Their functional homologs in humans are the killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs, which recognize HLA class I molecules as ligands. Classically, Ly49 receptors are described as being expressed on both the developing and mature natural killer (NK cells. The inhibitory Ly49 receptors are involved in NK cell education, a process in which NK cells acquire function and tolerance towards cells that express ‘self-MHC-I’. On the other hand, the activating Ly49 receptors recognize altered cells expressing activating ligands. New evidence shows a broader Ly49 expression pattern on both innate and adaptive immune cells. Ly49 receptors have been described on multiple NK cell subsets, such as uterine NK (uNK and memory NK cells, as well as NKT cells, dendritic cells (DC, plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC, macrophages, neutrophils and cells of the adaptive immune system, such as activated T cells and regulatory CD8+ T cells. In this review we discuss the expression pattern and proposed functions of Ly49 receptors on various immune cells and their contribution to immunity.

  6. IL-1beta-induced pro-apoptotic signalling is facilitated by NCAM/FGF receptor signalling and inhibited by the C3d ligand in the INS-1E rat beta cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, L G; Størling, J; Heding, P

    2006-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: IL-1beta released from immune cells induces beta cell pro-apoptotic signalling via mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB). In neurons, the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) signals to several elements involved in IL-1beta-induced pro-ap...

  7. Improvements to the on-line mass separator, RAMA, and the beta-delayed charged-particle emission of proton-rich sd shell nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ognibene, Theodore Joseph [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Nuclear Science Div.

    1996-03-01

    To overcome the extreme difficulties encountered in the experimental decay studies of proton drip line nuclei, several techniques have been utilized, including a helium-jet transport system, particle identification detectors and mass separation. Improvements to the ion source/extraction region of the He-jet coupled on-line Recoil Atom Mass Analyzer (RAMA) and its target/ion source coupling resulted in significant increases in RAMA efficiencies and its mass resolution, as well as reductions in the overall transit time. At the 88-Inch Cyclotron at LBNL, the decays of 31Cl, 27P and 28P, with half-lives of 150 msec, 260 msec and 270.3 msec, respectively, were examined using a he-jet and low-energy gas ΔE-gas ΔE-silicon E detector telescopes. Total beta-delayed proton branches of 0.3% and 0.07% in 31Cl and 27P, respectively, were estimated. Several proton peaks that had been previously assigned to the decay of 31Cl were shown to be from the decay of 25Si. In 27P, two proton groups at 459 ± 14 keV and 610 ± 11 keV, with intensities of 7 ± 3% and 92 ± 4% relative to the main (100%) group were discovered. The Gamow-Teller component of the preceding beta-decay of each observed proton transition was compared to results from shell model calculations. Finally, a new proton transition was identified, following the β-decay of 28P, at 1,444 ± 12 keV with a 1.7 ± 0.5% relative intensity to the 100% group. Using similar low-energy detector telescopes and the mass separator TISOL at TRIUMF, the 109 msec and 173 msec activities, 17Ne and 33Ar, were studied. A new proton group with energy 729 ± 15 keV was observed following the beta-decay of 17Ne. Several discrepancies between earlier works as to the energies, intensities and assignments of several proton transitions from 17Ne and 33Ar were resolved.

  8. Bad Beta, Good Beta

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, John; Vuolteenaho, Tuomo

    2003-01-01

    This paper explains the size and value "anomalies" in stock returns using an economically motivated two-beta model. We break the beta of a stock with the market portfolio into two components, one reflecting news about the market's future cash flows and one reflecting news about the market's discount rates. Intertemporal asset pricing theory suggests that the former should have a higher price of risk; thus beta, like cholesterol, comes in "had" and "good" varieties. Empirically, we find that v...

  9. A Search for Boron in Damped Ly{\\alpha} Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Berg, Trystyn A M; Venn, Kim A; Prochaska, J Xavier

    2013-01-01

    We present the first systematic study of boron beyond the Local Group. This analysis is performed on a sample of 30 damped Ly{\\alpha} systems (DLAs) with strong metal-lines, which are expected to trace the interstellar medium of high z galaxies. We report on two boron detections at > 3{\\sigma} significance; one new detection and one confirmation. The ratios of B/O and, for the first time, B/S are compared with previous stellar and interstellar measurements in the Milky Way and Small Magellanic Cloud. The novel comparison with sulphur, which tracks oxygen's abundance, alleviates the uncertainty associated with stellar oxygen measurements. For both detections, the inferred B/S ratio is in excess of the prediction of primary boron production from spallation processes. Possible sources of contamination are discussed, as well as physical effects that could impact the observed ratios. However taken at face value, the implication of these measurements suggest potentially higher cosmic ray fluxes in DLAs. The prospec...

  10. A DEEP NARROWBAND IMAGING SEARCH FOR C iv AND He ii EMISSION FROM Lyα BLOBS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaia, Fabrizio Arrigoni; Yang, Yujin; Hennawi, Joseph F. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Prochaska, J. Xavier [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, California 95064 (United States); Matsuda, Yuichi [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Yamada, Toru [Astronomical Institute, Tohoku University, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Hayashino, Tomoki, E-mail: arrigoni@mpia.de [Research Center for Neutrino Science, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)

    2015-05-01

    We conduct a deep narrowband imaging survey of 13 Lyα blobs (LABs) located in the SSA22 proto-cluster at z ∼ 3.1 in the C iv and He ii emission lines in an effort to constrain the physical process powering the Lyα emission in LABs. Our observations probe down to unprecedented surface brightness (SB) limits of (2.1–3.4) × 10{sup −18} erg s{sup −1} cm{sup −2} arcsec{sup −2} per 1 arcsec{sup 2} aperture (5σ) for the He ii λ1640 and C iv λ1549 lines, respectively. We do not detect extended He ii and C iv emission in any of the LABs, placing strong upper limits on the He ii/Lyα and C iv/Lyα line ratios, of 0.11 and 0.16, for the brightest two LABs in the field. We conduct detailed photoionization modeling of the expected line ratios and find that, although our data constitute the deepest ever observations of these lines, they are still not deep enough to rule out a scenario where the Lyα emission is powered by the ionizing radiation from an obscured active galactic nucleus. Our models can accommodate He ii/Lyα and C iv/Lyα ratios as low as ≃0.05 and ≃0.07, respectively, implying that one needs to reach SB as low as (1–1.5) × 10{sup −18} erg s{sup −1} cm{sup −2} arcsec{sup −2} (at 5σ) in order to rule out a photoionization scenario. These depths will be achievable with the new generation of image-slicing integral field units such as the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) on VLT and the Keck Cosmic Web Imager (KCWI). We also model the expected He ii/Lyα and C iv/Lyα in a different scenario, where Lyα emission is powered by shocks generated in a large-scale superwind, but find that our observational constraints can only be met for shock velocities v{sub s} ≳ 250 km s{sup −1}, which appear to be in conflict with recent observations of quiescent kinematics in LABs.

  11. The LyA-LyC Connection: Evidence for an Enhanced Contribution of UV-faint Galaxies to Cosmic Reionization

    CERN Document Server

    Dijkstra, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The escape of ionizing Lyman Continuum (LyC) photons requires the existence of low-N_HI sightlines, which also promote escape of Lyman-Alpha (Lya). We use a suite of 2500 Lya Monte-Carlo radiative transfer simulations through models of dusty, clumpy interstellar (`multiphase') media from Gronke & Dijkstra (2016), and compare the escape fractions of Lya [f_esc(Lya)] and LyC radiation [f_esc(LyC)]. We find that f_esc(LyC) and f_esc(Lya) are correlated: galaxies with a low f_esc(Lya) consistently have a low f_esc(LyC), while galaxies with a high f_esc(Lya) exhibit a large dispersion in f_esc(LyC). We argue that there is increasing observational evidence that Lya escapes more easily from UV-faint galaxies. The correlation between f_esc(LyC) and f_esc(Lya) then implies that UV-faint galaxies contribute more to the ionizing background than implied by the faint-end slope of the UV-luminosity function. In multiphase gases, the ionizing escape fraction is most strongly affected by the cloud covering factor, f_cl, ...

  12. Neutral ISM, Lyα, and Lyman-continuum in the Nearby Starburst Haro11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Thorsen, T. Emil; Östlin, Göran; Hayes, Matthew; Puschnig, Johannes

    2017-03-01

    Star-forming galaxies are believed to be a major source of Lyman continuum (LyC) radiation responsible for reionizing the early universe. Direct observations of escaping ionizing radiation have however been sparse and with low escape fractions. In the local universe, only 10 emitters have been observed, with typical escape fractions of a few percent. The mechanisms regulating this escape need to be strongly evolving with redshift in order to account for the epoch of reionization. Gas content and star formation feedback are among the main suspects, known to both regulate neutral gas coverage and evolve with cosmic time. In this paper, we reanalyze Hubble Space Telescope (HST)-Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) spectrocopy of the first detected local LyC leaker, Haro 11. We examine the connection between LyC leakage and Lyα line shape, and feedback-influenced neutral interstellar medium (ISM) properties like kinematics and gas distribution. We discuss the two extremes of an optically thin, density bounded ISM and a riddled, optically thick, ionization bounded ISM, and how Haro 11 fits into theoretical predictions. We find that the most likely ISM model is a clumpy neutral medium embedded in a highly ionized medium with a combined covering fraction of unity and a residual neutral gas column density in the ionized medium high enough to be optically thick to Lyα, but low enough to be at least partly transparent to LyC and undetected in Si ii. This suggests that star formation feedback and galaxy-scale interaction events play a major role in opening passageways for ionizing radiation through the neutral medium. Based on observations with HST-COS, program GO 13017, obtained from the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST). STScI is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. Support for MAST for non-HST data is provided by the NASA Office of Space Science via grant NNX09AF08G and by other grants and

  13. 17beta-estradiol attenuates hyperoxia-induced apoptosis in mouse C8-D1A cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppmann, Stephanie; Römer, Susanne; Altmann, Rodica; Obladen, Michael; Berns, Monika

    2008-11-15

    In premature infants, oxygen free radicals generated following neonatal resuscitation are associated with subsequent diseases such as retinopathy of prematurity and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Recent studies in brain tissue samples have shown that nonphysiologic oxygen levels play a key role in induction of apoptosis in the developing brain. Estrogen is a well-established agent in neuroprotection and, therefore, is thought to be neuroprotective even in the premature brain. Astrocytes appear to have a critical role in protection and survival of neurons in the brain. As one of the glial cell types, they have a great potential for possible involvement in the mediation of estrogen neuroprotective effects. The aim of our study was to analyze whether astrocytes in cell cultures are damaged by hyperoxia and whether 17beta-estradiol (E2) can protect them against apoptosis. Additionally, we investigated the mechanism of the protection by E2, hypothesizing that it is mediated through extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2). Cells underwent eightfold more apoptosis when cultivated in hyperoxia compared with normoxia. Addition of E2 reduced apoptosis in hyperoxia by more than 50%. Levels of ERK1/2 and phosphorylated ERK1/2 were increased after hyperoxia compared with normoxia. Preincubation with E2 prior to exposure to hyperoxia resulted in decreased levels of ERK1/2 and pERK1/2. Hyperoxia induces apoptosis in C8-D1A cells, and E2 seems to be a protecting factor for astrocytes in hyperoxia. This effect is not mediated through up-regulation of pERK1/2.

  14. On the lack of correlation between Mg II 2796, 2803 Å and Lyα emission in lensed star-forming galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigby, J. R. [Astrophysics Science Division, Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Bayliss, M. B. [Department of Physics, Harvard University, 17 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Gladders, M. D. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 S. Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Sharon, K. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Wuyts, E. [Max Plank Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Dahle, H. [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029, Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway)

    2014-07-20

    We examine the Mg II 2796, 2803 Å, Lyα, and nebular line emission in five bright star-forming galaxies at 1.66 < z < 1.91 that have been gravitationally lensed by foreground galaxy clusters. All five galaxies show prominent Mg II emission and absorption in a P Cygni profile. We find no correlation between the equivalent widths of Mg II and Lyα emission. The Mg II emission has a broader range of velocities than do the nebular emission line profiles; the Mg II emission is redshifted with respect to systemic by 100-200 km s{sup –1}. When present, Lyα is even more redshifted. The reddest components of Mg II and Lyα emission have tails to 500-600 km s{sup –1}, implying a strong outflow. The lack of correlation in the Mg II and Lyα equivalent widths, the differing velocity profiles, and the high ratios of Mg II to nebular line fluxes together suggest that the bulk of Mg II emission does not ultimately arise as nebular line emission, but may instead be reprocessed stellar continuum emission.

  15. Limits on the LyC signal from z ~ 3 sources with secure redshift and HST coverage in the E-CDFS field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guaita, L.; Pentericci, L.; Grazian, A.; Vanzella, E.; Nonino, M.; Giavalisco, M.; Zamorani, G.; Bongiorno, A.; Cassata, P.; Castellano, M.; Garilli, B.; Gawiser, E.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Lemaux, B. C.; Maccagni, D.; Merlin, E.; Santini, P.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Thomas, R.; Zucca, E.; De Barros, S.; Hathi, N. P.; Amorin, R.; Bardelli, S.; Fontana, A.

    2016-03-01

    Context. Determining the strength of the Lyman continuum (LyC) and the fraction of LyC escape have implications for the properties of the emitting sources at any redshift, but also for the re-ionization of the Universe at z > 6. Aims: We aim to measure the LyC signal from a sample of sources in the Chandra deep field south. We collect star-forming galaxies (SFGs) and active galactic nuclei (AGN) with accurate spectroscopic redshifts, for which Hubble Space Telescope (HST) coverage and multi-wavelength photometry are available. Methods: We selected a sample of about 200 sources at z ~ 3. Taking advantage of HST resolution, we applied a careful cleaning procedure and rejected sources showing nearby clumps with different colours, which could be lower-z interlopers. Our clean sample consisted of 86 SFGs (including 19 narrow-band selected Lyα emitters) and 8 AGN (including 6 detected in X-rays). We measured the LyC flux from aperture photometry in four narrow-band filters covering wavelengths below a 912 Å rest frame (3.11 models, we assume an average intrinsic Lν(1400 Å)/Lν(900 Å) ratio of 5 as the representative value for our sample. With this value and an average treatment of the lines of sight of the inter-galactic medium, we estimate the LyC escape fraction relative to the intrinsic value (fescrel(LyC)). We do not directly detect ionizing radiation from any individual SFG, but we are able to set a 1(2)σ upper limit of fescrel(LyC) < 12(24)%. This result is consistent with other non-detections published in the literature. No meaningful limits can be calculated for the sub-sample of Lyα emitters. We obtain one significant direct detection for an AGN at z = 3.46, with fescrel(LyC) = (72 ± 18)%. Conclusions: Our upper limit on fescrel(LyC) implies that the SFGs studied here do not present either the physical properties or the geometric conditions suitable for efficient LyC-photon escape. Based on data obtained with the European Southern Observatory Very Large

  16. Photometric followup investigations on LAMOST survey target Ly And

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hong-peng; Zhang, Li-yun; Han, Xianming L.; Pi, Qing-feng; Wang, Dai-mei

    2017-02-01

    We present a low-dispersion spectrum and two sets of CCD photometric light curves of the eclipsing binary LY And for the first time. The spectrum of LY And was classified as G2. We derived an updated ephemeris based on all previously available and our newly acquired minimum light times. Our analyses of LY And light curve minimum times reveals that the differences between calculated and observed minimum times for LY And can be represented by an upward parabolic curve, which means its orbital period is increasing with a rate of 1.88 (± 0.13) × 10-7 days/year. This increase in orbital period may be interpreted as mass transfer from the primary component to the secondary component, with a rate of dM1/dt = -4.54 × 10-8M⊙/year. By analyzing our CCD photometric light curves obtained in 2015, we obtained its photometric solution with the Wilson-Devinney program. This photometric solution also fits very well our light curves obtained in 2014. Our photometric solution shows that LY And is a contact eclipsing binary and its contact factor is f = (17.8 ± 1.9)%. Furthermore, both our spectroscopic and photometric data show no obvious chromospheric activity of LY And.

  17. Discovery of an Enormous Lyα Nebula in a Massive Galaxy Overdensity at z = 2.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zheng; Fan, Xiaohui; Yang, Yujin; Bian, Fuyan; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Zabludoff, Ann; McGreer, Ian; Zheng, Zhen-Ya; Green, Richard; Cantalupo, Sebastiano; Frye, Brenda; Hamden, Erika; Jiang, Linhua; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Wang, Ran

    2017-03-01

    Enormous Lyα nebulae (ELANe), unique tracers of galaxy density peaks, are predicted to lie at the nodes and intersections of cosmic filamentary structures. Previous successful searches for ELANe have focused on wide-field narrowband surveys or have targeted known sources such as ultraluminous quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) or radio galaxies. Utilizing groups of coherently strong Lyα absorptions, we have developed a new method to identify high-redshift galaxy overdensities and have identified an extremely massive overdensity, BOSS1441, at z=2{--}3. In its density peak, we discover an ELAN that is associated with a relatively faint continuum. To date, this object has the highest diffuse Lyα nebular luminosity of {L}{nebula}=5.1+/- 0.1× {10}44 erg s‑1. Above the 2σ surface brightness limit of SB{}{Lyα }=4.8× {10}-18 erg s‑1 cm‑2 arcsec‑2, this nebula has an end-to-end spatial extent of 442 kpc. This radio-quiet source also has extended C iv λ 1549 and He ii λ 1640 emission on ≳ 30 {kpc} scales. Note that the Lyα, He ii, and C iv emissions all have double-peaked line profiles. Each velocity component has an FWHM of ≈700–1000 km s‑1. We argue that this Lyα nebula could be powered by shocks due to an active galactic nucleus–driven outflow or photoionization by a strongly obscured source.

  18. Effect of the intergalactic environment on the observability of Ly-alpha emitters during reionization

    CERN Document Server

    Iliev, Ilian T; McDonald, Patrick; Mellema, Garrelt; Pen, Ue-Li

    2007-01-01

    Observations of high-redshift Ly-alpha sources are a major tool for studying the high-redshift Universe. We discuss the effect of the reionizing intergalactic medium on the observability of Ly-alpha sources based on large simulations of early structure formation with radiative transfer. This takes into account self-consistently the reionization history, density, velocity and ionization structures and nonlinear source clustering. We find that all fields are highly anisotropic and as a consequence there are very large variations in opacity among the different lines-of-sight. The velocity effects, from both infall and source peculiar velocity are most important for the luminous sources, affecting the line profile and depressing the bright end of the luminosity function. The line profiles are generally asymmetric and the line centers of the luminous sources are always absorbed due to the high density of the local IGM. For both luminous and average sources the damping wing effects are of similar magnitude and rema...

  19. PDGF-BB induces expression of LTBP-1 but not TGF-beta1 in a rat cirrhotic fat storing cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westhoff, Jens H; Sawitza, Iris; Keski-Oja, Jorma; Gressner, Axel M; Breitkopf, Katja

    2003-01-01

    TGF-beta, a profibrogenic cytokine is predominantly secreted as a latent molecule complexed with one of the latent TGF-beta binding proteins (LTBP). Due to the proposed functions of LTBP-1 and -3 in regulating TGF-beta-bioavailability and -activity, we investigated the effects of PDGF-BB and TGF-beta1 on their expression levels in Cirrhotic fat storing cells (CFSC). CFSC basally express LTBP-1 and -3 and TGF-beta1. LTBP-1 colocalizes with LAP and the cells secrete some active TGF-beta1. Promoter studies showed no strong induction of the LTBP-1 promoters after stimulation, although mRNA and protein levels were increased by PDGF-BB treatment without affecting TGF-beta1 expression. Vice versa, TGF-beta1 treatment did not alter LTBP-1 expression while an autocrine induction was found. Our data indicate that LTBP-1 but not TGF-beta1 is induced by PDGF-BB and that TGF-beta1 autoinduction does not affect the expression of LTBP-beta1. This divergent regulation may represent an important mechanism for modulation of TGF-beta bioavailability.

  20. Keck/MOSFIRE Spectroscopy of z = 7-8 Galaxies: Lyα Emission from a Galaxy at z = 7.66

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mimi; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Livermore, Rachael C.; Capak, Peter L.; Dickinson, Mark; Fontana, Adriano

    2016-08-01

    We report the results from some of the deepest Keck/Multi-Object Spectrometer For Infra-Red Exploration data yet obtained for candidate z ≳ 7 galaxies. Our data show one significant line detection with 6.5σ significance in our combined 10 hr of integration which is independently detected on more than one night, thus ruling out the possibility that the detection is spurious. The asymmetric line profile and non-detection in the optical bands strongly imply that the detected line is Lyα emission from a galaxy at z(Lyα) = 7.6637 ± 0.0011, making it the fourth spectroscopically confirmed galaxy via Lyα at z > 7.5. This galaxy is bright in the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV; M UV ˜ -21.2) with a moderately blue UV slope (β =-{2.2}-0.2+0.3), and exhibits a rest-frame Lyα equivalent width of EW(Lyα) ˜ {15.6}-3.6+5.9 Å. The non-detection of the 11 other z ˜ 7-8 galaxies in our long 10 hr integration, reaching a median 5σ sensitivity of 28 Å in the rest-frame EW(Lyα), implies a 1.3σ deviation from the null hypothesis of a non-evolving distribution in the rest-frame EW(Lyα) between 3 6.5, which may signal the evolving neutral fraction in the intergalactic medium at the end of the reionization epoch, although our weak evidence suggests the need for a larger statistical sample to allow for a more robust conclusion.

  1. The luminosity function of Ly-alpha emitters at 2.3 < z < 4.6 from integral-field spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Van Breukelen, C; Venemans, B P; Breukelen, Caroline van; Jarvis, Matt J.; Venemans, Bram P.

    2005-01-01

    We have used VIsible MultiObject Spectrograph Integral-Field Unit (VIMOS-IFU) observations centred on a radio galaxy at z=2.9 to search for Ly-alpha emitters within a comoving volume of ~ 10^4 Mpc^3. We find 14 Ly-alpha emitters with flux > 1.4 x 10^-20 Wm^-2, yielding a comoving space density of 0.0018 +/- 0.0006 Mpc^-3. We fit a Schechter luminosity function which agrees well with previous studies both at similar redshift (z ~ 3.4) and higher redshift (z ~ 5.7). We therefore find no evidence for evolution in the properties of Ly-alpha emitters between 3 < z < 6, although our sample is small. By summing the star-formation rates of the individual Ly-alpha emitters we find a total cosmic star-formation rate density of rho_SFR = 6.7 +/- 0.5 x 10^-3 M_solar yr^-1 Mpc^-3. Integrating over the luminosity function for the combined Ly-alpha surveys at z ~ 3.4 and accounting for the difference in obscuration between the Ly-alpha line and the UV-continuum yields an estimate of rho_SFR ~ 2.2 x 10^-2 M_solar yr^-1...

  2. Nucleosome Presence at AML-1 Binding Sites Inversely Correlates with Ly49 Expression: Revelations from an Informatics Analysis of Nucleosomes and Immune Cell Transcription Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wight, Andrew; Yang, Doo; Ioshikhes, Ilya; Makrigiannis, Andrew P

    2016-04-01

    Beyond its role in genomic organization and compaction, the nucleosome is believed to participate in the regulation of gene transcription. Here, we report a computational method to evaluate the nucleosome sensitivity for a transcription factor over a given stretch of the genome. Sensitive factors are predicted to be those with binding sites preferentially contained within nucleosome boundaries and lacking 10 bp periodicity. Based on these criteria, the Acute Myeloid Leukemia-1a (AML-1a) transcription factor, a regulator of immune gene expression, was identified as potentially sensitive to nucleosomal regulation within the mouse Ly49 gene family. This result was confirmed in RMA, a cell line with natural expression of Ly49, using MNase-Seq to generate a nucleosome map of chromosome 6, where the Ly49 gene family is located. Analysis of this map revealed a specific depletion of nucleosomes at AML-1a binding sites in the expressed Ly49A when compared to the other, silent Ly49 genes. Our data suggest that nucleosome-based regulation contributes to the expression of Ly49 genes, and we propose that this method of predicting nucleosome sensitivity could aid in dissecting the regulatory role of nucleosomes in general.

  3. Translational Pharmacology of the Metabotropic Glutamate 2 Receptor-Preferring Agonist LY2812223 in the Animal and Human Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Christian C; Schober, Douglas A; Tu, Yuan; Quets, Anne; Xiao, Hongling; Watt, Marla; Siuda, Ed; Nisenbaum, Eric; Xiang, Chuanxi; Heinz, Beverly; Prieto, Lourdes; McKinzie, David L; Monn, James A

    2017-04-01

    LY2812223 [(1R,2S,4R,5R,6R)-2-amino-4-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylsulfanyl)bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-2,6-dicarboxylic acid] was identified via structure-activity studies arising from the potent metabotropic glutamate mGlu2/3 receptor agonist LY354740 [(+)-2-aminobicyclo[3.1.0] hexane-2,6-dicarboxylic acid] as an mGlu2-preferring agonist. This pharmacology was determined using stably transfected cells containing either the human mGlu2 or mGlu3 receptor. We extended the pharmacological evaluation of LY2812223 to native brain tissues derived from relevant species used for preclinical drug development as well as human postmortem brain tissue. This analysis was conducted to ensure pharmacological translation from animals to human subjects in subsequent clinical studies. A guanosine 5'-O-(3-[(35)S]thio)triphosphate (GTPγS) functional binding assay, a method for measuring Gi-coupled signaling that is inherent to the group 2 mGlu receptors, was used to evaluate LY2812223 pharmacology of native mGlu receptors in mouse, rat, nonhuman primate, and human cortical brain tissue samples. In native tissue membranes, LY2812223 unexpectedly acted as a partial agonist across all species tested. Activity of LY2812223 was lost in cortical membranes collected from mGlu2 knockout mice, but not those from mGlu3 knockout mice, providing additional support for mGlu2-preferring activity. Other signal transduction assays were used for comparison with the GTP binding assay (cAMP, calcium mobilization, and dynamic mass redistribution). In ectopic cell line-based assays, LY2812223 displayed near maximal agonist responses at the mGlu2 receptor across all assay formats, while it showed no functional agonist activity at the mGlu3 receptor except in the cAMP assay. In native brain slices or membranes that express both mGlu2 and mGlu3 receptors, LY2812223 displayed unexpected partial agonist activity, which may suggest a functional interplay between these receptor subtypes in the brain. Copyright © 2017 by

  4. What causes the Ly$\\alpha$ forest, clouds or large-scale velocity fields ?

    CERN Document Server

    Kegel, W H

    1997-01-01

    We show that in stochastic large scale velocity fields superposed on the general Hubble flow, the formation of the GP-depression in QSO spectra is intimately related to the formation of the absorption-line structure usually called `Ly-alpha forest'. Therefore the HI-density in the diffuse IGM might be substaintially underestimated if one determines the GP-effect from the apparent continuum in high resolution spectra of QSOs. Our tentative calculations imply a current baryon density Omega_b h^2_{100} = 0.015 which agrees well with the baryon density determination from the deuterium abaundance measurement by Levshakov, Kegel and Takahara (the same volume).

  5. Transforming growth factor beta receptor 2 (TGFBR2 changes sialylation in the microsatellite unstable (MSI Colorectal cancer cell line HCT116.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Lee

    Full Text Available Aberrant glycosylation is a common feature of many malignancies including colorectal cancers (CRCs. About 15% of CRC show the microsatellite instability (MSI phenotype that is associated with a high frequency of biallelic frameshift mutations in the A10 coding mononucleotide microsatellite of the transforming growth factor beta receptor 2 (TGFBR2 gene. If and how impaired TGFBR2 signaling in MSI CRC cells affects cell surface glycan pattern is largely unexplored. Here, we used the TGFBR2-deficient MSI colon carcinoma cell line HCT116 as a model system. Stable clones conferring doxycycline (dox-inducible expression of a single copy wildtype TGFBR2 transgene were generated by recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE. In two independent clones, dox-inducible expression of wildtype TGFBR2 protein and reconstitution of its signaling function was shown. Metabolic labeling experiments using the tritiated sialic acid precursor N-acetyl-D-mannosamine (ManNAc revealed a significant decline (∼30% of its incorporation into newly synthesized sialoglycoproteins in a TGFBR2-dependent manner. In particular, we detected a significant decrease of sialylated ß1-integrin upon reconstituted TGFBR2 signaling which did not influence ß1-integrin protein turnover. Notably, TGFBR2 reconstitution did not affect the transcript levels of any of the known human sialyltransferases when examined by real-time RT- PCR analysis. These results suggest that reconstituted TGFBR2 signaling in an isogenic MSI cell line model system can modulate sialylation of cell surface proteins like ß1-integrin. Moreover, our model system will be suitable to uncover the underlying molecular mechanisms of altered MSI tumor glycobiology.

  6. Subbarrier heavy ion fusion enhanced by nucleon transfer and subbarrier fusion of nuclei far from the line of {beta}-stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denisov, V.Yu. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Kiev (Ukraine)]|[Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    We discuss a model for the description of subbarrier fusion of heavy ions which takes into account the coupling to the low-energy surface vibrational states and to the few-nucleon transfer with arbitrary reaction Q-value. The fusion reactions {sup 28,30}Si+{sup 58,62,64}Ni, {sup 40}Ca+{sup 90,96}Zr, {sup 28}S+{sup 94,100}Mo, {sup 16,18,20,22,24}O+{sup 58}Ni and {sup 28}Si+{sup 124,126,128,130,132}Sn are analyzed in detail. The model describes rather well the experimental fusion cross section and mean angular momentum for reactions between nuclei near the {beta}-stability line. It is shown that these quantities are significantly enhanced by few-nucleon transfer with large positive Q-value. A shape independent parameterization of the heavy ion potential at distances smaller then the touching point is proposed. (orig.)

  7. Over-expression of TSC-22 (TGF-beta stimulated clone-22) markedly enhances 5-fluorouracil-induced apoptosis in a human salivary gland cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, D; Kawamata, H; Omotehara, F; Miwa, Y; Hino, S; Begum, N M; Yoshida, H; Sato, M

    2000-06-01

    We have recently isolated TSC-22 (transforming growth factor-beta-stimulated clone-22) cDNA as an anticancer, drug-inducible (with vesnarinone) gene in a human salivary gland cancer cell line, TYS. We have also reported that TSC-22 negatively regulates the growth of TYS cells and that down-regulation of TSC-22 in TYS cells plays a major role in salivary gland tumorigenesis (Nakashiro et al, 1998). In this study, we transfected TYS cells with an expression vector encoding the TSC-22-GFP (green fluorescent protein) fusion protein, and we established TSC-22-GFP-expressing TYS cell clones. Next, we examined (a) the subcellular localization of the fusion protein, (b) the sensitivity of the transfectants to several anticancer drugs (5-fluorouracil, cis-diaminedichloroplatinum, peplomycin), and (c) induction of apoptotic cell death in the transfectants by 5-fluorouracil treatment. The TSC-22-GFP fusion protein was clearly localized to the cytoplasm, but not to the nucleus. Over-expression of the TSC-22-GFP fusion protein did not affect cell growth, but significantly increased the sensitivity of the cells to the anticancer drugs (p way ANOVA). Furthermore, over-expression of the TSC-22-GFP fusion protein markedly enhanced 5-fluorouracil-induced apoptosis. These findings suggest that over-expression of TSC-22-GFP protein in TYS cells enhances the chemosensitivity of the cells via induction of apoptosis.

  8. P144, a Transforming Growth Factor beta inhibitor peptide, generates antitumoral effects and modifies SMAD7 and SKI levels in human glioblastoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo-Oller, Gabriel; Vollmann-Zwerenz, Arabel; Meléndez, Bárbara; Rey, Juan A; Hau, Peter; Dotor, Javier; Castresana, Javier S

    2016-10-10

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most prevalent malignant primary brain tumor, accounting for 60-70% of all gliomas. Current median patient survival time is 14-16 months after diagnosis. Numerous efforts in therapy have not significantly altered the nearly uniform lethality of this malignancy. The Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGF-β) signaling pathway plays a key role in GBM and is implicated in proliferation, invasion and therapy resistance. Several inhibitors of the TGF-β pathway have entered clinical trials or are under development. In this work, the therapeutic potential of P144, a TGF-β inhibitor peptide, was analyzed. P144 decreased proliferation, migration, invasiveness, and tumorigenicity in vitro, whereas apoptosis and anoikis were significantly increased for GBM cell lines. SMAD2 phosphorylation was reduced, together with a downregulation of SKI and an upregulation of SMAD7 at both transcriptional and translational levels. Additionally, P144 was able to impair tumor growth and increase survival in an in vivo flank model. Our findings suggest a potential effect of P144 in vitro and in vivo that is mediated by regulation of transcriptional target genes of the TGF-β pathway, suggesting a therapeutic potential of P144 for GBM treatment.

  9. Photometric properties of Ly alpha emitters at z=4.86 in the COSMOS 2 square degree field

    CERN Document Server

    Shioya, Y; Sasaki, S S; Nagao, T; Murayama, T; Saitô, T; Ideue, Y; Nakajima, A; Matsuoka, K L; Trump, J; Scoville, N Z; Sanders, D B; Mobasher, B; Aussel, H; Capak, P; Kartaltepe, J; Koekemoer, A; Carilli, C; Ellis, Richard S; Garilli, B; Giavalisco, M; Kitzbichler, M G; Impey, C; LeFevre, O; Schinnerer, E; Smolcic, V

    2009-01-01

    We present results of a survey for Ly alpha emitters at z=4.86 based on optical narrowband (lambda_c=7126 angstrom, Delta lambda=73 angstrom) and broadband (B, V, r', i', and z') observations of the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) field using Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope. We find 79 LAE candidates at z=4.86 over a contiguous survey area of 1.83 deg^2, down to the Ly alpha line flux of 1.47 x 10^-17 ergs s^-1 cm^-2. We obtain the Ly alpha luminosity function with a best-fit Schechter parameters of log L^*=42.9^+0.5_-0.3 ergs s^-1 and phi^* = 1.2^+8.0_-1.1 x 10^-4 Mpc^-3 for alpha=-1.5 (fixed). The two-point correlation function for our LAE sample is xi(r) = (r/4.4^+5.7_-2.9 Mpc)^-1.90+/-0.22. In order to investigate the field-to-field variations of the properties of Ly alpha emitters, we divide the survey area into nine tiles of 0.5^circ x 0.5^circ each. We find that the number density varies with a factor of ~ 2 from field to field with high statistical significance. However, we find no significant fi...

  10. Beta Thalassemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beta thalassemia is found in people of Mediterranean, Middle Eastern, African, South Asian (Indian, Pakistani, etc.), Southeast Asian and Chinese descent. 1 Beta Thalassemia ßß Normal beta globin genes found on chromosomes ...

  11. Constraining the Lyα escape fraction with far-infrared observations of Lyα emitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wardlow, Julie L.; Calanog, J.; Cooray, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Malhotra, S.; Zheng, Z.; Rhoads, J. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Finkelstein, S. [The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Bock, J.; Bridge, C. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Ciardullo, R.; Gronwall, C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Conley, A. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy 389-UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Farrah, D. [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Gawiser, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Heinis, S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Ibar, E. [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Ivison, R. J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Marsden, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Oliver, S. J. [Astronomy Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Riechers, D., E-mail: jwardlow@dark-cosmology.dk [Department of Astronomy, Space Science Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States); and others

    2014-05-20

    We study the far-infrared properties of 498 Lyα emitters (LAEs) at z = 2.8, 3.1, and 4.5 in the Extended Chandra Deep Field-South, using 250, 350, and 500 μm data from the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey and 870 μm data from the LABOCA ECDFS Submillimeter Survey. None of the 126, 280, or 92 LAEs at z = 2.8, 3.1, and 4.5, respectively, are individually detected in the far-infrared data. We use stacking to probe the average emission to deeper flux limits, reaching 1σ depths of ∼0.1 to 0.4 mJy. The LAEs are also undetected at ≥3σ in the stacks, although a 2.5σ signal is observed at 870 μm for the z = 2.8 sources. We consider a wide range of far-infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs), including an M82 and an Sd galaxy template, to determine upper limits on the far-infrared luminosities and far-infrared-derived star formation rates of the LAEs. These star formation rates are then combined with those inferred from the Lyα and UV emission to determine lower limits on the LAEs' Lyα escape fraction (f {sub esc}(Lyα)). For the Sd SED template, the inferred LAEs f {sub esc}(Lyα) are ≳ 30% (1σ) at z = 2.8, 3.1, and 4.5, which are all significantly higher than the global f {sub esc}(Lyα) at these redshifts. Thus, if the LAEs f {sub esc}(Lyα) follows the global evolution, then they have warmer far-infrared SEDs than the Sd galaxy template. The average and M82 SEDs produce lower limits on the LAE f {sub esc}(Lyα) of ∼10%-20% (1σ), all of which are slightly higher than the global evolution of f {sub esc}(Lyα), but consistent with it at the 2σ-3σ level.

  12. The Subaru Ly-alpha blob survey: A sample of 100 kpc Ly-alpha blobs at z=3

    CERN Document Server

    Matsuda, Y; Hayashino, T; Yamauchi, R; Nakamura, Y; Morimoto, N; Ouchi, M; Ono, Y; Kousai, K; Nakamura, E; Horie, M; Fujii, T; Umemura, M; Mori, M

    2010-01-01

    We present results of a survey for giant Ly-alpha nebulae (LABs) at z=3 with Subaru/Suprime-Cam. We obtained Ly-alpha imaging at z=3.09+-0.03 around the SSA22 protocluster and in several blank fields. The total survey area is 2.1 square degrees, corresponding to a comoving volume of 1.6 x 10^6 Mpc^3. Using a uniform detection threshold of 1.4 x 10^{-18} erg s^{-1} cm^{-2} arcsec^{-2} for the Ly-alpha images, we construct a sample of 14 LAB candidates with major-axis diameters larger than 100 kpc, including five previously known blobs and two known quasars. This survey triples the number of known LABs over 100 kpc. The giant LAB sample shows a possible "morphology-density relation": filamentary LABs reside in average density environments as derived from compact Ly-alpha emitters, while circular LABs reside in both average density and overdense environments. Although it is hard to examine the formation mechanisms of LABs only from the Ly-alpha morphologies, more filamentary LABs may relate to cold gas accretion...

  13. The Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS). III. A census of Ly\\alpha\\ Emission at $z\\gtrsim$7 from HST Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, K B; Bradač, M; Vulcani, B; Huang, K -H; Hoag, A; Maseda, M; Guaita, L; Pentericci, L; Brammer, G B; Dijkstra, M; Dressler, A; Fontana, A; Henry, A L; Jones, T A; Mason, C; Trenti, M; Wang, X

    2015-01-01

    [abbreviated] We present a census of Ly\\alpha\\ emission at $z\\gtrsim7$ utilizing deep near infrared HST grism spectroscopy from the first six completed clusters of the Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS). In 24/159 photometrically selected galaxies we detect emission lines consistent with Ly\\alpha\\ in the GLASS spectra. Based on the distribution of signal-to-noise ratios and on simulations we expect the completeness and the purity of the sample to be 40-100% and 60-90%, respectively. For the objects without detected emission lines we show that the observed (not corrected for lensing magnification) 1$\\sigma$ flux limits reaches $5\\times10^{-18}$erg/s/cm$^{2}$ per position angle over the full wavelength range of GLASS (0.8-1.7$\\mu$m). Based on the conditional probability of Ly\\alpha\\ emission measured from the ground at $z\\sim7$ we would have expected 12-18 Ly\\alpha\\ emitters. This is consistent with the number of detections, within the uncertainties, confirming the drop in Ly\\alpha\\ emission with re...

  14. Release Behaviour of Shock Loaded LY12 Aluminium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Min; DAI Lan-Hong; SHEN Le-Tian

    2005-01-01

    @@ By making use of a light gas gun, a specially designed target is impacted by the LY12 flyer, and the pressure is taken in the range of 0.6-3 GPa. Based on the stress profiles measured in the buffer materials by manganese gauges, the Hugoniot curve and release curves of LY12 aluminium alloy are obtained. Meanwhile, the release curves from different initial shocked states are described in both the pressure-particle velocity plane and the pressure-specific volume plane.

  15. For-LySa: UML for Authentication Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholtz, Mikael; Montangero, Carlo; Perrone, Lara;

    2005-01-01

    The DEGAS project aims at enriching standard UML-centred development environments in such a way that the developers of global applications can exploit automated formal analyses with minimal overhead. In this paper, we present For-LySa, an instantiation of the DEGAS approach for authentication...... analysis, which exploits an existing analysis tool developed for the process calculus LySa. We discuss what information is needed for the analysis, and how to build the UML model of an authentication protocol in such a way that the needed information can be extracted from the model. We then present our...

  16. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 downregulates dexamethasone-induced tetranectin gene expression during the in vitro mineralization of the human osteoblastic cell line SV-HFO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iba, K; Sawada, N; Chiba, H

    1995-01-01

    treatment as evidenced by Northern blotting. When transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) was added together with dexamethasone to the SV-HFO cell cultures, the mineralization process was markedly suppressed and the expression of tetra nectin and alkaline phosphatase was downregulated in a dose...

  17. The Hanle effect of Ly$\\alpha$ in an MHD model of the Solar Transition Region

    CERN Document Server

    Stepan, Jiri; Carlsson, Mats; Leenaarts, Jorrit

    2012-01-01

    In order to understand the heating of the solar corona it is crucial to obtain empirical information on the magnetic field in its lower boundary (the transition region). To this end, we need to measure and model the linear polarization produced by scattering processes in strong UV lines, such as the hydrogen Ly$\\alpha$ line. The interpretation of the observed Stokes profiles will require taking into account that the outer solar atmosphere is highly structured and dynamic, and that the height of the transition region may well vary from one place in the atmosphere to another. Here we report on the Ly$\\alpha$ scattering polarization signals we have calculated in a realistic model of an enhanced network region, resulting from a state-of-the-art radiation MHD simulation. This model is characterized by spatially complex variations of the physical quantities at transition region heights. The results of our investigation lead us to emphasize that scattering processes in the upper solar chromosphere should indeed prod...

  18. Expression of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) receptors, TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta 2 production and autocrine growth control in osteosarcoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloen, P; Jennings, C L; Gebhardt, M C; Springfield, D S; Mankin, H J

    1994-08-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is a polypeptide with multiple physiological functions. Isoforms of this growth factor have important roles in control of the cell cycle, in regulation of cell-cell interactions and in growth and development. Malignant transformation has been shown to be associated with increased expression of TGF-beta. Since bone is the largest storage site and producer of TGF-beta, we speculated on the existence of an autocrine mechanism in osteosarcoma, a malignant bone tumor. Expression of TGF-beta cell surface receptors, effects on growth of TGF-beta and TGF-beta antibodies and production of 2 TGF-beta isoforms were studied in a panel of 7 osteosarcoma cell lines. In contrast to most previous reports on the effects of TGF-beta on osteosarcoma cell growth, we found a mitogenic effect of TGF-beta 1 in 4 of 7 osteosarcoma cell lines. Receptor profiles for TGF-beta were aberrant in 5 of the 7 cell lines tested, and production of TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta 2 varied among cell lines. Addition of anti-TGF-beta antagonized the effects of endogenous TGF-beta. Our results suggest a potential role of TGF-beta in autocrine growth control of osteosarcoma cells.

  19. Mapping the low-surface brightness Universe in the UV band with Lyα emission from IGM filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marta B.; Kooistra, Robin; Zaroubi, Saleem

    2016-10-01

    A large fraction of the baryonic matter in the Universe is located in filaments in the intergalactic medium (IGM). However, the low surface brightness of these filaments has not yet allowed their direct detection except in very special regions in the circum-galactic medium. Here we simulate the intensity and spatial fluctuations in Lyman alpha (Lyα) emission from filaments in the IGM and discuss the prospects for the next generation of space-based instruments to detect the low-surface brightness Universe at ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths. Starting with a high-resolution N-body simulation, we obtain the dark matter density fluctuations and associate baryons with the dark matter particles assuming that they follow the same spatial distribution. The IGM thermal and ionization state is set by a model of the UV background and by the relevant cooling processes for a hydrogen and helium gas. The Lyα emissivity is then estimated, taking into account recombination and collisional excitation processes. We find that the detection of these filaments through their Lyα emission is well in the reach of the next generation of UV space-based instruments and so it should be achieved in the next decade. The density field is populated with halos and galaxies and their Lyα emission is estimated. Galaxies are treated as foregrounds and so we discuss methods to reduce their contamination from observational maps. Finally, we estimate the UV continuum background as a function of the redshift of the Lyα emission line and discuss how this continuum can affect observations.

  20. Ionization and feedback in Lyα haloes around two radio galaxies at z ∼ 2.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, S. G.; Humphrey, A.; Villar-Martín, M.; Lagos, P.; Moyano, M.; Overzier, R.; di Serego Alighieri, S.; Vernet, J.; Fernandes, C. A. C.

    2017-03-01

    We present new spectroscopic observations of two high-redshift radio galaxies, TXS 0211-122 (z = 2.34) and TXS 0828+193 (z = 2.57), known to be associated with large Lyα haloes. The observations were taken with the slits placed perpendicularly to the radio axis. With access to pre-existing Keck II observations taken with the slit placed along the radio axis, we are able to compare the properties of the gas in different regions of the galaxies. In both objects, we detect spatially extended Lyα emission perpendicularly to the radio axis. In TXS 0211-122, the flux and velocity profiles of Lyα are strongly affected by H I absorption/scattering. In line with previous studies, we find evidence for outflowing gas along the radio axis which may be the result of jet-gas interactions. In the slit oriented perpendicularly to the radio axis we find less perturbed gas kinematics, suggesting outflows of ionized gas in this object are focused along the radio jet axis. Additionally, we find evidence for a giant, UV-emitting arc or shell-like structure surrounding the radio galaxy Lyα halo, possibly resulting from feedback activity. In TXS 0828+193, a large Lyα halo (∼56 kpc) is detected perpendicularly to the radio axis. Along both slit position angles we find evidence for outflowing gas, which we argue is part of an approximately spherical, expanding shell or bubble of gas powered by feedback activity in the central regions of the galaxy. Our results suggest a diversity in the spatial distribution of ionized outflows in powerful radio galaxies at z ∼ 2.5.

  1. The CALYMHA survey: Lyα escape fraction and its dependence on galaxy properties at z = 2.23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthee, Jorryt; Sobral, David; Oteo, Iván; Best, Philip; Smail, Ian; Röttgering, Huub; Paulino-Afonso, Ana

    2016-05-01

    We present the first results from our CAlibrating LYMan α with Hα (CALYMHA) pilot survey at the Isaac Newton Telescope. We measure Lyα emission for 488 Hα selected galaxies at z = 2.23 from High-z Emission Line Survey in the COSMOS and UDS fields with a specially designed narrow-band filter (λc = 3918 Å, Δλ = 52 Å). We find 17 dual Hα-Lyα emitters [fLyα > 5 × 10-17 erg s-1 cm-2, of which five are X-ray active galactic nuclei (AGN)]. For star-forming galaxies, we find a range of Lyα escape fractions (fesc, measured with 3 arcsec apertures) from 2 to 30 per cent. These galaxies have masses from 3 × 108 M⊙ to 1011 M⊙ and dust attenuations E(B - V) = 0-0.5. Using stacking, we measure a median escape fraction of 1.6 ± 0.5 per cent (4.0 ± 1.0 per cent without correcting Hα for dust), but show that this depends on galaxy properties. The stacked fesc tends to decrease with increasing star formation rate and dust attenuation. However, at the highest masses and dust attenuations, we detect individual galaxies with fesc much higher than the typical values from stacking, indicating significant scatter in the values of fesc. Relations between fesc and UV slope are bimodal, with high fesc for either the bluest or reddest galaxies. We speculate that this bimodality and large scatter in the values of fesc is due to additional physical mechanisms such as outflows facilitating fesc for dusty/massive systems. Lyα is significantly more extended than Hα and the UV. fesc continues to increase up to at least 20 kpc (3σ, 40 kpc [2σ]) for typical star-forming galaxies and thus the aperture is the most important predictor of fesc.

  2. Similarities and uniqueness of Lyα emitters among star-forming galaxies at z = 2.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimakawa, Rhythm; Kodama, Tadayuki; Shibuya, Takatoshi; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Tanaka, Ichi; Matsuda, Yuichi; Tadaki, Ken-ichi; Koyama, Yusei; Hayashi, Masao; Suzuki, Tomoko L.; Yamamoto, Moegi

    2017-01-01

    We conducted a deep narrow-band imaging survey with the Subaru Prime Focus Camera on the Subaru Telescope and constructed a sample of Lyα emitters (LAEs) at z = 2.53 in the UDS-CANDELS field where a sample of Hα emitters (HAEs) at the same redshift is already obtained from our previous narrow-band observation at NIR. The deep narrow-band and multi broadband data allow us to find LAEs of stellar masses and star-formation rates (SFRs) down to ≳108 M⊙ and ≳0.2 M⊙/yr, respectively. We show that the LAEs are located along the same mass-SFR sequence traced by normal star-forming galaxies such as HAEs, but towards a significantly lower mass regime. Likewise, LAEs seem to share the same mass-size relation with typical star-forming galaxies, except for the massive LAEs, which tend to show significantly compact sizes. We identify a vigorous mass growth in the central part of LAEs: the stellar mass density in the central region of LAEs increases as their total galaxy mass grows. On the other hand, we see no Lyα line in emission for most of the HAEs. Rather, we find that the Lyα feature is either absent or in absorption (Lyα absorbers; LAAs), and its absorption strength may increase with reddening of the UV continuum slope. We demonstrate that a deep Lyα narrow-band imaging like this study is able to search for not only LAEs but also LAAs in a certain redshift slice. This work suggests that LAEs trace normal star-forming galaxies in the low-mass regime, while they remain as a unique population because the majority of HAEs are not LAEs.

  3. Alkaline pH induces IRR-mediated phosphorylation of IRS-1 and actin cytoskeleton remodeling in a pancreatic beta cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyev, Igor E; Popova, Nadezhda V; Serova, Oxana V; Zhenilo, Svetlana V; Regoli, Marì; Bertelli, Eugenio; Petrenko, Alexander G

    2017-07-01

    Secretion of mildly alkaline (pH 8.0-8.5) juice to intestines is one of the key functions of the pancreas. Recent reports indicate that the pancreatic duct system containing the alkaline juice may adjoin the endocrine cells of pancreatic islets. We have previously identified the insulin receptor-related receptor (IRR) that is expressed in islets as a sensor of mildly alkaline extracellular media. In this study, we show that those islet cells that are in contact with the excretory ducts are also IRR-expressing cells. We further analyzed the effects of alkaline media on pancreatic beta cell line MIN6. Activation of endogenous IRR but not of the insulin receptor was detected that could be inhibited with linsitinib. The IRR autophosphorylation correlated with pH-dependent linsitinib-sensitive activation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), the primary adaptor in the insulin signaling pathway. However, in contrast with insulin stimulation, no protein kinase B (Akt/PKB) phosphorylation was detected as a result of alkali treatment. We observed overexpression of several early response genes (EGR2, IER2, FOSB, EGR1 and NPAS4) upon alkali treatment of MIN6 cells but those were IRR-independent. The alkaline medium but not insulin also triggered actin cytoskeleton remodeling that was blocked by pre-incubation with linsitinib. We propose that the activation of IRR by alkali might be part of a local loop of signaling between the exocrine and endocrine parts of the pancreas where alkalinization of the juice facilitate insulin release that increases the volume of secreted juice to control its pH and bicabonate content. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  4. Modelling the Evolution of Ly$\\alpha$ Blobs and Ly$\\alpha$ Emitters

    CERN Document Server

    Smailagić, Marijana; Martinovic, Nemanja

    2016-01-01

    In this work we model the observed evolution in comoving number density of Lyman-alpha blobs (LABs) as a function of redshift, and try to find which mechanism of emission is dominant in LAB. Our model calculates LAB emission both from cooling radiation from the intergalactic gas accreting onto galaxies and from star formation (SF). We have used dark matter (DM) cosmological simulation to which we applied empirical recipes for Ly$\\alpha$ emission produced by cooling radiation and SF in every halo. In difference to the previous work, the simulated volume in the DM simulation is large enough to produce an average LABs number density. At a range of redshifts $z\\sim 1-7$ we compare our results with the observed luminosity functions of LABs and LAEs. Our cooling radiation luminosities appeared to be too small to explain LAB luminosities at all redshifts. In contrast, for SF we obtained a good agreement with observed LFs at all redshifts studied. We also discuss uncertainties which could influence the obtained resul...

  5. A young star-forming galaxy at z = 3.5 with an extended Ly\\,$α$ halo seen with MUSE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patrício, Vera; Richard, Johan; Verhamme, Anne;

    2016-01-01

    .5$, observed with MUSE, for which we obtain 2D resolved spatial information of Ly$\\alpha$ and, for the first time, of CIII] emission. The exceptional signal-to-noise of the data reveals UV emission and absorption lines rarely seen at these redshifts, allowing us to derive important physical properties (T...

  6. The brightest Ly α emitter: Pop III or black hole?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pallottini, A.; Ferrara, A.; Pacucci, F.; Gallerani, S.; Salvadori, S.; Schneider, R.; Schaerer, D.; Sobral, D.; Matthee, J.

    2015-01-01

    CR7 is the brightest z = 6.6 Ly α emitter (LAE) known to date, and spectroscopic follow-up by Sobral et al. suggests that CR7 might host Population (Pop) III stars. We examine this interpretation using cosmological hydrodynamical simulations. Several simulated galaxies show the same `Pop III wave' p

  7. High-resolution measurement, line identification, and spectral modeling of the K{beta} spectrum of heliumlike argon emitted by a laser-produced plasma using a gas-puff target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skobelev, I.Y.; Faenov, A.Y.; Dyakin, V.M. [Multicharged Ion Spectra Data Center, VNIIFTRI, Mendeleevo, 141570 (Russia); Fiedorowicz, H.; Bartnik, A.; Szczurek, M. [Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, 01-489 Warsaw (Poland); Beiersdorfer, P.; Nilsen, J.; Osterheld, A.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    1997-03-01

    We present an analysis of the spectrum of satellite transitions to the He-{beta} line in ArXVII. High-resolution measurements of the spectra from laser-heated Ar-gas-puff targets are made with spectral resolution of 10000 and spatial resolution of better than 50 {mu}m. These are compared with tokamak measurements. Several different lines are identified in the spectra and the spectral analysis is used to determine the plasma parameters in the gas-puff laser-produced plasma. The data complement those from tokamak measurements to provide more complete information on the satellite spectra. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  8. LY294002 may overcome 5-FU resistance via down-regulation of activated p-AKT in Epstein-Barr virus-positive gastric cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Jung-Young

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As EBV-associated gastric cancer has unique features that are different from EBV (- gastric cancer, EBV is considered to have a key role in gastric carcinogenesis. It has been reported that viral latent membrane protein 2A (LMP2A in EBV-transformed tumor cells activates the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/AKT pathway, which provides a survival signal and chemo-resistance to cytotoxic anti-cancer drugs. This study was to evaluate anti-proliferative effect and cell cycle change when 5-FU and LY294002 (LY, a selective inhibitor of PI3K, were treated separately or combined with different schedules in EBV positive gastric cancer cell line, SNU-719. Methods After single treatment and sequential combination of 5-FU and LY, cytotoxic activity was measured by MTS assay. When 5-FU and LY were treated in single and sequential combinations, the expression of p-AKT, p-NFkB, p-p53 and bcl-2 was observed on different concentrations by Western blot analysis. We also investigated the effect on apoptosis and cell cycle distribution using flow cytometry. The LMP2A siRNA inhibition was done to confirm the reversal of decreased 5-FU activity and p-AKT. Results When 5-FU was sequentially combined with LY, the combination index (CI value indicated synergistic anti-proliferative effect. The expression of p-AKT and p-NFκB was upregulated by 5-FU alone but sequential treatment of 5-FU and LY decreased the expression of both p-AKT and p-NFκB. When 5-FU was combined with LY, G0/G1 and sub G1 cell population (% increased. When 5-FU was added to the cells transfected with LMP2A siRNA, its anti-proliferative effect increased and the expression of p-AKT decreased. In sequential combination of 5-FU and LY, the expression of p-p53 was increased and bcl-2 expression was diminished compared to 5-FU alone. Conclusion These data suggest that sequential combination of 5-FU and LY induce synergistic cytotoxicity and overcome intrinsic and acquired resistance

  9. LY294002 may overcome 5-FU resistance via down-regulation of activated p-AKT in Epstein-Barr virus-positive gastric cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jung-Young; Kim, Jeong-Oh; Lee, Suk Kyeong; Chae, Hiun-Suk; Kang, Jin-Hyoung

    2010-08-13

    As EBV-associated gastric cancer has unique features that are different from EBV (-) gastric cancer, EBV is considered to have a key role in gastric carcinogenesis. It has been reported that viral latent membrane protein 2A (LMP2A) in EBV-transformed tumor cells activates the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway, which provides a survival signal and chemo-resistance to cytotoxic anti-cancer drugs. This study was to evaluate anti-proliferative effect and cell cycle change when 5-FU and LY294002 (LY), a selective inhibitor of PI3K, were treated separately or combined with different schedules in EBV positive gastric cancer cell line, SNU-719. After single treatment and sequential combination of 5-FU and LY, cytotoxic activity was measured by MTS assay. When 5-FU and LY were treated in single and sequential combinations, the expression of p-AKT, p-NFkB, p-p53 and bcl-2 was observed on different concentrations by Western blot analysis. We also investigated the effect on apoptosis and cell cycle distribution using flow cytometry. The LMP2A siRNA inhibition was done to confirm the reversal of decreased 5-FU activity and p-AKT. When 5-FU was sequentially combined with LY, the combination index (CI) value indicated synergistic anti-proliferative effect. The expression of p-AKT and p-NF kappaB was upregulated by 5-FU alone but sequential treatment of 5-FU and LY decreased the expression of both p-AKT and p-NF kappaB. When 5-FU was combined with LY, G0/G1 and sub G1 cell population (%) increased. When 5-FU was added to the cells transfected with LMP2A siRNA, its anti-proliferative effect increased and the expression of p-AKT decreased. In sequential combination of 5-FU and LY, the expression of p-p53 was increased and bcl-2 expression was diminished compared to 5-FU alone. These data suggest that sequential combination of 5-FU and LY induce synergistic cytotoxicity and overcome intrinsic and acquired resistance of 5-FU via downregulation of activated p-AKT and

  10. Development of an analytical method for the determination of beta2-agonist residues in animal tissues by high-performance liquid chromatography with on-line electrogenerated [Cu(HIO6)2]5- -luminol chemiluminescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yantu; Zhang, Zhujun; Sun, Yonghua; Wei, Yue

    2007-06-27

    A novel method was developed for the simultaneous determination of beta2-agonist residues such as terbutaline, salbutamol, and clenbuterol by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with chemiluminescence (CL) detection. The procedure was based on the enhancement effect of beta2-agonists on the CL reaction between luminol and the complex of trivalent copper and periodate ([Cu(HIO6)2]5-), which was on-line electrogenerated by constant current electrolysis. The HPLC separation used a Nucleosil RP-C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm i.d., 5 microm; pore size, 100 A) with a mobile phase consisting of 90% acetonitrile and 10% aqueous ammonium acetate (20 mmol L-1, pH 4.0) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min-1. The effects of several parameters on the HPLC resolution and CL emission were studied systematically. Liver samples were hydrolyzed with beta-glucuronidase followed by a solid-phase extraction procedure using Waters OasisMCX cartridges. Under optimum conditions, the limits of detection at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 ranged from 0.007 to 0.01 ng g-1 and the limits of quantification at a signal-to-noise ratio of 10 ranged from 0.023 to 0.033 ng g-1 for three beta2-agonists. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of intra- and interday precision were below 4.5%. The average recoveries for beta2-agonists (spiked at the levels of 0.05-5.0 ng g-1) in pig liver ranged from 84 to 110%, and the RSDs of the quantitative results were from 1.6 to 7.2%. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of beta2-agonist residues in pig liver samples.

  11. Characterization and expression analysis of SOLD1, a novel member of the retrotransposon-derived Ly-6 superfamily, in bovine placental villi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Ushizawa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ly-6 superfamily members have a conserved Ly-6 domain that is defined by a distinct disulfide bonding pattern between eight or ten cysteine residues. These members are divided into membrane-type and secretory-type proteins. In the present study, we report the identification of a novel Ly-6 domain protein, secreted protein of Ly-6 domain 1 (SOLD1, from bovine placenta. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: SOLD1 mRNA was expressed in trophoblast mononucleate cells and the protein was secreted into and localized in the extracellular matrix of the mesenchyme in cotyledonary villi. SOLD1 bound mainly with type I collagen telopeptide. We confirmed secretion of SOLD1 from the basolateral surface of a bovine trophoblast cell line (BT-1. It may be related to the organization of the extra-cellular matrix in the mesenchyme of fetal villi. Since trophoblast mononucleate cells are epithelial cells, their polar organization is expected to have a crucial role in the SOLD1 secretion system. We established that SOLD1 is an intronless bovine gene containing the Alu retrotransposon, which was integrated via cytoplasmic reverse transcription. CONCLUSION: We identified a novel retrotransposon-like Ly-6 domain protein in bovine placenta. SOLD1 is a crucial secreted protein that is involved in the organization of the mesenchyme of the cotyledonary villi. Furthermore, the gene encoding SOLD1 has an interesting genomic structure.

  12. Copernicus observations of Ly-alpha and Mg II emission from HR 1099 /V711 Tauri/ and UX Ari

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, E. J.

    1978-01-01

    Ultraviolet observations of two RS CVn binaries obtained with Copernicus are described. High-resolution (0.05 A) U1 observations indicate that both HR 1099 and UX Ari display broad Ly-alpha emission. The Ly-alpha emission strength from HR 1099 is variable and seems to be correlated with orbital phase, while the UX Ari results indicate no significant variation. Moderate resolution (0.51 A) V2 scans of both systems show variable Mg II h and k emission-line profiles which usually matched the velocity of the more active star in each binary. Additionally, displaced emission components were seen at velocities of up to + or - 250 km/s, indicative of high-velocity gas motions. The radial velocities of these emission features from HR 1099 are marginally correlated with orbital phase. Highly active and variable chromospheric phenomena are found to be the most consistent explanation of these results.

  13. Copernicus observations of Ly-alpha and Mg II emission from HR 1099 /V711 Tauri/ and UX Ari

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, E. J.

    1978-01-01

    Ultraviolet observations of two RS CVn binaries obtained with Copernicus are described. High-resolution (0.05 A) U1 observations indicate that both HR 1099 and UX Ari display broad Ly-alpha emission. The Ly-alpha emission strength from HR 1099 is variable and seems to be correlated with orbital phase, while the UX Ari results indicate no significant variation. Moderate resolution (0.51 A) V2 scans of both systems show variable Mg II h and k emission-line profiles which usually matched the velocity of the more active star in each binary. Additionally, displaced emission components were seen at velocities of up to + or - 250 km/s, indicative of high-velocity gas motions. The radial velocities of these emission features from HR 1099 are marginally correlated with orbital phase. Highly active and variable chromospheric phenomena are found to be the most consistent explanation of these results.

  14. File list: Oth.Brs.10.AllAg.LY2 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Brs.10.AllAg.LY2 hg19 TFs and others Breast LY2 SRX425995,SRX095408,SRX095407,S...RX425996 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Brs.10.AllAg.LY2.bed ...

  15. File list: NoD.Brs.20.AllAg.LY2 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Brs.20.AllAg.LY2 hg19 No description Breast LY2 ERX311381,ERX311382,ERX311380,E...RX311379,ERX311385 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Brs.20.AllAg.LY2.bed ...

  16. File list: ALL.Brs.50.AllAg.LY2 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Brs.50.AllAg.LY2 hg19 All antigens Breast LY2 ERX311381,ERX311382,SRX425995,SRX...095408,SRX425996,ERX311379,ERX311380,ERX311385,SRX095407,SRX425997,SRX095409 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Brs.50.AllAg.LY2.bed ...

  17. File list: ALL.Brs.05.AllAg.LY2 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Brs.05.AllAg.LY2 hg19 All antigens Breast LY2 ERX311382,ERX311381,ERX311380,ERX...311385,SRX425997,SRX425995,SRX095408,SRX095407,SRX425996,ERX311379,SRX095409 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Brs.05.AllAg.LY2.bed ...

  18. File list: ALL.Brs.20.AllAg.LY2 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Brs.20.AllAg.LY2 hg19 All antigens Breast LY2 ERX311381,ERX311382,SRX425995,SRX...425996,ERX311380,SRX095408,SRX095407,ERX311379,SRX095409,ERX311385,SRX425997 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Brs.20.AllAg.LY2.bed ...

  19. File list: NoD.Brs.05.AllAg.LY2 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Brs.05.AllAg.LY2 hg19 No description Breast LY2 ERX311382,ERX311381,ERX311380,E...RX311385,ERX311379 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Brs.05.AllAg.LY2.bed ...

  20. File list: His.Bld.50.AllAg.OCI-LY1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Bld.50.AllAg.OCI-LY1 hg19 Histone Blood OCI-LY1 SRX823974,SRX823964,SRX823979,S...99,SRX275400,SRX971796,SRX971800 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Bld.50.AllAg.OCI-LY1.bed ...

  1. File list: Pol.Bld.20.AllAg.OCI-LY1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Bld.20.AllAg.OCI-LY1 hg19 RNA polymerase Blood OCI-LY1 SRX398295,SRX275406,SRX2...75405,SRX398292,SRX084606,SRX084605 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Bld.20.AllAg.OCI-LY1.bed ...

  2. File list: Pol.Bld.10.AllAg.OCI-LY1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Bld.10.AllAg.OCI-LY1 hg19 RNA polymerase Blood OCI-LY1 SRX275406,SRX275405,SRX3...98295,SRX398292,SRX084605,SRX084606 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Bld.10.AllAg.OCI-LY1.bed ...

  3. File list: Oth.Brs.05.AllAg.LY2 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Brs.05.AllAg.LY2 hg19 TFs and others Breast LY2 SRX425995,SRX095408,SRX095407,S...RX425996 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Brs.05.AllAg.LY2.bed ...

  4. File list: NoD.Brs.10.AllAg.LY2 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Brs.10.AllAg.LY2 hg19 No description Breast LY2 ERX311382,ERX311381,ERX311380,E...RX311379,ERX311385 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Brs.10.AllAg.LY2.bed ...

  5. File list: ALL.Brs.10.AllAg.LY2 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Brs.10.AllAg.LY2 hg19 All antigens Breast LY2 ERX311382,ERX311381,SRX425995,SRX...095408,SRX095407,SRX425996,ERX311380,ERX311379,ERX311385,SRX425997,SRX095409 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Brs.10.AllAg.LY2.bed ...

  6. File list: NoD.Brs.50.AllAg.LY2 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Brs.50.AllAg.LY2 hg19 No description Breast LY2 ERX311381,ERX311382,ERX311379,E...RX311380,ERX311385 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Brs.50.AllAg.LY2.bed ...

  7. File list: Oth.Brs.50.AllAg.LY2 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Brs.50.AllAg.LY2 hg19 TFs and others Breast LY2 SRX425995,SRX095408,SRX425996,S...RX095407 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Brs.50.AllAg.LY2.bed ...

  8. File list: Pol.Bld.50.AllAg.OCI-LY1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Bld.50.AllAg.OCI-LY1 hg19 RNA polymerase Blood OCI-LY1 SRX398295,SRX275406,SRX0...84606,SRX275405,SRX084605,SRX398292 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Bld.50.AllAg.OCI-LY1.bed ...

  9. File list: Pol.Bld.05.AllAg.OCI-LY1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Bld.05.AllAg.OCI-LY1 hg19 RNA polymerase Blood OCI-LY1 SRX275406,SRX275405,SRX3...98295,SRX398292,SRX084606,SRX084605 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Bld.05.AllAg.OCI-LY1.bed ...

  10. SPECTROPOLARIMETRY CONFIRMS CENTRAL POWERING IN A Lyα NEBULA AT z = 3.09

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, Melanie; Scarlata, Claudia; Jones, Terry J. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Hayes, Matthew [Department of Astronomy, Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Centre, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Dijkstra, Mark, E-mail: beck@astro.umn.edu [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029, Blindern, N-0315 Oslo (Norway)

    2016-02-20

    We present a follow-up study to the imaging polarimetry performed by Hayes et al. on LAB1 in the SSA22 protocluster region. Arguably the most well-known Lyα “blob,” this radio-quiet emission-line nebula likely hosts a galaxy that either is undergoing significant star formation or hosts an active galactic nucleus, or both. We obtain deep, spatially resolved spectropolarimetry of the Lyα emission and detect integrated linear polarization of 9%–13% ± 2%–3% at a distance of approximately 15 kpc north and south of the peak of the Lyα surface brightness with polarization vectors lying tangential to the galactic central source. In these same regions, we also detect a wavelength dependence in the polarization that is low at the center of the Lyα line profile and rises substantially in the wings of the profile. These polarization signatures are easily explained by a weak outflowing shell model. The spectral dependence of the polarization presented here provides a framework for future observations and interpretations of the southern portion of LAB1 in that any model for this system must be able to reproduce this particular spectral dependence. However, questions still remain for the northernmost spur of LAB1. In this region we detect total linear polarization of between 3% and 20% at the 5% significance level. Simulations predict that polarization should increase with radius for a symmetric geometry. That the northern spur does not suggests either that this region is not symmetric (which is likely) and exhibits variations in columns density or that it is kinematically distinct from the rest of LAB1 and powered by another mechanism altogether.

  11. The Brightest Ly$\\alpha$ Emitter: Pop III or Black Hole?

    CERN Document Server

    Pallottini, A; Pacucci, F; Gallerani, S; Salvadori, S; Schneider, R; Schaerer, D; Sobral, D; Matthee, J

    2015-01-01

    CR7 is the brightest $z=6.6 \\, {\\rm Ly}\\alpha$ emitter (LAE) known to date, and spectroscopic follow-up by Sobral et al. (2015) suggests that CR7 might host Population (Pop) III stars. We examine this interpretation using cosmological hydrodynamical simulations. Several simulated galaxies show the same "Pop III wave" pattern observed in CR7. However, to reproduce the extreme CR7 ${\\rm Ly}\\alpha$/HeII1640 line luminosities ($L_{\\rm \\alpha/He II}$) a top-heavy IMF and a massive ($>10^{7}{\\rm M}_{\\odot}$) PopIII burst with age $10^{43.3}{\\rm erg}\\,{\\rm s}^{-1}$ should also host Pop III stars producing an observable $L_{\\rm He II}>10^{42.7}{\\rm erg}\\,{\\rm s}^{-1}$. As an alternate explanation, we explore the possibility that CR7 is instead powered by accretion onto a Direct Collapse Black Hole (DCBH). Our model predicts $L_{\\alpha}$, $L_{\\rm He II}$, and X-ray luminosities that are in agreement with the observations. In any case, the observed properties of CR7 indicate that this galaxy is most likely powered by s...

  12. Beam Optics Studies in the Large Hadron Collider Observations on an Anomalous Octupolar Resonance Line in the LHC -- and -- Accuracy & Feasibility of the $\\beta^*$ Measurement for LHC and HL-LHC Using K-Modulation

    CERN Document Server

    Carlier, F S

    While linear LHC dynamics are mostly understood and under control, non-linear beam dynamics will play an increasingly important role in the challenging regimes of future LHC operation. In 2012, turn-by-turn measurements of large betatron excitations of LHC Beam 2 at injection energy were carried out. These measurements revealed an unexpectedly large spectral line in the horizontal motion with frequency $-Q_x-2Q_y$. Detailed analyses and simulations are presented to understand the nature of this spectral line. -- ABSTRACT II -- The future regimes of operation of the LHC will require improved control of $\\beta^*$ measurements to succesfully level the luminosities in the interaction points. The method of K-modulation has been widely used in other machines such as, LEP, HERA, Tevatron and ALBA to measure lattice beta functions. In the LHC, K-modulation of the last quadrupoles of the IP is the method to measure $\\beta^*$ in the IP. This paper highlights the challenge of high precision tune measurements (up to $10...

  13. Ly6C- Monocytes Regulate Parasite-Induced Liver Inflammation by Inducing the Differentiation of Pathogenic Ly6C+ Monocytes into Macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Morias

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Monocytes consist of two well-defined subsets, the Ly6C+ and Ly6C- monocytes. Both CD11b+ myeloid cells populations have been proposed to infiltrate tissues during inflammation. While infiltration of Ly6C+ monocytes is an established pathogenic factor during hepatic inflammation, the role of Ly6C- monocytes remains elusive. Mice suffering experimental African trypanosome infection die from systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS that is initiated by phagocytosis of parasites by liver myeloid cells and culminates in apoptosis/necrosis of liver myeloid and parenchymal cells that reduces host survival. C57BL/6 mice are considered as trypanotolerant to Trypanosoma congolense infection. We have reported that in these animals, IL-10, produced among others by myeloid cells, limits the liver damage caused by pathogenic TNF-producing Ly6C+ monocytes, ensuring prolonged survival. Here, the heterogeneity and dynamics of liver myeloid cells in T. congolense-infected C57/BL6 mice was further dissected. Moreover, the contribution of Ly6C- monocytes to trypanotolerance was investigated. By using FACS analysis and adoptive transfer experiments, we found that the accumulation of Ly6C- monocytes and macrophages in the liver of infected mice coincided with a drop in the pool of Ly6C+ monocytes. Pathogenic TNF mainly originated from Ly6C+ monocytes while Ly6C- monocytes and macrophages were major and equipotent sources of IL-10 within myeloid cells. Moreover, Nr4a1 (Nur77 transcription factor-dependent Ly6C- monocytes exhibited IL-10-dependent and cell contact-dependent regulatory properties contributing to trypanotolerance by suppressing the production of TNF by Ly6C+ monocytes and by promoting the differentiation of the latter cells into macrophages. Thus, Ly6C- monocytes can dampen liver damage caused by an extensive Ly6C+ monocyte-associated inflammatory immune response in T. congolense trypanotolerant animals. In a more general context, Ly6C- or Ly6C

  14. THE FAINT-END SLOPE OF THE REDSHIFT 5.7 Ly{alpha} LUMINOSITY FUNCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, Alaina L.; Martin, Crystal L. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Dressler, Alan; McCarthy, Patrick [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Sawicki, Marcin, E-mail: ahenry@physics.ucsb.edu [Department of Astronomy and Physics, Saint Mary' s University, Halifax, NS B3H 3C3 (Canada)

    2012-01-10

    Using new Keck DEIMOS spectroscopy, we examine the origin of the steep number counts of ultra-faint emission-line galaxies recently reported by Dressler et al. We confirm six Ly{alpha} emitters (LAEs), three of which have significant asymmetric line profiles with prominent wings extending 300-400 km s{sup -1} redward of the peak emission. With these six LAEs, we revise our previous estimate of the number of faint LAEs in the Dressler et al. survey. Combining these data with the density of bright LAEs in the Cosmic Evolution Survey and Subaru Deep Field provides the best constraints to date on the redshift 5.7 LAE luminosity function (LF). Schechter function parameters, {phi}* = 4.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} Mpc{sup -3}, L* = 9.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1}, and {alpha} = -1.70, are estimated using a maximum likelihood technique with a model for slit-losses. To place this result in the context of the UV-selected galaxy population, we investigate how various parameterizations of the Ly{alpha} equivalent width distribution, along with the measured UV-continuum LF, affect shape and normalization of the Ly{alpha} LF. The nominal model, which uses z {approx} 6 equivalent widths from the literature, falls short of the observed space density of LAEs at the bright end, possibly indicating a need for higher equivalent widths. This parameterization of the equivalent width distribution implies that as many as 50% of our faintest LAEs should have M{sub UV} > -18.0, rendering them undetectable in even the deepest Hubble Space Telescope surveys at this redshift. Hence, ultra-deep emission-line surveys find some of the faintest galaxies ever observed at the end of the reionization epoch. Such faint galaxies likely enrich the intergalactic medium with metals and maintain its ionized state in the post-reionization era. Observations of these objects provide a glimpse of the building blocks of present-day galaxies at an early time.

  15. Corrosion of LY12 aluminum alloy in sodium chloride solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程英亮; 张昭; 曹发和; 李劲风; 张鉴清; 王建明; 曹楚南

    2003-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of LY12 alloy in sodium chloride solution and its electrochemical noise were reported. The development of the micro-pits on the alloy surface was monitored by scanning electron microscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy, and electrochemical noise method. All the measurements show that the corrosion of LY12 alloy can be divided into two stages: a very reactive initial stage and a relative constant stable stage. The initial stage is corresponded to the adsorption of Cl ions and its reaction with the oxide film and the dissolution of Mg containing particles. The stable stage is corresponded to the development of the micro-pits by the galvanic attack formed by Al-Fe-Cu-Mn containing particles and the matrix. The initial stage lasts about 2-3 h while the stable stage dominates the whole corrosion process.

  16. Blockade of PKC-beta protects HUVEC from advanced glycation end products induced inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Youhua; Wang, Shanshan; Feng, Liang; Zhu, Quan; Xiang, Ping; He, Bao

    2010-12-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) have been recognized as a pivotal inducer in diabetes and kinds of aging-related vasculopathy. Endothelial dysfunction and inflammatory cells adhesion to endothelium have been regarded as important and early factors in the pathogenesis of vascular complications in diabetic patients. Owing to the key role of PKC-beta in AGEs-induced vascular dysfunction, we investigated effects of blocking PKC-beta by LY333531 on macrophage adhesion to HUVEC and the related mechanism. Transwell HUVEC-macrophage co-culture system was established to evaluate macrophage migration and adhesion ability. Immunocytochemistry was applied to examine TGF-beta1, ICAM-1 and RAGE protein expressions by SABC or SABC-AP method; mRNA expression of TGF-beta1, ICAM-1 and RAGE was determined by real-time RT-PCR. SOD and MDA levels in culture supernatant were detected. We found that LY333531 significantly reduced AGEs-induced macrophage adhesion to HUVEC. Blockade of PKC-beta strikingly decreased HUVEC TGF-beta1 and ICAM-1 expression in both protein and mRNA levels, RAGE protein level was also down-regulated. Furthermore, the anti-oxidative stress index, SOD/MDA was dramatically elevated on LY333531 application. Therefore we conclude that LY333531 can reduce AGEs-induced macrophage adhesion to endothelial cells and relieve the local inflammation, this was realized by its effect on decreasing inflammatory cytokines' expression and increasing cell anti-oxidative ability.

  17. Voids in Ly{\\alpha} Forest Tomographic Maps

    CERN Document Server

    Stark, Casey W; White, Martin; Lee, Khee-Gan

    2015-01-01

    We present a new method of finding cosmic voids using tomographic maps of Ly{\\alpha} forest flux. We identify cosmological voids with radii of 2 - 12 $h^{-1}$Mpc in a large N-body simulation at $z = 2.5$, and characterize the signal of the high-redshift voids in density and Ly{\\alpha} forest flux. The void properties are similar to what has been found at lower redshifts, but they are smaller and have steeper radial density profiles. Similarly to what has been found for low-redshift voids, the radial velocity profiles have little scatter and agree very well with the linear theory prediction. We run the same void finder on an ideal Ly{\\alpha} flux field and tomographic reconstructions at various spatial samplings. We compare the tomographic map void catalogs to the density void catalog and find good agreement even with modest-sized voids ($r > 6 \\, h^{-1}$Mpc). Using our simple void-finding method, the configuration of the ongoing CLAMATO survey covering 1 deg$^2$ would provide a sample of about 100 high-redshi...

  18. Observations of Lyα and O vi: Signatures of Cooling and Star Formation in a Massive Central Cluster Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Megan; Connor, Thomas; Voit, G. Mark; Postman, Marc

    2017-02-01

    We report new Hubble Space Telescope COS and Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph spectroscopy of a star-forming region (∼ 100 {M}ȯ yr‑1) in the center of the X-ray cluster RX J1532.9+3021 (z = 0.362), to follow-up the CLASH team discovery of luminous UV filaments and knots in the central massive galaxy. We detect broad (∼500 km s‑1) Lyα emission lines with extraordinarily high equivalent widths (EQW ∼ 200 Å) and somewhat less broadened Hα (∼220 km s‑1). Ultraviolet emission lines of N v and O vi are not detected, which constrains the rate at which gas cools through temperatures of 106 K to be ≲10 M⊙ yr‑1. The COS spectra also show a flat rest-frame UV continuum with weak stellar photospheric features, consistent with the presence of recently formed hot stars forming at a rate of ∼10 M⊙ yr‑1, uncorrected for dust extinction. The slope and absorption lines in these UV spectra are similar to those of Lyman Break Galaxies at z≈ 3, albeit those with the highest Lyα equivalent widths and star formation rates. This high-EQW Lyα source is a high-metallicity galaxy rapidly forming stars in structures that look nothing like disks. This mode of star formation could significantly contribute to the spheroidal population of galaxies. The constraint on the luminosity of any O vi line emission is stringent enough to rule out steady and simultaneous gas cooling and star formation, unlike similar systems in the Phoenix Cluster and Abell 1795. The fact that the current star formation rate differs from the local mass cooling rate is consistent with recent simulations of episodic active galactic nucleus feedback and star formation in a cluster atmosphere.

  19. Ionization and feedback in Ly$\\alpha$ halos around two radio galaxies at z$\\sim$2.5

    CERN Document Server

    Morais, S G; Villar-Martín, M; Lagos, P; Moyano, M; Overzier, R; Alighieri, S di Serego; Vernet, J; Fernandes, C A C

    2016-01-01

    We present new spectroscopic observations of two high redshift radio galaxies, TXS 0211-122 (z=2.34) and TXS 0828+193 (z=2.57), known to be associated with large Ly$\\alpha$ halos. The observations were taken with the slits placed perpendicularly to the radio axis. With access to pre-existing Keck II observations taken with the slit placed along the radio axis we are able to compare the properties of the gas in different regions of the galaxies. In both objects we detect spatially extended Ly$\\alpha$ emission perpendicularly to the radio axis. In TXS 0211-122, the flux and velocity profiles of Ly$\\alpha$ are strongly affected by HI absorption/scattering. In line with previous studies, we find evidence for outflowing gas along the radio axis which may be the result of jet-gas interactions. In the slit oriented perpendicularly to the radio axis we find less perturbed gas kinematics, suggesting outflows of ionized gas in this object are focused along the radio jet axis. Additionally, we find evidence for a giant,...

  20. The MUSCLES Treasury Survey: Intrinsic Lyα Profile Reconstructions and UV, X-ray, and Optical Correlations of Low-mass Exoplanet Host Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngblood, Allison; France, Kevin; Parke Loyd, R. O.

    2016-01-01

    UV stellar radiation can significantly impact planetary atmospheres through heating and photochemistry, even regulating production of potential biomarkers. Cool stars emit the majority of their UV radiation in the form of emission lines, and the incident UV radiation on close-in habitable-zone planets is significant. Lyα (1215.67 Å) dominates the 912 - 3200 Å spectrum of cool stars, but strong absorption from the interstellar medium (ISM) makes direct observations of the intrinsic Lyα emission of even nearby stars challenging. The MUSCLES Hubble Space Telescope Treasury Survey (Measurements of the Ultraviolet Spectral Characteristics of Low-mass Exoplanetary Systems) has completed observations of 7 M and 4 K stars hosting exoplanets (d < 22 pc) with simultaneous X-ray and ground-based optical spectroscopy for many of the targets. We have reconstructed the intrinsic Lyα profiles using an MCMC technique and used the results to estimate the extreme ultraviolet (100 - 911 Å) spectrum. We also present empirical relations between chromospheric UV and optical lines, e.g., Lyα, Mg II, Ca II H & K, and Hα, for use when direct UV observations of low-mass exoplanet host stars are not possible. The spectra presented here will be made publicly available through MAST to support exoplanet atmosphere modeling.

  1. Beta decay of Cu-56

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borcea, R; Aysto, J; Caurier, E; Dendooven, P; Doring, J; Gierlik, M; Gorska, M; Grawe, H; Hellstrom, M; Janas, Z; Jokinen, A; Karny, M; Kirchner, R; La Commara, M; Langanke, K; Martinez-Pinedo, G; Mayet, P; Nieminen, A; Nowacki, F; Penttila, H; Plochocki, A; Rejmund, M; Roeckl, E; Schlegel, C; Schmidt, K; Schwengner, R; Sawicka, M

    2001-01-01

    The proton-rich isotope Cu-56 was produced at the GSI On-Line Mass Separator by means of the Si-28(S-32, p3n) fusion-evaporation reaction. Its beta -decay properties were studied by detecting beta -delayed gamma rays and protons. A half-Life of 93 +/- 3 ms was determined for Cu-56. Compared to the p

  2. Spatially Resolved Patchy Lyα Emission within the Central Kiloparsec of a Strongly Lensed Quasar Host Galaxy at z = 2.8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, Matthew B.; Sharon, Keren; Acharyya, Ayan; Gladders, Michael D.; Rigby, Jane R.; Bian, Fuyan; Bordoloi, Rongmon; Runnoe, Jessie; Dahle, Hakon; Kewley, Lisa; Florian, Michael; Johnson, Traci; Paterno-Mahler, Rachel

    2017-08-01

    We report the detection of extended Lyα emission from the host galaxy of SDSS J2222+2745, a strongly lensed quasar at z = 2.8. Spectroscopic follow-up clearly reveals extended Lyα in emission between two images of the central active galactic nucleus (AGN). We reconstruct the lensed quasar host galaxy in the source plane by applying a strong lens model to HST imaging and resolve spatial scales as small as ˜200 pc. In the source plane, we recover the host galaxy morphology to within a few hundred parsecs of the central AGN and map the extended Lyα emission to its physical origin on one side of the host galaxy at radii ˜0.5-2 kpc from the central AGN. There are clear morphological differences between the Lyα and rest-frame ultraviolet stellar continuum emission from the quasar host galaxy. Furthermore, the relative velocity profiles of quasar Lyα, host galaxy Lyα, and metal lines in outflowing gas reveal differences in the absorbing material affecting the AGN and host galaxy. These data indicate the presence of patchy local intervening gas in front of the central quasar and its host galaxy. This interpretation is consistent with the central luminous quasar being obscured across a substantial fraction of its surrounding solid angle, resulting in strong anisotropy in the exposure of the host galaxy to ionizing radiation from the AGN. This work demonstrates the power of strong-lensing-assisted studies to probe spatial scales that are currently inaccessible by other means.

  3. Differential regulation of chemoattractant-stimulated beta 2, beta 3, and beta 7 integrin activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhu, C; Masinovsky, B; Staunton, D E

    1998-06-01

    Leukocyte adhesion to endothelium and extravasation are dynamic processes that require activation of integrins. Chemoattractants such as IL-8 and FMLP are potent activators of leukocyte integrins. To compare the chemoattractant-stimulated activation of three integrins, alpha 4 beta 7, alpha L beta 2, and alpha V beta 3, in the same cellular context, we expressed an IL-8 receptor (IL-8RA) and FMLP receptor (FPR) in the lymphoid cell line JY. Chemoattractants induced a rapid increase in alpha L beta 2- and alpha V beta 3-dependent JY adhesion within 5 min, and it was sustained for 30 min. In contrast, stimulation of alpha 4 beta 7-dependent adhesion was transient, returning to basal levels by 30 min. The activation profiles of the integrins were similar regardless of whether IL-8 or FMLP was used for induction. We also demonstrate that alpha 4 beta 7-dependent adhesion was uniquely responsive to the F actin-disrupting agent cytochalasin D and the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor chelerythrin. While alpha V beta 3- and alpha L beta 2-mediated cell adhesion was significantly reduced by cytochalasin D, alpha 4 beta 7-mediated adhesion was enhanced. Chelerythrin inhibited both the IL-8 and PMA activation of alpha L beta 2 and alpha V beta 3. In contrast, inducible alpha 4 beta 7 activity was unaffected, and basal activity was increased. These findings demonstrate that the mechanism of alpha 4 beta 7 regulation by chemoattractants is different from that of alpha L beta 2 and alpha V beta 3 and that it appears to involve distinct cytoskeletal and PKC dependencies. In addition, PKC activity may be a positive or negative regulator of integrin-dependent adhesion.

  4. Expression of the Ly-6 family proteins Lynx1 and Ly6H in the rat brain is compartmentalized, cell-type specific, and developmentally regulated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten Skøtt; Cinar, Betül; Jensen, Majbrit Myrup

    2014-01-01

    The Ly-6 superfamily of proteins, which affects diverse processes in the immune system, has attracted renewed attention due to the ability of some Ly-6 proteins to bind to and modulate the function of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). However, there is a scarcity of knowledge...

  5. Are we seeing accretion flows in a 250 kpc Lyα halo at z = 3?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernet, J.; Lehnert, M. D.; De Breuck, C.; Villar-Martín, M.; Wylezalek, D.; Falkendal, T.; Drouart, G.; Kolwa, S.; Humphrey, A.; Venemans, B. P.; Boulanger, F.

    2017-06-01

    Using MUSE on the ESO-VLT, we obtained a four-hour exposure of the z = 3.12 radio galaxy MRC 0316-257. We detect features down to 10-19 erg s-1 cm-2 arcsec-2, with the highest surface brightness regions reaching more than a factor of 100 higher. We find Lyα emission out to 250 kpc in projection from the active galactic nucleus (AGN). The emission shows arc-like morphologies arising at 150-250 kpc from the nucleus in projection, with the connected filamentary structures reaching down into the circumnuclear region. The most distant arc is offset by 700 km s-1 relative to circumnuclear HeIIλ1640 emission, which we assume to be at the systemic velocity. As we probe emission closer to the nucleus, the filamentary emission narrows in projection on the sky, the relative velocity decreases to 250 km s-1, and the line full-width at half maximum ranges from 300-700 km s-1. From UV line ratios, the emission on scales of 10s of kpc from the nucleus along a wide angle in the direction of the radio jets is clearly excited by the radio jets and ionizing radiation of the AGN. Assuming ionization equilibrium, the more extended emission outside of the axis of the jet direction would require 100% or more illumination to explain the observed surface brightness. High-speed (≳300 km s-1) shocks into rare gas would provide sufficiently high surface brightness. We discuss the possibility that the arcs of Lyα emission represent accretion shocks and the filamentary emission represents gas flows into the halo, and compare our results with gas accretion simulations. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under program ID 094.B-0699(A).

  6. Protective Role of Rho Guanosine Diphosphate Dissociation Inhibitor, Ly-GDI, in Pulmonary Alveolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chunguang; Wang, Ximo; Liu, Yanlan; Abdulnour, Raja-Elie; Wu, Min; Gao, Hongwei

    2015-01-01

    Growing evidences indicate that Ly-GDI, an inhibitory protein of Rho GTPases, plays an essential role in regulating actin cytoskeletal alteration which is indispensible for the process such as phagocytosis. However, the role of Ly-GDI in inflammation remains largely unknown. In the current study, we found that Ly-GDI expression was significantly decreased in the IgG immune complex-injured lungs. To determine if Ly-GDI might regulate the lung inflammatory response, we constructed adenovirus vectors that could mediate ectopic expression of Ly-GDI (Adeno-Ly-GDI). In vivo mouse lung expression of Ly-GDI resulted in a significant attenuation of IgG immune complex-induced lung injury, which was due to the decreased pulmonary permeability and lung inflammatory cells, especially neutrophil accumulation. Upon IgG immune complex deposition, mice with Ly-GDI over-expression in the lungs produced significant less inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-6, MCP-1, and MIP-1α) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid when compared control mice receiving airway injection of Adeno-GFP. Mechanically, IgG immune complex-induced NF-κB activity was markedly suppressed by Ly-GDI in both alveolar macrophages and lungs as measured by luciferase assay and electrophoretic mobility shift assay. These findings suggest that Ly-GDI is a critical regulator of inflammatory injury after deposition of IgG immune complexes and that it negatively regulates the lung NF-κB activity.

  7. Comparing sizes of Lyα and UV emission of Green Pea galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E.; Jiang, Tianxing; Wang, JunXian

    2016-06-01

    We studied the spatial profiles of Lyα and UV emission from 16 Green Pea galaxies with Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) data from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Green Pea galaxies are nearby analogs of high-z Lyα emitting galaxies. We extract the spatial profiles of Lyα emission from the 2D COS spectra of Green Peas. The Lyα emission shows more extended spatial profiles than the UV emissions in most galaxies in our sample. The intrinsic Lyα sizes (measured as the Full Width Half Maximum of intrinsic Lyα spatial profile) are about 2 to 5 times of the UV sizes (measured as the FWHM of UV image) in most cases. The Lyα emissions show large offsets from the UV emissions in three galaxies and double-horned spatial profile in one galaxy. We compare the spatial profiles of Lyα photons at different velocities and find a relation between Lyα velocity profile and spatial profile. These results suggest that most Lyα photons escape out of a galaxy through many resonant scatterings in the HI gas with low column density, instead of directly escaping through ionized holes in the interstellar medium.

  8. Ly49E expression on CD8αα-expressing intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes plays no detectable role in the development and progression of experimentally induced inflammatory bowel diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Van Acker

    Full Text Available The Ly49E NK receptor is a unique inhibitory receptor, presenting with a high degree of conservation among mouse strains and expression on both NK cells and intraepithelial-localised T cells. Amongst intraepithelial-localised T cells, the Ly49E receptor is abundantly expressed on CD8αα-expressing innate-like intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (iIELs, which contribute to front-line defense at the mucosal barrier. Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs, encompassing Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, have previously been suggested to have an autoreactive origin and to evolve from a dysbalance between regulatory and effector functions in the intestinal immune system. Here, we made use of Ly49E-deficient mice to characterize the role of Ly49E receptor expression on CD8αα-expressing iIELs in the development and progression of IBD. For this purpose we used the dextran sodium sulphate (DSS- and trinitrobenzenesulfonic-acid (TNBS-induced colitis models, and the TNFΔARE ileitis model. We show that Ly49E is expressed on a high proportion of CD8αα-positive iIELs, with higher expression in the colon as compared to the small intestine. However, Ly49E expression on small intestinal and colonic iIELs does not influence the development or progression of inflammatory bowel diseases.

  9. Shape effects in the vicinity of the Z=82 line: study of the $\\beta$-decay of $^{182,184,186}$Hg

    CERN Multimedia

    This proposal is aimed at the study of the $\\beta$-decay of the neutron-­deficient $^{182,184,186}$Hg nuclei using the total absorption technique. Recent theoretical results show that, from measurements of the Gamow-­Teller strength distribution, the shapes of the ground states of the decaying Hg nuclei can be inferred. This study offers an independent way to study the phenomenon of shape coexistence in a region of particular interest.

  10. Changing Traditions and Village Development in Kalotaszentkirály

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Kraft

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The continuity of village traditions depends on the stability and cohesion of village communities. Since the opening of Transylvania after the fall of Nicolae Ceauşescu, there has been a sort of revival of Hungarian village dance and music, on the one hand, but, on the longer term, the communities themselves are threatened by economic challenges and by consequent demographic changes. This essay is based on field research conducted in Kalotaszentkirály (Sincraiu from 1995 to 2010.

  11. Characterization and mapping to human chromosome 8q24.3 of Ly-6-related gene 9804 encoding an apparent homologue of mouse TSA-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, X; Bourdeau, A; Rhoton, A; Wells, D E; Cohen, E H; Landgraf, B E; Palfree, R G

    1998-01-01

    The 9804 gene, which encodes a human Ly-6 protein most similar to mouse differentiation Ag TSA-1/Sca-2, has also been called RIG-E. Like mouse TSA-1, it has a broad tissue distribution with varied expression levels in normal human tissues and tumor cell lines. Like some members of the murine Ly-6 family, the 9804 gene is responsive to IFNs, particularly IFN-alpha. Overlapping genomic fragments spanning the 9804 gene (5543 bp) have been isolated and characterized. The gene organization is analogous to that of known mouse Ly-6 genes. The first exon, 2296 bp upstream from exon II, is entirely untranslated. The three coding exons (II, III, and IV) are separated by short introns of 321 and 131 bp, respectively. Primers were developed for specific amplification of 9804 gene fragments. Screening of human-hamster somatic cell hybrids and yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) indicated that the gene is distal to c-Myc, located in the q arm of human chromosome 8. No positives were detected from the Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain mega-YAC A or B panels, nor from bacterial artificial chromosome libraries; two positive cosmids (c101F1 and c157F6) were isolated from a human chromosome 8 cosmid library (LA08NC01). Fluorescence in situ hybridization of metaphase spreads of chromosome 8, containing hybrid cell line 706-B6 clone 17 (CL-17) with cosmid c101F1, placed the 9804 gene close to the telomere at 8q24.3. This mapping is significant, since the region shares a homology with a portion of mouse chromosome 15, which extends into band E where Ly-6 genes reside. Moreover, the gene encoding E48, the homologue of mouse Ly-6 molecule ThB, has also been mapped to 8q24.

  12. LY294002 induces p53-dependent apoptosis of SGC7901 gastric cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-gen XING; Bao-song ZHU; Hui-hui LIU; Fang LIN; Hui-hua YAO; Zhong-qin LIANG; Zheng-hong QIN

    2008-01-01

    Aim:To study the effects of LY294002, an inhibitor of class Ⅰ phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), on proliferation and apoptosis of SGC7901 gastric cancer cells. Methods:The MTT assay was used to determine the cytotoxic effects of LY294002. Cell cycle distribution was analyzed using flow cytometry and apoptosis was assessed using flow cytometry analysis after staining DNA with propidium iodide. Mitochondrial membrane potential was measured using the fluorescent probe JC-1. Expression of p53 and PUMA was determined using real-time RT-PCR and West-ern blotting analysis. Results:The viability of SGC7901 cells was significantly reduced by LY294002 treatment. Expression of p53 and PUMA was induced, and mitochondrial membrane potential collapsed after treatment with LY294002. LY294002 induced apoptotic cell death. Conclusion:Activation of the p53 path-way is involved in LY294002-induced SGC7901 cell death.

  13. GALVANIC CORROSION AND PROTECTION OF GECM/LY12CZ COUPLES UNDER DIFFERENT ATMOSPHERIC EXPOSURE CONDITIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F.Lu; Q.P.Zhong; 等

    2003-01-01

    Galvanic compatibility between graphite epoxy composite materials (GECM) and LY12CZ aluminum alloy was evaluated in different atmospheric corrosion environ-ments and by laboratory electrochemical measurements.Open circuit potential elec-trochemical measurements showed a relatively large potemtial difference about 1 volt between the GECM and LY12CZ aluminum alloy,and this difference provided the driving force for galvanic corrosion of the LY12CZ aluminum alloy as an anode. Having been exposed for 1,3or 5years in Beijing,Tuandao and Wanning station,GECM/LY12CZ couples showed significant losses of strength and elongation.Protec-tive coatings and non-conductive barriers breaking the galvanic corrosion circuit were evaluated under the same atmospheric corrosive conditions.Epoxy primer paint,glass cloth barriers and LY12CZ anodizing were effective in glvanic corrosion control for GECM/LY12CZ couples.

  14. Kodály Approach in the Crossroad of Education and Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Luca Tiszai

    2015-01-01

    Kodály's concept about music education is worldwide adapted to different cultures. However, the significance of his theoretical framework is almost undiscovered by music therapy. The aim of the present paper is to shed light on the common elements of Commuity Music Therapy and the Kodály Approach by literature-based Research. Kodály was a pioneer establishing a multidisciplinary dialog between musicology, philosophy, sociology and education. The practice and theory he established was a powerf...

  15. A Pair of O VI and Broad Ly-alpha Absorbers Probing Warm Gas in a Galaxy Group Environment at z ~ 0.4

    CERN Document Server

    Pachat, Sachin; Muzahid, Sowgat; Khaire, Vikram; Srianand, Raghunathan; Wakker, Bart P; Savage, Blair D

    2016-01-01

    We report on the detection of two O VI absorbers separated in velocity by 710 km/s at z ~ 0.4 towards the background quasar SBS0957+599. Both absorbers are multiphase systems tracing substantial reservoirs of warm baryons. The low and intermediate ionization metals in the first absorber is consistent with an origin in photoionized gas. The O VI has a velocity structure different from other metal species. The Ly-alpha shows the presence of a broad feature. The line widths for O VI and the broad Ly-alpha suggest T = 7.1 x 10^5 K. This warm medium is probing a baryonic column which is an order of magnitude more than the total hydrogen in the cooler photoionized gas. The second absorber is detected only in H I and O VI. Here the temperature of 4.6 x 10^4 K supports O VI originating in a low-density photoionized gas. A broad component is seen in the Ly-alpha, offset from the O VI. The temperature in the broad Ly-alpha is T < 2.1 x 10^5 K. The absorbers reside in a galaxy overdensity region with 7 spectroscopica...

  16. Effect of Anneal on the Release Behaviour of LY12-Al Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Jian-Bo; YU Yu-Ying; TAN Hua; DAI Cheng-Da

    2006-01-01

    @@ The sound velocities along the release path of annealed LY12-Al are measured by using a velocity interferometer system for any reflector (VISAR) technique. The shear modulus and yield strength are then obtained. Comparison of the experimental results with those of unannealed LY12-Al shows that anneal has little influence on sound velocities and shear modulus though it weakens the yield strength considerably, and changes the dependence of yield strength upon shock stress. The ratio of shear modulus to yield strength of unannealed LY12-Al increases with shock stress monotonically while that of annealed LY12-Al exhibits much more complicated behaviour.

  17. Shape effects along the Z=82 line: study of the $\\beta$- decay of $^{188,190,192}$Pb using total absorption spectroscopy

    CERN Multimedia

    Caballero ontanaya, L; Garcia borge, M J; Malbrunot, S

    2002-01-01

    This proposal is aimed at the study of the $\\beta$- decay of the neutron-deficient $^{188,190,192}$Pb nuclei. The main motivation of the proposed experiment is to determine the Gamow-Teller strength distribution in the daughter nuclei using the Total Absorption Spectrometer "Lucrecia". Recent theoretical results show that from this measurement the shapes of the ground states of the decaying Pb nuclei can be inferred. This study offers an independent way to study the phenomenon of shape co-existence in a region of particular interest.

  18. Studies of the $\\beta$-decay of Kr and Sr nuclei on and near the N=Z line with a Total Absorption $\\gamma$-ray Spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    It is proposed to measure the Gamow-Teller strength distribution in the decays of $^{71-75}$Kr and $^{75,76}$Sr using a Total Absorption Gamma-ray Spectrometer (TAGS) based on a large NaI(TI) detector. The $\\gamma$-rays emitted in these decays will be detected in the TAGS in coincidence with positrons and X-rays from electron capture. Measurements of $\\beta$-delayed particles will also be performed in coincidence with the TAGS. Comparison with theoretical calculations based on the mean field approach, Tamm-Dancoff and QRPA method should allow a determination of the shapes of the ground states of these nuclei.

  19. Phase I clinical and pharmacokinetic study of LY 195448.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, J; Lewis, C; Adams, L; Setanoians, A; Bayssas, M; Boder, G G; Rankin, E M; Kaye, S B

    1989-01-01

    LY 195448 is a phenethanolamine that has shown anti-tumour activity in a range of murine tumour models, although its mechanism of action is unknown. Pre-clinical studies have indicated the absence of "standard" side effects such as myelosuppression and gastrointestinal toxicity. The present phase I trial was carried out in nine patients at doses ranging up to 133 mg/m2. The major toxicities up to that dose were mild, reversible hypotension, tachycardia and tremor. No haematological or biochemical toxicity was observed. Murine pharmacokinetics were assessed at a dose level that was effective in experimental tumours and compared with human pharmacokinetic parameters derived from this study. The results indicated the clinical possibility of reaching peak drug levels associated with experimental activity. However, no responses were seen at the doses used. This study was terminated prior to its completion due to an unexplained loss of activity against murine tumours since September 1987. No significant loss of the in vitro anti-mitotic activity originally reported by Boder et al. [3] was observed. Possible reasons for the apparent loss of in vivo activity have been intensively investigated, but no cause has been determined. Therefore, clinical trials with LY 195448 have been discontinued.

  20. Cellular recovery in two sub-lines of the L5178Y marine leukaemic lymphoblast cell line differing in their sensitivity to ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillan, T.J.; Eady, J.J.; Peacock, J.H.; Steel, G.G. (Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton (United Kingdom). Surrey Branch)

    1992-01-01

    Cellular recovery was assessed in two sublines of L5178Y murine lymphoma cells of differing radiosensitivity (LY-S and LY-A4) using low dose-rate irradiation and split-dose experiments. No increase in cell survival was observed in the LY-S cell line until the dose-rate was reduced to 2cGy/min, whereas in the LY-A4 cell line 20 cGy/min was low enough to detect changes in survival. The extent of this change, as assessed by dose reduction factors at 2 logs of cell kill, was greater in the LY-A4 cell line. Fitting these data with the incomplete repair model of Thames led to anomalous values for the half-time of repair. In split-dose experiments the maximum observed recovery ratio increased as a function of dose in a manner that is consistent with the linear-quadratic equation. As was found previously with radiosensitive human tumour cells, the LY-S cell line showed more split-dose recovery at any given dose than the LY-A4 cell line. (author).

  1. Anne-Ly Võlli: Iga inimene ja asutus vajab omamoodi lähenemist / Anne-Ly Võlli ; intervjueerinud Jaanika Kressa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Võlli, Anne-Ly, 1976-

    2009-01-01

    MTÜ Jõgevamaa Omavalitsuste Aktiviseerimiskeskus kinnitas avaliku konkursi tulemusel juhatuse liikmeks Anne-Ly Võlli, kelle ülesandeks on keskuse tegevuse juhtimine ja koostöö arendamine partneromavalitsuste ja teiste koostööpartnerite vahel

  2. Anne-Ly Võlli: Iga inimene ja asutus vajab omamoodi lähenemist / Anne-Ly Võlli ; intervjueerinud Jaanika Kressa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Võlli, Anne-Ly, 1976-

    2009-01-01

    MTÜ Jõgevamaa Omavalitsuste Aktiviseerimiskeskus kinnitas avaliku konkursi tulemusel juhatuse liikmeks Anne-Ly Võlli, kelle ülesandeks on keskuse tegevuse juhtimine ja koostöö arendamine partneromavalitsuste ja teiste koostööpartnerite vahel

  3. Spectro-polarimetry confirms central powering of a Ly$\\alpha$ nebula at z=3.09

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, Melanie; Hayes, Matthew; Dijkstra, Mark; Jones, Terry J

    2016-01-01

    We present a follow-up study to the imaging polarimetry performed by Hayes et. al. 2011 on LAB1 in the SSA22 protocluster region. Arguably the most well-known Lyman-$\\alpha$ "blob", this radio-quiet emission-line nebula likely hosts a galaxy which is either undergoing significant star formation or hosts an AGN, or both. We obtain deep, spatially resolved spectro-polarimetry of the Ly$\\alpha$ emission and detect integrated linear polarization of $9$-$13\\%\\pm2$-$3\\%$ at a distance of approximately 15 kpc north and south of the peak of the Lyman-$\\alpha$ surface brightness with polarization vectors lying tangential to the galactic central source. In these same regions, we also detect a wavelength dependence in the polarization which is low at the center of the Ly$\\alpha$ line profile and rises substantially in the wings of the profile. These polarization signatures are easily explained by a weak out-flowing shell model. The spectral dependence of the polarization presented here provide a framework for future obs...

  4. Detection of a Hydrogen Corona in HST Lyα Images of Europa in Transit of Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Lorenz; Retherford, Kurt D.; Ivchenko, Nickolay; Schlatter, Nicola; Strobel, Darrell F.; Becker, Tracy M.; Grava, Cesare

    2017-02-01

    We report far-ultraviolet observations of Europa in transit of Jupiter obtained with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph of the Hubble Space Telescope on six occasions between 2014 December and 2015 March. Absorption of Jupiter’s bright hydrogen Lyα dayglow is detected in a region several moon radii above the limb in all observations. The observed extended absorption provides the first detection of an atomic hydrogen corona around Europa. Molecular constituents in Europa’s global sputtered atmosphere are shown to be optically thin to Lyα. The observations are consistent with a radially escaping H corona with maximum densities at the surface in the range of (1.5–2.2) × 103 cm‑3, confirming the abundances predicted by Monte Carlo simulations. In addition, we search for anomalies around the limb of Europa from absorption by localized high H2O abundances from active plumes. No significant local absorption features are detected. We find that an H2O plume with line-of-sight column density in the order of 1016 cm‑2, as inferred by Roth et al. would not be detectable based on the statistical fluctuations of the transit measurements, and hence is not excluded or further constrained. The presence of plumes with line-of-sight column densities of >2 × 1017 cm‑2 can be excluded at a 3-σ level during five of our six observations.

  5. A Luminosity Function of Ly(alpha)-Emitting Galaxies at Z [Approx. Equal to] 4.5(Sup 1),(Sup 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Steve; Rhoads, James E.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Stern, Daniel; Wang, JunXian; Dey, Arjun; Spinrad, Hyron; Jannuzi, Buell T.

    2007-01-01

    We present a catalog of 59 z [approx. equal to] 4:5 Ly(alpha)-emitting galaxies spectroscopically confirmed in a campaign of Keck DEIMOS follow-up observations to candidates selected in the Large Are (LALA) narrowband imaging survey.We targeted 97 candidates for spectroscopic follow-up; by accounting for the variety of conditions under which we performed spectroscopy, we estimate a selection reliability of approx.76%. Together with our previous sample of Keck LRIS confirmations, the 59 sources confirmed herein bring the total catalog to 73 spectroscopically confirmed z [approx. equal to] 4:5 Ly(alpha)- emitting galaxies in the [approx. equal to] 0.7 deg(exp 2) covered by the LALA imaging. As with the Keck LRIS sample, we find that a nonnegligible fraction of the co rest-frame equivalent widths (W(sub lambda)(sup rest)) that exceed the maximum predicted for normal stellar populations: 17%-31%(93%confidence) of the detected galaxies show (W(sub lambda)(sup rest)) 12%-27% (90% confidence) show (W(sub lambda)(sup rest)) > 240 A. We construct a luminosity function of z [approx. equal to] 4.5 Ly(alpha) emission lines for comparison to Ly(alpha) luminosity function < 6.6. We find no significant evidence for Ly(alpha) luminosity function evolution from z [approx. equal to] 3 to z [approx. equal to] 6. This result supports the conclusion that the intergalactic me largely reionized from the local universe out to z [approx. equal to] 6.5. It is somewhat at odds with the pronounced drop in the cosmic star formation rate density recently measured between z approx. 3 an z approx. 6 in continuum-selected Lyman-break galaxies, and therefore potentially sheds light on the relationship between the two populations.

  6. Evidence for large-scale structure in the Ly alpha forest at z > 2.6

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williger, GM; Smette, A; Hazard, C; Baldwin, JA; McMahon, RG

    2000-01-01

    We present a search for spatial and redshift correlations in a 2 Angstrom, resolution spectroscopic survey of the Ly alpha forest at 2.15 Ly alpha absorption-lin

  7. Ly alpha radiation from collapsing protogalaxies. I. Characteristics of the emergent spectrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Mark; Haiman, Zoltan; Spaans, Marco

    2006-01-01

    We present Monte Carlo calculations of Ly alpha radiative transfer through optically thick, spherically symmetric, collapsing gas clouds. These represent simplified models of protogalaxies in the process of their assembly. Such galaxies produce Ly alpha flux over an extended solid angle, either from

  8. The matter power spectrum from the Ly alpha forest : an optical depth estimate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaroubi, S; Nusser, A; Haehnelt, M; Kim, TS; Viel, M.

    2006-01-01

    We measure the matter power spectrum from 31 Ly alpha spectra spanning the redshift range of 1.6-3.6. The optical depth, tau, for Ly alpha absorption of the intergalactic medium is obtained from the flux using the inversion method of Nusser & Haehnelt. The optical depth is converted to density by us

  9. Ly alpha radiation from collapsing protogalaxies. I. Characteristics of the emergent spectrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Mark; Haiman, Zoltan; Spaans, Marco

    2006-01-01

    We present Monte Carlo calculations of Ly alpha radiative transfer through optically thick, spherically symmetric, collapsing gas clouds. These represent simplified models of protogalaxies in the process of their assembly. Such galaxies produce Ly alpha flux over an extended solid angle, either from

  10. Argon and Silicon abundances in the damped Ly-alpha system I Zw 18

    CERN Document Server

    Levshakov, S A; Agafonova, I I

    2000-01-01

    We show that the difference between the Ar and Si relative abundance ratio derived from FUSE absorption spectra and from the HII regions of I Zw 18 is a consequence of the microturbulent analysis applied to the absorption spectra. FUSE observations were performed with a large entrance aperture which fully covered the galaxy. This means that the observed profiles are averaged over the full body of I Zw 18, implying that large-scale velocity fields influence the absorption - line profiles. Taking this into account, we show that the absorption spectra are consistent with the same metal abundances as those derived from the HII regions. It follows that no significant ionization correction as suggested by Izotov and collaborators to describe metal contents in damped Ly-alpha systems (DLA) is required to model abundances in the neutral gas of I Zw 18 (a local DLA system). Using a mesoturbulent approach and applying the generalized radiative transfer equation to the ArI1048 and SiII1020 lines observed by Vidal-Madjar...

  11. G-Protein Inwardly Rectifying Potassium Channel 1 (GIRK1 Knockdown Decreases Beta-Adrenergic, MAP Kinase and Akt Signaling in the MDA-MB-453 Breast Cancer Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael W. Hance

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous data from our laboratory have indicated that there is a functional link between the beta-adrenergic receptor signaling pathway and the G-protein inwardly rectifying potassium channel (GIRK1 in breast cancer cell lines and that these pathways are involved in growth regulation of these cells. To determine functionality, MDA-MB-453 breast cancer cells were stimulated with ethanol, known to open GIRK channels. Decreased GIRK1 protein levels were seen after treatment with 0.12% ethanol. In addition, serum-free media completely inhibited GIRK1 protein expression. This data indicates that there are functional GIRK channels in breast cancer cells and that these channels are involved in cellular signaling. In the present research, to further define the signaling pathways involved, we performed RNA interference (siRNA studies. Three stealth siRNA constructs were made starting at bases 1104, 1315, and 1490 of the GIRK1 sequence. These constructs were transfected into MDA-MB-453 cells, and both RNA and protein were isolated. GIRK1, β2-adrenergic and 18S control levels were determined using real-time PCR 24 hours after transfection. All three constructs decreased GIRK1 mRNA levels. However, β2 mRNA levels were unchanged by the GIRK1 knockdown. GIRK1 protein levels were also reduced by the knockdown, and this knockdown led to decreases in beta-adrenergic, MAP kinase and Akt signaling.

  12. Extinction Correction Significantly Influences the Estimate of the Lyα Escape Fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Fang Xia; Zheng, Xian Zhong; Hao, Cai-Na; Huang, Jia-Sheng; Xia, Xiao-Yang

    2017-02-01

    The Lyα escape fraction is a key measure to constrain the neutral state of the intergalactic medium and then to understand how the universe was fully reionized. We combine deep narrowband imaging data from the custom-made filter NB393 and the {{{H}}}2S1 filter centered at 2.14 μm to examine the Lyα emitters and Hα emitters at the same redshift z = 2.24. The combination of these two populations allows us to determine the Lyα escape fraction at z = 2.24. Over an area of 383 arcmin2 in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDFS), 124 Lyα emitters are detected down to NB393 = 26.4 mag at the 5σ level, and 56 Hα emitters come from An et al. Of these, four have both Lyα and Hα emissions (LAHAEs). We also collect the Lyα emitters and Hα emitters at z = 2.24 in the COSMOS field from the literature, and increase the number of LAHAEs to 15 in total. About one-third of them are AGNs. We measure the individual/volumetric Lyα escape fraction by comparing the observed Lyα luminosity/luminosity density to the extinction-corrected Hα luminosity/luminosity density. We revisit the extinction correction for Hα emitters using the Galactic extinction law with color excess for nebular emission. We also adopt the Calzetti extinction law together with an identical color excess for stellar and nebular regions to explore how the uncertainties in extinction correction affect the estimate of individual and global Lyα escape fractions. In both cases, an anti-correlation between the Lyα escape fraction and dust attenuation is found among the LAHAEs, suggesting that dust absorption is responsible for the suppression of the escaping Lyα photons. However, the estimated Lyα escape fraction of individual LAHAEs varies by up to ∼3 percentage points between the two methods of extinction correction. We find the global Lyα escape fraction at z = 2.24 to be (3.7 ± 1.4)% in the ECDFS. The variation in the color excess of the extinction causes a discrepancy of ∼1 percentage

  13. Protective Role of Rho Guanosine Diphosphate Dissociation Inhibitor, Ly-GDI, in Pulmonary Alveolitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunguang Yan

    Full Text Available Growing evidences indicate that Ly-GDI, an inhibitory protein of Rho GTPases, plays an essential role in regulating actin cytoskeletal alteration which is indispensible for the process such as phagocytosis. However, the role of Ly-GDI in inflammation remains largely unknown. In the current study, we found that Ly-GDI expression was significantly decreased in the IgG immune complex-injured lungs. To determine if Ly-GDI might regulate the lung inflammatory response, we constructed adenovirus vectors that could mediate ectopic expression of Ly-GDI (Adeno-Ly-GDI. In vivo mouse lung expression of Ly-GDI resulted in a significant attenuation of IgG immune complex-induced lung injury, which was due to the decreased pulmonary permeability and lung inflammatory cells, especially neutrophil accumulation. Upon IgG immune complex deposition, mice with Ly-GDI over-expression in the lungs produced significant less inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-6, MCP-1, and MIP-1α in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid when compared control mice receiving airway injection of Adeno-GFP. Mechanically, IgG immune complex-induced NF-κB activity was markedly suppressed by Ly-GDI in both alveolar macrophages and lungs as measured by luciferase assay and electrophoretic mobility shift assay. These findings suggest that Ly-GDI is a critical regulator of inflammatory injury after deposition of IgG immune complexes and that it negatively regulates the lung NF-κB activity.

  14. The case for cases B and C: intrinsic hydrogen line ratios of the broad-line region of active galactic nuclei, reddenings, and accretion disc sizes

    CERN Document Server

    Gaskell, C Martin

    2016-01-01

    Low-redshift active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with extremely blue optical spectral indices are shown to have a mean, velocity-averaged, broad-line H$\\alpha$/H$\\beta$ ratio of $\\thickapprox 2.72 \\pm 0.04$, consistent with the Baker-Menzel Case B value. Comparison of a wide range of properties of the very bluest AGNs with those of a luminosity-matched subset of the Dong et al. blue AGN sample indicates that the only difference is the internal reddening. Ultraviolet fluxes are brighter for the bluest AGNs by an amount consistent with the flat AGN reddening curve of Gaskell et al. (2004). The lack of a significant difference in the GALEX (FUV--NUV) colour index strongly rules out a steep SMC-like reddening curve and also argues against an intrinsically harder spectrum. For very blue AGNs the Ly$\\alpha$/H$\\beta$ ratio is also consistent with being the Case B value. The Case B ratios provide strong support for the self-shielded broad-line model of Gaskell, Klimek & Nazarova. It is proposed that the greatly enhance...

  15. C IV and He II line emission of Lyman α blobs: powered by shock-heated gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabot, Samuel H. C.; Cen, Renyue; Zheng, Zheng

    2016-10-01

    Utilizing ab initio ultrahigh resolution hydrodynamical simulations, we investigate the properties of the interstellar and circumgalactic medium of Lyα blobs (LABs) at z = 3, focusing on three important emission lines: Lyα 1216 Å, He II 1640 Å and C IV 1549 Å. Their relative strengths provide a powerful probe of the thermodynamic properties of the gas when confronted with observations. By adjusting the dust attenuation effect using one parameter and matching the observed size-luminosity relation of LABs using another parameter, we show that our simulations can reproduce the observed C IV/Lyα and He II/Lyα ratios adequately. This analysis provides the first successful physical model to account for simultaneously the LAB luminosity function, luminosity-size relation and the C IV/Lyα and He II/Lyα ratios, with only two parameters. The physical underpinning for this model is that, in addition to the stellar component for the Lyα emission, the Lyα and C IV emission lines due to shock-heated gas are primarily collisional excitation driven and the He II emission line collisional ionization driven. We find that the density, temperature and metallicity of the gas responsible for each emission line is significantly distinct, in a multiphase interstellar and circumgalactic medium that is shock heated primarily by supernovae and secondarily by gravitational accretion of gas.

  16. Myostatin antibody (LY2495655) in older weak fallers: a proof-of-concept, randomised, phase 2 trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Myostatin inhibits skeletal muscle growth. The humanised monoclonal antibody LY2495655 (LY) binds and neutralises myostatin. We aimed to test whether LY increases appendicular lean body mass (aLBM) and improves physical performance in older individuals who have had recent falls and low m...

  17. Studies of the $\\beta$-decay of Sr nuclei on and near the N=Z Line with a Total Absorption Gamma-ray Spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    Marechal, F; Caballero ontanaya, L

    2002-01-01

    In the framework of the investigation of the shapes of the ground states of the parent nucleus, we propose to carry out measurements of the complete Gamow-Teller strength distribution for the $^{76-80}$Sr isotopes, with a new Total Absorption Gamma Spectrometer installed on a new beam line. The results will be compared with theoretical calculations based on the mean field approach. A brief report on the IS370 experiment on $^{72-75}$Kr decay, which was recently performed at ISOLDE, will be given and the performance of the sum spectrometer will be presented.

  18. Quasar absorption lines and the intergalactic medium

    CERN Document Server

    Jannuzi, B T

    1996-01-01

    The importance of HST for the study of quasar absorption lines and of the nature of the intergalactic medium is illustrated by reviewing selected results from past HST observations. Topics reviewed include the study of Ly-alpha absorbers at low redshift and the search for a diffuse IGM at high redshifts.

  19. 银鲫精巢特异的Ly-6/uPAR相关蛋白的分子克隆及其特征分析%MOLECULAR CLONING AND EXPRESSION ANALYSIS OF TESTIS-SPECIFIC Ly-6/uPAR RELATED PROTEIN IN GIBEL CARP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟; 刘珍; 周莉; 李志; 桂建芳

    2015-01-01

    The members of Ly-6/uPAR superfamily distribute widely in many metazoans. All proteins from this family have at least one conserved Ly-6/uPAR (LU) domain which is composed of about 70 to 100 amino acids, and contain 8 to 10 cysteine residues with a defined disulfide-bonding pattern. The members of Ly-6 family are classified into two subfamilies, namely GPI-anchored membrane proteins and secreted proteins, according to whether they possess the glycophosphatidyl inositol (GPI)-anchored signal sequence in the C-terminus. In this study, we cloned and characterized a new member of Ly-6 superfamilyingibel carp(Carassius auratus gibelio). The full-length sequence of this gene con-sisted of 570 base pairs that encoded 99 amino acids and had only one LU domain. Our analysis using on-line bioinfor-matic software showed that this protein might have one signal peptide but no GPI-anchor signal sequence, thus could be a type of secreted protein. We conducted RT-PCR to detect its expression in different tissues and found that this protein was specifically expressed in testis. According to its characteristics, we named the geneCarassius auratus gibelio testis- specific Ly-6/uPAR related protein (CagTslurp).In situhybridization revealed the expression ofCagTslurpin sper-matogonia, primary spermatocytes, secondary spermatocytes and spermatids, but not in somatic cells. These results in-dicated that theCagTslurp gene might play a role in spermatogenesis of gibel carp.%Ly-6/uPAR基因超家族(Ly-6 SF)成员广泛地存在于后生动物中,开展该家族相关功能基因研究具有重要的意义.研究从银鲫(Carassius auratus gibelio)中鉴定到一个该家族新成员, cDNA全长为570 bp,其中开放阅读框长度为300 bp,编码99个氨基酸,生物软件预测该蛋白含有一个LU结构域,不含GPI锚信号序列, N端含有信号肽,表明其可能为Ly-6基因超家族中分泌型蛋白.组织表达分析显示,该基因只在银鲫精巢中特异表达, 且又是Ly

  20. Finding bright z ≥ 6.6 Ly α emitters with lensing: prospects for Euclid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, L.; Serjeant, S.; Vaccari, M.

    2017-10-01

    We model the z ≥ 6.6 Ly α luminosity function to estimate the number of lensed high-z Ly α emitters that may be detected by the Euclid Deep Survey. To span the whole range of possible predictions, we exploit two Ly α luminosity function models and two strong gravitational lensing models from the literature. We show that the planned Euclid Deep Survey observing 40 deg2 over the 920-1850 nm wavelength range down to a flux limit of Flim = 5 × 10-17 erg s-1 cm-2 will enable us to find between ˜0.85 and ˜1.82 deg-2 lensed Ly α emitters at z ≥ 6.6 depending on the adopted Ly α luminosity function and strong gravitational lensing model. The obvious [O ii], [O iii] and H β contaminants of the Ly α lensed population will be identified with the help of Euclid's spectral resolving power, while the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) will enable the identification of the interloper population of H α emitters. By combining Euclid and the SKA, we will thus be able to identify, for the first time, a sample of ˜34 to ˜73 lensed Ly α emitters at z ≥ 6.6.

  1. Extinction Correction Significantly Influences the Estimate of Ly$\\alpha$ Escape Fraction

    CERN Document Server

    An, Fangxia; HAO, Cai-Na; Huang, Jia-Sheng; Xia, Xiao-Yang

    2016-01-01

    The Ly$\\alpha$ escape fraction is a key measure to constraining the neutral state of the inter-galactic medium and then to understanding how the universe was fully reionized. We combine deep narrow-band imaging data through the custom-made filter NB393 and the $H_{2}S$1 filter centered at 2.14 $\\mu$m to examine the Ly$\\alpha$ emitters and H$\\alpha$ emitters at the same redshift $z=2.24$. The combination of two populations allows us to determine the Ly$\\alpha$ escape fraction at $z=2.24$. Over an area of 383 arcmin$^{2}$ in the Extended Chandra Deep Field (ECDFS), 124 Ly$\\alpha$ emitters are detected down to NB393 = 26.4 mag at the 5$\\sigma$ level and 56 H$\\alpha$ emitters from An14. Of them, four have both Ly$\\alpha$ and H$\\alpha$ emissions (LAHAEs). We measure the individual/volumetric Ly$\\alpha$ escape fraction by comparing the observed Ly$\\alpha$ luminosity/luminosity density to extinction-corrected H$\\alpha$ luminosity/luminosity density. We revisit the extinction correction for H$\\alpha$ emitters using t...

  2. Characterization and function of human Ly-6/uPAR molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Kyung Kong & Jong Hoon Park*

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Human Ly-6/uPAR molecules are a superfamily composed oftwo subfamilies; one is the membrane bound proteins with aGPI-anchor and the other are secreted proteins without theGPI-anchor. Ly-6/uPAR molecules have remarkable amino acidhomology through a distinctive 8-10 cysteine-rich domain thatis associated predominantly with O-linked glycans. Thesemolecules are encoded by multiple tightly linked genes locatedon Chr. 8q23, and have a conserved genomic organization.Ly-6/uPAR molecules have an interesting expression patternduring hematopoiesis and on specific tumors indicating thatLy-6/uPAR molecules are associated with development of theimmune system and carcinogenesis. Thus, Ly-6/uPAR moleculesare useful antigens for diagnostic and therapeutic targets.This review summarizes our understanding of human Ly-6/uPAR molecules with regard to molecular structure as well aswhat is known about their function in normal and malignanttissues and suggest Ly-6/uPAR molecules as target antigens forcancer immunotherapy.

  3. On the contribution of fluorescence to Ly$\\alpha$ halos (LAHs) around star forming galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Mas-Ribas, Lluís

    2016-01-01

    We quantify the contribution of Ly$\\alpha$ fluorescence to observed spatially extended Ly$\\alpha$ halos around Ly$\\alpha$ emitters (LAE) at redshift ${\\rm z=3.1}$. The key physical quantities that describe the fluorescent signal include (${\\it i}$) the distribution of cold gas in the circum-galactic medium (CGM); we explore simple analytic models and fitting functions to recent hydrodynamical simulations; (${\\it ii}$) local variations in the ionizing background due to ionizing sources that cluster around the central galaxy. We account for clustering by boosting the observationally inferred volumetric production rate of ionizing photons, $\\epsilon_{\\rm LyC}$, by a factor $1+\\xi_{\\rm LyC}(r)$, in which $\\xi_{\\rm LyC}(r)$ quantifies the clustering of ionizing sources around the central galaxy. We compute $\\xi_{\\rm LyC}(r)$ by assigning an 'effective' bias parameter to the ionizing sources. This novel approach allows us to quantify our ignorance of the population of ionizing sources in a simple parametrized form....

  4. Anidulafungin: ECB, LY 303366, V-echinocandin, VEC, VER 002, VER-02.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Vicuron Pharmaceuticals (formerly Versicor Inc.) is developing anidulafungin [LY 303366, ECB, V-echinocandin, VEC, VER-02, VER 002], a lipopeptide echinocandin B derivative, for IV treatment of mycoses. Anidulafungin acts against fungal infection by inhibiting beta-1,3-glucan synthase, an enzyme essential for cell wall formation. Anidulafungin was originally developed for oral use by Eli Lilly and was undergoing phase II clinical trials in the UK and the US for the treatment of Candida, Aspergillus and Pneumocystis carinii infections. However, Eli Lilly discontinued development of the oral formulation due to poor oral bioavailability. In May 1999, Versicor obtained exclusive worldwide commercialisation rights to anidulafungin with responsibility for its development and clinical registration. Under the terms of the agreement, Eli Lilly received a signing fee, and will receive milestone payments upon future development of anidulafungin and royalties on future sales. Eli Lilly also retains an option for the development of an oral formulation of the compound. On 3 March 2003, Versicor Inc. of Fremont (California, USA) and Biosearch Italia SpA of Milan (Italy) announced the completion of a merger agreement, whereby Biosearch was merged with and into Versicor in a stock-for-stock exchange valued at US dollars 260.7 million. The combined company temporarily kept the name Versicor until the new name, Vicuron Pharmaceuticals, was announced on 26 March 2003. In January 2003, Versicor announced that positive results from a phase II trial for anidulafungin IV treatment involving 120 patients in the US with invasive candidiasis/candidaemia, have led to another double-blind, randomised phase III trial being conducted in the US, Canada and Europe for this indication. This additional phase III trial will enrol approximately 300 patients to investigate the efficacy of IV anidulafungin (200 mg loading dose followed by 100 mg maintenance dose) versus IV fluconazole for 10 to 42 days

  5. The Diversity of Diffuse Lyα Nebulae around Star-forming Galaxies at High Redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Rui; Lee, Kyoung-Soo; Dey, Arjun; Reddy, Naveen; Hong, Sungryong; Prescott, Moire K. M.; Inami, Hanae; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Gonzalez, Anthony H.

    2017-03-01

    We report the detection of diffuse Lyα emission, or Lyα halos (LAHs), around star-forming galaxies at z ≈ 3.78 and 2.66 in the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey Boötes field. Our samples consist of a total of ∼1400 galaxies, within two separate regions containing spectroscopically confirmed galaxy overdensities. They provide a unique opportunity to investigate how the LAH characteristics vary with host galaxy large-scale environment and physical properties. We stack Lyα images of different samples defined by these properties and measure their median LAH sizes by decomposing the stacked Lyα radial profile into a compact galaxy-like and an extended halo-like component. We find that the exponential scale-length of LAHs depends on UV continuum and Lyα luminosities, but not on Lyα equivalent widths or galaxy overdensity parameters. The full samples, which are dominated by low UV-continuum luminosity Lyα emitters (M UV ≳ ‑21), exhibit LAH sizes of 5–6 kpc. However, the most UV- or Lyα-luminous galaxies have more extended halos with scale-lengths of 7–9 kpc. The stacked Lyα radial profiles decline more steeply than recent theoretical predictions that include the contributions from gravitational cooling of infalling gas and from low-level star formation in satellites. However, the LAH extent matches what one would expect for photons produced in the galaxy and then resonantly scattered by gas in an outflowing envelope. The observed trends of LAH sizes with host galaxy properties suggest that the physical conditions of the circumgalactic medium (covering fraction, H i column density, and outflow velocity) change with halo mass and/or star formation rates.

  6. The properties of Ly-alpha emitting galaxies in hierarchical galaxy formation models

    CERN Document Server

    Le Delliou, M; Baugh, C M; Morris, S L

    2006-01-01

    We present detailed predictions for the properties of Ly-alpha emitting galaxies in the framework of the LambdaCDM cosmology, calculated using the semi-analytical galaxy formation model GALFORM. We show that a simple model in which a fixed fraction of Ly-alpha photons escape from each galaxy is remarkably successful at explaining the observed luminosity function of Ly-alpha emitters over the redshift range 37, a redshift range which will be probed in the near future using new near-IR instruments such as DAzLE.

  7. Kodály-metodin hyödyntäminen instrumenttipedagogiikassa : Musiikki kuuluu kaikille

    OpenAIRE

    Kallioniemi, Anni

    2012-01-01

    Tässä opinnäytetyössä tarkastellaan Kodály-metodin keinojen ja välineiden soveltamista soittotuntitilanteissa. Kokemus musiikin teoriaopintojen ja soitonopetuksen irtautumisesta toisistaan antoi intoa opinnäytetyöhön perehtymiseen. Kodály-metodi on unkarilaisen musiikinopetuksen perusta. Tämä pedagoginen suuntaus antaa opettajille hyviä välineitä korkealaatuiseen musiikinopetukseen. Työn keskeistä aineistoa olivat Zoltán Kodályn ja muiden Kodály-pedagogien kirjoitukset sekä oppimateriaal...

  8. Variable Ly alpha sheds light on the environment surrounding GRB 090426

    CERN Document Server

    Thöne, C C; Lazzati, D; Postigo, A de Ugarte; Fynbo, J P U; Christensen, L; Levan, A J; Aloy, M A; Hjorth, J; Jakobsson, P; Levesque, E M; Malesani, D; Milvang-Jensen, B; Roming, P W A; Tanvir, N R; Wiersema, K; Gladders, M; Wuyts, E; Dahle, H

    2011-01-01

    Long duration gamma-ray bursts are commonly associated with the deaths of massive stars. Spectroscopic studies using the afterglow as a light source provide a unique opportunity to unveil the medium surrounding it, probing the densest region of their galaxies. This material is usually in a low ionisation state and at large distances from the burst site, hence representing the normal interstellar medium in the galaxy. Here we present the case of GRB 090426 at z=2.609, whose optical spectrum indicates an almost fully ionised medium together with a low column density of neutral hydrogen. For the first time, we also observe variations in the Ly alpha absorption line. Photoionisation modeling shows that we are probing material from the vicinity of the burst (~80 pc). The host galaxy is a complex of two luminous interacting galaxies, which might suggest that this burst could have occurred in an isolated star-forming region outside its host galaxy created in the interaction of the two galaxies.

  9. Ly Alpha-Emitting Galaxies at z=3.1: L* Progenitors Experiencing Rapid Star Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Gawiser, Eric; Lai, Kamson; Schawinski, Kevin; Gronwall, Caryl; Ciardullo, Robin; Quadri, Ryan; Orsi, Alvaro; Barrientos, L Felipe; Blanc, Guillermo A; Fazio, Giovanni; Feldmeier, John J; Huang, Jia-Sheng; Infante, Leopoldo; Lira, Paulina; Padilla, Nelson; Taylor, Edward N; Treister, Ezequiel; Urry, C Megan; van Dokkum, Pieter G; Virani, Shanil N

    2007-01-01

    We studied the clustering properties and multiwavelength spectral energy distributions of a complete sample of 162 Ly Alpha-Emitting (LAE) galaxies at z=3.1 discovered in deep narrow-band MUSYC imaging of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South. LAEs were selected to have observed frame equivalent widths >80A and emission line fluxes >1.5E-17 erg/cm^2/s. Only 1% of our LAE sample appears to host AGN. The LAEs exhibit a moderate spatial correlation length of r_0=3.6+0.8-1.0 Mpc, corresponding to a bias factor b=1.7+0.3-0.4, which implies median dark matter halo masses of log10(M_med) = 10.9+0.5-0.9 M_sun. Comparing the number density of LAEs, (1.5+-0.3)E-3/Mpc^3, with the number density of these halos finds a mean halo occupation ~1-10%. The evolution of galaxy bias with redshift implies that most z=3.1 LAEs evolve into present-day galaxies with L3 galaxy populations typically evolve into more massive galaxies. Halo merger trees show that z=0 descendants occupy halos with a wide range of masses, with a median de...

  10. Hot surface ionic line emission and cold K-inner shell emission from petawatt-laser irradiated Cu foil targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theobald, W; Akli, K; Clarke, R; Delettrez, J A; Freeman, R R; Glenzer, S; Green, J; Gregori, G; Heathcote, R; Izumi, N; King, J A; Koch, J A; Kuba, J; Lancaster, K; MacKinnon, A J; Key, M; Mileham, C; Myatt, J; Neely, D; Norreys, P A; Park, H; Pasely, J; Patel, P; Regan, S P; Sawada, H; Shepherd, R; Snavely, R; Stephens, R B; Stoeckl, C; Storm, M; Zhang, B; Sangster, T C

    2005-12-13

    A hot, T{sub e} {approx} 2- to 3-keV surface plasma was observed in the interaction of a 0.7-ps petawatt laser beam with solid copper-foil targets at intensities >10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2}. Copper K-shell spectra were measured in the range of 8 to 9 keV using a single-photon-counting x-ray CCD camera. In addition to K{sub {alpha}} and K{sub {beta}} inner-shell lines, the emission contained the Cu He{sub {alpha}} and Ly{sub {alpha}} lines, allowing the temperature to be inferred. These lines have not been observed previously with ultrafast laser pulses. For intensities less than 3 x 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}, only the K{sub {alpha}} and K{sub {beta}} inner-shell emissions are detected. Measurements of the absolute K{sub {alpha}} yield as a function of the laser intensity are in agreement with a model that includes refluxing and confinement of the suprathermal electrons in the target volume.

  11. An 80-kpc Lyα halo around a high-redshift type-2 quasi-stellar object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. J. B.; Jarvis, M. J.; Simpson, C.; Martínez-Sansigre, A.

    2009-02-01

    We announce the discovery of an extended emission-line region associated with a high-redshift type-2 quasi-stellar object (QSO). The halo, which was discovered in our new wide-field narrow-band survey, resides at z = 2.85 in the Spitzer First Look Survey region and is extended over ~80 kpc. Deep very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations imply that approximately 50 per cent of the radio emission is extended on scales >200pc. The inferred active galactic nuclei (AGN) luminosity is sufficient to ionize the extended halo, and the optical emission is consistent with being triggered coevally with the radio source. The Lyα halo is as luminous as those found around high-redshift radio galaxies; however, the active nucleus is several orders of magnitude less luminous at radio wavelengths than those Fanarof-Riley type II (FRIIs) more commonly associated with extended emission-line regions. AMS05 appears to be a high-redshift analogue to the radio-quiet quasar E1821+643 which is core dominated, but which also exhibits extended Fanarof-Riley type I (FRI)-like structure and contains an optically powerful AGN. We also find evidence for more quiescent kinematics in the Lyα emission line in the outer regions of the halo, reminiscent of the haloes around the more powerful FRIIs. The optical to mid-infrared spectral energy distribution is well described by a combination of an obscured QSO (Lbol ~ 3.4 +/- 0.2 × 1013Lsolar) and a 1.4 Gyr old simple stellar population with mass ~3.9 +/- 0.3 × 1011Msolar.

  12. CNO abundances in the Damped Ly-alpha clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Molaro, P

    2003-01-01

    Damped Ly alpha clouds provide information on the chemistry of distant and metal poor regions of the universe. In these clouds for observational difficulties N and O are among the last elements to be measured, and C has still to be measured with precision. In combining the extant CNO abundances, we avail of a sample which includes 33 N measurements or significant limits, a dozen of O measurements, and only few tentative measurements for C. O is found to track both S and Si rather closely without signatures of any peculiar behaviour and the few [O/Zn] ratios available show a mild alpha/iron-peak enhancement which reinforces earlier evidence. The few tentative C measurements point to roughly solar [C/Zn] and [C/Si] ratios. N abundances are rather complex with N/alpha ratios showing a bimodal distribution. The majority of the values form a first plateau at [N/Si]=-0.82 (+/- 0.13) and about 25 % form a second plateau at [N/Si]= -1.45 (+/- 0.05). The high values are at the level of the Blue Compact Dwarfs but they...

  13. Properties of the observed Lyα forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiański, M.; Doroshkevich, A. G.; Turchaninov, V.

    2000-11-01

    The main observed properties of Lyα absorbers are investigated on the basis of a theoretical model of formation and evolution of dark matter (DM) structure elements. This model is generally consistent with simulations of absorber formation and with the statistical description of structure evolution based on the Zel'dovich theory. The analysis of redshift variations of comoving linear number density of absorbers was performed in our previous paper. We show that the observed characteristics of the Doppler parameter can be related to the size of DM structure elements that allow us to explain the observed distribution of the Doppler parameter. This distribution is found to be consistent with the Gaussian initial perturbations. The observed characteristics of entropy and column density NHi confirm that the merging of pancakes is the main evolutionary process at redshifts z>=2. The observed sample of absorbers mainly characterizes the matter distribution within large low-density regions and therefore it is difficult to reconstruct the density field from the distribution of absorbers.

  14. THE FUNDAMENTAL PLANE OF DAMPED Ly{alpha} SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neeleman, Marcel; Wolfe, Arthur M. [Department of Physics and Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, UCSD, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Prochaska, J. Xavier [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Rafelski, Marc, E-mail: mneeleman@physics.ucsd.edu [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2013-05-20

    Using a sample of 100 H I-selected damped Ly{alpha} (DLA) systems, observed with the High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer on the Keck I telescope, we present evidence that the scatter in the well-studied correlation between the redshift and metallicity of a DLA is largely due to the existence of a mass-metallicity relationship at each redshift. To describe the fundamental relations that exist between redshift, metallicity, and mass, we use a fundamental plane description, which is described by the following equation: [M/H] = (- 1.9 {+-} 0.5) + (0.74 {+-} 0.21) {center_dot} log {Delta}v{sub 90} - (0.32 {+-} 0.06) {center_dot} z. Here, we assert that the velocity width, {Delta}v{sub 90}, which is defined as the velocity interval containing 90% of the integrated optical depth, traces the mass of the underlying dark matter halo. This description provides two significant improvements over the individual descriptions of the mass-metallicity correlation and metallicity-redshift correlation. Firstly, the fundamental equation reduces the scatter around both relationships by about 20%, providing a more stringent constraint on numerical simulations modeling DLAs. Secondly, it confirms that the dark matter halos that host DLAs satisfy a mass-metallicity relationship at each redshift between redshifts 2 through 5.

  15. Inhibition of pirfenidone on TGF-beta2 induced proliferation, migration and epithlial-mesenchymal transition of human lens epithelial cells line SRA01/04.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangfan Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Posterior capsular opacification (PCO is a common complication of cataract surgery. Transforming growth factor-β2 (TGF-β2 plays important roles in the development of PCO. The existing pharmacological treatments are not satisfactory and can have toxic side effects. METHODOLOGIES/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We evaluated the effect of pirfenidone on proliferation, migration and epithlial-mesenchymal transition of human lens epithelial cell line SRA01/04 (HLECs in vitro. After treatment with 0, 0.25, and 0.5 mg/ml pirfenidone, cell proliferation was measured by MTT assay. Cell viability was determined by trypan blue exclusion assay and measurement of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity released from the damaged cells. And cell migration was measured by scratch assay in the absence or presence of transforming growth factor-β2 (TGF-β2. The expressions of TGF-β2 and SMADs were evaluated with real-time RT-PCR, western blot, and immunofluorescence analyses. The mesenchymal phenotypic marker fibronectin (FN was demonstrated by Immunocytofluorescence analyses. The cells had high viability, which did not vary across different concentrations of pirfenidone (0 [control] 0.3, 0.5 or 1.0 mg/ml after 24 hours. Pirfenidone (0∼0.5 mg/ml had no significant cytotoxicity effect on SRA01/04 by LDH assay. Pirfenidone significantly inhibited the proliferation and TGF-β2-induced cell migration and the effects were dose-dependent, and inhibited TGF-β2-induced fibroblastic phenotypes and TGF-β2-induced expression of FN in SRA01/04 cells. The cells showed dose-dependent decreases in mRNA and protein levels of TGF-β2 and SMADs. Pirfenidone also depressed the TGF-β2-induced expression of SMADs and blocked the nuclear translocation of SMADs in cells. CONCLUSION: Pirfenidone inhibits TGF-β2-induced proliferation, migration and epithlial-mesenchymal transition of human lens epithelial cells line SRA01/04 at nontoxic concentrations. This effect may be achieved by

  16. The Effect of Conditional Inactivation of Beta 1 Integrins using Twist 2 Cre, Osterix Cre and Osteocalcin Cre Lines on Skeletal Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekaran, Asha; Shoemaker, James T.; Kavanaugh, Taylor E.; Lin, Angela S.; LaPlaca, Michelle C.; Fan, Yuhong; Guldberg, Robert E.; García, Andrés J.

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal development and growth are complex processes regulated by multiple microenvironmental cues, including integrin-ECM interactions. The β1 sub-family of integrins is the largest integrin sub-family and constitutes the main integrin binding partners of collagen I, the major ECM component of bone. As complete β1 integrin integrin knockout results in embryonic lethality, studies of β1 integrin function in vivo rely on tissue-specific gene deletions. While multiple in vitro studies indicate that β1 integrins are crucial regulators of osteogenesis and mineralization, in vivo osteoblast-specific perturbations of β1 integrins have resulted in mild and sometimes contradictory skeletal phenotypes. To further investigate the role of β1 integrins on skeletal phenotype, we used the Twist2-Cre, Osterix-Cre and Osteocalcin-Cre lines to generate conditional β1 integrin deletions, where cre is expressed primarily in mesenchymal condensation, pre-osteoblast, and mature osteoblast lineage cells respectively within these lines. Mice with Twist2-specific β1 integrin disruption were smaller, had impaired skeletal development, especially in the craniofacial and vertebral tissues at E19.5, and did not survive beyond birth. Osterix-specific β1 integrin deficiency resulted in viable mice which were normal at birth but displayed early defects in calvarial ossification, incisor eruption and growth as well as femoral bone mineral density, structure, and mechanical properties. Although these defects persisted into adulthood, they became milder with age. Finally, a lack of β1 integrins in mature osteoblasts and osteocytes resulted in minor alterations to femur structure but had no effect on mineral density, biomechanics or fracture healing. Taken together, our data indicate that β1 integrin expression in early mesenchymal condensations play an important role in skeletal ossification, while β1 integrin-ECM interactions in pre-osteoblast, odontoblast- and hypertrophic

  17. Application of LY-9801 primer hydrogenation catalyst for cracking gasoline%LY-9801裂解汽油一段加氢催化剂的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈育辉

    2002-01-01

    介绍了LY-9801裂解汽油一段加氢催化剂在茂名石化乙烯工业公司加氢装置的应用情况.经过6 520 h试运行表明,LY-9801一段加氢催化剂各项分析指标合格,完全满足C5~C8 组分工况的使用要求.

  18. Cloning and expression of cDNA for a human Gal(beta1-3)GalNAc alpha2,3-sialyltransferase from the CEM T-cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordanengo, V; Bannwarth, S; Laffont, C; Van Miegem, V; Harduin-Lepers, A; Delannoy, P; Lefebvre, J C

    1997-07-15

    Complementary DNA encoding a human Gal(beta1-3)GalNAc alpha2,3-sialyltransferase type II (hST3Gal II) was cloned from a CEM T-cell cDNA library using a 23-base oligonucleotide probe. The sequence of this probe was established on the basis of a slightly divergent sialylmotif L that was obtained by polymerase chain reaction with degenerate oligonucleotide primers based on the conserved sialylmotif L of mammalian Gal(beta1-3)GalNAc alpha2,3-sialyltransferases. It was thus confirmed that a short oligonucleotide probe may be sensitive and highly specific. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences of hST3Gal II show, respectively, 56.3% and 49.3% similarity to hST3Gal I [Kitagawa, H. & Paulson, J. C. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 17872-17878] and 88.1% and 93.7% similarity to murine ST3Gal II [Lee, Y. C., Kojima, N., Wada, E., Kurosawa, N., Nakaoka, T., Hamamoto, T. & Tsuji, S. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 10028-10033]. hST3Gal II mRNA was highly expressed in heart, liver, skeletal muscle and various lymphoid tissues but not in brain and kidney. A soluble form of hST3Gal II expressed in COS-7 cells was tested in vitro for substrate specificity and kinetic properties. Asialofetuin and asialo-bovine submaxillary mucin appeared better substrates for hST3Gal II than for its murine counterpart as previously reported [Kojima, N., Lee, Y.-C., Hamamoto, T., Kurosawa, N. & Tsuji, S. (1994) Biochemistry 33, 5772-5776]. In previous studies, we have shown hyposialylation of O-glycans attached to two major lymphocyte CD43 and CD45 cell surface molecules in human-immunodeficiency-virus-1(HIV-1)-infected T-cell lines. Since comparable levels of hST3Gal I and hST3Gal II mRNA and enzymatic activity were observed in parental and HIV-1-infected CEM T-cell lysates, the sialylation defect associated with HIV infection of this cell line is probably due to a mechanism different from a simple altered catalytic activity of these sialyltransferases.

  19. Localized corrosion of LY12CZ under stress in chloride media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAO Si-xian; ZHANG Zheng; ZHU Li-qun; ZHONG Qun-peng

    2006-01-01

    Electrochemical methods were applied to investigate the corrosion behaviour of LY12CZ under applied stress in 3% sodium chloride aqueous solution. The experimental results indicate that LY12CZ shows two breakdown potentials on its polarization curve: one is related to the dissolution of the intermetallic particles and the other is related to the cracking of oxidation film and the dissolution of the matrix. When the stress is applied, it varies both breakdown potentials and makes the intermetallic particles and matrix dissolute at lower potentials. The relationship between the variation of the two breakdown potentials and applied stress was summarized. At the same time the influence of stress on the pitting and intergranular corrosion sensitivity of LY12CZ was also investigated. From the results it can be concluded that the stress can significantly affect the localized corrosion behaviour of LY12CZ in 3% NaCl solution.

  20. VEGF Production by Ly6C+high Monocytes Contributes to Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shi, Chung-Sheng; Huang, Tzu-Hsiung; Lin, Chin-Kuo; Li, Jhy-Ming; Chen, Mei-Hsin; Tsai, Mei-Ling; Chang, Chih-Ching

    2016-01-01

      Background Mechanical ventilation is a life-saving procedure for patients with acute respiratory failure, although it may cause pulmonary vascular inflammation and leakage, leading to ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). Ly6C...

  1. ELECTROCHEMICAL FEATURES DURING PITTING CORROSION OF LY12 ALUMINUM ALLOY IN DIFFERENT NEUTRAL SOLUTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F.H. Cao; Z. Zhang; Y.L. Cheng; J.F. Li; J.Q. Zhang; C.N. Cao

    2003-01-01

    The electrochemical features of commercial airframe material, Al alloy LY12, in 0. 349mol/L neutral sodium chloride (NaCl) and sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) solutions were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization techniques. The microstructure of the as-tested samples was studied by scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the Nyquist plots of LY12 at different immersion time displayed different fe atures, indicating that the Cl- ions elevate the corrosion rate and inhibit the repassivation of a metastable pit. It also shows that the corrosion product of LY12 formed in SO2-4 solution isn't easy to dissolve, and it will cover the surface of working electrode in the electrolyte. SEM images indicate that the corrosion apparent area and pit number of LY12 in NaCl solution are greater than that in Na2SO4 solution.

  2. GALVANIC CORROSION AND PROTECTION OF GECM/LY12CZ COUPLES UNDER DIFFERENT ATMOSPHERIC EXPOSURE CONDITIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F. Lu; Q.P. Zhong; C.X. Cao

    2003-01-01

    Galvanic compatibility between graphite epoxy composite materials (GECM) andLY12CZ aluminum alloy was evaluated in different atmospheric corrosion environ-ments and by laboratory electrochemical measurements. Open circuit potential elec-trochemical measurements showed a relatively large potential difference about 1 voltbetween the GECM and LY12CZ aluminum alloy, and this difference provided thedriving force for galvanic corrosion of the LY12CZ aluminum alloy as an anode.Having been exposed for 1, 3 or 5 years in Beijing, Tuandao and Wanning station,GECM/L Y12CZ couples showed significant losses of strength and elongation. Protec-tive coatings and non-conductive barriers breaking the galvanic corrosion circuit wereevaluated under the same atmospheric corrosive conditions. Epoxy primer paint, glasscloth barriers and LY12CZ anodizing were effective in galvanic corrosion control forGECM/L Y12CZ couples.

  3. Trahv? Herned klassinurgas? Või hoopis ihunuhtlus? / Pilme, Lea; Kivistik, Ly; Sirgmets, Raili; Part, Aivar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Suhtumisest koolijuhtidele trahvimisõiguse andmise ideesse vestlevad Rakvere Põhikooli direktor Lea Pilme, Uhtna Põhikooli direktor Ly Kivistik, Väike-Maarja Gümnaasiumi direktor Raili Sirgmets ja Rakvere Gümnaasiumi direktor Aivar Part

  4. Serum albumin protects from cytokine-induced pancreatic beta cell death by a phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiaer, Caroline; Thams, Peter

    2009-01-01

    ) inhibitors LY294002 (25 micromol/l) and wortmannin (1 micromol/l), suggesting that albumin may rescue beta cells from cytokine-induced cell death by activation of PI3K. In accordance, albumin stimulated phosphorylation of Akt, a down-stream target for PI3K. In conclusion, it is suggested that albumin may...

  5. H-alpha Imaging with HST+NICMOS of An Elusive Damped Ly-alpha Cloud at z=0.6

    CERN Document Server

    Bouche, N; Charlton, J C; Bershady, M A; Churchill, C W; Steidel, C C; Bouche, Nicolas; Lowenthal, James D.; Charlton, Jane C.; Bershady, Matthew A.; Churchill, Christopher W.; Steidel, Charles C.

    2000-01-01

    Despite previous intensive ground--based imaging and spectroscopic campaigns and wide-band HST imaging of the z=0.927 QSO 3C336 field, the galaxy that hosts the damped Ly-alpha system along this line--of--sight has eluded detection. We present a deep narrow-band H-alpha image of the field of this z=0.656 damped Ly-alpha absorber, obtained through the F108N filter of NICMOS 1 onboard the Hubble Space Telescope. The goal of this project was to detect any H-alpha emission 10 times closer than previous studies to unveil the damped absorber. We do not detect H-alpha emission between 0.05'' and 6'' (0.24 and 30 $h^{-1}$ kpc) from the QSO, with a 3-sigma flux limit of $3.70 \\times 10^{-17} h^{-2}$ erg/s/cm^2 for an unresolved source, corresponding to a star formation rate (SFR) of $0.3 h^{-2}$ M_sun/yr. This leads to a 3-sigma upper limit of 0.15 M_sun/yr/kpc^2 on the SFR density, or a maximum SFR of 1.87 M_sun/yr assuming a disk of 4 kpc in diameter. This result adds to the number of low redshift damped Ly-alpha ab...

  6. Rapid decline of Lyα emission toward the reionization era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tilvi, V.; Papovich, C. [George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77845 (United States); Finkelstein, S. L.; Song, M. [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Long, J. [Department of Statistics, Texas A and M, College Station, TX 77845 (United States); Dickinson, M. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Ferguson, H. C.; Koekemoer, A. M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Giavalisco, M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Mobasher, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States)

    2014-10-10

    The observed deficit of strongly Lyα emitting galaxies at z > 6.5 is attributed to increasing neutral hydrogen in the intergalactic medium (IGM) and/or to the evolving galaxy properties. To investigate this we have performed very deep near-IR spectroscopy of z ≳ 7 galaxies using MOSFIRE on the Keck-I Telescope. We measure the Lyα fraction at z ∼ 8 using two methods. First, we derived N {sub Lyα}/N {sub tot} directly, using extensive simulations to correct for incompleteness. Second, we used a Bayesian formalism (introduced by Treu et al.) that compares the z > 7 galaxy spectra to models of the Lyα equivalent width (W {sub Lyα}) distribution at z ∼ 6. We explored two simple evolutionary scenarios: pure number evolution where Lyα is blocked in some fraction of galaxies (perhaps due to the IGM being opaque along only some fraction of sightlines) and uniform dimming evolution where Lyα is attenuated in all galaxies by a constant factor (perhaps owing to processes from galaxy evolution or a slowly increasing IGM opacity). The Bayesian formalism places stronger constraints compared with the direct method. Combining our data with that in the literature, we find that at z ∼ 8 the Lyα fraction has dropped by a factor of >3 (84% confidence interval) using both the dimming and number evolution scenarios, compared to the z ∼ 6 values. Furthermore, we find a tentative positive Bayesian evidence favoring the number evolution scenario over dimming evolution, extending trends observed at z ≲ 7 to higher redshift. A comparison of our results with theoretical models implies the IGM volume averaged neutral hydrogen fraction ≳ 0.3, suggesting that we are likely witnessing reionization in progress at z ∼ 8.

  7. CCN1/CYR61-mediated meticulous patrolling by Ly6Clow monocytes fuels vascular inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhof, Beat A; Jemelin, Stephane; Ballet, Romain; Vesin, Christian; Schapira, Marco; Karaca, Melis; Emre, Yalin

    2016-08-16

    Inflammation is characterized by the recruitment of leukocytes from the bloodstream. The rapid arrival of neutrophils is followed by a wave of inflammatory lymphocyte antigen 6 complex (Ly6C)-positive monocytes. In contrast Ly6C(low) monocytes survey the endothelium in the steady state, but their role in inflammation is still unclear. Here, using confocal intravital microscopy, we show that upon Toll-like receptor 7/8 (TLR7/8)-mediated inflammation of mesenteric veins, platelet activation drives the rapid mobilization of Ly6C(low) monocytes to the luminal side of the endothelium. After repeatedly interacting with platelets, Ly6C(low) monocytes commit to a meticulous patrolling of the endothelial wall and orchestrate the subsequent arrival and extravasation of neutrophils through the production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. At a molecular level, we show that cysteine-rich protein 61 (CYR61)/CYR61 connective tissue growth factor nephroblastoma overexpressed 1 (CCN1) protein is released by activated platelets and enables the recruitment of Ly6C(low) monocytes upon vascular inflammation. In addition endothelium-bound CCN1 sustains the adequate patrolling of Ly6C(low) monocytes both in the steady state and under inflammatory conditions. Blocking CCN1 or platelets with specific antibodies impaired the early arrival of Ly6C(low) monocytes and abolished the recruitment of neutrophils. These results refine the leukocyte recruitment cascade model by introducing endothelium-bound CCN1 as an inflammation mediator and by demonstrating a role for platelets and patrolling Ly6C(low) monocytes in acute vascular inflammation.

  8. Disposition and metabolism of LY2452473, a selective androgen receptor modulator, in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Ping; Rehmel, Jessica Fayer; Cassidy, Kenneth; Hadden, Chad; Campanale, Kristina; Patel, Nita; Johnson, Jason

    2012-12-01

    The disposition and metabolism of isopropyl N-[(2S)-7-cyano-4-(2-pyridylmethyl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-cyclopenta[b]indol-2-yl]carbamate (LY2452473; a selective androgen receptor modulator) in humans was characterized after a single 15-mg (100 μCi) oral dose of [¹⁴C]LY2452473 to six healthy male subjects. LY2452473 was absorbed rapidly (time to reach maximum plasma concentration for both LY2452473 and total radioactivity was 2-3 h) and cleared slowly (plasma terminal t(½) of 27 h for LY2452473 and 51 h for the total radioactivity). LY2452473 and metabolites S5 (acetylamine) and S12 (hydroxylation on the cyclopentene) were major circulating entities in plasma, accounting for approximately 42, 21, and 35% of the total radioactivity exposure, respectively, as calculated from relative area under the concentration versus time curves from zero to 48 h derived from the plasma radiochromatograms. The radioactive dose was almost completely recovered after 312 h with 47.9% of the dose eliminated in urine and 46.6% in feces. Minimal LY2452473 was detected in excreta, indicating that metabolic clearance was the main route of elimination. Multiple metabolic pathways were observed with no single metabolic pathway accounting for more than 30% of the dose in excreta. Metabolite S10 (a diol across the cyclopenta-indole linkage) was the largest excretory metabolite (approximately 14% of the dose). S10 displayed interesting chemical and chromatographic properties, undergoing conversion to the corresponding epoxide under acidic conditions and conversion back to the diol under neutral conditions. An in vitro phenotyping approach indicated that CYP3A4 was the largest contributor to LY2452473 depletion.

  9. Modeling Lyman-\\alpha\\ Forest Cross-Correlations with LyMAS

    CERN Document Server

    Lochhaas, Cassandra; Peirani, Sébastien; Dubois, Yohan; Colombi, Stéphane; Blaizot, Jérémy; Font-Ribera, Andreu; Pichon, Christophe; Devriendt, Julien

    2015-01-01

    We use the Ly-$\\alpha$ Mass Association Scheme (LyMAS; Peirani et al. 2014) to predict cross-correlations at z = 2.5 between dark matter halos and transmitted flux in the Ly-$\\alpha$ forest, and we compare these predictions to cross-correlations measured for quasars and damped Ly-$\\alpha$ systems (DLAs) from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) by Font-Ribera et al. (2012, 2013). We calibrate and test LyMAS using Horizon-AGN hydrodynamical cosmological simulations of a $(100\\ h^{-1}\\ \\rm{Mpc})^3$ comoving volume with and without AGN feedback. We apply this calibration to a $(1\\ h^{-1}\\ \\rm{Gpc})^3$ simulation realized with $2048^3$ dark matter particles for our primary predictions. In the $100\\ h^{-1}\\ \\rm{Mpc}$ box, LyMAS reproduces the halo-flux correlations computed from the full hydrodynamic gas distribution essentially perfectly. In the $1\\ h^{-1}\\ \\rm{Gpc}$ box, the amplitude of the cross-correlation tracks the halo bias as expected, and the correlation for a halo sample with a distributio...

  10. The Sizes of Diffuse Ly$\\alpha$ Nebulae around Star-Forming Galaxies at High Redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Xue, Rui; Dey, Arjun; Reddy, Naveen; Hong, Sungryong; Prescott, Moire K M; Inami, Hanae; Jannuzi, Buell T; Gonzalez, Anthony H

    2016-01-01

    We report the detection of diffuse Ly$\\alpha$ emission, or Lyman alpha halos (LAHs), around star-forming galaxies at $z\\approx3.78$ and $2.66$ in the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey Bo\\"otes field. Our samples consist of a total of $\\approx$1,400 galaxies, within two separate regions containing spectroscopically confirmed galaxy overdensities. They provide a unique opportunity to investigate how the LAH characteristics vary with host galaxy large-scale environment and physical properties. We stack Ly$\\alpha$ images of different samples defined by these properties and measure their median LAH sizes by decomposing the stacked Ly$\\alpha$ radial profile into a compact galaxy-like and an extended halo-like component. We find that the exponential scalelength of LAHs depends on UV continuum and Ly$\\alpha$ luminosities, but not on Ly$\\alpha$ equivalent widths or galaxy overdensity parameters. The full samples, which are dominated by low UV-continuum luminosity Ly$\\alpha$ emitters ($M_{\\rm UV} \\gtrsim -21$), exhibit LAH s...

  11. 裂解汽油二段加氢LY-9702和LY-9802复合床催化剂的工业应用%Industrial application of double bed used catalysts LY-9702 and LY-9802 in the second-stage of pyrolysis gasoline hydrogenation unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋帮勇; 梁顺琴; 钱颖; 吴杰; 孙利民

    2008-01-01

    在广州石化汽油加氢装置中进行了二段加氢国产催化剂LY-9702和LY-9802的工业应用.结果表明,催化剂LY-9702和LY-9802具有低温加氢脱硫活性高、加氢稳定性能优良等特点.连续运行32个月后,反应器入口温度从使用初期的232℃缓慢上升至265℃;加氢汽油的溴价较低,最高不超过0.70 mg/g,含硫质量分数则小于0.5×10-6.与同类进口催化剂LD-145和HR-406相比较,使用催化剂LY-9702和LY-9802时,反应器入口温度低、加氢汽油的溴价低、运行周期约可延长2年,其综合性能尤其是加氢稳定性能超过进口催化剂.

  12. FUV Irradiated Disk Atmospheres: Ly$\\alpha$ and the Origin of Hot H$_2$ Emission

    CERN Document Server

    Ádámkovics, Máté; Glassgold, Alfred E

    2015-01-01

    Protoplanetary disks are strongly irradiated by a stellar FUV spectrum that is dominated by Ly$\\alpha$ photons. We investigate the impact of stellar Ly$\\alpha$ irradiation on the terrestrial planet region of disks ($\\lesssim 1$AU) using an updated thermal-chemical model of a disk atmosphere irradiated by stellar FUV and X-rays. The radiative transfer of Ly$\\alpha$ is implemented in a simple approach that includes scattering by H I and absorption by molecules and dust. Because of their non-radial propagation path, scattered Ly$\\alpha$ photons deposit their energy deeper in the disk atmosphere than the radially propagating FUV continuum photons. We find that Ly$\\alpha$ has a significant impact on the thermal structure of the atmosphere. Photochemical heating produced by scattered Ly$\\alpha$ photons interacting with water vapor and OH leads to a layer of hot (1500 - 2500 K) molecular gas. The temperature in the layer is high enough to thermally excite the H$_2$ to vibrational levels from which they can be fluore...

  13. A Method to Measure the Mass of Damped Ly-alpha Absorber Host Galaxies Using Fluctuations in 21cm Emission

    CERN Document Server

    Wyithe, Stuart

    2008-01-01

    Observations of damped Ly-alpha absorbers (DLA) indicate that the fraction of hydrogen in its neutral form (HI) is significant by mass at all redshifts. This gas represents the reservoir of material that is available for star formation at late times. As a result, observational identification of the systems in which this neutral hydrogen resides is an important missing ingredient in models of galaxy formation. Precise identification of DLA host mass via traditional clustering studies is not practical owing to the small numbers of known systems being spread across sparsely distributed sight lines. However following the completion of reionization, 21cm surface brightness fluctuations will be dominated by neutral hydrogen in DLAs. Observations of these fluctuations will measure the combined clustering signal from all DLAs within a large volume. We show that measurement of the spherically averaged power-spectrum of 21cm intensity fluctuations due to DLAs could be used to measure the galaxy bias for DLA host galaxi...

  14. Directly imaging damped Ly-alpha galaxies at z>2. II: Imaging and spectroscopic observations of 32 quasar fields

    CERN Document Server

    Fumagalli, Michele; Prochaska, J Xavier; Kanekar, Nissim; Wolfe, Arthur M

    2014-01-01

    Damped Ly-alpha absorbers (DLAs) are a well-studied class of absorption line systems, and yet the properties of their host galaxies remain largely unknown. To investigate the origin of these systems, we have conducted an imaging survey of 32 quasar fields with intervening DLAs between z~1.9-3.8, leveraging a technique that allows us to image galaxies at any small angular separation from the background quasars. In this paper, we present the properties of the targeted DLA sample, new imaging observations of the quasar fields, and the analysis of new and archival spectra of the background quasars. In a companion paper we use these data to obtain an unbiased census of the DLA host galaxy population(s) and to directly measure the in-situ star formation rates of gas-rich galaxies at z>2.

  15. ALMA Reveals Strong [C II] Emission in a Galaxy Embedded in a Giant Lyα Blob at z = 3.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umehata, Hideki; Matsuda, Yuichi; Tamura, Yoichi; Kohno, Kotaro; Smail, Ian; Ivison, R. J.; Steidel, Charles C.; Chapman, Scott C.; Geach, James E.; Hayes, Matthew; Nagao, Tohru; Ao, Yiping; Kawabe, Ryohei; Yun, Min S.; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Kubo, Mariko; Kato, Yuta; Saito, Tomoki; Ikarashi, Soh; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Lee, Minju; Izumi, Takuma; Mori, Masao; Ouchi, Masami

    2017-01-01

    We report the result from observations conducted with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) to detect [C ii] 158 μm fine structure line emission from galaxies embedded in one of the most spectacular Lyα blobs (LABs) at z = 3.1, SSA22-LAB1. Of three dusty star-forming galaxies previously discovered by ALMA 860 μm dust continuum survey toward SSA22-LAB1, we detected the [C ii] line from one, LAB1-ALMA3 at z = 3.0993 ± 0.0004. No line emission was detected, associated with the other ALMA continuum sources or from three rest-frame UV/optical selected zspec ≃ 3.1 galaxies within the field of view. For LAB1-ALMA3, we find relatively bright [C ii] emission compared to the infrared luminosity (L[C ii]/LIR ≈ 0.01) and an extremely high [C ii] 158 μm and [N ii] 205 μm emission line ratio (L[C ii]/L[N ii] > 55). The relatively strong [C ii] emission may be caused by abundant photodissociation regions and sub-solar metallicity, or by shock heating. The origin of the unusually strong [C ii] emission could be causally related to the location within the giant LAB, although the relationship between extended Lyα emission and interstellar medium conditions of associated galaxies is yet to be understand.

  16. 36 new, high-probability, damped Lyα absorbers at redshift 0.42 < z < 0.70

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnshek, David A.; Monier, Eric M.; Rao, Sandhya M.; Hamilton, Timothy S.; Sardane, Gendith M.; Held, Ryan

    2015-05-01

    Quasar damped Lyα (DLA) absorption-line systems with redshifts z systems fall in the UV and are rarely found in blind UV spectroscopic surveys. Therefore, it has been difficult to compile a moderate-sized sample of UV DLAs in any narrow cosmic time interval. However, DLAs are easy to identify in low-resolution spectra because they have large absorption rest equivalent widths. We have performed an efficient strong-Mg II-selected survey for UV DLAs at redshifts z = [0.42, 0.70] using Hubble Space Telescope's low-resolution ACS-HRC-PR200L prism. This redshift interval covers ˜1.8 Gyr in cosmic time, i.e. t ≈ [7.2, 9.0] Gyr after the big bang. A total of 96 strong Mg II absorption-line systems identified in Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectra were successfully observed with the prism at the predicted UV wavelengths of Lyα absorption. We found that 35 of the 96 systems had a significant probability of being DLAs. One additional observed system could be a very high N_{H I} DLA (N_{H I} ˜ 2× 10^{22} atoms cm-2 or possibly higher), but since very high N_{H I} systems are extremely rare, it would be unusual for this system to be a DLA given the size of our sample. Here we present information on our prism sample, including our best estimates of N_{H I} and errors for the 36 systems fitted with DLA profiles. This list is valuable for future follow-up studies of low-redshift DLAs in a small redshift interval, although such work would clearly benefit from improved UV spectroscopy to more accurately determine their neutral hydrogen column densities.

  17. 17beta-estradiol rapidly mobilizes intracellular calcium from ryanodine-receptor-gated stores via a PKC-PKA-Erk-dependent pathway in the human eccrine sweat gland cell line NCL-SG3.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Muchekehu, Ruth W

    2008-09-01

    We describe a novel rapid non-genomic effect of 17beta-estradiol (E2) on intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) signalling in the eccrine sweat gland epithelial cell line NCL-SG3. E2 had no observable effect on basal [Ca2+]i, however exposure of cells to E2 in the presence of the microsomal Ca2+ ATPase pump inhibitor, thapsigargin, produced a secondary, sustained increase in [Ca2+]i compared to thapsigargin treatment alone, where cells responded with a transient single spike-like increase in [Ca2+]i. The E2-induced increase in [Ca2+]i was not dependent on the presence of extracellular calcium and was completely abolished by ryanodine (100 microM). The estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780 (1 microM) prevented the E2-induced effects suggesting a role for the estrogen receptor in the release of [Ca2+]i from ryanodine-receptor-gated stores. The E2-induced effect on [Ca2+]i could also be prevented by the protein kinase C delta (PKCdelta)-specific inhibitor rottlerin (10 microM), the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor Rp-adenosine 3\\

  18. The effect of ((-)-2-oxa-4-aminobicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (LY379268), an mGlu2/3 receptor agonist, on EEG power spectra and coherence in ketamine model of psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujáková, Michaela; Páleníček, Tomáš; Brunovský, Martin; Gorman, Ingmar; Tylš, Filip; Kubešová, Anna; Řípová, Daniela; Krajča, Vladimír; Horáček, Jiří

    2014-07-01

    In the present study we investigated the potential antipsychotic effects of the mGlu2/3 agonist LY379268 on changes in EEG power spectra and coherence in the ketamine model of psychosis. In order to use behaviorally active drug doses, experiments detecting changes in locomotor activity and sensorimotor gating were also conducted. In EEG experiments, adult male Wistar rats were injected with ketamine 30 mg/kg i.p. and LY379268 3 mg/kg i.p. Cortical EEG was recorded from twelve (2 × 6) electrodes placed homolaterally on each hemisphere. To avoid interference with the behavioral hyperactivity of ketamine challenge, the behavioral activity of animals was simultaneously registered at the time of recording. Subsequent power spectral and coherence analyses were assessed in epochs corresponding to behavioral inactivity. Analysis of segments with behavioral activity compared to inactivity was also performed. The effects of LY379268 3 mg/kg i.p. on the deficits in sensorimotor processing and on hyperlocomotion induced by ketamine were evaluated in the test of prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle reaction (PPI ASR) and in the open field. LY379268 reversed the ketamine-induced hyperlocomotion but had no effect on ketamine-induced PPI deficits. In EEG epochs corresponding to behavioral inactivity ketamine decreased the power in the delta band, induced a power increase in the high frequency bands and globally decreased EEG coherence. Pretreatment with the LY379268 completely reversed the ketamine-induced power increase in high frequency bands and had a partial effect on EEG coherence. LY379268 alone induced a decrease of beta, high beta and low-gamma power, and an increase in coherence in high frequency bands. Additional analysis revealed that behavioral activity increases power as well as coherence in most frequency bands. In conclusion, agonism of mGlu2/3 receptors was effective in reversing most of the changes induced by ketamine, however due to the lack of effectiveness

  19. Emission Line Imaging and Spectroscopy of Distant Galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zabl, Johannes Florian

    determinations even at lowest masses and highest redshifts. Finally, emission lines can be used in the first place to select large samples of galaxies at well defined redshifts through narrowband (NB) surveys, as the presence of a line in the NB filter raises the flux compared to that expected from the continuum...... for the gas surrounding a galaxy. Around some objects the extended Ly αemission is so strong that it can be detected for individual objects. In this thesis extremely deep VLT/XSHOOTER rest-frame far-UV spectroscopy is presented for Himiko, a gigantic Ly α emitter at redshift z = 6.6 or a time when...

  20. Specific depletion of Ly6C(hi inflammatory monocytes prevents immunopathology in experimental cerebral malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrix Schumak

    Full Text Available Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA infection of C57BL/6 mice leads to experimental cerebral malaria (ECM that is commonly associated with serious T cell mediated damage. In other parasitic infection models, inflammatory monocytes have been shown to regulate Th1 responses but their role in ECM remains poorly defined, whereas neutrophils are reported to contribute to ECM immune pathology. Making use of the recent development of specific monoclonal antibodies (mAb, we depleted in vivo Ly6C(hi inflammatory monocytes (by anti-CCR2, Ly6G+ neutrophils (by anti-Ly6G or both cell types (by anti-Gr1 during infection with Ovalbumin-transgenic PbA parasites (PbTg. Notably, the application of anti-Gr1 or anti-CCR2 but not anti-Ly6G antibodies into PbTg-infected mice prevented ECM development. In addition, depletion of Ly6C(hi inflammatory monocytes but not neutrophils led to decreased IFNγ levels and IFNγ+CD8+ T effector cells in the brain. Importantly, anti-CCR2 mAb injection did not prevent the generation of PbTg-specific T cell responses in the periphery, whereas anti-Gr1 mAb injection strongly diminished T cell frequencies and CTL responses. In conclusion, the specific depletion of Ly6C(hi inflammatory monocytes attenuated brain inflammation and immune cell recruitment to the CNS, which prevented ECM following Plasmodium infection, pointing out a substantial role of Ly6C+ monocytes in ECM inflammatory processes.

  1. Modelling Lyman α forest cross-correlations with LyMAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochhaas, Cassandra; Weinberg, David H.; Peirani, Sébastien; Dubois, Yohan; Colombi, Stéphane; Blaizot, Jérémy; Font-Ribera, Andreu; Pichon, Christophe; Devriendt, Julien

    2016-10-01

    We use the Lyα Mass Association Scheme (LyMAS) to predict cross-correlations at z = 2.5 between dark matter haloes and transmitted flux in the Lyα forest, and compare to cross-correlations measured for quasars and damped Lyα systems (DLAs) from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) by Font-Ribera et al. We calibrate LyMAS using Horizon-AGN hydrodynamical cosmological simulations of a (100 h- 1 Mpc)3 comoving volume. We apply this calibration to a (1 h- 1 Gpc)3 simulation realized with 20483 dark matter particles. In the 100 h- 1 Mpc box, LyMAS reproduces the halo-flux correlations computed from the full hydrodynamic gas distribution very well. In the 1 h- 1 Gpc box, the amplitude of the large-scale cross-correlation tracks the halo bias bh as expected. We provide empirical fitting functions that describe our numerical results. In the transverse separation bins used for the BOSS analyses, LyMAS cross-correlation predictions follow linear theory accurately down to small scales. Fitting the BOSS measurements requires inclusion of random velocity errors; we find best-fitting rms velocity errors of 399 and 252 {km} {s}^{-1} for quasars and DLAs, respectively. We infer bias-weighted mean halo masses of M_h/10^{12} h^{-1} M_{⊙}=2.19^{+0.16}_{-0.15} and 0.69^{+0.16}_{-0.14} for the host haloes of quasars and DLAs, with ˜0.2 dex systematic uncertainty associated with redshift evolution, intergalactic medium parameters, and selection of data fitting range.

  2. The Ly49E receptor inhibits the immune control of acute Trypanosoma cruzi infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Filtjens

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi circulates in the blood upon infection and invades a variety of cells. Parasites intensively multiply during the acute phase of infection and persist lifelong at low levels in tissues and blood during the chronic phase. Natural killer (NK and NKT cells play an important role in the immune control of T. cruzi infection, mainly by releasing the cytokine IFN-γ that activates the microbicidal action of macrophages and other cells and shapes a protective type 1 immune response. The mechanisms by which immune cells are regulated to produce IFN-γ during T. cruzi infection are still incompletely understood. Here, we show that urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA is induced early upon T. cruzi infection, and remains elevated until day 20 post inoculation. We previously demonstrated that the inhibitory receptor Ly49E, which is expressed, among others, on NK and NKT cells, is triggered by uPA. Therefore, we compared wild type (WT to Ly49E knockout (KO mice for their control of experimental T. cruzi infection. Our results show that young, i.e. 4- and 6-week-old, Ly49E KO mice control the infection better than WT mice, indicated by a lower parasite load and less cachexia. The beneficial effect of Ly49E depletion is more obvious in 4-week-old male than in female mice and weakens in 8-week-old mice. In young mice, the lower T. cruzi parasitemia in Ly49E KO mice is paralleled by higher IFN-γ production compared to their WT controls. Our data indicate that Ly49E receptor expression inhibits the immune control of T. cruzi infection. This is the first demonstration that the inhibitory Ly49E receptor can interfere with the immune response to a pathogen in vivo.

  3. Keck Spectroscopy of Lyman-break Galaxies and its Implications for the UV-continuum and Ly_alpha Luminosity Functions at z>6

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Linhua; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Walth, Gregory; Matsuda, Yuichi; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Nagao, Tohru; Ota, Kazuaki; Ouchi, Masami

    2011-01-01

    We present Keck spectroscopic observations of z>6 Lyman-break galaxy (LBG) candidates in the Subaru Deep Field (SDF). The candidates were selected as i'-dropout objects down to z'=27 AB magnitudes from an ultra-deep SDF z'-band image. With the Keck spectroscopy we identified 19 LBGs with prominent Ly_alpha emission lines at 6100 A. This well-defined spectroscopic sample spans a UV-continuum luminosity range of -21.8~6.2 after we correct for sample incompleteness. We find that our measurement of the UV LF is consistent with the results of previous studies based on photometric LBG samples at 56.

  4. Exploring Damped Lyα System Host Galaxies Using Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toy, Vicki L.; Cucchiara, Antonino; Veilleux, Sylvain; Fumagalli, Michele; Rafelski, Marc; Rahmati, Alireza; Cenko, S. Bradley; Capone, John I.; Pasham, Dheeraj R.

    2016-12-01

    We present a sample of 45 Damped Lyα system (DLA; {N}{{H}{{I}}} ≥slant 2× {10}20 {{cm}}-2) counterparts (33 detections, 12 upper limits) which host gamma-ray bursts (GRB-DLAs) in order to investigate star formation and metallicity within galaxies hosting DLAs. Our sample spans z˜ 2{--}6 and is nearly three times larger than any previously detected DLA counterparts survey based on quasar line-of-sight searches (QSO-DLAs). We report star formation rates (SFRs) from rest-frame UV photometry and spectral energy distribution modeling. We find that DLA counterpart SFRs are not correlated with either redshift or H i column density. Thanks to the combination of Hubble Space Telescope and ground-based observations, we also investigate DLA host star formation efficiency. Our GRB-DLA counterpart sample spans both higher efficiency and low efficiency star formation regions compared to the local Kennicutt-Schmidt relation, local star formation laws, and z˜ 3 cosmological simulations. We also compare the depletion times of our DLA hosts sample to other objects in the local universe; our sample appears to deviate from the star formation efficiencies measured in local spiral and dwarf galaxies. Furthermore, we find similar efficiencies as local inner disks, SMC, and Lyman-break galaxy outskirts. Finally, our enrichment time measurements show a spread of systems with under- and over-abundance of metals, which may suggest that these systems had episodic star formation and a metal enrichment/depletion as a result of strong stellar feedback and/or metal inflow/outflow.

  5. A gain of novel tissue specificity in the human Ly-6 gene E48.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakenhoff, R H; van Dijk, M; Rood-Knippels, E M; Snow, G B

    1997-11-15

    The Ly-6 Ag family consists of glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored surface proteins with a molecular mass of about 15 kDa. Seven members of the murine family have been characterized, and from five of these the genes have been cloned. Three members of the human family have been characterized: CD59, Ag E48, and the RIG-E or TSA-1/Sca-2 Ag. Most of the genes are expressed on lymphocytes, but some are expressed on other tissues as well. The mapped genes of the murine Ly-6 Ags, as well as of CD59, were shown to have a highly conserved structure, each consisting of four exons. The human E48 Ag was originally identified as a target Ag for radioimmunotherapy of patients with squamous cell carcinoma. The Ag is expressed on keratinocytes, but evidently not on lymphocytes. Molecular cloning of the cDNA encoding the Ag revealed that this Ag is most likely the human homologue of the murine Ly-6 Ag, ThB. In this paper, we describe that, in contrast to all other Ly-6 genes, the gene encoding the human E48 Ag consists of only three exons. Sequences at the 5' end of the transcription start site were shown to drive keratinocyte-associated expression. These data suggest that the functional elimination of an ancestral Ly-6 exon 1 switched the expression from lymphocytes toward keratinocytes.

  6. [Development and validation of event-specific quantitative PCR method for genetically modified maize LY038].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Junichi; Masubuchi, Tomoko; Hatano, Shuko; Futo, Satoshi; Koiwa, Tomohiro; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Noguchi, Akio; Kondo, Kazunari; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Kurashima, Takeyo; Takabatake, Reona; Kitta, Kazumi

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we report a novel real-time PCR-based analytical method for quantitation of the GM maize event LY038. We designed LY038-specific and maize endogenous reference DNA-specific PCR amplifications. After confirming the specificity and linearity of the LY038-specific PCR amplification, we determined the conversion factor required to calculate the weight-based content of GM organism (GMO) in a multilaboratory evaluation. Finally, in order to validate the developed method, an interlaboratory collaborative trial according to the internationally harmonized guidelines was performed with blind DNA samples containing LY038 at the mixing levels of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 5.0 and 10.0%. The precision of the method was evaluated as the RSD of reproducibility (RSDR), and the values obtained were all less than 25%. The limit of quantitation of the method was judged to be 0.5% based on the definition of ISO 24276 guideline. The results from the collaborative trial suggested that the developed quantitative method would be suitable for practical testing of LY038 maize.

  7. Emission Line Imaging and Spectroscopy of Distant Galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zabl, Johannes Florian

    determinations even at lowest masses and highest redshifts. Finally, emission lines can be used in the first place to select large samples of galaxies at well defined redshifts through narrowband (NB) surveys, as the presence of a line in the NB filter raises the flux compared to that expected from the continuum...... applied a novel NB measurement method to a sample of UltraVISTA NB118 H α emitters, and demonstrate that this technique allows to recover more accurate fluxes. Additionally, the method allows to determine more accurate redshifts. Contemporary NB surveys have a strong focus on searches for Ly α emitters...... for the gas surrounding a galaxy. Around some objects the extended Ly αemission is so strong that it can be detected for individual objects. In this thesis extremely deep VLT/XSHOOTER rest-frame far-UV spectroscopy is presented for Himiko, a gigantic Ly α emitter at redshift z = 6.6 or a time when...

  8. IGM Constraints from the SDSS-III/BOSS DR9 Ly-alpha Forest Flux Probability Distribution Function

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Khee-Gan; Spergel, David N; Weinberg, David H; Hogg, David W; Viel, Matteo; Bolton, James S; Bailey, Stephen; Pieri, Matthew M; Carithers, William; Schlegel, David J; Lundgren, Britt; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Suzuki, Nao; Schneider, Donald P; Yeche, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    The Ly$\\alpha$ forest flux probability distribution function (PDF) is an established probe of the intergalactic medium (IGM) astrophysics, especially the temperature-density relationship of the IGM. We measure the flux PDF from 3393 Baryon Oscillations Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) quasars from SDSS Data Release 9, and compare with mock spectra that include careful modeling of the noise, continuum, and astrophysical uncertainties. The BOSS flux PDFs, measured at $\\langle z \\rangle = [2.3,2.6,3.0]$, are compared with PDFs created from mock spectra drawn from a suite of hydrodynamical simulations that sample the IGM temperature-density relationship, $\\gamma$, and temperature at mean-density, $T_0$, where $T(\\Delta) = T_0 \\Delta^{\\gamma-1}$. We find that a significant population of partial Lyman-limit systems with a column-density distribution slope of $\\beta_\\mathrm{pLLS} \\sim -2$ are required to explain the data at the low-flux end of flux PDF, while uncertainties in the mean \\lya\\ forest transmission affect the...

  9. Constraint on neutrino masses from SDSS-III/BOSS Ly$\\alpha$ forest and other cosmological probes

    CERN Document Server

    Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Lesgourgues, Julien; Rossi, Graziano; Borde, Arnaud; Viel, Matteo; Aubourg, Eric; Kirkby, David; LeGoff, Jean-Marc; Rich, James; Roe, Natalie; Ross, Nicholas P.; Schneider, Donald P.; Weinberg, David

    2015-01-01

    We present constraints on the parameters of the $\\Lambda$CDM cosmological model in the presence of massive neutrinos, using the one-dimensional Ly$\\alpha$ forest power spectrum obtained with the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) by Palanque-Delabrouille et al. (2013), complemented by additional cosmological probes. The interpretation of the measured Ly$\\alpha$ spectrum is done using a second-order Taylor expansion of the simulated power spectrum. BOSS Ly$\\alpha$ data alone provide better bounds than previous Ly$\\alpha$ results, but are still poorly constraining, especially for the sum of neutrino masses $\\sum m_\

  10. Ly6E/K Signaling to TGFβ Promotes Breast Cancer Progression, Immune Escape, and Drug Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlHossiny, Midrar; Luo, Linlin; Frazier, William R; Steiner, Noriko; Gusev, Yuriy; Kallakury, Bhaskar; Glasgow, Eric; Creswell, Karen; Madhavan, Subha; Kumar, Rakesh; Upadhyay, Geeta

    2016-06-01

    Stem cell antigen Sca-1 is implicated in murine cancer stem cell biology and breast cancer models, but the role of its human homologs Ly6K and Ly6E in breast cancer are not established. Here we report increased expression of Ly6K/E in human breast cancer specimens correlates with poor overall survival, with an additional specific role for Ly6E in poor therapeutic outcomes. Increased expression of Ly6K/E also correlated with increased expression of the immune checkpoint molecules PDL1 and CTLA4, increased tumor-infiltrating T regulatory cells, and decreased natural killer (NK) cell activation. Mechanistically, Ly6K/E was required for TGFβ signaling and proliferation in breast cancer cells, where they contributed to phosphorylation of Smad1/5 and Smad2/3. Furthermore, Ly6K/E promoted cytokine-induced PDL1 expression and activation and binding of NK cells to cancer cells. Finally, we found that Ly6K/E promoted drug resistance and facilitated immune escape in this setting. Overall, our results establish a pivotal role for a Ly6K/E signaling axis involving TGFβ in breast cancer pathophysiology and drug response, and highlight this signaling axis as a compelling realm for therapeutic invention. Cancer Res; 76(11); 3376-86. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  11. Preparation of an epitope-imprinted polymer with antibody-like selectivity for beta2-microglobulin and application in serum sample analysis with a facile method of on-line solid-phase extraction coupling with high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fangfang; Deng, Dandan; Dong, Xiangchao; Lin, Shen

    2017-03-09

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) for protein recognition have great application potential in the biological analysis. However, preparation of protein imprinted polymer is still facing challenge. Beta2-microglobulin (β2m) is a protein biomarker that can be used in diagnosis of different diseases. In this research, a novel MIP with ability of β2m recognition has been developed by epitope and surface-confined imprinting approaches. A peptide with sequence of MIQRTPKIQ was selected as template. A strategy of combination of hierarchical imprinting and template immobilization was employed in the β2m-MIP synthesis. Imprinted binding sites with open-entrance have been created that have good accessibility for β2m and facilitated fast reversible binding kinetics. The experimental results demonstrated that the MIP has good selectivity. It can differentiate the template from peptide with different sequence and distinguish the β2m from other proteins with similar size and pI values. After binding property study of the β2m-MIP, a method of β2m determination in serum was established in which β2m was on-line extracted by MIP and analyzed by HPLC process. The recoveries for spiked serum was ≥83% with RSD <1.1%, indicating that the method has good accuracy and precisions. The LOD and LOQ were 0.058 and 0.195mgL(-1) respectively, which meet the requirements of the β2m analysis. The successful application of the β2m-MIP demonstrated that β2m has reversible binding on the MIP with a kinetics that can meet the requirements of the HPLC analysis. It also indicated that the β2m-MIP has good mechanical strength and reusability that can be applied reliably in the practical analysis. As a synthetic antibody, β2m-MIP is advantageous compared to the biological molecules.

  12. Determination of Coronal Mass Ejection Physical Parameters from a Combination of Polarized Visible Light and UV Lyα Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susino, R.; Bemporad, A.

    2016-10-01

    Visible-light observations of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) performed with coronagraphs and heliospheric imagers (in primis on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory and STEREO missions) have offered the best way to study the kinematics and geometrical structure of these fundamental events so far. Nevertheless, it has been widely demonstrated that only combination of multi-wavelength data (including X-ray spectra, EUV images, EUV-UV spectra, and radio dynamic spectra) can provide complete information on the plasma temperature and density distributions, non-thermal motions, magnetic fields, and other physical parameters, for both CMEs and CME-related phenomena. In this work, we analyze three CMEs by combining simultaneous data acquired in the polarized visible light by the LASCO-C2 coronagraph and in the UV H i Lyα line (1216 Å) by the UVCS spectrometer, in order to estimate the CME plasma electron density (using the polarization-ratio technique to infer the 3D structure of the CME) and temperature (from the comparison between the expected and measured Lyα intensities) along the UVCS field of view. This analysis is primarily aimed at testing the diagnostic methods that will be applied to coronagraphic observations of CMEs delivered by the Metis instrument on board the next ESA-Solar Orbiter mission. We find that CME cores are usually associated with cooler plasma (T∼ {10}6 K), and that a significant increase of the electron temperatures is observed from the core to the front of the CME (where T\\gt {10}6.3 K), which seems to be correlated, in all cases, with the morphological structure of the CME as derived from visible-light images.

  13. Beta Thalassemia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Beta Thalassemia KidsHealth > For Parents > Beta Thalassemia Print A A ... Complications Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment en español Beta talasemia Thalassemias Thalassemias are a group of blood disorders that ...

  14. Response gene to complement-32 enhances metastatic phenotype by mediating transforming growth factor beta-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human pancreatic cancer cell line BxPC-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Liang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Response gene to complement-32 (RGC-32 is comprehensively expressed in many kinds of tissues and has been reported to be expressed abnormally in different kinds of human tumors. However, the role of RGC-32 in cancer remains controversial and no reports have described the effect of RGC-32 in pancreatic cancer. The present study investigated the expression of RGC-32 in pancreatic cancer tissues and explored the role of RGC-32 in transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT in human pancreatic cancer cell line BxPC-3. Methods Immunohistochemical staining of RGC-32 and E-cadherin was performed on specimens from 42 patients with pancreatic cancer, 12 with chronic pancreatitis and 8 with normal pancreas. To evaluate the role of RGC-32 in TGF-β-induced EMT in pancreatic cancer cells, BxPC-3 cells were treated with TGF-β1, and RGC-32 siRNA silencing and gene overexpression were performed as well. The mRNA expression and protein expression of RGC-32 and EMT markers such E-cadherin and vimentin were determined by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR and western blot respectively. Finally, migration ability of BxPC-3 cells treated with TGF-β and RGC-32 siRNA transfection was examined by transwell cell migration assay. Results We found stronger expression of RGC-32 and higher abnormal expression rate of E-cadherin in pancreatic cancer tissues than those in chronic pancreatitis tissues and normal pancreatic tissues. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that both RGC-32 positive expression and E-cadherin abnormal expression in pancreatic cancer were correlated with lymph node metastasis and TNM staging. In addition, a significant and positive correlation was found between positive expression of RGC-32 and abnormal expression of E-cadherin. Furthermore, in vitro, we found sustained TGF-β stimuli induced EMT and up-regulated RGC-32 expression in BxPC-3 cells. By means of si

  15. The ESO UVES Advanced Data Products quasar sample - V. Identifying the galaxy counterpart to the sub-damped Lyα system towards Q 2239-2949

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Tayyaba; Møller, Palle; Péroux, Céline; Quiret, Samuel; Fynbo, Johan P. U.; Ledoux, Cédric; Deharveng, Jean-Michel

    2017-02-01

    Gas flows in and out of galaxies are one of the key unknowns in today's galaxy evolution studies. Because gas flows carry mass, energy, and metals, they are believed to be closely connected to the star formation history of galaxies. Most of these processes take place in the circum-galactic medium (CGM) which remains challenging to observe in emission. A powerful tool to study the CGM gas is offered by combining observations of the gas traced by absorption lines in quasar spectra with detection of the stellar component of the same absorbing-galaxy. To this end, we have targeted the zabs = 1.825 sub-damped Lyα absorber (sub-DLA) towards the zem = 2.102 quasar 2dF J 223941.8-294955 (hereafter Q 2239-2949) with the ESO VLT/X-Shooter spectrograph. Our aim is to investigate the relation between its properties in emission and in absorption. The derived metallicity of the sub-DLA with log N(H I) = 19.84 ± 0.14 cm-2 is [M/H] > -0.75. Using the Voigt profile optical depth method, we measure Δv90(Fe II) = 64 km s-1. The sub-DLA galaxy counterpart is located at an impact parameter of 2{^''.}4 ± 0{^''.}2 (20.8 ± 1.7 kpc at z = 1.825). We have detected Lyα and marginal [O II] emissions. The mean measured flux of the Lyα line is FLy α ∼ 5.7 × 10-18 erg s-1 cm-2 Å-1, corresponding to a dust uncorrected SFR of ∼0.13 M⊙ yr-1.

  16. Telencephalin protects PAJU cells from amyloid beta protein-induced apoptosis by activating the ezrin/radixin/moesin protein family/phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heping Yang; Dapeng Wu; Xiaojie Zhang; Xiang Wang; Yi Peng; Zhiping Hu

    2012-01-01

    Telencephalin is a neural glycoprotein that reduces apoptosis induced by amyloid beta protein in the human neural tumor cell line PAJU.In this study,we examined the role of the ezrin/radixin/moesin protein family/phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B pathway in this process.Western blot analysis demonstrated that telencephalin,phosphorylated ezrin/radixin/moesin and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B were not expressed in PAJU cells transfected with empty plasmid,while they were expressed in PAJU cells transfected with a telencephalin expression plasmid.After treatment with 1.0 nM amyloid beta protein 42,expression of telencephalin and phosphorylated phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B in the transfected cells gradually diminished,while levels of phosphorylated ezrin/radixin/moesin increased.In addition,the high levels of telencephalin,phosphorylated ezrin/radixin/moesin and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B expression in PAJU cells transfected with a telencephalin expression plasmid could be suppressed by the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase inhibitor LY294002.These findings indicate that telencephalin activates the ezrin/radixin/moesin family/phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B pathway and protects PAJU cells from amyloid beta protein-induced apoptosis.

  17. Levels of the Rab GDP dissociation inhibitor (GDI) are altered in the prenatal restrain stress mouse model of schizophrenia and are differentially regulated by the mGlu2/3 receptor agonists, LY379268 and LY354740.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Rosamaria; Borro, Marina; Motolese, Marta; Molinaro, Gemma; Scaccianoce, Sergio; Caruso, Alessandra; di Nuzzo, Luigi; Caraci, Filippo; Matrisciano, Francesco; Pittaluga, Anna; Mairesse, Jerome; Simmaco, Maurizio; Nisticò, Robert; Monn, James A; Nicoletti, Ferdinando

    2014-11-01

    LY379268 and LY354740, two agonists of mGlu2/3 metabotropic glutamate receptors, display different potencies in mouse models of schizophrenia. This differential effect of the two drugs remains unexplained. We performed a proteomic analysis in cultured cortical neurons challenged with either LY379268 or LY354740. Among the few proteins that were differentially influenced by the two drugs, Rab GDP dissociation inhibitor-β (Rab GDIβ) was down-regulated by LY379268 and showed a trend to an up-regulation in response to LY354740. In cultured hippocampal neurons, LY379268 selectively down-regulated the α isoform of Rab GDI. Rab GDI inhibits the activity of the synaptic vesicle-associated protein, Rab3A, and is reduced in the brain of schizophrenic patients. We examined the expression of Rab GDI in mice exposed to prenatal stress ("PRS mice"), which have been described as a putative model of schizophrenia. Rab GDIα protein levels were increased in the hippocampus of PRS mice at postnatal days (PND)1 and 21, but not at PND60. At PND21, PRS mice also showed a reduced depolarization-evoked [(3)H]d-aspartate release in hippocampal synaptosomes. The increase in Rab GDIα levels in the hippocampus of PRS mice was reversed by a 7-days treatment with LY379268 (1 or 10 mg/kg, i.p.), but not by treatment with equal doses of LY354740. These data strengthen the validity of PRS mice as a model of schizophrenia, and show for the first time a pharmacodynamic difference between LY379268 and LY354740 which might be taken into account in an attempt to explain the differential effect of the two drugs across mouse models.

  18. The impact of temperature fluctuations on the large scale clustering of the Ly$\\alpha$ forest

    CERN Document Server

    Greig, Bradley; Wyithe, J Stuart B

    2014-01-01

    We develop a semi-analytic method for assessing the impact of the large scale IGM temperature fluctuations expected following He${\\rm\\,{\\scriptstyle II}}$ reionization on three dimensional clustering measurements of the Ly$\\alpha$ forest. Our methodology builds upon the existing large volume, mock Ly$\\alpha$ forest survey simulations presented by Greig et al. (2011) by including a prescription for a spatially inhomogeneous ionising background, temperature fluctuations induced by patchy He${\\rm\\,{\\scriptstyle II}}$ photo-heating and the clustering of quasars. This approach enables us to achieve a dynamic range within our semi-analytic model substantially larger than currently feasible with computationally expensive, fully numerical simulations. The results agree well with existing numerical simulations, with large scale temperature fluctuations introducing a scale dependent increase in the spherically averaged 3D Ly$\\alpha$ forest power spectrum of up to 20-30 per cent at wavenumbers $k\\sim0.02$ Mpc$^{-1}$. Al...

  19. Sound Velocity and Release Behaviour of Shock-Compressed LY12 Al

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Yu-Ying; TAN Hua; DAI Cheng-Da; HU Jian-Bo; CHEN Da-Nian

    2005-01-01

    @@ A velocity interferometer system for any reflector (VISAR) is used to measure the sound velocity of LY12 Al shock-compressed to peak pressures of 20, 32, 55 and 71 GPa. Unloading wave velocities from these pressures are obtained from the observed particle velocity profiles at the LY12 Al/LiF window interface; and the longitudinal,bulk and shear sound velocities at the initial Hugoniot state are well determined. The histories of stress, strain,density or volume, and particle velocity along the release paths are calculated by the impedance-matching method based on the unloading sound velocity data. It is revealed that the release behaviour of shocked LY12 Al departures obviously from the elastic perfectly-plastic response.

  20. Characterization of beta-R1, a gene that is selectively induced by interferon beta (IFN-beta) compared with IFN-alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, M R; Foster, G R; Leung, S; Leaman, D; Stark, G R; Ransohoff, R M

    1996-09-13

    We report preliminary characterization of a gene designated beta-R1, which is selectively expressed in response to interferon beta (IFN-beta) compared with IFN-alpha. In human astrocytoma cells, beta-R1 was induced to an equivalent extent by 10 IU/mL IFN-beta or 2500 IU/mL IFN-alpha2. To address the mechanism of this differential response, we analyzed induction of the beta-R1 gene in fibrosarcoma cells and derivative mutant cells lacking components required for signaling by type I IFNs. beta-R1 was readily induced by IFN-beta in the parental 2fTGH cell line, but not by recombinant IFN-alpha2, IFN-alpha Con1, or a mixture of IFN-alpha subtypes. IFN-alpha8 induced beta-R1 weakly. beta-R1 was not induced by IFN-beta in mutant cell lines U2A, U3A, U4A, and U6A, which lack, respectively, p48, STAT1, JAK1, and STAT2. U5A cells, which lack the Ifnar 2.2 component of the IFN-alpha and -beta receptor, also failed to express beta-R1. U1A cells are partially responsive to IFN-beta and IFN-alpha8 but lacked beta-R1 expression, indicating that TYK2 protein is essential for induction of this gene. Taken together, these results suggest that the expression of beta-R1 in response to type I IFN requires IFN-stimulated gene factor 3 plus an additional component, which is more efficiently formed on induction by IFN-beta compared with IFN-alpha.

  1. Human IgG1 Responses to Surface Localised Schistosoma mansoni Ly6 Family Members Drop following Praziquantel Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Iain W.; Fitzsimmons, Colin M.; Brown, Martha; Pierrot, Christine; Jones, Frances M.; Wawrzyniak, Jakub M.; Fernandez-Fuentes, Narcis; Tukahebwa, Edridah M.; Dunne, David W.; Khalife, Jamal; Hoffmann, Karl F.

    2015-01-01

    Background The heptalaminate-covered, syncytial tegument is an important anatomical adaptation that enables schistosome parasites to maintain long-term, intravascular residence in definitive hosts. Investigation of the proteins present in this surface layer and the immune responses elicited by them during infection is crucial to our understanding of host/parasite interactions. Recent studies have revealed a number of novel tegumental surface proteins including three (SmCD59a, SmCD59b and Sm29) containing uPAR/Ly6 domains (renamed SmLy6A SmLy6B and SmLy6D in this study). While vaccination with SmLy6A (SmCD59a) and SmLy6D (Sm29) induces protective immunity in experimental models, human immunoglobulin responses to representative SmLy6 family members have yet to be thoroughly explored. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a PSI-BLAST-based search, we present a comprehensive reanalysis of the Schistosoma mansoni Ly6 family (SmLy6A-K). Our examination extends the number of members to eleven (including three novel proteins) and provides strong evidence that the previously identified vaccine candidate Sm29 (renamed SmLy6D) is a unique double uPAR/Ly6 domain-containing representative. Presence of canonical cysteine residues, signal peptides and GPI-anchor sites strongly suggest that all SmLy6 proteins are cell surface-bound. To provide evidence that SmLy6 members are immunogenic in human populations, we report IgG1 (as well as IgG4 and IgE) responses against two surface-bound representatives (SmLy6A and SmLy6B) within a cohort of S. mansoni-infected Ugandan males before and after praziquantel treatment. While pre-treatment IgG1 prevalence for SmLy6A and SmLy6B differs amongst the studied population (7.4% and 25.3% of the cohort, respectively), these values are both higher than IgG1 prevalence (2.7%) for a sub-surface tegumental antigen, SmTAL1. Further, post-treatment IgG1 levels against surface-associated SmLy6A and SmLy6B significantly drop (p = 0.020 and p < 0

  2. Human IgG1 Responses to Surface Localised Schistosoma mansoni Ly6 Family Members Drop following Praziquantel Treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain W Chalmers

    Full Text Available The heptalaminate-covered, syncytial tegument is an important anatomical adaptation that enables schistosome parasites to maintain long-term, intravascular residence in definitive hosts. Investigation of the proteins present in this surface layer and the immune responses elicited by them during infection is crucial to our understanding of host/parasite interactions. Recent studies have revealed a number of novel tegumental surface proteins including three (SmCD59a, SmCD59b and Sm29 containing uPAR/Ly6 domains (renamed SmLy6A SmLy6B and SmLy6D in this study. While vaccination with SmLy6A (SmCD59a and SmLy6D (Sm29 induces protective immunity in experimental models, human immunoglobulin responses to representative SmLy6 family members have yet to be thoroughly explored.Using a PSI-BLAST-based search, we present a comprehensive reanalysis of the Schistosoma mansoni Ly6 family (SmLy6A-K. Our examination extends the number of members to eleven (including three novel proteins and provides strong evidence that the previously identified vaccine candidate Sm29 (renamed SmLy6D is a unique double uPAR/Ly6 domain-containing representative. Presence of canonical cysteine residues, signal peptides and GPI-anchor sites strongly suggest that all SmLy6 proteins are cell surface-bound. To provide evidence that SmLy6 members are immunogenic in human populations, we report IgG1 (as well as IgG4 and IgE responses against two surface-bound representatives (SmLy6A and SmLy6B within a cohort of S. mansoni-infected Ugandan males before and after praziquantel treatment. While pre-treatment IgG1 prevalence for SmLy6A and SmLy6B differs amongst the studied population (7.4% and 25.3% of the cohort, respectively, these values are both higher than IgG1 prevalence (2.7% for a sub-surface tegumental antigen, SmTAL1. Further, post-treatment IgG1 levels against surface-associated SmLy6A and SmLy6B significantly drop (p = 0.020 and p < 0.001, respectively when compared to rising Ig

  3. Statistical properties of diffuse Lyα haloes around star-forming galaxies at z ˜ 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momose, Rieko; Ouchi, Masami; Nakajima, Kimihiko; Ono, Yoshiaki; Shibuya, Takatoshi; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Yuma, Suraphong; Mori, Masao; Umemura, Masayuki

    2016-04-01

    We present statistical properties of diffuse Lyα haloes (LAHs) around high-z star-forming galaxies with large Subaru samples of Lyα emitters (LAEs) at z = 2.2. We make subsamples defined by the physical quantities of LAEs' central Lyα luminosities, ultraviolet (UV) magnitudes, Lyα equivalent widths, and UV slopes, and investigate LAHs' radial surface brightness (SB) profiles and scale lengths rn as a function of these physical quantities. We find that there exist prominent LAHs around LAEs with faint Lyα luminosities, bright UV luminosities, and small Lyα equivalent widths in cumulative radial Lyα SB profiles. We confirm this trend with the anticorrelation between rn and Lyα luminosities (equivalent widths) based on the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient that is ρ = -0.9 (-0.7) corresponding to the 96 per cent (93 per cent) confidence level, although the correlation between rn and UV magnitudes is not clearly found in the rank correlation coefficient. Our results suggest that LAEs with properties similar to typical Lyman-break galaxies (with faint Lyα luminosities and small equivalent widths) possess more prominent LAHs. We investigate scenarios for the major physical origins of LAHs with our results. Because we find relatively small Lyα equivalent widths up to 77 Å in LAHs that include LAEs' central components, these results suggest that the cold stream scenario is not preferred. There remain two possible scenarios of Lyα scattering in circumgalactic medium and satellite galaxies that cannot be tested with our observational data.

  4. 海洋链霉菌LY-1的抗细菌特性研究%Antibacterial Property of Marine Streptomlyces sp. LY-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘姝; 房耀维; 徐炜枫; 吕明生; 王淑军; 陈丽

    2009-01-01

    从连云港海域潮间带所采的土样中分离到一株产高活性抗细菌物质的链霉菌LY-1.抗菌谱测定结果表明菌株LY-1发酵产物对枯草芽孢杆菌等5株革兰氏阳性菌,大肠杆菌等6株革兰氏阴性菌有显著拮抗作用.稳定性研究表明该菌所产抗细菌物质在121℃,pH1和pH12条件下抑菌活性均小变;紫外线照射也不影响其抑细菌活性.该抗菌产物对蜡样芽孢杆菌和大肠杆菌生长的抑制作用研究表明,该抗菌产物能够较好的抑制蜡样芽孢杆菌和大肠杆菌的生长繁殖.菌株LY-1所产抗菌物质在海产品及食品保鲜、生防及医药方面具有潜在的应用价值.

  5. The mGlu2/3 Receptor Agonists LY354740 and LY379268 Differentially Regulate Restraint-Stress-Induced Expression of c-Fos in Rat Cerebral Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Menezes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabotropic glutamate 2/3 (mGlu2/3 receptors have emerged as potential therapeutic targets due to the ability of mGlu2/3 receptor agonists to modulate excitatory transmission at specific synapses. LY354740 and LY379268 are selective and potent mGlu2/3 receptor agonists that show both anxiolytic- and antipsychotic-like effects in animal models. We compared the efficacy of LY354740 and LY379268 in attenuating restraint-stress-induced expression of the immediate early gene c-Fos in the rat prelimbic (PrL and infralimbic (IL cortex. LY354740 (10 and 30 mg/kg, i.p. showed statistically significant and dose-related attenuation of stress-induced increase in c-Fos expression, in the rat cortex. By contrast, LY379268 had no effect on restraint-stress-induced c-Fos upregulation (0.3–10 mg/kg, i.p.. Because both compounds inhibit serotonin 2A receptor (5-HT2AR-induced c-Fos expression, we hypothesize that LY354740 and LY379268 have different in vivo properties and that 5-HT2AR activation and restraint stress induce c-Fos through distinct mechanisms.

  6. Specific detection of Serpulina hyodysenteriae and potentially pathogenic weakly beta-haemolytic porcine intestinal spirochetes by polymerase chain reaction targeting 23S rDNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leser, Thomas; Møller, Kristian; Jensen, Tim Kåre;

    1997-01-01

    A 2470-bp section of the 23S ribosomal DNA from Serpulina hyodysenteriae and five biochemical ly different groups of weakly beta-haemolytic porcine intestinal Serpulina strains was sequenced. The similarity between the sequenced strains was high (96.85% to 99.84%). A phylogenetic tree was estimat...

  7. Thirty-four New, High-Probability, Damped Ly-alpha Absorbers at Redshift z=[0.42, 0.70

    CERN Document Server

    Turnshek, David A; Rao, Sandhya M; Hamilton, Timothy S; Sardane, Gendith M; Held, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Quasar damped Ly-alpha (DLA) absorption line systems with redshifts z<1.65 are used to trace neutral gas over approximately 70 per cent of the most recent history of the Universe. However, such systems fall in the UV and are rarely found in blind UV spectroscopic surveys. Therefore, it has been difficult to compile a moderate-sized sample of UV DLAs in any narrow cosmic time interval. However, DLAs are easy to identify in low-resolution spectra because they have large absorption rest equivalent widths. We have performed an efficient strong-MgII-selected survey for UV DLAs at redshifts z=[0.42,0.70] using HST's low-resolution ACS-HRC-PR200L prism. This redshift interval covers ~1.8 Gyr in cosmic time, i.e., t~[7.2,9.0] Gyrs after the Big Bang. A total of 95 strong MgII absorption-line systems identified in SDSS spectra were successfully observed with the prism at the predicted UV wavelengths of Ly-alpha absorption. We found that 33 of the 95 systems had a significant probability of being DLAs. One additiona...

  8. Deep spectroscopy of the FUV-optical emission lines from a sample of radio galaxies at z~2.5: metallicity and ionization

    CERN Document Server

    Humphrey, A; Vernet, J; Fosbury, R; Alighieri, S di Serego; Binette, L

    2007-01-01

    We present long-slit NIR spectra, obtained using the ISAAC instrument at the Very Large Telescope, for nine radio galaxies at z~2.5. One-dimensional spectra have been extracted and cross calibrated with optical spectra from the literature to produce line spectra spanning a rest wavelength of ~1200-7000 A. We have also produced a composite of the rest-frame UV-optical line fluxes of powerful, z~2.5 radio galaxies. We have investigated the relative strengths of Ly-alpha, H-beta, H-alpha, HeII 1640 and HeII 4687, and we find that Av can vary significantly from object to object. In addition, we identify new line ratios to calculate electron temperature: [NeV] 1575/[NeV] 3426, [NeIV] 1602/[NeIV] 2423, OIII] 1663/[OIII] 5008 and [OII] 2471/[OII]3728. We model the emission line spectra and conclude they are best explained by AGN-photoionization with the ionization parameter U varying between objects. Single slab photoionization models are unable to reproduce the high- and the low-ionization lines simultaneously: thi...

  9. Mouse novel Ly9: a new member of the expanding CD150 (SLAM) family of leukocyte cell-surface receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Victoria; del Valle, Juana; Zapater, Nuria; Martin, Margarita; Romero, Xavier; Pizcueta, Pilar; Bosch, Jaime; Terhorst, Cox; Engel, Pablo

    2002-09-01

    Human CS1, also known as novel Ly9, 19A24, or CRACC, is a member of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily (IgSF) expressed on natural killer cells and other leukocytes. Here we describe the cloning of the mouse homologue of this gene. The mouse novel Ly9 gene is shown to encode a transmembrane protein composed of two extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains, a transmembrane region and an 88-amino acid cytoplasmic domain. Mouse novel Ly9 is structurally similar to the extracellular domains of CD84 and CD229 (Ly9). Both mouse and human novel Ly9 genes mapped close to the CD229gene in a region where other members of the CD150 family have also been mapped, and analysis of their genomic sequences showed that they have an identical intron/exon organization. Northern blot analysis revealed that the expression of mouse and human novel Ly9 was predominantly restricted to hematopoietic tissues, with the exception of testis. Here we show that SAP (SH2D1A), an adapter protein responsible for the X-linked lymphoproliferative disease, binds to the phosphorylated cytoplasmic tail of human but not mouse novel Ly9. Taken together, these data indicate that mouse novel Ly9 is a new member of the expanding CD150 family of cell surface receptors.

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: z~1 Lyα emitters. I. 135 candidates from GALEX (Wold+, 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wold, I. G. B.; Barger, A. J.; Cowie, L. L.

    2016-06-01

    We construct a flux-limited sample of 135 candidate z~1 Lyα emitters (LAEs) from Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) grism data using a new data cube search method. As described in Barger et al. (2012ApJ...749..106B), we converted multiple GALEX NUV grism images into a 3D (two spatial axes and one wavelength axis) data cube. Each background subtracted data cube consists of thirty 20Å narrowband slices covering a wavelength range of 2030-2630Å and a 50'*50' field of view (FOV). Spectroscopic observations were primarily obtained with the DEep Imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph (DEIMOS) on Keck II in a series of runs in 2012-2013. The observations were made with the ZD600 line/mm grating blazed at 7500Å. This gives a resolution of ~5Å with a 1'' slit and a wavelength coverage of 5300Å. We observed our southern and equatorial fields (COSMOS and CDFS) with the Robert Stobie Spectrograph on SALT from 2011 to 2013. The observations were made with the pg1300 grating with the grating angle adjusted to ensure spectral coverage of lines redward of [Ne V]. This gives a resolution of ~4Å with a 1.5" slit and a wavelength coverage of 2000Å. In Tables 2-5, we list all of the LAE candidates in the Chandra Deep Field-South (CDFS), GROTH, NGPDWS, and COSMOS fields ordered by redshift. (4 data files).

  11. A Uniform Analysis of the Lyα Forest at z=0-5. II. Measuring the Mean Intensity of the Extragalactic Ionizing Background Using the Proximity Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jennifer; Bechtold, Jill; Dobrzycki, Adam; Kulkarni, Varsha P.

    2000-09-01

    Moderate-resolution data for 40 quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) at z~2 were combined with spectra of comparable resolution of 59 QSOs with redshifts greater than 1.7 found in the literature to form a large, homogeneous sample of moderate-resolution (~1 Å) QSO spectra. These spectra were presented and the statistics of the Lyα forest were discussed in Paper I. In this analysis, we demonstrate that a proximity effect is present in the data; i.e., there exists a significant (5.5 σ) deficit of lines at zabs~zem. Within 1.5 h-1 Mpc of the QSO emission redshift, the significance does depend on QSO luminosity, in accordance with the theory that this effect is caused by enhanced ionization of hydrogen in the vicinity of the QSO from UV photons from the QSO itself. The photoionization model of Bajtlik, Duncan, & Ostriker permits an estimate of the mean intensity of the extragalactic background radiation at the Lyman limit. We compare the results of this standard analysis with those obtained using a maximum likelihood technique. If the spectrum of the background is assumed to be identical to that of each individual QSO, and if this background is assumed to be constant over the redshift range 1.7Lyα emission line. Systemic QSO redshifts based on the [O III] λ5007 emission line for 19 objects in our sample show an average redshift of ~400 km s-1 with respect to Lyα emission. Using redshifts based on [O III] or Mg II for the 35 objects for which they are measured and adding 400 km s-1 to the remaining QSO Lyα redshifts gives a lower value of J(ν0), 7.0+3.4-4.4×10-22 ergs s-1 cm-2 Hz-1 sr-1. This value is in reasonable agreement with the predictions of various models of the ionizing background based on the integrated quasar luminosity function. Allowing for the fact that individual QSOs have different spectral indices that may also be

  12. Stimulation of insulin release from the MIN6 cell line by a new imidazoline compound, S-21663: evidence for the existence of a novel imidazoline site in beta cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Brigand, L; Virsolvy, A; Peyrollier, K; Manechez, D; Godfroid, J J; Guardiola-Lemaître, B; Bataille, D

    1997-10-01

    1. The MIN6 cell line derived from in vivo immortalized insulin-secreting pancreatic beta cells was used to study the insulin-releasing capacity and the cellular mode of action of S-21663, a newly synthesized imadizoline compound known for its antidiabetic effect in vivo and its ability to release insulin from perfused pancreas. 2. S-21663, at concentrations ranging from 10(-5) M to 10(-3) M was able to release insulin from MIN6 cells; its activity peaked at 10(-4) M, a drop in the stimulant factor being noted between 10(-4) and 10(-3) M. Its efficacy, which did not differ whatever the glucose concentration (stimulant or not), was higher than that of the other secretagogues tested, glucose, sulphonylureas or the peptide tGLP-1. 3. In contrast to tGLP-1, S-21663 did not change the cyclic AMP content, whereas it increased Ca2+ influx via verapamil- and nifedipine-sensitive voltage-dependent calcium channels, the insulin release being a direct consequence of this Ca2+ entry. The S-21663-induced Ca2+ influx appears to be essentially the consequence of closure of K+ channels which differ from the ATP-dependent K+ (K-ATP) channels as determined by measurement of 86Rb efflux and use of a K-ATP channel opener. 4. Comparison of the effects of S-21663 to that of efaroxan, another imidazoline compound shown to act on insulin release in a glucose-dependent way via binding sites distinct from the imidazoline I1 and I2 sites, suggested that S-21663 acts through a novel site which displays a remarkably stable expression along the cell culture. 5. It is concluded that S-21663 is a very efficient, glucose-independent insulin secretagogue acting through a novel imidazoline site, linked to K+ channels, distinct from the I1, I2 and 'efaroxan' binding sites. In vitro and in vivo features of S-21663 indicate that this compound, or new drugs derived from it, might be the basis for a new pharmacological approach to the mangement of type II (non insulin-dependent) diabetes.

  13. Down-regulation of TSC-22 (transforming growth factor beta-stimulated clone 22) markedly enhances the growth of a human salivary gland cancer cell line in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashiro, K; Kawamata, H; Hino, S; Uchida, D; Miwa, Y; Hamano, H; Omotehara, F; Yoshida, H; Sato, M

    1998-02-01

    We have recently isolated TSC-22 (transforming growth factor beta-stimulated clone 22) cDNA as a new anticancer drug (Vesnarinone)-inducible gene in a human salivary gland cancer cell line, TYS. We conducted the present study to examine whether up-regulation or down-regulation of TSC-22 can affect the growth of TYS cells in vitro and in vivo. We constructed an expression vector containing sense- or antisense-oriented human TSC-22 cDNA under the transcriptional control of the SR alpha promoter. We cotransfected TYS cells with the sense or antisense expression vector and pSV2neo and obtained more than 200 G418-resistant colonies in each sense or antisense transfectant. Approximately 80% of representative G418-resistant clones expressed the transcripts from transfected sense or antisense TSC-22 cDNA. To avoid the clonal heterogeneity of the cells, we mixed all of the G418-resistant colonies together in each sense or antisense transfectant and examined the expression of TSC-22 protein, in vitro growth, and the tumorigenicity in nude mice. The expression of TSC-22 protein was examined by solid-phase ELISA using a specific antibody against recombinant TSC-22 protein. The expression of TSC-22 protein was up-regulated in the sense transfectants and down-regulated in the antisense transfectants. Contrary to our expectation, up-regulation of TSC-22 protein did not affect both in vitro and in vivo growth of TYS cells. However, down-regulation of TSC-22 markedly enhanced the growth of TYS cells in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we examined the expression of TSC-22 mRNA in several human salivary gland tumors. The mRNA expression of TSC-22 in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors was significantly decreased when compared to that in tumor-free salivary glands (P way ANOVA), and in some salivary gland tumors, the expression of TSC-22 mRNA was not detectable by reverse transcription-PCR. These results suggest that down-regulation of TSC-22 may play a major role on salivary

  14. Mapping Neutral Hydrogen During Reionization with the Ly-alpha Emission from Quasar Ionization Fronts

    CERN Document Server

    Cantalupo, Sebastiano; Lilly, Simon J

    2007-01-01

    We present a new method to directly map the neutral-hydrogen distribution during the reionization epoch and to constrain the emission properties of the highest-redshift quasars (QSOs). As a tracer of HI, we propose to use the Ly-alpha radiation produced by quasar ionization fronts (I-fronts) that expand in the partially ionized intergalactic medium (IGM) before reionization is complete. These Ly-alpha photons are mainly generated by collisional excitations of hydrogen atoms in the boundary of the rapidly expanding HII region. The observable signal is produced by the part of the I-front that lies behind the QSO with respect to the observer. Combining two radiative transfer models (one for the QSO ionizing radiation and one for the Ly-alpha photons), we estimate the expected Ly-alpha spectral shape and surface brightness (SB) for a large number of configurations where we varied both the properties of the ionizing QSO and of the surrounding medium. We find that the expected signal is observable as a single (broa...

  15. A Direct Comparison of HI and Lyα Morphologies in Two LARS Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgibbon, Kathleen; Cannon, John M.; Freeland, Emily; Hayes, Matthew; Östlin, Göran; LARS Team

    2016-01-01

    The Lyman-Alpha Reference Sample (LARS) and its extension (eLARS) represent an exhaustive campaign to reverse-engineer galaxies. The main goal is to understand how Lyα is transported within galaxies: what fraction of it escapes, and what physical properties affect Lyα morphology and radiative transport (e.g. dust and gas content, metallicity, kinematics, properties of the stellar population). Neutral hydrogen emission, which can be used to determine a galaxy's structure and kinematics, was observed using the B and C configurations of the Very Large Array in two galaxies from the sample: LARS02 and LARS09. Images of the HI mass surface density and of the intensity weighted HI velocity field were created at angular scales of ~8 arcseconds. Extended HI gas is detected at high significance up to ˜30 kpc from the optical body of LARS02. LARS09 has a severely disturbed optical morphology; our new HI observations reveal that LARS09 is interacting with the nearby field galaxy SDSS J082353.65+280622.2. In combination with direct imaging of the Lyα morphology from the Hubble Space Telescope, this program has produced the first direct comparison of Lyα and HI morphologies. These observations demonstrate concept for a significant observational campaign that will produce similar comparisons in the remaining 40 LARS+eLARS galaxies.KF was partially supported by a Science Education Award from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) to Macalester College.

  16. Nonclassical Ly6C− Monocytes Drive the Development of Inflammatory Arthritis in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Misharin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Different subsets and/or polarized phenotypes of monocytes and macrophages may play distinct roles during the development and resolution of inflammation. Here, we demonstrate in a murine model of rheumatoid arthritis that nonclassical Ly6C− monocytes are required for the initiation and progression of sterile joint inflammation. Moreover, nonclassical Ly6C− monocytes differentiate into inflammatory macrophages (M1, which drive disease pathogenesis and display plasticity during the resolution phase. During the development of arthritis, these cells polarize toward an alternatively activated phenotype (M2, promoting the resolution of joint inflammation. The influx of Ly6C− monocytes and their subsequent classical and then alternative activation occurs without changes in synovial tissue-resident macrophages, which express markers of M2 polarization throughout the course of the arthritis and attenuate joint inflammation during the initiation phase. These data suggest that circulating Ly6C− monocytes recruited to the joint upon injury orchestrate the development and resolution of autoimmune joint inflammation.

  17. Corrosion behavior on aluminum alloy LY12 in simulated atmospheric corrosion process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhen-yao; MA Teng; HAN Wei; YU Guo-cai

    2007-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of typical high-strength aluminum alloy LY12 was studied by accelerated corrosion tests of cyclic wet-dry-immersion containing media of NaHSO3 and NaCl to simulate the corrosion process in different atmosphere environment, and the corrosion mechanism was also discussed. The main experimental techniques include mass loss, morphological check, analysis of corrosion products and electrochemical measurement. The result shows that the mass loss of LY12, with or without cladding, has linear relationship with test time in the three kinds of chemical media, 0.02 mol/L NaHSO3, 0.006 mol/L NaCl and 0.02 mol/L NaHSO3+0.006 mol/L NaCl, respectively. A layer of cladding on high-strength aluminum alloy can raise evidently the resistance of atmospheric corrosion. Cl- can promote pitting generation on the oxide film of LY12 when HOS3- exists, LY12 can react much intensely with HOS3- derived from anions.

  18. Interaktiivne võrguõpik "Võnkumised ja lained" / Ly Sõõrd

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sõõrd, Ly

    2000-01-01

    Interaktiivne võrguõpik "Võnkumised ja lained" on mõeldud gümnaasiumi 10. kl. füüsikakursuse osa "Mehaanilised võnkumised ja lained" õppimiseks iseseisvalt interneti vahendusel ning asub aadressil : http://www.physic.ut.ee/̃ly/xklass/opik.html

  19. Probing the IGM with Ly$\\mathrm{\\alpha}$ and 21 cm fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Heneka, Caroline; Feng, Chang

    2016-01-01

    We study 21 cm and Ly$\\mathrm{\\alpha}$ fluctuations, as well as H$\\mathrm{\\alpha}$, while distinguishing for Ly$\\mathrm{\\alpha}$ between emission of galactic, diffuse and scattered IGM origin. Cross-correlation information about the state of the IGM is worked out, testing neutral versus ionized medium with different tracers in a semi-numerical simulation setup. In order to path the way for constraints on reionization history and modelling beyond power spectrum information, we explore parameter dependencies of the cross-power signal between 21$\\,$cm and Ly$\\mathrm{\\alpha}$, which displays characteristic morphology and a turn-over from negative to positive correlation at scales of a couple Mpc$^{-1}$. In a proof of concept for the extraction of further information on the state of the IGM using different tracers, we demonstrate the usage of the 21$\\,$cm and H$\\mathrm{\\alpha}$ cross-correlation signal to determine the relative strength of galactic and IGM emission in Ly$\\mathrm{\\alpha}$. We conclude by showing th...

  20. Interaktiivne võrguõpik "Võnkumised ja lained" / Ly Sõõrd

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sõõrd, Ly

    2000-01-01

    Interaktiivne võrguõpik "Võnkumised ja lained" on mõeldud gümnaasiumi 10. kl. füüsikakursuse osa "Mehaanilised võnkumised ja lained" õppimiseks iseseisvalt interneti vahendusel ning asub aadressil : http://www.physic.ut.ee/̃ly/xklass/opik.html

  1. Clustering of Ly alpha emitters at z approximate to 4.5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovac, Katarina; Somerville, Rachel S.; Rhoads, James E.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Wang, JunXian

    2007-01-01

    We present the clustering properties of 151 Ly alpha-emitting galaxies at z approximate to 4.5 selected from the Large Area Lyman Alpha (LALA) survey. Our catalog covers an area of 36'; 36' observed with five narrowband filters. We assume that the angular correlation function w(theta) is well repres

  2. Clustering of Ly alpha emitters at z approximate to 4.5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovac, Katarina; Somerville, Rachel S.; Rhoads, James E.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Wang, JunXian

    2007-01-01

    We present the clustering properties of 151 Ly alpha-emitting galaxies at z approximate to 4.5 selected from the Large Area Lyman Alpha (LALA) survey. Our catalog covers an area of 36'; 36' observed with five narrowband filters. We assume that the angular correlation function w(theta) is well

  3. Broad Ly alpha Emission from Three Nearby BL Lacertae Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Stocke, John T; Perlman, Eric S

    2011-01-01

    We present far-UV HST/COS spectra of four nearby BL Lac Objects. BL Lac spectra are dominated by a smooth, power-law continuum which arises in a relativistic jet. However, the spectra are not necessarily featureless; weak, broad- and/or narrow-line emission is sometimes seen in high-quality optical spectra. We present detections of Lya emission in HST/COS spectra of Mrk421 (z=0.030) and PKS2005-489 (z=0.071) as well as an archival HST/GHRS observation of Mrk501 (z=0.0337). Archival HST/STIS observations of PKS2155-304 (z=0.116) show no Lya emission to a very low upper limit. Using the assumption that the broad-line region (BLR) clouds are asymmetrically placed around the AGN, we use these measured Lya emission features to constrain either the relativistic Gamma values for the ionizing continuum produced by the jet (in the ionization-bounded case) or the mass of warm gas (in the density-bounded case). While realistic Gamma values can be obtained for all four cases, the values for Mrk421 and PKS2155-304 are hig...

  4. The {beta}2p decay mechanism of {sup 31}Ar[23.40.Hc; 27.30.+t; Radioactivity 31Ar({beta}+p) [from Ca(p,3pxn) reaction]; Measured {beta}-delayed protons Ep, E2p; pp energy and angular correlations; 31Ar deduced {beta}1p and {beta}2p decay channels; 30S, 31Cl deduced levels, T, {pi}, branching ratios; CaO target; On-line mass separation; Double sided Si strip detector; Si p-i-n detectors; Surface barrier Si detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fynbo, H.O.U.; Borge, M.J.G.; Axelsson, L.; Aeystoe, J.; Bergmann, U.C.; Fraile, L.M.; Honkanen, A.; Hornshoej, P.; Jading, Y.; Jokinen, A.; Jonson, B.; Martel, I.; Mukha, I.; Nilsson, T.; Nyman, G.; Oinonen, M.; Piqueras, I.; Riisager, K.; Siiskonen, T.; Smedberg, M.H.; Tengblad, O.; Thaysen, J.; Wenander, F

    2000-09-11

    We have measured the beta-decay of {sup 31}Ar with a high granularity setup sensitive to multiparticle decay branches. Two-proton emission is observed from the isobaric analog state in {sup 31}Cl to the four lowest states in {sup 29}P and furthermore from a large number of states fed in Gamow-Teller transitions. The mechanism of two-proton emission is studied via energy and angular correlations between the two protons. In all cases the mechanism is found to be sequential yielding information about states in {sup 30}S up to 8 MeV excitation energy. Improved data on the {beta}-delayed one-proton branches together with the two-proton data provide precise information about the beta-strength distribution up to 15 MeV excitation energy.

  5. Cosmology with intensity mapping techniques using atomic and molecular lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, José; Silva, Marta B.; Santos, Mário G.; Cooray, Asantha

    2017-01-01

    We present a systematic study of the intensity mapping (IM) technique using updated models for the different emission lines from galaxies. We identify which ones are more promising for cosmological studies of the post-reionization epoch. We consider the emission of Lyα, Hα, Hβ, optical and infrared oxygen lines, nitrogen lines, C II and the CO rotational lines. We show that Lyα, Hα, O II, C II and the lowest rotational CO lines are the best candidates to be used as IM probes. These lines form a complementary set of probes of the galaxies' emission spectra. We then use reasonable experimental setups from current, planned or proposed experiments to assess the detectability of the power spectrum of each emission line. IM of Lyα emission from z = 2 to 3 will be possible in the near future with Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment, while far-infrared lines require new dedicated experiments. We also show that the proposed SPHEREx satellite can use O II and Hα IM to study the large-scale distribution of matter in intermediate redshifts of 1-4. We find that submillimetre experiments with bolometers can have similar performances at intermediate redshifts using C II and CO(3-2).

  6. WARM GAS IN THE VIRGO CLUSTER. I. DISTRIBUTION OF Ly{alpha} ABSORBERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Joo Heon; Putman, Mary E.; Bryan, Greg L. [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Thom, Christopher [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21211 (United States); Chen, Hsiao-Wen, E-mail: jhyoon@astro.columbia.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2012-08-01

    The first systematic study of the warm gas (T = 10{sup 4-5} K) distribution across a galaxy cluster is presented using multiple background QSOs in and around the Virgo Cluster. We detect 25 Ly{alpha} absorbers (N{sub HI} = 10{sup 13.1-15.4} cm{sup -2}) in the Virgo velocity range toward 9 of 12 QSO sightlines observed with the Cosmic Origin Spectrograph, with a cluster impact parameter range of 0.36-1.65 Mpc (0.23-1.05 R{sub vir}). Including 18 Ly{alpha} absorbers previously detected by STIS or GHRS toward 7 of 11 background QSOs in and around the Virgo Cluster, we establish a sample of 43 absorbers toward a total of 23 background probes for studying the incidence of Ly{alpha} absorbers in and around the Virgo Cluster. With these absorbers, we find (1) warm gas is predominantly in the outskirts of the cluster and avoids the X-ray-detected hot intracluster medium (ICM). Also, Ly{alpha} absorption strength increases with cluster impact parameter. (2) Ly{alpha}-absorbing warm gas traces cold H I-emitting gas in the substructures of the Virgo Cluster. (3) Including the absorbers associated with the surrounding substructures, the warm gas covering fraction (100% for N{sub HI} > 10{sup 13.1} cm{sup -2}) is in agreement with cosmological simulations. We speculate that the observed warm gas is part of large-scale gas flows feeding the cluster both in the ICM and galaxies.

  7. TRANSITING THE SUN. II. THE IMPACT OF STELLAR ACTIVITY ON Lyα TRANSITS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llama, J.; Shkolnik, E. L., E-mail: joe.llama@lowell.edu [Lowell Observatory, 1400 W Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States)

    2016-01-20

    High-energy observations of the Sun provide an opportunity to test the limits of our ability to accurately measure the properties of transiting exoplanets in the presence of stellar activity. Here we insert the transit of a hot Jupiter into continuous disk integrated data of the Sun in Lyα from NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory/EVE instrument to assess the impact of stellar activity on the measured planet-to-star radius ratio (R{sub p}/R{sub ⋆}). In 75% of our simulated light curves, we measure the correct radius ratio; however, incorrect values can be measured if there is significant short-term variability in the light curve. The maximum measured value of R{sub p}/R{sub ⋆} is 50% larger than the input value, which is much smaller than the large Lyα transit depths that have been reported in the literature, suggesting that for stars with activity levels comparable to the Sun, stellar activity alone cannot account for these deep transits. We ran simulations without a transit and found that stellar activity cannot mimic the Lyα transit of 55 Cancari b, strengthening the conclusion that this planet has a partially transiting exopshere. We were able to compare our simulations to more active stars by artificially increasing the variability in the Solar Lyα light curve. In the higher variability data, the largest value of R{sub p}/R{sub ⋆} we measured is <3× the input value, which again is not large enough to reproduce the Lyα transit depth reported for the more active stars HD 189733 and GJ 436, supporting the interpretation that these planets have extended atmospheres and possible cometary tails.

  8. FIRST SPECTROSCOPIC EVIDENCE FOR HIGH IONIZATION STATE AND LOW OXYGEN ABUNDANCE IN Ly{alpha} EMITTERS ,

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Kimihiko; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Hashimoto, Takuya; Ono, Yoshiaki [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Ouchi, Masami [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Lee, Janice C., E-mail: nakajima@astron.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2013-05-20

    We present results from Keck/NIRSPEC and Magellan/MMIRS follow-up spectroscopy of Ly{alpha} emitters (LAEs) at z = 2.2 identified in our Subaru narrowband survey. We successfully detect H{alpha} emission from seven LAEs, and perform a detailed analysis of six LAEs free from active galactic nucleus activity, two out of which, CDFS-3865 and COSMOS-30679, have [O II] and [O III] line detections. They are the first [O II]-detected LAEs at high-z, and their [O III]/[O II] ratios and R23-indices provide the first simultaneous determinations of ionization parameter and oxygen abundance for LAEs. CDFS-3865 has a very high ionization parameter (q{sub ion}=2.5{sup +1.7}{sub -0.8} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} cm s{sup -1}) and a low oxygen abundance (12+ log (O/H)=7.84{sup +0.24}{sub -0.25}) in contrast with moderate values of other high-z galaxies such as Lyman break galaxies (LBGs). COSMOS-30679 also possesses a relatively high ionization parameter (q{sub ion}=8{sup +10}{sub -4} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} cm s{sup -1}) and a low oxygen abundance (12+ log (O/H)=8.18{sup +0.28}{sub -0.28}). Both LAEs appear to fall below the mass-metallicity relation of z {approx} 2 LBGs. Similarly, a low metallicity of 12 + log (O/H) < 8.4 is independently indicated for typical LAEs from a composite spectrum and the [N II]/H{alpha} index. Such high ionization parameters and low oxygen abundances can be found in local star-forming galaxies, but this extreme local population occupies only {approx}0.06% of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectroscopic galaxy sample with a number density {approx}100 times smaller than that of LAEs. With their high ionization parameters and low oxygen abundances, LAEs would represent an early stage of galaxy formation dominated by massive stars in compact star-forming regions. High-q{sub ion} galaxies like LAEs would produce ionizing photons efficiently with a high escape fraction achieved by density-bounded H II regions, which would significantly contribute to

  9. Induction of interleukin 2 receptor beta chain expression by self-recognition in the thymus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanke, T; Mitnacht, R; Boyd, R; Hünig, T

    1994-11-01

    1-2% of adult mouse thymocytes express the T cell receptor alpha/beta (TCR-alpha/beta) together with the interleukin (IL) 2R beta (p70), but not the alpha (p 55) chain. We show that the previously described alpha/beta-TCR +CD4-8- and the partially overlapping Ly6C+ thymocytes are contained within this subset. Most IL-2R beta+ alpha/beta-TCR+ cells have a mature and activated (heat stable antigen [HSA]-, thymic shared antigen 1 [TSA-1]-, CD44high, CD69+) phenotype. Overrepresentation of V beta 8.2 in both CD4-8- and CD4 and/or CD8+ IL-2R beta+ thymocytes suggests that IL-2R beta expression is induced by a TCR-mediated activation event. In mice transgenic for an H-2Kb-specific TCR, IL-2R beta+ cells were abundant under conditions of mainstream negative selection, i.e., in the presence of Kb, but absent under conditions of mainstream positive selection or in a nonselecting environment. Together, these results show that in addition to clonal deletion, self-recognition by immature thymocytes leads to phenotypic maturation of a small subset of thymocytes expressing IL-2R beta. IL-2-deficient mice contain normal numbers of IL-2R beta+ alpha/beta-TCR+ thymocytes, indicating that like mainstream T cell development, this minor pathway of positive selection does not depend on IL-2. However, in the absence of IL-2, the CD4/CD8 subset composition of IL-2R beta+ thymocytes is skewed towards CD4-8+, mostly at the expense of CD4-8-. A possible relevance of this finding for the development of the immune pathology of IL-2-deficient mice is discussed.

  10. More than Solfège and Hand Signs: Philosophy, Tools, and Lesson Planning in the Authentic Kodály Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, James

    2015-01-01

    Four components of the Kodály concept are delineated here: philosophy, objectives, essential tools, and lesson planning process. After outlining the tenets of the Kodály philosophy and objectives, the article presents the Kodály concept's essential tools, including singing, movable "do" solfège, rhythm syllables, hand signs, singing on…

  11. Beta-blockers for hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiysonge, Charles S; Bradley, Hazel A; Volmink, Jimmy; Mayosi, Bongani M; Opie, Lionel H

    2017-01-01

    Background Beta-blockers refer to a mixed group of drugs with diverse pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties. They have shown long-term beneficial effects on mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD) when used in people with heart failure or acute myocardial infarction. Beta-blockers were thought to have similar beneficial effects when used as first-line therapy for hypertension. However, the benefit of beta-blockers as first-line therapy for hypertension without compelling indications is controversial. This review is an update of a Cochrane Review initially published in 2007 and updated in 2012. Objectives To assess the effects of beta-blockers on morbidity and mortality endpoints in adults with hypertension. Search methods The Cochrane Hypertension Information Specialist searched the following databases for randomized controlled trials up to June 2016: the Cochrane Hypertension Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2016, Issue 6), MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), and ClinicalTrials.gov. We checked reference lists of relevant reviews, and reference lists of studies potentially eligible for inclusion in this review, and also searched the the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform on 06 July 2015. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of at least one year of duration, which assessed the effects of beta-blockers compared to placebo or other drugs, as first-line therapy for hypertension, on mortality and morbidity in adults. Data collection and analysis We selected studies and extracted data in duplicate, resolving discrepancies by consensus. We expressed study results as risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and conducted fixed-effect or random-effects meta-analyses, as appropriate. We also used GRADE to assess the certainty of the evidence. GRADE classifies the certainty of evidence as high (if we are confident that the true effect lies

  12. LY294002白蛋白结合型纳米注射剂的制备与性质%Preparation and characteristics of LY294002-1oaded albumin nanoparticles for intravenous injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴杰; 程亮; 程丽芳; 陈大为; 张文芳

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To develop a new intravenous injection formulation for clinically used anti-cancer agent with the nanoparticles of LY294002 encapsulated into albumin bovine (BSA) (LY294002-BSA-NPs),and to evaluate the physic-chemical and in vitro release properties of LY294002-albumin nanoemulsion.Methods:LY294002-loaded albumin nanoemulsion and the lyophilized nanoparticles were prepared by a high-pressure homogenization NabTM technology and characterized by particle size,Zeta potential,transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray powder diffraction.In vitro release of LY294002-albumin nanoemulsion was investigated by dialysis method.Results:LY294002-BSA-NPs were successfully prepared with following properties:spherical shapes,40 nm size,-45 mV zeta potential and 99% encapsulation efficiency; 81.2% of the drug was sustained to release in 24 hours.Based on XRD,LY294002 was demonstrated to be completely encapsulated within albumin core-shell structure in amorphous state.Conclusion:The nanoemulsion is stable and homogeneous,and the method described to prepare LY294002-albumin nanoemulsion may be possibly applied to develop a new delivery of LY294002 intravenous injection.%目的:研究LY294002白蛋白结合型纳米注射剂的制备工艺,对其理化性质及体外释放进行表征.方法:以NabTM法成功制备LY294002白蛋白纳米乳剂及其冻干制剂,利用纳米粒度仪、透射电子显微镜、X射线粉末衍射仪对其形态、结构表征;透析法研究其体外释放.结果:纳米乳剂颗粒为球形或椭球形,冻干粉复溶后粒径约40 nm,Zeta电位约-45 mV,药物包封率约99%,体外24 h释放81.2%.LY294002以无定形被白蛋白包裹.结论:纳米乳剂性质稳定,制备方法简便,有望成为其新型给药系统.

  13. Phase I study of LY2181308, an antisense oligonucleotide against survivin, in patients with advanced solid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanioka, M; Nokihara, H; Yamamoto, N; Yamada, Y; Yamada, K; Goto, Y; Fujimoto, T; Sekiguchi, R; Uenaka, K; Callies, S; Tamura, T

    2011-08-01

    LY2181308 is an antisense oligonucleotide that complementarily binds to survivin mRNA and inhibits its expression in tumor tissue. This phase I dose escalation study evaluated the tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and anticancer activity of LY2181308 in Japanese. Patients with solid tumors refractory to standard therapy received LY2181308 (400, 600, or 750 mg) as a 3-h intravenous infusion for 3 consecutive days and thereafter once a week. LY2181308 was administered to 14 patients, aged 44-73 (median 60) years. Flu-like syndrome, prolonged prothrombin time-international normalized ratio (PT-INR), thrombocytopenia, and fatigue were common reversible grade 1/2 toxicities. The dose-limiting toxicity was reversible grade 3 elevation of ALT/AST/γ-GTP in 1 patient treated at the 750-mg dose. Pharmacokinetic analysis showed a long terminal half-life of 21 days and an extensive tissue distribution of LY2181308. In 12 evaluable patients, one patient had stable disease, while the remaining 11 patients had progressive disease. LY2181308 monotherapy is well tolerated up to 750 mg with a manageable toxicity, the pharmacokinetic profile warrants further evaluation of LY2181308 in combination with cytotoxic agents or radiotherapy.

  14. First direct implications for the dust extinction and star formation of typical Ly{\\alpha} emitters from their faint infrared luminosities

    CERN Document Server

    Kusakabe, Haruka; Nakajima, Kimihiko; Ouchi, Masami

    2014-01-01

    Measuring the IR luminosity of galaxies is crucial for reliably deriving their dust extinction and stellar population. By stacking publicly available deep Spitzer/MIPS 24um and Herschel PACS images for 213 z~2.18 Ly alpha Emitters (LAEs) in the GOODS-South, we obtain a strong upper limit to the IR luminosity of typical high-redshift LAEs and constrain the extinction law for the first time. Our 3sigma upper limit L_{TIR} = 1.1 * 10^{10} L_{sun} gives IRX = L_{TIR}/L_{UV} 44%, are both significantly higher than the cosmic averages at the same epoch. We find that the SMC extinction law is consistent with the IRX and the UV slope beta = -1.4^{+0.2}_{-0.2} of our stacked LAE, while the Calzetti law predicts a 3.8 times higher IRX at this beta. SED fitting using the Calzetti law also gives a ~10 times higher SFR than that calculated from the IR and UV luminosities, SFR_{tot}=1.5-3.3 M_{sun}/yr. With the stellar mass 6.3^{+0.8}_{-2.0} *10^8 M_{sun}, our LAEs lie on a lower-mass extrapolation of the star formation ma...

  15. A young star-forming galaxy at z = 3.5 with an extended Ly\\,$\\alpha$ halo seen with MUSE

    CERN Document Server

    Patrício, Vera; Verhamme, Anne; Wisotzki, Lutz; Brinchmann, Jarle; Turner, Monica L; Christensen, Lise; Weilbacher, Peter M; Blaizot, Jérémy; Bacon, Roland; Contini, Thierry; Lagattuta, David; Cantalupo, Sebastiano; Clément, Benjamin; Soucail, Geneviève

    2015-01-01

    Spatially resolved studies of high redshift galaxies, an essential insight into galaxy formation processes, have been mostly limited to stacking or unusually bright objects. We present here the study of a typical (L$^{*}$, M$_\\star$ = 6 $\\times 10^9$ $M_\\odot$) young lensed galaxy at $z=3.5$, observed with MUSE, for which we obtain 2D resolved spatial information of Ly$\\alpha$ and, for the first time, of CIII] emission. The exceptional signal-to-noise of the data reveals UV emission and absorption lines rarely seen at these redshifts, allowing us to derive important physical properties (T$_e\\sim$15600 K, n$_e\\sim$300 cm$^{-3}$, covering fraction f$_c\\sim0.4$) using multiple diagnostics. Inferred stellar and gas-phase metallicities point towards a low metallicity object (Z$_{\\mathrm{stellar}}$ = $\\sim$ 0.07 Z$_\\odot$ and Z$_{\\mathrm{ISM}}$ $<$ 0.16 Z$_\\odot$). The Ly$\\alpha$ emission extends over $\\sim$10 kpc across the galaxy and presents a very uniform spectral profile, showing only a small velocity shift...

  16. Dust Extinction Curves and Ly-$\\alpha$ Forest Flux Deficits for Use in Modeling GRB Afterglows and All Other Extragalactic Point Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Reichart, D E

    1999-01-01

    Since gamma-ray burst afterglows were first detected in 1997, the relativistic fireball model has emerged as the leading theoretical explanation of the afterglows. In this paper, we present a very general, Bayesian inference formalism with which this, or any other, afterglow model can be tested, and with which the parameter values of acceptable models can be constrained, given the available photometry. However, before model comparison or parameter estimation can be attempted, one must also consider the physical processes that affect the afterglow as it propagates along the line of sight from the burst source to the observer. Namely, how does extinction by dust, both in the host galaxy and in our galaxy, and absorption by the Ly-alpha forest and by H I in the host galaxy, change the intrinsic spectrum of the afterglow? Consequently, we also present in this paper a very general, eight-parameter dust extinction curve model, and a two-parameter model of the Ly-alpha forest flux deficit versus redshift distributio...

  17. Targeting of Ly9 (CD229) Disrupts Marginal Zone and B1 B Cell Homeostasis and Antibody Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca, Marta; Romero, Xavier; Sintes, Jordi; Terhorst, Cox; Engel, Pablo

    2016-01-15

    Marginal zone (MZ) and B1 B cells have the capacity to respond to foreign Ags more rapidly than conventional B cells, providing early immune responses to blood-borne pathogens. Ly9 (CD229, SLAMF3), a member of the signaling lymphocytic activation molecule family receptors, has been implicated in the development and function of innate T lymphocytes. In this article, we provide evidence that in Ly9-deficient mice splenic transitional 1, MZ, and B1a B cells are markedly expanded, whereas development of B lymphocytes in bone marrow is unaltered. Consistent with an increased number of these B cell subsets, we detected elevated levels of IgG3 natural Abs and a striking increase of T-independent type II Abs after immunization with 2,4,6-trinitrophenyl-Ficoll in the serum of Ly9-deficient mice. The notion that Ly9 could be a negative regulator of innate-like B cell responses was supported by the observation that administering an mAb directed against Ly9 to wild-type mice selectively eliminated splenic MZ B cells and significantly reduced the numbers of B1 and transitional 1 B cells. In addition, Ly9 mAb dramatically diminished in vivo humoral responses and caused a selective downregulation of the CD19/CD21/CD81 complex on B cells and concomitantly an impaired B cell survival and activation in an Fc-independent manner. We conclude that altered signaling caused by the absence of Ly9 or induced by anti-Ly9 may negatively regulate development and function of innate-like B cells by modulating B cell activation thresholds. The results suggest that Ly9 could serve as a novel target for the treatment of B cell-related diseases.

  18. Targeting of Ly9 (CD229) disrupts marginal zone and B1 B cell homeostasis and antibody responses1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca, Marta; Romero, Xavier; Sintes, Jordi; Terhorst, Cox; Engel, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Marginal zone and B1 B-cells have the capacity to respond to foreign antigens more rapidly than conventional B-cells, providing early immune responses to blood-borne pathogens. Ly9 (CD229, SLAMF3), a member of the SLAM family receptors, has been implicated in the development and function of innate T lymphocytes. Here, we provide evidence that in Ly9-deficient mice splenic transitional T1, marginal zone and B1a B cells are markedly expanded, whilst development of B lymphocytes in bone marrow is unaltered. Consistent with an increased number of these B cell subsets, we detect elevated levels of IgG3 natural antibodies, and a striking increase of T-independent type II antibodies following immunization with TNP-Ficoll in the serum of Ly9-deficient mice. The notion that Ly9 could be a negative regulator of innate-like B cell responses was supported by the observation that administering a mAb directed against Ly9 to WT mice selectively eliminated splenic marginal zone B cells and significantly reduced the numbers of B1 and transitional T1 B cells. Additionally, Ly9 mAb dramatically diminished in vivo humoral responses and caused a selective down-regulation of the CD19/CD21/CD81 complex on B cells and concomitantly an impaired B cell survival and activation in a Fc-independent manner. We conclude that altered signaling due to the absence of Ly9 or induced by anti-Ly9 may negatively regulate development and function of innate-like B cells by modulating B cell activation thresholds. The results suggest that Ly9 could serve as a novel target for the treatment of B cell related diseases. PMID:26667173

  19. A Faraday rotation search for magnetic fields in quasar damped Ly alpha absorption systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, Abraham L.; Wolfe, Arthur M.

    1995-01-01

    We present the results of a Faraday rotation survey of 61 radio-bright QSOs conducted at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) Very Large Array (VLA). The Galactic contribution to the Faraday rotation is estimated and subtracted to determine the extragalactic rotation measure (RRM) for each source. Eleven of these QSOs are known to exhibit damped Ly alpha absorption. The rate of incidence of significant Faraday rotation of these 11 sources is compared to the remaining 50 and is found to be higher at the 99.8% confidence level. However, as this is based upon only two detections of Faraday rotation in the damped Ly alpha sample, the result is only tentative. If the two detections in the damped Ly alpha sample are dug to the absorbing systems, then the inferred rotation measure induced by these systems is roughly 250 rad/sq m. The two detections were for the two lowest redshift absorbers in the sample. We find that a rotation measure of 250 rad/sq m would have gone undetected for any other absorber in the damped Ly alpha sample due to the 1/(1 + 2) squared dilution of the observed RRM with redshift. Thus the data are consistent with, but do not prove, the hypothesis that Faraday rotation is a generic property of damped Ly alpha absorbers. We do not confirm the suggestion that the amplitude of RRMs increases with redshift. Rather, the data are consistent with no redshift evolution. We find that the uncertainty in the estimation of the Galactic rotation measure (GRM) is a more serious problem than previously realized for extra-galactic Faraday rotation studies of QSO absorbers. A careful analysis of current methods for estimating GRM indicate that it can be determined to an accuracy of about 15 - 20 rad/sq m. Previous studies underestimated this uncertainty by more than a factor of 2. Due to this uncertainty, rotation measures such as we suspect are associated with damped Ly alpha absorption systems can only be detected at redshifts less than z approximately

  20. In-trap decay spectroscopy for {beta}{beta} decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, Thomas

    2011-01-18

    The presented work describes the implementation of a new technique to measure electron-capture (EC) branching ratios (BRs) of intermediate nuclei in {beta}{beta} decays. This technique has been developed at TRIUMF in Vancouver, Canada. It facilitates one of TRIUMF's Ion Traps for Atomic and Nuclear science (TITAN), the Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) that is used as a spectroscopy Penning trap. Radioactive ions, produced at the radioactive isotope facility ISAC, are injected and stored in the spectroscopy Penning trap while their decays are observed. A key feature of this technique is the use of a strong magnetic field, required for trapping. It radially confines electrons from {beta} decays along the trap axis while X-rays, following an EC, are emitted isotropically. This provides spatial separation of X-ray and {beta} detection with almost no {beta}-induced background at the X-ray detector, allowing weak EC branches to be measured. Furthermore, the combination of several traps allows one to isobarically clean the sample prior to the in-trap decay spectroscopy measurement. This technique has been developed to measure ECBRs of transition nuclei in {beta}{beta} decays. Detailed knowledge of these electron capture branches is crucial for a better understanding of the underlying nuclear physics in {beta}{beta} decays. These branches are typically of the order of 10{sup -5} and therefore difficult to measure. Conventional measurements suffer from isobaric contamination and a dominating {beta} background at theX-ray detector. Additionally, X-rays are attenuated by the material where the radioactive sample is implanted. To overcome these limitations, the technique of in-trap decay spectroscopy has been developed. In this work, the EBIT was connected to the TITAN beam line and has been commissioned. Using the developed beam diagnostics, ions were injected into the Penning trap and systematic studies on injection and storage optimization were performed. Furthermore, Ge

  1. Beta-carotene

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patches on the tongue and mouth called oral leukoplakia. Taking beta-carotene by mouth for up to 12 months seems to decrease symptoms of oral leukoplakia. Osteoarthritis. Beta-carotene taken by mouth may prevent ...

  2. LY-9302型重整预加氢催化剂的开发应用%Development and application of LY-9302 type reformer prehydrogenati on catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王和平

    2001-01-01

    开发了LY-9302型重整预加氢催化剂,并在装置上使用,替代进口的S-12含量催化剂.结果表明:在反应温度295~308℃、反应压力2.8~2.9MPa、原料油中S含量≤34 6×10-6及N含量≤3.1×10-6、体积空速4.4~7.0h-1、氢油体积比8 8.7~1 17的条件下,预加氢精制油中S、N含量均小于0.5×10-6,精制油液收率大于97%,完全能满足装置生产的要求;LY-9302型催化剂加氢脱硫、脱氮活性比原使用的S-12型催化剂略高,选择性、寿命等均达到S-12型的性能,完全能替代S-12型催化剂.

  3. KECK AND VLT OBSERVATIONS OF SUPER-DAMPED Lyα ABSORBERS AT z ∼ 2–2.5: CONSTRAINTS ON CHEMICAL COMPOSITIONS AND PHYSICAL CONDITIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulkarni, Varsha P.; Som, Debopam; Morrison, Sean [University of South Carolina, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Péroux, Celine; Quiret, Samuel [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille, UMR 7326, F-13388, Marseille (France); York, Donald G., E-mail: kulkarni@sc.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2015-12-10

    We report Keck/Echellette Spectrograph and Imager and Very Large Telescope/Ultraviolet-Visual Echelle Spectrograph observations of three super-damped Lyα quasar absorbers with H i column densities log N{sub H} {sub i} ≥ 21.7 at redshifts 2 ≲ z ≲ 2.5. All three absorbers show similar metallicities (∼−1.3 to −1.5 dex), and dust depletion of Fe, Ni, and Mn. Two of the absorbers show supersolar [S/Zn] and [Si/Zn]. We combine our results with those for other damped Lyα a absorbers (DLAs) to examine trends between N{sub H} {sub i}, metallicity, and dust depletion. A larger fraction of the super-DLAs lie close to or above the line [X/H] = 20.59 − log N{sub H} {sub i} in the metallicity versus N{sub H} {sub i} plot, compared to the less gas-rich DLAs, suggesting that super-DLAs are more likely to be rich in molecules. Unfortunately, our data for Q0230−0334 and Q0743+1421 do not cover H{sub 2} absorption lines. For Q1418+0718, some H{sub 2} lines are covered, but not detected. CO is not detected in any of our absorbers. For DLAs with log N{sub H} {sub i} < 21.7, we confirm strong correlation between metallicity and Fe depletion, and find a correlation between metallicity and Si depletion. For super-DLAs, these correlations are weaker or absent. The absorbers toward Q0230−0334 and Q1418+0718 show potential detections of weak Lyα emission, implying star formation rates of ∼1.6 and ∼0.7 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}, respectively (ignoring dust extinction). Upper limits on the electron densities from C ii*/C ii or Si ii*/Si ii are low, but are higher than the median values in less gas-rich DLAs. Finally, systems with log N{sub H} {sub i} > 21.7 may have somewhat narrower velocity dispersions Δv{sub 90} than the less gas-rich DLAs, and may arise in cooler and/or less turbulent gas.

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: MACT survey. I. Opt. spectroscopy in Subaru Deep Field (Ly+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, C.; Malhotra, S.; Malkan, M. A.; Rigby, J. R.; Kashikawa, N.; de Los Reyes, M. A.; Rhoads, J. E.

    2016-10-01

    The primary results of this paper are based on optical spectroscopy conducted with Keck's Deep Imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph (DEIMOS) and MMT's Hectospec. In total, we obtain 3243 optical spectra for 1911 narrowband/intermediate-band excess emitters (roughly 20% of our narrowband/intermediate-band excess samples), and successfully detect emission lines to determine redshift for 1493 galaxies or 78% of the targeted sample. The MMT observations were conducted on 2008 March 13, 2008 April 10-11, 2008 April 14, 2014 February 27-28, 2014 March 25, and 2014 March 28-31, and correspond to the equivalent of three full nights. The Keck observations were conducted on 2004 April 23-24, 2008 May 01-02, 2009 April 25-28, 2014 May 02, and 2015 March 17/19/26. The majority of the observations were obtained in 2014-2015. The 2004 spectroscopic observations have been discussed in Kashikawa et al. (2006, J/ApJ/648/7) and Ly07 (J/ApJ/657/738), and the 2008-2009 data have been discussed in Kashikawa et al. (2011ApJ...734..119K). See section 2.2 for further details. The Subaru Deep Field (SDF) has been imaged with: (1) GALEX in both the FUV and NUV bands; (2) KPNO's Mayall telescope using MOSAIC in U; (3) Subaru telescope with Suprime-Cam in 14 bands (BVRci'z'zbzr), and five narrowband and two intermediate-band filters); (4) KPNO's Mayall telescope using NEWFIRM in H; (5) UKIRT using WFCAM in J and K; and (6) Spitzer in the four IRAC bands (3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0um). Most of these imaging data have been discussed in Ly et al. (2011ApJ...735...91L), except for the WFCAM J-band data and most of the NEWFIRM H-band data. The more recent NEWFIRM imaging data were acquired on 2012 March 06-07 and 2013 March 27-30. The WFCAM data were obtained on 2005 April 14-15, 2010 March 15-20, and 2010 April 22-23. See section 4.4 for further details. (11 data files).

  5. Role of the beta1-integrin cytoplasmic tail in mediating invasin-promoted internalization of Yersinia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavsson, Anna; Armulik, Annika; Brakebusch, Cord

    2002-01-01

    Invasin of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis binds to beta1-integrins on host cells and triggers internalization of the bacterium. To elucidate the mechanism behind the beta1-integrin-mediated internalization of Yersinia, a beta1-integrin-deficient cell line, GD25, transfected with wild-type beta1A, beta......1B or different mutants of the beta1A subunit was used. Both beta1A and beta1B bound to invasin-expressing bacteria, but only beta1A was able to mediate internalization of the bacteria. The cytoplasmic region of beta1A, differing from beta1B, contains two NPXY motifs surrounding a double threonine...... site. Exchanging the tyrosines of the two NPXYs to phenylalanines did not inhibit the uptake, whereas a marked reduction was seen when the first tyrosine (Y783) was exchanged to alanine. A similar reduction was seen when the two nearby threonines (TT788-9) were exchanged with alanines. It was also...

  6. Novel accelerated corrosion test for LY12CZ and LC4CS aluminum alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Jian-ping; LIU Ming

    2006-01-01

    A new accelerated corrosion test-comprehensive environmental test (CET) was developed in order to estimate the outdoor corrosion of aluminum alloys in marine environment. The environmental characteristics in CET were studied by atmospheric corrosion monitor (ACM), and the morphology of corrosion product was observed by SEM. The correlation between the accelerated corrosion tests and outdoor exposure was discussed. The results show that the anti-corrosion ranking for LY12CZ, LC4CS, clad LY12CZ, and clad LC4CS in CET is the same as that of the alloys exposed outdoor, and ACM study shows that CET demonstrates the same environmental characteristics as that exposed outdoor. CET is a more accurate accelerated corrosion test, and a mathematical relation was obtained to describe the relation between CET and outdoor test.

  7. Cosmological constraints from the CMB and Ly-alpha forest revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Seljak, U; Makarov, A; Seljak, Uros; Donald, Patrick Mc; Makarov, Alexey

    2003-01-01

    The WMAP team has recently highlighted the usefulness of combining the Ly-alpha forest constraints with those from the cosmic microwave background. This combination is particularly powerful as a probe of the primordial shape of the power spectrum. Converting between the Ly-alpha forest observations and the linear mass power spectrum requires a careful treatment of nuisance parameters and modeling with cosmological simulations. We point out several errors and inconsistencies in the previous treatments that propagate into the estimations and associated errors of cosmological parameters, including those reported by the WMAP team. The two most important are the insufficient range of cosmological parameters explored in simulations used to date and an incorrect treatment of the mean transmitted flux constraints. We employ a likelihood calculator for the current data set based on an extensive 6-dimensional grid of simulations. We show that the current uncertainties in the mean transmission and the flux power spectru...

  8. Fatigue damage rule of LY12CZ aluminium alloy under sequential biaxial loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, YingYu; Zhang, DaChuan; Yao, WeiXing

    2014-01-01

    A series of biaxial two-level variable amplitude loading tests are conducted on smooth tubular specimens of LY12CZ aluminium alloy. The loading paths of 90° out-of-phase, 45° out-of-phase and 45° in-phase are utilized. The fatigue damage cumulative rules under two-level step loading of three loading paths are analyzed. By introducing a parameter α which is a function of the phase lag angle between the axial and the torsional loading, a new multiaxial nonlinear fatigue damage cumulative model is proposed. The proposed model is evaluated by the experimental data for two-level loading, multi-level loading of LY12CZ aluminium alloy, and multi-level loading of 45 steel. Fatigue lives predicted are within a factor of 2 scatter band.

  9. El Método Kodály en Colombia, Fase II

    OpenAIRE

    Zuleta, Alejandro; Profesor asociado de la Facultad de Artes, Departamento de Música, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá, Colombia

    2013-01-01

    Este artículo describe la segunda fase del proceso de recopilación y clasificación del proyecto de investigación El Método Kodály en Colombia, presenta sus resultados y analiza la influencia que su puesta en práctica ha tenido en la adaptación colombiana del Método Kodály. A partir de la observación documental de fuentes de audio -en su mayoría del Centro de Documentación Musical del Ministerio de Cultura-, vídeo, música impresa y tradición oral -obtenida a través de entrevistas y grabaciones...

  10. Betting Against Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    .S. equities, 20 international equity markets, Treasury bonds, corporate bonds, and futures; (2) A betting-against-beta (BAB) factor, which is long leveraged low beta assets and short high-beta assets, produces significant positive risk-adjusted returns; (3) When funding constraints tighten, the return...

  11. Statistical characteristics of observed Ly-$\\alpha$ forest and the shape of initial power spectrum

    OpenAIRE

    Demiański, M.; Doroshkevich, A.; Turchaninov, V.

    2002-01-01

    Properties of $\\sim$ 5000 observed Ly-$\\alpha$ absorbers are investigated using the model of formation and evolution of DM structure elements based on the Zel'dovich theory. This model is generally consistent with simulations of absorbers formation, accurately describes the Large Scale Structure observed in the galaxy distribution at small redshifts and emphasizes the generic similarity of the LSS and absorbers. The simple physical model of absorbers asserts that they are composed of DM and g...

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SDSS damped Ly{alpha} survey: DR1 (Prochaska+, 2004)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, J. X.; Herbert-Fort, S.

    2005-11-01

    We present the results from an automated search for damped Ly{alpha} (DLA) systems in the quasar spectra of Data Release 1 from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-DR1). At z~2.5, this homogeneous data set has greater statistical significance than the previous two decades of research. We derive a statistical sample of 71 DLA systems (>50 previously unpublished) at z>2.1 and measure HI column densities directly from the SDSS spectra. (1 data file).

  13. Rational design of a fibroblast growth factor 21-based clinical candidate, LY2405319.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei Kharitonenkov

    Full Text Available Fibroblast growth factor 21 is a novel hormonal regulator with the potential to treat a broad variety of metabolic abnormalities, such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, hepatic steatosis, and cardiovascular disease. Human recombinant wild type FGF21 (FGF21 has been shown to ameliorate metabolic disorders in rodents and non-human primates. However, development of FGF21 as a drug is challenging and requires re-engineering of its amino acid sequence to improve protein expression and formulation stability. Here we report the design and characterization of a novel FGF21 variant, LY2405319. To enable the development of a potential drug product with a once-daily dosing profile, in a preserved, multi-use formulation, an additional disulfide bond was introduced in FGF21 through Leu118Cys and Ala134Cys mutations. FGF21 was further optimized by deleting the four N-terminal amino acids, His-Pro-Ile-Pro (HPIP, which was subject to proteolytic cleavage. In addition, to eliminate an O-linked glycosylation site in yeast a Ser167Ala mutation was introduced, thus allowing large-scale, homogenous protein production in Pichia pastoris. Altogether re-engineering of FGF21 led to significant improvements in its biopharmaceutical properties. The impact of these changes was assessed in a panel of in vitro and in vivo assays, which confirmed that biological properties of LY2405319 were essentially identical to FGF21. Specifically, subcutaneous administration of LY2405319 in ob/ob and diet-induced obese (DIO mice over 7-14 days resulted in a 25-50% lowering of plasma glucose coupled with a 10-30% reduction in body weight. Thus, LY2405319 exhibited all the biopharmaceutical and biological properties required for initiation of a clinical program designed to test the hypothesis that administration of exogenous FGF21 would result in effects on disease-related metabolic parameters in humans.

  14. Limits on the luminosity function of Ly-alpha emitters at z = 7.7

    CERN Document Server

    Hibon, P; Willis, J; Clément, B; Lidman, C; Arnouts, S; Kneib, J -P; Willott, C J; Marmo, C; McCracken, H

    2009-01-01

    The Ly-alpha luminosity function (LF) of high-redshift Ly-alpha emitters (LAEs) is one of the few observables of the re-ionization epoch accessible to date with 8-10 m class telescopes. The evolution with redshift allows one to constrain the evolution of LAEs and their role in re-ionizing the Universe at the end of the Dark Ages. We have performed a narrow-band imaging program at 1.06 microns at the CFHT, targeting Ly-alpha emitters at redshift z ~ 7.7 in the CFHT-LS D1 field. From these observations we have derived a photometric sample of 7 LAE candidates at z ~ 7.7. We derive luminosity functions for the full sample of seven objects and for sub-samples of four objects. If the brightest objects in our sample are real, we infer a luminosity function which would be difficult to reconcile with previous work at lower redshift. More definitive conclusions will require spectroscopic confirmation.

  15. Probing high-redshift galaxies with Ly$\\alpha$ intensity mapping

    CERN Document Server

    Comaschi, P

    2015-01-01

    We present a study of the cosmological Ly$\\alpha$ emission signal at $z > 4$. Our goal is to predict the power spectrum of the spatial fluctuations that could be observed by an intensity mapping survey. The model uses the latest data from the HST legacy fields and the abundance matching technique to associate UV emission and dust properties with the halos, computing the emission from the interstellar medium (ISM) of galaxies and the intergalactic medium (IGM), including the effects of reionization, self-consistently. The Ly$\\alpha$ intensity from the diffuse IGM emission is 1.3 (2.0) times more intense than the ISM emission at $z = 4(7)$; both components are fair tracers of the star-forming galaxy distribution. However the power spectrum is dominated by ISM emission on small scales ($k > 0.01 h{\\rm Mpc}^{-1}$) with shot noise being significant only above $k = 1 h{\\rm Mpc}^{-1}$. At very lange scales ($k < 0.01h{\\rm Mpc}^{-1}$) diffuse IGM emission becomes important. The comoving Ly$\\alpha$ luminosity densi...

  16. Effect of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) receptor I kinase inhibitor on prostate cancer bone growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xinhai; Li, Zhi-Gang; Yingling, Jonathan M.; Yang, Jun; Starbuck, Michael W.; Ravoori, Murali K.; Kundra, Vikas; Vazquez, Elba; Navone, Nora M.

    2012-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of prostate cancer (PCa) bone metastasis. In this study, we tested the antitumor efficacy of a selective TGF-β receptor I kinase inhibitor, LY2109761, in preclinical models. The effect of LY2109761 on the growth of MDA PCa 2b and PC-3 human PCa cells and primary mouse osteoblasts (PMOs) was assessed in vitro by measuring radiolabeled thymidine incorporation into DNA. In vivo, the right femurs of male SCID mice were injected with PCa cells. We monitored the tumor burden in control- and LY2109761-treated mice with MRI analysis and the PCa-induced bone response with x-ray and micro-CT analyses. Histologic changes in bone were studied by performing bone histomorphometric evaluations. PCa cells and PMOs expressed TGF-β receptor I. TGF-β1 induced pathway activation (as assessed by induced expression of p-Smad2) and inhibited cell growth in PC-3 cells and PMOs but not in MDA PCa 2b cells. LY2109761 had no effect on PCa cells but induced PMO proliferation in vitro. As expected, LY2109761 reversed the TGF-β1–induced pathway activation and growth inhibition in PC-3 cells and PMOs. In vivo, LY2109761 treatment for 6 weeks resulted in increased volume in normal bone and increased osteoblast and osteoclast parameters. In addition, LY2109761 treatment significantly inhibited the growth of MDA PCa 2b and PC-3 in the bone of SCID mice (p bone loss and change in osteoclast-associated parameters in the PC-3 tumor–bearing bones than in the untreated mice. In summary, we report for the first time that targeting TGF-β receptors with LY2109761 can control PCa bone growth while increasing the mass of normal bone. This increased bone mass in nontumorous bone may be a desirable side effect of LY2109761 treatment for men with osteopenia or osteoporosis secondary to androgen-ablation therapy, reinforcing the benefit of effectively controlling PCa growth in bone. Thus, targeting TGF-β receptor I is a

  17. Low redshift Lyman alpha absorption lines and the dark matter halos of disk galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Philip

    1993-01-01

    Recent observations using the Hubble Space Telescope of the z = 0.156 QSO 3C 273 have discovered a surprisingly large number of Ly-alpha absorption lines. In particular, Morris et al. found 9 certain and 7 possible Ly-alpha lines with equivalent widths above 25 mA. This is much larger (by a factor of 5-10) than the number expected from extrapolation of the high-redshift behavior of the Ly-alpha forest. Within the context of pressure-confined models for the Ly-alpha clouds, this behavior can be understood if the ionizing background declines sharply between z is approximately 2 and z is approximately 0. However, this requires that the ionizing photon flux drop as rapidly as the QSO volume emissivity; moreover, the absorbers must have a space density n(sub O) is approximately 2.6(N/10)h/((D/100 kpc)(sup 2)) Mpc(sup -3) where D is the present-day diameter of the absorbers. It is somewhat surprising that such necessarily fragile objects could have survived in such numbers to the present day. It is shown that it is plausible that the atomic hydrogen extents of spiral and irregular galaxies are large enough to produce the observed number of Ly-alpha absorption lines toward 3C 273, and that the neutral column densities and doppler b-values expected under these conditions fall in the range found by Morris et al. (1991).

  18. Reinvestigation of the beta-decay of {sup 110}Mo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.C.; Dendooven, P.; Hankonen, S.; Huikari, J.; Jokinen, A.; Kolhinen, V.S.; Lhersonneau, G.; Nieminen, A.; Peraejaervi, K.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Aeystoe, J. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, FIN-40351, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    2004-01-01

    The beta-decay of the neutron-rich nucleus {sup 110}Mo, separated by the IGISOL on-line mass separator from other fission products, has been investigated by using beta-gamma and gamma-gamma coincidence techniques. The decay scheme of {sup 110}Mo has been revised, including 3 new excited states and 7 new {gamma} transitions in {sup 110}Tc. The {beta}-feedings were measured and log ft values and B(GT) values were deduced based on a Q{sub {beta}}-value from systematics. Three excited 1{sup +} states in {sup 110}Tc fed by spin-flip allowed-unhindered beta transitions were identified. The deduced beta-decay strengths are compared with the Gamow-Teller strength distribution obtained from a macroscopic-microscopic calculation. The role of the asymptotic quantum numbers in the context of the allowed beta-decay is discussed. (orig.)

  19. LyGDI, a novel SHIP-interacting protein, is a negative regulator of FcγR-mediated phagocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Payal; Wavreille, Anne-Sophie; Justiniano, Steven E; Marsh, Rachel L; Yu, Jianhua; Burry, Richard W; Jarjoura, David; Eubank, Timothy; Caligiuri, Michael A; Butchar, Jonathan P; Tridandapani, Susheela

    2011-01-01

    SHIP and SHIP-2 are inositol phosphatases that regulate FcγR-mediated phagocytosis through catalytic as well as non-catalytic mechanisms. In this study we have used two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE) analysis to identify downstream signaling proteins that uniquely associate with SHIP or SHIP-2 upon FcγR clustering in human monocytes. We identified LyGDI as a binding partner of SHIP, associating inducibly with the SHIP/Grb2/Shc complex. Immunodepletion and competition experiments with recombinant SHIP domains revealed that Grb2 and the proline-rich domain of SHIP were necessary for SHIP-LyGDI association. Functional studies in primary human monocytes showed that LyGDI sequesters Rac in the cytosol, preventing it from localizing to the membrane. Consistent with this, suppression of LyGDI expression resulted in significantly enhanced FcγR-mediated phagocytosis.

  20. LyGDI, a novel SHIP-interacting protein, is a negative regulator of FcγR-mediated phagocytosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payal Mehta

    Full Text Available SHIP and SHIP-2 are inositol phosphatases that regulate FcγR-mediated phagocytosis through catalytic as well as non-catalytic mechanisms. In this study we have used two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE analysis to identify downstream signaling proteins that uniquely associate with SHIP or SHIP-2 upon FcγR clustering in human monocytes. We identified LyGDI as a binding partner of SHIP, associating inducibly with the SHIP/Grb2/Shc complex. Immunodepletion and competition experiments with recombinant SHIP domains revealed that Grb2 and the proline-rich domain of SHIP were necessary for SHIP-LyGDI association. Functional studies in primary human monocytes showed that LyGDI sequesters Rac in the cytosol, preventing it from localizing to the membrane. Consistent with this, suppression of LyGDI expression resulted in significantly enhanced FcγR-mediated phagocytosis.

  1. Ly6Chi Monocytes Provide a Link between Antibiotic-Induced Changes in Gut Microbiota and Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Möhle

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics, though remarkably useful, can also cause certain adverse effects. We detected that treatment of adult mice with antibiotics decreases hippocampal neurogenesis and memory retention. Reconstitution with normal gut flora (SPF did not completely reverse the deficits in neurogenesis unless the mice also had access to a running wheel or received probiotics. In parallel to an increase in neurogenesis and memory retention, both SPF-reconstituted mice that ran and mice supplemented with probiotics exhibited higher numbers of Ly6Chi monocytes in the brain than antibiotic-treated mice. Elimination of Ly6Chi monocytes by antibody depletion or the use of knockout mice resulted in decreased neurogenesis, whereas adoptive transfer of Ly6Chi monocytes rescued neurogenesis after antibiotic treatment. We propose that the rescue of neurogenesis and behavior deficits in antibiotic-treated mice by exercise and probiotics is partially mediated by Ly6Chi monocytes.

  2. Forward-Looking Betas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Jacobs, Kris; Vainberg, Gregory

    Few issues are more important for finance practice than the computation of market betas. Existing approaches compute market betas using historical data. While these approaches differ in terms of statistical sophistication and the modeling of the time-variation in the betas, they are all backward......-looking. This paper introduces a radically different approach to estimating market betas. Using the tools in Bakshi and Madan (2000) and Bakshi, Kapadia and Madan (2003) we employ the information embedded in the prices of individual stock options and index options to compute our forward-looking market beta...

  3. [Beta 3 adrenergic receptor polymorphism and obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, T; Umekawa, T

    1998-07-01

    The beta 3-adrenoceptor plays a significant role in the control of lipolysis and thermogenesis in the brown adipose tissue of rodents and humans. In human beta 3-adrenoceptor, a Trp to Arg replacement has recently been discovered. This change which occurs at position 64, in the first coding exon, has been correlated with increased weight gain, difficulty in losing weight, insulin resistance syndrome, and worsened diabetic situation. Higher percentages of this mutation are observed in Pima Indians (over 30%) and Japanese (20%). The possible functional mechanism of Trp54Arg is reported using human HEK293 cell line stably expressing the wild type and the [Arg64] beta 3-adrenoceptor type. Beta 3-adrenoceptor agonists available for humans are been also developing. In this paper we describe these points up-to-date.

  4. Ly6Chi Monocytes and Their Macrophage Descendants Regulate Neutrophil Function and Clearance in Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graubardt, Nadine; Vugman, Milena; Mouhadeb, Odelia; Caliari, Gabriele; Pasmanik-Chor, Metsada; Reuveni, Debby; Zigmond, Ehud; Brazowski, Eli; David, Eyal; Chappell-Maor, Lousie; Jung, Steffen; Varol, Chen

    2017-01-01

    Monocyte-derived macrophages (MoMF) play a pivotal role in the resolution of acetaminophen-induced liver injury (AILI). Timely termination of neutrophil activity and their clearance are essential for liver regeneration following injury. Here, we show that infiltrating Ly6Chi monocytes, their macrophage descendants, and neutrophils spatially and temporally overlap in the centrilobular necrotic areas during the necroinflammatory and resolution phases of AILI. At the necroinflammatory phase, inducible ablation of circulating Ly6Chi monocytes resulted in reduced numbers and fractions of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-producing neutrophils. In alignment with this, neutrophils sorted from monocyte-deficient livers exhibited reduced expression of NADPH oxidase 2. Moreover, human CD14+ monocytes stimulated with lipopolysaccharide or hepatocyte apoptotic bodies directly induced ROS production by cocultured neutrophils. RNA-seq-based transcriptome profiling of neutrophils from Ly6Chi monocyte-deficient versus normal livers revealed 449 genes that were differentially expressed with at least twofold change (p ≤ 0.05). In the absence of Ly6Chi monocytes, neutrophils displayed gene expression alterations associated with decreased innate immune activity and increased cell survival. At the early resolution phase, Ly6Chi monocytes differentiated into ephemeral Ly6Clo MoMF and their absence resulted in significant accumulation of late apoptotic neutrophils. Further gene expression analysis revealed the induced expression of a specific repertoire of bridging molecules and receptors involved with apoptotic cell clearance during the transition from Ly6Chi monocytes to MoMF. Collectively, our findings establish a phase-dependent task division between liver-infiltrating Ly6Chi monocytes and their MoMF descendants with the former regulating innate immune functions and cell survival of neutrophils and the later neutrophil clearance. PMID:28620383

  5. Toxoplasma gondii profilin promotes recruitment of Ly6Chi CCR2+ inflammatory monocytes that can confer resistance to bacterial infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori M Neal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ly6C+ inflammatory monocytes are essential to host defense against Toxoplasma gondii, Listeria monocytogenes and other infections. During T. gondii infection impaired inflammatory monocyte emigration results in severe inflammation and failure to control parasite replication. However, the T. gondii factors that elicit these monocytes are unknown. Early studies from the Remington laboratory showed that mice with a chronic T. gondii infection survive lethal co-infections with unrelated pathogens, including L. monocytogenes, but a mechanistic analysis was not performed. Here we report that this enhanced survival against L. monocytogenes is due to early reduction of bacterial burdens and elicitation of Ly6C+ inflammatory monocytes. We demonstrate that a single TLR11/TLR12 ligand profilin (TgPRF was sufficient to reduce bacterial burdens similar to T. gondii chronic infection. Stimulation with TgPRF was also sufficient to enhance animal survival when administered either pre- or post-Listeria infection. The ability of TgPRF to reduce L. monocytogenes burdens was dependent on TLR11 and required IFN-γ but was not dependent on IL-12 signaling. TgPRF induced rapid production of MCP-1 and resulted in trafficking of Ly6Chi CCR2+ inflammatory monocytes and Ly6G+ neutrophils into the blood and spleen. Stimulation with TgPRF reduced L. monocytogenes burdens in mice depleted with the Ly6G specific MAb 1A8, but not in Ly6C/Ly6G specific RB6-8C5 depleted or CCR2-/- mice, indicating that only inflammatory monocytes are required for TgPRF-induced reduction in bacterial burdens. These results demonstrate that stimulation of TLR11 by TgPRF is a mechanism to promote the emigration of Ly6Chi CCR2+ monocytes, and that TgPRF recruited inflammatory monocytes can provide an immunological benefit against an unrelated pathogen.

  6. Probing natural killer cell education by Ly49 receptor expression analysis and computational modelling in single MHC class I mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Johansson

    Full Text Available Murine natural killer (NK cells express inhibitory Ly49 receptors for MHC class I molecules, which allows for "missing self" recognition of cells that downregulate MHC class I expression. During murine NK cell development, host MHC class I molecules impose an "educating impact" on the NK cell pool. As a result, mice with different MHC class I expression display different frequency distributions of Ly49 receptor combinations on NK cells. Two models have been put forward to explain this impact. The two-step selection model proposes a stochastic Ly49 receptor expression followed by selection for NK cells expressing appropriate receptor combinations. The sequential model, on the other hand, proposes that each NK cell sequentially expresses Ly49 receptors until an interaction of sufficient magnitude with self-class I MHC is reached for the NK cell to mature. With the aim to clarify which one of these models is most likely to reflect the actual biological process, we simulated the two educational schemes by mathematical modelling, and fitted the results to Ly49 expression patterns, which were analyzed in mice expressing single MHC class I molecules. Our results favour the two-step selection model over the sequential model. Furthermore, the MHC class I environment favoured maturation of NK cells expressing one or a few self receptors, suggesting a possible step of positive selection in NK cell education. Based on the predicted Ly49 binding preferences revealed by the model, we also propose, that Ly49 receptors are more promiscuous than previously thought in their interactions with MHC class I molecules, which was supported by functional studies of NK cell subsets expressing individual Ly49 receptors.

  7. Confirmation of a Steep Luminosity Function for Ly alpha Emitters at z 5.7: a Major Component of Reionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, Alan; Henry, Alaina L.; Martin, Crystal L.; Sawicki, Marcin; McCarthy, Patrick; Villaneuva, Edward

    2014-01-01

    We report the first direct and robust measurement of the faint-end slope of the Ly-alpha emitter (LAE) luminosity function at z = 5.7. Candidate LAEs from a low-spectral-resolution blind search with IMACS on Magellan- Baade were targeted at higher resolution to distinguish high redshift LAEs from foreground galaxies. All but 2 of our 42 single-emission-line systems are fainter than F = 2.0×10(exp-17) ergs s(exp-1) cm(exp-2), making these the faintest emission-lines observed for a z = 5.7 sample with known completeness, an essential property for determining the faint end slope of the LAE luminosity function. We find 13 LAEs as compared to 29 foreground galaxies, in very good agreement with the modeled foreground counts predicted in Dressler et al. (2011a) that had been used to estimate a faint-end slope of alpha = -2.0 for the LAE luminosity function. A 32% LAE fraction, LAE/(LAE+foreground) within the flux interval F = 2-20 × 10(exp-18) ergs s(exp-1) cm(exp-2) constrains the faint end slope of the luminosity function to -1.95 greater than alpha greater than -2.35 (1 delta). We show how this steep LF should provide, to the limit of our observations, more than 20% of the flux necessary to maintain ionization at z = 5.7, with a factor-of-ten extrapolation in flux reaching more than 55%. We suggest that this bodes well for a comparable contribution by similar, low-mass star forming galaxies at higher-redshift - within the reionization epoch at z greater than approximately 7, only 250 Myr earlier - and that such systems provide a substantial, if not dominant, contribution to the late-stage reionization of the IGM.

  8. Beyond Proxima b: Investigating the next nearest Potentially Habitable Exoplanets: Kapteyn b (13 LY) and Wolf 1061 c (14 LY) - Assessing their Suitabilty for Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinan, Edward F.; Engle, Scott G.

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of an Earth-size (~1.3 Me) planet, Proxima b, orbiting in the Habitable Zone (HZ) of the nearest star (d = 4.25 LY), has provided great impetus for the study of the potential habitability of other nearby HZ planets. Ribas et al. (2016, A&A in press) have shown, that in spite of the relatively high levels of magnetic-dynamo generated X-ray & UV radiation from its M5.5 V host star that the planet endures, there are pathways for the Proxima b to possess an atmosphere, water and climate conditions to be potentially habitable. At a distance of 13 LY, the old (11.5 Gyr) Pop II M1.5 star, Kapteyn Star, has been found to hosts two large earth mass planets, one of which - Kapteyn b (M= 4.8 Me; a = 0.17 AU) is located near the mid-HZ of host star (see Englada-Escude’ et al. 2014). Unlike Proxima b, the Kapteyn b planet receives significantly less high energy radiation from its host star due the star’s lower magnetic activity and the planet’s greater distance from its host star (see Guinan et al. 2016). Recently three large earth size planets have been found orbiting the nearby (14 LY) solar-age M3 V star - Wolf 1061 (Wright et al. 2016). One of these planets, Wolf 1061 c (M = 4.6 Me; a = 0.084 AU) is located in the star’s HZ. As in the case of Kapteyn b, Wolf 1061 appears to receive less high energy radiation than Proxima b. Here we provide preliminary assessments of the effects of the host star’s high energy X-ray and UV photo-ionization radiation on the atmospheres and water inventories of the hosted planets. We compare the suitability of these three nearest planets for potential habitability and suitability for life.This research is supported by grants from NSF (RUI) and NASA.

  9. Spectroscopy with {beta}2p and {beta}-{nu} recoil shifts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fynbo, H.O.U. E-mail: hans.fynbo@cern.ch; Axelsson, L.; Aeystoe, J.; Bergmann, U.C.; Borge, M.J.G.; Fraile, L.M.; Honkanen, A.; Hornshoej, P.; Jading, Y.; Jokinen, A.; Jonson, B.; Martel, I.; Mukha, I.; Nilsson, T.; Nyman, G.; Oinonen, M.; Riisager, K.; Siiskonen, T.; Smedberg, M.H.; Thaysen, J.; Tengblad, O.; Wenander, F

    2002-04-22

    The beta-delayed proton emission from the lightest Ar-isotopes has been measured with a high-granularity, large solid-angle Si-detector setup. Although designed for the detection of beta-delayed two-proton and three-proton events, the setup also permitted measurement of proton energy shifts due to the beta-neutrino recoil. We discuss how spectroscopic information can be extracted from such measurements, even at the drip line. For the case of {sup 31}Ar, the ground-state spin could be determined as 5/2.

  10. DISCOVERY OF MASSIVE, MOSTLY STAR FORMATION QUENCHED GALAXIES WITH EXTREMELY LARGE Lyα EQUIVALENT WIDTHS AT z ∼ 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taniguchi, Yoshiaki; Kajisawa, Masaru; Kobayashi, Masakazu A. R.; Nagao, Tohru; Shioya, Yasuhiro [Research Center for Space and Cosmic Evolution, Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Scoville, Nick Z.; Capak, Peter L. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MS 105-24, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Sanders, David B. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Koekemoer, Anton M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Toft, Sune [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Mariesvej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); McCracken, Henry J. [Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, UMR7095 CNRS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Le Fèvre, Olivier; Tasca, Lidia; Ilbert, Olivier [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille), UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Sheth, Kartik [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Renzini, Alvio [Dipartimento di Astronomia, Universita di Padova, vicolo dell’Osservatorio 2, I-35122 Padua (Italy); Lilly, Simon; Carollo, Marcella; Kovač, Katarina [Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Schinnerer, Eva, E-mail: tani@cosmos.phys.sci.ehime-u.ac.jp [MPI for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); and others

    2015-08-10

    We report a discovery of six massive galaxies with both extremely large Lyα equivalent widths (EWs) and evolved stellar populations at z ∼ 3. These MAssive Extremely STrong Lyα emitting Objects (MAESTLOs) have been discovered in our large-volume systematic survey for strong Lyα emitters (LAEs) with 12 optical intermediate-band data taken with Subaru/Suprime-Cam in the COSMOS field. Based on the spectral energy distribution fitting analysis for these LAEs, it is found that these MAESTLOs have (1) large rest-frame EWs of EW{sub 0} (Lyα) ∼ 100–300 Å, (2) M{sub ⋆} ∼ 10{sup 10.5}–10{sup 11.1} M{sub ⊙}, and (3) relatively low specific star formation rates of SFR/M{sub ⋆} ∼ 0.03–1 Gyr{sup −1}. Three of the six MAESTLOs have extended Lyα emission with a radius of several kiloparsecs, although they show very compact morphology in the HST/ACS images, which correspond to the rest-frame UV continuum. Since the MAESTLOs do not show any evidence for active galactic nuclei, the observed extended Lyα emission is likely to be caused by a star formation process including the superwind activity. We suggest that this new class of LAEs, MAESTLOs, provides a missing link from star-forming to passively evolving galaxies at the peak era of the cosmic star formation history.

  11. Pharmacokinetics of the Long‐Acting Basal Insulin LY2605541 in Subjects With Varying Degrees of Renal Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnebjerg, Helle; Choi, Siak Leng; Lam, Eric Chen Quin; Mace, Kenneth F.; Hodgson, Teri S.; Sinha, Vikram P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The pharmacokinetics of LY2605541 (basal insulin peglispro), a novel long‐acting basal insulin analogue, was evaluated in 5 groups of subjects with varying degrees of renal function based on creatinine clearance: normal renal function (>80 mL/min), mild renal impairment (51–80 mL/min), moderate renal impairment (30–50 mL/min), severe renal impairment (renal disease (ESRD) requiring hemodialysis. Serial blood samples for pharmacokinetic analyses were collected up to 12 days following a single 0.33 U/kg subcutaneous dose of LY2605541. The apparent clearance (CL/F) and half‐life across groups were not affected by renal function. Cmax values were lower in subjects with increasing severity of renal impairment; however, the small decrease in Cmax did not affect the overall exposure. Regression analysis showed that LY2605541 clearance is independent of renal function (slope = 0.000863; P = .885). The mean fraction of LY2605541 eliminated by a single hemodialysis session was 13% in subjects with ESRD. LY2605541 was generally well tolerated in healthy subjects and those with renal impairment following a single 0.33 U/kg subcutaneous dose. Given these data, no dose adjustment of LY2605541 based on pharmacokinetics is recommended in renal impairment or in patients undergoing hemodialysis. PMID:27163501

  12. beta1-integrin-mediated signaling essentially contributes to cell survival after radiation-induced genotoxic injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordes, N; Seidler, J; Durzok, R;

    2006-01-01

    Integrin-mediated adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins confers resistance to radiation- or drug-induced genotoxic injury. To analyse the underlying mechanisms specific for beta1-integrins, wild-type beta1A-integrin-expressing GD25beta1A cells were compared to GD25beta1B cells, which express ...... in tumor cells may promote the development of innovative molecular-targeted therapeutic antitumor strategies.......Integrin-mediated adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins confers resistance to radiation- or drug-induced genotoxic injury. To analyse the underlying mechanisms specific for beta1-integrins, wild-type beta1A-integrin-expressing GD25beta1A cells were compared to GD25beta1B cells, which express...... signaling-incompetent beta1B variants. Cells grown on fibronectin, collagen-III, beta1-integrin-IgG or poly-l-lysine were exposed to 0-6 Gy X-rays in presence or depletion of growth factors and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitors (LY294002, wortmannin). In order to test the relevance...

  13. Study on reaction kinetics of LY -9801 hydrogenation catalyst%LY-9801加氢催化剂动力学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳军; 张小工; 马红江

    2004-01-01

    LY-9801型裂解汽油烯烃加氢催化剂消除内外扩散进行了系统的反应动力学实验,考察了温度、压力、空速、氢油比及其催化剂装量对裂解汽油选择性加氢反应体系的影响,开展了裂解汽油中若干种二烯烃催化加氢反应的本征动力学研究,建立了本征动力学模型.

  14. Roasting process research of carrier for LY-8601 catalyst%LY-8601催化剂用载体工业焙烧工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许东义

    2003-01-01

    用16 m工业电热隧道窑,对裂解汽油一段加氢LY-8601催化剂用载体进行了焙烧实验.通过改变焙烧温度、停留时间及载体装填量等影响焙烧质量的因素,分析成品载体的比表面、吸水率、堆密度等,寻求该载体在工业窑炉的最佳焙烧条件.结果表明:焙烧温度在1060~1080 ℃,停留时间为6 h,载体装填量上匣钵2.4 kg 、下匣钵2.0 kg时,该载体焙烧效果良好.

  15. Korelace mezi délkou lyžařské tratě a rychlostí vrcholových slalomářů Correlation between the length of the ski track and the velocity of top slalom skiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaž Lešnik

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Teoreticky je nejlepší co nejkratší lyžařská dráha (lyžařská trať. V praxi je to však těžko proveditelné a kromě toho je to velmi riskantní. Může se proto stát pouze součástí taktiky těch nejlepších soutěžících. Pomocí kinematické analýzy byly stanoveny rozdíly mezi volbou lyžařské dráhy u jednotlivých soutěžících, a to na základě vzorku vrcholových soutěžících ve světovém poháru v Kranjske Gore. Snažili jsme se zjistit, zda soutěžící dosahovali na takové lyžařské dráze vyšší rychlosti, tedy zda dosahovali rychlejšího pohybu mezi slalomovými brankami a tudíž v konečném důsledku i lep ších časových výsledků. V první části našeho výzkumu bylo prokázáno, že žádný ze soutěžících neměl v prvních dvou po sobě následujících obratech extrémně krátkou lyžařskou dráhu. Bylo rovněž zjištěno, že soutěžící s nejkratšími lyžařskými drahami v prvním obratu měli zpravidla nejdelší lyžařské dráhy v obratu druhém a naopak. Na základě těchto zjištění bylo možno tvrdit, že za současných podmínek je mimořádně obtížné, a snad dokonce nemožné, lyžovat tak, aby lyžařský oblouk byl v několika po sobě následujících obratech velmi krátký. Druhá část našeho výzkumu se zaměřila na zjišťování korelace mezi trajektorií lyží a rychlostí lyžování. Výpočty korelací prokázaly statisticky významnou korelaci mezi průměrnou rychlostí lyžování a průměrnou vzdáleností délky lyžařské dráhy od osy y v celém měřeném úseku. Bylo zjištěno, že měřený prostor překonávali soutěžící s kratší, tedy přímější, lyžařskou dráhou rychleji. Theoretically, the shortest possible line of skiing (ski track is the best one. But in practice it is very difficult to carry this out and besides it is very risky. It can therefore be only a part of the tactics of the best competitors. With

  16. An Observational Pursuit for Population III Stars in a Ly_alpha Emitter at z=6.33 through HeII Emission

    CERN Document Server

    Nagao, T; Maiolino, R; Marconi, A; Taniguchi, Y; Aoki, K; Ajiki, M; Shioya, Y; Nagao, Tohru; Motohara, Kentaro; Maiolino, Roberto; Marconi, Alessandro; Taniguchi, Yoshiaki; Aoki, Kentaro; Ajiki, Masaru; Shioya, Yasuhiro

    2005-01-01

    We present a very deep near-infrared spectroscopic observation of a strong Ly_alpha emitter at z=6.33, SDF J132440.6+273607, which we used to search for HeII 1640. This emission line is expected if the target hosts a significant number of population III stars. Even after 42 ksec of integration with the Subaru/OHS spectrograph, no emission-line features are detected in the JH band, which confirms that SDF J132440.6+273607 is neither an active galactic nucleus nor a low-$z$ emission-line object. We obtained a 2sigma upper-limit of 9.06e-18 ergs/s/cm^2 on the HeII 1640 emission line flux, which corresponds to a luminosity of 4.11e42 ergs/s. This upper-limit on the HeII 1640 luminosity implies that the upper limit on population III star-formation rate is in the range 4.9--41.2 M_sun/yr if population III stars suffer no mass loss, and in the range 1.8--13.2 M_sun/yr if strong mass loss is present. The non-detection of HeII in SDF J132440.6+273607 at z=6.33 may thus disfavor weak feedback models for population III ...

  17. [Isolation, identification and oxidizing characterization of an iron-sulfur oxidizing bacterium LY01 from acid mine drainage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-jiao; Yang, Xin-ping; Wang, Shi-mei; Liang, Yin

    2013-05-01

    An acidophilic iron-sulfur oxidizing bacterium LY01 was isolated from acid mine drainage of coal in Guizhou Province, China. Strain LY01 was identified as Acidithiobacillusferrooxidans by morphological and physiological characteristics, and phylogenetic analysis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence. Strain LY01 was able to grow using ferrous ion (Fe2+), elemental sulfur (S0) and pyrite as sole energy source, respectively, but significant differences in oxidation efficiency and bacterial growth were observed when different energy source was used. When strain LY01 was cultured in 9K medium with 44.2 g x L(-1) FeSO4.7H2O as the substrate, the oxidation efficiency of Fe2+ was 100% in 30 h and the cell number of strain LY01 reached to 4.2 x 10(7) cell x mL(-1). When LY01 was cultured in 9K medium with 10 g x L(-1) S0 as the substrate, 6.7% S0 oxidation efficiency, 2001 mg x L(-1) SO4(2-) concentration and 8.9 x 10(7) cell x mL(-1) cell number were observed in 21 d respectively. When LY01 was cultured with 30 g x L(-1) pyrite as the substrate, the oxidation efficiency of pyrite, SO4(2-) concentration and cell number reached 10%, 4443 mg x L(-1) and 3.4 x 10(8) cell x mL(-1) respectively in 20 d. The effects of different heavy metals (Ni2+, Pb2+) on oxidation activity of strain LY01 cultured with pyrite were investigated. Results showed that the oxidation activity of strain LY01 was inhibited to a certain extent with the addition of Ni2+ at 10-100 mg x L(-1) to the medium, but the addition of 10-100 mg x L(-1) Pb2+ had no effect on LY01 activity.

  18. Polarity of response to transforming growth factor-beta1 in proximal tubular epithelial cells is regulated by beta-catenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mei; Lee, Chien-Hung; Luo, Dong Dong; Krupa, Aleksandra; Fraser, Donald; Phillips, Aled

    2007-09-28

    Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1)-mediated loss of proximal tubular epithelial cell-cell interaction is regulated in a polarized fashion. The aim of this study was to further explore the polarity of the TGF-beta1 response and to determine the significance of R-Smad-beta-catenin association previously demonstrated to accompany adherens junction disassembly. Smad3 signaling response to TGF-beta1 was assessed by activity of the Smad3-responsive reporter gene construct (SBE)(4)-Lux and by immunoblotting for phospho-Smad proteins. Similar results were obtained with both methods. Apical application of TGF-beta1 led to increased Smad3 signaling compared with basolateral stimulation. Association of Smad proteins with beta-catenin was greater following basolateral TGFbeta-1 stimulation, as was the expression of cytoplasmic Triton-soluble beta-catenin. Inhibition of beta-catenin expression by small interfering RNA augmented Smad3 signaling. Lithium chloride, a GSK-3 inhibitor, increased expression of beta-catenin and attenuated TGF-beta1-dependent Smad3 signaling. Lithium chloride did not influence degradation of Smad3 but resulted in decreased nuclear translocation. Smad2 activation as assessed by Western blot analysis and activity of the Smad2-responsive reporter constructs ARE/MF1 was also greater following apical as compared with basolateral TGFbeta-1 stimulation, suggesting that this is a generally applicable mechanism for the regulation of TGF-beta1-dependent R-Smads. Caco-2 cells are a colonic carcinoma cell line, with known resistance to the anti-proliferative effects of TGF-beta1 and increased expression of beta-catenin. We used this cell line to address the general applicability of our observations. Inhibition of beta-catenin in this cell line by small interfering RNA resulted in increased TGF-beta1-dependent Smad3 phosphorylation and restoration of TGF-beta1 anti-proliferative effects.

  19. Forward-Looking Betas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Jacobs, Kris; Vainberg, Gregory

    -looking. This paper introduces a radically different approach to estimating market betas. Using the tools in Bakshi and Madan (2000) and Bakshi, Kapadia and Madan (2003) we employ the information embedded in the prices of individual stock options and index options to compute our forward-looking market beta......Few issues are more important for finance practice than the computation of market betas. Existing approaches compute market betas using historical data. While these approaches differ in terms of statistical sophistication and the modeling of the time-variation in the betas, they are all backward...... at the daily frequency. This beta can be computed using option data for a single day, and is able to reflect sudden changes in the structure of the underlying company. Based on an empirical investigation of daily cross-sections of option contracts on thirty underlying companies, we conclude that these forward...

  20. Betting against Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    We present a model with leverage and margin constraints that vary across investors and time. We find evidence consistent with each of the model's five central predictions: (1) Because constrained investors bid up high-beta assets, high beta is associated with low alpha, as we find empirically for......, the return of the BAB factor is low. (4) Increased funding liquidity risk compresses betas toward one. (5) More constrained investors hold riskier assets....... for US equities, 20 international equity markets, Treasury bonds, corporate bonds, and futures. (2) A betting against beta (BAB) factor, which is long leveraged low-beta assets and short high-beta assets, produces significant positive risk-adjusted returns. (3) When funding constraints tighten...

  1. Betting Against Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    We present a model with leverage and margin constraints that vary across investors and time. We find evidence consistent with each of the model’s five central predictions: (1) Since constrained investors bid up high-beta assets, high beta is associated with low alpha, as we find empirically for U...... of the BAB factor is low; (4) Increased funding liquidity risk compresses betas toward one; (5) More constrained investors hold riskier assets........S. equities, 20 international equity markets, Treasury bonds, corporate bonds, and futures; (2) A betting-against-beta (BAB) factor, which is long leveraged low beta assets and short high-beta assets, produces significant positive risk-adjusted returns; (3) When funding constraints tighten, the return...

  2. Imperfect World of $\\beta\\beta$-decay Nuclear Data Sets

    CERN Document Server

    Pritychenko, B

    2015-01-01

    The precision of double-beta ($\\beta\\beta$) decay experimental half lives and their uncertainties is reanalyzed. The method of Benford's distributions has been applied to nuclear reaction, structure and decay data sets. First-digit distribution trend for $\\beta\\beta$-decay T$_{1/2}^{2\

  3. Lyα-emitting galaxies as a probe of reionization: large-scale bubble morphology and small-scale absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakiichi, Koki; Dijkstra, Mark; Ciardi, Benedetta; Graziani, Luca

    2016-12-01

    The visibility of Lyα-emitting galaxies during the Epoch of Reionization is controlled by both diffuse H I patches in large-scale bubble morphology and small-scale absorbers. To investigate their impacts on Lyα transfer, we apply a novel combination of analytic modelling and cosmological hydrodynamical, radiative transfer simulations to three reionization models: (i) the `bubble' model, where only diffuse H I outside ionized bubbles is present; (ii) the `web' model, where H I exists only in overdense self-shielded gas; and (iii) the hybrid `web-bubble' model. The three models can explain the observed Lyα luminosity function equally well, but with very different H I fractions. This confirms a degeneracy between the ionization topology of the intergalactic medium (IGM) and the H I fraction inferred from Lyα surveys. We highlight the importance of the clustering of small-scale absorbers around galaxies. A combined analysis of the Lyα luminosity function and the Lyα fraction can break this degeneracy and provide constraints on the reionization history and its topology. Constraints can be improved by analysing the full MUV-dependent redshift evolution of the Lyα fraction of Lyman break galaxies. We find that the IGM-transmission probability distribution function is unimodal for bubble models and bimodal in web models. Comparing our models to observations, we infer that the neutral fraction at z ˜ 7 is likely to be of the order of tens of per cent when interpreted with bubble or web-bubble models, with a conservative lower limit ˜1 per cent when interpreted with web models.

  4. TNF-alpha-dependent regulation of acute pancreatitis severity by Ly-6C(hi) monocytes in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perides, George; Weiss, Eric R; Michael, Emily S; Laukkarinen, Johanna M; Duffield, Jeremy S; Steer, Michael L

    2011-04-15

    The roles of monocytes/macrophages and their mechanisms of action in the regulation of pancreatitis are poorly understood. To address these issues, we have employed genetically altered mouse strains that either express the human diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) coupled to the CD11b promoter or have global deletion of TNF-α. Targeted, conditional depletion of monocytes/macrophages was achieved by administration of diphtheria toxin (DT) to CD11b-DTR mice. We show that in the absence of DT administration, pancreatitis is associated with an increase in pancreatic content of Ly-6C(hi) monocytes/macrophages but that this response is prevented by prior administration of DT to CD11b-DTR mice. DT administration also reduces pancreatic edema and acinar cell injury/necrosis in two dissimilar experimental models of acute pancreatitis (a secretagogue-induced model and a model elicited by retrograde pancreatic duct infusion of sodium taurocholate). In the secretagogue-elicited model, the DT-induced decrease in pancreatitis severity is reversed by adoptive transfer of purified Ly-6C(hi) monocytes harvested from non-DT-treated CD11b-DTR mice or by the transfer of purified Ly-6C(hi) monocytes harvested from TNF-α(+/+) donor mice, but it is not reversed by the transfer of Ly-6C(hi) monocytes harvested from TNF-α(-/-) donors. Our studies indicate that the Ly-6C(hi) monocyte subset regulates the severity of pancreatitis by promoting pancreatic edema and acinar cell injury/necrosis and that this phenomenon is dependent upon the expression of TNF-α by those cells. They suggest that therapies targeting Ly-6C(hi) monocytes and/or TNF-α expression by Ly-6C(hi) monocytes might prove beneficial in the prevention or treatment of acute pancreatitis.

  5. Lyα-Emitting Galaxies as a Probe of Reionization: Large-Scale Bubble Morphology and Small-Scale Absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakiichi, Koki; Dijkstra, Mark; Ciardi, Benedetta; Graziani, Luca

    2016-09-01

    The visibility of Lyα emitting galaxies during the Epoch of Reionization is controlled by both diffuse H I patches in large-scale bubble morphology and small-scale absorbers. To investigate their impacts on Lyα transfer, we apply a novel combination of analytic modelling and cosmological hydrodynamical, radiative transfer simulations to three reionization models: (i) the `bubble' model, where only diffuse H I outside ionized bubbles is present; (ii) the `web' model, where H I exists only in overdense self-shielded gas; and (iii) the hybrid `web-bubble' model. The three models can explain the observed Lyα luminosity function equally well, but with very different H I fractions. This confirms a degeneracy between the ionization topology of the intergalactic medium (IGM) and the H I fraction inferred from Lyα surveys. We highlight the importance of the clustering of small-scale absorbers around galaxies. A combined analysis of the Lyα luminosity function and the Lyα fraction can break this degeneracy and provide constraints on the reionization history and its topology. Constraints can be improved by analyzing the full MUV-dependent redshift evolution of the Lyα fraction of Lyman break galaxies. We find that the IGM-transmission probability distribution function is unimodal for bubble models and bimodal in web models. Comparing our models to observations, we infer that the neutral fraction at z ˜ 7 is likely to be of order of tens of per cent when interpreted with bubble or web-bubble models, with a conservative lower limit ˜1% when interpreted with web models.

  6. Accelerated evolution of the Lyα luminosity function at z ≳ 7 revealed by the Subaru ultra-deep survey for Lyα emitters at z = 7.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konno, Akira; Ouchi, Masami; Ono, Yoshiaki; Shibuya, Takatoshi; Naito, Yoshiaki; Momose, Rieko; Yuma, Suraphong [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa-no-ha, Kashiwa 277-8582 (Japan); Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Nakajima, Kimihiko [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Furusawa, Hisanori; Iye, Masanori, E-mail: konno@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2014-12-10

    We present the ultra-deep Subaru narrowband imaging survey for Lyα emitters (LAEs) at z = 7.3 in the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey (SXDS) and Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) fields (∼0.5 deg{sup 2}) with a total integration time of 106 hr. Exploiting our new sharp bandwidth filter, NB101, installed on the Suprime-Cam, we have reached L(Lyα) = 2.4 × 10{sup 42} erg s{sup –1} (5σ) for z = 7.3 LAEs, about four times deeper than previous Subaru z ≳ 7 studies, which allows us to reliably investigate the evolution of the Lyα luminosity function (LF) for the first time down to the luminosity limit same as those of Subaru z = 3.1-6.6 LAE samples. Surprisingly, we only find three and four LAEs in the SXDS and COSMOS fields, respectively, while one expects a total of ∼65 LAEs by our survey in the case of no Lyα LF evolution from z = 6.6 to 7.3. We identify a decrease of the Lyα LF from z = 6.6 to 7.3 at the >90% confidence level from our z = 7.3 Lyα LF with the best-fit Schechter parameters of L{sub Lyα}{sup ∗}=2.7{sub −1.2}{sup +8.0}×10{sup 42} erg s{sup −1} and ϕ{sup ∗}=3.7{sub −3.3}{sup +17.6}×10{sup −4} Mpc{sup −3} for a fixed α = –1.5. Moreover, the evolution of the Lyα LF is clearly accelerated at z > 6.6 beyond the measurement uncertainties including cosmic variance. Because no such accelerated evolution of the UV-continuum LF or the cosmic star formation rate (SFR) is found at z ∼ 7, but suggested only at z > 8, this accelerated Lyα LF evolution is explained by physical mechanisms different from a pure SFR decrease but related to the Lyα production and escape in the process of cosmic reionization. Because a simple accelerating increase of intergalactic medium neutral hydrogen absorbing Lyα cannot be reconciled with Thomson scattering of optical depth measurements from WMAP and Planck, our findings may support new physical pictures suggested by recent theoretical studies, such as the existence of HI clumpy clouds within

  7. A new method for welding aluminum alloy LY12CZ sheet with high strength

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    From the viewpoint of welding mechanics, a new welding technology-trailing peening was applied firstly to weld aluminum alloy LY12CZ sheet with high susceptibility to hot cracking. Trailing peening can exert a transverse extrusion strain on the metal in brittle temperature region (BTR) which can compensate for the tensioning strain during the cooling procedure post welding. So, welding hot cracking of LY12CZ sheet can be controlled effectively on the special jig for hot cracking experiment, and the phenomenon of hot cracking can't be found in specimens with large dimensions finally. At the same time, welding with trailing peening can decrease welding distortion caused by longitudinal and transverse shrinkage of weld obviously. Due to strengthening the poor position-weld toe during the process of welding, the residual stress distribution of welded joint is more reasonable. Contrast with conventional welding, mechanical properties such as tensile strength, prolongation ratio and cold-bending angle of welded joint with trailing peening can be improved obviously, and rupture position of welded joint transits from weld toe at conventional welding to weld metal at trailing peening. So, welding with trailing peening can be regarded as a dynamic welding method with low stress, little distortion and hot cracking-free really. As far as theoretical analysis is concerned, the technology of trailing peening can be used to weld the materials with high susceptibility to hot cracking such as LY12CZ and LD10, and solve the welding distortion of thin plate-shell welded structures which contain closed welds such as flange. In addition, the technology of trailing peening has many advantages: simple device, high efficiency, low cost and flexible application which make the welding method have widely applied foreground in the field of aeronautics and aerospace.

  8. METALLICITY EVOLUTION OF DAMPED Ly{alpha} SYSTEMS OUT TO z {approx} 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafelski, Marc [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Wolfe, Arthur M.; Neeleman, Marcel; Mendez, Alexander J. [Department of Physics and Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, UCSD, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Prochaska, J. Xavier [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, UCO/Lick Observatory, 1156 High Street, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2012-08-20

    We present chemical abundance measurements for 47 damped Ly{alpha} (DLA) systems, 30 at z > 4, observed with the Echellette Spectrograph and Imager and the High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer on the Keck telescopes. H I column densities of the DLAs are measured with Voigt profile fits to the Ly{alpha} profiles, and we find an increased number of false DLA identifications with Sloan Digital Sky Survey at z > 4 due to the increased density of the Ly{alpha} forest. Ionic column densities are determined using the apparent optical depth method, and we combine our new metallicity measurements with 195 from previous surveys to determine the evolution of the cosmic metallicity of neutral gas. We find the metallicity of DLAs decreases with increasing redshift, improving the significance of the trend and extending it to higher redshifts, with a linear fit of -0.22 {+-} 0.03 dex per unit redshift from z = 0.09-5.06. The metallicity 'floor' of Almost-Equal-To 1/600 solar continues out to z {approx} 5, despite our sensitivity for finding DLAs with much lower metallicities. However, this floor is not statistically different from a steep tail to the distribution. We also find that the intrinsic scatter of metallicity among DLAs of {approx}0.5 dex continues out to z {approx} 5. In addition, the metallicity distribution and the {alpha}/Fe ratios of z > 2 DLAs are consistent with being drawn from the same parent population with those of halo stars. It is therefore possible that the halo stars in the Milky Way formed out of gas that commonly exhibits DLA absorption at z > 2.

  9. Shear modulus of shock-compressed LY12 aluminium up to melting point

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Yu-Ying; Tan Hua; Hu Jian-Bo; Dai Cheng-Da

    2008-01-01

    Asymmetric plate impact experiments are conducted on LY12 aluminium alloy in a pressure range of 85-131 GPa.The longitudinal sound speeds are obtained from the time-resolved particle speed profiles of the specimen measured with Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR) technique,and they are shown to be good agreement with our previously reported data of this alloy in a pressure range of 20-70 CPa,and also with those of 2024 aluminium reported by McQueen.Using all of the longitudinal speeds and the corresponding bulk speeds calculated from the Gruneisen equation of state (EOS),shear moduli of LY12 aluminium alloy are obtained.A comparison of the shear moduli in the solid phase region with those estimated from the Steinberg model demonstrate that the latter are systematically lower than the measurements.By re-analysing the pressure effect on the shear modulus,a modified equation is proposed,in which the pressure term of P/η1/3 in the Steinberg model is replaced by a linear term.Good agreement between experiments and the modified equation is obtained,which implies that the shear modulus of LY12 aluminium varies linearly both with pressure and with temperature throughout the whole solid phase region.On the other hand,shear modulus of aluminium in a solid-liquid mixed phrase region decreases gradually and smoothly,a feature that is very different from the drastic dropping at the melting point under static conditions.

  10. Empowering line intensity mapping to study early galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Comaschi, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Line intensity mapping is a superb tool to study the collective radiation from early galaxies. However, the method is hampered by the presence of strong foregrounds, mostly produced by low-redshift interloping lines. We present here a general method to overcome this problem which is robust against foreground residual noise and based on the cross-correlation function $\\psi_{\\alpha L}(r)$ between diffuse line emission and Ly$\\alpha$ emitters (LAE). We compute the diffuse line (Ly$\\alpha$ is used as an example) emission from galaxies in a $(800{\\rm Mpc})^3$ box at $z = 5.7$ and $6.6$. We divide the box in slices and populate them with $14000(5500)$ LAEs at $z = 5.7(6.6)$, considering duty cycles from $10^{-3}$ to $1$. Both the LAE number density and slice volume are consistent with the expected outcome of the Subaru HSC survey. We add gaussian random noise with variance $\\sigma_{\\rm N}$ up to 100 times the variance of the Ly$\\alpha$ emission, $\\sigma_\\alpha$, to simulate foregrounds and compute $\\psi_{\\alpha L}(...

  11. IUE high resolution spectrophotometry of H Ly alpha emission from the local interstellar medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, J. T.; Bowyer, S.; Fahr, H. J.; Lay, G.

    1984-01-01

    IUE high dispersion spectra of resonantly scattered solar Ly alpha emission from H moving into the solar system with the local interstellar wind are reported which are based on observations conducted in April 1981 and April 1983. A heliocentric velocity of -29 + or - 5 km/s has been observed from the ISW component along with a surface brightness which has decreased from about 1000 to 800 Rayleighs over the two-year interval. A preliminary derivation of the velocity of the ISM at large distances from the sun yields a value of 25.6 + or - 5 km/s.

  12. Statistical characteristics of observed Ly-$\\alpha$ forest and the shape of linear power spectrum

    OpenAIRE

    Demianski, M.; Doroshkevich, A. G.; Turchaninov, V. I.

    2005-01-01

    Properties of $\\sim$ 6 000 Ly-$\\alpha$ absorbers observed in 19 high resolution spectra of QSOs are investigated using the model of formation and evolution of DM structure elements based on the Zel'dovich theory. This model asserts that absorbers are formed in the course of both linear and nonlinear adiabatic or shock compression of dark matter (DM) and gaseous matter. It allows us to link the column density and overdensity of DM and gaseous components with the observed column density of neut...

  13. Lyα Forest Tomography of the z > 2 Cosmic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Khee-Gan

    2016-10-01

    The hydrogen Lyα forest is an important probe of the z > 2 Universe that is otherwise challenging to observe with galaxy redshift surveys, but this technique has traditionally been limited to 1D studies in front of bright quasars. However, by pushing to faint magnitudes (g > 23) with 8-10m large telescopes it becomes possible to exploit the high area density of high-redshift star-forming galaxies to create 3D tomographic maps of large-scale structure in the foreground. I describe the first pilot observations using this technique, as well discuss future surveys and the resulting science possibilities for galaxy evolution and cosmology.

  14. Clinical and immunohistochemical performance of lyophilized platelet-rich fibrin (Ly-PRF) on tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianming; Qi, Xingying; Luo, Xiaoding; Li, Dan; Wang, Haorong; Li, Ting

    2017-06-01

    Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) has been widely used in oral implantology and other fields, but benefits of the fresh PRF (FPRF (fresh platelet-rich fibrin)) were consequently limited because of its short-term application. Thus, a protocol for the combination of PRF and lyophilization comes up in the present study to address the issue of PRF storage and delayed clinical application, which has little been reported in this field at home and abroad by now. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the applicability of lyophilized platelet-rich fibrin (Ly-PRF) used as the scaffold material for craniofacial tissue regeneration and to compare its biochemical properties with commonly used fresh PRF. Two volunteers with both genders were selected as the source of PRF and Ly-PRF samples. Macro- and micro-scopic appearance evaluation as well as immunohistochemical comparison were performed on PRF samples before and after freeze-drying at -196°C. The second experimental phase was to observe clinical performance when fresh and lyophilized PRF were applied in guided bone regeneration (GBR) operations in 39 patients losing teeth in the anterior maxillary region who required an oral implantation followed by labial bone grafting. The conventional histological and transmission electron microscopy images showed the microstructure of Ly-PRF, which resembled a mesh containing apparently irregularly shaped platelets with less alpha-granule than fresh PRF in micro and a translucent membrane with less elasticity than fresh PRF in macro. Simultaneous immunohistological staining results showed positive expression of PDGF-BB, IL-1, IL-4, TNF, TGF-β1 in both fresh and lyophilized PRF, while the expression of PDGF-BB, IL-1, TNF, TGF-β1 has no statistical difference between them (P > .05) but that of IL-4 in Ly-PRF is statistically higher than in fresh PRF (P  .05). This study strongly supports that lyophilization at -196°C does not largely influence the expression of bioactive

  15. BRIGHT Lights, BIG City: Massive Galaxies, Giant Ly-A Nebulae, and Proto-Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Breugel, W; Reuland, M; de Vries, W; Stanford, A; Dey, A; Kurk, J; Venemans, B; Rottgering, H; Miley, G; De Breuck, C; Dopita, M; Sutherland, R; Bland-Hawthorn, J

    2002-08-01

    High redshift radio galaxies are great cosmological tools for pinpointing the most massive objects in the early Universe: massive forming galaxies, active super-massive black holes and proto-clusters. They report on deep narrow-band imaging and spectroscopic observations of several z > 2 radio galaxy fields to investigate the nature of giant Ly-{alpha} nebulae centered on the galaxies and to search for over-dense regions around them. They discuss the possible implications for our understanding of the formation and evolution of massive galaxies and galaxy clusters.

  16. Butt weld of aluminum alloy plates 6063 and LY12 by laser beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jin'an; Cheng, Zhaogu; Xu, Guoliang; Li, Xianqin

    2000-02-01

    By means of a transverse flow 5 kW CO2 laser with low- order mode laser beam output, 1 - 4 mm thick aluminum alloy plates 6063 and LY12 were successfully butt welded. The result shows that the butt weldability and the weld quality of the aluminum alloy plates are mainly dependent on incident laser power density, laser beam defocused distance and shielding gas. The relationship between the weld quality of the aluminum alloy plates and the welding parameters is discussed. The macrostructure and microstructure of the welded seams are analyzed. The mechanical properties of the welded seams are discussed.

  17. Beta adrenergic receptors in human cavernous tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhabuwala, C.B.; Ramakrishna, C.V.; Anderson, G.F.

    1985-04-01

    Beta adrenergic receptor binding was performed with /sup 125/I iodocyanopindolol on human cavernous tissue membrane fractions from normal tissue and transsexual procedures obtained postoperatively, as well as from postmortem sources. Isotherm binding studies on normal fresh tissues indicated that the receptor density was 9.1 fmoles/mg. with a KD of 23 pM. Tissue stored at room temperature for 4 to 6 hours, then at 4C in saline solution for 19 to 20 hours before freezing showed no significant changes in receptor density or affinity, and provided evidence for the stability of postmortem tissue obtained within the same time period. Beta receptor density of 2 cavernous preparations from transsexual procedures was not significantly different from normal control tissues, and showed that high concentrations of estrogen received by these patients had no effect on beta adrenergic receptor density. Displacement of /sup 125/iodocyanopindolol by 5 beta adrenergic agents demonstrated that 1-propranolol had the greatest affinity followed by ICI 118,551, zinterol, metoprolol and practolol. When the results of these displacement studies were subjected to Scatfit, non- linear regression line analysis, a single binding site was described. Based on the relative potency of the selective beta adrenergic agents it appears that these receptors were of the beta 2 subtype.

  18. The CC chemokine CK beta-11/MIP-3 beta/ELC/Exodus 3 mediates tumor rejection of murine breast cancer cells through NK cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, S E; Chen, K; Foster, R G; Kim, C H; Hromas, R; Kaplan, M H; Broxmeyer, H E; Cornetta, K

    2000-04-15

    CK beta-11 chemoattracts T cells, B cells, dendritic cells, macrophage progenitors, and NK cells and facilitates dendritic cell and T cell interactions in secondary lymphoid tissues. We hypothesized that expression of CK beta-11 in tumor cells may generate antitumor immunity through these interactions. After transduction with the retroviral vector L(CK beta 11)SN, the murine breast cancer cell line C3L5 (C3L5-CK beta 11) showed expression of retroviral mRNA by Northern analysis and production of functional CK beta-11 by chemotaxis of human NK cells to C3L5-CK beta 11 supernatant. Only 10% of mice injected with C3L5-CK beta 11 developed tumors, compared with 100% of mice injected with a transduced control C3L5 line (C3L5-G1N). Importantly, the in vitro growth characteristics of the CK beta-11-transduced cell line were unaffected, suggesting the difference in growth in vivo was a result of chemokine production. Vaccination with C3L5-CK beta 11 partially protected animals from parental C3L5 challenge. Immunodepletion with anti-asialo-GM1 or anti-CD4 during C3L5-CK beta 11 vaccination significantly reduced CK beta-11 antitumor activity compared with control and anti-CD8-treated groups. Splenocytes from NK-depleted animals transferred the acquired immunity generated with C3L5-CK beta 11 vaccination, while splenocytes from the CD4-depleted animals did not. These results indicate, for the first time, that expression of CK beta-11 in a breast cancer cell line mediates rejection of the transduced tumor through a mechanism involving NK and CD4+ cells. Furthermore, CK beta-11-transduced tumor cells generate long-term antitumor immunity that requires CD4+ cells. These studies demonstrate the potential role of CK beta-11 as an adjuvant in stimulating antitumor responses.

  19. A glimpse at quasar host galaxy far-UV emission using damped Lyα's as natural coronagraphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Zheng; Fan, Xiaohui; Wang, Ran; McGreer, Ian, E-mail: caize@arizona.edu [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Noterdaeme, Pasquier; Finley, Hayley; Petitjean, Patrick [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, CNRS-UPMC, UMR7095, 98bis bd Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Carithers, Bill [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA (United States); Bian, Fuyan [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, Weston Creek, ACT, 2611 (Australia); Miralda-Escudé, Jordi [Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats, Barcelona (Spain); Pâris, Isabelle [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Zakamska, Nadia L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Ge, Jian [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Slosar, Anze [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2014-10-01

    In merger-driven models of massive galaxy evolution, the luminous quasar phase is expected to be accompanied by vigorous star formation in quasar host galaxies. In this paper, we use high column density damped Lyα (DLA) systems along quasar sight lines as natural coronagraphs to directly study the far-UV (FUV) radiation from the host galaxies of luminous background quasars. We have stacked the spectra of ∼2000 DLA systems (N {sub H} {sub I} > 10{sup 20.6} cm{sup –2}) with a median absorption redshift (z) = 2.6 selected from quasars observed in the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. We detect residual flux in the dark troughs of the composite DLA spectra. The level of this residual flux significantly exceeds systematic errors in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey fiber sky subtraction; furthermore, the residual flux is strongly correlated with the continuum luminosity of the background quasar, while uncorrelated with DLA column density or metallicity. We conclude that the flux could be associated with the average FUV radiation from the background quasar host galaxies (with medium redshift (z) = 3.1) that is not blocked by the intervening DLA. Assuming that all of the detected flux originates from quasar hosts, for the highest quasar luminosity bin ((L) = 2.5 × 10{sup 13} L {sub ☉}), the host galaxy has an FUV intensity of 1.5 ± 0.2 × 10{sup 40} erg s{sup –1} Å{sup –1}; this corresponds to an unobscured UV star formation rate of 9 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}.

  20. Beta1 integrin promotes but is not essential for metastasis of ras-myc transformed fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brakebusch, C; Wennerberg, K; Krell, H W

    1999-01-01

    , tumors induced by the high expressing clones 1A10 and 2F2 were markedly smaller, suggesting an inverse correlation of tumor growth and beta1 integrin expression. The metastasis potential of all three beta1 integrin-expressing GERM 11 sublines tested was significantly higher than that of the beta1......To investigate the role of beta1 integrin during tumor metastasis, we established a ras-myc transformed fibroblastoid cell line with a disrupted beta1 integrin gene on both alleles (GERM 11). Stable transfection of this cell line with an expression vector encoding beta1A integrin resulted in beta1A...... integrin-expressing sublines. Tumors were induced by subcutaneous injection of GERM 11 cells and 3 independent beta1 integrin expressing sublines (GERM 116, 1A10, 2F2) into syngeneic mice. After 10 days tumors were surgically removed. While average weights of GERM 11 and GERM 116 tumors were similar...

  1. LY293111 Improves Efficacy of Gemcitabine Therapy on Pancreatic Cancer in a Fluorescent Orthotopic Model in Athymic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Hennig

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer has an abysmal prognosis because of late diagnosis and lack of effective therapeutics. New drugs are desperately needed. The present study determined the effect of the LTB4 receptor antagonist, LY293111, on tumor growth and metastases in a fluorescent orthotopic model of pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic cancer cells (S2-013 with stable expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein were implanted into the duodenal pancreatic lobe of athymic mice. Animals were allocated to four groups (eight mice per group: control (no treatment; LY293111; gemcitabine; and LY293111 + gemcitabine. Monitoring of the surgical procedure and follow-up examinations at 2, 3, and 4 weeks after implantation to monitor tumor growth and metastases were performed using a fluorescence microscope and the reversible skin-flap technique. A staging and scoring system was developed to evaluate tumor progression, based on the TNM classification. Control animals developed end-stage disease with invasive cancer, metastases, and cachexia. Tumor growth and incidence of metastases were significantly reduced in all treated mice. However, combined treatment with LY293111 and gemcitabine was most effective. LY293111 is a novel therapeutic agent for pancreatic cancer, which improves the efficacy of gemcitabine. It is well tolerated and can be administered orally and, therefore, provides a new hope for patients suffering from pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

  2. The Building the Bridge survey for z=3 Ly-alpha emitting galaxies II: Completion of the survey

    CERN Document Server

    Grove, L F; Ledoux, C; Limousin, M; Møller, P; Nilsson, K; Thomsen, B

    2009-01-01

    (Abridged). We aim at bridging the gap between absorption selected and emission selected galaxies at z~3 by probing the faint end of the luminosity function of star-forming galaxies at z~3. We have performed narrow-band imaging in three fields with intervening QSO absorbers (a damped Ly$\\alpha$ absorber and two Lyman-limit systems) using the VLT. We target Ly-alpha at redshifts 2.85, 3.15 and 3.20. We find a consistent surface density of about 10 Ly-alpha-emitters per square arcmin per unit redshift in all three fields down to our detection limit of about 3x10^41 ergs s^-1. The luminosity function is consistent with what has been found by other surveys at similar redshifts. About 85% of the sources are fainter than the canonical limit of R=25.5 for most Lyman-break galaxy surveys. In none of the three fields do we detect the emission counterparts of the QSO absorbers. In particular we do not detect the counterpart of the z=2.85 damped Ly-alpha absorber towards Q2138-4427. Narrow-band surveys for Ly-alpha emit...

  3. Ly9 (CD229) Cell-Surface Receptor is Crucial for the Development of Spontaneous Autoantibody Production to Nuclear Antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Salort, Jose; Cuenca, Marta; Terhorst, Cox; Engel, Pablo; Romero, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    The Signaling Lymphocyte Activation Molecule Family (SLAMF) genes, which encode cell-surface receptors that modulate innate and adaptive immune responses, lay within a genomic region of human and mouse chromosome 1 that confers a predisposition for the development of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Herein, we demonstrate that the SLAMF member Ly9 arises as a novel receptor contributing to the reinforcement of tolerance. Specifically, Ly9-deficient mice spontaneously developed features of systemic autoimmunity such as the production of anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA), -dsDNA, and -nucleosome autoantibodies, independently of genetic background [(B6.129) or (BALB/c.129)]. In aged (10- to 12-month-old) Ly9 (-/-) mice key cell subsets implicated in autoimmunity were expanded, e.g., T follicular helper (Tfh) as well as germinal center (GC) B cells. More importantly, in vitro functional experiments showed that Ly9 acts as an inhibitory receptor of IFN-γ producing CD4(+) T cells. Taken together, our findings reveal that the Ly9 receptor triggers cell intrinsic safeguarding mechanisms to prevent a breach of tolerance, emerging as a new non-redundant inhibitory cell-surface receptor capable of disabling autoantibody responses.

  4. Ly9 (CD229 cell surface receptor is crucial for the development of spontaneous autoantibody production to nuclear antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose ede Salort

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Signaling Lymphocyte Activation Molecule Family (SLAMF genes, which encode cell-surface receptors that modulate innate and adaptive immune responses, lay within a genomic region of human and mouse chromosome 1 that confers a predisposition for the development of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Herein, we demonstrate that the SLAMF member Ly9 arises as a novel receptor contributing to the reinforcement of tolerance. Specifically, Ly9-deficient mice spontaneously developed features of systemic autoimmunity such as the production of anti-ANA, -dsDNA and -nucleosome autoantibodies, independently of genetic background ([B6.129] or [BALB/c.129]. In aged [10-12 month old] Ly9-/- mice key cell subsets implicated in autoimmunity were expanded, e.g. T follicular helper (Tfh as well as germinal center (GC B cells. More importantly, in vitro functional experiments showed that Ly9 acts as an inhibitory receptor of IFN-g producing CD4+T cells. Taken together, our findings reveal that the Ly9 receptor triggers cell intrinsic safeguarding mechanisms to prevent a breach of tolerance, emerging as a new non-redundant inhibitory cell-surface receptor capable of disabling autoantibody responses.

  5. Chemical dampening of Ly6C(hi) monocytes in the periphery produces anti-depressant effects in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiao; Ma, Sijing; Kang, An; Wu, Mengqiu; Wang, Lin; Wang, Qiong; Wang, Guangji; Hao, Haiping

    2016-01-19

    The involvement of systemic immunity in depression pathogenesis promises a periphery-targeting paradigm in novel anti-depressant discovery. However, relatively little is known about druggable targets in the periphery for mental and behavioral control. Here we report that targeting Ly6C(hi) monocytes in blood can serve as a strategy for anti-depressant purpose. A natural compound, ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1), was firstly validated as a periphery-restricted chemical probe. Rg1 selectively suppressed Ly6C(hi) monocytes recruitment to the inflamed mice brain. The proinflammatory potential of Ly6C(hi) monocytes to activate astrocytes was abrogated by Rg1, which led to a blunted feedback release of CCL2 to recruit the peripheral monocytes. In vitro study demonstrated that Rg1 pretreatment on activated THP-1 monocytes retarded their ability to trigger CCL2 secretion from co-cultured U251 MG astrocytes. CCL2-triggered p38/MAPK and PI3K/Akt activation were involved in the action of Rg1. Importantly, in mice models, we found that dampening Ly6C(hi) monocytes at the periphery ameliorated depression-like behavior induced by neuroinflammation or chronic social defeat stress. Together, our work unravels that blood Ly6C(hi) monocytes may serve as the target to enable remote intervention on the depressed brain, and identifies Rg1 as a lead compound for designing drugs targeting peripheral CCL2 signals.

  6. Chronic treatment with LY341495 decreases 5-HT(2A) receptor binding and hallucinogenic effects of LSD in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, José L; Holloway, Terrell; Rayannavar, Vinayak; Sealfon, Stuart C; González-Maeso, Javier

    2013-03-01

    Hallucinogenic drugs, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), mescaline and psilocybin, alter perception and cognitive processes. All hallucinogenic drugs have in common a high affinity for the serotonin 5-HT(2A) receptor. Metabotropic glutamate 2/3 (mGlu2/3) receptor ligands show efficacy in modulating the cellular and behavioral responses induced by hallucinogenic drugs. Here, we explored the effect of chronic treatment with the mGlu2/3 receptor antagonist 2S-2-amino-2-(1S,2S-2-carboxycyclopropan-1-yl)-3-(xanth-9-yl)-propionic acid (LY341495) on the hallucinogenic-like effects induced by LSD (0.24mg/kg). Mice were chronically (21 days) treated with LY341495 (1.5mg/kg), or vehicle, and experiments were carried out one day after the last injection. Chronic treatment with LY341495 down-regulated [(3)H]ketanserin binding in somatosensory cortex of wild-type, but not mGlu2 knockout (KO), mice. Head-twitch behavior, and expression of c-fos, egr-1 and egr-2, which are responses induced by hallucinogenic 5-HT(2A) agonists, were found to be significantly decreased by chronic treatment with LY341495. These findings suggest that repeated blockade of the mGlu2 receptor by LY341495 results in reduced 5-HT(2A) receptor-dependent hallucinogenic effects of LSD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 胃癌组织中LY-6K基因的表达及临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张斌; 钟理; 周敬华; 李金伟; 刘兆明

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨淋巴细胞抗原6-复合体K(LY-6K)基因对胃癌的诊断价值。方法:采用半定量RT-PcR法检测25份胃癌组织及其癌旁组织中LY-6K基因表迭水平,并对实验数据进行统计学分析。结果胃癌及癌旁组织LY-6K基因表达率分别为100%(25/25)、72%(18/25),P〉0.05。采用灰度扫描半定量分析,LY-6KmRNA在胃癌组织及癌旁组织中的表达水平值分别为0.663±0.221、O.308±0.161,P〈0.01。经ROC曲线分析,取0.469作为LY6K基因表达水平的cutoff值,76%

  8. Chronic treatment with LY341495 decreases 5-HT2A receptor binding and hallucinogenic effects of LSD in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, José L.; Holloway, Terrell; Rayannavar, Vinayak; Sealfon, Stuart C.; González-Maeso, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Hallucinogenic drugs, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), mescaline and psilocybin, alter perception and cognitive processes. All hallucinogenic drugs have in common a high affinity for the serotonin 5-HT2A receptor. Metabotropic glutamate 2/3 (mGlu2/3) receptor ligands show efficacy in modulating the cellular and behavioral responses induced by hallucinogenic drugs. Here, we explored the effect of chronic treatment with the mGlu2/3 receptor antagonist 2S-2-amino-2-(1S,2S-2-carboxycyclopropan-1-yl)-3-(xanth-9-yl)-propionic acid (LY341495) on the hallucinogenic-like effects induced by LSD (0.24 mg/kg). Mice were chronically (21 days) treated with LY341495 (1.5 mg/kg), or vehicle, and experiments were carried out one day after the last injection. Chronic treatment with LY341495 down-regulated [3H]ketanserin binding in somatosensory cortex of wild-type, but not mGlu2 knockout (KO), mice. Head-twitch behavior, and expression of c-fos, egr-1 and egr-2, which are responses induced by hallucinogenic 5-HT2A agonists, were found to be significantly decreased by chronic treatment with LY341495. These findings suggest that repeated blockade of the mGlu2 receptor by LY341495 results in reduced 5-HT2A receptor-dependent hallucinogenic effects of LSD. PMID:23333599

  9. Negative Beta Encoder

    CERN Document Server

    Kohda, Tohru; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2008-01-01

    A new class of analog-digital (A/D), digital-analog (D/A) converters as an alternative to conventional ones, called $\\beta$-encoder, has been shown to have exponential accuracy in the bit rates while possessing self-correction property for fluctuations of amplifier factor $\\beta$ and quantizer threshold $\

  10. Double beta decay experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Barabash, A S

    2011-01-01

    The present status of double beta decay experiments is reviewed. The results of the most sensitive experiments are discussed. Proposals for future double beta decay experiments with a sensitivity to the $$ at the level of (0.01--0.1) eV are considered.

  11. Sorting out Downside Beta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.T. Post (Thierry); P. van Vliet (Pim); S.D. Lansdorp (Simon)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractDownside risk, when properly defined and estimated, helps to explain the cross-section of US stock returns. Sorting stocks by a proper estimate of downside market beta leads to a substantially larger cross-sectional spread in average returns than sorting on regular market beta. This

  12. Molecular hydrogen, deuterium and metal abundances in the damped Ly-alpha system at z = 3.025 toward QSO 0347-3819

    CERN Document Server

    Levshakov, S A; D'Odorico, S; Molaro, P

    2001-01-01

    We have detected in high resolution spectra of the quasar Q0347-3819 obtained with the UVES spectrograph at the VLT/Kueyen telescope over 80 absorption features in the Lyman and Werner H2 bands at the redshift of a damped Ly-alpha system at z = 3.025. At the same redshift, numerous absorption lines of atoms and low ions were identified. The z = 3.025 system spans over 80 km/s and exhibits a multicomponent velocity structure in the metal lines. The main component shows a total H2 column density of (3.4 +/- 0.4) 10^{14} cm^{-2} and a fractional molecular abundance f(H2) = (1.6 +/- 0.4) 10^{-6} derived from the H2 lines arising from J = 0 to 5 rotational levels of the ground electronic - vibrational state. In the second strong component we are able to set a stringent upper limit to f(H2) of 10^{-8} (3sigma). The population of the J levels can be represented by a single excitation temperature of 808 +/- 195 K. The ortho:para-H2 ratio equals 2.7 +/- 0.5. This ratio is comparable to that calculated from hot H2 form...

  13. Application of LY-9802 catalyst in reforming gasoline hydrogenation plant%LY-9802型催化剂在重整预加氢装置上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦南; 周明秋; 梁顺琴; 谢元

    2005-01-01

    介绍了LY-9802型催化剂首次应用于重整预加氢装置的工业运行情况.结果表明:LY-9802型催化剂具有较强的脱硫及脱氮性能,其脱硫性能与LY-9302型催化剂相当,脱氮性能则更强;该型催化剂尤其适用于较低的反应温度、反应压力及大空速等操作条件;运行情况良好,加氢精制油中硫、氮、氯等杂质质量分数均小于0.5×10-6.

  14. Reversal of novelty-induced hyperlocomotion and hippocampal c-Fos expression in GluA1 knockout male mice by the mGluR2/3 agonist LY354740.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procaccini, C; Maksimovic, M; Aitta-Aho, T; Korpi, E R; Linden, A-M

    2013-10-10

    Dysfunctional glutamatergic neurotransmission has been implicated in schizophrenia and mood disorders. As a putative model for these disorders, a mouse line lacking the GluA1 subunit (GluA1-KO) of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) glutamate receptor displays a robust novelty-induced hyperlocomotion associated with excessive neuronal activation in the hippocampus. Agonists of metabotropic glutamate 2/3 receptors (mGluR2/3) inhibit glutamate release in various brain regions and they have been shown to inhibit neuronal activation in the hippocampus. Here, we tested a hypothesis that novelty-induced hyperlocomotion in the GluA1-KO mice is mediated via excessive hippocampal neuronal activation by analyzing whether an mGluR2/3 agonist inhibits this phenotypic feature. GluA1-KO mice and littermate wildtype (WT) controls were administered with (1S,2S,5R,6S)-2-aminobicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (LY354740) (15 mg/kg, i.p.) 30 min before a 2-h exposure to novel arenas after which c-Fos immunopositive cells were analyzed in the hippocampus. LY354740 (15 mg/kg) decreased hyperactivity in male GluA1-KO mice, with only a minimal effect in WT controls. This was observed in two cohorts of animals, one naïve to handling and injections, another pre-handled and accustomed to injections. LY354740 (15 mg/kg) also reduced the excessive c-Fos expression in the dorsal hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cell layer in maleGluA1-KO mice, while not affecting c-Fos levels in WT mice. In female mice, no significant effect for LY354740 (15 mg/kg) on hyperactive behavior or hippocampal c-Fos was observed in either genotype or treatment cohort. A higher dose of LY354740 (30 mg/kg) alleviated hyperlocomotion of GluA1-KO males, but not that of GluA1-KO females. In conclusion, the excessive behavioral hyperactivity of GluA1-KO mice can be partly prevented by reducing neuronal excitability in the hippocampus with the mGluR2/3 agonist suggesting that the hippocampal

  15. Anxiolytic effects of a novel group II metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist (LY354740) in the fear-potentiated startle paradigm in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillon, Christian; Cordova, Jeremy; Levine, Louise R; Morgan, Charles A

    2003-08-01

    LY354740, a structural analogue of glutamate that shows specificity at the mGluR2/3 receptor, has anxiolytic effects in animal models. This study investigated the anxiolytic effects of LY354740 in humans using the fear-potentiated startle reflex methodology. Subjects were given either placebo (n=16), 20 mg LY354740 (n=15), or 200 mg LY354740 (n=13). The fear-potentiated startle tests examined startle potentiation to shock anticipation and to darkness. Consistent with previous results, startle was increased by threat of shock and by darkness. LY354740 did not affect baseline startle. Correspondingly, subjects did not report LY354740 to be sedative. LY354740 significantly reduced the increase in startle magnitude during shock anticipation, but not during darkness. Subjective reports of state anxiety and negative affectivity during the fear-potentiated startle tests were also reduced in a dose-dependent manner by LY354740. These results suggest that LY354740 has an anxiolytic profile in humans without being sedative.

  16. Reaction behavior between the oxide film of LY12 aluminum alloy and the flux

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛松柏; 董健; 吕晓春; 顾文华

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the brazing mechanism of LY12 aluminum alloy at middle range temperature was presented. The CsF-AlF3 non-corrosive flux was utilized to remove the complex oxide film on the surface of LY12 aluminum alloy. The results revealed that the oxide film was removed by the improved CsF-AlF3 flux accompanied with the occurrence of reaction as well as dissolution and the compounds CsF played an important role to remove the oxide film. Actually, the high activity of flux, say, the ability to remove the oxide film, was due to the presence of the compounds, such as NH4F,NH4AlF4 and composite molten salt. The production of HF was the key issue to accelerate the reaction and enhance to eliminate the oxide film by dissolution. It was found that the rare earth element La at small percentage was not enriched at the interface. Moreover, the rare earth fluoride enhanced the dissolution behavior.

  17. Residual Strength of Stiffened LY12CZ Aluminum Alloy Panels with Widespread Fatigue Damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhong; Ge Sen; Lu Guozhi; Chen Li; Ding Huiliang

    2008-01-01

    Experimental and analytical investigations on the residual strength of the stiffened LY12CZ aluminum alloy panels with widespread fatigue damage (WFD) are conducted. Nine stiffened LY12CZ aluminum alloy panels with three different types of damage are tested for residual strength. Each specimen is pre-cracked at rivet holes by saw cuts and subjected to a monotonically increasing tensile load until failure is occurred and the failure load is recorded. The stress intensity factors at the tips of the lead crack and the adjacent WFD cracks of the stiffened aluminum alloy panels are calculated by compounding approach and finite element method (FEM) respectively. The residual strength of the stiffened panels with WFD is evaluated by the engineering method with plastic zone linkup criterion and the FEM with apparent fracture toughness criterion respectively. The predicted residual strength agrees well with the experiment results. It indicates that in engineering practice these methods can be used for residual strength evaluation with the acceptable accuracy. It can be seen from this research that WFD can significantly reduce the residual strength and the critical crack length of the stiffened panels with WFD. The effect of WFD crack length on residual strength is also studied.

  18. A VIRUS-P Survey of Galaxy Clusters to Find Faint Lyα-emitting Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLinden, Emily; Finkelstein, S. L.; Siana, B. D.; Alavi, A.

    2014-01-01

    The VIRUS-P instrument on the 2.7m telescope at the McDonald Observatory was originally built as a prototype of the larger VIRUS instrument that will be used for HETDEX. We demonstrate that this multi-fiber, optical integral field unit spectrograph can be efficiently used to detect faint Lyα-emitting galaxies (LAEs) at intermediate redshift (z = 2-3) with the aid of gravitational lensing from galaxy clusters. The bulk z=2-3 LAEs to date have been discovered with narrowband imaging campaigns, which are highly efficient only at selecting L > L_star galaxies and only over a narrow redshift slice. By making use of gravitational lensing, however, we are able to observe intrinsically very faint galaxies that only appear to have brightnesses ≥ L_star. Gravitationally lensed faint LAEs, such as our sample from VIRUS-P, allow us to go fainter than existing narrowband surveys and therefore allow for better constraints at the faint end of the Lyα luminosity function at these intermediate redshifts.