WorldWideScience

Sample records for lx lm m-2

  1. CHARACTERIZATION OF THERMALLY DAMAGED LX-17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, P C

    2007-07-11

    Thermal damage was applied to LX-17 at 190 C for several hours. The damaged LX-17 samples, after cooled down to room temperature, were characterized for their material properties (density, porosity, permeability, moduli), safety, and performance. Weight losses upon thermal exposure were insignificant (< 0.1% wt.). The damaged LX-17 samples expanded, resulting in a bulk density reduction of 4.3%. Subsequent detonation measurements (cylinder tests) were conducted on the thermally-damaged LX-17 samples. The results showed that the fractions of damaged LX-17 reacted were slightly lower than those of pristine LX-17. The thermally damaged LX-17 had a detonation velocity of 7.315 mm/{micro}s, lower than that (7.638 mm/{micro}s) of pristine LX-17. Detonation energy density for the damaged LX-17 was 5.08 kJ/cm{sup 3}, about 9.0% lower than the detonation energy density of 5.50 kJ/cm{sup 3} for the pristine LX-17. The break-out curves showed reaction zone lengths for pristine LX-17 and damaged LX-17 were similar but the damaged samples had ragged detonation fronts.

  2. LM-3A Launch Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RenShufang

    2004-01-01

    The LM-3A launch vehicle is a large three-stage liquidpropellant launch vehicle developed on the basis ot LM-3 ana LM-2C. By incorporating the mature technologies of LM-3 and adding a more powerful improved LOX/LH cryogenic third stage and more capable control system, LM-3A has a

  3. LM-4B Launch Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RenShufang

    2004-01-01

    The history of LM-4B traces back to the end of the 1970s. The feasibility study of LM-4 began in 1982 and the engineering development was initiated in the following year.Initially, the LM-4 served as a back-up launch vehicle for LM-3 to launch China's communications satellites. After the successful launch of China's first communications satellites by LM-3 in 1984, the main mission of the LM-4 was shifted to launch sun-synchronous orbit meteorological satellites.

  4. Detonation Performance Testing of LX-19

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Samuel; Aslam, Tariq; Jackson, Scott

    2015-06-01

    CL-20 was developed at the Naval Surface Weapons Center at China Lake, CA in the mid 80's. Being less sensitive than PETN, but considerably more powerful than HMX, it is the highest energy and density compound known among organic chemicals. LX-19 was developed at LLNL in the early 90's. It is a high-energy plastic bonded explosive, composed of 95.8 wt% CL-20 and 4.2 wt% Estane binder, and is similar to LX-14 (composed of HMX and Estane), but with greater sensitivity characteristics with use of the more energetic CL-20 explosive. We report detonation performance results for unconfined cylindrical rate sticks of LX-19. The experimental diameter effects are shown, along with detonation front shapes, and reaction zone profiles for different test diameters. This data is critical for calibration to Detonation Shock Dynamics (DSD). LA-UR-15-20672.

  5. LM-3B Launch Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RenShufang

    2005-01-01

    LM-3B launch vehicle is a heavy three-stage liquid propellant strap-on launch vehicle, which was developed based on the mature technologies of the LM-3A and LM-2E. It not only has the highest payload capacity to send China's satellites to GTO, but is also one of the most advanced launch vehicles in the world with high reliability, reasonable price and perfect technological design.

  6. LX Cygni: A carbon star is born

    CERN Document Server

    Uttenthaler, S; Lebzelter, T; Aringer, B; Joyce, R R; Hinkle, K; Guzman-Ramirez, L; Greimel, R

    2016-01-01

    Context: The Mira variable LX Cyg showed a dramatic increase of its pulsation period in the recent decades and appears to undergo an important transition in its evolution. Aims: We aim at investigating the spectral type evolution of this star over the recent decades as well as during one pulsation cycle in more detail and discuss it in connection with the period evolution. Methods: We present optical, near- and mid-IR low-resolution as well as optical high-resolution spectra to determine the current spectral type. The optical spectrum of LX Cyg has been followed for more than one pulsation cycle. Recent spectra are compared to archival spectra to trace the spectral type evolution and a Spitzer mid-IR spectrum is analysed for the presence of molecular and dust features. Furthermore, the current period is derived from AAVSO data. Results: It is found that the spectral type of LX Cyg changed from S to C sometime between 1975 and 2008. Currently, the spectral type C is stable during a pulsation cycle. It is shown...

  7. The Physical Basis of the LX = Lbol Empirical Law for O-Star X-Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owocki, S. P.; Sundqvist, J. O.; Cohen, D. H.; Gayley, K. G.

    2012-12-01

    X-ray satellites since Einstein have empirically established that the X-ray luminosity from single O-stars scales linearly with bolometric luminosity, LX = 10-7 Lbol. But straightforward forms of the most favored model, in which X-rays arise from instability-generated shocks embedded in the stellar wind, predict a steeper scaling, either with mass-loss rate LX = M = Lbol1.7 if the shocks are radiative, or with LX = M2 = Lbol3.4 if they are adiabatic. We present here a generalized formalism that bridges these radiative vs. adiabatic limits in terms of the ratio of the shock cooling length to the local radius. Noting that the thin-shell instability of radiative shocks should lead to extensive mixing of hot and cool material, we then propose that the associated softening and weakening of the X-ray emission can be parameterized by the cooling length ratio raised to a power m, the “mixing exponent". For physically reasonable values m ≍ 0.4, this leads to an X-ray luminosity LX = M0.6 = Lbol that matches the empirical scaling. We conclude by noting that such thin-shell mixing may also be important for X-rays from colliding wind binaries, and that future numerical simulation studies will be needed to test this thin-shell mixing ansatz for X-ray emission.

  8. LM3551/LM3552-DC/DC转换器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    美国国家半导体推出两款固定频率、电流模式升压直流/直流转换器LM3551和LM3552。这两款转换器芯片采用小巧的14引脚LLP封装,内置2个N沟道场效应晶体管,可为内置相机功能的便携式电子产品提供准确的亮度控制功能,以准确控制闪光灯发光二极管的亮度。

  9. Air Gap Effects in LX-17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souers, P C; Ault, S; Avara, R; Bahl, K L; Boat, R; Cunningham, B; Gidding, D; Janzen, J; Kuklo, D; Lee, R; Lauderbach, L; Weingart, W C; Wu, B; Winer, K

    2005-09-26

    Three experiments done over twenty years on gaps in LX-17 are reported. For the detonation front moving parallel to the gaps, jets of gas products were seen coming from the gaps at velocities greater than the detonation velocity. A case can be made that the jet velocity increased with gap thickness but the data is scattered. For the detonation front moving transverse to the gap, time delays were seen. The delays roughly increase with gap width, going from 0-70 ns at 'zero gap' to around 300 ns at 0.5-1 mm gap. Larger gaps of up to 6 mm width almost certainly stopped the detonation, but this was not proved. Real-time resolution of the parallel jets and determination of the actual re-detonation or failure in the transverse case needs to be done in future experiments.

  10. In difesa del modello IS-LM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. PATINKIN

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The author offers a defence of the IS-LM diagram, first developed by Hicks and recently criticised by some as a misleading analytical device.  JEL Codes: E12Keywords: IS-LM, Hicks

  11. LX-17 and ufTATB Data for Corner-Turning, Failure and Detonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souers, P C; Lauderbach, L; Garza, R; Vitello, P; Hare, D E

    2010-02-03

    Data is presented for the size (diameter) effect for ambient and cold confined LX-17, unconfined ambient LX-17, and confined ambient ultrafine TATB. Ambient, cold and hot double cylinder corner-turning data for LX-17, PBX 9502 and ufTATB is presented. Transverse air gap crossing in ambient LX-17 is studied with time delays given for detonations that cross.

  12. The M2 Channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santner, Paul

    and inhibition mechanisms, drug design studies were recently able to achieve successes in finding new potent inhibitors, some of which are even able to inhibit resistant M2 variants. Effective and robust methods for measuring M2 activity on the other hand are still scarce and tactics to assess the genetic...... barrier of new inhibitors as well as resistance development non-existent. Therefore we developed a fluorescence sensor based assay that directly measures proton conduction (pHlux assay) and combined it with an already established directed evolution selection and screening system of M2 to identify possible...... resistance escape routes from drug inhibition. We thereby were hopefully able to provide a platform for the large-scale evaluation of M2 channel activity, inhibitors and resistance....

  13. LX-17 Deflagration at High Pressures and Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerner, J; Maienschein, J; Black, K; DeHaven, M; Wardell, J

    2006-10-23

    We measure the laminar deflagration rate of LX-17 (92.5 wt% TATB, 7.5 wt% Kel-F 800) at high pressure and temperature in a strand burner, thereby obtaining reaction rate data for prediction of thermal explosion violence. Simultaneous measurements of flame front time-of-arrival and temporal pressure history allow for the direct calculation of deflagration rate as a function of pressure. Additionally, deflagrating surface areas are calculated in order to provide quantitative insight into the dynamic surface structure during deflagration and its relationship to explosion violence. Deflagration rate data show that LX-17 burns in a smooth fashion at ambient temperature and is represented by the burn rate equation B = 0.2P{sup 0.9}. At 225 C, deflagration is more rapid and erratic. Dynamic deflagrating surface area calculations show that ambient temperature LX-17 deflagrating surface areas remain near unity over the pressure range studied.

  14. CompTIA Linux+ Complete Study Guide (Exams LX0-101 and LX0-102)

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Roderick W

    2010-01-01

    Prepare for CompTIA's Linux+ Exams. As the Linux server and desktop markets continue to grow, so does the need for qualified Linux administrators. CompTIA's Linux+ certification (Exams LX0-101 and LX0-102) includes the very latest enhancements to the popular open source operating system. This detailed guide not only covers all key exam topics—such as using Linux command-line tools, understanding the boot process and scripts, managing files and file systems, managing system security, and much more—it also builds your practical Linux skills with real-world examples. Inside, you'll find:. Full co

  15. CompTIA Linux+ study guide exam LX0-103 and exam LX0-104

    CERN Document Server

    Bresnahan, Christine

    2015-01-01

    CompTIA Authorized Linux+ prepCompTIA Linux+ Study Guide is your comprehensive study guide for the Linux+ Powered by LPI certification exams. With complete coverage of 100% of the objectives on both exam LX0-103 and exam LX0-104, this study guide provides clear, concise information on all aspects of Linux administration, with a focus on the latest version of the exam. You'll gain the insight of examples drawn from real-world scenarios, with detailed guidance and authoritative coverage of key topics, including GNU and Unix commands, system operation, system administration, system services, secu

  16. Learning LM Specificity for Ganglion Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahumada, Albert J.

    2015-01-01

    Unsupervised learning models have been proposed based on experience (Ahumada and Mulligan, 1990;Wachtler, Doi, Lee and Sejnowski, 2007) that allow the cortex to develop units with LM specific color opponent receptive fields like the blob cells reported by Hubel and Wiesel on the basis of visual experience. These models used ganglion cells with LM indiscriminate wiring as inputs to the learning mechanism, which was presumed to occur at the cortical level.

  17. ONE-DIMENSIONAL TIME TO EXPLOSION (THERMAL SENSITIVITY) TESTS ON PETN, PBX-9407, LX-10, AND LX-17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Peter C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Strout, Steve [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); McClelland, Matthew [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ellsworth, Fred Ellsworth [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-01-28

    Incidents caused by fire and combat operations can heat energetic materials that may lead to thermal explosion and result in structural damage and casualty. Some explosives may thermally explode at fairly low temperatures (< 100 C) and the violence from thermal explosion may cause a significant damage. Thus it is important to understand the response of energetic materials to thermal insults. The One Dimensional Time to Explosion (ODTX) system at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has been used for decades to measure times to thermal explosion, threshold thermal explosion temperature, and determine the kinetic parameters of thermal decomposition of energetic materials. Samples of different configurations (pressed part, powder, paste, and liquid) can be tested in the system. The ODTX testing can also provide useful data for assessing the thermal explosion violence of energetic materials. This report summarizes the results of our recent ODTX experiments on PETN powder, PBX-9407 pressed part, LX-10 pressed part, LX-17 pressed part and compares the test data that were obtained decades ago with the older version of ODTX system. Test results show the thermal sensitivity of various materials tested in the following order: PETN> PBX-9407 > LX-10 > LX-17.

  18. A possible giant planet orbiting the cataclysmic variable LX Ser

    CERN Document Server

    Li, K; Zhou, J -L; Wu, D -H; Guo, D -F; Jiang, Y -G; Gao, D -Y; Chen, X; Wang, X -Y

    2016-01-01

    LX Ser is a deeply eclipsing cataclysmic variable with an orbital period of $0.^d 1584325$. Sixty two new eclipse times were determined by our observations and the AAVSO International Data base. Combining all available eclipse times, we analyzed the O-C behavior of LX Ser. We found that the O-C diagram of LX Ser shows a sinusoidal oscillation with a period of 22.8 yr and an amplitude of 0.00035 days. Two mechanisms (i.e., the Applegate mechanism and the light travel time effect) are applied to explain the cyclic modulation. We found that the Applegate mechanism is difficult to explain the cyclic oscillation in the orbital period. Therefore, the cyclic period change is most likely to be caused by the light travel time effect due to the presence of a third body. The mass of the tertiary component was determined to be $M_3\\sim7.5 M_{Jup}$. We supposed that the tertiary companion is plausible a giant planet. The stability of the giant planet was checked, and we found that the multiple system is stable.

  19. A possible giant planet orbiting the cataclysmic variable LX Ser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Hu, Shaoming; Zhou, Jilin; Wu, Donghong; Guo, Difu; Jiang, Yunguo; Gao, Dongyang; Chen, Xu; Wang, Xianyu

    2017-02-01

    LX Ser is a deeply eclipsing cataclysmic variable with an orbital period of 0.1584325 d. 62 new eclipse times were determined by our observations and the AAVSO International Data base. Combining all available eclipse times, we analyzed the O - C behavior of LX Ser. We found that the O - C diagram of LX Ser shows a sinusoidal oscillation with a period of 22.8 yr and an amplitude of 0.00035 d. Two mechanisms (i.e., the Applegate mechanism and the light-travel time effect) are applied to explain the cyclic modulation. We found that it is difficult to apply the Applegate mechanism to explain the cyclic oscillation in the orbital period. Therefore, the cyclic period change is most likely to be caused by the light-travel time effect due to the presence of a third body. The mass of the tertiary component was determined to be M3 ∼ 7.5 MJup. We supposed that the tertiary companion is plausibly a giant planet. The stability of the giant planet was checked, and we found that the multiple system is stable.

  20. Parameterization of a Cookoff Model for LX-07

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aviles-Ramos, Cuauhtemoc [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Advanced Engineering Analysis Group (W-13)

    2016-11-22

    A thermal decomposition model for PBX 9501 (95% HMX, 2.5% Estane® binder, 2.5% BDNPA/F nitro-plasticizer) was implemented by Dickson, et. al. The objective in this study is to estimate parameters associated with this kinetics model so it can be applied to carry out thermal ignition predictions for LX-07 (90% HMX, 10% Viton binder). LX-07 thermal ignition experiments have been carried out using the “Sandia Instrumented Thermal Ignition Apparatus”, SITI. The SITI design consists of solid cylinders (1” diameter × 1” height) of high explosive (HE) confined by a cylindrical aluminum case. An electric heater is wrapped around the outer surface of the case. This heater produces a temperature heating ramp on the outer surface of the case. Internal thermocouples measure the HE temperature rise from the center to locations close to the HE-aluminum interface. The energetic material is heated until thermal ignition occurs. A two–dimensional axisymmetric heat conduction finite element model is used to simulate these experiments. The HE thermal decomposition kinetics is coupled to a heat conduction model trough the definition of an energy source term. The parameters used to define the HE thermal decomposition model are optimized to obtain a good agreement with the experimental time to thermal ignition and temperatures. Also, heat capacity and thermal conductivity of the LX-07 mixture were estimated using temperatures measured at the center of the HE before the solid to solid HMX phase transition occurred.

  1. Relaxation Oscillations in New IS-LM Model

    CERN Document Server

    Volná, Barbora

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we create new version of IS-LM model. The original IS-LM model has two main deficiencies: assumptions of constant price level and of strictly exogenous money supply. New IS-LM model eliminates these deficiencies. In the second section, we prove the existence of relaxation oscillations in this new IS-LM model.

  2. Homogeneous M2 duals

    CERN Document Server

    Figueroa-O'Farrill, José

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by the search for new gravity duals to M2 branes with $N>4$ supersymmetry --- equivalently, M-theory backgrounds with Killing superalgebra $\\mathfrak{osp}(N|4)$ for $N>4$ --- we classify (except for a small gap) homogeneous M-theory backgrounds with symmetry Lie algebra $\\mathfrak{so}(n) \\oplus \\mathfrak{so}(3,2)$ for $n=5,6,7$. We find that there are no new backgrounds with $n=6,7$ but we do find a number of new (to us) backgrounds with $n=5$. All backgrounds are metrically products of the form $\\operatorname{AdS}_4 \\times P^7$, with $P$ riemannian and homogeneous under the action of $\\operatorname{SO}(5)$, or $S^4 \\times Q^7$ with $Q$ lorentzian and homogeneous under the action of $\\operatorname{SO}(3,2)$. At least one of the new backgrounds is supersymmetric (albeit with only $N=2$) and we show that it can be constructed from a supersymmetric Freund--Rubin background via a Wick rotation. Two of the new backgrounds have only been approximated numerically.

  3. LM-2C Series Launch Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XueFuxing

    2004-01-01

    On December 30, 2003, a LM-2C/SM launch vehicle was launched from Xichang Satellite Launch Center (XSLC), successfully sending TC-1 satellite into orbit. The satellite is the first one of the two scientific satellites known as Double Star. The operation orbit of the satellite is the highest compared with China's other satellites ever launched.

  4. Navy LX(R) Amphibious Ship Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-27

    Service Summary The LX(R) program is a program to build a new class of 11 amphibious ships for the Navy. The Navy wants to procure the first LX(R) in...accelerate the procurement of the first LX(R) from FY2020 to an earlier year, so as to reduce the gap in time between the end of LPD-17 production and the

  5. Wind Tunnel Measurements at LM Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertagnolio, Franck

    2012-01-01

    This section presents the results obtained during the experimental campaign that was conducted in the wind tunnel at LM Wind Power in Lunderskov from August 16th to 26th, 2010. The goal of this study is to validate the so-called TNO trailing edge noise model through measurements of the boundary...... layer turbulence characteristics and the far-field noise generated by the acoustic scattering of the turbulent boundary layer vorticies as they convect past the trailing edge. This campaign was conducted with a NACA0015 airfoil section that was placed in the wind tunnel section. It is equipped with high...

  6. Air Gaps, Size Effect, and Corner-Turning in Ambient LX-17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souers, P C; Hernandez, A; Cabacungan, C; Fried, L; Garza, R; Glaesemann, K; Lauderbach, L; Liao, S; Vitello, P

    2008-02-05

    Various ambient measurements are presented for LX-17. The size (diameter) effect has been measured with copper and Lucite confinement, where the failure radii are 4.0 and 6.5 mm, respectively. The air well corner-turn has been measured with an LX-07 booster, and the dead-zone results are comparable to the previous TATB-boosted work. Four double cylinders have been fired, and dead zones appear in all cases. The steel-backed samples are faster than the Lucite-backed samples by 0.6 {micro}s. Bare LX-07 and LX-17 of 12.7 mm-radius were fired with air gaps. Long acceptor regions were used to truly determine if detonation occurred or not. The LX-07 crossed at 10 mm with a slight time delay. Steady state LX-17 crossed at 3.5 mm gap but failed to cross at 4.0 mm. LX-17 with a 12.7 mm run after the booster crossed a 1.5 mm gap but failed to cross 2.5 mm. Timing delays were measured where the detonation crossed the gaps. The Tarantula model is introduced as embedded in 0 reactive flow JWL++ and Linked Cheetah V4, mostly at 4 zones/mm. Tarantula has four pressure regions: off, initiation, failure and detonation. The physical basis of the input parameters is considered.

  7. Navy LX(R) Amphibious Ship Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-08

    unaffordable for the purposes of the LX(R) program), 11 a modified (reduced capability/reduced-cost) version of the LPD-17 design, brand new (i.e...Solicitation Limited to Two Builders16 On June 25, 2015, the Navy, as part of its acquisition strategy for LX(R) program, issued a combined solicitation...estimated cost of the 12 th LPD-17 class ship by incorporating design innovations and cost-reduction strategies intended for the LX(R). 20 This will make

  8. Prediction of the Critical Curvature for LX-17 with the Time of Arrival Data from DNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Jin [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Fried, Laurence E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Moss, William C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-01-10

    We extract the detonation shock front velocity, curvature and acceleration from time of arrival data measured at grid points from direct numerical simulations of a 50mm rate-stick lit by a disk-source, with the ignition and growth reaction model and a JWL equation of state calibrated for LX-17. We compute the quasi-steady (D, κ) relation based on the extracted properties and predicted the critical curvatures of LX-17. We also proposed an explicit formula that contains the failure turning point, obtained from optimization for the (D, κ) relation of LX-17.

  9. 100 LPW 800 Lm Warm White LED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Decai [Philips Lumileds Lighting Company, San Jose, CA (United States)

    2010-10-31

    An illumination grade warm white (WW) LED, having correlated color temperature (CCT) between 2800 K and 3500K and capable of producing 800 lm output at 100 lm/W, has been developed in this program. The high power WW LED is an ideal source for use as replacement for incandescent, and Halogen reflector and general purpose lamps of similar lumen value. Over the two year period, we have made following accomplishments: developed a high power warm white LED product and made over 50% improvements in light output and efficacy. The new high power WW LED product is a die on ceramic surface mountable LED package. It has four 1x1 mm{sup 2} InGaN pump dice flip chip attached to a ceramic submount in 2x2 array, covered by warm white phosphor ceramic platelets called Lumiramica and an overmolded silicone lens encapsulating the LED array. The performance goal was achieved through breakthroughs in following key areas: (1) High efficiency pump LED development through pump LED active region design and epi growth quality improvement (funded by internal programs). (2) Increase in injection efficiency (IE) represented by reduction in forward voltage (V{sub f}) through the improvement of the silver-based p-contact and a reduction in spreading resistance. The injection efficiency was increased from 80% at the start of the program to 96% at the end of the program at 700 mA/mm{sup 2}. (3) Improvement in thermal design as represented by reduction in thermal resistance from junction to case, through improvement of the die to submount connection in the thin film flip chip (TFFC) LED and choosing the submount material of high thermal conductivity. A thermal resistance of 1.72 K/W was demonstrated for the high power LED package. (4) Improvement in extraction efficiency from the LED package through improvement of InGaN die level and package level optical extraction efficiency improvement. (5) Improvement in phosphor system efficiency by improving the lumen equivalent (LE) and phosphor package

  10. Mesoscale Modeling of LX-17 Under Isentropic Compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, H K; Willey, T M; Friedman, G; Fried, L E; Vandersall, K S; Baer, M R

    2010-03-06

    Mesoscale simulations of LX-17 incorporating different equilibrium mixture models were used to investigate the unreacted equation-of-state (UEOS) of TATB. Candidate TATB UEOS were calculated using the equilibrium mixture models and benchmarked with mesoscale simulations of isentropic compression experiments (ICE). X-ray computed tomography (XRCT) data provided the basis for initializing the simulations with realistic microstructural details. Three equilibrium mixture models were used in this study. The single constituent with conservation equations (SCCE) model was based on a mass-fraction weighted specific volume and the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy. The single constituent equation-of-state (SCEOS) model was based on a mass-fraction weighted specific volume and the equation-of-state of the constituents. The kinetic energy averaging (KEA) model was based on a mass-fraction weighted particle velocity mixture rule and the conservation equations. The SCEOS model yielded the stiffest TATB EOS (0.121{micro} + 0.4958{micro}{sup 2} + 2.0473{micro}{sup 3}) and, when incorporated in mesoscale simulations of the ICE, demonstrated the best agreement with VISAR velocity data for both specimen thicknesses. The SCCE model yielded a relatively more compliant EOS (0.1999{micro}-0.6967{micro}{sup 2} + 4.9546{micro}{sup 3}) and the KEA model yielded the most compliant EOS (0.1999{micro}-0.6967{micro}{sup 2}+4.9546{micro}{sup 3}) of all the equilibrium mixture models. Mesoscale simulations with the lower density TATB adiabatic EOS data demonstrated the least agreement with VISAR velocity data.

  11. LX-04 VIOLENCE MEASUREMENTS- STEVEN TESTS IMPACTED BY PROJECTILES SHOT FROM A HOWITZER GUN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chidester, S K; Vandersall, K S; Switzer, L L; Tarver, C M

    2005-07-18

    Characterization of the reaction violence of LX-04 explosive (85% HMX and 15% Viton A by weight) was obtained from Steven Impact Tests performed above the reaction initiation threshold. A 155 mm Howitzer propellant driven gas gun was used to accelerate the Steven Test projectiles in the range of approximately 170-300 m/s to react (ignite) the LX-04 explosive. Blast overpressure gauges, acoustic microphones, and high-speed photography characterized the level of high explosive reaction violence. A detonation in this velocity range was not observed and when comparing these results (and the Susan test results) with that of other HMX based explosives, LX-04 has a more gradual reaction violence slope as the impact velocity increases. The high binder content (15%) of the LX-04 explosive is believed to be the key factor to the lower level of violence.

  12. Lm Extremal Polynomials Associated with Generalized Jacobi Weights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-guang Shi

    2003-01-01

    Asymptotic estimations of the Christoffel type functions for Lm extremal polynomials with an even integer m associated with generalized Jacobi weights are established. Also, asymptotic behavior of the zeros of the Lm extremal polynomials and the Cotes numbers of the corresponding Turan quadrature formula is given.

  13. Air Gaps, Size Effect, and Corner-Turning in Ambient LX-17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souers, P C; Hernandez, A; Cabacungen, C; Fried, L; Garza, R; Glaesemann, K; Lauderbach, L; Liao, S; Vitello, P

    2007-05-30

    Various ambient measurements are presented for LX-17. The size (diameter) effect has been measured with copper and Lucite confinement, where the failure radii are 4.0 and 6.5 mm, respectively. The air well corner-turn has been measured with an LX-07 booster, and the dead-zone results are comparable to the previous TATB-boosted work. Four double cylinders have been fired, and dead zones appear in all cases. The steel-backed samples are faster than the Lucite-backed samples by 0.6 {micro}s. Bare LX-07 and LX-17 of 12.7 mm-radius were fired with air gaps. Long acceptor regions were used to truly determine if detonation occurred or not. The LX-07 crossed at 10 mm with a slight time delay. Steady state LX-17 crossed at 3.5 mm gap but failed to cross at 4.0 mm. LX-17 with a 12.7 mm run after the booster crossed a 1.5 mm gap but failed to cross 2.5 mm. Timing delays were measured where the detonation crossed the gaps. The Tarantula model is introduced as embedded in the Linked Cheetah V4.0 reactive flow code at 4 zones/mm. Tarantula has four pressure regions: off, initiation, failure and detonation. A report card of 25 tests run with the same settings on LX-17 is shown, possibly the most extensive simultaneous calibration yet tried with an explosive. The physical basis of some of the input parameters is considered.

  14. LOW AMPLITUDE SINGLE AND MULTIPLE SHOCK INITIATION EXPERIMENTS AND MODELING OF LX-04

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandersall, K S; Tarver, C M; Garcia, F; Chidester, S; Urtiew, P A; Forbes, J W

    2006-06-27

    Shock initiation experiments were performed on the plastic bonded explosive (PBX) LX-04 (85% HMX, 15% Viton binder) using single and multiple low amplitude shocks to obtain pressure history data for use in Ignition and Growth reactive flow modeling parameterization. A 100 mm diameter propellant driven gas gun was utilized to initiate the LX-04 explosive charges containing manganin piezoresistive pressure gauge packages placed between explosive discs. In the single shock experiments, the run distances to detonation at three shock pressures showed agreement with previously published data above 3 GPa. Even longer run distances to detonation were measured using 80 mm long by 145 mm diameter LX-04 charges impacted by low velocity projectiles from a 155 mm diameter gun. The minimum shock pressure required to cause low levels of exothermic reaction were determined for these large LX-04 charge dimensions. Multiple shocks were generated as double shocks by using a flyer plate with two materials and as reflected shocks by placing a high impedance material at the rear of the explosive charge. In both cases, the first shock pressure was not high enough to cause detonation of LX-04, and the second shock pressure, which would have been sufficient to cause detonation if generated by a single shock, failed to cause detonation. Thus LX-04 exhibited shock desensitization over a range of 0.6 to 1.4 GPa. The higher shock pressure LX-04 model was extended to accurately simulate these lower pressure and multiple shock gauge records. The shock desensitization effects observed with multiple shock compressions were partially accounted for in the model by using a critical compression corresponding to a shock pressure of 1.2 GPa. This shock desensitization effect occurs at higher pressures than those of other HMX-based PBX's containing higher HMX percentages.

  15. Shock Sensitivity of LX-04 Containing Delta Phase HMX at Elevated Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urtiew, P A; Forbes, J W; Tarver, C M; Vandersall, K S; Garcia, F; Greenwood, D W; Hsu, P C; Maienschein, J L

    2003-07-11

    LX-04 is a widely used HMX-based plastic bonded explosive, which contains 85 weight % HMX and 15 weight % Viton binder. The sensitivity of LX-04 to a single stimulus such as heat, impact, and shock has been previously studied. However, hazard scenarios can involve multiple stimuli, such as heating to temperatures close to thermal explosion conditions followed by fragment impact, producing a shock in the hot explosive. The sensitivity of HMX at elevated temperatures is further complicated by the beta to delta solid-state phase transition, which occurs at approximately 165 C. This paper presents the results of shock initiation experiments conducted with LX-04 preheated to 190 C, as well as density measurements and small scale safety test results of the {delta} phase HMX at room temperature. This work shows that LX-04 at 190 C is more shock sensitive than LX-04 at 150 C or 170 C due to the volume increase during the {beta} to {delta} solid phase transition, which creates more hot spots, and the faster growth of reaction during shock compression.

  16. The Lx-Tvir relation in galaxy clusters: Effects of radiative cooling and AGN heating

    CERN Document Server

    Mittal, Rupal; Reiprich, Thomas H; Jaritz, Vera

    2011-01-01

    We present a detailed investigation of the X-ray luminosity (Lx)-gas temperature (Tvir) relation of the complete X-ray flux-limited sample of the 64 brightest galaxy clusters in the sky (HIFLUGCS). We study the influence of two astrophysical processes, active galactic nuclei (AGN) heating and intracluster medium (ICM) cooling, on the Lx-Tvir relation, simultaneously for the first time. We determine best-fit relations for different subsamples using the cool-core strength and the presence of central radio activity as selection criteria. We find the strong cool-core clusters (SCCs) with short cooling times ( 7.7Gyr) to display the shallowest (Lx ~ Tvir^{2.42}). This has the simple implication that on the high-mass scale (Tvir > 2.5keV) the steepening of the Lx-Tvir relation is mainly due to the cooling of the intracluster medium gas. We propose that ICM cooling and AGN heating are both important in shaping the Lx-Tvir relation but on different length-scales. While our study indicates that ICM cooling dominates o...

  17. Bioaugmentation of Hydrogenispora ethanolica LX-B affects hydrogen production through altering indigenous bacterial community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhiman; Guo, Rongbo; Shi, Xiaoshuang; He, Shuai; Wang, Lin; Dai, Meng; Qiu, Yanling; Dang, Xiaoxiao

    2016-07-01

    Bioaugmentation can facilitate hydrogen production from complex organic substrates, but it still is unknown how indigenous microbial communities respond to the added bacteria. Here, using a Hydrogenispora ethanolica LX-B (named as LX-B) bioaugmentation experiments, the distribution of metabolites and the responses of indigenous bacterial communities were investigated via batch cultivation (BC) and repeated batch cultivation (RBC). In BC the LX-B/sludge ratio of 0.12 achieved substantial high hydrogen yield, which was over twice that of control. In RBC one-time bioaugmentation and repeated batch bioaugmentation of LX-B resulted in the hydrogen yield that was average 1.2-fold and 0.8-fold higher than that in control, respectively. This improved hydrogen production performance mainly benefited from a shift in composition of the indigenous bacterial community caused by LX-B bioaugmentation. The findings represented an important step in understanding the relationship between bioaugmentation, a shift in bacterial communities, and altered bioreactor performance.

  18. Synthesis of carbon-14 labelled spiro-piperidyl-rifamycins (LM 118) and rifabutin (LM 427)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontana, E.; Giarda, S.; Vioglio, S.; Vicario, G.P.

    1987-11-01

    The syntheses of radiolabelled spiro-piperidyl-rifamycins are described. A five steps synthesis (Scheme 1) was performed to give 4-deoxo-3,4-(2-spiro-(N-(/sup 14/C)methyl-4-piperidyl))-(1H)-imidazo-(2,5-di-hydro)-rifamycin S ((/sup 14/C)LM 118), in an overall radiochemical yield of approx. 20%, 98% radiochemically pure and with a specific activity of 440 MBq/mmol (11.9 mCi/mmol) starting from (/sup 14/C)methyl iodide. A three steps synthesis (Scheme 2) was performed to give 4-deoxo-3,4-(2-spiro-(N-2-methyl(1-/sup 14/C)propane-4-piperidyl))-(1H)-imida-zo-(2,5-dihydro)-rifamycin S ((/sup 14/C) rifabutin) in an overall radiochemical yield of approx. 38%, 97% radiochemically pure with a specific activity of 1.27 GBq/mmol (34.32 m/Ci/mmol). 1-(2-Methyl (1-/sup 14/C)propanoyl)-piperazin-4-one ethylene ketal was employed as starting material.

  19. De Novo Synthesis and Degradation of Lx and V Cycle Pigments during Shade and Sun Acclimation in Avocado Leaves1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, Britta; Osmond, C. Barry; Pogson, Barry J.

    2009-01-01

    The photoprotective role of the universal violaxanthin cycle that interconverts violaxanthin (V), antheraxanthin (A), and zeaxanthin (Z) is well established, but functions of the analogous conversions of lutein-5,6-epoxide (Lx) and lutein (L) in the selectively occurring Lx cycle are still unclear. We investigated carotenoid pools in Lx-rich leaves of avocado (Persea americana) during sun or shade acclimation at different developmental stages. During sun exposure of mature shade leaves, an unusual decrease in L preceded the deepoxidation of Lx to L and of V to A+Z. In addition to deepoxidation, de novo synthesis increased the L and A+Z pools. Epoxidation of L was exceptionally slow, requiring about 40 d in the shade to restore the Lx pool, and residual A+Z usually persisted overnight. In young shade leaves, the Lx cycle was reversed initially, with Lx accumulating in the sun and declining in the shade. De novo synthesis of xanthophylls did not affect α- and β-carotene pools on the first day, but during long-term acclimation α-carotene pools changed noticeably. Nonetheless, the total change in α- and β-branch carotenoid pools was equal. We discuss the implications for regulation of metabolic flux through the α- and β-branches of carotenoid biosynthesis and potential roles for L in photoprotection and Lx in energy transfer to photosystem II and explore physiological roles of both xanthophyll cycles as determinants of photosystem II efficiency. PMID:19060099

  20. Impact loading response of the MiL-Lx leg fitted with combat boots

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pandelani, T

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available to the injuries more especially during underbelly detonation due to the spatial proximity to the rapid deforming floors. Lower limb surrogate legs, such as the Hybrid III (HIII) or Military Lower Extremity (MiL-Lx) are used to quantify the loading on the lower...

  1. Quercetin targets the interaction of calcineurin with LxVP-type motifs in immunosuppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yane; Zhang, Jin; Shi, Xiaoyu; Li, Jing; Wang, Rui; Song, Ruiwen; Wei, Qun; Cai, Huaibin; Luo, Jing

    2016-08-01

    Calcineurin (CN) is a unique calcium/calmodulin (CaM)-activated serine/threonine phosphatase. To perform its diverse biological functions, CN communicates with many substrates and other proteins. In the physiological activation of T cells, CN acts through transcriptional factors belonging to the NFAT family and other transcriptional effectors. The classic immunosuppressive drug cyclosporin A (CsA) can bind to cyclophilin (CyP) and compete with CN for the NFAT LxVP motif. CsA has debilitating side effects, including nephrotoxicity, hypertension and tremor. It is desirable to develop alternative immunosuppressive agents. To this end, we first tested the interactions between CN and the LxVP-type substrates, including endogenous regulators of calcineurin (RCAN1) and NFAT. Interestingly, we found that quercetin, the primary dietary flavonol, can inhibit the activity of CN and significantly disrupt the associations between CN and its LxVP-type substrates. We then validated the inhibitory effects of quercetin on the CN-NFAT interactions in cell-based assays. Further, quercetin also shows dose-dependent suppression of cytokine gene expression in mouse spleen cells. These data raise the possibility that the interactions of CN with its LxVP-type substrates are potential targets for immunosuppressive agents.

  2. Genetic characteristics of the human hepatic stellate cell line LX-2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Weiskirchen

    Full Text Available The human hepatic cell line LX-2 has been described as tool to study mechanisms of hepatic fibrogenesis and the testing of antifibrotic compounds. It was originally generated by immortalisation with the Simian Vacuolating Virus 40 (SV40 transforming (T antigen and subsequent propagation in low serum conditions. Although this immortalized line is used in an increasing number of studies, detailed genetic characterisation has been lacking. We here have performed genetic characterisation of the LX-2 cell line and established a single-locus short tandem repeat (STR profile for the cell line and characterized the LX-2 karyotype by several cytogenetic and molecular cytogenetic techniques. Spectral karyotyping (SKY revealed a complex karyotype with a set of aberrations consistently present in the metaphases analyses which might serve as cytogenetic markers. In addition, various subclonal and single cell aberrations were detected. Our study provides criteria for genetic authentication of LX-2 and offers insights into the genotype changes which might underlie part of its phenotypic features.

  3. Pre-ignition confinement and deflagration violence in LX-10 and PBX 9501

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tringe, J. W., E-mail: tringe2@llnl.gov; Glascoe, E. A.; McClelland, M. A.; Greenwood, D.; Chambers, R. D.; Springer, H. K.; Levie, H. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2014-08-07

    In thermal explosions of the nitramine octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX)-based explosives LX-10 and PBX-9501, the pre-ignition spatial and temporal heating profile defines the ignition location. The ignition location then determines the extent of inertial confinement and the violence of the resulting deflagration. In this work, we present results of experiments in which ∼23 g cylinders of LX-10 and PBX 9501 in thin-walled aluminum confinement vessels were subjected to identical heating profiles but which presented starkly different energy release signatures. Post-explosion LX-10 containment vessels were completely fragmented, while the PBX 9501 vessels were merely ruptured. Flash x-ray radiography images show that the initiation location for the LX-10 is a few mm farther from the end caps of the vessel relative to the initiation location of PBX 9501. This difference increases deflagration confinement for LX-10 at the time of ignition and extends the pressurization time during which the deflagration front propagates in the explosive. The variation in the initiation location, in turn, is determined by the thermal boundary conditions, which differ for these two explosives because of the larger coefficient of thermal expansion and greater thermal stability of the Viton binder in LX-10 relative to the estane and bis(2,2-dinitropropyl) acetal/formal binder of the PBX 9501. The thermal profile and initiation location were modeled for LX-10 using the hydrodynamics and structures code ALE3D; results indicate temperatures in the vicinity of the ignition location in excess of 274 °C near the time of ignition. The conductive burn rates for these two explosives, as determined by flash x-ray radiography, are comparable in the range 0.1–0.2 mm/μs, somewhat faster than rates observed by strand burner experiments for explosives in the temperature range 150–180 °C and pressures up to 100 MPa. The thinnest-wall aluminum containment vessels

  4. Development of LX70 Wire Rod for Steel Cord%钢帘线用LX70盘条的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹树卫; 康永林; 王新江

    2011-01-01

    对安阳钢铁集团有限责任公司钢帘线用LX70盘条的研制与开发过程、帘线钢冶炼连铸工艺和轧制工艺、帘线钢中夹杂物的控制及钢帘线应用情况等进行了研究和分析。结果表明:帘线钢中夹杂物的控制、良好的铸坯凝固组织、高比率的索氏体金相组织是保证高质量帘线钢盘条的重要因素;LX70盘条拉拔性能优良稳定,捻制过程满足子午线轮胎用钢帘线合股要求,总满轮率达到国内同类型产品先进水平,完全满足钢帘线用户的使用要求。%The research and development process of wire rod for steel cord,the refining-continuous casting process and strip rolling process of steel cord,the control of the inclusions and the trial-manufacture situation in steel in particular of Anyang Iron and Steel Group Co.,Ltd.were introduced.Trail-manufacture result illustrates: inclusions control in steel cord,well strand solidification structure,high ratio sorbitic metallographic structure are key factors of high quality rod for steel cord.The drawing performance of LX70 of Angang is well and stable,twisting process satisfies meridian tyre for steel cord stranding requirement,the total full round of rate reaches advanced level of domestic products with the same type,completely satisfies the use requirement of the user of steel cord.

  5. LM-2C Sent Yaogan 13 into Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The Yaogan 13 remote sensing satellite was launched into orbit from the Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center on November 30 on a LM-2C launch vehicle.Developed by SAST,the satellite will be used for scientific experiments,land survey,crop yield assessment and disaster monitoring.

  6. Intermediate Macroeconomics without the IS-LM Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerapana, Akila

    2003-01-01

    States that the IS-LM model is the primary model of economic fluctuations taught in undergraduate macroeconomics. Argues that the aggregate demand-price adjustment (AD-PA) model is superior for teaching about economic fluctuations. Compares the IS-LS model with the AD-AP model using two current issues in macroeconomics. (JEH)

  7. Neeme Külm: esmakordselt on kunstnikud seljatanud meie muuseumi maja / Neeme Külm ; intervjueerinud Anna-Liisa Villmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Külm, Neeme, 1974-

    2010-01-01

    Eesti Kaasaegse Kunsti Muuseumi üks asutajaid ja tehniline direktor Neeme Külm 22. augustini 2010 avatud Anders Härmi kureeritud näitusest "Next to Nothing" (15 osalejat loetletud), oma tööst "Alasi" näitusel, tööstusarhitektuurist muuseumipinnana, EKKM-i kontseptsioonis toimunud muutustest, praegusest muuseumist ja tulevikuplaanidest

  8. Neeme Külm: esmakordselt on kunstnikud seljatanud meie muuseumi maja / Neeme Külm ; intervjueerinud Anna-Liisa Villmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Külm, Neeme, 1974-

    2010-01-01

    Eesti Kaasaegse Kunsti Muuseumi üks asutajaid ja tehniline direktor Neeme Külm 22. augustini 2010 avatud Anders Härmi kureeritud näitusest "Next to Nothing" (15 osalejat loetletud), oma tööst "Alasi" näitusel, tööstusarhitektuurist muuseumipinnana, EKKM-i kontseptsioonis toimunud muutustest, praegusest muuseumist ja tulevikuplaanidest

  9. What is $\\Delta m^2_{ee}$ ?

    CERN Document Server

    Parke, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The current short baseline reactor experiments, Daya Bay and RENO (Double Chooz) have measured (or are capable of measuring) an effective $\\Delta m^2$ associated with the atmospheric oscillation scale of 0.5 km/MeV in electron anti-neutrino disappearance. In this paper, I compare and contrast the different definitions of such an effective $\\Delta m^2$ and argue that the simple, L/E independent, definition given by $\\Delta m^2_{ee} \\equiv \\cos^2 \\theta_{12} \\Delta m^2_{31}+ \\sin^2 \\theta_{12} \\Delta m^2_{32}$, i.e. "the $\

  10. Thermal Decomposition of New and Aged LX-04 and PBX 9501

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, T D; Tarver, C; Idar, D J; Rodin, W A

    2002-04-09

    One-Dimensional-Time-To-Explosion (ODTX) experiments were conducted to study the thermal decomposition of new and aged LX-04, PBX 9501, HMX class 1 and class 2, Estane and EstaneBDNPA-F (PBX 950 1 plasticized-binder) materials. New and aged LX-04 showed comparable decomposition kinetics. The data for aged PBX 9501 showed slightly longer explosion times at equivalent temperatures. Analysis of the error in time measurement is complicated by several experimental factors but the small time change appears to be experimentally significant. The results suggest that aged PBX 9501 is slightly more thermally stable. The thermal decomposition of these materials were modeled using a coupled thermal and heat transport code (chemical TOPAZ) using separate kinetics for HMX and binder decomposition. The current kinetic models describe the longer explosion times by the loss of plasticizer-binder constituent, which was more thermally reactive.

  11. A report on the deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) in the high explosive LX-04

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hare, D E; Forbes, J W; Garcia, F; Granholm, R H; Tarver, C M; Vandersall, K S; Sandusky, H W

    2004-06-30

    The deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) was investigated for 1.874 g/cc (98.8 % of theoretical maximum density) LX-04 in moderate confinement (4340 steel tube at R{sub C} 32 with 1.020 inch inside diameter and 0.235 inch thick wall) at both ambient initial temperature (roughly 20 C) and at an initial temperature of 186 C. No transition to detonation was observed in a 295 mm column length for either case.

  12. Thermal Decomposition of New and Aged LX-04 and PBX 9501

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, T D; Tarver, C; Idar, D J

    2002-03-25

    One-Dimensional-Time-To-Explosion (ODTX) experiments were conducted to study the thermal decomposition of aged LX-04, aged PBX 9501, HMX class 1 and class 2, Estane and Estane/BDNPA-F (PBX 950 1 plasticized-binder) materials. The tests involved heating 12.7 mm diameter spherical samples in pre-heated aluminum anvils until explosion. The times to explosion at different heating temperatures were compared to historical data on new LX-04 and PBX 9501 compounds to study any changes to their thermal stability. New and aged LX-04 showed comparable decomposition kinetics. The data for aged PBX 9501 showed slightly longer explosion times at equivalent temperatures. Analysis of the error in time measurement is limited and complicated by several experimental factors but the small time change appears to be experimentally significant. The thermal decomposition of these PBXs were modeled using a coupled thermal and heat transport code (chemical TOPAZ) using separate kinetics for HMX and binder decomposition. Separate decomposition models were developed for HMX and the reactive PBX 9501 binder component (1:1 Estane:BDNPA/F) based on the measured explosion times. Thermal aging models can describe longer explosion times by the loss of plasticizer-binder constituent which was more thermally reactive.

  13. Roughness effect on squeeze film pressure

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manju Shukla

    2002-10-01

    The Stokes equations for the axial symmetric slow motion generated by a plane, approaching towards a solid surface allowing slippage, have been solved in this paper by using finite Hankel transform. The squeeze film pressure between the two rigid faces is then obtained. It is found that the roughness parameter $\\beta \\sim d/4$, where is the separation between the two surfaces, causes an extremely high pressure on the surface.

  14. Fluctuations in a mixed IS-LM business cycle model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamad Talibi Alaoui

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, we extend a delayed IS-LM business cycle model by introducing an additional advance (anticipated capital stock in the investment function. The resulting model is represented in terms of mixed differential equations. For the deviating argument $au$ (advance and delay being a bifurcation parameter we investigate the local stability and the local Hopf bifurcation. Also some numerical simulations are given to support the theoretical analysis.

  15. LM-3B/E will launch Apstar 7

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zong He

    2009-01-01

    @@ China Great Wall Industry Corporation (CGWlC), a subsidiary of China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation (CASC), signed a launch services contract with Hong Kong APT Satellite Co., Ltd in Beijing on November 8. According to the contract, a Long March 3B enhanced launch vehicle (LM-3B/E) will launch a French Thales Alenia Space made APstar 7 communications satellite into space in the first half year of 2012.

  16. M2M massive wireless access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zanella, Andrea; Zorzi, Michele; Santos, André F.

    2013-01-01

    of the current cellular standards. Here, we provide insights and introduce potential solutions for the cellular radio protocol that will allow the efficient support of Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communications. The paper focuses on the massive aspect of M2M. We will introduce PHY and MAC approaches such as Coded...... and research guidelines for enabling future networks to support efficiently M2M communications....

  17. 130 LPW 1000 Lm Warm White LED for Illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soer, Wouter [Philips Lumileds Lighting Company LLC, San Jose, CA (United States)

    2012-12-21

    An illumination-grade warm-white LED, having correlated color temperature (CCT) between 2700 and 3500 K and capable of producing 1000 lm output at over 130 lm/W at room temperature, has been developed in this program. The high-power warm-white LED is an ideal source for use in indoor and outdoor lighting applications. Over the two year period, we have made the following accomplishments: • Developed a low-cost high-power white LED package and commercialized a series of products with CCT ranging from 2700 to 5700 K under the product name LUXEON M; • Demonstrated a record efficacy of 124.8 lm/W at a flux of 1023 lm, CCT of 3435 K and color rendering index (CRI) over 80 at room temperature in the productized package; • Demonstrated a record efficacy of 133.1 lm/W at a flux of 1015 lm, CCT of 3475 K and CRI over 80 at room temperature in an R&D package. The new high-power LED package is a die-on-ceramic surface mountable LED package. It has four 2 mm2 InGaN pump dice, flip-chip attached to a ceramic submount in a 2x2 array configuration. The submount design utilizes a design approach that combines a high-thermal- conductivity ceramic core for die attach and a low-cost and low-thermal-conductivity ceramic frame for mechanical support and as optical lens carrier. The LED package has a thermal resistance of less than 1.25 K/W. The white LED fabrication also adopts a new batch level (instead of die-by-die) phosphor deposition process with precision layer thickness and composition control, which provides not only tight color control, but also low cost. The efficacy performance goal was achieved through the progress in following key areas: (1) high-efficiency royal blue pump LED development through active region design and epitaxial growth quality improvement (funded by internal programs); (2) improvement in extraction efficiency from the LED package through improvement of InGaN-die-level and package-level optical extraction efficiency; and (3) improvement in phosphor

  18. 基于LM-BP神经网络的西北地区太阳辐射时空变化研究%Spatial and Temporal Changes in Solar Radiation of Northwest China Based LM-BP Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李净; 冯姣姣; 王卫东; 张福存

    2016-01-01

    定量模拟太阳辐射对认识西北地区气候变化至关重要,但西北地区辐射站点稀少,而气象站点较多,利用众多的气象站点观测值模拟太阳辐射是获得太阳辐射数据很好的方法之一.利用LM(Levenberg-Marquardt)算法对普通的BP神经网络进行优化(优化后的BP神经网络简称LM-BP神经网络)模拟太阳辐射,通过与传统气候模型模拟的太阳辐射结果对比发现,LM-BP神经网络模型的模拟精度最高,模拟值与实测值的拟合程度明显优于H-S模型和A-P模型.由此利用西北地区159个气象站点的气象数据和LM-BP神经网络模型模拟了1990~2012年这些气象站点的太阳总辐射月总量,将LM-BP神经网络模拟的气象站点的太阳辐射和25个辐射观测站的实测太阳辐射数据相结合,通过空间插值得到了西北地区太阳总辐射的空间分布,并分析了其时空分布及变化特征.研究结果发现西北地区1990~2012年的年均总辐射月总量变化为262~643 MJ/m2,呈现"中间高,两端低"的空间分布特征.LM-BP神经网络模型的模拟精度高,是一种很有发展前景的辐射模拟方法,可将其应用在无辐射观测地区的太阳辐射模拟中.%Solar radiation data can be used to simulate surface dynamic and thermal process. Solar radiation da-ta is the important input parameter of the models in ecology, hydrology, crop, solar radiation transmission, global circulation and so on. Quantitative simulation of solar radiation is important for understanding climate change in Northwest China. However, the solar radiation stations are sparse in Northwest China, so using small amount of radiation site data interpolating or extrapolating is difficult to obtain the spatial distribution of solar radiation data. There are more many weather stations in Northwest China, so it is one of the best methods to simulate the solar radiation by using a large number of meteorological observations. In this article, the LM

  19. Hofbauer cells of M2a, M2b and M2c polarization may regulate feto-placental angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loegl, J; Hiden, U; Nussbaumer, E; Schliefsteiner, C; Cvitic, S; Lang, I; Wadsack, C; Huppertz, B; Desoye, G

    2016-11-01

    The human placenta comprises a special type of tissue macrophages, the Hofbauer cells (HBC), which exhibit M2 macrophage phenotype. Several subtypes of M2-polarized macrophages (M2a, M2b and M2c) exist in almost all tissues. Macrophage polarization depends on the way of macrophage activation and leads to the expression of specific cell surface markers and the acquisition of specific functions, including tissue remodeling and the promotion of angiogenesis. The placenta is a highly vascularized and rapidly growing organ, suggesting a role of HBC in feto-placental angiogenesis. We here aimed to characterize the specific polarization and phenotype of HBC and investigated the role of HBC in feto-placental angiogenesis. Therefore, HBC were isolated from third trimester placentas and their phenotype was determined by the presence of cell surface markers (FACS analysis) and secretion of cytokines (ELISA). HBC conditioned medium (CM) was analyzed for pro-angiogenic factors, and the effect of HBC CM on angiogenesis, proliferation and chemoattraction of isolated primary feto-placental endothelial cells (fpEC) was determined in vitro Our results revealed that isolated HBC possess an M2 polarization, with M2a, M2b and M2c characteristics. HBC secreted the pro-angiogenic molecules VEGF and FGF2. Furthermore, HBC CM stimulated the in vitro angiogenesis of fpEC. However, compared with control medium, chemoattraction of fpEC toward HBC CM was reduced. Proliferation of fpEC was not affected by HBC CM. These findings demonstrate a paracrine regulation of feto-placental angiogenesis by HBC in vitro Based on our collective results, we propose that the changes in HBC number or phenotype may affect feto-placental angiogenesis. © 2016 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  20. Assigning error to an M2 measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, T. Sean

    2006-02-01

    The ISO 11146:1999 standard has been published for 6 years and set forth the proper way to measure the M2 parameter. In spite of the strong experimental guidance given by this standard and the many commercial devices based upon ISO 11146, it is still the custom to quote M2 measurements without any reference to significant figures or error estimation. To the author's knowledge, no commercial M2 measurement device includes error estimation. There exists, perhaps, a false belief that M2 numbers are high precision and of insignificant error. This paradigm causes program managers and purchasers to over-specify a beam quality parameter and researchers not to question the accuracy and precision of their M2 measurements. This paper will examine the experimental sources of error in an M2 measurement including discretization error, CCD noise, discrete filter sets, noise equivalent aperture estimation, laser fluctuation and curve fitting error. These sources of error will be explained in their experimental context and convenient formula given to properly estimate error in a given M2 measurement. This work is the result of the author's inability to find error estimation and disclosure of methods in commercial beam quality measurement devices and building an ISO 11146 compliant, computer- automated M2 measurement device and the resulting lessons learned and concepts developed.

  1. Tachyonic Anti-M2 Branes

    CERN Document Server

    Bena, Iosif; Kuperstein, Stanislav; Massai, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    We study the dynamics of anti-M2 branes in a warped Stenzel solution with M2 charges dissolved in fluxes by taking into account their full backreaction on the geometry. The resulting supergravity solution has a singular magnetic four-form flux in the near-brane region. We examine the possible resolution of this singularity via the polarization of anti-M2 branes into M5 branes, and compute the corresponding polarization potential for branes smeared on the finite-size four-sphere at the tip of the Stenzel space. We find that the potential has no minimum. We then use the potential for smeared branes to compute the one corresponding to a stack of localized anti-M2 branes, and use this potential to compute the force between two anti-M2 branes at tip of the Stenzel space. We find that this force, which is zero in the probe approximation, is in fact repulsive. This surprising result points to a tachyonic instability of anti-M2 branes in backgrounds with M2 brane charge dissolved in flux.

  2. Evaluation of the biofidelity of the HIII and MIL-Lx lower leg surrogates under axial impact loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quenneville, Cheryl E; Dunning, Cynthia E

    2012-01-01

    Lower leg injury risk is commonly assessed using an anthropomorphic test device (ATD). The current standard leg (the HIII) has been shown to have low biofidelity due to its geometry and material properties. A new surrogate (the MIL-Lx) was developed to address these issues, specifically for anti-vehicular mine blast scenarios but with potential applications to high-force crashes in the automotive industry. Before it is adopted for use, the MIL-Lx must be evaluated under impact loading to ensure that it represents the natural lower leg response. Axial impact loads were applied to both the HIII and the MIL-Lx at impact velocities of 2 to 7 m/s using a pneumatic impacting device. Testing was also conducted with the foot removed from both surrogates to enable comparison with previous tests of isolated cadaveric tibias at noninjurious and injurious (i.e., fracture) levels. To evaluate the effect of a boot on load attenuation, the HIII was impacted with and without a hiking boot. Forces in the MIL-Lx were between 25 and 100 percent of those in the HIII (depending on impact conditions). The use of a boot reduced the peak force by approximately 65 percent at the highest impact velocities. The MIL-Lx fit the data from noninjurious cadaveric tibia tests with R(2) = 0.83. The MIL-Lx is a new surrogate that represents the response of the natural tibia under axial impact loading better than the HIII. The inclusion of a boot has a significant effect on loads in the leg and may influence injury assessment results. The MIL-Lx will be a useful tool for predicting lower leg injury risk over a wide range of impact velocities.

  3. Correlation of thickness and magnetization in LCMO film

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sanghamitra Khatua; P K Mishra; J John; V C Sahni

    2003-03-01

    High quality thin films of La0.67Ca0.33MnO3 (LCMO) of different thickness were grown on LAO substrates by pulsed laser deposition (KrF, = 278 nm). The AFM images suggest a two-dimensional step-growth. DC magnetization measurements of the films in a field of 500 Oe show that the magnetic ordering temperature is the same for all the films in both FC and ZFC conditions and is the same as that for the bulk. However, a difference is seen between the FC and ZFC magnetization of the films. There seems to be a systematic in this difference with respect to the thickness of the film, with the difference decreasing with thickness. We suggest that the difference in the magnetization under FC and ZFC conditions may be due to strain-induced anisotropy arising from the lattice mismatch between the substrate and the film or due to the shape anisotropy due to epitaxial growth.

  4. Inhibitory effects of soluble algae products (SAP) released by Scenedesmus sp. LX1 on its growth and lipid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tian-Yuan; Yu, Yin; Wu, Yin-Hu; Hu, Hong-Ying

    2013-10-01

    Soluble algal products (SAP) accumulated in culture medium via water reuse may affect the growth of microalga during the cultivation. Scenedesmus sp. LX1, a freshwater microalga, was used in this study to investigate the effect of SAP on growth and lipid production of microalga. Under the SAP concentrations of 6.4-25.8 mg L(-1), maximum algal density (K) and maximum growth rate (Rmax) of Scenedesmus sp. LX1 were decreased by 50-80% and 35-70% compared with the control group, respectively. The effect of SAP on lipid accumulation of Scenedesmus sp. LX1 was non-significant. According to hydrophilic-hydrophobic and acid-base properties, SAP was fractionized into six fractions. All of the fractions could inhibit the growth of Scenedesmus sp. LX1. Organic bases (HIB, HOB) and hydrophilic acids (HIA) showed the strongest inhibition. HIA could also decrease the lipid content of Scenedesmus sp. LX1 by 59.2%. As the inhibitory effect, SAP should be seriously treated before water reuse. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Determination of acoustoelastic constant in API-5L-X70 welded pipes; Determinacao da constante acustoelastica de tubos API-5L-X70 com solda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bittencourt, Marcelo de Siqueira Queiroz; Fonseca, Manoel Antonio da Costa [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Oliveira, Carlos Henrique Francisco de [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    To preserve the environment and avoid financial losses resulting from leaks in the transport of natural oil and gas the industry is particularly concerned to ensure the structural integrity of their pipelines. Grounded pipes may be exposed to damages due to unstable soil movement, and in extreme cases, to failure. Then, techniques to assess stress in pipelines are of central importance. The ultrasonic birefringence technique is an efficient method to measure residual stress. It is based on the changing velocity of the shear wave when it crosses a material under stress; this phenomenon is known as acoustoelasticity. The knowledge of the parameter called acoustoelastic constant is necessary to measure stress using this technique. By the mechanical conformation in the manufacture of welded tubes, from rolled plates, different anisotropy degrees are showed around the cross section of these tubes. In this paper it was studied the acoustoelastic constant for the API-5L-X70 steel pipes, with different thicknesses, diameters and manufacturing processes so as to be able to use this technique to stress measurement in pipelines. (author)

  6. M2M massive wireless access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zanella, Andrea; Zorzi, Michele; Santos, André F.

    2013-01-01

    In order to make the Internet of Things a reality, ubiquitous coverage and low-complexity connectivity are required. Cellular networks are hence the most straightforward and realistic solution to enable a massive deployment of always connected Machines around the globe. Nevertheless, a paradigm...... of the current cellular standards. Here, we provide insights and introduce potential solutions for the cellular radio protocol that will allow the efficient support of Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communications. The paper focuses on the massive aspect of M2M. We will introduce PHY and MAC approaches such as Coded...

  7. Role of LM23 in cell proliferation and apoptosis and its expression during the testis development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Liu; Ya-Juan Song; Li-Jun Meng; Fen Hu; Li-Xia Gou; Chang-Hong Jia; Hong-Mei Tang

    2013-01-01

    LM23,a gene expressed specifically in the testis in a stage-specific manner,has a diverse range of functions that are important in both the life and death of spermatogenic cells.The aim of this study was to further investigate the expression of LM23 in the developing rat testis and the biological function of LM23 in proliferation and antiapoptosis in vitro.Semiquantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and real-time PCR were used to examine the expression of LM23 in testis at different developmental stages.The results suggested that LM23 mRNA levels in the testis increased progressively after birth.The role of LM23 in proliferation was analyzed with cell counting kit-8 (CCK8),colony-forming efficiency (CFE) and flow cytometry assays.The results indicated that ectopic expression of LM23 in 293T cells significantly promoted cell proliferation by increasing cell numbers in S phase.Several methods were used,including CCK8,annexin V and propidium iodide staining and western blotting,to determine the role of LM23 in apoptosis.The results showed that LM23 played a protective role in H202-induced apoptosis of 293T cells,mediated at least in part through the Akt/Pl3K signal pathway.Taken together,these results provide new insights into the role of LM23 in the development of the testes and spermatogenesis.

  8. LM-research opportunities and activities at Beer-Sheva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesin, S. [Ben Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beer Sheva (Israel)

    1996-06-01

    Energy conversion concepts based on liquid metal (LM) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) technology was intensively investigated at the Center for MHD Studies (CMHDS), in the Ben-Gurion University of the Negev in Israel. LMMHD energy conversion systems operate in a closed cycle as follows: heat intended for conversion into electricity is added to a liquid metal contained in a closed loop of pipes. The liquid metal is mixed with vapor or gas introduced from outside so that a two-phase mixture is formed. The gaseous phase performs a thermodynamic cycle, converting a certain amount of heat into mechanical energy of the liquid metal. This energy is converted into electrical power as the metal flows across a magnetic field in the MHD channel. Those systems where the expanding thermodynamic fluid performs work against gravitational forces (natural circulation loops) and using heavy liquid metals are named ETGAR systems. A number of different heavy-metal facilities have been specially constructed and tested with fluid combinations of mercury and steam, mercury and nitrogen, mercury and freon, lead-bismuth and steam, and lead and steam. Since the experimental investigation of such flows is a very difficult task and all the known measurment methods are incomplete and not fully reliable, a variety of experimental approaches have been developed. In most experiments, instantaneous pressure distribution along the height of the upcomer were measured and the average void fraction was calculated numerically using the one-dimensional equation for the two-phase flow. The research carried out at the CMHDS led to significant improvements in the characterization of the two-phase phenomena expected in the riser of ETGAR systems. One of the most important outcomes is the development of a new empirical correlation which enables the reliable prediction of the velocity ratio between the LM and the steam (slip), the friction factor, as well as of the steam void fraction distribution along the riser.

  9. Measurement and ALE3D Simulation of Violence in a Deflagration Experiment With LX-10 and Aermet-100 Alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knap, J; McClelland, M A; Maienschein, J L; Howard, W M; Nichols, A L; deHaven, M R; Strand, O T

    2006-06-22

    We describe the results of a Scaled-Thermal-Explosion-eXperiment (STEX) for LX-10 (94.7 % HMX, 5.3 % Viton A) confined in an AerMet 100 (iron-cobalt-nickel alloy) tube with reinforced end caps. The experimental measurements are compared with predictions of an Arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE3D) computer model. ALE3D is a three-dimensional multi-physics computer code capable of solving coupled equations describing thermal, mechanical and chemical behavior of materials. In particular, we focus on the processes linked to fracture and fragmentation of the AerMet tube driven by the LX-10 deflagration.

  10. Anti-influenza M2e antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Andrew M.

    2011-12-20

    Humanized recombinant and monoclonal antibodies specific for the ectodomain of the influenza virus M2 ion channel protein are disclosed. The antibodies of the invention have anti-viral activity and may be useful as anti-viral therapeutics and/or prophylactic/vaccine agents for inhibiting influenza virus replication and for treating individuals infected with influenza.

  11. Anti-influenza M2e antibody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, Andrew M.

    2013-04-16

    Humanized recombinant and monoclonal antibodies specific for the ectodomain of the influenza virus M2 ion channel protein are disclosed. The antibodies of the invention have anti-viral activity and may be useful as anti-viral therapeutics and/or prophylactic/vaccine agents for inhibiting influenza virus replication and for treating individuals infected with influenza.

  12. Anti-influenza M2e antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Andrew M.

    2013-04-16

    Humanized recombinant and monoclonal antibodies specific for the ectodomain of the influenza virus M2 ion channel protein are disclosed. The antibodies of the invention have anti-viral activity and may be useful as anti-viral therapeutics and/or prophylactic/vaccine agents for inhibiting influenza virus replication and for treating individuals infected with influenza.

  13. Mathematical Demonstration on IS -LM -BP Model%IS-LM-BP图形分析的数学推导

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛政科

    2007-01-01

    鉴于教科书中对于IS-LM-BP模型的图形分析主要依靠叙述变量之间的逻辑关系,而不是直接应用模型本身所假设的数学性质,容易造成分析上的混乱,分析了根据模型自身所具有的数学性质,来判断曲线的移动和曲线两侧的失衡状态,这既是比较静态分析的直接应用,也可以应用于其他的类似图形分析之中.

  14. Explosive Model Tarantula 4d/JWL++ Calibration of LX-17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souers, P C; Vitello, P A

    2008-09-30

    Tarantula is an explosive kinetic package intended to do detonation, shock initiation, failure, corner-turning with dead zones, gap tests and air gaps in reactive flow hydrocode models. The first, 2007-2008 version with monotonic Q is here run inside JWL++ with square zoning from 40 to 200 zones/cm on ambient LX-17. The model splits the rate behavior in every zone into sections set by the hydrocode pressure, P + Q. As the pressure rises, we pass through the no-reaction, initiation, ramp-up/failure and detonation sections sequentially. We find that the initiation and pure detonation rate constants are largely insensitive to zoning but that the ramp-up/failure rate constant is extremely sensitive. At no time does the model pass every test, but the pressure-based approach generally works. The best values for the ramp/failure region are listed here in Mb units.

  15. LM potencies: one of the hidden treasures of the sixth edition of the Organon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schepper, L

    1999-07-01

    50 millesimal (LM) potencies have great advantages for all patients, not just those who are hypersensitive because of their great power to heal without major aggravations. Before discussing their advantages this paper describes what LM potencies are, and how they are administered, then addresses two questions: why do we want to avoid aggravations if most homeopaths look for aggravation to know if the remedy is working? And if LM potencies are indeed superior, why are they still relatively unknown and unused?

  16. Superconformal indices and M2-branes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eager, Richard [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI),University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Schmude, Johannes [RIKEN Nishina Center, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2015-12-10

    We derive the superconformal index of the world-volume theory on M2-branes probing the cone over an arbitrary Sasaki-Einstein seven-manifold. The index is expressed in terms of the cohomology groups of the cone. We match our supergravity results with known results from gauge theory. Along the way we derive the spectrum of short Kaluza-Klein multiplets on generic Sasaki-Einstein seven-manifolds.

  17. Superconformal indices and M2-branes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eager, Richard; Schmude, Johannes

    2015-12-01

    We derive the superconformal index of the world-volume theory on M2-branes probing the cone over an arbitrary Sasaki-Einstein seven-manifold. The index is expressed in terms of the cohomology groups of the cone. We match our supergravity results with known results from gauge theory. Along the way we derive the spectrum of short Kaluza-Klein multiplets on generic Sasaki-Einstein seven-manifolds.

  18. Transforming Growth Factor Beta-Induced Factor 2-Linked X (TGIF2LX Regulates Two Morphogenesis Genes, Nir1 and Nir2 in Human Colorectal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Reza Mobini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A member of homeodomain protein namely TGIF2LX has been implicated as a tumor suppressor gene in human malignancy as well as in spermatogenesis. However, to our knowledge, dynamic functional evidence of the TGIF2LX has not yet been provided. The aim of the present study was to investigate the human TGIF2LX target gene(s using a cDNA-AFLP as a differential display method. A pEGFP-TGIF2LX construct containing the wild-type TGIF2LX cDNA was stably transfected into SW48 cells. UV microscopic analysis and Real-time RT-PCR were used to confirm TGIF2LX expression. The mRNA expressions of TGIF2LX in transfected SW48 cells, the cells containing empty vector (pEGFP-N, and untransfected cells were compared. Also, a Real-time PCR technique was applied to validate cDNA-AFLP results. The results revealed a significant down-regulation and up-regulationby TGIF2LX of Nir1 and Nir2 genes, respectively. The genes are engaged in the cell morphogenesis process. Our findings may provide new insight into the complex molecular pathways underlying colorectal cancer development.

  19. Transforming Growth Factor Beta-Induced Factor 2-Linked X (TGIF2LX) Regulates Two Morphogenesis Genes, Nir1 and Nir2 in Human Colorectal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobini, Gholam Reza; Ghahremani, Mohammad Hossein; Amanpour, Saeid; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza; Akbari, Abolfazl; Hoseiniharouni, Seyed Mojtaba; Muhammadnejad, Samad; Sheikhzade, Maryam; Abedkhojasteh, Hoda; Mohebi, Masoumeh; Bolhassani, Manzar; Heidari, Mansour

    2016-05-01

    A member of homeodomain protein namely TGIF2LX has been implicated as a tumor suppressor gene in human malignancy as well as in spermatogenesis. However, to our knowledge, dynamic functional evidence of the TGIF2LX has not yet been provided. The aim of the present study was to investigate the human TGIF2LX target gene(s) using a cDNA-AFLP as a differential display method. A pEGFP-TGIF2LX construct containing the wild-type TGIF2LX cDNA was stably transfected into SW48 cells. UV microscopic analysis and Real-time RT-PCR were used to confirm TGIF2LX expression. The mRNA expressions of TGIF2LX in transfected SW48 cells, the cells containing empty vector (pEGFP-N), and untransfected cells were compared. Also, a Real-time PCR technique was applied to validate cDNA-AFLP results. The results revealed a significant down-regulation and up-regulationby TGIF2LX of Nir1 and Nir2 genes, respectively. The genes are engaged in the cell morphogenesis process. Our findings may provide new insight into the complex molecular pathways underlying colorectal cancer development.

  20. Practical evaluation of the MiL-Lx lower leg when subjected to simulated vehicle under belly blast load conditions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pandelani, T

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the initial results pertaining to a practical investigation into the robustness of the newly developed Military Extremity (MiL-Lx) lower leg, with respect to repeatability and reproducibility under typical mine-protected vehicle...

  1. [Multiphasic character of the kinetics of cytochrome P-450 destruction in microsomal LM2- and LM4-forms in the reaction with cumene hydroperoxide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhrem, A A; Eremin, A N; Usanov, S A; Metelitsa, D I

    1980-01-01

    Cytochrome P-450 destruction kinetics by cumene hydroperoxide has been studied in LM2 and LM4 microsomal and purified forms. Three destruction phases of cytochrome P-450 were shown to be observed irrespective of the source and integration degree, cytochrome P-450 pseudomonomolecular consumption rate constants being dependent in a complex way upon the cumene hydroperoxide initial concentration. The radical character of cytochrome P-450 destruction was proved by experiments with 1-naphtol. The mechanism of radicals formation is discussed.

  2. Analysis of humoral immune responses to LM1 ganglioside in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yajuan; Chen, Zi-Wei; Siegel, Allan; Koshy, Ranie; Ramirez, Cristhian; Raabe, Timothy D; Devries, George H; Ilyas, Amjad A

    2012-05-15

    Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an autoimmune-mediated disease triggered by a preceding infection. A substantial body of evidence implicates antibodies to various gangliosides in subtypes of GBS. A significant proportion of patients with acute demyelinating subset of GBS have IgG antibodies against peripheral nervous system myelin specific neolactogangliosides such as LM1 and Hex-LM1. Although anti-neolactoganglioside antibodies in GBS were described more than two decades ago, their pathogenic role in neuropathy remains unknown due to the lack of suitable experimental models. In this study, we immunized ten guinea pigs with purified LM1 ganglioside mixed with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). Control guinea pigs were injected with KLH emulsified in CFA only. The animals were bled every four week intervals. The animals were boosted 3 times every four weeks. Experiments were terminated four months after initial immunization. Nine of 10 guinea pigs immunized with LM1 exhibited antibody responses to LM1. Anti-LM1 IgG titers in nine guinea pigs ranged from 1:400 to 1:12,800 at 16-weeks after initial immunization. Anti-LM1 antibodies were predominantly of IgG2 subclass. One guinea pig with the highest levels of IgG antibodies exhibited mild signs of neuropathy. There was no evidence of demyelination or inflammation in the sciatic nerves of LM1-immunized guinea pigs. Anti-LM1 antibodies bound to rat sciatic nerve myelin and to isolated rat Schwann cells. In summary, our findings suggest that relatively high levels of anti-LM1 IgG antibodies can be induced in guinea pigs and that LM1 is localized in peripheral nerve myelin and in Schwann cells. Further studies are needed to determine the pathogenic potential of anti-neolactoganglioside antibodies in neuropathy.

  3. LM-2F: A Great Launch Vehicle for China's Manned Spaceflight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Shufang; Zhang Huiting

    2011-01-01

    The LM-2F launch vehicle is China's first launch carrier developed for China's Manned Space Program,which is one of the most important parts of the Program.It is developed from the LM-2E launch vehicle,with addition of two new systems,an escape system and a fault detection system.

  4. LM-3B/E Launched Eutelsat's W3C Satellite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bian Ji

    2011-01-01

    At 16:21 Beijing time on October 7,2011,China successfully launched the W3C commercial telecommunications satellite manufactured by Thales Alenia Space for Eutelsat Communications into geostationary transfer orbit by using an enhanced LM-3B (LM-3B/E) launch vehicle from Xichang Satellite Launch Center.

  5. MORPHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF HUMAN LENS CAPSULES - A COMPARATIVE LM, SEM AND TEM EXAMINATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JONGEBLOED, WL; KALICHARAN, D; LOS, LI; VANDERVEEN, G; WORST, JGF

    1991-01-01

    Lens capsules of patients of advanced age, obtained after extracapsular cataract surgery, were carefully prepared for a combined LM, TEM and SEM investigation, after preliminary washing and mounting onto a holder in a buffer solution. After pre-fixation with GA, samples were postfixed for LM/TEM and

  6. LOSA-M2 aerosol Raman lidar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balin, Yu S; Bairashin, G S; Kokhanenko, G P; Penner, I E; Samoilova, S V [V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2011-10-31

    The scanning LOSA-M2 aerosol Raman lidar, which is aimed at probing atmosphere at wavelengths of 532 and 1064 nm, is described. The backscattered light is received simultaneously in two regimes: analogue and photon-counting. Along with the signals of elastic light scattering at the initial wavelengths, a 607-nm Raman signal from molecular nitrogen is also recorded. It is shown that the height range of atmosphere probing can be expanded from the near-Earth layer to stratosphere using two (near- and far-field) receiving telescopes, and analogue and photon-counting lidar signals can be combined into one signal. Examples of natural measurements of aerosol stratification in atmosphere along vertical and horizontal paths during the expeditions to the Gobi Desert (Mongolia) and Lake Baikal areas are presented.

  7. Periodic Arrays of M2-Branes

    CERN Document Server

    Jeon, Imtak; Richmond, Paul

    2012-01-01

    We consider periodic arrays of M2-branes in the ABJM model in the spirit of a circle compactification to D2-branes in type IIA string theory. The result is a curious formulation of three-dimensional maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in terms of fermions, seven transverse scalars, a non-dynamical gauge field and an additional scalar `dual gluon'. Upon further T-duality on a transverse torus we obtain a non-manifest-Lorentz-invariant description of five-dimensional maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills. Here the additional scalar field can be thought of as the components of a two-form along the torus. This action can be viewed as an M-theory description of M5-branes on ${\\mathbb T}^3$.

  8. The (178m2)Hf Controversy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, J A; Gemmell, D S; Schiffer, J P; Wilhelmy, J B

    2003-07-24

    Since its discovery in the 1960's the {sup 178m2}Hf isomer has garnered high attention from both the basic and applied communities in nuclear science. It's combination of high spin (16+), long half life (31 yrs), and high excitation energy (2.446 MeV) offer unique possibilities as an energy storage medium. Interest in the isomer was rekindled beginning in 1999 when a series of publications began to appear from a group (referred to here as the ''Texas collaboration'') primarily based at the University of Texas, Dallas [1]. They reported observations that some of the stored energy could be released (''triggered'') when the isomer was exposed to a fluence of photons in the energy range {approx}10 to {approx}60 keV. The implications of this observation are profound. Even though the claimed cross section for the process was {approx}7 orders of magnitude greater than would be predicted from the known systematics of photon absorption by nuclei in this mass range [2], such a highly efficient method for triggering the isomeric deexcitation immediately suggested applications utilizing the explosive or the controlled gradual energy release from a very compact source. The prospect of such applications has focused considerable interest on realizing the promise that is implicit in the reported observations. However, two experiments performed by a group from ANL/LANL/LLNL at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne (the ''APS collaboration'') reported negative results for the observation of any photon-triggered deexcitation of the {sup 178m2}Hf isomer [3]. This has led to a continued controversy, where both sides have adamantly defended their observations. At this point an outsider has difficulty determining whether there is indeed a triggering effect that should be pursued energetically with substantial resources, or whether the phenomenon consists of overly optimistic interpretation of data.

  9. 基于灰色GA-LM-BP模型的CODMn预测%Prediction of CODMn value based on the grey GA-LM-BP model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔雪梅

    2013-01-01

    Due to the large fitting-errors of grey GM(1,1) model and the weak generalization ability of LM-BP neural network, a model of grey GA-LM-BP network was proposed in this paper. The grey GM(1,1) model was used to predict data and obtain residual errors. After the residual errors were fitted, tested and forecasted with LM-BP neural network, more reasonable predicted values can be obtained by correcting the predicted values of the GM(1,1) model. In the meantime, the initialized weights and threshold of LM-BP neural network were optimized with the genetic algorithm ( GA) . The grey GA-LM-BP model was then used to predict the CODMn values at the Xiaogan segment of Lunhe River. Since the prediction errors were found to be less than 2.33%, the accuracy of the model is considered to be reasonable. The model can be used to predict the CODMn values and the water quality early warning.%针对灰色GM(1,1)模型拟合误差较大和LM-BP神经网络泛化能力不强的问题,提出了灰色GA-LM-BP模型,该模型采用灰色GM(1,1)模型预测数据并得到其残差,利用LM-BP神经网络对残差进行拟合、测试、预测后,对灰色GM(1,1)模型的数据预测值进行修正从而得到较合理的预测值,并运用遗传算法对LM-BP神经网络的初始权值和阈值进行优化。运用该模型对伦河孝感段的CODMn进行了预测,预测误差不超过2.33%,表明模型的预测数据是合理的,可用于CODMn的预测和水质预警预报。

  10. Characterization of the Hokuyo URG-04LX laser rangefinder for mobile robot obstacle negotiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Yoichi; Ye, Cang; Borenstein, Johann

    2009-05-01

    This paper presents a characterization study of the Hokuyo URG-04LX scanning laser rangefinder (LRF). The Hokuyo LRF is similar in function to the Sick LRF, which has been the de-facto standard range sensor for mobile robot obstacle avoidance and mapping applications for the last decade. Problems with the Sick LRF are its relatively large size, weight, and power consumption, allowing its use only on relatively large mobile robots. The Hokuyo LRF is substantially smaller, lighter, and consumes less power, and is therefore more suitable for small mobile robots. The question is whether it performs just as well as the Sick LRF in typical mobile robot applications. In 2002, two of the authors of the present paper published a characterization study of the Sick LRF. For the present paper we used the exact same test apparatus and test procedures as we did in the 2002 paper, but this time to characterize the Hokuyo LRF. As a result, we are in the unique position of being able to provide not only a detailed characterization study of the Hokuyo LRF, but also to compare the Hokuyo LRF with the Sick LRF under identical test conditions. Among the tested characteristics are sensitivity to a variety of target surface properties and incidence angles, which may potentially affect the sensing performance. We also discuss the performance of the Hokuyo LRF with regard to the mixed pixels problem associated with LRFs. Lastly, the present paper provides a calibration model for improving the accuracy of the Hokuyo LRF.

  11. LX201获快速通道审批地位

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱苏宁(摘)

    2008-01-01

    美国FDA授予LuxBiosciences公司用于预防角膜移植排斥的LX201(I)快速通道审批地位。该产品是置于眼睑下方的眼内植入物,它将在一年内稳定地向眼内释放环孢素A(ciclosporinA)(Ⅱ)(已经用于预防肾以及其它实体器官移植的排斥)。(I)的两项重要的为期一年的Ⅲ期临床试验是LUCIDA项目的一部分,目前正在进行中。第一项试验在175例免疫排斥高危的患者中进行,以免疫排斥和移植物丧失为主要终点。第二项试验涉及240例在角膜移植后经历了排斥事件的受试者,以移植后52周内免疫性的移植物排斥事件或移植失败为主要终点。

  12. [Pharmacological study of mequitazine (LM-209) (III). Action on the central nervous system (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, H; Tsurumi, K; Yanagihara, M; Hiramatsu, Y; Tamura, Y; Shimizu, Y; Hojo, M; Yoshida, Y; Serizawa, I

    1981-10-01

    The action of an anti-histaminic agent, Mequitazine (LM-209) on the central nervous system was investigated. We found that LM-209 did not affect the spontaneous and co-operative movement in mice, did not induce muscle relaxation, analgesic effects or anti-convulsant effect in micr or hypothermic effects in rats. The anti-oxotremorine effect of LM-209 in mice was about 10 times more potent than clemastine fumarate (CL) and the same as promethazine. The activity and duration of the action were also superior to diethazine and orphenadrine used as an anti-Parkinson drug. LM-209 prolonged by 50% the hypnotic time induced by hexobarbital at 50 mg/kg (p.o.) in mice, while CL prolonged 50 and 100% it at 25 and 50 mg/kg (p.o.) respectively. In the EEG of rabbits, LM-209 produced a resting pattern, inhibited the arousal responses and recruiting responses and the effect was the same as CL and less potent than promethazine. From these results, the activity of LM-209 on the central nervous system (except for the anti-oxotremorine effect) seems to be the same as or somewhat less potent than CL. Therefore LM-209 should be an effective and anti-histaminic agent for clinical application.

  13. Evidence of paired M2 muscarinic receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, L.T.; Ballesteros, L.A.; Bichajian, L.H.; Ferrendelli, C.A.; Fisher, A.; Hanchett, H.E.; Zhang, R. (Univ. of Miami School of Medicine, FL (USA))

    1991-02-01

    Binding assays involving various antagonists, including N-(3H) methylscopolamine, (3H)quinuclidinyl benzilate, AFDX-116, pirenzepine, and propylbenzilylcholine mustard, disclosed only a single population of M2 muscarinic receptors in membranes from the rat brainstem (medulla, pons, and colliculi). However, competition curves between N-(3H)methylscopolamine and various agonists, including oxotremorine, cis-dioxolane, and acetylethylcholine mustard, showed approximately equal numbers of guanine nucleotide-sensitive high affinity (H) sites and guanine nucleotide-insensitive low affinity (L) sites. This 50% H phenomenon persisted in different buffers, at different temperatures, after the number of receptors was halved (and, thus, the remaining receptor to guanine nucleotide-binding protein ratio was doubled), after membrane solubilization with digitonin, and when rabbit cardiac membranes were used instead of rat brainstem membranes. Preferential occupation of H sites with acetylethylcholine mustard, and of L sites with quinuclidinyl benzilate or either mustard, yielded residual free receptor populations showing predominantly L and H sites, respectively. Low concentrations of (3H)-oxotremorine-M labeled only H sites, and the Bmax for these sites was 49% of the Bmax found with (3H)quinuclidinyl benzilate plus guanine nucleotide. These and other results are most consistent with the idea that H and L receptor sites exist on separate but dimeric receptor molecules and with the hypothesis that only the H receptors cycle between high and low affinity, depending upon interactions between this receptor molecule and a guanine nucleotide-binding protein.

  14. Recombinant T2 RNase protein of Schistosoma japonicum inhibits expression of α-SMA in LX-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianxin; Peng, Wenxia; Feng, Jinrong; Zhu, Dandan; Chen, Jinling; Sun, Xiaolei; Lyu, Lei; Ju, Shaoqing; Duan, Yinong

    2016-10-01

    Recombinant T2 RNase glycoprotein, which showed a certain degree of homology to Omega-1 from Schistosoma mansoni eggs, was expressed in adult worms of Schistosoma japonicum, but not in eggs of S. japonicum. The direct biological role of the recombinant T2 RNase protein in activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) remains unknown. In the present study, the immortalized human HSC line (LX-2 cells) was treated with the recombinant T2 RNase protein at indicated concentrations for various time points in vitro. The expression levels of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and Smad4 were detected by Western blot. The results showed that the recombinant T2 RNase protein significantly diminished the expression levels of α-SMA and Smad4 in LX-2 cells. The upregulated expression levels of α-SMA and Smad4 by TGF-β1 in LX-2 cells were both suppressed by the recombinant T2 RNase protein. These data suggest that the recombinant T2 RNase protein may be a potential target of therapeutic strategy for the treatment of hepatic fibrosis.

  15. Biogas from fibrous digestate and wood. New lignin extraction (LX) process for energy and raw material production from plant residues; Biogas aus ''ausgegorenem'' Gaerrest und Holz. Das neue Lignin-Extraktions-(LX)-Verfahren zur Energie- und Rohstoffproduktion aus pflanzlichen Reststoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streffer, R.M.F. [maxbiogas GmbH, Marienwerder (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    75% of plant biomass on earth is made of cellulose and lignine, the lignocelluloses. In a simplified view the lignin wraps in plant biomass the substances easily degraded by microorganisms like cellulose. The LX process utilizes plant biomass and separates it to lignine and pretreated LX-substrate with a reduced lignine content, which is fed back to the fermentation process to be degraded. Combining a biogas plant with the LX process allows even the degradation of fibrous plant parts and it is possible to digest wood. E.g. the fibrous digest is fermented more efficient than maize silage. The LX process has therefore the potential to be able to produce in future economically either energy as wells as resources form plant residues. (orig.) [German] 75% der pflanzlichen Biomasse auf der Welt bestehen aus Zellulose und Lignin, der Lignocellulose. Lignin umhuellt, vereinfacht beschrieben, im pflanzlichen Substrat die leicht durch Mikroorganismen abbaubaren Stoffe, wie Zellulose. Das LX-Verfahren verwertet pflanzliche Biomasse und erzeugt daraus Lignin und stark im Ligningehalt reduziertes, sogenanntes ''aufgeschlossenes'', LX-Substrat, dass dann dem weiteren Abbauprozess zugefuehrt wird. Kombiniert man zum Beispiel eine Biogasanlage mit dem LX-Verfahren, so koennen selbst faserige Pflanzenbestandteile und erstmalig auch Holz vergoren werden. Beispielsweise wird ''ausgegorener'' Gaerrest effizienter fermentiert als Maissilage. Damit hat das LX-Verfahren das Potenzial, kuenftig sowohl Energie als auch Rohstoffe aus pflanzlichen Reststoffen wirtschaftlich herstellen zu koennen.

  16. The effect of IL-32γon CollagenⅠ expression by LX-2 cells%IL -32γ对 LX -2细胞表达Ⅰ型胶原的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘兴飞; 张绍全; 杨小安; 邹小芳; 魏立平

    2016-01-01

    目的:研究IL-32γ可否诱导肝星状细胞LX-2表达Ⅰ型胶原( Collagen Ⅰ)。方法不同浓度的IL-32γ与LX-2共培养,分别收集培养上清液、提取细胞总RNA,real-time PCR检测Collagen Ⅰ mRNA表达水平,ELISA法检测CollagenⅠ蛋白质表达水平。用不同浓度的人重组磷酸化p38α蛋白( recombinant human active p38α蛋白)与LX-2细胞共培养,48 h后收集细胞培养上清液,ELISA法检测Collagen Ⅰ蛋白质表达水平。再用不同浓度的p38MAPK抑制剂SB203580加入LX-2细胞与IL-32γ共培养的培养液中,分别收集培养上清液,采用ELISA检测CollagenⅠ蛋白质表达水平,同时提取细胞总RNA采用real-time PCR检测Collagen Ⅰ mRNA表达水平。结果 IL-32γ诱导人LX-2细胞表达CollagenⅠ,且其表达水平随IL-32γ浓度的增加而增强;人重组磷酸化p38α蛋白可诱导LX-2细胞表达Collagen Ⅰ增高,阻断p38MAPK可降低IL-32γ诱导的Collagen Ⅰ表达。结论 IL-32γ通过活化p38MAPK通路诱导LX-2细胞表达CollagenⅠ,IL-32γ可能通过诱导肝星状细胞表达Collagen Ⅰ而参与肝纤维化的形成。%Objective To investigate whether could IL-32γinduce Collagen Ⅰ expression in LX-2 cells. Methods LX-2 cells were co-cultured with IL-32γof different concentrations.Then total RNA was extracted, and the cell supernatant was collected.CollagenⅠRNA expression level was assayed by using real-time PCR.CollagenⅠprotein expression level was detected by using ELISA.Subsequently, LX-2 cells were co-cultured with recombinant Human Active p38αprotein of different concentrations.Forty-eight hours later, the cell supernatant was collected and CollagenⅠprotein expression level was assessed.The LX-2 cells were then co-cultured with IL-32γ, and p38MAPK inhibitors SB 203580 of different concentrations were added.CollagenⅠRNA and protein expression levels were assessed by using real-time PCR and

  17. 77 FR 17568 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision That Nonconforming 2005 Ifor Williams LM85G Trailers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... Nonconforming 2005 Ifor Williams LM85G Trailers Are Eligible for Importation AGENCY: National Highway Traffic... 2005 Ifor Williams LM85G trailers that were not originally manufactured to comply with all applicable... petitioned NHTSA to decide whether nonconforming 2005 Ifor Williams LM85G trailers are eligible...

  18. coustic Leak Detection Based on Wavelet Packet and Genetic Algorithm for LM FBR Steam Generators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Steam generator is one kind of key equipments in liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LM FBR) whose reliability will influence the safety of nuclear power plant. We can see that SG is the highest risky equipment from the running experience

  19. METHOD OF LOADING OF SURFACES OF INFLUENCE BY TEMPORARY MOVING LOAD LM1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilyushin Nikolay Viktorovich

    2012-10-01

    The proposed methodology represents an unambiguous solution to the problem of identification of unfavourable positions of the temporary moving load LM1 (EN 1991-2 and the extreme forces or relocations involved in this respect.

  20. Application of LM-BP neural network in predicting dam deformation.%LM-BP神经网络在大坝变形预测中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪新颖; 褚金奎; 杜小文

    2011-01-01

    为了对大坝进行切实有效的监控,需要建立一个良好的大坝预测模型.针对传统BP (Back-Propagation)神经网络存在的收敛速度慢和泛化能力弱等缺陷,利用LM-BP(Levenberg Marquardt Back Propagation)算法对大坝变形进行预测,并根据丹江口大坝1996和1997两年的变形观测数据,对大坝挠度预测结果进行分析.结果表明,所建立的LM-BP神经网络的预测精度和收数速度明显提高.%It is significant to establish an effective and practical dam safety monitoring model. The shortcomings of the traditional BP neural network lie in the slowness in the convergence rate and the weakness in the generalization ability. Based on the above, LM-BP neural network is adopted for predicting the dam deformation. With the measured data of Danjiangkou dam deformations in the year of 1996 and 1997 as examples,the deflection of dam is predicted using LM-BP. The results show that the proposed method can obviously enhance the forecasting precision and convergence rate.

  1. IS-LM Stability Revisited: Samuelson was Right, Modigliani was Wrong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldo Mendoza

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In Hicks’s IS-LM model, where it is assumed that production is determined in the goods marketand the interest rate is determined in the money market, when the marginal propensity to spend is greater than one, the IS has a positive slope. Modigliani (1944, Varian (1977 and Sargent (1987 determined that in this special case the IS-LM model is stable when the LM slope isgreater than the IS.In line with Samuelson (1941, this article shows that in this case the model is stable when the IS slope is greater than the LM slope. However, in this stable case the model does not have a useful economic meaning.One solution to this theoretical problem is to abandon the Keynesian adjustment mechanism and replace it with the Classical mechanism where the interest rate is determined in the goods market and production is determined in the money market. In this case, the IS-LM model is stable when the LM is steeper than the IS.

  2. LM23 may regulate the Gl/S and G2/M transitions of the cell cycle in rat spermatogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Yi-ming; Liu Mei-ling; Zhan Hao; Cheng-Yu; Jia Meng-chun

    2011-01-01

    Objective:LM23 (AF492385) is a gene specifically expressed in the testis of Rattus norvegicus previously reported by our laboratory.The aim of the study is to further investigate its biological function.Methods:Bioinformatic tools were utilized,including Protfun server and CPHmodles.The biological functions of LM23 were analyzed with microarray analysis,using a rat model of LM23 gene knock-down.Results:Protfun server shows that LM23 is likely a growth factor or Lyase.LM23 is more likely involved in regulatory functions of translation.The expressions of some genes related to the cell cycle were significantly changed after LM23 knock-down,as shown by microarray analysis.Conclusions:LM23 may regulate the G1/S and G2/M transitions of the cell cycle during spermatogenesis.

  3. Simulation of solar radiation in northwest China based on LM-BP neural network%利用LM-BP神经网络估算西北地区太阳辐射

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李净; 王卫东; 张福存

    2015-01-01

    气候、生态、水文等模型的应用需要空间连续分布的太阳辐射数据,由于地形等条件的制约,气象站点的分布有限,无法利用稀少的站点获得空间连续分布的辐射数据,而BP(Back-propa-gation)神经网络模型对太阳辐射具有很好的预测性,但以往的研究都是基于单个站点估算太阳辐射,而且BP神经网络模型存在收敛速度慢、学习时间长等问题,为解决BP算法存在的不足,采用LM(Levenberg-Marquardt)算法优化后的BP神经网络(简称LM-BP神经网络)结合DEM (DigitalElevation Model)数据估算西北地区128个气象站点2011年的太阳总辐射月均值,通过乌鲁木齐和银川两台站的实测数据进行验证,两台站的平均百分比误差分别为2.89%和3.24%,平均偏离误差分别为0.27 MJ· m-2和0.61 MJ·m-2,且拟合优度均>0.90.该模型各项误差指标较小,估算精度较高.最后将模型模拟出的辐射值,结合已有的24个辐射站点的实测值进行空间插值,得到西北地区2011年逐月太阳辐射精细化空间分布图.

  4. CloudLM: a Cloud-based Language Model for Machine Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrández-Tordera Jorge

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Language models (LMs are an essential element in statistical approaches to natural language processing for tasks such as speech recognition and machine translation (MT. The advent of big data leads to the availability of massive amounts of data to build LMs, and in fact, for the most prominent languages, using current techniques and hardware, it is not feasible to train LMs with all the data available nowadays. At the same time, it has been shown that the more data is used for a LM the better the performance, e.g. for MT, without any indication yet of reaching a plateau. This paper presents CloudLM, an open-source cloud-based LM intended for MT, which allows to query distributed LMs. CloudLM relies on Apache Solr and provides the functionality of state-of-the-art language modelling (it builds upon KenLM, while allowing to query massive LMs (as the use of local memory is drastically reduced, at the expense of slower decoding speed.

  5. Main: 1M2Q [RPSD[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1M2Q トウモロコシ Corn Zea mays L. Casein Kinase Ii, Alpha Chain Name=Ack2; Zea Mays Mole...LVGRHSRKPWLKFMNADNQHLVSPEAIDFLDKLLRYDHQERLTALEAMTHPYFQQVRAAENSRTRA corn_1M2Q.jpg ...

  6. Main: 1M2P [RPSD[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1M2P トウモロコシ Corn Zea mays L. Casein Kinase Ii, Alpha Chain Name=Ack2; Zea Mays Mole...LVGRHSRKPWLKFMNADNQHLVSPEAIDFLDKLLRYDHQERLTALEAMTHPYFQQVRAAENSRTRA corn_1M2P.jpg ...

  7. Main: 1M2R [RPSD[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1M2R トウモロコシ Corn Zea mays L. Casein Kinase Ii, Alpha Chain Name=Ack2; Zea Mays Mole...ELLVDLQDYDYSLDMWSLGCMFAGMIFRKEPFFYGHDNHDQLVKIAKVLGTDGLNVYLNKYRIELDPQLEALVGRHSRKPWLKFMNADNQHLVSPEAIDFLDKLLRYDHQERLTALEAMTHPYFQQVRAAENSRTRA corn_1M2R.jpg ...

  8. 丙型肝炎病毒F蛋白诱导LX2肝星形细胞活化%Activation of hepatic stellate LX2 cells by F protein of hepatitis C virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵圣文; 徐伯赢; 卢添宝; 徐菊玲; 顾福萍; 段劲

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨丙型肝炎病毒(HCV)F蛋白对肝星形细胞(HSC)功能的影响.方法 采用脂质体转染法将pcDNA3.1-f(实验组)或pcDNA3.1空质粒(对照组)转染HSC株LX2细胞,24、48 h后收集细胞,用Western blot法检测α-肌动蛋白(α-SMA)含量,RT-PCR法测定金属蛋白酶组织抑制因子1(TIMP-1)和基质金属蛋白酶2(MMP-2)基因mRNA表达水平.结果 转染后24、48 h,实验组LX2细胞α-SMA蛋白表达量以及TIMP-1基因mRNA水平均明显高于对照组,两组细胞MMP-2 基因mRNA水平接近.结论 HCV F蛋白能够活化HSC,上调其TIMP-1基因转录水平,但不影响MMP-2基因转录水平,使MMP-2蛋白的有效酶活性下降,造成肝组织细胞外基质(ECM)降解速率减慢,进而发生纤维化.%Objective To investigate the effect of hepatitis C virus( HCV) F protein on function of hepatic stellate cells.Methods 24 h and 48 h after transfection pcDNA3.1-f(test group)or pcDNA3.1(control group) plasmid into hepatic stellate LX2 cells by liposome , the protein of smooth muscle α-actin( α-SMA) was detected by Western blot, and the mRNA level of tissue inhibitor factor 1 of metalloproteinases(TIMP-1) and matrix metalloproteinase 2(MMP-2) gene were examined by RT-PCR.Results 24 h and 48 h after LX2 cells transfected pcDNA3.1-f(test group) or pcDNA3.1(control group) , the content of α-SMA protein and the mRNA level of TIMP-1 gene of cells in test group was high than that in control group,and the mRNA level of MMP-2 gene of cells showed no difference between test and control groups.Conclusion HCV F protein is able to activate hepatic stellate LX2 cells.enhance the mRNA level of TIMP-1 gene,but not affect MMP-2 gene transcription,which make the effective enzyme activity of MMP-2 protein be decreased,the degradation rate of ECM in hepatic tissue slowed down.and result in hepatic fibrosis.

  9. The galaxy cluster Ysz-Lx and Ysz-M relations from the WMAP 5-yr data

    CERN Document Server

    Melin, J -B; Delabrouille, J; Arnaud, M; Piffaretti, R; Pratt, G W

    2010-01-01

    We use multifrequency matched filters to estimate, in the WMAP 5-year data, the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) fluxes of 893 ROSAT NORAS/REFLEX clusters spanning the luminosity range Lx,[0.1-2.4]keV = 2 10^{41} - 3.5 10^{45} erg s^{-1}. The filters are spatially optimised by using the universal pressure profile recently obtained from combining XMM-Newton observations of the REXCESS sample and numerical simulations. Although the clusters are individually only marginally detected, we are able to firmly measure the SZ signal (>10 sigma) when averaging the data in luminosity/mass bins. The comparison between the bin-averaged SZ signal versus luminosity and X-ray model predictions shows excellent agreement, implying that there is no deficit in SZ signal strength relative to expectations from the X-ray properties of clusters. Using the individual cluster SZ flux measurements, we directly constrain the Y500-Lx and Y500-M500 relations, where Y500 is the Compton y-parameter integrated over a sphere of radius r500. The Y500-M...

  10. Evaluation of Teaching the IS-LM Model through a Simulation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pablo-Romero, Maria del Populo; Pozo-Barajas, Rafael; Gomez-Calero, Maria de la Palma

    2012-01-01

    The IS-ML model is a basic tool used in the teaching of short-term macroeconomics. Teaching is essentially done through the use of graphs. However, the way these graphs are traditionally taught does not allow the learner to easily visualise changes in the curves. The IS-LM simulation program overcomes difficulties encountered in understanding the…

  11. LM-3C:Breakthrough in Launch Technology for Deep Space Exploration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Dan; Hu Wei; Wei Yuanming

    2010-01-01

    @@ One of the main objectives ofthe Chang'e 2 mission was to demonstrate the direct Earthmoon transfer orbit launch technology.On October 1, 2010, a LM-3C launch vehicle sent the Chang'e 2 into its preset orbit accurately, demonstrating that China has made a breakthrough in launch technology for deep space exploration.

  12. Evaluation of Teaching the IS-LM Model through a Simulation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pablo-Romero, Maria del Populo; Pozo-Barajas, Rafael; Gomez-Calero, Maria de la Palma

    2012-01-01

    The IS-ML model is a basic tool used in the teaching of short-term macroeconomics. Teaching is essentially done through the use of graphs. However, the way these graphs are traditionally taught does not allow the learner to easily visualise changes in the curves. The IS-LM simulation program overcomes difficulties encountered in understanding the…

  13. The energy transfer between the ports of an implemented gyrator using LM13700 operational transconductance amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatai, Ildiko; Zaharie, Ioan

    2012-11-01

    In this paper a gyrator implementation using a LM13700 operational transconductance amplifier is analyzed. It was first verified under PSpice simulation and experimentally the antireciprocity of this gyrator, i.e., its properties. This type of gyrator can be used for controlling the energy transfer from one port to the other by modifying the bias currents of the operational transconductance amplifier.

  14. Microstructure and Kinetic Rheological Behavior of Amidated and Nonamidated LM Pectin Gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lofgren, C.; Guillotin, S.E.; Hermansson, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    The microstructure, kinetics of gelation, and rheological properties have been investigated for gels of nonamidated pectin (C30), amidated pectin (G), and saponified pectin (sG) at different pH values, both with and without sucrose. The low-methoxyl (LM) pectin gels were characterized in the presenc

  15. Synthetic methyl hexagalacturonate hapten inhibitors of antihomogalacturonan monoclonal antibodies LM7, JIM5 and JIM7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Mads Hartvig; Willats, William George Tycho; Knox, J. Paul

    2003-01-01

    A range of synthetic methyl hexagalacturonates were used as potential hapten inhibitors in competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) with anti-homogalacturonan monoclonal antibodies LM7, JIM5 and JIM7. The selective inhibition of these antibodies by different haptens prov...

  16. LM-OSL from single grains of quartz: A preliminary study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulur, E.; Duller, G.A.T.; Solongo, S.

    2002-01-01

    The recently developed single grain attachment for the Riso TL-OSL reader has been modified to achieve linearly modulated optically stimulated luminescence (LM-OSL). Three different types of luminescence behaviour were observed in 81 quartz grains measured. These types are those showing only the ...

  17. The energy transfer between the ports of an implemented gyrator using LM13700 operational transconductance amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatai, Ildiko; Zaharie, Ioan

    2012-11-01

    In this paper a gyrator implementation using a LM13700 operational transconductance amplifier is analyzed. It was first verified under PSpice simulation and experimentally the antireciprocity of this gyrator, i.e., its properties. This type of gyrator can be used for controlling the energy transfer from one port to the other by modifying the bias currents of the operational transconductance amplifier.

  18. Design of uniphase inverter based on LM3S-811%基于LM3S-811单相逆变器设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文涛; 鲁金钿; 彭瑞

    2014-01-01

    The high frequency inverter based on LM3S-811 was realized with the design. The whole system is composed of auxiliary power supply,push-pull booster,full-bridge inverter,SPWM wave generator,over-current protection module,low pass filtering module,etc. 12 V DC is converted into a high frequency square wave by push-pull booster,and then is converted into 300 V DC by transformer boosting,rectification,filtering. SG3525 is used in the push-pull module to drive MOSFET for getting high voltage DC. LM3S-811 is used to produce SPWM wave for driving the full-bridge inversion module,and is com-bined with low pass filtering and output over-current protection to get 220 V AC power frequency. Its output power is up to 240 W. This system has the advantages of small volume and stable output.%在此实现了基于LM3S-811的高频逆变器,整个系统包括辅助电源、推挽升压、全桥逆变、SPWM产生、过流保护以及低通滤波等模块。DC 12 V低压直流经过挽推升压转换为高频方波,再经过变压器升压和整流、滤波转化为DC 300 V。推挽模块用SG3525驱动MOSFET得到高压直流电,再经过LM3S-811产生SPWM波驱动全桥逆模块并结合低通滤波、输出过流保护得到工频AC 220 V,输出功率可达240 W。该系统具有体积小、输出稳定等优点。

  19. IS-LM-BP模型下的内外部均衡政策分析%INWARD AND OUTWARD EQUILIBRIUM POLICY ANALYSIS OF IS-LM-BP Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭中; 涂根; 刘建州

    2009-01-01

    引入IS-LM-BP模型,讨论调整内部均衡和外部均衡的政策问题,进而利用状态空间分析方法构造动态系统模型来分析宏观经济政策.基于政府预期的政策目标,通过状态反馈设计方法,以政府购买、货币供给等宏观经济政策工具来达到预期的政策效果.

  20. 基于LM-BP算法的绿色建筑评价研究%Green Building Evaluation Study Based on Lm-bp Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏晓; 董莉莉

    2016-01-01

    Current evaluation model based on BP neural network has the shortcomings of slow convergence speed, easily falling into local minima and huge computation. In view of this situation and the requirement of green building evaluation, this paper put forward a green building evaluation model based on LM-BP algorithm. Firstly, it transforms the objective function of BP neural network into Hessian matrix by nonlinear least squares. Then the problem of solving second-order derivatives of objective function is turned to solving the first-order derivative so as to greatly reduce the amount of calculation. Finally, an ideal searching direction is generated around the optimal value to make the objective function decrease fast and improve the accuracy of green building evaluation. The simulation experiments show that this proposed evaluation model based on LM-BP algorithm has better performance and higher accuracy in green building evaluation.%以基于BP神经网络的评价模型中的收敛速度慢、容易陷入局部最小点以及计算量大等问题为着眼点,并根据绿色建筑评价的需求设计了一种以LM-BP算法为基础的绿色建筑评级啊模型.最先借助非线性最小二乘法把BP神经网络的目标函数转变成Hessian矩阵,然后将计算目标函数的二阶倒数转化为求解其一阶倒数,从而极大地减少了计算的工作量,最后在最优值附近产生一个理想的搜索方向,使目标函数一直保持较快的下降速度,以提高绿色建筑评价的准确性.算法仿真试验结果表明,本文提出的基于LM-BP算法的绿色建筑评价模型能很好的对绿色建筑进行综合评价,并且评价准确度较高.

  1. Towards Horizontal Architecture for Autonomic M2M Service Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhani Latvakoski

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Today, increasing number of industrial application cases rely on the Machine to Machine (M2M services exposed from physical devices. Such M2M services enable interaction of physical world with the core processes of company information systems. However, there are grand challenges related to complexity and “vertical silos” limiting the M2M market scale and interoperability. It is here expected that horizontal approach for the system architecture is required for solving these challenges. Therefore, a set of architectural principles and key enablers for the horizontal architecture have been specified in this work. A selected set of key enablers called as autonomic M2M manager, M2M service capabilities, M2M messaging system, M2M gateways towards energy constrained M2M asset devices and creation of trust to enable end-to-end security for M2M applications have been developed. The developed key enablers have been evaluated separately in different scenarios dealing with smart metering, car sharing and electric bike experiments. The evaluation results shows that the provided architectural principles, and developed key enablers establish a solid ground for future research and seem to enable communication between objects and applications, which are not initially been designed to communicate together. The aim as the next step in this research is to create a combined experimental system to evaluate the system interoperability and performance in a more detailed manner.

  2. Revisiting the Endocytosis of the M2 Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Wymke Ockenga; Ritva Tikkanen

    2015-01-01

    The agonist-induced endocytosis of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 is different from that of the other members of the muscarinic receptor family. The uptake of the M2 receptor involves the adapter proteins of the β-arrestin family and the small GTPase ADP-ribosylation factor 6. However, it has remained inconclusive if M2 endocytosis is dependent on clathrin or the large GTPase dynamin. We here show by means of knocking down the clathrin heavy chain that M2 uptake upon agonist stimul...

  3. The role of alanine 163 in solute permeability of Leishmania major aquaglyceroporin LmAQP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Rita; Mandal, Goutam; Atluri, Venkata Subba Rao; Figarella, Katherine; Uzcategui, Nestor L; Zhou, Yao; Beitz, Eric; Ajees, A Abdul; Bhattacharjee, Hiranmoy

    2011-01-01

    Leishmania major aquaglyceroporin LmAQP1 allows adventitious passage of antimonite, an activated form of the drug Pentostam, which is used as the first line treatment for leishmaniasis. The extracellular C-loop of an aquaglyceroporin confers substrate specificity. Alteration of Glu125 to serine in the Plasmodium falciparum aquaglyceroporin PfAQP has been shown to selectively affect water but not glycerol permeability. The C-loop of LmAQP1 is twelve residues longer than PfAQP, and Ala163 is at an equivalent position as Glu125 of PfAQP. The role of Ala163 in LmAQP1 solute permeability was investigated. Alteration of Ala163 to serine or threonine did not significantly affect conduction of solutes. However, alteration to aspartate, glutamate, and glutamine blocked passage of water, glycerol, and other organic solutes. While LmAQP1 is a mercurial insensitive water channel, mutation of the adjacent threonine (Thr164) to cysteine led to inhibition of water passage by Hg(2+). This inhibition could be reversed upon addition of β-mercaptoethanol. These data suggest that, unlike Glu125 (PfAQP), Ala163 is not involved in stabilization of the C-loop and selective solute permeability. Ala163 is located near the pore mouth of the channel, and replacement of Ala163 by bulkier residue sterically hinders the passage of solutes. Alteration of Ala163 to serine or threonine affected metalloid uptake in the order, wild-type>A163S>A163T. Metalloid conduction was near completely blocked when Ala163 was mutagenized to aspartate, glutamate, or glutamine. Mutations such as A163S and A163T that reduced the permeability to antimonite, without a significant loss in water or solute conductivity raises the possibility that, subtle changes in the side chain of the amino acid residue in position 163 of LmAQP1 may play a role in drug resistance.

  4. Uranium-Bearing Evaporite Mineralization Influencing Plume Persistence. Literature Review and DOE-LM Site Surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-05-01

    This report on evaporite mineralization was completed as an Ancillary Work Plan for the Applied Studies and Technology program under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM). This study reviews all LM sites under Title I and Title II of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) and one Decontamination and Decommissioning site to provide (1) a summary of which sites have evaporite deposits, (2) any available quantitative geochemical and mineralogical analyses, and (3) references to relevant reports. In this study, “evaporite” refers to any secondary mineral precipitate that occurs due to a loss of water through evaporative processes. This includes efflorescent salt crusts, where this term refers to a migration of dissolved constituents to the surface with a resulting salt crust, where “salt” can refer to any secondary precipitate, regardless of constituents. The potential for the formation of evaporites at LM sites has been identified, and may have relevance to plume persistence issues. Evaporite deposits have the potential to concentrate and store contaminants at LM sites that could later be re-released. These deposits can also provide a temporary storage mechanism for carbonate, chloride, and sulfate salts along with uranium and other contaminants of concern (COCs). Identification of sites with evaporites will be used in a new technical task plan (TTP), Persistent Secondary Contaminant Sources (PeSCS), for any proposed additional sampling and analyses. This additional study is currently under development and will focus on determining if the dissolution of evaporites has the potential to hinder natural flushing strategies and impact plume persistence. This report provides an initial literature review on evaporites followed by details for each site with identified evaporites. The final summary includes a table listing of all relevant LM sites regardless of evaporite identification.

  5. Expression patterns of LmAP2L1 and LmAP2L2 encoding two-APETALA2 domain proteins during somatic embryogenesis and germination of hybrid larch (Larix x marschlinsii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaumot, Damien; Lelu-Walter, Marie-Anne; Germot, Agnès; Meytraud, Fanny; Gastinel, Louis; Riou-Khamlichi, Catherine

    2008-06-16

    Two APETALA2 domain transcription factors were characterized first in angiosperms, and, recently, in several gymnosperms. These proteins are involved in several processes, from flowering to embryogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. We extrapolated this result to hybrid larch (Larixxmarschlinsii Coaz) resulting from a cross between European (Larix decidua) and Japanese (Larix kaempferi) larches. Somatic embryogenesis is well described and controlled for this Pinaceae. We characterized two-AP2 domain genes: LmAP2L1 and LmAP2L2. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that LmAP2L1 and LmAP2L2 were orthologous to Norway spruce PaAP2L1 and PaAP2L2 and that L1 forms appeared to be specific to Pinaceae. RT-PCR analysis showed that larch APETALA2 was differentially expressed during late somatic embryogenesis and during the first steps of germination. Whereas LmAP2L2 was constitutively expressed during this process, LmAP2L1 expression appeared only during late somatic embryogenesis, when embryos were able to germinate. Further, LmAP2L1 appeared to be the preferentially expressed form during embryo germination. Thus, LmAP2L1 seems to be a valuable molecular marker for hybrid larch late somatic embryogenesis and could play a role during post-embryonic development.

  6. The Demand for Divisia M2 in China%中国Divisa M2需求模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘红宇; 邓述慧

    2001-01-01

    本文计算中国Divisa M2指数并对其建立需求模型,研究发现实际Divisa M2 与实际产出存在协整关系,采用误差校正方法建立的动态需求模型具有良好的稳定性。%This paper computes the Divisa M2 in China and makes the money demand model for it. The research finds that the demand for real Divisa M2 is cointegrated with the real output, the short-run model is stable also.

  7. A Survey on M2M Service Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhani Latvakoski

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The number of industrial applications relying on the Machine to Machine (M2M services exposed from physical world has been increasing in recent years. Such M2M services enable communication of devices with the core processes of companies. However, there is a big challenge related to complexity and to application-specific M2M systems called “vertical silos”. This paper focuses on reviewing the technologies of M2M service networks and discussing approaches from the perspectives of M2M information and services, M2M communication and M2M security. Finally, a discussion on technologies and approaches potentially enabling future autonomic M2M service networks are provided. According to our conclusions, it is seen that clear definition of the architectural principles is needed to solve the “vertical silo” problem and then, proceeding towards enabling autonomic capabilities for solving complexity problem appears feasible. Several areas of future research have been identified, e.g., autonomic information based services, optimization of communications with limited capability devices, real-time messaging, creation of trust and end to end security, adaptability, reliability, performance, interoperability, and maintenance.

  8. The IS-LM Model: Is There a Connection between Slopes and the Effectiveness of Fiscal and Monetary Policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, David W.

    1999-01-01

    Offers instructors a presentation of the IS (investment saving)-LM (liquidity preference-money supply) model, suggesting that a number of benefits emerge if the instructor focuses on what determines the size of both the horizontal and vertical distances between the IS curves and between the LM curves. (CMK)

  9. HIGH RESOLUTION MODELLING OF PCB CONGENERS IN LAKE MICHIGAN USING THE LAKE MICHIGAN (LM3) CONTAMINANT MODEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Lake Michigan Level 3 (LM3) Model is a numerical model of Lake Michigan used to predict the fate and transport of 54 PCB congeners. The LM3 model segments Lake Michigan horizontally with a 5 x 5 km grid and vertically with 19 sigma layers for a total of 44,042 water column se...

  10. Mature Forest Resources Assets Assessment Model Based on LM-BP Algorithm%基于LM-BP算法的成熟林资产评估模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖晓燕; 颜桂梅

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve assessment efficiency and reduce costs,the application of neural networks technology in setting up forest resources assets assessment model was studied.The traditional BP neural networks had shortcomings.Based on the above,Bayesian Regularization algorithm and BP neural networks are combined to set up model of mature forest based on LM-BP.The simulation results show that this model is effective,its prediction accuracy is high.%为了提高评估效率、降低评估成本,将神经网络技术应用到森林资源资产评估建模中.针对传统BP神经网络存在的缺陷,将BP神经网络和贝叶斯正则化算法相结合,建立了基于LM-BP神经网络的成熟林评估模型.仿真结果表明,所建立的模型是有效的,预测精度高.

  11. M2 factor of four-petal Gaussian beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Guo-Quan; Fan Yan

    2008-01-01

    Based on the second-order moments,this paper derives an analytical expression of the M2 factor of four-petal Gaussian beam.The results show that the M2 factor is only determined by the beam order n.The corresponding numerical calculations are also given.As the beam order increases,the augment of M2 factor is disciplinary.As the expression of M2 factor is expressed in series form and becomes more complicated,a new concise formula of M2 factor is also presented by using curve fitting of numerical calculations.When 3≤n≤200,the maximum error rate of fitting formula will not exceed 2.6% and the average error rate is 0.28%.This research is helpful to the applications of four-petal Gaussian beam.

  12. 基于LM-BP网络的粮食产量预测%Forecasting Corn Production Based on LM-BP Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭庆春; 可振芳; 李力

    2012-01-01

    A corn production porecasting method based on improved LM-BP was proposed. According to measurement and a-gricultural significance principle, 9 factors of grain-sown area, fertilizer input, effective grain irrigated area, stricken area, rural electricity consumption, total agriculture mechanism power, the population engaged in agriculture, rural residents family productive assets, the average net income of rural households were extracted as the network input; corn production was extracted as the network output. The LM algorithm could minimize the error, and the modeling results were evaluated with the correlation coefficients, relative error, etc. For training sample set, the correlation coefficient between the simulated value and the actual value was 0.996, the average relative error was 0.47%; for testing sample set, the correlation coefficient between the forecasted value and the actual value was 0.994, the average relative error was 0.56%. The results showed that the improved LM-BP model could improve simulation precision and stability of the model. This method is effective and feasible for com production prediction.%利用Levenberg-Marquardt (LM)算法对BP神经网络法进行改进,提出了基于改进型LM-BP神经网络模型的粮食产量预测方法.提取了粮食作物播种面积、化肥施用量、粮食作物有效灌溉面积、受灾面积、农村用电量、农业机械总动力、从事农业的人口、农村居民家庭生产性固定资产原值、农村居民家庭平均纯收入9个因子作为输入因子构筑模型,粮食产量作为网络输出,通过LM算法使网络误差最小化,最后使用相关系数、相对误差等指标对模型的模拟结果进行检验.结果表明,训练样本集中模拟值和实际值的相关系数为0.996,平均相对误差为0.47%;检测样本集中,预测值和实际值的相关系数为0.994,平均相对误差为0.56%;该模型具有较高的拟合精度和预测精度,将此网络模

  13. M2 polarization enhances silica nanoparticle uptake by macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica eHoppstädter

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available While silica nanoparticles have enabled numerous industrial and medical applications, their toxicological safety requires further evaluation. Macrophages are the major cell population responsible for nanoparticle clearance in vivo. The prevailing macrophage phenotype largely depends on the local immune status of the host. Whereas M1-polarized macrophages are considered as pro-inflammatory macrophages involved in host defense, M2 macrophages exhibit anti-inflammatory and wound-healing properties, but also promote tumor growth.We employed different models of M1 and M2 polarization: GM-CSF/LPS/IFN-gamma was used to generate primary human M1 cells and M-CSF/IL-10 to differentiate M2 monocyte-derived macrophages. PMA-differentiated THP-1 cells were polarized towards an M1 type by LPS/IFN-gamma and towards M2 by IL-10. Uptake of fluorescent silica nanoparticles (Ø 26 and 41 nm and microparticles (Ø 1.75 µm was quantified. At the concentration used (50 µg/ml, silica nanoparticles did not influence cell viability as assessed by MTT assay. Nanoparticle uptake was enhanced in M2-polarized primary human monocyte-derived macrophages compared with M1 cells, as shown by flow cytometric and microscopic approaches. In contrast, the uptake of microparticles did not differ between M1 and M2 phenotypes. M2 polarization was also associated with increased nanoparticle uptake in the macrophage-like THP-1 cell line. In accordance, in vivo polarized M2-like primary human tumor-associated macrophages (TAM obtained from lung tumors took up more nanoparticles than M1-like alveolar macrophages isolated from the surrounding lung tissue.In summary, our data indicate that the M2 polarization of macrophages promotes nanoparticle internalization. Therefore, the phenotypical differences between macrophage subsets should be taken into consideration in future investigations on nanosafety, but might also open up therapeutic perspectives allowing to specifically target M2

  14. LM-research opportunities and activities at the Latvian Academy of Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lielausis, O.

    1996-06-01

    In this presentation selected examples will be considered characterizing the breadth of their interests in LM applications. So, InGaSn eutectic was used as a modeling liquid for investigation of MHD effects typical to some LM-blanket configurations. LM coatings proposed for the protection of divertor plates were considered too. Experiments were performed on a superconducting magnet providing a 5.6 T magnetic field in a 30 liters bore. In a large vacuum chamber (12 m{sup 3}; 6.65 10{sup {minus}4} Pa) lithium cooling system for high temperature reactors was examined. Electromagnetic pumps and flowmeters able to work at lithium temperatures up to 960{degrees}C were tested. A Na loop, where two mounted in line electromagnetic pumps are delivering a 25 atm. pressure. The main Na loop equipped with em. pumps is based on a d=10 cm tubing. LM devices were installed in the Latvian 500 MW nuclear research reactor IRT-5000 too. First, a equipped with conductive e.m. pumps loop, where InGaSn serves as a {gamma}-carrier from activity generator (placed close to the core) to two outer 20 Mrad/h irradiators. Second, a LM system for rector control, where contained in InGaSn indium is used for neutron absorption and reactivity control. A closed cylindrical LM container was installed in the core instead of a traditional control rod. The container is divided in two chambers by means of elastic membranes. The one chamber contains InGaSn, the second GaSn (without In). By means of e.m. pumps the proportion between InGaSn and GaSn in the active zone can be changed ensuring a possibility to control the amount of introduced in the core absorbing material. Long term tests of the system were performed on a zero-power assembly. But for a shorter time the system was inserted in the core of the acting main reactor too and the efficiency of the control was confirmed.

  15. Thin-shell mixing in radiative wind-shocks and the Lx-Lbol scaling of O-star X-rays

    CERN Document Server

    Owocki, Stanley P; Cohen, David H; Gayley, Kenneth G

    2012-01-01

    X-ray satellites since Einstein have empirically established that the X-ray luminosity from single O-stars scales linearly with bolometric luminosity, Lx ~ 10^{-7} Lbol. But straightforward forms of the most favored model, in which X-rays arise from instability-generated shocks embedded in the stellar wind, predict a steeper scaling, either with mass loss rate Lx ~ Mdot ~ Lbol^{1.7} if the shocks are radiative, or with Lx ~ Mdot^{2} ~ Lbol^{3.4} if they are adiabatic. This paper presents a generalized formalism that bridges these radiative vs. adiabatic limits in terms of the ratio of the shock cooling length to the local radius. Noting that the thin-shell instability of radiative shocks should lead to extensive mixing of hot and cool material, we propose that the associated softening and weakening of the X-ray emission can be parametrized as scaling with the cooling length ratio raised to a power m$, the "mixing exponent". For physically reasonable values m ~= 0.4, this leads to an X-ray luminosity Lx ~ Mdot...

  16. Identification and mapping stripe rust resistance gene YrLM168a using extreme individuals and recessive phenotype class in a complicate genetic background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Junyan; Chen, Guoyue; Wei, Yuming; Liu, Yaxi; Jiang, Qiantao; Li, Wei; Pu, Zhien; Lan, Xiujin; Dai, Shoufen; Zhang, Min; Zheng, Youliang

    2015-12-01

    The identification and characterization of resistance genes effective against stripe rust of wheat is beneficial for modern wheat breeding programs. Molecular markers to such genes facilitate their deployment. The variety Milan has resistance that is effective against the predominant stripe rust races in the Sichuan region. Two resistant and two susceptible F8 lines from a cross between Milan and the susceptible variety Chuannong 16 were used to investigate inheritance of the Milan resistance. Three F2 populations were developed from crosses between the resistant lines and their susceptible sibling lines (LM168a × LM168c, LM168c × LM168a, LM168b × LM168d) and used for genetic analysis and molecular mapping of the genes for resistance. The stripe rust resistance in LM168a and LM168b was conferred by a single dominant gene, temporarily designated as YrLM168a. Forty-five extreme susceptible plants from the F2 families of LM168d × LM168b were genotyped with 836 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers to map YrLM168a. YrLM168a was mapped in chromosome 6BL. The nearest flanking markers Xwmc756 and Xbarc146 were 4.6 and 4.6 cM away from the gene at both sides, respectively. The amplification results of twenty extreme resistant (IT 0) and susceptible (IT 4) F2 plants of LM168c × LM168a and LM168a × LM168c with marker Xwmc756 further validated the mapping results. The study suggested that extreme individuals and recessive phenotype class can be successfully used for mapping genes, which should be efficient and reliable. In addition, the flanking markers near YrLM168a should be helpful in marker-assisted breeding.

  17. Characterization of the expanded austenite developed on AISI 316 LM steel by plasma nitriding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keddam M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available AISI 316 LM samples were plasma nitrided at a temperature of 380°C for different times between 0.5 and 8 h in a 85%N2- 15%H2 gas mixture. Different experimental techniques such as: optical microscopy (OM, X- ray diffraction (XRD and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES were used to characterize the expanded austenite layer formed at the surface of AISI 316 LM stainless steel. The microscopical observations revealed the presence of the expanded austenite with a mean layer thickness between 1.90 and 4.31 μm. The growth kinetics of expanded austenite was also investigated. In addition, both the compressive stresses in the expanded austenite layer and the compositional strains were estimated by means of a simple mechanical model based on the XRD results.

  18. Influence of ursolic acid on glucooligosaccharides synthesized by dextransucrase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides Lm 28

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TONKA VASILEVA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A study of modulation of the reactions catalyzed by dextransucrase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides Lm 28 strain in the presence of triterpenoid ursolic acid was carried out. This compound showed concentration dependent inhibition of the studied dextransucrase and Ki = 1.9 mM, which is about 5 times higher than Ki value of the known glucansucrase inhibitor acarbose. Ursolic acid affected significantly the acceptor reactions catalyzed by Lm 28 dextransucrase in the presence of maltose and sucrose to maltose ratio 2. Increasing concentrations of ursolic acid shifted concentration and degree of polymerization (DP distribution of the synthesized glucooligosaccharides (GOS to acceptor products with DP ≤ 5. The oligosaccharide synthesis scheme applied in this study is a promising approach for production of GOS with controlled length of the chain.

  19. NACA0015 Measurements in LM Wind Tunnel and Turbulence Generated Noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertagnolio, Franck

    A NACA0015 airfoil section was instrumented with an array of highfrequency microphones mounted on its surface and measured in the wind tunnel at LM Glasfiber at various inflow speeds, angles of attack, and with different turbulent inflow conditions. The aim of this work is to analyze these measur......A NACA0015 airfoil section was instrumented with an array of highfrequency microphones mounted on its surface and measured in the wind tunnel at LM Glasfiber at various inflow speeds, angles of attack, and with different turbulent inflow conditions. The aim of this work is to analyze...... these measurement data, including the turbulent inflow characteristics. The airfoil surface pressure data are considered in the perspective of turbulent inflow noise in order to identify the potential for using these data to validate and possibly improve associated noise models from the literature. In addition...

  20. A LM-3B Launch Vehicle Sent Chinasat-9 Into Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The Chinasat-9 direct-broadcast television satellite was launched by a LM-3B launch vehicle from Xichang Satellite Launch Center (XSLC) on June 9.According to Xi'an Satellite Control Center (XSCC),the satellite entered the preset super-geosynchronous transfer orbit 26 minutes after the liftoff with an apogee of 49887km,a perigee of 214km and an inclination of 24.2 degrees.

  1. FY-3A Launched Atop A LM-4C Launch Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rain.L

    2008-01-01

    @@ FY-3A,the first satellite of China's new generation of polar-orbiting meteorological satellites,was launched into space atop a modified LM-4C launch vehicle.The satellite separated from the rocket 19 minutes after the takeoff.Flying at an altitude of 807km with an inclination of 98.8 degrees,the satellite circles in polar orbit 14 times everyday,covering the whole globe twice a day.

  2. Chuangxin-1-02 And Shiyan Satellite 3 Launched Atop A LM-2D

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ A LM-2D launch vehicle blasted off from Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center (JSLC) at 08:15 (Beijing time) on November 5, sending Chuangxin-l-02 and Shiyan Satellite 3 into space. According to the data released by the Xi'an Satellite Control Center (XSCC), Chuangxin-1-02 separated from the launch vehicle 856 seconds after the takeoff, and Shiyan Satellite 3 separated from the rocket 63 seconds thereafter.

  3. The Study of CoLM (Common Land Model) over Gobi Desert Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Xiao, Tiangui; Jia, La; Du, Jun; Wen, Xiaohang

    2017-04-01

    By using the observation data, e.g. energy fluxes, temperature, soil temperature, at Dunhuang Gobi station in northwest China during Land-Atmosphere Interaction Experiment. The simulation capability of the Common Land Model (CoLM) was evaluated. Furthermore, the new value of albedo in gobi surface at Dunhuang, and empirical relation of the surface thermal exchange coefficient calculated by observation data, were used to improve the capability of CoLM. The main conclusions are as follows: 1. Daily variation trend of the sensible heat and net radiation flux were estimated well in unmodified CoLM experiment, but the extreme value of energy flux were different from observation data, especially at midday. The model overestimates the sensible heat and underestimates the net radiation. 2. The albedo of gobi in model is 0.32, and it is higher than 0.26, which is calculated by observation data. Using the new value we conducted the simulation, and the net radiation is closer to observation, but the surface temperature and sensible heat were not meeting our expectation. 3. As the new empirical relationship of the surface thermal exchange coefficient was used to modify the thermal aerodynamic impedance, the simulated soil surface temperature was significantly closer to the observed data. Meanwhile, the simulated surface sensible heat and the net radiation fluxes were also improved. The energy flux can be simulated reasonable in the modified CoLM model over gobi land surface. Key words: land surface model, numerical simulation, parameterization scheme Acknowledgements This study was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China Fund Project (91337215, 41575066), National Key Basic Research Program (2013CB733206), Special Fund for Meteorological Research in the Public Interest (GYHY201406015), Risk Assessment System of Significant Climate Events in Tibet (14H046), and the Scientific Research Foundation of CUIT (CRF201606).

  4. Power management implementation in FreeRTOS on LM3S3748

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonović Mirela

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Power consumption has become a major concern of embedded systems today. With the aim to reduce power consumption during the runtime, operating systems are dealing with power management. In this work, the FreeRTOS port is extended with power management features on LM3S3748 microcontroller. Tickless idle technique is implemented to provide more powersaving during the processor idle periods.

  5. Electrical conduction mechanism of polyvinyl chloride (PVC)–polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) blend film

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R S Gulalkari; Y G Bakale; D K Burghate; V S Deogaonkar

    2007-09-01

    The electrical conduction mechanism in polyvinyl chloride (PVC)–polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) blend film has been studied at various temperatures in the range 313 K to 353 K. The results are presented in the form of – characteristics. Analysis has been made in the light of Poole–Frenkel, Fowler–Nordheim, Schottky, log() vs. plots and Arrhenius plots. It is observed that, Schottky–Richardson mechanism is primarily responsible for the observed conduction.

  6. Context-aware adaptive and personalized mobile learning delivery supported by UoLmP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Gómez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, several research initiatives have investigated the potentials of the educational paradigm shift from the traditional one-size-fits-all teaching approaches to adaptive and personalized learning. On the other hand, mobile devices are recognized as an emerging technology to facilitate teaching and learning strategies that exploit individual learners’ context. This has led to an increased interest on context-aware adaptive and personalized mobile learning systems aiming to provide learning experiences delivered via mobile devices and tailored to learner’s personal characteristics and situation. To this end, in this paper we present a context-aware adaptive and personalized mobile learning system, namely the Units of Learning mobile Player (UoLmP, which aims to support semi-automatic adaptation of learning activities, that is: (a adaptations to the interconnection of the learning activities (namely, the learning flow and (b adaptations to the educational resources, tools and services that support the learning activities. Initial evaluation results from the use of UoLmP provide evidence that UoLmP can successfully adapt the learning flow of an educational scenario and the delivery of educational resources, tools and services that support the learning activities. Finally, these adaptations can facilitate students to complete successfully the learning activities of an educational scenario.

  7. Multi-objective calibration of the land surface scheme TERRA/LM using LITFASS-2003 data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.-P. Johnsen

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The turbulent sensible and latent heat fluxes simulated in the operational weather forecast model LM have been checked with data from the field experiment LITFASS 2003 (Lindenberg Inhomogeneous Terrain - Fluxes between Atmosphere and Surface: a Long-term Study using both single site measurements and grid box aggregated fluxes. SCE-UA (single objective and MOSCEM-UA (multi-objective approaches were applied to calibrate the land-surface scheme TERRA/LM for 11 single sites and for the aggregated fluxes. A large variation is seen among the parameter sets found by calibration but no typical classification according to vegetation type is obvious. This is attributed to the calibrated parameter sets correcting for model deficiencies and data errors rather than describing the physical characteristics of the measurement site. The measured fluxes were combined into a time series of aggregated fluxes by the tile method. Calibration of TERRA/LM with respect to the averaged fluxes resulted in a range of parameter sets which all simulated the area-averaged fluxes in much better agreement with the observed fluxes than the standard parameter set of the operational model. A modified Nash-Sutcliffe measure as a coincidence criterion fell from 0.3 to a range between 0.15 and 0.28 for the latent heat flux and from 0.43 to between 0.26 and 0.36 for the sensible heat flux when the calibrated parameter sets were used instead of the standard parameters.

  8. Passive load follow analysis of the STAR-LM and STAR-H2 systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisseytsev, Anton

    A steady-state model for the calculation of temperature and pressure distributions, and heat and work balance for the STAR-LM and the STAR-H2 systems was developed. The STAR-LM system is designed for electricity production and consists of the lead cooled reactor on natural circulation and the supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle. The STAR-H2 system uses the same reactor which is coupled to the hydrogen production plant, the Brayton cycle, and the water desalination plant. The Brayton cycle produces electricity for the on-site needs. Realistic modules for each system component were developed. The model also performs design calculations for the turbine and compressors for the CO2 Brayton cycle. The model was used to optimize the performance of the entire system as well as every system component. The size of each component was calculated. For the 400 MWt reactor power the STAR-LM produces 174.4 MWe (44% efficiency) and the STAR-H2 system produces 7450 kg H2/hr. The steady state model was used to conduct quasi-static passive load follow analysis. The control strategy was developed for each system; no control action on the reactor is required. As a main safety criterion, the peak cladding temperature is used. It was demonstrated that this temperature remains below the safety limit during both normal operation and load follow.

  9. Expression of Leishmania major LmSTI1 in Yeast Pichia Pastoris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Shokri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leishmania major LmSTI1 is a conserved protein among different species of leishmania, and expressed in both amastigote and promastigote forms of L. major life cycle. It has previously been expressed in bacterial systems.Materials and Methods: To express LmSTI1 in the methylotrophic yeast         Pichia pastoris (P. pastoris, the shuttle vector pPICZA containing gene lmsti1 was constructed under the control of the AOX1 promoter. The recombinant vector was electro-transformed into P. pastoris, and induced by 0.5% methanol in the buffered medium. The expression of the LmSTI1 protein was visualized in the total soluble protein of P. pastoris by 12% SDS-PAGE, and further confirmed by Western blotting with L.major-infected mouse sera and HRP-conjugated goat anti-mouse IgG as the first and secondary antibodies, respectively.Results: The expression level was 0.2% of total soluble proteins.Conclusion: It might be possible to use this formulation as a whole yeast candidate vaccine against cutaneous leishmanization.

  10. Asymmetrically acting lycopene beta-cyclases (CrtLm) from non-photosynthetic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, L; Picataggio, S; Rouvière, P E; Cheng, Q

    2004-03-01

    Carotenoids have important functions in photosynthesis, nutrition, and protection against oxidative damage. Some natural carotenoids are asymmetrical molecules that are difficult to produce chemically. Biological production of carotenoids using specific enzymes is a potential alternative to extraction from natural sources. Here we report the isolation of lycopene beta-cyclases that selectively cyclize only one end of lycopene or neurosporene. The crtLm genes encoding the asymmetrically acting lycopene beta-cyclases were isolated from non-photosynthetic bacteria that produced monocyclic carotenoids. Co-expression of these crtLm genes with the crtEIB genes from Pantoea stewartii (responsible for lycopene synthesis) resulted in the production of monocyclic gamma-carotene in Escherichia coli. The asymmetric cyclization activity of CrtLm could be inhibited by the lycopene beta-cyclase inhibitor 2-(4-chlorophenylthio)-triethylamine (CPTA). Phylogenetic analysis suggested that bacterial CrtL-type lycopene beta-cyclases might represent an evolutionary link between the common bacterial CrtY-type of lycopene beta-cyclases and plant lycopene beta- and epsilon-cyclases. These lycopene beta-cyclases may be used for efficient production of high-value asymmetrically cyclized carotenoids.

  11. Bisphenol A Inhibits Cell Proliferation and Reduces the Motile Potential of Murine LM8 Osteosarcoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidani, Teruki; Yasuda, Rie; Miyawaki, Joji; Oshima, Yusuke; Miura, Hiromasa; Masuno, Hiroshi

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of bisphenol A (BPA) on the proliferation and motility potential of murine LM8 osteosarcoma cells. LM8 cells were treated for 3 days with or without 80 μM BPA. The effect of BPA on cell proliferation was determined by DNA measurement in the cultures and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation study. Ethanol-fixed cells were stained with hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) to visualize cell morphology. Cell motility was assayed using inserts with uncoated membranes in invasion chambers. Expression of cell division cycle 42 (CDC42) was determined by immunofluorescence staining and western blotting. BPA reduced the DNA content of cultures and the number of BrdU-positive cells. BPA induced a change in morphology from cuboidal with multiple filopodia on the cell surface to spindle-shaped with a smooth cell surface. BPA-treated cells expressed less CDC42 and were less motile than untreated cells. BPA inhibited DNA replication and cell proliferation. BPA inhibited filopodia formation and motile potential by inhibiting CDC42 expression in LM8 cells. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  12. TNF Counterbalances the Emergence of M2 Tumor Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Kratochvill

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer can involve non-resolving, persistent inflammation where varying numbers of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs infiltrate and adopt different activation states between anti-tumor M1 and pro-tumor M2 phenotypes. Here, we resolve a cascade causing differential macrophage phenotypes in the tumor microenvironment. Reduction in TNF mRNA production or loss of type I TNF receptor signaling resulted in a striking pattern of enhanced M2 mRNA expression. M2 gene expression was driven in part by IL-13 from eosinophils co-recruited with inflammatory monocytes, a pathway that was suppressed by TNF. Our data define regulatory nodes within the tumor microenvironment that balance M1 and M2 populations. Our results show macrophage polarization in cancer is dynamic and dependent on the balance between TNF and IL-13, thus providing a strategy for manipulating TAMs.

  13. TNF counterbalances the emergence of M2 tumor macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratochvill, Franz; Neale, Geoffrey; Haverkamp, Jessica M.; de Velde, Lee-Ann Van; Smith, Amber M.; Kawauchi, Daisuke; McEvoy, Justina; Roussel, Martine F.; Dyer, Michael A.; Qualls, Joseph E.; Murray, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a form of non-resolving, persistent inflammation where varying numbers of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) infiltrate and adopt different activation states between anti-tumor M1 and pro-tumor M2 phenotypes. Here we resolve a cascade causing differential macrophage phenotypes in the tumor microenvironment. Reduction in TNF mRNA production or loss of Type I TNF receptor signaling resulted in a striking pattern of enhanced M2 mRNA expression. M2 gene expression was driven in part by IL-13 from eosinophils co-recruited with inflammatory monocytes, a pathway that was suppressed by TNF. Our data define regulatory nodes within the tumor microenvironment that balance M1 and M2 populations. Our results show macrophage polarization in cancer is dynamic and dependent on the balance between TNF and IL-13, thus providing a strategy for manipulating TAMs. PMID:26365184

  14. Multiple Access Technologies for Cellular M 2M Communications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahyar Shirvanimoghaddam; Sarah J. Johnson

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the multiple access techniques for machine⁃to⁃machine (M2M) communications in future wireless cellular net⁃works. M2M communications aims at providing the communication infrastructure for the emerging Internet of Things (IoT), which will revolutionize the way we interact with our surrounding physical environment. We provide an overview of the multiple access strategies and explain their limitations when used for M2M communications. We show the throughput efficiency of different multi⁃ple access techniques when used in coordinated and uncoordinated scenarios. Non⁃orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) is also shown to support a larger number of devices compared to orthogonal multiple access techniques, especially in uncoordinated sce⁃narios. We also detail the issues and challenges of different multiple access techniques to be used for M2M applications in cellu⁃lar networks.

  15. Theoretical Assessment of 178m2Hf De-Excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartouni, E P; Chen, M; Descalle, M A; Escher, J E; Loshak, A; Navratil, P; Ormand, W E; Pruet, J; Thompson, I J; Wang, T F

    2008-10-06

    This document contains a comprehensive literature review in support of the theoretical assessment of the {sup 178m2}Hf de-excitation, as well as a rigorous description of controlled energy release from an isomeric nuclear state.

  16. Dynamic Estimating 0n China's IS-LM-BP Model%中国IS-LM-BP模型的动态估计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李政; 韩克勇

    2009-01-01

    文章采用状态空间模型,动态估计了中国IS-LM-BP模型,着重研究了实际产出对汇率的敏感程度、货币需求对利率的敏感程度和BP曲线斜率的变化情况,对其经济效果进行了深入分析.在当前经济条件下,实施紧缩性货币政策、扩大汇率浮动空间更有利于治理中国经济内外失衡的现状.

  17. Characterization of M2 antibodies in asymptomatic Chinese population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Hua Jiang; Ren-Qian Zhong; Xiao-Yun Fan; Yin Hu; Feng An; Jian-Wen Sun; Xian-Tao Kong

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the presence of M2 antibodies specific for pdmary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) in asymptomatic Chinese and identify patients with early PBC.METHODS: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ElISA)tests for M2 antibodies to recombinant protein were performed in 5 011 subjects (age range, 26-85 years; mean age: 45.81±15.02 years) who took an annual physical examination. M2-positive subjects were further analyzed for immunoglobulin (Ig) classes and subclasses of M2 antibodies.Clinical, biochemical and immunological data were obtained for M2-positive subjects. In addition, ultrasonography (US)or endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP)was performed to exclude any disorders other than PBC.RESULTS: M2 antibodies were detected in 8 (0.16%) of the 5 0LL subjects studied. Of the 8 subjects, 7 were female and 1 was male (age range: 40-74 years). An unexplained increase of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GT) values, often to striking levels,was detected in 4 M2-positive subjects, 3 of them accorded with the diagnostic criteria recommended by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases, even though they had no symptoms of PBC (such as fatigue, pruritus or jaundice).Liver biopsy was performed in two M2-positive subjects and the histology was compatible with PBC in both cases.CONCLUSION: Our data, while not assessing the true prevalence of asymptomatic PBC in the general population,suggest that asymptomatic PBC is much more common in China than has been supposed.

  18. M2-Edge Colorings Of Cacti And Graph Joins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czap Július

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available An edge coloring φ of a graph G is called an M2-edge coloring if |φ(v| ≤ 2 for every vertex v of G, where φ(v is the set of colors of edges incident with v. Let 2(G denote the maximum number of colors used in an M2-edge coloring of G. In this paper we determine 2(G for trees, cacti, complete multipartite graphs and graph joins.

  19. Identification of LmUAP1 as a 20-hydroxyecdysone response gene in the chitin biosynthesis pathway from the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Jian; Sun, Ya-Wen; Li, Da-Qi; Li, Sheng; Ma, En-Bo; Zhang, Jian-Zhen

    2016-10-03

    In Locusta migratoria, we found that two chitin biosynthesis genes, UDP N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylase gene LmUAP1 and chitin synthase gene LmCHS1, are expressed mainly in the integument and are responsible for cuticle formation. However, whether these genes are regulated by 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) is still largely unclear. Here, we showed the developmental expression pattern of LmUAP1, LmCHS1 and the corresponding 20E titer during the last instar nymph stage of locust. RNA interference (RNAi) directed toward a common region of the two isoforms of LmEcR (LmEcRcom) reduced the expression level of LmUAP1, while there was no difference in the expression of LmCHS1. Meantime, injection of 20E in vivo induced the expression of LmUAP1 but not LmCHS1. Further, we found injection-based RNAi of LmEcRcom resulted in 100% mortality. The locusts failed to molt with no apolysis, and maintained in the nymph stage until death. In conclusion, our preliminary results indicated that LmUAP1 in the chitin biosynthesis pathway is a 20E late-response gene and LmEcR plays an essential role in locust growth and development, which could be a good potential target for RNAi-based pest control.

  20. 基于LM2596的不间断直流电源设计%Design of uninterruptible DC power supply based on LM2596

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘传勇; 丁国臣; 陈世夏

    2013-01-01

    An uninterruptible DC power supply is designed,which uses the switching voltage regulator LM2596 to conduct DC-DC transformation,and outputs the drive current of 3 A. The power supply has very good load regulation characteristics. When the primary power supply is switched off,the battery is pitched in through the relay automatically to power the device. When the primary power supply is normal,the battery is charged in different modes:when the voltage is greater than the set value, it is charged in constant voltage;when the voltage is lower than the set value,it is charged in constant current. The overcurrent protection and under-voltage protection to the circuit are realized by the relay of the system. The system’s structure is simple, its overall performance is stable,and its cost-performance is high.%设计的不间断直流工作电源,采用开关电压调节器LM2596进行DC-DC变换,能够输出3 A的驱动电流,同时具有很好的负载调节特性。在主电源断电时,电路通过继电器自动将蓄电池切入,给设备供电。在主电源正常时,以不同模式给蓄电池充电:当电压大于设定值时,恒压充电;当电压低于设定值时,恒流充电。系统可以通过继电器对电路进行过流保护与欠压保护。系统结构简单,整体性能稳定,性价比较高。

  1. Study of {sup 179}Hf{sup m2} excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vishnevsky, I. N.; Zheltonozhsky, V. A., E-mail: zhelton@kinr.kiev.ua; Savrasov, A. N. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Institute for Nuclear Research (Ukraine); Mazur, V. M. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Institute of Electronic Physics (Ukraine)

    2016-12-15

    Isomeric ratios of {sup 179}Hf{sup m2,g} yields in the (γ, n) reaction and the cross section for the {sup 179}Hf{sup m2} population in the (α, p) reaction are measured for the first time at the end-point energies of 15.1 and 17.5 MeV for bremsstrahlung photons and 26 MeV for alpha particles. The results are σ = (1.1 ± 0.11) × 10{sup −27} cm{sup 2} for the {sup 176}Lu(α, p){sup 179}Hf{sup m2} reaction and Y{sub m2}/Y{sub g} = (6.1 ± 0.3) × 10{sup −6} and (3.7 ± 0.2) × 10{sup −6} for the {sup 180}Hf(γ, n){sup 179}Hf{sup m22} reaction at E{sub ep} =15.1 and 17.5 MeV, respectively. The experimental data on the relative {sup 179}Hf{sup m2} yield indicate a single-humped shape of the excitation function for the {sup 180}Hf(γ, n){sup 179}Hf{sup m2} reaction. Simulation is performed using the TALYS-1.4 and EMPIRE-3.2 codes.

  2. Revisiting the endocytosis of the m2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockenga, Wymke; Tikkanen, Ritva

    2015-05-12

    The agonist-induced endocytosis of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 is different from that of the other members of the muscarinic receptor family. The uptake of the M2 receptor involves the adapter proteins of the β-arrestin family and the small GTPase ADP-ribosylation factor 6. However, it has remained inconclusive if M2 endocytosis is dependent on clathrin or the large GTPase dynamin. We here show by means of knocking down the clathrin heavy chain that M2 uptake upon agonist stimulation requires clathrin. The expression of various dominant-negative dynamin-2 mutants and the use of chemical inhibitors of dynamin function revealed that dynamin expression and membrane localization as such appear to be necessary for M2 endocytosis, whereas dynamin GTPase activity is not required for this process. Based on the data from the present and from previous studies, we propose that M2 endocytosis takes place by means of an atypical clathrin-mediated pathway that may involve a specific subset of clathrin-coated pits/vesicles.

  3. Revisiting the Endocytosis of the M2 Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wymke Ockenga

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The agonist-induced endocytosis of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 is different from that of the other members of the muscarinic receptor family. The uptake of the M2 receptor involves the adapter proteins of the β-arrestin family and the small GTPase ADP-ribosylation factor 6. However, it has remained inconclusive if M2 endocytosis is dependent on clathrin or the large GTPase dynamin. We here show by means of knocking down the clathrin heavy chain that M2 uptake upon agonist stimulation requires clathrin. The expression of various dominant-negative dynamin-2 mutants and the use of chemical inhibitors of dynamin function revealed that dynamin expression and membrane localization as such appear to be necessary for M2 endocytosis, whereas dynamin GTPase activity is not required for this process. Based on the data from the present and from previous studies, we propose that M2 endocytosis takes place by means of an atypical clathrin-mediated pathway that may involve a specific subset of clathrin-coated pits/vesicles.

  4. Reduced Latency in the Metastatic Niche Contributes to the More Aggressive Phenotype of LM8 Compared to Dunn Osteosarcoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias J. E. Arlt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis is the major cause of death of osteosarcoma patients and its diagnosis remains difficult. In preclinical studies, however, forced expression of reporter genes in osteosarcoma cells has remarkably improved the detection of micrometastases and, consequently, the quality of the studies. We recently showed that Dunn cells equipped with a lacZ reporter gene disseminated from subcutaneous primary tumors as frequently as their highly metastatic subline LM8, but only LM8 cells grew to macrometastases. In the present time-course study, tail-vein-injected Dunn and LM8 cells settled within 24 h at the same frequency in the lung, liver, and kidney of mice. Furthermore, Dunn cells also grew to macrometastases, but, compared to LM8, with a delay of two weeks in lung and one week in liver and kidney tissue, consistent with prolonged survival of the mice. Dunn- and LM8-cell-derived ovary and spine metastases occurred less frequently. In vitro, Dunn cells showed less invasiveness and stronger contact inhibition and intercellular adhesion than LM8 cells and several cancer- and dormancy-related genes were differentially expressed. In conclusion, Dunn cells, compared to LM8, have a similar capability but a longer latency to form macrometastases and provide an interesting new experimental system to study tumor cell dormancy.

  5. Formulation and Characterization of LX-17-2 from new FK 800 binder and WA, ATK, and BAE TATBs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePiero, S C; Hoffman, D M

    2007-08-03

    Currently LLNL has no Kel-F 800 or wet-aminated TATB reserves for formulation. Although both materials are soon to be commercially available, their synthesis processes have changed and the explosive must be re-evaluated. In 2000 3M phased out the uses of perfluorooctanoyl (C8) derivatives due to environmental persistence and bioaccumulation issues. A C8 derivative was used as an emulsifier for making Kel F-800. In 2001 Kel F-800 was scheduled to be discontinued and the last Kel F-800 run was made in early 2002. LANL ordered 2M$ worth of Kel-F 800 for reserves and Pantex purchased several hundred pounds to satisfy mock needs. After four years, 3M has decided to introduce a Kel-F 800-like polymer based on a new emulsifier using the same chlorotrifluoroethylene and vinylidene fluoride monomers and emulsion polymerization process. They have produced 3 batches and claim the 'new' FK-800 is indistinguishable from the 'old' Kel-F 800 in any of their testing parameters. In June-July 2006 3M scaled up a batch of about 800 pounds and have test quantities available. We have samples of the new FK-800 for evaluation. Neither wet nor dry-aminated TATB has been synthesized in the US in any significant quantity since about 1985 and significant quantities of LX-17-1 has not been formulated since about 1990. Over the last few years as part of a DOD MANTECH, ATK Thiokol and BAE Holston Army Ammunition Plant (HAAP) have produced moderate quantities of TATB ({approx}5 kg batches) with plans to scale up for DOD applications. Thiokol TATB is polycrystalline with an average particle size of about 40 m (similar to WA TATB) but HAAP TATB is only 5-6 {micro}m (similar to ultrafine). We have obtained small quantities of these materials for evaluation. The project (1) compares new FK-800 with old Kel-F 800 and FK-800 lots currently available at LLNL, (2) compares and characterizes new TATB with old TATB, (3) formulates new FK-800 with wet-aminated TATB and new TATBs in

  6. A randomized comparison of daunorubicin 90 mg/m2 vs 60 mg/m2 in AML induction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burnett, A. K.; Russell, N. H.; Hills, R. K.

    2015-01-01

    remission rate (73% vs 75%; odds ratio, 1.07 [0.83-1.39]; P = .6) or in any recognized subgroup. The 60-day mortality was increased in the 90 mg/m(2) arm (10% vs 5% (hazard ratio [HR] 1.98 [1.30-3.02]; P = .001), which resulted in no difference in overall 2-year survival (59% vs 60%; HR, 1.16 [0.95-1.43]; P...... recommended as a standard of care. However, 60 mg/m(2) is widely used and has never been directly compared with 90 mg/m(2). As part of the UK National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) AML17 trial, 1206 adults with untreated AML or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome, mostly younger than 60 years of age, were...... randomized to a first-induction course of chemotherapy, which delivered either 90 mg/m(2) or 60 mg/m(2) on days 1, 3, and 5 combined with cytosine arabinoside. All patients then received a second course that included daunorubicin 50 mg/m(2) on days 1, 3, and 5. There was no overall difference in complete...

  7. On the Structure of Hot Gas in Halos: Implications for the Lx-Tx Relation & Missing Baryons

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Prateek; Parrish, Ian J; Quataert, Eliot

    2012-01-01

    We present one-dimensional models of the hot gas in dark-matter halos, which both predict the existence of cool cores and explain their structure. Our models are directly applicable to semi-analytic models (SAMs) of galaxy formation. We have previously argued that filaments of cold (~10^4 K) gas condense out of the intracluster medium (ICM) in hydrostatic and thermal equilibrium when the ratio of the thermal instability timescale to the free-fall time $t_{TI}/t_{ff}$ falls below 5-10. This criterion corresponds to an upper limit on the density of the ICM and motivates a model in which a density core forms wherever $t_{TI}/t_{ff} \\lesssim 10$. Consistent with observations and numerical simulations, this model predicts larger and more tenuous cores for lower-mass halos---while the core density in a cluster may be as large as ~ 0.1 cm^{-3}, the core density in the Galactic halo should not exceed ~ 10^{-4} cm^{-3}. Our models produce a favorable match to the observational X-ray luminosity-temperature (Lx-Tx) rela...

  8. Boundary magnetization properties of epitaxial C r2 -xA lxO3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallarino, Lorenzo; Binek, Christian; Berger, Andreas

    2015-06-01

    The magnetoelectric antiferromagnet α -C r2O3 (chromia) is known to possess a roughness insensitive net equilibrium magnetization at the (0001) surface, called boundary magnetization (BM), which is coupled to the bulk antiferromagnetic order parameter. In order to verify whether this symmetry sensitive BM persists in alloys, we investigate the impact of diamagnetic dilution on chromia thin films alloyed with the isostructural α -A l2O3 (alumina). Single-crystalline C r2 -xA lxO3 thin films with (0001) surface orientation and varying stoichiometry have been grown by sputter codeposition in the concentration range between x =0 and x =0.6 . For these samples, we find the corundum crystal structure, the antiferromagnetic ordering, and the boundary magnetization to be preserved. We also find that the critical temperature TN can be tuned by alloying with α -A l2O3 , using the BM as a probe to study the magnetic phase transition. Furthermore, we were able to evaluate the critical exponent and the absolute BM values for different samples. Both properties corroborate that the observed magnetic signals originate from the BM rather than the bulk of the samples.

  9. LM23 is a novel member of the Speedy/Ringo family at the crossroads of life and death of spermatogenic cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Ming Cheng; Mei-Ling Liu; Meng-Chun Jia

    2011-01-01

    LM23 is a gene specifically expressed in the testis of Rattus norvegicus, as previously reported by our laboratory. The aim of the study is to further investigate the biological function of LM23. Several bioinformatic tools were utilized, including PROSITE and BLAST. To determine the subcellullar localization of LM23, a polyclonal antibody specific for LM23 was generated via the immunization of rabbits. The LM23 gene was cloned from rat testis tissue, and LM23 protein was expressed in Escherichia coli. The biological function of LM23 was analyzed with microarray analysis and immunohistochemistry, using a rat model of LM23 gene knockdown. The results suggested that LM23 belongs to the Speedy/Ringo family. LM23 regulated the G1/S and G2/M transitions of the cell cycle during spermatogenesis. Downregulation of the LM23 gene during spermatogenesis could lead to the activation of both the Fas-FasL pathway and the mitochondrial pathway. These novel findings indicate that LM23 has a diverse array of functions that are important in both the life and death of the spermatogenic cell.

  10. M$^2$I Communication: From Theoretical Modeling to Practical Design

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Hongzhi

    2015-01-01

    Wireless communications in complex environments are constrained by lossy media and complicated structures. Magnetic Induction (MI) has been proved to be an efficient solution to extend the communication range. Due to the small coil antenna's physical limitation, however, MI's communication range is still very limited. To this end, Metamaterial-enhanced Magnetic Induction (M$^2$I) communication has been proposed and the theoretical results suggest that it can significantly increase the communication performance, namely, data rate and communication range. Nevertheless, currently, the real implementation of M$^2$I is still a challenge and there is no guideline on design and fabrication of spherical metamaterial. In this paper, we propose a practical design by using a spherical coil array to realize M$^2$I and we prove that it can achieve negative permeability and there exists a resonance condition where the radiated magnetic field can be significantly amplified. The radiation and communication performance are ev...

  11. A mercury transport and fate model (LM2-mercury) for mass budget assessment of mercury cycling in Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    LM2-Mercury, a mercury mass balance model, was developed to simulate and evaluate the transport, fate, and biogeochemical transformations of mercury in Lake Michigan. The model simulates total suspended solids (TSS), disolved organic carbon (DOC), and total, elemental, divalent, ...

  12. M2-F1 on lakebed with pilot Milt Thompson

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    NASA Flight Research Pilot Milt Thompson, shown here on the lakebed with the M2-F1 lifting body, was an early backer of R. Dale Reed's lifting-body proposal. He urged Flight Research Center director Paul Bikle to approve the M2-F1's construction. Thompson also made the first glide flights in both the M2-F1 and its successor, the heavyweight M2-F2. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially conceived as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, NASA Flight Research Center (later Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA) management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with the largest engine available. He took the car to Bill Straup's renowned hot-rod shop near Long Beach for modification. With a special gearbox and racing slicks, the Pontiac could tow the 1,000-pound M2-F1 110 miles per hour in 30 seconds. It proved

  13. Production of a single cyclic type of fructooligosaccharide structure by inulin-degrading Paenibacillus sp. LX16 newly isolated from Jerusalem artichoke root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhihua; Guo, Jiqiang; Tang, Wenzhu; Sun, Zhen; Hou, Yingmin; Li, Xianzhen

    2016-05-01

    A novel inulin-degrading bacterium was isolated from a soil sample collected on Jerusalem artichoke roots. It is a Gram-positive, aerobic, motile and central endospore-forming straight rod, and exhibits phenotypic properties being consistent with its classification in the genus Paenibacillus. The predominant cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15:0, C16:0 and anteiso-C17:0. This strain represents a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus on the basis of phenotypic data together with phylogenetic analysis, and it is here designated as LX16 and deposited in China centre for type collection, China (= CCTCC 2015256). Strain LX16 could produce a cyclofructooligosaccharide fructanotransferase catalysing the formation of one type of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) from inulin. The FOS was identified as a cyclofructooligosaccharide with a degree of polymerization of 6. Such homology in inulin degradation products may be beneficial for the functional FOS production.

  14. The application and comparison of several flux profile relations in CoLM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhenChao Li; ZhiGang Wei; ZhiYuan Zheng; Hong Wei; Hui Liu

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the important role that flux profile relations play in momentum flux, sensible heat flux, and latent heat flux simulations in CoLM (Common Land Model) and compares the application of three flux profile relation schemes in CoLM by means of the Loess Plateau Land-Atmosphere Interaction Pilot Experiment (LOPEX) of 2005. It reveals that the results simulated by the model barely changed in the original flux profile schemes of the models after eliminating the very stable condition and the very unstable condition, and there were only tiny changes in numerical values. This indicates that the corrected terms added to fm(ζm), fh(ζh) were very tiny and can be ignored under very stable and very unstable circumstances. According to a comparison of the three flux profile relations, the simulation results were basically coherent by using any CoLM:the correlation coefficient of the simulation value and the observed value was 0.89, and this bears on the coherence with the numerical procedures for the flux pro-file relations under unstable circumstances. The simulation results were improved considerably by utilizing the Lobocki flux pro-file schemes, which numerical procedures under unstable circumstances differed significantly from other three flux profile schemes;in this case the correlation coefficient of the value of simulation and the observed value became 0.95. In the next itera-tion of this study, it will be of great importance for the development of the land surface process model to continue experimenting with the application of some novel flux profile schemes in the land surface process models in typical regions.

  15. El modelo IS-LM en una economía dolarizada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Romero

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available La idea central del presente documento es aprovechar la estructura lógica del modelo IS-LM para construir un modelo macroeconómico que recoja algunos hechos estilizados de la economía peruana. Nos referimos a la dolarización de la riqueza del sector privado, a la vigencia de un sistema de tipo de cambio flexible y a la sensibilidad de la producción y los precios a variaciones en el tipo de cambio.

  16. Use of the LM-OSL technique for the detection of partial bleaching in quartz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, N.A.; Bulur, E.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.;

    2000-01-01

    is known as linear modulation OSL (LM-OSL). In controlled laboratory conditions, this technique has been employed to study the ease-of-bleaching of the trapped charge in quartz by comparing the OSL curves of quartz aliquots which have been either: (1) fully bleached, followed by a laboratory dose of beta...... -irradiation, or (2) partially bleached, followed by the laboratory beta -dose. The ratio of the OSL signals due to the beta -dose from the partly and fully bleached aliquots is illustrated to be a potential indicator of the degree of optical resetting of the OSL signal in dating material. The key parameter...

  17. Characterization of antimicrobial lipopeptides produced by Bacillus sp. LM7 isolated from chungkookjang, a Korean traditional fermented soybean food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi-Hwa; Lee, Jiyeon; Nam, Young-Do; Lee, Jong Suk; Seo, Myung-Ji; Yi, Sung-Hun

    2016-03-16

    A wild-type microorganism exhibiting antimicrobial activities was isolated from the Korean traditional fermented soybean food Chungkookjang and identified as Bacillus sp. LM7. During its stationary growth phase, the microorganism secreted an antimicrobial substance, which we partially purified using a simple two-step procedure involving ammonium sulfate precipitation and heat treatment. The partially purified antimicrobial substance, Anti-LM7, was stable over a broad pH range (4.0-9.0) and at temperatures up to 80 °C for 30 min, and was resistant to most proteolytic enzymes and maintained its activity in 30% (v/v) organic solvents. Anti-LM7 inhibited the growth of a broad range of Gram-positive bacteria, including Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes, but it did not inhibit lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactococcus lactis subsp. Lactis. Moreover, unlike commercially available nisin and polymyxin B, Anti-LM7 inhibited certain fungal strains. Lastly, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of Anti-LM7 revealed that it contained eight lipopeptides belonging to two families: four bacillomycin D and four surfactin analogs. These Bacillus sp. LM7-produced heterogeneous lipopeptides exhibiting extremely high stability and a broad antimicrobial spectrum are likely to be closely related to the antimicrobial activity of Chungkookjang, and their identification presents an opportunity for application of the peptides in environmental bioremediation, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. M2磁带机挑战极限

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    日前安百特(Exabyte)公司宣布,其OEM合作伙伴Cybernetics在对Mammoth-2(M2)磁带机的性能和可靠性测试中取得了创记录的结果,从而加快了M2的商业交付计划。M2磁带机以部门级价格提供了企业级的性能,其容量增加50%,达到60GB,性能提高一倍,传输率达到12MB/s,可在一小时内备份43GB数据(未压缩)。Cybernetics利用该公司为了故意“破坏”磁带机而创建的定制软件对M2进行了测试,包括读/写能力测试、

  19. Dimeric Complexes of Tryptophan with M2+ Metal Ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunbar, R. C.; Steill, J. D.; Polfer, N. C.; Oomens, J.

    2009-01-01

    IRMPD spectroscopy using the FELIX free electron laser and a Fourier transform ICR mass spectrometer was used to characterize the structures of electrosprayed dimer complexes M(2+)Trp(2) of tryptophan with a series of eight doubly charged metal ions, including alkaline earths Ca, Sr, and Ba, and tra

  20. M2e-Based Universal Influenza A Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Deng

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The successful isolation of a human influenza virus in 1933 was soon followed by the first attempts to develop an influenza vaccine. Nowadays, vaccination is still the most effective method to prevent human influenza disease. However, licensed influenza vaccines offer protection against antigenically matching viruses, and the composition of these vaccines needs to be updated nearly every year. Vaccines that target conserved epitopes of influenza viruses would in principle not require such updating and would probably have a considerable positive impact on global human health in case of a pandemic outbreak. The extracellular domain of Matrix 2 (M2e protein is an evolutionarily conserved region in influenza A viruses and a promising epitope for designing a universal influenza vaccine. Here we review the seminal and recent studies that focused on M2e as a vaccine antigen. We address the mechanism of action and the clinical development of M2e-vaccines. Finally, we try to foresee how M2e-based vaccines could be implemented clinically in the future.

  1. Progress On 58m2 Passive Resonant Ring Laser Gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, G. L.; Rotge, J.; Simmons, B. J.

    1986-01-01

    An update of the large area (now 60m2) Passive Resonant Ring Laser Gyro (PRRLG) is given. Some aspects of last year's design have changed; but performance is still predicted to be in the 10-10 earth rate unit (ERU) range. This is of interest for a number of geophysical applications.

  2. Internal steel structure of M2-F1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    The internal steel structure for the M2-F1 was built at the Flight Research Center (predecessor of the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA) in a section of the calibration hangar dubbed 'Wright Bicycle Shop.' Visible are the stick, rudder pedals, and ejection seat. The external wooden shell was attached to the steel structure. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially conceived as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with the largest engine available. He took the car to Bill Straup's renowned hot-rod shop near Long Beach for modification. With a special gearbox and racing slicks, the Pontiac could tow the 1,000-pound M2-F1 110 miles per hour in 30 seconds. It proved adequate for the roughly 400 car tows that got the M2-F1 airborne to prove it could fly

  3. Tyrosine 129 of the murine gammaherpesvirus M2 protein is critical for M2 function in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udaya S Rangaswamy

    Full Text Available A common strategy shared by all known gammaherpesviruses is their ability to establish a latent infection in lymphocytes--predominantly in B cells. In immunocompromised patients, such as transplant recipients or AIDS patients, gammaherpesvirus infections can lead to the development of lymphoproliferative disease and lymphoid malignancies. The human gamma-herpesviruses, EBV and KSHV, encode proteins that are capable of modulating the host immune signaling machinery, thereby subverting host immune responses. Murine gamma-herpesvirus 68 (MHV68 infection of laboratory strains of mice has proven to be useful small-animal model that shares important pathogenic strategies with the human gamma-herpesviruses. The MHV68 M2 protein is known to manipulate B cell signaling and, dependent on route and dose of virus inoculation, plays a role in both the establishment of latency and virus reactivation. M2 contains two tyrosines that are targets for phosphorylation, and have been shown to interact with the B cell signaling machinery. Here we describe in vitro and in vivo studies of M2 mutants which reveals that while both tyrosines Y120 and Y129 are required for M2 induction of IL-10 expression from primary murine B cells in vitro, only Y129 is critical for reactivation from latency and plasma cell differentiation in vivo.

  4. Tyrosine 129 of the murine gammaherpesvirus M2 protein is critical for M2 function in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangaswamy, Udaya S; O'Flaherty, Brigid M; Speck, Samuel H

    2014-01-01

    A common strategy shared by all known gammaherpesviruses is their ability to establish a latent infection in lymphocytes--predominantly in B cells. In immunocompromised patients, such as transplant recipients or AIDS patients, gammaherpesvirus infections can lead to the development of lymphoproliferative disease and lymphoid malignancies. The human gamma-herpesviruses, EBV and KSHV, encode proteins that are capable of modulating the host immune signaling machinery, thereby subverting host immune responses. Murine gamma-herpesvirus 68 (MHV68) infection of laboratory strains of mice has proven to be useful small-animal model that shares important pathogenic strategies with the human gamma-herpesviruses. The MHV68 M2 protein is known to manipulate B cell signaling and, dependent on route and dose of virus inoculation, plays a role in both the establishment of latency and virus reactivation. M2 contains two tyrosines that are targets for phosphorylation, and have been shown to interact with the B cell signaling machinery. Here we describe in vitro and in vivo studies of M2 mutants which reveals that while both tyrosines Y120 and Y129 are required for M2 induction of IL-10 expression from primary murine B cells in vitro, only Y129 is critical for reactivation from latency and plasma cell differentiation in vivo.

  5. Evaluation of Pre- and Post- Redevelopment Groundwater Chemical Analyses from LM Monitoring Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamp, Susan [Navarro Reserch and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dayvault, Jalena [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management

    2016-05-01

    This report documents the efforts and analyses conducted for the Applied Studies and Technology (AS&T) Ancillary Work Plan (AWP) project titled Evaluation of Pre- and Post- Redevelopment Groundwater Sample Laboratory Analyses from Selected LM Groundwater Monitoring Wells. This effort entailed compiling an inventory of nearly 500 previous well redevelopment events at 16 U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (LM) sites, searching the literature for impacts of well redevelopment on groundwater sample quality, and—the focus of this report—evaluating the impacts of well redevelopment on field measurements and sample analytical results. Study Catalyst Monitoring well redevelopment, the surging or high-volume pumping of a well to loosen and remove accumulated sediment and biological build-up from a well, is considered an element of monitoring well maintenance that is implemented periodically during the lifetime of the well to mitigate its gradual deterioration. Well redevelopment has been conducted fairly routinely at a few LM sites in the western United States (e.g., the Grand Junction office site and the Gunnison processing site in Colorado), but at most other sites in this region it is not a routine practice. Also, until recently (2014–2015), there had been no specific criteria for implementing well redevelopment, and documentation of redevelopment events has been inconsistent. A catalyst for this evaluation was the self-identification of these inconsistencies by the Legacy Management Support contractor. As a result, in early 2015 Environmental Monitoring Operations (EMO) staff began collecting and documenting additional field measurements during well redevelopment events. In late 2015, AS&T staff undertook an independent internal evaluation of EMO's well redevelopment records and corresponding pre- and post-well-redevelopment groundwater analytical results. Study Findings Although literature discussions parallel the prevailing industry

  6. Evaluation of the Common Land Model (CoLM from the Perspective of Water and Energy Budget Simulation: Towards Inclusion in CMIP6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengwei Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Land surface models (LSMs are important tools for simulating energy, water and momentum transfer across the land–atmosphere interface. Many LSMs have been developed over the past 50 years, including the Common Land Model (CoLM, a LSM that has primarily been developed and maintained by Chinese researchers. CoLM has been adopted by several Chinese Earth System Models (GCMs that will participate in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6. In this study, we evaluate the performance of CoLM with respect to simulating the water and energy budgets. We compare simulations using the latest version of CoLM (CoLM2014, the previous version of CoLM (CoLM2005 that was used in the Beijing Normal University Earth System Model (BNU-GCM for CMIP5, and the Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM4.5 against global diagnostic data and observations. Our results demonstrate that CLM4.5 outperforms CoLM2005 and CoLM2014 in simulating runoff (R, although all three models overestimate runoff in northern Europe and underestimate runoff in North America and East Asia. Simulations of runoff and snow depth (SNDP are substantially improved in CoLM2014 relative to CoLM2005, particularly in the Northern Hemisphere. The simulated global energy budget is also substantially improved in CoLM2014 relative to CoLM2005. Simulations of sensible heat (SH based on CoLM2014 compare favorably to those based on CLM4.5, while root-mean-square errors (RMSEs in net surface radiation indicate that CoLM2014 (RMSE = 16.02 W m−2 outperforms both CoLM2005 (17.41 W m−2 and CLM4.5 (23.73 W m−2. Comparisons at regional scales show that all three models perform poorly in the Amazon region but perform relatively well over the central United States, Siberia and the Tibetan Plateau. Overall, CoLM2014 is improved relative to CoLM2005, and is comparable to CLM4.5 with respect to many aspects of the energy and water budgets. Our evaluation confirms CoLM2014 is suitable for inclusion in

  7. Activation and dynamic network of the M2 muscarinic receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Miao, Yinglong; Nichols, Sara E.; Gasper, Paul M.; Metzger, Vincent T; McCammon, J. Andrew

    2013-01-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) mediate cellular responses to various hormones and neurotransmitters and are important targets for treating a wide spectrum of diseases. Although significant advances have been made in structural studies of GPCRs, details of their activation mechanism remain unclear. The X-ray crystal structure of the M2 muscarinic receptor, a key GPCR that regulates human heart rate and contractile forces of cardiomyocytes, was determined recently in an inactive antagonist...

  8. Wilson Loops for M2- and M5-brane spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Quijada, Edward

    2015-01-01

    We calculate the quark and anti-quark interaction energy in different positions in spaces generated by $N$ coincident $M2$- and $M5$-branes. We use the Maldacena-Rey-Yee method for calculating this energy as a function of quark-antiquark separation. We obtain the solution for these problems as integrals of the metric elements. For limiting regimes we find simpler solutions for which some potentials exhibit a confinement behavior.

  9. The theory of endogenous money and the LM schedule: prelude to a reconstruction of ISLM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    THOMAS I. PALLEY

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Money is at the center of macroeconomics, which makes understanding the money supply central for macroeconomic theory. This paper presents the Post Keynesian theory of endogenous money supply and shows how it is fundamentally different from the conventional money supply theory. The conventional approach relies on the money multiplier and bank lending is invisible. Post Keynesian theory discards the money multiplier and focuses on bank lending which drives money creation. The paper emphasizes the structuralist version of Post Keynesian theory which retains Keynes’ liquidity preference theory of long term interest rates and also recognizes banks are subject to financial constraints that limit their lending activities. The paper then shows how to derive the LM schedule in an endogenous money economy, which is a necessary prelude to reconstructing the ISLM model.

  10. Development of LM10-MIRA LOX/LNG expander cycle demonstrator engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnykh, Mikhail; Carapellese, Stefano; Liuzzi, Daniele; Arione, Luigi; Caggiano, Giuseppe; Bellomi, Paolo; D'Aversa, Emanuela; Pellegrini, Rocco; Lobov, S. D.; Gurtovoy, A. A.; Rachuk, V. S.

    2016-09-01

    This article contains results of joint works by Konstruktorskoe Buro Khimavtomatiki (KBKhA, Russia) and AVIO Company (Italy) on creation of the LM10-MIRA liquid-propellant rocket demonstrator engine for the third stage of the upgraded "Vega" launcher.Scientific and research activities conducted by KBKhA and AVIO in 2007-2014 in the frame of the LYRA Program, funded by the Italian Space Agency, with ELV as Prime contractor, and under dedicated ASI-Roscosmos inter-agencies agreement, were aimed at development and testing of a 7.5 t thrust expander cycle demonstrator engine propelled by oxygen and liquid natural gas (further referred to as LNG).

  11. Finite element analysis of misaligned rotors on oil-film bearings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Sarkar; A Nandi; S Neogy; J K Dutt; T K Kundra

    2010-02-01

    The present work deals with a two-step nonlinear finite element analysis for misaligned multi-disk rotors on short oil-film bearings of various types (cylindrical, pocket, symmetrical three-lobed, unsymmetrical three-lobed). As a first step, the conventional parallel, angular and combined parallel and angular misalignments are modelled using Lagrange multipliers. The static equilibrium position of the journal within the bearing is determined using an iterative nonlinear static finite element analysis. The present work proposes a method for computing the displacement-dependent stiffness terms from the experimental static loaddisplacement data. Finally, the orbit of the rotor around the static equilibrium is determined using a time-integration scheme.

  12. Poisoning effect of bismuth on modification behaviour of strontium in LM25 alloy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Farahany; A Ourdjini; M H Idris; L T Thai

    2011-10-01

    Nucleation and growth, temperature measurements andmicrostructure observations of silicon phase are presented for strontium modified Al–7%Si (LM25) cast alloy treated with bismuth. The results show that addition of bismuth in strontium modified alloys may have a poisoning effect resulting in lost modification of the silicon phase. With increasing Bi/Sr ratio, thermal analysis measurements showed that the eutectic growth temperature increased remarkably to 573°C and recalescence decreased to 0.2°C and the morphology of silicon displayed the same flakelike structure as in the unmodified alloys. Microstructural observation showed that a minimum Bi/Sr ratio of 1.2 which is equivalent to a Sr/Bi ratio of 0.43 is required for effective strontium modification and neutralization of the poisoning effect of bismuth.

  13. Hot Wire Anemometer Turbulence Measurements in the wind Tunnel of LM Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Andreas

    Flow measurements were carried out in the wind tunnel of LM Wind Power A/S with a Dantec Streamline CTA system to characterize the flow turbulence. Besides the free tunnel flow with empty test section we also investigated the tunnel flow when two grids with different mesh size were introduced...... downstream of the nozzle contraction. We used two different hot wire probes: a dual sensor miniature wire probe (Dantec 55P61) and a triple sensor fiber film probe (Dantec 55R91). The turbulence intensity measured with the dual sensor probe in the empty tunnel section was significantly lower than the one...... measured with the triple sensor probe. The turbulence intensity as well as the mean flow velocity downstream of the grids were not homogeneous in space. The grid with the finer mesh size created higher turbulence intensity. For both grids we found a functional form of the power spectral density...

  14. Optimum Design of LLC Resonant Converter using Inductance Ratio (Lm/Lr)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palle, Kowstubha; Krishnaveni, K.; Ramesh Reddy, Kolli

    2016-07-01

    The main benefits of LLC resonant dc/dc converter over conventional series and parallel resonant converters are its light load regulation, less circulating currents, larger bandwidth for zero voltage switching, and less tuning of switching frequency for controlled output. An unique analytical tool, called fundamental harmonic approximation with peak gain adjustment is used for designing the converter. In this paper, an optimum design of the converter is proposed by considering three different design criterions with different values of inductance ratio (Lm/Lr) to achieve good efficiency at high input voltage. The optimum design includes the analysis in operating range, switching frequency range, primary side losses of a switch and stability. The analysis is carried out with simulation using the software tools like MATLAB and PSIM. The performance of the optimized design is demonstrated for a design specification of 12 V, 5 A output operating with an input voltage range of 300-400 V using FSFR 2100 IC of Texas instruments.

  15. M2-Branes in N = 3 Harmonic Superspace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ivanov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We give a brief account of the recently proposed N = 3 superfield formulation of the N = 6, 3D superconformal theory of Aharony et al (ABJM describing a low-energy limit of the system of multiple M2-branes on the AdS4×S7/Zk background. This formulation is given in harmonic N = 3 superspace and reveals a number of surprising new features. In particular, the sextic scalar potential of ABJM arises at the on-shell component level as the result of eliminating appropriate auxiliary fields, while there is no explicit superpotential at the off-shell superfield level.

  16. M2-branes and AdS/CFT

    CERN Document Server

    Klebanov, Igor R

    2009-01-01

    These notes provide a brief introduction to the ABJM theory, the level k U(N) x U(N) superconformal Chern-Simons matter theory which has been conjectured to describe N coincident M2-branes. We discuss its dual formulation in terms of M-theory on AdS_4 x S^7/Z_k and review some of the evidence in favor of the conjecture. We end with a brief discussion of the important role played by the monopole operators.

  17. Superconformal M2-branes and generalized Jordan triple systems

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, Bengt E W

    2008-01-01

    Three-dimensional conformal theories with six supersymmetries and SU(4) R-symmetry describing stacks of M2-branes are here proposed to be related to generalized Jordan triple systems. Writing the four-index structure constants in an appropriate form, the Chern-Simons part of the action immediately suggests a connection to such triple systems. In this note we show that the whole theory with six manifest supersymmetries can be naturally expressed in terms of structure constants of generalized Jordan triple systems. We comment on the associated graded Lie algebra, which corresponds to an extension of the gauge group.

  18. Effects of halophenol LM49 on microsomal CYP450 in Rats%卤酚化合物LM49对大鼠肝微粒体细胞色素P450的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白玉; 张丽锋; 冯秀娥; 梁泰刚; 李青山

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究LM49对大鼠肝微粒体蛋白及细胞色素P450含量的影响.方法 将大鼠分成空白对照组、溶剂对照组、阳性对照组(苯巴比妥组、地塞米松组、β-萘黄酮组)、LM49低、中、高剂量组.给药后采用超速离心法制备大鼠肝微粒体;BCA法测定大鼠肝微粒体蛋白浓度;Omura and Sato法测定大鼠肝微粒体细胞色素P450的含量.结果 给予不同剂量的LM49后,大鼠肝微粒体的蛋白及细胞色素P450含量均明显降低.低、中、高剂量组与对照组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 LM49对大鼠肝微粒体细胞色素P450具有一定的抑制作用,可能引起肝药酶对某些药物代谢的改变.%Objective To determine the effects of LM49 on microsomal protein and CYP450 in rats. Methods Rats were assigned into blank control group, solvent control group, positive control groups (phenobarbital, dexametha-sone and (3-nephthoflavone) and LM49-treated (low, medium and high dosage) groups, respectively. Hepatic micro-somes were prepared using ultracentrifuge after administration of interventions. The concentration of microsomal proteins was determined using BAG approach, and the content of microsomal CYP450 was assayed via Omura and Sato method. Results Marked reduction in the concentration of microsomal proteins and CYP450 was associated with administration of LM49 with various (low, medium and high) dosages as compared with control group (all P<0.05). Conclusion LM49 inhibits hepatic microsomal CYP450 and may result in changes of metabolism of certain medicines induced by liver drug enzymes in rats.

  19. 基于LM-BP神经网络的小班生长预测模型%The Growth Forecast Model of Subcompartment which Based on LM-BP neural network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵婷

    2016-01-01

    为了实现小班逐年数据精准预测,使用LM-BP神经网络进行训练仿真,并用传统建模法与生长预测模型进行对比.结果表明:利用LM-BP神经网络法进行小班生长量模型训练精度高于传统方法,其训练方法简便易实施,可应用于森林资源调查工作中.

  20. GDP Prediction Model and Its Application Based on LM-BP Neural Network%基于LM-BP神经网络的GDP预测模型及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张自敏; 樊艳英; 陈冠萍

    2014-01-01

    讨论了基于Levenberg-Marquardt(LM)算法的BP神经网络及其GDP预测的应用.LM算法利用误差函数二阶导数信息,对高斯-牛顿法的优化,相对传统的负梯度法而言,其收敛速度更快.最后以贺州市GDP为例,就预测的效率和精确度来说,LM-BP网络预测GDP的速度和精度明显优于标准的BP算法网络.

  1. Evaluation of Pre- and Post- Redevelopment Groundwater Chemical Analyses from LM Monitoring Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamp, Susan [Navarro Reserch and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dayvault, Jalena [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management

    2016-05-01

    This report documents the efforts and analyses conducted for the Applied Studies and Technology (AS&T) Ancillary Work Plan (AWP) project titled Evaluation of Pre- and Post- Redevelopment Groundwater Sample Laboratory Analyses from Selected LM Groundwater Monitoring Wells. This effort entailed compiling an inventory of nearly 500 previous well redevelopment events at 16 U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (LM) sites, searching the literature for impacts of well redevelopment on groundwater sample quality, and—the focus of this report—evaluating the impacts of well redevelopment on field measurements and sample analytical results. Study Catalyst Monitoring well redevelopment, the surging or high-volume pumping of a well to loosen and remove accumulated sediment and biological build-up from a well, is considered an element of monitoring well maintenance that is implemented periodically during the lifetime of the well to mitigate its gradual deterioration. Well redevelopment has been conducted fairly routinely at a few LM sites in the western United States (e.g., the Grand Junction office site and the Gunnison processing site in Colorado), but at most other sites in this region it is not a routine practice. Also, until recently (2014–2015), there had been no specific criteria for implementing well redevelopment, and documentation of redevelopment events has been inconsistent. A catalyst for this evaluation was the self-identification of these inconsistencies by the Legacy Management Support contractor. As a result, in early 2015 Environmental Monitoring Operations (EMO) staff began collecting and documenting additional field measurements during well redevelopment events. In late 2015, AS&T staff undertook an independent internal evaluation of EMO's well redevelopment records and corresponding pre- and post-well-redevelopment groundwater analytical results. Study Findings Although literature discussions parallel the prevailing industry

  2. Complexity dynamics and Hopf bifurcation analysis based on the first Lyapunov coefficient about 3D IS-LM macroeconomics system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junhai; Ren, Wenbo; Zhan, Xueli

    2017-04-01

    Based on the study of scholars at home and abroad, this paper improves the three-dimensional IS-LM model in macroeconomics, analyzes the equilibrium point of the system and stability conditions, focuses on the parameters and complex dynamic characteristics when Hopf bifurcation occurs in the three-dimensional IS-LM macroeconomics system. In order to analyze the stability of limit cycles when Hopf bifurcation occurs, this paper further introduces the first Lyapunov coefficient to judge the limit cycles, i.e. from a practical view of the business cycle. Numerical simulation results show that within the range of most of the parameters, the limit cycle of 3D IS-LM macroeconomics is stable, that is, the business cycle is stable; with the increase of the parameters, limit cycles becomes unstable, and the value range of the parameters in this situation is small. The research results of this paper have good guide significance for the analysis of macroeconomics system.

  3. Daphnetin inhibits invasion and migration of LM8 murine osteosarcoma cells by decreasing RhoA and Cdc42 expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Hiroki [Department of Clinical and Translational Physiology, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Kyoto (Japan); Nakamura, Seikou [Department of Pharmacognosy, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Kyoto (Japan); Chisaki, Yugo [Education and Research Center for Clinical Pharmacy, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Kyoto (Japan); Takada, Tetsuya [Department of Clinical and Translational Physiology, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Kyoto (Japan); Toda, Yuki [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Kyoto (Japan); Murata, Hiroaki [Department of Orthopedics, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Matsushita Memorial Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Itoh, Kazuyuki [Department of Biology, Osaka Medical Center of Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Osaka (Japan); Yano, Yoshitaka [Education and Research Center for Clinical Pharmacy, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Kyoto (Japan); Takata, Kazuyuki [Department of Clinical and Translational Physiology, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Kyoto (Japan); Ashihara, Eishi, E-mail: ash@mb.kyoto-phu.ac.jp [Department of Clinical and Translational Physiology, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Kyoto (Japan)

    2016-02-26

    Daphnetin, 7,8-dihydroxycoumarin, present in main constituents of Daphne odora var. marginatai, has multiple pharmacological activities including anti-proliferative effects in cancer cells. In this study, using a Transwell system, we showed that daphnetin inhibited invasion and migration of highly metastatic murine osteosarcoma LM8 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Following treatment by daphnetin, cells that penetrated the Transwell membrane were rounder than non-treated cells. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that daphnetin decreased the numbers of intracellular stress fibers and filopodia. Moreover, daphnetin treatment dramatically decreased the expression levels of RhoA and Cdc42. In summary, the dihydroxycoumarin derivative daphnetin inhibits the invasion and migration of LM8 cells, and therefore represents a promising agent for use against metastatic cancer. - Highlights: • Daphnetin, a coumarin-derivative, inhibited invasion and migration of LM8 cells. • Stress fibers and filopodia were decreased by daphnetin treatment. • Daphnetin decreased RhoA and Cdc42 protein expression.

  4. Microstructures using RF sputtered PSG film as a sacrificial layer in surface micromachining

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vivekanand Bhatt; Sudhir Chandra; Chatar Singh

    2009-08-01

    In this paper, we explore RF magnetron sputtered Phosphor–silicate–glass (PSG) film as a sacrificial layer in surface micromachining technology. For this purpose, a 76 mm diameter target of phosphorus-doped silicon dioxide was prepared by conventional solid-state reaction route using P25 and SiO2 powders. The PSG films were prepared in a RF (13·56 MHz) magnetron sputtering system at 300 watt RF power, 20 mTorr pressure and 45 mm target-to-substrate spacing without external substrate heating. Microstructures of sputtered silicon dioxide film were fabricated using sputtered PSG film as sacrificial layer in surface micromachining process.

  5. Optimal operation for 3 control parameters of Texaco coal-water slurry gasifier with MO-3LM-CDE algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Cuiwen; Zhang, Yakun; Gu, Xingsheng [Ministry of Education, East China Univ. of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China). Key Lab. of Advanced Control and Optimization for Chemical Processes

    2013-07-01

    Optimizing operation parameters for Texaco coal-water slurry gasifier with the consideration of multiple objectives is a complicated nonlinear constrained problem concerning 3 BP neural networks. In this paper, multi-objective 3-layer mixed cultural differential evolution (MO-3LM-CDE) algorithms which comprise of 4 multi-objective strategies and a 3LM-CDE algorithm are firstly presented. Then they are tested in 6 benchmark functions. Finally, the MO-3LM-CDE algorithms are applied to optimize 3 control parameters of the Texaco coal-water slurry gasifier in methanol production of a real-world chemical plant. The simulation results show that multi-objective optimal results are better than the respective single-objective optimal operations.

  6. A comprehensive survey of M(2)AX phase elastic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover, M F; Warschkow, O; Bilek, M M M; McKenzie, D R

    2009-07-29

    M(2)AX phases are a family of nanolaminate, ternary alloys that are composed of slabs of transition metal carbide or nitride (M(2)X) separated by single atomic layers of a main group element. In this combination, they manifest many of the beneficial properties of both ceramic and metallic compounds, making them attractive for many technological applications. We report here the results of a large scale computational survey of the elastic properties of all 240 elemental combinations using first-principles density functional theory calculations. We found correlations revealing the governing role of the A element and its interaction with the M element on the c axis compressibility and shearability of the material. The role of the X element is relatively minor, with the strongest effect seen in the in-plane constants C(11) and C(12). We identify several elemental compositions with extremal properties such as W(2)SnC, which has by far the lowest value of C(44), suggesting potential applications as a high-temperature dry lubricant.

  7. The Extreme Type I Planetary Nebula M2-52

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Peña

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados obtenidos a partir de espectroscopía de alta resolución de la parte central de la nebulosa planetaria bipolar M2-52 que muestra un tipo morfológico Br. Hemos confirmado que M2-52 es una nebulosa de Tipo I de Peimbert, con un espectro rico en líneas de alto y bajo grado de ionización y un fuerte enriquecimiento de He y N. La composición química del gas ionizado es: He/H = 0:165 0:010, O/H = (2:6 0:5 x 10_4, N/O = 2:3 0:3, Ne/O = 0:37 0:10, Ar/O = (9:2 2:0 x 10_3 y S/O > 2:0 x 10_3. La velocidad de expansión de la nebulosa es, en promedio, de 20 2 km s_1 y varía ligeramente dependiendo del ión considerado. Los iones de menor grado de ionización, N+ y S+, muestran vexp _ 18 km s_1, O++ y He+ muestran vexp _ 20 km s_1, en tanto que He++ y H+ muestran vexp _ 22 km s_1. Es posible que la zona de N+ y S+ esté siendo frenada por el anillo de material molecular encontrado alrededor de la estrella.

  8. Marginal fluctuations as instantons on M2/D2-branes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naghdi, M. [University of Ilam, Department of Physics, Faculty of Basic Sciences, Ilam (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    We introduce some (anti-) M/D-branes through turning on the corresponding field strengths of the 11- and 10-dimensional supergravity theories over AdS{sub 4} x M{sup 7} {sup vertical} {sup stroke} {sup 6} spaces, where we use S{sup 7}/Z{sub k} and CP{sup 3} for the internal spaces. Indeed, when we add M2/D2-branes on the same directions with the near horizon branes of the Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis- Maldacena model, all symmetries and supersymmetries are preserved trivially. In this case, we obtain a localized object just in the horizon. This normalizable bulk massless scalar mode is a singlet of SO(8) and SU(4) x U(1), and it agrees with a marginal boundary operator of the conformal dimension of Δ{sub +} = 3. However, after performing a special conformal transformation, we see that the solution is localized in the Euclideanized AdS{sub 4} space and is attributable to the included anti-M2/D2-branes, which are also necessary to ensure that there is no back-reaction. The resultant theory now breaks all N = 8, 6 supersymmetries to N = 0, while the other symmetries are so preserved. The dual boundary operator is then set up from the skew-whiffing of the representations 8s and 8v for the supercharges and scalars, respectively, while the fermions remain fixed in 8c of the original theory. Besides, we also address another alternate bulk to boundary matching procedure through turning on one of the gauge fields of the full U(N){sub k} x U(N){sub -k} gauge group along the same lines with a similar situation to the one faced in the AdS{sub 5}/CFT{sub 4} correspondence. The latter approach covers the difficulty already faced with in the bulk-boundary matching procedure for k = 1, 2 as well. (orig.)

  9. Design and implementation of Li-Ion battery charger based on LM3S9B92%基于LM3S9892的锂离子电池充电器的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡林权

    2012-01-01

    设计了一种基于LM3S9892嵌入式微控制器的锂离子电池充电器,并给出了硬件、软件设计。该充电器可以直接以市电作为输入,运用方便。其基本设计理念是根据采集的电池电压和充电电流信息,利用LM3S9892产生适合的PWM信号控制BUCK电源变换器工作,实现充电高效控制。该充电器具有数字化和智能化的特点,便于推广和应用。%One kind of Li-Ion battery charger based on LM3S9B92 is designed in this article, the hardware and software de- sign are illustrated as well. This charger uses commercial power as its input so that it can be utilized conveniently. The basic con- cept of the design is that LM3S9B92 produces the appropriate PWM signals to control the BUCK conventer and achieve charging characteristics highly effective according to the battery voltage and current. This Li-Ion battery charger has digital, intelligent features, so it is easier to be applied and popularized.

  10. Seminar Course Construction of LM3S615 Based Computer Mouse Practice%“基于LM3S615的电脑鼠实践”研讨班课程建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝学云; 况迎辉; 杨海波

    2011-01-01

    Many technologies,including detecting techniques,signal processing,motor control and artificial intelligence etc.,have been applied to the LM3S615-based Computer Mouse,which has been a compre-hensive display of the application of modern measurement and control technology.This paper presents construction of the practice course of the LM3S615-based Computer Mouse with the seminar teaching method,which providing an effective practice platform for the development of high-level talents in measurement and control technology field.%基于LM3S615的电脑鼠囊括了检测技术、信号处理、电机控制和人工智能等多种技术,很好地体现了现代测控技术的应用。本文介绍运用研讨班教学模式,建设"基于LM3S615的电脑鼠实践"课程,为培养高水平的测控技术领域人才提供一种有效的实践平台。

  11. The comprehensive evaluation of software quality based on LM-BP neural network%基于LM-BP神经网络的软件质量综合评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑鹏

    2016-01-01

    由于传统软件质量评价存在主观性等缺陷。针对这种情况,提出基于LM‐BP神经网络的软件质量综合评价方法。算法以ISO/IEC 9126为软件质量度量标准,解决了标准BP算法存在的问题,建立了LM-BP神经网络软件质量综合评价模型,为软件质量综合评价提供了一种新的方法。实验结果表明,LM-BP神经网络的软件质量综合评价能客观、定量、快速且准确得到软件质量综合评价结果,该评价模型具有客观性和实用性。%Because traditional software quality evaluation has some defects such as subjectivity , we proposed a method based on levenberg marquardt-back propagation(LM-BP) neural network software quality comprehensive evaluation .Based on ISO/IEC 9126 software quality model ,the algorithm solves the problems existing in the standard BP algorithm ,establishes the LM-BP neu‐ral network software quality comprehensive evaluation model ,and offers a new method for com‐prehensive evaluation of software quality .Experimental results show that the LM-BP neural net‐work software quality comprehensive evaluation is objective ,quantitative ,fast and accurate .The evaluation model is objective and practical .

  12. Genome Sequence of Listeria monocytogenes Plasmid pLM-C-273 Carrying Genes Related to Stress Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Lindsay; Gnaneshan, Saravanamuttu; Garduño, Rafael A; Mallo, Gustavo V

    2016-10-13

    Mobile genetic elements in bacteria, such as plasmids, act as important vectors for the transfer of antibiotic resistance, virulence, and metal resistance genes. Here, we report the genome sequence of a new plasmid pLM-C-273, identified in a Listeria monocytogenes strain isolated from a clinical sample in Ontario, Canada.

  13. Genome Sequence of Listeria monocytogenes Plasmid pLM-C-273 Carrying Genes Related to Stress Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Lindsay; Gnaneshan, Saravanamuttu; Garduño, Rafael A.

    2016-01-01

    Mobile genetic elements in bacteria, such as plasmids, act as important vectors for the transfer of antibiotic resistance, virulence, and metal resistance genes. Here, we report the genome sequence of a new plasmid pLM-C-273, identified in a Listeria monocytogenes strain isolated from a clinical sample in Ontario, Canada. PMID:27738039

  14. SALT spectroscopic classification of SN 2017lm (= ATLAS17aix) as a type-Ia supernova near maximum light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, S. W.; Dettman, K.; Pan, Y.-C.; Foley, R. J.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.; Kuhn, R.

    2017-01-01

    We obtained SALT (+RSS) spectroscopy of SN 2017lm (= ATLAS17aix) on 2017 Jan 19.8 UT, covering the wavelength range 350-930 nm. The longslit was also placed through the host galaxy nucleus, and numerous emission lines yield a host redshift z = 0.03052.

  15. Neural Tube Defect Induction by Fumonisin B1 in LM/Bc Mice Fed Folate Deficient or Folate Replete Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium verticillioides and F. proliferatum. FB1 is found in corn-based foods and evidence suggests that it is a risk factor for neural tube defects (NTD). The mechanism(s) underlying NTD induction by FB1 in the sensitive LM/Bc mouse model is not well...

  16. Dietary Flavonoid Hyperoside Induces Apoptosis of Activated Human LX-2 Hepatic Stellate Cell by Suppressing Canonical NF-κB Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liwen Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperoside, an active compound found in plants of the genera Hypericum and Crataegus, is reported to exhibit antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory activities. Induction of hepatic stellate cell (HSC apoptosis is recognized as a promising strategy for attenuation of hepatic fibrosis. In this study, we investigated whether hyperoside treatment can exert antifibrotic effects in human LX-2 hepatic stellate cells. We found that hyperoside induced apoptosis in LX-2 cells and decreased levels of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA, type I collagen, and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS. Remarkably, hyperoside also inhibited the DNA-binding activity of the transcription factor NF-κB and altered expression levels of NF-κB-regulated genes related to apoptosis, including proapoptotic genes Bcl-Xs, DR4, Fas, and FasL and anti-apoptotic genes A20, c-IAP1, Bcl-XL, and RIP1. Our results suggest that hyperoside may have potential as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of liver fibrosis.

  17. Multiwavelength photometry in the Globular Cluster M2

    CERN Document Server

    Dalessandro, E; Lanzoni, B; Ferraro, F R; Schiavon, R; Rood, R T

    2009-01-01

    We present a multiwavelength photometric analysis of the globular cluster M2. The data-set has been obtained by combining high-resolution (HST/WFPC2 and ACS) and wide-field (GALEX) space observations and ground based (MEGACAM-CFHT, EMMI-NTT) images. The photometric sample covers the entire cluster extension from the very central regions up to the tidal radius and beyond. It allows an accurate determination of the cluster center of gravity and other structural parameters derived from the star count density profile. Moreover we study the BSS population and its radial distribution. A total of 123 BSS has been selected, and their radial distribution has been found to be bimodal (highly peaked in the center, decreasing at intermediate radii and rising outward), as already found in a number of other clusters. The radial position of the minimum of the BSS distribution is consistent with the radius of avoidance caused by the dynamical friction of massive objects over the cluster age. We also searched for gradients in...

  18. Metric 3-Leibniz algebras and M2-branes

    CERN Document Server

    Méndez-Escobar, Elena

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with superconformal Chern-Simons theories with matter in 3 dimensions. The interest in these theories is two-fold. On the one hand, it is a new family of theories in which to test the AdS/CFT correspondence and on the other, they are important to study one of the main objects of M-theory (M2-branes). All these theories have something in common: they can be written in terms of 3-Leibniz algebras. Here we study the structure theory of such algebras, paying special attention to a subclass of them that gives rise to maximal supersymmetry and that was the first to appear in this context: 3-Lie algebras. In chapter 2, we review the structure theory of metric Lie algebras and their unitary representations. In chapter 3, we study metric 3-Leibniz algebras and show, by specialising a construction originally due to Faulkner, that they are in one to one correspondence with pairs of real metric Lie algebras and unitary representations of them. We also show a third characterisation for six extreme...

  19. Fermi surface behavior in the ABJM M2-brane theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWolfe, Oliver; Henriksson, Oscar; Rosen, Christopher

    2015-06-01

    We calculate fermionic Green's functions for states of the three-dimensional Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena M2-brane theory at large N using the gauge-gravity correspondence. We embed extremal black brane solutions in four-dimensional maximally supersymmetric gauged supergravity, obtain the linearized Dirac equations for each spin-1 /2 mode that cannot mix with a gravitino, and solve these equations with infalling boundary conditions to calculate retarded Green's functions. For generic values of the chemical potentials, we find Fermi surfaces with universally non-Fermi liquid behavior, matching the situation for four-dimensional N =4 super-Yang-Mills. Fermi surface singularities appear and disappear discontinuously at the point where all chemical potentials are equal, reminiscent of a quantum critical point. One limit of parameter space has zero entropy at zero temperature, and fermionic fluctuations are perfectly stable inside an energy region around the Fermi surface. An ambiguity in the quantization of the fermions is resolved by supersymmetry.

  20. Dynamic metabolic transformation in tumor invasion and metastasis in mice with LM-8 osteosarcoma cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Yingqi; Qiu, Yunping; Zhao, Aihua; Wang, Xiaoyan; Chen, Tianlu; Zhang, Zhiyu; Chi, Yi; Li, Quan; Sun, Wei; Li, Guodong; Cai, Zhengdong; Zhou, Zhanxiang; Jia, Wei

    2011-08-05

    While extensive evidence indicates that tumor cells shift their global metabolic programs, the molecular details of the metabolic transformation in tumor invasion, progression, and metastasis remain largely unknown. Characterization of the time-dependent metabolic shift during the tumor invasion, development, and metastasis will describe an important aspect of tumor phenotypes and potentially allow us to design therapies that inhibit tumor cell movement. In this study, a metabonomic study was performed to characterize the global metabolic changes during the process of tumor invasion and metastasis to lung in a mouse model with subcutaneous transplantation of murine osteosarcoma cell line (LM8). The serum metabolic profiling revealed that many key metabolites in glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, as well as most of the amino acids were elevated at rapidly growing stage of tumor, presumably resulting from a high energy demand and turnover of anabolic metabolism during the tumor cell proliferation. Serum levels of succinic acid and proline significantly increased (with fold change FC = 10.75 and 4.43, relative to controls) among all the metabolites in the third week. The serum metabolic profile of lung metastasis at week 4 was different from that at week 3, in that most of previously increased serum metabolites were found decreased, except for cholesterol and several free fatty acids, suggesting lowered carbohydrate and amino acids metabolism, but an elevated lipid metabolism associated with tumor metastasis.

  1. Prediction of Shrinkage Porosity Defect in Sand Casting Process of LM25

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathod, Hardik; Dhulia, Jay K.; Maniar, Nirav P.

    2017-08-01

    In the present worldwide and aggressive environment, foundry commercial enterprises need to perform productively with least number of rejections and create casting parts in shortest lead time. It has become extremely difficult for foundry industries to meet demands of defects free casting and meet strict delivery schedules. The process of casting solidification is complex in nature. Prediction of shrinkage defect in metal casting is one of the critical concern in foundries and is one of the potential research areas in casting. Due to increasing pressure to improve quality and to reduce cost, it is very essential to upgrade the level of current methodology used in foundries. In the present research work, prediction methodology of shrinkage porosity defect in sand casting process of LM25 using experimentation and ANSYS is proposed. The objectives successfully achieved are prediction of shrinkage porosity distribution in Al-Si casting and determining effectiveness of investigated function for predicting shrinkage porosity by correlating results of simulating studies to those obtained experimentally. The real-time application of the research reflects from the fact that experimentation is performed on 9 different Y junctions at foundry industry and practical data obtained from experimentation are used for simulation.

  2. Performance of High Temperature Operational Amplifier, Type LM2904WH, under Extreme Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Richard; Hammoud, Ahmad; Elbuluk, Malik

    2008-01-01

    Operation of electronic parts and circuits under extreme temperatures is anticipated in NASA space exploration missions as well as terrestrial applications. Exposure of electronics to extreme temperatures and wide-range thermal swings greatly affects their performance via induced changes in the semiconductor material properties, packaging and interconnects, or due to incompatibility issues between interfaces that result from thermal expansion/contraction mismatch. Electronics that are designed to withstand operation and perform efficiently in extreme temperatures would mitigate risks for failure due to thermal stresses and, therefore, improve system reliability. In addition, they contribute to reducing system size and weight, simplifying its design, and reducing development cost through the elimination of otherwise required thermal control elements for proper ambient operation. A large DC voltage gain (100 dB) operational amplifier with a maximum junction temperature of 150 C was recently introduced by STMicroelectronics [1]. This LM2904WH chip comes in a plastic package and is designed specifically for automotive and industrial control systems. It operates from a single power supply over a wide range of voltages, and it consists of two independent, high gain, internally frequency compensated operational amplifiers. Table I shows some of the device manufacturer s specifications.

  3. Optimization of the Machining parameter of LM6 Alminium alloy in CNC Turning using Taguchi method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunkumar, S.; Muthuraman, V.; Baskaralal, V. P. M.

    2017-03-01

    Due to widespread use of highly automated machine tools in the industry, manufacturing requires reliable models and methods for the prediction of output performance of machining process. In machining of parts, surface quality is one of the most specified customer requirements. In order for manufactures to maximize their gains from utilizing CNC turning, accurate predictive models for surface roughness must be constructed. The prediction of optimum machining conditions for good surface finish plays an important role in process planning. This work deals with the study and development of a surface roughness prediction model for machining LM6 aluminum alloy. Two important tools used in parameter design are Taguchi orthogonal arrays and signal to noise ratio (S/N). Speed, feed, depth of cut and coolant are taken as process parameter at three levels. Taguchi’s parameters design is employed here to perform the experiments based on the various level of the chosen parameter. The statistical analysis results in optimum parameter combination of speed, feed, depth of cut and coolant as the best for obtaining good roughness for the cylindrical components. The result obtained through Taguchi is confirmed with real time experimental work.

  4. 血红铆钉菇子实体对人肝星状细胞LX-2和人肝癌细胞Hep G2增殖的影响%Effects of Chemical Fractions from Chroogomphus rutilus Fruiting Body on the Proliferation of Human Hepatic Stellate Cells LX-2 and Human Liver Carcinoma Hep G2 Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝鹤鸣; 吴艳玲; 李雪; 姚大雷; 张昌浩; 崔炯谟; 李镐

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] To study the effects of chemical fractions from Chroogomphus rutilus fruiting body on the proliferation of human hepatic stellate cells LX-2 and human liver carcinoma Hep G2 cells,and to screen the active fractions with anti-hepatic fibrosis and anti-tumor activity from C.rutilus fruiting body.[Method] The polysaccharide,petroleum ether,dichloromethane,ethyl acetate,n-butanol and aqueous fractions from C.rutilus fruiting body were obtained by the methods of nature products chemistry.MTT assay was used to determine the effects of above fractions on the proliferation of human hepatic stellate cells LX-2 and human liver carcinoma Hep G2 cells.Morphological changes were observed through invert microscope.[Result] The petroleum ether fraction,dichloromethane fraction and ethyl acetate fraction showed inhibitory activities on human hepatic stellate cells LX-2 with IC50 values at 519.6,526,675.7 μg/ml,respectively,and human liver carcinoma Hep G2 cells with IC50 values at 727.6,610.1,618.1 μg/ml,respectively.Morphological change of apoptosis body formation was observed by invert microscope.[Conclusion] Among polysaccharide and solvent fractions from C.rutilus fruiting body,the petroleum ether fraction,dichloromethane fraction and ethyl acetate fraction have anti-hepatic fibrosis and anti-tumor activities as the main active parts.%[目的]探讨血红铆钉菇子实体对人肝癌细胞HepG2和人肝星状细胞LX-2增殖的影响,筛选出血红铆钉菇子实体抗肝纤维化和抗肿瘤作用的活性部位.[方法]利用天然药物化学方法提取得到血红铆钉菇子实体的石油醚、二氯甲烷、乙酸乙酯、正丁醇、水和粗多糖提取物,应用MTT法观察血红铆钉菇子实体不同溶剂提取物对体外培养的人肝星状细胞LX-2和人肝癌细胞Hep G2增殖的抑制作用,通过倒置显微镜观察细胞的形态学变化.[结果]血红铆钉菇子实体石油醚、二氯甲烷和乙酸乙酯提取物均对人肝星状细胞LX

  5. 表外业务下的CB-LM模型研究--CC-LM模型的新发展%The CB-LM Model Based on the Theo ry of OBS---The New Development of CC -LM Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜龙波; 高婧

    2016-01-01

    随着商业银行表外业务的迅速发展,经济中出现了一种“表内信贷表外化”的趋势,这一趋势导致我国货币政策调控面临着更加严峻的挑战。针对这一经济问题,本文在理论分析和数学建模的基础上构建起了更加符合我国国情的CB-LM模型。CB-LM模型的优点在于它用整体信贷的概念取代了CC-LM模型中表内信贷的概念,并且它还同时考虑了信贷市场、商品市场和货币市场的均衡。另外,通过经济学分析,我们发现CB-LM模型下货币政策对产出的影响比CC-LM模型下的影响更加强烈。CB-LM模型的构建将在一定程度上促进我国货币政策调控理论的发展。%With the rapid development of commercial bank’s off balance sheet business , there has been a trend of “out of balance sheet of credit in the balance sheet” in the economy , which makes China’s financial regulation facing a more severe challenge . In view of this economic problem , this paper constructs a CB -LM model which is more in line with China’s national conditions on the basis of theo-retical analysis and mathematical modeling . The advantage of the CB-LM model is that it replaces the concept of credit in the CC -LM model with the concept of overall credit , and it also considers the equilibrium of credit market , commodity market and money market . In addition , through economic analysis , we find that the impact of monetary policy on output under the CB -LM model is more stronger than that of the CC-LM model . To some extent , the construction of CB -LM model will promote the development of the theory of monetary policy regulation .

  6. Examining Ecological and Ecosystem Level Impacts of Aquatic Invasive Species in Lake Michigan Using An Ecosystem Productivity Model, LM-Eco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecological and ecosystem-level impacts of aquatic invasive species in Lake Michigan were examined using the Lake Michigan Ecosystem Model (LM-Eco). The LM-Eco model includes a detailed description of trophic levels and their interactions within the lower food web of Lake Michiga...

  7. Cloning and Expression Analysis of LmP5CS Gene from Lycium chinense Miller%枸杞LmP5CS基因的克隆及表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯远航; 王罡; 季静; 关春峰; 金超

    2013-01-01

    Proline is the important osmotic regulation substances in plants and plays a critical role in improving the stress tolerance of plants. The materials is Lycium chinense Miller, which proline content changes significantly after salt stress. After 1.5% NaCl stress, full length cDNA sequence of a putative Al-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase gene( P5CS) was cloned from Lycium chinense Miller leaves using RT-PCR and 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends ( RACE), named LmP5CS, and construct expression vector pH7m24GW, 3rc -LmP5CS. Sequence analysis showed that the complete open reading frame (ORF) of this gene is 2154 bp, encoding for a protein of 717 amino acids with an isoelectric point of 6.07 and a molecular weight of 77.5 kDa. After 200 mmol / L NaCl stress, protein expression level increased at first and decreased subsequently, proline content changed in accordance with that. The semi-quantitative PCR result suggests that LmP5CS plays an important role in proline content change responses to salt stress.%目的:为进一步研究枸杞抗逆境胁迫的机制,并为转基因育种,提供理论依据.提高农作物的抗逆性提供优质的基因资源.方法:提选取盐胁迫后脯氨酸含量变化较大的耐盐植物枸杞为材料,用1.5% NaCl处理后,提取枸杞叶片总RNA,利用RT-PCR及3′RACE方法克隆获得吡咯啉-5-羧酸合成酶(delta 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase,P5CS)基因的全长cDNA,命名为LmP5 CS,构建pH7m24GW,3 rc-LmP5 CS植物表达载体.结果:LmP5 CS基因的ORF长2 154 bp,编码1个等电点为6.07、分子量为77.5kDa、由717个氨基酸组成的蛋白.枸杞在200 mmol/LNaCl盐胁迫下,LmP5CS基因表达量随处理时间,有先升高后降低的趋势,9h基因表达量最高,脯氨酸含量变化与之一致.结论:LmP5 CS基因在盐胁迫下脯氨酸含量的变化中起关键作用.

  8. RBP-J is required for M2 macrophage polarization in response to chitin and mediates expression of a subset of M2 genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foldi, Julia; Shang, Yingli; Zhao, Baohong; Ivashkiv, Lionel B; Hu, Xiaoyu

    2016-03-01

    Development of alternatively activated (M2) macrophage phenotypes is a complex process that is coordinately regulated by a plethora of pathways and factors. Here, we report that RBP-J, a DNA-binding protein that integrates signals from multiple pathways including the Notch pathway, is critically involved in polarization of M2 macrophages. Mice deficient in RBP-J in the myeloid compartment exhibited impaired M2 phenotypes in vivo in a chitin-induced model of M2 polarization. Consistent with the in vivo findings, M2 polarization was partially compromised in vitro in Rbpj-deficient macrophages as demonstrated by reduced expression of a subset of M2 effector molecules including arginase 1. Functionally, myeloid Rbpj deficiency impaired M2 effector functions including recruitment of eosinophils and suppression of T cell proliferation. Collectively, we have identified RBP-J as an essential regulator of differentiation and function of alternatively activated macrophages.

  9. Cause analysis of combustor burn-through of gasturbine LM5000STIG%LM5000STIG燃气轮机燃烧室烧穿原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙逸

    2002-01-01

    通过分析LM5000STIG燃气轮机燃烧室的结构及其特点,说明这种燃烧室的优缺点,并且通过分析燃烧室内部回流区的形成,说明燃烧室烧穿的原因所在,为此提出降低烧穿故障的一些措施.

  10. 基于随机遗传算法的LM-BP模型的氨氮预测%Prediction of NH4+-N with random-genetic algorithm based LM-BP network model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔雪梅; 汪殿蓓; 熊思

    2013-01-01

    针对伦河孝感段近几年实际的氨氮含量,提出并建立随机遗传算法的LM-BP模型,并对该地区的氨氮含量数据进行取样、拟合、测试并预测.由于LM-BP网络对其初始权阈值敏感,泛化能力不强,故采用遗传算法(GA)对其初始权阈值进行了优化.为扩展初始种群的覆盖范围得到更优的测试结果,经过多次随机产生初始种群的多次优化,进一步提高了LM-BP网络的泛化能力.实测结果表明:该模型基本能100%拟合,测试误差不超过2%,能够采用该模型对该地区的氨氮含量进行预测,为水质预警预报和水环境规划治理提供科学依据.

  11. The Application of LM-BP Neural Network in the Prediction of Total Output Value of Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zimin; ZHANG; Yanying; FAN; Guanping; CHEN

    2015-01-01

    Gross agricultural product is an important indication to measure the agricultural development level of a region. It would be affected by many factors,having the characteristics of non- linearity. For this reason,LM- BP neural network was put forward as the model and method for predicting gross agricultural product. Taking the indications of the sown area of crop,the output of grain,sugarcane,cassava,tea,meat,aquatic products,turpentine and camellia seed,etc. as inputs,during 2000 to 2012 in Guangxi,the gross agricultural product data from the analysis of simulation experiment show that the prediction of LM- BP neural network fits well with actual results.

  12. Efecto de la corrosión por h 2 so 4 en la difusividad térmica de acero api5l-x52.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Peña-Rodríguez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work present a study of the effect of the H2SO4 corrosion to constant pH of 1.4 in the thermal diffusivity of API5L-X52 pipeline steel. The samples were exposed by 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 days to the corrosive solution, in an atmosphere with relative average humidity of 57.16% and temperature of 23.6°C. The thermal diffusivity measure was carried out using the photoacoustic technique in a heat transmission configuration. Our results show a decrease of the thermal diffusivity ( a with the corrosion time, presenting a behavior that is adjusted to a logistical curve of type decreasing with a saturation limit of 52% of a initial value.

  13. Influencia del precalentamiento en las propiedades de uniones soldadas de acero API 5L-X80 soldadas con alambre tubular autoprotegido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper, R.

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work refers to the characterization of API 5L-X80 pipeline joints welded with self-shielded flux cored wire. This process was evaluated under preheating conditions, with an uniform and steady heat input. All joints were welded in flat position (IG, with the pipe turning and the torch still. Tube dimensions were 762 mm in external diameter and 16 mm in thickness. Welds were applied on single V-groove, with six weld beads, along with three levels of preheating temperatures (room temperature, 100 °C, 160 °C. These temperatures were maintained as interpass temperature. The filler metal E71T8-K6 with mechanical properties different from parent metal was used in undermatched conditions. The weld characterization is presented according to the mechanical test results of tensile strength, hardness and impact test. The mechanical tests were conducted according to API 1104, AWS and ASTM standards. API 1104 and API 51 were used as screening criteria. According to the results obtained, it was possible to remark that it is appropriate to weld API 5L-X80 steel ducts with Self-shielded Flux Cored wires, in conformance to the API standards and no preheat temperature is necessary.

    Este trabajo presenta un estudio sobre la caracterización de las propiedades mecánicas de uniones soldadas con alambre tubular autoprotegido, de acero API 5L-X80. En este sentido, se evalúa la influencia de la temperatura de precalentamiento, manteniendo el aporte de calor uniforme. Todas las uniones soldadas se realizaron en la posición plana (IG, con la antorcha fíja y la tubería girando. Se utilizó un tubo de 762 mm de diámetro exterior y 16 mm de espesor. Las soldaduras se aplicaron sobre una unión de tope con bisel en V simple, utilizando 6 pasadas, con tres niveles de temperatura de precalentamiento (ambiente, 100 °C y 160 °C. Estas temperaturas se mantuvieron como temperatura entre pasadas. El metal de aporte, del tipo E71T8-K6, se utilizó en la

  14. Reseach on Business Model of M2M Virtual Opertion%M2M虚拟运营的商业模式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景士颖; 乔新春

    2014-01-01

    M2M市场在未来几年拥有较大的增长空间,随着移动转售业务牌照的发放,M2M将成为虚拟运营商可以切入的具备潜力的市场领域之一。探讨M2M虚拟运营的商业模式,分析国际开展M2M虚拟运营的案例,并给出国内开展M2M虚拟运营的建议。%M2M has more market space for growth in the coming years, with the issuance of mobile resale service license, M2M wil become a potential market area where MVNOs can cut into. This article discusses the business model of M2M virtual operation, analyzes the international M2M MVNO business cases, and gives advices to MNOs and MVNOs on how to provide better M2M services in China.

  15. M2e通用流感疫苗的研究进展%Universal influenza vaccine based on the extracellular domain of M2 protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    花艳红; 王希良

    2009-01-01

    M2基质蛋白是A型流感病毒膜蛋白,在A型流感病毒的生命周期中,M2具有重要的生物学功能,已成为抗病毒药物研究的靶蛋白.其胞外区M2e(M2 eetodomain,M2e)为24个氨基酸残基,该片段在多病毒株中具有极高的保守性.针对M2e产生IgG型抗体能够防止流感病毒引发的死亡,减少动物模型中流感的发病率.了解有关M2e疫苗的研究进展,以及关于M2e作为A型流感疫苗靶抗原的关键问题很重要.%Matrix protein M2 (M2) is the membrane protein of Influenza A with an extracellular domain of 24 amino acid residues, which is strongly conserved across virus strains. M2 plays an important role in the life cy-cle of the Influenza A virus and has been the target of antiviral drugs. IgG subtype antibodies directed against M2e can prevent death from influenza and reduce morbidity in animal models for influenza disease. This review summarizes the findings on M2e vaccine candidates and addresses some key questions about this Influenza A vaccine target.

  16. Insight of the interface of electroless Ni-P/SiC composite coating on aluminium alloy, LM24

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Electroless nickel composite coatings with silicon carbide, SiC, as reinforcing particles deposited with Ni–P onto aluminium alloy, LM24, having zincating as under layer were subjected to heat treatment using air furnace. The changes at the interface were investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) to probe the chemistry changes upon heat treatment. Microhardness tester with various loads using both Knoop and Vickers indenters was used to study the ...

  17. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic characterization of LmACR2, an arsenate/antimonate reductase from Leishmania major

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisacchi, Davide [Bioinformatics and Structural Proteomics, IST-National Cancer Research Institute, Genova (Italy); Zhou, Yao; Rosen, Barry P.; Mukhopadhyay, Rita [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Bordo, Domenico, E-mail: domenico.bordo@istge.it [Bioinformatics and Structural Proteomics, IST-National Cancer Research Institute, Genova (Italy)

    2006-10-01

    LmACR2 from L. major is the first rhodanese-like enzyme directly involved in the reduction of arsenate and antimonate to be crystallized. Diffraction data have been collected to 1.99 Å resolution using synchrotron X-rays. Arsenic is present in the biosphere owing either to the presence of pesticides and herbicides used in agricultural and industrial activities or to leaching from geological formations. The health effects of prolonged exposure to arsenic can be devastating and may lead to various forms of cancer. Antimony(V), which is chemically very similar to arsenic, is used instead in the treatment of leishmaniasis, an infection caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania sp.; the reduction of pentavalent antimony contained in the drug Pentostam to the active trivalent form arises from the presence in the Leishmania genome of a gene, LmACR2, coding for the protein LmACR2 (14.5 kDa, 127 amino acids) that displays weak but significant sequence similarity to the catalytic domain of Cdc25 phosphatase and to rhodanese enzymes. For structural characterization, LmACR2 was overexpressed, purified to homogeneity and crystallized in a trigonal space group (P321 or P3{sub 1}21/P3{sub 2}21). The protein crystallized in two distinct trigonal crystal forms, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 111.0, c = 86.1 Å and a = b = 111.0, c = 175.6 Å, respectively. At a synchrotron beamline, the diffraction pattern extended to a resolution limit of 1.99 Å.

  18. The Effects of Low Dose-Rate Ionizing Radiation on the Shapes of Transients in the LM124 Operational Amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchner, Stephen; McMorrow, Dale; Roche, Nicholas; Dusseau, Laurent; Pease, Ron L.

    2008-01-01

    Shapes of single event transients (SETs) in a linear bipolar circuit (LM124) change with exposure to total ionizing dose (TID) radiation. SETs shape changes are a direct consequence of TID-induced degradation of bipolar transistor gain. A reduction in transistor gain causes a reduction in the drive current of the current sources in the circuit, and it is the lower drive current that most affects the shapes of large amplitude SETs.

  19. μC/OS-Ⅱ在微处理器LM3S8962上的移植%Transplantation of μC/OS-Ⅱ on LM3S8962

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘凯; 张立民; 赵小锋; 李平

    2011-01-01

    Based on ARM Cortex-M3 microprocessor system construction which has the extensive and applied foreground,this paper made transplantation of μC/OS-Ⅱ on LM3S8962.Through analyzing the structure of LM3S8962 and μC/OS-Ⅱ,combined with the characteristic of ARM Cortex-M3,this paper introduced how to transplant μC/OS-Ⅱ operating system on LM3S8962 processor,and some basic problems in the transplantation were also mentioned.Some partial transport functions were provided with code, specially PendSV was used as software interruption to task switch.The functions that we didn't provide the code was also described by fake code. The test results show that the system can accomplish task switching correctly when clock frequency is 20Hz. That means this system runs correctly and reaches the destination.%基于具有广泛应用前景的ARM Codex-M3微处理器体系结构,将μC/OS-Ⅱ实时操作系统移植到微处理器LM3S8962.通过分析微处理器LM3S8962和μC/OS-Ⅱ内核结构,并且结合ARM Codex-M3体系特点,利用ARMCortex-M3所固有的嵌套向量中断控制器(NVIC)和Thumb-2指令集体系结构(ISA),完成了移植μC/OS-Ⅱ所需要的函数的编写,宏的定义和任务堆栈的实现,特别是利用ARM Codex-M3所提供的新型中断-可挂起系统调用(PendSV)作为实时系统完成任务切换的软中断.给出了部分移植函数的代码,未给出代码的函数也对函数结构进行了详细的描述.通过对移植进行测试,结果表明在时钟频率为20 Hz的情况下系统运行正常,能够正常的完成任务切换,实现了移植的目的.

  20. Salvianolic Acid B Inhibits ERK and p38 MAPK Signaling in TGF-β1-Stimulated Human Hepatic Stellate Cell Line (LX-2 via Distinct Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Lv

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Salvianolic acid B (SA-B is water-soluble component of Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza. The previous work indicated that SA-B can inhibit MAPK and Smad signaling in activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs to perform anti-fibrotic activity Lv et al. 2010. However, some studies have shown that there is cross-talk between MAPK and Smad in certain cell types. Thus, the anti-fibrotic action of SA-B may be through the cross-talk. In order to clarify the mechanism of SA-B further, we knocked down Smad in LX-2 cells (SRV4 via RNAi, and then added TGF-β1, and PD98059 or SB203580 and SA-B. The levels of p-MEK and p-p38 were inhibited by SA-B in SRV4 independent of TGF-β1. The expression of Col I and α-SMA in SRV4 could be reduced by SA-B independent TGF-β1. SB203580 had not significant effect on p-MEK in SRV4 stimulated by TGF-β1. The levels of p-MEK in SRV4 were not increased significantly after TGF-β1 stimulation. PD98059 had no effect on the levels of p-p38 in SRV4 irrespective of TGF-β1. In conclusion, SA-B inhibits the synthesis of Col I in LX-2 cells independent of TGF-β1 stimulation, and the anti-fibrotic effect of SA-B is due to direct inhibition of p38 signaling and inhibition the cross-talk of Smad to ERK signaling.

  1. Salvianolic Acid B Inhibits ERK and p38 MAPK Signaling in TGF-β1-Stimulated Human Hepatic Stellate Cell Line (LX-2) via Distinct Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Zhigang; Xu, Lieming

    2012-01-01

    Salvianolic acid B (SA-B) is water-soluble component of Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza. The previous work indicated that SA-B can inhibit MAPK and Smad signaling in activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) to perform anti-fibrotic activity Lv et al. 2010. However, some studies have shown that there is cross-talk between MAPK and Smad in certain cell types. Thus, the anti-fibrotic action of SA-B may be through the cross-talk. In order to clarify the mechanism of SA-B further, we knocked down Smad in LX-2 cells (SRV4) via RNAi, and then added TGF-β1, and PD98059 or SB203580 and SA-B. The levels of p-MEK and p-p38 were inhibited by SA-B in SRV4 independent of TGF-β1. The expression of Col I and α-SMA in SRV4 could be reduced by SA-B independent TGF-β1. SB203580 had not significant effect on p-MEK in SRV4 stimulated by TGF-β1. The levels of p-MEK in SRV4 were not increased significantly after TGF-β1 stimulation. PD98059 had no effect on the levels of p-p38 in SRV4 irrespective of TGF-β1. In conclusion, SA-B inhibits the synthesis of Col I in LX-2 cells independent of TGF-β1 stimulation, and the anti-fibrotic effect of SA-B is due to direct inhibition of p38 signaling and inhibition the cross-talk of Smad to ERK signaling. PMID:21860657

  2. Querying quantitative logic models (Q2LM) to study intracellular signaling networks and cell-cytokine interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Melody K; Shriver, Zachary; Sasisekharan, Ram; Lauffenburger, Douglas A

    2012-01-01

    Mathematical models have substantially improved our ability to predict the response of a complex biological system to perturbation, but their use is typically limited by difficulties in specifying model topology and parameter values. Additionally, incorporating entities across different biological scales ranging from molecular to organismal in the same model is not trivial. Here, we present a framework called “querying quantitative logic models” (Q2LM) for building and asking questions of constrained fuzzy logic (cFL) models. cFL is a recently developed modeling formalism that uses logic gates to describe influences among entities, with transfer functions to describe quantitative dependencies. Q2LM does not rely on dedicated data to train the parameters of the transfer functions, and it permits straight-forward incorporation of entities at multiple biological scales. The Q2LM framework can be employed to ask questions such as: Which therapeutic perturbations accomplish a designated goal, and under what environmental conditions will these perturbations be effective? We demonstrate the utility of this framework for generating testable hypotheses in two examples: (i) a intracellular signaling network model; and (ii) a model for pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of cell-cytokine interactions; in the latter, we validate hypotheses concerning molecular design of granulocyte colony stimulating factor. PMID:22125256

  3. Multi-Scale Parameter Identification of Lithium-Ion Battery Electric Models Using a PSO-LM Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jing Shen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a multi-scale parameter identification algorithm for the lithium-ion battery (LIB electric model by using a combination of particle swarm optimization (PSO and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM algorithms. Two-dimensional Poisson equations with unknown parameters are used to describe the potential and current density distribution (PDD of the positive and negative electrodes in the LIB electric model. The model parameters are difficult to determine in the simulation due to the nonlinear complexity of the model. In the proposed identification algorithm, PSO is used for the coarse-scale parameter identification and the LM algorithm is applied for the fine-scale parameter identification. The experiment results show that the multi-scale identification not only improves the convergence rate and effectively escapes from the stagnation of PSO, but also overcomes the local minimum entrapment drawback of the LM algorithm. The terminal voltage curves from the PDD model with the identified parameter values are in good agreement with those from the experiments at different discharge/charge rates.

  4. Study on the Inherent Complex Features and Chaos Control of IS–LM Fractional-Order Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhai Ma

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on the traditional IS–LM economic theory, which shows the relationship between interest rates and output in the goods and services market and the money market in macroeconomic. We established a four-dimensional IS–LM model involving four variables. With the Caputo fractional calculus theory, we improved it into a fractional order nonlinear model, analyzed the complexity and stability of the fractional order system. The existences conditions of attractors under different order conditions are compared, and obtain the orders when the system reaches a stable state. Have the detail analysis on the dynamic phenomena, such as the strange attractor, sensitivity to initial values through phase diagram and the power spectral. The order changes in two ways: orders changes synchronously or single order changes. The results show regardless of which the order situation is, the economic system will enter into multiple states, such as strong divergence, strange attractor and the convergence, finally, system will enter into the stable state under a certain order; parameter changes have similar effects on the economic system. Therefore, selecting an appropriate order is significant for an economic system, which guarantees a steady development. Furthermore, this paper construct the chaos control to IS–LM fractional-order macroeconomic model by means of linear feedback control method, by calculating and adjusting the feedback coefficient, we make the system return to the convergence state.

  5. Application of general model of LM-BP neural network for comprehensive evaluation of water quality%水质综合评价的LM-BP神经网络通用模型应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔东文

    2013-01-01

    分析BP神经网络应用于水质评价中存在的问题和目前水质评价中的不足,基于地表水环境质量分级标准和L-M算法原理,提出LM-BP神经网络水质综合评价通用模型。利用随机内插方法在地表水环境质量分级标准阈值间生成训练样本和检验样本,采用顺序和随机两种方法选取训练样本和检验样本进行随机模拟;利用平均相对误差、最大相对误差等统计指标评价LM-BP模型性能,并构建传统BP 、RBF模型作为对比模型;以某水质评价实例进行模型验证,并与灰色关联分析法、模糊综合评判法和TOPSIS法评价结果进行比较。结果表明:LM-BP通用模型具有评价精度高、泛化能力强、收敛速度快、算法稳定和通用性能好等优点,可应用于任意水质评价。在实际应用中仅需对通用模型的评价因子、输入维数和隐含层神经元数进行删减即可满足评价要求。%Existing problems and shortcomings in water quality evaluation using the BP neural network were analyzed. Based on surface water environmental quality grading standards and the principle of the L-M algorithm, a general model of the LM-BP neural network was developed for comprehensive assessment of water quality. First, the random interpolation method was used to generate training and testing samples at the surface water environmental quality grading standard threshold, and the order and random methods were used to select training and testing samples for random simulation. Then, statistical indices such as the average relative error and the maximum relative error were used to evaluate the performance of the LM-BP model, and the traditional BP and RBF models were constructed as the contrast models. Finally, the model was applied to water quality evaluation in a case study and compared with the gray correlation analysis method, fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method, and TOPSIS method. The results show that the

  6. Derivatives of Dictyostelium differentiation-inducing factors inhibit lysophosphatidic acid–stimulated migration of murine osteosarcoma LM8 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubohara, Yuzuru, E-mail: ykuboha@juntendo.ac.jp [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Institute for Molecular and Cellular Regulation (IMCR), Gunma University, Maebashi 371-8512 (Japan); Department of Health Science, Juntendo University Graduate School of Health and Sports Science, Inzai 270-1695 (Japan); Komachi, Mayumi [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Institute for Molecular and Cellular Regulation (IMCR), Gunma University, Maebashi 371-8512 (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi 371-8511 (Japan); Homma, Yoshimi [Department of Biomolecular Science, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Fukushima Medical University School of Medicine, Fukushima 960-1295 (Japan); Kikuchi, Haruhisa; Oshima, Yoshiteru [Laboratory of Natural Product Chemistry, Tohoku University Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Aoba-yama, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)

    2015-08-07

    Osteosarcoma is a common metastatic bone cancer that predominantly develops in children and adolescents. Metastatic osteosarcoma remains associated with a poor prognosis; therefore, more effective anti-metastatic drugs are needed. Differentiation-inducing factor-1 (DIF-1), −2, and −3 are novel lead anti-tumor agents that were originally isolated from the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. Here we investigated the effects of a panel of DIF derivatives on lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)-induced migration of mouse osteosarcoma LM8 cells by using a Boyden chamber assay. Some DIF derivatives such as Br-DIF-1, DIF-3(+2), and Bu-DIF-3 (5–20 μM) dose-dependently suppressed LPA-induced cell migration with associated IC{sub 50} values of 5.5, 4.6, and 4.2 μM, respectively. On the other hand, the IC{sub 50} values of Br-DIF-1, DIF-3(+2), and Bu-DIF-3 versus cell proliferation were 18.5, 7.2, and 2.0 μM, respectively, in LM8 cells, and >20, 14.8, and 4.3 μM, respectively, in mouse 3T3-L1 fibroblasts (non-transformed). Together, our results demonstrate that Br-DIF-1 in particular may be a valuable tool for the analysis of cancer cell migration, and that DIF derivatives such as DIF-3(+2) and Bu-DIF-3 are promising lead anti-tumor agents for the development of therapies that suppress osteosarcoma cell proliferation, migration, and metastasis. - Highlights: • LPA induces cell migration (invasion) in murine osteosarcoma LM8 cells. • DIFs are novel lead anti-tumor agents found in Dictyostelium discoideum. • We examined the effects of DIF derivatives on LPA-induced LM8 cell migration in vitro. • Some of the DIF derivatives inhibited LPA-induced LM8 cell migration.

  7. The receptor-like kinase SOBIR1 interacts with Brassica napus LepR3 and is required for Leptosphaeria maculans AvrLm1-triggered immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisong eMa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe fungus Leptosphaeria maculans (L. maculans is the causal agent of blackleg disease of canola/oilseed rape (Brassica napus worldwide. We previously reported cloning of the B. napus blackleg resistance gene, LepR3, which encodes a receptor-like protein. LepR3 triggers localised cell death upon recognition of its cognate Avr protein, AvrLm1. Here, we exploited the Nicotiana benthamiana model plant to investigate the recognition mechanism of AvrLm1 by LepR3. Co-expression of the LepR3/AvrLm1 gene pair in N. benthamiana resulted in development of a hypersensitive response (HR. However, a truncated AvrLm1 lacking its indigenous signal peptide was compromised in its ability to induce LepR3-mediated HR, indicating that AvrLm1 is perceived by LepR3 extracellularly. Structure-function analysis of the AvrLm1 protein revealed that the C-terminal region of AvrLm1 was required for LepR3-mediated HR in N. benthamiana and for resistance to L. maculans in B. napus. LepR3 was shown to be physically interacting with the B. napus receptor like kinase, SOBIR1 (BnSOBIR1. Silencing of NbSOBIR1 or NbSERK3 (BAK1 compromised LepR3-AvrLm1-dependent HR in N. benthamiana, suggesting that LepR3-mediated resistance to L. maculans in B. napus requires SOBIR1 and BAK1/SERK3. Using this model system, we determined that BnSOBIR1 and SERK3/BAK1 are essential partners in the LepR3 signalling complex and were able to define the AvrLm1 effector domain.

  8. In pursuit of vehicle landmine occupant protection: Evaluating the dynamic response characteristic of the military lower extremity leg (MiL-Lx) compared to the Hybrid III (HIII) lower leg

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pandelani, T

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the results of a practical investigation into the robustness of the newly developed Military Extremity (MiL-Lx) lower leg, as compared to the Hybrid III (HIII) lower leg, with respect to repeatability and reproducibility under...

  9. 经济开放度与中国货币政策的有效性——引入经济开放度的IS-LM-BP模型及验证%Economic Openness and China'S Monetary Policy Efficiency——Verification of The IS-LM-BP Model Introduced Restriciton of Economic Openness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成力为; 孟雪

    2010-01-01

    开放经济下货币政策的有效性一直是国际宏观经济学理论和实证研究的热点,也是中国经济持续稳定增长面临的重要课题.考虑到IS曲线和LM曲线表示的行为方程在中国基本成立的实际,构建了引入经济开放度的IS-LM-BP模型,并利用1985-2007年度数据经济开放度对货币政策有效性的影响进行实证分析得到:第一,在目前不完全对外开放下,我国货币政策在短期内仍具有非中性特征;第二,通过我国各层次的货币供给量(M0、M1、M2)与经济开放度和经济增长率交叉项负相关关系的实证研究,验证了理论模型中随经济开放度增加、降低我国货币政策产出效应的结论;第三,通过我国货币供应量M1、M2与经济开放度和物价上涨率交叉项正相关关系的实证研究,验证了理论模型中随经济开放度增加、降低我国货币政策价格效应的结论.

  10. The structure of the third intracellular loop of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichiyama, Susumu; Oka, Yoshiaki; Haga, Kazuko; Kojima, Shuichi; Tateishi, Yukihiro; Shirakawa, Masahiro; Haga, Tatsuya

    2006-01-09

    We have examined whether the long third intracellular loop (i3) of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 subtype has a rigid structure. Circular dichroism (CD) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of M2i3 expressed in and purified from Escherichia coli indicated that M2i3 consists mostly of random coil. In addition, the differential CD spectrum between the M2 and M2deltai3 receptors, the latter of which lacks most of i3 except N- and C-terminal ends, gave no indication of secondary structure. These results suggest that the central part of i3 of the M2 receptor has a flexible structure.

  11. Seawater temperature model from Argo data by LM-BP neural network in Northwest Pacific Ocean%基于LM-BP神经网络的Argo数据西北太平洋海水温度模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩震; 赵宁

    2012-01-01

    Using the LM-BP neural network and choosing the sea surface temperature, longitude, latitude and depth obtained from Argo data in 2007 as input parameters, the seawater temperature model of the Northwest Pacific Ocean was built. Using the root-mean-square error( RMSE) and the Pearson' s correlation coefficient (R) as test indices, the model was evaluated by the data in the period 2008 ~ 2009. The results were that the RMSE was 0.714 0 ℃ and R was 0.996 8 in 2008. The RMSE was 0.761 5 ℃ and R was 0.996 5 in 2009. lt shown this seawater temperature model was.%以2007年西北太平洋海域Argo海表面温度、经纬度、深度为输入参数,利用LM-BP神经网络,构建了西北太平洋海水温度模型.将均方根差以及Pearson相关性系数作为检验指标,利用2008年和2009年的Argo数据对模型进行了检验.检验结果为:2008年均方根误差为0.7140℃,Pearson相关性系数为0.9968;2009年均方根误差为0.761 5℃,Pearson相关性系数为0.9965.表明所建立的基于LM-BP神经网络的Argo数据西北太平洋海水温度模型是可行的.

  12. Fault Type Identification of Generator Terminal Based on Wavelet Packet Energy and LM-BP Network%小波包能量和LM-BP神经网络的发电机机端故障类型识别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙其东

    2016-01-01

    In order to accurately and rapidly detect al faults of synchronous generator sudden phase short circuit,the fol owing test method is proposed.Make use of wavelet packet to do three layers of reconstruction on col ected phase current.Do energy calculation and normalized processing on the wavelet coefficients of the three layers of decomposition reconstruction,then put processed twenty-four values as input data to the BP neural network using LM algorithm for training and testing.At the same time compared with the standard BP neural network training effect,LM algorithm to optimize the BP neural network's training effect has the cha-racteristics of fast convergence rate and high precision rate.Setting up a MATLAB simulation model for the generator of al kinds of sudden phase fault is simulated.The training and testing results of LM-BP network s-how that this method can accurately judge phase fault and fault type of generator.%为了准确且快速地检测同步发电机出现的各种突然相短路故障,提出了以下检测方法。利用小波包对采集到的相电流进行三层分解和重构。对第三层小波包重构的小波系数进行能量计算并进行归一化处理,然后把处理后的24个值作为BP神经网络的输入数据同时采用LM算法来进行训练和测试。同时与标准BP神经网络的训练效果进行了对比,LM算法优化BP神经网络的训练具有收敛速度快,精确率高的特点。搭建了同步发电机的MATLAB仿真模型对发生各种出现的突然相故障类型进行了仿真, LM-BP神经网络训练和测试的结果表明此方法能够准确地判断发电机所发生的相故障以及故障类型。

  13. Neuron Control DC Speed Regulation System Based on LM3S8962ARM%基于LM3S8962 ARM的神经元控制直流调速系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖京盛

    2008-01-01

    介绍采用LM3S8962作为主控器件、结合智能控制理论的直流调速系统设计及实现.主要内容涉及神经元控制器、硬件、软件设计,并对该系统进行了仿真实验.从仿真结果可知:该系统具有良好的控制性能,并能达到很高的控制精度.

  14. M2M在3GPP SA2的研究进展%The Progress of M2M in 3GPP SA2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜加懂

    2011-01-01

    With the rapid development of Internet of things,almost all communication standardization organizations put their focus on the standards of M2M.3GPP as the main mobile communication SDO is working hard on research and standards on M2M.Based on the brief introduction of the 3GPP working groups on M2M,this paper mainly introduces the 3GPP SA2 research progress and standardization on M2M.%随着物联网的快速发展,M2M成为各个标准化组织研究和标准制定的工作重点。3GPP作为移动通信技术的主要研究和标准制定者,对M2M的相关研究和标准制定也在加紧进行。本文在介绍3GPP各个工作组的工作情况的基础上,重点介绍了M2M在3GPP在SA2的研究和标准化进展情况。

  15. File list: ALL.Myo.50.AllAg.LHCN-M2 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Myo.50.AllAg.LHCN-M2 hg19 All antigens Muscle LHCN-M2 SRX201296,SRX201297,SRX19...3596,SRX193611,SRX201281,SRX201282 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Myo.50.AllAg.LHCN-M2.bed ...

  16. File list: DNS.Myo.10.AllAg.LHCN-M2 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Myo.10.AllAg.LHCN-M2 hg19 DNase-seq Muscle LHCN-M2 SRX201296,SRX201297,SRX19359...6,SRX201281,SRX193611,SRX201282 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Myo.10.AllAg.LHCN-M2.bed ...

  17. File list: ALL.Myo.05.AllAg.LHCN-M2 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Myo.05.AllAg.LHCN-M2 hg19 All antigens Muscle LHCN-M2 SRX201296,SRX201297,SRX19...3596,SRX201281,SRX193611,SRX201282 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Myo.05.AllAg.LHCN-M2.bed ...

  18. File list: DNS.Myo.50.AllAg.LHCN-M2 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Myo.50.AllAg.LHCN-M2 hg19 DNase-seq Muscle LHCN-M2 SRX201296,SRX201297,SRX19359...6,SRX193611,SRX201281,SRX201282 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Myo.50.AllAg.LHCN-M2.bed ...

  19. File list: ALL.Myo.10.AllAg.LHCN-M2 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Myo.10.AllAg.LHCN-M2 hg19 All antigens Muscle LHCN-M2 SRX201296,SRX201297,SRX19...3596,SRX201281,SRX193611,SRX201282 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Myo.10.AllAg.LHCN-M2.bed ...

  20. File list: ALL.Myo.20.AllAg.LHCN-M2 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Myo.20.AllAg.LHCN-M2 hg19 All antigens Muscle LHCN-M2 SRX201296,SRX201297,SRX19...3596,SRX201281,SRX193611,SRX201282 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Myo.20.AllAg.LHCN-M2.bed ...

  1. File list: DNS.Myo.20.AllAg.LHCN-M2 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Myo.20.AllAg.LHCN-M2 hg19 DNase-seq Muscle LHCN-M2 SRX201296,SRX201297,SRX19359...6,SRX201281,SRX193611,SRX201282 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Myo.20.AllAg.LHCN-M2.bed ...

  2. Measurements and ALE3D Simulations for Violence in a Scaled Thermal Explosion Experiment with LX-10 and AerMet 100 Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClelland, M A; Maienschein, J L; Yoh, J J; deHaven, M R; Strand, O T

    2005-06-03

    We completed a Scaled Thermal Explosion Experiment (STEX) and performed ALE3D simulations for the HMX-based explosive, LX-10, confined in an AerMet 100 (iron-cobalt-nickel alloy) vessel. The explosive was heated at 1 C/h until cookoff at 182 C using a controlled temperature profile. During the explosion, the expansion of the tube and fragment velocities were measured with strain gauges, Photonic-Doppler-Velocimeters (PDVs), and micropower radar units. These results were combined to produce a single curve describing 15 cm of tube wall motion. A majority of the metal fragments were captured and cataloged. A fragment size distribution was constructed, and a typical fragment had a length scale of 2 cm. Based on these results, the explosion was considered to be a violent deflagration. ALE3D models for chemical, thermal, and mechanical behavior were developed for the heating and explosive processes. A four-step chemical kinetics model is employed for the HMX while a one-step model is used for the Viton. A pressure-dependent deflagration model is employed during the expansion. The mechanical behavior of the solid constituents is represented by a Steinberg-Guinan model while polynomial and gamma-law expressions are used for the equation of state of the solid and gas species, respectively. A gamma-law model is employed for the air in gaps, and a mixed material model is used for the interface between air and explosive. A Johnson-Cook model with an empirical rule for failure strain is used to describe fracture behavior. Parameters for the kinetics model were specified using measurements of the One-Dimensional-Time-to-Explosion (ODTX), while measurements for burn rate were employed to determine parameters in the burn front model. The ALE3D models provide good predictions for the thermal behavior and time to explosion, but the predicted wall expansion curve is higher than the measured curve. Possible contributions to this discrepancy include inaccuracies in the chemical models

  3. PPARγ ligands switched high fat diet-induced macrophage M2b polarization toward M2a thereby improving intestinal Candida elimination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise Lefèvre

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with a chronic low-grade inflammation that predisposes to insulin resistance and the development of type 2 diabetes. In this metabolic context, gastrointestinal (GI candidiasis is common. We recently demonstrated that the PPARγ ligand rosiglitazone promotes the clearance of Candida albicans through the activation of alternative M2 macrophage polarization. Here, we evaluated the impact of high fat diet (HFD-induced obesity and the effect of rosiglitazone (PPARγ ligand or WY14643 (PPARα ligand both on the phenotypic M1/M2 polarization of peritoneal and cecal tissue macrophages and on the outcome of GI candidiasis. We demonstrated that the peritoneal macrophages and the cell types present in the cecal tissue from HF fed mice present a M2b polarization (TNF-α(high, IL-10(high, MR, Dectin-1. Interestingly, rosiglitazone induces a phenotypic M2b-to-M2a (TNF-α(low, IL-10(low, MR(high, Dectin-1(high switch of peritoneal macrophages and of the cells present in the cecal tissue. The incapacity of WY14643 to switch this polarization toward M2a state, strongly suggests the specific involvement of PPARγ in this mechanism. We showed that in insulin resistant mice, M2b polarization of macrophages present on the site of infection is associated with an increased susceptibility to GI candidiasis, whereas M2a polarization after rosiglitazone treatment favours the GI fungal elimination independently of reduced blood glucose. In conclusion, our data demonstrate a dual benefit of PPARγ ligands because they promote mucosal defence mechanisms against GI candidiasis through M2a macrophage polarization while regulating blood glucose level.

  4. Optimization of Electrical Discharge Machining Characteristics of SiCp/LM25 Al Composites Using Goal Programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.Karthikeyan; S. Raju; R.S.Naagarazan; B. C. Pai

    2001-01-01

    In the present study an effort has been made to optimize the machining conditions for electric discharge machining of LM25 Al (7 Si, 0.33 Mg, 0.3 Mn, 0.5 Fe, 0.1 Cu, 0.1 Ni,.2 Ti) reinforced with green bonded SiC particles with approximate size of 25 μm. Polynomial models were developed for the various EDM characteristics such as metal removal rate, tool wear rate and surface roughness in terms of the process parameters such as volume fraction of SiC, current and pulse time. The models were used to optimize the EDM characteristics using nonlinear goal programming.

  5. Magnetic fluid based squeeze film between porous annular curved plates with the effect of rotational inertia

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajesh C Shah; S R Tripathi; M V Bhat

    2002-03-01

    The squeeze film behaviour between rotating annular plates was analysed theoretically when the curved upper plate with a uniform porous facing approached the impermeable and flat lower plate, considering a magnetic fluid lubricant in the presence of an external magnetic field oblique to the plates. Expressions were obtained for pressure and load capacity; and response time is given by a differential equation. The increases in pressure and load capacity depended only on the magnetization. However, the increase in response time depended on magnetization, fluid inertia and speed of rotation of the plates.

  6. Effect of intensive melt shearing on the formation of Fe-containing intermetallics in LM24 Al-alloy

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Fe is one of the inevitable and detrimental impurities in aluminium alloys that degrade the mechanical performance of castings. In the present work, intensive melt shearing has been demonstrated to modify the morphology of Fe-containing intermetallic compounds by promoting the formation of compact α-Al(Fe,Mn)Si at the expense of needle-shaped β-AlFeSi, leading to an improved mechanical properties of LM24 alloy processed by MC-HPDC process. The promotion of the formation of α -Al(Fe, Mn)Si pha...

  7. LmCYP4G102: An oenocyte-specific cytochrome P450 gene required for cuticular waterproofing in the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhitao; Zhang, Xueyao; Wang, Yiwen; Moussian, Bernard; Zhu, Kun Yan; Li, Sheng; Ma, Enbo; Zhang, Jianzhen

    2016-07-22

    Cytochrome P450 superfamily proteins play important roles in detoxification of xenobiotics and during physiological and developmental processes. To contribute to our understanding of this large gene family in insects, we have investigated the function of the cytochrome P450 gene LmCYP4G102 in the migratory locust Locusta migratoria. Suppression of LmCYP4G102 expression by RNA interference (RNAi) does not interfere with moulting but causes rapid loss of body weight - probably due to massive loss of water, and death soon after moulting. Accordingly, maintaining these animals at 90% relative humidity prevented lethality. Consistently, RNAi against LmCYP4G102 provoked a decrease in the content of cuticular alkanes, which as an important fraction of cuticular hydrocarbons have been shown to confer desiccation resistance. In addition, the cuticle of LmCYP4G102-knockdown locusts was fragile and easier deformable than in control animals. Presumably, this phenotype is due to decreased amounts of cuticular water that is reported to modulate cuticle mechanics. Interestingly, LmCYP4G102 was not expressed in the epidermis that produces the cuticle but in the sub-epdiermal hepatocyte-like oenocytes. Together, our results suggest that the oenocyte-specific LmCYP4G102 plays a critical role in the synthesis of cuticular hydrocarbons, which are important for cuticle waterproofing and mechanical stability in L. migratoria.

  8. ZigBee Wireless Networking Technology and Application Based on LM3S9B96 +CC2520%LM3S9896与CL2520平台上的Zigaee组网技术及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙娟; 马忠梅; 刘佳伟; 董帆

    2011-01-01

    ZigBee is a new wireless sensor network technology based on IEEE 802.15.4. It has short range, low power, low cost and low data rate. Network nodes are the physical carriers of the wireless sensor networks. How to realize the intelligent access of network nodes becomes the key issue. In this paper, intelligent wireless communication nodes are realized based on LM3SgB96+ CC2520 platform. Zig- Bee wireless networking and data communication technology are analyzied. Finally, the intelligent parking guidance system is realized based on the platform.%ZigBee技术是基于IEEE802.15.4的一种新兴的短距离、低功耗、低成本和低速率的无线传感器网络技术。网络节点作为无线传感器网络的物理载体,如何实现众多网络节点的智能化接入成为关键问题之一。本文提出了LM3S9896+CC2520平台上无线通信节点的智能化设计,分析了ZigBee无线组网与数据通信技术,并实现了智能泊车引导系统的应用。

  9. Definition and measurement of the beam propagation factor M2 for chromatic laser beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Fang; Xin Ye; Jinfu Niu; Jianqiu Xu

    2006-01-01

    The concept of the beam propagation factor M2 is extended for chromatic laser beams. The definition of the beam propagation factor can be generalized with the weighted effective wavelength. Using the new definition of factor M2, the propagation of chromatic beams can be analyzed by the beam propagation factor M2 as same as that of monochromatic beams. A simple method to measure the chromatic beam factor M2 is demonstrated. The chromatic factor M2 is found invariable while the laser beam propagates through the dispersion-free ABCD system.

  10. Effects of bimetallic doping on small cyclic and tubular boron clusters: B7M2 and B14M2 structures with M = Fe, Co.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Hung Tan; Nguyen, Minh Tho

    2015-07-14

    Using density functional theory with the TPSSh functional and the 6-311+G(d) basis set, we extensively searched for the global minima of two metallic atoms doped boron clusters B6M2, B7M2, B12M2 and B14M2 with transition metal element M being Co and Fe. Structural identifications reveal that B7Co2, B7Fe2 and B7CoFe clusters have global minima in a B-cyclic motif, in which a perfectly planar B7 is coordinated with two metallic atoms placed along the C7 axis. The B6 cluster is too small to form a cycle with the presence of two metals. Similarly, the B12 cluster is not large enough to stabilize the metallic dimer within a double ring 2 × B6 tube. The doped B14M2 clusters including B14Co2, B14Fe2 and B14CoFe have a double ring 2 × B7 tubular shape in which one metal atom is encapsulated by the B14 tube and the other is located at an exposed position. Dissociation energies demonstrate that while bimetallic cyclic cluster B7M2 prefers a fragmentation channel that generates the B7 global minimum plus metallic dimer, the tubular structure B14M2 tends to dissociate giving a bimetallic cyclic structure B7M2 and a B@B6 cluster. The enhanced stability of the bimetallic doped boron clusters considered can be understood from the stabilizing interactions between the anti-bonding MOs of metal-metal dimers and the levels of a disk aromatic configuration (for bimetallic cyclic structures), or the eigenstates of the B14 tubular form (in case of bimetallic tubular structure).

  11. Characterization of a midgut-specific chitin synthase gene (LmCHS2) responsible for biosynthesis of chitin of peritrophic matrix in Locusta migratoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaojian; Zhang, Huanhuan; Li, Sheng; Zhu, Kun Yan; Ma, Enbo; Zhang, Jianzhen

    2012-12-01

    Chitin, an essential component of peritrophic matrix (PM), is produced by a series of biochemical reactions. Chitin synthase plays a crucial role in chitin polymerization in chitin biosynthetic pathway. In this study, we identified and characterized a full-length cDNA of chitin synthase 2 gene (LmCHS2) from Locusta migratoria. The cDNA contains an open reading frame of 4569 nucleotides that encode 1523 amino acid residues, and 76- and 373-nucleotides for 5'- and 3'-noncoding regions, respectively. Analysis of LmCHS2 transcript in different tissues of the locust by using real-time quantitative PCR indicated that LmCHS2 was exclusively expressed in midgut and gastric caeca (a part of the midgut). The highest expression was found in the anterior midgut with a decline of the transcript level from the anterior to posterior regions. During growth and development of locusts, there was only a slight expression in eggs, but the expression gradually increased from nymphs to adults. In situ hybridization further revealed that LmCHS2 transcript mainly presented in the apical regions of brush border forming columnar cells of gastric caeca. LmCHS2 dsRNA was injected to fifth-instar nymphs to further explore biological functions of LmCHS2. Significantly down-regulated transcript of LmCHS2 resulted in a cessation of feeding and a high mortality of the insect. However, no visible abnormal morphological change of locusts was observed until insects molted to adults. After dissection, we found that the average length of midguts from the LmCHS2 dsRNA-injected locusts was shorter than that of the control insects that were injected with dsGFP. Furthermore, microsection of midguts showed that the PM of the LmCHS2 dsRNA-injected nymphs was amorphous and thin as compared with the controls. Our results demonstrate that LmCHS2 is responsible for the biosynthesis of chitin associated with PM and plays an essential role in locust growth and development.

  12. Kinematic analysis of a sample of X-ray luminous distant galaxy clusters. The $L_X$ - $\\sigma_v$ relation in the $z>0.6$ universe

    CERN Document Server

    Nastasi, Alessandro; Fassbender, Rene; de Hoon, Arjen; Lamer, Georg; Mohr, Joseph J; Padilla, Nelson; Pratt, Gabriel W; Quintana, Hernan; Rosati, Piero; Santos, Joana S; Schwope, Axel D; Šuhada, Robert; Verdugo, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Observations and cosmological simulations show galaxy clusters as a family of nearly self-similar objects with properties that can be described by scaling relations as a function of e.g. mass and time. Here we study the scaling relations between the galaxy velocity dispersion and X-ray quantities like X-ray bolometric luminosity and temperature in galaxy clusters at high redshifts (0.64 $\\leq$ z $\\leq$ 1.46). We also compare our results with the similar study of the local HIFLUGCS sample. For the analysis, we use a set of 15 distant galaxy clusters extracted from the literature plus a sample of 10 newly discovered clusters selected in X-rays by the \\XMM Distant Cluster Project (XDCP) with more than 10 confirmed spectroscopic members per cluster. We also study the evolution of this scaling relation by comparing the high redshift results with the data from the local HIFLUGCS sample. We also investigated the $L_X - T_X$ and the $\\sigma_v - T_X$ relations for the 15 clusters in the literature sample. We report th...

  13. QTAIM investigation of bis(pyrazol-1-ylmethane derivative and its Zn(II complexes (ZnLX2, X=Cl, Br or I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehestani Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Topological analyses of the electron density using the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM have been carried out at the B3PW91/6-31g (d theoretical level, on bis(pyrazol-1-ylmethanes derivatives 9-(4-(di (1H-pyrazol-1-yl-methylphenyl-9H-carbazole (L and its zinc(II complexes: ZnLCl2 (1, ZnLBr2 (2 and ZnLI2 (3. The topological parameters derived from Bader theory were also analyzed; these are characteristics of Zn-bond critical points and also of ring critical points. The calculated structural parameters are the frontier molecular orbital energies highest occupied molecular orbital energy (EHOMO, lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy (ELUMO, hardness (η, softness (S, the absolute electronegativity (χ, the electrophilicity index (ω and the fractions of electrons transferred (ΔN from ZnLX2 complexes to L. The numerous correlations and dependencies between energy terms of the Symmetry Adapted Perturbation Theory approach (SAPT, geometrical, topological and energetic parameters were detected and described.

  14. Accumulation characteristics of soluble algal products (SAP) by a freshwater microalga Scenedesmus sp. LX1 during batch cultivation for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yin; Hu, Hong-Ying; Li, Xin; Wu, Yin-Hu; Zhang, Xue; Jia, Sheng-Lan

    2012-04-01

    Algae cultivation is the essential basis for microalgal biofuel production. Soluble algal products (SAP) are significant obstacle to large-scale, high-cell-density cultivation processes. SAP accumulation during batch cultivation of Scenedesmus sp. LX1 (a unique strain accumulating lipid substantially while growing fast under low-nutrient conditions) with different initial nitrogen concentrations (7.4-34.0mgNL(-1)) was investigated. The SAP content varied in the range of 3.4-17.4mgDOCL(-1) at stationary phase, with average yield per cell of 0.5-2.5pgDOCcell(-1). High SAP accumulation up to 15.2-17.4mgDOCL(-1) were observed with initial nitrogen above 20.2mgNL(-1). The maximum SAP production rate per unit culture volume (r(SAP)) was 2.6mgDOC(Ld)(-1) and that per cell (ν(SAP)) was 1.5pgDOC(celld)(-1). The r(SAP) increased with cell growth rate and decreased with cell density linearly. The SAP accumulation was majorly due to the release of growth-associated products.

  15. Sublingual immunization with M2-based vaccine induces broad protective immunity against influenza.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung-Shik Shim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ectodomain of matrix protein 2 (M2e of influenza A virus is a rationale target antigen candidate for the development of a universal vaccine against influenza as M2e undergoes little sequence variation amongst human influenza A strains. Vaccine-induced M2e-specific antibodies (Abs have been shown to display significant cross-protective activity in animal models. M2e-based vaccine constructs have been shown to be more protective when administered by the intranasal (i.n. route than after parenteral injection. However, i.n. administration of vaccines poses rare but serious safety issues associated with retrograde passage of inhaled antigens and adjuvants through the olfactory epithelium. In this study, we examined whether the sublingual (s.l. route could serve as a safe and effective alternative mucosal delivery route for administering a prototype M2e-based vaccine. The mechanism whereby s.l. immunization with M2e vaccine candidate induces broad protection against infection with different influenza virus subtypes was explored. METHODS AND RESULTS: A recombinant M2 protein with three tandem copies of the M2e (3M2eC was expressed in Escherichia coli. Parenteral immunizations of mice with 3M2eC induced high levels of M2e-specific serum Abs but failed to provide complete protection against lethal challenge with influenza virus. In contrast, s.l. immunization with 3M2eC was superior for inducing protection in mice. In the latter animals, protection was associated with specific Ab responses in the lungs. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate that s.l. immunization with 3M2eC vaccine induced airway mucosal immune responses along with broad cross-protective immunity to influenza. These findings may contribute to the understanding of the M2-based vaccine approach to control epidemic and pandemic influenza infections.

  16. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Fly Ash Particulate Reinforced in LM6 for Energy Enhancement in Automotive Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervina Efzan, M. N.; Siti Syazwani, N.; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al

    2016-06-01

    Fly ash has gathered widespread attention as a potential reinforcement for aluminium matrix composites (AMCs) to enhance the properties and reduce the cost of production. Aluminium alloy LM6 reinforced with three different amounts (0, 4, 5 and 6 wt. %) of fly ash particle that were prepared by compo-casting method. The fly ash particles were incorporated into semi-solid state of LM6 melt. In this study, the microstructure of prepared AMCs with the homogenous distribution of fly ash was analysed using optical microscope. The microstructure having refinement of structure with the decreasing of Si-needle structure and increasing the area of eutectic a-Al matrix as shown in figure. Besides, as the increasing amount of fly ash incorporated, there are more petal-like dark structure existed in the microstructure. The density of the AMCs decreased as the incorporation of fly ash increased. While the hardness and ultimate tensile strength of the AMCs increased with the incorporation of fly ash. The addition of fly ash particles improved the physical and mechanical properties of the AMCs. Thus lead to improve the energy consumption in automotive parts.

  17. Sistem Pengendali Peralatan Elektronik dalam Rumah secara Otomatis Menggunakan Sensor PIR, Sensor LM35, dan Sensor LDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Desyantoro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Listrik merupakan hal yang sangat penting di kehidupan kita. Setiap pekerjaan kita pasti dibantu dengan adanya listrik. Mulai dari penerangan hingga pengaturan suhu ruangan pun semuanya dibantu oleh listrik. Ketergantungan manusia terhadap listrik ini menimbulkan kebiasaan buruk. Banyak orang yang terkadang membiarkan suatu peralatan elektronik hidup pada saat tidak dibutuhkan. Terjadi suatu permasalahan untuk menciptakan suatu desain sistem embedded untuk mengendalikan peralatan elektronik dalam rumah secara otomatis. Makalah ini membahas tentang perancangan sistem pengendali peralatan elektronik dalam rumah secara otomatis. Sistem terdiri dari sensor PIR yang berfungsi untuk mendeteksi objek bergerak (manusia, sensor LM35 yang berfungsi untuk mendeteksi suhu, dan sensor LDR berfungsi sebagai sensor cahaya. Mikrokontroller ATMega16 sebagai pengendali jalannya sistem dari pembacaan sensor, menampilkan data sensor pada LCD dan mengatur kontak relay untuk menghidup dan mematikan listrik. Sistem pengendali peralatan elektronik dalam rumah secara otomatis menunjukan sensor LDR dapat membedakan gelap dan terang, sensor suhu LM35 dapat mendeteksi suhu dalam ruangan dengan toleransi kesalahan pembacaan kurang lebih 2o Celcius, dan sensor PIR dapat mendeteksi pergerakan manusia sejauh 5 meter.

  18. 基于LM-BP神经网络的门式起重机安全评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛中原; 殷晨波; 夏勇; 吴福宝; 王宝家

    2014-01-01

    According to the running law and characteristics of gantry crane,the paper puts forward the crane safety e-valuation indicators and presents the safety evaluation model built based on LM-BP neural network.The test result shows that the model has the function of safety evaluation for cranes,reduces the effect of human factors on weight determination, and provides powerful application value for crane safety evaluation.%根据门式起重机的运行规律和特点,提出了起重机安全评估指标,建立了基于LM-BP神经网络的安全评价模型。实验结果证明,该模型具有对起重机进行安全评估的功能,减少了人为因素对权重确定的影响,为起重机安全评估提供参考。

  19. Application of Tunnel Blasting Vibration Disaster Prediction Based on LM-BP Neural Network%基于 LM-BP 算法的隧道爆破振动灾害预测的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋莉; 黄华东; 王先义; 陈桦深

    2016-01-01

    The BP neural network model,with charging amount of blasting cut,blasting center distance and blasting velocity as main factors,is established based on Leyenberg-Marquardt (LM)calculation method;and the blasting vibration velocity is predicted and analyzed.The charging amount of blasting cut is calculated by means of critical blasting vibration velocity in related criteria.The calculation results show that LM-BP neural network method is superior to traditional method in terms of prediction of blasting vibration velocity;the blasting cut charging amount calculated by means of critical blasting vibration velocity inverse calculation method is rational and effective.%为了对隧道爆破振动灾害的危险状态进行有效地预测,实验采用基于 Levenberg-Marquardt(LM)算法改进的 BP 算法,建立以实测隧道爆破掏槽眼装药量、爆心距和爆破振速为主要爆破影响因素的神经网络模型,对振速进行预测分析,预测结果与实测数据吻合良好;继而引用 GB 6722—2014《爆破安全规程》所规定的临界安全振速反向预测掏槽装药量,通过反向预测计算得出满足安全振速要求的临界掏槽装药量。预测结果表明:LM-BP 算法相比传统的经验模型在振速预测上表现更好,通过反向的预测运算,能有效预知临界装药参数,对爆破振动安全预测及控制有积极的意义。

  20. 采用归一化最小均方误差准则的LM-BP算法%A LM-BP Method Based on Normalized Least Mean Square Error Criterion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝欢; 陈亮; 张翼鹏

    2013-01-01

    Traditional neural network always takes least mean square(LMS) or recursive least square (RLS) as convergence criterion.However,Normalized least mean square(NLMS) can achieve better network performance in some instances,such as adaptive equalization.NLMS criterion was introduced to Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm based neural network in this paper.By normalizing the output error of the network and adopting the LM algorithm as training method,the neural network converges fast.Theoretical analysis and experimental results show:compared with the steepest decent algorithm based NLMS criterion and the LM algorithm based LMS criterion,our neural network program converges fast and gets smaller normalized error.When approaching into the neural network watermark system,our method can achieve blind extraction and better robustness for channel attack,such as additive noise,low-pass filtering,re-quantifying,et al.Moreover,the performance achieves 4% increase on average.%传统神经网络通常以最小均方误差(LMS)或最小二乘(RLS)为收敛准则,而在自适应均衡等一些应用中,使用归一化最小均方误差(NLMS)准则可以使神经网络性能更加优越.本文在NLMS准则基础上,提出了一种以Levenberg-Marquardt(LM)训练的神经网络收敛算法.通过将神经网络的误差函数归一化,然后采用LM算法作为训练算法,实现了神经网络的快速收敛.理论分析和实验仿真表明,与采用最速下降法的NLMS准则和采用LM算法的LMS准则相比,本文算法收敛速度快,归一化均方误差更小,应用于神经网络水印系统中实现了水印信息的盲提取,能更好的抵抗噪声、低通滤波和重量化等攻击,性能平均提高了4%.

  1. Fabrication of Fucoxanthin-Loaded Microsphere(F-LM) By Two Steps Double-Emulsion Solvent Evaporation Method and Characterization of Fucoxanthin before and after Microencapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noviendri, Dedi; Jaswir, Irwandi; Taher, Muhammad; Mohamed, Farahidah; Salleh, Hamzah Mohd; Noorbatcha, Ibrahim Ali; Octavianti, Fitri; Lestari, Widya; Hendri, Ridar; Ahmad, Hasna; Miyashita, Kazuo; Abdullah, Alias

    2016-08-01

    Microencapsulation is a promising approach in drug delivery to protect the drug from degradation and allow controlled release of the drug in the body. Fucoxanthin-loaded microsphere (F-LM) was fabricated by two step w/o/w double emulsion solvent evaporation method with poly (L-lactic-coglycolic acid) (PLGA) as carrier. The effect of four types of surfactants (PVA, Tween-20, Span-20 and SDS), homogenization speed, and concentration of PLGA polymer and surfactant (PVA), respectively, on particle size and morphology of F-LM were investigated. Among the surfactants tested, PVA showed the best results with smallest particle size (9.18 µm) and a smooth spherical surface. Increasing the homogenization speed resulted in a smaller mean F-LM particle size [d(0.50)] from 17.12 to 9.18 µm. Best particle size results and good morphology were attained at homogenization speed of 20 500 rpm. Meanwhile, increased PLGA concentration from 1.5 to 11.0 (% w/v) resulted in increased F-LM particle size. The mean particle size [d(0.5)] of F-LM increased from 3.93 to 11.88 µm. At 6.0 (% w/v) PLGA, F-LM showed the best structure and external morphology. Finally, increasing PVA concentration from 0.5 to 3.5 (% w/v) resulted in decreased particle size from 9.18 to 4.86 µm. Fucoxanthin characterization before and after microencapsulation was carried out to assess the success of the microencapsulation procedure. Thermo gravimetry analysis (TGA), glass transition (Tg) temperature of F-LM and fucoxanthin measured using DSC, ATR-FTIR and XRD indicated that fucoxanthin was successfully encapsulated into the PLGA matrix, while maintaining the structural and chemical integrity of fucoxanthin.

  2. Increased immunogenicity and protective efficacy of influenza M2e fused to a tetramerizing protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marie Carola Andersson

    Full Text Available The ectodomain of the matrix 2 protein (M2e of influenza A virus represents an attractive target for developing a universal influenza A vaccine, with its sequence being highly conserved amongst human variants of this virus. With the aim of targeting conformational epitopes presumably shared by diverse influenza A viruses, a vaccine (M2e-NSP4 was constructed linking M2e (in its consensus sequence to the rotavirus fragment NSP4(98-135; due to its coiled-coil region this fragment is known to form tetramers in aqueous solution and in this manner we hoped to mimick the natural configuration of M2e as presented in membranes. M2e-NSP4 was then evaluated side-by-side with synthetic M2e peptide for its immunogenicity and protective efficacy in a murine influenza challenge model. Here we demonstrate that M2e fused to the tetramerizing protein induces an accelerated, augmented and more broadly reactive antibody response than does M2e peptide as measured in two different assays. Most importantly, vaccination with M2e-NSP4 caused a significant decrease in lung virus load early after challenge with influenza A virus and maintained its efficacy against a lethal challenge even at very low vaccine doses. Based on the results presented in this study M2e-NSP4 merits further investigation as a candidate for or as a component of a universal influenza A vaccine.

  3. 基于LM3S8962的简易恒流电子负载%Electronic Load of a Simple Constant-Current Mode Based on LM3S8962

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季浚涛; 姚小翔; 施敏; 申红明

    2012-01-01

    To detect the reliability and properties of switching power supply system, an electronic load working in constant current mode is designed and realized. In the system, a microprocessor of LM3S8962 is used as the core mi- crocontroller, the output signal from D/A is inputted to the gate of the power MOS transistor (IRF540) through a PI regulator and the on-resistance of IRF540 can be controlled by adjusting the gate voltage. In addition, the terminal current can be kept in a constant value by using a close-loop control, in which the terminal current and voltage are measured through a sample-hold circuit and then fed back to LM3S8962 through an A/D converter. The output current of the system can be set ranging from 100 to 1 000 mA with precision of 10 mA, and can be inputted from the key- board. The actual voltage and current can be also measured under an overvoltage protection and then displayed in LCD. Moreover, the designed equipment is characterized by simple structure, friendly interface and convenient opera- tion. The measurement results indicate the equipment enjoys high precision and the error between the set and actual value is less than ±1%.%为测试开关电源的性能指标.设计了一种基于LM3S8962的简易恒流电子负载.该系统以LM3S8962单片机作为核心控制器.产生D,A输出信号加至功率MOS管IRF540的栅极.通过PI调节改变功率管的栅压从而控制其导通电阻,同时通过采样反馈电路检测端口电压及电流,经A/D转换后送给单片机,形成对电源端口电流的闭环控制.使负载上的电流保持相对恒定.该装置可通过键盘设定输出电流值.可调范围在100-1000mA之间设置,分辨率为10mA,可检测被测电源电流值、电压值等参数,并通过LCD显示,系统具备过压保护功能.该装置结构简单,操作方便,显示界面直观明了.测试结果表明,该电子负载恒流效果良好,系统误差在±1%范围之内.

  4. Distributed Access Control Based on Proxy Signature in M2M Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingyu Lee

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have a research of the distributed access control based on proxy signature in M2M sensor networks M2M sensor networks. As M2M sensor networks are usually deployed in hostile environment, the global communication security of M2M sensor networks is and will continue to be a major concern. Although there are many related works on access control in WSNs (Wireless Sensor Networks, Ad-hoc networks, MANETs (Mobile Ad-hoc Networks and etc., they cannot be applied to M2M sensor networks directly. Motivated by this consideration, we develop a secure and distributed access control scheme based on proxy signature for M2M sensor networks, which provides strong authentication and achieves efficiency. Moreover, security of the proposed technique does not rely on availability of a secure channel.

  5. Increased immunogenicity and protective efficacy of influenza M2e fused to a tetramerizing protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Anne-Marie Carola; Håkansson, Kjell Ove; Jensen, Benjamin Anderschou Holbech

    2012-01-01

    by diverse influenza A viruses, a vaccine (M2e-NSP4) was constructed linking M2e (in its consensus sequence) to the rotavirus fragment NSP4(98-135); due to its coiled-coil region this fragment is known to form tetramers in aqueous solution and in this manner we hoped to mimick the natural configuration of M2......The ectodomain of the matrix 2 protein (M2e) of influenza A virus represents an attractive target for developing a universal influenza A vaccine, with its sequence being highly conserved amongst human variants of this virus. With the aim of targeting conformational epitopes presumably shared...... reactive antibody response than does M2e peptide as measured in two different assays. Most importantly, vaccination with M2e-NSP4 caused a significant decrease in lung virus load early after challenge with influenza A virus and maintained its efficacy against a lethal challenge even at very low vaccine...

  6. Application of SOFM-LM-BP Neural Network to the Prediction of Photovoltaic Power Generation%SOFM-LM-BP神经网络在光伏发电量预测中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋丹丹; 任国臣; 张梦松; 苏人奇

    2016-01-01

    The photovoltaic power station has the characteristics that generating capacity is intermittent and easily impact large power networks. This paper analyzes the main factors influencing PV station, including illumination intensity weather patterns and temperature. And it is important to establish the forecasting model of generating capacity. The model uses Self-Organizing Feature Maps to classify the input samples, then the classification of sample uses LM learning algorithm training. By comparison between the predicted value and the real value, the model gets over shortcomings which are easy to fall into local minima. The accuracy and application of models are high.%针对并网型光伏电站发电量具有间歇性、易对大电网造成冲击等特点,分析影响光伏电站发电量的主要气象因素,包括辐照度、天气类型、温度,建立了一种基于 SOFM-LM-BP 神经网络发电量预测模型。该模型采用SOFM神经网络对输入样本进行分类,再将分类后的样本采用LM学习算法训练,从而得到光伏发电量的预测系统。通过预测值与真实值对比可知,该预测模型的预测精度较高,克服陷入局部极小值等缺点。

  7. Solidification microstructure of M2 high speed steel by different casting technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou Xuefeng; Fang Feng; Jiang Jianjing

    2011-01-01

    The present work investigated the solidification microstructure of AISI M2 high speed steel manufactured by different casting technologies, namely iron mould casting and continuous casting. The results revealed that the as-cast structure of the steel was composed of the iron matrix and the M2C eutectic carbide networks, which were greatly refined in the ingot made by continuous casting process, compared with that by the iron mould casting process. M2C eutectic carbides presented variation in ...

  8. M2M Communications for E-Health and Smart Grid: An Industry and Standard Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Zhong; Haines, Russell J.; Kulkarni, Parag

    2013-01-01

    An overview of several standardization activities for machine-to-machine (M2M) communications is presented, analyzing some of the enabling technologies and applications of M2M in industry sectors such as Smart Grid and e-Health. This summary and overview of the ongoing work in M2M from the industrial and standardization perspective complements the prevalent academic perspective of such publications to date in this field.

  9. Genistein inhibits cell invasion and motility by inducing cell differentiation in murine osteosarcoma cell line LM8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamura Atsushi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the problems associated with osteosarcoma is the frequent formation of micrometastases in the lung prior to diagnosis because the development of metastatic lesions often causes a fatal outcome. Therefore, the prevention of pulmonary metastases during the early stage of tumor development is critical for the improvement of the prognosis of osteosarcoma patients. In Japan, soy is consumed in a wide variety of forms, such as miso soup and soy sauce. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of genistein, an isoflavone found in soy, on the invasive and motile potential of osteosarcoma cells. Methods LM8 cells were treated for 3 days with various concentrations of genistein. The effect of genistein on cell proliferation was determined by DNA measurement in the cultures and 5-bromo-2’-deoxyuridine (BrdU incorporation study. The assays of cell invasion and motility were performed using the cell culture inserts with either matrigel-coated membranes or uncoated membranes in the invasion chambers. The expression and secretion of MMP-2 were determined by immunohistochemistry and gelatin zymography. The subcellular localization and cellular level of β-catenin were determined by immunofluorescence and Western blot. For examining cell morphology, the ethanol-fixed cells were stained with hematoxylin-eosin (H&E. The expression of osteocalcin mRNA was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Results Genistein dose-dependently inhibits cell proliferation. Genistein-treated cells were less invasive and less motile than untreated cells. The expression and secretion of MMP-2 were lower in the genistein-treated cultures than in the untreated cultures. β-Catenin in untreated cells was located in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus, while in genistein-treated cells it was translocated near to the plasma membrane. The level of β-catenin was higher in genistein-treated cells than in untreated cells

  10. Effect of troglitazone on tumor growth and pulmonary metastasis development of the mouse osteosarcoma cell line LM8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizawa, Junichi; Sakayama, Kenshi; Kamei, Setsuya; Kidani, Teruki; Yamamoto, Haruyasu; Norimatsu, Yoshiaki; Masuno, Hiroshi

    2010-02-22

    Osteosarcoma often develops micrometastases in the lung prior to diagnosis, causing a fatal outcome. Therefore, the prevention of pulmonary metastases is critical for the improvement of the prognosis of patients with osteosarcoma. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether troglitazone (TGZ) is considered as possible therapeutics in the treatment of growth and metastasis of osteosarcoma. LM8 cells were treated for 3 days with various concentrations of TGZ. The effect of TGZ on cell proliferation was determined by DNA measurement in the cultures and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation study. The assay of cell invasion and motility was performed using either the Matrigel-coated cell culture inserts or the uncoated cell culture inserts in the invasion chambers. The effect of TGZ on Akt signaling was assessed by Western blot analysis of Akt and p-Akt. The effects of oral administration of either TGZ (TGZ group) or ethanol (control group) on the growth of primary tumor and the development of pulmonary metastasis were examined in nude mice implanted with LM8 cells on their backs. The expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) within the tumor were determined by immunohistochemistry and zymography. The microvessel density (MVD) within the tumor was determined by immunohistochemistry for CD34. TGZ dose-dependently inhibits cell proliferation. TGZ-treated cells were less invasive and less motile than untreated cells. The activity of MMP-2 secreted by TGZ-treated cells was lower than that secreted by untreated cells. TGZ decreased the level of p-Akt. The primary tumor mass was smaller in the TGZ group than in the control group. The TGZ group had less metastatic tumors in the lung compared with the control group. The expression and activity of MMP-2 within the tumor of the TGZ group were lower than those of the control group. The MVD within the tumor of the TGZ group was lower than that of the control group. Inhibition of Akt signaling by TGZ

  11. Effect of troglitazone on tumor growth and pulmonary metastasis development of the mouse osteosarcoma cell line LM8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kidani Teruki

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteosarcoma often develops micrometastases in the lung prior to diagnosis, causing a fatal outcome. Therefore, the prevention of pulmonary metastases is critical for the improvement of the prognosis of patients with osteosarcoma. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether troglitazone (TGZ is considered as possible therapeutics in the treatment of growth and metastasis of osteosarcoma. Methods LM8 cells were treated for 3 days with various concentrations of TGZ. The effect of TGZ on cell proliferation was determined by DNA measurement in the cultures and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation study. The assay of cell invasion and motility was performed using either the Matrigel-coated cell culture inserts or the uncoated cell culture inserts in the invasion chambers. The effect of TGZ on Akt signaling was assessed by Western blot analysis of Akt and p-Akt. The effects of oral administration of either TGZ (TGZ group or ethanol (control group on the growth of primary tumor and the development of pulmonary metastasis were examined in nude mice implanted with LM8 cells on their backs. The expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2 within the tumor were determined by immunohistochemistry and zymography. The microvessel density (MVD within the tumor was determined by immunohistochemistry for CD34. Results TGZ dose-dependently inhibits cell proliferation. TGZ-treated cells were less invasive and less motile than untreated cells. The activity of MMP-2 secreted by TGZ-treated cells was lower than that secreted by untreated cells. TGZ decreased the level of p-Akt. The primary tumor mass was smaller in the TGZ group than in the control group. The TGZ group had less metastatic tumors in the lung compared with the control group. The expression and activity of MMP-2 within the tumor of the TGZ group were lower than those of the control group. The MVD within the tumor of the TGZ group was lower than that of the

  12. ER type I signal peptidase subunit (LmSPC1) is essential for the survival of Locusta migratoria manilensis and affects moulting, feeding, reproduction and embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W; Xia, Y

    2014-06-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum type I signal peptidase complex (ER SPC) is a conserved enzyme that cleaves the signal peptides of secretory or membrane preproteins. The deletion of this enzyme leads to the accumulation of uncleaved proteins in biomembranes and cell death. However, the physiological functions of ER SPC in insects are not fully understood. Here, a catalytic subunit gene of ER SPC, LmSPC1, was cloned from Locusta migratoria manilensis and its physiological functions were analysed by RNA interference (RNAi). The LmSPC1 open reading frame encoded a protein of 178 amino acids with all five conserved regions of signal peptidases. RNAi-mediated knockdown of LmSPC1 resulted in high mortality. Sixty-nine per cent of dead nymphs died of abnormal moulting, corresponding to decreased activity of moulting fluid protease. Moreover, insects in the RNAi group experienced a decline in food intake, and a decrease in the secretion of total protein and digestive enzymes from midgut tissues to the midgut lumen. Furthermore, the females produced fewer eggs and eggs with disrupted embryogenesis. These results indicate that LmSPC1 is required for the secretion of secretory proteins, affects physiological functions, including moulting, feeding, reproduction and embryonic development, and is essential for survival. Therefore, LmSPC1 may be a potential target for locust control.

  13. Increased immunogenicity and protective efficacy of influenza M2e fused to a tetramerizing protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Anne-Marie Carola; Håkansson, Kjell Ove; Jensen, Benjamin Anderschou Holbech;

    2012-01-01

    The ectodomain of the matrix 2 protein (M2e) of influenza A virus represents an attractive target for developing a universal influenza A vaccine, with its sequence being highly conserved amongst human variants of this virus. With the aim of targeting conformational epitopes presumably shared......e as presented in membranes. M2e-NSP4 was then evaluated side-by-side with synthetic M2e peptide for its immunogenicity and protective efficacy in a murine influenza challenge model. Here we demonstrate that M2e fused to the tetramerizing protein induces an accelerated, augmented and more broadly...

  14. Influencia del acabado superficial en la permeación de hidrógeno del acero API 5L-X52

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Réquiz, R.

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of surface roughness on the corrosion and hydrogen permeation behaviour was evaluated on a type API 5L-X52 steel in deaerated 0.1 M Na2SO4 at pH=2. Potentiodynamic polarization curves were employed to determine the electrochemical behaviour of the steel, while the Devanathan-Stachurski technique was used to estimate the hydrogen permeation rate. Additionally, the surface roughness profiles were obtained in order to correlate the changes in the hydrogen permeation rate with different metal surface finishings. The obtained results clearly demonstrate that when the roughness parameters have larger values, the cathodic current of hydrogen evolution increases while the hydrogen entry rate decreases. This effect can be attributed to the microstructural defects induced at the steel surface, such as dislocations, which increase the catalytic activity of the atomic hydrogen favouring its recombination. Also, these defects could allow the atomic hydrogen to remain adsorbed on the steel surface. Both effects could hinder the hydrogen diffusion into the metal since the possibility for this atom of becoming absorbed has been reduced

    En el presente trabajo de investigación se evalúa la influencia del acabado superficial, tanto en la corrosión generalizada como en la permeación de hidrógeno del acero API 5L-X52 en solución de Na2SO4 0,1M, a pH=2. El comportamiento electroquímico del acero se estudió mediante las curvas de polarización potenciodinámicas, mientras que la susceptibilidad al daño por hidrógeno se evaluó mediante la técnica de permeación de Devanathan- Stachurski. Además, se determinaron los parámetros de rugosidad a las muestras de acero con diferentes acabados superficiales, para luego correlacionarlos con los cambios en las corrientes de permeación de hidrógeno. Los resultados obtenidos demuestran, claramente, que, cuando la rugosidad superficial del acero

  15. Characteristics of Hebei Xinyue 280m2 sinter project%河北鑫跃280m2烧结机的工艺特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宾蓉晖

    2012-01-01

    The process characteristics of bar screen, dust pneumatic conveying, and first mixing de-dusting system were introduced, and the influence on environment protection and energy saving of Hebei Xinyue 280m2 sinter projects were introduced.%介绍了河北鑫跃280m2烧结机工程棒条筛、除尘灰气力输送、一混除尘的工艺特点,以及产生的环保、节能影响.

  16. Derivation of airfoil characteristics for the LM 19.1 blade based on 3D CFD rotor calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bak, C.; Soerensen, N.N.; Madsen, H.A. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    Airfoil characteristics for the LM 19.1 blade are derived from 3D CFD computations on a full-scale 41-m rotor. Based on 3D CFD the force distributions on the blades are determined, from which airfoil characteristics are derived using the momentum theory. The final airfoil characteristics are constructed using both wind tunnel measurements and 3D CFD. Compared to 2D wind tunnel measurements they show a low lift in stall for the airfoil sections at the tip. At the airfoil sections at the inner part of the blade, they show a high lift in stall. At about 60% radius the lift agrees well to 2D wind tunnel measurements. Aero-elastic calculations using the final airfoil characteristics show good agreement to measured power and flap moments. Furthermore, a fatigue load analysis shows a reduction of up to 15% of the load compared to commonly used data. (au)

  17. Chronicles of communication and power: informed consent to sterilisation in the Namibian Supreme Court's LM judgment of 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chingore-Munazvo, Nyasha; Furman, Katherine; Raw, Annabel; Slabbert, Mariette

    2017-04-01

    The 2015 judgment of the Namibia Supreme Court in Government of the Republic of Namibia v LM and Others set an important precedent on informed consent in a case involving the coercive sterilisation of HIV-positive women. This article analyses the reasoning and factual narratives of the judgment by applying Neil Manson and Onora O'Neill's approach to informed consent as a communicative process. This is done in an effort to understand the practical import of the judgment in the particular context of resource constrained public healthcare facilities through which many women in southern Africa access reproductive healthcare. While the judgment affirms certain established tenets in informed consent to surgical procedures, aspects of the reasoning in context demand more particularised applications of what it means for a patient to have capacity and to be informed, and to appropriately accommodate the disruptive role of power dynamics in the communicative process.

  18. Effect of Process Parameters on Tensile Strength of Friction Stir Welded Cast LM6 Aluminium Alloy Joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Jayaraman; R.Sivasubramanian; V. Balasubramanian

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the effect of friction stir welding (FSW) process parameters on tensile strength of cast LM6 aluminium alloy. Joints were made by using different combinations of tool rotation speed, welding speed and axial force each at four levels. The quality of weld zone was investigated using macrostructure and microstructure analysis. Tensile strength of the joints were evaluated and correlated with the weld zone hardness and microstructure. The joint fabricated using a rotational speed of 900 r/min, a welding speed of 75 mm/min and an axial force of 3 kN showed superior tensile strength compared with other joints. The tensile strength and microhardness of the welded joints for the optimum conditions were 166 MPa and 64.8 Hv respectively.

  19. STUDIES ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND TRIBOLOGICAL BEHAVIOUR OF LM25/SiC/Al2O3 COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADHIKA N.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper involves the study of mechanical properties and wear characteristics of LM25/SiC/Al2O3 hybrid metal matrix composites. Composite specimens of reinforcements ranging from 0 to 30 wt-% were fabricated using liquid metallurgy route. Mechanical properties such as hardness and tensile strength were analysed for both unreinforced alloy and composite specimens. Wear characteristics of composite specimens were studied using Pin-on-disc tribometer. Wear experiments were conducted with load range of 10 N to 30 N and velocity range of 1 m/s to 3 m/s. The sliding distance was kept 1500 m for all wear experiment. Worn out surfaces of composites were analysed using Scanning Electron Microscope. From experiments it was found that, the mechanical properties and wear resistance increased as the weight percentage of reinforcement increased.

  20. LmSmdB: an integrated database for metabolic and gene regulatory network in Leishmania major and Schistosoma mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Priyanka; Mandlik, Vineetha; Singh, Shailza

    2016-03-01

    A database that integrates all the information required for biological processing is essential to be stored in one platform. We have attempted to create one such integrated database that can be a one stop shop for the essential features required to fetch valuable result. LmSmdB (L. major and S. mansoni database) is an integrated database that accounts for the biological networks and regulatory pathways computationally determined by integrating the knowledge of the genome sequences of the mentioned organisms. It is the first database of its kind that has together with the network designing showed the simulation pattern of the product. This database intends to create a comprehensive canopy for the regulation of lipid metabolism reaction in the parasite by integrating the transcription factors, regulatory genes and the protein products controlled by the transcription factors and hence operating the metabolism at genetic level.

  1. Characterization of the LM5 pectic galactan epitope with synthetic analogues of β-1,4-d-galactotetraose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mathias Christian Franch; Boos, Irene; Marcus, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    Plant cell wall glycans are important polymers that are crucial to plant development and serve as an important source of sustainable biomass. The study of polysaccharides in the plant cell wall relies heavily on monoclonal antibodies for localization and visualization of glycans, using e.g. Immun......Plant cell wall glycans are important polymers that are crucial to plant development and serve as an important source of sustainable biomass. The study of polysaccharides in the plant cell wall relies heavily on monoclonal antibodies for localization and visualization of glycans, using e.......g. Immunofluorescent microscopy. Here, we describe the detailed epitope mapping of the mab LM5 that is shown to bind to a minimum of three sugar residues at the non-reducing end of linear beta-1,4-linked galactan. The study uses de novo synthetic analogs of galactans combined with carbohydrate microarray...

  2. Complete genome sequence of Bacillus velezensis LM2303, a biocontrol strain isolated from the dung of wild yak inhabited Qinghai-Tibet plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang

    2017-06-10

    Bacillus velezensis LM2303 is a biocontrol strain with a broad inhibitory spectrum against plant pathogens, isolated from the dung of wild yak inhabited Qinghai-Tibet plateau, China. Here we present its complete genome sequence, which consists of a single, circular chromosome of 3,989,393bp with a 46.68% G+C content. Genome analysis revealed genes encoding specialized functions for the biosynthesis of antifungal metabolites and antibacterial metabolites, the promotion of plant growth, the alleviation of oxidative stress and nutrient utilization. And the biosynthesis of antimicrobial metabolites in strain LM2303 was confirmed by biochemical analysis, while its plant growth promoting traits were confirmed by inoculation tests. Our results will establish a better foundation for further studies and biocontrol application of B. velezensis LM2303. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Kinetics of Proton Transport into Influenza Virions by the Viral M2 Channel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanovic, Tijana; Rozendaal, Rutger; Floyd, Daniel L.; Popovic, Milos; Oijen, Antoine M. van; Harrison, Stephen C.

    2012-01-01

    M2 protein of influenza A viruses is a tetrameric transmembrane proton channel, which has essential functions both early and late in the virus infectious cycle. Previous studies of proton transport by M2 have been limited to measurements outside the context of the virus particle. We have developed a

  4. Pilot Milt Thompson and the M2-F2 Lifting Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-01-01

    Jay L. King, Joseph D. Huxman and Orion D. Billeter assist NASA research pilot Milt Thompson (on the ladder) into the cockpit of the M2-F2 lifting body research aircraft at the NASA Flight Research Center (now the Dryden Flight Research Center). The M2-F2 is attached to a wing pylon under the wing of NASA's B-52 mothership.

  5. Wound administration of M2-polarized macrophages does not improve murine cutaneous healing responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetten, Nadine; Roumans, Nadia; Gijbels, Marion J; Romano, Andrea; Post, Mark J; de Winther, Menno P J; van der Hulst, Rene R W J; Xanthoulea, Sofia

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages play a crucial role in all stages of cutaneous wound healing responses and dysregulation of macrophage function can result in derailed wound repair. The phenotype of macrophages is influenced by the wound microenvironment and evolves during healing from a more pro-inflammatory (M1) profile in early stages, to a less inflammatory pro-healing (M2) phenotype in later stages of repair. The aim of the current study was to investigate the potential of exogenous administration of M2 macrophages to promote wound healing in an experimental mouse model of cutaneous injury. Bone marrow derived macrophages were stimulated in-vitro with IL-4 or IL-10 to obtain two different subsets of M2-polarized cells, M2a or M2c respectively. Polarized macrophages were injected into full-thickness excisional skin wounds of either C57BL/6 or diabetic db/db mice. Control groups were injected with non-polarized (M0) macrophages or saline. Our data indicate that despite M2 macrophages exhibit an anti-inflammatory phenotype in-vitro, they do not improve wound closure in wild type mice while they delay healing in diabetic mice. Examination of wounds on day 15 post-injury indicated delayed re-epithelialization and persistence of neutrophils in M2 macrophage treated diabetic wounds. Therefore, topical application of ex-vivo generated M2 macrophages is not beneficial and contraindicated for cell therapy of skin wounds.

  6. Phonological Substitution Errors in L2 ASL Sentence Processing by Hearing M2L2 Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joshua; Newman, Sharlene

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we aimed to investigate phonological substitution errors made by hearing second language (M2L2) learners of American Sign Language (ASL) during a sentence translation task. Learners saw sentences in ASL that were signed by either a native signer or a M2L2 learner. Learners were to simply translate the sentence from ASL to…

  7. De novo formal synthesis of (-)-virginiamycin M2 via the asymmetric hydration of dienoates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Matthew S; Osbourn, Joshua M; O'Doherty, George A

    2007-08-02

    A de novo approach to the formal total synthesis of the macrolide natural product (-)-virginiamycin M2 has been achieved via a convergent approach. The absolute and relative stereochemistry of the nonpeptide portion of (-)-virginiamycin M2 was introduced by two Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation reactions.

  8. Solid State NMR Observation of Phenylalanine Residues in M2 Protein from Influenza a Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ The M2 protein from influenza A functions as a proton channel. It has been cloned and over-expressed in Escherchia coli. Large quantities of recombinant protein are purified by Ni2 affinity chromatography. The residues in M2 have been selectively labeled with 15N in an aromatic amino acid autotroph CT19.

  9. Almost optimal distributed M2M multicasting in wireless mesh networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xin, Qin; Manne, Fredrik; Zhang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    nodes. It is known that the computation of an optimal M2M multicasting schedule isNP-hard. We present a fully distributed deterministic algorithm for such an M2M multicasting problem and analyze its time complexity. We show that if the maximum hop distance between any two out of the k participants is d...

  10. 12 CFR Appendix M2 to Part 226 - Actual Repayment Disclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Actual Repayment Disclosures M2 Appendix M2 to Part 226 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE... nearest whole year if the estimate contains a fractional year less than 0.5, and rounded up to the...

  11. Regional distribution of M1, M2 and non-M1, non-M2 subtypes of muscarinic binding sites in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehlert, F.J.; Tran, L.P. (Univ. of California, Irvine (USA))

    1990-12-01

    The distribution of subtypes of the muscarinic receptor in homogenates of the rat brain was investigated by measuring the competitive inhibition of the binding (3H)N-methylscopolamine by pirenzepine and AF-DX 116 (11((2-((diethylamino)methyl)-1-piperidinyl)acetyl)-5, 11-dihydro-6H-pyrido(2,3-b)(1,4)benzodiazepine-6-one). In most brain regions, the competitive binding curves for AF-DX 116 and pirenzepine were consistent with a two-site model. The dissociation constant of pirenzepine for its high-affinity site (M1 receptor) was approximately 10(-8) M, whereas the dissociation constant of AF-DX 116 for its high affinity site (M2 receptor) was approximately 10(-7) M. In many regions, particularly those in the forebrain, the sum of the densities of the M1 and M2 binding sites was substantially less than 100% of the total sites, indicating the existence of a third population of sites lacking high affinity for both pirenzepine and AF-DX 116. We have designated these latter sites as non-M1, non-M2 muscarinic receptors. In general, the densities of the M1 and non-M1, non-M2 binding sites were highest in cerebral cortex, corpus striatum and hippocampus, intermediate in thalamus and hypothalamus, and lowest in midbrain, medulla-pons and cerebellum, whereas the M2 binding site had a relatively low, uniform density throughout the brain. The binding capacity of (3H)N-methylquinuclidinyl benzilate was estimated to be 20 to 30% lower than that of (3H)quinuclidinyl benzilate in various regions of the forebrain, but not in more caudal regions of the brain where the two radioligands had approximately the same binding capacities.

  12. Primary structure of a 14 kDa basic structural protein (Lm-76) from the cuticle of the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens S.; Andersen, S O; Højrup, P

    1993-01-01

    The complete amino acid sequence of a 14 kDa structural protein (LM-76) isolated from pharate cuticle of the locust, Locusta migratoria, was determined by Edman degradation of the intact protein and enzymatically derived peptides. Plasma desorption and electrospray mass spectrometry was used...... region surrounded by two hydrophobic regions with 7 repeats of a (Tyr)-Ala-Ala-Pro-Ala/Val motif. The conservation around the prolyl residues within this sequence motif is demonstrated for the hitherto sequenced presumptive exocuticle proteins from L. migratoria. The N-terminal region of protein Lm-76...

  13. LX-10 Explosive Damage Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-03

    Suite NAWCWD TM 8757 6 where P = System pressure Vs = System volume n = Covolume we = Weight of explosive burned F = Impetus, f...simultaneously ignited and regress uniformly, and the regression rate depends only on pressure and propellant temperature. 2. Heat losses from the bomb are...and fired in a manometric closed vessel. The pressure -time history was recorded, and an analysis of the data was performed to evaluate both the

  14. M2受体的细胞表征及其运动与心脏、血管M2受体研究进展%Cell Characterization of M2 Receptor and Research Advancement of Exercise Training and Cardiovascular M2 Receptor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田振军; 杜蕾

    2009-01-01

    目的:探讨M2受体的细胞表征及其运动与心脏、血管M2受体的基础与应用前景.方法:采用文献回顾与前瞻性分析及逻辑推理相结合的方法,跟踪M2受体表征研究进展及其运动与心脏、血管M2受体表征在体育科学领域中的应用.结果与结论:M2受体在心肌、血管平滑肌等细胞上广泛分布,具有重要的生物学功能.不同运动强度和心肌细胞M2受体表征、运动后心率恢复与M2受体基因多态性、心脏运动康复与M2受体表征等的关系密切.积极开展M2受体基因变异与运动前预测心源性死亡风险,运动性心律失常与M2受体表征,运动性心肌损伤引起的心功能紊乱与M2受体表征,基于M2受体靶点的心脏、血管运动康复及其中药有效成份筛选等方面的研究,具有重要的基础研究价值和应用前景.对有效筛选心脏、血管运动康复方案和与M2受体相关药物有效成份具有重大意义.

  15. O modelo IS-LM-EE para economias abertas e distinções dos efeitos para as economias nacionais The IS-LM-EE model for open economies and particular effects on the national economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Inácio de Moraes

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O meio ambiente tem-se tornado uma crescente fonte de preocupações e o debate acerca das incompatibilidades entre crescimento econômico e preservação ambiental está muito distante de findar. Dentro desse contexto, diversas propostas de incorporação das restrições ambientais na macroeconomia foram feitas, sendo o modelo IS-LM-EE um dos mais interessantes. Sua grande limitação, entretanto, provém do fato de ele ter sido construído para economias fechadas. Quando utilizado para economias abertas, os resultados são completamente distintos na medida em que os países em desenvolvimento e desenvolvidos estão em situação oposta à exploração dos recursos naturais. Nesse sentido, há uma acentuada diferença entre eles quanto à adoção de políticas e às respostas aos choques econômicos, diferença essa ampliada quando as restrições ambientais são levadas em consideração, principalmente, no caso dos choques exógenos derivados do comércio internacional.The environment is a growing source of concern and the debate on the incompatibilities between economic growth and environmental conservation is far from over. In this context, a number of proposals for introducing environmental restrictions into macroeconomics have been made, the IS-LM-EE model being the most interesting one. However, this model has a serious limitation insofar as it was built for closed economies. When this model is used for open economies, the outcome differs greatly, given that developing and developed economies show major differences with respect to the exploitation of natural resources. There are considerable differences between them with respect to policies to be adopted as well as solutions required to combat economic shocks. These differences intensify when environmental restrictions are taken into consideration, principally in the case of exogenous shocks resulting from international trade.

  16. Kinked structures of isolated nicotinic receptor M2 helices: a molecular dynamics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankararamakrishnan, R; Samsom, M S

    1994-12-01

    The pore-lining M2 helix of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor exhibits a pronounced kink when the corresponding ion channel is in a closed conformation [N. Unwin (1993) Journal of Molecular Biology, Vol. 229, pp. 1101-1124]. We have performed molecular dynamics simulations of isolated 22-residue M2 helices in order to identify a possible molecular origin of this kink. In order to sample a wide range of conformational space, a simulated annealing protocol was used to generate five initial M2 helix structures, each of which was subsequently used as the basis of 300 ps MD simulations. Two helix sequences (M2 alpha and M2 delta) were studied in this manner, resulting in a total of ten 300 ps trajectories. Kinked helices present in the trajectories were identified and energy minimized to yield a total of five different stable kinked structures. For comparison, a similar molecular dynamics simulation of a Leu23 helix yielded no stable kinked structures. In four of the five kinked helices, the kink was stabilized by H bonds between the helix backbone and polar side-chain atoms. Comparison with data from the literature on site-directed mutagenesis of M2 residues suggests that such polar side-chain to main-chain H bonds may also contribute to kinking of M2 helices in the intact channel protein.

  17. Designing inhibitors of M2 proton channel against H1N1 swine influenza virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi-Shi Du

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: M2 proton channel of H1N1 influenza A virus is the target protein of anti-flu drugs amantadine and rimantadine. However, the two once powerful adamantane-based drugs lost their 90% bioactivity because of mutations of virus in recent twenty years. The NMR structure of the M2 channel protein determined by Schnell and Chou (Nature, 2008, 451, 591-595 may help people to solve the drug-resistant problem and develop more powerful new drugs against H1N1 influenza virus. METHODOLOGY: Docking calculation is performed to build the complex structure between receptor M2 proton channel and ligands, including existing drugs amantadine and rimantadine, and two newly designed inhibitors. The computer-aided drug design methods are used to calculate the binding free energies, with the computational biology techniques to analyze the interactions between M2 proton channel and adamantine-based inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS: 1 The NMR structure of M2 proton channel provides a reliable structural basis for rational drug design against influenza virus. 2 The channel gating mechanism and the inhibiting mechanism of M2 proton channel, revealed by the NMR structure of M2 proton channel, provides the new ideas for channel inhibitor design. 3 The newly designed adamantane-based inhibitors based on the modeled structure of H1N1-M2 proton channel have two pharmacophore groups, which act like a "barrel hoop", holding two adjacent helices of the H1N1-M2 tetramer through the two pharmacophore groups outside the channel. 4 The inhibitors with such binding mechanism may overcome the drug resistance problem of influenza A virus to the adamantane-based drugs.

  18. Evaluation of secure capability-based access control in the M2M local cloud platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anggorojati, Bayu; Prasad, Neeli R.; Prasad, Ramjee

    2016-01-01

    of multiple distributed M2M gateways, creating new challenges in the access control. Some existing access control systems lack in scalability and flexibility to manage access from users or entity that belong to different authorization domains, or fails to provide fine grained and flexible access right...... delegation. Recently, the capability based access control has been considered as method to manage access in the Internet of Things (IoT) or M2M domain. In this paper, the implementation and evaluation of a proposed secure capability based access control in the M2M local cloud platform is presented...

  19. A humanized anti-M2 scFv shows protective in vitro activity against influenza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, Andrew M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Velappan, Nileena [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schmidt, Jurgen G [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    M2 is one of the most conserved influenza proteins, and has been widely prospected as a potential universal vaccine target, with protection predominantly mediated by antibodies. In this paper we describe the creation of a humanized single chain Fv from 14C2, a potent monoclonal antibody against M2. We show that the humanized scFv demonstrates similar activity to the parental mAb: it is able to recognize M2 in its native context on cell surfaces and is able to show protective in vitro activity against influenza, and so represents a potential lead antibody candidate for universal prophylactic or therapeutic intervention in influenza.

  20. Aggregation and Trunking of M2M Traffic via D2D Connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rigazzi, Giovanni; Kiilerich Pratas, Nuno; Popovski, Petar

    2015-01-01

    Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communications is one of the key enablers of the Internet of Things (IoT). Billions of devices are expected to be deployed in the near future for novel M2M applications demanding ubiquitous access and global connectivity. In order to cope with the massive number of machines......, there is a need for new techniques to coordinate the access and allocate the resources. Although the majority of the proposed solutions are focused on the adaptation of the traditional cellular networks to the M2M traffic patterns, novel approaches based on the direct communication among nearby devices may...

  1. From a 32 m2 system with 90 CPV modules to a 105 m2 system with 12 CPV modules - Soitec's new CPV system CX-S530

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombert, Andreas; Wanka, Sven; Gerster, Eckart; van Riesen, Sascha; Neubauer, Martin; Lange, Gerrit; Hamidi, Amir; Burke, Thomas; Stör, Jakob; Aipperspach, Wolfgang; Taliercio, Cecile; Mader, Lucas; Valli, Alessandro; Ziegler, Martin; Hepp, Stefan; Heile, Inka; Gerstmaier, Tobias; Haarburger, Karl-Friedrich

    2012-10-01

    In 2008, Soitec started to launch a 32m2 CPV system which included 90 modules per tracker. In order to realize the fast installation of multi-MW power plants the CPV module CX-M500 with an aperture area of 7,84 m2 was developed together with the new tracker CX-T030 which is optimized for carrying 12 of the new modules. This paper gives an overview over the evolution of this CPV system. The module is based on components of the field proven earlier Concentrix module generations. The tracker is a classical pylon type with two AC motor powered slewing ring drives. A new control device was developed which uses the power-optimized sun tracking algorithm. The major development steps and their results are presented.

  2. 基于IS-LM-BP模型的总需求曲线推导%A Derivation for Aggregate-Demand Curve Based on IS-LM-BP Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王稳定; 王岩

    2010-01-01

    目前国内外流行的宏观经济学有关著作中的总需求模型大都以,IS-LM为基础建立,无法把开放经济中的外部市场对一国宏观经济运行的影响和宏观经济政策效果做完整的分析.以,IS-LM-BP模型为基础,引入汇率制度和国际收支因素,推导出的总需求曲线依然是一条向右下方倾斜的曲线.但是,通过引入汇率制度和国际收支因素,总需求曲线中的变量和政策乘数发生了很大的变化,利用这个扩展了的总需求曲线,能够更加完整准确地对开放经济条件下的宏观经济运行机制和宏观经济政策效果进行分析.

  3. Trypsin, Tryptase, and Thrombin Polarize Macrophages towards a Pro-Fibrotic M2a Phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J V White

    Full Text Available For both wound healing and the formation of a fibrotic lesion, circulating monocytes enter the tissue and differentiate into fibroblast-like cells called fibrocytes and pro-fibrotic M2a macrophages, which together with fibroblasts form scar tissue. Monocytes can also differentiate into classically activated M1 macrophages and alternatively activated M2 macrophages. The proteases thrombin, which is activated during blood clotting, and tryptase, which is released by activated mast cells, potentiate fibroblast proliferation and fibrocyte differentiation, but their effect on macrophages is unknown. Here we report that thrombin, tryptase, and the protease trypsin bias human macrophage differentiation towards a pro-fibrotic M2a phenotype expressing high levels of galectin-3 from unpolarized monocytes, or from M1 and M2 macrophages, and that these effects appear to operate through protease-activated receptors. These results suggest that proteases can initiate scar tissue formation by affecting fibroblasts, fibrocytes, and macrophages.

  4. HF183/BFDrev and HumM2 qPCR data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Concentration estimates for HF183/BFDrev and HumM2 qPCR genetic markers in raw sewage collected from 54 geographic locations across the United States. This dataset...

  5. Vanishing Str M2 in the presence of anomalous U A(1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Jorge L.; Nanopoulos, D. V.

    1996-02-01

    We show that the presence of an anomalous U A(1) factor in the gauge group of string-derived models may have the new and important phenomenological consequence of allowing the vanishing of Str M2 in the “shifted” vacuum that results in the process of cancelling the anomalous U A(1). The feasibility of this effect seems to be enhanced by a vanishing vacuum energy, and by a “small” value of Str M2 in the original vacuum. In the class of free-fermionic models with vanishing vacuum energy that we focus on, a necessary condition for this mechanism to be effective is that Str M2 > 0 in the original vacuum. A vanishing Str M2 ameliorates the cosmological constant problem and is a necessary element in the stability of the no-scale mechanism.

  6. Reliable Radio Access for Massive Machine-to-Machine (M2M) Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madueño, Germán Corrales

    Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communication is a term that identifies the emerging paradigm of interconnected systems, machines, and things that communicate and collaborate without human intervention. The characteristics of M2M Communications are small payloads and sporadic transmissions, while...... the service requirements can range from massive number of devices to ultra-reliable. This PhD thesis focuses on novel mechanisms to meet these requirements in a variety of wireless systems, from well-established technologies such as cellular networks, to emerging technologies like IEEE 802.11ah. Today...... an overwhelming 89% of the deployed M2M modules are GPRS-based. This motivates us to investigate the potential of GPRS as a dedicated M2M network. We show that by introducing minimal modifications to GPRS operation, a large number of devices can be reliably supported. Surprisingly, even though LTE is seen...

  7. Porous Photocatalytic Membrane Microreactor (P2M2): A new reactor concept for photochemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aran, H.C.; Salamon, D.; Rijnaarts, T.; Mul, G.; Wessling, M.; Lammertink, R.G.H.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a new membrane microreactor concept for multiphase photocatalytic reactions is demonstrated. Microfabrication, photocatalyst immobilization and surface modification steps were performed to develop a Porous Photocatalytic Membrane Microreactor (P2M2). This concept benefits from a stabl

  8. Direct observation of the M2 phase with its Mott transition in a VO2 film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hoon; Slusar, Tetiana V.; Wulferding, Dirk; Yang, Ilkyu; Cho, Jin-Cheol; Lee, Minkyung; Choi, Hee Cheul; Jeong, Yoon Hee; Kim, Hyun-Tak; Kim, Jeehoon

    2016-12-01

    In VO2, the explicit origin of the insulator-to-metal transition is still disputable between Peierls and Mott insulators. Along with the controversy, its second monoclinic (M2) phase has received considerable attention due to the presence of electron correlation in undimerized vanadium ions. However, the origin of the M2 phase is still obscure. Here, we study a granular VO2 film using conductive atomic force microscopy and Raman scattering. Upon the structural transition from monoclinic to rutile, we observe directly an intermediate state showing the coexistence of monoclinic M1 and M2 phases. The conductivity near the grain boundary in this regime is six times larger than that of the grain core, producing a donut-like landscape. Our results reveal an intra-grain percolation process, indicating that VO2 with the M2 phase is a Mott insulator.

  9. Porous Photocatalytic Membrane Microreactor (P2M2): A new reactor concept for photochemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aran, H.C.; Salamon, David; Rijnaarts, Timon; Rijnaarts, T.; Mul, Guido; Wessling, Matthias; Lammertink, Rob G.H.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a new membrane microreactor concept for multiphase photocatalytic reactions is demonstrated. Microfabrication, photocatalyst immobilization and surface modification steps were performed to develop a Porous Photocatalytic Membrane Microreactor (P2M2). This concept benefits from a

  10. The challenges of M2M massive access in wireless cellular networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Biral, Andrea; Centenaro, Marco; Zanella, Andrea; Vangelista, Lorenzo; Zorzi, Michele

    2015-01-01

    .... Nonetheless, general consensus has been reached upon some specific challenges, such as the need for 5G wireless access networks to support massive access by MTDs, as a consequence of the proliferation of M2M services...

  11. M2 Polarization of Human Macrophages Favors Survival of the Intracellular Pathogen Chlamydia pneumoniae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Buchacher

    Full Text Available Intracellular pathogens have developed various strategies to escape immunity to enable their survival in host cells, and many bacterial pathogens preferentially reside inside macrophages, using diverse mechanisms to penetrate their defenses and to exploit their high degree of metabolic diversity and plasticity. Here, we characterized the interactions of the intracellular pathogen Chlamydia pneumoniae with polarized human macrophages. Primary human monocytes were pre-differentiated with granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor or macrophage colony-stimulating factor for 7 days to yield M1-like and M2-like macrophages, which were further treated with interferon-γ and lipopolysaccharide or with interleukin-4 for 48 h to obtain fully polarized M1 and M2 macrophages. M1 and M2 cells exhibited distinct morphology with round or spindle-shaped appearance for M1 and M2, respectively, distinct surface marker profiles, as well as different cytokine and chemokine secretion. Macrophage polarization did not influence uptake of C. pneumoniae, since comparable copy numbers of chlamydial DNA were detected in M1 and M2 at 6 h post infection, but an increase in chlamydial DNA over time indicating proliferation was only observed in M2. Accordingly, 72±5% of M2 vs. 48±7% of M1 stained positive for chlamydial lipopolysaccharide, with large perinuclear inclusions in M2 and less clearly bordered inclusions for M1. Viable C. pneumoniae was present in lysates from M2, but not from M1 macrophages. The ability of M1 to restrict chlamydial replication was not observed in M1-like macrophages, since chlamydial load showed an equal increase over time for M1-like and M2-like macrophages. Our findings support the importance of macrophage polarization for the control of intracellular infection, and show that M2 are the preferred survival niche for C. pneumoniae. M1 did not allow for chlamydial proliferation, but failed to completely eliminate chlamydial infection

  12. Segal-Bargmann Transform and Paley-Wiener Theorems on $M(2)$

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E K Narayanan; Suparna Sen

    2010-04-01

    We study the Segal–Bargmann transform on $M(2)$. The range of this transform is characterized as a weighted Bergman space. In a similar fashion Poisson integrals are investigated. Using a Gutzmer’s type formula we characterize the range as a class of functions extending holomorphically to an appropriate domain in the complexification of $M(2)$. We also prove a Paley–Wiener theorem for the inverse Fourier transform.

  13. Wound Administration of M2-Polarized Macrophages Does Not Improve Murine Cutaneous Healing Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Nadine Jetten; Nadia Roumans; Marion J. Gijbels; Andrea Romano; Post, Mark J.; de Winther, Menno P.J.; Van der Hulst, Rene R. W. J.; Sofia Xanthoulea

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages play a crucial role in all stages of cutaneous wound healing responses and dysregulation of macrophage function can result in derailed wound repair. The phenotype of macrophages is influenced by the wound microenvironment and evolves during healing from a more pro-inflammatory (M1) profile in early stages, to a less inflammatory pro-healing (M2) phenotype in later stages of repair. The aim of the current study was to investigate the potential of exogenous administration of M2 macr...

  14. 10D massive type IIA supergravities as the uplift of parabolic M2-brane torus bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia del Moral, Maria Pilar [Universidad de Antofagasta (Chile). Dept. de Fisica; Restuccia, Alvaro [Universidad de Antofagasta (Chile). Dept. de Fisica; Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of). Dept. de Fisica

    2016-04-15

    We remark that the two 10D massive deformations of the N = 2 maximal type IIA supergravity (Romans and HLW supergravity) are associated to the low energy limit of the uplift to 10D of M2-brane torus bundles with parabolic monodromy linearly and non-linearly realized respectively. Romans supergravity corresponds to M2-brane compactified on a twice-punctured torus bundle. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. A novel M2e based flu vaccine formulation for dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Leclerc

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The USA 2004 influenza virus outbreak H3N8 in dogs heralded the emergence of a new disease in this species. A new inactivated H3N8 vaccine was developed to control the spread of the disease but, as in humans and swine, it is anticipated that the virus will mutate shift and drift in the dog population. Therefore, there is a need for a vaccine that can trigger a broad protection to prevent the spread of the virus and the emergence of new strains. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The universal M2e peptide is identical in almost all the H3N8 influenza strains sequenced to date and known to infect dogs. This epitope is therefore a good choice for development of a vaccine to provide broad protection. Malva mosaic virus (MaMV nanoparticles were chosen as a vaccine platform to improve the stability of the M2e peptide and increase its immunogenicity in animals. The addition of an adjuvant (OmpC purified from Salmonella typhi membrane in the vaccine formulation increased the immune response directed to the M2e peptide significantly and enlarged the protection to include the heterosubtypic strain of influenza in a mouse model. An optimal vaccine formulation was also shown to be immunogenic in dogs. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The MaMV vaccine platform triggered an improved immune response directed towards the universal M2e peptide. The adjuvant OmpC increased the immune response to the M2e peptide and protection to a heterosubtypic influenza strain that harbors a different M2e peptide in a mouse model. Antibodies generated by the vaccine formulation showed cross-reactivity with M2e peptides derived from influenza strains H9N2, H5N1 and H1N1. The vaccine formulation shows a potential for commercialization of a new M2e based vaccine in dogs.

  16. M2 pyruvate kinase provides a mechanism for nutrient sensing and regulation of cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Hugh P; O'Reilly, Francis J; Wear, Martin A; O'Neill, J Robert; Fothergill-Gilmore, Linda A; Hupp, Ted; Walkinshaw, Malcolm D

    2013-04-09

    We show that the M2 isoform of pyruvate kinase (M2PYK) exists in equilibrium between monomers and tetramers regulated by allosteric binding of naturally occurring small-molecule metabolites. Phenylalanine stabilizes an inactive T-state tetrameric conformer and inhibits M2PYK with an IC50 value of 0.24 mM, whereas thyroid hormone (triiodo-L-thyronine, T3) stabilizes an inactive monomeric form of M2PYK with an IC50 of 78 nM. The allosteric activator fructose-1,6-bisphosphate [F16BP, AC50 (concentration that gives 50% activation) of 7 μM] shifts the equilibrium to the tetrameric active R-state, which has a similar activity to that of the constitutively fully active isoform M1PYK. Proliferation assays using HCT-116 cells showed that addition of inhibitors phenylalanine and T3 both increased cell proliferation, whereas addition of the activator F16BP reduced proliferation. F16BP abrogates the inhibitory effect of both phenylalanine and T3, highlighting a dominant role of M2PYK allosteric activation in the regulation of cancer proliferation. X-ray structures show constitutively fully active M1PYK and F16BP-bound M2PYK in an R-state conformation with a lysine at the dimer-interface acting as a peg in a hole, locking the active tetramer conformation. Binding of phenylalanine in an allosteric pocket induces a 13° rotation of the protomers, destroying the peg-in-hole R-state interface. This distinct T-state tetramer is stabilized by flipped out Trp/Arg side chains that stack across the dimer interface. X-ray structures and biophysical binding data of M2PYK complexes explain how, at a molecular level, fluctuations in concentrations of amino acids, thyroid hormone, and glucose metabolites switch M2PYK on and off to provide the cell with a nutrient sensing and growth signaling mechanism.

  17. Organophosphorus pesticides decrease M2 muscarinic receptor function in guinea pig airway nerves via indirect mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becky J Proskocil

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies link organophosphorus pesticide (OP exposures to asthma, and we have shown that the OPs chlorpyrifos, diazinon and parathion cause airway hyperreactivity in guinea pigs 24 hr after a single subcutaneous injection. OP-induced airway hyperreactivity involves M2 muscarinic receptor dysfunction on airway nerves independent of acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibition, but how OPs inhibit neuronal M2 receptors in airways is not known. In the central nervous system, OPs interact directly with neurons to alter muscarinic receptor function or expression; therefore, in this study we tested whether the OP parathion or its oxon metabolite, paraoxon, might decrease M2 receptor function on peripheral neurons via similar direct mechanisms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Intravenous administration of paraoxon, but not parathion, caused acute frequency-dependent potentiation of vagally-induced bronchoconstriction and increased electrical field stimulation (EFS-induced contractions in isolated trachea independent of AChE inhibition. However, paraoxon had no effect on vagally-induced bradycardia in intact guinea pigs or EFS-induced contractions in isolated ileum, suggesting mechanisms other than pharmacologic antagonism of M2 receptors. Paraoxon did not alter M2 receptor expression in cultured cells at the mRNA or protein level as determined by quantitative RT-PCR and radio-ligand binding assays, respectively. Additionally, a biotin-labeled fluorophosphonate, which was used as a probe to identify molecular targets phosphorylated by OPs, did not phosphorylate proteins in guinea pig cardiac membranes that were recognized by M2 receptor antibodies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data indicate that neither direct pharmacologic antagonism nor downregulated expression of M2 receptors contributes to OP inhibition of M2 function in airway nerves, adding to the growing evidence of non-cholinergic mechanisms of OP neurotoxicity.

  18. Enhanced M1/M2 macrophage ratio promotes orthodontic root resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, D; Kou, X; Luo, Q; Yang, R; Liu, D; Wang, X; Song, Y; Cao, H; Zeng, M; Gan, Y; Zhou, Y

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical force-induced orthodontic root resorption is a major clinical challenge in orthodontic treatment. Macrophages play an important role in orthodontic root resorption, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we examined the mechanism by which the ratio of M1 to M2 macrophage polarization affects root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement. Root resorption occurred when nickel-titanium coil springs were applied on the upper first molars of rats for 3 to 14 d. Positively stained odontoclasts or osteoclasts with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase were found in resorption areas. Meanwhile, M1-like macrophages positive for CD68 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) persistently accumulated on the compression side of periodontal tissues. In addition, the expressions of the M1 activator interferon-γ and the M1-associated pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were upregulated on the compression side of periodontal tissues. When the coil springs were removed at the 14th day after orthodontic force application, root resorption was partially rescued. The number of CD68(+)CD163(+) M2-like macrophages gradually increased on the compression side of periodontal tissues. The levels of M2 activator interleukin (IL)-4 and the M2-associated anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 also increased. Systemic injection of the TNF-α inhibitor etanercept or IL-4 attenuated the severity of root resorption and decreased the ratio of M1 to M2 macrophages. These data imply that the balance between M1 and M2 macrophages affects orthodontic root resorption. Root resorption was aggravated by an enhanced M1/M2 ratio but was partially rescued by a reduced M1/M2 ratio.

  19. M2C Precipitate in Isothermal Tempering of High Co-Ni Alloy Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The ultra-strength alloy steel with high content of Co and Ni is typical tempering martensite steel, and the secondary hardening is accomplished by the precipitation of fine scale alloy carbides with black-white contrast until peak-hardening. The crystal structure of precipitates was well determined as M2C with hexagonal by micro-beam diffraction. Observing in HREM, M2C carbides were shown coherent with the ferrite matrix completely and have their own structure.

  20. Influence of cladding layer field of slab waveguide on M2 factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Lin(林斌); Xuejin Wen(文学金); Fuyuan Guo(郭福源)

    2003-01-01

    Based on the theory of semiconductor laser pattern and the non-paraxial vectorial moment theory of lightbeam propagation, the beam quality factor M2 of TE0 propagating mode is analyzed and calculated.The result shows that when both core layer and cladding layer are considered, M2 > 1 is always obtained.Moreover, by analyzing the characteristic of real beams, this result is generalized to the multilayer isotropiclinear slab waveguides.

  1. Effect of organophosphorus insecticides on phosphorylation of the M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuyin Li; Liming Zou; Carry Pope

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Organophosphorus insecticides may promote the accumulation of acetylcholine at synapses and the neuromuscular junction by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase activity to cause disturbance of neural signal conduction and induce a toxic reaction. Organophosphorus insecticides may act on M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, whose combination with G proteins is regulated by phosphorylation of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of organophosphorus insecticides on the phosphorylation of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2-mediated M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors and to reveal other possible actions of organophosphorus insecticides.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: An observational study, which was performed in the Central Laboratory of Shenyang Medical College, and Department of Physiological Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Oklahoma State University from June 2002 to December 2004.METHODS: The M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor was extracted and purified from pig brain using affinity chromatography. Subsequently, the purified M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2, and [OP32] ATP were incubated with different concentrations of paraoxon and chlorpyrifos oxon together. The mixture then underwent polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and the gel film was dried and radioactively autographed to detect phosphorylation of the M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor. Finally, the radio-labeled phosphorylated M2 receptor protein band was excised for counting with an isotope liquid scintillation counter.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Effects of chlorpyrifos oxon, paraoxon, chlorpyrifos, and parathion in different concentrations on the phosphorylation of the M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor; effects of chlorpyrifos oxon on the phosphorylation of the adrenergic receptor.CONCLUSION: Different kinds of organophosphorus insecticides have different effects on the phosphorylation of the G protein

  2. Abundance, distribution, mobility and oligomeric state of M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in live cardiac muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Nenasheva, Tatiana A.; Neary, Marianne; Gregory I. Mashanov; Birdsall, Nigel J.M.; Breckenridge, Ross A.; Molloy, Justin E.

    2013-01-01

    M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors modulate cardiac rhythm via regulation of the inward potassium current. To increase our understanding of M2 receptor physiology we used Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy to visualize individual receptors at the plasma membrane of transformed CHOM2 cells, a cardiac cell line (HL-1), primary cardiomyocytes and tissue slices from pre- and post-natal mice. Receptor expression levels between individual cells in dissociated cardiomyocytes and he...

  3. Characterization and Genetic Analysis of a Novel Light-Dependent Lesion Mimic Mutant, lm3, Showing Adult-Plant Resistance to Powdery Mildew in Common Wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Wang

    Full Text Available Lesion mimics (LMs that exhibit spontaneous disease-like lesions in the absence of pathogen attack might confer enhanced plant disease resistance to a wide range of pathogens. The LM mutant, lm3 was derived from a single naturally mutated individual in the F1 population of a 3-1/Jing411 cross, backcrossed six times with 3-1 as the recurrent parent and subsequently self-pollinated twice. The leaves of young seedlings of the lm3 mutant exhibited small, discrete white lesions under natural field conditions. The lesions first appeared at the leaf tips and subsequently expanded throughout the entire leaf blade to the leaf sheath. The lesions were initiated through light intensity and day length. Histochemical staining revealed that lesion formation might reflect programmed cell death (PCD and abnormal accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. The chlorophyll content in the mutant was significantly lower than that in wildtype, and the ratio of chlorophyll a/b was increased significantly in the mutant compared with wildtype, indicating that lm3 showed impairment of the biosynthesis or degradation of chlorophyll, and that Chlorophyll b was prone to damage during lesion formation. The lm3 mutant exhibited enhanced resistance to wheat powdery mildew fungus (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici; Bgt infection, which was consistent with the increased expression of seven pathogenesis-related (PR and two wheat chemically induced (WCI genes involved in the defense-related reaction. Genetic analysis showed that the mutation was controlled through a single partially dominant gene, which was closely linked to Xbarc203 on chromosome 3BL; this gene was delimited to a 40 Mb region between SSR3B450.37 and SSR3B492.6 using a large derived segregating population and the available Chinese Spring chromosome 3B genome sequence. Taken together, our results provide information regarding the identification of a novel wheat LM gene, which will facilitate the additional fine

  4. Tumor M2 pyruvate kinase: a tumor marker and its clinical application in gastrointestinal malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardt, Philip D; Ewald, Nils

    2008-09-01

    Proliferating cells, in particular tumor cells, express a dimeric isoenzyme of pyruvate kinase, termed Tumor M2 pyruvate kinase. In the last few years, much attention has been paid to this novel tumor marker that can be determined in EDTA-plasma and in the feces. It has been used in diagnosis and surveillance of a variety of malignant diseases. As compared with the established tumor markers, Tumor M2-PK in EDTA-plasma proves to have at least equal sensitivity in pancreatic, gastric, esophageal, colorectal and cholangiocellular cancer. In combination with established tumor markers, EDTA-plasma M2-PK is a useful tool in diagnosis and surveillance of gastrointestinal tumors. In colorectal cancer, M2-PK in EDTA-plasma even proves superiority as compared with CEA. Fecal Tumor M2-PK testing resembles a good noninvasive screening parameter for colorectal cancer with a reported sensitivity of 68.8-91.0% and a specificity of 71.9-100%. It is superior to fecal occult blood testing in colorectal cancer screening. Since it is effective, easy to handle and bears rather low costs, fecal Tumor M2-PK testing is recommended for large-scale CRC screening.

  5. Monocyte Differentiation towards Protumor Activity Does Not Correlate with M1 or M2 Phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Karina Chimal-Ramírez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages facilitate breast cancer progression. Macrophages were initially classified as M1 or M2 based on their distinct metabolic programs and then expanded to include antitumoral (M1 and protumoral (M2 activities. However, it is still uncertain what markers define the pro- and antitumoral phenotypes and what conditions lead to their formation. In this study, monocytic cell lines and primary monocytes were subjected to commonly reported protocols of M1/M2 polarization and conditions known to engage monocytes into protumoral functions. The results showed that only IDO enzyme and CD86 M1 markers were upregulated correlating with M1 polarization. TNF-α, CCR7, IL-10, arginase I, CD36, and CD163 were expressed indistinguishably from M1 or M2 polarization. Similarly, protumoral engaging resulted in upregulation of both M1 and M2 markers, with conditioned media from the most aggressive breast cancer cell line promoting the greatest changes. In spite of the mixed phenotype, M1-polarized macrophages exhibited the highest expression/secretion of inflammatory mediators, many of which have previously been associated with breast cancer aggressiveness. These data argue that although the existence of protumoral macrophages is unquestionable, their associated phenotypes and the precise conditions driving their formation are still unclear, and those conditions may need both M1 and M2 stimuli.

  6. Reliable Reporting for Massive M2M Communications with Periodic Resource Pooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madueño, Germán Corrales; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar

    2014-01-01

    This letter considers a wireless M2M communication scenario with a massive number of M2M devices. Each device needs to send its reports within a given deadline and with certain reliability, e.g., 99.99%. A pool of resources available to all M2M devices is periodically available for transmission....... The number of transmissions required by an M2M device within the pool is random due to two reasons - random number of arrived reports since the last reporting opportunity and requests for retransmission due to random channel errors. We show how to dimension the pool of M2M-dedicated resources in order...... to guarantee the desired reliability of the report delivery within the deadline. The fact that the pool of resources is used by a massive number of devices allows to base the dimensioning on the central limit theorem. The results are interpreted in the context of LTE, but they are applicable to any M2M...

  7. Study into the Applicability of Laser Beam Quality Factor M2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jing; TIAN Xiao-hong; XIN Jian-guo

    2006-01-01

    The applicable condition of single-frequency laser beam quality factor M2 is studied. Any real single-frequency laser beam can be classified as Gaussian mode and non-Gaussian mode according to the transverse field distribution. Non-Gaussian transverse field distribution can be analytically expressed as the sum of Hermite-Gaussian functions. The propagation function and M2 factor expression for non-Gaussian mode can be obtained by the second moment definition of laser beam spot. The analytical results show, the same as that of Gaussian mode, that the propagation function follows the hyperbolic law and the value of M2 factor is a constant for non-Gaussian mode. But, different non-Gaussian field distributions may have the same M2 value. That means M2 factor cannot reflect the quality of non-Gaussian laser beams correctly. We conclude that the M2 factor is applicable only to ideal Gaussian laser beam generated by stable resonators.

  8. Muscarinic cholinergic receptor (M2 plays a crucial role in the development of myopia in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veluchamy A. Barathi

    2013-09-01

    Myopia is a huge public health problem worldwide, reaching the highest incidence in Asia. Identification of susceptible genes is crucial for understanding the biological basis of myopia. In this paper, we have identified and characterized a functional myopia-associated gene using a specific mouse-knockout model. Mice lacking the muscarinic cholinergic receptor gene (M2; also known as Chrm2 were less susceptible to lens-induced myopia compared with wild-type mice, which showed significantly increased axial length and vitreous chamber depth when undergoing experimental induction of myopia. The key findings of this present study are that the sclera of M2 mutant mice has higher expression of collagen type I and lower expression of collagen type V than do wild-type mice and mice that are mutant for other muscarinic subtypes, and, therefore, M2 mutant mice were resistant to the development of experimental myopia. Pharmacological blockade of M2 muscarinic receptor proteins retarded myopia progression in the mouse. These results suggest for the first time a role of M2 in growth-related changes in extracellular matrix genes during myopia development in a mammalian model. M2 receptor antagonists might thus provide a targeted therapeutic approach to the management of this refractive error.

  9. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition blocks M2 macrophage differentiation and suppresses metastasis in murine breast cancer model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Rang Na

    Full Text Available Tumor cells are often associated with abundant macrophages that resemble the alternatively activated M2 subset. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs inhibit anti-tumor immune responses and promote metastasis. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 inhibition is known to prevent breast cancer metastasis. This study hypothesized that COX-2 inhibition affects TAM characteristics potentially relevant to tumor cell metastasis. We found that the specific COX-2 inhibitor, etodolac, inhibited human M2 macrophage differentiation, as determined by decreased CD14 and CD163 expressions and increased TNFα production. Several key metastasis-related mediators, such as vascular endothelial growth factor-A, vascular endothelial growth factor-C, and matrix metalloproteinase-9, were inhibited in the presence of etodolac as compared to untreated M2 macrophages. Murine bone marrow derived M2 macrophages also showed enhanced surface MHCII IA/IE and CD80, CD86 expressions together with enhanced TNFα expressions with etodolac treatment during differentiation. Using a BALB/c breast cancer model, we found that etodolac significantly reduced lung metastasis, possibly due to macrophages expressing increased IA/IE and TNFα, but decreased M2 macrophage-related genes expressions (Ym1, TGFβ. In conclusion, COX-2 inhibition caused loss of the M2 macrophage characteristics of TAMs and may assist prevention of breast cancer metastasis.

  10. Monocyte Differentiation towards Protumor Activity Does Not Correlate with M1 or M2 Phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimal-Ramírez, G. Karina; Espinoza-Sánchez, Nancy Adriana; Chávez-Sánchez, Luis; Arriaga-Pizano, Lourdes

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages facilitate breast cancer progression. Macrophages were initially classified as M1 or M2 based on their distinct metabolic programs and then expanded to include antitumoral (M1) and protumoral (M2) activities. However, it is still uncertain what markers define the pro- and antitumoral phenotypes and what conditions lead to their formation. In this study, monocytic cell lines and primary monocytes were subjected to commonly reported protocols of M1/M2 polarization and conditions known to engage monocytes into protumoral functions. The results showed that only IDO enzyme and CD86 M1 markers were upregulated correlating with M1 polarization. TNF-α, CCR7, IL-10, arginase I, CD36, and CD163 were expressed indistinguishably from M1 or M2 polarization. Similarly, protumoral engaging resulted in upregulation of both M1 and M2 markers, with conditioned media from the most aggressive breast cancer cell line promoting the greatest changes. In spite of the mixed phenotype, M1-polarized macrophages exhibited the highest expression/secretion of inflammatory mediators, many of which have previously been associated with breast cancer aggressiveness. These data argue that although the existence of protumoral macrophages is unquestionable, their associated phenotypes and the precise conditions driving their formation are still unclear, and those conditions may need both M1 and M2 stimuli. PMID:27376091

  11. Endogenous-Exogenous Money Supply and Trend-Stationary Process of M2——Dynamic growth path analysis of M2%货币供给内生性、外生性与M2退势平稳——M2动态增长路径分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐伟康

    2010-01-01

    本文发现M2是一个退势平稳过程,而非单位根过程.尽管M2具有较强的内生性,但同时也受外生货币政策因素冲击或影响.内生因素和外生因素共同作用使M2围绕一条稳态增长路径上下波动;并且M2偏离稳态增长路径会造成产出波动.于是本文利用2000年至2007年的M2月度数据,分别建立SARMA模型和含月度虚拟变量的组合模型,对这条动态增长路径进行拟合.利用2008年的最新数据评价模型的预测能力时,我们发现M2仍然处在这条动态增长路径上.

  12. Using multi-compartment ensemble modeling as an investigative tool of spatially distributed biophysical balances: application to hippocampal oriens-lacunosum/moleculare (O-LM) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekulić, Vladislav; Lawrence, J Josh; Skinner, Frances K

    2014-01-01

    Multi-compartmental models of neurons provide insight into the complex, integrative properties of dendrites. Because it is not feasible to experimentally determine the exact density and kinetics of each channel type in every neuronal compartment, an essential goal in developing models is to help characterize these properties. To address biological variability inherent in a given neuronal type, there has been a shift away from using hand-tuned models towards using ensembles or populations of models. In collectively capturing a neuron's output, ensemble modeling approaches uncover important conductance balances that control neuronal dynamics. However, conductances are never entirely known for a given neuron class in terms of its types, densities, kinetics and distributions. Thus, any multi-compartment model will always be incomplete. In this work, our main goal is to use ensemble modeling as an investigative tool of a neuron's biophysical balances, where the cycling between experiment and model is a design criterion from the start. We consider oriens-lacunosum/moleculare (O-LM) interneurons, a prominent interneuron subtype that plays an essential gating role of information flow in hippocampus. O-LM cells express the hyperpolarization-activated current (Ih). Although dendritic Ih could have a major influence on the integrative properties of O-LM cells, the compartmental distribution of Ih on O-LM dendrites is not known. Using a high-performance computing cluster, we generated a database of models that included those with or without dendritic Ih. A range of conductance values for nine different conductance types were used, and different morphologies explored. Models were quantified and ranked based on minimal error compared to a dataset of O-LM cell electrophysiological properties. Co-regulatory balances between conductances were revealed, two of which were dependent on the presence of dendritic Ih. These findings inform future experiments that differentiate between

  13. Using multi-compartment ensemble modeling as an investigative tool of spatially distributed biophysical balances: application to hippocampal oriens-lacunosum/moleculare (O-LM cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav Sekulić

    Full Text Available Multi-compartmental models of neurons provide insight into the complex, integrative properties of dendrites. Because it is not feasible to experimentally determine the exact density and kinetics of each channel type in every neuronal compartment, an essential goal in developing models is to help characterize these properties. To address biological variability inherent in a given neuronal type, there has been a shift away from using hand-tuned models towards using ensembles or populations of models. In collectively capturing a neuron's output, ensemble modeling approaches uncover important conductance balances that control neuronal dynamics. However, conductances are never entirely known for a given neuron class in terms of its types, densities, kinetics and distributions. Thus, any multi-compartment model will always be incomplete. In this work, our main goal is to use ensemble modeling as an investigative tool of a neuron's biophysical balances, where the cycling between experiment and model is a design criterion from the start. We consider oriens-lacunosum/moleculare (O-LM interneurons, a prominent interneuron subtype that plays an essential gating role of information flow in hippocampus. O-LM cells express the hyperpolarization-activated current (Ih. Although dendritic Ih could have a major influence on the integrative properties of O-LM cells, the compartmental distribution of Ih on O-LM dendrites is not known. Using a high-performance computing cluster, we generated a database of models that included those with or without dendritic Ih. A range of conductance values for nine different conductance types were used, and different morphologies explored. Models were quantified and ranked based on minimal error compared to a dataset of O-LM cell electrophysiological properties. Co-regulatory balances between conductances were revealed, two of which were dependent on the presence of dendritic Ih. These findings inform future experiments that

  14. Complexity and Hopf Bifurcation Analysis on a Kind of Fractional-Order IS-LM Macroeconomic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junhai; Ren, Wenbo

    On the basis of our previous research, we deepen and complete a kind of macroeconomics IS-LM model with fractional-order calculus theory, which is a good reflection on the memory characteristics of economic variables, we also focus on the influence of the variables on the real system, and improve the analysis capabilities of the traditional economic models to suit the actual macroeconomic environment. The conditions of Hopf bifurcation in fractional-order system models are briefly demonstrated, and the fractional order when Hopf bifurcation occurs is calculated, showing the inherent complex dynamic characteristics of the system. With numerical simulation, bifurcation, strange attractor, limit cycle, waveform and other complex dynamic characteristics are given; and the order condition is obtained with respect to time. We find that the system order has an important influence on the running state of the system. The system has a periodic motion when the order meets the conditions of Hopf bifurcation; the fractional-order system gradually stabilizes with the change of the order and parameters while the corresponding integer-order system diverges. This study has certain significance to policy-making about macroeconomic regulation and control.

  15. Analysis of Tribological Behaviour of Functionally Graded LM13 Aluminium/TiS2 Composite Using Design of Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Radhika

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Functionally graded LM13 aluminium/10wt% TiS2 composite was fabricated by centrifugal casting method and hollow cylindrical part has the dimension of 150x150x20 mm was obtained. The microstructural evaluation and vicker’s micro-hardness test was carried out on the surfaces at the distance of 1, 6, 12 and 18 mm from the outer surface of functionally graded composites. The microstructural investigation reveals that the TiS2 reinforcement particles concentrated more on the outer periphery and less at the inner periphery of the composite. The hardness of the composite surface increases at the particle rich region of outer periphery and decreases towards inner region. The dry sliding wear experiments were conducted on the composite specimens as per plan of Taguchi’s L16 orthogonal array design. The parameters considered were load, sliding velocity, sliding distance and distance from outer periphery of the composite, varied for four levels. Signal- to- Noise ratio and Analysis of Variance were carried out and the significance test revealed that distance from outer periphery had major impact (43.11 % followed by sliding distance (31.19 %, load (16.59 %, and sliding velocity (7.33 %. Adequacy of model was predicted through regression equation and the error was found to be less than 8 %. The scanning electron microscope analysis carried out for the worn-out surfaces showed maximum wear resistance of the functionally graded composite at outer periphery.

  16. The MHV68 M2 protein drives IL-10 dependent B cell proliferation and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Andrea M; Herskowitz, Jeremy H; Speck, Samuel H

    2008-04-01

    Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68) establishes long-term latency in memory B cells similar to the human gammaherpesvirus Epstein Barr Virus (EBV). EBV encodes an interleukin-10 (IL-10) homolog and modulates cellular IL-10 expression; however, the role of IL-10 in the establishment and/or maintenance of chronic EBV infection remains unclear. Notably, MHV68 does not encode an IL-10 homolog, but virus infection has been shown to result in elevated serum IL-10 levels in wild-type mice, and IL-10 deficiency results in decreased establishment of virus latency. Here we show that a unique MHV68 latency-associated gene product, the M2 protein, is required for the elevated serum IL-10 levels observed at 2 weeks post-infection. Furthermore, M2 protein expression in primary murine B cells drives high level IL-10 expression along with increased secretion of IL-2, IL-6, and MIP-1alpha. M2 expression was also shown to significantly augment LPS driven survival and proliferation of primary murine B cells. The latter was dependent on IL-10 expression as demonstrated by the failure of IL10-/- B cells to proliferate in response to M2 protein expression and rescue of M2-associated proliferation by addition of recombinant murine IL-10. M2 protein expression in primary B cells also led to upregulated surface expression of the high affinity IL-2 receptor (CD25) and the activation marker GL7, along with down-regulated surface expression of B220, MHC II, and sIgD. The cells retained CD19 and sIgG expression, suggesting differentiation to a pre-plasma memory B cell phenotype. These observations are consistent with previous analyses of M2-null MHV68 mutants that have suggested a role for the M2 protein in expansion and differentiation of MHV68 latently infected B cells-perhaps facilitating the establishment of virus latency in memory B cells. Thus, while the M2 protein is unique to MHV68, analysis of M2 function has revealed an important role for IL-10 in MHV68 pathogenesis-identifying a

  17. The MHV68 M2 protein drives IL-10 dependent B cell proliferation and differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea M Siegel

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68 establishes long-term latency in memory B cells similar to the human gammaherpesvirus Epstein Barr Virus (EBV. EBV encodes an interleukin-10 (IL-10 homolog and modulates cellular IL-10 expression; however, the role of IL-10 in the establishment and/or maintenance of chronic EBV infection remains unclear. Notably, MHV68 does not encode an IL-10 homolog, but virus infection has been shown to result in elevated serum IL-10 levels in wild-type mice, and IL-10 deficiency results in decreased establishment of virus latency. Here we show that a unique MHV68 latency-associated gene product, the M2 protein, is required for the elevated serum IL-10 levels observed at 2 weeks post-infection. Furthermore, M2 protein expression in primary murine B cells drives high level IL-10 expression along with increased secretion of IL-2, IL-6, and MIP-1alpha. M2 expression was also shown to significantly augment LPS driven survival and proliferation of primary murine B cells. The latter was dependent on IL-10 expression as demonstrated by the failure of IL10-/- B cells to proliferate in response to M2 protein expression and rescue of M2-associated proliferation by addition of recombinant murine IL-10. M2 protein expression in primary B cells also led to upregulated surface expression of the high affinity IL-2 receptor (CD25 and the activation marker GL7, along with down-regulated surface expression of B220, MHC II, and sIgD. The cells retained CD19 and sIgG expression, suggesting differentiation to a pre-plasma memory B cell phenotype. These observations are consistent with previous analyses of M2-null MHV68 mutants that have suggested a role for the M2 protein in expansion and differentiation of MHV68 latently infected B cells-perhaps facilitating the establishment of virus latency in memory B cells. Thus, while the M2 protein is unique to MHV68, analysis of M2 function has revealed an important role for IL-10 in MHV68 pathogenesis

  18. Internalization and down-regulation of human muscarinic acetylcholine receptor m2 subtypes. Role of third intracellular m2 loop and G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuga, H; Kameyama, K; Haga, T; Honma, T; Lameh, J; Sadée, W

    1998-02-27

    Internalization and down-regulation of human muscarinic acetylcholine m2 receptors (hm2 receptors) and a hm2 receptor mutant lacking a central part of the third intracellular loop (I3-del m2 receptor) were examined in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells stably expressing these receptors and G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2). Agonist-induced internalization of up to 80-90% of hm2 receptors was demonstrated by measuring loss of [3H]N-methylscopolamine binding sites from the cell surface, and transfer of [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate binding sites from the plasma membrane into the light-vesicle fractions separated by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Additionally, translocation of hm2 receptors with endocytic vesicles were visualized by immunofluorescence confocal microscopy. Agonist-induced down-regulation of up to 60-70% of hm2 receptors was demonstrated by determining the loss of [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate binding sites in the cells. The half-time (t1/2) of internalization and down-regulation in the presence of 10(-4) M carbamylcholine was estimated to be 9.5 min and 2.3 h, respectively. The rates of both internalization and down-regulation of hm2 receptors in the presence of 10(-6) M or lower concentrations of carbamylcholine were markedly increased by coexpression of GRK2. Agonist-induced internalization of I3-del m2 receptors was barely detectable upon incubation of cells for 1 h, but agonist-induced down-regulation of up to 40-50% of I3-del m2 receptors occurred upon incubation with 10(-4) M carbamylcholine for 16 h. However, the rate of down-regulation was lower compared with wild type receptors (t1/2 = 9.9 versus 2.3 h). These results indicate that rapid internalization of hm2 receptors is facilitated by their phosphorylation with GRK2 and does not occur in the absence of the third intracellular loop, but down-regulation of hm2 receptors may occur through both GRK2-facilitating pathway and third intracellular loop-independent pathways.

  19. Lipopolysaccharide preconditioning facilitates M2 activation of resident microglia after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Kentaro; Okazaki, Rentaro; Morioka, Kazuhito; Nakamura, Kozo; Tanaka, Sakae; Ogata, Toru

    2014-12-01

    The inflammatory response following spinal cord injury (SCI) has both harmful and beneficial effects; however, it can be modulated for therapeutic benefit. Endotoxin/lipopolysaccharide (LPS) preconditioning, a well-established method for modifying the immune reaction, has been shown to attenuate damage induced by stroke and brain trauma in rodent models. Although such effects likely are conveyed by tissue-repairing functions of the inflammatory response, the mechanisms that control the effects have not yet been elucidated. The present study preconditioned C57BL6/J mice with 0.05 mg/kg of LPS 48 hr before inducing contusion SCI to investigate the effect of LPS preconditioning on the activation of macrophages/microglia. We found that LPS preconditioning promotes the polarization of M1/M2 macrophages/microglia toward an M2 phenotype in the injured spinal cord on quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and immunohistochemical analyses. Flow cytometric analyses reveal that LPS preconditioning facilitates M2 activation in resident microglia but not in infiltrating macrophages. Augmented M2 activation was accompanied by vascularization around the injured lesion, resulting in improvement in both tissue reorganization and functional recovery. Furthermore, we found that M2 activation induced by LPS preconditioning is regulated by interleukin-10 gene expression, which was preceded by the transcriptional activation of interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-3, as demonstrated by Western blotting and an IRF-3 binding assay. Altogether, our findings demonstrate that LPS preconditioning has a therapeutic effect on SCI through the modulation of M1/M2 polarization of resident microglia. The present study suggests that controlling M1/M2 polarization through endotoxin signal transduction could become a promising therapeutic strategy for various central nervous system diseases. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. M2 macrophages induce EMT through the TGF-β/Smad2 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liangying; Fu, Xiao; Chen, Xiang; Han, Xiaodong; Dong, Ping

    2017-09-01

    IPF is characterized by fibroblast accumulation, collagen deposition, and ECM remodeling, with myofibroblasts believed to be the effector cell type. Myofibroblasts develop due to EMT of lung alveolar epithelial cells, which can be induced by TGF-β. M2 macrophages, a macrophage subpopulation, secrete large amounts of TGF-β. To clarify the relationship between IPF, EMT, TGF-β, and M2 macrophages, a bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis mouse model was used. Seventeen days after mice were treated with bleomycin, the successful establishment of a pulmonary fibrosis model was confirmed by HE stain and Masson's trichrome stain. We found evidence in support of EMT, such as elevated protein levels of α-SMA in lung tissue and decreased levels of E-cadherin and CK-18. Additionally, increased TGF-β levels and TGF-β/Smad2 signaling activation was observed. Macrophages were recruited to pulmonary alveoli. Alveolar macrophages were phenotyped and identified as M2 macrophages, with up-regulated CD206 on the cell surfaces. For in vitro studies, we treated RAW 264.7 cells with IL-4 for 24 h, and the cells were then utilized as M2 macrophages. TGF-β levels increased significantly in the culture supernatant. Forty-eight hours after lung epithelial cells (MLE-12) were co-cultured with the M2 macrophages, the expression of α-SMA increased, and E-cadherin and CK-18 decreased. When a TGF-β receptor inhibitor, LY2109761 was used, the EMT induced by M2 macrophages was blocked. In conclusion, we demonstrated that M2 macrophages induce EMT through the TGF-β/Smad2 signaling pathway. © 2017 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  1. Propagação vegetativa de jambeiro vermelho [Syzygium malaccense (L. Merr. & L.M. Perry] Vegetative propagation of malay apple [Syzygium malaccense (L. Merr. & L.M. Perry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo José de Almeida

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O jambeiro vermelho [Syzygium malaccense (L. Merr. & L.M. Perry] se apresenta como opção ao fruticultor por apresentar frutos atrativos e bem aceitos pelo consumidor. A dificuldade de cultivo dessa espécie reside no fato de que a planta possui um porte demasiadamente alto e longo período juvenil quando propagada por semente, com isso, é desejável sua multiplicação vegetativa visando a antecipar o período produtivo e diminuir seu porte. Foi estudada a possibilidade de clonagem dessa espécie pelas técnicas de estaquia, alporquia e enxertia. No experimento por estaquia, testaram-se três doses de ácido indolbutírico (AIB (0, 1.000 3.000 e 5.000 mg L-1 em dois comprimentos de estacas herbáceas (15 e 25 cm. No experimento de alporquia, avaliaram-se duas épocas de realização do alporque (verão e outono e quatro doses de AIB (0, 1.000, 4.000, 7.000 e 10.000 mg kg-1. Na enxertia, analisou-se a compatibilidade do jambeiro vermelho (S. malaccense sobre o jambeiro rosa [Syzygium jambos (L. Alston] com dois diâmetros de porta-enxertos (0,5 e 0,8 cm em duas épocas (inverno e verão, pelo método de enxertia de topo em fenda cheia. A estaquia obteve até 20% de enraizamento, independentemente da dose de AIB, exceto na dose de 5.000 mg L-1, que apresentou efeito negativo ao enraizamento entre estacas de 15 cm; não houve sucesso para alporquia e enxertia, nas condições estudadas.The Malay Apple [Syzygium malaccense (L. Merr. & L.M. Perry] is an option for the producer as its fruits are attractive and well accepted by the consumer. The difficulty of culture of this species is that the plant is very tall and has a long juvenile period when propagated by seed, making its vegetative propagation necessary to anticipate the productive period and decrease its size. The possibility of vegetative propagation of this species was studied by cutting, layering, and grafting. In the cutting experiment, three doses of indolbutyric acid (IBA (0, 1,000, 3

  2. Tumor type M2 pyruvate kinase expression in gastric cancer,colorectal cancer and controls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Zhang; Jian-Ying Chen; Dao-Da Chen; Guo-Bin Wang; Ping Shen

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Tumor formation is generally linked to an expansion of glycolytic phosphometabolite pools and aerobic glycolytic flux rates. To achieve this, tumor cells generally overexpress a special glycolytic isoenzyme, termed pyruvate kinase type M2. The present study was designed to evaluate the use of a new tumor marker, tumor M2-PK, in discriminating gastrointestinal cancer patients from healthy controls, and to compare with the reference tumor markers CEA and CA72-4.METHODS: The concentration of tumor M2-PK in body fluids could be quantitatively determined by a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-kit (ScheBo(R) Tech, Giessen, Germany). By using this kit, the tumor M2-PK concentration was measured in EDTA-plasma of 108 patients. For the healthy blood donors a cut-off value of 15 U/mL was evaluated, which corresponded to 90% specificity. Overall 108 patients were included in this study, 54 patients had a histological confirmed gastric cancer, 54 patients colorectal cancer, and 20 healthy volunteers served as controls.RESULTS: The cut-off value to discriminate patients from controls was established at 15 U/mL for tumor M2-PK. The mean tumor M2-PK concentration of gastric cancer was 26.937 U/mL. According to the TNM stage system, the mean tumor M2-PK concentration of stage Ⅰ was 16.324 U/mL, of stage Ⅱ 15.290 U/mL, of stage Ⅲ 30.289 U/mL, of stage Ⅳ127.31 U/mL, of non-metastasis 12.854 U/mL and of metastasis 35.711 U/mL. The mean Tumor M2-PK concentration of colorectal cancer was 30.588 U/mL. According to the Dukes stage system, the mean tumor M2-PK concentration of Dukes A was 16.638 U/mL, of Dukes B 22.070 U/mL, and of Dukes C 48.024 U/mL, of non-metastasis 19.501 U/mL, of metastasis 49.437 U/mL. The mean tumor M2-PK concentration allowed a significant discrimination of colorectal cancers (30.588 U/mL) from controls (10.965 U/mL) (P<0.01), and gastric cancer (26.937 U/mL) from controls (10.965 U/mL)(P<0.05). The overall

  3. Technological Transformation Practice of 105 m2 Sintering Machine%105 m2烧结机技术改造实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白玮

    2015-01-01

    山钢股份莱芜分公司炼铁厂对3台105 m2烧结机进行了一系列技术改造,包括烧结熔剂破碎工艺优化,配料自动化控制系统改造,混合料温度提升,混合机筒体衬板及安装改造,烧结机漏风治理,单辊篦板保护帽改造等。改造后,烧结机作业率98.02%,烧结矿合格率98.19%,产量355.9万t。%A series of technological transformation for three 105 m2 sintering machines in Laiwu branch iron works has been made. That include to optimize sintering flux crushing process and transform automatic batching control, increase the temperature of mixture, reform of mixing machine barrel lining board and installation, control the air leakage of sinter, transform the single and grate plate protective cap. The sintering machine operating rate reached 98.02%, sinter and the qualified rate can reach 98.19%, sinter yield reached 355.9 million tons.

  4. 羊八井50m2 RPC地毯性能研究%Study on the Performance of YBJ 50m2 RPC Carpet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    利用羊八井50m2 RPC地毯(YBJ-ARGO实验原型)的测试数据对其性能进行了分析研究,包括原初粒子方位角分布、天顶角分布、地毯的角分辨、探测时间系统误差对方位角分布的正弦调制、探测时间系统误差的离线修正、几何不对称的小型地毯探测器上原初粒子到达方向重建误差造成的方位角分布的不均匀性等.%The characteristics of a 50m2 RPC carpet(prototype of YBJ-ARGO experiment)was analyzed using its test run data.A correction method of the systematic time error is suggested,and non-uniform azimuthal angle distribution possibly due to direction reconstruction error on an asymmetric carpet is reported.

  5. Dynamic Changes of Microglia/Macrophage M1 and M2 Polarization in Theiler's Murine Encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herder, Vanessa; Iskandar, Cut Dahlia; Kegler, Kristel; Hansmann, Florian; Elmarabet, Suliman Ahmed; Khan, Muhammad Akram; Kalkuhl, Arno; Deschl, Ulrich; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Ulrich, Reiner; Beineke, Andreas

    2015-11-01

    Microglia and macrophages play a central role for demyelination in Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis (TME) virus infection, a commonly used infectious model for chronic-progressive multiple sclerosis. In order to determine the dynamic changes of microglia/macrophage polarization in TME, the spinal cord of Swiss Jim Lambert (SJL) mice was investigated by gene expression profiling and immunofluorescence. Virus persistence and demyelinating leukomyelitis were confirmed by immunohistochemistry and histology. Electron microscopy revealed continuous myelin loss together with abortive myelin repair during the late chronic infection phase indicative of incomplete remyelination. A total of 59 genes out of 151 M1- and M2-related genes were differentially expressed in TME virus-infected mice over the study period. The onset of virus-induced demyelination was associated with a dominating M1 polarization, while mounting M2 polarization of macrophages/microglia together with sustained prominent M1-related gene expression was present during the chronic-progressive phase. Molecular results were confirmed by immunofluorescence, showing an increased spinal cord accumulation of CD16/32(+) M1-, arginase-1(+) M2- and Ym1(+) M2-type cells associated with progressive demyelination. The present study provides a comprehensive database of M1-/M2-related gene expression involved in the initiation and progression of demyelination supporting the hypothesis that perpetuating interaction between virus and macrophages/microglia induces a vicious circle with persistent inflammation and impaired myelin repair in TME.

  6. Beam quality M 2 factor matrix for non-circular symmetric laser beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yongzhao; Fu, Yuqing; Zheng, Chaoying

    2017-02-01

    It is standard to use Mx2 and My2 to characterize the beam quality of a non-circular symmetrical beam on its x-axis and y-axis orientation. However, we knew that the values of Mx2 and My2 are inconsistent if one selects a different coordinate system or measures beam quality with different experimental conditionals, even when analyzing the same beam. To overcome this, a new beam quality characterization method, the M 2 factor matrix, is developed. It not only contains the beam quality terms, Mx2 and My2 , to characterize the beam quality along x-axis and y-axis orientation for the non-symmetric beam, but also introduces two additional cross terms, M xy and M yx , which are used to characterize the location relationship between the principal axis of the test beam and coordinate system in experiment. Moreover, M 2 factor matrix can be measured with a similar procedure to the traditional M 2 factor whose measurement instructions are described in ISO11146 by adding some additional image and signal processing procedure. The measurement principle and method is present and the experiment system for beam quality M 2 factor matrix is built to demonstrate the performance of M 2 factor matrix with real experiments.

  7. Differential Roles of M1 and M2 Microglia in Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yu; Le, Weidong

    2016-03-01

    One of the most striking hallmarks shared by various neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease (AD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, is microglia-mediated neuroinflammation. Increasing evidence indicates that microglial activation in the central nervous system is heterogeneous, which can be categorized into two opposite types: M1 phenotype and M2 phenotype. Depending on the phenotypes activated, microglia can produce either cytotoxic or neuroprotective effects. In this review, we focus on the potential role of M1 and M2 microglia and the dynamic changes of M1/M2 phenotypes that are critically associated with the neurodegenerative diseases. Generally, M1 microglia predominate at the injury site at the end stage of disease, when the immunoresolution and repair process of M2 microglia are dampened. This phenotype transformation is very complicated in AD due to the phagocytosis of regionally distributed β-amyloid (Aβ) plaque and tangles that are released into the extracellular space. The endogenous stimuli including aggregated α-synuclein, mutated superoxide dismutase, Aβ, and tau oligomers exist in the milieu that may persistently activate M1 pro-inflammatory responses and finally lead to irreversible neuron loss. The changes of microglial phenotypes depend on the disease stages and severity; mastering the stage-specific switching of M1/M2 phenotypes within appropriate time windows may provide better therapeutic benefit.

  8. Large-Scale Mini-Magnetosphere Plasma Propulsion (M2P2) Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winglee, R. M.; Slough, J.; Ziemba, T.; Euripides, P.; Adrian, M. L.; Gallagher, D.; Craven, P.; Tomlinson, W.; Cravens, J.; Burch, J.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Mini-Magnetosphere Plasma Propulsion (M2P2) is an innovative plasma propulsion system that has the potential to propel spacecraft at unprecedented speeds of 50 to 80 km per second with a low-power requirement of approx. 1 kW per 100 kg of payload and approx. 1 kg of neutral gas [fuel] consumption per day of acceleration. Acceleration periods from several days to a few months are envisioned. High specific impulse and efficiency are achieved through coupling of the spacecraft to the 400 km per second solar wind through an artificial magnetosphere. The mini-magnetosphere or inflated magnetic bubble is produced by the injection of cold dense plasma into a spacecraft-generated magnetic field envelope. Magnetic bubble inflation is driven by electromagnetic processes thereby avoiding the material and deployment problems faced by mechanical solar sail designs, Here, we present the theoretical design of M2P2 as well as initial results from experimental testing of an M2P2 prototype demonstrating: 1) inflation of the dipole magnetic field geometry through the internal injection of cold plasma; and 2) deflection of and artificial solar wind by the prototype M2P2 system. In addition, we present plans for direct laboratory measurement of thrust imparted to a prototype M2P2 by an artificial solar wind during the summer of 2001.

  9. Three-dimensional numerical simulation of M2 internal tides in the Luzon Strait

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Bingtian; CAO Anzhou; LV Xianqing

    2015-01-01

    A three-dimensional isopycnic-coordinate internal tidal model is employed to investigate the generation, propagation, vertical structure and energy conversion of M2 internal tides in the Luzon Strait (LS) with mooring observations. Simulated results, especially the tidal current amplitudes, agree well with observations, demonstrating the reasonability and accuracy of the model. Results indicate that M2 internal tides mainly propagate into three directions horizontally, i.e., eastward towards the western Pacific Ocean, westward towards the Dongsha Island and southwestward towards the South China Sea Basin. In the horizontal direction, tidal current amplitudes decrease as distance increases away from the LS; in the vertical direction, they show an obvious decreasing tendency with depth. Between the double ridges of the LS, a clockwise gyre of M2 baroclinic energy flux appears, which is caused by reflections of M2 internal tides at supercritical topographies, and resonance of M2 internal tides happens along 19.5° and 21.5°N due to the heights and separation distance of the double ridges. The total energy conversion in the LS is about 14.20 GW.

  10. Estimates of global M2 internal tide energy fluxes using TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yanwei; LIANG Xinfeng; TIAN Jiwei; YANG Lifen

    2009-01-01

    TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter data from October 1992 to June 2002 are used to calculate the global barotropic M2 tidal currents using long-term tidal harmonic analysis. The tides calculated agree well with ADCP data obtained from the South China Sea (SCS). The maximum tide velocities along the semi-major axis and semi-minor axis can be computed from the tidal ellipse. The global distribution of M2 internal tide vertical energy flux from the sea bottom is calculated based on a linear internal wave generation model. The global vertical energy flux of M2 internal tide is 0.96 TW, with 0.36 TW in the Pacific, 0.31 TW in the Atlantic and 0.29 TW in the Indian Ocean, obtained in this study. The total horizontal energy flux of M2 internal tide radiating into the open ocean from the lateral boundaries is 0.13 TW, with 0.06 TW in the Pacific, 0.04TW in the Atlantic, and 0.03 TW in the Indian Ocean. The result shows that the principal lunar semi-diurnal tide M2 provides enough energy to maintain the large-scale thermohaline circulation of the ocean.

  11. Dynamic Environmental/Economic Scheduling for Microgrid Using Improved MOEA/D-M2M

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The environmental/economic dynamic scheduling for microgrids (MGs is a complex multiobjective optimization problem, which usually has dynamic system parameters and constraints. In this paper, a biobjective optimization model of MG scheduling is established. And various types of microsources (like the conventional sources, various types of renewable sources, etc., electricity markets, and dynamic constraints are considered. A recently proposed MOEA/D-M2M framework is improved (I-MOEA/D-M2M to solve the real-world MG scheduling problems. In order to deal with the constraints, the processes of solutions sorting and selecting in the original MOEA/D-M2M are revised. In addition, a self-adaptive decomposition strategy and a modified allocation method of individuals are introduced to enhance the capability of dealing with uncertainties, as well as reduce unnecessary computational work in practice and meet the time requirements for the dynamic optimization tasks. Thereafter, the proposed I-MOEA/D-M2M is applied to the independent MG scheduling problems, taking into account the load demand variation and the electricity price changes. The simulation results by MATLAB show that the proposed method can achieve better distributed fronts in much less running time than the typical multiobjective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs like the improved strength Pareto evolutionary algorithm (SPEA2 and the nondominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGAII. Finally, I-MOEA/D-M2M is used to solve a 24-hour MG dynamic operation scheduling problem and obtains satisfactory results.

  12. Structural environment built by AKAP12+ colon mesenchymal cells drives M2 macrophages during inflammation recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun-Mo; Lee, Hye Shin; Seo, Ji Hae; Park, Ji-Hyeon; Gelman, Irwin H.; Lo, Eng H.; Kim, Kyu-Won

    2017-01-01

    Macrophages exhibit phenotypic plasticity, as they have the ability to switch their functional phenotypes during inflammation and recovery. Simultaneously, the mechanical environment actively changes. However, how these dynamic alterations affect the macrophage phenotype is unknown. Here, we observed that the extracellular matrix (ECM) constructed by AKAP12+ colon mesenchymal cells (CMCs) generated M2 macrophages by regulating their shape during recovery. Notably, rounded macrophages were present in the linear and loose ECM of inflamed colons and polarized to the M1 phenotype. In contrast, ramified macrophages emerged in the contracted ECM of recovering colons and mainly expressed M2 macrophage markers. These contracted structures were not observed in the inflamed colons of AKAP12 knockout (KO) mice. Consequently, the proportion of M2 macrophages in inflamed colons was lower in AKAP12 KO mice than in WT mice. In addition, clinical symptoms and histological damage were more severe in AKAP12 KO mice than in WT mice. In experimentally remodeled collagen gels, WT CMCs drove the formation of a more compacted structure than AKAP12 KO CMCs, which promoted the polarization of macrophages toward an M2 phenotype. These results demonstrated that tissue contraction during recovery provides macrophages with the physical cues that drive M2 polarization. PMID:28205544

  13. Wireless Access Control with Smart Antenna for M2M Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Bandai, Masaki; Watanabe, Takashi

    Machine to machine (M2M) is a promising technology to achieve an ubiquitous environment by uniting machines and machines over the Internet. The network used for M2M consists of core network and access network. This paper discusses effective controls of the wireless access network for M2M. Among typical examples of the wireless access network for M2M is a wireless sensor network (WSN). WSN for M2M may require energy efficiency, high reliability and throughput. For these requirements, in this paper, we propose a scheme to build a hierarchical sensor network using smart antenna. The proposed scheme uses omni-directional antennas together with smart antennas. Since smart antennas can extend communications distance, the proposed scheme enables reduction of number of hops to reduce the traffic load on relay nodes. As a result, the energy consumption, data collection ratio and throughput can be improved. We implement the proposed scheme on a real testbed. The testbed uses UNAGI as smart antenna nodes and Mica Mote as sensor nodes. In addition to the fundamental evaluation on the testbed, we simulate large-scale sensor networks. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed hierarchical sensor network with smart antennas.

  14. Modelling packing interactions in parallel helix bundles: pentameric bundles of nicotinic receptor M2 helices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankararamakrishnan, R; Sansom, M S

    1995-11-01

    The transbilayer pore of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is formed by a pentameric bundle of M2 helices. Models of pentameric bundles of M2 helices have been generated using simulated annealing via restrained molecular dynamics. The influence of: (a) the initial C alpha template; and (b) screening of sidechain electrostatic interactions on the geometry of the resultant M2 helix bundles is explored. Parallel M2 helices, in the absence of sidechain electrostatic interactions, pack in accordance with simple ridges-in-grooves considerations. This results in a helix crossing angle of ca. +12 degrees, corresponding to a left-handed coiled coil structure for the bundle as a whole. Tilting of M2 helices away from the central pore axis at their C-termini and/or inclusion of sidechain electrostatic interactions may perturb such ridges-in-grooves packing. In the most extreme cases right-handed coiled coils are formed. An interplay between inter-helix H-bonding and helix bundle geometry is revealed. The effects of changes in electrostatic screening on the dimensions of the pore mouth are described and the significance of these changes in the context of models for the nAChR pore domain is discussed.

  15. The challenges of M2M massive access in wireless cellular networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Biral

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The next generation of communication systems, which is commonly referred to as 5G, is expected to support, besides the traditional voice and data services, new communication paradigms, such as Internet of Things (IoT and Machine-to-Machine (M2M services, which involve communication between Machine-Type Devices (MTDs in a fully automated fashion, thus, without or with minimal human intervention. Although the general requirements of 5G systems are progressively taking shape, the technological issues raised by such a vision are still partially unclear. Nonetheless, general consensus has been reached upon some specific challenges, such as the need for 5G wireless access networks to support massive access by MTDs, as a consequence of the proliferation of M2M services. In this paper, we describe the main challenges raised by the M2M vision, focusing in particular on the problems related to the support of massive MTD access in current cellular communication systems. Then we analyze the most common approaches proposed in the literature to enable the coexistence of conventional and M2M services in the current and next generation of cellular wireless systems. We finally conclude by pointing out the research challenges that require further investigation in order to provide full support to the M2M paradigm.

  16. Prophylactic and therapeutic activity of fully human monoclonal antibodies directed against Influenza A M2 protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwerder Myriam

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Influenza virus infection is a prevalent disease in humans. Antibodies against hemagglutinin have been shown to prevent infection and hence hemagglutinin is the major constituent of current vaccines. Antibodies directed against the highly conserved extracellular domain of M2 have also been shown to mediate protection against Influenza A infection in various animal models. Active vaccination is generally considered the best approach to combat viral diseases. However, passive immunization is an attractive alternative, particularly in acutely exposed or immune compromized individuals, young children and the elderly. We recently described a novel method for the rapid isolation of natural human antibodies by mammalian cell display. Here we used this approach to isolate human monoclonal antibodies directed against the highly conserved extracellular domain of the Influenza A M2 protein. The identified antibodies bound M2 peptide with high affinities, recognized native cell-surface expressed M2 and protected mice from a lethal influenza virus challenge. Moreover, therapeutic treatment up to 2 days after infection was effective, suggesting that M2-specific monoclonals have a great potential as immunotherapeutic agents against Influenza infection.

  17. Preservative Effect of Broad-Spectrum Enterocin LM-2 on Cold Sliced Ham%广谱乳酸菌细菌素enterocin LM-2对低温切片火腿的防腐保鲜效果(英文)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国荣; 王成涛; 王洋; 张宝; 李平兰

    2012-01-01

    为考察广谱乳酸菌细菌素enterocin LM-2对低温切片火腿的防腐保鲜效果,并探讨其在低温肉制品防腐保鲜中的应用可行性。本研究在不添加任何化学防腐剂的前提下,分别添加80、320、1280AU/g enterocin LM-2处理低温切片火腿,分析不同浓度细菌素处理前后样品中微生物数量、理化指标以及感官特性的变化。结果发现:细菌素enterocin LM-2的添加可明显延长低温切片火腿的货架期,有效减少贮藏过程中挥发性盐基氮的生成及脂肪氧化程度,并保持产品原有色泽、气味、质构等感官特性。综合微生物和理化特性分析结果,确定添加1280AU/g enterocin LM-2的处理组防腐效果最好,可将低温切片火腿的货架期延长至49d。这些结果都显示出乳酸菌细菌素enterocin LM-2有作为天然生物防腐剂应用于低温肉制品防腐保鲜中的巨大应用潜力。%Enterocin LM-2,a broad-spectrum bacteriocin isolated from Chinese traditional cheese,was produced by Enterococcus faecium LM-2.In order to examine the potential of enterocin LM-2 as a biopreservative in sliced cooked ham,the effect of enterocin LM-2 at different concentrations(80,320,1280 AU/g) on microbiological,physicochemical and sensory quality properties of sliced cooked ham during the refrigerated storage at 4 ℃ was explored in this paper.The addition of enterocin LM-2 could substantially suppress the growth of microflora,especially Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enteritidis,and decrease the accumulation of TVB-N and lipid oxidation during refrigerated storage of sliced cooked ham.Overall,the most effective treatment was achieved by adding 1280 AU/g enterocin LM-2,which could extend the shelf life up to 49 days and produce a better sensory profile during the whole storage period.These results clearly indicate that enterocin LM-2 has a great potential as a biopreservative for enhancing the safety and quality of refrigerated sliced cooked

  18. A small molecule p75NTR ligand, LM11A-31, reverses cholinergic neurite dystrophy in Alzheimer's disease mouse models with mid- to late-stage disease progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle A Simmons

    Full Text Available Degeneration of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons contributes significantly to the cognitive deficits associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD and has been attributed to aberrant signaling through the neurotrophin receptor p75 (p75NTR. Thus, modulating p75NTR signaling is considered a promising therapeutic strategy for AD. Accordingly, our laboratory has developed small molecule p75NTR ligands that increase survival signaling and inhibit amyloid-β-induced degenerative signaling in in vitro studies. Previous work found that a lead p75NTR ligand, LM11A-31, prevents degeneration of cholinergic neurites when given to an AD mouse model in the early stages of disease pathology. To extend its potential clinical applications, we sought to determine whether LM11A-31 could reverse cholinergic neurite atrophy when treatment begins in AD mouse models having mid- to late stages of pathology. Reversing pathology may have particular clinical relevance as most AD studies involve patients that are at an advanced pathological stage. In this study, LM11A-31 (50 or 75 mg/kg was administered orally to two AD mouse models, Thy-1 hAPPLond/Swe (APPL/S and Tg2576, at age ranges during which marked AD-like pathology manifests. In mid-stage male APPL/S mice, LM11A-31 administered for 3 months starting at 6-8 months of age prevented and/or reversed atrophy of basal forebrain cholinergic neurites and cortical dystrophic neurites. Importantly, a 1 month LM11A-31 treatment given to male APPL/S mice (12-13 months old with late-stage pathology reversed the degeneration of cholinergic neurites in basal forebrain, ameliorated cortical dystrophic neurites, and normalized increased basal forebrain levels of p75NTR. Similar results were seen in female Tg2576 mice. These findings suggest that LM11A-31 can reduce and/or reverse fundamental AD pathologies in late-stage AD mice. Thus, targeting p75NTR is a promising approach to reducing AD-related degenerative processes that have

  19. M2-KK6 System in ABJM Theory : Fuzzy $S^3$ and Wrapped KK6

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Wung-Hong

    2011-01-01

    We study the properties of M2-KK6 solution in ABJM membrane theory. First, we find a new kind of BPS solution which has six coordinates, contrasts to our previous solutions which have four coordinates. Next, we argue that, after wrapping 2 sphere the new solution may correspond to the previous solution of four coordinates. We analyze the properties therein and conclude that M2-branes described in ABJM theory could expand into fuzzy three sphere plus a wrapped 2 sphere near the KK6 core. Especially, we show in detail how the fuzzy 3-sphere could arise in these solutions and discuss the property of wrapped KK6 and its relation to M5-brane. We also analyze the fluctuation of the M2-KK6 solution and see that it is U(1) field theory.

  20. Holographic cosmology from a system of M2–M5 branes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepehri, Alireza, E-mail: alireza.sepehri@uk.ac.ir [Faculty of Physics, Shahid Bahonar University, P.O. Box 76175, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics of Maragha (RIAAM), Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faizal, Mir, E-mail: f2mir@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Setare, Mohammad Reza, E-mail: rezakord@ipm.ir [Department of Science, Campus of Bijar, University of Kurdistan, Bijar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ali, Ahmed Farag, E-mail: afali@fsu.edu [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Benha University, Benha 13518 (Egypt)

    2016-05-15

    In this paper, we analyze the holographic cosmology using a M2–M5 brane configuration. In this configuration, a M2-brane will be placed in between a M5-brane and an anti-M5-brane. The M2-brane will act as a channel for energy to flow from an anti-M5-brane to a M5-brane, and this will increase the degrees of freedom on the M5-brane causing inflation. The inflation will end when the M5-brane and anti-M5-brane get separated. However, at a later stage the distance between the M5-brane and the anti-M5-bran can reduce and this will cause the formation of tachyonic states. These tachyonic states will again open a bridge between the M5-branes and the anti-M5-branes, which will cause further acceleration of the universe.

  1. A Novel Voltage Sensor in the Orthosteric Binding Site of the M2 Muscarinic Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchad-Avitzur, Ofra; Priest, Michael F; Dekel, Noa; Bezanilla, Francisco; Parnas, Hanna; Ben-Chaim, Yair

    2016-10-04

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) mediate many signal transduction processes in the body. The discovery that these receptors are voltage-sensitive has changed our understanding of their behavior. The M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M2R) was found to exhibit depolarization-induced charge movement-associated currents, implying that this prototypical GPCR possesses a voltage sensor. However, the typical domain that serves as a voltage sensor in voltage-gated channels is not present in GPCRs, making the search for the voltage sensor in the latter challenging. Here, we examine the M2R and describe a voltage sensor that is comprised of tyrosine residues. This voltage sensor is crucial for the voltage dependence of agonist binding to the receptor. The tyrosine-based voltage sensor discovered here constitutes a noncanonical by which membrane proteins may sense voltage.

  2. Aggregation and Trunking of M2M Traffic via D2D Connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rigazzi, Giovanni; Kiilerich Pratas, Nuno; Popovski, Petar

    2015-01-01

    , there is a need for new techniques to coordinate the access and allocate the resources. Although the majority of the proposed solutions are focused on the adaptation of the traditional cellular networks to the M2M traffic patterns, novel approaches based on the direct communication among nearby devices may......Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communications is one of the key enablers of the Internet of Things (IoT). Billions of devices are expected to be deployed in the near future for novel M2M applications demanding ubiquitous access and global connectivity. In order to cope with the massive number of machines...... generated packets is performed by a user device, which aggregates the machine-type data, supplements it with its own data and transmits all of them to the Base Station. We observe a fundamental trade-off between latency and the transmit power needed to deliver the aggregate traffic, in a sense that lower...

  3. Holographic cosmology from a system of M2-M5 branes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehri, Alireza; Faizal, Mir; Setare, Mohammad Reza; Ali, Ahmed Farag

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we analyze the holographic cosmology using a M2-M5 brane configuration. In this configuration, a M2-brane will be placed in between a M5-brane and an anti-M5-brane. The M2-brane will act as a channel for energy to flow from an anti-M5-brane to a M5-brane, and this will increase the degrees of freedom on the M5-brane causing inflation. The inflation will end when the M5-brane and anti-M5-brane get separated. However, at a later stage the distance between the M5-brane and the anti-M5-bran can reduce and this will cause the formation of tachyonic states. These tachyonic states will again open a bridge between the M5-branes and the anti-M5-branes, which will cause further acceleration of the universe.

  4. Structure of the atypical bacteriocin pectocin M2 implies a novel mechanism of protein uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinter, Rhys; Josts, Inokentijs; Zeth, Kornelius; Roszak, Aleksander W; McCaughey, Laura C; Cogdell, Richard J; Milner, Joel J; Kelly, Sharon M; Byron, Olwyn; Walker, Daniel

    2014-07-01

    The colicin-like bacteriocins are potent protein antibiotics that have evolved to efficiently cross the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria by parasitizing nutrient uptake systems. We have structurally characterized the colicin M-like bacteriocin, pectocin M2, which is active against strains of Pectobacterium spp. This unusual bacteriocin lacks the intrinsically unstructured translocation domain that usually mediates translocation of these bacteriocins across the outer membrane, containing only a single globular ferredoxin domain connected to its cytotoxic domain by a flexible α-helix, which allows it to adopt two distinct conformations in solution. The ferredoxin domain of pectocin M2 is homologous to plant ferredoxins and allows pectocin M2 to parasitize a system utilized by Pectobacterium to obtain iron during infection of plants. Furthermore, we identify a novel ferredoxin-containing bacteriocin pectocin P, which possesses a cytotoxic domain homologous to lysozyme, illustrating that the ferredoxin domain acts as a generic delivery module for cytotoxic domains in Pectobacterium.

  5. Water-mediated conformational transitions in nicotinic receptor M2 helix bundles: a molecular dynamics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankararamakrishnan, R; Sansom, M S

    1995-12-27

    The ion channel of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor is a water-filled pore formed by five M2 helix segments, one from each subunit. Molecular dynamics simulations on bundles of five M2 alpha 7 helices surrounding a central column of water and with caps of water molecules at either end of the pore have been used to explore the effects of intrapore water on helix packing. Interactions of water molecules with the N-terminal polar sidechains lead to a conformational transition from right- to left-handed supercoils during these stimulations. These studies reveal that the pore formed by the bundle of M2 helices is flexible. A structural role is proposed for water molecules in determining the geometry of bundles of isolated pore-forming helices.

  6. Quantification and localization of M2 macrophages in human kidneys with acute tubular injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmer MB

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Matthew B Palmer,1 Alfred A Vichot,2 Lloyd G Cantley,2 Gilbert W Moeckel1 1Department of Pathology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA; 2Department of Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA Abstract: This study addresses for the first time the question whether there is significant macrophage population in human kidney sections from patients with acute tubular injury (ATI. We examined therefore the interstitial macrophage population in human kidney tissue with biopsy-proven diagnosis of ATI, minimal change disease (MCD, and MCD with ATI. Kidney biopsies from patients with the above diagnoses were stained with antibodies directed against CD68 (general macrophage marker, CD163 (M2 marker, and HLA-DR (M1 marker and their respective electron microscopy samples were evaluated for the presence of interstitial macrophages. Our study shows that patients with ATI have significantly increased numbers of interstitial CD68+ macrophages, with an increase in both HLA-DR+ M1 macrophages and CD163+ M2 macrophages as compared to patients with MCD alone. Approximately 75% of macrophages were M2 (CD163+ whereas only 25% were M1 (HLA-DR+. M2 macrophages, which are believed to be critical for wound healing, were found to localize close to the tubular basement membrane of injured proximal tubule cells. Ultra structural examination showed close adherence of macrophages to the basement membrane of injured tubular epithelial cells. We conclude that macrophages accumulate around injured tubules following ATI and exhibit predominantly an M2 phenotype. We further speculate that macrophage-mediated repair may involve physical contact between the M2 macrophage and the injured tubular epithelial cell. Keywords: macrophages, acute kidney injury, CD163, HLA-DR, CD68, electron microscopy

  7. Charged anaesthetics alter LM-fibroblast plasma-membrane enzymes by selective fluidization of inner or outer membrane leaflets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, W D; Schroeder, F

    1986-10-15

    The functional consequences of the differences in lipid composition and structure between the two leaflets of the plasma membrane were investigated. Fluorescence of 1,6-diphenylhexa-1,3,5-triene(DPH), quenching, and differential polarized phase fluorimetry demonstrated selective fluidization by local anaesthetics of individual leaflets in isolated LM-cell plasma membranes. As measured by decreased limiting anisotropy of DPH fluorescence, cationic (prilocaine) and anionic (phenobarbital and pentobarbital) amphipaths preferentially fluidized the cytofacial and exofacial leaflets respectively. Unlike prilocaine, procaine, also a cation, fluidized both leaflets of these membranes equally. Pentobarbital stimulated 5'-nucleotidase between 0.1 and 5 mM and inhibited at higher concentrations, whereas phenobarbital only inhibited, at higher concentrations. Cationic drugs were ineffective. Two maxima of (Na+ + K+)-ATPase activation were obtained with both anionic drugs. Only one activation maximum was obtained with both cationic drugs. The maximum in activity below 1 mM for all four drugs clustered about a single limiting anisotropy value in the cytofacial leaflet, whereas there was no correlation between activity and limiting anisotropy in the exofacial leaflets. Therefore, although phenobarbital and pentobarbital below 1 mM fluidized the exofacial leaflet more than the cytofacial leaflet, the smaller fluidization in the cytofacial leaflet was functionally significant for (Na+ + K+)-ATPase. Mg2+-ATPase was stimulated at 1 mM-phenobarbital, unaffected by pentobarbital and slightly stimulated by both cationic drugs at concentrations fluidizing both leaflets. Thus the activity of (Na+ + K+)-ATPase was highly sensitive to selective fluidization of the leaflet containing its active site, whereas the other enzymes examined were little affected by fluidization of either leaflet.

  8. Numerical investigation of the LM MHD flows in a curved duct with an FCI with varying slot locations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jong Hoon; Yan, Yue [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, Yong-in si, Kyunggi-do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chang Nyung, E-mail: cnkim@khu.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yong-in si, Kyunggi-do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • This study numerically investigates the liquid-metal magnetohydrodynamic flows in a curved duct with an FCI. • The effects of the location of FCI slot and of the curvature radius on the flow behavior are reviewed. • The influence of the FCI slot position on the equalization of the pressure in the inner fluid region (inside the FCI) and the gap fluid region (outer the FCI) is examined. - Abstract: This study numerically investigates the liquid-metal (LM) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows in a curved duct with an FCI having three different slot locations and having no slot under a uniform magnetic field perpendicular to the duct. The flow velocity, current density, electric potential, Lorentz force, and pressure in different flow situations are presented in detail. The effects of the location of FCI slot and of the curvature radius on the flow behavior are reviewed. The flow field is examined with an introduction of the electric-field component and electro-motive component of the current, allowing us to analyze the interdependency of the flow variables. The effect of the FCI slot position on the equalization of the pressure in the inner fluid region (inside the FCI) and the gap fluid region (outer the FCI) is examined. The result shows that and the case with an FCI slot located in the neutral position yields the smallest pressure gradient in the main flow direction among the cases with an FCI slot, resulting in the smallest pressure drop. Also, in a flow situation with smaller radius of curvature with the FCI slot in the neutral position, the axial velocity near the inner (in terms of the curvature) part of a cross-section is higher than that near the outer part.

  9. Improving the CoLM in Taklimakan Desert Hinterland with Accurate Key Parameters and an Appropriate Parameterization Scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yongqiang; HE Qing; ZHANG Hongsheng; Ali MAMTIMIN

    2012-01-01

    Improving and validating land surface models based on integrated observations in deserts is one of the challenges in land modeling.Particularly,key parameters and parameterization schemes in desert regions need to be evaluated in-situ to improve the models. In this study,we calibrated the land-surface key parameters and evaluated several formulations or schemes for thermal roughness length (z0h) in the common land model (CoLM).Our parameter calibration and scheme evaluation were based on the observed data during a torrid summer (29 July to 11 September 2009) over the Taklimakan Desert hinterland.First,the importance of the key parameters in the experiment was evaluated based on their physics principles and the significance of these key parameters were further validated using sensitivity test.Second,difference schemes (or physics-based formulas) of z0h were adopted to simulate the variations of energy-related variables (e.g.,sensible heat flux and surface skin temperature) and the simulated variations were then compared with the observed data.Third,the z0h scheme that performed best (i.e.,Y07) was then selected to replace the defaulted one (i.e.,Z98); the revised scheme and the superiority of Y07 over Z98 was further demonstrated by comparing the simulated results with the observed data.Admittedly,the revised model did a relatively poor job of simulating the diurnal variations of surface soil heat flux,and nighttime soil temperature was also underestimated,calling for further improvement of the model for desert regions.

  10. Interaction of Tacrine at M1 and M2 Cholinoceptors in Guinea Pig Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    using the selective M, and M2 antagonists [3H]- pirenzepine ([3H]PZ) and [3H]AF-DX 384. The dissocia- tion constants were 0.36 nmol/I for the M...nmol/I) at 25*C with 200 ml homogenate made nist [3H]- pirenzepine ([3HJPZ) [4, 5] and the up to 2 ml with buffer. The incubation period was 2 h...tion constant; nH = Hill coefficient; n = number of experiments. pirenzepine indicate that its affinity for the T"M. 2. Dissociation constants for [3H

  11. CEMS-investigations of AISI M2 steel after nitrogen plasma immersion ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uglov, V.V. E-mail: info@research.bsu.unibel.by; Kholmetskii, A.L.; Kuleshov, A.K.; Fedotova, J.A.; Rusalsky, D.P.; Khodasevich, V.V.; Ruebenbauer, K.; Richter, E.; Guenzel, R.; Parascandola, S

    1999-01-02

    Plasma-immersion ion implantation (PIII) and high-current ion implantation (HCII) of nitrogen into M2 steel were carried out. The formation of a multilayer system consisting of a surface layer of austenite on top of {epsilon}-Fe{sub 3}N nitride precipitates was manifested in M2 steel after PIII. HCII forms a thick (more than 14 {mu}m) layer with {epsilon}-Fe{sub 3}N precipitates. Apparently, the formation of the austenite layer after PIII is connected with a local tempering of the steel surface by the pulsed nitrogen ion beam.

  12. Spontaneous thermal motion of the GABA(A) receptor M2 channel-lining segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Amal K; Akabas, Myles H

    2005-10-21

    The gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptor channel opening involves translational and rotational motions of the five channel-lining, M2 transmembrane segments. The M2 segment's extracellular half is loosely packed and undergoes significant thermal motion. To characterize the extent of the M2 segment's motion, we used disulfide trapping experiments between pairs of engineered cysteines. In alpha1beta1 gamma2S receptors the single gamma subunit is flanked by an alpha and beta subunit. The gamma2 M2-14' position is located in the alpha-gamma subunit interface. Gamma2 13' faces the channel lumen. We expressed either the gamma2 14' or the gamma2 13' cysteine substitution mutants with alpha1 cysteine substitution mutants between 12' and 16' and wild-type beta1. Disulfide bonds formed spontaneously between gamma2 14'C and both alpha1 15'C and alpha1 16'C and also between gamma2 13'C and alpha1 13'C. Oxidation by copper phenanthroline induced disulfide bond formation between gamma2 14'C and alpha1 13'C. Disulfide bond formation rates with gamma2 14'C were similar in the presence and absence of GABA, although the rate with alpha1 13'C was slower than with the other two positions. In a homology model based on the acetylcholine receptor structure, alphaM2 would need to rotate in opposite directions by approximately 80 degrees to bring alpha1 13' and alpha1 15' into close proximity with gamma2 14'. Alternatively, translational motion of alphaM2 would reduce the extent of rotational motion necessary to bring these two alpha subunit residues into close proximity with the gamma2 14' position. These experiments demonstrate that in the closed state the M2 segments undergo continuous spontaneous motion in the region near the extracellular end of the channel gate. Opening the gate may involve similar but concerted motions of the M2 segments.

  13. Spontaneous mobility of GABAA receptor M2 extracellular half relative to noncompetitive antagonist action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ligong; Durkin, Kathleen A; Casida, John E

    2006-12-15

    The gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor beta(3) homopentamer is spontaneously open and highly sensitive to many noncompetitive antagonists(NCAs) and Zn(2+). Our earlier study of the M2 cytoplasmic half (-1' to 10') established a model in which NCAs bind at pore-lining residues Ala(2)', Thr(6)', and Leu(9)'. To further define transmembrane 2 (M2) structure relative to NCA action, we extended the Cys scanning to the extra cellular half of the beta(3) homopentamer (11' to 20'). Spontaneous disulfides formed with T13'C, L18'C, and E20'C from M2/M2 cross-linking and with I14'C (weak), H17'C, and R19'Con bridging M2/M3 intersubunits, based on single (M2 Cys only) and dual (M2 Cys plus M3 C289S) mutations. Induced disulfides also formed with T16'C, but there were few or none with M11'C, T12'C, and N15'C. These findings show conformational flexibility/mobility in the M2 extracellular half 17' to 20' region interpreted as a deformed beta-like conformation in the open channel. The NCA radioligands used were [(3)H]1-(4-ethynylphenyl)-4-n-propyl-2,6,7-trioxabicyclo[2.2.2]octane ([(3)H]EBOB) and [(3)H]3,3-bis-trifluoromethylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2,2-dicarbonitrile with essentially the same results. NCA binding was disrupted by individual Cys substitutions at 13',14',16',17', and 19'. The inactivity of T13'C/T13'S may have been due to disturbance of the channel gate; I14'S and T16'S showed much better binding activity than their Cys counterparts, and the low activities of H17'C and R19'C were reversed by dithiothreitol. Zn(2+) potency for inhibition of [(3)H]EBOB binding was lowered 346-fold by the mutation H17'A. We propose that NCAs enter their binding site both directly, through the channel pore, and indirectly, through the water cavity of adjacent subunits.

  14. 广雅SUNDAY三期7500元/m2起发售

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雷

    2008-01-01

    本报讯 6月22日,SUNDAY三期发售,此前已有近300名买家进行购买登记,而发展商把300多套货量一并推出,以最低价格7000元/m2,最高也不超过1万元/m2的诱人价格,且发售当天买家可享受95折优惠。

  15. M2M monitoring terminal based on Cortex-M3%基于Cortex-M3的M2M监控终端

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鑫; 丁志刚; 郑树泉

    2011-01-01

    在对物联网在工业监控领域的应用研究后,针对目前工业监控终端体积大、容量小、功能简单等问题,设计并实现了一种微型化、大容量、强实时、多参数的M2M监控终端.该终端设计了基本的监控模块,且针对不同的应用环境预设了可配和选择模块,使适用范围更广.实现了网络动态配置接口,提高了终端的通用性.并借鉴传统数据采集模式,设计一种数据采集和数据传输优化方案,并对优化算法进行探讨,经应用结果分析,对系统开销、数据传输等指标有显著的改进.%After research of the application of Internet of Things (IOT) in industrial control field, according to the monitoring terminal problems that large volume, low-capacity and simple function, a miniaturized, high-capacity, strong realtime, multi-parameter M2M monitoring terminal was designed and implemented. The terminal designed a basic control module, and the default for different applications and options that could be equipped with modules and applied more broadly. It achieved dynamic configuration of network interfaces and improved the versatility of the terminal. Learning from the traditional mode of data acquisition, the paper devised a prioritization scheme of data acquisition and data transmission, and discussed optimization algorithm. The results of applications show that it is a noticeable improvement in the index of system overhead and data transmission.

  16. M2-F1 in flight over lakebed on tow line

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    Following the first M2-F1 airtow flight on 16 August 1963, the Flight Research Center used the vehicle for both research flights and to check out new lifting-body pilots. These included Bruce Peterson, Don Mallick, Fred Haise, and Bill Dana from NASA. Air Force pilots who flew the M2-F1 included Chuck Yeager, Jerry Gentry, Joe Engle, Jim Wood, and Don Sorlie, although Wood, Haise, and Engle only flew on car tows. In the three years between the first and last flights of the M2-F1, it made about 400 car tows and 77 air tows. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially concieved as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with the largest engine available. He took the car to Bill Straup's renowned hot-rod shop near Long Beach for modification. With a special gearbox and

  17. Affinity-matured recombinant immunotoxin targeting gangliosides 3'-isoLM1 and 3',6'-isoLD1 on malignant gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Hailan; Kuan, Chien-Tsun; Chandramohan, Vidya; Keir, Stephen T; Pegram, Charles N; Bao, Xuhui; Månsson, Jan-Eric; Pastan, Ira H; Bigner, Darell D

    2013-01-01

    About 60 percent of glioblastomas highly express the gangliosides 3'-isoLM1 and 3',6'-isoLD1 on the cell surface, providing ideal targets for brain tumor immunotherapy. A novel recombinant immunotoxin, DmAb14m-(scFv)-PE38KDEL (DmAb14m-IT), specific for the gangliosides 3'-isoLM1 and 3',6'-isoLD1, was constructed with improved affinity and increased cytotoxicity for immunotherapeutic targeting of glioblastoma. We isolated an scFv parental clone from a previously established murine hybridoma, DmAb14, that is specific to both 3'-isoLM1 and 3',6'-isoLD1. We then performed in vitro affinity maturation by CDR hotspot random mutagenesis. The binding affinity and specificity of affinity-matured DmAb14m-IT were measured by surface-plasmon resonance, flow cytometry, and immunohistochemical analysis. In vitro cytotoxicity of DmAb14m-IT was measured by protein synthesis inhibition and cell death assays in human cell lines expressing gangliosides 3'-isoLM1 and 3',6'-isoLD1 (D54MG and D336MG) and xenograft-derived cells (D2224MG). As a result, the KD of DmAb14m-IT for gangliosides 3'-isoLM1 and 3',6'-isoLD1 was 2.6 × 10(-9)M. Also, DmAb14m-IT showed a significantly higher internalization rate in cells expressing 3'-isoLM1 and 3',6'-isoLD1. The DmAb14m-IT IC 50 was 80 ng/mL (1194 pM) on the D54MG cell line, 5 ng/ml (75 pM) on the D336MG cell line, and 0.5 ng/ml (7.5 pM) on the D2224MG xenograft-derived cells. There was no cytotoxicity on ganglioside-negative HEK293 cells. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the specific apparent affinity of DmAb14m-IT with 3'-isoLM1 and 3',6'-isoLD1. In conclusion, DmAb14m-IT showed specific binding affinity, a significantly high internalization rate, and selective cytotoxicity on glioma cell lines and xenograft-derived cells expressing 3'-isoLM1 and 3',6'-isoLD1, thereby displaying robust therapeutic potential for testing the antitumor efficacy of DmAb14m-IT at the preclinical level and eventually in the clinical setting.

  18. Effect of DH treatment on microstructure and mechanical properties of an LM28-0.3wt.%Nd hypereutectic aluminum silicon alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this article, a novel heat treatment method, deformation heat (DH) treatment (extrusion + aging), was employed on a hypereutectic aluminum silicon alloy (LM28-0.3wt.%Nd), and its effect on microstructure and mechanical properties of this alloy was investigated. It can be concluded that the eutectic microstructure disappears after the DH treatment, in the meantime the morphology of α(Al) solid solution was transformed from fir-tree and cellular to equiaxed, Si was refined with grain sizes of about 1-10 μm and distributed dispersedly, even some of them became globular shape, which can reduce stress accumulation effectively. Mechanical properties test indicated that the DH treatment could significantly improve the room-temperature strength and have little effect on the high-temperature strength of LM28-0.3wt.%Nd alloy. The fracture mechanism is ductile fracture by fracture morphology analysis.

  19. Recent Development of QCD Factorization for B-> M1 M2

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Deshan

    2010-01-01

    After briefly introducing the framework of QCD factorization for B-> M1 M2 in the language of the Soft-Collinear Effective Theory, we firstly address the recent efforts on higher-order radiative corrections in QCD factorization. Then we discuss some phenomenologies in B-> V V within the framework of QCD factorization.

  20. Kinetics of proton transport into influenza virions by the viral M2 channel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tijana Ivanovic

    Full Text Available M2 protein of influenza A viruses is a tetrameric transmembrane proton channel, which has essential functions both early and late in the virus infectious cycle. Previous studies of proton transport by M2 have been limited to measurements outside the context of the virus particle. We have developed an in vitro fluorescence-based assay to monitor internal acidification of individual virions triggered to undergo membrane fusion. We show that rimantadine, an inhibitor of M2 proton conductance, blocks the acidification-dependent dissipation of fluorescence from a pH-sensitive virus-content probe. Fusion-pore formation usually follows internal acidification but does not require it. The rate of internal virion acidification increases with external proton concentration and saturates with a pK(m of ∼4.7. The rate of proton transport through a single, fully protonated M2 channel is approximately 100 to 400 protons per second. The saturating proton-concentration dependence and the low rate of internal virion acidification derived from authentic virions support a transporter model for the mechanism of proton transfer.

  1. Tramadol differentially regulates M1 and M2 macrophages from human umbilical cord blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Chen, Liang; Sun, Yunyun; Li, Yuanhai

    2017-03-17

    Tramadol is an analgesic drug and relieves pain through activating μ-opioid receptors and inhibiting serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake. Emerging evidence shows that it also stimulates immune cells, including NK cells, splenocytes, and lymphocytes, and elevates IL-2 production. However, it remains unknown whether and how tramadol directly affects macrophages. To answer these questions, we collected human umbilical cord blood, isolated macrophages, and examined their responses to tramadol. Although tramadol did not alter resting macrophages and the antigen-presenting function in lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages, it regulated M1 and M2 macrophages, which are, respectively, transformed by IFN-γ and IL-4. Interestingly, tramadol inhibits production and secretion of cytokines in M1 macrophages, but facilitates the production of inflammation-responding molecules, synthesized in M2 macrophages. We also found that STAT6 cascade pathway in M2 macrophages was significantly enhanced by tramadol. Therefore, this study reveals that tramadol regulates inflammation by inhibiting M1 macrophages (killing process), but promoting the function of M2 macrophages (healing process).

  2. Embryonic stem cell-derived M2-like macrophages delay cutaneous wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreymueller, Daniela; Denecke, Bernd; Ludwig, Andreas; Jahnen-Dechent, Willi

    2013-01-01

    In adults, repair of deeply injured skin wounds results in the formation of scar tissue, whereas in embryos wounds heal almost scar-free. Macrophages are important mediators of wound healing and secrete cytokines and tissue remodeling enzymes. In contrast to host defense mediated by inflammatory M1 macrophages, wound healing and tissue repair involve regulatory M2/M2-like macrophages. Embryonic/fetal macrophages are M2-like, and this may promote scar-free wound healing. In the present study, we asked whether atopical application of ex vivo generated, embryonic stem cell-derived macrophages (ESDM) improve wound healing in mice. ESDM were tested side by side with bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM). Compared to BMDM, ESDM resembled a less inflammatory and more M2-like macrophage subtype as indicated by their reduced responsiveness to lipopolysaccharide, reduced expression of Toll-like receptors, and reduced bacterial phagocytosis. Despite this anti-inflammatory phenotype in cell culture, ESDM prolonged the healing of deep skin wounds even more than BMDM. Healed wounds had more scar formation compared to wounds receiving BMDM or cell-free treatment. Our data indicate that atopical application of ex vivo generated macrophages is not a suitable cell therapy of dermal wounds.

  3. NO EVIDENCE FOR A ROLE OF MUSCARINIC M(2) RECEPTORS IN FUNCTIONAL ANTAGONISM IN BOVINE TRACHEA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ROFFEL, AF; MEURS, H; ELZINGA, CRS; ZAAGSMA, J

    1 The functional antagonism between methacholine- or histamine-induced contraction and beta-adrenoceptor-mediated relaxation was evaluated in bovine tracheal smooth muscle in vitro. In addition, the putative contribution of muscarinic M(2) receptors mediating inhibition of beta-adrenoceptor-induced

  4. Solidification microstructure of M2 high speed steel by different casting technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Xuefeng

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work investigated the solidification microstructure of AISI M2 high speed steel manufactured by different casting technologies, namely iron mould casting and continuous casting. The results revealed that the as-cast structure of the steel was composed of the iron matrix and the M2C eutectic carbide networks, which were greatly refined in the ingot made by continuous casting process, compared with that by the iron mould casting process. M2C eutectic carbides presented variation in their morphologies and growth characteristics in the ingots by both casting methods. In the ingot by iron mould casting, they have a plate-like morphology and grow anisotropically. However, in the ingot made by continuous casting, the carbides evolved into the fiber-like shape that exhibited little characteristics of anisotropic growth. It was noticed that the fiber-like M2C was much easier to decompose and spheroidize after heated, as a result, the carbides refined remarkably, compared with the case of plate-like carbides in the iron mould casting ingot.

  5. Modifications to 25m2 target-aligned research Heliostat mirror panels

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roos, TH

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Several heliostat mirror panels of the CSIR 25m2 target-aligned heliostat suffered corrosion-related failure, prompting a panel redesign. Two test samples of the new design were subjected to mechanical and thermal cycling tests in an attempt...

  6. Molecular mechanisms that regulate the macrophage M1/M2 polarization balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan eWang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available As an essential component of innate immunity, macrophages have multiple functions in both inhibiting or promoting cell proliferation and tissue repair. Diversity and plasticity are hallmarks of macrophages. Classical M1 and alternative M2 activation of macrophages, mirroring the Th1–Th2 polarization of T cells, represent two extremes of a dynamic changing state of macrophage activation. M1-type macrophages release cytokines that inhibit the proliferation of surrounding cells and damage contiguous tissue, and M2-type macrophages release cytokines that promote the proliferation of contiguous cells and tissue repair. M1-M2 polarization of macrophage is a tightly controlled process entailing a set of signaling pathways, transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulatory networks. An imbalance of macrophage M1-M2 polarization is often associated with various diseases or inflammatory conditions. Therefore identification of the molecules associated with the dynamic changes of macrophage polarization and understanding their interactions is crucial for elucidating the molecular basis of disease progression and designing novel macrophage-mediated therapeutic strategies.

  7. LTE-advanced random access mechanism for M2M communication: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Rashid; Sarowa, Sandeep; Jaglan, Reena Rathee; Khan, Mohammad Junaid; Agrawal, Sunil

    2016-03-01

    Machine Type Communications (MTC) enables one or more self-sufficient machines to communicate directly with one another without human interference. MTC applications include smart grid, security, e-Health and intelligent automation system. To support huge numbers of MTC devices, one of the challenging issues is to provide a competent way for numerous access in the network and to minimize network overload. In this article, the different control mechanisms for overload random access are reviewed to avoid congestion caused by random access channel (RACH) of MTC devices. However, past and present wireless technologies have been engineered for Human-to-Human (H2H) communications, in particular, for transmission of voice. Consequently the Long Term Evolution (LTE) -Advanced is expected to play a central role in communicating Machine to Machine (M2M) and are very optimistic about H2H communications. Distinct and unique characteristics of M2M communications create new challenges from those in H2H communications. In this article, we investigate the impact of massive M2M terminals attempting random access to LTE-Advanced all at once. We discuss and review the solutions to alleviate the overload problem by Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP). As a result, we evaluate and compare these solutions that can effectively eliminate the congestion on the random access channel for M2M communications without affecting H2H communications.

  8. Chlorogenic acid inhibits glioblastoma growth through repolarizating macrophage from M2 to M1 phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Nina; Zhou, Qin; Ji, Ming; Jin, Jing; Lai, Fangfang; Chen, Ju; Zhang, Mengtian; Jia, Jing; Yang, Huarong; Zhang, Jie; Li, Wenbin; Jiang, Jiandong; Chen, Xiaoguang

    2017-01-01

    Glioblastoma is an aggressive tumor that is associated with distinctive infiltrating microglia/macrophages populations. Previous studies demonstrated that chlorogenic acid (5-caffeoylquinic acid, CHA), a phenolic compound with low molecular weight, has an anti-tumor effect in multiple malignant tumors. In the present study, we focused on the macrophage polarization to investigate the molecular mechanisms behind the anti-glioma response of CHA in vitro and in vivo. We found that CHA treatment increased the expression of M1 markers induced by LPS/IFNγ, including iNOS, MHC II (I-A/I-E subregions) and CD11c, and reduced the expression of M2 markers Arg and CD206 induced by IL-4, resulting in promoting the production of apoptotic-like cancer cells and inhibiting the growth of tumor cells by co-culture experiments. The activations of STAT1 and STAT6, which are two crucial signaling events in M1 and M2-polarization, were significantly promoted and suppressed by CHA in macrophages, respectively. Furthermore, In G422 xenograft mice, CHA increased the proportion of CD11c-positive M1 macrophages and decreased the distribution of CD206-positive M2 macrophages in tumor tissue, consistent with the reduction of tumor weight observed in CHA-treated mice. Overall these findings indicated CHA as a potential therapeutic approach to reduce glioma growth through promoting M1-polarized macrophage and inhibiting M2 phenotypic macrophage. PMID:28045028

  9. Comparison of Plasma Tu-M2-PK and CA19-9 in Pancreatic Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joergensen, Maiken Thyregod; Heegaard, Niels H H; Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, Ove B

    2009-01-01

    because of suspicion of pancreatic cancer. Of these, 51 patients had their conditions diagnosed as PDAC, whereas this diagnosis was ruled out in 52 after 12 months of follow-up. The performance of Tu-M2-PK was compared with that of CA19-9 using cutoff values 15 and 37 U/mL, respectively. RESULTS...

  10. Structure of the human M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor bound to an antagonist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haga, Kazuko; Kruse, Andrew C.; Asada, Hidetsugu; Yurugi-Kobayashi, Takami; Shiroishi, Mitsunori; Zhang, Cheng; Weis, William I.; Okada, Tetsuji; Kobilka, Brian K.; Haga, Tatsuya; Kobayashi, Takuya (Stanford-MED); (Kyoto); (Gakushuin); (Kyushu)

    2012-03-15

    The parasympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system regulates the activity of multiple organ systems. Muscarinic receptors are G-protein-coupled receptors that mediate the response to acetylcholine released from parasympathetic nerves. Their role in the unconscious regulation of organ and central nervous system function makes them potential therapeutic targets for a broad spectrum of diseases. The M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M2 receptor) is essential for the physiological control of cardiovascular function through activation of G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium channels, and is of particular interest because of its extensive pharmacological characterization with both orthosteric and allosteric ligands. Here we report the structure of the antagonist-bound human M2 receptor, the first human acetylcholine receptor to be characterized structurally, to our knowledge. The antagonist 3-quinuclidinyl-benzilate binds in the middle of a long aqueous channel extending approximately two-thirds through the membrane. The orthosteric binding pocket is formed by amino acids that are identical in all five muscarinic receptor subtypes, and shares structural homology with other functionally unrelated acetylcholine binding proteins from different species. A layer of tyrosine residues forms an aromatic cap restricting dissociation of the bound ligand. A binding site for allosteric ligands has been mapped to residues at the entrance to the binding pocket near this aromatic cap. The structure of the M2 receptor provides insights into the challenges of developing subtype-selective ligands for muscarinic receptors and their propensity for allosteric regulation.

  11. Experimental Conditions: SE37_S16_M2_D1 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available opes SE37_S16 Blank (80% methanol) SE37_S16_M2 0mg [MassBase ID] MDLC1_43485 SE37_MS1 Metabolites extraction... with 80% methanol and analysis by LC-Orbitrap-MS SE37_DS1 Peak extraction for unlabeled data ...

  12. Serine is a natural ligand and allosteric activator of pyruvate kinase M2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaneton, Barbara; Hillmann, Petra; Zheng, Liang; Martin, Agnes C. L.; Maddocks, Oliver D. K.; Chokkathukalam, Achuthanunni; Coyle, Joseph E.; Jankevics, Andris; Holding, Finn P.; Vousden, Karen H.; Frezza, Christian; O'Reilly, Marc; Gottlieb, Eyal

    2012-01-01

    Cancer cells exhibit several unique metabolic phenotypes that are critical for cell growth and proliferation(1). Specifically, they overexpress the M2 isoform of the tightly regulated enzyme pyruvate kinase (PKM2), which controls glycolytic flux, and are highly dependent on de novo biosynthesis of s

  13. Massive M2M Access with Reliability Guarantees in LTE Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madueño, Germán Corrales; Kiilerich Pratas, Nuno; Stefanovic, Cedomir

    2015-01-01

    Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communications are one of the major drivers of the cellular network evolution towards 5G systems. One of the key challenges is on how to provide reliability guarantees to each accessing device in a situation in which there is a massive number of almost-simultaneous arrivals...

  14. Medroxyprogesterone acetate drives M2 macrophage differentiation toward a phenotype of decidual macrophage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yung-Chieh; Tseng, Joseph T; Wang, Chia-Yih; Su, Mei-Tsz; Huang, Jyun-Yuan; Kuo, Pao-Lin

    2017-09-05

    M1 macrophage differentiation plays a crucial role in enhanced inflammation during pregnancy, which may lead to pregnancy complications. Therefore, modulation of macrophage differentiation toward the M2 phenotype is desirable to ensure a successful pregnancy. Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) is a potent progestin with an anti-inflammatory property, but its effect on macrophage differentiation is unknown. This study aimed to examine whether MPA can induce an M2 macrophage differentiation by using the human monocytes cell line THP-1 or primary monocytes. THP-1 cells were primed with phorbol-12-myristate-13 acetate (PMA) to initiate macrophage differentiation. By incubating with MPA, the cells (denoted as MPA-pTHP-1) underwent M2 macrophage differentiation with downregulations of CD11c, IL-1β and TNF-α, and upregulations of CD163 and IL-10; while cells incubated with progesterone (P4) did not show the M2 phenotype. Primary monocytes treated with MPA also had the same M2 phenotype. Moreover, M1 macrophages derived from IFN-γ/LPS-treated THP-1 cells, which had high levels of IL-1b and iNOS, and low levels of IL-10 and IDO, were reversed to the M2 phenotype by the MPA treatment. We also found that the MPA-pTHP-1 promoted the decidualization of endometrial stromal cells and the invasion of trophoblast cells. To mimic conditions of exposure to various pathogens, MPA-pTHP-1 cells were stimulated by different types of TLR ligands. We found they produced lower levels of IL-1β and TNF-α, as well as a higher level of IL-10, compared to untreated cells. Finally, we found the level of phosphorylated ERK in the MPA-pTHP-1 cells was increased, but its IL-10 production was suppressed by either the progesterone/glucocorticoid antagonist (Mifepristone) or MEK inhibitor (U0126). Taken together, MPA could drive monocyte differentiation toward an M2 phenotype that mimics decidual macrophages. This finding holds great potential to combat chronic endometrial inflammation

  15. Characterization of Sinorhizobium sp. LM21 Prophages and Virus-Encoded DNA Methyltransferases in the Light of Comparative Genomic Analyses of the Sinorhizobial Virome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decewicz, Przemyslaw; Radlinska, Monika; Dziewit, Lukasz

    2017-06-26

    The genus Sinorhizobium/Ensifer mostly groups nitrogen-fixing bacteria that create root or stem nodules on leguminous plants and transform atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia, which improves the productivity of the plants. Although these biotechnologically-important bacteria are commonly found in various soil environments, little is known about their phages. In this study, the genome of Sinorhizobium sp. LM21 isolated from a heavy-metal-contaminated copper mine in Poland was investigated for the presence of prophages and DNA methyltransferase-encoding genes. In addition to the previously identified temperate phage, ΦLM21, and the phage-plasmid, pLM21S1, the analysis revealed the presence of three prophage regions. Moreover, four novel phage-encoded DNA methyltransferase (MTase) genes were identified and the enzymes were characterized. It was shown that two of the identified viral MTases methylated the same target sequence (GANTC) as cell cycle-regulated methyltransferase (CcrM) of the bacterial host strain, LM21. This discovery was recognized as an example of the evolutionary convergence between enzymes of sinorhizobial viruses and their host, which may play an important role in virus cycle. In the last part of the study, thorough comparative analyses of 31 sinorhizobial (pro)phages (including active sinorhizobial phages and novel putative prophages retrieved and manually re-annotated from Sinorhizobium spp. genomes) were performed. The networking analysis revealed the presence of highly conserved proteins (e.g., holins and endolysins) and a high diversity of viral integrases. The analysis also revealed a large number of viral DNA MTases, whose genes were frequently located within the predicted replication modules of analyzed prophages, which may suggest their important regulatory role. Summarizing, complex analysis of the phage protein similarity network enabled a new insight into overall sinorhizobial virome diversity.

  16. First identification of benzo[cd]phenanthro[1,2,3-lm]perylene by high-pressure liquid chromatography with ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Michelle S; Wornat, Mary J

    2010-07-02

    Benzo[cd]phenanthro[1,2,3-lm]perylene has been identified as a product of supercritical 1-methylnaphthalene pyrolysis from an experiment performed at 585 degrees C, 110atm, and 140s in a supercritical fluid flow reactor. The identification of benzo[cd]phenanthro[1,2,3-lm]perylene is based on the product's mass spectrum, HPLC elution time, and UV absorbance spectrum. The mass spectrum of the identified 1-methylnaphthalene pyrolysis product, called component I here, reveals a molecular weight of 426, corresponding to a C(34)H(18) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). The extremely long HPLC elution time, 20-48min longer than those of the four other C(34)H(18) PAH components in this product mixture, indicates that component I has a planar structure with a high length-to-breadth ratio. Annellation theory is used to interpret and compare the UV spectrum of component I with those of the C(30)H(16) benzo[cd]naphtho[1,2,3-lm]perylene and the C(36)H(18) teropyrene, structures with one ring less and one ring more, respectively, than that of component I. This analysis of component I's UV spectrum, in conjunction with its mass spectrum and HPLC elution behavior, all lead to the identification of component I as the nine-ring PAH benzo[cd]phenanthro[1,2,3-lm] perylene, a molecule whose existence has never before been documented. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Method of network traffic classification using improved LM algorithm%采用改进LM算法的网络流量分类方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡婷; 王勇; 陶晓玲

    2011-01-01

    In order to solve the problems in current work that rely on the traditional method of traffic classification,such as low accuracy, limited application region, an effective approach for network traffic classification named GA-LM is proposed. This method employs the classification method based on neural network as the classification model of network traffic,and applies L-M algorithm which is an improved BP algorithms and Genetic Algorithm (GA) that optimizes neural network weights, which will speed up the convergence of the neural network and improve the classification performance.The experimental data sets that are collected from actual networks are conducted experiments.The results show that the convergence speed of the method is faster and GA-LM has better feasibility and high accuracy which can be used effectively to the application of network traffic classification.%针对传统的流量分类方法准确率低、开销大、应用范围受限等问题,提出一种有效的网络流量分类方法(GA-LM).该方法将基于神经网络的分类方法作为网络流量的分类模型,采用L-M算法构造分类器,并用遗传算法优化网络初始连接权值,加速了网络收敛过程,提高了分类性能.通过对收集到的实际网络流量数据进行分类,实验结果表明GA-LM比标准BP算法和L-M算法的收敛速度快,具有较好的可行性和高准确性,从而可有效地用于网络流量分类中.

  18. Presynaptic muscarinic M(2) receptors modulate glutamatergic transmission in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ji-Dong; Hazra, Rimi; Dabrowska, Joanna; Muly, E Chris; Wess, Jürgen; Rainnie, Donald G

    2012-03-01

    The anterolateral cell group of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST(ALG)) serves as an important relay station in stress circuitry. Limbic inputs to the BNST(ALG) are primarily glutamatergic and activity-dependent changes in this input have been implicated in abnormal behaviors associated with chronic stress and addiction. Significantly, local infusion of acetylcholine (ACh) receptor agonists into the BNST trigger stress-like cardiovascular responses, however, little is known about the effects of these agents on glutamatergic transmission in the BNST(ALG). Here, we show that glutamate- and ACh-containing fibers are found in close association in the BNST(ALG). Moreover, in the presence of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, eserine, endogenous ACh release evoked a long-lasting reduction of the amplitude of stimulus-evoked EPSCs. This effect was mimicked by exogenous application of the ACh analog, carbachol, which caused a reversible, dose-dependent, reduction of the evoked EPSC amplitude, and an increase in both the paired-pulse ratio and coefficient of variation, suggesting a presynaptic site of action. Uncoupling of postsynaptic G-proteins with intracellular GDP-β-S, or application of the nicotinic receptor antagonist, tubocurarine, failed to block the carbachol effect. In contrast, the carbachol effect was blocked by prior application of atropine or M(2) receptor-preferring antagonists, and was absent in M(2)/M(4) receptor knockout mice, suggesting that presynaptic M(2) receptors mediate the effect of ACh. Immunoelectron microscopy studies further revealed the presence of M(2) receptors on axon terminals that formed asymmetric synapses with BNST neurons. Our findings suggest that presynaptic M(2) receptors might be an important modulator of the stress circuit and hence a novel target for drug development.

  19. Chemotherapy toxicity in gynecologic cancer patients with a body surface area (BSA)>2 m2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Joanna; Toste, Beth; Dizon, Don S

    2009-07-01

    Although many clinicians practice empiric dose reduction to prevent toxicity, it is unknown whether obese patients given chemotherapy dosed according to actual body weight (ABW) experience excess toxicity. At our institution, cancer patients receive chemotherapy dosed by ABW unless on a protocol capping doses at a maximum body surface area (BSA). We compared toxicities and dose modifications between women with a BSA>2 m(2) on uncapped versus capped paclitaxel as part of adjuvant paclitaxel/carboplatin for gynecologic malignancy. In this retrospective study, women with a BSA>2 m(2) treated with paclitaxel (P) and carboplatin (C) for endometrial and ovarian cancer between January 1999 and July 2007 were identified using the chemotherapy database. Records were reviewed for patient age, BSA, diagnosis, stage, standardized and actual doses for each cycle, adverse drug reactions, and dosing modifications. Statistical comparisons were made using Fisher's exact test. We identified 59 women with BSA>2 m(2) on adjuvant P/C for endometrial and ovarian cancers. 50 received paclitaxel dosed by ABW and 9 received paclitaxel capped at a BSA of 2 m(2). There were no statistically significant differences in rates of toxicity or dose modification. Obese women with a BSA>2 m(2) on paclitaxel dosed by ABW do not experience excess toxicity in comparison to women on paclitaxel capped at a maximum BSA or women in published trials of adjuvant P/C. Empiric dose reduction is unnecessary and may result in suboptimal treatment of obese patients. However, as this was a retrospective review, more research is needed to make definitive recommendations on this topic.

  20. Viral M2 ion channel protein: a promising target for anti-influenza drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorthy, N S Hari Narayana; Poongavanam, Vasanthanathan; Pratheepa, V

    2014-01-01

    Influenza virus is an important RNA virus causing pandemics (Spanish Flu (1918), Asian Flu (1957), Hong Kong Flu (1968) and Swine Flu (2009)) over the last decades. Due to the spontaneous mutations of these viral proteins, currently available antiviral and anti-influenza drugs quickly develop resistance. To account this, only limited antiinfluenza drugs have been approved for the therapeutic use. These include amantadine and rimantadine (M2 proton channel blockers), zanamivir, oseltamivir and peramivir (neuraminidase inhibitors), favipravir (polymerase inhibitor) and laninamivir. This review provides an outline on the strategies to develop novel, potent chemotherapeutic agents against M2 proton channel. Primarily, the M2 proton channel blockers elicit pharmacological activity through destabilizing the helices by blocking the proton transport across the transmembrane. The biologically important compounds discovered using the scaffolds such as bisnoradmantane, noradamantane, triazine, spiroadamantane, isoxazole, amino alcohol, azaspiro, spirene, pinanamine, etc are reported to exhibit anti-influenza activity against wild or mutant type (S31N and V27A) of M2 proton channel protein. The reported studies explained that the adamantane based compounds (amantadine and rimantadine) strongly interact with His37 (through hydrogen bonding) and Ala30, Ile33 and Gly34 residues (hydrophobic interactions). The adamantane and the non-adamantane scaffolds fit perfectly in the active site pocket present in the wild type and the charged amino groups (ammonium) create positive electrostatic potential, which blocks the transport of protons across the pore. In the mutated proteins, larger or smaller binding pocket are created by small or large mutant residues, which do not allow the molecules fit in the active site. This causes the channel to be unblocked and the protons are allowed to transfer inside the pore. The structural analysis of the M2 proton channel blockers illustrated that

  1. Study on phylogenetic relationships, variability, and correlated mutations in M2 proteins of influenza virus A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ly Le

    Full Text Available M2 channel, an influenza virus transmembrane protein, serves as an important target for antiviral drug design. There are still discordances concerning the role of some residues involved in proton transfer as well as the mechanism of inhibition by commercial drugs. The viral M2 proteins show high conservativity; about 3/4 of the positions are occupied by one residue in over 95%. Nine M2 proteins from the H3N2 strain and possibly two proteins from H2N2 strains make a phylogenic cluster closely related to 2RLF. The variability range is limited to 4 residues/position with one exception. The 2RLF protein stands out by the presence of 2 serines at the positions 19 and 50, which are in most other M2 proteins occupied by cysteines. The study of correlated mutations shows that there are several positions with significant mutational correlation that have not been described so far as functionally important. That there are 5 more residues potentially involved in the M2 mechanism of action. The original software used in this work (Consensus Constructor, SSSSg, Corm, Talana is freely accessible as stand-alone offline applications upon request to the authors. The other software used in this work is freely available online for noncommercial purposes at public services on bioinformatics such as ExPASy or NCBI. The study on mutational variability, evolutionary relationship, and correlated mutation presented in this paper is a potential way to explain more completely the role of significant factors in proton channel action and to clarify the inhibition mechanism by specific drugs.

  2. Dietary oleic acid increases m2 macrophages in the mesenteric adipose tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Camell

    Full Text Available Several studies have implicated fatty-acids as inflammatory regulators, suggesting that there may be a direct role for common dietary fatty-acids in regulating innate immune cells. In humans, a single high-fat meal increases systemic cytokines and leukocytes. In mice, short term high-fat feeding increases adipose tissue (AT leukocytes and alters the inflammatory profile of AT macrophages. We have seen that short term high fat feeding to C57BL/6J male mice increases palmitic and oleic acid within AT depots, but oleic acid increase is highest in the mesenteric AT (MAT. In vitro, oleic acid increases M2 macrophage markers (CD206, MGL1, and ARG1 in a murine macrophage cell line, while addition of palmitic acid is able to inhibit that increase. Three day supplementation of a chow diet, with oleic acid, induced an increase in M2 macrophage markers in the MAT, but not in the epididymal AT. We tested whether increases in M2 macrophages occur during short term ad lib feeding of a high fat diet, containing oleic acid. Experiments revealed two distinct populations of macrophages were altered by a three day high milk-fat diet. One population, phenotypically intermediate for F4/80, showed diet-induced increases in CD206, an anti-inflammatory marker characteristic of M2 macrophages intrinsic to the AT. Evidence for a second population, phenotypically F4/80(HICD11b(HI macrophages, showed increased association with the MAT following short term feeding that is dependent on the adhesion molecule, ICAM-1. Collectively, we have shown that short term feeding of a high-fat diet changes two population of macrophages, and that dietary oleic acid is responsible for increases in M2 macrophage polarization.

  3. In Depth Analyses of LEDs by a Combination of X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) and Light Microscopy (LM) Correlated with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jörg; Thomas, Christian; Tappe, Frank; Ogbazghi, Tekie

    2016-06-16

    In failure analysis, device characterization and reverse engineering of light emitting diodes (LEDs), and similar electronic components of micro-characterization, plays an important role. Commonly, different techniques like X-ray computed tomography (CT), light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used separately. Similarly, the results have to be treated for each technique independently. Here a comprehensive study is shown which demonstrates the potentials leveraged by linking CT, LM and SEM. In depth characterization is performed on a white emitting LED, which can be operated throughout all characterization steps. Major advantages are: planned preparation of defined cross sections, correlation of optical properties to structural and compositional information, as well as reliable identification of different functional regions. This results from the breadth of information available from identical regions of interest (ROIs): polarization contrast, bright and dark-field LM images, as well as optical images of the LED cross section in operation. This is supplemented by SEM imaging techniques and micro-analysis using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.

  4. Component resolved bleaching study in natural calcium fluoride using CW-OSL, LM-OSL and residual TL glow curves after bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeli, Vasiliki; Polymeris, George S; Sfampa, Ioanna K; Tsirliganis, Nestor C; Kitis, George

    2017-04-01

    Natural calcium fluoride has been commonly used as thermoluminescence (TL) dosimeter due to its high luminescence intensity. The aim of this work includes attempting a correlation between specific TL glow curves after bleaching and components of linearly modulated optically stimulated luminescence (LM-OSL) as well as continuous wave OSL (CW-OSL). A component resolved analysis was applied to both integrated intensity of the RTL glow curves and all OSL decay curves, by using a Computerized Glow-Curve De-convolution (CGCD) procedure. All CW-OSL and LM-OSL components are correlated to the decay components of the integrated RTL signal, apart from two RTL components which cannot be directly correlated with either LM-OSL or CW-OSL component. The unique, stringent criterion for this correlation deals with the value of the decay constant λ of each bleaching component. There is only one, unique bleaching component present in all three luminescence entities which were the subject of the present study, indicating that each TL trap yields at least three different bleaching components; different TL traps can indicate bleaching components with similar values. According to the data of the present work each RTL bleaching component receives electrons from at least two peaks. The results of the present study strongly suggest that the traps that contribute to TL and OSL are the same. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. On the Transmission Mechanism of the Chinese Land Policy in Macroeconomic-control: A Theoretical Study Based on Modified IS-LM Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linlin; DIAO; Jinming; YAN

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this paper are to bring land factor into the general fame of national product and develop a new modified‘IS-LM equilibrium model’,aiming to find out the impacts of land factor on the effective allocation of capital between total supply and total demand constituting gross national product,to analyze the relation mechanism among land factor and macroeconomic variables,and to discuss the theoretical mechanism under which land,fiscal and monetary policy are integrated. Methods employed include econometrics and model analysis. The results indicate that:( i) on the conditions that the equilibrium of supply and demand in land market,the modified IS-LM model taking into account land factor successfully performs transmission mechanism of land policy participation in macroeconomic-control by means of money capital regulation;( ii) the direction and intensity of land policy control are effected by elasticity of land supply and land price,meanwhile different characteristics of land supply elasticity exit in different stages of economic development;( iii) the realization of IS-LM equilibrium requires the aggregate effects of fiscal,monetary and land policy. It is concluded that land policies for macroeconomic-control drives land price higher,and land supply regulation would diminish financial effect. During the economic expansion or recovery period,the effect of expansionary land policy would be counteracted by high land price. During the economic transition or recession period,the government could control economical operation better through tightening land policy.

  6. MicroRNA-dependent development revealed by RNA interference-mediated gene silencing of LmDicer1 in the migratory locust

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Li Wang; Mei-Ling Yang; Feng Jiang; Jian-Zhen Zhang; Le Kang

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs(miRNAs)are small noncoding RNAs,which participate in many biological processes.The small RNA transcriptome in the migratory locust has been characterized and 50 conserved miRNA families and 185 potential locust-specific miRNA family candidates have been identified using high-throughput sequencing.However,it is unclear whether miRNAs influence a wide variety of locusts' biological processes,such as growth or development.In insects,Dicer 1 ribonuclease transforms miRNA precursors into mature miRNAs.Thus,using systemic RNA interference(RNAi)to silence the expression of Dicerl in the migratory locust,Locusta migratoria,we reduced miRNA contents in the locust and disrupted two types of molt(nymph-nymph,and nymph-adult).The RNAi of LmDicerl also resulted in a high mortality in L.migratora.Our study revealed that LmDicerl was essential for miRNA regulation and development of L.migratoria.These results further support our notion that LmDicerl could serve as an excellent target for developing novel strategies for controlling this important insect pest.

  7. Study of magnetoresistance and conductance of bicrystal grain boundary in La0.67Ba0.33MnO3 thin film

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Neeraj Khare; A K Gupta; U P Moharil; A K Raychaudhuri; S P Pai; R Pinto

    2002-05-01

    La0.67Ba0.33MnO3 (LBMO) thin film is deposited on a $36.7°C SrTiO3 bicrystal substrate using laser ablation technique. A microbridge is created across bicrystal grain boundary and its characteristics are compared with a microbridge on the LBMO film having no grain boundary. Presence of grain boundary exhibits substantial magnetoresistance ratio (MRR) in the low field and low temperature region. Bicrystal grain boundary contribution in MRR disappears at temperature > 175 K. At low temperature, - characteristic of the microbridge across bicrystal grain boundary is nonlinear. Analysis of temperature dependence of dynamic conductance–voltage characteristics of the bicrystal grain boundary indicates that at low temperatures ( < 175$ K) carrier transport across the grain boundary in LBMO film is dominated by inelastic tunneling via pairs of manganese atoms and tunneling through disordered oxides. At higher temperatures ( > 175 K), magnetic scattering process is dominating. Decrease of bicrystal grain boundary contribution in magnetoresistance with the increase in temperature is due to enhanced spin-flip scattering process.

  8. M2-F1 in flight during low-speed car tow

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    The M2-F1 shown in flight during a low-speed car tow runs across the lakebed. Such tests allowed about two minutes to test the vehicle's handling in flight. NASA Flight Research Center (later redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center) personnel conducted as many as 8 to 14 ground-tow flights in a single day either to test the vehicle in preparation for air tows or to train pilots to fly the vehicle before they undertook air tows. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially concieved as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with the largest engine available. He took the car to Bill Straup's renowned hot-rod shop near Long Beach for modification. With a special gearbox and racing slicks, the Pontiac could tow the 1,000-pound M2-F1 110 miles per hour in 30

  9. Mustafa Bin Bâlî ve İlm-i Firâset’i Mustafa Bin Bâlî And İlm-i Firâset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan SARIÇİÇEK

    2012-12-01

    alışma niteliğindedir. Yalnızca Fahreddin Razi ve Muhyiddin-i Arabî değil Hamdullah Hamdi’den İbni Sina’ya kadar daha birçok ilim adamının eserlerinden de yararlanılmıştır. Bu yönüyle alanında tektir diyebiliriz. Zira bu alanda yazılan eserler genellikle firâset ilminin uygulaması üzerinedir. Yani bu ilmin temel kıstasları üzerinde durmak yerine sonuçları üzerinde dururlar. Halbuki bu eser bütün olarak firâset üzerine yapılmış derli toplu bir çalışmadır. Diğer eserlerde bilgiler bölük pörçük ve dağınık iken bu eser firâsetle ilgili bilgileri bir akademisyen titizliğiyle derleyip bir araya getirmiştir.Ayrıca eser mensur olmasına rağmen içinde Arapça, Farsça ve Türkçe olmak üzere çeşitli manzumeler de bulunmaktadır. Dil bakımından ise Eski Anadolu Türkçesine ait dil malzemeleri içermektedir.

  10. The modulatory role of M2 muscarinic receptor on apomorphine-induced yawning and genital grooming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamberini, Maria Thereza; Bolognesi, Maria Laura; Nasello, Antonia Gladys

    2012-12-01

    The interaction between dopaminergic and cholinergic pathways in the induction of behavioral responses has been previously established. In the brain, M2 receptors are found predominantly in presynaptic cholinergic neurons as autoreceptors, and in dopaminergic neurons as heteroceptors, suggesting a control role of acetylcholine and dopamine release, respectively. Our aim was to investigate the role of M2 receptors on the yawning and genital grooming of rats induced by apomorphine, a dopaminergic receptor agonist, focusing on the interaction between cholinergic and dopaminergic pathways. Initially, the effect of atropine, a non-selective muscarinic antagonist, on yawning and genital grooming induced by apomorphine (100 μg/kg s.c.) was analyzed. Atropine doses of 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg i.p. were administered to Wistar rats 30 min before induction of the behavioral responses by apomorphine. Number of yawns and time spent genital grooming were quantified over a 60 min period. Apomorphine-induced yawning was increased by low dose (0.5 mg/kg i.p.) but not by high doses (1 and 2 mg/kg, i.p.) of atropine. Genital grooming was antagonized by 2 mg/kg i.p. of atropine and showed no changes at the other doses tested. Tripitramine, a selective M2 cholinergic antagonist, was used as a tool for distinguishing between M2 and all other muscarinic receptor subtypes in yawning and genital grooming. Tripitramine doses of 0.01, 0.02 and 0.04 μmol/kg i.p. were administered to Wistar rats 30 min before apomorphine (100 μg/kg s.c.). Number of yawns and time spent genital grooming were also quantified over a 60 min period. Tripitramine 0.01 μmol/kg increased all parameters. Higher doses, which possibly block all subtypes of muscarinic receptor, did not modify the response of apomorphine, suggesting a non-selective effect of tripitramine at these doses. Given that low doses of tripitramine increased the behavioral responses induced by apomorphine and that the main distribution of the M2

  11. Macrophage polarisation: an immunohistochemical approach for identifying M1 and M2 macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Henrique M Barros

    Full Text Available Macrophage polarization is increasingly recognised as an important pathogenetic factor in inflammatory and neoplastic diseases. Proinflammatory M1 macrophages promote T helper (Th 1 responses and show tumoricidal activity. M2 macrophages contribute to tissue repair and promote Th2 responses. CD68 and CD163 are used to identify macrophages in tissue sections. However, characterisation of polarised macrophages in situ has remained difficult. Macrophage polarisation is regulated by transcription factors, pSTAT1 and RBP-J for M1, and CMAF for M2. We reasoned that double-labelling immunohistochemistry for the detection of macrophage markers together with transcription factors may be suitable to characterise macrophage polarisation in situ. To test this hypothesis, we have studied conditions associated with Th1- and Th2-predominant immune responses: infectious mononucleosis and Crohn's disease for Th1 and allergic nasal polyps, oxyuriasis, wound healing and foreign body granulomas for predominant Th2 response. In all situations, CD163+ cells usually outnumbered CD68+ cells. Moreover, CD163+ cells, usually considered as M2 macrophages, co-expressing pSTAT1 and RBP-J were found in all conditions examined. The numbers of putative M1 macrophages were higher in Th1- than in Th2-associated diseases, while more M2 macrophages were seen in Th2- than in Th1 related disorders. In most Th1-related diseases, the balance of M1 over M2 cells was shifted towards M1 cells, while the reverse was observed for Th2-related conditions. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed two distinct clusters: cluster I included Th1 diseases together with cases with high numbers of CD163+pSTAT1+, CD68+pSTAT1+, CD163+RBP-J+ and CD68+RBP-J+ macrophages; cluster II comprised Th2 conditions together with cases displaying high numbers of CD163+CMAF+ and CD68+CMAF+ macrophages. These results suggest that the detection of pSTAT1, RBP-J, and CMAF in the context of CD68 or CD163 expression is a

  12. Potent neutralization of influenza A virus by a single-domain antibody blocking M2 ion channel protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guowei Wei

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus poses serious health threat to humans. Neutralizing antibodies against the highly conserved M2 ion channel is thought to offer broad protection against influenza A viruses. Here, we screened synthetic Camel single-domain antibody (VHH libraries against native M2 ion channel protein. One of the isolated VHHs, M2-7A, specifically bound to M2-expressed cell membrane as well as influenza A virion, inhibited replication of both amantadine-sensitive and resistant influenza A viruses in vitro, and protected mice from a lethal influenza virus challenge. Moreover, M2-7A showed blocking activity for proton influx through M2 ion channel. These pieces of evidence collectively demonstrate for the first time that a neutralizing antibody against M2 with broad specificity is achievable, and M2-7A may have potential for cross protection against a number of variants and subtypes of influenza A viruses.

  13. Retinoic acid prevents virus-induced airway hyperreactivity and M2 receptor dysfunction via anti-inflammatory and antiviral effects

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno-Vinasco, Liliana; Verbout, Norah G.; Fryer, Allison D.; Jacoby, David B.

    2009-01-01

    Inhibitory M2 muscarinic receptors on airway parasympathetic nerves normally limit acetylcholine release. Viral infections decrease M2 receptor function, increasing vagally mediated bronchoconstriction. Since retinoic acid deficiency causes M2 receptor dysfunction, we tested whether retinoic acid would prevent virus-induced airway hyperreactivity and prevent M2 receptor dysfunction. Guinea pigs infected with parainfluenza virus were hyperreactive to electrical stimulation of the vagus nerves,...

  14. A Novel MLC Scheme with M2-QAM Constellations over AWGN and Rayleigh Fading Channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUANDongfeng; ZHANGPeng; WayneE.Stark

    2003-01-01

    Optimal multilevel codes (MLC) with M2-QAM constellations are considered with focus on both AWGN and Rayleigh fading channels. With the proposition of three new set partitioning rules for M2-QAM constellations, a novel simplified MLC scheme with a very simple MSD (Multistage decoding) structure comes into being, which is operated on the capacity rule. Compared with traditional MLC/MSD scheme the new MLC/MSD structure greatly reduces the calculation of the individual capacities in MLC system because the new set partitioning rules ensure the independency of two dimensions symbols. Furthermore the new MLC/MSD system cannot enhance any performance loss and the time delay is just 1/2 of that with traditional partitioning rules. As an example 64-QAM constellation with three new set partitioning rules are provided. Their performance is simulated over AWGN and Rayleigh fading channels by choosing BCH codes as the component codes.

  15. Characterization of M2X formed during 5 MeV Fe2+ irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getto, E.; Sun, K.; Was, G. S.

    2017-03-01

    The growth of M2X phase in HT9 irradiated to high dpa was explored using self-ion irradiation. HT9 was pre-implanted with 10 appm He and irradiated with a raster-scanned Fe2+ beam with a damage rate of ∼1 × 10-3 dpa/s at 460 °C. The precipitation of M2X was observed and a combination of high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), energy filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) and diffraction analysis was used to characterize the Cr-rich carbide observed at 250 dpa and above. Cr2C was determined to be semi-coherent with the matrix such that [ 100 ] Cr2 C / /[100]α and [ 001 ] Cr2 C / /[ 10 1 bar ] α .with a = 2.71 Å and c = 2.82 Å.

  16. Foton-M2 Russian/US Biology Experiments - Development, Implementation, and Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyin, Eugene A.; Tairbekov, Murad G.; Vasques, Marilyn F.; Skidmore, Michael G.

    2006-01-01

    The Russian Foton-M2 unmanned research satellite launched from Baikonur, Kazakhstan on May 31, 2005. The satellite was recovered 16 days later in northern Kazakhstan near Kustanay. Prior to this mission, the long history of joint NASA/IMBP research using Russian unmanned spacecraft was in danger of withering due to inactivity. This cooperative history included 9 Bion Russian spaceflights in the period from 1975 to 1997 where NASA had participated first as a guest and finally as a contractual partner. In an effort to reinvigorate this long-standing collaboration, the Institute for Biomedical Problems (IMBP) invited NASA participation in Russian experiments that had been manifested to fly on the Foton-M2 mission.

  17. The Mont Blanc mystery solved? A $m^2=-0.28 keV^2$ neutrino

    CERN Document Server

    Ehrlich, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Evidence is presented in support of a hypothesis made in 2013 predicting the existence of a tachyonic neutrino mass eigenstate doublet having $m^2\\approx -0.2 keV^2$ with $\\Delta m^2=1 eV^2.$ The evidence is based primarily on the puzzling LSD (Mont Blanc) neutrino burst observed on February 23, 1987, which the hypothesis thoroughly explains, with additional support from the Kamiokande-II events recorded on the same day. The probability of the null hypothesis, i.e., that background fluctuations can explain the noted features of the two data sets is estimated to be $4.2\\sigma$ (Mont Blanc), and $3.7\\sigma$ (K-II). Such a controversial hypothesis as a tachyonic neutrino requires absolutely definitive proof, and there may exist a test based on observing the neutrino spectrum from diffuse supernovae that could supply it.

  18. Unveiling the structure of the planetary nebula M 2-48 Kinematics and physical conditions

    CERN Document Server

    López-Martin, L; Esteban, C; Vázquez, R; Raga, A C; Torrelles, J M; Miranda, L F; Meaburn, J; Olguin, L

    2002-01-01

    The kinematics and physical conditions of the bipolar planetary nebula M 2-48 are analysed from high and low dispersion long-slit spectra. Previous CCD narrow-band optical observations have suggested that this nebula is mainly formed by a pair of symmetric bow-shocks, an off-center semi-circular shell, and an internal bipolar structure. The bipolar outflow has a complex structure, characterised by a series of shocked regions located between the bright core and the polar tips. There is an apparent kinematic discontinuity between the bright bipolar core and the outer regions. The fragmented ring around the bright bipolar region presents a low expansion velocity and could be associated to ejection in the AGB-PN transition phase, although its nature remains unclear. The chemical abundances of the central region are derived, showing that M 2-48 is a Type I planetary nebula (PN).

  19. Zebrafish M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor: cloning, pharmacological characterization, expression patterns and roles in embryonic bradycardia

    OpenAIRE

    Hsieh, Dennis Jine-Yuan; Liao, Ching-Fong

    2002-01-01

    A zebrafish M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) gene was cloned. It encodes 495 amino acids in a single exon. The derived amino acid sequence is 73.5% identical to its human homologue.Competitive binding studies of the zebrafish M2 receptor and [3H]-NMS gave negative log dissociation constants (pKi) for each antagonist as follows: atropine (9.16)>himbacine (8.05)⩾4-DAMP (7.83)>AF-DX 116 (7.26)⩾pirenzepine (7.18)⩾tropicamide (6.97)⩾methoctramine (6.82)⩾p-F-HHSiD (6.67)>carbachol (5.20...

  20. M2 to D2 and vice versa by 3-Lie and Lie bialgebra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aali-Javanangrouh, M.; Rezaei-Aghdam, A. [Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    Using the concept of a 3-Lie bialgebra, which has recently been defined in arXiv:1604.04475, we construct a Bagger-Lambert-Gustavson (BLG) model for the M2-brane on a Manin triple of a special 3-Lie bialgebra. Then by using the correspondence and the relation between those 3-Lie bialgebra with Lie bialgebra, we reduce this model to an N = (4,4) WZW model (D2-brane), such that its algebraic structure is a Lie bialgebra with one 2-cocycle. In this manner by using the correspondence of the 3-Lie bialgebra and Lie bialgebra (for this special 3-Lie algebra) one can construct the M2-brane from a D2-brane and vice versa. (orig.)

  1. Soft X-Ray Magneto-optical Faraday Effect around Ni M2,3 Edges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Kai; CUI Ming-Qi; YAN Fen; ZHAO Jia; SUN Li-Juan; ZHENG Lei; MA Chen-Yan; XI Shi-So; ZHAO Yi-Dong

    2008-01-01

    @@ We present magneto-optical (MO) Faraday spectra measured around the M2,3 edges (60-70eV) of Ni films at the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF).A polarization analysis of the final state of the transmitted radiation from the Ni film is employed to determine the Faraday rotation at the edges.The MO effect becomes resonantly enhanced at the M2,3 edges,and accordingly large values for the rotation angle β of 1.85 ± 0.19°for this ferromagnetic Ni film with thickness of 31 nm are measured. Without the magnetic field,the azimuthal angles do not shift; with parallel and antiparallel magnetic field the rotation angles shift in the opposite way and they are symmetrical.The uncertainty of Faraday rotation angles mainly comes from the data fitting and the state change of the beamline when the angles are measured.

  2. Epitope Mapping of Avian Influenza M2e Protein: Different Species Recognise Various Epitopes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Haliza Hasan

    Full Text Available A common approach for developing diagnostic tests for influenza virus detection is the use of mouse or rabbit monoclonal and/or polyclonal antibodies against a target antigen of the virus. However, comparative mapping of the target antigen using antibodies from different animal sources has not been evaluated before. This is important because identification of antigenic determinants of the target antigen in different species plays a central role to ensure the efficiency of a diagnostic test, such as competitive ELISA or immunohistochemistry-based tests. Interest in the matrix 2 ectodomain (M2e protein of avian influenza virus (AIV as a candidate for a universal vaccine and also as a marker for detection of virus infection in vaccinated animals (DIVA is the rationale for the selection of this protein for comparative mapping evaluation. This study aimed to map the epitopes of the M2e protein of avian influenza virus H5N1 using chicken, mouse and rabbit monoclonal or monospecific antibodies. Our findings revealed that rabbit antibodies (rAbs recognized epitope 6EVETPTRN13 of the M2e, located at the N-terminal of the protein, while mouse (mAb and chicken antibodies (cAbs recognized epitope 10PTRNEWECK18, located at the centre region of the protein. The findings highlighted the difference between the M2e antigenic determinants recognized by different species that emphasized the importance of comparative mapping of antibody reactivity from different animals to the same antigen, especially in the case of multi-host infectious agents such as influenza. The findings are of importance for antigenic mapping, as well as diagnostic test and vaccine development.

  3. Seamless communication in supply chains based on M2M technology

    OpenAIRE

    Walid Moneimne; Marcin Hajdul; Szymon Mikołajczak

    2016-01-01

    Background: Access to information is the key element in the successful and efficient organization of transport & logistic processes. The importance of real-time access to information is confirmed by a panel workshop carried out with support of design thinking methodology. There are two ways of gaining access to the right information - manual, where human agency is needed and fully automatic, where new M2M technology is implemented. Implementation of such technology improves seamless commu...

  4. Industry 4.0, M2m, Iot&S - All Equal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrin, Carmen

    2014-11-01

    Similarity between Industry 4.0, M2M, IOT&S. Advantages and disadvantages obtained using this three important methods. Decreasing costs while components are getting smaller and smaller in a world with better networking. Influence of business management applications integrated in smart factory logistic. The most important impacts in merging virtual and real production world, with the improvement of best processes having the same goal: creating value by open innovation

  5. Power Aware Mobility Management of M2M for IoT Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awais Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Machine-to-Machine (M2M communications framework is evolving to sustain faster networks with the potential to connect millions of devices in the following years. M2M is one of the essential competences for implementing Internet of Things (IoT. Therefore, various organizations are now focusing on enhancing improvements into their standards to support M2M communications. Thus, Heterogeneous Mobile Ad Hoc Network (HetMANET can normally be considered appropriate for M2M challenges. These challenges incorporated when a mobile node (MN selects a target network in an energy efficient scanning for efficient handover. Therefore, to cope with these constraints, we proposed a vertical handover scheme for handover triggering and selection of an appropriate network. The proposed scheme is composed of two phases. Firstly, the MNs perform handover triggering based on the optimization of the Receive Signal Strength (RSS from an access point/base station (AP/BS. Secondly, the network selection process is performed by considering the cost and energy consumption of a particular application during handover. Moreover, if there are more networks available, then the MN selects the one provided with the highest quality of service (QoS. The decision regarding the selection of available networks is made on three metrics, that is, cost, energy, and data rate. Furthermore, the selection of an AP/BS of the selected network is made on five parameters: delay, jitter, Bit Error Rate (BER, communication cost, and response time. The numerical and experimental results are compared in the context of energy consumption by an MN, traffic management on an AP/BS, and QoS of the available networks. The proposed scheme efficiently optimizes the handoff related parameters, and it shows significant improvement in the existing models used for similar purpose.

  6. Description of $^{178}$Hf$^{m2}$ in the constrained relativistic mean field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Zhang; Shuang-Quan, Zhang

    2009-01-01

    The properties of the ground state of $^{178}$Hf and the isomeric state $^{178}$Hf$^{m2}$ are studied within the adiabatic and diabatic constrained relativistic mean field (RMF) approaches. The RMF calculations reproduce well the binding energy and the deformation for the ground state of $^{178}$Hf. Using the ground state single-particle eigenvalues obtained in the present calculation, the lowest excitation configuration with $K^\\pi=16^+$ is found to be $\

  7. Relativistic electrons high doses at International Space Station and Foton M2/M3 satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachev, T. P.; Tomov, B.; Matviichuk, Yu.; Dimitrov, Pl.; Bankov, N.

    2009-12-01

    The paper presents observation of relativistic electrons. Data are collected by the Radiation Risk Radiometer-Dosimeters (R3D) B2/B3 modifications during the flights of Foton M2/M3 satellites in 2005 and 2007 as well as by the R3DE instrument at the European Technology Exposure Facility (EuTEF) on the Columbus External Payload Adaptor at the International Space Station (ISS) in the period February 20 - April 28, 2008. On the Foton M2/M3 satellites relativistic electrons are observed more frequently than on the ISS because of higher (62.8°) inclination of the orbit. At both Foton satellites the usual duration of the observations are a few minutes long. On the ISS the duration usually is about 1 min or less. The places of observations of high doses due to relativistic electrons are distributed mainly at latitudes above 50° geographic latitude in both hemispheres on Foton M2/M3 satellites. A very high maximum is found in the southern hemisphere at longitudinal range 0°-60°E. At the ISS the maximums are observed between 45° and 52° geographic latitude in both hemispheres mainly at longitudes equatorward from the magnetic poles. The measured absolute maximums of dose rates generated by relativistic electrons are found to be as follows: 304 μGy h -1 behind 1.75 g cm -2 shielding at Foton M2, 2314 μGy h -1 behind 0.71 g cm -2 shielding at Foton M3 and 19,195 μGy h -1 (Flux is 8363 cm -2 s -1) behind les than 0.4 g cm -2 shielding at ISS.

  8. M2Align: parallel multiple sequence alignment with a multi-objective metaheuristic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano-Vega, Cristian; Nebro, Antonio J; García-Nieto, José; Aldana Montes, José F

    2017-05-24

    Multiple Sequence Alignment (MSA) is an NP-complete optimization problem found in computational biology, where the time complexity of finding an optimal alignment raises exponentially along with the number of sequences and their lengths. Additionally, to assess the quality of a MSA, a number of objectives can be taken into account, such as maximizing the sum-of-pairs, maximizing the totally conserved columns, minimizing the number of gaps, or maximizing structural information based scores such as STRIKE. An approach to deal with MSA problems is to use multi-objective metaheuristics, which are non-exact stochastic optimization methods that can produce high quality solutions to complex problems having two or more objectives to be optimized at the same time. Our motivation is to provide a multi-objective metaheuristic for MSA that can run in parallel taking advantage of multi-core based computers. The software tool we propose, called M2Align (Multi-objective Multiple Sequence Alignment), is a parallel and more efficient version of the three-objective optimizer for sequence alignments MO-SAStrE, able of reducing the algorithm computing time by exploiting the computing capabilities of common multicore CPU clusters. Our performance evaluation over datasets of the benchmark BAliBASE (v3.0) shows that significant time reductions can be achieved by using up to 20 cores. Even in sequential executions, M2Align is faster than MO-SAStrE, thanks to the encoding method used for the alignments. M2Align is an open source project hosted in GitHub, where the source code and sample datasets can be freely obtained: https://github.com/KhaosResearch/M2Align. antonio@lcc.uma.es. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  9. Granulin exacerbates lupus nephritis via enhancing macrophage M2b polarization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Lupus nephritis (LN, with considerable morbidity and mortality, is one of the most severe manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Yet, the pathogenic mechanisms of LN have not been clearly elucidated, and efficient therapies are still in great need. Granulin (GRN, a multifunctional protein linked to inflammatory diseases, has recently been reported to correlate with the disease activity of autoimmune diseases. However, the role of GRN in the pathogenic process of LN still remains obscure. In this study, we explored its potential role and underlying mechanism in the pathogenesis of LN. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that serum GRN levels were significantly up-regulated and were positively correlated with the severity of LN. Overexpression of GRN in vivo by transgenic injection remarkably exacerbated LN, whereas down-regulation of GRN with shRNA ameliorated LN, firmly demonstrating the critical role of GRN in the pathogenesis of LN. Notably, macrophage phenotype analysis revealed that overexpression of GRN could enhance macrophage polarization to M2b, a key mediator of the initiation and progression of LN. On the contrary, down-regulation of GRN resulted in impaired M2b differentiation, thus ameliorating LN. Moreover, we found that MAPK signals were necessary for the effect of GRN on macrophage M2b polarization. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We first demonstrated that GRN could aggravate lupus nephritis (LN via promoting macrophage M2b polarization, which might provide insights into the pathogenesis of LN as well as potential therapeutic strategies against LN.

  10. Regional outbreak of CTX-M-2 β-lactamase-producing Proteus mirabilis in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Ryuichi; Nakano, Akiyo; Abe, Michiko; Inoue, Matsuhisa; Okamoto, Ryoichi

    2012-12-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a common cause of urinary tract infection. Wild-type P. mirabilis strains are usually susceptible to penicillins and cephalosporins, but occurrences of P. mirabilis producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) have been recently reported. Here, we surveyed the prevalence of cefotaxime resistance among P. mirabilis strains at seven different hospitals in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, and investigated their molecular epidemiology to explain the mechanism of their spread. The prevalence of cefotaxime resistance among P. mirabilis increased annually, from 10.1 % in 1998 to 23.1 % in 2003, and increased drastically in 2004, exceeding 40 %. We collected 105 consecutive and non-duplicate cefotaxime-resistant P. mirabilis isolates (MIC 16 to >256 µg ml(-1)) from these hospitals from June 2004 to May 2005 and characterized their profile. PCR and sequence analysis revealed that all resistant strains produced exclusively CTX-M-2 β-lactamase. PFGE analysis identified 47 banding patterns with 83 % or greater similarity. These results indicated that a regional outbreak of P. mirabilis producing CTX-M-2 β-lactamase has occurred in Japan and suggest that the epidemic spread occurred within and across hospitals and communities by extended clonal strains. Plasmid analysis revealed that 44.8 % of plasmids harboured by bla(CTX-M-2) isolates had common profiles, encoding ISEcp1, IS26 and Int1, and belonged to incompatibility group T. Spread of the resistant isolates in Japan resulted from dissemination of narrow-host-range plasmids of the IncT group encoding bla(CTX-M-2). These findings indicate the rapidly developing problem of treating the species to prevent dissemination of ESBL producers.

  11. Performance Analysis of SNR-Based HDAF M2M Cooperative Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingwei Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The lower bound on outage probability (OP of mobile-to-mobile (M2M cooperative networks over N-Nakagami fading channels is derived for SNR-based hybrid decode-amplify-forward (HDAF relaying. The OP performance under different conditions is evaluated through numerical simulation to verify the accuracy of the analysis. These results show that the fading coefficient, number of cascaded components, relative geometric gain, and power-allocation are important parameters that influence this performance.

  12. M2 Proton Channel: Toward a Model of a Primitive Proton Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chenyu; Pohorille, Andrew

    2015-06-01

    Transmembrane proton transfer was essential to early cellular systems in order to transduce energy for metabolic functions. The reliable, efficient and controlled generation of proton gradients became possible only with the emergence of active proton pumps. On the basis of features shared by most modern proton pumps we identify the essential mechanistic steps in active proton transport. Further, we discuss the mechanism of action of a small, transmembrane M2 proton channel from influenza A virus as a model for proton transport in protocells. The M2 channel is a 94-residue long, α-helical tetramer that is activated at low pH and exhibits high selectivity and directionality. A shorter construct, built of transmembrane fragments that are only 24 amino acids in length, exhibits very similar proton transport properties. Molecular dynamics simulations on the microsecond time-scale carried out for the M2 channel provided atomic level details on the activation of the channel in response to protonation of the histidine residue, His37. The pathway of proton conduction is mediated by His37, which accepts and donates protons at different interconverting conformation states when pH is lower than 6.5. The Val27 and Trp41 gates and the salt bridge between Asp44 and Arg45 further enhance the directionality of proton transport. It is argued that the architecture and the mechanism of action similar to that found in the M2 channel might have been the perfect starting point for evolution towards the earliest proton pumps, indicating that active proton transport could have readily emerged from simple, passive proton channels.

  13. Chemerin aggravates DSS-induced colitis by suppressing M2 macrophage polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuli; Yang, Xuguang; Yue, Wenjie; Xu, Xiaofei; Li, Bingji; Zou, Linlin; He, Rui

    2014-07-01

    Chemerin is present in various inflammatory sites and is closely involved in tissue inflammation. Recent studies have demonstrated that chemerin treatment can cause either anti-inflammatory or pro-inflammatory effects according to the disease model being investigated. Elevated circulating chemerin was recently found in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); however, the role of chemerin in intestinal inflammation remains unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that the administration of exogenous chemerin (aa17-156) aggravated the severity of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis, which was characterized by higher clinical scores, extensive mucosal damage and significantly increased local and systemic production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-6, TNF-α and interferon (IFN-γ). Interestingly, chemerin did not appear to influence the magnitudes of inflammatory infiltrates in the colons, but did result in significantly decreased colonic expression of M2 macrophage-associated genes, including Arginase 1 (Arg-1), Ym1, FIZZ1 and IL-10, following DSS exposure, suggesting an impaired M2 macrophage skewing in vivo. Furthermore, an in vitro experiment showed that the addition of chemerin directly suppressed M2 macrophage-associated gene expression and STAT6 phosphorylation in IL-4-stimulated macrophages. Significantly elevated chemerin levels were found in colons from DSS-exposed mice and from ulcerative colitis (UC) patients and appeared to positively correlate with disease severity. Moreover, the in vivo administration of neutralizing anti-chemerin antibody significantly improved intestinal inflammation following DSS exposure. Taken together, our findings reveal a pro-inflammatory role for chemerin in DSS-induced colitis and the ability of chemerin to suppress the anti-inflammatory M2 macrophage response. Our study also suggests that upregulated chemerin in inflamed colons may contribute to the pathogenesis of IBD.

  14. A picrotoxin-specific conformational change in the glycine receptor M2-M3 loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, Rebecca; Lynch, Joseph W

    2005-10-28

    The external loop linking the M2 and M3 transmembrane domains is crucial for coupling agonist binding to channel gating in the glycine receptor chloride channel (GlyR). A substituted cysteine accessibility scan previously showed that glycine activation increased the surface accessibility of 6 contiguous residues (Arg271-Lys276) toward the N-terminal end of the homomeric alpha1 GlyR M2-M3 loop. In the present study we used a similar approach to determine whether the allosteric antagonist, picrotoxin, could impose conformational changes to this domain that cannot be induced by varying agonist concentrations alone. Picrotoxin slowed the reaction rate of a sulfhydryl-containing compound (MTSET) with A272C, S273C, and L274C. Before interpreting this as a picrotoxin-specific conformational change, it was necessary to eliminate the possibility of steric competition between picrotoxin and MTSET. Accordingly, we showed that picrotoxin and the structurally unrelated blocker, bilobalide, were both trapped in the R271C GlyR in the closed state and that a point mutation to the pore-lining Thr6' residue abolished inhibition by both compounds. We also demonstrated that the picrotoxin dissociation rate was linearly related to the channel open probability. These observations constitute a strong case for picrotoxin binding in the pore. We thus conclude that the picrotoxin-specific effects on the M2-M3 loop are mediated allosterically. This suggests that the M2-M3 loop responds differently to the occupation of different binding sites.

  15. Study of the solidification of M2 high speed steel Laser Cladding coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candel, J. J.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available High speed steel laser cladding coatings are complex because cracks appear and the hardness is lower than expected. In this paper AISI M2 tool steel coatings on medium carbon AISI 1045 steel substrate have been manufactured and after Laser Cladding (LC processing it has been applied a tempering heat treatment to reduce the amount of retained austenite and to precipitate secondary carbides. The study of metallurgical transformations by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Electron Back Scattered Diffraction (EBSD shows that the microstructure is extremely fine and complex, with eutectic transformations and MC, M2C and M6C precipitation. Therefore, after the laser coating is necessary to use post-weld heat treatments.Los recubrimientos de acero rápido por Laser Cladding (LC son complejos porque aparecen fisuras y la dureza es menor a la esperada. En este trabajo se han fabricado recubrimientos de acero AISI M2 sobre acero al carbono AISI 1045 y tras el procesado por láser, se han revenido para reducir la cantidad de austenita retenida y precipitar carburos secundarios. El estudio de las transformaciones metalúrgicas con Microscopía Electrónica de Barrido (MEB y Difracción de Electrones Retrodispersados (EBSD muestra que la microestructura es extremadamente fina y compleja, presenta transformaciones eutécticas y precipitación de carburos MC, M2C y M6C. Por tanto, tras el recubrimiento por láser es necesario recurrir a tratamientos térmicos post-soldeo.

  16. Study of the solidification of M2 high speed steel Laser Cladding coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Candel Bou, Juan Jose; Franconetti Rodríguez, Patricia; Amigó Borrás, Vicente

    2013-01-01

    [EN] High speed steel laser cladding coatings are complex because cracks appear and the hardness is lower than expected. In this paper AISI M2 tool steel coatings on medium carbon AISI 1045 steel substrate have been manufactured and after laser cladding (LC) processing it has been applied a tempering heat treatment to reduce the amount of retained austenite and to precipitate secondary carbides. The study of metallurgical transformations by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and backscattered...

  17. TPL-2 Regulates Macrophage Lipid Metabolism and M2 Differentiation to Control TH2-Mediated Immunopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entwistle, Lewis J.; Khoury, Hania; Papoutsopoulou, Stamatia; Mahmood, Radma; Mansour, Nuha R.; Ching-Cheng Huang, Stanley; Pearce, Edward J.; Pedro S. de Carvalho, Luiz; Ley, Steven C.

    2016-01-01

    Persistent TH2 cytokine responses following chronic helminth infections can often lead to the development of tissue pathology and fibrotic scarring. Despite a good understanding of the cellular mechanisms involved in fibrogenesis, there are very few therapeutic options available, highlighting a significant medical need and gap in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of TH2-mediated immunopathology. In this study, we found that the Map3 kinase, TPL-2 (Map3k8; Cot) regulated TH2-mediated intestinal, hepatic and pulmonary immunopathology following Schistosoma mansoni infection or S. mansoni egg injection. Elevated inflammation, TH2 cell responses and exacerbated fibrosis in Map3k8–/–mice was observed in mice with myeloid cell-specific (LysM) deletion of Map3k8, but not CD4 cell-specific deletion of Map3k8, indicating that TPL-2 regulated myeloid cell function to limit TH2-mediated immunopathology. Transcriptional and metabolic assays of Map3k8–/–M2 macrophages identified that TPL-2 was required for lipolysis, M2 macrophage activation and the expression of a variety of genes involved in immuno-regulatory and pro-fibrotic pathways. Taken together this study identified that TPL-2 regulated TH2-mediated inflammation by supporting lipolysis and M2 macrophage activation, preventing TH2 cell expansion and downstream immunopathology and fibrosis. PMID:27487182

  18. Parthenolide Relieves Pain and Promotes M2 Microglia/Macrophage Polarization in Rat Model of Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Popiolek-Barczyk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuropathic pain treatment remains a challenge because pathomechanism is not fully understood. It is believed that glial activation and increased spinal nociceptive factors are crucial for neuropathy. We investigated the effect of parthenolide (PTL on the chronic constriction injury to the sciatic nerve (CCI-induced neuropathy in rat. We analyzed spinal changes in glial markers and M1 and M2 polarization factors, as well as intracellular signaling pathways. PTL (5 µg; i.t. was preemptively and then daily administered for 7 days after CCI. PTL attenuated the allodynia and hyperalgesia and increased the protein level of IBA1 (a microglial/macrophage marker but did not change GFAP (an astrocyte marker on day 7 after CCI. PTL reduced the protein level of M1 (IL-1β, IL-18, and iNOS and enhanced M2 (IL-10, TIMP1 factors. In addition, it downregulated the phosphorylated form of NF-κB, p38MAPK, and ERK1/2 protein level and upregulated STAT3. In primary microglial cell culture we have shown that IL-1β, IL-18, iNOS, IL-6, IL-10, and TIMP1 are of microglial origin. Summing up, PTL directly or indirectly attenuates neuropathy symptoms and promotes M2 microglia/macrophages polarization. We suggest that neuropathic pain therapies should be shifted from blanketed microglia/macrophage suppression toward maintenance of the balance between neuroprotective and neurotoxic microglia/macrophage phenotypes.

  19. Parthenolide Relieves Pain and Promotes M2 Microglia/Macrophage Polarization in Rat Model of Neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popiolek-Barczyk, Katarzyna; Kolosowska, Natalia; Piotrowska, Anna; Makuch, Wioletta; Rojewska, Ewelina; Jurga, Agnieszka M; Pilat, Dominika; Mika, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Neuropathic pain treatment remains a challenge because pathomechanism is not fully understood. It is believed that glial activation and increased spinal nociceptive factors are crucial for neuropathy. We investigated the effect of parthenolide (PTL) on the chronic constriction injury to the sciatic nerve (CCI)-induced neuropathy in rat. We analyzed spinal changes in glial markers and M1 and M2 polarization factors, as well as intracellular signaling pathways. PTL (5 µg; i.t.) was preemptively and then daily administered for 7 days after CCI. PTL attenuated the allodynia and hyperalgesia and increased the protein level of IBA1 (a microglial/macrophage marker) but did not change GFAP (an astrocyte marker) on day 7 after CCI. PTL reduced the protein level of M1 (IL-1β, IL-18, and iNOS) and enhanced M2 (IL-10, TIMP1) factors. In addition, it downregulated the phosphorylated form of NF-κB, p38MAPK, and ERK1/2 protein level and upregulated STAT3. In primary microglial cell culture we have shown that IL-1β, IL-18, iNOS, IL-6, IL-10, and TIMP1 are of microglial origin. Summing up, PTL directly or indirectly attenuates neuropathy symptoms and promotes M2 microglia/macrophages polarization. We suggest that neuropathic pain therapies should be shifted from blanketed microglia/macrophage suppression toward maintenance of the balance between neuroprotective and neurotoxic microglia/macrophage phenotypes.

  20. Parthenolide Relieves Pain and Promotes M2 Microglia/Macrophage Polarization in Rat Model of Neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popiolek-Barczyk, Katarzyna; Kolosowska, Natalia; Makuch, Wioletta; Rojewska, Ewelina; Jurga, Agnieszka M.; Pilat, Dominika

    2015-01-01

    Neuropathic pain treatment remains a challenge because pathomechanism is not fully understood. It is believed that glial activation and increased spinal nociceptive factors are crucial for neuropathy. We investigated the effect of parthenolide (PTL) on the chronic constriction injury to the sciatic nerve (CCI)-induced neuropathy in rat. We analyzed spinal changes in glial markers and M1 and M2 polarization factors, as well as intracellular signaling pathways. PTL (5 µg; i.t.) was preemptively and then daily administered for 7 days after CCI. PTL attenuated the allodynia and hyperalgesia and increased the protein level of IBA1 (a microglial/macrophage marker) but did not change GFAP (an astrocyte marker) on day 7 after CCI. PTL reduced the protein level of M1 (IL-1β, IL-18, and iNOS) and enhanced M2 (IL-10, TIMP1) factors. In addition, it downregulated the phosphorylated form of NF-κB, p38MAPK, and ERK1/2 protein level and upregulated STAT3. In primary microglial cell culture we have shown that IL-1β, IL-18, iNOS, IL-6, IL-10, and TIMP1 are of microglial origin. Summing up, PTL directly or indirectly attenuates neuropathy symptoms and promotes M2 microglia/macrophages polarization. We suggest that neuropathic pain therapies should be shifted from blanketed microglia/macrophage suppression toward maintenance of the balance between neuroprotective and neurotoxic microglia/macrophage phenotypes. PMID:26090236

  1. Access Control in IoT/M2M - Cloud Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anggorojati, Bayu

    and quality of life. This paradigm, which is often called Internet of Things (IoT) or Machine-to-Machine (M2M), will provide an unprecedented opportunity to create applications and services that go far beyond the mere purpose of each participant. Many studies on the both technical and social aspects of IoT...... of a system can be accessed by other parties by means of a set of access policies. For an IoT system such as Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) that collects huge amounts of RFID events data and may store it in the cloud storage for tracking purpose, access control to such data becomes a critical point...... management in RFID system is of paramount importance. A distributed cloud platform approach for the IoT/M2M, which consists of a set of IoT/M2M gateways, is introduced to cope with some inherent issues of IoT network which is highly heterogeneous and distributed in nature. As aresult, access control becomes...

  2. Determination of Foton M-2 satellite attitude motion by the data of microacceleration measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuselinck, T.; van Bavinchove, C.; Sazonov, V. V.; Chebukov, S. Yu.

    2009-12-01

    The results of reconstruction of uncontrolled attitude motion of the Foton M-2 satellite using measurements with the accelerometer TAS-3 are presented. The attitude motion of this satellite has been previously determined by the measurement data of the Earth’s magnetic field and the angular velocity. The TAS-3 data for this purpose are used for the first time. These data contain a well-pronounced additional component which made impossible their direct employment for the reconstruction of the attitude motion and whose origin was unknown several years ago. Later it has become known that the additional component is caused by the influence of the Earth’s magnetic field. The disclosure of this fact allowed us to take into account a necessary correction in processing of TAS-3 data and to use them for the reconstruction of the attitude motion of Foton M-2. Here, a modified method of processing TAS-3 data is described, as well as results of its testing and employing. The testing consisted in the direct comparison of the motion reconstructed by the new method with the motion constructed by the magnetic measurements. The new method allowed us to find the actual motion of Foton M-2 in the period June 9, 2005-June 14, 2005, when no magnetic measurements were carried out.

  3. TPL-2 Regulates Macrophage Lipid Metabolism and M2 Differentiation to Control TH2-Mediated Immunopathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashaswini Kannan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Persistent TH2 cytokine responses following chronic helminth infections can often lead to the development of tissue pathology and fibrotic scarring. Despite a good understanding of the cellular mechanisms involved in fibrogenesis, there are very few therapeutic options available, highlighting a significant medical need and gap in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of TH2-mediated immunopathology. In this study, we found that the Map3 kinase, TPL-2 (Map3k8; Cot regulated TH2-mediated intestinal, hepatic and pulmonary immunopathology following Schistosoma mansoni infection or S. mansoni egg injection. Elevated inflammation, TH2 cell responses and exacerbated fibrosis in Map3k8-/-mice was observed in mice with myeloid cell-specific (LysM deletion of Map3k8, but not CD4 cell-specific deletion of Map3k8, indicating that TPL-2 regulated myeloid cell function to limit TH2-mediated immunopathology. Transcriptional and metabolic assays of Map3k8-/-M2 macrophages identified that TPL-2 was required for lipolysis, M2 macrophage activation and the expression of a variety of genes involved in immuno-regulatory and pro-fibrotic pathways. Taken together this study identified that TPL-2 regulated TH2-mediated inflammation by supporting lipolysis and M2 macrophage activation, preventing TH2 cell expansion and downstream immunopathology and fibrosis.

  4. Fasciola hepatica tegumental antigens indirectly induce an M2 macrophage-like phenotype in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, P N; Aldridge, A; Vukman, K V; Donnelly, S; O'Neill, S M

    2014-10-01

    The M2 subset of macrophages has a critical role to play in host tissue repair, tissue fibrosis and modulation of adaptive immunity during helminth infection. Infection with the helminth, Fasciola hepatica, is associated with M2 macrophages in its mammalian host, and this response is mimicked by its excretory-secretory products (FhES). The tegumental coat of F. hepatica (FhTeg) is another major source of immune-modulatory molecules; we have previously shown that FhTeg can modulate the activity of both dendritic cells and mast cells inhibiting their ability to prime a Th1 immune response. Here, we report that FhTeg does not induce Th2 immune responses but can induce M2-like phenotype in vivo that modulates cytokine production from CD4(+) cells in response to anti-CD3 stimulation. FhTeg induces a RELMα expressing macrophage population in vitro, while in vivo, the expression of Arg1 and Ym-1/2 but not RELMα in FhTeg-stimulated macrophages was STAT6 dependent. To support this finding, FhTeg induces RELMα expression in vivo prior to the induction of IL-13. FhTeg can induce IL-13-producing peritoneal macrophages following intraperitoneal injection This study highlights the important role of FhTeg as an immune-modulatory source during F. hepatica infection and sheds further light on helminth-macrophage interactions.

  5. Characterization of the hrpZ gene from Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicolaM2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Mejía, César; Rodríguez-Ríos, Dalia; Hernández-Guzmán, Gustavo; López-Ramírez, Varinia; Valenzuela-Soto, Humberto; Marsch, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola is a natural pathogen of members of the Brassicaceae plant family. Using a transposon-based mutagenesis strategy in Pseudomonas syringaepv. maculicola M2 (PsmM2), we conducted a genetic screen to identify mutants that were capable of growing in M9 medium supplemented with a crude extract from the leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana. A mutant containing a transposon insertion in the hrpZ gene (PsmMut8) was unable to infect adult plants from Arabidopsis thaliana or Brassica oleracea, suggesting a loss of pathogenicity. The promotorless cat reporter present in the gene trap was expressed if PsmMut8 was grown in minimal medium (M9) supplemented with the leaf extract but not if grown in normal rich medium (KB). We conducted phylogenetic analysis using hrpAZB genes, showing the classical 5-clade distribution, and nucleotide diversity analysis, showing the putative position for selective pressure in this operon. Our results indicate that the hrpAZB operon from Pseudomonas syringaepv. maculicola M2 is necessary for its pathogenicity and that its diversity would be under host-mediated diversifying selection. PMID:26413080

  6. RESTful M2M Gateway for Remote Wireless Monitoring for District Central Heating Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Cheng

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the increased interest in energy conservation and environmental protection, combined with the development of modern communication and computer technology, has resulted in the replacement of distributed heating by central heating in urban areas. This paper proposes a Representational State Transfer (REST Machine-to-Machine (M2M gateway for wireless remote monitoring for a district central heating network. In particular, we focus on the resource-oriented RESTful M2M gateway architecture, and present an uniform devices abstraction approach based on Open Service Gateway Initiative (OSGi technology, and implement the resource mapping mechanism between resource address mapping mechanism between RESTful resources and the physical sensor devices, and present the buffer queue combined with polling method to implement the data scheduling and Quality of Service (QoS guarantee, and also give the RESTful M2M gateway open service Application Programming Interface (API set. The performance has been measured and analyzed. Finally, the conclusions and future work are presented.

  7. β-elemene inhibits tumor-promoting effect of M2 macrophages in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaomu; Xu, Maoyi; Li, Na; Li, Zongjuan; Li, Hongye; Shao, Shujuan; Zou, Kun; Zou, Lijuan

    2017-08-19

    Macrophages in tumor are mostly M2-polarized and have been reported to promote tumorigenesis, which are also defined as tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). β-elemene has therapeutic effects against several cancers, however, it remains unknown whether β-elemene could inhibit cancer by targeting TAMs. Herein, we examined the effect of β-elemene on macrophages to elucidate a novel mechanism of β-elemene in tumor therapy. We showed that the conditioned medium of M2 macrophages promoted lung cancer cells to migration, invasion and epithelial mesenchymal transition, which could be inhibited by β-elemene. Moreover, β-elemene regulated the polarization of macrophages from M2 to M1. β-elemene also inhibited the proliferation, migration, invasion of lung cancer cells and enhanced its radiosensitivity. These results indicate β-elemene suppresses lung cancer by regulating both macrophages and lung cancer cells, it is a promising drug for combination with chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Tumor-derived interleukin-1 promotes lymphangiogenesis and lymph node metastasis through M2-type macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Watari

    Full Text Available Tumors formed by a highly metastatic human lung cancer cell line are characterized by activated signaling via vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-C through its receptor (VEGFR-3 and aggressive lymph node metastasis. In this study, we examined how these highly metastatic cancers acquired aggressive lymph node metastasis. Compared with their lower metastatic counterparts, the highly metastatic tumors formed by this cell line expressed higher amounts of interleukin (IL-1α, with similarly augmented expression of IL-1α and IL-1β by tumor stromal cells and of VEGF-A and VEGF-C by tumor-associated macrophages. These tumor-associated macrophages were mainly of the M2 type. Administration of a macrophage-targeting drug suppressed the production of these potent angiogenic and lymphangiogenic factors, resulting in decreased tumor growth, angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, and lymph node metastasis. In Matrigel plug assays, the highly metastatic cells formed tumors that were extensively infiltrated by M2-type macrophages and exhibited enhanced angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. All of these responses were suppressed by the IL-1 receptor (IL-1R antagonist anakinra. Thus, the IL-1α-driven inflammatory activation of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis seems to provide a highly metastatic tumor microenvironment favorable for lymph node metastasis through cross-talk with macrophages. Accordingly, the IL-1R/M2-type macrophage axis may be a good therapeutic target for patients with this form of lung cancer.

  9. Tumor-derived interleukin-1 promotes lymphangiogenesis and lymph node metastasis through M2-type macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watari, Kosuke; Shibata, Tomohiro; Kawahara, Akihiko; Sata, Ken-ichi; Nabeshima, Hiroshi; Shinoda, Ai; Abe, Hideyuki; Azuma, Koichi; Murakami, Yuichi; Izumi, Hiroto; Takahashi, Takashi; Kage, Masayoshi; Kuwano, Michihiko; Ono, Mayumi

    2014-01-01

    Tumors formed by a highly metastatic human lung cancer cell line are characterized by activated signaling via vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C through its receptor (VEGFR-3) and aggressive lymph node metastasis. In this study, we examined how these highly metastatic cancers acquired aggressive lymph node metastasis. Compared with their lower metastatic counterparts, the highly metastatic tumors formed by this cell line expressed higher amounts of interleukin (IL)-1α, with similarly augmented expression of IL-1α and IL-1β by tumor stromal cells and of VEGF-A and VEGF-C by tumor-associated macrophages. These tumor-associated macrophages were mainly of the M2 type. Administration of a macrophage-targeting drug suppressed the production of these potent angiogenic and lymphangiogenic factors, resulting in decreased tumor growth, angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, and lymph node metastasis. In Matrigel plug assays, the highly metastatic cells formed tumors that were extensively infiltrated by M2-type macrophages and exhibited enhanced angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. All of these responses were suppressed by the IL-1 receptor (IL-1R) antagonist anakinra. Thus, the IL-1α-driven inflammatory activation of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis seems to provide a highly metastatic tumor microenvironment favorable for lymph node metastasis through cross-talk with macrophages. Accordingly, the IL-1R/M2-type macrophage axis may be a good therapeutic target for patients with this form of lung cancer.

  10. Extracellular mycobacterial DnaK polarizes macrophages to the M2-like phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael L Lopes

    Full Text Available Macrophages are myeloid cells that play an essential role in inflammation and host defense, regulating immune responses and maintaining tissue homeostasis. Depending on the microenvironment, macrophages can polarize to two distinct phenotypes. The M1 phenotype is activated by IFN-γ and bacterial products, and displays an inflammatory profile, while M2 macrophages are activated by IL-4 and tend to be anti-inflammatory or immunosupressive. It was observed that DnaK from Mycobacterium tuberculosis has immunosuppressive properties, inducing a tolerogenic phenotype in dendritic cells and MDSCs, contributing to graft acceptance and tumor growth. However, its role in macrophage polarization remains to be elucidated. We asked whether DnaK was able to modulate macrophage phenotype. Murine macrophages, derived from bone marrow, or from the peritoneum, were incubated with DnaK and their phenotype compared to M1 or M2 polarized macrophages. Treatment with DnaK leads macrophages to present higher arginase I activity, IL-10 production and FIZZ1 and Ym1 expression. Furthermore, DnaK increased surface levels of CD206. Importantly, DnaK-treated macrophages were able to promote tumor growth in an allogeneic melanoma model. Our results suggest that DnaK polarizes macrophages to the M2-like phenotype and could constitute a virulence factor and is an important immunomodulator of macrophage responses.

  11. The outer envelopes of globular clusters - I. NGC 7089 (M2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzma, P. B.; Da Costa, G. S.; Mackey, A. D.; Roderick, T. A.

    2016-10-01

    We present the results of a wide-field imaging survey of the periphery of the Milky Way globular cluster NGC 7089 (M2). Data were obtained with MegaCam on the Magellan Clay Telescope and the Dark Energy Camera on the Blanco Telescope. We find that M2 is embedded in a diffuse stellar envelope extending to a radial distance of at least ˜60 arcmin (˜210 pc) - five times the nominal tidal radius of the cluster. The envelope appears nearly circular in shape, has a radial density decline well described by a power law of index γ = -2.2 ± 0.2, and contains approximately 1.6 per cent of the luminosity of the entire system. While the origin of the envelope cannot be robustly identified using the presently available data, the fact that M2 also hosts stellar populations exhibiting a broad dispersion in the abundances of both iron and a variety of neutron capture elements suggests that this object might plausibly constitute the stripped nucleus of a dwarf galaxy that was long ago accreted and destroyed by the Milky Way.

  12. The Outer Envelopes of Globular Clusters. I. NGC 7089 (M2)

    CERN Document Server

    Kuzma, P B; Mackey, A D; Roderick, T A

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of a wide-field imaging survey of the periphery of the Milky Way globular cluster NGC 7089 (M2). Data were obtained with MegaCam on the Magellan Clay Telescope, and the Dark Energy Camera on the Blanco Telescope. We find that M2 is embedded in a diffuse stellar envelope extending to a radial distance of at least $\\sim 60^{\\prime}$ ($\\sim 210$ pc) -- five times the nominal tidal radius of the cluster. The envelope appears nearly circular in shape, has a radial density decline well described by a power law of index $\\gamma = -2.2 \\pm 0.2$, and contains approximately $1.6\\%$ of the luminosity of the entire system. While the origin of the envelope cannot be robustly identified using the presently available data, the fact that M2 also hosts stellar populations exhibiting a broad dispersion in the abundances of both iron and a variety of neutron capture elements suggests that this object might plausibly constitute the stripped nucleus of a dwarf Galaxy that was long ago accreted and destroyed...

  13. Moldeo por inyección del acero rápido M2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz-Román, J. M.

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to study the feasibility of Powder Injection Molding in order to obtain M2 High Speed Steels with higher performances than those obtained by conventional P/M. With this object trials have been carried out in order to optimize all the process steps (mixing, injection, debinding and sintering, and to evaluate the mechanical properties (hardness and transverse tensile strengh of the manufactured M2 HSS sample.

    Se estudia la viabilidad de la tecnología de Moldeo por Inyección de Polvos (MIM en la fabricación con acero rápido M2 a fin de obtener componentes de este material de prestaciones superiores a las que se consiguen mediante métodos convencionales pulvimetalúrgicos. Los ensayos realizados se han dirigido a optimizar los parámetros de la eliminación del ligante y de la sinterización, con objeto de controlar el contenido de carbono y la densidad final de las piezas, así como evitar la aparición de los defectos típicos de esta tecnología.

  14. Measurement of M2-Curve for Asymmetric Beams by Self-Referencing Interferometer Wavefront Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongzhao Du

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available For asymmetric laser beams, the values of beam quality factor M x 2 and M y 2 are inconsistent if one selects a different coordinate system or measures beam quality with different experimental conditionals, even when analyzing the same beam. To overcome this non-uniqueness, a new beam quality characterization method named as M2-curve is developed. The M2-curve not only contains the beam quality factor M x 2 and M y 2 in the x-direction and y-direction, respectively; but also introduces a curve of M x α 2 versus rotation angle α of coordinate axis. Moreover, we also present a real-time measurement method to demonstrate beam propagation factor M2-curve with a modified self-referencing Mach-Zehnder interferometer based-wavefront sensor (henceforth SRI-WFS. The feasibility of the proposed method is demonstrated with the theoretical analysis and experiment in multimode beams. The experimental results showed that the proposed measurement method is simple, fast, and a single-shot measurement procedure without movable parts.

  15. Conformational variability of the glycine receptor M2 domain in response to activation by different agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pless, Stephan A; Dibas, Mohammed I; Lester, Henry A; Lynch, Joseph W

    2007-12-07

    Models describing the structural changes mediating Cys loop receptor activation generally give little attention to the possibility that different agonists may promote activation via distinct M2 pore-lining domain structural rearrangements. We investigated this question by comparing the effects of different ligands on the conformation of the external portion of the homomeric alpha1 glycine receptor M2 domain. Conformational flexibility was assessed by tethering a rhodamine fluorophore to cysteines introduced at the 19' or 22' positions and monitoring fluorescence and current changes during channel activation. During glycine activation, fluorescence of the label attached to R19'C increased by approximately 20%, and the emission peak shifted to lower wavelengths, consistent with a more hydrophobic fluorophore environment. In contrast, ivermectin activated the receptors without producing a fluorescence change. Although taurine and beta-alanine were weak partial agonists at the alpha1R19'C glycine receptor, they induced large fluorescence changes. Propofol, which drastically enhanced these currents, did not induce a glycine-like blue shift in the spectral emission peak. The inhibitors strychnine and picrotoxin elicited fluorescence and current changes as expected for a competitive antagonist and an open channel blocker, respectively. Glycine and taurine (or beta-alanine) also produced an increase and a decrease, respectively, in the fluorescence of a label attached to the nearby L22'C residue. Thus, results from two separate labeled residues support the conclusion that the glycine receptor M2 domain responds with distinct conformational changes to activation by different agonists.

  16. Seamless communication in supply chains based on M2M technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Moneimne

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Access to information is the key element in the successful and efficient organization of transport & logistic processes. The importance of real-time access to information is confirmed by a panel workshop carried out with support of design thinking methodology. There are two ways of gaining access to the right information - manual, where human agency is needed and fully automatic, where new M2M technology is implemented. Implementation of such technology improves seamless communication during transport execution and allows real-time access to needed information. The aim of the paper is to evaluate the influence of the effectiveness of using M2M technology and traditional way of communication as well as data gathering in order to ensure seamless communication in the supply chain. Methods: Survey, design thinking, desk research and real case study results were used in the paper. Results and conclusions: Seamless communication and implementation of M2M technology within the whole supply (including modes of transport and transport units chain is a backbone of the lean and reliable digital supply chain.

  17. Clinical significance of blood and fecal tumor M2-pyruvate kinase expression in patients with colorectal cancer%结直肠癌患者血清、粪便中M2-PK表达的临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇; 王俊江

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨结直肠癌患者血清和粪便中肿瘤M2型丙酮酸激酶(M2-PK)表达的临床意义.方法 收集44例结直肠癌患者和22名健康人血液和粪便标本,采用ELISA方法检测tumor M2-PK表达水平.结果 血清M2-PK和粪便M2-PK对结直肠癌的诊断的敏感性分别为59.1%、63.6%,特异性分别为86.4%、81.8%.血清M2 -PK和粪便M2-PK的吻合度有统计学意义.结论 血清和粪便tumor M2-PK的检测对结直肠癌的诊断有重要价值,值得进一步研究.%Objective To evaluate the clinical significance of blood and fecal expression of tumor M2-pyruvate kinase (Tumor M2-PK) in patients with colorectal cancer. Methods With 22 healthy subjects as controls, 44 patients with CRC were examined for tumor M2-PK in serum and fecal samples using a sandwich enzyme immunoassay. Results The sensitivity of serum and fecal tumor M2-PK for detecting CRC was 59.1% and 63.6% with a specificity of 86.4% and 81.8%, respectively. The serum and fecal levels of tumor M2-PK showed a significant correlation in CRC patients. Conclusions Tumor M2-PK has good sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of CRC.

  18. Thermal testing results of an electroformed nickel secondary (M2) mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David R.; Gale, David M.; Cabrera Cuevas, Lizeth; Lucero Álvarez, Maribel; Castro Santos, David; Olmos Tapia, Arak

    2016-07-01

    To support higher-frequency operation, the Large Millimeter Telescope/Gran Telescopio Milimetrico (or LMT/GTM) is replacing its existing monolithic aluminum secondary mirror (M2). The new mirror is a segmented design based on the same electroformed nickel reflector panel technology that is already in use for the primary reflector segments. While the new M2 is lighter and has better surface accuracy than the original mirror, the electroformed panels are more sensitive to high temperatures. During the design phase, concerns were raised over the level of temperature increase that could occur at M2 during daytime observations. Although the panel surface is designed to scatter visible light, the LMT primary mirror is large enough to cause substantial solar heating, even at significant angular separation from the Sun. To address these concerns, the project conducted a series of field tests, within the constraint of having minimum impact on night time observations. The supplier sent two coupon samples of a reflector panel prepared identically to their proposed M2 surface. Temperature sensors were mounted on the samples and they were temporarily secured to the existing M2 mirror at different distances from the center. The goal was to obtain direct monitoring of the surface temperature under site thermal conditions and the concentration effects from the primary reflector. With the sensors installed, the telescope was then commanded to track the Sun with an elevation offset. Initially, elevation offsets from as far as 40 degrees to as close as 6 degrees were tested. The 6 degree separation test quickly passed the target maximum temperature and the telescope was returned to a safer separation. Based on these initial results, a second set of tests was performed using elevation separations from 30 degrees to 8 degrees. To account for the variability of site conditions, the temperature data were analyzed using multiple metrics. These metrics included maximum temperature, final

  19. O EFEITO DO TRICLOSAN NO PROCESSO FIBROSANTE DE CÉLULAS HEPÁTICAS LX-2 MEDIANTE A AÇÃO NA SÍNTESE DE ÁCIDO GRAXO DE NOVO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Fabiani Miranda

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A fibrose hepática é uma condição clínica presente na maioria das doenças hepáticas, caracterizada pelo aumento na síntese dos componentes da matriz extracelular na tentativa de cicatrização do tecido lesionado. A principal célula responsável pelo desenvolvimento da fibrose hepática é a célula estrelada hepática, localizada no espaço de Disse. Esta apresenta dois fenótipos: o quiescente e o ativado. O metabolismo de lipídeo na célula estrelada está relacionado com o fornecimento de energia para a iniciação e perpetuação do seu estado ativado. Dentro deste contexto a ácido graxo sintase (FASN, proteína chave da síntese de ácido graxo de novo torna-se alvo do estudo, uma vez que o metabolismo de lipídeos está intimamente relacionado ao processo fibrosante em células estreladas hepáticas. Sabe-se que o fármaco triclosan (TCS é inibidor da proteína FASN na síntese de ácido graxo de novo, com potencial alteração do processo fibrosante em células estreladas hepáticas. Sendo assim, avaliamos os aspectos celulares e moleculares do efeito do fármaco TCS na modulação do metabolismo de lipídeo através da inibição da FASN em modelo de células estreladas hepáticas LX-2. Os resultados demonstraram que o TCS na concentração 50 µM em cultura celular LX-2 crescida em 10% de soro bovino fetal (SBF – estado ativado- promove alterações morfofuncionais nas células; tanto pela despolimerização dos filamentos de actina quanto pela formação de estruturas globulares de actina no citoesqueleto celular. Desta maneira, o fármaco TCS apresentou características possivelmente citotóxicas em células LX-2 com 10% de SBF. Por outro lado, o estudo da inibição da proteína FASN demonstrou resultados que sugerem uma transdiferenciação celular correlacionada com a reversão do quadro pró-fibrosante hepático em células LX-2, com o aumento das gotículas de lipídeo no citoplasma e aumento da expressão dos

  20. First Global Climate Model Simulations of the M2 Pliocene Glacial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, A.; Haywood, A.; Hunter, S. J.; Tindall, J.; Valdes, P. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Pliocene Epoch (5.2 to 2.6 Ma) and specifically the PRISM interval (3.0 to 3.3 Ma) have frequently been targeted to investigate warm intervals in Earth history (e.g. Haywood et al., 2013). However, climate variability within the Pliocene is often overlooked. Although not as dramatic as the glacial and interglacial cycles that typified the Pleistocene, the Pliocene also exhibited climate variability and periods which were apparently cooler than modern (Lisiecki and Raymo, 2005). Of particular interest is the major cooling event that occurred around 3.3 Ma during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) M2. This 'Pliocene glacial' punctuates an otherwise relatively warm background climate and has been referred to as a failed attempt of the climate to reach a full glacial state (De Schepper et al., 2009; Haug and Tiedemann, 1998). The onset of full Northern Hemisphere (NH) glaciation finally occurred at the end of the Pliocene (~ 2.75 Ma). Although numerous temperature reconstructions from around the world's oceans tend to capture the MIS M2 cooling event, the exact nature of M2 remains enigmatic. Sea level records vary but suggest a maximum sea level drop of ~65 m compared to modern, which in itself is significant enough to necessitate the growth of a NH ice sheet (Dwyer and Chandler, 2009). Previous ice sheet modelling suggests that ~8 m sea level equivalent (SLE) ice could be stored on Antarctica (Pollard and DeConto, 2009) and this larger ice sheet (compared to modern) is potentially supported by the increase in ice-rafted debris (IRD) found offshore of East Antarctica during this time (Passchier, 2011). IRD in the North Atlantic would suggest the presence of an ice sheet on Greenland (e.g. Kleiven et al., 2002), but the locations of other ice caps in the NH are not determined due to the destructive nature of subsequent Pleistocene ice sheet advances. Moreover, recent evidence questions whether the climate in the NH was favourable at all for the initiation of ice sheets

  1. Dale Reed with model in front of M2-F1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1967-01-01

    Dale Reed with a model of the M2-F1 in front of the actual lifting body. Reed used the model to show the potential of the lifting bodies. He first flew it into tall grass to test stability and trim, then hand-launched it from buildings for longer flights. Finally, he towed the lifting-body model aloft using a powered model airplane known as the 'Mothership.' A timer released the model and it glided to a landing. Dale's wife Donna used a 9 mm. camera to film the flights of the model. Its stability as it glided--despite its lack of wings--convinced Milt Thompson and some Flight Research Center engineers including the center director, Paul Bikle, that a piloted lifting body was possible. The lifting body concept evolved in the mid-1950s as researchers considered alternatives to ballistic reentries of piloted space capsules. The designs for hypersonic, wingless vehicles were on the boards at NASA Ames and NASA Langley facilities, while the US Air Force was gearing up for its Dyna-Soar program, which defined the need for a spacecraft that would land like an airplane. Despite favorable research on lifting bodies, there was little support for a flight program. Dryden engineer R. Dale Reed was intrigued with the lifting body concept, and reasoned that some sort of flight demonstration was needed before wingless aircraft could be taken seriously. In February 1962, he built a model lifting body based upon the Ames M2 design, and air-launched it from a radio controlled 'mothership.' Home movies of these flights, plus the support of research pilot Milt Thompson, helped pursuade the facilities director, Paul Bikle, to give the go-ahead for the construction of a full-scale version, to be used as a wind-tunnel model and possibly flown as a glider. Comparing lifting bodies to space capsules, an unofficial motto of the project was, 'Don't be Rescued from Outer Space--Fly Back in Style.' The construction of the M2-F1 was a joint effort by Dryden and a local glider manufacturer, the

  2. Carboxyl- and amino-functionalized polystyrene nanoparticles differentially affect the polarization profile of M1 and M2 macrophage subsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Ann-Kathrin; Syrovets, Tatiana; Haas, Karina A; Loos, Cornelia; Musyanovych, Anna; Mailänder, Volker; Landfester, Katharina; Simmet, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Macrophages are key regulators of innate and adaptive immune responses. Exposure to microenvironmental stimuli determines their polarization into proinflammatory M1 and anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages. M1 exhibit high expression of proinflammatory TNF-α and IL-1β, and M2 promote tissue repair, but likewise support tumor growth and cause immune suppression by expressing IL-10. Thus, the M1/M2 balance critically determines tissue homeostasis. By using carboxyl- (PS-COOH) and amino-functionalized (PS-NH2) polystyrene nanoparticles, the effects of surface decoration on the polarization of human macrophages were investigated. The nanoparticles did not compromise macrophage viability nor did they affect the expression of the M1 markers CD86, NOS2, TNF-α, and IL-1β. By contrast, in M2, both nanoparticles impaired expression of scavenger receptor CD163 and CD200R, and the release of IL-10. PS-NH2 also inhibited phagocytosis of Escherichia coli by both, M1 and M2. PS-COOH did not impair phagocytosis by M2, but increased protein mass in M1 and M2, TGF-β1 release by M1, and ATP levels in M2. Thus, nanoparticles skew the M2 macrophage polarization without affecting M1 markers. Given the critical role of the M1 and M2 polarization for the immunological balance in patients with cancer or chronic inflammation, functionalized nanoparticles might serve as tools for reprogramming the M1/M2 polarization.

  3. M2-F3 In-flight Launch from B-52

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    This photo shows the M2-F3 Lifting Body being launched from NASA's B-52 mothership at the NASA Flight Research Center (FRC--now the Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California. A fleet of lifting bodies flown at the FRC from 1963 to l975 demonstrated the ability of pilots to maneuver and safely land a wingless vehicle designed to fly back to Earth from space and be landed like an aircraft at a pre-determined site. Early flight testing of the M2-F1 and M2-F2 lifting body reentry configurations had validated the concept of piloted lifting body reentry from space. When the M2-F2 crashed on May 10, 1967, valuable information had already been obtained and was contributing to new designs. NASA pilots said the M2-F2 had lateral control problems, so when the M2-F2 was rebuilt at Northrop and redesignated the M2-F3, it was modified with an additional third vertical fin -- centered between the tip fins -- to improve control characteristics. First flight of the M2-F3, with NASA pilot Bill Dana at the controls, was June 2, 1970. The modified vehicle exhibited much better lateral stability and control characteristics than before, and only three glide flights were necessary before the first powered flight on Nov. 25, 1970. Over the next 26 missions, the M2-F3 reached a top speed of l,064 mph (Mach 1.6). Highest altitude reached by vehicle was 7l,500 feet on Dec. 20, 1972, the date of its last flight, with NASA pilot John Manke at the controls. NASA donated The M2-F3 vehicle to the Smithsonian Institute in December 1973. It is currently hanging in the Air and Space Museum along with the X-15 aircraft number 1, which was its hangar partner from 1965 to 1969. NASA B-52, Tail Number 008, is an air launch carrier aircraft, 'mothership,' as well as a research aircraft platform that has been used on a variety of research projects. The aircraft, a 'B' model built in 1952 and first flown on June 11, 1955, is the oldest B-52 in flying status and has been used on some of the most

  4. Pharmacological effects of mitraphylline from Uncaria tomentosa in primary human monocytes: Skew toward M2 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montserrat-de la Paz, S; de la Puerta, R; Fernandez-Arche, A; Quilez, A M; Muriana, F J G; Garcia-Gimenez, M D; Bermudez, B

    2015-07-21

    Uncaria tomentosa (Willdenow ex Roemer & Schultes) DC. (Rubiaceae) is a Peruvian thorny liana, commonly known as "cat׳s claw", and traditionally used in folk medicine to deal with several inflammatory diseases. Mitraphylline (MTP) is the most abundant pentacyclic oxindolic alkaloid (POA) from U. Tomentosa and has been reported to modify the inflammatory response. Herein, we have sought to identify the mechanisms underlying this modulatory effect of MTP on primary human monocytes and its ability to regulate differentiation processes on human primary monocyte and monocyte-derived macrophages. In vitro studies with human primary monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages were performed. Monocytes and M0 macrophages were exposed to MTP (25μM) and LPS (100ng/mL). M0 macrophages were polarized to M1 and M2 phenotypes in the absence or presence of MTP. The activation state of monocytes/macrophages was assessed by flow cytometry, gene expression and protein analysis of different specific markers. In human primary monocytes, the incubation of MTP for 24h reduced the number of classical (CD14(++)CD16(-)) and intermediate (CD14(++)CD16(+)) subsets when compared to untreated or LPS-treated cells. MTP also reduced the chemotactic capacity of human primary monocytes. In addition, MTP promoted the polarization of M0 macrophages toward an anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype, the abrogation of the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNFα, IL-6 or IL-1β, as well as the restoration of markers for M2 macrophages in LPS-treated M1 macrophages. Our results suggest that MTP may be a key modulator for regulating the plasticity of monocytes/macrophages and the attenuation of the inflammatory response. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Bile acid-induced arrhythmia is mediated by muscarinic M2 receptors in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti H Sheikh Abdul Kadir

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP is a common disease affecting up to 5% of pregnancies and which can cause fetal arrhythmia and sudden intrauterine death. We previously demonstrated that bile acid taurocholate (TC, which is raised in the bloodstream of ICP, can acutely alter the rate and rhythm of contraction and induce abnormal calcium destabilization in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCM. Apart from their hepatic functions bile acids are ubiquitous signalling molecules with diverse systemic effects mediated by either the nuclear receptor FXR or by a recently discovered G-protein coupled receptor TGR5. We aim to investigate the mechanism of bile-acid induced arrhythmogenic effects in an in-vitro model of the fetal heart. METHODS AND RESULTS: Levels of bile acid transporters and nuclear receptor FXR were studied by quantitative real time PCR, western blot and immunostaining, which showed low levels of expression. We did not observe functional involvement of the canonical receptors FXR and TGR5. Instead, we found that TC binds to the muscarinic M(2 receptor in NRCM and serves as a partial agonist of this receptor in terms of inhibitory effect on intracellular cAMP and negative chronotropic response. Pharmacological inhibition and siRNA-knockdown of the M(2 receptor completely abolished the negative effect of TC on contraction, calcium transient amplitude and synchronisation in NRCM clusters. CONCLUSION: We conclude that in NRCM the TC-induced arrhythmia is mediated by the partial agonism at the M(2 receptor. This mechanism might serve as a promising new therapeutic target for fetal arrhythmia.

  6. Interleukin-17 induces an atypical M2-like macrophage subpopulation that regulates intestinal inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichiro Nishikawa

    Full Text Available Interleukin 17 (IL-17 is a pleiotropic cytokine that acts on both immune and non-immune cells and is generally implicated in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Although IL-17 as well as their source, mainly but not limited to Th17 cells, is also abundant in the inflamed intestine, the role of IL-17 in inflammatory bowel disease remains controversial. In the present study, by using IL-17 knockout (KO mice, we investigated the role of IL-17 in colitis, with special focus on the macrophage subpopulations. Here we show that IL-17KO mice had increased susceptibility to DSS-induced colitis which was associated with decrease in expression of mRNAs implicated in M2 and/or wound healing macrophages, such as IL-10, IL-1 receptor antagonist, arginase 1, cyclooxygenase 2, and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. Lamina propria leukocytes from inflamed colon of IL-17KO mice contained fewer CD11b+Ly6C+MHC Class II+ macrophages, which were derived, at least partly, from blood monocytes, as compared to those of WT mice. FACS-purified CD11b+ cells from WT mice, which were more abundant in Ly6C+MHC Class II+ cells, expressed increased levels of genes associated M2/wound healing macrophages and also M1/proinflammatory macrophages. Depletion of this population by topical administration of clodronate-liposome in the colon of WT mice resulted in the exacerbation of colitis. These results demonstrate that IL-17 confers protection against the development of severe colitis through the induction of an atypical M2-like macrophage subpopulation. Our findings reveal a previously unappreciated mechanism by which IL-17 exerts a protective function in colitis.

  7. Towards Efficient Mobile M2M Communications: Survey and Open Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Carlos; Aguiar, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communications enable networked devices and services to exchange information and perform actions seamlessly without the need for human intervention. They are viewed as a key enabler of the Internet of Things (IoT) and ubiquitous applications, like mobile healthcare, telemetry, or intelligent transport systems. We survey existing work on mobile M2M communications, we identify open challenges that have a direct impact on performance and resource usage efficiency, especially the impact on energy efficiency, and we review techniques to improve communications. We review the ETSI standard and application protocols, and draw considerations on the impact of their use in constrained mobile devices. Nowadays, smartphones are equipped with a wide range of embedded sensors, with varied local and wide area connectivity capabilities, and thus they offer a unique opportunity to serve as mobile gateways for other more constrained devices with local connectivity. At the same time, they can gather context data about users and environment from the embedded sensors. These capabilities may be crucial for mobile M2M applications. Finally, in this paper, we consider a scenario where smartphones are used as gateways that collect and aggregate data from sensors in a cellular network. We conclude that, in order for their use to the feasible in terms of a normal depletion time of a smartphone's battery, it is a good advice to maximize the collection of data necessary to be transmitted from nearby sensors, and maximize the intervals between transmissions. More research is required to devise energy efficient transmission methods that enable the use of smartphones as mobile gateways. PMID:25333291

  8. Towards Efficient Mobile M2M Communications: Survey and Open Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Pereira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Machine-to-Machine (M2M communications enable networked devices and services to exchange information and perform actions seamlessly without the need for human intervention. They are viewed as a key enabler of the Internet of Things (IoT and ubiquitous applications, like mobile healthcare, telemetry, or intelligent transport systems. We survey existing work on mobile M2M communications, we identify open challenges that have a direct impact on performance and resource usage efficiency, especially the impact on energy efficiency, and we review techniques to improve communications. We review the ETSI standard and application protocols, and draw considerations on the impact of their use in constrained mobile devices. Nowadays, smartphones are equipped with a wide range of embedded sensors, with varied local and wide area connectivity capabilities, and thus they offer a unique opportunity to serve as mobile gateways for other more constrained devices with local connectivity. At the same time, they can gather context data about users and environment from the embedded sensors. These capabilities may be crucial for mobile M2M applications. Finally, in this paper, we consider a scenario where smartphones are used as gateways that collect and aggregate data from sensors in a cellular network. We conclude that, in order for their use to the feasible in terms of a normal depletion time of a smartphone’s battery, it is a good advice to maximize the collection of data necessary to be transmitted from nearby sensors, and maximize the intervals between transmissions. More research is required to devise energy efficient transmission methods that enable the use of smartphones as mobile gateways.

  9. Structural basis for tumor pyruvate kinase M2 allosteric regulation and catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrauckas, Jill D; Santarsiero, Bernard D; Mesecar, Andrew D

    2005-07-12

    Four isozymes of pyruvate kinase are differentially expressed in human tissue. Human pyruvate kinase isozyme M2 (hPKM2) is expressed in early fetal tissues and is progressively replaced by the other three isozymes, M1, R, and L, immediately after birth. In most cancer cells, hPKM2 is once again expressed to promote tumor cell proliferation. Because of its almost ubiquitous presence in cancer cells, hPKM2 has been designated as tumor specific PK-M2, and its presence in human plasma is currently being used as a molecular marker for the diagnosis of various cancers. The X-ray structure of human hPKM2 complexed with Mg(2+), K(+), the inhibitor oxalate, and the allosteric activator fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) has been determined to a resolution of 2.82 A. The active site of hPKM2 is in a partially closed conformation most likely resulting from a ligand-induced domain closure promoted by the binding of FBP. In all four subunits of the enzyme tetramer, a conserved water molecule is observed on the 2-si face of the prospective enolate and supports the hypothesis that a proton-relay system is acting as the proton donor of the reaction (1). Significant structural differences among the human M2, rabbit muscle M1, and the human R isozymes are observed, especially in the orientation of the FBP-activating loop, which is in a closed conformation when FBP is bound. The structural differences observed between the PK isozymes could potentially be exploited as unique structural templates for the design of allosteric drugs against the disease states associated with the various PK isozymes, especially cancer and nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia.

  10. Towards efficient mobile M2M communications: survey and open challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Carlos; Aguiar, Ana

    2014-10-20

    Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communications enable networked devices and services to exchange information and perform actions seamlessly without the need for human intervention. They are viewed as a key enabler of the Internet of Things (IoT) and ubiquitous applications, like mobile healthcare, telemetry, or intelligent transport systems. We survey existing work on mobile M2M communications, we identify open challenges that have a direct impact on performance and resource usage efficiency, especially the impact on energy efficiency, and we review techniques to improve communications. We review the ETSI standard and application protocols, and draw considerations on the impact of their use in constrained mobile devices. Nowadays, smartphones are equipped with a wide range of embedded sensors, with varied local and wide area connectivity capabilities, and thus they offer a unique opportunity to serve as mobile gateways for other more constrained devices with local connectivity. At the same time, they can gather context data about users and environment from the embedded sensors. These capabilities may be crucial for mobile M2M applications. Finally, in this paper, we consider a scenario where smartphones are used as gateways that collect and aggregate data from sensors in a cellular network. We conclude that, in order for their use to the feasible in terms of a normal depletion time of a smartphone's battery, it is a good advice to maximize the collection of data necessary to be transmitted from nearby sensors, and maximize the intervals between transmissions. More research is required to devise energy efficient transmission methods that enable the use of smartphones as mobile gateways.

  11. Sistemas de gestión de sensores mediante tecnologías M2M

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Heredero, Miguel de

    2014-01-01

    En el proyecto se lleva a cabo un estudio práctico sobre dos escenarios donde intervienen dispositivos relacionados con el Internet de las cosas. También se puede situar como una solución de comunicación M2M. Comunicación máquina a máquina implica un sistema central que es capaz de conectarse con otros sistemas en varios lugares. La conexión permite que el sistema central recoja o envíe datos a cada lugar remoto para su procesamiento. El primer escenario consta de la configuración y montaj...

  12. Resonant Photoemission and M_{2,3}-Absorption Spectra in Nickel Dichloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, J.

    Ni 3p-resonant photoemission and Ni M_{2,3}-absorption spectra are calculated in detail on a cluster of (NiCl_6)^{4-} with the use of the transition matrix elements evaluated on the Herman-Skillman potential in Ni atom. Overall spectral shape agrees well with experiment, allowing a determination of the parameters which characterize Ni 3d and Cl 3p states. Resonance behavior is discussed near the Ni 3p-core level photothreshold. The resonant enhancement is found to be larger for the peak with higher binding energy in the d^7-multiplets.

  13. Putative M2 muscarinic receptors of rat heart have high affinity for organophosphorus anticholinesterases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, C.L.; Eldefrawi, A.T.; Eldefrawi, M.E. (Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore (USA))

    1990-05-01

    The M2 subtype of muscarinic receptor is predominant in heart, and such receptors were reported to be located in muscles as well as in presynaptic cholinergic and adrenergic nerve terminals. Muscarinic receptors of rat heart were identified by the high affinity binding of the agonist (+)-(3H)cis-methyldioxolane ((3H)CD), which has been used to label a high affinity population of M2 receptors. A single population of sites was detected and (3H)CD binding was sensitive to the M2 antagonist himbacine but much less so to pirenzepine, the M1 antagonist. These cardiac receptors had different sensitivities to NiCl2 and N-ethylmaleimide from brain muscarinic receptors, that were also labeled with (3H)CD and considered to be of the M2 subtype. Up to 70% of the (3H)CD-labeled cardiac receptors had high affinities for several organophosphate (OP) anticholinesterases. (3H)CD binding was inhibited by the nerve agents soman, VX, sarin, and tabun, with K0.5 values of 0.8, 2, 20, and 50 nM, respectively. It was also inhibited by echothiophate and paraoxon with K0.5 values of 100 and 300 nM, respectively. The apparent competitive nature of inhibition of (3H)CD binding by both sarin and paraoxon suggests that the OPs bind to the acetylcholine binding site of the muscarinic receptor. Other OP insecticides had lower potencies, inhibiting less than 50% of 5 nM (3H)CD binding by 1 microM of EPN, coumaphos, dioxathion, dichlorvos, or chlorpyriphos. There was poor correlation between the potencies of the OPs in reversibly inhibiting (3H)CD binding, and their anticholinesterase activities and toxicities. Acetylcholinesterases are the primary targets for these OP compounds because of the irreversible nature of their inhibition, which results in building of acetylcholine concentrations that activate muscarinic and nicotinic receptors and desensitize them, thereby inhibiting respiration.

  14. Atmospheric Turbulence Measurements With the Automatic Mini UAV 'M2AV Carolo'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bange, J.; van den Kroonenberg, A. C.; Spieß, T.; Buschmann, M.; Krüger, L.; Heindorf, A.; Vörsmann, P.

    2007-05-01

    The limitations of manned airborne meteorological measurements led to the development of an autonomously operating mini aircraft, the Meteorological Mini-UAV (M2AV), at the Institute of Aerospace Systems, Technical University of Braunschweig, Germany. The task was to develop, test and verify a meteorological sensor package as payload for an already available automatic carrier aircraft, the UAV 'Carolo T200', which operates autonomously i.e. without remote control. The M2AV is a self constructed model aircraft with two electrically powered engines and a wingspan of two meters. The maximum take-off weight is 4.5~kg (the M2AV is therefore classified as an model plane which simplifies authority issues), including 1.5~kg of payload. It is hand-launched which makes operation of the aircraft easy. With an endurance of approximately 50 minutes, the range accounts for 60 km at a cruising speed of 20~m/s. The M2AV is capable of performing turbulence measurements (wind vector, temperature and humidity) within the troposphere and offers an economic component during meteorological campaigns. The meteorological sensors are mounted on a noseboom to minimise the aircraft's influence on the measurements and to position the sensors closely to each other. Wind is measured via a small five-hole probe, an inertia measurement unit and GPS. The flight mission (waypoints, altitudes, airspeed) is planned and assigned to the aircraft before the semi- automatic launch. The flight is only controlled by the on-board autopilot system which only communicates with a ground station (laptop PC) for the exchange of measured data and command updates like new waypoints etc. The talk gives details on the technical items, calibration and first missions. Results from first field experiments like the LAUNCH-2005 campaign near Berlin are used for data quality assessment by comparison with simultaneous lidar and sodar measurements. An in situ comparison with the highly accurate helicopter-borne turbulence

  15. $SU(N)$ BPS Monopoles in $\\mathcal{M}^2\\times S^2$

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    We extend the investigation of BPS saturated t'Hooft-Polyakov monopoles in $\\mathcal{M}^{2}\\times S^{2}$ to the general case of $SU(N)$ gauge symmetry. This geometry causes the resulting $N-1$ coupled non-linear ordinary differential equations for the $N-1$ monopole profiles to become autonomous. One can also define a flat limit in which the curvature of the background metric is arbitrarily small but the simplifications brought in by the geometry remain. We prove analytically that non-trivial...

  16. An M/M/2 Queueing System with Heterogeneous Servers Including One with Working Vacation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Krishnamoorthy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes an M/M/2 queueing system with two heterogeneous servers, one of which is always available but the other goes on vacation in the absence of customers waiting for service. The vacationing server, however, returns to serve at a low rate as an arrival finds the other server busy. The system is analyzed in the steady state using matrix geometric method. Busy period of the system is analyzed and mean waiting time in the stationary regime computed. Conditional stochastic decomposition of stationary queue length is obtained. An illustrative example is also provided.

  17. Clinical experience with autologous M2 macrophages in children with severe cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernykh, Elena R; Kafanova, Marina Yu; Shevela, Ekaterina Ya; Sirota, Sergei I; Adonina, Elena I; Sakhno, Lyudmila V; Ostanin, Alexander A; Kozlov, Vladimir V

    2014-01-01

    Stem cell-based therapy is considered to be a new approach for the treatment of cerebral palsy (CP). Given the potent anti-inflammatory activity and high regenerative potential of M2 macrophages, these cells may be an alternative source for cell transplantation. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of autologous M2 macrophages, we conducted a pilot clinical trial in 21 children with severe CP. The primary outcome measure was safety, which included assessment of mortality of any cause, immediate adverse reactions, and serious adverse effects and comorbidities during 5-year follow-up. The secondary outcome measure was functional improvement in Gross Motor Function Measure (66-item GMFM) test, Peabody Developmental Motor Scale-Fine Motor (PDMS-FM) test, Ashworth scale, MRC scale, and an easy-to-understand questionnaire for evaluation of cognitive functions in our modification. Intradural injection of M2 cells (in mean dose of 0.8 × 10(6)/kg) into the lumbar spinal area did not induce any serious adverse events. No cases of mortality, psychomotor worsening, exacerbation of seizures, and long-term comorbidities, including tumors, were observed during a 5-year follow-up. After 3 months, GMFM score increased from 13.7 ± 7.8 to 58.6 ± 14.6, PDMS-FM score improved from 0.76 ± 0.42 to 5.05 ± 0.97, and the Ashworth score decreased from 3.8 ± 0.21 to 3.3 ± 0.24. Along with gross and fine motor function enhancement, an improvement of cognitive activity (from 1.62 ± 0.41 to 4.05 ± 0.64, according to questionnaire assessment) and reduction of seizure syndrome were registered as well. The neurological improvements did not diminish during the 5-year follow-up period. The data obtained suggest that cell therapy based on M2 macrophages is safe, does not induce early adverse effects and long-term comorbidities, and is accompanied with a significant improvement of motor and cognitive activities in severe CP patients. This manuscript is

  18. Joint TAS and Power Allocation for SDF Relaying M2M Cooperative Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingwei Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The outage probability (OP performance of multiple-relay-based selective decode-and-forward (SDF relaying mobile-to-mobile (M2M networks with transmit antenna selection (TAS over N-Nakagami fading channels is investigated. The exact closed-form expressions for OP of the optimal and suboptimal TAS schemes are derived. The power allocation problem is formulated for performance optimization. Then, the OP performance under different conditions is evaluated through numerical simulations to verify the analysis. The simulation results showed that optimal TAS scheme has a better OP performance than suboptimal TAS scheme. Further, the power allocation parameter has an important influence on the OP performance.

  19. EcoM2 web portal: Collecting empirical data and supporting companies' ecodesign implementation and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pigosso, Daniela Cristina Antelmi; McAloone, Tim C.; Rozenfeld, Henrique

    2013-01-01

    of strengths and limitations; and the establishment of strategic roadmaps for improved ecodesign implementation. This paper describes the development of the EcoM2 web portal, which will allow for the framework to be tested on greater numbers of companies and at the same time to provide a quick diagnosis...... of their current ecodesign maturity profile. Analyses of the collected data will allow the establishment of patterns on ecodesign implementation in regards to criteria such as sector and size of companies and the improvement of empirical knowledge on ecodesign implementation and best practices....

  20. Strategic Thinking of the Internet of Things and M2M Services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Qingzhong

    2010-01-01

    @@ Editor' s Desk: The Internet of Things is an important part of the emerging high-tech industry and has been recognized as one of the important technologies for addressing global financial crisis and revitalizing the economy. Therefore, at the beginning of the new year, we are honored to have invited Mr. Samuel Qi (Qi Qingzhong), a famous Chinese communication technology expert and GM of Shanghai Symphony Telecommunications Co., Ltd., to give his views on the development strategy of the Internet of Things and Machine to Machine (M2M) Communications.