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Sample records for lws sentinels mission

  1. The Sentinel-3 Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berruti, B.; Mavrocordatos, C.

    2010-12-01

    The Sentinel-3 Operational Mission is part of the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) initiative, which was established to support Europe's goals regarding sustainable development and global governance of the environment by providing timely and quality data, information, services and knowledge. The series of Sentinel-3 satellites will ensure global, frequent and near-realtime ocean, ice and land monitoring, with the provision of observation data in routine, long term (20 years of operations) and continuous fashion, with a consistent quality and a very high level of availability. The first launch is expected in 2013. Currently half way through the development phase of the project, this paper presents the consolidated Sentinel-3 design and expected performances related to the different mission objectives (ocean colour, altimetry, surface temperature, land). The operational concept and key system performances are also addressed, as well as the satellite and instruments design. Finally, the schedule for the remaining development is presented.

  2. Sentinel-2 Mission status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoersch, Bianca; Colin, Olivier; Gascon, Ferran; Arino, Olivier; Spoto, Francois; Marchese, Franco; Krassenburg, Mike; Koetz, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    Copernicus is a joint initiative of the European Commission (EC) and the European Space Agency (ESA), designed to establish a European capacity for the provision and use of operational monitoring information for environment and security applications. Within the Copernicus programme, ESA is responsible for the development of the Space Component, a fully operational space-based capability to supply earth-observation data to sustain environmental information Services in Europe. The Sentinel missions are Copernicus dedicated Earth Observation missions composing the essential elements of the Space Component. In the global Copernicus framework, they are complemented by other satellites made available by third-parties or by ESA and coordinated in the synergistic system through the Copernicus Data-Access system versus the Copernicus Services. The Copernicus Sentinel-2 mission provides continuity to services relying on multi-spectral high-resolution optical observations over global terrestrial surfaces. Sentinel-2 capitalizes on the technology and the vast experience acquired in Europe and the US to sustain the operational supply of data for services such as forest monitoring, land cover changes detection or natural disasters management. The Sentinel-2 mission offers an unprecedented combination of the following capabilities: ○ Systematic global coverage of land surfaces: from 56°South to 84°North, coastal waters and Mediterranean sea; ○ High revisit: every 5 days at equator under the same viewing conditions with 2 satellites; ○ High spatial resolution: 10m, 20m and 60m; ○ Multi-spectral information with 13 bands in the visible, near infra-red and short wave infra-red part of the spectrum; ○ Wide field of view: 290 km. The data from the Sentinel-2 mission are available openly and freely for all users with online easy access since December 2015. The presentation will give a status report on the Sentinel-2 mission, and outlook for the remaining ramp-up Phase, the

  3. Sentinel-3 Mission Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, U.; Berruti, B.; Donlon, C.; Frerick, J.; Mavrocordatos, C.; Nieke, J.; Seitz, B.; Stroede, J.; Rebhan, H.

    2009-04-01

    The series of Sentinel-3 satellites will provide global, frequent and near-realtime ocean, ice and land monitoring. Sentinel-3 will be particularly devoted to the provision of observation data in routine, long term (20 years of operations) and continuous fashion with a consistent quality and a very high level of availability. It will continue the successful observations of similar predecessor instruments onboard Envisat from 2012 onwards. The Ocean and Land Colour Instrument (OLCI) is based on the Envisat MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer Instrument (MERIS) instrument. It fulfils ocean-colour and land-cover objectives with a larger swath and additional spectral bands. The Sea and Land Surface Temperature radiometer (SLSTR) is based on Envisat's Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR). SLSTR has a double-scanning mechanism, yielding a wider swath and a complete overlap with OLCI. This enables the generation of a synergy product with a total of 30 spectral bands, fully co-registered for new and innovative ocean and land products. The topography mission has the primary objective of providing accurate, closely spaced altimetry measurements from a high-inclination orbit with a long repeat cycle. It will complement the Jason ocean altimeter series monitoring mid-scale circulation and sea levels. The altimeter will be operated in two different modes, a classical low resolution mode and a synthetic aperture mode similar to CryoSat for increased along-track resolution and improved performance. Accompanying the altimeter will be a Precise Orbit Determination system and microwave radiometer (MWR) for removing the errors related to the altimeter signals being delayed by water vapour in the atmosphere. The altimeter will track over a variety of surfaces: Open ocean, coastal zones, sea ice and inland waters. The conceptual designs of the major instruments and their basic performance parameters will be introduced together with the expected accuracies of the main

  4. The Sentinel-2 Mission Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascon, Ferran

    2012-04-01

    In the framework of the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) programme, the European Space Agency (ESA) in partnership with the European Commission (EC) is developing the Sentinel-2 optical imaging mission devoted to the operational monitoring of land and coastal areas. This system will deliver a new generation of optical data products designed to directly feed downstream services acting in several domains such as land management, agricultural industry, forestry, food security, or disaster control management following floods, volcanic eruptions, landslides, etc. The Sentinel-2 mission designed to generate products with accurate radiometric and geometric performances (including multi-temporal imagery co-registration). To maximize the products suitability and readiness to downstream usage for the majority of applications, the Sentinel-2 PDGS will systematically generate and archive Level-1C products, which will provide Top of Atmosphere (TOA) reflectance images, orthorectified using a global DEM and UTM projection. A Level-1B product will also be available for expert users and will provide the radiometrically corrected pixels in sensor geometry with the geometric model appended. Finally, a complementary atmospheric correction and enhanced cloud screening algorithm is being prototyped in parallel with the goal of providing some initial capabilities to the users, by means of a specific software toolbox operated on their platforms, to translate the Level-1C TOA reflectance image into Bottom of Atmosphere (BOA) reflectance.

  5. The SENTINEL-3 Mission: Overview and Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benveniste, J.; Mecklenburg, S.

    2015-12-01

    The Copernicus Programme, being Europe's Earth Observation and Monitoring Programme led by the European Union, aims to provide, on a sustainable basis, reliable and timely services related to environmental and security issues. The Sentinel-3 mission forms part of the Copernicus Space Component. Its main objectives, building on the heritage and experience of the European Space Agency's (ESA) ERS and ENVISAT missions, are to measure sea-surface topography, sea- and land-surface temperature and ocean- and land-surface colour in support of ocean forecasting systems, and for environmental and climate monitoring. The series of Sentinel-3 satellites will ensure global, frequent and near-real time ocean, ice and land monitoring, with the provision of observation data in routine, long term (up to 20 years of operations) and continuous fashion, with a consistent quality and a high level of reliability and availability. The Sentinel-3 missions will be jointly operated by ESA and EUMETSAT. ESA will be responsible for the operations, maintenance and evolution of the Sentinel-3 ground segment on land related products and EUMETSAT for the marine products. The Sentinel-3 ground segment systematically acquires, processes and distributes a set of pre-defined core data products. Sentinel-3A is foreseen to be launched at the beginning of November 2015. The paper will give an overview on the mission, its instruments and objectives, the data products provided, the mechanisms to access the mission's data, and if available first results.

  6. The Copernicus Sentinel-3 Mission: Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donlon, C.; Berruti, B.; Mavrocordatos, C.; Nieke, J.; Seitz, B.; Frerrick, J.; Vuilleumier@esa int, P.; Rebhan, H.; Mecklenburg, S.; Goryl, P.; Féménias, P.

    2016-02-01

    Sentinel-3 is an operational mission in high-inclination, low earth orbit for the provision of observational data to Copernicus services. Products include ocean, ice and land surface altimetry, complemented by thermal and visible wavelength multi-spectral image data. The operational character of the mission implies a high level of availability of the data products and fast delivery time, which have been important design drivers for the mission. In terms of ocean applications, the Sentinel-3 payload is designed to monitor open-ocean, coastal and inland waters using a suite of contemporaneous measurements. The spacecraft accommodates a topography payload consisting of a SAR Radar Altimeter (SRAL) and a Microwave Radiometer (MWR) plus a suite of instruments for precise orbit determination (POD). In addition, two large optical instruments - the Ocean and Land Colour Instrument (OLCI) and the Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer instrument (SLSTR) have been developed as part of the mission. Full performance will be achieved with a constellation of two identical satellites, separated by 180 degrees in the same orbital plane. Together, the optical and topography instruments of Sentinel-3 will ensure the continuation of important data streams established with ESA's ERS and ENVISAT satellites. Four Sentinel-3 satellites are in development with Sentinel-3A planned for launch in late 2015 and the Sentinel-3B satellite launch expected in 2017. Procurement of the C and D satellites is ongoing. The overall service duration is planned to be 20 years and is expected to be fulfilled by a series of several satellites. This paper reports the current status of the Sentinel-3 Mission and presets some first results from the instrument payload.

  7. Sentinel-1 Mission Overview and Implementation Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, M.; Attema, E.; Snoeij, P.; Levrini, G.

    2009-04-01

    Sentinel-1 is an imaging radar mission at C-band consisting of a constellation of two satellites aimed at providing continuity of all-weather day-and-night supply of imagery for user services. Special emphasis is placed on services identified in ESA's GMES service elements program and on projects funded by the European Union Framework Programmes. Three priorities (fast-track services) for the mission have been identified by user consultation working groups of the European Union: Marine Core Services, Land Monitoring and Emergency Services. These cover applications such as: - Monitoring sea ice zones and the arctic environment - Surveillance of marine environment - Monitoring land surface motion risks - Mapping of land surfaces: forest, water and soil, agriculture - Mapping in support of humanitarian aid in crisis situations. The Sentinel 1 space segment will be designed and built by an industrial consortium with Thales Alenia Space Italia as prime contractor and EADS Astrium GmbH as C-SAR instrument responsible. Data products from current and previous ESA missions including ERS-1, ERS-2 and Envisat missions form the basis for many of the pilot GMES services. Consequently Sentinel-1 data maintain data quality levels of the Agency‘s previous SAR missions in terms of spatial resolution, sensitivity, accuracy, polarization and wavelength. Nonetheless, the Sentinel-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) constellation represents a completely new approach to SAR mission design by ESA in direct response to the operational needs for SAR data expressed under the EU-ESA Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) programme. The Sentinel-1 constellation is expected to provide near daily coverage over Europe and Canada, global coverage all independent of weather with delivery of radar data within 1 hour of acquisition - all vast improvements with respect to the existing SAR systems. The continuity of C-band SAR data combined with the greatly improved data provision is

  8. ESA's Multi-mission Sentinel-1 Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veci, Luis; Lu, Jun; Foumelis, Michael; Engdahl, Marcus

    2017-04-01

    The Sentinel-1 Toolbox is a new open source software for scientific learning, research and exploitation of the large archives of Sentinel and heritage missions. The Toolbox is based on the proven BEAM/NEST architecture inheriting all current NEST functionality including multi-mission support for most civilian satellite SAR missions. The project is funded through ESA's Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions (SEOM). The Sentinel-1 Toolbox will strive to serve the SEOM mandate by providing leading-edge software to the science and application users in support of ESA's operational SAR mission as well as by educating and growing a SAR user community. The Toolbox consists of a collection of processing tools, data product readers and writers and a display and analysis application. A common architecture for all Sentinel Toolboxes is being jointly developed by Brockmann Consult, Array Systems Computing and C-S called the Sentinel Application Platform (SNAP). The SNAP architecture is ideal for Earth Observation processing and analysis due the following technological innovations: Extensibility, Portability, Modular Rich Client Platform, Generic EO Data Abstraction, Tiled Memory Management, and a Graph Processing Framework. The project has developed new tools for working with Sentinel-1 data in particular for working with the new Interferometric TOPSAR mode. TOPSAR Complex Coregistration and a complete Interferometric processing chain has been implemented for Sentinel-1 TOPSAR data. To accomplish this, a coregistration following the Spectral Diversity[4] method has been developed as well as special azimuth handling in the coherence, interferogram and spectral filter operators. The Toolbox includes reading of L0, L1 and L2 products in SAFE format, calibration and de-noising, slice product assembling, TOPSAR deburst and sub-swath merging, terrain flattening radiometric normalization, and visualization for L2 OCN products. The Toolbox also provides several new tools for

  9. The Sentinel-3 Mission: Overview and Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donlon, Craig; Berruti, Bruno; Mecklenburg, Susanne; Nieke, Jens; Rebhan, Helge; Klein, Ulf; Mavrocordatos, Constantin; Frerick, Johannes; Seitz, Bernd

    2013-04-01

    Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) is a joint initiative of the European Commission (EC) and European Space Agency (ESA), which aims at achieving an autonomous and operational Earth observation capacity. GMES marks the transition from R&D oriented efforts in earth observation towards operational services. The development of the space infrastructure i.e. the GMES "space segment" for the provision of Earth remote sensing data is led by ESA partly in cooperation with EUMETSAT. Sentinel-3 is an operational mission in high-inclination, low earth orbit for the provision of observational data to marine and land monitoring services. These services include the generation of sea, ice and land surface altimetry products, land and ocean colour products, sea and land surface temperature products, and the vegetation products. The operational character of the mission implies a high level of availability of the data products and fast delivery time, which have been important design drivers for the mission. The Sentinel-3 spacecraft accommodates two large optical instruments - the Ocean and Land Colour Instrument (OLCI) with 21 spectral channels from 0.4 to 1.0_m, and the Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer instrument (SLSTR) with 9 spectral channels from 0.5m to 13m in nadir and oblique view directions, and a topography payload consisting of a SAR Radar Altimeter (SRAL) and a Microwave Radiometer (MWR) plus a suite of instruments for precise orbit determination (POD). These instruments will ensure the continuation of important data streams established with ESA's ERS and ENVISAT satellites. Full performance will be achieved with a constellation of two identical satellites, separated by 180 degrees in the same orbital plane. Two Sentinel-3 satellites are in development with the second satellite expected approximately 18 months after the first. The overall service duration is planned to be 20 years with several satellites. Currently, the launch of the first

  10. The Sentinel-1 Mission: New Opportunities for Ice Sheet Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Nagler

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Sentinel satellite constellation series, developed by the European Space Agency, represents the dedicated space component of the European Copernicus program, committed to long-term operational services in a wide range of application domains. Here, we address the potential of the Sentinel-1 mission for mapping and monitoring the surface velocity of glaciers and ice sheets. We present an ice velocity map of Greenland, derived from synthetic aperture radar (SAR data acquired in winter 2015 by Sentinel-1A, the first satellite of the Copernicus program in orbit. The map is assembled from about 900 SAR scenes acquired in Interferometric Wide swath (IW mode, applying the offset tracking technique. We discuss special features of IW mode data, describe the procedures for producing ice velocity maps, and assess the uncertainty of the ice motion product. We compare the Sentinel-1 ice motion product with velocity maps derived from high resolution SAR data of the TerraSAR-X mission and from PALSAR data. Beyond supporting operational services, the Sentinel-1 mission offers enhanced capabilities for comprehensive and long-term observation of key climate variables, such as the motion of ice masses.

  11. Examples of Sentinel-2A Mission Exploitation Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koetz, Benjamin; Hoersch, Bianca; Gascon, Ferran; Desnos, Yves-Louis; Seifert, Frank Martin; Paganini, Marc; Ramoino, Fabrizio; Arino, Olivier

    2017-04-01

    The Sentinel-2 Copernicus mission will bring significant breakthrough in the exploitation of space borne optical data. Sentinel-2 time series will transform land cover, agriculture, forestry, in-land water and costal EO applications from mapping to monitoring, from snapshot to time series data analysis, from image-based to pixel-based processing. The 5-days temporal revisiting of the Sentinel-2 satellites, when both units will be operated together, will usher us in a new era for time series analysis at high spatial resolutions (HR) of 10-20 meters. The monitoring of seasonal variations and processes in phenology and hydrology are examples of the many R&D areas to be studied. The mission's large swath and systematic acquisitions will further support unprecedented coverage at the national scale addressing information requirements of national to regional policies. Within ESA programs, such as the Data User Element (DUE), Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions (SEOM) and Climate Change Initiative (CCI), several R&D activities are preparing the exploitation of the Sentinel-2 mission towards reliable measurements and monitoring of e.g. Essential Climate Variables and indicators for the Sustainable Development Goals. Early Sentinel-2 results will be presented related to a range of applications and scientific domains such as agricultural monitoring at national scale (DUE Sen2Agri), wetland extent and condition over African Ramsar sites (DUE GlobWetland-Africa), land cover mapping for climate change (CCI Land Cover), national land monitoring (Cadaster-Env), forest degradation (DUE ForMoSa), urban mapping (DUE EO4Urban), in-land water quality (DUE SPONGE), map of Mediterranean aquaculture (DUE SMART) and coral reef habitat mapping (SEOM S2-4Sci Coral). The above-mentioned activities are only a few examples from the very active international land imaging community building on the long-term Landsat and Spot heritage and knowledge.

  12. The Sentinel-4 Mission: Instrument Description and Atmospheric Composition Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veihelmann, Ben; Meijer, Yasjka; Ingmann, Paul; Koopman, Rob; Bazalgette Courrèges-Lacoste, Grégory; Stark, Hendrik

    2013-04-01

    The Sentinel-4 mission, together with Sentinel-5 and the Sentinel-5 Precursor missions, is part of the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) space component covering the Earth's atmosphere. The primary objective of the Sentinel-4 mission is the observation of the diurnal cycle of tropospheric species in support of the air quality applications of GMES Atmosphere Services. The presentation focuses on the Sentinel-4/UVN instrument and its related Level-2 atmospheric composition products. The Sentinel-4 instrument is an Ultra-violet Visible Near infrared spectrometer (S4/UVN) which is embarked on the geostationary Meteosat Third Generation-Sounder (MTG-S) platforms. Key features of the S4/UVN instrument are the spectral range from 305 nm to 500 nm with a spectral resolution of 0.5 nm, and from 750 nm to 775 nm with a spectral resolution of 0.12 nm, in combination with a low polarization sensitivity and a high radiometric accuracy. The instrument shall observe Europe with a revisit time of one hour. The spatial sampling distance varies across the geographic coverage area and takes a value of 8 km at a reference location at 45˚ N. The expected launch date of the first MTG-S platform is 2019, and the expected lifetime is 15 years (two S4/UVN instruments in sequence on two MTG-S platforms). ESA will develop products based on the S4/UVN measurements for the key target species, which are NO2, O3, HCHO, SO2, aerosols, and CHOCHO, and for cloud and surface properties (mainly intermediate products). Also a synergetic O3 vertical profile product is foreseen based on observations from the S4/UVN and the MTG InfraRed Sounder (IRS) on-board the same platform. Synergetic aerosol and cloud products are foreseen based on observations from the S4/UVN and from the MTG Flexible Combined Imager (FCI) on-board the MTG-Imager (MTG-I) platform. Current pre-development studies are dedicated to a daily surface reflectance map product that treats the surface directionality as

  13. A Radiometric Uncertainty Tool for the Sentinel 2 Mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Gorroño

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the European Copernicus programme, the European Space Agency (ESA has launched the Sentinel-2 (S2 Earth Observation (EO mission which provides optical high spatial resolution imagery over land and coastal areas. As part of this mission, a tool (named S2-RUT, from Sentinel-2 Radiometric Uncertainty Tool has been developed. The tool estimates the radiometric uncertainty associated with each pixel in the top-of-atmosphere (TOA reflectance factor images provided by ESA. This paper describes the design and development process of the initial version of the S2-RUT tool. The initial design step describes the S2 radiometric model where a set of uncertainty contributors are identified. Each of the uncertainty contributors is specified by reviewing the pre- and post-launch characterisation. The identified uncertainty contributors are combined following the guidelines in the ‘Guide to Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement’ (GUM model and this combination model is further validated by comparing the results to a multivariate Monte Carlo Method (MCM. In addition, the correlation between the different uncertainty contributions and the impact of simplifications in the combination model have been studied. The software design of the tool prioritises an efficient strategy to read the TOA reflectance factor images, extract the auxiliary information from the metadata in the satellite products and the codification of the resulting uncertainty image. This initial version of the tool has been implemented and integrated as part of the Sentinels Application Platform (SNAP.

  14. Sentinels for science: Potential of Sentinel-1, -2, and -3 missions for scientific observations of ocean, cryosphere, and land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malenovsky, Z.; Rott, H.; Cihlar, J.; Schaepman, M.E.; Garcia-Santos, G.; Fernandes, R.; Berger, M.

    2012-01-01

    The Sentinel-1, -2, and -3 satellite missions can meet various observational needs for spatially explicit physical, biogeophysical, and biological variables of the ocean, cryosphere, and land research activities. The currently known observational requirements were extracted from documents produced b

  15. The Sentinel-4 Mission and its Atmospheric Composition Producs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veihelmann, Ben; Meijer, Yasjka; Ingmann, Paul; Koopman, Rob; Wright, Norrie; Courreges-Lacoste, Gregory Bazalgette; Bagnasco, Glorgio

    2016-08-01

    The Sentinel-4 (S4) mission is an element of the Copernicus Space Component dedicated to atmospheric composition. The mission is implemented as an Ultra- violet Visible Near infrared spectrometer (S4/UVN) embarked on the geostationary Meteosat Third Generation-Sounder (MTG-S) platforms (see Fig. 1). The S4/UVN instrument measures Earth radiance and solar irradiance over Europe with a revisit time of one hour and a spatial sampling distance of 8 km (at the reference location at 45°N). The mission will provide hourly measurements of tropospheric amounts of NO2 (Nitrogen dioxide), O3 (Ozone), SO2 (Sulfur dioxide), HCHO (Formaldehyde), CHOCHO (glyoxal), and aerosols in support of the air quality applications of the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Services. Two S4/UVN instruments will be embarked on the geostationary MTG-S platforms. The Flight Acceptance Review of the first MTG-S satellite is expected to take place in the first quarter of 2021. The expected S4 mission lifetime spans 15 years.

  16. Sentinel Mission: Forest Fire Products Evaluation over China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, M.; Sanz, J.; Salvador, P.; Molina, V.; Cassanova, J.-P.; Qin, Xianlin

    2016-08-01

    Sentinel-2a and Sentinel-3a were launch the 23 June 2015 and 16 February 2016 respectively. These two platforms constitute a great improvement in the surface monitoring, especially in forest fires emergency management, evaluation and recovery.The multispectral sensor on board Sentinel-2a is a perfect tool to delineate burnt areas and identify severity with great spatial and temporal resolution while the surface thermal information provided by Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer (SLSTR) on board Sentinel-3a constitute a source of hotspots. Both platforms will be complemented with their respective twins Sentinel-2b and Sentinel-3b in order to improve temporal resolution.This work tries to evaluate the constellation capacity to provide reliable forest fires products over China by comparison with Earth Observing System (EOS) and Landsat constellation products.

  17. Solar Sentinels: Report of the Science and Technology Definition Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The goal of NASA s Living With a Star (LWS) program is to develop the scientific understanding necessary to effectively address those aspects of the connected Sun Earth system that directly affect life and society. Along with the other elements of LWS, Solar Sentinels aims to discover, understand, and model the heliospheric initiation, propagation, and solar connection of those energetic phenomena that adversely affect space exploration and life and society here on Earth. The Solar Sentinels mission will address the following questions: (1) How, where, and under what circumstances are solar energetic particles (SEPs) accelerated to high energies and how do they propagate through the heliosphere? And (2) How are solar wind structures associated with these SEPs, like CMEs, shocks, and high-speed streams, initiated, propagate, evolve, and interact in the inner heliosphere? The Sentinels STDT recommends implementing this mission in two portions, one optimized for inner heliospheric in-situ measurements and the other for solar remote observations. Sentinels will greatly enhance the overall LWS science return.

  18. The Jason-CS/Sentinel-6 Ocean Surface Topography Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donlon, C.; Cullen, R.; Scharroo, R.

    2016-02-01

    The Jason-CS/Sentinel-6 (JCS/S6) mission will consist of 2 spacecraft providing the latest in a series of ocean surface topography "reference" satellite altimeters on-board TOPEX/Posiedon through to Jason-3 that span nearly 3 decades. It is a part of the European Copernicus Programme to establish a capacity for Earth Observation and associated services. It will continue to fulfil reference altimeter series objectives but will also introduce a major enhancement in capability to the operational and scientific oceanographic community. The 1st satellite is planned for launch in 2020 with the 2nd satellite 5 years later. Partner Agencies include ESA, EUMETSAT, NASA, EU and CNES. The mission design is based on a platform derived from CryoSat-2 but adjusted to the specific requirements of the higher reference mission orbit. Building on the heritage of previous ESA instruments (SIRAL and SRAL), the principle payload instrument is a high precision dual-frequency (for high stability ionospheric path delay correction) Ku/C band synthetic aperture radar altimeter (POSIEDON-4). Retrieval of geophysical parameters (surface elevation, wind speed and SWH) from the altimeter data uses measurements from a DORIS receiver (for Precise Orbit Determination (POD)) and the Climate Quality Advanced Microwave Radiometer (AMR-C) provided by JPL (for high stability wet-tropospheric path delay correction). Orbit tracking data are derived from a GPS and a Laser Retro Reflector. A 2nd GNSS-RO will be flown that is dedicated to radio-occultation measurements. The JCS/S6 altimeter will be the 1st Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) altimeter used as part of the reference altimeter mission series. It will also be the 1st altimeter to operate in a continuous high-rate pulse mode optimizing the RADAR sampling strategy and allowing, for the first time simultaneous production of low-resolution mode measurements on-board as well as the processing of SAR echoes on-ground. Both types of measurements will be

  19. The Ocean Surface Topography SENTINEL-6/JASON-CS Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Sentinel-6/Jason-CS mission will consist of 2 spacecraft and will be the latest in a series of ocean surface topography missions that will span nearly three decades. They follow the altimeters on- board TOPEX/Poseidon through to Jason-3 (expected March 2015). Jason-CS will continue to fulfil objectives of the reference series whilst introducing a major enhancement in capability providing the operational and science oceanographic community with the state of the art in terms of platform, measurement instrumentation design thus securing optimal operational and science data return. The programme is a part of the EC Copernicus initiative, whose objective is to support Europe's goals regarding sustainable development and global governance of the environment by providing timely and quality data, information, services and knowledge. The programme brings together: ESA for development, procurement & early orbit activities; EUMETSAT for mission management, ground segment, flight ops, contributing funding of the 1st satellite and participation in funding for the 2nd satellite; NASA for the US payload and launcher procurement in addition to funding US science opportunities; EC for funding the operations and participation in funding (with EUMETSAT) for the 2nd satellite; NOAA are expected to provide US ground stations & operations services; CNES for mission expertise and provision of the POD service. The consortium plan to procure 2 satellites with the 1st planned for launch readiness in the 1st half of 2020 with the 2nd satellite 5 years later. The first major commitment to funding was given by the ESA member states that approved the programme in June 2014 and in addition the European Commission funding is also fully secure. The design is based on a platform derived from CryoSat-2 adjusted to the specific requirements of the higher orbit. The principle payload instrument is a high precision Ku/C band radar altimeter with retrieval of geophysical parameters (surface

  20. Sentinel Convoy: Synergetic Earth Observation with Satellites Flying in Formation with European Operational Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Amanda; Silvestrin, Pierluigi; Fernandez, Diego

    2016-08-01

    The successful launch of Sentinel-1A, Sentinel-1B, Sentinel-2A and Sentinel-3A signify the beginning of the dedicated space segment for the Copernicus Programme, which is the result of the partnership between the European Commission (EC) and the European Space Agency (ESA). These Sentinels are the first of a long-term operational series of Earth Observation (EO) satellites to be launched by Europe that will complement the already well-established series of meteorological missions.For the first time, these missions will provide a continuous and long term European capability for systematic observations of the Earth surface, its oceans and atmosphere to unprecedented accuracies, resolutions, and temporal coverage. If additional cost- effective missions could be flown together with these operational missions (including operational meteorological satellite series such as MetOp (Second Generation - SG) then the possibilities for meeting new Earth science and application objectives could be far- reaching e.g. fulfilling observational gaps, synergistic measurements of Earth system processes, etc. To explore this potential, the ESA initiated three exploratory paper studies (known as the EO-Convoy studies). The aim of these studies is two fold: Firstly, to identify scientific and operational objectives and needs that would benefit from additional in-orbit support. Secondly, to identify and develop a number of cost- effective mission concepts that would meet these objectives and needs. Each EO Convoy study is dedicated to a specific theme, namely: Study 1 - Ocean and Ice Applications, Study 2 - Land Applications and Study 3 - Atmospheric Applications.This paper will present the results of the EO-Convoy studies including an overview of the user needs and derived convoy concept descriptions. This paper shall focus on the resulting science benefits. Example convoy concepts to be presented include a passive C-band SAR flying with Sentinel-1 and possible free flying thermal

  1. Catalogue of ISO LWS observations of asteroids

    CERN Document Server

    Hormuth, Felix

    2009-01-01

    (Abridged) The Long Wavelength Spectrometer (LWS) onboard the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) observed the four large main-belt asteroids (1) Ceres, (2) Pallas, (4) Vesta, and (10) Hygiea multiple times. The photometric and spectroscopic data cover the wavelength range between 43 and 197 um, and are a unique dataset for future investigations and detailed characterisations of these bodies. The standard ISO archive products, produced through the last post-mission LWS pipeline, were still affected by instrument artefacts. Our goal was to provide the best possible data products to exploit the full scientific potential of these observations. We performed a refined reduction of all measurements, corrected for various instrumental effects, and re-calibrated the data. We outline the data reduction process and give an overview of the available data and the quality of the observations. We apply a thermophysical model to the flux measurements to derive far-IR based diameter and albedo values of the asteroids. The measu...

  2. Maximizing the Scientific Return of the Sentinels Mission Using Global MHD Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, P.; Linker, J. A.; Mikic, Z.; Lionello, R.

    2006-01-01

    The Sentinels mission promises to provide a unique view of the acceleration and transport processes of energetic particles as well as the initiation and evolution of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). A crucial component in understanding the physics associated with these processes lies in the large-scale structure of the corona and heliosphere, particularly during the eruption and propagation of fast CMEs. In this talk we review the current status of our MHD modeling efforts, focusing on Sentinels-specific science, and project forward to envisage what capabilities we may have developed by the time that the Sentinels launch (2012). In conjunction with Solar Orbiter, the farside and near-Earth Sentinels spacecraft will provide simultaneous photospheric magnetograph measurements at multiple longitudes, which will lead to major improvements in our ability to prescribe accurate, time-dependent global boundary conditions. Data returned from the inner heliospheric Sentinels will be used to validate these results. The model results can be used in a variety of ways to interpret the observations. For example, products from the model, such as the properties of CME-driven shocks and CME-associated reconnection sites can be used to interpret complex energetic particle profiles. Also, by tracing along magnetic field lines, the inferred sites of the energetic particles can be connected directly with the in situ measurements at each spacecraft. Perhaps more so than any previous mission, sophisticated models will be required to unravel the broad and disparate measurements returned by the suite of Sentinels spacecraft.

  3. Vision for the Future of Lws TR&T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwadron, N.; Mannucci, A. J.; Antiochos, S. K.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Gombosi, T. I.; Gopalswamy, N.; Kamalabadi, F.; Linker, J.; Pilewskie, P.; Pulkkinen, A. A.; Spence, H. E.; Tobiska, W. K.; Weimer, D. R.; Withers, P.; Bisi, M. M.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Miller, K. L.; Moretto, T.; Onsager, T. G.; Roussev, I. I.; Viereck, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Living With a Star (LWS) program addresses acute societal needs for understanding the effects of space weather and developing scientific knowledge to support predictive capabilities. Our society's heavy reliance on technologies affected by the space environment, an enormous number of airline customers, interest in space tourism, and the developing plans for long-duration human exploration space missions are clear examples that demonstrate urgent needs for space weather models and detailed understanding of space weather effects and risks. Since its inception, the LWS program has provided a vehicle to innovate new mechanisms for conducting research, building highly effective interdisciplinary teams, and ultimately in developing the scientific understanding needed to transition research tools into operational models that support the predictive needs of our increasingly space-reliant society. The advances needed require broad-based observations that cannot be obtained by large missions alone. The Decadal Survey (HDS, 2012) outlines the nation's needs for scientific development that will build the foundation for tomorrow's space weather services. Addressing these goals, LWS must develop flexible pathways to space utilizing smaller, more diverse and rapid development of observational platforms. Expanding utilization of ground-based assets and shared launches will also significantly enhance opportunities to fulfill the growing LWS data needs. Partnerships between NASA divisions, national/international agencies, and with industry will be essential for leveraging resources to address increasing societal demand for space weather advances. Strengthened connections to user communities will enhance the quality and impact of deliverables from LWS programs. Thus, we outline the developing vision for the future of LWS, stressing the need for deeper scientific understanding to improve forecasting capabilities, for more diverse data resources, and for project deliverables that

  4. The Copernicus Sentinel-3 Mission and Oceanography: Overview and current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donlon, Craig; Berruti, Bruno; Mecklenburg, Susanne; Nieke, Jens; Rebhan, Helge; Mavrocordatos, Constantin; Seitz, Bernd; Frerick, Johannes; Klein, Ulf; Goryl, Phillippe; Femenias, Pierre

    2014-05-01

    Copernicus is a joint initiative of the European Commission (EC) and European Space Agency (ESA), which aims at achieving an autonomous and operational Earth observation capacity. GMES marks the transition from R&D oriented efforts in earth observation towards operational services. The development of the space infrastructure i.e. the Copernicus "space component" for the provision of Earth remote sensing data, is led by ESA. The atmosphere and ocean Sentinel Missions are being prepared in cooperation with EUMETSAT. Sentinel-3 is an operational mission in high-inclination, low earth orbit for the provision of observational data to marine and land monitoring services. These services include the generation of sea, ice and land surface altimetry products, land and ocean colour products, sea and land surface temperature products, and vegetation products. The operational character of the mission implies a high level of availability of the data products and fast delivery time, which have been important design drivers for the mission. The Sentinel-3 spacecraft accommodates two large optical instruments - the Ocean and Land Colour Instrument (OLCI) with 21 spectral channels from 0.4 to 1.0_m, and the Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer instrument (SLSTR) with 9 spectral channels from 0.5m to 13m in nadir and oblique view directions, and a topography payload consisting of a SAR Radar Altimeter (SRAL) and a Microwave Radiometer (MWR) plus a suite of instruments for precise orbit determination (POD). These instruments will ensure the continuation of important data streams established with ESA's ERS and ENVISAT satellites. Full performance will be achieved with a constellation of two identical satellites, separated by 180 degrees in the same orbital plane. Two Sentinel-3 satellites are in development with the second satellite launch expected approximately 18 months after the first. The overall service duration is planned to be 20 years and is expected to be fulfilled by

  5. Eight years of OMI measurements and what we can learn from these for the Sentinel missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levelt, Pieternel; Veefkind, Pepijn; Bhartia, Pawan; Joiner, Joanna; Taminen, Johanna; Omi Science Team

    2013-04-01

    Eight years of OMI measurements and what we can learn from these for the Sentinel missions P.F. Levelt, P. Veefkind, PK Bhartia, J. Joiner, J. Tamminen, OMI Science Team The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) is an UV/VIS nadir solar backscatter imaging spectrometer, which provides nearly global coverage in one day with a spatial resolution of 13 x 24 km2. OMI measures solar irradiance and Earth radiances in the wavelength range of 270 to 500 nm with a spectral resolution of about 0.5 nm. The OMI instrument was launched at July 15, 2004 on NASA's EOS-Aura satellite. OMI is a third party mission of ESA. OMI's unique capabilities rely in measuring tropospheric trace gases with a small footprint and daily global coverage. The unprecedented spatial resolution of the instrument revealed for the first time tropospheric pollution maps on a daily basis with urban scale resolution, and also enables research improving our understanding of air pollutants and aerosols in the interaction between air quality and climate change. The data are used for obtaining emission maps using inverse modelling or related techniques. The sentinel missions (S5p/TROPOMI and Sentinel 4 and 5) will have an even better spatial resolution than OMI. In order to exploit their capability for tropospheric research and actual monitoring of emission sources the calibration and validation of these instruments and their data products are of high importance. In this presentation new findings of OMI will be presented and what we can learn from that for the preparation of the Sentinel missions, their validation and their scientific exploitation. Also lessons learned from the NASA methodology for OMI validation will be discussed and results of validation campaigns that supported OMI validation (i.e. SAUNA, DANDELIONS, CINDI, DISCOVER AQ, etc etc) will be shown.

  6. Sentinel-2 Optical High Resolution Mission for GMES Land Operational Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isola, Claudia; Drusch, Matthias; Gascon, Ferran; Martimort, Philippe; Del Bello, Umberto; Spoto, Francois; Sy, Omas; Laberinti, Paolo

    2010-05-01

    Long-term availability of Earth observation-based services and continuity of consistent high quality data is - apart from meteorological services - not guaranteed in Europe. In order to contribute to improve its response to ever growing challenges of global safety and climate change, Europe requires an independent sustained and reliable Earth observation system. The Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) is a European programme for the implementation of a European capacity to provide independent and permanent access to reliable Earth observation data. To ensure the operational provision of appropriate Earth-observation data the GMES Space Component (GSC) includes a series of five space missions called 'Sentinels', which are being developed by ESA specifically for GMES. The European Space Agency (ESA) in partnership with the European Commission (EC) is developing the Sentinel-2 optical imaging mission devoted to the operational monitoring of land and coastal areas. The Sentinel-2 mission is based on a twin satellites configuration deployed in polar sun-synchronous orbit and designed to offer a unique combination of systematic global coverage, high revisit (five days at equator with two satellites) and high spatial resolution imagery (10/20/60m). The Multi-Spectral Imager (MSI) features 13 spectral bands, going from visible to short wave infrared domains. The instrument is designed to provide in orbit calibration, excellent radiometric and geometric performance, and with a capability to support accurate image geo-location and co-registration. The Sentinel-2 mission is more particularly tailored to the monitoring of land terrains, including vegetation and urban areas. Sentinel-2 will ensure data continuity with the SPOT and Landsat multi-spectral sensors, while accounting for future service evolution. The lifetime of each Sentinel-2 spacecraft is specified as 7 years and propellant is sized for 12 years, including provision for de-orbiting manoeuvres at

  7. LWS/SET Technology Experiment Carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Barry; Giffin, Geoff

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the approach taken to building a low-cost, modular spacecraft bus that can be used to support a variety of technology experiments in different space environments. It describes the techniques used and design drivers considered to ensure experiment independence from as yet selected host spacecraft. It describes the technology experiment carriers that will support NASA's Living With a Star Space Environment Testbed space missions. NASA has initiated the Living With a Star (LWS) Program to develop a better scientific understanding to address the aspects of the connected Sun-Earth system that affect life and society. A principal goal of the program is to bridge the gap between science, engineering, and user application communities. The Space Environment Testbed (SET) Project is one element of LWS. The Project will enable future science, operational, and commercial objectives in space and atmospheric environments by improving engineering approaches to the accommodation and/or mitigation of the effects of solar variability on technological systems. The SET Project is highly budget constrained and must seek to take advantage of as yet undetermined partnering opportunities for access to space. SET will conduct technology validation experiments hosted on available flight opportunities. The SET Testbeds will be developed in a manner that minimizes the requirements for accommodation, and will be flown as flight opportunities become available. To access the widest range of flight opportunities, two key development requirements are to maintain flexibility with respect to accommodation constraints and to have the capability to respond quickly to flight opportunities. Experiments, already developed to the technology readiness level of needing flight validation in the variable Sun-Earth environment, will be selected on the basis of the need for the subject technology, readiness for flight, need for flight resources and particular orbit. Experiments will be

  8. Sentinel-5 Precursor: First Copernicus Atmospheric Chemistry Mission ready for Launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullan, Kevin; Nett, Herbert

    2017-04-01

    Sentinel-5 Precursor (S-5P) will be the first of a series of atmospheric chemistry missions to be launched within the European Commission's Copernicus (former GMES) Programme. With the current launch window of June 2017 and a nominal lifetime of 7 years, S-5P is expected to provide continuity in the availability of global atmospheric data products between its predecessor missions SCIAMACHY (Envisat) and OMI (AURA) and the future Sentinel-4 and -5 series. S-5P will deliver unique data regarding the sources and sinks of trace gases with a focus on the lower Troposphere including the planet boundary layer due to its enhanced spatial, temporal and spectral sampling capabilities as compared to its predecessors. The S-5P satellite will carry a single payload, TROPOMI (TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument) which is jointly developed by The Netherlands and ESA. Covering spectral channels in the UV, visible, near- and short-wave infrared, it will measure various key species including tropospheric/stratospheric ozone, NO2, SO2, CO, CH4, CH2O as well as cloud and aerosol parameters. The S-5P Project successfully passed the Ground Segment Acceptance Review (GS-AR) and the satellite-level Qualification Acceptance Review (QAR) in March and April 2016, respectively. Remaining pre-launch tasks focus on the detailed planning of Phase E1 activities and the training of the operations teams. The paper includes descriptions of the S-5p spacecraft, the TROPOMI instrument, data products and applications, Level-1b and Level-2 processing, Ground Segment, launch preparation, launch and in-orbit commissioning and in-flight calibration and validation.

  9. Sentinel-3 Mission Performance Center: paving the way of high-quality controlled data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruniquel, Jerome; Féménias, Pierre; Goryl, Philippe; Bonekamp, Hans

    2015-04-01

    As part of the Sentinel-3 mission and in order to ensure the highest quality of products, ESA and EUMETSAT set up the Sentinel-3 Mission Performance Centre (S-3 MPC). This facility is part of the Payload Data Ground Segment (PDGS) and aims at controlling the quality of all generated products, from L0 to L2. The S-3 MPC is composed of a Coordinating Centre (CC), where the core infrastructure is hosted, which is in charge of the main routine activities (especially the quality control of data) and the overall service management. Expert Support Laboratories (ESLs) are involved in calibration and validation activities and provide specific assessment of the products (e.g., analysis of trends, ad hoc analysis of anomalies, etc.). The S-3 MPC interacts with the Processing Archiving Centers (PACs) and the marine centre at EUMETSAT. The S-3 MPC service contract is currently carried out by 23-partners consortium led by ACRI-ST, France. The S-3 MPC contract was kick-offed in September 2014 with a first set-up phase of 12 months. After the launch of S3-A (planned before end of 2015), the S-3 MPC will start its second phase to support commissioning activities. Then a routine operation phase of up to 5 years will begin, including the commissioning activities related to S3-B. The main S-3 MPC activities are: - Calibration: to update on-board and on-ground configuration data in order to meet product quality requirements. - Validation: to assess, by independent means with respect to the methods and tools used for calibration, the quality of the generated data products. Validation functions provide feedback to calibration and data processors corrective and perfective maintenance activities. - Verification: to confirm that the specified requirements on a system have been satisfied. - Quality Control: to routinely monitor the status of the sensor and to check if the derived products (Level 0, Level 1 and Level 2) meet the quality requirements along mission lifetime. - Algorithm

  10. Sentinel-3 Mission Performance Centre: a Summary of First Months of Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruniquel, Jerome; S3MPC Partners

    2016-08-01

    The Sentinel-3 Mission Performance Centre (S-3 MPC) is one of the facility part of the Payload Data Ground Segment (PDGS). It and aims at controlling the quality of all generated products, from L0 to L2. The S-3 MPC is composed of a Coordinating Centre (CC), where the core infrastructure is hosted, which is in charge of the main routine activities (especially the quality control of data) and the overall service management. Expert Support Laboratories (ESLs) are involved in calibration and validation activities and provide specific assessment of the products (e.g., analysis of trends, ad hoc analysis of anomalies, etc.). The S-3 MPC interacts with the Processing Archiving Centers (PACs) and the Marine Centre at EUMETSAT.The S3MPC covers both optical and topography missions, each of them composed of several instruments.Since S3-A launch on the 16th of February 2016, the S3- MPC has started its activities, mainly focused on: Calibration activities, done in close relationship with the satellite commissioning team at ESTEC; Processor verification and update of specifications; Validation of L1 products and assessment of instrument performances; Cross-checking of L1 products processed in various processing centres; Progressive implementation of Quality Control activities done at the S3-MPC; Validation of L2 products, in synergy with the Marine Centre for L2 marine products

  11. Status of the Sea & Land Surface Temperature Radiometer (SLSTR) for the Sentinel 3 GMES Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppo, Peter; Cosi, Massimo; Engel, Wolfgang; Nieke, Jens; Smith, Dave; Bianchi, Stephane

    2010-10-01

    The Sea & Land Surface Temperature Radiometer (SLSTR) is a high accuracy infrared radiometer selected as optical payload for the Sentinel 3 component of the GMES mission, to provide climatological data continuity respect to the previous ERS and ESA Envisat missions, that embarked respectively the ATSR, ATSR-2 and AATSR payloads. The instrument design follows the dual view concept of the ATSR series with some notable improvements. An increased swath width in both nadir and oblique views (1400 and 740 km) provides measurements at global coverage of Sea and Land Surface Temperature (SST/LST) with daily revisit times, which is useful for climate and meteorology (1 Km spatial resolution). Improved day-time cloud screening and other atmospheric products will be possible from the increased spatial resolution (0.5 Km) of the VIS and SWIR channels and additional SWIR channels at 1.375μm and 2.25μm. Two additional channels using dedicated detector and electronics elements are also included for high temperature events monitoring (1 km spatial resolution). The two Earth viewing swaths are generated using two telescopes and scan mirrors that are optically combined by means of a switching mirror at the entrance of a common Focal Plane Assembly. The eleven spectral channels (3 VIS, 3 SWIR, 2 MWIR, 3 TIR) are split within the FPA using a series of dichroics. The SWIR, MWIR and TIR optics/detectors are cooled down to 80 K with an active cryocooler, while the VIS detectors work at a stabilised uncooled temperature. The paper highlights the technical and programmatic status of the project, which is now in phase C.

  12. Sentinel 2A: the image quality performances at the beginning of its mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trémas, T.; Lonjou, V.; Lachérade, S.; Languille, F.; Gaudel-Vacaresse, A.,

    2016-09-01

    Launched on June 23rd, 2015 from Kourou, Sentinel 2A has been providing images for more than 1 year now. The satellite behavior is very satisfactory and the quality of data fulfills the requirements with comfortable margins. The realization and implementation of the satellite has been realized under the responsibility of ESA, for the European Commission. The In Orbit Commissioning phase lasted 4 months, concluded by a review on October 16th, 2015. At this date, the S2A space segment handover took place from the Project Manager (ESA/ESTEC) to the Mission Manager (ESA/ESRIN). The subset of Image Quality commissioning was delegated by ESA to CNES, referring to the experience of the French Space Agency on previous imagers. This phase lasted 7 months after the launch, extending beyond the IOCR. Actually, some parameters required several months before converging to a stable state. This paper presents the status of the satellite, from an IQ prospective, just before it entered its operational phase. The radiometric and geometric performances are listed, including: the absolute radiometric calibration, the equalization, the SNR, the absolute and the multi-temporal location accuracy. The accomplishment of a part of the Global Reference Image over Europe is evoked as well. The IQ commissioning phase ended on January 28th, 2016. From this date, the monitoring of IQ parameters is under the responsibility of ESA/ESRIN. Nevertheless, CNES continues to support ESA to survey the accuracy of S2A performances. The article ends by dealing with the future of S2A that will work together with S2B by the end of 2016.

  13. GMES Sentinel 3: mission overview and aspects of the Calval Plan for its optical payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieke, Jens; Goryl, Philippe; Donlon, Craig; Berruti, Bruno

    2010-10-01

    The European Union-ESA Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) programme decided to develop the Sentinels as first series of operational satellites in order to meet specific Earth observation user needs. The series of Sentinel-3 satellites will provide global, frequent and near-realtime ocean, ice and land monitoring. It continues Envisat's altimetry, the multispectral, medium-resolution visible and infrared ocean and land-surface observations of ERS, Envisat and Spot, and includes enhancements to meet the operational revisit requirements and to facilitate new products and evolution of services. The first launch is expected in 2013. In this paper an outline of the Sentinel-3 satellite and optical payload is presented. Dedicated calibration and validation activities regarding the sea and land surface temperature radiometer (SLSTR) and ocean and land colour radiometer (OLCI) are then reviewed. Calibration and validation (calval) activities are based on the heritage gained from ENVISAT MERIS and AATSR experience and cover pre-launch, in-orbit commissioning and operational measures for the Sentinel 3 satellites.

  14. The Sentinel-3 Surface Topography Mission (S-3 STM): Level 2 SAR Ocean Retracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinardo, S.; Lucas, B.; Benveniste, J.

    2015-12-01

    The SRAL Radar Altimeter, on board of the ESA Mission Sentinel-3 (S-3), has the capacity to operate either in the Pulse-Limited Mode (also known as LRM) or in the novel Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) mode. Thanks to the initial results from SAR Altimetry obtained exploiting CryoSat-2 data, lately the interest by the scientific community in this new technology has significantly increased and consequently the definition of accurate processing methodologies (along with validation strategies) has now assumed a capital importance. In this paper, we present the algorithm proposed to retrieve from S-3 STM SAR return waveforms the standard ocean geophysical parameters (ocean topography, wave height and sigma nought) and the validation results that have been so far achieved exploiting the CryoSat-2 data as well as the simulated data. The inversion method (retracking) to extract from the return waveform the geophysical information is a curve best-fitting scheme based on the bounded Levenberg-Marquardt Least-Squares Estimation Method (LEVMAR-LSE). The S-3 STM SAR Ocean retracking algorithm adopts, as return waveform’s model, the “SAMOSA” model [Ray et al, 2014], named after the R&D project SAMOSA (led by Satoc and funded by ESA), in which it has been initially developed. The SAMOSA model is a physically-based model that offers a complete description of a SAR Altimeter return waveform from ocean surface, expressed in the form of maps of reflected power in Delay-Doppler space (also known as stack) or expressed as multilooked echoes. SAMOSA is able to account for an elliptical antenna pattern, mispointing errors in roll and yaw, surface scattering pattern, non-linear ocean wave statistics and spherical Earth surface effects. In spite of its truly comprehensive character, the SAMOSA model comes with a compact analytical formulation expressed in term of Modified Bessel functions. The specifications of the retracking algorithm have been gathered in a technical document (DPM

  15. Remote Sensing of Grassland Biophysical Parameters in the Context of the Sentinel-2 Satellite Mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Sakowska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the potential of the Sentinel-2 satellite for monitoring the seasonal changes in grassland total canopy chlorophyll content (CCC, fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by the vegetation canopy (FAPAR, and fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed only by its photosynthesizing components (GFAPAR. Reflectance observations were collected on a continuous basis during growing seasons by means of a newly developed ASD-WhiteRef system. Two models using Sentinel-2 simulated data (linear regression-vegetation indices (VIs approach and multiple regression (MR reflectance approach were tested to estimate vegetation biophysical parameters. To assess whether the use of full solar spectrum reflectance data is able to provide an added value in CCC and GFAPAR estimation accuracy, a third model based on partial least squares regression (PLSR and the ASD-WhiteRef reflectance data was tested. The results showed that FAPAR remained quite stable during the reproduction and senescence stages, and no significant relationships between FAPAR and VIs were found. On the other hand, GFAPAR showed clearer seasonal trends. The comparison of the three models revealed no significant differences in the accuracies of CCC and GFAPAR predictions and demonstrated a strong contribution of SWIR bands to the explained variability of investigated parameters. The promising results highlight the potential of the Sentinel-2 satellite for retrieving biophysical parameters from space.

  16. TROPOMI on the ESA Sentinel-5 Precursor: A GMES mission for global observations of the atmospheric composition for climate, air quality and ozone layer applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veefkind, J.P.; Aben, I.; McMullan, K.; Förster, H.; Vries, J. de; Otter, G.; Claas, J.; Eskes, H.J.; Haan, J.F. de; Kleipool, Q.; Weele, M. van; Hasekamp, O.; Hoogeveen, R.; Landgraf, J.; Snel, R.; Tol, P.; Ingmann, P.; Voors, R.; Kruizinga, B.; Vink, R.; Visser, H.; Levelt, P.F.

    2012-01-01

    The ESA (European Space Agency) Sentinel-5 Precursor (S-5 P) is a low Earth orbit polar satellite to provide information and services on air quality, climate and the ozone layer in the timeframe 2015-2022. The S-5 P mission is part of the Global Monitoring of the Environment and Security (GMES)

  17. Land Surface Temperature retrieval from Sentinel 2 and 3 Missions: a conceptual framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrino, J. A.; Jimenez-Muñoz, J. C.; Ruescas, A.; Brockmann, C.; Heckel, A.; North, P. R. J.; Remedios, J. J.; Darren, G.; Merchant, C.; Berger, M.; Soria, G.; Danne, O.

    2012-04-01

    Land Surface Temperature (LST) is one of the key parameters in the physics of land-surface processes on regional and global scales, combining the results of all the surface-atmosphere interactions and energy fluxes between the surface and the atmosphere. Because of the strong heterogeneity in land surface characteristics such as vegetation, topography and soil physical properties, LST changes rapidly in space as well as in time. An adequate characterization of LST distribution and its temporal evolution, therefore, requires measurements with detailed spatial and temporal frequencies. With the advent of the ESA's Sentinel 2 and 3 series of satellites a unique opportunity exists to go beyond the current state of the art of single instrument algorithms. In this work we explore the synergistic use of future MSI instrument on board Sentinel-2 platform and OLCI/SLSTR instruments on board Sentinel-3 platform in order to improve LST products currently derived from the single AATSR instrument on board the ENVISAT satellite. For this purpose, the high spatial resolution data from Sentinel2/MSI will be used for a good characterization of the land surface sub-pixel heterogeneity, in particular for a precise parameterization of surface emissivity using a land cover map and spectral mixture techniques. On the other hand, the high spectral resolution of OLCI instrument, suitable for a better characterization of the atmosphere, along with the dual-view available in the SLTSR instrument, will allow a better atmospheric correction through improved aerosol/water vapor content retrievals and the implementation of novel cloud screening procedures. Effective emissivity and atmospheric corrections will allow accurate LST retrievals using the SLTSR thermal bands by developing a synergistic split-window/dual-angle algorithm. ENVISAT MERIS and AATSR instruments and different high spatial resolution data (Landsat/TM, Proba/CHRIS, Terra/ASTER) will be used as a benchmark for the future OLCI

  18. A Prototype Algorithm for Land Surface Temperature Retrieval from Sentinel-3 Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrino, Jose A.; Jimenez-Munoz, Juan C.; Soria, Guillem; Brockmann, Carsten; Ruescas, Ana; Danne, Olaf; North, Peter; Phillipe, Pierre; Berger, Michel; Merchant, Chris; Ghent, Darren; Remedios, John

    2015-12-01

    In this work we present a prototype algorithm to retrieve Land Surface Temperature (LST) from OLCI and SLSTR instruments on board Sentinel-3 platform, which was developed in the framework of the SEN4LST project. For this purpose, data acquired with the ENVISAT MERIS and AATSR instruments are used as a benchmark. The objective is to improve the LST standard product (level 2) currently derived from the single AATSR instrument taking advantages of the improved characteristics of the future OLCI and SLSTR instruments. Hence, the high spectral resolution of OLCI instrument and the dual-view and thermal bands available in the SLSTR instruments have the potential to improve the characterization of the atmosphere and therefore to improve the atmospheric correction and cloud mask. Bands in the solar domain available in both instruments allow the retrieval of the surface emissivity, being a key input to the LST algorithm. Pairs of MERIS/AATSR are processed over different sites and validated with in situ measurements using the LST processor included in the BEAM software. Results showed that the proposed LST algorithm improves LST retrievals of the standard level-2 product.

  19. SNAP (Sentinel Application Platform) and the ESA Sentinel 3 Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuhlke, Marco; Fomferra, Norman; Brockmann, Carsten; Peters, Marco; Veci, Luis; Malik, Julien; Regner, Peter

    2015-12-01

    ESA is developing three new free open source Toolboxes for the scientific exploitation of the Sentinel-1, Sentinel-2 and Sentinel-3 missions. The Toolboxes are based on a common software platform, namely the Sentinel Application Platform (SNAP). SNAP is an evolution of the proven ESA BEAM/NEST architecture inheriting all current BEAM and NEST functionality including multi-mission support for SAR and optical missions to support ESA and third party missions for years to come. The Sentinel-3 Toolbox includes generic function for visualisation and analysis of Sentinel-3 OLCI and SLSTR Level 1 and Level 2 data, as well as specific processing tools such as cloud screening, water constituent retrieval and SST retrieval. The Toolbox will put emphasis on access to remote in-situ databases such as Felyx or MERMAID, and exploitation of the data-uncertainty information which is included in the Sentinel-3 data products. New image classification, segmentation and filtering methods, as well as interoperability with the ORFEO Toolbox and the GDAL libraries will be additional new tools. New challenges stemming from Sentinel-3 sensors, such as raster data in different resolutions within a single dataset, will be supported gracefully. The development of SNAP and the Sentinel Toolboxes is funded through the “Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions (SEOM)” programme, a new programme element of ESA’s fourth period of the Earth Observation Envelope Programme (2013-2017).

  20. BioSentinel: Mission Development of a Radiation Biosensor to Gauge DNA Damage and Repair Beyond Low Earth Orbit on a 6U Nanosatellite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Brian; Hanel, Robert; Bhattacharya, Sharmila; Ricco, Antonion J.; Agasid, Elwood; Reiss-Bubenheim, Debra; Straume, Tore; Parra, Macerena; Boone, Travis; Santa Maria, Sergio; hide

    2015-01-01

    We are designing and developing a "6U" (10 x 22 x 34 cm; 14 kg) nanosatellite as a secondary payload to fly aboard NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) Exploration Mission (EM) 1, scheduled for launch in late 2017. For the first time in over forty years, direct experimental data from biological studies beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) will be obtained during BioSentinel's 12- to 18- month mission. BioSentinel will measure the damage and repair of DNA in a biological organism and allow us to compare that to information from onboard physical radiation sensors. In order to understand the relative contributions of the space environment's two dominant biological perturbations, reduced gravity and ionizing radiation, results from deep space will be directly compared to data obtained in LEO (on ISS) and on Earth. These data points will be available for validation of existing biological radiation damage and repair models, and for extrapolation to humans, to assist in mitigating risks during future long-term exploration missions beyond LEO. The BioSentinel Payload occupies 4U of the spacecraft and will utilize the monocellular eukaryotic organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) to report DNA double-strand-break (DSB) events that result from ambient space radiation. DSB repair exhibits striking conservation of repair proteins from yeast to humans. Yeast was selected because of 1) its similarity to cells in higher organisms, 2) the well-established history of strains engineered to measure DSB repair, 3) its spaceflight heritage, and 4) the wealth of available ground and flight reference data. The S. cerevisiae flight strain will include engineered genetic defects to prevent growth and division until a radiation-induced DSB activates the yeast's DNA repair mechanisms. The triggered culture growth and metabolic activity directly indicate a DSB and its successful repair. The yeast will be carried in the dry state within the 1-atm P/L container in 18 separate fluidics cards with each

  1. BioSentinel: Mission Development of a Radiation Biosensor to Gauge DNA Damage and Repair Beyond Low Earth Orbit on a 6U Nanosatellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Hugo; Lewis, Brian; Hanel, Robert

    2015-01-01

    We are designing and developing a 6U (10 x 22 x 34 cm; 14 kg) nanosatellite as a secondary payload to fly aboard NASAs Space Launch System (SLS) Exploration Mission (EM) 1, scheduled for launch in late 2017. For the first time in over forty years, direct experimental data from biological studies beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) will be obtained during BioSentinels 12- to 18-month mission. BioSentinel will measure the damage and repair of DNA in a biological organism and allow us to compare that to information from onboard physical radiation sensors. In order to understand the relative contributions of the space environments two dominant biological perturbations, reduced gravity and ionizing radiation, results from deep space will be directly compared to data obtained in LEO (on ISS) and on Earth. These data points will be available for validation of existing biological radiation damage and repair models, and for extrapolation to humans, to assist in mitigating risks during future long-term exploration missions beyond LEO. The BioSentinel Payload occupies 4U of the spacecraft and will utilize the monocellular eukaryotic organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) to report DNA double-strand-break (DSB) events that result from ambient space radiation. DSB repair exhibits striking conservation of repair proteins from yeast to humans. Yeast was selected because of 1) its similarity to cells in higher organisms, 2) the well-established history of strains engineered to measure DSB repair, 3) its spaceflight heritage, and 4) the wealth of available ground and flight reference data. The S. cerevisiae flight strain will include engineered genetic defects to prevent growth and division until a radiation-induced DSB activates the yeasts DNA repair mechanisms. The triggered culture growth and metabolic activity directly indicate a DSB and its successful repair. The yeast will be carried in the dry state within the 1-atm PL container in 18 separate fluidics cards with each card

  2. Sentinel-3 For Land Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goryl, Philippe; Gobron, Nadine; Mecklenburg, Susanne; Donlon, Craig; Bouvet, Marc; Buongiorno, Alessandra; Wilson, Hilary

    2016-07-01

    The Copernicus Programme, being Europe's Earth Observation and Monitoring Programme led by the European Union, aims to provide, on a sustainable basis, reliable and timely services related to environmental and security issues. The Sentinel-3 mission forms part of the Copernicus Space Component. Its main objectives, building on the heritage and experience of the European Space Agency's (ESA) ERS and ENVISAT missions, are to measure sea-surface topography, sea- and land-surface temperature and ocean- and land-surface colour in support of ocean forecasting systems, and for environmental and climate monitoring. The series of Sentinel-3 satellites will ensure global, frequent and near-real time ocean, ice and land monitoring, with the provision of observation data in a routine, long-term (up to 20 years of operations) and continuous fashion, with a consistent quality and a high level of reliability and availability. The launch of Sentinel-3 was successful last February 2016. The Sentinel-3 missions are jointly operated by ESA and EUMETSAT. ESA will be responsible for the operations, maintenance and evolution of the Sentinel-3 ground segment on land related products and EUMETSAT on the marine products and the satellite monitoring and control. All facilities supporting the Sentinel-3 operations are in place. The Sentinel-3 ground segment systematically acquires, processes and distributes a set of pre-defined core data products to the users. For a detailed description of the core data products please see https://earth.esa.int/web/sentinel/missions/sentinel-3/data-products. On request from the European Commission, ESA and EUMETSAT are presently assessing the possibility to include further core data products, in particular on aerosol optical depth, fire monitoring and synergistic products over land. This paper will provide an update on the status of the mission operations after the initial months in orbit and provide in particular an overview on the status of the Sentinel-3

  3. Sentinel Mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Middelfart, Morten

    This thesis introduces the novel concept of sentinel rules (sentinels). Sentinels are intended to represent the relationships between the data originating from the external environment and the data representing the critical organizational performance. The intention with sentinels is to warn...... business users about potential changes to Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) and thereby facilitate corrective action before such a change becomes a reality. Specifically, sentinels are rule relationships at the schema level in a multidimensional data cube. These relationships represent changes over time...... relationships between changes in multiple measures leading to changes in a given measure within a given time frame. Multidimensional sentinels combine the schema and the data levels, meaning that each measure change in the rule can hold for either subsets or the entire cube. A generalized sentinel could...

  4. MEETC2: Ocean Color Atmospheric Corrections in Coastal Complex Waters Using a Bayesian Latent Class Model and Potential for the Incoming Sentinel 3- OLCI Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulquin, Bertrand; Fablet, Ronan; Bourg, Ludovic; Mercier, Gregoire; Fanton d'Andon, Odile

    2016-08-01

    From top-of-atmosphere (TOA) observations, atmospheric correction for ocean color inversion aims at distinguishing atmosphere and water contributions. From a methodological point of view, our approach relies on a Bayesian inference using Gaussian Mixture Model prior distributions and reference spectra of aerosol and water reflectance [1].We evaluate our estimates of the sea surface reflectance from the MERIS TOA observations. Using the MERMAID radiometric in-situ dataset, we obtain significant improvements in the estimation of the sea surface reflectance, especially for the 412, 442, 490 and 510 nm bands, compared with the standard ESA MEGS algorithm and the a state-of- the-art neural network approach (C2R). The mean gain value on the relative error for the 13 bands between 412 and 885 nm is of 57% compared with MEGS algorithm and 10% compared with the C2R. We further discuss the potential of MEETC2 for new ESA OLCI / Sentinel 3 mission.

  5. H2O from R Cas : ISO LWS-SWS observations and detailed modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truong-Bach, [No Value; Sylvester, RJ; Barlow, MJ; Nguyen-Q-Rieu, [No Value; Lim, T; Liu, XW; Baluteau, JP; Deguchi, S; Justtanont, K; Tielens, AGGM

    1999-01-01

    We present 29-197 mu m spectra of the oxygen-rich Mira variable star, R Cas, obtained with the Long- and Short-Wavelength Spectrometers (LWS and SWS) on board the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). The LWS grating observations were made during two pulsational stellar phases, phi similar to 0.5 and 0.

  6. Design of a satellite end-to-end mission performance simulator for imaging spectrometers and its application to the ESA's FLEX/Sentinel-3 tandem mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicent, Jorge; Sabater, Neus; Tenjo, Carolina; Acarreta, Juan R.; Manzano, María.; Rivera, Juan P.; Jurado, Pedro; Franco, Raffaella; Alonso, Luis; Moreno, Jose

    2015-09-01

    The performance analysis of a satellite mission requires specific tools that can simulate the behavior of the platform; its payload; and the acquisition of scientific data from synthetic scenes. These software tools, called End-to-End Mission Performance Simulators (E2ES), are promoted by the European Space Agency (ESA) with the goal of consolidating the instrument and mission requirements as well as optimizing the implemented data processing algorithms. Nevertheless, most developed E2ES are designed for a specific satellite mission and can hardly be adapted to other satellite missions. In the frame of ESA's FLEX mission activities, an E2ES is being developed based on a generic architecture for passive optical missions. FLEX E2ES implements a state-of-the-art synthetic scene generator that is coupled with dedicated algorithms that model the platform and instrument characteristics. This work will describe the flexibility of the FLEX E2ES to simulate complex synthetic scenes with a variety of land cover classes, topography and cloud cover that are observed separately by each instrument (FLORIS, OLCI and SLSTR). The implemented algorithms allows modelling the sensor behavior, i.e. the spectral/spatial resampling of the input scene; the geometry of acquisition; the sensor noises and non-uniformity effects (e.g. stray-light, spectral smile and radiometric noise); and the full retrieval scheme up to Level-2 products. It is expected that the design methodology implemented in FLEX E2ES can be used as baseline for other imaging spectrometer missions and will be further expanded towards a generic E2ES software tool.

  7. Sentinel Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Sentinel Network is an integrated, electronic, national medical product safety initiative that compiles information about the safe and effective use of medical products accessible to patients and healthcare practitioners.

  8. Copernicus POD Service: Ready for Sentinel-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, H.; Fernández, J.; Escobar, D.; Féménias, P.; Flohrer, C.; Otten, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Copernicus POD Service is part of the Copernicus PDGS Ground Segment of the Sentinel missions. A GMV-led consortium is operating the Copernicus POD Service being in charge of generating precise orbital products and auxiliary data files for their use as part of the processing chains of the respective Sentinel PDGS. The Sentinel-1, -2 & -3 missions have different but very demanding requirements in terms of orbital accuracy and timeliness. Orbital products in Near Real Time (latency: 30 min), Short Time Critical (1.5 days) and Non-time Critical (20-30 days) are required. The accuracy requirements are very challenging, targeting 5 cm in 3D for Sentinel-1 and 2-3 cm in radial direction for Sentinel-3. Sentinel-3A carries, in addition to a GPS receiver a laser retro reflector and a DORIS receiver. On the one hand, the three different techniques GPS, SLR and DORIS make POD more complex but, on the other hand, it is very helpful to have independent techniques available for validation of the orbit results. The successful POD processing for Sentinel-1A is a good preparation for Sentinel-3A due to the similar demanding orbit accuracy requirements. The Copernicus POD Service is ready for Sentinel-3A and the service will process GPS and SLR data routinely and has the capacity to process DORIS in NTC and reprocessing campaigns. The three independent orbit determination techniques on Sentinel-3 offer big potential for scientific exploitation. Carrying all three techniques together makes the satellite, e.g., very useful for combining all the techniques on observation level as it could only be done for Jason-2 until now. The Sentinel POD Quality Working Group strongly supporting the CPOD Service delivers additional orbit solutions to validate the CPOD results independently. The recommendations from this body guarantee that the CPOD Service is updated following state-of-the-art algorithms, models and conventions. The QWG also focuses on the scientific exploitation of the

  9. CH4, CO, and H2O spectroscopy for the Sentinel-5 Precursor mission: an assessment with the Total Carbon Column Observing Network measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. O. Wennberg

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI will be part of ESA's Sentinel-5 Precursor (S5P satellite platform scheduled for launch in 2015. TROPOMI will monitor methane and carbon monoxide concentrations in the Earth's atmosphere by measuring spectra of back-scattered sunlight in the short-wave infrared (SWIR. S5P will be the first satellite mission to rely uniquely on the spectral window at 4190–4340 cm−1 (2.3 μm to retrieve CH4 and CO. In this study, we investigated if the absorption features of the three relevant molecules CH4, CO, and H2O are adequately known. To this end, we retrieved total columns of CH4, CO, and H2O from absorption spectra measured by two ground-based Fourier transform spectrometers that are part of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON. The retrieval results from the 4190–4340 cm−1 range at the TROPOMI resolution (0.45 cm−1 were then compared to the CH4 results obtained from the 6000 cm−1 region, and the CO results obtained from the 4190–4340 cm−1 region at the higher TCCON resolution (0.02 cm−1. For TROPOMI-like settings, we were able to reproduce the CH4 columns to an accuracy of 0.3% apart from a constant bias of 1%. The CO retrieval accuracy was, through interference, systematically influenced by the shortcomings of the CH4 and H2O spectroscopy. In contrast to CH4, the CO column error also varied significantly with atmospheric H2O content. Unaddressed, this would introduce seasonal and latitudinal biases to the CO columns retrieved from TROPOMI measurements. We therefore recommend further effort from the spectroscopic community to be directed at the H2O and CH4 spectroscopy in the 4190–4340 cm−1 region.

  10. CH4, CO, and H2O spectroscopy for the Sentinel-5 Precursor mission: an assessment with the Total Carbon Column Observing Network measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. O. Wennberg

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI will be part of ESA's Sentinel-5 Precursor (S5P satellite platform scheduled for launch in 2015. TROPOMI will monitor methane and carbon monoxide concentrations in the Earth's atmosphere by measuring spectra of back-scattered sunlight in the short-wave infrared (SWIR. S5P will be the first satellite mission to rely uniquely on the spectral window at 4190–4340 cm−1 (2.3 μm to retrieve CH4 and CO. In this study, we investigated if the absorption features of the three relevant molecules CH4, CO, and H2O are adequately known. To this end, we retrieved total columns of CH4, CO, and H2O from absorption spectra measured by two ground-based Fourier transform spectrometers that are part of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON. The retrieval results from the 4190–4340 cm−1 range at the TROPOMI resolution (0.45 cm−1 were then compared to the CH4 results obtained from the 6000 cm−1 region, and the CO results obtained from the 4190–4340 cm−1 region at the higher TCCON resolution (0.02 cm−1. For TROPOMI-like settings, we were able to reproduce the CH4 columns to an accuracy of 0.3% apart from a constant bias of 1%. The CO retrieval accuracy was, through interference, systematically influenced by the shortcomings of the CH4 and H2O spectroscopy. In contrast to CH4, the CO column error also varied significantly with atmospheric H2O content. Unaddressed, this would introduce seasonal and latitudinal biases to the CO columns retrieved from TROPOMI measurements. We therefore recommend further effort from the spectroscopic community to be directed at the H2O and CH4 spectroscopy in the 4190–4340 cm−1 region.

  11. SENTINEL EVENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Robida

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Objective of the article is a two year statistics on sentinel events in hospitals. Results of a survey on sentinel events and the attitude of hospital leaders and staff are also included. Some recommendations regarding patient safety and the handling of sentinel events are given.Methods. In March 2002 the Ministry of Health introduce a voluntary reporting system on sentinel events in Slovenian hospitals. Sentinel events were analyzed according to the place the event, its content, and root causes. To show results of the first year, a conference for hospital directors and medical directors was organized. A survey was conducted among the participants with the purpose of gathering information about their view on sentinel events. One hundred questionnaires were distributed.Results. Sentinel events. There were 14 reports of sentinel events in the first year and 7 in the second. In 4 cases reports were received only after written reminders were sent to the responsible persons, in one case no reports were obtained. There were 14 deaths, 5 of these were in-hospital suicides, 6 were due to an adverse event, 3 were unexplained. Events not leading to death were a suicide attempt, a wrong side surgery, a paraplegia after spinal anaesthesia, a fall with a femoral neck fracture, a damage of the spleen in the event of pleural space drainage, inadvertent embolization with absolute alcohol into a femoral artery and a physical attack on a physician by a patient. Analysis of root causes of sentinel events showed that in most cases processes were inadequate.Survey. One quarter of those surveyed did not know about the sentinel events reporting system. 16% were having actual problems when reporting events and 47% beleived that there was an attempt to blame individuals. Obstacles in reporting events openly were fear of consequences, moral shame, fear of public disclosure of names of participants in the event and exposure in mass media. The majority of

  12. Sentinel-3 Solar Array Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combet, Y.; Reutenauer, X.; Mouret, G.; Guerrere, S.; Ergan, A.; Ferrando, E.; Riva, S.; Hodgetts, P.; Levesque, D.; D'Accolti, G.

    2011-10-01

    Sentinel-3 is primarily a mission to support services relating to the marine environment, with capability to serve numerous land-, atmospheric- and cryospheric- based application areas. The mission's main objective is to determine parameters, such as sea-surface topography, sea- and land-surface temperatures, as well as ocean- and land-surface colours with high-end accuracy and reliability. For this mission, Thales Alenia Space has been selected as the spacecraft prime contractor and is also responsible for the solar array. In this frame, TAS leads a European industrial team, comprising Selex Galileo for the photovoltaic assembly and Patria for the panel substrate.

  13. Sentinel-3 OLCI/SLSTR - Validation of the Radiometric Calibration for Optical Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Fougnie, Bertrand; Nieke, Jens; Bouvet, Marc; Bruniquel, Véronique; Bourg, Ludovic; Smith, Dave

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of the SENTINEL-3 mission is to measure sea surface topography, sea and land surface temperature, and ocean and land surface colour with high accuracy and reliability to support ocean forecasting systems, environmental monitoring and climate monitoring. The mission will provide data continuity for the ERS, Envisat and SPOT satellites. The SENTINEL-3 mission will be jointly operated by ESA and EUMETSAT to deliver operational ocean and land observation services. Sentinel-3 wi...

  14. Sentinel node biopsy (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentinel node biopsy is a technique which helps determine if a cancer has spread (metastasized), or is contained locally. When a ... is closest to the cancer site. Sentinel node biopsy is used to stage many kinds of cancer, ...

  15. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Diagnosis Research Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy On This Page What are lymph nodes? What ... lymph node? What is a sentinel lymph node biopsy? What happens during an SLNB? What are the ...

  16. Data mining tools for Sentinel 1 and Sentinel 2 data exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza Molina, Daniela; Datcu, Mihai

    2016-10-01

    With the new planned Sentinel missions, the availability of Earth Observation data is increasing everyday offering a larger number of applications that can be created using these data. Currently, three of the five missions were launched and they are delivering a wealth of data and imagery of the Earth's surface as, for example, the Sentinel-1 carries an advanced radar instrument to provide an all-weather, day-and-night supply of Earth imagery. The second mission, the Sentinel-2, carries an optical instrument payload that will sample 13 spectral bands at different resolutions. Even though, we count on tools for automated loading and visual exploration of the Sentinel data, we still face the problem of extracting relevant structures from the images, finding similar patterns in a scene, exploiting the data, and creating final user applications based on these processed data. In this paper, we present our approach for processing radar and multi-spectral Sentinel data. Our approach is mainly composed of three steps: 1) the generation of a data model that explains the information contained in a Sentinel product. The model is formed by primitive descriptors and metadata entries, 2) the storage of this model in a database system, 3) the semantic definition of the image content based on machine learning algorithms and relevance feedback methods.

  17. Sensor sentinel computing device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damico, Joseph P.

    2016-08-02

    Technologies pertaining to authenticating data output by sensors in an industrial environment are described herein. A sensor sentinel computing device receives time-series data from a sensor by way of a wireline connection. The sensor sentinel computing device generates a validation signal that is a function of the time-series signal. The sensor sentinel computing device then transmits the validation signal to a programmable logic controller in the industrial environment.

  18. Estimation of yield and water requirements of maize crops combining high spatial and temporal resolution images with a simple crop model, in the perspective of the Sentinel-2 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battude, Marjorie; Bitar, Ahmad Al; Brut, Aurore; Cros, Jérôme; Dejoux, Jean-François; Huc, Mireille; Marais Sicre, Claire; Tallec, Tiphaine; Demarez, Valérie

    2016-04-01

    Water resources are under increasing pressure as a result of global change and of a raising competition among the different users (agriculture, industry, urban). It is therefore important to develop tools able to estimate accurately crop water requirements in order to optimize irrigation while maintaining acceptable production. In this context, remote sensing is a valuable tool to monitor vegetation development and water demand. This work aims at developing a robust and generic methodology mainly based on high resolution remote sensing data to provide accurate estimates of maize yield and water needs at the watershed scale. Evapotranspiration (ETR) and dry aboveground biomass (DAM) of maize crops were modeled using time series of GAI images used to drive a simple agro-meteorological crop model (SAFYE, Duchemin et al., 2005). This model is based on a leaf partitioning function (Maas, 1993) for the simulation of crop biomass and on the FAO-56 methodology for the ETR simulation. The model also contains a module to simulate irrigation. This study takes advantage of the SPOT4 and SPOT5 Take5 experiments initiated by CNES (http://www.cesbio.ups-tlse.fr/multitemp/). They provide optical images over the watershed from February to May 2013 and from April to August 2015 respectively, with a temporal and spatial resolution similar to future images from the Sentinel-2 and VENμS missions. This dataset was completed with LandSat8 and Deimos1 images in order to cover the whole growing season while reducing the gaps in remote sensing time series. Radiometric, geometric and atmospheric corrections were achieved by the THEIA land data center, and the KALIDEOS processing chain. The temporal dynamics of the green area index (GAI) plays a key role in soil-plant-atmosphere interactions and in biomass accumulation process. Consistent seasonal dynamics of the remotely sensed GAI was estimated by applying a radiative transfer model based on artificial neural networks (BVNET, Baret

  19. Copernicus POD Service: Orbit Determination of the Sentinel Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Heike; Fernández, Jaime; Ayuga, Francisco; Féménias, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    The Copernicus POD (Precise Orbit Determination) Service is part of the Copernicus Processing Data Ground Segment (PDGS) of the Sentinel-1, -2 and -3 missions. A GMV-led consortium is operating the Copernicus POD Service being in charge of generating precise orbital products and auxiliary data files for their use as part of the processing chains of the respective Sentinel PDGS. Sentinel-1A was launched in April 2014 while Sentinel-2A was on June 2015 and both are routinely operated since then. Sentinel-3A is expected to be launched in February 2016 and Sentinel-1B is planned for spring 2016. Thus the CPOD Service will be operating three to four satellites simultaneously in spring 2016. The satellites of the Sentinel-1, -2, and -3 missions are all equipped with dual frequency high precision GPS receivers delivering the main observables for POD. Sentinel-3 satellites will additionally be equipped with a laser retro reflector for Satellite Laser Ranging and a receiver for DORIS tracking. All three types of observables (GPS, SLR and DORIS) will be used routinely for POD. The POD core of the CPOD Service is NAPEOS (Navigation Package for Earth Orbiting Satellites) the leading ESA/ESOC software for precise orbit determination. The careful selection of models and inputs is important to achieve the different but very demanding requirements in terms of orbital accuracy and timeliness for the Sentinel -1, -2 & -3 missions. The three missions require orbital products with various latencies from 30 minutes up to 20-30 days. The accuracy requirements are also different and partly very challenging, targeting 5 cm in 3D for Sentinel-1 and 2-3 cm in radial direction for Sentinel-3. Although the characteristics and the requirements are different for the three missions the same core POD setup is used to the largest extent possible. This strategy facilitates maintenance of the complex system of the CPOD Service. Updates in the dynamical modelling of the satellite orbits, e

  20. BioSentinel Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — BioSentinel technology will provide critical information about how living systems, from humans down to cells, adapt, respond and survive in deep space, beyond LEO...

  1. Blind regards: Troubling data and their sentinels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahani Nadim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A new generation of environmental satellites, the Sentinels, has recently been launched by the European Space Agency (ESA. Part of ESA’s Copernicus Programme, the sentinel mission has adopted an Open Data policy which intends to make different levels of data freely available via an online data hub. Sentinel data will support applications including land monitoring, emergency management and security and will thus form the evidence-base for a wide-range of local, regional, national and international decisions, from individual insurance claims to humanitarian interventions. By providing ever more data streams for monitoring and managing the planet, the sentinels institute a novel mode of visibility in terms of resolution, coverage and frequency. At the same time, they are co-constitutive of the increasing datafication of the environment. In the entwinement of heavenly gaze and data visions, I want to recover the work of ‘data fictions’ in order to demystify notions of visibility and calculability associated with “earth observation” and trouble its unquestioned pursuit of total monitoring.

  2. Living With a Star, the Geospace Mission Definition Team and Aeronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kintner, Paul M., Jr.; Meier, R. R.; Spann, Jim; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    To gain an understanding of the Sun-Earth system, including how and why the sun varies, how the earth responds, and the impacts on humanity, research is needed that has a integrated and systematic approach. The Living With a Star (LWS) program represents an important element in this regard both to continued progress in space science in general and in Aeronomy in particular. A fundamental question in Aeronomy is how the variable sun affects the ionosphere, thermosphere, and mesosphere. The LWS program focuses on those areas of scientific understanding that promote progress in areas that have human impact and can be investigated with space borne instruments. The Geospace Mission Definition Team is charged with investigating the science priorities identified by the LWS Science Architecture Team and developing an approach to making the necessary measurements in concert with other missions and programs. An important aspect of this approach is that all LWS measurement programs are operating simultaneously for several years. We will review some of the areas that the LWS SAT have emphasized in Aeronomy, including understanding the effects of solar variability on ionospheric density and irregularities, the effects of solar variability on the mass density of the atmosphere at LEO altitudes, and the effects of solar variability on near-surface temperatures and on ozone distribution.

  3. European Space Agency Sentinel-2

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sentinel-2A satellite is operated by the European Space Agency (ESA). The Sentinel Multispectral Instrument (MSI) acquires 13 spectral bands ranging from Visible...

  4. European Space Agency Sentinel-2

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sentinel-2A satellite is operated by the European Space Agency (ESA). The Sentinel Multispectral Instrument (MSI) acquires 13 spectral bands ranging from Visible...

  5. The circumstellar environment of IRAS 16293-2422. ISO-LWS and SCUBA observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, J. C.; Griffin, M.; Saraceno, P.

    2004-05-01

    We present far-infrared (FIR) continuum observations of the deeply embedded source IRAS 16293-2422 performed with the Long Wavelength Spectrometer (LWS) on-board the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). We also report 450 and 850 μm mapping observations done with the Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array (SCUBA) at the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT). We combined these observations with IRAS and other JCMT data available in the literature to construct a complete spectral energy distribution (SED) of the source. A spherically symmetric dusty envelope model was used to reproduce the SED and to characterize the circumstellar matter around the object. We call attention to the fact that when using models such as the one presented here, one needs spatial information about the object to distinguish between different possible fits to the SED. A comparison between the intensity profiles at 450 and 850 μm obtained from the SCUBA observations and the profiles predicted by the model allowed us to constrain the size of the envelope and its density distribution. The SED and the 850 μm intensity profile of the source are consistent with a centrally peaked power law dust density distribution of the form ρ(r) ∝ r-p with p = 1.5-2, with a radius Renv = 3000-3250 AU, defining a very compact circumstellar envelope. We estimate a bolometric luminosity Lbol = 36 L⊙, an envelope mass Menv = 3.4 M⊙, and a submillimetre to bolometric luminosity ratio Lsubmm/Lbol = 1.9%, confirming that the source shows a submillimetre excess characteristic of Class 0 sources.

  6. Getting ready for the arrival of Sentinel data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschbacher, Josef; Milagro Perez, Maria Pilar

    2013-04-01

    The European Union (EU) and the European Space Agency (ESA) have developed the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES), being renamed to Copernicus, programme as Europe's answer to the vital need for joined-up data about our climate, environment and security. Through a unique combination of satellite, atmospheric and Earth-based monitoring systems, the initiative will provide new insight into the state of the land, sea and air, providing policymakers, scientists, businesses and the public with accurate and timely information. GMES capabilities include monitoring and forecasting of climatic change, flood risks, soil and coastal erosion, crop and fish resources, air pollution, greenhouse gases, iceberg distribution and snow cover, among others. To accomplish this, GMES has been divided into three main components: Space, In-situ and Services. The Space Component, led by ESA, comprises five types of new dedicated satellites called Sentinels. These missions carry a range of technologies, such as radar and multi-spectral imaging instruments for land, ocean and atmospheric monitoring. While the Sentinel satellites are currently being developed by ESA specifically to meet the needs of GMES, the Contributing Missions, operated by national agencies or commercial entities, are already providing a wealth of data for GMES services, and will continue to deliver complementary data after the Sentinels are in orbit. An integrated Ground Segment ensures access to Sentinels and Contributing Missions data. Access to Sentinel data is governed by the Sentinel data policy, which is part of a wider GMES data and information access policy. The Sentinel data policy envisages free and open access, subject to restrictions only if security or other European interests need to be preserved. As regards the Contributing Missions, the data policy of the mission owners will be respected for the purpose of providing data to GMES service users. The first in the fleet of dedicated

  7. Copernicus Sentinel-2A Calibration and Products Validation Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferran Gascon

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As part of the Copernicus programme of the European Commission (EC, the European Space Agency (ESA has developed and is currently operating the Sentinel-2 mission that is acquiring high spatial resolution optical imagery. This article provides a description of the calibration activities and the status of the mission products validation activities after one year in orbit. Measured performances, from the validation activities, cover both Top-Of-Atmosphere (TOA and Bottom-Of-Atmosphere (BOA products. The presented results show the good quality of the mission products both in terms of radiometry and geometry and provide an overview on next mission steps related to data quality aspects.

  8. U.S. Geological Survey distribution of European Space Agency's Sentinel-2 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieschke, Renee L.

    2017-03-31

    A partnership established between the European Space Agency (ESA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) allows for USGS storage and redistribution of images acquired by the MultiSpectral Instrument (MSI) on the European Union's Sentinel-2 satellite mission. The MSI data are acquired from a pair of satellites, Sentinel-2A and Sentinel-2B, which are part of a larger set of ESA missions focusing on different aspects of Earth observation. The primary purpose of the Sentinel-2 series is to collect multispectral imagery over the Earth’s land surfaces, large islands, and inland and coastal waters. Sentinel-2A was launched in 2015 and Sentinel-2B launched in 2017.The collaborative effort between ESA and USGS provides for public access and redistribution of global acquisitions of Sentinel-2 data at no cost, which allows users to download the MSI imagery from USGS access systems such as Earth- Explorer, in addition to the ESA Sentinels Scientific Data Hub. The MSI sensor acquires 13 spectral bands that are highly complementary to data acquired by the USGS Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+). The product options from USGS include a Full-Resolution Browse (FRB) image product generated by USGS, along with a 100-kilometer (km) by 100-km tile-based Level-1C top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance product that is very similar (but not identical) to the currently (2017) distributed ESA Level 1C product.

  9. BioSentinel: Developing a Space Radiation Biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa Maria, Sergio R.

    2015-01-01

    BioSentinel is an autonomous fully self-contained science mission that will conduct the first study of the biological response to space radiation outside low Earth orbit (LEO) in over 40 years. The 4-unit (4U) BioSentinel biosensor system, is housed within a 6-Unit (6U) spacecraft, and uses yeast cells in multiple independent microfluidic cards to detect and measure DNA damage that occurs in response to ambient space radiation. Cell growth and metabolic activity will be measured using a 3-color LED detection system and a metabolic indicator dye with a dedicated thermal control system per fluidic card.

  10. Pointer Sentinel Mixture Models

    OpenAIRE

    Merity, Stephen; Xiong, Caiming; Bradbury, James; Socher, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Recent neural network sequence models with softmax classifiers have achieved their best language modeling performance only with very large hidden states and large vocabularies. Even then they struggle to predict rare or unseen words even if the context makes the prediction unambiguous. We introduce the pointer sentinel mixture architecture for neural sequence models which has the ability to either reproduce a word from the recent context or produce a word from a standard softmax classifier. O...

  11. Sentinel-3A: first commissioning results of its optical payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieke, J.; Mavrocordatos, C.; Berruti, B.

    2016-10-01

    The Sentinel-3A satellite, the first of a series of four satellites from the European Commission's Copernicus Programme, was launched on the 16th of February 2016. Sentinel-3 is a multi-instrument mission to measure sea-surface topography, sea- and land-surface temperature, ocean colour and land colour to support ocean forecasting systems, as well as environmental and climate monitoring. The presentation will focus on Sentinel-3 optical instruments, namely the Ocean Land Colour Imager (OLCI) and the Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer (SLSTR). The results of the five-month commissioning phase (concluded in July 2016) are presented. The Level-1 product quality is presented as well as preliminary verification and validation results of the Level-2 ocean products.

  12. The ISO-LWS map of the Serpens cloud core I. The SEDs of the IR\\/SMM sources

    CERN Document Server

    Larsson, B; Menshikov, A B; Olofsson, G; Caux, E; Ceccarelli, C; Lorenzetti, D; Molinari, S; Nisini, B; Nordh, L H; Saraceno, P; Sibille, F; Spinoglio, L; White, G J

    2000-01-01

    ISO-LWS mapping observations of the Serpens molecular cloud core are presented. The spectral range is 50 - 200 micron and the map size is 8' X 8'. These observations suffer from severe source confusion at FIR wavelengths and we employ a Maximum Likelihood Method for the spectro-spatial deconvolution. The strong and fairly isolated source SMM1 FIRS1 presented a test case, whose modelled spectral energy distribution (SED), within observational errors, is identical to the observed one. The model results for the other infrared and submillimetre sources are therefore likely to represent their correct SEDs. Simulations demonstrating the reliability and potential of the developed method support this view. For the majority of sources the peak of the SEDs is found within the spectral range of the LWS and derived temperatures are generally higher (>30K) than have been found by earlier deconvolution attempts using IRAS data. SMM sizes are found to be only a few arcsec in diameter. In addition, the SMMs are generally opt...

  13. Molecular Basis of Spectral Tuning in the Red- and Green-Sensitive (M/LWS) Pigments in Vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Shozo; Yang, Hui; Starmer, William T.

    2008-01-01

    Vertebrate vision is mediated by five groups of visual pigments, each absorbing a specific wavelength of light between ultraviolet and red. Despite extensive mutagenesis analyses, the mechanisms by which contemporary pigments absorb variable wavelengths of light are poorly understood. We show that the molecular basis of the spectral tuning of contemporary visual pigments can be illuminated only by mutagenesis analyses using ancestral pigments. Following this new principle, we derive the “five-sites” rule that explains the absorption spectra of red and green (M/LWS) pigments that range from 510 to 560 nm. Our findings demonstrate that the evolutionary method should be used in elucidating the mechanisms of spectral tuning of four other pigment groups and, for that matter, functional differentiations of any other proteins. PMID:18660543

  14. NASA's Living with a Star Program: The Geospace Mission Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Janet L.; Giles, Barbara; Zanetti, Lawrence; Spann, James; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    NASA has initiated the Living with a Star Program (LWS) to develop the scientific understanding to address the aspects of the Connected Sun-Earth system that affect life and society. A goal of the program is to bridge the gap between science, engineering, and user application communities. This will enable future science, operational, and commercial objectives in space and atmospheric environments by improving engineering approaches to the accommodation and/or mitigation of the effects of solar variability on technological systems. Three program elements are the Science Missions; a Theory, Modeling, and Data Analysis program; and a Space Environment Testbeds program. Because many of the effects of solar variability on humanity are observed in Geospace regions of space, the science research for all three elements of the LWS Program have significant components in Geospace regions.

  15. Tidal Creek Sentinel Habitat Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ecological Research, Assessment and Prediction's Tidal Creeks: Sentinel Habitat Database was developed to support the National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  16. The Sentinel Lymph Node Concept

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The sentinel lymph node concept is meeting with steadily growing interest and is being extended to the different sites of the primaries. In addition, the concept is being applied in an increasingly sophisticated manner. In this book the practical

  17. SENTINEL-2 image quality and level 1 processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meygret, Aimé; Baillarin, Simon; Gascon, Ferran; Hillairet, Emmanuel; Dechoz, Cécile; Lacherade, Sophie; Martimort, Philippe; Spoto, François; Henry, Patrice; Duca, Riccardo

    2009-08-01

    In the framework of the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) programme, the European Space Agency (ESA) in partnership with the European Commission (EC) is developing the SENTINEL-2 optical imaging mission devoted to the operational monitoring of land and coastal areas. The Sentinel-2 mission is based on a twin satellites configuration deployed in polar sun-synchronous orbit and is designed to offer a unique combination of systematic global coverage with a wide field of view (290km), a high revisit (5 days at equator with two satellites), a high spatial resolution (10m, 20m and 60 m) and multi-spectral imagery (13 bands in the visible and the short wave infrared spectrum). SENTINEL-2 will ensure data continuity of SPOT and LANDSAT multispectral sensors while accounting for future service evolution. This paper presents the main geometric and radiometric image quality requirements for the mission. The strong multi-spectral and multi-temporal registration requirements constrain the stability of the platform and the ground processing which will automatically refine the geometric physical model through correlation technics. The geolocation of the images will take benefits from a worldwide reference data set made of SENTINEL-2 data strips geolocated through a global space-triangulation. These processing are detailed through the description of the level 1C production which will provide users with ortho-images of Top of Atmosphere reflectances. The huge amount of data (1.4 Tbits per orbit) is also a challenge for the ground processing which will produce at level 1C all the acquired data. Finally we discuss the different geometric (line of sight, focal plane cartography, ...) and radiometric (relative and absolute camera sensitivity) in-flight calibration methods that will take advantage of the on-board sun diffuser and ground targets to answer the severe mission requirements.

  18. Immunolymphoscintigraphy for Metastatic Sentinel Nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakera, A.H.; Nielsen, B.S.; Madsen, J.;

    2011-01-01

    Aim. To develop a method and obtain proof-of-principle for immunolymphoscintigraphy for identification of metastatic sentinel nodes. Methods. We selected one of four tumour-specific antibodies against human breast cancer and investigated (1), in immune- deficient (nude) mice with xenograft human...... in healthy rabbits. Results and Conclusion. Our paper suggests the theoretical possibility of a model of dual isotope immuno-lymphoscintigraphy for noninvasive, preoperative, malignant sentinel node imaging....

  19. HiSentinel: A Stratospheric Airship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, I.; Lew, T.; Perry, W.; Smith, M.

    On December 4 2005 a team led by Southwest Research Institute SwRI successfully demonstrated powered flight of the HiSentinel stratospheric airship at an altitude of 74 000 feet The development team of Aerostar International the Air Force Research Laboratory AFRL and SwRI launched the airship from Roswell N M for a five-hour technology demonstration flight The 146-foot-long airship carried a 60-pound equipment pod and propulsion system when it became only the second airship in history to achieve powered flight in the stratosphere Designed for launch from remote sites these airships do not require large hangars or special facilities Unlike most stratospheric airship concepts HiSentinel is launched flaccid with the hull only partially inflated with helium As the airship rises the helium expands until it completely inflates the hull to the rigid aerodynamic shape required for operation A description of previous Team development results of the test flight plans for future development and applicability to future science missions will be presented

  20. The Living with a Star Radiation Belt Storm Probes Mission and Related Missions of Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibeck, David G.; Mauk, Barry H.; Grebowsky, Joseph M.; Fox, Nicola J.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the Living With a Star (LWS) Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) mission in the context of the broader Geospace program. Missions to Geospace offer an opportunity to observe in situ the fundamental processes that operate throughout the solar system and in particular those that generate hazardous space weather effects in the vicinity of Earth. The recently selected investigations on NASA's LWS program's RBSP will provide the measurements needed to characterize and quantify the processes that supply and remove energetic particles from the Earth's Van Allen radiation belts. Instruments on the RBSP spacecraft will observe charged particles that comprise the Earth's radiation belts over the full energy range from 1 eV to more than 10 MeV (including composition), the plasma waves which energize them, the electric fields which transport them, and the magnetic fields which guide their motion. The two-point measurements by the RBSP spacecraft will enable researchers to discriminate between spatial and temporal effects, and therefore between the various proposed mechanisms for particle acceleration and loss. The measurements taken by the RBSP spacecraft will be used in data modeling projects in order to improve the understanding of these fundamental processes and allow better predictions to be made. NASA's LWS program has also recently selected three teams to study concepts for Missions of Opportunity that will augment the RBSP program, by (1) providing an instrument for a Canadian spacecraft in the Earth's radiation belts, (2) quantifying the flux of particles precipitating into the Earth's atmosphere from the Earth's radiation belts, and (3) remotely sensing both spatial and temporal variations in the Earth's ionosphere and thermosphere.

  1. Sentinel-2 for Mapping Iron Absorption Feature Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald van der Werff

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Iron is an indicator for soil fertility and the usability of an area for cultivating crops. Remote sensing is the only suitable tool for surveying large areas at a high temporal and spatial interval, yet a relative high spectral resolution is needed for mapping iron contents with reflectance data. Sentinel-2 has several bands that cover the 0.9 μm iron absorption feature, while space-borne sensors traditionally used for geologic remote sensing, like ASTER and Landsat, had only one band in this feature. In this paper, we introduce a curve-fitting technique for Sentinel-2 that approximates the iron absorption feature at a hyperspectral resolution. We test our technique on library spectra of different iron bearing minerals and we apply it to a Sentinel-2 image synthesized from an airborne hyperspectral dataset. Our method finds the wavelength position of maximum absorption and absolute absorption depth for minerals Beryl, Bronzite, Goethite, Jarosite and Hematite. Sentinel-2 offers information on the 0.9 μm absorption feature that until now was reserved for hyperspectral instruments. Being a satellite mission, this information comes at a lower spatial resolution than airborne hyperspectral data, but with a large spatial coverage and frequent revisit time.

  2. Acolite for Sentinel-2: Aquatic Applications of MSI Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhellmont, Quinten; Ruddick, Kevin

    2016-08-01

    Here we present the application of Sentinel-2 imagery for coastal and inland waters, and the ACOLITE processor and atmospheric correction developed in the EC-FP7 HIGHROC project. The MultiSpectral Imager (MSI) on board of Sentinel-2 has a pair of 20 m SWIR bands at 1.6 and 2.2 μm, allowing for a robust image- based atmospheric correction, even over extremely turbid waters. One of the main advantages of Sentinel-2 over Landsat-8 is the inclusion of a 20 m resolution red- edge band at around 705 nm, allowing for the determination of chlorophyll a absorption in turbid and productive waters, where open ocean blue-green ratio algorithms fail. MSI has red (665 nm) and NIR (842 nm) bands at 10 m spatial resolution, allowing for the retrieval of turbidity or suspended particulate matter concentration, even in narrow inlets and ports. This makes it an invaluable dataset for validating sediment transport models that are needed for optimization of dredging operations and coastal defence around ports. The spectral, spatial, and radiometric resolutions of Sentinel-2 and Landsat-8 are compared and discussed. For many aquatic applications these missions will typically be combined as a virtual constellation to improve temporal coverage. We provide here one example of using both sensors to track a cyanobacterial bloom in an Australian lake.

  3. Products Definition and Determining Uncertainties; Sentinel-3 Optical Level 2 Prototype Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender, Samantha; Fanton d'Andon, Odile Hembise; Emsley, Stephen; Bourg, Ludovic; Nightingale, Tim; North, Peter; Sotis, Giovanni; Bates, Martin; Fomferra, Norman; Vincent, Emmanuel; Brockmann, Carsten; Nasir-Habeeb, Rabiah; Goryl, Philippe

    2010-12-01

    Retrieval of operational optical products from the future Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) Sentinel-3 mission aims to provide continuity of existing missions delivering ocean/land colour, surface temperature and sea surface topography data. This paper describes the current status of the Sentinel-3 Level 2 Optical Prototype Processor (O-L2PP) who's development includes not only a list of products, but also associated uncertainty estimates; a key requirements for the processor. Examples of the approaches adopted within current versions of the Algorithm Theoretical Basis Documents (ATBDs), OLCI glint correction and SLSTR Sea Surface Temperature (SST), demonstrated how uncertainty estimates can be achieved.

  4. Towards Insar Everywhere, all the Time, with SENTINEL-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenhong; Wright, Tim; Hooper, Andrew; Crippa, Paola; Gonzalez, Pablo; Walters, Richard; Elliott, John; Ebmeier, Susanna; Hatton, Emma; Parsons, Barry

    2016-06-01

    Sentinel-1A was launched in April 2014, and has been collecting data routinely over more than one year. Sentinel-1B is set for launch on 22 April 2016. The Sentinel-1 constellation has several advantages over previous radar missions for InSAR applications: (1) Data are being acquired systematically for tectonic and volcanic areas, (2) Images cover a wide footprint, 250 km from near to far range in Interferometric Wide Swath (TOPS) mode, (3) Small perpendicular and temporal baselines greatly improve interferometric coherence at C-band, (4) Data are freely available to all users, (5) The mission is planned to be operational for 20 years, with 1C and 1D planned for future launches. These features enable us to map geological processes occurring in any place at anytime using InSAR. We will review progress within COMET towards our ultimate goal of building a fully-automated processing system that provides deformation results and derived products to the wide InSAR and Geophysics communities. In addition to high-resolution-ECMWFbased atmospheric correction model, we will show results of a systematic analysis of interferometric coherence in tectonic and volcanic areas, and discuss the future goals and timeline for the COMET InSAR automated processing system.

  5. Intraoperative Sentinel Lymph Node Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Richard; Christensen, Anders; Java, Kapil;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intraoperative analysis of sentinel lymph nodes would enhance the care of early-stage oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We determined the frequency and extent of cytokeratin 19 (CK19) expression in OSCC primary tumours and surrounding tissues to explore the feasibility of a "clinic......-ready" intraoperative diagnostic test (one step nucleic acid amplification-OSNA, sysmex). METHODS: Two cohorts were assembled: cohort 1, OSCC with stage and site that closely match cases suitable for sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB); cohort 2, HNSCC with sufficient fresh tumour tissue available for the OSNA assay (>50...

  6. Chemical and radiative transfer modeling of the ISO-LWS Fabry-Perot spectra of Orion-KL water line

    CERN Document Server

    Lerate, M R; Barlow, M J; Viti, S; Swinyard, B M

    2010-01-01

    We present chemical and radiative transfer models for the many far-IR ortho- and para-H$_{2}$O lines that were observed from the Orion-KL region in high resolution Fabry-Perot (FP) mode by the Long Wavelength Spectrometer (LWS) on board the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). The chemistry of the region was first studied by simulating the conditions in the different known components of Orion-KL: chemical models for a hot core, a plateau and a ridge were coupled with an accelerated Lambda$-iteration (ALI) radiative transfer model to predict H$_2$O line fluxes and profiles. Our models include the first 45 energy levels of ortho- and para-H$_{2}$O. We find that lines arising from energy levels below 560 K were best reproduced by a gas of density 3$\\times10^{5}$ cm$^{-3}$ at a temperature of 70-90 K, expanding at a velocity of 30 km s$^{-1}$ and with a H$_{2}$O/H$_{2}$ abundance ratio of the order of 2 - 3 $\\times$ 10$^{-5}$, similar to the abundance derived by Cernicharo et al. (2006). However, the model that best...

  7. Copernicus Sentinel-1 Satellite And C-SAR Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panetti, Aniceto; Rostan, Friedhelm; L'Abbate, Michelangelo; Bruno, Claudio; Bauleo, Antonio; Catalano, Toni; Cotogni, Marco; Galvagni, Luigi; Pietropaolo, Andrea; Taini, Giacomo; Venditti, Paolo; Huchler, Markus; Torres, Ramon; Lokaas, Svein; Bibby, David

    2013-12-01

    The Copernicus Sentinel-1 Earth Radar Observatory, a mission funded by the European Union and developed by ESA, is a constellation of two C-band radar satellites. The satellites have been conceived to be a continuous and reliable source of C-band SAR imagery for operational applications such as mapping of global landmasses, coastal zones and monitoring of shipping routes. The Sentinel-1 satellites are built by an industrial consortium led by Thales Alenia Space Italia as Prime Contractor and with Astrium GmbH as SAR Instrument Contractor. The paper describes the general satellite architecture, the spacecraft subsystems, AIT flow and the satellite key performances. It provides also an overview on the C-SAR Instrument, its development status and pre- launch SAR performance prediction.

  8. GMES Sentinel-3: A Safer Satellite for a Safer Space World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, S.; Derenne, P.; Palmade, J. L.; Paoli, F.; Baillion, Y.; Berruti, B.

    2013-09-01

    The Sentinel-3 Mission is part of the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) initiative whose overall objective is to support Europe's goals regarding sustainable development and global governance of the environment by providing timely and quality data, information, services and knowledge. In that way, Sentinel-3 will help humanity by contributing to the improvement of the life quality.The Sentinel-3 mission will be more particularly devoted to the provision of Ocean observation data in routine, long term (20 years of operations) and continuous fashion with a consistent quality and a very high level of availability. In addition, the mission will be designed to generate Land optical observation products, ice topography and land hydrology products.THALES ALENIA Space has successfully performed during past years the definition phase of this mission and the system together with ESA to come to an optimized system answering to the users' needs. The results of this development phase and the way forward for a successful implementation of the mission safety compliant to applicable standards will be presented in this paper. In particular, the technical baseline and evolutions will be presented in order to demonstrate the safety improvements versus the previous generation of similar spacecrafts in term of design and operations. A specific focus will be given on quality and safety topics raised and managed during satellite development.The intention of this paper is to present: * The benefits of GMES initiative and specifically of the Sentinel-3 mission for the global humanity to contribute "for a Safer World". * The improvements of Sentinel-3 satellite design & operations in term of Space Safety with regard to previous similar satellites in demonstrating complianceto IADCGuidelines"foraSaferSpace" * The specific Safety and Quality management process implemented daily and the safety concerns raised during Satellite development "for a Safer Satellite" * The

  9. New Sentinel-2 radiometric validation approaches (SEOM program)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruniquel, Véronique; Lamquin, Nicolas; Ferron, Stéphane; Govaerts, Yves; Woolliams, Emma; Dilo, Arta; Gascon, Ferran

    2016-04-01

    SEOM is an ESA program element whose one of the objectives aims at launching state-of-the-art studies for the scientific exploitation of operational missions. In the frame of this program, ESA awarded ACRI-ST and its partners Rayference and National Physical Laboratory (NPL) early 2016 for a R&D study on the development and intercomparison of algorithms for validating the Sentinel-2 radiometric L1 data products beyond the baseline algorithms used operationally in the frame of the S2 Mission Performance Centre. In this context, several algorithms have been proposed and are currently in development: The first one is based on the exploitation of Deep Convective Cloud (DCC) observations over ocean. This method allows an inter-band radiometry validation from the blue to the NIR (typically from B1 to B8a) from a reference band already validated for example with the well-known Rayleigh method. Due to their physical properties, DCCs appear from the remote sensing point of view to have bright and cold tops and they can be used as invariant targets to monitor the radiometric response degradation of reflective solar bands. The DCC approach is statistical i.e. the method shall be applied on a large number of measurements to derive reliable statistics and decrease the impact of the perturbing contributors. The second radiometric validation method is based on the exploitation of matchups combining both concomitant in-situ measurements and Sentinel-2 observations. The in-situ measurements which are used here correspond to measurements acquired in the frame of the RadCalNet networks. The validation is performed for the Sentinel-2 bands similar to the bands of the instruments equipping the validation site. The measurements from the Cimel CE 318 12-filters BRDF Sun Photometer installed recently in the Gobabeb site near the Namib desert are used for this method. A comprehensive verification of the calibration requires an analysis of MSI radiances over the full dynamic range

  10. Selfish sentinels in cooperative mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clutton-Brock, T H; O'Riain, M J; Brotherton, P N; Gaynor, D; Kansky, R; Griffin, A S; Manser, M

    1999-06-01

    Like humans engaged in risky activities, group members of some animal societies take turns acting as sentinels. Explanations of the evolution of sentinel behavior have frequently relied on kin selection or reciprocal altruism, but recent models suggest that guarding may be an individual's optimal activity once its stomach is full if no other animal is on guard. This paper provides support for this last explanation by showing that, in groups of meerkats (Suricata suricatta), animals guard from safe sites, and solitary individuals as well as group members spend part of their time on guard. Though individuals seldom take successive guarding bouts, there is no regular rota, and the provision of food increases contributions to guarding and reduces the latency between bouts by the same individual.

  11. Implementing Sentinels in the TARGIT BI Suite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Middelfart, Morten; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of socalled sentinels in the TARGIT BI Suite. Sentinels are a novel type of rules that can warn a user if one or more measure changes in a multi-dimensional data cube are expected to cause a change to another measure critical to the user. Sentinels notify...... users based on previous observations, e.g., that revenue might drop within two months if an increase in customer problems combined with a decrease in website traffic is observed. In this paper we show how users, without any prior technical knowledge, can mine and use sentinels in the TARGIT BI Suite. We...

  12. Results from the radiometric validation of Sentinel-3 optical sensors using natural targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fougnie, Bertrand; Desjardins, Camille; Besson, Bruno; Bruniquel, Véronique; Meskini, Naceur; Nieke, Jens; Bouvet, Marc

    2016-09-01

    The recently launched SENTINEL-3 mission measures sea surface topography, sea/land surface temperature, and ocean/land surface colour with high accuracy. The mission provides data continuity with the ENVISAT mission through acquisitions by multiple sensing instruments. Two of them, OLCI (Ocean and Land Colour Imager) and SLSTR (Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer) are optical sensors designed to provide continuity with Envisat's MERIS and AATSR instruments. During the commissioning, in-orbit calibration and validation activities are conducted. Instruments are in-flight calibrated and characterized primarily using on-board devices which include diffusers and black body. Afterward, vicarious calibration methods are used in order to validate the OLCI and SLSTR radiometry for the reflective bands. The calibration can be checked over dedicated natural targets such as Rayleigh scattering, sunglint, desert sites, Antarctica, and tentatively deep convective clouds. Tools have been developed and/or adapted (S3ETRAC, MUSCLE) to extract and process Sentinel-3 data. Based on these matchups, it is possible to provide an accurate checking of many radiometric aspects such as the absolute and interband calibrations, the trending correction, the calibration consistency within the field-of-view, and more generally this will provide an evaluation of the radiometric consistency for various type of targets. Another important aspect will be the checking of cross-calibration between many other instruments such as MERIS and AATSR (bridge between ENVISAT and Sentinel-3), MODIS (bridge to the GSICS radiometric standard), as well as Sentinel-2 (bridge between Sentinel missions). The early results, based on the available OLCI and SLSTR data, will be presented and discussed.

  13. Developments in the Aerosol Layer Height Retrieval Algorithm for the Copernicus Sentinel-4/UVN Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Swadhin; Sanders, Abram; Veefkind, Pepijn

    2016-04-01

    The Sentinel-4 mission is a part of the European Commission's Copernicus programme, the goal of which is to provide geo-information to manage environmental assets, and to observe, understand and mitigate the effects of the changing climate. The Sentinel-4/UVN instrument design is motivated by the need to monitor trace gas concentrations and aerosols in the atmosphere from a geostationary orbit. The on-board instrument is a high resolution UV-VIS-NIR (UVN) spectrometer system that provides hourly radiance measurements over Europe and northern Africa with a spatial sampling of 8 km. The main application area of Sentinel-4/UVN is air quality. One of the data products that is being developed for Sentinel-4/UVN is the Aerosol Layer Height (ALH). The goal is to determine the height of aerosol plumes with a resolution of better than 0.5 - 1 km. The ALH product thus targets aerosol layers in the free troposphere, such as desert dust, volcanic ash and biomass during plumes. KNMI is assigned with the development of the Aerosol Layer Height (ALH) algorithm. Its heritage is the ALH algorithm developed by Sanders and De Haan (ATBD, 2016) for the TROPOMI instrument on board the Sentinel-5 Precursor mission that is to be launched in June or July 2016 (tentative date). The retrieval algorithm designed so far for the aerosol height product is based on the absorption characteristics of the oxygen-A band (759-770 nm). The algorithm has heritage to the ALH algorithm developed for TROPOMI on the Sentinel 5 precursor satellite. New aspects for Sentinel-4/UVN include the higher resolution (0.116 nm compared to 0.4 for TROPOMI) and hourly observation from the geostationary orbit. The algorithm uses optimal estimation to obtain a spectral fit of the reflectance across absorption band, while assuming a single uniform layer with fixed width to represent the aerosol vertical distribution. The state vector includes amongst other elements the height of this layer and its aerosol optical

  14. Advancements for Snowmelt Monitoring by Means of Sentinel-1 SAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Nagler

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Sentinel satellite constellation series, developed and operated by the European Space Agency, represents the dedicated space component of the European Copernicus program, committed to long-term operational services in environment, climate and security. We developed, tested and evaluated an algorithm for generating maps of snowmelt area from C-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR data of the Sentinel-1 mission. For snowmelt classification, a change detection method is applied, using multitemporal dual-polarized SAR data acquired in Interferometric Wide swath (IW mode, the basic operation mode over land surfaces. Of particular benefit for wet snow retrievals are the high instrument stability, the high spatial resolution across the 250 km wide swath, and the short revisit time. In order to study the impact of polarization, we generated maps of melting snow using data of the VV-polarized channel, the VH-polarized channel and a combined VV- and VH-based channel using a weighting function that accounts for effects of the local incidence angle. Comparisons are performed with snow maps derived from Landsat images over study areas in the Alps and in Iceland. The pixel-by-pixel comparisons show good agreement between the snow products of the two sensors, with the best performance for retrievals based on the combined (VV and VH channel and a minor decline for the VH-based product. The VV-based snowmelt extent product shows a drop-off in quality over areas with steep terrain because of the decreasing backscatter contrast of snow-covered versus snow-free surfaces on fore-slopes. The investigations demonstrate the excellent capability of the Sentinel-1 mission for operational monitoring of snowmelt areas.

  15. Discovering Sentinel Rules for Business Intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Middelfart, Morten; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes the concept of sentinel rules for multi-dimensional data that warns users when measure data concerning the external environment changes. For instance, a surge in negative blogging about a company could trigger a sentinel rule warning that revenue will decrease within two month...

  16. Discovering Sentinel Rules for Business Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middelfart, Morten; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    This paper proposes the concept of sentinel rules for multi-dimensional data that warns users when measure data concerning the external environment changes. For instance, a surge in negative blogging about a company could trigger a sentinel rule warning that revenue will decrease within two months, so a new course of action can be taken. Hereby, we expand the window of opportunity for organizations and facilitate successful navigation even though the world behaves chaotically. Since sentinel rules are at the schema level as opposed to the data level, and operate on data changes as opposed to absolute data values, we are able to discover strong and useful sentinel rules that would otherwise be hidden when using sequential pattern mining or correlation techniques. We present a method for sentinel rule discovery and an implementation of this method that scales linearly on large data volumes.

  17. Mapping CORINE Land Cover from Sentinel-1A SAR and SRTM Digital Elevation Model Data using Random Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiko Balzter

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The European CORINE land cover mapping scheme is a standardized classification system with 44 land cover and land use classes. It is used by the European Environment Agency to report large-scale land cover change with a minimum mapping unit of 5 ha every six years and operationally mapped by its member states. The most commonly applied method to map CORINE land cover change is by visual interpretation of optical/near-infrared satellite imagery. The Sentinel-1A satellite carries a C-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR and was launched in 2014 by the European Space Agency as the first operational Copernicus mission. This study is the first investigation of Sentinel-1A for CORINE land cover mapping. Two of the first Sentinel-1A images acquired during its ramp-up phase in May and December 2014 over Thuringia in Germany are analysed. 27 hybrid level 2/3 CORINE classes are defined. 17 of these were present at the study site and classified based on a stratified random sample of training pixels from the polygon-eroded CORINE 2006 map. Sentinel-1A logarithmic radar backscatter at HH and HV polarisation (May acquisition, VV and VH polarisation (December acquisition, and the HH image texture are used as input bands to the classification. In addition, a Digital Terrain Model (DTM, a Canopy Height Model (CHM and slope and aspect maps from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM are used as input bands to account for geomorphological features of the landscape. In future, elevation data will be delivered for areas with sufficiently high coherence from the Sentinel-1A Interferometric Wide-Swath Mode itself. When augmented by elevation data from radar interferometry, Sentinel-1A is able to discriminate several CORINE land cover classes, making it useful for monitoring of cloud-covered regions. A bistatic Sentinel-1 Convoy mission would enable single-pass interferometric acquisitions without temporal decorrelation.

  18. From CryoSat-2 to Sentinel-3 and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, R.

    2011-12-01

    CryoSat-2 carried into Earth orbit the first altimeter using SAR principles, although similar techniques had been used on earlier Venusian missions. Furthermore, it carries a second antenna and receive chain, and has been very carefully calibrated, allowing interferometry between these antennas. The results of the SAR mode and of the interferometer have met all expectations, with handsome margins. Even before the launch of CryoSat-2 the further development of this concept was underway with the radar for the oceanography mission Sentinel-3. While this radar, named SRAL (SAR Radar Altimeter) does not have the interferometer capability of CryoSat-2's SIRAL (SAR Interferometric Radar Altimeter), it does have a second frequency, to enable direct measurement of the delay induced by the ionospheric electron content. Sentinel-3 will have a sun-synchronous orbit, like ERS and EnviSat, and will have a similar latitudinal range: about 82° north and south, compared to CryoSat's 88°. Sentinel-3 will operate its radar altimeter in the high-resolution SAR mode over coastal oceans and inland water, and will revert to the more classical pulse-width limited mode over the open oceans. The SAR mode generates data at a high rate, so the major limiting factor is the amount of on-board storage. The power consumption is also higher, imposing less critical constraints. For sizing purposes the coastal oceans are defined as waters within 300 km of the continental shorelines. Sentinel-3 is expected to be launched in 2013 and be followed 18 months later by a second satellite of the same design. The next step in the development of this family of radar altimeters is Jason-CS, which will provide Continuity of Service to the existing Jason series of operational oceanography missions. Jason-CS has a very strong heritage from CryoSat but will fly the traditional Jason orbit, which covers latitudes up to 66° from a high altitude of 1330 km. The new radar is called Poseidon-4, to emphasise the

  19. A protocol for validating Land Surface Temperature from Sentinel-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghent, D.

    2015-12-01

    One of the main objectives of the Sentinel-3 mission is to measure sea- and land-surface temperature with high-end accuracy and reliability in support of environmental and climate monitoring in an operational context. Calibration and validation are thus key criteria for operationalization within the framework of the Sentinel-3 Mission Performance Centre (S3MPC).Land surface temperature (LST) has a long heritage of satellite observations which have facilitated our understanding of land surface and climate change processes, such as desertification, urbanization, deforestation and land/atmosphere coupling. These observations have been acquired from a variety of satellite instruments on platforms in both low-earth orbit and in geostationary orbit. Retrieval accuracy can be a challenge though; surface emissivities can be highly variable owing to the heterogeneity of the land, and atmospheric effects caused by the presence of aerosols and by water vapour absorption can give a bias to the underlying LST. As such, a rigorous validation is critical in order to assess the quality of the data and the associated uncertainties. The Sentinel-3 Cal-Val Plan for evaluating the level-2 SL_2_LST product builds on an established validation protocol for satellite-based LST. This set of guidelines provides a standardized framework for structuring LST validation activities, and is rapidly gaining international recognition. The protocol introduces a four-pronged approach which can be summarised thus: i) in situ validation where ground-based observations are available; ii) radiance-based validation over sites that are homogeneous in emissivity; iii) intercomparison with retrievals from other satellite sensors; iv) time-series analysis to identify artefacts on an interannual time-scale. This multi-dimensional approach is a necessary requirement for assessing the performance of the LST algorithm for SLSTR which is designed around biome-based coefficients, thus emphasizing the importance of

  20. The ESA Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desnos, Yves-Louis; Benveniste, Jerome; Delwart, Steven; Engdahl, Marcus; Regner, Peter; Zehner, Claus; Mathieu, Pierre Philippe; Arino, Olivier; Bojkov, Bojan; Ferran, Gaston; Donlon, Craig; Kern, Michael; Scipal, Klaus

    2013-04-01

    The prime objective of the ESA Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions (SEOM) programme element is to federate, support and expand the large international research community that the ERS, ENVISAT and the Envelope programmes have built up over the last 20 years. It aims to further strengthen the international leadership of European Earth Observation research community by enabling them to extensively exploit observations from future European operational EO missions. SEOM will enable the science community to address many new avenues of scientific research that will be opened by free and open access to data from operational EO missions. As a preparation for the SEOM element a series of international science users consultation has been organized by ESA in 2012 covering Sentinel 1 (FRINGE /SEASAR ), Sentinel 2 ( S2 symposium), Sentinel 3 (COAST-ALT workshop , 20 Years Progress in Radar Altimetry, Sentinel 3 OLCI/SLSTR 2012 workshop) and Sentinel 4-5 (Atmospheric Science Confrence). The science users recommendations have been gathered and form the basis for the work plan 2013 for the SEOM element. The SEOM element is organized along the following action lines: 1. Developing, validating and maintaining open-source, multi-mission, scientific software toolboxes capable to handle the Sentinels data products 2. Stimulating the development and validation of advanced EO methods and observation strategies in particular the new TOpS mode on Sentinel 1, the new band settings on Sentinel 2, the new geometry/bands of Sentinel 3 OLCI ,SLSTR intruments and the advanced delay-doppler (SAR) altimeter exploitation. 3. Continuing to federate, support and expand the multi-disciplinary expert EO research communities by organizing thematic workshops and ensuring high-quality scientific publications linked to these research domains. Promoting widespread scientific use of data. 4. Training the next generation of European EO scientists on the scientific exploitation of Sentinel s data

  1. Contrast enhanced ultrasound of sentinel lymph nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XinWu Cui

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Sentinel lymph nodes are the first lymph nodes in the region that receive lymphatic drainage from a primary tumor. The detection or exclusion of sentinel lymph node micrometastases is critical in the staging of cancer, especially breast cancer and melanoma because it directly affects patient’s prognosis and surgical management. Currently, intraoperative sentinel lymph node biopsies using blue dye and radioisotopes are the method of choice for the detection of sentinel lymph node with high identification rate. In contrast, conventional ultrasound is not capable of detecting sentinel lymph nodes in most cases. Contrast enhanced ultrasound with contrast specific imaging modes has been used for the evaluation and diagnostic work-up of peripherally located suspected lymphadenopathy. The method allows for real-time analysis of all vascular phases and the visualization of intranodal focal “avascular” areas that represent necrosis or deposits of neoplastic cells. In recent years, a number of animal and human studies showed that contrast enhanced ultrasound can be also used for the detection of sentinel lymph node, and may become a potential application in clinical routine. Several contrast agents have been used in those studies, including albumin solution, hydroxyethylated starch, SonoVue®, Sonazoid® and Definity®. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the use of ultrasound techniques in detection and evaluation of sentinel lymph node.

  2. Sentinel-1 TOPS interferometry for geophysical applications: Dyke intrusion imaged during 2014 Pico do Fogo eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Pablo J.; Marinkovic, Petar; Samsonov, Sergey; Hooper, Andrew; Larsen, Yngvar; Wright, Tim

    2015-04-01

    Since the inception of the European Space Agency ERS Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) mission in the 1990s, radar interferometry has become an indispensable geophysical tool for measuring surface ground deformation over wide areas with high precision. Ground deformation is a key observation to study and monitoring multiple applications in geophysics such as earthquake and tectonics, volcano, land subsidence and landslides study and monitoring. Therefore, the frequent acquisition of SAR data to compute differential interferograms is a long standing goal in observational geodesy. A new mission designed by ESA, the Sentinel-1 mission would provide routinely frequent acquisitions (every 12 days) over larger areas (250-350 km). In April 2014, the first of expected four successive and overlapping similar spacecrafts was launched to start a total 20-year continuous operational mission. Terrain observation by progressive scans (TOPS) is a new radar acquisition mode, which provides with high quality radiometric radar amplitude images. TOPS mode allows us to acquire radar data over much wider areas than previous classical stripmap mode, and it is the default mode of acquisition of ESA Sentinel-1 satellite. However, due to a variable steering (ground scanning) of the antenna pattern, the corregistration of TOPSAR images result in a much higher demanding processing step. The higher precision azimuth SAR image corregistration and variable line-of-sight along azimuth direction intersect with the fact that image disparities on the order to a thousand of a pixel size also characterizes multiple geophysical phenomena (such as landslide dynamics, coseismic earthquake, fault creep or volcanic intrusions). In this paper, we present the first results using Sentinel-1 TOPS interferometry to measure an important deformation event. We successfully compute Sentinel-1 TOPS-InSAR and tested the effect of variable line-of-sight in azimuth, during the estimation of geophysical parameters. We

  3. Building a Data Set over 12 Globally Distributed Sites to Support the Development of Agriculture Monitoring Applications with Sentinel-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Bontemps

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Developing better agricultural monitoring capabilities based on Earth Observation data is critical for strengthening food production information and market transparency. The Sentinel-2 mission has the optimal capacity for regional to global agriculture monitoring in terms of resolution (10–20 meter, revisit frequency (five days and coverage (global. In this context, the European Space Agency launched in 2014 the “Sentinel­2 for Agriculture” project, which aims to prepare the exploitation of Sentinel-2 data for agriculture monitoring through the development of open source processing chains for relevant products. The project generated an unprecedented data set, made of “Sentinel-2 like” time series and in situ data acquired in 2013 over 12 globally distributed sites. Earth Observation time series were mostly built on the SPOT4 (Take 5 data set, which was specifically designed to simulate Sentinel-2. They also included Landsat 8 and RapidEye imagery as complementary data sources. Images were pre-processed to Level 2A and the quality of the resulting time series was assessed. In situ data about cropland, crop type and biophysical variables were shared by site managers, most of them belonging to the “Joint Experiment for Crop Assessment and Monitoring” network. This data set allowed testing and comparing across sites the methodologies that will be at the core of the future “Sentinel­2 for Agriculture” system.

  4. Building a data set over 12 globally distributed sites to support the development of agriculture monitoring applications with Sentinel-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing better agricultural monitoring capabilities based on Earth Observation data is critical for strengthening food production information and market transparency. The coming Sentinel-2 mission has the optimal capacity for regional to global agriculture monitoring in terms of resolution (10-20...

  5. The BioSentinel Bioanalytical Microsystem: Characterizing DNA Radiation Damage in Living Organisms Beyond Earth Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricco, A. J.; Hanel, R.; Bhattacharya, S.; Boone, T.; Tan, M.; Mousavi, A.; Rademacher, A.; Schooley, A.; Klamm, B.; Benton, J.; Padgen, M.; Gentry, D.; Friedericks, C.; Defouw, G.; Parra, M.; Santa Maria, S.; Marina, D.; Swan, B. G.; Wheeler, S.; Gavalas, S.; Lewis, B.; Sanchez, H.; Chartres, J.; Lusby, T.

    2016-01-01

    We will present details and initial lab test results from an integrated bioanalytical microsystem designed to conduct the first biology experiments beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) since Apollo 17 (1972). The 14-kg, 12x24x37-cm BioSentinel spacecraft (Figure 1) assays radiation-responsive yeast in its science payload by measuring DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) repaired via homologous recombination, a mechanism common to all eukaryotes including humans. S. cerevisiae (brewer's yeast) in 288 microwells are provided with nutrient and optically assayed for growth and metabolism via 3-color absorptimetry monthly during the 18-month mission. BioSentinel is one of several secondary payloads to be deployed by NASA's Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) launch vehicle into approximately 0.95 AU heliocentric orbit in July 2018; it will communicate with Earth from up to 100 million km.

  6. Intraoperative Sentinel Lymph Node Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Richard; Christensen, Anders; Java, Kapil

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intraoperative analysis of sentinel lymph nodes would enhance the care of early-stage oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We determined the frequency and extent of cytokeratin 19 (CK19) expression in OSCC primary tumours and surrounding tissues to explore the feasibility of a "clinic...... mg). CK19 assays included qRT-PCR, RNA in situ hybridisation (ISH), and immunohistochemistry (IHC), as well as OSNA. RESULTS: CK19 mRNA expression was detected with variable sensitivity, depending on method, in 60-80% of primary OSCC tumours, while protein expression was observed in only 50......% of tumours. Discordance between different techniques indicated that OSNA was more sensitive than qRT-PCR or RNA-ISH, which in turn were more sensitive than IHC. OSNA results showed CK19 expression in 80% of primary cases, so if used for diagnosis of lymph node metastasis would lead to a false-negative result...

  7. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in oral cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jørn Bo; Sørensen, Jens Ahm; Grupe, Peter;

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: To validate lymphatic mapping combined with sentinel lymph node biopsy as a staging procedure, and to evaluate the possible clinical implications of added oblique lymphoscintigraphy and/or tomography and test the intra- and interobserver reproducibility of lymphoscintigraphy. MATERIAL...... AND METHODS: Forty patients (17 F and 23 M, aged 32-90) with 24 T1 and 16 T2 squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity. Planar lymphoscintigraphy, emission and transmission tomography were performed. Detection and excision of the sentinel nodes were guided by a gamma probe. The sentinel nodes were step......-sectioning and stained with hematoxylin and eosin and cytokeratin (CK 1). Histology and follow-up were used as "gold standard". Tumor location, number of sentinel lymph nodes, metastasis, and recurrences were registered. Two observers evaluated the lymphoscintigraphic images to assess the inter-rater agreement. RESULTS...

  8. SENTINEL-1 RESULTS: SEA ICE OPERATIONAL MONITORING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toudal Pedersen, Leif; Saldo, Roberto; Fenger-Nielsen, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper we demonstrate the capabilities of the Sentinel-1 SAR data for operational sea-ice and iceberg monitoring. Most of the examples are drawn from the Copernicus Marine Environmental Monitoring Service (CMEMS) production.......In the present paper we demonstrate the capabilities of the Sentinel-1 SAR data for operational sea-ice and iceberg monitoring. Most of the examples are drawn from the Copernicus Marine Environmental Monitoring Service (CMEMS) production....

  9. BioSentinel: Biosensors for Deep-Space Radiation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokugamage, Melissa P.; Santa Maria, Sergio R.; Marina, Diana B.; Bhattacharya, Sharmila

    2016-01-01

    The BioSentinel mission will be deployed on NASA's Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) in 2018. We will use the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as a biosensor to study the effect of deep-space radiation on living cells. The BioSentinel mission will be the first investigation of a biological response to space radiation outside Low Earth Orbit (LEO) in over 40 years. Radiation can cause damage such as double stand breaks (DSBs) on DNA. The yeast cell was chosen for this mission because it is genetically controllable, shares homology with human cells in its DNA repair pathways, and can be stored in a desiccated state for long durations. Three yeast strains will be stored dry in multiple microfluidic cards: a wild type control strain, a mutant defective strain that cannot repair DSBs, and a biosensor strain that can only grow if it gets DSB-and-repair events occurring near a specific gene. Growth and metabolic activity of each strain will be measured by a 3-color LED optical detection system. Parallel experiments will be done on the International Space Station and on Earth so that we can compare the results to that of deep space. One of our main objectives is to characterize the microfluidic card activation sequence before the mission. To increase the sensitivity of yeast cells as biosensors, desiccated yeast in each card will be resuspended in a rehydration buffer. After several weeks, the rehydration buffer will be exchanged with a growth medium in order to measure yeast growth and metabolic activity. We are currently working on a time-course experiment to better understand the effects of the rehydration buffer on the response to ionizing radiation. We will resuspend the dried yeast in our rehydration medium over a period of time; then each week, we will measure the viability and ionizing radiation sensitivity of different yeast strains taken from this rehydration buffer. The data obtained in this study will be useful in finalizing the card activation sequence for

  10. The molecular basis of color vision in colorful fish: Four Long Wave-Sensitive (LWS opsins in guppies (Poecilia reticulata are defined by amino acid substitutions at key functional sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Pam R

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparisons of functionally important changes at the molecular level in model systems have identified key adaptations driving isolation and speciation. In cichlids, for example, long wavelength-sensitive (LWS opsins appear to play a role in mate choice and male color variation within and among species. To test the hypothesis that the evolution of elaborate coloration in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata is also associated with opsin gene diversity, we sequenced long wavelength-sensitive (LWS opsin genes in six species of the family Poeciliidae. Results Sequences of four LWS opsin genes were amplified from the guppy genome and from mRNA isolated from adult guppy eyes. Variation in expression was quantified using qPCR. Three of the four genes encode opsins predicted to be most sensitive to different wavelengths of light because they vary at key amino acid positions. This family of LWS opsin genes was produced by a diversity of duplication events. One, an intronless gene, was produced prior to the divergence of families Fundulidae and Poeciliidae. Between-gene PCR and DNA sequencing show that two of the guppy LWS opsins are linked in an inverted orientation. This inverted tandem duplication event occurred near the base of the poeciliid tree in the common ancestor of Poecilia and Xiphophorus. The fourth sequence has been uncovered only in the genus Poecilia. In the guppies surveyed here, this sequence is a hybrid, with the 5' end most similar to one of the tandem duplicates and the 3' end identical to the other. Conclusion Enhanced wavelength discrimination, a possible consequence of opsin gene duplication and divergence, might have been an evolutionary prerequisite for color-based sexual selection and have led to the extraordinary coloration now observed in male guppies and in many other poeciliids.

  11. Ocean Surface reconstruction from the synergy of Sentinel-3 sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Haro, C.; Autret, E.; Isern-Fontanet, J.; Tandeo, P.; Le Goff, C.; Garello, R.; Fablet, R.

    2015-12-01

    Along-track altimetric measurements of Sea Surface Heights (SSH) are very well suited to quantify across-track currents. However, the spatial resolution of derived 2D velocities is restricted to scales above 100-150 km and the limited number of altimeters can lead to errors in the location of currents. On the contrary, infrared measurements of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) are well suited to locate flow patterns but it is difficult to extract quantitative estimations of ocean currents. During the last years, some works began to exploit the synergy of SST and altimetry measurements in order to retrieve ocean currents. Nevertheless, all this previous works employed measurements which were near in time but not simultaneous. In that sense, Sentinel-3 is a multi-instrument mission that will circumvent this temporal limitation, providing simultaneous measurements of SST and altimetry with high-end accuracy and reliability. Our approach, based on the spectral properties of simultaneous SST and SSH observations, is tested using ENVISAT (RA, AATSR) data, since its geometry is similar to that of Sentinel-3 (SRAL, SLSTR).

  12. SPICE: Sentinel-3 Performance Improvement for Ice Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Malcolm; Escola, Roger; Roca, Monica; Escorihuela, Maria Jose; Thibaut, Pierre; Shepherd, Andrew; Remy, Frederique; Aublanc, Jeremie; Benveniste, Jerome; Restano, Marco; Ambrozio, Americo

    2017-04-01

    For the past 25 years, polar-orbiting satellite radar altimeters have provided a valuable record of ice sheet elevation change, yielding estimates of ice sheet mass imbalance at the scale of individual ice sheet basins. One of the principle challenges associated with radar altimetry comes from the relatively large ground footprint of conventional pulse-limited radars, which limits their capacity to make reliable measurements in areas of complex topographic terrain. In recent years, progress has been made towards improving ground resolution, through the implementation of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), or Delay-Doppler, techniques. In 2010, the launch of CryoSat-2 heralded the start of a new era of SAR altimetry, although full SAR coverage of the polar ice sheets has only been achieved with the launch of the first Sentinel-3 satellite in February 2016. Because of the heritage of SAR altimetry provided by CryoSat-2, many SAR altimeter processing techniques have been optimized and evaluated for water and sea ice surfaces only. This leaves several outstanding issues related to the development and evaluation of SAR altimetry for ice sheets, including improvements to Delay-Doppler processing algorithms and SAR altimetry waveform retracking procedures. Here we present results from SPICE (Sentinel-3 Performance Improvement for Ice Sheets), a 2 year project that focuses on the expected performance of Sentinel-3 SAR altimetry over the Polar ice sheets. The project, which began in September 2015 and is funded by ESA's SEOM (Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions) programme, aims to contribute to the development and understanding of ice sheet SAR altimetry through the emulation of Sentinel-3 data from dedicated CryoSat SAR acquisitions made at the Lake Vostok, Dome C and Spirit sites in East Antarctica, and from reprocessed interferometric SAR data in Greenland. More specifically, we will evaluate SAR elevation retrievals using different processing methodologies and

  13. SPICE: Sentinel-3 Performance Improvement for Ice Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benveniste, Jérôme; Escolà, Roger; Roca, Mònica; Ambrózio, Américo; Restano, Marco; McMillan, Malcolm; Escorihuela, Maria Jose; Shepherd, Andrew; Thibaut, Pierre; Remy, Frederique

    2016-07-01

    Since the launch of ERS-1 in 1991, polar-orbiting satellite radar altimeters have provided a near continuous record of ice sheet elevation change, yielding estimates of ice sheet mass imbalance at the scale of individual ice sheet basins. One of the principle challenges associated with radar altimetry comes from the relatively large ground footprint of conventional pulse-limited radars, which limits their capacity to make reliable measurements in areas of complex topographic terrain. In recent years, progress has been made towards improving ground resolution, through the implementation of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), or Delay-Doppler, techniques. In 2010, the launch of CryoSat-2 by the European Space Agency heralded the start of a new era of SAR altimetry, although full SAR coverage of the polar ice sheets will only be achieved with the launch of the first Sentinel-3 satellite in February 2016. Because of the heritage of SAR altimetry provided by CryoSat-2, current SAR altimeter processing techniques have been optimized and evaluated for water and sea ice surfaces. This leaves several outstanding issues related to the development and evaluation of SAR altimetry for ice sheets, including improvements to SAR processing algorithms and SAR altimetry waveform retracking procedures. Here we will present interim results from SPICE (Sentinel-3 Performance Improvement for Ice Sheets), a 2 year project that focuses on the expected performance of Sentinel-3 SAR altimetry over the Polar ice sheets. The project, which began in September 2015 and is funded by ESA's SEOM (Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions) programme, aims to contribute to the development and understanding of ice sheet SAR altimetry through the emulation of Sentinel-3 data from dedicated CryoSat SAR acquisitions made at several sites in Antarctica and Greenland. More specifically, the project aims to (1) evaluate and improve the current Delay-Doppler processing and SAR waveform retracking

  14. Sentinel-1A - Launching the first satellite and launching the operational Copernicus programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschbacher, Josef; Milagro Perez, Maria Pilar

    2014-05-01

    The first Copernicus satellite, Sentinel-1A, is prepared for launch in April 2014. It will provide continuous, systematic and highly reliable radar images of the Earth. Sentinel-1B will follow around 18 months later to increase observation frequency and establish an operational system. Sentinel-1 is designed to work in a pre-programmed conflict-free operation mode ensuring the reliability required by operational services and creating a consistent long-term data archive for applications based on long time series. This mission will ensure the continuation and improvement of SAR operational services and applications addressing primarily medium- to high-resolution applications through a main mode of operation that features both a wide swath (250 km) and high geometric (5 × 20 m) and radiometric resolution, allowing imaging of global landmasses, coastal zones, sea ice, polar areas, and shipping routes at high resolution. The Sentinel-1 main operational mode (Interferometric Wide Swath) will allow to have a complete coverage of the Earth in 6 days in the operational configuration when the two Sentinel-1 spacecraft will be in orbit simultaneously. High priority areas like Europe, Canada and some shipping routes will be covered almost daily. This high global observation frequency is unprecedented and cannot be reached with any other current radar mission. Envisat, for example, which was the 'workhorse' in this domain up to April 2012, reached global coverage every 35 days. Sentinel-1 data products will be made available systematically and free of charge to all users including institutional users, the general public, scientific and commercial users. The transition of the Copernicus programme from the development to operational phase will take place at about the same time when the first Sentinel-1 satellite will be launched. During the operational phase, funding of the programme will come from the European Union Multiannual Financial Framework (MFF) for the years 2014

  15. Sentinel node techniques in cancer of the vulva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hullu, Joanne A; van der Zee, Ate G J

    2003-02-01

    The sentinel lymph node procedure, with the combined technique (preoperative lymphoscintigraphy with (99m)Technetium-labeled Nanocolloid and Patente Blue V ), is a promising staging technique for patients with vulvar cancer. The clinical implementation of the sentinel lymph node procedure and the role of additional histopathologic techniques of the sentinel lymph nodes are under investigation.

  16. Sea Ice Detection with Sentinel-1A Dual Polarization SAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Ming; Ji, Yonggang

    2016-08-01

    Sentinel-1A satellite was launched in the 3rd of April 2014. It is the first mission of the Copernicus family of Sentinels is designed to provide continuous routine data for the operational monitoring of oceans and land, and to support coordinated and rapid response operations to disasters (e.g. landslides and floods) as well as humanitarian aid missions. In this paper an approach to sea ice detection with dual polarization Sentinel-1A SAR data was presented. Firstly, the backscatter coefficients and texture features are achieved, in this step we found the best set of parameters including the window size, orientation, displacement and quantization levels, and the most useful texture characteristics to be used for detection, the effective GLCM texture features are mean and variance in HH polarization as well as mean, variance and correlation in HV polarization. In the end, the SVM classification was carried out with a series of bands, which including the texture characteristics and the backscatter information as the inputs. The final result shows good between sea ice and open water discrimination, which is important to the sea ice monitoring.

  17. Detection of sentinel nodes with radiopharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, Kunihiko; Michigishi, Takatoshi; Kinuya, Seigo; Konishi, Shota; Nakajima, Kenichi; Tonami, Norihisa [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-10-01

    Sentinel lymph nodes have been found to be an indicator of lymph node metastasis in breast cancer. In Japan, the theory and concept of sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer have begun to be applied to carcinomas of the digestive system. Based on clinical experience in the detection of sentinel lymph nodes with radiopharmaceuticals, differences and similarities between the radiopharmaceuticals, methods, and techniques used to detect sentinel lymph nodes have been assessed in relation to breast cancer and carcinomas of the digestive system (including carcinomas of the esophagus and large intestine). The greatest difference between the methods used for breast and digestive cancers is the site of administration of the radiopharmaceutical. In breast cancer, the radiopharmaceutical is administered into a superficial organ (i.e., the mammary gland), whereas in carcinomas of the digestive system, it is administered into a deep organ (i.e., digestive tract). Another obvious difference is in lymph flow, i.e., the flow of the mammary glands is subcutaneous whereas lymph flow in the digestive tract is submucosal. Two radionuclide diagnostic methods are available to detect sentinel lymph nodes: sentinel lymphoscintigraphy with a gamma camera and a method that involves the use of a gamma probe intraoperatively. Radiopharmaceuticals used to detect sentinel lymph nodes must be smoothly transferred from the site of administration into the lymph, and uptake by the sentinel lymph node must continue for a long time without excessive flowing to lower reaches. The optimal particle size remains a matter of controversy, and no radiopharmaceuticals appropriate for lymphoscintigraphy have ever been approved in Japan. The authors compared the pharmacokinetics of three different radiopharmaceuticals used for sentinel lymphoscintigraphy in breast cancer ({sup 99m}Tc-labeled albumin, {sup 99m}Tc-labeled tin colloid, and {sup 99m}Tc-labeled phytic acid) and founded that the detection rate was

  18. Constraints on the Bulk Composition of Uranus from Herschel PACS and ISO LWS Photometry, SOFIA FORCAST Photometry and Spectroscopy, and Ground-Based Photometry of its Thermal Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, Glenn; Mueller, Thomas; Burgdorf, Martin; Fletcher, Leigh; de Pater, Imke; Atreya, Sushil; Adams, Joseph; Herter, Terry; Keller, Luke; Sidher, Sunil; Sinclair, James; Fujiyoshi, Takuya

    2016-04-01

    We present thermal infrared observations of the disk of Uranus at 17-200 μm to deduce its global thermal structure and bulk composition. We combine 17-200 μm filtered photometric measurements by the Herschel PACS and ISO LWS instruments and 19-35 μm filtered photometry and spectroscopy by the SOFIA FORCAST instrument, supplemented by 17-25 μm ground-based photometric filtered imaging of Uranus. Previous analysis of infrared spectroscopic measurements of the disk of Uranus made by the Spitzer IRS instrument yielded a model for the disk-averaged temperature profile and stratospheric composition (Orton et al. 2014a Icarus 243,494; 2014b Icarus 243, 471) that were consistent with submillimeter spectroscopy by the Herschel SPIRE instrument (Swinyard et al. 2014, MNRAS 440, 3658). Our motivation to observe the 17-35 μm spectrum was to place more stringent constraints on the global para-H2 / ortho-H2 ratio in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere than the ISO SWS results of Fouchet et al. (2003, Icarus 161, 127), who examined H2 quadrupole lines. We will discuss the consistency of these observations with a higher para-H2 fraction than implied by local thermal equilibrium, which would resolve a discrepancy between the Spitzer-based model and observations of HD lines by the Herschel PACS experiment (Feuchtgruber et al. 2013 Astron. & Astrophys. 551, A126). Constraints on the global para-H2 fraction allow for more precise analysis of the far-infrared spectrum, which is sensitive to the He:H2 ratio, a quantity that was not constrained by the Spitzer IRS spectra. The derived model, which assumed the ratio derived by the Voyager-2 IRIS/radio-science occultation experiment (Conrath et al. 1987 J. Geophys. Res. 92, 15003), is inconsistent with 70-200 μm PACS photometry (Mueller et al. 2016 Astron. & Astrophys. submittted) and ISO LWS photometric measurements. However, the model can be made consistent with the observations if the fraction of He relative to H2 were

  19. The Scientist as Sentinel (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreskes, N.

    2013-12-01

    Scientists have been warning the world for some time about the risks of anthropogenic interference in the climate system. But we struggle with how, exactly, to express that warning. The norms of scientific behavior enjoin us from the communication strategies normally associated with warnings. If a scientist sounds excited or emotional, for example, it is often assumed that he has lost his capac¬ity to assess data calmly and therefore his conclusions are suspect. If the scientist is a woman, the problem is that much worse. In a recently published article my colleagues and I have shown that scientists have systematically underestimated the threat of climate change (Brysse et al., 2012). We suggested that this occurs for norma¬tive reasons: The scientific values of rationality, dispassion, and self-restraint lead us to demand greater levels of evidence in support of surprising, dramatic, or alarming conclusions than in support of less alarming conclusions. We call this tendency 'err¬ing on the side of least drama.' However, the problem is not only that we err on the side of least drama in our assessment of evidence, it's also that we speak without drama, even when our conclusions are dramatic. We speak without the emotional cadence that people expect to hear when the speaker is worried. Even when we are worried, we don't sound as if we are. In short, we are trying to act as sentinels, but we lack the register with which to do so. Until we find those registers, or partner with colleagues who are able to speak in the cadences that communicating dangers requires, our warnings about climate change will likely continue to go substantially unheeded.

  20. Sentinel-2A image quality commissioning phase final results: geometric calibration and performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Languille, F.; Gaudel, A.; Dechoz, C.; Greslou, D.; de Lussy, F.; Trémas, T.; Poulain, V.; Massera, S.

    2016-10-01

    In the frame of the Copernicus program of the European Commission, Sentinel-2 offers multispectral high-spatial-resolution optical images over global terrestrial surfaces. In cooperation with ESA, the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) is in charge of the image quality of the project, and so ensures the CAL/VAL commissioning phase during the months following the launch. Sentinel-2 is a constellation of 2 satellites on a polar sun-synchronous orbit with a revisit time of 5 days (with both satellites), a high field of view - 290km, 13 spectral bands in visible and shortwave infrared, and high spatial resolution - 10m, 20m and 60m. The Sentinel-2 mission offers a global coverage over terrestrial surfaces. The satellites acquire systematically terrestrial surfaces under the same viewing conditions in order to have temporal images stacks. The first satellite was launched in June 2015. Following the launch, the CAL/VAL commissioning phase is then lasting during 6 months for geometrical calibration. This paper will point on observations and results seen on Sentinel-2 images during commissioning phase. It will provide explanations about Sentinel-2 products delivered with geometric corrections. This paper will detail calibration sites, and the methods used for geometrical parameters calibration and will present linked results. The following topics will be presented: viewing frames orientation assessment, focal plane mapping for all spectral bands, results on geolocation assessment, and multispectral registration. There is a systematic images recalibration over a same reference which is a set of S2 images produced during the 6 months of CAL/VAL. This set of images will be presented as well as the geolocation performance and the multitemporal performance after refining over this ground reference.

  1. Gas and dust cooling along the major axis of M33 (HerM33es): ISO/LWS CII observations

    CERN Document Server

    Kramer, C; Garcia-Burillo, S; Relano, M; Aalto, S; Boquien, M; Braine, J; Buchbender, C; Gratier, P; Israel, F P; Nikola, T; Roellig, M; Verley, S; van der Werf, P; Xilouris, E M

    2013-01-01

    We aim to better understand the heating of the gas by observing the prominent gas cooling line [CII] at 158um in the low-metallicity environment of the Local Group spiral galaxy M33 at scales of 280pc. In particular, we aim at describing the variation of the photoelectric heating efficiency with galactic environment. In this unbiased study, we used ISO/LWS [CII] observations along the major axis of M33, in combination with Herschel PACS and SPIRE continuum maps, IRAM 30m CO 2-1 and VLA HI data to study the variation of velocity integrated intensities. The ratio of [CII] emission over the far-infrared continuum is used as a proxy for the heating efficiency, and models of photon-dominated regions are used to study the local physical densities, FUV radiation fields, and average column densities of the molecular clouds. The heating efficiency stays constant at 0.8% in the inner 4.5kpc radius of the galaxy where it starts to increase to reach values of ~3% in the outskirts at about 6kpc radial distance. The rise o...

  2. ESA's atmospheric composition and dynamics mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehr, Thorsten; Laur, Henri; Hoersch, Bianca; Ingmann, Paul; Wehr, Tobias; Langen, Joerg; Veihelmann, Ben

    For almost 15 years, ESA is providing atmospheric chemistry and composition information to the user community. In 1995, this commitment started with the GOME instrument on-board ERS-2. This mission was continued and extended with the GOMOS, MIPAS and SCIAMACHY instruments on-board of ENVISAT launched in 2002. ESA is prepared to continue Envisat through 2013 in the frame of the mission extension. To respond to GMES requirements, ESA develops the Sentinel 5 Precursor mission to be launched in 2014, to continue and improve the European measurement capabilities initiated with GOME and SCIAMACHY, and continued with EUMETSAT's GOME-2 and the Dutch OMI instrument on the NASA Aura platform. In addition the Sentinel 4 and 5 missions are prepared, further improving the monitoring capabilities with geostationary observation capabilities and continuing the Low Earth Orbit Sentinel 5 Precursor well beyond 2025. At the same time, ESA is preparing two atmospheric Earth Explorer Missions. With ADM-Aeolus, a novel lidar system for the retrieval of wind speed vectors from space is being developed and planned to be launched in 2012. EarthCARE will investigate the Clouds-Aerosol-radiation-interaction with a lidar, cloud radar (provided by JAXA), multi-spectral imager and broad band radiometric instruments collocated on one platform. A major goal is the development of synergistic retrievals exploiting information from different sensors in one algorithm. The mission is planned to start in 2014. In parallel the Phase A studies for the ESA Earth Explorer 7 are ongoing. One of the three candidate missions is PREMIER, an infrared limb-imaging spectrometer and millimetre-wave limb-sounder planned to be launched in 2016. In addition the call of ideas for the Earth Explorer 8 has been published and the corresponding Letters of Intend have been received, including a number of proposals for mission in the atmospheric composition and dynamics domain. At the same time, the access to ESA Third

  3. Patch-Based Image Classification For Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 Earth Resolution EO Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgescu, Florin-Andrei; Tanase, Radu; Datcu, Mihai; Raducanu, Dan

    2016-08-01

    In an era where the satellite image collections are in a continuous growth, Earth Observation (EO) image annotation and classification is becoming an important component of data exploitation. In this paper we present how feature extraction methods such as Gabor (G) and Weber Local Descriptor (WLD) are performing in a patch- based approach in the frame of Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 image data analysis. Having the goal to develop an application capable to join feature extraction and classification algorithms, in our assessment, we performed supervised support vector machines (SVM) and k-Nearest Neighbors (k-NN) classifications to extract a few generic classes from synthetic aperture radar (SAR), multispectral (MSI) and data fusion (DFI) images. The result of this study is intended to establish the optimum number of classes that can be found in the Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 images when using patch based image classification techniques. Also another important objective of this paper is to determine the best patch sizes suitable for this classification type in order to return best results for Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 EO images.

  4. The Basic Radar Altimetry Toolbox for Sentinel 3 Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Bruno; Rosmorduc, Vinca; Niemeijer, Sander; Bronner, Emilie; Dinardo, Salvatore; Benveniste, Jérôme

    2013-04-01

    The Basic Radar Altimetry Toolbox (BRAT) is a collection of tools and tutorial documents designed to facilitate the processing of radar altimetry data. This project started in 2006 from the joint efforts of ESA (European Space Agency) and CNES (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales). The latest version of the software, 3.1, was released on March 2012. The tools enable users to interact with the most common altimetry data formats, being the most used way, the Graphical User Interface (BratGui). This GUI is a front-end for the powerful command line tools that are part of the BRAT suite. BRAT can also be used in conjunction with Matlab/IDL (via reading routines) or in C/C++/Fortran via a programming API, allowing the user to obtain desired data, bypassing the data-formatting hassle. The BratDisplay (graphic visualizer) can be launched from BratGui, or used as a stand-alone tool to visualize netCDF files - it is distributed with another ESA toolbox (GUT) as the visualizer. The most frequent uses of BRAT are teaching remote sensing, altimetry data reading (all missions from ERS-1 to Saral and soon Sentinel-3), quick data visualization/export and simple computation on the data fields. BRAT can be used for importing data and having a quick look at his contents, with several different types of plotting available. One can also use it to translate the data into other formats such as netCDF, ASCII text files, KML (Google Earth) and raster images (JPEG, PNG, etc.). Several kinds of computations can be done within BratGui involving combinations of data fields that the user can save for posterior reuse or using the already embedded formulas that include the standard oceanographic altimetry formulas (MSS, -SSH, MSLA, editing of spurious data, etc.). The documentation collection includes the standard user manual explaining all the ways to interact with the set of software tools but the most important item is the Radar Altimeter Tutorial, that contains a strong introduction to

  5. FOREST AREA DERIVATION FROM SENTINEL-1 DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dostálová

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The recently launched Sentinel-1A provides the high resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR data with very high temporal coverage over large parts of European continent. Short revisit time and dual polarization availability supports its usability for forestry applications. The following study presents an analysis of the potential of the multi-temporal dual-polarization Sentinel-1A data for the forest area derivation using the standard methods based on Otsu thresholding and K-means clustering. Sentinel-1 data collected in winter season 2014-2015 over a test area in eastern Austria were used to derive forest area mask with spatial resolution of 10m and minimum mapping unit of 500 m2. The validation with reference forest mask derived from airborne full-waveform laser scanning data revealed overall accuracy of 92 % and kappa statistics of 0.81. Even better results can be achieved when using external mask for urban areas, which might be misclassified as forests when using the introduced approach based on SAR data only. The Sentinel-1 data and the described methods are well suited for forest change detection between consecutive years.

  6. Histological and immunohistochemical evaluation of sentinel lymph ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [6,7] The technique is sensitive and specific to ... of sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer at a tertiary hospital in ... tumour excision or simple mastectomy as well as SLN biopsies. All the ... [6,7] Significant resource implications of the increasing ...

  7. Implementing Sentinels in the TARGIT BI Suite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Middelfart, Morten; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2011-01-01

    users based on previous observations, e.g., that revenue might drop within two months if an increase in customer problems combined with a decrease in website traffic is observed. In this paper we show how users, without any prior technical knowledge, can mine and use sentinels in the TARGIT BI Suite. We...

  8. TROPOMI on the Copernicus Sentinel 5 Precursor: Launched?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levelt, P.; Veefkind, J. P.; Kleipool, Q.; Ludewig, A.; Aben, I.; De Vries, J.; Loyola, D. G.; Richter, A.; Van Roozendael, M.; Siddans, R.; Tamminen, J.; Wagner, T.; Nett, H.

    2016-12-01

    The Copernicus Sentinel 5 Precursor (S5P) is the first of the European Sentinels satellites dedicated to monitoring of the atmospheric composition. S5P is planned for launch in the 4thquarter of 2016; hopefully in time for the AGU Fall Meeting! The mission objectives of S5P are to monitor air quality, climate and the ozone layer, in the time period between 2017 and 2023. S5P will fly in a Sun-synchronized polar orbit with a 13:30 hr local equator crossing time. The single payload of the S5P mission is TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI), which is developed by The Netherlands in cooperation with the European Space Agency (ESA). TROPOMI is a nadir viewing shortwave spectrometer that measures in the UV-visible wavelength range (270-500 nm), the near infrared (710-770 nm) and the shortwave infrared (2314-2382 nm). TROPOMI will have an unprecedented spatial resolution of 7x7 km2at nadir. The spatial resolution is combined with a wide swath to allow for daily global coverage. The TROPOMI/S5P geophysical (Level 2) operational data products include nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, ozone (total column, tropospheric column & profile), methane, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde and aerosol and cloud parameters. The main heritage for TROPOMI comes from OMI on EOS Aura and SCIAMACHY on Envisat. Many of the lessons learned in these missions have resulted in design improvements for TROPOMI. One of the most striking features is the high spatial resolution of 7x7 km2at nadir. The high spatial resolution serves two goals: (1) emissions sources can be detected with a higher accuracy and (2) the number of cloud-free ground pixels will increase substantially. The higher spatial resolution is also combined with a significantly higher signal-to-noise ratio per ground pixel, compared to OMI. This will further enhance the capabilities of TROPOMI to detect small emissions sources. The S5P will fly in a so-called loose formation with the U.S. Suomi NPP (National Polar

  9. Sentinel-2 for rapid operational landslide inventory mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpf, André; Marc, Odin; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Michea, David

    2017-04-01

    Landslide inventory mapping after major triggering events such as heavy rainfalls or earthquakes is crucial for disaster response, the assessment of hazards, and the quantification of sediment budgets and empirical scaling laws. Numerous studies have already demonstrated the utility of very-high resolution satellite and aerial images for the elaboration of inventories based on semi-automatic methods or visual image interpretation. Nevertheless, such semi-automatic methods are rarely used in an operational context after major triggering events; this is partly due to access limitations on the required input datasets (i.e. VHR satellite images) and to the absence of dedicated services (i.e. processing chain) available for the landslide community. Several on-going initiatives allow to overcome these limitations. First, from a data perspective, the launch of the Sentinel-2 mission offers opportunities for the design of an operational service that can be deployed for landslide inventory mapping at any time and everywhere on the globe. Second, from an implementation perspective, the Geohazards Exploitation Platform (GEP) of the European Space Agency (ESA) allows the integration and diffusion of on-line processing algorithms in a high computing performance environment. Third, from a community perspective, the recently launched Landslide Pilot of the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS), has targeted the take-off of such service as a main objective for the landslide community. Within this context, this study targets the development of a largely automatic, supervised image processing chain for landslide inventory mapping from bi-temporal (before and after a given event) Sentinel-2 optical images. The processing chain combines change detection methods, image segmentation, higher-level image features (e.g. texture, shape) and topographic variables. Based on a few representative examples provided by a human operator, a machine learning model is trained and

  10. Land science with Sentinel-2 and Sentinel-3 data series synergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Jose; Guanter, Luis; Alonso, Luis; Gomez, Luis; Amoros, Julia; Camps, Gustavo; Delegido, Jesus

    2010-05-01

    Although the GMES/Sentinel satellite series were primarily designed to provide observations for operational services and routine applications, there is a growing interest in the scientific community towards the usage of Sentinel data for more advanced and innovative science. Apart from the improved spatial and spectral capabilities, the availability of consistent time series covering a period of over 20 years opens possibilities never explored before, such as systematic data assimilation approaches exploiting the time-series concept, or the incorporation in the modelling approaches of processes covering time scales from weeks to decades. Sentinel-3 will provide continuity to current ENVISAT MERIS/AATSR capabilities. The results already derived from MERIS/AATRS will be more systematically exploited by using OLCI in synergy with SLST. Particularly innovative is the case of Sentinel-2, which is specifically designed for land applications. Built on a constellation of two satellites operating simultaneously to provide 5 days geometric revisit time, the Sentinel-2 system will providing global and systematic acquisitions with high spatial resolution and with a high revisit time tailored towards the needs of land monitoring. Apart from providing continuity to Landsat and SPOT time series, the Sentinel-2 Multi-Spectral Instrument (MSI) incorporates new narrow bands around the red-edge for improved retrievals of biophysical parameters. The limitations imposed by the need of a proper cloud screening and atmospheric corrections have represented a serious constraint in the past for optical data. The fact that both Sentinel-2 and 3 have dedicated bands to allow such needed corrections for optical data represents an important step towards a proper exploitation, guarantying consistent time series showing actual variability in land surface conditions without the artefacts introduced by the atmosphere. Expected operational products (such as Land Cover maps, Leaf Area Index

  11. SEOM's Sentinel-3/OLCI' project CAWA: advanced GRASP aerosol retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubovik, Oleg; litvinov, Pavel; Huang, Xin; Aspetsberger, Michael; Fuertes, David; Brockmann, Carsten; Fischer, Jürgen; Bojkov, Bojan

    2016-04-01

    The CAWA "Advanced Clouds, Aerosols and WAter vapour products for Sentinel-3/OLCI" ESA-SEOM project aims on the development of advanced atmospheric retrieval algorithms for the Sentinel-3/OLCI mission, and is prepared using Envisat/MERIS and Aqua/MODIS datasets. This presentation discusses mainly CAWA aerosol product developments and results. CAWA aerosol retrieval uses recently developed GRASP algorithm (Generalized Retrieval of Aerosol and Surface Properties) algorithm described by Dubovik et al. (2014). GRASP derives extended set of atmospheric parameters using multi-pixel concept - a simultaneous fitting of a large group of pixels under additional a priori constraints limiting the time variability of surface properties and spatial variability of aerosol properties. Over land GRASP simultaneously retrieves properties of both aerosol and underlying surface even over bright surfaces. GRAPS doesn't use traditional look-up-tables and performs retrieval as search in continuous space of solution. All radiative transfer calculations are performed as part of the retrieval. The results of comprehensive sensitivity tests, as well as results obtained from real Envisat/MERIS data will be presented. The tests analyze various aspects of aerosol and surface reflectance retrieval accuracy. In addition, the possibilities of retrieval improvement by means of implementing synergetic inversion of a combination of OLCI data with observations by SLSTR are explored. Both the results of numerical tests, as well as the results of processing several years of Envisat/MERIS data illustrate demonstrate reliable retrieval of AOD (Aerosol Optical Depth) and surface BRDF. Observed retrieval issues and advancements will be discussed. For example, for some situations we illustrate possibilities of retrieving aerosol absorption - property that hardly accessible from satellite observations with no multi-angular and polarimetric capabilities.

  12. Gas mission; Mission gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This preliminary report analyses the desirable evolutions of gas transport tariffing and examines some questions relative to the opening of competition on the French gas market. The report is made of two documents: a synthesis of the previous report with some recommendations about the tariffing of gas transport, about the modalities of network access to third parties, and about the dissociation between transport and trade book-keeping activities. The second document is the progress report about the opening of the French gas market. The first part presents the European problem of competition in the gas supply and its consequences on the opening and operation of the French gas market. The second part presents some partial syntheses about each topic of the mission letter of the Ministry of Economics, Finances and Industry: future evolution of network access tariffs, critical analysis of contractual documents for gas transport and delivery, examination of auxiliary services linked with the access to the network (modulation, balancing, conversion), consideration about the processing of network congestions and denied accesses, analysis of the metering dissociation between the integrated activities of gas operators. Some documents are attached in appendixes: the mission letter from July 9, 2001, the detailed analysis of the new temporary tariffs of GdF and CFM, the offer of methane terminals access to third parties, the compatibility of a nodal tariffing with the presence of three transport operators (GdF, CFM and GSO), the contract-type for GdF supply, and the contract-type for GdF connection. (J.S.)

  13. SENTINEL-2 Global Reference Image Validation and Application to Multitemporal Performances and High Latitude Digital Surface Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudel, A.; Languille, F.; Delvit, J. M.; Michel, J.; Cournet, M.; Poulain, V.; Youssefi, D.

    2017-05-01

    In the frame of the Copernicus program of the European Commission, Sentinel-2 is a constellation of 2 satellites with a revisit time of 5 days in order to have temporal images stacks and a global coverage over terrestrial surfaces. Satellite 2A was launched in June 2015, and satellite 2B will be launched in March 2017. In cooperation with the European Space Agency (ESA), the French space agency (CNES) is in charge of the image quality of the project, and so ensures the CAL/VAL commissioning phase during the months following the launch. This cooperation is also extended to routine phase as CNES supports European Space Research Institute (ESRIN) and the Sentinel-2 Mission performance Centre (MPC) for validation in geometric and radiometric image quality aspects, and in Sentinel-2 GRI geolocation performance assessment whose results will be presented in this paper. The GRI is a set of S2A images at 10m resolution covering the whole world with a good and consistent geolocation. This ground reference enables accurate multi-temporal registration of refined Sentinel-2 products. While not primarily intended for the generation of DSM, Sentinel-2 swaths overlap between orbits would also allow for the generation of a complete DSM of land and ices over 60° of northern latitudes (expected accuracy: few S2 pixels in altimetry). This DSM would benefit from the very frequent revisit times of Sentinel-2, to monitor ice or snow level in area of frequent changes, or to increase measurement accuracy in areas of little changes.

  14. Geocoding uncertainty analysis for the automated processing of Sentinel-1 data using Sentinel-1 Toolbox software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostálová, Alena; Naeimi, Vahid; Wagner, Wolfgang; Elefante, Stefano; Cao, Senmao; Persson, Henrik

    2016-10-01

    One of the major advantages of the Sentinel-1 data is its capability to provide very high spatio-temporal coverage allowing the mapping of large areas as well as creation of dense time-series of the Sentinel-1 acquisitions. The SGRT software developed at TU Wien aims at automated processing of Sentinel-1 data for global and regional products. The first step of the processing consists of the Sentinel-1 data geocoding with the help of S1TBX software and their resampling to a common grid. These resampled images serve as an input for the product derivation. Thus, it is very important to select the most reliable processing settings and assess the geocoding uncertainty for both backscatter and projected local incidence angle images. Within this study, selection of Sentinel-1 acquisitions over 3 test areas in Europe were processed manually in the S1TBX software, testing multiple software versions, processing settings and digital elevation models (DEM) and the accuracy of the resulting geocoded images were assessed. Secondly, all available Sentinel-1 data over the areas were processed using selected settings and detailed quality check was performed. Overall, strong influence of the used DEM on the geocoding quality was confirmed with differences up to 80 meters in areas with higher terrain variations. In flat areas, the geocoding accuracy of backscatter images was overall good, with observed shifts between 0 and 30m. Larger systematic shifts were identified in case of projected local incidence angle images. These results encourage the automated processing of large volumes of Sentinel-1 data.

  15. Use of Sentinels to aid the global monitoring of snow cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulliainen, Jouni; Salminen, Miia; Luojus, Kari; Metsämäki, Sari; Lemmetyinen, Juha; Takala, Matias; Cohen, Juval; Böttcher, Kristine

    2014-05-01

    Earth observation instruments onboard Sentinel satellites provide a unique opportunity for the monitoring and investigation of global snow processes. The issue of the possible decay of seasonal snow cover is highly relevant for climate research. In addition to water cycle, the extent and amount of snow affects to surface albedo, and indirectly to carbon cycling. The latter issue includes snow-induced changes in permafrost regions (active layer characteristics), as well as the effect of snow (melt) to vegetation growth and soil respiration. Recent advances in ESA DUE GlobSnow project have shown that by combining data from optical satellite sensors and passive microwave instruments advanced Climate Data Records (CDR) on seasonal snow cover can be produced, extending to time periods of over 30 years. The combined snow cover products provide information both on Snow Extent (SE) and Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) on a daily basis. The applicable instruments providing historical data for CDR generation include such microwave radiometers as SMMR, AMSR and SSMI/I, and such optical sensors as AVHRR, AATSR and VIIRS. Sentinel 3, especially its SLSTR instrument, is a prominent tool for expanding the snow CDR for forthcoming years. The developed global snow cover monitoring methodology, demonstrated and discussed here, derives the SWE information from passive microwave data (accompanied with in situ observations of snow depth at synoptic weather stations). The snow extent and fractional snow cover (FSC) on ground is derived from optical satellite data, in order to accurately map the continental line of seasonal snow cover, and to map regions of ephemeral snow cover. An advanced feature in the developed methodology is the provision of uncertainty information on snow cover characteristics associated with each individual satellite data footprint on ground and moment of time. In addition to assisting the generation and extension of the global snow cover CDR, Sentinel missions provide

  16. Development of Ground-Based Plant Sentinels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    plants in response to different strains of Pseudomonas syringae. Planta . 217:767-775. De Moraes CM, Schultz JC, Mescher MC, Tumlinson JH. (2004...09-30-2004 Final Technical _ April 2001 - April 2003 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Developing Plants as Ground-based Sentinels 5b. GRANT...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT 9 "Z Plants emit volatile mixes characteristic of exposure to both plant and animal (insect) pathogens (bacteria and fungi). The

  17. Are Carnivores Universally Good Sentinels of Plague?

    OpenAIRE

    Brinkerhoff, R. Jory; Collinge, Sharon K.; Bai, Ying; Ray, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Sylvatic plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, is a flea-borne disease that primarily affects rodents but has been detected in over 200 mammal species worldwide. Mammalian carnivores are routinely surveyed as sentinels of local plague activity, since they can present antibodies to Y. pestis infection but show few clinical signs. In Boulder County, Colorado, USA, plague epizootic events are episodic and occur in black-tailed prairie dogs. Enzootic hosts are unidentified as are plagu...

  18. Validating MODIS and Sentinel-2 NDVI Products at a Temperate Deciduous Forest Site Using Two Independent Ground-Based Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Maximilian; Dechant, Benjamin; Rebmann, Corinna; Vohland, Michael; Cuntz, Matthias; Doktor, Daniel

    2017-08-11

    Quantifying the accuracy of remote sensing products is a timely endeavor given the rapid increase in Earth observation missions. A validation site for Sentinel-2 products was hence established in central Germany. Automatic multispectral and hyperspectral sensor systems were installed in parallel with an existing eddy covariance flux tower, providing spectral information of the vegetation present at high temporal resolution. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values from ground-based hyperspectral and multispectral sensors were compared with NDVI products derived from Sentinel-2A and Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The influence of different spatial and temporal resolutions was assessed. High correlations and similar phenological patterns between in situ and satellite-based NDVI time series demonstrated the reliability of satellite-based phenological metrics. Sentinel-2-derived metrics showed better agreement with in situ measurements than MODIS-derived metrics. Dynamic filtering with the best index slope extraction algorithm was nevertheless beneficial for Sentinel-2 NDVI time series despite the availability of quality information from the atmospheric correction procedure.

  19. The Lunar Transit Telescope (LTT) - An early lunar-based science and engineering mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgraw, John T.

    1992-01-01

    The Sentinel, the soft-landed lunar telescope of the LTT project, is described. The Sentinel is a two-meter telescope with virtually no moving parts which accomplishes an imaging survey of the sky over almost five octaves of the electromagnetic spectrum from the ultraviolet into the infrared, with an angular resolution better than 0.1 arsec/pixel. The Sentinel will incorporate innovative techniques of interest for future lunar-based telescopes and will return significant engineering data which can be incorporated into future lunar missions. The discussion covers thermal mapping of the Sentinel, measurement of the cosmic ray flux, lunar dust, micrometeoroid flux, the lunar atmosphere, and lunar regolith stability and seismic activity.

  20. The Sentinel satellites revolutionise environmental observation; Los satelites Sentinel revolucionan la observacion medioambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    River, A.

    2016-08-01

    Europe has in orbit three Sentinel satellites that are the backbone of the ambitious Copernicus system. Aimed at revolutionising environmental observation from both the scientific and commercial points of view, their objective is to capture massive volumes of data on the Earth with a view to ensuring progress in research into climate change, the oceans and the evolution of ice formations. (Author)

  1. Radiation protection for the sentinel node procedure in breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kanter, AY; Arends, PPAM; Eggermont, AMM; Wiggers, T

    2003-01-01

    Aims: The purpose of our study was to determine the radiation dose for those who are involved in the sentinel node procedure in breast cancer patients and testing of a theoretical model. Methods: We studied 12 consecutive breast cancer patients undergoing breast surgery, and a sentinel node dissecti

  2. Most frequent location of the sentinel lymph nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiao Lo

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: The area between these four landmarks is the most frequent location of the sentinel lymph node identified using the radioisotope method. We suggest that this area should be carefully evaluated preoperatively by ultrasound for appropriate surgical planning. A skin incision in this area is also recommended when sentinel lymph node dissection is guided by blue dye.

  3. Preparation for Snow Cover Monitoring Using Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-3 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagler, Thomas; Rott, Helmut; Bippus, Gabriele; Ripper, Elisabeth

    2013-04-01

    Seasonal snow is a key element of the water cycle in high and mid latitudes, characterized by high spatial and temporal variability. Melt water is an important water resource in many mountain areas and also in lowlands downstream. Accurate observations of snow extent and physical properties of snow are not only of interest for climate change research, but are of great socio-economic importance. The Sentinel satellite series, including SAR and multispectral optical satellite data enable to monitor the snow extent from regional to global scale with high temporal sampling. Automatic processing lines of multispectral optical satellite data including rectification, calibration, cloud masking and snow detection have been implemented for generation of snow information and tested with various satellite sensors. Ongoing work is related with adapting and optimizing the snow retrieval algorithm for Sentinel 3 SLSTR and OCLI, making use of the full spectral capabilities of these sensors for generating high quality snow maps. The algorithm for mapping snow makes use of the typical spectral signature of snow in the visible (VIS) and short wave infrared (SWIR) region of the spectrum, which enables a clear discrimination against other surfaces. The baseline products include binary snow extent maps derived from combinations of VIS and SWIR bands and maps of fractional snow extent. The preliminary version of the retrieval algorithm uses dual-sensor Sentinel-3 SLSTR and OCLI data for mapping the snow extent and applies the multi-spectral un-mixing method and cloud screening making use of the various spectral channels of the two sensors. Snow conditions (wet/dry) can be retrieved from SAR observations as provided by Sentinel-1. The algorithm builds on the multi-temporal change detection technique for mapping melting snow areas and improved to make use of the dual-polarisation acquisition capabilities of Sentinel-1. In the presentation we will show first examples of the improved

  4. Simple Method for Soil Moisture Estimation from Sentinel-1 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilewski, Pawei Grzegorz; Kedzior, Mateusz Andrzej; Zawadzki, Jaroslaw

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, authors calculated high resolution volumetric soil moisture (SM) by means of the Sentinel- 1 data for the Kampinos National Park in Poland and verified obtained results.To do so, linear regression coefficients (LRC) between in-situ SM measurements and Sentinel-1 radar backscatter values were calculated. Next, LRC were applied to obtain SM estimates from Sentinel-1 data. Sentinel-1 SM was verified against in-situ measurements and low-resolution SMOS SM estimates using Pearson's linear correlation coefficient. Simple SM retrieval method from radar data used in this study gives better results for meadows and when Sentinel-1 data in VH polarisation are used.Further research should be conducted to prove usefulness of proposed method.

  5. Sentinel lymph nodes in cancer of the oral cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jørn Bo; Christensen, Rikke Kølby; Sørensen, Jens Ahm;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Extended histopathologic work-up has increased the detection of micrometastasis in sentinel lymph nodes in malignant melanoma and breast cancer. The aim of this study was to examine if (A) step-sectioning of the central 1000 microM at 250 microM levels with immunostaining were accurate...... when compared with (B) step-sectioning and immunostaining of the entire sentinel lymph node at 250 microM levels. METHODS: Forty patients with T1/T2 cN0 oral cancer were enrolled. Three patients were excluded. In one patient no sentinel lymph node was identified. The remaining two had unidentified...... sentinel lymph nodes due to lymphoscintigraphic and surgical sampling error. The central 1000 microM of 147 sentinel lymph nodes were step-sectioned in 250-microm intervals and stained with hematoxylin and eosin and CK-KL1. All lymph nodes were recorded as negative or positive for macrometastases...

  6. LOTUS— Preparing Sentinel-3 Ocean and Land SAR Altimetry Processing for Copernicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Per; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Jain, Maulik

    2014-01-01

    The Sentinel-3 satellite mission with its SRAL instrumentation contains new features compared to the conventional radar altimeter mission that form the basis for new innovative GMES products and applications that are not considered or implemented in the Copernicus services yet. To utilize the full...... potential of the new data source, new methods and processing chains need to be developed. Also, new potential Copernicus products should be developed that utilize the improved along-track resolution over both the oceans and over land. Then new operational processing, validation and delivery mechanisms need...... to be developed and implemented for generating the new dynamic products. A smooth transition from old to new products is important to ensure existing services. Finally, the take-up of the new Copernicus products by the value-adding sectors needs to be stimulated and demonstrated to ensure that they will be used...

  7. EcAMSat and BioSentinel: Autonomous Bio Nanosatellites Addressing Strategic Knowledge Gaps for Manned Spaceflight Beyond LEO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgen, Michael R.

    2017-01-01

    Manned missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) require that several strategic knowledge gaps about the effects of space travel on the human body be addressed. NASA Ames Research Center has been the leader in developing autonomous bio nanosatellites, including past successful missions for GeneSat, PharmaSat, and O/OREOS, that tackled some of these issues. These nanosatellites provide in situ measurements, which deliver insight into the dynamic changes in cell behavior in microgravity. In this talk, two upcoming bio nanosatellites developed at Ames, the E. coli Antimicrobial Satellite (EcAMSat) and BioSentinel, will be discussed. Both satellites contain microfluidic systems that precisely deliver nutrients to the microorganisms stored within wells of fluidic cards. Each well, in turn, has its own 3-color LED and detector system which is used to monitor changes in metabolic activity with alamarBlue, a redox indicator, and the optical density of the cells. EcAMSat investigates the effects of microgravity on bacterial resistance to antimicrobial drugs, vital knowledge for understanding how to maintain the health of astronauts in long-term and beyond LEO spaceflight. The behavior of wild type and mutant uropathic E. coli will be compared in microgravity and with ground data to help understand the molecular mechanisms behind antibiotic resistance and how these phenotypes might change in space. BioSentinel seeks to directly measure the effects of space radiation on budding yeast S. cerevisiae, particularly double strand breaks (DSB). While hitching a ride on the SLS EM-1 mission (Orion's first unmanned mission to the moon) in 2018, BioSentinel will be kicked off and enter into a heliocentric orbit, becoming the first study of the effects of radiation on living organisms outside LEO since the Apollo program. The yeast are stored in eighteen independent 16-well microfluidic cards, which will be individually activated over the 12 month mission duration. In addition to the wild

  8. Mapping Mediterranean seagrasses with Sentinel-2 imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traganos, Dimosthenis; Reinartz, Peter

    2017-07-01

    Mediterranean seagrasses have been hailed for their numerous ecosystem services, yet they are undergoing a decline in their coverage. The major complication with resolving this tendency is the sparsity of data on their overall distribution. This study addresses the suitability of the recently launched Sentinel-2 satellite for mapping the distribution of Mediterranean seagrass meadows. A comprehensive methodology is presented which applies atmospheric and analytical water column corrections and compares the performance of three different supervised classifiers. Remote sensing of the Thermaikos Gulf, northwestern Aegean Sea (Greece, eastern Mediterranean Sea) reveals that the utilization of Support Vector Machines on water column corrected reflectances yields best accuracies. Two Mediterranean seagrasses, Posidonia oceanica and Cymodocea nodosa, cover a total submerged area of 1.48km(2) between depths of 1.4-16.5m. With its 10-m spatial resolution and 5-day revisit frequency, Sentinel-2 imagery can mitigate the Mediterranean seagrass distribution data gap and allow better management and conservation in the future in a retrospective, time- and cost-effective fashion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The clinical value of hybrid sentinel lymphoscintigraphy to predict metastatic sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Cang Ju; Kim, Jeong Hun; Choi, Se Hun; Han, Yeon Hee; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Sohn, Myung Hee; Youn, Hyun Jo; Lim, Seok Tae [Chonbuk National University Medical School and Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    Hybrid imaging techniques can provide functional and anatomical information about sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer. Our aim in this study was to evaluate which imaging parameters on hybrid sentinel lymphoscintigraphy predicted metastatic involvement of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in patients with breast cancer. Among 56 patients who underwent conventional sentinel lymphoscintigraphy, 45 patients (age, 53.1 ± 9.5 years) underwent hybrid sentinel lymphoscintigraphy using a single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) gamma camera. On hybrid SPECT/CT images, we compared the shape and size (long-to-short axis [L/S] ratio) of the SLN, and SLN/periareolar injection site (S/P) count ratio between metastatic and non-metastatic SLNs. Metastatic involvement of sentinel lymph nodes was confirmed by pathological biopsy. Pathological biopsy revealed that 21 patients (46.7 %) had metastatic SLNs, while 24 (53.3 %) had non-metastatic SLNs. In the 21 patients with metastatic SLNs, the SLN was mostly round (57.1 %) or had an eccentric cortical rim (38.1 %). Of 24 patients with non-metastatic SLNs, 13 patients (54.1 %) had an SLN with a C-shape rim or eccentric cortex. L/S ratio was 2.04 for metastatic SLNs and 2.38 for non-metastatic SLNs. Seven (33 %) patients had T1 primary tumors and 14 (66 %) had T2 primary tumors in the metastatic SLN group. In contrast, 18 (75 %) patients had T1 primary tumors and six (25 %) had T2 tumors in the non-metastatic SLN group. S/P count ratio was significantly lower in the metastatic SLN group than the non-metastatic SLN group for those patients with a T1 primary tumor (p = 0.007). Hybrid SPECT/CT offers the physiologic data of SPECT together with the anatomic data of CT in a single image. This hybrid imaging improved the anatomic localization of SLNs in breast cancer patients and predicted the metastatic involvement of SLNs in the subgroup of breast cancer patients with T1 primary tumors.

  10. Sentinel lymph node biopsy and melanoma: 2010 update Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbins, William G; Garibyan, Lilit; Sober, Arthur J

    2010-05-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy for melanoma was introduced in the early 1990s as a minimally invasive method of identifying and pathologically staging regional lymph node basins in patients with clinical stage I/II melanoma. Numerous large trials have demonstrated that sentinel lymph node evaluation has utility in improving accuracy of prognostication and for risk stratifying patients into appropriate groups for clinical trials. However, there remains a great deal of controversy regarding the therapeutic role of removal of the remainder of locoregional lymph nodes should metastatic cells be identified in the sentinel node. This CME article will outline a brief history of the sentinel node concept before reviewing updates in surgical technique, histopathologic evaluation of nodal tissue, and cost effectiveness of sentinel node biopsy. After completing this learning activity, participants should be able to describe the concept of sentinel lymph node biopsy, to discuss the risks and benefits associated with this procedure, and to summarize the role of sentinel lymph node biopsy in management of patients with melanoma. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Use of sentinel mallards for epizootiologic studies of avian botulism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, T.E.; Brand, C.J.

    1994-01-01

    Captive-reared mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were used as sentinels to study the epizootiology of avian botulism at the Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge, Willows, California (USA) from 1986 to 1989. Sentinel mallards were wing-clipped, and 40 to 50 birds were confined in 1.6-ha enclosures in 11 selected wetlands (pools). Enclosures were searched intensively three to four times weekly from July through October. Sick and dead wild and sentinel birds were collected, necropsied, and tested for type C botulism toxin. Botulism epizootics occurred in sentinel mallards in 1986, 1987, and 1989, but only a few isolated cases of botulism were detected in 1988. In most epizootics, botulism also was detected simultaneously in wild birds using the same pool outside the enclosure. Epizootics in sentinels were initiated and perpetuated in the absence of vertebrate carcasses. A sex-specific trend in the probability of intoxication was detected, with males contracting botulism at a higher rate than females. Daily mortality rates of sentinels during botulism epizootics ranged from 0.0006 to 0.0600, with a mean of 0.0190. These rates would result in the daily loss of 0.6 to 60 birds per thousand at risk. The use of sentinel birds provided an effective means of gathering site-specific epizootiologic data.

  12. Fusion of Data from Sentinel-2/MSI and Sentinel-3/OLCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korosov, Anton A.; Pozdnyakov, Dmitry V.

    2016-08-01

    Multisensor image fusion is the process of combining relevant information from two or more satellite images into a single image. The fused image can have complementary spatial and spectral resolution characteristics. We suggest a method for fusion of data from Sentinel-2 multi spectral imager (MSI) and Sentinel-3 Ocean and Land Color Instrument (OLCI). In the visible range MSI measures radiance with 10 m resolution at 490, 560 and 665 nm; with 20 m resolution at 705 nm; and with 60 m resolution at 443 nm. In the visible range OLCI measures with 300 m spatial resolution at 400, 412, 443, 490, 510, 560, 620, 665, 673, 681, 708 nm. The data from the visible from both sensors is fused to get products with values of remote sensing reflectance wavelengths of OLCI and with spatial resolution of 60 m using an artificial neural network.

  13. Sentinel lymph nodes in cancer of the oral cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jørn Bo; Sørensen, Jens Ahm; Krogdahl, Annelise

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sentinel lymph node biopsy, step sectioning and immunohistochemistry have changed detection of tumour deposits. Isolated tumour cells (ITC) are detected more frequently than earlier because of a changed level of detection. METHODS: A total of 108 sentinel lymph nodes from 30 patients...... with T1/T2 cN0 oral cancer were re-classified histologically to find possible ITC and to describe technical pitfalls. RESULTS: Primarily we found metastatic spread in 12 of 108 sentinel lymph nodes: five macrometastasis and seven micrometastasis. After re-classification, we found seven lymph nodes...

  14. Exploring the potential of Sentinel-1 data for regional scale slope instability detection using multi-temporal interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasowski, Janusz; Bovenga, Fabio; Nutricato, Raffaele; Nitti, Davide Oscar; Chiaradia, Maria Teresa; Refice, Alberto; Pasquariello, Guido

    2016-04-01

    . Again, even though there is lack of temporal overlap in the two datasets, the comparison shows some potential benefits of the exploitation different resolution sensor datasets. For example, when considering the costs of MTI applications, an effective approach to slope hazard assessment could rely on the use of coarser imagery MTI to secure long-term wide-area coverage, to be integrated by higher resolution MTI with more focus on urbanized or greater value areas (cf., Wasowski and Bovenga et al., 2014a,b). Now these approaches are facilitated by the regular global coverage and free medium resolution imagery guaranteed by the background satellite radar mission of Sentinel-1. Acknowledgments Study carried out in the framework of the Apulia Space project (PON&REC 2007-2013, Cod: PON03PE_00067_6). We also thank ESA and the German Space Agency (DLR) for providing us radar data. References Wasowski J., Bovenga F. 2014a. Investigating landslides and unstable slopes with satellite Multi Temporal Interferometry: Current issues and future perspectives. Engineering Geology 174: 103-138. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2014.03.003 Wasowski J., Bovenga F. 2014. Remote Sensing of Landslide Motion with Emphasis on Satellite Multitemporal Interferometry Applications: An Overview. In T. Davies (Ed). Landslide Hazards, Risks and Disasters. p. 345-403. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-396452-6.00011-2

  15. Validation of Altimeter Data in the Spanish Coasts (Gulf of Cadiz and Strait of Gibraltar): Lessons Learned in the Prospect of Sentinel-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Enri, P.; Vignudelli, S.; Coca, J.; Tejedor, B.; Aboitiz, A.; Munoz, J. J.; Alvarez, O.; Cipollini, P.; Passaro, M.; Villares, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Gulf of Cadiz (Southwestern Iberian Peninsula) and the Strait of Gibraltar (the choke point connecting the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea) are being used to validate altimeter information coming from past (Envisat RA-2) and present (Cryosat-2 SIRAL) European Space Agency (ESA) missions, among others. These regions represent a valuable opportunity to validate future (Sentinel-3 SRAL) altimeter missions too. We present some of the results obtained in the study areas in terms of validation of altimeter-derived sea level data coming from Envisat RA-2 and Cryosat-2 SIRAL against the in-situ measurements, and we discuss the extension of the developed techniques to AltiKa SARAL (ISRO-CNES) and Sentinel-3 SRAL (ESA).

  16. Rugged: an operational, open-source solution for Sentinel-2 mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisonobe, Luc; Seyral, Jean; Prat, Guylaine; Guinet, Jonathan; Espesset, Aude

    2015-10-01

    When you map the entire Earth every 5 days with the aim of generating high-quality time series over land, there is no room for geometrical error: the algorithms have to be stable, reliable, and precise. Rugged, a new open-source library for pixel geolocation, is at the geometrical heart of the operational processing for Sentinel-2. Rugged performs sensor-to-terrain mapping taking into account ground Digital Elevation Models, Earth rotation with all its small irregularities, on-board sensor pixel individual lines-of-sight, spacecraft motion and attitude, and all significant physical effects. It provides direct and inverse location, i.e. it allows the accurate computation of which ground point is viewed from a specific pixel in a spacecraft instrument, and conversely which pixel will view a specified ground point. Direct and inverse location can be used to perform full ortho-rectification of images and correlation between sensors observing the same area. Implemented as an add-on for Orekit (Orbits Extrapolation KIT; a low-level space dynamics library), Rugged also offers the possibility of simulating satellite motion and attitude auxiliary data using Orekit's full orbit propagation capability. This is a considerable advantage for test data generation and mission simulation activities. Together with the Orfeo ToolBox (OTB) image processing library, Rugged provides the algorithmic core of Sentinel-2 Instrument Processing Facilities. The S2 complex viewing model - with 12 staggered push-broom detectors and 13 spectral bands - is built using Rugged objects, enabling the computation of rectification grids for mapping between cartographic and focal plane coordinates. These grids are passed to the OTB library for further image resampling, thus completing the ortho-rectification chain. Sentinel-2 stringent operational requirements to process several terabytes of data per week represented a tough challenge, though one that was well met by Rugged in terms of the robustness and

  17. Sentinel node approach in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Sicart, S; Valdés Olmos, R A

    2015-01-01

    In general terms, one of the main objectives of sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is to identify the 20-25% of patients with occult regional metastatic involvement. This technique reduces the associated morbidity from lymphadenectomy, as well as increasing the identification rate of occult lymphatic metastases by offering the pathologist those lymph nodes with the highest probability of containing metastatic cells. Pre-surgical lymphoscintigraphy is considered a "road map" to guide the surgeon towards the sentinel nodes and to ascertain unpredictable lymphatic drainages. In prostate cancer this aspect is essential due to the multidirectional character of the lymphatic drainage in the pelvis. In this context the inclusion of SPECT/CT should be mandatory in order to improve the SLN detection rate, to clarify the location when SLNs are difficult to interpret on planar images, to achieve a better definition of them in locations close to injection site, and to provide anatomical landmarks to be recognized during operation to locate SLNs. Conventional and laparoscopic hand-held gamma probes allow the SLN technique to be applied in any kind of surgery. The introduction and combination of new tracers and devices refines this technique, and the use of intraoperative images. These aspects become of vital importance due to the recent incorporation of robot-assisted procedures for SLN biopsy. In spite of these advances various aspects of SLN biopsy in prostate cancer patients still need to be discussed, and therefore their clinical application is not widely used. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  18. Virtual Exploitation Environment Demonstration for Atmospheric Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natali, Stefano; Mantovani, Simone; Hirtl, Marcus; Santillan, Daniel; Triebnig, Gerhard; Fehr, Thorsten; Lopes, Cristiano

    2017-04-01

    The scientific and industrial communities are being confronted with a strong increase of Earth Observation (EO) satellite missions and related data. This is in particular the case for the Atmospheric Sciences communities, with the upcoming Copernicus Sentinel-5 Precursor, Sentinel-4, -5 and -3, and ESA's Earth Explorers scientific satellites ADM-Aeolus and EarthCARE. The challenge is not only to manage the large volume of data generated by each mission / sensor, but to process and analyze the data streams. Creating synergies among the different datasets will be key to exploit the full potential of the available information. As a preparation activity supporting scientific data exploitation for Earth Explorer and Sentinel atmospheric missions, ESA funded the "Technology and Atmospheric Mission Platform" (TAMP) [1] [2] project; a scientific and technological forum (STF) has been set-up involving relevant European entities from different scientific and operational fields to define the platforḿs requirements. Data access, visualization, processing and download services have been developed to satisfy useŕs needs; use cases defined with the STF, such as study of the SO2 emissions for the Holuhraun eruption (2014) by means of two numerical models, two satellite platforms and ground measurements, global Aerosol analyses from long time series of satellite data, and local Aerosol analysis using satellite and LIDAR, have been implemented to ensure acceptance of TAMP by the atmospheric sciences community. The platform pursues the "virtual workspace" concept: all resources (data, processing, visualization, collaboration tools) are provided as "remote services", accessible through a standard web browser, to avoid the download of big data volumes and for allowing utilization of provided infrastructure for computation, analysis and sharing of results. Data access and processing are achieved through standardized protocols (WCS, WPS). As evolution toward a pre

  19. PROBA-V Mission Exploitation Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Goor

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available As an extension of the PROBA-Vegetation (PROBA-V user segment, the European Space Agency (ESA, de Vlaamse Instelling voor Technologisch Onderzoek (VITO, and partners TRASYS and Spacebel developed an operational Mission Exploitation Platform (MEP to drastically improve the exploitation of the PROBA-V Earth Observation (EO data archive, the archive from the historical SPOT-VEGETATION mission, and derived products by researchers, service providers, and thematic users. The analysis of the time series of data (petabyte range is addressed, as well as the large scale on-demand processing of the complete archive, including near real-time data. The platform consists of a private cloud environment, a Hadoop-based processing environment and a data manager. Several applications are released to the users, e.g., a full resolution viewing service, a time series viewer, pre-defined on-demand processing chains, and virtual machines with powerful tools and access to the data. After an initial release in January 2016 a research platform was deployed gradually, allowing users to design, debug, and test applications on the platform. From the PROBA-V MEP, access to, e.g., Sentinel-2 and Sentinel-3 data will be addressed as well.

  20. The role of GMES / Sentinels in Land-Surface Earth System Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, J.

    2009-04-01

    A general trend in the current status of representation of Land Surface schemes into Earth System models is driven by the parameterisation of "cycles" instead of individual processes. Particular emphasis is made to account for couplings among the individual cycles, as between the carbon and water cycles. Moreover, the current tendency is to use the measured data -time series in most cases- together with models, in a data assimilation scenario where inputs from multiple sources are integrated. Such approach is more and more necessary as land models tend to be more complex, and particularly due to the fact that land surface variability is not just driven by physical and chemical processes, but intricate biological processes also altered by anthropogenic influences. Human influences in the land system (land use changes, urban development, etc.) and the impacts of natural disasters are becoming also part of land models, but critical data in high spatial and temporal resolutions are needed to properly model such processes. Until now, problems with data availability, data inconsistency and lack of adequate temporal sampling have limited the potential usefulness of such observations in modelling land surface processes. The availability of the GMES / Sentinel series of satellites represents a quite unique opportunity for consolidation of current tendencies and development of new science based on the new type of data that soon will become available. The usefulness of the different Sentinel missions for Land science has been recognised. Although the Sentinel satellite series were primarily designed to provide observations for operational services and routine applications, there is a growing interest in the scientific community towards the usage of Sentinel data for more advanced and innovative science. Moreover, the availability of consistent time series covering a period of over 20 years opens possibilities never explored before, such as systematic data assimilation

  1. Immunolymphoscintigraphy for metastatic sentinel nodes: test of a model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakera, A H; Nielsen, Boye S.; Madsen, J;

    2011-01-01

    Aim. To develop a method and obtain proof-of-principle for immunolymphoscintigraphy for identification of metastatic sentinel nodes. Methods. We selected one of four tumour-specific antibodies against human breast cancer and investigated (1), in immune-deficient (nude) mice with xenograft human...... in healthy rabbits. Results and Conclusion. Our paper suggests the theoretical possibility of a model of dual isotope immuno-lymphoscintigraphy for noninvasive, preoperative, malignant sentinel node imaging....

  2. Animals as sentinels of human health hazards of environmental chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Schalie, W H; Gardner, H S; Bantle, J A; De Rosa, C T; Finch, R A; Reif, J S; Reuter, R H; Backer, L C; Burger, J; Folmar, L C; Stokes, W S

    1999-01-01

    A workshop titled "Using Sentinel Species Data to Address the Potential Human Health Effects of Chemicals in the Environment," sponsored by the U.S. Army Center for Environmental Health Research, the National Center for Environmental Assessment of the EPA, and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, was held to consider the use of sentinel and surrogate animal species data for evaluating the potential human health effects of chemicals in the environment. The workshop took a broad view of the sentinel species concept, and included mammalian and nonmammalian species, companion animals, food animals, fish, amphibians, and other wildlife. Sentinel species data included observations of wild animals in field situations as well as experimental animal data. Workshop participants identified potential applications for sentinel species data derived from monitoring programs or serendipitous observations and explored the potential use of such information in human health hazard and risk assessments and for evaluating causes or mechanisms of effect. Although it is unlikely that sentinel species data will be used as the sole determinative factor in evaluating human health concerns, such data can be useful as for additional weight of evidence in a risk assessment, for providing early warning of situations requiring further study, or for monitoring the course of remedial activities. Attention was given to the factors impeding the application of sentinel species approaches and their acceptance in the scientific and regulatory communities. Workshop participants identified a number of critical research needs and opportunities for interagency collaboration that could help advance the use of sentinel species approaches. PMID:10090711

  3. Human and animal sentinels for shared health risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Rabinowitz, MD, MPH

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The tracking of sentinel health events in humans in order to detect and manage disease risks facing a larger population is a well accepted technique applied to influenza, occupational conditions and emerging infectious diseases. Similarly, animal health professionals routinely track disease events in sentinel animal colonies and sentinel herds. The use of animals as sentinels for human health threats, or of humans as sentinels for animal disease risk, dates back at least to the era when coal miners brought caged canaries into mines to provide early warning of toxic gases. Yet the full potential of linking animal and human health information to provide warning of such ‘shared risks’ from environmental hazards has not been realised. Reasons appear to include the professional segregation of human and animal health communities, the separation of human and animal surveillance data and evidence gaps in the linkages between human and animal responses to environmental health hazards. The ‘One Health initiative’ and growing international collaboration in response to pandemic threats, coupled with development in the fields of informatics and genomics, hold promise for improved sentinel event coordination in order to detect and reduce environmental health threats shared between species.

  4. Sentinel Node Mapping for Breast Cancer: Current Situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Vidal-Sicart

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Axillary node status is a major prognostic factor in early-stage disease. Traditional staging needs levels I and II axillary lymph node dissection. Axillary involvement is found in 10%–30% of patients with T1 (<2 cm tumours. Sentinel lymph node biopsy is a minimal invasive method of checking the potential nodal involvement. It is based on the assumption of an orderly progression of lymph node invasion by metastatic cells from tumour site. Thus, when sentinel node is free of metastases the remaining nodes are free, too (with a false negative rate lesser than 5%. Moreover, Randomized trials demonstrated a marked reduction of complications associated with the sentinel lymph node biopsy when compared with axillary lymph node dissection. Currently, the sentinel node biopsy procedure is recognized as the standard treatment for stages I and II. In these stages, this approach has a positive node rate similar to those observed after lymphadenectomy, a significant decrease in morbidity and similar nodal relapse rates at 5 years. In this review, the indications and contraindications of the sentinel node biopsy are summarized and the methodological aspects discussed. Finally, the new technologic and histologic developments allow to develop a more accurate and refinate technique that can achieve virtually the identification of 100% of sentinel nodes and reduce the false negative rate.

  5. A Critical Review of Sentinel-3 Metadata for Scientific and Operational Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons Fernandez, Xavier; Zabala Torres, Alaitz; Domingo Marimon, Cristina

    2015-12-01

    Sentinel-3 is a mission designed for Copernicus/GMES to ensure long term collection of data of uniform quality, generated and delivered in an operational manner for several sea and land applications. This paper considers and makes a critical review of the data and metadata which will be distributed as Sentinel-3 OLCI, SLSTR and SYN products, evaluating this information according to the specifications, guidelines and characteristics described by the International Organization of Standardization, ISO. The paper reviews the data and metadata currently included on the Test Data Set, provided by ESA and points out recommendations both to increase metadata usability and to avoid metadata misunderstanding. Moreover, some recommendation of how this data and metadata should be encoded are included on the paper, making special emphasis on “ISO-19115-1: Fundamentals” and “ISO-19115-2: Extensions for imagery and gridded data”, “ISO-19139: XML schema implementation” and “ISO-19157: Data quality” (quality elements). Proposals related to quality derived from the GeoViQua FP7 project are also indicated.

  6. The Land Surface Temperature Synergistic Processor in BEAM: A Prototype towards Sentinel-3

    CERN Document Server

    Ruescas, Ana Belen; Fomferra, Norman; Brockmann, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Land Surface Temperature (LST) is one of the key parameters in the physics of land-surface processes on regional and global scales, combining the results of all surface-atmosphere interactions and energy fluxes between the surface and the atmosphere. With the advent of the European Space Agency (ESA) Sentinel 3 (S3) satellite, accurate LST retrieval methodologies are being developed by exploiting the synergy between the Ocean and Land Colour Instrument (OLCI) and the Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer (SLSTR). In this paper we explain the implementation in the Basic ENVISAT Toolbox for (A)ATSR and MERIS (BEAM) and the use of one LST algorithm developed in the framework of the Synergistic Use of The Sentinel Missions For Estimating And Monitoring Land Surface Temperature (SEN4LST) project. The LST algorithm is based on the split-window technique with an explicit dependence on the surface emissivity. Performance of the methodology is assessed by using MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer/Advanced Alo...

  7. Sentinel-1 Data System at the Alaska Satellite Facility Distributed Active Archive Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, V. G.

    2014-12-01

    The Alaska Satellite Facility Distributed Active Archive Center (ASF DAAC) has a long history of supporting international collaborations between NASA and foreign flight agencies to promote access to Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data for US science research. Based on the agreement between the US and the EC, data from the Sentinel missions will be distributed by NASA through archives that mirror those established by ESA. The ASF DAAC is the designated archive and distributor for Sentinel-1 data. The data will be copied from the ESA archive to a rolling archive at the NASA Goddard center, and then pushed to a landing area at the ASF DAAC. The system at ASF DAAC will take the files as they arrive and put them through an ingest process. Ingest will populate the database with the information required to enable search and download of the data through Vertex, the ASF DAAC user interface. Metadata will be pushed to the NASA Common Metadata Repository, enabling data discovery through clients that utilize the repository. Visual metadata will be pushed to the NASA GIBS system for visualization through clients linked to that system. Data files will be archived in the DataDirect Networks (DDN) device that is the primary storage device for the ASF DAAC. A backup copy of the data will be placed in a second DDN device that serves as the disaster recovery solution for the ASF DAAC.

  8. High rejection VNIR-SWIR beam splitter for the multispectral instrument of Sentinel 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, V.; Lappschies, M.; Camus, F.; Kirschner, V.; Haas, C.

    2013-10-01

    The Sentinel 2 mission shall ensure the continuity and enhancement of Landsat and SPOT data and sustain operational land services in the frame of the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) initiative. Sentinel-2 is designed to image the Earth's landmasses from its orbit for at least 7.25 years. The Multi-Spectral Instrument (MSI), delivered by Astrium Toulouse, will provide high resolution imagery in 13 spectral channels extending from the Visible Near Infrared (VNIR, 400-1100 nm) to the Short Wave Infra-Red (SWIR, 1100-2500 nm) range, down to a resolution of 10 meters with an image width of 290 kilometers. A dichroic splitter device is located in back-focal path of the telescope. It allows splitting the incoming optical beam between VNIR and SWIR focal planes. It shall ensure an extremely high rejection, better than 1:1000, between both ranges while introducing negligible aberrations in reflected (VNIR) and transmitted (SWIR) paths. The splitter assembly consists of a wedged dichroic filter plate and a wedged compensator plate mounted in a common frame. Both plates are made of fused silica (Infrasil) and polished to lambda/40. The major challenges reside in the design complexity of the dichroic coating and in the deposition process control to ensure the required high uniformity of performances through the large aperture. The paper presents the final spectral and optical performances of this challenging sub-system. It also discusses the main difficulties that have been overpassed during the development and qualification phase.

  9. Synergetic Use of Sentinel-1 and 2 to Improve Agro-Hydrological Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrant, Sylvain; Kerr, Yann; Al-Bitar, Ahmad; Le Page, Michel; Selles, Adrien; Mermoz, Stephane; Bouvet, Alexandre; Marechal, Jean-Christophe; Tomer, Sat; Sekhar, Muddu; Dedieu, Gerard; Le Toan, Thuy; Bustillo, Vincent

    2016-08-01

    In the context of global changes and population growth, agricultural activities are a growing factor influencing water resources availability in term of quantity and quality. Water management strategies have to be analyzed at a regional catchment scales. Yet, agricultural practices, crop water and nutrient consumption that drive the main water and nutrient fluxes at the catchment scale have to be monitored at a high spatial (crop extension) and temporal resolution (crop growth period). This proceeding describes some advances in the framework of a co-funded ESA Living Planet Fellowship project, called ―agro-hydrology from space‖, which aims at demonstrating the improvement brought by synergetic observations of Sentinel-1 (S1) and Sentinel-2 (S2) satellite mission in agro- hydrological studies. Geo-information time-series of vegetation and water index with multi-spectral optical detection S2 together with surface roughness time series with C-band radar detection S1 are used to re-set soil water holding capacity parameters (depth, porosity) and agricultural practices (sowing date, irrigated area extent) of a crop model coupled with a hydrological model in two contrasted water management issues: stream water nitrate pollution in Gascogne region in south-west of France and groundwater depletion and shortages for irrigation in Deccan Plateau, in south-India.

  10. From ASCAT to Sentinel-1: Soil Moisture Monitoring using European C-Band Radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Wolfgang; Bauer-Marschallinger, Bernhard; Hochstöger, Simon

    2016-04-01

    The Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) is a C-Band radar instrument flown on board of the series of three METOP satellites. Albeit not operating in one of the more favorable longer wavelength ranges (S, L or P-band) as the dedicated Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) missions, it is one of main microwave sensors used for monitoring of soil moisture on a global scale. Its attractiveness for soil moisture monitoring applications stems from its operational status, high radiometric accuracy and stability, short revisit time, multiple viewing directions and long heritage (Wagner et al. 2013). From an application perspective, its main limitation is its spatial resolution of about 25 km, which does not allow resolving soil moisture patterns driven by smaller-scale hydrometeorological processes (e.g. convective precipitation, runoff patterns, etc.) that are themselves related to highly variable land surface characteristics (soil characteristics, topography, vegetation cover, etc.). Fortunately, the technique of aperture synthesis allows to significantly improve the spatial resolution of spaceborne radar instruments up to the meter scale. Yet, past Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) missions had not yet been designed to achieve a short revisit time required for soil moisture monitoring. This has only changed recently with the development and launch of SMAP (Entekhabi et al. 2010) and Sentinel-1 (Hornacek et al. 2012). Unfortunately, the SMAP radar failed only after a few months of operations, which leaves Sentinel-1 as the only currently operational SAR mission capable of delivering high-resolution radar observations with a revisit time of about three days for Europe, about weekly for most crop growing regions worldwide, and about bi-weekly to monthly over the rest of the land surface area. Like ASCAT, Sentinel-1 acquires C-band backscatter data in VV polarization over land. Therefore, for the interpretation of both ASCAT and Sentinel-1

  11. Sentinel-3 for the Copernicus Global Land Service: Monitoring the Continental Ecosystems at Global Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacaze, R.; Smets, B.; Calvet, J.-C.; Camacho, F.; Tansey, K.; Baret, F.; Ramon, D.; Montersleet, B.; Roujean, J.-L.; Wandrebeck, L.; Swinnen, E.; Freitas, S.; Paulik, C.; Jann, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Copernicus Global Land service provides continuously bio-geophysical variables describing, over the whole globe, the vegetation dynamic, the energy budget at the continental surface and some components of the water cycle. Some of these variables were derived from SPOT/VGT, and are now based upon the PROBA-V data. The evolution of the service towards a production at 333m resolution is prepared, using PROBA-V data, in the FP7/ImagineS project focusing on the LAI, FAPAR, FCover, normalized TOC reflectance and Albedo. The next major evolution of the service will be the exploitation of the Sentinel-3 data: for the continuity of 1km and 333m resolution production, jointly with the PROBA-V data; for the evolution of the service, jointly with Sentinel-2 data, to set-up a high resolution monitoring service. For that, timeliness, for NRT production, spatial coverage for a daily global monitoring, and the consistency, for a joint use of multi-mission data, are mandatory.

  12. Testing the potential of Sentinel-1 TOPS interferometry for the detection and monitoring of landslides at local scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiaschi, Simone; Mantovani, Matteo; Frigerio, Simone; Marcato, Gianluca; Pasuto, Alessandro; Floris, Mario

    2016-04-01

    The recent Sentinel-1 mission, started by ESA in April 2014, provides to the scientific community new capabilities for the continuous monitoring of the Earth. In particular, the Terrain Observation by Progressive Scans (TOPS) imaging technique used in the Interferometric Wide swath (IW) acquisition mode, allow us to acquire data over very wide areas (250 km swath) at 20m spatial resolution, with 12 days revisit time, making it suitable for ground displacement monitoring applications. With more than one year of SAR images available, it is now possible to carry out monitoring activities of slow moving phenomena such as landslides at both regional and local scales. In this work, we test the potential of Sentinel-1 InSAR for the monitoring of shallow landslides occurring in a densely vegetated area in the North-Eastern Italian Pre-Alps. The test area of about 25km2, is located in the Province of Vicenza (Veneto Region, NE Italy) and is characterized by elevations up to 700m a.s.l., low slope angles, and the outcropping of volcanic deposits (lavas, pyroclastites and ignimbrites) overlaid by eluvial and colluvial deposits. The entire area is affected by a large number of different instabilities, such as shallow soil slips, flows and rotational/translational slides that mainly occur after heavy rain. The landslides are damaging the buildings and the infrastructure, in particular the road network, causing high economic loss for the Municipality. The landslides monitoring activity is performed exploiting the available Sentinel-1 SAR images using both Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) and Persistent Scatterer (PS) techniques. Furthermore, we use the same techniques to process another SAR dataset made of 22 COSMO-SkyMed (CSK) X-band images acquired over the study area in the period March 2011 - September 2012. A first comparison of the results is performed in order to assess the landslides detection capabilities of the Sentinel-1 C-band in respect to the CSK X-band. Finally, the

  13. Sentinel-3 First look for Coastal Applications – Initial comparison with Cryosat-2 in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Abulaitijiang, Adili; Knudsen, Per

    Cryosat-2 offered the first ever possibility to perform coastal altimetric studies using SAR-Interferometry as well as SAR altimetry in preparation for the Sentinel-3 mission. With this technological leap forward it is now able to observe sea level in very small water bodies and also to provide...... observations within the narrow Straits around Denmark which are crucial to constrain the waterflow in and out of the Baltic Sea. These narrow straits were not well monitored by i.e. ENVISAT due to land contamination within the altimeter footprint....

  14. The sentinel-lymphonodectomy in malignant melanoma; Die Sentinel-Lymphonodektomie beim malignen Melanom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachter, D.; Starz, H.; Volkmar, C.; Balda, B.R. [Zentralklinikum Augsburg (Germany). Klinik fuer Dermatologie und Allergologie; Vogt, H. [Zentralklinikum Augsburg (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Buechels, H. [Zentralklinikum Augsburg (Germany). II. Chirurgische Klinik

    1999-10-01

    The concept of the removal of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) opens a new era in the primary therapy of malignant melanoma. This procedure allows an exact staging of the regional lymph nodes and selects only those patients with metastases for an early regional lymphadenectomy. Lymphoscintigraphy by Technetium-labeled human albumin and the intraoperative localization of the SLN guided by a gammaprobe combined with blue dye injections for the persecution of the lymph ways delivers optimal results. The histological proof of the often tiny micrometastases succeeds best in doing serial sectioning with confirmatory immunohistochemistry. We recommend the sentinel lymphonodectomy (SLNE) in all new diagnosed melanomas in clinical stages Ib to IIIa (DDG-classification). When finding metastases in the SLN, a radical lymphadenectomy should follow. Although a survival benefit has not yet shown, the SLNE allows to select patients for further therapies in very early stage of the disease. (orig.) [German] Das Konzept zur operativen Entfernung des Sentinel-Lymphknotens (SLN) leitet eine neue Aera in der Primaertherapie des malignen Melanoms ein. Dieses Verfahren erlaubt ein exaktes Staging der regionaeren Lymphknoten und selektioniert somit nur diese Patienten fuer eine fruehe regionaere Lymphknotendissektion, bei denen Tumorbefall nachgewiesen werden konnte. Die Darstellung des SLN gelingt am besten mit Hilfe von Technetium-markiertem Humanalbumin zur intraoperativen Lokalisation mittels einer Szintillationsmesssonde in Kombination mit einer Patentblaumarkierung des Lymphabflusses. Die histologische Aufarbeitung der Lymphknoten in Schnittserien mit entsprechenden immunhistochemischen Faerbungen erleichtert den mikroskopischen Nachweis der oft sehr kleinen Mikrometastasen. Wir halten die Sentinel-Lymphonodektomie (SLNE) bei neu diagnostizierten Melanomen in den klinischen Stadien Ib-IIIa fuer dringend indiziert. Bei Nachweis von Melanommetastasen im SLN ist derzeit allerdings noch

  15. Experiences with Sentinel-3 Optical Sensor L1 and L2 Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomažić, Igor; Bonekamp, Hans; Kwiatkowska, Ewa; Montagner, Francois; O'Carroll, Anne; Santacesaria, Vincenzo

    2015-12-01

    The European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) is contributing to the overall Sentinel-3 Mission Performance Activities in Commissioning (E1) and Routine Operations (E2) phases. During the pre-launch phase we are preparing for upcoming Cal/Val activities and extensively analyzing existing Test Data Sets (TDS) but also preparing scientifically meaningful SLSTR L1 TDS. We are giving an overview of Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer (SLSTR) and Ocean and Land Colour Instrument (OLCI) L1 /L2 products based on the preparatory Cal/Val activities that could be also useful for the scientific community. This includes an in-house developed product reader, extracting data from manifest file, the overview of scientifically meaningful SLSTR L1 TDS, distinction between the instrument and image grid in SLSTR products. Furthermore, we are presenting information related to SLSTR products in commissioning phase that are relevant for the scientific community.

  16. Are carnivores universally good sentinels of plague?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkerhoff, R Jory; Collinge, Sharon K; Bai, Ying; Ray, Chris

    2009-10-01

    Sylvatic plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, is a flea-borne disease that primarily affects rodents but has been detected in over 200 mammal species worldwide. Mammalian carnivores are routinely surveyed as sentinels of local plague activity, since they can present antibodies to Y. pestis infection but show few clinical signs. In Boulder County, Colorado, USA, plague epizootic events are episodic and occur in black-tailed prairie dogs. Enzootic hosts are unidentified as are plague foci. For three years, we systematically sampled carnivores in two distinct habitat types to determine whether carnivores may play a role in maintenance or transmission of Y. pestis and to identify habitats associated with increased plague prevalence. We sampled 83 individuals representing six carnivore species and found only two that had been exposed to Y. pestis. The low overall rate of plague exposure in carnivores suggests that plague may be ephemeral in this study system, and thus we cannot draw any conclusions regarding habitat-associated plague foci or temporal changes in plague activity. Plague epizootics involving prairie dogs were confirmed in this study system during two of the three years of this study, and we therefore suggest that the targeting carnivores to survey for plague may not be appropriate in all ecological systems.

  17. Intestinal M cells: The fallible sentinels?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Harvey Miller; Jianbing Zhang; Rhonda KuoLee; Girishchandra B Patel; Wangxue Chen

    2007-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract represents the largest mucosal membrane surface in the human body. The immune system in the gut is the first line of host defense against mucosal microbial pathogens and it plays a crucial role in maintaining mucosal homeostasis. Membranous or microfold cells, commonly referred to as microfold cells, are specialized epithelial cells of the gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) and they play a sentinel role for the intestinal immune system by delivering luminal antigens through the follicle-associated epithelium to the underlying immune cells. M cells sample and uptake antigens at their apical membrane, encase them in vesicles to transport them to the basolateral membrane of M cells, and from there deliver antigens to the nearby lymphocytes. On the flip side, some intestinal pathogens exploit M cells as their portal of entry to invade the host and cause infections. In this article, we briefly review our current knowledge on the morphology, development, and function of M cells, with an emphasis on their dual role in the pathogenesis of gut infection and in the development of host mucosal immunity.

  18. Synergetic Use of Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 Data for Soil Moisture Mapping at 100 m Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Gao

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The recent deployment of ESA’s Sentinel operational satellites has established a new paradigm for remote sensing applications. In this context, Sentinel-1 radar images have made it possible to retrieve surface soil moisture with a high spatial and temporal resolution. This paper presents two methodologies for the retrieval of soil moisture from remotely-sensed SAR images, with a spatial resolution of 100 m. These algorithms are based on the interpretation of Sentinel-1 data recorded in the VV polarization, which is combined with Sentinel-2 optical data for the analysis of vegetation effects over a site in Urgell (Catalunya, Spain. The first algorithm has already been applied to observations in West Africa by Zribi et al., 2008, using low spatial resolution ERS scatterometer data, and is based on change detection approach. In the present study, this approach is applied to Sentinel-1 data and optimizes the inversion process by taking advantage of the high repeat frequency of the Sentinel observations. The second algorithm relies on a new method, based on the difference between backscattered Sentinel-1 radar signals observed on two consecutive days, expressed as a function of NDVI optical index. Both methods are applied to almost 1.5 years of satellite data (July 2015–November 2016, and are validated using field data acquired at a study site. This leads to an RMS error in volumetric moisture of approximately 0.087 m3/m3 and 0.059 m3/m3 for the first and second methods, respectively. No site calibrations are needed with these techniques, and they can be applied to any vegetation-covered area for which time series of SAR data have been recorded.

  19. Sentinel-1 Satellite Overview%Sentinel-1卫星综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨魁; 杨建兵; 江冰茹

    2015-01-01

    针对欧空局2014年4月发射的对地观测卫星Sentinel-1,从卫星特点、轨道参数等方面对其进行简单介绍,重点分析其不同成像模式(条带、干涉宽幅、超幅宽、波浪)的参数和应用场合,介绍每种模式下的不同层次( Level-0、Level-1、Level-2)产品,并对其在各类地表覆盖中的潜在应用进行分析,为其在国内广泛应用提供参考。%In this paper,the Sentinel-1 satellite is introduced from four aspects. the characteristics of the satellite and orbit parameters are briefly recommend,different imaging mode( SM,IW,EW,WV)parameters and corresponding level product are analyzed,the potential applications for the various types of land cover are construed to provide reference for the application inland.

  20. Sentinel Lymph Node Mapping In Gastric Cancer Surgery: Current Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bara Tivadar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Lymphonodular metastases remain an important predictive and prognostic factor in gastric cancer development. The precise determination of the lymphonodular invasion stage can be made only by extended intraoperative lymphadenectomy and histopathological examination. But the main controversy is the usefulness of extended lymph dissection in early gastric cancer. This increases the duration of the surgery and the complications rate, and it is unnecessary without lymphonodular invasion. The identification of the sentinel lymph nodes has been successfully applied for some time in the precise detection of lymph nodes status in breast cancer, malignant melanoma and the use for gastric cancer patients has been a controversial issue. The good prognosis in early gastric cancer had been a surgery challenge, which led to the establishment of minimally invasive individualized treatment and acceptance of sentinel lymph node mapping. The dual-tracer method, submucosally administered endoscopically is also recommended in sentinel lymph node biopsy by laparoscopic approach. There are new sophisticated technologies for detecting sentinel lymph node such as: infrared ray endoscopy, florescence imaging and near-infrared technology, carbon nanoparticles, which will open new perspectives in sentinel lymph nodes mapping.

  1. SAR Processing on Demand Service for CryoSat-2 and Sentinel-3 at ESA G-POD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benveniste, Jerome; Dinardo, Salvatore; Lucas, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    The scope of this work is to show the new ESA service (SARvatore) for the exploitation of the CryoSat-2 data and upcoming Sentinel-3 data, designed and developed entirely by the Altimetry Team at ESRIN EOP-SER. The G-POD (Grid-Processing On Demand) Service, SARvatore (SAR Versatile Altimetric Toolkit for Ocean Research & Exploitation) for CryoSat-2, is a web platform that provides the capability to process on-line and on demand CryoSat-2 SAR data, starting from L1a (FBR) data up to SAR Level-2 geophysical data products, with the possibility to build and download the stack data products (L1b-S). The service is based on SARvatore Processor Prototype and the output data products are generated in standard NetCDF format (using CF Convention), and they are compatible with BRAT (Basic Radar Altimety Toolbox) and its successor, the up-coming Sentinel-3 Altimetry Toolbox and other NetCDF tools. Using the G-POD graphic interface, it is possible to easily select the geographical area of interest along with the time of interest. As of December 2014 the service allows the user to select all available mission data from 2010 to end of 2014, without any geographical restriction on this data. The processor prototype is versatile in the sense that the users can customize and adapt the processing, according their specific requirements, setting a list of configurable options.. The processing service is meant to be used for research & development scopes, supporting the development contracts, on site demonstrations/training to selected users, cross-comparison against third part products, preparation to Sentinel-3 mission, publications, etc. So far, the processing has been designed and optimized for open ocean studies and is fully functional only over this kind of surface but there are plans to augment this processing capacity over coastal zones, inland waters and over land in sight of maximizing the exploitation of the upcoming Sentinel-3 Topographic mission over all surfaces.

  2. ESA Earth Observation missions at the service of geoscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschbacher, Josef

    2017-04-01

    The intervention will present ESA's Earth Observation programmes and their relevance to geoscience. ESA's Earth observation missions are mainly grouped into three categories: The Sentinel satellites in the context of the European Copernicus Programme, the scientific Earth Explorers and the meteorological missions. Developments, applications and scientific results for the different mission types will be addressed, along with overall trends and boundary conditions. The Earth Explorers, who form the science and research element of ESA's Living Planet Programme, focus on the atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere and Earth's interior. The Earth Explorers also aim at learning more about the interactions between these components and the impact that human activity is having on natural Earth processes. The Sentinel missions provide accurate, timely, long term and uninterrupted data to provide key information services, improving the way the environment is managed, and helping to mitigate the effects of climate change. The operational Sentinel satellites can also be exploited for scientific endeavours. Meteorological satellites help to predict the weather and feature the most mature application of Earth observation. Over the last four decades satellites have been radically improving the accuracy of weather forecasts by providing unique and indispensable input data to numerical computation models. In addition, Essential Climate Variables (ECV) are constantly monitored within ESA's Climate Change Initiative in order to create a long-term record of key geophysical parameters. All of these activities can only be carried out in international cooperation. Accordingly, ESA maintains long-standing partnerships with other space agencies and relevant institutions worldwide. In running its Earth observation programmes, ESA responds to societal needs and challenges as well as to requirements resulting from political priorities, such as the United Nations' Sustainable Development

  3. Intraoperative immunohistochemistry staining of sentinel nodes in breast cancer: Clinical and economical implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, M.; Paaschburg, B.; Balslev, E.;

    2008-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate intraoperative immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining of sentinel nodes in primary breast cancer surgery. We analysed retrospectively 1209 consecutive sentinel node procedures and compared the rate of late positive metastases in sentinel node biopsy (SNB) and the duration...

  4. The first Sentinel-1 SAR image of a typhoon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiaofeng

    2015-01-01

    In this note, we present the first Sentinel-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) typhoon image acquired in the northwest Pacific on October 4, 2014. The eye shape and sea surface wind patterns associated with Typhoon Phanfone are clearly shown in the high-quality SAR image. SAR winds retrieval procedure was given but the actual wind estimates will only be available after the European Space Agency (ESA) releases the official calibration coefficients in order to accurately derive the SAR-measured normalized radar cross section. This study demonstrates the advantage of Sentinel-1 SAR with regards to imaging fine scale typhoon patterns on the sea surface beneath storm clouds. This paper also advocates the use of Sentinel-1 SAR data that is made freely and openly available worldwide for the first time in civilian SAR history.

  5. [Identification of sentinel events in primary care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivera Cañadas, G; Cañada Dorado, A; Drake Canela, M; Fernández-Martínez, B; Ordóñez León, G; Cimas Ballesteros, M

    2017-05-17

    To identify and describe a list of sentinel events (SEs) for Primary Care (PC). A structured experts' consensus was obtained by using two online questionnaires. The participants were selected because of their expertise in PC and patient safety. The first questionnaire assessed the suitability of the hospital SEs established in the National Quality Forum 2006 for use in PC via responses of "yes", "no", or "yes but with modification". In the latter case, a re-wording of the SE was requested. Additionally, inclusion of new SEs was also allowed. The second questionnaire included those SEs with positive responses ("yes", "yes with modification"), so that the experts could choose between the original and alternative drafts, and evaluate the newly described SEs. The questionnaires were completed by 44 out of a total of the 47 experts asked to participate, and a total of 17 SEs were identified as suitable for PC. For the first questionnaire, 12 of the 28 hospital SEs were considered adaptable to PC, of which 11 were re-drafts. Thirty-seven experts proposed new SEs. These mainly concerned problems with medication and vaccines, delay, or lack of assistance, diagnostic delays, and problems with diagnostic tests, and were finally summarised in 5 SEs. In the second questionnaire, ≥65% of the experts chose the alternative wording against the original cases for the 11 SEs suitable for PC. The 5 newly included SEs were considered adequate with a positive response of 70-85%. Having a list of SEs available in PC will help to improve the management of health care risks. Copyright © 2017 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Gas flare characterisation with Sentinel-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caseiro, Alexandre; Kaiser, Johannes W.; Ruecker, Gernot; Tiemann, Joachim; Leimbach, David

    2017-04-01

    Gas Flaring (GF) is the process of burning waste gases at the tip of a stack. It is widely used in the upstream oil and gas industry. It is a contributor to the imbalance of the greenhouse gases (GHG) concentration in the earth's atmosphere, which prompts global warming. Besides GHG, GF also emits black carbon (BC), a known carcinogen and climate active species. At higher latitudes, GF has been estimated as the main input of atmospheric BC, alongside vegetation fires. The consideration of GF as a source to global budgets has been hindered by technical difficulties of in-situ measurements and the inexistence of a systematic reporting system. Remote sensing offers the possibility of a continuous, global and systematic monitoring of GF over extended periods. Being a high temperature process, GF can be detected from space using measurements at appropriate wavelengths. Considering 1800K as a typical GF temperature and Wien's displacement law, the peak emission will be in the short-wave infrared region. This spectral region is observed by two channels (S5 and S6) of the SLSTR instrument aboard ESA's newly launched Sentinel-3 satellite. Because of solar contamination, only night-time observations are used. In order to characterise the identified gas flares in terms of temperature and area, two Planck curves are fitted to SLSTR radiance observations in five spectral channels (S5 through S9, with F1 and F2). In this work, we present the methodology in detail as well as results for known flaring regions around the world. A comparison with VIIRS on Suomi-NPP and with HSRS on TET-1 over known GF locations is also considered.

  7. DIEP flap sentinel skin paddle positioning algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporta, Rosaria; Longo, Benedetto; Sorotos, Michail; Pagnoni, Marco; Santanelli Di Pompeo, Fabio

    2015-02-01

    Although clinical examination alone or in combination with other techniques is the only ubiquitous method for flap monitoring, it becomes problematic with buried free-tissue transfer. We present a DIEP flap sentinel skin paddle (SSP) positioning algorithm and its reliability is also investigated using a standardized monitoring protocol. All DIEP flaps were monitored with hand-held Doppler examination and clinical observation beginning immediately after surgery in recovery room and continued postoperatively at the ward. Skin paddle (SP) position was preoperatively drawn following mastectomy type incisions; in skin-sparing mastectomies types I-III a small SP (sSP) replaces nipple-areola complex; in skin-sparing mastectomy type IV, SSP is positioned between wise-pattern branches while in type V between medial/lateral branches. In case of nipple-sparing mastectomy SSP is positioned at inframammary fold or in lateral/medial branches of omega/inverted omega incision if used. Three hundred forty-seven DIEP flap breast reconstructions were reviewed and stratified according to SP type into group A including 216 flaps with large SP and group B including 131 flaps with SSP and sSP. Sixteen flaps (4.6%) were taken back for pedicle compromise, 13 of which were salvaged (81.25%), 11 among 13 from group A and 2 among 3 from group B. There was no statistical difference between the groups concerning microvascular complication rate (P = 0.108), and time until take-back (P = 0.521) and flap salvage rate (P = 0.473) resulted independent of SP type. Our results suggest that early detection of perfusion impairment and successful flaps salvage could be achieved using SSP for buried DIEP flap monitoring, without adjunctive expensive monitoring tests.

  8. Sentinel-2 diffuser on-ground calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazy, E.; Camus, F.; Chorvalli, V.; Domken, I.; Laborie, A.; Marcotte, S.; Stockman, Y.

    2013-10-01

    The Sentinel-2 multi-spectral instrument (MSI) will provide Earth imagery in the frame of the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) initiative which is a joint undertaking of the European Commission and the Agency. MSI instrument, under Astrium SAS responsibility, is a push-broom spectro imager in 13 spectral channels in VNIR and SWIR. The instrument radiometric calibration is based on in-flight calibration with sunlight through a quasi Lambertian diffuser. The diffuser covers the full pupil and the full field of view of the instrument. The on-ground calibration of the diffuser BRDF is mandatory to fulfil the in-flight performances. The diffuser is a 779 x 278 mm2 rectangular flat area in Zenith-A material. It is mounted on a motorised door in front of the instrument optical system entrance. The diffuser manufacturing and calibration is under the Centre Spatial of Liege (CSL) responsibility. The CSL has designed and built a completely remote controlled BRDF test bench able to handle large diffusers in their mount. As the diffuser is calibrated directly in its mount with respect to a reference cube, the error budget is significantly improved. The BRDF calibration is performed directly in MSI instrument spectral bands by using dedicated band-pass filters (VNIR and SWIR up to 2200 nm). Absolute accuracy is better than 0.5% in VNIR spectral bands and 1% in SWIR spectral bands. Performances were cross checked with other laboratories. The first MSI diffuser for flight model was calibrated mid 2013 on CSL BRDF measurement bench. The calibration of the diffuser consists mainly in thermal vacuum cycles, BRDF uniformity characterisation and BRDF angular characterisation. The total amount of measurement for the first flight model diffuser corresponds to more than 17500 BRDF acquisitions. Performance results are discussed in comparison with requirements.

  9. Landslide Inventory and Monitoring Using Sentinel-1 SAR Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monserrat, Oriol; Crosetto, Michele; Devanthery, Nuria; Cuevas-Gonzalez, Maria; Barra, Anna; Crippa, Bruno

    2016-08-01

    An important application of differential SAR interferometry (DInSAR) and Persistent Scatterer Interferometry is landslide detection and monitoring. Several studies have been published, which make use of the entire spectrum of SAR data types available in the last 25 years. This paper describes a procedure to update landslide inventory maps using Sentinel-1 data. The paper briefly discusses the main advantages of the Sentinel-1 SAR data. Then it describes the data analysis procedure used to update landslide inventory maps using interferometric data and a number of additional information layers. The effectiveness of the procedure is illustrated by the results of a study area located in the Molise region, in Southern Italy.

  10. STAGTOPS: Enhancing the Azimuth Resolution of Sentinel1 TOPSAR Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giudici, D.; Piantanida, R.; Rocca, F.; Monti Guarnieri, A.; Recchia, A.

    2016-08-01

    The paper introduces a technique for the enhanced processing of TOPSAR data. It is based on repeated passes of the sensor over the same area and is aimed at obtaining "enhanced resolution" images of coherent scatterers in the scene by combining two "de- synchronized" acquisitions, useless for interferometric purposes. The paper introduces the STAGTOPS concept and provides a first demonstration exploiting a couple of 12 days apart Sentinel-1A TOPSAR IW images with a synchronization issue. The proposed technique could be further tested by exploiting the novel Sentinel-1B sensor (launch 25th April 2016), reducing the revisit time to 6 days.

  11. PET-skanning ved malignt melanom og positiv sentinel node

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Janne; Sjøstrand, Helle; Lock-Andersen, Jørgen;

    2010-01-01

    To illuminate the value of using positron emission tomography (PET) scan as a clinical routine screening procedure for detecting subclinical metastases in melanoma patients with positive sentinel node biopsy, we carried out a retrospective study which included a total of 80 patients.......To illuminate the value of using positron emission tomography (PET) scan as a clinical routine screening procedure for detecting subclinical metastases in melanoma patients with positive sentinel node biopsy, we carried out a retrospective study which included a total of 80 patients....

  12. Comparison of Sensor Resolution Trade-offs Between Landsat 8 and a Sentinel-2 Proxy for Mapping Wetland Vegetation Phenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ade, C.; Hestir, E.; Khanna, S.; Ustin, S.

    2016-12-01

    than Landsat 8, as there are about twice as many cloud free images. This study provides valuable information regarding Sentinel-2 and the Landsat series potential for monitoring wetland phenology. Furthermore, this is important pathfinder science as it helps determine resolution requirements for upcoming satellite missions.

  13. Novel Launched the Free Sentinel Log Manager%Novell推出Sentinel Log Manager免费版

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    近日,Novell发布了Sentinel Log Manager免费版,它将使客户可使用Sentinel Log Manager的关键功能,其中包括以每秒25个事件的速度收集日志、合规要求与安全鉴证的搜索和报告能力。客户可无缝升级到完全许可状态,以支持诸如分布式搜索和日志推进等其他功能。

  14. MACCS : Multi-Mission Atmospheric Correction and Cloud Screening tool for high-frequency revisit data processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrucci, B.; Huc, M.; Feuvrier, T.; Ruffel, C.; Hagolle, O.; Lonjou, V.; Desjardins, C.

    2015-10-01

    For the production of Level2A products during Sentinel-2 commissioning in the Technical Expertise Center Sentinel-2 in CNES, CESBIO proposed to adapt the Venus Level-2 , taking advantage of the similarities between the two missions: image acquisition at a high frequency (2 days for Venus, 5 days with the two Sentinel-2), high resolution (5m for Venus, 10, 20 and 60m for Sentinel-2), images acquisition under constant viewing conditions. The Multi-Mission Atmospheric Correction and Cloud Screening (MACCS) tool was born: based on CNES Orfeo Toolbox Library, Venμs processor which was already able to process Formosat2 and VENμS data, was adapted to process Sentinel-2 and Landsat5-7 data; since then, a great effort has been made reviewing MACCS software architecture in order to ease the add-on of new missions that have also the peculiarity of acquiring images at high resolution, high revisit and under constant viewing angles, such as Spot4/Take5 and Landsat8. The recursive and multi-temporal algorithm is implemented in a core that is the same for all the sensors and that combines several processing steps: estimation of cloud cover, cloud shadow, water, snow and shadows masks, of water vapor content, aerosol optical thickness, atmospheric correction. This core is accessed via a number of plug-ins where the specificity of the sensor and of the user project are taken into account: products format, algorithmic processing chaining and parameters. After a presentation of MACCS architecture and functionalities, the paper will give an overview of the production facilities integrating MACCS and the associated specificities: the interest for this tool has grown worldwide and MACCS will be used for extensive production within the THEIA land data center and Agri-S2 project. Finally the paper will zoom on the use of MACCS during Sentinel-2 In Orbit Test phase showing the first Level-2A products.

  15. Gray-scale contrast-enhanced utrasonography in detecting sentinel lymph nodes: An animal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yuexiang, E-mail: wangyuexiang1999@sina.co [Department of Ultrasound, Chinese People' s Liberation Army General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing 100853 (China); Cheng Zhigang, E-mail: qlczg@sina.co [Department of Ultrasound, Chinese People' s Liberation Army General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing 100853 (China); Li Junlai, E-mail: junlai555@sina.co [Department of Ultrasound, Chinese People' s Liberation Army General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing 100853 (China); Tang Jie, E-mail: txiner@vip.sina.co [Department of Ultrasound, Chinese People' s Liberation Army General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing 100853 (China)

    2010-06-15

    Objective: To investigate the usefulness of gray-scale contrast-enhanced ultrasonography for detecting sentinel lymph nodes. Methods: Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography was performed in five normal dogs (four female and one male) after subcutaneous administration of a sonographic contrast agent (Sonovue, Bracco, Milan, Italy). Four distinct regions in each animal were examined. After contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, 0.8 ml of blue dye was injected into the same location as Sonovue and the sentinel lymph nodes were detected by surgical dissection. The findings of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography were compared with those of the blue dye. Results: Twenty-one sentinel lymph nodes were detected by contrast-enhanced ultrasonography while 23 were identified by blue dye with surgical dissection. Compared with the blue dye, the detection rate of enhanced ultrasonography for the sentinel lymph nodes is 91.3% (21/23). Two patterns of enhancement in the sentinel lymph nodes were observed: complete enhancement (5 sentinel lymph nodes) and partial enhancement (16 sentinel lymph nodes). The lymphatic channels were demonstrated as hyperechoic linear structures leading from the injection site and could be readily followed to their sentinel lymph nodes. Histopathologic examination showed proliferation of lymphatic follicles or lymphatic sinus in partial enhanced sentinel lymph nodes while normal lymphatic tissue was demonstrated in completely enhanced sentinel lymph nodes. Conclusions: Sonovue combined with gray-scale contrast-enhanced ultrasonography may provide a feasible method for detecting sentinel lymph nodes.

  16. EO4Urban: First-Year Results on Sentinel-1A SAR and Sentinel-2A MSI Data for Global Urban Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Yifang; Gamba, Paolo

    2016-08-01

    The overall objective of this research is to evaluate multitemporal Sentinel-1A SAR and Sentinel-2A MSI data for global urban services using innovative methods and algorithms, namely KTH-Pavia Urban Extractor, a robust algorithm for urban extent extraction and KTH- SEG, a novel object-based classification method for detailed urban land cover mapping. Ten cities around the world in different geographical and environmental conditions were selected as study areas. Large volume of Sentinel-1A SAR and Sentinel-2A MSI data were acquired during vegetation season in 2015 and 2016. The preliminary urban extraction results showed that urban areas and small towns could be well extracted using multitemporal Sentinel-1A SAR data with the KTH-Pavia Urban Extractor. For urban land cover mapping, multitemporal Sentinel-1A SAR data alone yielded an overall classification accuracy of 60% for Stockholm. Sentinel-2A MSI data as well as the fusion of Sentinel-1A SAR and Sentinel-2A MSI data, however, produced much higher classification accuracies, both reached 80%.

  17. Procedure guidelines for sentinel lymph node diagnosis; Verfahrensanweisung fuer die nuklearmedizinische Waechter-Lymphknoten-Diagnostik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, H. [Klinikum Augsburg (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Schmidt, Matthias [Universitaeten zu Koeln (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Bares, R. [Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Tuebingen (DE)] (and others)

    2010-07-01

    The authors present a procedure guideline for scintigraphic detection of sentinel lymph nodes in malignant melanoma and other skin tumours, in breast cancer, in head and neck cancer, and in prostate and penile carcinoma. Important goals of sentinel lymph node scintigraphy comprise reduction of the extent of surgery, lower postoperative morbidity and optimization of histopathological examination focussing on relevant lymph nodes. Sentinel lymph node scintigraphy itself does not diagnose tumorous lymph node involvement and is not indicated when lymph node metastases have been definitely diagnosed before sentinel lymph node scintigraphy. Procedures are compiled with the aim to reliably localise sentinel lymph nodes with a high detection rate typically in early tumour stages. Radiation exposure is low so that pregnancy is not a contraindication for sentinel lymph node scintigraphy. Even with high volumes of scintigraphic sentinel lymph node procedures surgeons, theatre staff and pathologists receive a radiation exposure <1 mSv/year so that they do not require occupational radiation surveillance. (orig.)

  18. Sentinel Node Detection in Head and Neck Malignancies: Innovations in Radioguided Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Vermeeren

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Sentinel node mapping is becoming a routine procedure for staging of various malignancies, because it can determine lymph node status more precisely. Due to anatomical problems, localizing sentinel nodes in the head and neck region on the basis of conventional images can be difficult. New diagnostic tools can provide better visualization of sentinel nodes. In an attempt to keep up with possible scientific progress, this article reviews new and innovative tools for sentinel node localization in this specific area. The overview comprises a short introduction of the sentinel node procedure as well as indications in the head and neck region. Then the results of SPECT/CT for sentinel node detection are described. Finally, a portable gamma camera to enable intraoperative real-time imaging with improved sentinel node detection is described.

  19. A multitemporal probabilistic error correction approach to SVM classification of alpine glacier exploiting sentinel-1 images (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callegari, Mattia; Marin, Carlo; Notarnicola, Claudia; Carturan, Luca; Covi, Federico; Galos, Stephan; Seppi, Roberto

    2016-10-01

    In mountain regions and their forelands, glaciers are key source of melt water during the middle and late ablation season, when most of the winter snow has already melted. Furthermore, alpine glaciers are recognized as sensitive indicators of climatic fluctuations. Monitoring glacier extent changes and glacier surface characteristics (i.e. snow, firn and bare ice coverage) is therefore important for both hydrological applications and climate change studies. Satellite remote sensing data have been widely employed for glacier surface classification. Many approaches exploit optical data, such as from Landsat. Despite the intuitive visual interpretation of optical images and the demonstrated capability to discriminate glacial surface thanks to the combination of different bands, one of the main disadvantages of available high-resolution optical sensors is their dependence on cloud conditions and low revisit time frequency. Therefore, operational monitoring strategies relying only on optical data have serious limitations. Since SAR data are insensitive to clouds, they are potentially a valid alternative to optical data for glacier monitoring. Compared to past SAR missions, the new Sentinel-1 mission provides much higher revisit time frequency (two acquisitions each 12 days) over the entire European Alps, and this number will be doubled once the Sentinel1-b will be in orbit (April 2016). In this work we present a method for glacier surface classification by exploiting dual polarimetric Sentinel-1 data. The method consists of a supervised approach based on Support Vector Machine (SVM). In addition to the VV and VH signals, we tested the contribution of local incidence angle, extracted from a digital elevation model and orbital information, as auxiliary input feature in order to account for the topographic effects. By exploiting impossible temporal transition between different classes (e.g. if at a given date one pixel is classified as rock it cannot be classified as

  20. Penile lymphoscintigraphy for sentinel node identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdes Olmos, R.A.; Hoefnagel, C.A. [Netherlands Cancer Inst., Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Tanis, P.J.; Jansen, L.; Nieweg, O.E. [Netherlands Cancer Inst., Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Surgery; Meinhardt, W.; Horenblas, S. [Netherlands Cancer Inst., Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Urology

    2001-05-01

    Lymphoscintigraphy for sentinel node (SN) identification has been extensively validated in breast cancer and melanoma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the findings of lymphoscintigraphy for SN identification in carcinoma of the penis. Lymphoscintigraphy was performed in 74 consecutive patients (mean age 62.2 years, range 28-87 years) with clinically lymph node-negative squamous cell carcinoma of the penis (stage T2 or greater). Following local anaesthesia by xy-locaine 10% spray, technetium-99m nanocolloid (mean dose 64.8 MBq, range 40-131 MBq) in a volume of 0.3-0.4 ml was injected intradermally around the tumour. Shortly after injection, a 20-min dynamic study was performed with a dual-head gamma camera; subsequently, static anterior and lateral images were obtained at 30 min and 2 h using simultaneous cobalt-57 flood source transmission scanning. {sup 57}Co-assisted skin marking defined SN location for gamma probe/blue dye-guided biopsy, which was performed the next day. The SN visualization rate was 97% (72/74). Lymphatic drainage was bilateral in 81% of the cases (58/72), exclusively to the left groin in 13% (9/72) and only to the right groin in 6%. Bilateral lymph node drainage was synchronous in 38% (22/58) and asynchronous in 62% (in 18 patients the initial route was the left groin, and in the other 18, the right groin). Visualization before 30 min occurred in 66 patients (93%), in 64 of them (88%) already during the dynamic study. A total of 173 SNs were visualized (85 in the right groin, 88 in the left groin). Pitfalls were caused by inguinal skin contamination during injection (four patients) and intracavernous administration (one patient). At surgery, a total of 161 SNs were identified and removed. Sixteen patients (22%) had a tumour-positive SN and underwent standard regional lymph node dissection subsequently. During follow-up (median 28 months, range 3-74 months), two patients with a negative SN developed lymph node metastases in the mapped

  1. Sentinel Lymph Node Identification in Endometrial Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Li; Lingying Wu; Xiaoguang Li; Haizhen Lu; Ping Bai; Shumin Li; Wenhua Zhang; Juzhen Gao

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the feasibility of intra-operative detection of sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) in the patient with endometrial cancer (EC).METHODS Thirty-one patients with Stage Ⅰ and Ⅱ endometrial cancer, who underwent a hysterectomy and a lymphadenectomy,were enrolled in the study. At laparotomy, methylene blue dye tracer was injected into the subserosal myometrium of corpus uteri at multiple sites, and dye uptake into the lymphatic channels was observed. The blue nodes which were identified as SLNs were traced and excised. The other nodes were then removed. All of the excised nodes were submitted for pathological hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining examination.RESULTS Failure of dye uptake occurred in 4 of the 31 cases (12.9%) because of spillage, and no lymphatic coloration was observed there. Lymphatic staining was clearly observable as blue dye diffused to the lymphatic channels of the uterine surface and the infundibulopelvic ligaments in 27 (87.1%) cases. Concurrent coloration in the pelvic lymphatic vessels was also observed in 22of the 27 patients. The SLNs were identified in 23 of the 27 (85.2%)cases with a lymphatic staining, with a total number of 90 SLNs,and a mean of 3.9 in each case (range, 1-10). Besides one SLN (1.1%)in the para-aortic area, the other 89 (98.9%) were in the nodes of the pelvis. The most dense locations of SLNs included obturator in 38 (42.2%) and interiliac in 19 (21.1%) cases. In our group, pelvic lymphadenectomy was conducted in 27 (87.1%) patients and pelvic nodal sampling in 4 (12.9%). Of the 31 cases, a concurrent abdominal para-aortic lymph node sampling was conducted in 7. A total of 926 nodes were harvested, with an average of 39.8 in each case (range, 14-55). Nodal metastases occurred in 3 patients (9.7%), 2 of them with SLN involvement and the other without SLN involvement. Adverse reactions or injury related to the study was not found.CONCLUSION Application of methylene blue dye is feasible in an intra

  2. Advances in sentinel node dissection in prostate cancer from a technical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Cenk; Kleinjan, Gijs H; van den Berg, Nynke S; Wit, Esther Mk; van Leeuwen, Fijs Wb; van der Poel, Henk G

    2015-10-01

    The most important feature of sentinel node biopsy for prostate cancer procedure is that staging can be improved. Sentinel nodes might be found outside the extended pelvic lymph node dissection template what renders the sentinel node additive of extended pelvic lymph node dissection. At the same time, staging within the template can be further refined. We reviewed the literature regarding the sentinel node biopsy procedure for prostate cancer. PubMed and Embase were searched for all English-language publications from January 1999 to September 2014 by using the keywords as "prostate cancer" and "sentinel lymph node" plus "biopsy" "dissection" and/or "procedure." The present review discusses step-by-step sentinel node biopsy for prostate cancer. Topics of discussion are: (i) preoperative sentinel node mapping (tracers and imaging); (ii) intraoperative sentinel node identification (surgical procedure and outcome); and (iii) novelties to improve sentinel node identification (pre- and intraoperative approaches). Conventional sentinel node mapping is carried out after the injection of a (99m) Tc-based tracer and subsequent preoperative imaging; for example, lymphoscintigraphy and single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography. This approach allowed the detection of sentinel nodes outside the extended lymph node dissection template in 3.6-36% of men with intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer. Hereby, an overall false negative rate of sentinel nodes was reported between 0% and 24.4%. To further refine the intraoperative sampling procedure, novel imaging methods such as fluorescence imaging have been introduced. Prospective randomized comparison studies are required to confirm the added benefit of sentinel template directed nodal dissection. A proper and obtainable end-point of such a study could be the number of removed positive nodes for carrying out nodal dissection with or without sentinel template directed dissection. Similarly, the clinical

  3. Sentinel node biopsy in head and neck cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, Gary L; Soutar, David S; Gordon MacDonald, D

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim was to determine the reliability and reproducibility of sentinel node biopsy (SNB) as a staging tool in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) for T1/2 clinically N0 patients by means of a standardized technique. METHODS: Between June 1998 and June 2002, 227 SNB...

  4. Sentinel node biopsy for melanoma: a study of 241 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakera, Annette Hougaard; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof Tadeusz; Jakobsen, Annika Loft

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the sentinel node biopsy (SNB) technique for melanoma using both radiocolloid and blue dye in 241 clinically N0 patients with melanomas >1.0 mm, or thinner lesions exhibiting regression/ulceration. We showed that an increase in injected radioactivity increased...

  5. Evaluation of registration accuracy between Sentinel-2 and Landsat 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barazzetti, Luigi; Cuca, Branka; Previtali, Mattia

    2016-08-01

    Starting from June 2015, Sentinel-2A is delivering high resolution optical images (ground resolution up to 10 meters) to provide a global coverage of the Earth's land surface every 10 days. The planned launch of Sentinel-2B along with the integration of Landsat images will provide time series with an unprecedented revisit time indispensable for numerous monitoring applications, in which high resolution multi-temporal information is required. They include agriculture, water bodies, natural hazards to name a few. However, the combined use of multi-temporal images requires an accurate geometric registration, i.e. pixel-to-pixel correspondence for terrain-corrected products. This paper presents an analysis of spatial co-registration accuracy for several datasets of Sentinel-2 and Landsat 8 images distributed all around the world. Images were compared with digital correlation techniques for image matching, obtaining an evaluation of registration accuracy with an affine transformation as geometrical model. Results demonstrate that sub-pixel accuracy was achieved between 10 m resolution Sentinel-2 bands (band 3) and 15 m resolution panchromatic Landsat images (band 8).

  6. Continuous Morbidity Registration at Dutch Sentinel General Practice Network 2009.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donker, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    The Mexican flu pandemic was limited to a mild pandemic, although the flu incidence rate was higher than in the previous three seasons. At the peak of the epidemic 189 per 100.000 registered patients consulted their general practitioner (GP). The sentinel GP’s of NIVEL registered the number of new f

  7. Sentinel node detection in melanomas using contrast-enhanced ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K. Rue; Klyver, H.; Chakera, A. Hougaard;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sentinel node (SN) biopsy has proven to be a useful clinical method based on the combination of radionuclide tracer principles and the dye technique. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) has been used successfully for detection of SN in animals, but the use of CEUS has not been reported...

  8. Internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy: abandon or persist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu PF

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Peng-Fei Qiu, Yan-Bing Liu, Yong-Sheng Wang Breast Cancer Center, Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute, Jinan, Shandong, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Although the 2009 American Joint Committee on Cancer incorporated the internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy (IM-SLNB concept, there has been little change in surgical practice patterns due to the low visualization rate of internal mammary sentinel lymph nodes with the traditional injection technique. Meanwhile, as internal mammary lymph nodes (IMLN metastases are mostly found concomitantly with axillary lymph nodes (ALN metastases, previous IM-SLNB clinical trials fail to evaluate the status of IMLN in patients who are really in need (only in clinically ALN negative patients. Our modified injection technique (periareolar intraparenchymal, high volume, and ultrasonographic guidance significantly improved the visualization rate of internal mammary sentinel lymph nodes, making the routine IM-SLNB possible in daily practice. IM-SLNB could provide individual minimally invasive staging, prognosis, and decision-making for breast cancer patients, especially for patients with clinically positive ALN. Moreover, IMLN radiotherapy should be tailored and balanced between the potential benefit and toxicity, and IM-SLNB-guided IMLN radiotherapy could achieve this goal. In the era of effective adjuvant therapy, within the changing treatment approach – more systemic therapy, less loco-regional therapy – clinicians should deliberate the application of regional IMLN therapy. Keywords: breast cancer, internal mammary lymph node, axillary lymph node, sentinel lymph node biopsy 

  9. 78 FR 67168 - Sixth Annual Sentinel Initiative; Public Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Sixth Annual Sentinel Initiative; Public Workshop AGENCY....'' Convened by the Engelberg Center for Health Care Reform at the Brookings Institution and supported by a... days in advance. Meeting Materials: All event materials will be available to registered attendees...

  10. Sentinel-1 Sar Imagery for Finnish Agricultural Subsidy Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torma, Markus; Munck, Anders; Mattila, Olli-Pekka; Harma, Pekka; Arslan, Nadir

    2016-08-01

    Agricultural parcels were classified to six general plant groups (winter cereals, spring cereals, peas, potato, rapeseed and grasses) using Sentinel-1 Interferometric Wide swath SAR imagery. The results were encouraging; the best overall accuracy was about 95%. The division of parcels to ploughed or non-ploughed parcels was possible if images were available after snow melt and before greening.

  11. Sentinel Lymph Node Dissection in Locally Recurrent Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uth, Charlotte Caspara; Christensen, Mette Haulund; Oldenbourg, Mette Holmqvist

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the use of sentinel lymph node dissection (SLND) in the treatment of patients with locally recurrent breast cancer. METHODS: A total of 147 patients with locally recurrent breast cancer were included from five different breast surgery departments...

  12. SAR Altimetry Processing on Demand Service for Cryosat-2 and Sentinel-3 at ESA G-Pod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinardo, Salvatore; Benveniste, Jérôme; Ambrózio, Américo; Restano, Marco

    2016-07-01

    training courses and workshops, for cross-comparison to third party products (e.g. CLS/CNES CPP or ESA SAR COP data products), for the preparation of the Sentinel-3 Surface Topography Mission, for producing data and graphics for publications, etc. Initially, the processing was designed and uniquely optimized for open ocean studies. It was based on the SAMOSA model developed for the Sentinel-3 Ground Segment using CryoSat data (Cotton et al., 2008; Ray et al., 2014). However, since June 2015, a new retracker (SAMOSA+) is offered within the service as a dedicated retracker for coastal zone, inland water and sea-ice/ice-sheet. In view of the Sentinel-3 launch, a new flavor of the service will be initiated, exclusively dedicated to the processing of Sentinel-3 mission data products. The scope of this new service will be to maximize the exploitation of the upcoming Sentinel-3 Surface Topography Mission's data over all surfaces. The service is open, free of charge (supported by the ESA SEOM Programme Element) for worldwide scientific applications and available at https://gpod.eo.esa.int/services/CRYOSAT_SAR/

  13. SAR Processing on Demand Service for CryoSat-2 and Sentinel-3 at ESA G-POD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benveniste, Jérôme; Ambrózio, Américo; Restano, Marco; Dinardo, Salvatore

    2016-04-01

    training courses and workshops, for cross-comparison to third party products (e.g. CLS/CNES CPP or ESA SAR COP data products), and for the preparation of the Sentinel-3 Surface Topography Mission, by producing data and graphics for publications, etc. Initially, the processing was designed and uniquely optimized for open ocean studies. It was based on the SAMOSA model developed for the Sentinel-3 Ground Segment using CryoSat data (Cotton et al., 2008; Ray et al., 2014). However, since June 2015, a new retracker (SAMOSA+) is offered within the service as a dedicated retracker for coastal zone, inland water and sea-ice/ice-sheet. In view of the Sentinel-3 launch, a new flavor of the service will be initiated, exclusively dedicated to the processing of Sentinel-3 mission data products. The scope of this new service will be to maximize the exploitation of the upcoming Sentinel-3 Surface Topography Mission's data over all surfaces. The service is open, free of charge for worldwide scientific applications and available at https://gpod.eo.esa.int/services/CRYOSAT_SAR/ and https://gpod.eo.esa.int/services/CRYOSAT_SARIN/.

  14. Soil moisture retrieval using multi-temporal Sentinel-1 SAR data in agricultural areas%利用多时相Sentinel-1 SAR数据反演农田地表土壤水分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何连; 秦其明; 任华忠; 都骏; 孟晋杰; 杜宸

    2016-01-01

    土壤水分是陆面生态系统水分和能量循环的重要变量,在农田干旱监测、作物长势监测和作物估产等应用研究中具有重要的作用。该文结合基于变化检测的Alpha近似模型,利用Sentinel-1卫星获取的多时相C波段合成孔径雷达(synthetic aperture radar,SAR)数据,实现了农田地表土壤水分的反演。该文首先利用微波辐射传输模型验证了Alpha近似模型在土壤水分反演中的合理性。研究发现,对于土壤散射占主导的区域,Alpha近似模型对辐射传输模型有较好的近似,能够有效地消除地表粗糙度和植被对雷达后向散射系数的影响。在此基础上,结合怀来研究区多时相Sentinel-1 SAR数据,利用Alpha近似模型构建了土壤水分观测方程组,通过求解方程组得到了农田地表土壤水分。地面验证结果表明,土壤水分反演的均方根误差(root mean square error,RMSE)为0.06 cm3/cm3,平均偏差为0.01 cm3/cm3,精度较好。该文研究为利用高重访周期、多时相的Sentinel-1 SAR数据获取农田地表土壤水分提供了参考。%Soil moisture is a key variable that links the water and energy cycles. Its information is also essential for many applications, such as agricultural drought monitoring, crop status monitoring and crop yield prediction. Sentinel-1 of the European Space Agency (ESA) is composed of 2 satellites, Sentinel-1A and Sentinel-1B, which share the same orbital plane with a 180° orbital phasing difference. The Sentinel-1 mission can provide C-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data with a global revisit time of just 6 days and high spatial resolution of about tens of meters, thus showing a strong potential for global soil moisture monitoring at high/moderate spatial resolutions. The aim of this study was to investigate the capability of multi-temporal Sentinel-1 C-band SAR data with a short repeating cycle in soil moisture estimation over

  15. Single-Network Wide-Area Persistent Scatterer Interferometry: Algorithms with Application to Sentinel-1 InSAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, K.; Shau, R.; Adam, N.

    2015-12-01

    Advanced InSAR techniques, for example, Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI), allow long term deformation time series analysis with millimeter accuracy. ESA's Sentinel-1 SAR mission employs the TOPS mode as the standard mode for acquiring InSAR data. It provides a continuous and large coverage at conventional resolution. The idea is to have a wide-area PSI for mapping countries and continents. Although PSI has been successfully demonstrated and validated in the past for various applications, there are some limitations for processing a large-scale dataset. First, PSI is most effective in urban areas which have a large number of stable scatterers. For large-scale PSI, even non-urban areas need to be processed; and this requires robust algorithms for scatterer selection, network construction and inversion, and atmospheric phase removal. Second, the computational load can be very high, due to which, the processing is usually divided into overlapping blocks and merged later. This can however lead to spatial error propagation. This paper presents algorithms which have been developed for a robust PSI reference network estimation, while mitigating error propagation. Instead of dividing the scene into overlapping blocks, a single network (i.e. arcs connecting the scatterers) is created for the full scene. The relative deformation and residual DEM are estimated for the arcs using the LAMBDA estimator. The relative measurements of the network are finally integrated via least-squares inversion. Here, the sparsity of the system of linear equations is exploited to deal with big data (e.g. 10,000,000 arcs for 500,000 scatterers is a typical configuration for Sentinel-1). A QR or LU parallelizable solver is used for fast inversion. Also, variances of the estimates are calculated using a selected parallel inversion method based on LDL decomposition. Demonstration of the algorithms for large-scale deformation monitoring is provided using available Sentinel-1 data for Germany.

  16. Sentinel Node Mapping of VX2 Carcinoma in Rabbit Thigh with CT Lymphography Using Ethiodized Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yoon Jin; Kim, Young Hoon; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Park, Ji Hoon [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hye Seung [Department of Pathology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Seung Chai [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Seung-Moon [Department of Radiology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 135-720 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    To assess the feasibility of computed tomography (CT) lymphography using ethiodized oil for sentinel node mapping in experimentally induced VX2 carcinoma in the rabbit thigh. This experiment received approval from the institutional animal use and care administrative advisory committee. Twenty-three rabbits with VX2 carcinoma in the thigh underwent CT before and after (1 hour, 2 hour) peritumoral injection of 2 mL ethiodized oil. After the CT examination, sentinel nodes were identified by peritumoral injection of methylene blue and subsequently removed. The retrieved sentinel and non-sentinel lymph nodes were investigated with radiographic and pathologic examinations. Based on the comparison of CT findings with those of radiographic and pathologic examinations, the diagnostic performance of CT for sentinel node identification was assessed. All 23 rabbits showed 53 ethiodized oil retention nodes on post-injection CT and specimen radiography, and 52 methylene blue-stained nodes at the right femoroiliac area. Of the 52 blue-stained sentinel nodes, 50 nodes demonstrated ethiodized oil retention. Thus, the sentinel node detection rate of CT was 96% (50 of 52). On pathologic examination, 28 sentinel nodes in 17 rabbits (nodes/rabbit, mean ± standard deviation, 1.7 ± 0.6) harbored metastasis. Twenty seven of the 28 metastatic sentinel nodes were found to have ethiodized oil retention. Computed tomography lymphography using ethiodized oil may be feasible for sentinel node mapping in experimentally induced VX2 carcinoma in the rabbit thigh.

  17. Impact of non-axillary sentinel node biopsy on staging and treatment of breast cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanis, P J; Nieweg, O E; Valdés Olmos, R A; Peterse, J L; Rutgers, E J Th; Hoefnagel, C A; Kroon, B B R

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of lymphatic drainage to non-axillary sentinel nodes and to determine the implications of this phenomenon. A total of 549 breast cancer patients underwent lymphoscintigraphy after intratumoural injection of 99mTc-nanocolloid. The sentinel node was intraoperatively identified with the aid of intratumoural administered patent blue dye and a gamma-ray detection probe. Histopathological examination of sentinel nodes included step-sectioning at six levels and immunohistochemical staining. A sentinel node outside level I or II of the axilla was found in 149 patients (27%): internal mammary sentinel nodes in 86 patients, other non-axillary sentinel nodes in 44 and both internal mammary and other non-axillary sentinel nodes in nineteen patients. The intra-operative identification rate was 80%. Internal mammary metastases were found in seventeen patients and metastases in other non-axillary sentinel nodes in ten patients. Staging improved in 13% of patients with non-axillary sentinel lymph nodes and their treatment strategy was changed in 17%. A small proportion of clinically node negative breast cancer patients can be staged more precisely by biopsy of sentinel nodes outside level I and II of the axilla, resulting in additional decision criteria for postoperative regional or systemic therapy. British Journal of Cancer (2002) 87, 705–710. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6600359 www.bjcancer.com © 2002 Cancer Research UK PMID:12232750

  18. Improved Survival in Male Melanoma Patients in the Era of Sentinel Node Biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskivuo, I; Vihinen, P; Mäki, M; Talve, L; Vahlberg, T; Suominen, E

    2017-03-01

    Sentinel node biopsy is a standard method for nodal staging in patients with clinically localized cutaneous melanoma, but the survival advantage of sentinel node biopsy remains unsolved. The aim of this case-control study was to investigate the survival benefit of sentinel node biopsy. A total of 305 prospective melanoma patients undergoing sentinel node biopsy were compared with 616 retrospective control patients with clinically localized melanoma whom have not undergone sentinel node biopsy. Survival differences were calculated with the median follow-up time of 71 months in sentinel node biopsy patients and 74 months in control patients. Analyses were calculated overall and separately in males and females. Overall, there were no differences in relapse-free survival or cancer-specific survival between sentinel node biopsy patients and control patients. Male sentinel node biopsy patients had significantly higher relapse-free survival ( P = 0.021) and cancer-specific survival ( P = 0.024) than control patients. In females, no differences were found. Cancer-specific survival rates at 5 years were 87.8% in sentinel node biopsy patients and 85.2% in controls overall with 88.3% in male sentinel node biopsy patients and 80.6% in male controls and 87.3% in female sentinel node biopsy patients and 89.8% in female controls. Sentinel node biopsy did not improve survival in melanoma patients overall. While females had no differences in survival, males had significantly improved relapse-free survival and cancer-specific survival following sentinel node biopsy.

  19. High risk of non-sentinel node metastases in a group of breast cancer patients with micrometastases in the sentinel node

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedskov, Tove Filtenborg; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Lisse, Ida Marie;

    2012-01-01

    for ALND. 1577 breast cancer patients with micrometastases and 304 with ITC in sentinel nodes, treated by sentinel lymph node dissection and ALND in 2002-2008, were identified in the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group database. Risk of NSN metastases was calculated according to clinicopathological...

  20. Sentinel-1 Constellation for nationwide deformation mapping with InSAR -- From science to operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehls, John; Larsen, Yngvar; Marinkovic, Petar

    2016-04-01

    For more than a decade, InSAR has been used in Norway study landslides and subsidence. Initial studies concentrated on understanding and validating the technique in various settings. During the last five years, however, we have moved towards using InSAR in operational settings. Of all the challenges we have faced, the largest has been regular access to SAR imagery. The Sentinel-1 constellation will bring a paradigm shift to the field with its operational characteristics: mission configuration, acquisition planning, and data distribution policy. For the first time, we will have nationwide acquisitions with an unprecedented temporal spacing. By the end of this year, we will have a sufficiently long time series of data to produce an initial version of a national deformation map. Within the ESA SEOM InSARap project, we have developed the necessary updates of interferometric processing tools necessary to handle the novel TOPS mode, and successfully demonstrated the performance of S1 InSAR in a number of scientific applications. However, to fully exploit the key advantages of the Sentinel-1 mission, we still face a number of scientific and operational challenges, due to the new and unique characteristics of the mission. Specifically, the large coverage and dense temporal sampling results in very large data sets with a vastly increased information content, which still needs new algorithmic development to extract. In the context of national mapping, optimal harmonization of deformation maps based on overlapping individual S1 stacks is the most prominent challenge. Urban areas in Norway face much the same problems as many other cities throughout the world; subsidence due to soil compaction and groundwater changes or excavation, and resulting damage to infrastructure. More unique to Norway is the threat to lives caused by large unstable rock slopes along the steep fjords. In the 20th century alone, catastrophic rock slope failures leading to tsunamis in fjords and large

  1. The Solar Probe Plus Mission: Humanity's First Visit to Our Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, N. J.; Velli, M. C.; Bale, S. D.; Decker, R.; Driesman, A.; Howard, R. A.; Kasper, J. C.; Kinnison, J.; Kusterer, M.; Lario, D.; Lockwood, M. K.; McComas, D. J.; Raouafi, N. E.; Szabo, A.

    2016-12-01

    Solar Probe Plus (SPP) will be the first spacecraft to fly into the low solar corona. SPP's main science goal is to determine the structure and dynamics of the Sun's coronal magnetic field, understand how the solar corona and wind are heated and accelerated, and determine what processes accelerate energetic particles. Understanding these fundamental phenomena has been a top-priority science goal for over five decades, dating back to the 1958 Simpson Committee Report. The scale and concept of such a mission has been revised at intervals since that time, yet the core has always been a close encounter with the Sun. The mission design and the technology and engineering developments enable SPP to meet its science objectives to: (1) Trace the flow of energy that heats and accelerates the solar corona and solar wind; (2) Determine the structure and dynamics of the plasma and magnetic fields at the sources of the solar wind; and (3) Explore mechanisms that accelerate and transport energetic particles. The SPP mission was confirmed in March 2014 and is under development as a part of NASA's Living with a Star (LWS) Program. SPP is scheduled for launch in mid-2018, and will perform 24 orbits over a 7-year nominal mission duration. Seven Venus gravity assists gradually reduce SPP's perihelion from 35 solar radii (RS) for the first orbit to {<}10 RS for the final three orbits. In this paper we present the science, mission concept and the baseline vehicle for SPP, and examine how the mission will address the key science questions

  2. Biological Status Monitoring of European Fresh Water with Sentinel-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Romain; Mangin, Antoine; Fanton d'Andon, Odile Hembise; Lauters, Francois; Thomasset, Franck; Martin-Lauzer, Francois-Regis

    2016-08-01

    Thanks to a widening range of sensors available, the observation of continental water quality for lakes and reservoirs is gaining more and more consistency and accuracy.Consistency because back in 2012, the only free sensor with a sufficient resolution (30m) was Landsat-7 which has truncated data since 2003 and a 16-day revisit time. But today, Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2A are now operating so depending on the latitude of interest, the combined revisit time dropped to 2 to 4 days which is more appropriate for such a monitoring (especially considering the cloud cover).Accuracy because Landsat-7 has a poor contrast over water whereas Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2A have a better radiometric sensitivity (more bit) and moreover Sentinel-2 offers additional spectral bands in the visible which are helpful for Chlorophyll-A concentration assessment. To sum up, with Sentinel-2, continental water quality monitoring capabilities are making a giant leap and it is important to exploit this potential the sooner. ACRI-HE has already built a strong basis to prepare Sentinel-2 by using Landsat data.Indeed, more than 600 lakes are already constantly monitored using Landsat data and their biological statuses are available on EyeOnWater (see eyeonwater.eu). Chlorophyll-A retrieval from (fresh) water leaving reflectances is the result of research activities conducted by ACRI-HE in parallel with EDF (Electricité de France) to respond to an emerging very demanding environmental monitoring through European regulations (typically the Water Framework Directive). Two parallel and complementary algorithms have thus been derived for Chlorophyll-a retrieval.Upstream of Eyeonwater, there is a complex and complete system automatically collecting images, extracting areas of interest around lakes, applying atmospheric correction (very sensitive part as atmosphere can contribute to 90% of the signal at sensor level) and then algorithms to retrieve water transparency (Secchi disk), turbidity and Chlorophyll

  3. Cross-validation of three predictive tools for non-sentinel node metastases in breast cancer patients with micrometastases or isolated tumor cells in the sentinel node

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedskov, T F; Meretoja, T J; Jensen, M B

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We cross-validated three existing models for the prediction of non-sentinel node metastases in patients with micrometastases or isolated tumor cells (ITC) in the sentinel node, developed in Danish and Finnish cohorts of breast cancer patients, to find the best model to identify patients...... who might benefit from further axillary treatment. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Based on 484 Finnish breast cancer patients with micrometastases or ITC in sentinel node a model has been developed for the prediction of non-sentinel node metastases. Likewise, two separate models have been developed in 1577...... metastases while less than 1% was identified by the Finish model. In contrast, the Finish model predicted a much larger proportion of patients being in the low-risk group with less than 10% risk of non-sentinel node metastases. CONCLUSION: The Danish model for micrometastases worked well in predicting high...

  4. Missions and Moral Judgement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnell, Amy Turner

    2000-01-01

    Addresses the history of Spanish-American missions, discussing the view of missions in church history, their role in the Spanish conquest, and the role and ideas of Herbert E. Bolton. Focuses on differences among Spanish borderlands missions, paying particular attention to the Florida missions. (CMK)

  5. Sentinel lymph node biopsy and melanoma: 2010 update Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbins, William G; Garibyan, Lilit; Sober, Arthur J

    2010-05-01

    This article will discuss the evidence for and against the therapeutic efficacy of early removal of potentially affected lymph nodes, morbidity associated with sentinel lymph node biopsy and completion lymphadenectomy, current guidelines regarding patient selection for sentinel lymph node biopsy, and the remaining questions that ongoing clinical trials are attempting to answer. The Sunbelt Melanoma Trial and the Multicenter Selective Lymphadenectomy Trials I and II will be discussed in detail. At the completion of this learning activity, participants should be able to discuss the data regarding early surgical removal of lymph nodes and its effect on the overall survival of melanoma patients, be able to discuss the potential benefits and morbidity associated with complete lymph node dissection, and to summarize the ongoing trials aimed at addressing the question of therapeutic value of early surgical treatment of regional lymph nodes that may contain micrometastases. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Immunolymphoscintigraphy for Metastatic Sentinel Nodes: Test of a Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Chakera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To develop a method and obtain proof-of-principle for immunolymphoscintigraphy for identification of metastatic sentinel nodes. Methods. We selected one of four tumour-specific antibodies against human breast cancer and investigated (1, in immune-deficient (nude mice with xenograft human breast cancer expressing the antigen if specific binding of the intratumorally injected, radioactively labelled, monoclonal antibody could be scintigraphically visualized, and (2 transportation to and retention in regional lymph nodes of the radioactively labelled antibody after subcutaneous injection in healthy rabbits. Results and Conclusion. Our paper suggests the theoretical possibility of a model of dual isotope immuno-lymphoscintigraphy for noninvasive, preoperative, malignant sentinel node imaging.

  7. What's wrong with sentinel node mapping in colon cancer?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Despite near-universal embrace of the concept and clinical relevance of lymphatic mapping for sentinel node identification and analysis for cancers of the breast and integument, the same technique has struggled to a find a role in gastrointestinal cancers in general and,perhaps, in colon cancer in particular. Despite many studies demonstrating its feasibility in malignancies of the large bowel, concern is continually aroused by the variable and often unacceptably low sensitivity rates.Additionally, many confess uncertainty as to what benefit it could ever confer to patients even if it were proven sufficiently accurate given that standard surgical resection incorporates mesenteric resection anyway.However, the huge impact sentinel node mapping has had on clinical practice in certain cancers means that each of these aspects merit careful reconsideration, from very first principles.

  8. Axillary web syndrome following sentinel node biopsy for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieves Maldonado, S M; Pubul Núñez, V; Argibay Vázquez, S; Macías Cortiñas, M; Ruibal Morell, Á

    2016-01-01

    A 49 year-old woman diagnosed with infiltrating lobular breast carcinoma, underwent a right mastectomy and sentinel node biopsy (SLNB). The resected sentinel lymph nodes were negative for malignancy, with an axillary lymphadenectomy not being performed. In the early post-operative period, the patient reported an axillary skin tension sensation, associated with a painful palpable cord. These are typical manifestations of axillary web syndrome (AWS), a poorly known axillary surgery complication, from both invasive and conservative interventions. By presenting this case we want to focus the attention on a pathological condition, for which its incidence may be underestimated by not including it in SLNB studies. It is important for nuclear medicine physicians to be aware of AWS as a more common complication than infection, seroma, or lymphoedema, and to discuss this possible event with the patient who is consenting to the procedure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  9. Mining Land Subsidence Monitoring Using SENTINEL-1 SAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, W.; Wang, Q.; Fan, J.; Li, H.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, DInSAR technique was used to monitor land subsidence in mining area. The study area was selected in the coal mine area located in Yuanbaoshan District, Chifeng City, and Sentinel-1 data were used to carry out DInSAR techniqu. We analyzed the interferometric results by Sentinel-1 data from December 2015 to May 2016. Through the comparison of the results of DInSAR technique and the location of the mine on the optical images, it is shown that DInSAR technique can be used to effectively monitor the land subsidence caused by underground mining, and it is an effective tool for law enforcement of over-mining.

  10. Concept of an Effective Sentinel-1 Satellite SAR Interferometry System

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This brief study introduces a partially working concept being developed at IT4Innovations supercomputer (HPC) facility. This concept consists of several modules that form a whole body of an efficient system for observation of terrain or objects displacements using satellite SAR interferometry (InSAR). A metadata database helps to locate data stored in various storages and to perform basic analyzes. A special database has been designed to describe Sentinel-1 data, on its burst level. Custom Se...

  11. Indications of sentinel node biopsy in thin melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Braga Silva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess data on survival, recurrence and histological factors in positive and negative sentinel lymph nodes in thin melanoma cases. Methods: A systematic review was conducted on observational studies in four databases (Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase and Lilacs. Positive and negative micrometastases in sentinel lymph node biopsy were compared regarding the clinical outcomes – death and recurrence – and six histological factors – vertical growth phase, Breslow thickness, Clark level, ulceration, regression and mitosis rate. Results: Positive sentinel lymph node is statistically associated with greater risk of death in six studies (OR: 7.2; 95%CI [2.37-21.83]; I2 0% and also to recurrence in three studies (OR: 30.7; 95%CI [12.58-74.92]; I2 36%. Comparing positive and negative groups, the histological factors predicting positive sentinel nodes and poor prognosis were: mitosis rate ≥ 5/mm2 (OR: 16.29; 95%CI [3.64-72.84]; I2 40%; VGP (OR: 2.93; 95%CI [1.08-7.93]; I2 59%; Breslow thickness ≥ 0.75mm (OR: 2.23; 95%CI [1.29-3.86]; I2 0%; and Clark level IV-V (OR: 1.61; 95%CI [1.06-2.44]; I2 34%. Conclusions: The statistically significant results associated with the presence of micrometastases in thin melanomas were Breslow thickness ≥ 0.75 mm, Clark level IV-V and mitoses ≥ 5/mm2, absence of regression. This histological factor of ulceration was associated, but not statistically significant.

  12. CTC Sentinel. Volume 10, Issue 2. February 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    filmed on the Kieler Bridge (Amaq) FEBRUARY 2017 C TC SENTINEL 3 where he used to sleep occasionally.41 The Fussilet mosque is run by an...like the Russians promoting a narrative, a  false narrative, that the Afghan government is not effective against ISIS-K, therefore the Russians are...obtained over 33,000 hect- ares of land as an alternative to grazing in the streets of the capital.27 The Nigerian capital, however, has yet to experience

  13. Nanoparticles in Sentinel Lymph Node Assessment in Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Douek; Geoff Charles-Edwards; Laura Johnson

    2010-01-01

    The modern management of the axilla in breast cancer relies on surgery for accurate staging of disease and identifying those patients at risk who would benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. The introduction of sentinel lymph node biopsy has revolutionized axillary surgery, but still involves a surgical procedure with associated morbidity in many patients with no axillary involvement. Nanotechnology encompasses a broad spectrum of scientific specialities, of which nanomedicine is one. The potent...

  14. Sentinel-1 Contribution to Monitoring Maritime Activity in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaria, Carlos; Greidanus, Harm; Fournier, Melanie; Eriksen, Torkild; Vespe, Michele; Alvarez, Marlene; Arguedas, Virginia Fernandez; Delaney, Conor; Argentieri, Pietro

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents results on the use of Sentinel-1 combined with satellite AIS to monitor maritime activity in the Arctic. Such activities are expected to increase, even if not uniformly across the Arctic, as the ice cover in the region retreats due to changes in climate. The objectives of monitoring efforts in the region can vary from country to country, but are generally related to increasing awareness on non- cooperative, small and cruise ships, fisheries, safety at sea, and Search and Rescue. A ship monitoring study has been conducted, involving more than 2,000 Sentinel-1 images acquired during one year in the central Arctic, where the ship densities are high. The main challenges to SAR-based monitoring in this area are described, solutions for some of them are proposed, and analyses of the results are shown. With the high detection thresholds needed to prevent false alarms from sea ice, 16% of the ships detected overall in the Sentinel-1 images have not been correlated to AIS- transmitting ships, and 48% of the AIS-transmitting ships are not correlated to ships detected in the images.

  15. Prognosis of sentinel node staged patients with primary cutaneous melanoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otmar Elsaesser

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study investigated survival probabilities and prognostic factors in sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB staged patients with cutaneous melanoma (CM with the aim of defining subgroups of patients who are at higher risk for recurrences and who should be considered for adjuvant clinical trials. METHODS: Patients with primary CM who underwent SLNB in the Department of Dermatology, University of Tuebingen, Germany, between 1996 and 2009 were included into this study. Survival probabilities and prognostic factors were evaluated by Kaplan-Meier and multivariate Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: 1909 SLNB staged patients were evaluated. Median follow-up time was 44 months. Median tumor thickness was 1.8 mm, ulceration was present in 31.8% of cases. The 5-year Overall Survival (OS was 90.3% in SLNB negative patients (IB 96.2%, IIA 87.0%, IIB 78.1%, IIC 72.6%. Patients with micrometastases (stage IIIA/B had a 5-year OS rate of 70.9% which was clearly less favorable than for stages I-II. Multivariate analysis revealed tumor thickness, ulceration, body site, histopathologic subtype and SLNB status as independent significant prognostic factors. CONCLUSION: Survival rates of patients with primary CM in stages I-II were shown to be much more favorable than previously reported from non sentinel node staged collectives. For future clinical trials, sample size calculations should be adapted using survival probabilities based on sentinel node staging.

  16. Land Cover Mapping Using SENTINEL-1 SAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdikan, S.; Sanli, F. B.; Ustuner, M.; Calò, F.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the potential of using free-of-charge Sentinel-1 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery for land cover mapping in urban areas is investigated. To this aim, we use dual-pol (VV+VH) Interferometric Wide swath mode (IW) data collected on September 16th 2015 along descending orbit over Istanbul megacity, Turkey. Data have been calibrated, terrain corrected, and filtered by a 5x5 kernel using gamma map approach. During terrain correction by using a 25m resolution SRTM DEM, SAR data has been resampled resulting into a pixel spacing of 20m. Support Vector Machines (SVM) method has been implemented as a supervised pixel based image classification to classify the dataset. During the classification, different scenarios have been applied to find out the performance of Sentinel-1 data. The training and test data have been collected from high resolution image of Google Earth. Different combinations of VV and VH polarizations have been analysed and the resulting classified images have been assessed using overall classification accuracy and Kappa coefficient. Results demonstrate that, combining opportunely dual polarization data, the overall accuracy increases up to 93.28% against 73.85% and 70.74% of using individual polarization VV and VH, respectively. Our preliminary analysis points out that dual polarimetric Sentinel-1SAR data can be effectively exploited for producing accurate land cover maps, with relevant advantages for urban planning and management of large cities.

  17. Sentinel-2 ArcGIS Tool for Environmental Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesoianu, Alin; Cosmin Sandric, Ionut; Anca, Paula; Vasile, Alexandru; Calugaru, Andreea; Vasile, Cristian; Zavate, Lucian

    2017-04-01

    This paper addresses one of the biggest challenges regarding Sentinel-2 data, related to the need of an efficient tool to access and process the large collection of images that are available. Consequently, developing a tool for the automation of Sentinel-2 data analysis is the most immediate need. We developed a series of tools for the automation of Sentinel-2 data download and processing for vegetation health monitoring. The tools automatically perform the following operations: downloading image tiles from ESA's Scientific Hub or other venders (Amazon), pre-processing of the images to extract the 10-m bands, creating image composites, applying a series of vegetation indexes (NDVI, OSAVI, etc.) and performing change detection analyses on different temporal data sets. All of these tools run in a dynamic way in the ArcGIS Platform, without the need of creating intermediate datasets (rasters, layers), as the images are processed on-the-fly in order to avoid data duplication. Finally, they allow complete integration with the ArcGIS environment and workflows

  18. Sentinel-1A/B Combined Product Geolocation Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Schubert

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sentinel-1A and -1B are twin spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR sensors developed and operated by the European Space Agency under the auspices of the Copernicus Earth observation programme. Launched in April 2014 and April 2016, Sentinel-1A and -1B are currently operating in tandem, in a common orbital configuration to provide an increased revisit frequency. In-orbit commissioning was completed for each unit within months of their respective launches, and level-1 SAR products generated by the operational SAR processor have been geometrically calibrated. In order to compare and monitor the geometric characteristics of the level-1 products from both units, as well as to investigate potential improvements, products from both satellites have been monitored since their respective commissioning phases. In this study, we present geolocation accuracy estimates for both Sentinel-1 units based on the time series of level-1 products collected thus far. While both units were demonstrated to be performing consistently, and providing SAR data products according to the nominal product specifications, a subtle beam- and mode-dependent azimuth bias common to the data from both units was identified. A method for removing the bias is proposed, and the corresponding improvement to the geometric accuracies is demonstrated and quantified.

  19. [Sentinel node in melanoma and breast cancer. Current considerations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Sicart, S; Vilalta Solsona, A; Alonso Vargas, M I

    2015-01-01

    The main objectives of sentinel node (SN) biopsy is to avoid unnecessary lymphadenectomies and to identify the 20-25% of patients with occult regional metastatic involvement. This technique reduces the associated morbidity from lymphadenectomy and increases the occult lymphatic metastases identification rate by offering the pathologist the or those lymph nodes with the highest probability of containing metastatic cells. Pre-surgical lymphoscintigraphy is considered a "road map" to guide the surgeon towards the sentinel nodes and to localize unpredictable lymphatic drainage patterns. The SPECT/CT advantages include a better SN detection rate than planar images, the ability to detect SNs in difficult to interpret studies, better SN depiction, especially in sites closer to the injection site and better anatomic localization. These advantages may result in a change in the patient's clinical management both in melanoma and breast cancer. The correct SN evaluation by pathology implies a tumoral load stratification and further prognostic implication. The use of intraoperative imaging devices allows the surgeon a better surgical approach and precise SN localization. Several studies reports the added value of such devices for more sentinel nodes excision and a complete monitoring of the whole procedure. New techniques, by using fluorescent or hybrid tracers, are currently being developed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  20. Ocean Wave Parameters Retrieval from Sentinel-1 SAR Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weizeng Shao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a semi-empirical algorithm for significant wave height (Hs and mean wave period (Tmw retrieval from C-band VV-polarization Sentinel-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR imagery is presented. We develop a semi-empirical function for Hs retrieval, which describes the relation between Hs and cutoff wavelength, radar incidence angle, and wave propagation direction relative to radar look direction. Additionally, Tmw can be also calculated through Hs and cutoff wavelength by using another empirical function. We collected 106 C-band stripmap mode Sentinel-1 SAR images in VV-polarization and wave measurements from in situ buoys. There are a total of 150 matchup points. We used 93 matchups to tune the coefficients of the semi-empirical algorithm and the rest 57 matchups for validation. The comparison shows a 0.69 m root mean square error (RMSE of Hs with a 18.6% of scatter index (SI and 1.98 s RMSE of Tmw with a 24.8% of SI. Results indicate that the algorithm is suitable for wave parameters retrieval from Sentinel-1 SAR data.

  1. Sentinel surveillance for travellers' diarrhoea in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarvotham Tinnu S

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Travellers' diarrhoea is the most common health problem among international travellers and much of the burden falls on general practitioners. We assessed whether sentinel surveillance based in primary care could be used to monitor changes in the epidemiology of travellers' diarrhoea. Methods A sentinel surveillance scheme of 30 volunteer general practices distributed throughout Wales provides weekly reports of consultations for eight infectious diseases to the national Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre. Travellers' diarrhoea was introduced as a new reportable infection in July 2002. Results Between 1 July 2002 and 31 March 2005 there were 90 reports of travellers' diarrhoea. The mean annual consultation rate was 15.2 per 100,000 population (95% confidence interval: 12.2–18.7, with the highest rates in summer, in people aged 15–24 years, and in travellers to Southern Europe. A higher proportion of travellers than expected had visited destinations outside Europe and North America when compared to the proportion of all United Kingdom travellers visiting these destinations (38% vs. 11%; Chi2 = 53.3, p Conclusion Sentinel surveillance has the potential to monitor secular trends in travellers' diarrhoea and to help characterise population groups or travel destinations associated with higher risk.

  2. Evaluation of the use of freehand SPECT for sentinel node biopsy in early stage oral carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuveling, Derrek A; van Weert, Stijn; Karagozoglu, K Hakki; de Bree, Remco

    2015-03-01

    Inadequate intraoperative visualization of the sentinel node can hamper its harvest. Freehand SPECT is a 3D tomographic imaging modality based on the concepts of SPECT, which can be used for intraoperative visualization and navigation towards the sentinel node in order to improve its localization and removal during surgery. The use of freehand SPECT was evaluated during 66 sentinel node biopsy procedures in early stage oral cancer patients. Intraoperative detection of sentinel nodes was compared with preoperative identified sentinel nodes on lymphoscinitigraphic examination. Additional value of freehand SPECT was subjectively scored by the surgeon directly following the biopsy procedure. Freehand SPECT was able to detect 94% of sentinel nodes intraoperatively. Most sentinel nodes not detected (7 out of 9) were located in level I of the neck. Freehand SPECT appeared to be of additional value for facilitating the intraoperative detection of the sentinel node in 24% of procedures. The use of the freehand SPECT system is feasible in the intraoperative detection of sentinel nodes in early stage oral cancer. Freehand SPECT provides helpful information facilitating the SN biopsy procedure in a quarter of cases. However, freehand SPECT cannot detect all SNs which are located in the vicinity of the injection site. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Factors influencing sentinel lymph node identification failure in breast cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straalman, K.; Kristoffersen, U.S.; Galatius, H.;

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate potential risk factors for failed sentinel lymph node identification in breast cancer surgery. Patient characteristics, tumour characteristics, surgeon experience and detection success/failure were registered at 748 sentinel lymph node biopsy procedures...... at our inpatient clinic. Data were analysed with backward stepwise multiple logistic regression with a cut-off point of psentinel lymph node detection rate....... Tumour size, palpability and biopsy method were not significantly associated with the sentinel lymph node detection rate. In conclusion, it is possible to identify patients with a higher risk of sentinel lymph node identification failure and we recommend that these patients are operated by experienced...

  4. Ice/water Classification of Sentinel-1 Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korosov, Anton; Zakhvatkina, Natalia; Muckenhuber, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    Sea Ice monitoring and classification relies heavily on synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery. These sensors record data either only at horizontal polarization (RADARSAT-1) or vertically polarized (ERS-1 and ERS-2) or at dual polarization (Radarsat-2, Sentinel-1). Many algorithms have been developed to discriminate sea ice types and open water using single polarization images. Ice type classification, however, is still ambiguous in some cases. Sea ice classification in single polarization SAR images has been attempted using various methods since the beginning of the ERS programme. The robust classification using only SAR images that can provide useful results under varying sea ice types and open water tend to be not generally applicable in operational regime. The new generation SAR satellites have capability to deliver images in several polarizations. This gives improved possibility to develop sea ice classification algorithms. In this study we use data from Sentinel-1 at dual-polarization, i.e. HH (horizontally transmitted and horizontally received) and HV (horizontally transmitted, vertically received). This mode assembles wide SAR image from several narrower SAR beams, resulting to an image of 500 x 500 km with 50 m resolution. A non-linear scheme for classification of Sentinel-1 data has been developed. The processing allows to identify three classes: ice, calm water and rough water at 1 km spatial resolution. The raw sigma0 data in HH and HV polarization are first corrected for thermal and random noise by extracting the background thermal noise level and smoothing the image with several filters. At the next step texture characteristics are computed in a moving window using a Gray Level Co-occurence Matrix (GLCM). A neural network is applied at the last step for processing array of the most informative texture characteristics and ice/water classification. The main results are: * the most informative texture characteristics to be used for sea ice classification

  5. Regional CalVal of Altimeter Range at Non-Dedicated Sites in Preparation f Sentinel-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancet, M.; Watson, C.; Haines, B.; Bonnefond, P.; Lyard, F.; Femenias, P.; Guinle, T.

    2015-12-01

    In situ calibration ensures regular and long-term control of the altimeter sea surface height (SSH) time series through comparisons with independent records. Usually, in situ calibration and validation of altimeter SSH is undertaken at specific CALVAL sites through the direct comparison of the altimeter data with in situ data [1]. However, NOVELTIS has developed a regional CALVAL technique, which aims at increasing the number and the repeatability of the altimeter bias assessments by determining the altimeter bias both on overflying passes and on satellite passes located far away from the calibration site. In principle this extends the single site approach to a wider regional scale, thus reinforcing the link between the local and the global CALVAL analyses. It also provides a means to maintain a calibration time series through periods of data-outage at a specific dedicated calibration site. The regional method was initially developed at the Corsican calibration sites of Senetosa and Ajaccio. The method was used to compute the biases of Jason-1, Jason-2 and Envisat (before and after the orbit change in 2010) at both sites, and proved its stability and generality through this cross-calibration exercise [2]. These last years, the regional method was successfully implemented at the Californian site of Harvest and at the Australian site of Bass Strait, in close collaboration with JPL and the University of Tasmania, respectively. These recent studies gave the first Envisat absolute bias estimates at non-dedicated sites using the same method, and showed high consistency with the analyses of the global CALVAL teams and the work of the in situ CALVAL teams. These results highlight the numerous advantages of this technique for monitoring missions on any orbits such as the future Sentinel-3 and Jason-CS/Sentinel-6 missions.

  6. Incorporating Sentinel-2-like remote sensing products in the hydrometeorological modelling over an agricultural area in south west France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivalland, Vincent; Gascoin, Simon; Etchanchu, Jordi; Coustau, Mathieu; Cros, Jérôme; Tallec, Tiphaine

    2016-04-01

    The Sentinel-2 mission will enable to monitor the land cover and the vegetation phenology at high-resolution (HR) every 5 days. However, current Land Surface Models (LSM) typically use land cover and vegetation parameters derived from previous low to mid resolution satellite missions. Here we studied the effect of introducing Sentinel-2-like data in the simulation of the land surface energy and water fluxes in a region dominated by cropland. Simulations were performed with the ISBA-SURFEX LSM, which is used in the operational hydrometeorological chain of Meteo-France for hydrological forecasts and drought monitoring. By default, SURFEX vegetation land surface parameters and temporal evolution are from the ECOCLIMAP II European database mostly derived from MODIS products at 1 km resolution. The model was applied to an experimental area of 30 km by 30 km in south west France. In this area the resolution of ECOCLIMAP is coarser than the typical size of a crop field. This means that several crop types can be mixed in a pixel. In addition ECOCLIMAP provides a climatology of the vegetation phenology and thus does not account for the interannual effects of the climate and land management on the crop growth. In this work, we used a series of 26 Formosat-2 images at 8-m resolution acquired in 2006. From this dataset, we derived a land cover map and a leaf area index map (LAI) at each date, which were substituted to the ECOCLIMAP land cover map and the LAI maps. The model output water and energy fluxes were compared to a standard simulation using ECOCLIMAP only and to in situ measurements of soil moisture, latent and sensible heat fluxes. The results show that the introduction of the HR products improved the timing of the evapotranspiration. The impact was the most visible on the crops having a growing season in summer (maize, sunflower), because the growth period is more sensitive to the climate.

  7. Mission design options for human Mars missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooster, Paul D.; Braun, Robert D.; Ahn, Jaemyung; Putnam, Zachary R.

    Trajectory options for conjunction-class human Mars missions are examined, including crewed Earth-Mars trajectories with the option for abort to Earth, with the intent of serving as a resource for mission designers. An analysis of the impact of Earth and Mars entry velocities on aeroassist systems is included, and constraints are suggested for interplanetary trajectories based upon aeroassist system capabilities.

  8. Change Detection Processing Chain Dedicated to Sentinel Data Time Series. Application to Forest and Water Bodies Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Saavedra, L.-M.; Mercier, G.; Yesou, H.; Liege, F.; Pasero, G.

    2016-08-01

    The Copernicus program of ESA and European commission (6 Sentinels Missions, among them Sentinel-1 with Synthetic Aperture Radar sensor and Sentinel-2 with 13-band 10 to 60 meter resolution optical sensors), offers a new opportunity to Earth Observation with high temporal acquisition capability ( 12 days repetitiveness and 5 days in some geographic areas of the world) with high spatial resolution.Due to these high temporal and spatial resolutions, it opens new challenges in several fields such as image processing, new algorithms for Time Series and big data analysis. In addition, these missions will be able to analyze several topics of earth temporal evolution such as crop vegetation, water bodies, Land use and Land Cover (LULC), sea and ice information, etc. This is particularly useful for end users and policy makers to detect early signs of damages, vegetation illness, flooding areas, etc.From the state of the art, one can find algorithms and methods that use a bi-date comparison for change detection [1-3] or time series analysis. Actually, these methods are essentially used for target detection or for abrupt change detection that requires 2 observations only.A Hölder means-based change detection technique has been proposed in [2,3] for high resolution radar images. This so-called MIMOSA technique has been mainly dedicated to man-made change detection in urban areas and CARABAS - II project by using a couple of SAR images. An extension to multitemporal change detection technique has been investigated but its application to land use and cover changes still has to be validated.The Hölder Hp is a Time Series pixel by pixel feature extraction and is defined by:H𝑝[X]=[1/n∑ⁿᵢ₌1 Xᴾᵢ]1/p p∈R Hp[X] : N images * S Bandes * t datesn is the number of images in the time series. N > 2Hp (X) is continuous and monotonic increasing in p for - ∞ < p < ∞

  9. Heliophysical Explorers (HELEX): Solar Orbiter and Sentinels - Report of the Joint Science and Technology Definition Team (JSTDT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Heliophysical Explorers (HELEX) brings together and augments the unique capabilities of ESA's Solar Orbiter mission (near-Sun and out-of-ecliptic in-situ plus remote-sensing observations) with those of NASA's Inner Heliospheric Sentinels (in-situ observations from multiple platforms arrayed at varying radial distances and azimuthal locations in the near-ecliptic plane)to investigate, characterize, and understand how the Sun determines the environment of the inner solar system and, more broadly, generates the heliosphere itself. This joint ESA-NASA science program offers a unique opportunity for coordinated, correlative measurements, resulting in a combined observational capability and science return that far outweighs that of either mission alone. Building on the knowledge gained from missions like Helios and Ulysses, and STEREO, HELEX will bring to bear the power of multipoint, in-situ measurements using previously unavailable instrumental capabilities in combination with remote-sensing observations from a new, inner heliospheric perspective to answer fundamental questions about the Sun-heliosphere linkage.

  10. Assessing slope dynamics in a climate-sensitive high arctic region with Sentinel-1 dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, Matteo; Pasuto, Alessandro; Soldati, Mauro; Popovic, Radmil; Berthling, Ivar

    2017-04-01

    As witnessed by an increasing number of studies, the evidence of ongoing climate change and its geomorphological effects is unquestionable. In the Svalbard archipelago, the Arctic amplification of global warming trends currently has a significant effect on permafrost temperatures and active layer thickness. Combined with altered intensity and variability of precipitation, slopes are likely to become more active in terms of both rapid and slow (creep) processes - at least as a temporary effect where the ice-rich transient layer of soils or jointed permafrost rock walls are starting to thaw. The slopes of the Kongsfjorden area aroundNy-Ålesund, NW Spitzbergen comprise a variable set of slopes systems on which to evaluate current modifications of slope sediment transfer; from low-angle fined-grained vegetated slopes to steep rock walls, talus slopes and rock glaciers. In addition, systems influenced by currently retreating glaciers and thermokarst processes are also found, in some settings interfering with the rock wall and talus slope systems. Within the framework of the SLOPES project, we provide baseline data on slope geometry from detailed terrestrial laser scanning and drone aerial image acquisition. Further, in order to document current dynamics, we employ interferometric analysis of data gathered by the new ESA mission SENTINEL. This presentation will report on data from the interferometric analysis.

  11. Mapping spectroscopic uncertainties into prospective methane retrieval errors from Sentinel-5 and its precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Checa-Garcia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sentinel-5 (S5 and its precursor (S5P are future European satellite missions aiming at global monitoring of methane (CH4 column-average dry air mole fractions (XCH4. The spectrometers to be deployed onboard the satellites record spectra of sunlight backscattered from the Earth's surface and atmosphere. In particular, they exploit CH4 absorption in the shortwave infrared spectral range around 1.65 μm (S5 only and 2.35 μm (both S5 and S5P wavelength. Given an accuracy goal of better than 2 % for XCH4 to be delivered on regional scales, assessment and reduction of potential sources of systematic error such as spectroscopic uncertainties is crucial. Here, we investigate how spectroscopic errors propagate into retrieval errors on the global scale. To this end, absorption spectra of a ground-based Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS operating at very high spectral resolution serve as estimate for the quality of the spectroscopic parameters. Feeding the FTS fitting residuals as a perturbation into a global ensemble of simulated S5- and S5P-like spectra at relatively low spectral resolution, XCH4 retrieval errors exceed 0.6 % in large parts of the world and show systematic correlations on regional scales, calling for improved spectroscopic parameters.

  12. Mapping spectroscopic uncertainties into prospective methane retrieval errors from Sentinel-5 and its precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Checa-Garcia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sentinel-5 (S5 and its precursor (S5P are future European satellite missions aiming at global monitoring of methane (CH4 column average dry air mole fractions (XCH4. The spectrometers to be deployed on-board the satellites record spectra of sunlight backscattered from the Earth's surface and atmosphere. In particular, they exploit CH4 absorption in the shortwave infrared spectral range around 1.65 μm (S5 only and 2.35 μm (both, S5 and S5P wavelength. Given an accuracy goal of better than 2% for XCH4 to be delivered on regional scales, assessment and reduction of potential sources of systematic error such as spectroscopic uncertainties is crucial. Here, we investigate how spectroscopic errors propagate into retrieval errors on the global scale. To this end, absorption spectra of a ground-based Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS operating at very high spectral resolution serve as estimate for the quality of the spectroscopic parameters. Feeding the FTS fitting residuals as a perturbation into a global ensemble of simulated S5 and S5P-like spectra at relatively low spectral resolution, XCH4 retrieval errors exceed 1% in large parts of the world and show systematic correlations on regional scales, calling for improved spectroscopic parameters.

  13. Cubesat Gravity Field Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burla, Santoshkumar; Mueller, Vitali; Flury, Jakob; Jovanovic, Nemanja

    2016-04-01

    CHAMP, GRACE and GOCE missions have been successful in the field of satellite geodesy (especially to improve Earth's gravity field models) and have established the necessity towards the next generation gravity field missions. Especially, GRACE has shown its capabilities beyond any other gravity field missions. GRACE Follow-On mission is going to continue GRACE's legacy which is almost identical to GRACE mission with addition of laser interferometry. But these missions are not only quite expensive but also takes quite an effort to plan and to execute. Still there are few drawbacks such as under-sampling and incapability of exploring new ideas within a single mission (ex: to perform different orbit configurations with multi satellite mission(s) at different altitudes). The budget is the major limiting factor to build multi satellite mission(s). Here, we offer a solution to overcome these drawbacks using cubesat/ nanosatellite mission. Cubesats are widely used in research because they are cheaper, smaller in size and building them is easy and faster than bigger satellites. Here, we design a 3D model of GRACE like mission with available sensors and explain how the Attitude and Orbit Control System (AOCS) works. The expected accuracies on final results of gravity field are also explained here.

  14. The third mission

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco José GARCÍA-PEÑALVO

    2016-01-01

    The editorial of this first issue of volume 17, corresponding to 2016, is devoted to the university-business-society relationships that is usually known as Third Mission of the University or the knowledge transfer mission.

  15. Assessment of Risk Reduction for Lymphedema Following Sentinel Lymph Noded Guided Surgery for Primary Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    Lymphedema Following Sentinel Lymph Noded Guided Surgery for Primary Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Andrea L. Cheville, M.D...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Assessment of Risk Reduction for Lymphedema Following Sentinel Lymph Noded Guided Surgery for Primary Breast Cancer 5b...14. ABSTRACT Lymphedema is a common complication of primary breast cancer therapy. It is a chronic, insidiously progressive, and potentially

  16. Citrullus lanatus `Sentinel' (Watermelon) Extract Reduces Atherosclerosis in LDL Receptor Deficient Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poduri, Aruna; Rateri, Debra L.; Saha, Shubin K.; Saha, Sibu; Daugherty, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus or C. lanatus) has many potentially bioactive compounds including citrulline, which may influence atherosclerosis. In this study, we determined the effects of C. lanatus, provided as an extract of the cultivar `sentinel', on hypercholesterolemia-induced atherosclerosis in mice. Male LDL receptor deficient mice at 8 weeks old were given either C. lanatus `sentinel' extract (2% vol/vol; n=10) or a mixture of matching carbohydrates (2% vol/vol; n=8) as the control in drinking water, while fed a saturated fat-enriched diet for 12 weeks ad libitum. Mice consuming C. lanatus `sentinel' extract had significantly increased plasma citrulline concentrations. Systolic blood pressure was comparable between the two groups. Consumption of C. lanatus `sentinel' extract led to lower body weight and fat mass without influencing lean mass. There were no differences in food and water intake, and urine output between the two groups. C. lanatus `sentinel' extract administration decreased plasma cholesterol concentrations that were attributed to reductions of intermediate/low density lipoprotein cholesterol. Plasma concentrations of MCP-1 and IFN-γ were decreased and IL-10 increased in mice consuming C. lanatus `sentinel' extract. Intake of C. lanatus `sentinel' extract resulted in reductions of atherosclerosis in both aortic arch and thoracic regions. In conclusion, consumption of C. lanatus `sentinel' extract led to reduced body weight gain, decreased plasma cholesterol concentrations, improved homeostasis of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and attenuated development of atherosclerosis without affecting systolic blood pressure in hypercholesterolemic mice. PMID:22902326

  17. Evaluation of the use of freehand SPECT for sentinel node biopsy in early stage oral carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuveling, D.A.; van Weert, S.; Karagozoglu, K.H.; de Bree, R.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Inadequate intraoperative visualization of the sentinel node can hamper its harvest. Freehand SPECT is a 3D tomographic imaging modality based on the concepts of SPECT, which can be used for intraoperative visualization and navigation towards the sentinel node in order to improve its

  18. Factors influencing sentinel lymph node identification failure in breast cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straalman, Kristina; Kristoffersen, Ulrik S; Galatius, Hanne

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate potential risk factors for failed sentinel lymph node identification in breast cancer surgery. Patient characteristics, tumour characteristics, surgeon experience and detection success/failure were registered at 748 sentinel lymph node biopsy procedures...

  19. Promising results using sentinel node biopsy as a substitute for radical lymphadenectomy in endometrial cancer staging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosgaard, Berit Jul; Skovlund, Vibeke Ravn; Hendel, Helle Westergren

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the sentinel node (SN) procedure in endometrial cancer patients.......The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the sentinel node (SN) procedure in endometrial cancer patients....

  20. Understanding Lymphatic Drainage Pathways of the Ovaries to Predict Sites for Sentinel Nodes in Ovarian Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleppe, M.; Kraima, A.C.; Kruitwagen, R.F.P.M.; Van Gorp, T.; Smit, N.N.; Van Munsteren, J.C.; De Ruiter, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In ovarian cancer, detection of sentinel nodes is an upcoming procedure. Perioperative determination of the patient’s sentinel node(s) might prevent a radical lymphadenectomy and associated morbidity. It is essential to understand the lymphatic drainage pathways of the ovaries, which are

  1. Use of sentinel-1 data for vessel detection in South African oceans: Early results

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kleynhans, Waldo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the utility of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data acquired from the recently launched Sentinel-1 satellite for the detection of vessels within the South African Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). A Sentinel-1 dual polarized (HH and HV...

  2. EANM-EORTC general recommendations for sentinel node diagnostics in melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakera, Annette H; Hesse, Birger; Burak, Zeynep

    2009-01-01

    The accurate diagnosis of a sentinel node in melanoma includes a sequence of procedures from different medical specialities (nuclear medicine, surgery, oncology, and pathology). The items covered are presented in 11 sections and a reference list: (1) definition of a sentinel node, (2) clinical in...

  3. Frozen section investigation of the sentinel node in malignant melanoma and breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanis, PJ; Boom, RPA; Faneyte, IF; Peterse, JL; Nieweg, OE; Rutgers, EJT; Tiebosch, ATMG; Kroon, BBR; Schraffordt Koops, H.

    2001-01-01

    Background: Intraoperative frozen section investigation allows immediate regional lymph node dissection when the sentinel node contains tumor. The purpose of this study was to determine the sensitivity of frozen section diagnosis of the sentinel node in melanoma and breast cancer patients. Methods:

  4. Sentinel node detection and radioguided occult lesion localization in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifirò, Guiseppe; Lavinia Travaini, Laura; De Cicco, Concetta; Paganelli, Giovanni

    2006-01-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy might replace complete axillary dissection for staging of the axilla in clinically N0 breast cancer patients and represent a significant advantage as a minimally invasive procedure, considering that about 70% of patients are found to be free from metastatic disease, yet axillary node dissection can lead to significant morbidity. In our Institute, Radioguided Occult Lesion Localization is the standard method to locate non-palpable breast lesions and the gamma probes is very effective in assisting intra-operative localization and removal, as in sentinel node biopsy. The rapid spread of sentinel lymph node biopsy has led to its use in clinical settings previously considered contraindications to sentinel lymph node biopsy. In this contest, we evaluated in a large group of patients possible factors affecting sentinel node detection and the reliability of sentinel lymph node biopsy carried out after large excisional breast biopsy. Our data confirm that a previous breast surgery does not prohibit efficient sentinel lymph node localization and sentinel lymph node biopsy can correctly stage the axialla in these patients.

  5. Mission of Librarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reşit Sarıgül

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is a review of the book titled “Mission of Librarian” authored by Jose Ortega y Gasset and translated into Turkish by M. Turker Acaroğlu. The book, which is published by  İstanbul Branch of Turkish Librarians’ Association, explains mission, professional mission and mission of librarian in the future. The book also includes an interview with M. Turker Acaroğlu.

  6. Threads of Mission Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin, Thomas R.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the many parts of the JPL mission planning process that the project manager has to work with. Some of them are: NASA & JPL's institutional requirements, the mission systems design requirements, the science interactions, the technical interactions, financial requirements, verification and validation, safety and mission assurance, and independent assessment, review and reporting.

  7. Mission operations management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocco, David A.

    1994-01-01

    Redefining the approach and philosophy that operations management uses to define, develop, and implement space missions will be a central element in achieving high efficiency mission operations for the future. The goal of a cost effective space operations program cannot be realized if the attitudes and methodologies we currently employ to plan, develop, and manage space missions do not change. A management philosophy that is in synch with the environment in terms of budget, technology, and science objectives must be developed. Changing our basic perception of mission operations will require a shift in the way we view the mission. This requires a transition from current practices of viewing the mission as a unique end product, to a 'mission development concept' built on the visualization of the end-to-end mission. To achieve this change we must define realistic mission success criteria and develop pragmatic approaches to achieve our goals. Custom mission development for all but the largest and most unique programs is not practical in the current budget environment, and we simply do not have the resources to implement all of our planned science programs. We need to shift our management focus to allow us the opportunity make use of methodologies and approaches which are based on common building blocks that can be utilized in the space, ground, and mission unique segments of all missions.

  8. Validation of Sentinel-3A altimetry data by using in-situ multi-platform observations near Mallorca Island (western Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Román, Antonio; Heslop, Emma; Reeve, Krissy; Rodriguez, Daniel; Pujol, Isabelle; Faugère, Yannice; Torner, Marc; Tintoré, Joaquín; Pascual, Ananda

    2017-04-01

    In the frame of the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS) Sea Level Thematic Assembly Center (SL-TAC), a glider mission was undertaken between May and June 2016 along the same track as the overpass of the Sentinel 3A satellite in the Southern Mallorca region. Moreover, a one-day ship mission on May 30, synchronous with the overpass of the satellite, captured two transects of moving vessel ADCP close to the coastal area. The aim was to compare the along track altimeter products and multi-platform in-situ observations in the southern coastal zone of the Mallorca Island and the Algerian Basin. In addition, we explored the potential of the Synthetic Aperture Radar Mode (SARM) instrumentation of Sentinel-3 mission, which enables the satellite to measure nearest the coasts with both higher spatial resolution and higher precision than previous missions. With the ultimate goal of contributing to a more complete understanding of both ocean and coastal physical processes and the biogeochemical impacts. The analyses presented here are conducted through the comparison of Absolute Dynamic Topography (ADT) obtained from the Sentinel-3A altimetry measurements along ground-track #713 and Dynamic Height (DH) derived from temperature and salinity profiles measured by the glider along the trajectory followed by the satellite. Moreover, currents derived from altimetry and in-situ glider data along the track followed by the satellite; and from ADCP data collected in the coastal region are analysed. Results show a good agreement between ADT from altimetry and DH from glider data with maximum differences of around 2 cm that promote a root mean square error (RMSE) of 1 cm, the correlation coefficient between both datasets is 0.89. The satellite data closely resemble the geostrophic velocity pattern observed by the glider measurements along the Algerian Current, and also the ADCP data in the coastal zone, exhibiting a RMSE lower than 10 cm/s and a correlation coefficient

  9. Gavdos/West Crete Cal-Val Site: Over a Decade Calibrations for Jason Series, SARAL/AltiKa, Cryosat-2, Sentinel-3 and Hy-2 Altimeter Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertikas, Stelios; DonLon, Craig; Mavrochordatos, Constantin; Tziavos, Ilias; Galanakis, Demitris; Vergos, George; Baltazar Andersen, Ole; Tripolitsiotis, Achilles; Frantzis, Xenofon; Lin, Mingsen; Qiao, Fangli

    2016-08-01

    This work presents and compares the latest altimeter calibration results for Jason series, the SARAL/AltiKa the Chinese HY-2 missions and the ESA missions of CryoSat-2 and Sentinel-3, conducted at the Gavdos/Crete calibration/validation facilities. At first, the Jason altimeter calibration values will be given for the ascending Pass No.109 and the descending Pass No.18, based on the GDR-E (Jason-1), GDR-D (Jason- 2) and GDR-T (Jason-3) products. Secondly, these values will be cross-examined against the altimeter bias for the SARAL/AltiKa (GDR-T) satellite at Gavdos Cal/Val using its reference ascending orbit No. 571. The Chinese HY-2 satellite altimeter bias will be presented using the CRS1 permanent site in southwest Crete for the descending HY-2 Pass No. 280, at 20 Hz based on SGDR data products. Finally, values will be compared against the Sentinel-3 altimeter. Additionally, altimeter biases as determined by locally developed Mean Sea Surface models, will be presented and compared with the conventional sea-surface calibration methodology.

  10. Validation of Hotspots Detected by Satellites in Sentinel Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaku, K.; Kushida, K.; Fukuda, M.

    2008-12-01

    The Sentinel Asia (SA) initiative is a collaboration between space agencies and disaster management agencies, applying remote sensing and Web-GIS technologies to assist disaster management in the Asia- Pacific region. It aims to: "EImprove safety in society by ICT and space technology "EImprove speed and accuracy of disaster preparedness and early warning "EMinimize the number of victims and social/economic losses. SA is a voluntary initiative led by the Asia-Pacific Regional Space Agency Forum (APRSAF) to share disaster information in near-real-time across the Asia-Pacific region. Wildfire is a major and recurring phenomenon that has a serious impact on property and human health, affecting many countries in the Asia region. Compared to other disasters in the area, it does not necessarily cause many immediate fatalities. However, it causes serious impact on property and human health due to smoke. Furthermore, its effects are of great relevance both at a regional and global level, and accordingly bear substantial influence on global warming. Responding to requirements from Asian countries, under Sentinel Asia a dedicated Wildfire Working Group (WG) has been established to apply remote sensing technology to the management of wildfire. Having accurate information on the location and intensity of the fires, and subsequent control of wildfire, are therefore very important and urgent tasks across the region. SA primarily addresses the issue of near-real-time information distribution on wildfires in the region. Concerning hotspot data obtained by satellites, it is essential to validate and improve its accuracy. In the framework of Sentinel Asia Wildfire WG, various approaches to hotspot detection, including MOD14 algorithm for MODIS hotspots, were studied, and their validations were carried out, comparing them with active fires extracted from satellite imagery and ground truth data in Chiengmai, Thailand and in Kalimantan, Indonesia.

  11. The Safety project: Sentinel-1 for Civil Protection geohazars management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monserrat, Oriol; Herrera, Gerardo; Bianchini, Silvia; González-Alonso, Elena; Onori, Roberta; Reichenbach, Paola; Carralero, Innocente P.; Barra, Anna; María Mateos, Rosa; Solari, Lorenzo; Ligüérzana, Sergio; Pagliara, Paola; Ardizzone, Francesca; Sarro, Roberto; Crosetto, Michele; Béjar-Pizarro, Marta; Moretti, Sandro; Lopez, Carmen; Garcia-Cañada, Laura; Benito-Saz, María Á.

    2017-04-01

    This work is aimed at presenting the ongoing project SAFETY (Sentinel for Geohazards regional monitoring and forecasting). The use of Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) in Natural Risks management is becoming more and more exploitable thanks to the experienced growth of the techniques. On one hand, since the DInSAR technique was proposed for the first time (1989) a wide number of data processing, analysis tools and methods have been developed, on the other hand the satellite data availability has increased and provides sensors with different characteristics of sensitivity and spatial and temporal resolutions. Nowadays, DInSAR allows to have a systematic overview about the spatio-temporal activity of a natural deformation phenomena, which is an important information for the risk management in terms of prevention, emergency response and post-emergency intervention. Specifically, Sentinel-1 (A and B) satellites data show two favourable characteristics: the wide covered area and the short revisit time (6 days). The last one, if compared with the other C band available sensors, results in a reduced temporal decorrelation, particularly in non-urbanized areas, in more robust processing results (due to the higher number of images) and in an higher temporal sampling i.e. a better monitoring and activity characterization. In this context, the European project SAFETY is focused on developing tools and implementing a methodology in order to better exploit Sentinel-1 data in the Civil Protection activities of natural risks prevention. The project is aimed at providing Civil Protection Authorities (CPA) with the capability of periodically evaluating and assessing the potential impact of geohazards (volcanic activity, earthquakes, landslides and subsidence) on urban areas. The first results over the two test-areas in Spain and Italy (respectively Canary Islands and Volterra Municipality) will be presented.

  12. Mass Processing of Sentinel-1 Images for Maritime Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Santamaria

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The free, full and open data policy of the EU’s Copernicus programme has vastly increased the amount of remotely sensed data available to both operational and research activities. However, this huge amount of data calls for new ways of accessing and processing such “big data”. This paper focuses on the use of Copernicus’s Sentinel-1 radar satellite for maritime surveillance. It presents a study in which ship positions have been automatically extracted from more than 11,500 Sentinel-1A images collected over the Mediterranean Sea, and compared with ship position reports from the Automatic Identification System (AIS. These images account for almost all the Sentinel-1A acquisitions taken over the area during the two-year period from the start of the operational phase in October 2014 until September 2016. A number of tools and platforms developed at the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre (JRC that have been used in the study are described in the paper. They are: (1 Search for Unidentified Maritime Objects (SUMO, a tool for ship detection in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR images; (2 the JRC Earth Observation Data and Processing Platform (JEODPP, a platform for efficient storage and processing of large amounts of satellite images; and (3 Blue Hub, a maritime surveillance GIS and data fusion platform. The paper presents the methodology and results of the study, giving insights into the new maritime surveillance knowledge that can be gained by analysing such a large dataset, and the lessons learnt in terms of handling and processing the big dataset.

  13. The SEOM Sentinel-3 Hydrologic Altimetry Processor prototypE project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabry, Pierre; Benveniste, Jérôme; Fernandes, Joana; Roca, Mònica; Ambrózio, Américo; Restano, Marco; Bercher, Nicolas; Gustafsson, David

    2016-07-01

    This communication deals with the SHAPE study that was kicked off on 14 September 2015. SHAPE stands for Sentinel-3 Hydrologic Altimetry Processor prototypE. The team, the objectives, the work breakdown structure, the methodology, the technical approaches, the first results as well as the status and the upcoming milestones of the project will be presented. This study is part of SEOM, Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions, an ESA programme element which aims at expanding the international research community, strengthening the leadership of the European EO research community and addressing new scientific researches. This Research and Development study not only intends to make the best use of all recent improvements in altimetry but also clearly pushes for major breakthroughs that should boost the scientific use of the SAR altimetry data in hydrology. The stakes are high in the context of climate change, as scientists need to improve their analyses of water stocks and exchanges over wide geographical regions. The study focuses on three main variables of interest in hydrology: river stage, river discharge and lake level, which are part of the Terrestrial Essential Climate Variables (TECV) defined by GCOS. It also is the scientific step towards a future Inland Water dedicated processor on the Sentinel-3 ground segment. The main characteristics of the project will be summarized. Cooperation with the scientific community will be encouraged. Project documents available at the website (ATBD for example) will go through a critical review outside the project team so as to collect feedback. Valuable feedback will be taken into account so as to provide a new processing chain prototype that should be capable of providing high quality water heights, making it possible to couple it with the hydrological dynamic and semi-distributed model HYPE (Hydrological Predictions for the Environment). This model has been developed by SMHI and will be used to assimilate study's new

  14. The SEOM Sentinel-3 Hydrologic Altimetry Processor prototypE (SHAPE) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabry, Pierre; Bercher, Nicolas; Roca, Mònica; Martinez, Bernat; Nilo, Pablo; Ray, Chris; Moyano, Gorka; Fernandes, Joana; Lázaro, Clara; Gustafsson, David; Arheimer, Berit; Ambrózio, Américo; Restano, Marco; Benveniste, Jérôme

    2016-04-01

    The SHAPE study was kicked off in September 2015. SHAPE stands for Sentinel-3 Hydrologic Altimetry Processor prototypE. The team, the objectives, the work breakdown structure, the methodology, the technical approaches, the first results as well as the status and the upcoming milestones of the project will be presented. This study is part of SEOM, Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions, an ESA programme element which aims at expanding the international research community, strengthening the leadership of the European EO research community and addressing new scientific researches. This Research and Development study not only intends to make the best use of all recent improvements in altimetry but also clearly pushes for major breakthroughs that should boost the scientific use of the SAR altimetry data in hydrology. The stakes are high in the context of climate change, as scientists need to improve their analyses of water stocks and exchanges over wide geographical regions. The study focuses on three main variables of interest in hydrology: river stage, river discharge and lake level, which are part of the Terrestrial Essential Climate Variables (TECV) defined by GCOS. It also is the scientific step towards a future Inland Water dedicated processor on the Sentinel-3 ground segment. The main characteristics of the project will be summarized. Cooperation with the scientific community will be encouraged. Project documents available at the website (ATBD for example) will go through a critical review outside the project team so as to collect feedback. Valuable feedback will be taken into account so as to provide a new processing chain prototype that should be capable of providing high quality water heights, making it possible to couple it with the hydrological dynamic and semi-distributed model HYPE (Hydrological Predictions for the Environment). This model has been developed by SMHI and will be used to assimilate study's new "Alti-Hydro" Products to assess the

  15. Addressing a radiation safety sentinel event alert: one state's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temme, James B; Lane, Thomas; Rutar, Frank; McGowan, Ann

    2012-01-01

    The Joint Commission issued a Sentinel Event Alert in August 2011 to address the radiation risks related to diagnostic medical imaging. The University of Nebraska Medical Center (UNMC) and Nebraska Coalition for Patient Safety (NCPS) sent a survey to Nebraska hospital radiology departments in May 2012 to solicit responses regarding radiation safety management practices. Survey results demonstrate that Nebraska hospitals perform well in many radiation safety efforts, but lack in others, as well as the need for additional research to track or compare progress. Nebraska's experience can serve as a model for other states to perform similar radiation safety management research.

  16. The Nodal Location of Metastases in Melanoma Sentinel Lymph Nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber-Hansen, Rikke; Nyengaard, Jens; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The design of melanoma sentinel lymph node (SLN) histologic protocols is based on the premise that most metastases are found in the central parts of the nodes, but the evidence for this belief has never been thoroughly tested. METHODS: The nodal location of melanoma metastases in 149...... were 77%, 79%, and 78%, respectively. No difference in either the mean volume or the maximum diameter of the metastases located exclusively outside the central and the peripheral protocols was found (volume: 0.036 vs. 0.031 mm and diameter: 0.320 vs. 0.332 mm). CONCLUSIONS: In SLNs, melanoma metastases...

  17. Deepening our understanding of immune sentinels in the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestle, Frank O; Nickoloff, Brian J

    2007-09-01

    Advances in our understanding of the skin immune system have a major impact on studies of skin autoimmunity, graft-versus-host disease, inflammation, and cancer as well as on the development of novel vaccines and immunotherapy approaches. In this issue of the JCI, Zaba et al. carefully dissected the complex network of DCs and macrophages residing in normal human skin and defined novel phenotypic markers for these immunocytes (see the related article beginning on page 2517). These studies provide the basis for better insight into the role of important immune sentinels contributing to the maintenance of skin tissue homeostasis and lay the foundation for future studies of the skin immune system.

  18. Arboviruses recovered from sentinel livestock in northern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gard, G P; Shorthose, J E; Weir, R P; Walsh, S J; Melville, L F

    1988-10-01

    Over 700 arboviruses were recovered between 1981 and 1987 from the blood of sentinel livestock near Darwin. Twenty-three isolates were made from sheep, goats, swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and horses, and the remainder were from cattle. The isolates have been typed as 27 separate viruses belonging to the bluetongue, epizootic haemorrhagic disease, Palyam, Simbu, bovine ephemeral fever, Tibrogargan and alphavirus groups. Ten of these viruses have not been isolated elsewhere in Australia and four have been isolated only in Darwin. Considerable annual variations in virus activity and in the durations of detectable viraemia were observed.

  19. Sentinel lymph node biopsy for breast cancer patients using fluorescence navigation with indocyanine green

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoyama Kei

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are various methods for detecting sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer. Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB using a vital dye is a convenient and safe, intraoperatively preparative method to assess lymph node status. However, the disadvantage of the dye method is that the success rate of sentinel lymph node detection depend on the surgeon's skills and preoperative mapping of the sentinel lymph node is not feasible. Currently, a vital dye, radioisotope, or a combination of both is used to detect sentinel nodes. Many surgeons have reported successful results using either method. In this study we have analyzed breast lymphatic drainage pathways using indocyanine green (ICG fluorescence imaging. Methods We examined the lymphatic courses, or lymphatic vessels, in the breast using ICG fluorescence imaging, and applied this method to SLNB in patients who underwent their first operative treatment for breast cancer between May 2006 and April 2008. Fluorescence images were obtained using a charge coupled device camera with a cut filter used as a detector, and light emitting diodes at 760 nm as a light source. When ICG was injected into the subareola and periareola, subcutaneous lymphatic vessels from the areola to the axilla became visible by fluorescence within a few minutes. The sentinel lymph node was then dissected with the help of fluorescence imaging navigation. Results The detection rate of sentinel nodes was 100%. 0 to 4 states of lymphatic drainage pathways from the areola were observed. The number of sentinel nodes was 3.41 on average. Conclusions This method using indocyanine green (ICG fluorescence imaging may possibly improve the detection rate of sentinel lymph nodes with high sensitivity and compensates for the deficiencies of other methods. The ICG fluorescence imaging technique enables observation of breast lymph vessels running in multiple directions and easily and accurately identification of sentinel lymph nodes

  20. Sentinel events predicting later unwanted sex among girls: A national survey in Haiti, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Steven A; Marcelin, Louis H; Cela, Toni; Mercy, James A; Lea, Veronica; Kress, Howard; Hillis, Susan D

    2015-12-01

    Sexual violence against children is a significant global public health problem, yet limited studies exist from low-resource settings. In Haiti we conducted the country's first, nationally representative survey focused on childhood violence to help inform the development of a national action plan for violence against children. The Haiti Violence Against Children Survey was a household-level, multistage, cluster survey among youth age 13-24. In this analysis we sought to determine whether sexual violence sentinel events (unwanted sexual touching or unwanted attempted sex) were predictive of later unwanted, completed, penetrative sex in Haiti. We also sought to explore characteristics of sentinel events and help-seeking behavior among Haitian children. Multivariable logistic regression was used to test associations between sentinel events and later unwanted, completed, penetrative sex. Overall, 1,457 females reported on experiences of sexual violence occurring in childhood (before age 18). A sentinel event occurred in 40.4% of females who experienced subsequent unwanted completed sex. Females experiencing a sentinel event were approximately two and a half times more likely to experience later unwanted completed sex (adjusted odds ratio=2.40, p=.004) compared to individuals who did not experience a sentinel event. The mean lag time from first sentinel event to first unwanted completed sex was 2.3 years. Only half (54.6%) of children experiencing a sentinel event told someone about their experience of sexual violence. Among children, sentinel events occur frequently before later acts of completed unwanted sex and may represent a useful point of intervention. Reporting of sexual violence by children in Haiti is low and can be improved to better act on sentinel events.

  1. Is the HIV sentinel surveillance system adequate in China? Findings from an evaluation of the national HIV sentinel surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen; Chen, Sanny; Seguy, Nicole; Chen, Zhongdan; Sabin, Keith; Calleja, Jesus García

    2012-01-01

    Background An external evaluation was conducted to assess the performance of the national HIV sentinel surveillance system (HSS), identify operational challenges at national and local levels and provide recommendations for improvement. Methods The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) Updated Guidelines for Evaluating Public Health Surveillance Systems were followed to assess the key attributes of HSS. Comprehensive assessment activities were conducted, including: using a detailed checklist to review surveillance guidelines, protocols and relevant documents; conducting self-administered, anonymous surveys with 286 local China CDC staff; and carrying out field observations in 32 sentinel sites in four provinces. Results China has built an extensive HSS with 1888 sentinel sites to monitor HIV epidemic trends by population groups over time. The strengths of HSS lie in its flexibility, simplicity, usefulness and increase in coverage in locations and populations. With its rapid expansion in 2010, HSS faces challenges in maintaining acceptability, timeliness, data quality, representativeness and sustainability. Recommendations Implementation of the national guidelines should be standardized by strengthening training, monitoring and supervision of all staff involved, including community-based organizations. National surveillance guidelines need to be revised to strengthen data quality and representativeness, particularly to include specific instructions on HIV testing result provision, collection of identifying information, sample size and sampling methods particularly for men who have sex with men (MSM), collection of refusal information, and data interpretation. Sustainability of China’s HSS could be strengthened by applying locally tailored surveillance strategies, strengthening coordination and cooperation among government agencies and ensuring financial and human resources. PMID:23908946

  2. Relating Sentinel-1 Interferometric Coherence to Mowing Events on Grasslands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanel Tamm

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the interferometric coherence calculated from 12-day Sentinel-1 image pairs was analysed in relation to mowing events on agricultural grasslands. Results showed that after a mowing event, median VH (vertical transmit, horizontal receive and VV (vertical transmit, vertical receive polarisation coherence values were statistically significantly higher than those from before the event. The shorter the time interval after the mowing event and the first interferometric acquisition, the higher the coherence. The coherence tended to stay higher, even 24 to 36 days after a mowing event. Precipitation caused the coherence to decrease, impeding the detection of a mowing event. Given the three analysed acquisition geometries, it was concluded that afternoon acquisitions and steeper incidence angles were more useful in the context of this study. In the case of morning acquisitions, dew might have caused a decrease of coherence for mowed and unmowed grasslands. Additionally, an increase of coherence after a mowing event was not evident during the rapid growth phase, due to the 12-day separation between the interferometric acquisitions. In future studies, six-day pairs utilising Sentinel-1A and 1B acquisitions should be considered.

  3. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in pregnant patients with breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentilini, Oreste; Toesca, Antonio; Sangalli, Claudia; Veronesi, Paolo; Galimberti, Viviana [European Institute of Oncology, Division of Senology, Milan (Italy); Cremonesi, Marta; Pedroli, Guido [European Institute of Oncology, Unit of Medical Physics, Milan (Italy); Colombo, Nicola [European Institute of Oncology, Unit of Cardiology, Milan (Italy); Peccatori, Fedro [European Institute of Oncology, Division of Haematology-Oncology, Milan (Italy); Sironi, Roberto [S. Pio X Hospital, Unit of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Milan (Italy); Rotmensz, Nicole [European Institute of Oncology, Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Milan (Italy); Viale, Giuseppe [European Institute of Oncology, Division of Pathology, Milan (Italy); University of Milan School of Medicine, Milan (Italy); Goldhirsch, Aron [European Institute of Oncology, Department of Medicine, Milan (Italy); Veronesi, Umberto [European Institute of Oncology, Division of Senology, Milan (Italy); European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy); Paganelli, Giovanni [European Institute of Oncology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Milano (Italy)

    2010-01-15

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is currently not recommended in pregnant patients with breast cancer due to radiation concerns. Twelve pregnant patients with breast cancer received low-dose (10 MBq on average) lymphoscintigraphy using {sup 99m}Tc human serum albumin nanocolloids. The sentinel lymph node (SLN) was identified in all patients. Of the 12 patients, 10 had pathologically negative SLN. One patient had micrometastasis in one of four SLN. One patient had metastasis in the SLN and underwent axillary clearance. From the 12 pregnancies, 11 healthy babies were born with no malformations and normal weight. One baby, whose mother underwent lymphatic mapping during the 26th week of gestation, was operated on at the age of 3 months for a ventricular septal defect and at 43 months was in good health. This malformation was suspected at the morphological US examination during week 21, well before lymphoscintigraphy, and was confirmed a posteriori by a different observer based on videotaped material. No overt axillary recurrence appeared in the patients with negative SLNs after a median follow-up of 32 months. Our experience supports the safety of SLNB in pregnant patients with breast cancer, when performed with a low-dose lymphoscintigraphic technique. (orig.)

  4. [Influenza sentinel surveillance network improvement in Senegal and results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiam, D; Niang, M; Dia, N; Sarr, F D; Goudiab, D; Senghor, M-L; Kiori, D; Faye, T; Espié, E; Ba, I O; Richard, V

    2015-02-01

    Influenza surveillance in Senegal was initially restricted to the identification of circulating strains. The network has recently been enhanced (i) to include epidemiological data from Dakar and other regions and (ii) to extend virological surveillance to other respiratory viruses. Epidemiological data from the sentinel sites is transmitted daily by mobile phone. The data include those for other febrile syndromes similar to influenza-like illnesses (ILI), corresponding to integrated approach. Also, clinical samples are randomly selected and analyzed for influenza and other respiratory viruses. There were 180,192 declared visits to the 11 sentinel sites between week 11-2012 and week 52-2013; 24% of the visits were for fever syndromes and 25% of the cases of fever syndrome were ILI. Rhinoviruses were the most frequent cause of ILI (19%), before adenoviruses (18%), enteroviruses (18%) and influenza A viruses (13%). Co-circulation and co-infection were frequent and were responsible for ILI peaks. In conclusion, it is clear that the greatest advantage of this system is the ease with which it can be implemented, thanks to the availability of mobile phones and mobile phone networks. We recommend this solution for other African countries, because it performs very well and provides rapid benefits in terms of public health decision-making.

  5. RICE CROP MAPPING USING SENTINEL-1A PHENOLOGICAL METRICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F. Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Rice is the most important food crop in Vietnam, providing food more than 90 million people and is considered as an essential source of income for majority of rural populations. Monitoring rice-growing areas is thus important to developing successful strategies for food security in the country. This paper aims to develop an approach for crop acreage estimation from multi-temporal Sentinel-1A data. We processed the data for two main cropping seasons (e.g., winter–spring, summer–autumn in the Mekong River Delta (MRD, Vietnam through three main steps: (1 data pre-processing, (3 rice classification based on crop phenological metrics, and (4 accuracy assessment of the mapping results. The classification results compared with the ground reference data indicated the overall accuracy of 86.2% and Kappa coefficient of 0.72. These results were reaffirmed by close correlation between the government’s rice area statistics for such crops (R2 > 0.95. The values of relative error in area obtained for the winter–spring and summer–autumn were -3.6% and 6.7%, respectively. This study demonstrates the potential application of multi-temporal Sentinel-1A data for rice crop mapping using information of crop phenology in the study region.

  6. Rice Crop Mapping Using SENTINEL-1A Phenological Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. F.; Son, N. T.; Chen, C. R.; Chang, L. Y.; Chiang, S. H.

    2016-06-01

    Rice is the most important food crop in Vietnam, providing food more than 90 million people and is considered as an essential source of income for majority of rural populations. Monitoring rice-growing areas is thus important to developing successful strategies for food security in the country. This paper aims to develop an approach for crop acreage estimation from multi-temporal Sentinel-1A data. We processed the data for two main cropping seasons (e.g., winter-spring, summer-autumn) in the Mekong River Delta (MRD), Vietnam through three main steps: (1) data pre-processing, (3) rice classification based on crop phenological metrics, and (4) accuracy assessment of the mapping results. The classification results compared with the ground reference data indicated the overall accuracy of 86.2% and Kappa coefficient of 0.72. These results were reaffirmed by close correlation between the government's rice area statistics for such crops (R2 > 0.95). The values of relative error in area obtained for the winter-spring and summer-autumn were -3.6% and 6.7%, respectively. This study demonstrates the potential application of multi-temporal Sentinel-1A data for rice crop mapping using information of crop phenology in the study region.

  7. Sentinel lymph node biopsy indications and controversies in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiatrek, Rebecca; Kruper, Laura

    2011-05-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has become the standard of care for early breast cancer. Its use in breast cancer has been evaluated in several randomized controlled trials and validated in multiple prospective studies. Additionally, it has been verified that SLNB has decreased morbidity when compared to axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). The technique used to perform sentinel lymph node mapping was also evaluated in multiple studies and the accuracy rate increases when radiocolloid and blue dye are used in combination. As SLNB became more accepted, contraindications were delineated and are still debated. Patients who have clinically positive lymph nodes or core biopsy-proven positive lymph nodes should not have SLNB, but should have an ALND as their staging procedure. The safety of SLNB in pregnant patients is not fully established. However, patients with multifocal or multicentric breast cancer and patients having neoadjuvant chemotherapy are considered candidates for SLNB. However, the details of which specific neoadjuvant patients should have SLNB are currently being evaluated in a randomized controlled trial. Patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) benefit from SLNB when mastectomy is planned and when there is a high clinical suspicion of invasion. With the advent of SLNB, pathologic review of breast cancer lymph nodes has evolved. The significance of occult metastasis in SLNB patients is currently being debated. Additionally, the most controversial subject with regards to SLNB is determining which patients with positive SLNs benefit from further axillary dissection.

  8. The importance of tattoo pigment in sentinel lymph nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soran, Atilla; Menekse, Ebru; Kanbour-Shakir, Amal; Tane, Kaori; Diego, Emilia; Bonaventura, Marguerite; Johnson, Ronald

    2017-07-06

    The presence of pigment in axillary lymph nodes (LN) secondary to migration of tattoo ink can imitate the appearance of a blue sentinel lymph node (SLN) on visual inspection, causing the operator to either miss the true SLN or excise more than is needed. We present patients with tattoos ipsilateral to an early stage breast cancer who underwent a SLN biopsy. Patients were retrospectively reviewed from medical records and clinicopathologic data was collected. A total of 52 LNs were retrieved from 15 patients for sentinel mapping and 29 of them had tattoo pigmentation on pathologic evaluation. Of those 29 SLNs, 2 of them (6.9%) were pigmented, but did not contain either blue dye or Tc-99m (pseudopigmented SLN). Two (3.8%) SLNs were positive for metastasis; both of these had either blue dye or Tc99m uptake, and 1 demonstrated tattoo pigment in the node. In this cohort of patients with ipsilateral tattoos, removed more LNs lead to unnecessary excision which may important for increasing the risk of arm morbidity from SLN biopsy. However, the presence of tattoo pigment did not interfere with understaging for axillary mapping and it did not effect of pathological identification of SLNs positivity.

  9. Flash flood area mapping utilising SENTINEL-1 radar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psomiadis, Emmanouil

    2016-10-01

    The new European Observatory radar data of polar orbiting satellite system Sentinel-1 provide a continuous and systematic data acquisition, enabling flood events monitoring and mapping. The study area is the basin of Sperchios River in Fthiotida Prefecture, Central Greece, having an increased ecological, environmental and socio-economic interest. The catchment area and especially the river delta, faces several problems and threats caused by anthropogenic activities and natural processes. The geomorphology of Sperchios catchment area and the drainage network formation provoke the creation of floods. A large flash flood event took place in late January early February 2015 following an intense and heavy rainfall that occurred in the area. Two space born radar images, obtained from Sentinel-1 covering the same area, one before and another one during the flood event, were processed. Two different methods were utilized so as to produce flood hazard maps, which demonstrate the inundated areas. The results of the two methods were similar and the flooded area was detected and delineated ideally.

  10. HIV Sentinel Surveillance Among High Risk Groups: Scenario In Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L B Chavan, Prakash Patel, Vaibhav Gharat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Surveillance is the ongoing systematic collection, collation, analysis and interpretation of data so that appropriate action can be taken within time. Aims and Objective: The present annual HIV sentinel surveillance (HSS was carried out for monitoring trends of HIV epidemic in high risk group populations in selected sites of Gujarat state.. Methodology: The HSS was carried out in representative populations from High Risk Group (HRG like Female Sex Workers (FSW, Man having Sex with Man (MSM and Single Male Migrant. Target sample size was 250 at each HRG site (Female Sex Worker, Male Sex Male & SMM. Consecutive sampling was done at designated sentinel site for selecting the survey participants. Results: Overall 3726 samples (1494 FSWs, 1732 MSMs & 500 SMM were tested in the High risk group of HSS 2008. The overall sero-positivity in samples from FSWs, MSMs sites was 4.5%. Sero-positivity was more or less high (? 5% among FSWs as well as MSMs irrespective of age, place of residence, literacy level, occupation; and migration status. Conclusion: The overall trend of sero-positivity in High risk groups shows decreasing trend of HIV in the state from 2004 to 2008.

  11. US Domestic Cats as Sentinels for Perfluoroalkyl Substances ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) , are persistent, globally distributed, anthropogenic compounds. The primary source(s) for human exposure are not well understood although within home exposure is likely important since many consumer products have been treated with different PFAS, and people spend much of their lives indoors. Herein, domestic cats were used as sentinels to investigate potential exposure and health linkages. PFAS in serum samples of 72 pet and feral cats, including 11 healthy and 61 with one or more primary disease diagnoses, were quantitated using high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectroscopy. All but one sample had detectable PFAS, with PFOS and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) ranging from cats were very similar to contemporary NHANES reports of human sera in the U. S. POPULATION: The highest PFAS serum concentrations detected were in indoor cats due to disproportionately elevated PFHxS levels. Ranked by quartile, contingency testing indicated that total PFAS levels were positively associated with living indoors and with higher body weight and body condition scores. Individual PFAS quartile rankings suggested positive associations with respiratory effusion, thyroid, liver, and possibly chronic kidney disease . Domestic cats appear to be useful sentinels for assessing primary

  12. European Space Agency's Fluorescence Explorer Mission: Concept and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, G.; Moreno, J. F.; Goulas, Y.; Huth, A.; Middleton, E.; Miglietta, F.; Nedbal, L.; Rascher, U.; Verhoef, W.; Drusch, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Fluorescence Explorer (FLEX) is a dedicated satellite for the detection and measurement of solar-induced fluorescence (SIF). It is one of two candidate missions currently under evaluation by ESA for deployment in its Earth Explorer 8 program, with Phase A/B1 assessments now underway. FLEX is planned as a tandem mission with ESA's core mission Sentinel-3, and would carry an instrument, FLORIS, optimized for discrimination of the fluorescence signal in terrestrial vegetation. The FLEX mission would be the first to be focussed upon optimization of SIF detection in terrestrial vegetation, and using finer spatial resolution than is available with current satellites. It would open up a novel avenue for monitoring photosynthetic function from space, with diverse potential applications. Plant photosynthetic tissues absorbing sunlight in the wavebands of photosynthetically active radiation (400 to 700 nm) emit fluorescence in the form of red and far-red light. This signal confers a small but measurable contribution to apparent reflectance spectra, and with appropriate analysis it may be detected and quantified. Over the last 15-20 years, techniques for SIF detection have progressed from contact or near-contact methods using single leaves to remote techniques using airborne sensors and towers over plant canopies. Ongoing developments in instrumentation, atmospheric correction procedures, signal extraction techniques, and utilization of the SIF signal itself are all critical aspects of progress in this area. The FLEX mission would crystallize developments to date into a state-of-the-art pioneering mission targeting actual photosynthetic function. This compares to existing methods which address only potential function. Thus, FLEX could serve to provide real-time data on vegetation health and stress status, and inputs for parameterization of photosynthetic models (e.g. with measures of light-use efficiency). SIF might be correlated or modelled to photosynthetic rates or

  13. Ongoing Mars Missions: Extended Mission Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurek, Richard; Diniega, Serina; Crisp, Joy; Fraeman, Abigail; Golombek, Matt; Jakosky, Bruce; Plaut, Jeff; Senske, David A.; Tamppari, Leslie; Thompson, Thomas W.; Vasavada, Ashwin R.

    2016-10-01

    Many key scientific discoveries in planetary science have been made during extended missions. This is certainly true for the Mars missions both in orbit and on the planet's surface. Every two years, ongoing NASA planetary missions propose investigations for the next two years. This year, as part of the 2016 Planetary Sciences Division (PSD) Mission Senior Review, the Mars Odyssey (ODY) orbiter project submitted a proposal for its 7th extended mission, the Mars Exploration Rover (MER-B) Opportunity submitted for its 10th, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) for its 4th, and the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover and the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MVN) orbiter for their 2nd extended missions, respectively. Continued US participation in the ongoing Mars Express Mission (MEX) was also proposed. These missions arrived at Mars in 2001, 2004, 2006, 2012, 2014, and 2003, respectively. Highlights of proposed activities include systematic observations of the surface and atmosphere in twilight (early morning and late evening), building on a 13-year record of global mapping (ODY); exploration of a crater rim gully and interior of Endeavour Crater, while continuing to test what can and cannot be seen from orbit (MER-B); refocused observations of ancient aqueous deposits and polar cap interiors, while adding a 6th Mars year of change detection in the atmosphere and the surface (MRO); exploration and sampling by a rover of mineralogically diverse strata of Mt. Sharp and of atmospheric methane in Gale Crater (MSL); and further characterization of atmospheric escape under different solar conditions (MVN). As proposed, these activities follow up on previous discoveries (e.g., recurring slope lineae, habitable environments), while expanding spatial and temporal coverage to guide new detailed observations. An independent review panel evaluated these proposals, met with project representatives in May, and made recommendations to NASA in June 2016. In this

  14. [Interest of preoperative lymphoscintigraphy on sentinel lymph node identification in patients with breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulpin, L; Morel, O; Akerman, G; Malartic, C; Desfeux, P; Barranger, E

    2008-01-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy is nowadays an accepted method of staging breast cancer patients. In case of an injection of radioactive colloid, preoperative lymphoscintigraphy is recommended to establish a lymphatic mapping and to predict the number of sentinel lymph nodes identified during surgery. Preoperative lymphoscintigraphy does not decrease the false-negative rate. However, positive preoperative lymphoscintigraphy significantly improves the identification rate of intraoperative sentinel nodes comparing with negative preoperative lymphoscintigraphy. Detecting extra-axillary sentinel lymph nodes, because of its minimal therapeutic consequences, does not appear to be an indication for preoperative lymphoscintigraphy. Given logistics and cost required, preoperative lymphoscintigraphy should be only performed for patients with a high risk of intraoperative failed localization. In case of negative preoperative lymphoscintigraphy, sentinel lymph node biopsy must be tried because sentinel nodes are still identified in the majority of these patients. Another possibility, with important cost and logistic, should consist in performing a later lymphoscintigraphy on the day after radioactive injection to ameliorate sentinel lymph nodes identification.

  15. JPL Mission Bibliometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppin, Ann

    2013-01-01

    For a number of years ongoing bibliographies of various JPL missions (AIRS, ASTER, Cassini, GRACE, Earth Science, Mars Exploration Rovers (Spirit & Opportunity)) have been compiled by the JPL Library. Mission specific bibliographies are compiled by the Library and sent to mission scientists and managers in the form of regular (usually quarterly) updates. Charts showing publications by years are periodically provided to the ASTER, Cassini, and GRACE missions for supporting Senior Review/ongoing funding requests, and upon other occasions as a measure of the impact of the missions. Basically the Web of Science, Compendex, sometimes Inspec, GeoRef and Aerospace databases are searched for the mission name in the title, abstract, and assigned keywords. All get coded for journal publications that are refereed publications.

  16. Lymphatic drainage from the treated versus untreated prostate: feasibility of sentinel node biopsy in recurrent cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeeren, Lenka; Valdes Olmos, Renato A. [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Meinhardt, Willem; Poel, Henk G. van der [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Urology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-11-15

    The goal of this study was to establish the feasibility of sentinel node biopsy in patients with recurrent prostate cancer after initial local treatment and to compare lymphatic drainage patterns of the treated versus untreated prostate. In ten patients with a proven local recurrence after initial local treatment (four external beam radiation, four brachytherapy and two high-intensity focused ultrasound), the radiotracer ({sup 99m}Tc-nanocolloid, GE Healthcare) was injected into the prostate. Planar images after 15 min and 2 h were followed by SPECT/CT (Symbia T, Siemens) to visualize lymphatic drainage. Laparoscopic sentinel lymphadenectomy was assisted by a gamma probe (Europrobe, EuroMedical Instruments) and a portable gamma camera (Sentinella, S102, Oncovision). Sentinel node identification and lymphatic drainage patterns were compared to a consecutive series of 70 untreated prostate carcinoma patients from our institute. Lymphatic drainage was visualized in all treated patients, with a median of 3.5 sentinel nodes per patient. Most sentinel nodes were localized in the pelvic area, although the percentage of patients with a sentinel node outside the pelvic para-iliac region (para-aortic, presacral, inguinal or near the ventral abdominal wall) was high compared to the untreated patients (80 versus 34%, p = 0.01). In patients with recurrent prostate cancer, 95% of the sentinel nodes could be harvested and half of the patients had at least one positive sentinel node on pathological examination. Lymphatic mapping of the treated prostate appears feasible, although sentinel nodes are more frequently found in an aberrant location. Larger trials are needed to assess the sensitivity and therapeutic value of lymphatic mapping in recurrent prostate cancer. (orig.)

  17. The STEREO Mission

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    The STEREO mission uses twin heliospheric orbiters to track solar disturbances from their initiation to 1 AU. This book documents the mission, its objectives, the spacecraft that execute it and the instruments that provide the measurements, both remote sensing and in situ. This mission promises to unlock many of the mysteries of how the Sun produces what has become to be known as space weather.

  18. Sentinel-1 and ground-based sensors for a continuous monitoring of the Corvara landslide kinematic (South Tirol, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlögel, Romy; Darvishi, Mehdi; Cuozzo, Giovanni; Kofler, Christian; Rutzinger, Martin; Zieher, Thomas; Toschi, Isabella; Remondino, Fabio

    2017-04-01

    Sentinel-1 mission allows us to have Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) acquisitions over large areas every 6 days with spatial resolution of 20 m. This new open-source generation of satellites has enhanced the capabilities for continuously studying earth surface changes. Over the past two decades, several studies have demonstrated the potential of Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) for detecting and quantifying land surface deformation. DInSAR limitations and challenges are linked to the SAR properties and the field conditions (especially in Alpine environments) leading to spatial and temporal decorrelation of the SAR signal. High temporal decorrelation can be caused by changes in vegetation (particularly in non-urban areas), atmospheric conditions or high ground surface velocity. In this study, kinematics of the complex and vegetated Corvara landslide, situated in Val Badia (South Tirol, Italy), are monitored by a network of 3 permanent and 13 monthly Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) stations. The slope displacement rates are found to be highly unsteady and reach several meters a year. This analysis focuses on evaluating the limitations of Sentinel-1 imagery processed with Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) technique in comparison to ground-based measurements for assessing the landslide kinematic linked to meteorological conditions. Selecting some particular acquisitions, coherence thresholds and unwrapping processes gives various results in terms of reliability and accuracy supporting the understanding of the landslide velocity field. The evolution of the coherence and phase signals are studied according to the changing field conditions and the monitored ground-based displacements. DInSAR deformation maps and residual topographic heights are finally compared with difference of high resolution Digital Elevation Models at local scale. This research is conducted within the project LEMONADE (http://lemonade.mountainresearch.at) funded

  19. Rapid Damage Assessment by Means of Multi-Temporal SAR — A Comprehensive Review and Outlook to Sentinel-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Plank

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Fast crisis response after natural disasters, such as earthquakes and tropical storms, is necessary to support, for instance, rescue, humanitarian, and reconstruction operations in the crisis area. Therefore, rapid damage mapping after a disaster is crucial, i.e., to detect the affected area, including grade and type of damage. Thereby, satellite remote sensing plays a key role due to its fast response, wide field of view, and low cost. With the increasing availability of remote sensing data, numerous methods have been developed for damage assessment. This article gives a comprehensive review of these techniques focusing on multi-temporal SAR procedures for rapid damage assessment: interferometric coherence and intensity correlation. The review is divided into six parts: First, methods based on coherence; second, the ones using intensity correlation; and third, techniques using both methodologies combined to increase the accuracy of the damage assessment are reviewed. Next, studies using additional data (e.g., GIS and optical imagery to support the damage assessment and increase its accuracy are reported. Moreover, selected studies on post-event SAR damage assessment techniques and examples of other applications of the interferometric coherence are presented. Then, the preconditions for a successful worldwide application of multi-temporal SAR methods for damage assessment and the limitations of current SAR satellite missions are reported. Finally, an outlook to the Sentinel-1 SAR mission shows possible solutions of these limitations, enabling a worldwide applicability of the presented damage assessment methods.

  20. [Anaphylactic shock after injection of patent blue for sentinel lymph node biopsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Horst, J C; de Bock, M J; Klinkenbijl, J H

    2001-10-27

    After being diagnosed with a melanoma, an 18-year-old woman developed anaphylactic shock following an intracutaneous injection of patent blue during a sentinel lymph node biopsy procedure. Intracutaneous allergy tests revealed positive reactions with patent blue (Bleu patenté V 'Guerbet') as well as with several anaesthetics and morphine. It was concluded that patent blue was the most probable causative agent for the anaphylactic reaction and that the possibility of such a reaction should be taken into consideration during sentinel node procedures. After a few days the operation was completed under epidural anaesthesia with technetium Tc 99m sulphur colloid being used to detect the sentinel node.

  1. Landsat Data Continuity Mission - Launch Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irons, James R.; Loveland, Thomas R.; Markham, Brian L.; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Cook, Bruce; Dwyer, John L.

    2012-01-01

    The year 2013 will be an exciting period for those that study the Earth land surface from space, particularly those that observe and characterize land cover, land use, and the change of cover and use over time. Two new satellite observatories will be launched next year that will enhance capabilities for observing the global land surface. The United States plans to launch the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) in January. That event will be followed later in the year by the European Space Agency (ESA) launch of the first Sentinel 2 satellite. Considered together, the two satellites will increase the frequency of opportunities for viewing the land surface at a scale where human impact and influence can be differentiated from natural change. Data from the two satellites will provide images for similar spectral bands and for comparable spatial resolutions with rigorous attention to calibration that will facilitate cross comparisons. This presentation will provide an overview of the LDCM satellite system and report its readiness for the January launch.

  2. Significant wave heights from Sentinel-1 SAR: Validation and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stopa, J. E.; Mouche, A.

    2017-03-01

    Two empirical algorithms are developed for wave mode images measured from the synthetic aperture radar aboard Sentinel-1 A. The first method, called CWAVE_S1A, is an extension of previous efforts developed for ERS2 and the second method, called Fnn, uses the azimuth cutoff among other parameters to estimate significant wave heights (Hs) and average wave periods without using a modulation transfer function. Neural networks are trained using colocated data generated from WAVEWATCH III and independently verified with data from altimeters and in situ buoys. We use neural networks to relate the nonlinear relationships between the input SAR image parameters and output geophysical wave parameters. CWAVE_S1A performs well and has reduced precision compared to Fnn with Hs root mean square errors within 0.5 and 0.6 m, respectively. The developed neural networks extend the SAR's ability to retrieve useful wave information under a large range of environmental conditions including extratropical and tropical cyclones in which Hs estimation is traditionally challenging.Plain Language SummaryTwo empirical algorithms are developed to estimate integral wave parameters from high resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) ocean images measured from recently launched the Sentinel 1 satellite. These methods avoid the use of the complicated image to wave mapping typically used to estimate sea state parameters. In addition, we are able to estimate wave parameters that are not able to be measured using existing techniques for the Sentinel 1 satellite. We use a machine learning technique to create a model that relates the ocean image properties to geophysical wave parameters. The models are developed using data from a numerical model because of the sufficiently large sample of global ocean conditions. We then verify that our developed models perform well with respect to independently measured wave observations from other satellite sensors and buoys. We successfully created models that

  3. The Rosetta mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Matt; Altobelli, Nicolas; Martin, Patrick; Buratti, Bonnie J.; Choukroun, Mathieu

    2016-10-01

    The Rosetta Mission is the third cornerstone mission the ESA programme Horizon 2000. The aim of the mission is to map the comet 67-P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko by remote sensing, to examine its environment insitu and its evolution in the inner solar system. The lander Philae is the first device to land on a comet and perform in-situ science on the surface. Following its launch in March 2004, Rosetta underwent 3 Earth and 1 Mars flybys to achieve the correct trajectory to capture the comet, including flybys of asteroid on 2867 Steins and 21 Lutetia. For June 2011- January 2014 the spacecraft passed through a period of hibernation, due to lack of available power for full payload operation and following successful instrument commissioning, successfully rendezvoused with the comet in August 2014. Following an intense period of mapping and characterisation, a landing site for Philae was selected and on 12 November 2014, Philae was successfully deployed. Rosetta then embarked on the main phase of the mission, observing the comet on its way into and away from perihelion in August 2015. At the time of writing the mission is planned to terminate with the Rosetta orbiter impacting the comet surface on 30 September 2016. This presentation will provide a brief overview of the mission and its science. The first author is honoured to give this talk on behalf of all Rosetta mission science, instrument and operations teams, for it is they who have worked tirelessly to make this mission the success it is.

  4. Mission Medical Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.; Joe, John C.; Follansbee, Nicole M.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the Mission Medical Information System (MMIS). The topics include: 1) What is MMIS?; 2) MMIS Goals; 3) Terrestrial Health Information Technology Vision; 4) NASA Health Information Technology Needs; 5) Mission Medical Information System Components; 6) Electronic Medical Record; 7) Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health (LSAH); 8) Methods; and 9) Data Submission Agreement (example).

  5. The SPICA mission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sibthorpe, B.; Helmich, F.; Roelfsema, P.; Kaneda, H.; Shibai, H.; Simon, R.; Schaaf, R.; Stutzki, J,

    2016-01-01

    SPICA is a mid and far-infrared space mission to be submitted as a candidate to ESA's fifth medium class mission call, due in early 2016. This will be a joint project between ESA and JAXA, with ESA taking the lead role. If selected, SPICA will launch in ˜2029 and operate for a goal lifetime of 5 yea

  6. KEEL for Mission Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-06

    cognitive technology for application in automotive , industrial automation, medical, military, governmental, enterprise software and electronic gaming...evaluate risks or develop and test new tactics and strategies. This paper separates Mission Planning Software into two domains: 1. Rendering of the...simplest form, Mission Planning is the process of evaluating information in the form of risks (threats) and rewards (opportunities) to most appropriately

  7. Bering Mission Navigation Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betto, Maurizio; Jørgensen, John Leif; Jørgensen, Peter Siegbjørn

    2003-01-01

    "Bering", after the name of the famous Danish explorer, is a near Earth object (NEO) and main belt asteroids mapping mission envisaged by a consortium of Danish universities and research institutes. To achieve the ambitious goals set forth by this mission, while containing the costs and risks...

  8. The Pioneer Venus Missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Mountain View, CA. Ames Research Center.

    This document provides detailed information on the atmosphere and weather of Venus. This pamphlet describes the technological hardware including the probes that enter the Venusian atmosphere, the orbiter and the launch vehicle. Information is provided in lay terms on the mission profile, including details of events from launch to mission end. The…

  9. Shock Analysis of Sentinel-3 SLSTR Parabolic Mirror Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Benjamin; Kiel, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents the different steps that have been undertaken to demonstrate the successful shock qualification of the Parabolic Mirror Assembly (PMA) in the frame of the Sentinel-3 SLSTR development. The unit has failed the first qualification shock test in terms of shift of natural frequencies and optical alignment. The objectives of the subsequent analyses are:- to correlate the finite element model with the PMA shock test on unit level,- to determine the interface loads between different parts of the PMA assembly for the PMA shock test on unit level,- to assess the PMA interface loads induced by the instrument level shock test,- to derive a reduced shock input spectrum for the PMA shock test on unit level with respect to a second qualification test.

  10. Bird populations as sentinels of endocrine disrupting chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Carere

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs is a widespread phenomenon in nature. Although the mechanisms of action of EDCs are actively studied, the consequences of endocrine disruption (ED at the population level and the adaptations evolved to cope with chronic EDC exposure have been overlooked. Birds probably represent the animal taxon most successfully adapted to synanthropic life. Hence, birds share with humans a similar pattern of exposure to xenobiotics. In this article, we review case studies on patterns of behaviour that deviate from the expectation in bird species exposed to EDCs. We provide behavioural and ecological parameters to be used as endpoints of ED; methodological requirements and caveats based on species-specific life-history traits, behavioural repertoires, developmental styles, and possibility of captive breeding; a list of species that could be used as sentinels to assess the quality of man-made environment.

  11. Sentinel areas: a monitoring strategy in public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira Maria da Glória

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Available techniques for monitoring the health situation have proven insufficient, thus leading to a discussion of the need for their improvement based on new data collection strategies allowing for data use by local health systems. This article presents the methodological basis for a strategy to monitor health problems utilizing demarcated intra-urban spaces called "sentinel areas" to collect fundamental social, economic, behavioral, and biological data for public health that allow for a closer approach to the reality of complex social spaces. The authors present an experience that is being developed in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, to evaluate the epidemiological impact of an environmental sanitation program. They discuss selection criteria for the areas and the potential uses of this strategy allowing for the rapid utilization of epidemiological resources by health services and the timely application of the results to reorient and enhance health intervention practices.

  12. Sentinel node biopsy for melanoma: a study of 241 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakera, Annette Hougaard; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof Tadeusz; Jakobsen, Annika Loft

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the sentinel node biopsy (SNB) technique for melanoma using both radiocolloid and blue dye in 241 clinically N0 patients with melanomas >1.0 mm, or thinner lesions exhibiting regression/ulceration. We showed that an increase in injected radioactivity increased...... both the number of visualized nodes at lymphoscintigraphy and the number of SNs removed surgically. At least one SN was removed in 98% (236) of patients, and all nodes were identified with the probe. Seventy-four per cent of the 194 patients injected with blue dye had stained SNs. In 46% (144......) of the lymph node basins, there was a discrepancy between the nodes visualized at lymphoscintigraphy and the nodes removed at surgery. There were 38 unusually located nodes. Only eight of these were removed surgically; none contained metastases. SN metastases were detected in 22% (53) of patients. There were...

  13. Sentinel-1A Product Geolocation Accuracy: Commissioning Phase Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Schubert

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sentinel-1A (S1A is an Earth observation satellite carrying a state-of-the-art Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR imaging instrument. It was launched by the European Space Agency (ESA on 3 April 2014. With the end of the in-orbit commissioning phase having been completed at the end of September 2014, S1A data products are already consistently providing highly accurate geolocation. StripMap (SM mode products were acquired regularly and tested for geolocation accuracy and consistency during dedicated corner reflector (CR campaigns. At the completion of this phase, small geometric inconsistencies had been understood and mitigated, with the high quality of the final product geolocation estimates reflecting the mission’s success thus far. This paper describes the measurement campaign, the methods used during geolocation estimation, and presents best estimates of the product Absolute Location Error (ALE available at the beginning of S1A’s operational phase.

  14. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in paediatric melanoma. A case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Aguilar, M; Álvarez Pérez, R M; García Gómez, F J; Fernández Ortega, P; Borrego Dorado, I

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of melanoma in children is uncommon, being particularly rare in children under 10 years-old. However, this disease is increasing by a mean of 2% per year. As in adults, the lymph node status is the most important prognostic factor, crucial to performing the selective sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). We report 3 cases of paediatric patients of 3, 4 and 8 years-old, in which SLNB was performed for malignant melanoma. Paediatric age implies greater technical difficulty to the scintigraphy scan due to poor patient cooperation, with mild sedation required in some cases, and only being able to acquire planar images in other cases. SPECT/CT was only performed in the oldest patient. In our cases, SLNB was useful for selecting the least invasive surgery in order to reduce morbidity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  15. DETECTION OF SENTINEL LYMPH NODE IN EARLY CERVICAL CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琳; 李斌; 章文华

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess the value of sentinel lymph node (SLN) localization by lymphoscintigraphy and gamma probe detection in early cervical cancer. Methods: A total of 27 patients with operable invasive early cervical cancer and clinically proved negative pelvic lymph nodes were included in this study. The 99Tcm-dextran of 74 MBq (2 mCi) was injected around the cervix at 2( and 10(. Lymphoscintigraphy and gamma probe detection were used to find the SLN. Results: The SLN was identified in 27 patients. The sensitivity and specificity of the SLN detection to predict the metastasis of the pelvic lymph node were 100% and 100% respectively. Conclusion: Identification of the SLN using radionuclide is feasible and possible in women with early cervical cancer.

  16. Nanoparticles in Sentinel Lymph Node Assessment in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Douek

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The modern management of the axilla in breast cancer relies on surgery for accurate staging of disease and identifying those patients at risk who would benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. The introduction of sentinel lymph node biopsy has revolutionized axillary surgery, but still involves a surgical procedure with associated morbidity in many patients with no axillary involvement. Nanotechnology encompasses a broad spectrum of scientific specialities, of which nanomedicine is one. The potential use of dual-purpose nanoprobes could enable imaging the axilla simultaneous identification and treatment of metastatic disease. Whilst most applications of nanomedicine are still largely in the laboratory phase, some potential applications are currently undergoing clinical evaluation for translation from the bench to the bedside. This is an exciting new area of research where scientific research may become a reality.

  17. HIV Drug-resistant Strains as Epidemiologic Sentinels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Robert M.; Porco, Travis C.; Getz, Wayne M.

    2006-01-01

    Observed declines in drug resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors among persons recently infected with HIV-1 in monitored subpopulations can be interpreted as a positive sign and lead public health officials to decrease efforts towards HIV prevention. By means of a mathematical model, we identified 3 processes that can account for the observed decline: increase in high-risk behavior, decrease in proportion of acutely infected persons whose conditions are treated, and change in treatment efficacy. These processes, singly or in combination, can lead to increases or decreases in disease and drug-resistance prevalence in the general population. We discuss the most appropriate public health response under each scenario and emphasize how further data collection and analyses are required to more reliably evaluate the observed time trends and the relative importance of forces shaping the epidemic. Our study highlights how drug resistance markers can be used as epidemiologic sentinels to devise public health solutions. PMID:16494741

  18. Sentinel lymph node imaging by a fluorescently labeled DNA tetrahedron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Ran; Lee, Yong-Deok; Lee, Taemin; Kim, Byeong-Su; Kim, Sehoon; Ahn, Dae-Ro

    2013-07-01

    Sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) are the first lymph nodes which cancer cells reach after traveling through lymphatic vessels from the primary tumor. Evaluating the nodal status is crucial in accurate staging of human cancers and accordingly determines prognosis and the most appropriate treatment. The commonly used methods for SLN identification in clinics are based on employment of a colloid of radionuclide or injection of a small dye. Although these methods have certainly contributed to improve surgical practice, new imaging materials are still required to overcome drawbacks of the techniques such as inconvenience of handling radioactive materials and short retention time of small dyes in SLNs. Here, we prepare a fluorescence-labeled DNA tetrahedron and perform SLN imaging by using the DNA nanoconstruct. With a successful identification of SLNs by the DNA nanoconstruct, we suggest that DNA tetrahedron hold great promises for clinical applications.

  19. Cost analysis of sentinel lymph node biopsy in melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Menchón, T; Sánchez-Pedreño, P; Martínez-Escribano, J; Corbalán-Vélez, R; Martínez-Barba, E

    2015-04-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is the most useful tool for node staging in melanoma. SLNB facilitates selective dissection of lymph nodes, that is, the performance of lymphadenectomy only in patients with sentinel nodes positive for metastasis. Our aim was to assess the cost of SLNB, given that this procedure has become the standard of care for patients with melanoma and must be performed whenever patients are to be enrolled in clinical trials. Furthermore, the literature on the economic impact of SLNB in Spain is scarce. From 2007 to 2010, we prospectively collected data for 100 patients undergoing SLNB followed by transhilar bivalving and multiple-level sectioning of the node for histology. Our estimation of the cost of the technique was based on official pricing and fee schedules for the Spanish region of Murcia. The rate of node-positive cases in our series was 20%, and the mean number of nodes biopsied was 1.96; 44% of the patients in the series had thin melanomas. The total cost was estimated at between €9486.57 and €10471.29. Histopathology accounted for a considerable portion of the cost (€5769.36). The cost of SLNB is high, consistent with amounts described for a US setting. Optimal use of SLNB will come with the increasingly appropriate selection of patients who should undergo the procedure and the standardization of a protocol for histopathologic evaluation that is both sensitive and easy to perform. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  20. A Dearth of Numbers: The Actuary and the Sentinel in Global Public Health

    OpenAIRE

    Lakoff, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    How do experts respond to a threat whose probability cannot be calculated but whose consequences could be catastrophic? Andrew Lakoff explores the political dynamics of sentinel devices in the case of the 2009 swine flu pandemic.

  1. The surgical importance of an axillary arch in sentinel node biopsy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ridgway, P F

    2011-03-01

    When Carl Langer described the aberrant axillary arch in 1846 its relevance in sentinel node biopsy (SNB) surgery could not have been contemplated. The authors define an incidence and elucidate relevance of the arch in SNB of the axilla.

  2. Staging of women with breast cancer after introduction of sentinel node guided axillary dissection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedskov, Tove Filtenborg

    2012-01-01

    Today, sentinel lymph node dissection (SLND) has replaced axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) as standard procedure for staging of the axilla in the treatment of breast cancer. SLND can accurately stage the axilla by removing on average only two lymph nodes. Only in case of metastatic spread...... to sentinel nodes an ALND is offered. Removing fewer nodes has made more extensive histopathological examinations of the lymph nodes possible and as a consequence more metastases are found. This has resulted in stage migration. Based on data from the nationwide Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG.......8%, when estimated using today´s criteria for risk-allocation, because nodal status is now less important in risk-allocation. In general, only 15-20% of patients with micrometastases and 10-15% of patients with isolated tumor cells (ITC) in sentinel node have further metastatic spread to non-sentinel nodes...

  3. Biodistribution of ~(99)Tc~m Labelled Dextran Conjugates for Sentinel Lymph Node Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Mannosylated dextran conjugates showed high receptor affinity to the receptors on the surface of macrophages in the lymph node. 99Tcm labelled mannosylated dextran conjugates could be used for sentinel lymph node (SLN) detection. In this paper,

  4. Organized nation-wide implementation of sentinel lymph node biopsy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, E.; Galatius, H.; Garne, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    Prior to the initiation of a nationwide study of the sentinel node staging technique the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG) defined a set of minimum requirements to be met by surgical departments before they could include patients in the study. The requirements specified a minimum...... patient load in the individual surgical unit, a minimum surgical training in the sentinel node biopsy technique and a minimum quality outcome in a validating learning series of SNLB procedures. A working group assisted departments in meeting these terms and later audited and certified departments before...... they could include patients into the study. As a result of this strategy the sentinel lymph node staging was fully implemented in all Danish surgical breast cancer centres within three years and all sentinel node biopsies in the period were recorded in the DBCG data centre. Furthermore, the strategy...

  5. Implications of a positive sentinel node in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurney, Benjamin A S; Schilling, Clare; Putcha, Venkata;

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The role of sentinel node biopsy in head and neck cancer is currently being explored. Patients with positive sentinel nodes were investigated to establish if additional metastases were present in the neck, their distribution, and their impact on outcome. METHODS: In all, 109 patients (n...... = 109) from 15 European centers, with cT1/2,N0 tumors, and a positive sentinel lymph node were identified. Kaplan-Meier and univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to identify variables that predicted for additional positive nodes and their position within the neck. RESULTS......: A total of 122 neck dissections were performed in 109 patients. Additional positive nodes were found in 34.4% of cases (42/122: 18 same, 21 adjacent, and 3 nonadjacent neck level). Additional nodes, especially if outside the sentinel node basin, had an impact on outcome. CONCLUSIONS: The results...

  6. Ice Velocity Measurement from SAR: Comparison of Sentinel-1A and RADARSAT-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusk, Anders; Dall, Jørgen

    , where the backscatter is more homogeneous, offset-tracking relies instead on speckle tracking, reducing the need for high resolution. With more than one revisit, Sentinel-1 can generate 24-day baselines, and this allows a comparison of the two sensor modes without the influence of the temporal baseline....... The impact of temporal baseline, 24 days vs 12 days (6 when S1B is commissioned). The smaller temporal baseline of Sentinel-1 eases feature-tracking on fast-moving glaciers, and improves coherence (and thus speckle tracking) over more homogeneous regions. On the other hand, noise and ionospheric....... Compared to interferometry, Offset Tracking techniques excel in terms of robustness and ease of automation. With the launch of Sentinel-1A in 2014 and Sentinel-1B in 2016, the potential coverage and revisit frequency have greatly improved, allowing monitoring of temporal changes in the ices sheet velocity...

  7. Detection of sentinel lymphnode using radiopharmaceuticals methods, importance and safety handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, Kunihiko; Nakajima, Kenichi; Tonami, Norihisa; Tugawa, Koichiro; Noguchi, Masakuni [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). Hospital

    2000-04-01

    In our district, there is no approved radiopharmaceutical appropriate for lymphoscintigraphy. Thus, we have attempted to evaluate the three radiopharmaceuticals such as {sup 99m}Tc-human serum albumin (HSA), {sup 99m}Tc-tin colloid (TC) and {sup 99m}Tc-phytate for this application. HSA demonstrated the sentinel LNs in 35 out 49 cases. However, it traveled so rapid that LNs might tend to be visualized more than the sentinel LN. TC was so big in size that it could only visualize the sentinel LNs in 18 out of 33 cases. Although the number of patients who received phytate is limited, it seemed to detect sentinel LNs better that the other 2 compounds. (author)

  8. Sentinel Lymph Node Occult Metastases Have Minimal Survival Effect in Some Breast Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detailed examination of sentinel lymph node tissue from breast cancer patients revealed previously unidentified metastases in about 16% of the samples, but the difference in 5-year survival between patients with and without these metastases was very small

  9. A CA-CFAR and localized wavelet ship detector for sentinel-1 imagery

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schwegmann, CP

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Maritime Domain Awareness initiative seeks to constantly improve the ways in which maritime information is collected. With the recent release of free Sentinel-1 imagery to the public, monitoring the maritime environment has become a more...

  10. Citrullus lanatus 'sentinel' (watermelon) extract reduces atherosclerosis in LDL receptor-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poduri, Aruna; Rateri, Debra L; Saha, Shubin K; Saha, Sibu; Daugherty, Alan

    2013-05-01

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus or C. lanatus) has many potentially bioactive compounds including citrulline, which may influence atherosclerosis. In this study, we determined the effects of C. lanatus, provided as an extract of the cultivar 'sentinel,' on hypercholesterolemia-induced atherosclerosis in mice. Male low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice at 8 weeks old were given either C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract (2% vol/vol; n=10) or a mixture of matching carbohydrates (2% vol/vol; n=8) as the control in drinking water while being fed a saturated fat-enriched diet for 12 weeks ad libitum. Mice consuming C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract had significantly increased plasma citrulline concentrations. Systolic blood pressure was comparable between the two groups. Consumption of C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract led to lower body weight and fat mass without influencing lean mass. There were no differences in food and water intake and in urine output between the two groups. C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract administration decreased plasma cholesterol concentrations that were attributed to reductions of intermediate-/low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Plasma concentrations of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and interferon-gamma were decreased and those of interleukin-10 were increased in mice consuming C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract. Intake of C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract resulted in reductions of atherosclerosis in both aortic arch and thoracic regions. In conclusion, consumption of C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract led to reduced body weight gain, decreased plasma cholesterol concentrations, improved homeostasis of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and attenuated development of atherosclerosis without affecting systolic blood pressure in hypercholesterolemic mice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Mulig forbedret behandling af kolorektal cancer med sentinel lymph node-diagnostik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burgdorf, Stefan K; Eriksen, Jens Ravn; Gögenür, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    Possibly improved treatment of colorectal cancer by sentinel lymph node mapping Prognosis for colorectal cancer is dependent on radical surgical intervention. Chemotherapy in patients with advanced disease has improved the survival. A considerable proportion of the patients going through radical...... surgery will subsequently relapse. Adjuvant chemotherapy is reserved for patients with lymph node metastases, why undetected malignant lymph nodes will result in understaging and exclusion from the possible benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy. With sentinel lymph node mapping it may be possible to detect...

  12. [INDOCYANINE GREEN (ICG) IN THE DETECTION OF SENTINEL LYMPH NODES IN ENDOMETRIAL AND CERVIX CANCER].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlev, I V; Ulrikh, E A; Ibragimov, Z N; Guseinov, K D; Gorodnova, T V; Korolkova, E N; Trifanov, Yu N; Nekrasova, E A; Saparov, A B; Khadzhimba, A V; Mikaya, N A; Urmancheeva, A F

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed the international and our own experience of using different dyes in the identification of sentinel lymph nodes in oncogynecological practice. We evaluated the possibility of using indocyanine green (ICG) in the detection of sentinel lymph nodes in patients with endometrial and cervical cancer. The first results of the use of ICG at the Oncogynecology Department of the N.N.Petrov Research Institute of Oncology are presented.

  13. EXPLOITING SENTINEL-1 AMPLITUDE DATA FOR GLACIER SURFACE VELOCITY FIELD MEASUREMENTS: FEASIBILITY DEMONSTRATION ON BALTORO GLACIER

    OpenAIRE

    A. Nascetti; Nocchi, F.; Camplani, A.; Rico, C.; Crespi, M.

    2016-01-01

    The leading idea of this work is to continuously retrieve glaciers surface velocity through SAR imagery, in particular using the amplitude data from the new ESA satellite sensor Sentinel-1 imagery. These imagery key aspects are the free access policy, the very short revisit time (down to 6 days with the launch of the Sentinel-1B satellite) and the high amplitude resolution (up to 5 m). In order to verify the reliability of the proposed approach, a first experiment has been performed ...

  14. Sentinel node biopsy (SNB) in malignant melanoma as same day procedure vs delayed procedure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rødgaard, Jes Christian; Kramer, Stine; Stolle, Lars B

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare a delayed sentinel node biopsy (dSNB) procedure with a same-day procedure (sSNB) in malignant melanoma. In March 2012, Aarhus University Hospital went from the dSNB to the sSNB procedure defined by lymphoscintigraphy (LS) and sentinel node biopsy (SNB) perform......, essential to keep the morbidity and economic costs low, while keeping the quality of the procedure high....

  15. Discrete call types referring to predation risk enhance the efficiency of the meerkat sentinel system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauber, R; Manser, M B

    2017-03-17

    Sentinel behaviour, a form of coordinated vigilance, occurs in a limited range of species, mostly in cooperative breeders. In some species sentinels confirm their presence vocally by giving a single sentinel call type, whereby the rate and subtle acoustic changes provide graded information on the variation of perceived predation risk. In contrast, meerkat (Suricata suricatta) sentinels produce six different sentinel call types. Here we show that manipulation of perception of danger has different effects on the likelihood of emitting these different call types, and that these call types affect foraging individuals differently. Increasing the perceived predation risk by playing back alarm calls decreased the production rate of the common short note calls and increased the production rate of the rare long calls. Playbacks of short note calls increased foraging behaviour and decreased vigilance in the rest of the group, whereas the opposite was observed when playing long calls. This suggests that the common call types act as all-clear signals, while the rare call types have a warning function. Therefore, meerkats increase the efficiency of their sentinel system by producing several discrete call types that represent changes in predation risk and lead to adjustments of the group's vigilance behaviour.

  16. [Sentinel lymph node biopsy in melanoma patients: methods, indications, and clinical significance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaikaris, Vygintas; Valiukeviciene, Skaidra; Rimdeika, Rytis; Gollnick, Harald; Ulrich, Jens

    2003-01-01

    The incidence of melanoma in Lithuania has doubled over the last decade. Sentinel lymph node biopsy, currently becoming a standard method in the US and Europe, is a minimal invasive and highly sensitive surgical procedure. It can be used for the detection of melanoma micrometastasis in regional lymph nodes in cases when non-invasive methods fail to reveal them. Both disease-free survival and disease-specific survival were significantly better for patients with a negative sentinel lymph node biopsy. A. Breslow thickness, W. H. Clark level, and ulceration of the melanoma were strong predictors, but not as strong as the histological status of the sentinel lymph node. The procedure for sentinel lymph node biopsy is nowadays standardized, including preoperative dynamic lymphoscintigraphy combined with intraoperative gamma probe guidance and blue-dye injection. The aim of this article is to present an update of the sentinel lymph node biopsy method and the prognostic significance of this procedure on the basis of more than 400 sentinel lymph node biopsy's carried out at the Department of Dermatology of the Otto-von-Guericke University, Magdeburg since 1997 and the results of recently published studies in the literature.

  17. Preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and tumor histologic grade are associated with surgical detection of the sentinel lymph node.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias Ortega, M; Torres Sousa, M Y; González García, B; Pardo García, R; González López, A; Delgado Portela, M

    2014-01-01

    To study which variables involved in the process of selective sentinel node biopsy (SSNB) influence the intraoperative detection of the sentinel lymph node. This was a prospective cross-sectional study in 210 patients (mean age, 54 years) diagnosed with breast cancer who underwent SSNB. We recorded clinical, radiological, radioisotope administration, surgical, and histological data as well as follow-up data. We did a descriptive analysis of the data and an associative analysis using multivariable regression. Deep injection alone was the most common route of radioisotope administration (72.7%). Most lesions were palpable (57.1%), presented as nodules (67.1%), measured less than 2 cm in diameter (64.8%), were located in the upper outer quadrant (49.1%), were ductal carcinomas (85.7%), were accompanied by infiltration (66.2%), and had a histologic grade of differentiation of ii (44.8%). Preoperative scintigraphy detected the sentinel node in 97.6% of cases and 95.7% were detected during the operation. One axillary relapse was observed. In the associative study, the variables "preoperative lymphoscintigraphy" and "histologic grade of differentiation of the tumor" were significantly associated with the detection of the sentinel lymph node during the operation. The probability of not detecting the sentinel lymph node during the surgical intervention is higher in patients with high histologic grade tumors or in patients in whom preoperative lymphoscintigraphy failed to detect the sentinel node. Copyright © 2012 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Predictors to assess non-sentinel lymph node status in breast cancer patients with only one sentinel lymph node metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ben; YANG Li; ZUO Wen-shu; GE Wen-kai; ZHENG Gang; ZHENG Mei-zhu; YU Zhi-yong

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of avoiding axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) for patients with only one sentinel lymph node (SLN) metastasis.The characteristics and predictive factors for non-sentinel lymph node (NSLN) metastasis of patients with single positive SLN were also analyzed.Methods Patients with no and only one SLN metastasis (0/n and 1/n group,n ≥2) were selected from 1228 cases of invasive breast carcinoma,who underwent axillary dissection in Shandong Cancer Hospital between November 1999 and December 2011,to compare the characteristics of NSLN metastasis between them.For the 1/n group,the factors that influenced the NSLN metastasis were analyzed by univariate and multivariate analysis.Results Differences of the NSLN metastasis between the 0/n and the 1/n groups were significant (P <0.001).There was no significant difference between the axillary lymph node metastasis on level Ⅲ in 1/n group and 0/n group (P=0.570).When the total SLN number was ≥4 and with one positive case,the NSLN metastasis was not significantly different from that in the 0/n group (P=0.118).In the 1/n group,clinical tumor size (P =0.012),over-expression of Her-2 (P=0.003),tumor grade (P=-0.018) and the total number of SLN (P=-0.047) significantly correlated with non-SLN metastasis.Clinical tumor size (P=-0.015) and the expression of Her-2 (P=0.01) were independent predictive factors for non-SLN metastasis by the Logistic regression model.Conclusion Under certain conditions,breast cancer patients with single SLN metastasis could avoid ALND.

  19. Global aerosol retrieval by synergistic use of ESA ENVISAT instruments and potential for long-term aerosol records from Sentinel-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, P. R.; Bevan, S. L.; Brockmann, C.; Fischer, J.; Gomez-Chova, L.; Grey, W.; Heckel, A.; Moreno, J. F.; Munoz Mari, J.; Preusker, R.; Regner, P.

    2009-12-01

    We present research on for improved global aerosol retrieval by synergistic use of optical sensors on the European Space Agency ENVISAT satellite, MERIS and AATSR. Previously aerosol retrievals have been developed in isolation for these instruments, using spectral and mult-angular approaches respectively. These sensors will be succeeded with improved specification on the Sentinel-3 mission (2012-2030) with the aim to offer data suitable for long-term climate records. The research aims to use combined multi-angular and spectral approaches to constrain the inverse problem. The MERIS and AATSR instruments onboard ENVISAT provide similar resolution and swath but complementary information, encompassing different spectral domains and viewing geometries. Substantial success has been obtained previously by a number of researchers in using the instruments independently; for example MERIS aerosol retrieval using spectral methods over known targets, and AATSR approaches using the dual-view capability. The research explores the gain by using information from both instruments simultaneously to constrain atmospheric profile, characterise cloud, and provide improved atmospheric correction to surface reflectance. Results suggest improved estimation of aerosol properties compared to single-instrument retrievals, when compared with AERONET. A sensitivity study is performed to evaluate potential of Sentinel-3 for aerosol retreval, to be launched in 2012, which will give continuity with enhanced instrument specifications for the successor instruments OLCI and SLSTR.

  20. Recce mission planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Andrew M.

    2000-11-01

    The ever increasing sophistication of reconnaissance sensors reinforces the importance of timely, accurate, and equally sophisticated mission planning capabilities. Precision targeting and zero-tolerance for collateral damage and civilian casualties, stress the need for accuracy and timeliness. Recent events have highlighted the need for improvement in current planning procedures and systems. Annotating printed maps takes time and does not allow flexibility for rapid changes required in today's conflicts. We must give aircrew the ability to accurately navigate their aircraft to an area of interest, correctly position the sensor to obtain the required sensor coverage, adapt missions as required, and ensure mission success. The growth in automated mission planning system capability and the expansion of those systems to include dedicated and integrated reconnaissance modules, helps to overcome current limitations. Mission planning systems, coupled with extensive integrated visualization capabilities, allow aircrew to not only plan accurately and quickly, but know precisely when they will locate the target and visualize what the sensor will see during its operation. This paper will provide a broad overview of the current capabilities and describe how automated mission planning and visualization systems can improve and enhance the reconnaissance planning process and contribute to mission success. Think about the ultimate objective of the reconnaissance mission as we consider areas that technology can offer improvement. As we briefly review the fundamentals, remember where and how TAC RECCE systems will be used. Try to put yourself in the mindset of those who are on the front lines, working long hours at increasingly demanding tasks, trying to become familiar with new operating areas and equipment, while striving to minimize risk and optimize mission success. Technical advancements that can reduce the TAC RECCE timeline, simplify operations and instill Warfighter

  1. The LISA Pathfinder mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonucci, F.; Armano, M.; Audley, H.; Auger, G.; Benedetti, M.; Binetruy, P.; Bogenstahl, J.; Bortoluzzi, D.; Bosetti, P.; Brandt, N.; Caleno, M.; Cañizares, P.; Cavalleri, A.; Cesa, M.; Chmeissani, M.; Conchillo, A.; Congedo, G.; Cristofolini, I.; Cruise, M.; Danzmann, K.; De Marchi, F.; Diaz-Aguilo, M.; Diepholz, I.; Dixon, G.; Dolesi, R.; Dunbar, N.; Fauste, J.; Ferraioli, L.; Ferrone, V.; Fichter, W.; Fitzsimons, E.; Freschi, M.; García Marin, A.; García Marirrodriga, C.; Gerndt, R.; Gesa, L.; Gilbert, F.; Giardini, D.; Grimani, C.; Grynagier, A.; Guillaume, B.; Guzmán, F.; Harrison, I.; Heinzel, G.; Hernández, V.; Hewitson, M.; Hollington, D.; Hough, J.; Hoyland, D.; Hueller, M.; Huesler, J.; Jennrich, O.; Jetzer, P.; Johlander, B.; Karnesis, N.; Killow, C.; Llamas, X.; Lloro, I.; Lobo, A.; Maarschalkerweerd, R.; Madden, S.; Mance, D.; Mateos, I.; McNamara, P. W.; Mendes, J.; Mitchell, E.; Monsky, A.; Nicolini, D.; Nicolodi, D.; Nofrarias, M.; Pedersen, F.; Perreur-Lloyd, M.; Plagnol, E.; Prat, P.; Racca, G. D.; Ramos-Castro, J.; Reiche, J.; Romera Perez, J. A.; Robertson, D.; Rozemeijer, H.; Sanjuan, J.; Schleicher, A.; Schulte, M.; Shaul, D.; Stagnaro, L.; Strandmoe, S.; Steier, F.; Sumner, T. J.; Taylor, A.; Texier, D.; Trenkel, C.; Tu, H.-B.; Vitale, S.; Wanner, G.; Ward, H.; Waschke, S.; Wass, P.; Weber, W. J.; Ziegler, T.; Zweifel, P.

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we describe the current status of the LISA Pathfinder mission, a precursor mission aimed at demonstrating key technologies for future space-based gravitational wave detectors, like LISA. Since much of the flight hardware has already been constructed and tested, we will show that performance measurements and analysis of these flight components lead to an expected performance of the LISA Pathfinder which is a significant improvement over the mission requirements, and which actually reaches the LISA requirements over the entire LISA Pathfinder measurement band.

  2. SAR Altimetry Processing on Demand Service for CryoSat-2 and Sentinel-3 at ESA G-POD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinardo, Salvatore; Lucas, Bruno; Benveniste, Jerome

    2015-12-01

    The scope of this work is to feature the new ESA service (SARvatore) for the exploitation of the CryoSat-2 data, designed and developed entirely by the Altimetry Team at ESA-ESRIN EOP-SER (Earth Observation - Exploitation, Research and Development). The G-POD Service, SARvatore (SAR Versatile Altimetric Toolkit for Ocean Research & Exploitation) for CryoSat-2, is a web platform that provides the capability to process on-line and on-demand CryoSat-2 SAR/SARIN data, from L1a (FBR) data products until SAR/SARIN Level-2 geophysical data products.. The Processor will make use of the G-POD (Grid-Processing On Demand) distributed computing platform to deliver timely the output data products. These output data products are generated in standard NetCDF format (using CF Convention), and they are compatible with BRAT (Basic Radar Altimetry Toolbox) and other NetCDF tool. Using the G-POD graphic interface, it is easy to select the geographical area of interest along with the time-frame of interest, based on the Cryosat-2 SAR/SARIN FBR data products availability in the service's catalogue. After the task submission, the users can follow, in real time, the status of the processing task. The processor prototype is versatile in the sense that the users can customize and adapt the processing, according their specific requirements, setting a list of configurable options. The processing service is meant to be used for research & development experiments, to support the development contracts awarded confronting the deliverables to ESA, on site demonstrations/training in training courses and workshops, cross-comparison against third party products (CLS/CNES CPP Products for instance), preparation for the Sentinel-3 Topographic mission, producing data and graphics for publications, etc. So far, the processing has been designed and optimized for open ocean studies and is fully functional only over this kind of surface but there are plans to augment this processing capacity over coastal

  3. Sentinel Node Biopsy Alone versus Completion Axillary Node Dissection in Node Positive Breast Cancer: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rachna Ram; Jasprit Singh; Eddie McCaig

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. There has been recent interest in validity of completion axillary node dissection after a positive sentinel node. This systematic review aims to ascertain if sentinel lymph node dissection alone was noninferior to axillary lymph node dissection for breast cancer patients who have a positive sentinel node. Method. A systematic review of the electronic databases Embase, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials was carried out. Only randomised trials that had patients wi...

  4. Axillary dissection versus no axillary dissection in patients with sentinel-node micrometastases (IBCSG 23-01)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galimberti, Viviana; Cole, Bernard F; Zurrida, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    For patients with breast cancer and metastases in the sentinel nodes, axillary dissection has been standard treatment. However, for patients with limited sentinel-node involvement, axillary dissection might be overtreatment. We designed IBCSG trial 23-01 to determine whether no axillary dissection...... was non-inferior to axillary dissection in patients with one or more micrometastatic (≤2 mm) sentinel nodes and tumour of maximum 5 cm....

  5. Uganda Mission PRS

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — A web-based performance reporting system that is managed by IBI that interfaces with the Mission's GIS database that supports USAID/Uganda and its implementing...

  6. STS-83 Mission Insignia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The crew patch for NASA's STS-83 mission depicts the Space Shuttle Columbia launching into space for the first Microgravity Sciences Laboratory 1 (MSL-1) mission. MSL-1 investigated materials science, fluid dynamics, biotechnology, and combustion science in the microgravity environment of space, experiments that were conducted in the Spacelab Module in the Space Shuttle Columbia's cargo bay. The center circle symbolizes a free liquid under microgravity conditions representing various fluid and materials science experiments. Symbolic of the combustion experiments is the surrounding starburst of a blue flame burning in space. The 3-lobed shape of the outermost starburst ring traces the dot pattern of a transmission Laue photograph typical of biotechnology experiments. The numerical designation for the mission is shown at bottom center. As a forerunner to missions involving International Space Station (ISS), STS-83 represented the hope that scientific results and knowledge gained during the flight will be applied to solving problems on Earth for the benefit and advancement of humankind.

  7. The Prisma Hyperspectra Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizzo, R.; Ananasso, C.; Guarini, R.; Lopinto, E.; Candela, L.; Pisani, A. R.

    2016-08-01

    PRISMA (PRecursore IperSpettrale della Missione Applicativa) is an Italian Space Agency (ASI) hyperspectral mission currently scheduled for the lunch in 2018. PRISMA is a single satellite placed on a sun- synchronous Low Earth Orbit (620 km altitude) with an expected operational lifetime of 5 years. The hyperspectral payload consists of a high spectral resolution (VNIR-SWIR) imaging spectrometer, optically integrated with a medium resolution Panchromatic camera. PRISMA will acquire data on areas of 30 km Swath width and with a Ground Sampling Distance (GSD) of 30 m (hyperspectral) and of 5 m Panchromatic (PAN). The PRISMA Ground Segment will be geographically distributed between Fucino station and ASI Matera Space Geodesy Centre and will include the Mission Control Centre, the Satellite Control Centre and the Instrument Data Handling System. The science community supports the overall lifecycle of the mission, being involved in algorithms definition, calibration and validation activities, research and applications development.

  8. Athena Mission Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Herder, Jan-Willem; Piro, Luigi; Rau, Arne

    2015-09-01

    The optimization of the Athena mission, the ESA's large X-ray observatory for 2028, is a key challenge. Critical elements for achieving the scientific performances are obviously the two instruments and the optics. However, additional aspects related to the overall mission performances are crucial as well, including the particle background environment (separate presentation), the calibration, the response time to Target of Opportunity requests, the functionality of the science ground segment, and the available high-quality data analysis tools. In addition, the full performance of the satellite will be modeled by an end-to-end simulator. In this presentation we will give an overview of the various systems and also present the Mock Observing Plan that is used to optimize the mission. The work presented in this contribution is based on a collective effort of the Athena science community and is coordinated by the Athena Mission Performance Working Group.

  9. Doing mission inclusively

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-24

    Jun 24, 2016 ... language, rituals, rules, values, and other religious and cultural settings. ... This article posits that Christians, while being in the world, are not of this world. ..... is at the heart of all Christian missions, a core competence of.

  10. Autonomous Mission Operations Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future human spaceflight missions will occur with crews and spacecraft at large distances, with long communication delays, to the Earth. The one-way light-time delay...

  11. Galileo Mission Science Briefing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    The first of two tapes of the Galileo Mission Science press briefing is presented. The panel is moderated by George Diller from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Public Affairs Office. The participants are John Conway, the director of Payload and operations at Kennedy; Donald E. Williams, Commander of STS-43, the shuttle mission which will launch the Galileo mission; John Casani, the Deputy Assistant Director of Flight Projects at the Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL); Dick Spehalski, Galileo Project Manager at JPL; and Terrence Johnson, Galileo Project Scientist at JPL. The briefing begins with an announcement of the arrival of the Galileo Orbiter at KSC. The required steps prior to the launch are discussed. The mission trajectory and gravity assists from planetary and solar flybys are reviewed. Detailed designs of the orbiter are shown. The distance that Galileo will travel from the sun precludes the use of solar energy for heat. Therefore Radioisotope heater units are used to keep the equipment at operational temperature. A video of the arrival of the spacecraft at KSC and final tests and preparations is shown. Some of the many science goals of the mission are reviewed. Another video showing an overview of the Galileo mission is presented. During the question and answer period, the issue of the use of plutonium on the mission is broached, which engenders a review of the testing methods used to ensure the safety of the capsules containing the hazardous substance. This video has actual shots of the orbiter, as it is undergoing the final preparations and tests for the mission.

  12. NEEMO 7 undersea mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirsk, Robert; Williams, David; Anvari, Mehran

    2007-02-01

    The NEEMO 7 mission was the seventh in a series of NASA-coordinated missions utilizing the Aquarius undersea habitat in Florida as a human space mission analog. The primary research focus of this mission was to evaluate telementoring and telerobotic surgery technologies as potential means to deliver medical care to astronauts during spaceflight. The NEEMO 7 crewmembers received minimal pre-mission training to perform selected medical and surgical procedures. These procedures included: (1) use of a portable ultrasound to locate and measure abdominal organs and structures in a crewmember subject; (2) use of a portable ultrasound to insert a small needle and drain into a fluid-filled cystic cavity in a simulated patient; (3) surgical repair of two arteries in a simulated patient; (4) cystoscopy and use of a ureteral basket to remove a renal stone in a simulated patient; and (5) laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a simulated patient. During the actual mission, the crewmembers performed the procedures without or with telementoring and telerobotic assistance from experts located in Hamilton, Ontario. The results of the NEEMO 7 medical experiments demonstrated that telehealth interventions rely heavily on a robust broadband, high data rate telecommunication link; that certain interventional procedures can be performed adequately by minimally trained individuals with telementoring assistance; and that prior clinical experience does not always correlate with better procedural performance. As space missions become longer in duration and take place further from Earth, enhancement of medical care capability and expertise will be required. The kinds of medical technologies demonstrated during the NEEMO 7 mission may play a significant role in enabling the human exploration of space beyond low earth orbit, particularly to destinations such as the Moon and Mars.

  13. Bering Mission Navigation Method

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    "Bering", after the name of the famous Danish explorer, is a near Earth object (NEO) and main belt asteroids mapping mission envisaged by a consortium of Danish universities and research institutes. To achieve the ambitious goals set forth by this mission, while containing the costs and risks, "Bering" sports several new technological enhancements and advanced instruments under development at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU). The autonomous on-board orbit determination method is part...

  14. The LISA Pathfinder Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Paul

    2013-04-01

    LISA Pathfinder, the second of the European Space Agency's Small Missions for Advanced Research in Technology (SMART), is a dedicated technology validation mission for future interferometric spaceborne gravitational wave observatories, for example the proposed eLISA mission. The technologies required for eLISA are many and extremely challenging. This coupled with the fact that some flight hardware cannot be fully tested on ground due to Earth-induced noise, led to the implementation of the LISA Pathfinder mission to test the critical eLISA technologies in a flight environment. LISA Pathfinder essentially mimics one arm of the eLISA constellation by shrinking the 1 million kilometre armlength down to a few tens of centimetres, giving up the sensitivity to gravitational waves, but keeping the measurement technology: the distance between the two test masses is measured using a laser interferometric technique similar to one aspect of the eLISA interferometry system. The scientific objective of the LISA Pathfinder mission consists then of the first in-flight test of low frequency gravitational wave detection metrology. Here I will present an overview of the mission, focusing on scientific and technical goals, followed by the current status of the project.

  15. Distributed Processing of Sentinel-2 Products using the BIGEARTH Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacu, Victor; Stefanut, Teodor; Nandra, Constantin; Mihon, Danut; Gorgan, Dorian

    2017-04-01

    The constellation of observational satellites orbiting around Earth is constantly increasing, providing more data that need to be processed in order to extract meaningful information and knowledge from it. Sentinel-2 satellites, part of the Copernicus Earth Observation program, aim to be used in agriculture, forestry and many other land management applications. ESA's SNAP toolbox can be used to process data gathered by Sentinel-2 satellites but is limited to the resources provided by a stand-alone computer. In this paper we present a cloud based software platform that makes use of this toolbox together with other remote sensing software applications to process Sentinel-2 products. The BIGEARTH software platform [1] offers an integrated solution for processing Earth Observation data coming from different sources (such as satellites or on-site sensors). The flow of processing is defined as a chain of tasks based on the WorDeL description language [2]. Each task could rely on a different software technology (such as Grass GIS and ESA's SNAP) in order to process the input data. One important feature of the BIGEARTH platform comes from this possibility of interconnection and integration, throughout the same flow of processing, of the various well known software technologies. All this integration is transparent from the user perspective. The proposed platform extends the SNAP capabilities by enabling specialists to easily scale the processing over distributed architectures, according to their specific needs and resources. The software platform [3] can be used in multiple configurations. In the basic one the software platform runs as a standalone application inside a virtual machine. Obviously in this case the computational resources are limited but it will give an overview of the functionalities of the software platform, and also the possibility to define the flow of processing and later on to execute it on a more complex infrastructure. The most complex and robust

  16. A Sentinel-1 Flood map generation QGIS plugin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Joan; Lopez, Alex; Romero, Laia; Koudogbo, Fifame

    2016-04-01

    Climate change derived in changing weather patterns making risks very difficult to predict and one very representative example is flood events. Flooding due to overflow from water bodies can be analyzed through change detection techniques with satellite imagery from the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) sensors such as the one on board the ESA Sentinel-1. This analysis will help us have a better understanding of the floodable areas and therefore provide better support and response to these events. The presented open-source Quantum GIS (QGIS) plugin for flood mapping provides this analysis to a growing earth observation user community as described in the following abstract. The flood mapping QGIS plugin has been developed in the context of a FP7 EU funded earth observation project named RASOR (Rapid Analysis and Spatialisation Of Risk), a multi-hazard risk analysis and assessment to support the full cycle of disaster management. The plugin available through QGIS repository enables any user to execute the processing of flood maps based on S1 data in their local work environments. Moreover, results can be uploaded to the RASOR platform in order to be shared with the community. The RASOR Floodmap plugin takes as input two Sentinel-1 SAR images, one taken as reference and another just after the flood event. In parallel, the Area Of Interest (AOI) can be established with one or more polygons in a Shapefile format. The algorithm calibrates and co-registers both images to obtain a change detection RGB GeoTiff file. A K-Means filtering is performed in order to smooth the results and in preparation for the last classification step. Classification is performed by the plugin in which one or more classes are identified as flooded area and therefore polygonise of the extent is conducted, the user can make use of the QGIS workspace in order to supervise results and perform the necessary refinements, for instance by comparing them with different optical images or land cover

  17. Mapping Evapotranspiration on Vineyards: The SENTINEL-2 Potentiality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciraolo, Giuseppe; Capodici, Fulvio; D'Urso, Guido; La Loggia, Goffredo; Maltese, Antonino

    2012-04-01

    were acquired by means of an Eddy correlation tower located within the field. The VIS-NIR bands were atmospherically corrected and calibrated in order to calculate shortwave albedo (ªSW), vegetation height (hC) and LAI, representing the distributed inputs of the Penman-Monteith equation. The paper reports a comparison between the application on the original airborne imagery and on the degraded ones in order to simulate the Sentinel-2 spatial resolution. Moreover a sensitivity analysis has been carried out on input parameters (i.e. ªSW, LAI). The sensitivity was carried out to highlight the variability of ETP on the accuracy in the parameters assessment obtainable using the multispectral Sentinel-2 images, compared to the one retrieved processing high spatial resolution airborne images. The coarser spatial detail of Sentinel-2 images is probably compensated by an increase in spectral resolution, but this will be investigated in next papers.

  18. Robotic Mission Simulation Tool Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Energid Technologies proposes a software tool to predict robotic mission performance and support supervision of robotic missions even when environments and...

  19. Satellite-Derived Aerosol Climate Data Records in the ESA Aerosol_Cci Project: From ERS-2, Envisat to Sentinel-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leeuw, Gerrit; Holzer-Popp, Thomas; North, Peter R. J.; Heckel, Andreas; Pinnock, Simon

    2015-12-01

    With the focus of Sentinel-3 on ocean applications and services, important parts of the payload are the Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer (SLSTR) and the Ocean Land Colour Instrument (OLCI). Apart from Ocean applications, these instruments are also very important for atmospheric observations and in particular for aerosol retrieval. This is the reason why the predecessor instruments AATSR and MERIS have extensively been used in the ESA Climate Change Initiative project Aerosol_cci. In this contribution a brief overview of the current status of the Aerosol_cci project is presented. Full-mission time series of ATSR-2 and AATSR have been processed to provide 17 years of global aerosol information. Selected examples of recent achievements are presented. The experience with ATSR-2, AATSR and MERIS will be used to continue the current time series with SLSTR and OLCI.

  20. [Sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer. Experience of the Rome Breast Cancer Study Group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunato, Lucio; Drago, Stefano; Vitelli, Carlo Eugenio; Santoni, Marcello; Gucciardo, Giacomo; Cabassi, Alessandro; Farina, Massimo; La Pinta, Massimo; Remedi, Massimiliano; Pagano, Giovanni; Silipod, Teresa; Terribile, Daniela; Stagnitto, Daniela; Grassi, Giovanni Battista

    2006-01-01

    We report our multicentric experience with sentinel lymph node biopsy for breast cancer patients. Patients with breast cancer operated on from January 1999 to March 2005 in 6 different institutions in the Rome area were retrospectively reviewed. All patients gave written informed consent. 1440 consecutive patients were analysed, with a median age of 59 years (range: 33-81) and a median tumour diameter of 1.3 cm (range: 0.1-5). Patients underwent lymphatic mapping with Tc99 nanocolloid (N = 701; 49%), with Evans Blue (N = 70; 5%), or with a combined injection (N = 669, 46%). The majority of patients were mapped with an intradermal or subdermal injection (N = 1193; 84%), while an intraparenchymal or peritumoral injection was used in 41 (3%) and 206 patients (13%), respectively. Sentinel lymph nodes were identified in 1374/1440 cases (95.4%), and 2075 sentinel lymph nodes were analysed (average 1.5/patient). A total of 9305 additional non-sentinel lymph-nodes were removed (median 6/patient). Correlations between sentinel lymph nodes and final lymph node status were found in 1355/1374 cases (98.6%). There were 19 false-negative cases (5%). Lymph node metastases were diagnosed in 325 patients (24%). In this group, micrometastases (< 2 mm in diameter) were diagnosed in 103 cases (7.6%). Additionally, isolated tumour cells were reported in 61 patients (4,5%). In positive cases, additional metastases in non-sentinel lymph-nodes were identified in 117/325 cases after axillary dissection (36%). Axillary dissection was avoided in 745/1440 patients (52%). At a median follow-up of 36 months, only 1 axillary recurrence has been reported. Sentinel lymph node biopsy improves staging in women with breast cancer because it is accurate and reproducible, and allows detection of micrometastases and isolated tumour cells that would otherwise be missed. Our multicentric study confirms that this is the preferred axillary staging procedure in women with breast cancer.

  1. Sentinel lymph node biopsy: technique validation at the Setúbal Medical Centre, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, P; Baía, R; António, A; Almeida, J; Simões, J; Amaro, JC; Quintana, C; Branco, L; Rigueira, MV; Gonçalves, M; Pereira, EV; Ferreira, LM

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the accuracy of sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer patients at this institution, using combined technetium-99m (99mTc) sulphur colloid and patent blue vital dye. Methods: From March 2007 to July 2008, 50 patients with a tumour of less than 3 cm and with clinically negative axillary lymph nodes underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB), followed by axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). Sub-areolar 99mTc sulphur colloid injection was performed the day before surgery, and patent blue vital dye was also injected sub-areolarly at least 5 minutes before surgery. Sentinel lymph node was identified during the surgical procedure, using a gamma probe and direct vision. All sentinel nodes underwent frozen section analysis. Later haematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemical analysis were performed. Finally, SLNB was compared with standard ALND for its ability to accurately reflect the final pathological status of the axillary nodes. Results: The sentinel lymph node (SLN) was identified in 48 of 50 patients (96%). The number of sentinel lymph nodes ranged from one to four (mean 1.48) and non-sentinel nodes ranged from seven to 27 (mean 14.33). Of the 48 patients with successfully identified SLNs, 29.17% (14/48) were histologically positive. Sensivity of the SLN to predict axilla was 93.75%; accuracy was 97.96%. The SLN was falsely negative in one patient—6.25% (1/16). Conclusions: The SLNB represents a major advance in the surgical treatment of breast cancer as a minimally invasive procedure predicting the axillary lymph node status. This validation study demonstrates the accuracy of the SLNB and its reasonable false negative rate when performed in our institute. It can now be used as the standard method of staging in patients with early breast cancer at this institution. PMID:22275996

  2. On Clear-Cut Mapping with Time-Series of Sentinel-1 Data in Boreal Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauste, Yrjo; Antropov, Oleg; Mutanen, Teemu; Hame, Tuomas

    2016-08-01

    Clear-cutting is the most drastic and wide-spread change that affects the hydrological and carbon-balance proper- ties of forested land in the Boreal forest zone1.A time-series of 36 Sentinel-1 images was used to study the potential for mapping clear-cut areas. The time series covered one and half year (2014-10-09 ... 2016-03-20) in a 200-km-by-200-km study site in Finland. The Sentinel- 1 images were acquired in Interferometric Wide-swath (IW), dual-polarized mode (VV+VH). All scenes were acquired in the same orbit configuration. Amplitude im- ages (GRDH product) were used. The Sentinel-1 scenes were ortho-rectified with in-house software using a digi- tal elevation model (DEM) produced by the Land Survey of Finland. The Sentinel-1 amplitude data were radio- metrically corrected for topographic effects.The temporal behaviour of C-band backscatter was stud- ied for areas representing 1) areas clear-cut during the ac- quisition of the Sentinel-1 time-series, 2) areas remaining forest during the acquisition of the Sentinel-1 time-series, and 3) areas that had been clear-cut before the acquisition of the Sentinel-1 time-series.The following observations were made:1. The separation between clear-cut areas and forest was generally low;2. Under certain acquisition conditions, clear-cut areas were well separable from forest;3. The good scenes were acquired: 1) in winter during thick snow cover, and 2) in late summer towards the end of a warm and dry period;4. The separation between clear-cut and forest was higher in VH polarized data than in VV-polarized data.5. The separation between clear-cut and forest was higher in the winter/snow scenes than in the dry summer scenes.

  3. Plans for the Sentinel-3 SLSTR Active Fire Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooster, Martin; Xu, Weidong

    2010-05-01

    The Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer (SLSTR) will fly on the ESA Sentinel-3 satellites as a follow-on to the highly successful ERS/ENVISAR (A)ATSR series of imaging radiometers. SLSTR has been designed to offer a series of new capabilities over and above those of the forunner instruments (including an increased number of spectral channels, a much wider swath width, and an increased revisit frequency) whist still maintaining the key characteristics of dual-view, high accuracy and high precision radiometry. Included in the SLSTR-design are two dedicated "fire channels" that will allow unsaturated thermal spectral radiance observations over even high intensity and/or large open vegetation fires. Data from these and the other spectral channels will be used to generate an operational near real-time SLSTR active fire detection and fire radiative power product, to be used for both scientific studies on wildfire causes, behaviour and effects, and also operational applications involved with forecasting the short-term atmospheric impact of wildfire smoke. This work will present the plans for the SLSTR fire product, including details of the algorithm design and performance analysis, and an evaluation of the ver1 algorithm using MODIS data of global fire events.

  4. Biomimetric sentinel reef structures for optical sensing and communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, David; Hutcheson, Tim; Josef, Noam; Millie, David; Tate, Connor

    2017-05-01

    Traditional artificial reef structures are designed with uniform cellular architectures and topologies and do not mimic natural reef forms. Strings and ropes are a proven, common fisheries and mariculture construction element throughout the world and using them as artificial reef scaffolding can enable a diversity of ocean sensing, communications systems including the goal of sentinel reefs. The architecture and packaging of electronics is key to enabling such structures and systems. The distributed sensor reef concept leads toward a demonstrable science-engineering-informed framework for 3D smart habitat designs critical to stock fish development and coastal monitoring and protection. These `nature-inspired' reef infrastructures, can enable novel instrumented `reef observatories' capable of collecting real-time ecosystem data. Embedding lighting and electronic elements into artificial reef systems are the first systems conceptualized. This approach of bringing spatial light to the underwater world for optical sensing, communication and even a new breed of underwater robotic vehicle is an interdisciplinary research activity which integrates principles of electronic packaging, and ocean technology with art/design.

  5. Department of Energy WindSentinel Loan Program Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, William J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sturges, Mark H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) currently owns two AXYS WindSentinel buoys that collect a comprehensive set of meteorological and oceanographic data to support resource characterization for wind energy offshore. The two buoys were delivered to DOE’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in September, 2014. After acceptance testing and initial performance testing and evaluation at PNNL’s Marine Sciences Laboratory in Sequim, Washington, the buoys have been deployed off the U.S. East Coast. One buoy was deployed approximately 42 km east of Virginia Beach, Virginia from December, 2014 through June, 2016. The second buoy was deployed approximately 5 km off Atlantic City, New Jersey in November, 2015. Data from the buoys are available to the public. Interested parties can create an account and log in to http://offshoreweb.pnnl.gov. In response to a number of inquiries and unsolicited proposals, DOE’s Wind Energy Technologies Office is implementing a program, to be managed by PNNL, to lend the buoys to qualified parties for the purpose of acquiring wind resource characterization data in areas of interest for offshore wind energy development. This document describes the buoys, the scope of the loans, the process of how borrowers will be selected, and the schedule for implementation of this program, including completing current deployments.

  6. Sentinel-1 data exploitation for geohazard activity map generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barra, Anna; Solari, Lorenzo; Béjar-Pizarro, Marta; Monserrat, Oriol; Herrera, Gerardo; Bianchini, Silvia; Crosetto, Michele; María Mateos, Rosa; Sarro, Roberto; Moretti, Sandro

    2017-04-01

    This work is focused on geohazard mapping and monitoring by exploiting Sentinel-1 (A and B) data and the DInSAR (Differential interferometric SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar)) techniques. Sometimes the interpretation of the DInSAR derived product (like the velocity map) can be complex, mostly for a final user who do not usually works with radar. The aim of this work is to generate, in a rapid way, a clear product to be easily exploited by the authorities in the geohazard management: intervention planning and prevention activities. Specifically, the presented methodology has been developed in the framework of the European project SAFETY, which is aimed at providing Civil Protection Authorities (CPA) with the capability of periodically evaluating and assessing the potential impact of geohazards (volcanic activity, earthquakes, landslides and subsidence) on urban areas. The methodology has three phases, the interferograms generation, the activity map generation, in terms of velocity and accumulated deformation (with time-series), and the Active Deformation Area (ADA) map generation. The last one is the final product, derived from the original activity map by analyzing the data in a Geographic Information System (GIS) environment, which isolate only the true deformation areas over the noise. This product can be more easily read by the authorities than the original activity map, i.e. can be better exploited to integrate other information and analysis. This product also permit an easy monitoring of the active areas.

  7. The role of sentinel node biopsy in male breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maráz, Róbert; Boross, Gábor; Pap-Szekeres, József; Markó, László; Rajtár, Mária; Ambrózay, Éva; Bori, Rita; Cserni, Gábor

    2016-01-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is a standard procedure in women with breast cancer. The risk of morbidity related to axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) is similar for men and women with breast cancer and SLNB could minimize this risk. Between January 2004 and August 2013, 25 men with primary breast cancer were operated on at the Bács-Kiskun County Teaching Hospital. These were reviewed retrospectively. SLNB was performed following lymphoscintigraphy with intraoperative gamma probe detection and blue dye mapping. SLNB was successful in all 16 male patients (100 %), in whom it was attempted. The SLNs were negative in 4 cases (25 %) and were involved in 12. Intraoperative imprint cytology was positive in 9 of the 12 involved cases (75 %) and resulted immediate completion ALND. In 7 patients, the intraoperative imprint cytology was negative, with 3 false-negative results that resulted in delayed completion ALND. After a median follow-up of 48 months, there was only one axillary recurrence after ALND and none in the SLNB group. SLNB is successful and accurate in male breast cancer patients too. Although compared to women a larger proportion of men have positive nodes, for men with negative nodes, ALND-related morbidity may be reduced by SLNB. We recommend SLNB in male patients with breast cancer and clinically negative axilla.

  8. Haze compensation and atmospheric correction for Sentinel-2 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarau, Aliaksei; Richter, Rudolf; Zekoll, Viktoria; Reinartz, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Sentinel-2 data offer the opportunity to analyse landcover at a high spatial accuracy together with a wide swath. Nevertheless, the high data volume requires a per granule analysis. This may lead to border effects (difference in the radiance/reflectance values) between the neighbouring granules during atmospheric correction. Especially in case of high variations of the aerosol optical thickness (AOT) across the granules, especially in case of haze, the atmospherically corrected mosaicked products often show granule border effects. To overcome these artefacts a dehazing prior to the atmospheric correction is performed. The dehazing compensates only for the haze thickness keeping the AOT fraction for further estimation and compensation in the atmospheric correction chain. This approach results in a smoother AOT map estimate and a corresponding bottom of atmosphere (BOA) reflectance with low or no border artefacts. Using digital elevation models (DEMs) allows a better labelling of haze and a higher accuracy of the dehazing. The DEM analysis rejects high elevation areas where bright surfaces might erroneously be classified as haze, thus reducing the probability of misclassification. The dehazing and atmospheric correction are implemented in the DLR's ATCOR software. An example of a numeric evaluation of atmospheric correction products (AOT and BOA reflectance) is given. It demonstrates a smooth transition between the granules in the AOT map leading to a proper estimate of the BOA reflectance data.

  9. Potential and Challenges of Using Sentinel-2 for Smart Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, H.; Migdall, S.; Spannraft, K.; Hank, T.; Mauser, W.

    2012-04-01

    Plant parameters derived from Earth Observation data serve as important data sources for smart farming services and applications like e.g. TalkingFields. These services aim at improving site-specific crop management by retrieving different plant parameters that give information about the current biomass status as input for management measures like nitrogen fertilization, plant protection and growth regulator application. Two of the most sensitive parameters for this are the Leaf Area Index (LAI) and the chlorophyll content of the leaves. The accuracy of the retrieval of these two parameters has been analysed for a set of multispectral sensors with respect to their spectral and radiometric properties using the radiative transfer model SLC. The Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) band proofed to be determining for the quality of the LAI retrieval. Sensors with spectral bands in the red edge performed best in the chlorophyll retrieval study. Thus, Sentinel-2 as an operational sensor with a high spatial resolution, a high recurrence rate and 13 spectral bands, covering both the red edge and the SWIR region, is expected to improve plant parameter retrieval for smart farming applications.

  10. Acral lentiginous melanoma: who benefits from sentinel lymph node biopsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takamichi; Wada, Maiko; Nagae, Konosuke; Nakano-Nakamura, Misa; Nakahara, Takeshi; Hagihara, Akihito; Furue, Masutaka; Uchi, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    There are significant clinicopathological, genetic, and biological differences between acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM) and other types of melanoma. We sought to investigate the use of sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy for patients with ALM. This was a retrospective review of 116 patients with primary ALM. Melanoma-specific and disease-free survival were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, together with multivariate analyses using the Cox proportional hazards regression model. All patients were Japanese (48 male and 68 female). Metastases in SLN were noted in 13 of 84 patients who underwent SLN biopsy. No patients with thin ALM (≤1 mm) and only 2 patients with nonulcerated ALM had tumor-positive SLN. Patients with positive SLN had significantly shorter melanoma-specific survival (5-year survival rate, 37.5% vs 84.3%; P 1 mm) ALM, the influence of SLN positivity on melanoma-specific survival was increased (5-year survival, 22.7% vs 80.8%; P = .0005). This was a retrospective study and had a small sample size. SLN biopsy should be considered for patients with thick or ulcerated ALM. For patients with thin or nonulcerated ones, it may be of limited importance. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Combined Methylene Blue Dye andRadioactive Tracer Technique for Sentinel Lymph Node Localization in Early Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolrasoul Talei

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sentinel lymph node biopsy is a technique used to identify the axillary node most likely to contain tumor cells that have metastasized from a primarycarcinoma of the breast. This technique provides accurate staging with fewer complications than axillary dissection and may result in decreased costs. We designed the present study to determine the accuracy and success rate of a combined blue dyeand radioactive tracer technique in sentinel node localization. Methods: This prospective study included 70 patients with early stage (tumor>5cm; T1, T2 operable breast cancer and nonpalpable axillary lymphadenopathy seen between 2005 and 2009. Patients underwent sentinel lymph node localization using 4mL of blue dye combined with radioactive colloid. After identification and removal of the sentinel node(s, the axilla was checked for any residual radioactivity. A sentinelnode was defined as any node that was hot, hot and blue or only blue.Results:The sentinel node was identified in 66 patients with a detection rate of 94.2%,and a mean of 1.5 sentinel nodes were identified and harvested (range of 1-4. In 23cases, the sentinel lymph node contained metastatic disease on pathological assessment.There was no pathological evidence of any metastases in the sentinel node in the remaining 43 patients. All sentinel lymph nodes were located in level I of the axillary region. In four patients, no sentinel lymph node was found, so axillary dissection was performed. The sensitivity of the procedure in predicting further axillary disease was 95.6% with a specificity of 97.6%.Conclusion: The present study describes the blue dye and radioisotope localization technique as successful in identifying the sentinel lymph node in early-stage breast cancer patients.

  12. A novel finding of sentinel lymphatic channels in early stage breast cancer patients: which may influence detection rate and false-negative rate of sentinel lymph node biopsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghai Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The exact lymphatic drainage pattern of the breast hasn't been explained clearly. The aim of this study was to investigate the sentinel lymphatic channels (SLCs in the cancerous breast. Whether the type of SLCs influenced the detection rate and false-negative rate of SLNB was also assessed. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mimic SLNB was performed in 110 early-stage breast cancer patients with subareolar injection of blue methylene dye intraoperatively. Postoperatively, 110 specimens of modified radical mastectomy were examined for all blue SLCs after additional injection of methylene dye in peritumoral parenchyma. Interestingly, three types of SLCs, including superficial sentinel lymphatic channel (SSLC, deep sentinel lymphatic channel (DSLC, and penetrating sentinel lymphatic channel (PSLC were found in 107 patients. Six lymphatic drainage patterns based on the three types of SLCs were observed in these 107 patients. The proportions of the drainage pattern SSLC, DSLC, PSLC, SSLC+DSLC, SSLC+PSLC, and DSLC+PSLC in the breast were 43%, 0.9%, 15.9%, 33.6%, 3.7% and 2.8%, respectively. The lymphatic drainage pattern in the breast was a significant risk factor for unsuccessful identification of sentinel lymph nodes (P<0.001 and false-negatives in SLNB (P = 0.034 with the subareolar injection technique. CONCLUSIONS: Three kinds of SLCs are the basis of six lymphatic drainage patterns from the breast to the axilla. The type of SLCs is the factor influencing the detection rate and false-negative rate of SLNB. These findings suggest the optimal injection technique of the combination of superficial and deep injection in SLNB procedures. Future clinical studies are needed to confirm our novel findings.

  13. KuaFu Mission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Lidong; TU Chuanyi; Schwenn Rainer; Donovan Eric; Marsch Eckart; WANG Jingsong; ZHANG Yongwei; XIAO Zuo

    2006-01-01

    The KuaFu mission-Space Storms, Aurora and Space Weather Explorer-is an "L1+Polar" triple satellite project composed of three spacecraft: KuaFu-A will be located at L1 and have instruments to observe solar EUV and FUV emissions, and white-light Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs), and to measure radio waves, the local plasma and magnetic field,and high-energy particles. KuaFuB1 and KuaFu- B2 will bein polar orbits chosen to facilitate continuous 24 hours a day observation of the north polar Aurora Oval. The KuaFu mission is designed to observe the complete chain of disturbances from the solar atmosphere to geospace, including solar flares, CMEs, interplanetary clouds, shock waves, and their geo-effects, such as magnetospheric sub-storms and magnetic storms, and auroral activities. The mission may start at the next solar maximum (launch in about 2012), and with an initial mission lifetime of two to three years. KuaFu data will be used for the scientific study of space weather phenomena, and will be used for space weather monitoring and forecast purposes. The overall mission design, instrument complement, and incorporation of recent technologies will target new fundamental science, advance our understanding of the physical processes underlying space weather, and raise the standard of end-to-end monitoring of the Sun-Earth system.

  14. On the Vicarious Calibration Methodologies in DIMITRI: Application on Sentinel-2 and Landsat-8 Products and Comparison with In-Situ Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhammoud, Bahjat; Bouvet, Marc; Jackson, Jan; Arias, Manuel; Thepaut, Olivier; Lafrance, Bruno; Gascon, Ferran; Cadau, Enrico; Berthelot, Beatrice; Francesconi, Benjamin

    2016-08-01

    In the frame of the Sentinel-2 Mission Performance Centre (MPC) activities, in order to assess the S2A/MSI data quality and to monitor its evolution, DIMITRI is used to perform the vicarious validation of the Level-1C products. DIMITRI consists on several vicarious calibration methodologies for EO optical sensors: Rayleigh scattering, Sun-Glint, PICS and sensor-to- sensor inter-calibration.The first results of S2A/MSI from both Rayleigh and PICS methodologies are consistent and show an excellent quality of the L1C products. The cross- mission Intercomparison with LANDSAT-8/OLI over PICS shows good agreement within the ±5% mission requirements. The Intercomparison with concomitant ground-based TOA-reflectance over the Railroad Valley site shows a good agreement with a relative difference of 5%-10%. The uncertainties over the estimated calibration coefficients overall the results are found to be less than 5% for most of the S2A/MSI spectral bands.

  15. Potential of the TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI onboard the Sentinel-5 Precursor for the monitoring of terrestrial chlorophyll fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Guanter

    2014-12-01

    photosynthetic functioning of terrestrial ecosystems. The feasibility of SIF retrievals from spaceborne atmospheric spectrometers has been demonstrated by a number of studies in the last years. In this work, we investigate the potential of the upcoming TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI onboard the Sentinel-5 Precursor satellite mission for SIF retrieval. TROPOMI will sample the 675–775 nm spectral window with a spectral resolution of 0.5 nm and a pixel size of 7 km × 7 km. We use an extensive set of simulated TROPOMI data in order to assess the uncertainty of single SIF retrievals and subsequent spatio-temporal composites. Our results illustrate the enormous improvement in SIF monitoring achievable with TROPOMI with respect to comparable spectrometers currently in-flight, such as the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2 instrument. We find that TROPOMI can reduce global uncertainties in SIF mapping by more than a factor 2 with respect to GOME-2, which comes together with an about 5-fold improvement in spatial sampling. Finally, we discuss the potential of TROPOMI to accurately map other important vegetation parameters, such as leaf photosynthetic pigments and proxies for canopy structure, which will complement SIF retrievals for a self-contained description of vegetation condition and functioning.

  16. Sentinel cells, symbiotic bacteria and toxin resistance in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Debra A; Callison, W Éamon; Strassmann, Joan E; Queller, David C

    2016-04-27

    The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum is unusual among eukaryotes in having both unicellular and multicellular stages. In the multicellular stage, some cells, called sentinels, ingest toxins, waste and bacteria. The sentinel cells ultimately fall away from the back of the migrating slug, thus removing these substances from the slug. However, some D. discoideum clones (called farmers) carry commensal bacteria through the multicellular stage, while others (called non-farmers) do not. Farmers profit from their beneficial bacteria. To prevent the loss of these bacteria, we hypothesize that sentinel cell numbers may be reduced in farmers, and thus farmers may have a diminished capacity to respond to pathogenic bacteria or toxins. In support, we found that farmers have fewer sentinel cells compared with non-farmers. However, farmers produced no fewer viable spores when challenged with a toxin. These results are consistent with the beneficial bacteria Burkholderia providing protection against toxins. The farmers did not vary in spore production with and without a toxin challenge the way the non-farmers did, which suggests the costs of Burkholderia may be fixed while sentinel cells may be inducible. Therefore, the costs for non-farmers are only paid in the presence of the toxin. When the farmers were cured of their symbiotic bacteria with antibiotics, they behaved just like non-farmers in response to a toxin challenge. Thus, the advantages farmers gain from carrying bacteria include not just food and protection against competitors, but also protection against toxins. © 2016 The Author(s).

  17. PREDICTION OF NON-SENTINEL LYMPH NODE METASTASES IN BREAST CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张杰; 沈坤炜; 尼尔马; 柳光宇; 吴炅; 邵志敏; 沈镇宙

    2003-01-01

    Objective. To identify a subset of breast cancer patients in whom metastatic disease is confined on- ly to the sentinel lymph node(SLn). Methods. Sentinel lymph node biopsy is performed with the injecetion of Tc99m-SC, and a gamma probe. Sentinel node biopsy was compared with standard axillary dissection for its ability to reflect the final pathological status of the axillary nodes. The factors associated with non-SLN metastases were assessed in the univariate and multivariate analysis. Result. We successfully identified 91 out of 95 patients for SLN(95.8%). The accuracy of sentinel lymph node to predict the axillary lymph node status was 93.4%. Clinical tumor size and tumor grade were proved to be the independent predictive factors for non-SLN metastases by logistic regression model. Conclusio.In most cases, the gamma probe guided method is technically feasible for detecting sentinel nodes, accurately predicting the axillary lymph node status. A subset of the patients identified who have a low risk of non-SLN metastases may not require axillary lymph node dissection.

  18. Application of novel iron core/iron oxide shell nanoparticles to sentinel lymph node identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousins, Aidan; Howard, Douglas; Henning, Anna M.; Nelson, Melanie R. M.; Tilley, Richard D.; Thierry, Benjamin

    2015-12-01

    Current `gold standard' staging of breast cancer and melanoma relies on accurate in vivo identification of the sentinel lymph node. By replacing conventional tracers (dyes and radiocolloids) with magnetic nanoparticles and using a handheld magnetometer probe for in vivo identification, it is believed the accuracy of sentinel node identification in nonsuperficial cancers can be improved due to increased spatial resolution of magnetometer probes and additional anatomical information afforded by MRI road-mapping. By using novel iron core/iron oxide shell nanoparticles, the sensitivity of sentinel node mapping via MRI can be increased due to an increased magnetic saturation compared to traditional iron oxide nanoparticles. A series of in vitro magnetic phantoms (iron core vs. iron oxide nanoparticles) were prepared to simulate magnetic particle accumulation in the sentinel lymph node. A novel handheld magnetometer probe was used to measure the relative signals of each phantom, and determine if clinical application of iron core particles can improve in vivo detection of the sentinel node compared to traditional iron oxide nanoparticles. The findings indicate that novel iron core nanoparticles above a certain size possess high magnetic saturation, but can also be produced with low coercivity and high susceptibility. While some modification to the design of handheld magnetometer probes may be required for particles with large coercivity, use of iron core particles could improve MRI and magnetometer probe detection sensitivity by up to 330 %.

  19. Portable gamma camera guidance in sentinel lymph node biopsy: prospective observational study of consecutive cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peral Rubio, F; de La Riva, P; Moreno-Ramírez, D; Ferrándiz-Pulido, L

    2015-06-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy is the most important tool available for node staging in patients with melanoma. To analyze sentinel lymph node detection and dissection with radio guidance from a portable gamma camera. To assess the number of complications attributable to this biopsy technique. Prospective observational study of a consecutive series of patients undergoing radioguided sentinel lymph node biopsy. We analyzed agreement between nodes detected by presurgical lymphography, those detected by the gamma camera, and those finally dissected. A total of 29 patients (17 women [62.5%] and 12 men [37.5%]) were enrolled. The mean age was 52.6 years (range, 26-82 years). The sentinel node was dissected from all patients; secondary nodes were dissected from some. In 16 cases (55.2%), there was agreement between the number of nodes detected by lymphography, those detected by the gamma camera, and those finally dissected. The only complications observed were seromas (3.64%). No cases of wound dehiscence, infection, hematoma, or hemorrhage were observed. Portable gamma-camera radio guidance may be of use in improving the detection and dissection of sentinel lymph nodes and may also reduce complications. These goals are essential in a procedure whose purpose is melanoma staging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  20. Suggestion of optimal patient characteristics for sentinel lymph node mapping in colorectal adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio A Quadros

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: In a previously published study, the variables lower rectal tumor site, preoperative chemoradiotherapy and large tumors were considered as independent risk factors for the inability of sentinel lymph node identification in patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma. OBJECTIVES: To determine if these variables could interfere in the precision and upstaging benefit of sentinel lymph node mapping in colorectal cancer. METHODS: A database composed of 52 patients submitted to lymphatic mapping using technetium-99m-phytate and patent blue was reviewed. Only patients with tumors smaller than 5.0 cm, not submitted to preoperative chemoradiotherapy and without lower rectal cancer were included. RESULTS: With these parameters, 11 patients remained to be studied. The sentinel lymph node identification rate was 100%, with a sensitivity of 100%, negative predictive value of 100%, no false negatives and accuracy of 100%. Sentinel lymph nodes were the only metastatic nodes in 36.4% of the patients, micrometastases (<0.2 cm or only identified by immunohistochemistry provided an upstaging rate of 27.1% and metastases an upstaging rate of 9.1%. CONCLUSION: The parameters proposed in this study for selection of colorectal adenocarcinoma patients to be submitted to sentinel lymph node mapping identified optimal accuracy and good upstaging results. As the number of included patients was low, these results could serve as guidance for proper patient selection in further prospective lymph node mapping studies in colorectal cancer patients.

  1. Sentinel node biopsy in carcinoma penis using methylene blue dye technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan Vinayak

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Penile carcinoma is a common disease in India. This paper shows the results of sentinel node biopsy using methylene blue and discusses the incidence of false-negative rates. Materials and Methods: From September 2005 to March 2008, 22 newly diagnosed penile carcinoma patients (T1, T2, N0 were included in this prospective study. Intraoperative lymphatic mapping was done using methylene blue dye and the sentinel node was identified and removed. Lymphadenectomy was performed for positive inguinal lymph node metastasis. Results : There were 22 patients (mean age 52.7. The tumors were mostly located in the glans (73%. Eighty six percent was T1 lesions and 14% was T2. Ninety one percent of the patients underwent partial penectomy, and 9% underwent total penectomy. Sentinel node was identified in 20 patients (90.9%. In total, 49 sentinel nodes were identified (2.45 nodes per person. Only one patient had a positive pathological lymph node metastasis at the time of the surgery. Additionally, two patients became inguinal lymph node positive at the follow-up. This data yielded a sensitivity rate of 33% and a false-negative rate of 66%. There were no complications due to methylene blue. Conclusion : Sentinel node biopsy using only methylene blue for penile carcinoma has a very low sensitivity and a high false-negative rate. However, methylene blue can be used as a substitute for lymphazurin.

  2. SNOLL. Sentinel node and occult (impalpable) lesion localization in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thind, C.R., E-mail: thindr@aol.com [Radiology Department, St Helens and Knowsley Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Prescott, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Tan, S.; Desmond, S.; Harris, O. [Radiology Department, St Helens and Knowsley Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Prescott, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Ramesh, H.S.J.; Chagla, L.; Ray, A.; Audisio, R. [Department of Surgery, St Helens and Knowsley Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Prescott, Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    2011-09-15

    Aim: To evaluate the efficacy and safety for use of dual radioisotopes for localization of occult (impalpable) breast lesions and sentinel node biopsy as a combined technique (SNOLL) using a lower dose than previous studies. Materials and methods: One hundred and twenty-seven SNOLL procedures were performed. The impalpable breast lesions were localized with an intra-lesion injection of 0.2 ml of {sup 99m}Tc MAA (1 MBq) with a particle size of 10-90 {mu}m (radio-guided occult lesion localization, or ROLL) 1 to 4 h before surgery. Sentinel node localization was performed using 0.2 mls of {sup 99}Tc nanocolloid (20 MBq) particle size no greater than 80 nm injected subdermally in the periareolar region within the index quadrant, the night before or the morning of surgery. Results: Lesion localization was consistently achieved with a lower dose than that described in other studies without the need to use scintigraphy or additional imaging with radioopaque contrast medium. One hundred percent lesion localization with a negative clearance margin of 94.8% and 100% sentinel node localization was achieved. The use of dual radioisotopes with the lower dose used for ROLL did not compromise the localization of the impalpable lesion or the sentinel nodes. Conclusion: The combined use of radioisotopes for lesion and sentinel node removal is feasible and reliable with the lower radioisotope dose suggested compared with previously published studies. This method should be recommended as a standard procedure for SNOLL.

  3. The PROBA-3 Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, Andrei

    2016-07-01

    PROBA-3 is the next ESA mission in the PROBA line of small technology demonstration satellites. The main goal of PROBA-3 is in-orbit demonstration of formation flying techniques and technologies. The mission will consist of two spacecraft together forming a giant (150 m long) coronagraph called ASPIICS (Association of Spacecraft for Polarimetric and Imaging Investigation of the Corona of the Sun). The bigger spacecraft will host the telescope, and the smaller spacecraft will carry the external occulter of the coronagraph. ASPIICS heralds the next generation of solar coronagraphs that will use formation flying to observe the inner corona in eclipse-like conditions for extended periods of time. The occulter spacecraft will also host the secondary payload, DARA (Davos Absolute RAdiometer), that will measure the total solar irradiance. PROBA-3 is planned to be launched in 2019. The scientific objectives of PROBA-3 will be discussed in the context of other future solar and heliospheric space missions.

  4. The Hinode Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Sakurai, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    The Solar-B satellite was launched in 2006 by the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (ISAS/JAXA), and was renamed Hinode ('sunrise' in Japanese). Hinode carries three instruments: the X-ray telescope (XRT), the EUV imaging spectrometer (EIS), and the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT). These instruments were developed by ISAS/JAXA in cooperation with the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan as domestic partner, and NASA and the Science and Technology Facilities Council (UK) as international partners. ESA and the Norwegian Space Center have been providing a downlink station. The Hinode (Solar-B) Mission gives a comprehensive description of the Hinode mission and its instruments onboard. This book is most useful for researchers, professionals, and graduate students working in the field of solar physics, astronomy, and space instrumentation. This is the only book that carefully describes the details of the Hinode mission; it is richly illustrated with full-color ima...

  5. Athena Mission Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumb, D.

    2016-07-01

    Athena has been selected by ESA for its second large mission opportunity of the Cosmic Visions programme, to address the theme of the Hot and Energetic Universe. Following the submission of a proposal from the community, the technical and programmatic aspects of the mission design were reviewed in ESA's Concurrent Design Facility. The proposed concept was deemed to betechnically feasible, but with potential constraints from cost and schedule. Two parallel industry study contracts have been conducted to explore these conclusions more thoroughly, with the key aim of providing consolidated inputs to a Mission Consolidation Review that was conducted in April-May 2016. This MCR has recommended a baseline design, which allows the agency to solicit proposals for a community provided payload. Key design aspects arising from the studies are described, and the new reference design is summarised.

  6. The ALEXIS mission recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloch, J.; Armstrong, T.; Dingler, B.; Enemark, D.; Holden, D.; Little, C.; Munson, C.; Priedhorsky, B.; Roussel-Dupre, D.; Smith, B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Warner, R.; Dill, B.; Huffman, G.; McLoughlin, F.; Mills, R.; Miller, R. [AeroAstro, Inc., Herndon, VA (United States)

    1994-03-01

    The authors report the recovery of the ALEXIS small satellite mission. ALEXIS is a 113-kg satellite that carries an ultrasoft x-ray telescope array and a high-speed VHF receiver/digitizer (BLACKBEARD), supported by a miniature spacecraft bus. It was launched by a Pegasus booster on 1993 April 25, but a solar paddle was damaged during powered flight. Initial attempts to contact ALEXIS were unsuccessful. The satellite finally responded in June, and was soon brought under control. Because the magnetometer had failed, the rescue required the development of new attitude control-techniques. The telemetry system has performed nominally. They discuss the procedures used to recover the ALEXIS mission.

  7. MIV Project: Mission scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravazzotti, Mariolina T.; Jørgensen, John Leif; Thuesen, Gøsta

    1997-01-01

    Under the ESA contract #11453/95/NL/JG(SC), aiming at assessing the feasibility of Rendez-vous and docking of unmanned spacecrafts, a msiision scenario was defined. This report describes the secquence of manouvres and task allocations for such missions.......Under the ESA contract #11453/95/NL/JG(SC), aiming at assessing the feasibility of Rendez-vous and docking of unmanned spacecrafts, a msiision scenario was defined. This report describes the secquence of manouvres and task allocations for such missions....

  8. The Asteroid Impact Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnelli, Ian; Galvez, Andres; Mellab, Karim

    2016-04-01

    The Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) is a small and innovative mission of opportunity, currently under study at ESA, intending to demonstrate new technologies for future deep-space missions while addressing planetary defense objectives and performing for the first time detailed investigations of a binary asteroid system. It leverages on a unique opportunity provided by asteroid 65803 Didymos, set for an Earth close-encounter in October 2022, to achieve a fast mission return in only two years after launch in October/November 2020. AIM is also ESA's contribution to an international cooperation between ESA and NASA called Asteroid Impact Deflection Assessment (AIDA), consisting of two mission elements: the NASA Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) mission and the AIM rendezvous spacecraft. The primary goals of AIDA are to test our ability to perform a spacecraft impact on a near-Earth asteroid and to measure and characterize the deflection caused by the impact. The two mission components of AIDA, DART and AIM, are each independently valuable but when combined they provide a greatly increased scientific return. The DART hypervelocity impact on the secondary asteroid will alter the binary orbit period, which will also be measured by means of lightcurves observations from Earth-based telescopes. AIM instead will perform before and after detailed characterization shedding light on the dependence of the momentum transfer on the asteroid's bulk density, porosity, surface and internal properties. AIM will gather data describing the fragmentation and restructuring processes as well as the ejection of material, and relate them to parameters that can only be available from ground-based observations. Collisional events are of great importance in the formation and evolution of planetary systems, own Solar System and planetary rings. The AIDA scenario will provide a unique opportunity to observe a collision event directly in space, and simultaneously from ground-based optical and

  9. STS-65 Mission Insignia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Designed by the mission crew members, the STS-65 insignia features the International Microgravity Lab (IML)-2 mission and its Spacelab module which flew aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia. IML-2 is reflected in the emblem by two gold stars shooting toward the heavens behind the IML lettering. The Space Shuttle Columbia is depicted orbiting the logo and reaching off into space, with Spacelab on an international quest for a better understanding of the effects of space flight on materials processing and life sciences.

  10. Towards A Shared Mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunstrup, Jørgen; Orth Gaarn-Larsen, Carsten

    A mission shared by stakeholders, management and employees is a prerequisite for an engaging dialog about the many and substantial changes and challenges currently facing universities. Too often this essen-tial dialog reveals mistrust and misunderstandings about the role and outcome of the univer......A mission shared by stakeholders, management and employees is a prerequisite for an engaging dialog about the many and substantial changes and challenges currently facing universities. Too often this essen-tial dialog reveals mistrust and misunderstandings about the role and outcome...

  11. Magellan: mission summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, R S; Pettengill, G H

    1991-04-12

    The Magellan radar mapping mission is in the process of producing a global, high-resolution image and altimetry data set of Venus. Despite initial communications problems, few data gaps have occurred. Analysis of Magellan data is in the initial stages. The radar system data are of high quality, and the planned performance is being achieved in terms of spatial resolution and geometric and radiometric accuracy. Image performance exceeds expectations, and the image quality and mosaickability are extremely good. Future plans for the mission include obtaining gravity data, filling gaps in the initial map, and conducting special studies with the radar.

  12. Stage migration after introduction of sentinel lymph node dissection in breast cancer treatment in Denmark: a nationwide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedskov, Tove Filtenborg; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Balslev, Eva

    2011-01-01

    To estimate the size and therapeutic consequences of stage migration after introduction of sentinel lymph node dissection (SLND) in breast cancer treatment in Denmark.......To estimate the size and therapeutic consequences of stage migration after introduction of sentinel lymph node dissection (SLND) in breast cancer treatment in Denmark....

  13. HCV prevalence among the populations under the HIV sentinel surveillance data from 2009 to 2012 in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王岚

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence among 8 populations in 2009—2012 in China,using the HIV sentinels surveillance data.Methods Cross-sectional studies had been repeatedly conducted on HIV Sentinel Surveillance with uniformed questionnaire

  14. Concepts and processing techniques for a global Sentinel 1-3 Land Cover Dynamics and Change (LCDC) product

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reiche, J.; Herold, M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study proposes a concept and a joint processing chain for integrating the ESA’s upcoming Sentinel 1-3 satellites to address the needs from a series of users. The framework considers the advantages of the single Sentinel systems in terms of the spatial, temporal and thematic detail for

  15. [The role of sentinel lymph node biopsy in the diagnosis and prognosis of malignant melanoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangas, C; Paradelo, C; Rex, J; Ferrándiz, C

    2008-06-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy was introduced into the management of cancer patients 20 years ago. Most hospitals now currently use the technique as a routine diagnostic tool in patients with localized malignant melanoma. However, the technique is complex and numerous details need to be determined and assessed to provide reliable diagnostic and prognostic information. In addition, the introduction of immunohistochemical and molecular techniques in the last decade has extended the information provided by the study of sentinel lymph nodes and created valuable opportunities for investigating the pathogenesis of this type of cancer. The aim of this review is to offer the reader a detailed analysis of the most important studies in the literature and the factors that should currently be considered in determining the indication for sentinel lymph node biopsy, performing the procedure correctly, and interpreting the findings in patients with malignant melanoma.

  16. Sentinel Lymph Node in Breast Cancer: Review Article from a Pathologist's Point of View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple, Sophia K

    2016-03-01

    Breast cancer staging, in particular N-stage changed most significantly due to the advanced technique of sentinel lymph node biopsy two decades ago. Pathologists have more thoroughly examined and scrutinized sentinel lymph node and found increased number of small volume metastases. While pathologists use the strict criteria from the Tumor Lymph Node Metastasis (TNM) Classification, studies have shown poor reproducibility in the application of American Joint Committee on Cancer and International Union Against Cancer/TNM guidelines for sentinel lymph node classification in breast cancer. In this review article, a brief history of TNM with a focus on N-stage is described, followed by innate problems with the guidelines, and why pathologists may have difficulties in assessing lymph node metastases uniformly. Finally, clinical significance of isolated tumor cells, micrometastasis, and macrometastasis is described by reviewing historical retrospective data and significant prospective clinical trials.

  17. The sentinel vein: an important reference point for surgery in the temporal region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinei, F A; Januszkiewicz, J; Nahai, F

    1998-01-01

    An intimate knowledge of the anatomy of the face is essential to the aesthetic surgeon. It is this knowledge that ultimately improves results and minimizes complications. The major morbidity associated with brow lifts is trauma to the temporal branch of the facial nerve. The general course of this nerve has been well documented, but exact details are still lacking. This anatomic study was designed to further elucidate its path. Dissections were performed on each side of 10 fresh cadaver heads. These dissections revealed a consistent relationship between the temporal branch of the facial nerve and the sentinel vein. The sentinel vein is reliably located and preoperatively easily defines the "zone of caution", enabling the surgeon to operate rapidly and with confidence until the zone is reached, at which time the dissection is slower as the vein is approached. In the patient in whom the sentinel vein is not easily visualized externally, it may be identified through fixed skeletal landmarks.

  18. Novel handheld magnetometer probe based on magnetic tunnelling junction sensors for intraoperative sentinel lymph node identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousins, A; Balalis, G L; Thompson, S K; Forero Morales, D; Mohtar, A; Wedding, A B; Thierry, B

    2015-06-03

    Using magnetic tunnelling junction sensors, a novel magnetometer probe for the identification of the sentinel lymph node using magnetic tracers was developed. Probe performance was characterised in vitro and validated in a preclinical swine model. Compared to conventional gamma probes, the magnetometer probe showed excellent spatial resolution of 4.0 mm, and the potential to detect as few as 5 μg of magnetic tracer. Due to the high sensitivity of the magnetometer, all first-tier nodes were identified in the preclinical experiments, and there were no instances of false positive or false negative detection. Furthermore, these preliminary data encourage the application of the magnetometer probe for use in more complex lymphatic environments, such as in gastrointestinal cancers, where the sentinel node is often in close proximity to other non-sentinel nodes, and high spatial resolution detection is required.

  19. Comparison of radioactive tracer tin colloid and phytate for sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagata, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Masato; Nagashima, Takashi; Kasagawa, Takahiro; Sakakibara, Masahiro; Oshida, Keiko; Sangai, Takafumi; Nakano, S.; Miyazaki, Masaru [Chiba Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine

    2002-10-01

    Eighty-four consecutive sentinel node biopsies were performed using dye and radioactive tracer (tin colloid for 42 tumors and phytate for 42 tumors). They had subdermal injection on the morning of surgery or the afternoon before surgery. Maximum RI count of each sentinel node was recorded and classified {<=}5 counts per second (cps), 5-20, or 20<. In injection on the afternoon before surgery, 19 tumors had {<=}5 cps and 2 had 20 cps< in 24 of tin colloid, whereas 1 had {<=}5 cps and 18 had 20 cps< in 22 of phytate. In injection on the morning of surgery, 9 had {<=}5 and 20 had 20< in 18 of tin colloid, whereas 1 had {<=}5 and 18 had 20< in 20 of phytate. The injection of phytate tended to have higher RI count than tin colloid. Phytate is superior to tin colloid for sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer. (author)

  20. EANM practice guidelines for lymphoscintigraphy and sentinel lymph node biopsy in melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bluemel, Christina; Herrmann, Ken; Giammarile, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    -quality lymphoscintigraphy. The final result has been discussed by distinguished experts from the EANM Oncology Committee, national nuclear medicine societies, the European Society of Surgical Oncology (ESSO) and the European Association for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) melanoma group. The document has been......PURPOSE: Sentinel lymph node biopsy is an essential staging tool in patients with clinically localized melanoma. The harvesting of a sentinel lymph node entails a sequence of procedures with participation of specialists in nuclear medicine, radiology, surgery and pathology. The aim of this document...... is to provide guidelines for nuclear medicine physicians performing lymphoscintigraphy for sentinel lymph node detection in patients with melanoma. METHODS: These practice guidelines were written and have been approved by the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) to promote high...

  1. High Resolution Mapping of Wetland Ecosystems SPOT-5 Take 5 for Evaluation of Sentinel-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ade, Christiana; Hestir, Erin L.; Khanna, Shruti; Ustin, Susan L.

    2016-08-01

    Around the world wetlands are critical to human societies and ecosystems, providing services such as habitat, water, food and fiber, flood and nutrient control, and cultural, recreational and religious value. However, the dynamic nature of tidal wetlands makes measuring ecosystem responses to climate change, seasonal inundation regimes, and anthropogenic disturbance from current and previous Earth observing sensors challenging due to limited spatial and temporal resolutions. Sentinel- 2 will directly address this challenge by providing high spatial resolution data with frequent revisit time. This pilot study aims to develop methodology for future Sentinel-2 products and highlight the variability of tidal wetland ecosystems, thereby demonstrating the necessity of improved spatial particularly temporal resolution. Here the simulated Sentinel-2 dataset from the SPOT-5 Take 5 experiment reveals the capacity of the new sensor to simultaneously assess tidal wetland ecosystem phenology and water quality in inland waters.

  2. Results of optical Monte Carlo simulations of a compact γ camera for the detection of sentinel lymph nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Dean; Truman, Andrew; Kwok, Harry; Bergman, Alanah

    2001-07-01

    Breast cancer is most often treatable when detected in the early stages, before the primary disease spreads to sentinel lymph nodes in the axilla and supraclavicular region. A sentinel lymph node is the closest adjacent lymph node to receive lymphatic drainage from a primary breast tumour. It is from these nodes that cancer cells metastasise throughout the lymphatic system, spreading the disease. This work details the optical Monte Carlo modelling of an ultra compact, nuclear medicine γ camera that will be used intra-operatively to detect malignant sentinel lymph nodes. This development will improve the identification and localisation of these sentinel nodes, thereby facilitating improved techniques for axillary lymph node dissection, and sentinel lymph node biopsy.

  3. Results of optical Monte Carlo simulations of a compact {gamma} camera for the detection of sentinel lymph nodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, Dean; Truman, Andrew E-mail: atruman@bccancer.bc.ca; Kwok, Harry; Bergman, Alanah

    2001-07-11

    Breast cancer is most often treatable when detected in the early stages, before the primary disease spreads to sentinel lymph nodes in the axilla and supraclavicular region. A sentinel lymph node is the closest adjacent lymph node to receive lymphatic drainage from a primary breast tumour. It is from these nodes that cancer cells metastasise throughout the lymphatic system, spreading the disease. This work details the optical Monte Carlo modelling of an ultra compact, nuclear medicine {gamma} camera that will be used intra-operatively to detect malignant sentinel lymph nodes. This development will improve the identification and localisation of these sentinel nodes, thereby facilitating improved techniques for axillary lymph node dissection, and sentinel lymph node biopsy.

  4. Mission Operations Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faris, Grant

    2012-01-01

    Integrate the mission operations assurance function into the flight team providing: (1) value added support in identifying, mitigating, and communicating the project's risks and, (2) being an essential member of the team during the test activities, training exercises and critical flight operations.

  5. The Gaia mission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collaboration, Gaia; Prusti, T.; de Bruijne, J. H. J.; Brown, A. G. A.; Vallenari, A.; Babusiaux, C.; Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.; Bastian, U.; Biermann, M.; Evans, D. W.; Eyer, L.; Jansen, F.; Jordi, C.; Klioner, S. A.; Lammers, U.; Lindegren, L.; Luri, X.; Mignard, F.; Milligan, D. J.; Panem, C.; Poinsignon, V.; Pourbaix, D.; Randich, S.; Sarri, G.; Sartoretti, P.; Siddiqui, H. I.; Soubiran, C.; Valette, V.; van Leeuwen, F.; Walton, N. A.; Aerts, C.; Arenou, F.; Cropper, M.; Drimmel, R.; Høg, E.; Katz, D.; Lattanzi, M. G.; O'Mullane, W.; Grebel, E. K.; Holland, A. D.; Huc, C.; Passot, X.; Bramante, L.; Cacciari, C.; Castañeda, J.; Chaoul, L.; Cheek, N.; De Angeli, F.; Fabricius, C.; Guerra, R.; Hernández, J.; Jean-Antoine-Piccolo, A.; Masana, E.; Messineo, R.; Mowlavi, N.; Nienartowicz, K.; Ordóñez-Blanco, D.; Panuzzo, P.; Portell, J.; Richards, P. J.; Riello, M.; Seabroke, G. M.; Tanga, P.; Thévenin, F.; Torra, J.; Els, S. G.; Gracia-Abril, G.; Comoretto, G.; Garcia-Reinaldos, M.; Lock, T.; Mercier, E.; Altmann, M.; Andrae, R.; Astraatmadja, T. L.; Bellas-Velidis, I.; Benson, K.; Berthier, J.; Blomme, R.; Busso, G.; Carry, B.; Cellino, A.; Clementini, G.; Cowell, S.; Creevey, O.; Cuypers, J.; Davidson, M.; De Ridder, J.; de Torres, A.; Delchambre, L.; Dell'Oro, A.; Ducourant, C.; Frémat, Y.; García-Torres, M.; Gosset, E.; Halbwachs, J. -L; Hambly, N. C.; Harrison, D. L.; Hauser, M.; Hestroffer, D.; Hodgkin, S. T.; Huckle, H. E.; Hutton, A.; Jasniewicz, G.; Jordan, S.; Kontizas, M.; Korn, A. J.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Manteiga, M.; Moitinho, A.; Muinonen, K.; Osinde, J.; Pancino, E.; Pauwels, T.; Petit, J. -M; Recio-Blanco, A.; Robin, A. C.; Sarro, L. M.; Siopis, C.; Smith, M.; Smith, K. W.; Sozzetti, A.; Thuillot, W.; van Reeven, W.; Viala, Y.; Abbas, U.; Abreu Aramburu, A.; Accart, S.; Aguado, J. J.; Allan, P. M.; Allasia, W.; Altavilla, G.; Álvarez, M. A.; Alves, J.; Anderson, R. I.; Andrei, A. H.; Anglada Varela, E.; Antiche, E.; Antoja, T.; Antón, S.; Arcay, B.; Atzei, A.; Ayache, L.; Bach, N.; Baker, S. G.; Balaguer-Núñez, L.; Barache, C.; Barata, C.; Barbier, A.; Barblan, F.; Baroni, M.; Barrado y Navascués, D.; Barros, M.; Barstow, M. A.; Becciani, U.; Bellazzini, M.; Bellei, G.; Bello García, A.; Belokurov, V.; Bendjoya, P.; Berihuete, A.; Bianchi, L.; Bienaymé, O.; Billebaud, F.; Blagorodnova, N.; Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Boch, T.; Bombrun, A.; Borrachero, R.; Bouquillon, S.; Bourda, G.; Bouy, H.; Bragaglia, A.; Breddels, M. A.; Brouillet, N.; Brüsemeister, T.; Bucciarelli, B.; Budnik, F.; Burgess, P.; Burgon, R.; Burlacu, A.; Busonero, D.; Buzzi, R.; Caffau, E.; Cambras, J.; Campbell, H.; Cancelliere, R.; Cantat-Gaudin, T.; Carlucci, T.; Carrasco, J. M.; Castellani, M.; Charlot, P.; Charnas, J.; Charvet, P.; Chassat, F.; Chiavassa, A.; Clotet, M.; Cocozza, G.; Collins, R. S.; Collins, P.; Costigan, G.; Crifo, F.; Cross, N. J. G.; Crosta, M.; Crowley, C.; Dafonte, C.; Damerdji, Y.; Dapergolas, A.; David, P.; David, M.; De Cat, P.; de Felice, F.; de Laverny, P.; De Luise, F.; De March, R.; de Martino, D.; de Souza, R.; Debosscher, J.; del Pozo, E.; Delbo, M.; Delgado, A.; Delgado, H. E.; di Marco, F.; Di Matteo, P.; Diakite, S.; Distefano, E.; Dolding, C.; Dos Anjos, S.; Drazinos, P.; Durán, J.; Dzigan, Y.; Ecale, E.; Edvardsson, B.; Enke, H.; Erdmann, M.; Escolar, D.; Espina, M.; Evans, N. W.; Eynard Bontemps, G.; Fabre, C.; Fabrizio, M.; Faigler, S.; Falcão, A. J.; Farràs Casas, M.; Faye, F.; Federici, L.; Fedorets, G.; Fernández-Hernández, J.; Fernique, P.; Fienga, A.; Figueras, F.; Filippi, F.; Findeisen, K.; Fonti, A.; Fouesneau, M.; Fraile, E.; Fraser, M.; Fuchs, J.; Furnell, R.; Gai, M.; Galleti, S.; Galluccio, L.; Garabato, D.; García-Sedano, F.; Garé, P.; Garofalo, A.; Garralda, N.; Gavras, P.; Gerssen, J.; Geyer, R.; Gilmore, G.; Girona, S.; Giuffrida, G.; Gomes, M.; González-Marcos, A.; González-Núñez, J.; González-Vidal, J. J.; Granvik, M.; Guerrier, A.; Guillout, P.; Guiraud, J.; Gúrpide, A.; Gutiérrez-Sánchez, R.; Guy, L. P.; Haigron, R.; Hatzidimitriou, D.; Haywood, M.; Heiter, U.; Helmi, A.; Hobbs, D.; Hofmann, W.; Holl, B.; Holland, G.; Hunt, J. A. S.; Hypki, A.; Icardi, V.; Irwin, M.; Jevardat de Fombelle, G.; Jofré, P.; Jonker, P. G.; Jorissen, A.; Julbe, F.; Karampelas, A.; Kochoska, A.; Kohley, R.; Kolenberg, K.; Kontizas, E.; Koposov, S. E.; Kordopatis, G.; Koubsky, P.; Kowalczyk, A.; Krone-Martins, A.; Kudryashova, M.; Kull, I.; Bachchan, R. K.; Lacoste-Seris, F.; Lanza, A. F.; Lavigne, J. -B; Le Poncin-Lafitte, C.; Lebreton, Y.; Lebzelter, T.; Leccia, S.; Leclerc, N.; Lecoeur-Taibi, I.; Lemaitre, V.; Lenhardt, H.; Leroux, F.; Liao, S.; Licata, E.; Lindstrøm, H. E. P.; Lister, T. A.; Livanou, E.; Lobel, A.; Löffler, W.; López, M.; Lopez-Lozano, A.; Lorenz, D.; Loureiro, T.; MacDonald, I.; Magalhães Fernandes, T.; Managau, S.; Mann, R. G.; Mantelet, G.; Marchal, O.; Marchant, J. M.; Marconi, M.; Marie, J.; Marinoni, S.; Marrese, P. M.; Marschalkó, G.; Marshall, D. J.; Martín-Fleitas, J. M.; Martino, M.; Mary, N.; Matijevič, G.; Mazeh, T.; McMillan, P. J.; Messina, S.; Mestre, A.; Michalik, D.; Millar, N. R.; Miranda, B. M. H.; Molina, D.; Molinaro, R.; Molinaro, M.; Molnár, L.; Moniez, M.; Montegriffo, P.; Monteiro, D.; Mor, R.; Mora, A.; Morbidelli, R.; Morel, T.; Morgenthaler, S.; Morley, T.; Morris, D.; Mulone, A. F.; Muraveva, T.; Musella, I.; Narbonne, J.; Nelemans, G.; Nicastro, L.; Noval, L.; Ordénovic, C.; Ordieres-Meré, J.; Osborne, P.; Pagani, C.; Pagano, I.; Pailler, F.; Palacin, H.; Palaversa, L.; Parsons, P.; Paulsen, T.; Pecoraro, M.; Pedrosa, R.; Pentikäinen, H.; Pereira, J.; Pichon, B.; Piersimoni, A. M.; Pineau, F. -X; Plachy, E.; Plum, G.; Poujoulet, E.; Prša, A.; Pulone, L.; Ragaini, S.; Rago, S.; Rambaux, N.; Ramos-Lerate, M.; Ranalli, P.; Rauw, G.; Read, A.; Regibo, S.; Renk, F.; Reylé, C.; Ribeiro, R. A.; Rimoldini, L.; Ripepi, V.; Riva, A.; Rixon, G.; Roelens, M.; Romero-Gómez, M.; Rowell, N.; Royer, F.; Rudolph, A.; Ruiz-Dern, L.; Sadowski, G.; Sagristà Sellés, T.; Sahlmann, J.; Salgado, J.; Salguero, E.; Sarasso, M.; Savietto, H.; Schnorhk, A.; Schultheis, M.; Sciacca, E.; Segol, M.; Segovia, J. C.; Segransan, D.; Serpell, E.; Shih, I. -C; Smareglia, R.; Smart, R. L.; Smith, C.; Solano, E.; Solitro, F.; Sordo, R.; Soria Nieto, S.; Souchay, J.; Spagna, A.; Spoto, F.; Stampa, U.; Steele, I. A.; Steidelmüller, H.; Stephenson, C. A.; Stoev, H.; Suess, F. F.; Süveges, M.; Surdej, J.; Szabados, L.; Szegedi-Elek, E.; Tapiador, D.; Taris, F.; Tauran, G.; Taylor, M. B.; Teixeira, R.; Terrett, D.; Tingley, B.; Trager, S. C.; Turon, C.; Ulla, A.; Utrilla, E.; Valentini, G.; van Elteren, A.; Van Hemelryck, E.; van Leeuwen, M.; Varadi, M.; Vecchiato, A.; Veljanoski, J.; Via, T.; Vicente, D.; Vogt, S.; Voss, H.; Votruba, V.; Voutsinas, S.; Walmsley, G.; Weiler, M.; Weingrill, K.; Werner, D.; Wevers, T.; Whitehead, G.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Yoldas, A.; Žerjal, M.; Zucker, S.; Zurbach, C.; Zwitter, T.; Alecu, A.; Allen, M.; Allende Prieto, C.; Amorim, A.; Anglada-Escudé, G.; Arsenijevic, V.; Azaz, S.; Balm, P.; Beck, M.; Bernstein, H. -H; Bigot, L.; Bijaoui, A.; Blasco, C.; Bonfigli, M.; Bono, G.; Boudreault, S.; Bressan, A.; Brown, S.; Brunet, P. -M; Bunclark, P.; Buonanno, R.; Butkevich, A. G.; Carret, C.; Carrion, C.; Chemin, L.; Chéreau, F.; Corcione, L.; Darmigny, E.; de Boer, K. S.; de Teodoro, P.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Delle Luche, C.; Domingues, C. D.; Dubath, P.; Fodor, F.; Frézouls, B.; Fries, A.; Fustes, D.; Fyfe, D.; Gallardo, E.; Gallegos, J.; Gardiol, D.; Gebran, M.; Gomboc, A.; Gómez, A.; Grux, E.; Gueguen, A.; Heyrovsky, A.; Hoar, J.; Iannicola, G.; Isasi Parache, Y.; Janotto, A. -M; Joliet, E.; Jonckheere, A.; Keil, R.; Kim, D. -W; Klagyivik, P.; Klar, J.; Knude, J.; Kochukhov, O.; Kolka, I.; Kos, J.; Kutka, A.; Lainey, V.; LeBouquin, D.; Liu, C.; Loreggia, D.; Makarov, V. V.; Marseille, M. G.; Martayan, C.; Martinez-Rubi, O.; Massart, B.; Meynadier, F.; Mignot, S.; Munari, U.; Nguyen, A. -T; Nordlander, T.; Ocvirk, P.; O'Flaherty, K. S.; Olias Sanz, A.; Ortiz, P.; Osorio, J.; Oszkiewicz, D.; Ouzounis, A.; Palmer, M.; Park, P.; Pasquato, E.; Peltzer, C.; Peralta, J.; Péturaud, F.; Pieniluoma, T.; Pigozzi, E.; Poels, J.; Prat, G.; Prod'homme, T.; Raison, F.; Rebordao, J. M.; Risquez, D.; Rocca-Volmerange, B.; Rosen, S.; Ruiz-Fuertes, M. I.; Russo, F.; Sembay, S.; Serraller Vizcaino, I.; Short, A.; Siebert, A.; Silva, H.; Sinachopoulos, D.; Slezak, E.; Soffel, M.; Sosnowska, D.; Straižys, V.; ter Linden, M.; Terrell, D.; Theil, S.; Tiede, C.; Troisi, L.; Tsalmantza, P.; Tur, D.; Vaccari, M.; Vachier, F.; Valles, P.; Van Hamme, W.; Veltz, L.; Virtanen, J.; Wallut, J. -M; Wichmann, R.; Wilkinson, M. I.; Ziaeepour, H.; Zschocke, S.

    2016-01-01

    Gaia is a cornerstone mission in the science programme of the EuropeanSpace Agency (ESA). The spacecraft construction was approved in 2006, following a study in which the original interferometric concept was changed to a direct-imaging approach. Both the spacecraft and the payload were built by Euro

  6. Inspiration is "Mission Critical"

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, D. W.; DeVore, E.; Lebofsky, L.

    2014-07-01

    In spring 2013, the President's budget proposal restructured the nation's approach to STEM education, eliminating ˜$50M of NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) funding with the intent of transferring it to the Dept. of Education, National Science Foundation, and Smithsonian Institution. As a result, Education and Public Outreach (EPO) would no longer be a NASA mission requirement and funds that had already been competed, awarded, and productively utilized were lost. Since 1994, partnerships of scientists, engineers, and education specialists were required to create innovative approaches to EPO, providing a direct source of inspiration for today's youth that may now be lost. Although seldom discussed or evaluated, "inspiration" is the beginning of lasting education. For decades, NASA's crewed and robotic missions have motivated students of all ages and have demonstrated a high degree of leverage in society. Through personal experiences we discuss (1) the importance of inspiration in education, (2) how NASA plays a vital role in STEM education, (3) examples of high-leverage educational materials showing why NASA should continue embedding EPO specialists within mission teams, and (4) how we can document the role of inspiration. We believe that personal histories are an important means of assessing the success of EPO. We hope this discussion will lead other people to document similar stories of educational success and perhaps to undertake longitudinal studies of the impact of inspiration.

  7. The LISA Pathfinder Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armano, M.; Audley, H.; Auger, G.; Baird, J.; Binetruy, P.; Born, M.; Bortoluzzi, D.; Brandt, N.; Bursi, A.; Caleno, M.; Cavalleri, A.; Cesarini, A.; Cruise, M.; Danzmann, K.; Diepholz, I.; Dolesi, R.; Dunbar, N.; Ferraioli, L.; Ferroni, V.; Fitzsimons, E.; Freschi, M.; Gallegos, J.; García Marirrodriga, C.; Gerndt, R.; Gesa, L. I.; Gibert, F.; Giardini, D.; Giusteri, R.; Grimani, C.; Harrison, I.; Heinzel, G.; Hewitson, M.; Hollington, D.; Hueller, M.; Huesler, J.; Inchauspé, H.; Jennrich, O.; Jetzer, P.; Johlander, B.; Karnesis, N.; Kaune, B.; Korsakova, N.; Killow, C.; Lloro, I.; Maarschalkerweerd, R.; Madden, S.; Mance, D.; Martín, V.; Martin-Porqueras, F.; Mateos, I.; McNamara, P.; Mendes, J.; Mendes, L.; Moroni, A.; Nofrarias, M.; Paczkowski, S.; Perreur-Lloyd, M.; Petiteau, A.; Pivato, P.; Plagnol, E.; Prat, P.; Ragnit, U.; Ramos-Castro, J.; Reiche, J.; Romera Perez, J. A.; Robertson, D.; Rozemeijer, H.; Russano, G.; Sarra, P.; Schleicher, A.; Slutsky, J.; Sopuerta, C. F.; Sumner, T.; Texier, D.; Thorpe, J.; Trenkel, C.; Tu, H. B.; Vetrugno, D.; Vitale, S.; Wanner, G.; Ward, H.; Waschke, S.; Wass, P.; Wealthy, D.; Wen, S.; Weber, W.; Wittchen, A.; Zanoni, C.; Ziegler, T.; Zweifel, P.

    2015-05-01

    LISA Pathfinder (LPF), the second of the European Space Agency's Small Missions for Advanced Research in Technology (SMART), is a dedicated technology validation mission for future spaceborne gravitational wave detectors, such as the proposed eLISA mission. LISA Pathfinder, and its scientific payload - the LISA Technology Package - will test, in flight, the critical technologies required for low frequency gravitational wave detection: it will put two test masses in a near-perfect gravitational free-fall and control and measure their motion with unprecedented accuracy. This is achieved through technology comprising inertial sensors, high precision laser metrology, drag-free control and an ultra-precise micro-Newton propulsion system. LISA Pathfinder is due to be launched in mid-2015, with first results on the performance of the system being available 6 months thereafter. The paper introduces the LISA Pathfinder mission, followed by an explanation of the physical principles of measurement concept and associated hardware. We then provide a detailed discussion of the LISA Technology Package, including both the inertial sensor and interferometric readout. As we approach the launch of the LISA Pathfinder, the focus of the development is shifting towards the science operations and data analysis - this is described in the final section of the paper

  8. The Lobster Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthelmy, Scott

    2011-01-01

    I will give an overview of the Goddard Lobster mission: the science goals, the two instruments, the overall instruments designs, with particular attention to the wide-field x-ray instrument (WFI) using the lobster-eye-like micro-channel optics.

  9. Mission from Mars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dindler, Christian; Eriksson, Eva; Iversen, Ole Sejer

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a particular design method is propagated as a supplement to existing descriptive approaches to current practice studies especially suitable for gathering requirements for the design of children's technology. The Mission from Mars method was applied during the design of an electronic...

  10. Robust UAV Mission Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, L.; Dollevoet, T; Barros, A.I.; Monsuur, H.

    2011-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can provide significant contributions to information gathering in military missions. UAVs can be used to capture both full motion video and still imagery of specific target locations within the area of interest. In order to improve the effectiveness of a reconnaissanc

  11. Robust UAV mission planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, L.; Dollevoet, T.; Barros, A.I.; Monsuur, H.

    2011-01-01

    Unmanned Areal Vehicles (UAVs) can provide significant contributions to information gathering in military missions. UAVs can be used to capture both full motion video and still imagery of specific target locations within the area of interest. In order to improve the effectiveness of a reconnaissance

  12. Robust UAV Mission Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Evers (Lanah); T.A.B. Dollevoet (Twan); A.I. Barros (Ana); H. Monsuur (Herman)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractUnmanned Areal Vehicles (UAVs) can provide significant contributions to information gathering in military missions. UAVs can be used to capture both full motion video and still imagery of specific target locations within the area of interest. In order to improve the effectiveness of a re

  13. Robust UAV Mission Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, L.; Dollevoet, T.; Barros, A.I.; Monsuur, H.

    2014-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can provide significant contributions to information gathering in military missions. UAVs can be used to capture both full motion video and still imagery of specific target locations within the area of interest. In order to improve the effectiveness of a reconnaissanc

  14. EOS Aura Mission Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guit, William J.

    2015-01-01

    This PowerPoint presentation will discuss EOS Aura mission and spacecraft subsystem summary, recent and planned activities, inclination adjust maneuvers, propellant usage lifetime estimate. Eric Moyer, ESMO Deputy Project Manager-Technical (code 428) has reviewed and approved the slides on April 30, 2015.

  15. The Gaia mission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collaboration, Gaia; Prusti, T.; de Bruijne, J. H. J.; Brown, A. G. A.; Vallenari, A.; Babusiaux, C.; Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.; Bastian, U.; Biermann, M.; Evans, D. W.; Eyer, L.; Jansen, F.; Jordi, C.; Klioner, S. A.; Lammers, U.; Lindegren, L.; Luri, X.; Mignard, F.; Milligan, D. J.; Panem, C.; Poinsignon, V.; Pourbaix, D.; Randich, S.; Sarri, G.; Sartoretti, P.; Siddiqui, H. I.; Soubiran, C.; Valette, V.; van Leeuwen, F.; Walton, N. A.; Aerts, C.; Arenou, F.; Cropper, M.; Drimmel, R.; Høg, E.; Katz, D.; Lattanzi, M. G.; O'Mullane, W.; Grebel, E. K.; Holland, A. D.; Huc, C.; Passot, X.; Bramante, L.; Cacciari, C.; Castañeda, J.; Chaoul, L.; Cheek, N.; De Angeli, F.; Fabricius, C.; Guerra, R.; Hernández, J.; Jean-Antoine-Piccolo, A.; Masana, E.; Messineo, R.; Mowlavi, N.; Nienartowicz, K.; Ordóñez-Blanco, D.; Panuzzo, P.; Portell, J.; Richards, P. J.; Riello, M.; Seabroke, G. M.; Tanga, P.; Thévenin, F.; Torra, J.; Els, S. G.; Gracia-Abril, G.; Comoretto, G.; Garcia-Reinaldos, M.; Lock, T.; Mercier, E.; Altmann, M.; Andrae, R.; Astraatmadja, T. L.; Bellas-Velidis, I.; Benson, K.; Berthier, J.; Blomme, R.; Busso, G.; Carry, B.; Cellino, A.; Clementini, G.; Cowell, S.; Creevey, O.; Cuypers, J.; Davidson, M.; De Ridder, J.; de Torres, A.; Delchambre, L.; Dell'Oro, A.; Ducourant, C.; Frémat, Y.; García-Torres, M.; Gosset, E.; Halbwachs, J. -L; Hambly, N. C.; Harrison, D. L.; Hauser, M.; Hestroffer, D.; Hodgkin, S. T.; Huckle, H. E.; Hutton, A.; Jasniewicz, G.; Jordan, S.; Kontizas, M.; Korn, A. J.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Manteiga, M.; Moitinho, A.; Muinonen, K.; Osinde, J.; Pancino, E.; Pauwels, T.; Petit, J. -M; Recio-Blanco, A.; Robin, A. C.; Sarro, L. M.; Siopis, C.; Smith, M.; Smith, K. W.; Sozzetti, A.; Thuillot, W.; van Reeven, W.; Viala, Y.; Abbas, U.; Abreu Aramburu, A.; Accart, S.; Aguado, J. J.; Allan, P. M.; Allasia, W.; Altavilla, G.; Álvarez, M. A.; Alves, J.; Anderson, R. I.; Andrei, A. H.; Anglada Varela, E.; Antiche, E.; Antoja, T.; Antón, S.; Arcay, B.; Atzei, A.; Ayache, L.; Bach, N.; Baker, S. G.; Balaguer-Núñez, L.; Barache, C.; Barata, C.; Barbier, A.; Barblan, F.; Baroni, M.; Barrado y Navascués, D.; Barros, M.; Barstow, M. A.; Becciani, U.; Bellazzini, M.; Bellei, G.; Bello García, A.; Belokurov, V.; Bendjoya, P.; Berihuete, A.; Bianchi, L.; Bienaymé, O.; Billebaud, F.; Blagorodnova, N.; Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Boch, T.; Bombrun, A.; Borrachero, R.; Bouquillon, S.; Bourda, G.; Bouy, H.; Bragaglia, A.; Breddels, M. A.; Brouillet, N.; Brüsemeister, T.; Bucciarelli, B.; Budnik, F.; Burgess, P.; Burgon, R.; Burlacu, A.; Busonero, D.; Buzzi, R.; Caffau, E.; Cambras, J.; Campbell, H.; Cancelliere, R.; Cantat-Gaudin, T.; Carlucci, T.; Carrasco, J. M.; Castellani, M.; Charlot, P.; Charnas, J.; Charvet, P.; Chassat, F.; Chiavassa, A.; Clotet, M.; Cocozza, G.; Collins, R. S.; Collins, P.; Costigan, G.; Crifo, F.; Cross, N. J. G.; Crosta, M.; Crowley, C.; Dafonte, C.; Damerdji, Y.; Dapergolas, A.; David, P.; David, M.; De Cat, P.; de Felice, F.; de Laverny, P.; De Luise, F.; De March, R.; de Martino, D.; de Souza, R.; Debosscher, J.; del Pozo, E.; Delbo, M.; Delgado, A.; Delgado, H. E.; di Marco, F.; Di Matteo, P.; Diakite, S.; Distefano, E.; Dolding, C.; Dos Anjos, S.; Drazinos, P.; Durán, J.; Dzigan, Y.; Ecale, E.; Edvardsson, B.; Enke, H.; Erdmann, M.; Escolar, D.; Espina, M.; Evans, N. W.; Eynard Bontemps, G.; Fabre, C.; Fabrizio, M.; Faigler, S.; Falcão, A. J.; Farràs Casas, M.; Faye, F.; Federici, L.; Fedorets, G.; Fernández-Hernández, J.; Fernique, P.; Fienga, A.; Figueras, F.; Filippi, F.; Findeisen, K.; Fonti, A.; Fouesneau, M.; Fraile, E.; Fraser, M.; Fuchs, J.; Furnell, R.; Gai, M.; Galleti, S.; Galluccio, L.; Garabato, D.; García-Sedano, F.; Garé, P.; Garofalo, A.; Garralda, N.; Gavras, P.; Gerssen, J.; Geyer, R.; Gilmore, G.; Girona, S.; Giuffrida, G.; Gomes, M.; González-Marcos, A.; González-Núñez, J.; González-Vidal, J. J.; Granvik, M.; Guerrier, A.; Guillout, P.; Guiraud, J.; Gúrpide, A.; Gutiérrez-Sánchez, R.; Guy, L. P.; Haigron, R.; Hatzidimitriou, D.; Haywood, M.; Heiter, U.; Helmi, A.; Hobbs, D.; Hofmann, W.; Holl, B.; Holland, G.; Hunt, J. A. S.; Hypki, A.; Icardi, V.; Irwin, M.; Jevardat de Fombelle, G.; Jofré, P.; Jonker, P. G.; Jorissen, A.; Julbe, F.; Karampelas, A.; Kochoska, A.; Kohley, R.; Kolenberg, K.; Kontizas, E.; Koposov, S. E.; Kordopatis, G.; Koubsky, P.; Kowalczyk, A.; Krone-Martins, A.; Kudryashova, M.; Kull, I.; Bachchan, R. K.; Lacoste-Seris, F.; Lanza, A. F.; Lavigne, J. -B; Le Poncin-Lafitte, C.; Lebreton, Y.; Lebzelter, T.; Leccia, S.; Leclerc, N.; Lecoeur-Taibi, I.; Lemaitre, V.; Lenhardt, H.; Leroux, F.; Liao, S.; Licata, E.; Lindstrøm, H. E. P.; Lister, T. A.; Livanou, E.; Lobel, A.; Löffler, W.; López, M.; Lopez-Lozano, A.; Lorenz, D.; Loureiro, T.; MacDonald, I.; Magalhães Fernandes, T.; Managau, S.; Mann, R. G.; Mantelet, G.; Marchal, O.; Marchant, J. M.; Marconi, M.; Marie, J.; Marinoni, S.; Marrese, P. M.; Marschalkó, G.; Marshall, D. J.; Martín-Fleitas, J. M.; Martino, M.; Mary, N.; Matijevič, G.; Mazeh, T.; McMillan, P. J.; Messina, S.; Mestre, A.; Michalik, D.; Millar, N. R.; Miranda, B. M. H.; Molina, D.; Molinaro, R.; Molinaro, M.; Molnár, L.; Moniez, M.; Montegriffo, P.; Monteiro, D.; Mor, R.; Mora, A.; Morbidelli, R.; Morel, T.; Morgenthaler, S.; Morley, T.; Morris, D.; Mulone, A. F.; Muraveva, T.; Musella, I.; Narbonne, J.; Nelemans, G.; Nicastro, L.; Noval, L.; Ordénovic, C.; Ordieres-Meré, J.; Osborne, P.; Pagani, C.; Pagano, I.; Pailler, F.; Palacin, H.; Palaversa, L.; Parsons, P.; Paulsen, T.; Pecoraro, M.; Pedrosa, R.; Pentikäinen, H.; Pereira, J.; Pichon, B.; Piersimoni, A. M.; Pineau, F. -X; Plachy, E.; Plum, G.; Poujoulet, E.; Prša, A.; Pulone, L.; Ragaini, S.; Rago, S.; Rambaux, N.; Ramos-Lerate, M.; Ranalli, P.; Rauw, G.; Read, A.; Regibo, S.; Renk, F.; Reylé, C.; Ribeiro, R. A.; Rimoldini, L.; Ripepi, V.; Riva, A.; Rixon, G.; Roelens, M.; Romero-Gómez, M.; Rowell, N.; Royer, F.; Rudolph, A.; Ruiz-Dern, L.; Sadowski, G.; Sagristà Sellés, T.; Sahlmann, J.; Salgado, J.; Salguero, E.; Sarasso, M.; Savietto, H.; Schnorhk, A.; Schultheis, M.; Sciacca, E.; Segol, M.; Segovia, J. C.; Segransan, D.; Serpell, E.; Shih, I. -C; Smareglia, R.; Smart, R. L.; Smith, C.; Solano, E.; Solitro, F.; Sordo, R.; Soria Nieto, S.; Souchay, J.; Spagna, A.; Spoto, F.; Stampa, U.; Steele, I. A.; Steidelmüller, H.; Stephenson, C. A.; Stoev, H.; Suess, F. F.; Süveges, M.; Surdej, J.; Szabados, L.; Szegedi-Elek, E.; Tapiador, D.; Taris, F.; Tauran, G.; Taylor, M. B.; Teixeira, R.; Terrett, D.; Tingley, B.; Trager, S. C.; Turon, C.; Ulla, A.; Utrilla, E.; Valentini, G.; van Elteren, A.; Van Hemelryck, E.; van Leeuwen, M.; Varadi, M.; Vecchiato, A.; Veljanoski, J.; Via, T.; Vicente, D.; Vogt, S.; Voss, H.; Votruba, V.; Voutsinas, S.; Walmsley, G.; Weiler, M.; Weingrill, K.; Werner, D.; Wevers, T.; Whitehead, G.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Yoldas, A.; Žerjal, M.; Zucker, S.; Zurbach, C.; Zwitter, T.; Alecu, A.; Allen, M.; Allende Prieto, C.; Amorim, A.; Anglada-Escudé, G.; Arsenijevic, V.; Azaz, S.; Balm, P.; Beck, M.; Bernstein, H. -H; Bigot, L.; Bijaoui, A.; Blasco, C.; Bonfigli, M.; Bono, G.; Boudreault, S.; Bressan, A.; Brown, S.; Brunet, P. -M; Bunclark, P.; Buonanno, R.; Butkevich, A. G.; Carret, C.; Carrion, C.; Chemin, L.; Chéreau, F.; Corcione, L.; Darmigny, E.; de Boer, K. S.; de Teodoro, P.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Delle Luche, C.; Domingues, C. D.; Dubath, P.; Fodor, F.; Frézouls, B.; Fries, A.; Fustes, D.; Fyfe, D.; Gallardo, E.; Gallegos, J.; Gardiol, D.; Gebran, M.; Gomboc, A.; Gómez, A.; Grux, E.; Gueguen, A.; Heyrovsky, A.; Hoar, J.; Iannicola, G.; Isasi Parache, Y.; Janotto, A. -M; Joliet, E.; Jonckheere, A.; Keil, R.; Kim, D. -W; Klagyivik, P.; Klar, J.; Knude, J.; Kochukhov, O.; Kolka, I.; Kos, J.; Kutka, A.; Lainey, V.; LeBouquin, D.; Liu, C.; Loreggia, D.; Makarov, V. V.; Marseille, M. G.; Martayan, C.; Martinez-Rubi, O.; Massart, B.; Meynadier, F.; Mignot, S.; Munari, U.; Nguyen, A. -T; Nordlander, T.; Ocvirk, P.; O'Flaherty, K. S.; Olias Sanz, A.; Ortiz, P.; Osorio, J.; Oszkiewicz, D.; Ouzounis, A.; Palmer, M.; Park, P.; Pasquato, E.; Peltzer, C.; Peralta, J.; Péturaud, F.; Pieniluoma, T.; Pigozzi, E.; Poels, J.; Prat, G.; Prod'homme, T.; Raison, F.; Rebordao, J. M.; Risquez, D.; Rocca-Volmerange, B.; Rosen, S.; Ruiz-Fuertes, M. I.; Russo, F.; Sembay, S.; Serraller Vizcaino, I.; Short, A.; Siebert, A.; Silva, H.; Sinachopoulos, D.; Slezak, E.; Soffel, M.; Sosnowska, D.; Straižys, V.; ter Linden, M.; Terrell, D.; Theil, S.; Tiede, C.; Troisi, L.; Tsalmantza, P.; Tur, D.; Vaccari, M.; Vachier, F.; Valles, P.; Van Hamme, W.; Veltz, L.; Virtanen, J.; Wallut, J. -M; Wichmann, R.; Wilkinson, M. I.; Ziaeepour, H.; Zschocke, S.

    2016-01-01

    Gaia is a cornerstone mission in the science programme of the EuropeanSpace Agency (ESA). The spacecraft construction was approved in 2006, following a study in which the original interferometric concept was changed to a direct-imaging approach. Both the spacecraft and the payload were built by

  16. Planetary cubesats - mission architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet, Pierre W.; Ulamec, Stephan; Jaumann, Ralf; Vane, Gregg; Baker, John; Clark, Pamela; Komarek, Tomas; Lebreton, Jean-Pierre; Yano, Hajime

    2016-07-01

    Miniaturisation of technologies over the last decade has made cubesats a valid solution for deep space missions. For example, a spectacular set 13 cubesats will be delivered in 2018 to a high lunar orbit within the frame of SLS' first flight, referred to as Exploration Mission-1 (EM-1). Each of them will perform autonomously valuable scientific or technological investigations. Other situations are encountered, such as the auxiliary landers / rovers and autonomous camera that will be carried in 2018 to asteroid 1993 JU3 by JAXA's Hayabusas 2 probe, and will provide complementary scientific return to their mothership. In this case, cubesats depend on a larger spacecraft for deployment and other resources, such as telecommunication relay or propulsion. For both situations, we will describe in this paper how cubesats can be used as remote observatories (such as NEO detection missions), as technology demonstrators, and how they can perform or contribute to all steps in the Deep Space exploration sequence: Measurements during Deep Space cruise, Body Fly-bies, Body Orbiters, Atmospheric probes (Jupiter probe, Venus atmospheric probes, ..), Static Landers, Mobile landers (such as balloons, wheeled rovers, small body rovers, drones, penetrators, floating devices, …), Sample Return. We will elaborate on mission architectures for the most promising concepts where cubesat size devices offer an advantage in terms of affordability, feasibility, and increase of scientific return.

  17. Mission from Mars:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dindler, Christian; Eriksson, Eva; Iversen, Ole Sejer

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a particular design method is propagated as a supplement to existing descriptive approaches to current practice studies especially suitable for gathering requirements for the design of children's technology. The Mission from Mars method was applied during the design of an electronic...

  18. MIV Project: Mission scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravazzotti, Mariolina T.; Jørgensen, John Leif; Thuesen, Gøsta;

    1997-01-01

    Under the ESA contract #11453/95/NL/JG(SC), aiming at assessing the feasibility of Rendez-vous and docking of unmanned spacecrafts, a msiision scenario was defined. This report describes the secquence of manouvres and task allocations for such missions....

  19. The Phoenix Mars Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamppari, Leslie K.; Smith, Peter H.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation details the Phoenix Mission which was designed to enhance our understanding of water and the potential for habitability on the north polar regions of Mars. The slides show the instruments and the robotics designed to scrape Martian surface material, and analyze it in hopes of identifying water in the form of ice, and other chemicals.

  20. The ESA Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions element, first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desnos, Yves-Louis; Regner, Peter; Delwart, Steven; Benveniste, Jerome; Engdahl, Marcus; Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Gascon, Ferran; Donlon, Craig; Davidson, Malcolm; Pinnock, Simon; Foumelis, Michael; Ramoino, Fabrizio

    2016-04-01

    SEOM is a program element within the fourth period (2013-2017) of ESA's Earth Observation Envelope Programme (http://seom.esa.int/). The prime objective is to federate, support and expand the international research community that the ERS, ENVISAT and the Envelope programmes have built up over the last 25 years. It aims to further strengthen the leadership of the European Earth Observation research community by enabling them to extensively exploit future European operational EO missions. SEOM will enable the science community to address new scientific research that are opened by free and open access to data from operational EO missions. Based on community-wide recommendations for actions on key research issues, gathered through a series of international thematic workshops and scientific user consultation meetings, a work plan is established and is approved every year by ESA Members States. During 2015 SEOM, Science users consultation workshops have been organized for Sentinel1/3/5P ( Fringe, S3 Symposium and Atmospheric science respectively) , new R&D studies for scientific exploitation of the Sentinels have been launched ( S3 for Science SAR Altimetry and Ocean Color , S2 for Science,) , open-source multi-mission scientific toolboxes have been launched (in particular the SNAP/S1-2-3 Toolbox). In addition two advanced international training courses have been organized in Europe to exploit the new S1-A and S2-A data for Land and Ocean remote sensing (over 120 participants from 25 countries) as well as activities for promoting the first scientific results ( e.g. Chili Earthquake) . In addition the First EO Open Science 2.0 was organised at ESA in October 2015 with 225 participants from 31 countries bringing together young EO scientists and data scientists. During the conference precursor activities in EO Open Science and Innovation were presented, while developing a Roadmap preparing for future ESA scientific exploitation activities. Within the conference, the first

  1. SenThIS - Sentinels of Thuringian information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naue, Sandra; Krause, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Decision-making for sustainable environmental resource management or risk prevention is facing the problem of constantly changing conditions related to the projected changes of climate, demography and socio-economy. Herefore, adaptable tools and methods which can reflect such changes are needed for an efficient management. The need to improve existing tools is a challenge the departments of German environmental authorities at state and federal level are facing at this time. Additionally the increasing demands for work process optimization due to financial cutbacks are coming into play. Consequently the need for suitable adaptation measurements for short and long term changes of environmental state variables is growing. The importance of spatio-temporal data, providing continuous observation about the state of the environmental system and its changes, is therefore increasing in order to elaborate adaptation strategies. In this case earth observation is a useful source for the required data. With the new Sentinel fleet, ESA's Copernicus Program is providing a possibility to obtain such information free in high temporal and spatial resolution. The BMVI funded project SenThIS, a collaborative project by the Thuringian State Institute for Environment and Geology (TLUG), the Thuringian Forest Department and two SMEs EOS GmbH and Feiffer consult is aiming at utilizing Copernicus data and services for operational tasks on a federal level. It addresses this aforementioned deficit through the development and implementation of a processing chain for synergetic and automated application of remote sensing data and products to accomplish operational state tasks. The product development is characterized by the synergetic application of remote sensing data and suitable models. Design and calibration of the models base on Sentinel 1/2 data and additional information (e.g. meteorological data, in-situ measurements). This results in products of highly temporal and spatial resolution

  2. SENTINEL LYMPH NODE CONCEPT IN DIFFERENTIATED THYROID CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markovic Ivan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC account up to 90% of all thyroid malignacies, and represents the most common malignant tumors of endocrine system. The incidence of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC, especially small tumors is rapidly increasing during past three decades. At the time of diagnosis, the incidence of lymph node metastases (LNM ranges from 80 to 90%. During the last 15 years, LNM were recognized as bad prognostic factor for both local-regional relapse (LRR and cancer specific survival. There is general agreement that neck dissections are indicated in cases of clinically apparent LNM. The subject of the current controversy is the surgical treatment of occult LNM that remain unrecognized on preoperative diagnosis (cN0. The extent of operations of the lymph nodes ranges from “wait and see” so-called “Western school” principle substantiated the role of applying ablative I131therapy and frequency peroperative complications (recurrent laryngeal nerve injury and hypoparathyroidism, especially for less experienced teams to mutual prophylactic dissection of the central and lateral compartments so-called “Japanese school” due to the limited use of radioactive iodine therapy and significantly lower operating morbidity if dissetion was done during primary operation. Despite high prevalence of occult LNM, existing controversies regarding diagnosis, longterm prognostic impact and extent of lymph node surgery, motivated some authors to apply consept of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNb in DTC, taking into account excellent results of SLN concept in breast cancer and skin melanoma. This review presents the summarized results of relevant studies and three meta-analysis of accuracy and applicability of SLN concept in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

  3. Sentinel lymph node concept in differentiated thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markovic Ivan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC account up to 90% of all thyroid malignacies, and represents the most common malignant tumors of endocrine system. The incidence of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC, especially small tumors is rapidly increasing during past three decades. At the time of diagnosis, the incidence of lymph node metastases (LNM ranges from 80 to 90%. During the last 15 years, LNM were recognized as bad prognostic factor for both local-regional relapse (LRR and cancer specific survival. There is general agreement that neck dissections are indicated in cases of clinically apparent LNM. The subject of the current controversy is the surgical treatment of occult LNM that remain unrecognized on preoperative diagnosis (cN0. The extent of operations of the lymph nodes ranges from 'wait and see' so-called 'Western school' principle substantiated the role of applying ablative I131 therapy and frequency peroperative complications (recurrent laryngeal nerve injury and hypoparathyroidism, especially for less experienced teams to mutual prophylactic dissection of the central and lateral compartments so-called 'Japanese school' due to the limited use of radioactive iodine therapy and significantly lower operating morbidity if dissetion was done during primary operation. Despite high prevalence of occult LNM, existing controversies regarding diagnosis, longterm prognostic impact and extent of lymph node surgery, motivated some authors to apply concept of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNb in DTC, taking into account excellent results of SLN concept in breast cancer and skin melanoma. This review presents the summarized results of relevant studies and three meta-analysis of accuracy and applicability of SLN concept in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

  4. Influence of colloid particle profile on sentinel lymph node uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Nunez, Eutimio Gustavo [Radiopharmacy Center, Institute of Energetic and Nuclear Research, Sao Paulo, SP 05508-000 (Brazil)], E-mail: eutimiocu@yahoo.com; Linkowski Faintuch, Bluma; Teodoro, Rodrigo; Pereira Wiecek, Danielle [Radiopharmacy Center, Institute of Energetic and Nuclear Research, Sao Paulo, SP 05508-000 (Brazil); Martinelli, Jose Roberto [Center of Materials Science and Technology, Institute of Energetic and Nuclear Research, Sao Paulo, SP 05508-000 (Brazil); Gomes da Silva, Natanael; Castanheira, Claudia E. [Radiopharmacy Center, Institute of Energetic and Nuclear Research, Sao Paulo, SP 05508-000 (Brazil); Santos de Oliveira Filho, Renato [Faculty of Medicine, Federal University of Sao Paulo, SP 04020-041 (Brazil); Pasqualini, Roberto [CIS bio international, Research and Development, Gif sur Yvette, 91192 (France)

    2009-10-15

    Introduction: Particle size of colloids employed for sentinel lymph node (LN) detection is not well studied. This investigation aimed to correlate particle size and distribution of different products with LN uptake. Methods: All agents (colloidal tin, dextran, phytate and colloidal rhenium sulfide) were labeled with {sup 99m}Tc according to manufacturer's instructions. Sizing of particles was carried out on electron micrographs using Image Tool for Windows (Version 2.0). Biodistribution studies in main excretion organs as well as in popliteal LN were performed in male Wistar rats [30 and 90 min post injection (p.i.)]. The injected dose was 0.1 ml (37 MBq) in the footpad of the left posterior limb. Dynamic images (0-15 min p.i.) as well as static ones (30 and 90 min) were acquired in gamma camera. Results: Popliteal LN was clearly reached by all products. Nevertheless, particle size remarkably influenced node uptake. Colloidal rhenium sulfide, with the smallest diameter (5.1x10{sup -3}{+-}3.9x10{sup -3} {mu}m), permitted the best result [2.72{+-}0.64 percent injected dose (%ID) at 90 min]. Phytate displayed small particles (<15 {mu}m) with favorable uptake (1.02{+-}0.14%ID). Dextran (21.4{+-}12.8 {mu}m) and colloidal tin (39.0{+-}8.3 {mu}m) were less effective (0.55{+-}0.14 and 0.06{+-}0.03%ID respectively). Particle distribution also tended to influence results. When asymmetric, it was associated with biphasic uptake which increased over time; conversely, symmetric distribution (colloidal tin) was consistent with a constant pattern. Conclusion: The results are suggesting that particle size and symmetry may interfere with LN radiopharmaceutical uptake.

  5. Sentinel lymph node mapping with indocyanine green in vaginal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, In Ok; Lee, Jung Yun; Kim, Sunghoon; Kim, Sang Wun; Kim, Young Tae; Nam, Eun Ji

    2017-07-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping is being adapted to gynecologic cancer. Higher SLN mapping rates were reported with indocyanine green (ICG) compared to other dyes. The aim of this film is to share our experience of SLN mapping with ICG in vaginal cancer. A 40 year-old woman was diagnosed with squamous cell vaginal cancer. About 1.5 cm-sized tumor was located on the posterior vaginal fornix. Preoperatively she was assumed to be stage I vaginal cancer. Beginning of surgery, we performed SLN mapping by ICG injection into 3- and 9-o'clock positions of the vaginal tumor. Concentrated in 1.25 mg/mL, 1 mL of ICG solution was injected into deep stroma and another 1 mL submucosally in both sides. Bilateral SLN identification and lymphadenectomy were done. Afterward, laparoscopic Type C1 Querleu-Morrow radical hysterectomy with vaginectomy was done. A fluorescence endoscope produced by KARL STORZ (Tuttlingen, Germany) was used for ICG detection. To our knowledge, this is the first film report performing SLN mapping with ICG in vaginal cancer. The mapping was successful and we were able to recognize SLN of vaginal cancer. SLNs were located in the bilateral obturator fossa. According to the pathologic diagnosis, the mass size was 15 mm and invasion depth was 1 mm. Subvaginal tissue involvement and pelvic wall extension were absent. Resection margin of the vagina was free from carcinoma. No lymph node metastasis was reported including the bilateral SLNs. For vaginal cancer, SLN mapping can be applied by injecting ICG into the bilateral sides of the vaginal tumor.

  6. Error, Power, and Blind Sentinels: The Statistics of Seagrass Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Stewart T.; Kruschel, Claudia; Bakran-Petricioli, Tatjana; Petricioli, Donat

    2015-01-01

    We derive statistical properties of standard methods for monitoring of habitat cover worldwide, and criticize them in the context of mandated seagrass monitoring programs, as exemplified by Posidonia oceanica in the Mediterranean Sea. We report the novel result that cartographic methods with non-trivial classification errors are generally incapable of reliably detecting habitat cover losses less than about 30 to 50%, and the field labor required to increase their precision can be orders of magnitude higher than that required to estimate habitat loss directly in a field campaign. We derive a universal utility threshold of classification error in habitat maps that represents the minimum habitat map accuracy above which direct methods are superior. Widespread government reliance on blind-sentinel methods for monitoring seafloor can obscure the gradual and currently ongoing losses of benthic resources until the time has long passed for meaningful management intervention. We find two classes of methods with very high statistical power for detecting small habitat cover losses: 1) fixed-plot direct methods, which are over 100 times as efficient as direct random-plot methods in a variable habitat mosaic; and 2) remote methods with very low classification error such as geospatial underwater videography, which is an emerging, low-cost, non-destructive method for documenting small changes at millimeter visual resolution. General adoption of these methods and their further development will require a fundamental cultural change in conservation and management bodies towards the recognition and promotion of requirements of minimal statistical power and precision in the development of international goals for monitoring these valuable resources and the ecological services they provide. PMID:26367863

  7. Unseen sentinels: local monitoring and control in conservation's blind spots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Sheil

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although official on-the-ground environmental monitoring is absent over much of the world, many people living in these regions observe, manage, and protect their environment. The autonomous monitoring processes associated with these activities are seldom documented and appear poorly recognized by conservation professionals. We identified monitoring activities in three villages in the Mamberamo-Foja region (Mamberamo Regency of Papua (Indonesian New Guinea. In each village we found evidence that local monitoring contributes to effective protection and deters unregulated exploitation. Although everyone gathers observations and shares information, there are also specific roles. For example, the Ijabait hereditary guardians live at strategic sites where they control access to resource-rich lakes and tributaries along the Tariku River. Often, monitoring is combined with and thus influences other activities: for example, hunting regularly includes areas judged vulnerable to incursions by neighboring communities. We identified various examples of community members intervening to prevent and deter outsiders from exploiting resources within their territories. Enforcement of rules and assessment of resource status also help prevent local overexploitation within the communities. Clearly, local people are effective in protecting large areas in a relatively natural state. We discuss the value of these autonomous monitoring and protection processes, their neglect, and the need for explicit recognition by those concerned about these people and their environments, as well as about conservation. We highlight a potential "tragedy of the unseen sentinels" when effective local protection is undermined not because these local systems are invisible, but because no one recognizes what they see.

  8. Manatees as sentinels of marine ecosystem health: are they the 2000-pound canaries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonde, R.K.; Aguirre, A.A.; Powell, J.

    2004-01-01

    The order Sirenia is represented by three species of manatees and one species of dugong distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world and considered vulnerable to extinction. The sentinel species concept is useful to identify indicators of the environment and may reflect the quality of health in marine ecosystems. The single species approach to evaluate ecological health may provide a series of “snap shots” of environmental changes to determine if animal, human, or ecosystem health may be affected. Under this concept, marine vertebrates may be good integrators of changes over space and time, and excellent sentinels of ecosystem health. Based on their life history, manatees may or may not be ideal sentinels, as they are robust, long-lived species and appear remarkably resilient to natural disease and the effects of human-related injury and trauma. These characteristics might be the result of an efficient and responsive immune system compared to other marine mammals. Although relatively immune to infectious agents, manatees face other potentially serious threats, including epizootic diseases and pollution while in large aggregations. Manatees can serve as excellent sentinels of harmful algal blooms due to their high sensitivity, specifically to brevetoxicosis, which has caused at least two major die-offs in recent times. Threats to manatees worldwide, such as illegal hunting and boat collisions, are increasing. Habitat is being lost at an alarming rate and the full effects of uncontrolled human population growth on the species are unknown. The manatee may serve as a sentinel species, prognosticating the deleterious effects of unhealthy marine and aquatic ecosystems on humans. We have identified a number of critical research needs and opportunities for transdisciplinary collaboration that could help advance the use of the sentinel species concept in marine ecosystem health and monitoring of disease emergence using our knowledge on these magnificent

  9. The OCO-3 MIssion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldering, A.; Kaki, S.; Crisp, D.; Gunson, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    For the OCO-3 mission, NASA has approved a proposal to install the OCO-2 flight spare instrument on the International Space Station (ISS). The OCO-3 mission on ISS will have a key role in delivering sustained, global, scientifically-based, spaceborne measurements of atmospheric CO2 to monitor natural sources and sinks as part of NASA's proposed OCO-2/OCO-3/ASCENDS mission sequence and NASA's Climate Architecture. The OCO-3 mission will contribute to understanding of the terrestrial carbon cycle through enabling flux estimates at smaller spatial scales and through fluorescence measurements that will reduce the uncertainty in terrestrial carbon flux measurements and drive bottom-up land surface models through constraining GPP. The combined nominal missions of both OCO-2 and OCO-3 will likely span a complete El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle, a key indicator of ocean variability. In addition, OCO-3 may allow investigation of the high-frequency and wavenumber structures suggested by eddying ocean circulation and ecosystem dynamics models. Finally, significant growth of urban agglomerations is underway and projected to continue in the coming decades. With the city mode sampling of the OCO-3 instrument on ISS we can evaluate different sampling strategies aimed at studying anthropogenic sources and demonstrate elements of a Greenhouse Gas Information system, as well as providing a gap-filler for tracking trends in the fastest-changing anthropogenic signals during the coming decade. In this presentation, we will describe our science objectives, the overall approach of utilization of the ISS for OCO-3, and the unique features of XCO2 measurements from ISS.

  10. The Mothership Mission Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, S. M.; DiCorcia, J. D.; Bonin, G.; Gump, D.; Lewis, J. S.; Foulds, C.; Faber, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Mothership is considered to be a dedicated deep space carrier spacecraft. It is currently being developed by Deep Space Industries (DSI) as a mission concept that enables a broad participation in the scientific exploration of small bodies - the Mothership mission architecture. A Mothership shall deliver third-party nano-sats, experiments and instruments to Near Earth Asteroids (NEOs), comets or moons. The Mothership service includes delivery of nano-sats, communication to Earth and visuals of the asteroid surface and surrounding area. The Mothership is designed to carry about 10 nano-sats, based upon a variation of the Cubesat standard, with some flexibility on the specific geometry. The Deep Space Nano-Sat reference design is a 14.5 cm cube, which accommodates the same volume as a traditional 3U CubeSat. To reduce cost, Mothership is designed as a secondary payload aboard launches to GTO. DSI is offering slots for nano-sats to individual customers. This enables organizations with relatively low operating budgets to closely examine an asteroid with highly specialized sensors of their own choosing and carry out experiments in the proximity of or on the surface of an asteroid, while the nano-sats can be built or commissioned by a variety of smaller institutions, companies, or agencies. While the overall Mothership mission will have a financial volume somewhere between a European Space Agencies' (ESA) S- and M-class mission for instance, it can be funded through a number of small and individual funding sources and programs, hence avoiding the processes associated with traditional space exploration missions. DSI has been able to identify a significant interest in the planetary science and nano-satellite communities.

  11. The Double Star mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The Double Star Programme (DSP was first proposed by China in March, 1997 at the Fragrant Hill Workshop on Space Science, Beijing, organized by the Chinese Academy of Science. It is the first mission in collaboration between China and ESA. The mission is made of two spacecraft to investigate the magnetospheric global processes and their response to the interplanetary disturbances in conjunction with the Cluster mission. The first spacecraft, TC-1 (Tan Ce means "Explorer", was launched on 29 December 2003, and the second one, TC-2, on 25 July 2004 on board two Chinese Long March 2C rockets. TC-1 was injected in an equatorial orbit of 570x79000 km altitude with a 28° inclination and TC-2 in a polar orbit of 560x38000 km altitude. The orbits have been designed to complement the Cluster mission by maximizing the time when both Cluster and Double Star are in the same scientific regions. The two missions allow simultaneous observations of the Earth magnetosphere from six points in space. To facilitate the comparison of data, half of the Double Star payload is made of spare or duplicates of the Cluster instruments; the other half is made of Chinese instruments. The science operations are coordinated by the Chinese DSP Scientific Operations Centre (DSOC in Beijing and the European Payload Operations Service (EPOS at RAL, UK. The spacecraft and ground segment operations are performed by the DSP Operations and Management Centre (DOMC and DSOC in China, using three ground station, in Beijing, Shanghai and Villafranca.

  12. The Traceable Radiometry Underpinning Terrestrial and Helio Studies (TRUTHS) mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Paul D.; Fox, Nigel P.; Lobb, Daniel; Friend, Jonathan

    2015-10-01

    TRUTHS (Traceable Radiometry Underpinning Terrestrial- and Helio-Studies) is a proposed small satellite mission to enable a space-based climate observing system capable of delivering data of the quality needed to provide the information needed by policy makers to make robust mitigation and adaptation decisions. This is achieved by embedding trust and confidence in the data and derived information (tied to international standards) from both its own measurements and by upgrading the performance and interoperability of other EO platforms, such as the Sentinels by in-flight reference calibration. TRUTHS would provide measurements of incoming (total and spectrally resolved) and global reflected spectrally and spatially (50 m) solar radiation at the 0.3% uncertainty level. These fundamental climate data products can be convolved into the building blocks for many ECVs and EO applications as envisaged by the 2015 ESA science strategy; in a cost effective manner. We describe the scientific drivers for the TRUTHS mission and how the requirements for the climate benchmarking and cross-calibration reference sensor are both complementary and simply implemented, with a small additional complexity on top of heritage calibration schemes. The calibration scheme components and the route to SI-traceable Earth-reflected solar spectral radiance and solar spectral irradiance are described.

  13. Mission Exploitation Platform PROBA-V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goor, Erwin

    2016-04-01

    VITO and partners developed an end-to-end solution to drastically improve the exploitation of the PROBA-V EO-data archive (http://proba-v.vgt.vito.be/), the past mission SPOT-VEGETATION and derived vegetation parameters by researchers, service providers and end-users. The analysis of time series of data (+1PB) is addressed, as well as the large scale on-demand processing of near real-time data. From November 2015 an operational Mission Exploitation Platform (MEP) PROBA-V, as an ESA pathfinder project, will be gradually deployed at the VITO data center with direct access to the complete data archive. Several applications will be released to the users, e.g. - A time series viewer, showing the evolution of PROBA-V bands and derived vegetation parameters for any area of interest. - Full-resolution viewing services for the complete data archive. - On-demand processing chains e.g. for the calculation of N-daily composites. - A Virtual Machine will be provided with access to the data archive and tools to work with this data, e.g. various toolboxes and support for R and Python. After an initial release in January 2016, a research platform will gradually be deployed allowing users to design, debug and test applications on the platform. From the MEP PROBA-V, access to Sentinel-2 and landsat data will be addressed as well, e.g. to support the Cal/Val activities of the users. Users can make use of powerful Web based tools and can self-manage virtual machines to perform their work on the infrastructure at VITO with access to the complete data archive. To realise this, private cloud technology (openStack) is used and a distributed processing environment is built based on Hadoop. The Hadoop ecosystem offers a lot of technologies (Spark, Yarn, Accumulo, etc.) which we integrate with several open-source components. The impact of this MEP on the user community will be high and will completely change the way of working with the data and hence open the large time series to a larger

  14. Fire års erfaringer med sentinel node-operation ved brystcancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galatius, Hanne; Lanng, Charlotte

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The sentinel node (SN) procedure is increasingly being employed in breast surgery to determine the status of the axilla. So far, experience has shown that determination of axillary status is just as accurate as with axillary dissection. Results from 47 months of prospective registra......INTRODUCTION: The sentinel node (SN) procedure is increasingly being employed in breast surgery to determine the status of the axilla. So far, experience has shown that determination of axillary status is just as accurate as with axillary dissection. Results from 47 months of prospective...

  15. Staging of women with breast cancer after introduction of sentinel node guided axillary dissection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedskov, Tove Filtenborg

    2012-01-01

    was not significantly different in the two periods, whereas the proportion of patients with micrometastases increased significantly from 5.1% to 9.0%. However, the proportion of patients offered adjuvant systemic treatment due to positive nodal status as the only high-risk criterion did only increase from 7.8% to 8....../3 of patients with ITC in sentinel node for an ALND. In patients with micrometastases in sentinel node the risk of NSN metastases was significantly associated with increasing tumor size, lymphovascular invasion, negative hormone receptor status, location of tumor in the upper lateral quadrant of the breast...

  16. Innovation in early breast cancer surgery: radio-guided occult lesion localization and sentinel node biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paganelli, G; Veronesi, U

    2002-07-01

    The surgical management of non-palpable breast lesions remains controversial. At the European Institute of Oncology we have introduced a new technique, radio-guided occult lesion localization (ROLL) to replace standard methods and overcome their disadvantages. Regarding axillary dissection, probe-guided biopsy of the sentinel node (SN) is easy to apply, and the whole procedure is associated to a low risk of false negatives. We suggest that the SN technique should be widely adopted to stage the axilla in patients with breast cancer with clinically negative lymph nodes. Large-scale implementation of the sentinel node technique will reduce the cost of treatment as a result of shorter hospitalization times.

  17. Sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer: five years experience from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter; Balslev, E.; Jensen, D.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Danish experience from the first five years with sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) as a routine staging procedure in early breast cancer is reported. METHODS: During the period January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2006, 14 923 patients were diagnosed at Danish breast surgical centers...... certified for the sentinel node method. SLNB was performed in 8 338 patients (55.9%). The fraction increased steadily from 43% in 2002 to 67% in 2006. The median follow-up was 1.7 year (range 0-5.2 years). RESULTS: Patients staged with SLNB were younger, had more often BCS, had smaller tumor size, were more...

  18. NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, P. A.; Mazanek, D. D.; Reeves, D. M.; Chodas, P. W.; Gates, M. M.; Johnson, L. N.; Ticker, R. L.

    2017-01-01

    Mission Description and Objectives: NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) consists of two mission segments: 1) the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM), a robotic mission to visit a large (greater than approximately 100 meters diameter) near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface along with regolith samples, and return the asteroidal material to a stable orbit around the Moon; and 2) the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM), in which astronauts will explore and investigate the boulder and return to Earth with samples. The ARRM is currently planned to launch at the end of 2021 and the ARCM is scheduled for late 2026.

  19. Defining Space Mission Architects for the Smaller Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C.

    1999-01-01

    The definition of the Space Mission Architect (SMA) must be clear in both technical and human terms if we expect to train and/or to find people needed to architect the numbers of smaller missions expected in the future.

  20. A new model for predicting non-sentinel lymph node status in Chinese sentinel lymph node positive breast cancer patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Our goal is to validate the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC nomogram and Stanford Online Calculator (SOC for predicting non-sentinel lymph node (NSLN metastasis in Chinese patients, and develop a new model for better prediction of NSLN metastasis. METHODS: The MSKCC nomogram and SOC were used to calculate the probability of NSLN metastasis in 120 breast cancer patients. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate the relationship between NSLN metastasis and clinicopathologic factors, using the medical records of the first 80 breast cancer patients. A new model predicting NSLN metastasis was developed from the 80 patients. RESULTS: The MSKCC and SOC predicted NSLN metastasis in a series of 120 patients with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC of 0.688 and 0.734, respectively. For predicted probability cut-off points of 10%, the false-negative (FN rates of MSKCC and SOC were both 4.4%, and the negative predictive value (NPV 75.0% and 90.0%, respectively. Tumor size, Kiss-1 expression in positive SLN and size of SLN metastasis were independently associated with NSLN metastasis (p<0.05. A new model (Peking University People's Hospital, PKUPH was developed using these three variables. The MSKCC, SOC and PKUPH predicted NSLN metastasis in the second 40 patients from the 120 patients with an AUC of 0.624, 0.679 and 0.795, respectively. CONCLUSION: MSKCC nomogram and SOC did not perform as well as their original researches in Chinese patients. As a new predictor, Kiss-1 expression in positive SLN correlated independently with NSLN metastasis strongly. PKUPH model achieved higher accuracy than MSKCC and SOC in predicting NSLN metastasis in Chinese patients.

  1. Methods for Extraction of DEM Based on Sentinel-1A Radar Images%基于Sentinel-1A雷达影像的DEM提取方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巢子豪; 谢宏全; 费鲜芸

    2015-01-01

    合成孔径雷达干涉测量是一种提取数字高程模型、探测地表形变的新技术,近年来已成为快速获取精确DEM的重要手段.以Sentinel-1A雷达影像为数据源,基于InSAR技术提取日本四国岛地区的DEM.结果表明,利用InSAR生成的DEM总体上符合该地区实际地形.基于InSAR技术的Sentinel-1A雷达影像反演DEM在日本四国岛地区是行之有效的.

  2. The Euclid mission design

    CERN Document Server

    Racca, Giuseppe D; Stagnaro, Luca; Salvignol, Jean Christophe; Alvarez, Jose Lorenzo; Criado, Gonzalo Saavedra; Venancio, Luis Gaspar; Short, Alex; Strada, Paolo; Boenke, Tobias; Colombo, Cyril; Calvi, Adriano; Maiorano, Elena; Piersanti, Osvaldo; Prezelus, Sylvain; Rosato, Pierluigi; Pinel, Jacques; Rozemeijer, Hans; Lesna, Valentina; Musi, Paolo; Sias, Marco; Anselmi, Alberto; Cazaubiel, Vincent; Vaillon, Ludovic; Mellier, Yannick; Amiaux, Jerome; Berthe, Michel; Sauvage, Marc; Azzollini, Ruyman; Cropper, Mark; Pottinger, Sabrina; Jahnke, Knud; Ealet, Anne; Maciaszek, Thierry; Pasian, Fabio; Zacchei, Andrea; Scaramella, Roberto; Hoar, John; Kohley, Ralf; Vavrek, Roland; Rudolph, Andreas; Schmidt, Micha

    2016-01-01

    Euclid is a space-based optical/near-infrared survey mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) to investigate the nature of dark energy, dark matter and gravity by observing the geometry of the Universe and on the formation of structures over cosmological timescales. Euclid will use two probes of the signature of dark matter and energy: Weak gravitational Lensing, which requires the measurement of the shape and photometric redshifts of distant galaxies, and Galaxy Clustering, based on the measurement of the 3-dimensional distribution of galaxies through their spectroscopic redshifts. The mission is scheduled for launch in 2020 and is designed for 6 years of nominal survey operations. The Euclid Spacecraft is composed of a Service Module and a Payload Module. The Service Module comprises all the conventional spacecraft subsystems, the instruments warm electronics units, the sun shield and the solar arrays. In particular the Service Module provides the extremely challenging pointing accuracy required by the sc...

  3. The THEMIS Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Burch, J. L

    2009-01-01

    The THEMIS mission aims to determine the trigger and large-scale evolution of substorms by employing five identical micro-satellites which line up along the Earth's magnetotail to track the motion of particles, plasma, and waves from one point to another and for the first time, resolve space-time ambiguities in key regions of the magnetosphere on a global scale. The primary goal of THEMIS is to elucidate which magnetotail process is responsible for substorm onset at the region where substorm auroras map: (i) local disruption of the plasma sheet current (current disruption) or (ii) the interaction of the current sheet with the rapid influx of plasma emanating from reconnection. The probes also traverse the radiation belts and the dayside magnetosphere, allowing THEMIS to address additional baseline objectives. This volume describes the mission, the instrumentation, and the data derived from them.

  4. Asteroid Kinetic Impactor Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesley, Steven

    2015-08-01

    Asteroid impact missions can be carried out as a relatively low-cost add-ons to most asteroid rendezvous missions and such impact experiments have tremendous potential, both scientifically and in the arena of planetary defense.The science returns from an impactor demonstration begin with the documentation of the global effects of the impact, such as changes in orbit and rotation state, the creation and dissipation of an ejecta plume and debris disk, and morphological changes across the body due to the transmission of seismic waves, which might induce landslides and toppling of boulders, etc. At a local level, an inspection of the impact crater and ejecta blanket reveals critical material strength information, as well as spectral differences between the surface and subsurface material.From the planetary defense perspective, an impact demonstration will prove humankind’s capacity to alter the orbit of a potentially threatening asteroid. This technological leap comes in two parts. First, terminal guidance systems that can deliver an impactor with small errors relative to the ~100-200 meter size of a likely impactor have yet to be demonstrated in a deep space environment. Second, the response of an asteroid to such an impact is only understood theoretically due to the potentially significant dependence on the momentum carried by escaping ejecta, which would tend to enhance the deflection by tens of percent and perhaps as much as a factor of a few. A lack of validated understanding of momentum enhancement is a significant obstacle in properly sizing a real-world impactor deflection mission.This presentation will describe the drivers for asteroid impact demonstrations and cover the range of such concepts, starting with ESA’s pioneering Don Quijote mission concept and leading to a brief description of concepts under study at the present time, including the OSIRIS-REx/ISIS, BASiX/KIX and AIM/DART (AIDA) concepts.

  5. Deep Blue Mission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The Chinese Navy dispatches ships to the Gulf of Aden on a second escort mission, marking its growing strength in the face of more diverse challenges Elarly in the morning of April 23, crew- imembers from the Chinese Navy’s second escort fleet in the Gulf of Aden Igathered on deck and saluted to the east, paying their respects to the motherland in celebration of the 60th anniversary of the Chinese Navy. This fleet,

  6. Space VLBI Mission: VSOP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Yasuhiro; Hirabayashi, Hisashi; Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Shibata, Katsunori M.; Umemoto, Tomofumi; Edwards, P. G.

    2001-03-01

    We succeeded in performing space VLBI observations using the VLBI satellite HALCA (VSOP satellite), launched in February, 1997 aboard the first M-V rocket developed by ISAS. The mission is led by ISAS and NAO, with the collaborations from CRL, NASA, NRAO, and other institutes and observatories in Europe, Australia, Canada, South-Africa, and China, We succeeded to make a lot of observations and to get the new features from the active galaxies, the cosmic jets, and other astronomical objects.

  7. A Somalia mission experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahomed, Zeyn; Moolla, Muhammad; Motara, Feroza; Laher, Abdullah

    2012-06-28

    Reports about The Horn of Africa Famine Crisis in 2011 flooded our news bulletins and newspapers. Yet the nations of the world failed to respond and alleviate the unfolding disaster. In August 2011, the Gift of the Givers Foundation mobilised what was to become the largest humanitarian mission ever conducted by an African organisation. Almost a year later, the effort continues, changing the face of disaster medicine as we know it.

  8. A Mars 1984 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Mission objectives are developed for the next logical step in the investigation of the local physical and chemical environments and the search for organic compounds on Mars. The necessity of three vehicular elements: orbiter, penetrator, and rover for in situ investigations of atmospheric-lithospheric interactions is emphasized. A summary report and committee recommendations are included with the full report of the Mars Science Working Group.

  9. Cyber Network Mission Dependencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-18

    Technology applications 12 5 VMs allow one host to belong to multiple VLANs 14 6 Asset recommendation system mockup 15 7 Perturbative mapping may...extended list of critical assets based on communications patterns and software dependencies. Once vulnerabilities have been assessed, AMMO produces a...status of not just network machines, but also software tools, network connections, server room conditions, and many other mission parameters. From this

  10. Titan Saturn System Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reh, Kim R.

    2009-01-01

    Titan is a high priority for exploration, as recommended by NASA's 2006 Solar System Exploration (SSE) Roadmap. NASA's 2003 National Research Council (NRC) Decadal Survey and ESA's Cosmic Vision Program Themes. Recent revolutionary Cassini-Huygens discoveries have dramatically escalated interest in Titan as the next scientific target in the outer solar system. This study demonstrates that an exciting Titan Saturn System Mission (TSSM) that explores two worlds of intense astrobiological interest can be initiated now as a single NASA/ESA collaboration.

  11. The Gaia mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaia Collaboration; Prusti, T.; de Bruijne, J. H. J.; Brown, A. G. A.; Vallenari, A.; Babusiaux, C.; Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.; Bastian, U.; Biermann, M.; Evans, D. W.; Eyer, L.; Jansen, F.; Jordi, C.; Klioner, S. A.; Lammers, U.; Lindegren, L.; Luri, X.; Mignard, F.; Milligan, D. J.; Panem, C.; Poinsignon, V.; Pourbaix, D.; Randich, S.; Sarri, G.; Sartoretti, P.; Siddiqui, H. I.; Soubiran, C.; Valette, V.; van Leeuwen, F.; Walton, N. A.; Aerts, C.; Arenou, F.; Cropper, M.; Drimmel, R.; Høg, E.; Katz, D.; Lattanzi, M. G.; O'Mullane, W.; Grebel, E. K.; Holland, A. D.; Huc, C.; Passot, X.; Bramante, L.; Cacciari, C.; Castañeda, J.; Chaoul, L.; Cheek, N.; De Angeli, F.; Fabricius, C.; Guerra, R.; Hernández, J.; Jean-Antoine-Piccolo, A.; Masana, E.; Messineo, R.; Mowlavi, N.; Nienartowicz, K.; Ordóñez-Blanco, D.; Panuzzo, P.; Portell, J.; Richards, P. J.; Riello, M.; Seabroke, G. M.; Tanga, P.; Thévenin, F.; Torra, J.; Els, S. G.; Gracia-Abril, G.; Comoretto, G.; Garcia-Reinaldos, M.; Lock, T.; Mercier, E.; Altmann, M.; Andrae, R.; Astraatmadja, T. L.; Bellas-Velidis, I.; Benson, K.; Berthier, J.; Blomme, R.; Busso, G.; Carry, B.; Cellino, A.; Clementini, G.; Cowell, S.; Creevey, O.; Cuypers, J.; Davidson, M.; De Ridder, J.; de Torres, A.; Delchambre, L.; Dell'Oro, A.; Ducourant, C.; Frémat, Y.; García-Torres, M.; Gosset, E.; Halbwachs, J.-L.; Hambly, N. C.; Harrison, D. L.; Hauser, M.; Hestroffer, D.; Hodgkin, S. T.; Huckle, H. E.; Hutton, A.; Jasniewicz, G.; Jordan, S.; Kontizas, M.; Korn, A. J.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Manteiga, M.; Moitinho, A.; Muinonen, K.; Osinde, J.; Pancino, E.; Pauwels, T.; Petit, J.-M.; Recio-Blanco, A.; Robin, A. C.; Sarro, L. M.; Siopis, C.; Smith, M.; Smith, K. W.; Sozzetti, A.; Thuillot, W.; van Reeven, W.; Viala, Y.; Abbas, U.; Abreu Aramburu, A.; Accart, S.; Aguado, J. J.; Allan, P. M.; Allasia, W.; Altavilla, G.; Álvarez, M. A.; Alves, J.; Anderson, R. I.; Andrei, A. H.; Anglada Varela, E.; Antiche, E.; Antoja, T.; Antón, S.; Arcay, B.; Atzei, A.; Ayache, L.; Bach, N.; Baker, S. G.; Balaguer-Núñez, L.; Barache, C.; Barata, C.; Barbier, A.; Barblan, F.; Baroni, M.; Barrado y Navascués, D.; Barros, M.; Barstow, M. A.; Becciani, U.; Bellazzini, M.; Bellei, G.; Bello García, A.; Belokurov, V.; Bendjoya, P.; Berihuete, A.; Bianchi, L.; Bienaymé, O.; Billebaud, F.; Blagorodnova, N.; Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Boch, T.; Bombrun, A.; Borrachero, R.; Bouquillon, S.; Bourda, G.; Bouy, H.; Bragaglia, A.; Breddels, M. A.; Brouillet, N.; Brüsemeister, T.; Bucciarelli, B.; Budnik, F.; Burgess, P.; Burgon, R.; Burlacu, A.; Busonero, D.; Buzzi, R.; Caffau, E.; Cambras, J.; Campbell, H.; Cancelliere, R.; Cantat-Gaudin, T.; Carlucci, T.; Carrasco, J. M.; Castellani, M.; Charlot, P.; Charnas, J.; Charvet, P.; Chassat, F.; Chiavassa, A.; Clotet, M.; Cocozza, G.; Collins, R. S.; Collins, P.; Costigan, G.; Crifo, F.; Cross, N. J. G.; Crosta, M.; Crowley, C.; Dafonte, C.; Damerdji, Y.; Dapergolas, A.; David, P.; David, M.; De Cat, P.; de Felice, F.; de Laverny, P.; De Luise, F.; De March, R.; de Martino, D.; de Souza, R.; Debosscher, J.; del Pozo, E.; Delbo, M.; Delgado, A.; Delgado, H. E.; di Marco, F.; Di Matteo, P.; Diakite, S.; Distefano, E.; Dolding, C.; Dos Anjos, S.; Drazinos, P.; Durán, J.; Dzigan, Y.; Ecale, E.; Edvardsson, B.; Enke, H.; Erdmann, M.; Escolar, D.; Espina, M.; Evans, N. W.; Eynard Bontemps, G.; Fabre, C.; Fabrizio, M.; Faigler, S.; Falcão, A. J.; Farràs Casas, M.; Faye, F.; Federici, L.; Fedorets, G.; Fernández-Hernández, J.; Fernique, P.; Fienga, A.; Figueras, F.; Filippi, F.; Findeisen, K.; Fonti, A.; Fouesneau, M.; Fraile, E.; Fraser, M.; Fuchs, J.; Furnell, R.; Gai, M.; Galleti, S.; Galluccio, L.; Garabato, D.; García-Sedano, F.; Garé, P.; Garofalo, A.; Garralda, N.; Gavras, P.; Gerssen, J.; Geyer, R.; Gilmore, G.; Girona, S.; Giuffrida, G.; Gomes, M.; González-Marcos, A.; González-Núñez, J.; González-Vidal, J. J.; Granvik, M.; Guerrier, A.; Guillout, P.; Guiraud, J.; Gúrpide, A.; Gutiérrez-Sánchez, R.; Guy, L. P.; Haigron, R.; Hatzidimitriou, D.; Haywood, M.; Heiter, U.; Helmi, A.; Hobbs, D.; Hofmann, W.; Holl, B.; Holland, G.; Hunt, J. A. S.; Hypki, A.; Icardi, V.; Irwin, M.; Jevardat de Fombelle, G.; Jofré, P.; Jonker, P. G.; Jorissen, A.; Julbe, F.; Karampelas, A.; Kochoska, A.; Kohley, R.; Kolenberg, K.; Kontizas, E.; Koposov, S. E.; Kordopatis, G.; Koubsky, P.; Kowalczyk, A.; Krone-Martins, A.; Kudryashova, M.; Kull, I.; Bachchan, R. K.; Lacoste-Seris, F.; Lanza, A. F.; Lavigne, J.-B.; Le Poncin-Lafitte, C.; Lebreton, Y.; Lebzelter, T.; Leccia, S.; Leclerc, N.; Lecoeur-Taibi, I.; Lemaitre, V.; Lenhardt, H.; Leroux, F.; Liao, S.; Licata, E.; Lindstrøm, H. E. P.; Lister, T. A.; Livanou, E.; Lobel, A.; Löffler, W.; López, M.; Lopez-Lozano, A.; Lorenz, D.; Loureiro, T.; MacDonald, I.; Magalhães Fernandes, T.; Managau, S.; Mann, R. G.; Mantelet, G.; Marchal, O.; Marchant, J. M.; Marconi, M.; Marie, J.; Marinoni, S.; Marrese, P. M.; Marschalkó, G.; Marshall, D. J.; Martín-Fleitas, J. M.; Martino, M.; Mary, N.; Matijevič, G.; Mazeh, T.; McMillan, P. J.; Messina, S.; Mestre, A.; Michalik, D.; Millar, N. R.; Miranda, B. M. H.; Molina, D.; Molinaro, R.; Molinaro, M.; Molnár, L.; Moniez, M.; Montegriffo, P.; Monteiro, D.; Mor, R.; Mora, A.; Morbidelli, R.; Morel, T.; Morgenthaler, S.; Morley, T.; Morris, D.; Mulone, A. F.; Muraveva, T.; Musella, I.; Narbonne, J.; Nelemans, G.; Nicastro, L.; Noval, L.; Ordénovic, C.; Ordieres-Meré, J.; Osborne, P.; Pagani, C.; Pagano, I.; Pailler, F.; Palacin, H.; Palaversa, L.; Parsons, P.; Paulsen, T.; Pecoraro, M.; Pedrosa, R.; Pentikäinen, H.; Pereira, J.; Pichon, B.; Piersimoni, A. M.; Pineau, F.-X.; Plachy, E.; Plum, G.; Poujoulet, E.; Prša, A.; Pulone, L.; Ragaini, S.; Rago, S.; Rambaux, N.; Ramos-Lerate, M.; Ranalli, P.; Rauw, G.; Read, A.; Regibo, S.; Renk, F.; Reylé, C.; Ribeiro, R. A.; Rimoldini, L.; Ripepi, V.; Riva, A.; Rixon, G.; Roelens, M.; Romero-Gómez, M.; Rowell, N.; Royer, F.; Rudolph, A.; Ruiz-Dern, L.; Sadowski, G.; Sagristà Sellés, T.; Sahlmann, J.; Salgado, J.; Salguero, E.; Sarasso, M.; Savietto, H.; Schnorhk, A.; Schultheis, M.; Sciacca, E.; Segol, M.; Segovia, J. C.; Segransan, D.; Serpell, E.; Shih, I.-C.; Smareglia, R.; Smart, R. L.; Smith, C.; Solano, E.; Solitro, F.; Sordo, R.; Soria Nieto, S.; Souchay, J.; Spagna, A.; Spoto, F.; Stampa, U.; Steele, I. A.; Steidelmüller, H.; Stephenson, C. A.; Stoev, H.; Suess, F. F.; Süveges, M.; Surdej, J.; Szabados, L.; Szegedi-Elek, E.; Tapiador, D.; Taris, F.; Tauran, G.; Taylor, M. B.; Teixeira, R.; Terrett, D.; Tingley, B.; Trager, S. C.; Turon, C.; Ulla, A.; Utrilla, E.; Valentini, G.; van Elteren, A.; Van Hemelryck, E.; van Leeuwen, M.; Varadi, M.; Vecchiato, A.; Veljanoski, J.; Via, T.; Vicente, D.; Vogt, S.; Voss, H.; Votruba, V.; Voutsinas, S.; Walmsley, G.; Weiler, M.; Weingrill, K.; Werner, D.; Wevers, T.; Whitehead, G.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Yoldas, A.; Žerjal, M.; Zucker, S.; Zurbach, C.; Zwitter, T.; Alecu, A.; Allen, M.; Allende Prieto, C.; Amorim, A.; Anglada-Escudé, G.; Arsenijevic, V.; Azaz, S.; Balm, P.; Beck, M.; Bernstein, H.-H.; Bigot, L.; Bijaoui, A.; Blasco, C.; Bonfigli, M.; Bono, G.; Boudreault, S.; Bressan, A.; Brown, S.; Brunet, P.-M.; Bunclark, P.; Buonanno, R.; Butkevich, A. G.; Carret, C.; Carrion, C.; Chemin, L.; Chéreau, F.; Corcione, L.; Darmigny, E.; de Boer, K. S.; de Teodoro, P.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Delle Luche, C.; Domingues, C. D.; Dubath, P.; Fodor, F.; Frézouls, B.; Fries, A.; Fustes, D.; Fyfe, D.; Gallardo, E.; Gallegos, J.; Gardiol, D.; Gebran, M.; Gomboc, A.; Gómez, A.; Grux, E.; Gueguen, A.; Heyrovsky, A.; Hoar, J.; Iannicola, G.; Isasi Parache, Y.; Janotto, A.-M.; Joliet, E.; Jonckheere, A.; Keil, R.; Kim, D.-W.; Klagyivik, P.; Klar, J.; Knude, J.; Kochukhov, O.; Kolka, I.; Kos, J.; Kutka, A.; Lainey, V.; LeBouquin, D.; Liu, C.; Loreggia, D.; Makarov, V. V.; Marseille, M. G.; Martayan, C.; Martinez-Rubi, O.; Massart, B.; Meynadier, F.; Mignot, S.; Munari, U.; Nguyen, A.-T.; Nordlander, T.; Ocvirk, P.; O'Flaherty, K. S.; Olias Sanz, A.; Ortiz, P.; Osorio, J.; Oszkiewicz, D.; Ouzounis, A.; Palmer, M.; Park, P.; Pasquato, E.; Peltzer, C.; Peralta, J.; Péturaud, F.; Pieniluoma, T.; Pigozzi, E.; Poels, J.; Prat, G.; Prod'homme, T.; Raison, F.; Rebordao, J. M.; Risquez, D.; Rocca-Volmerange, B.; Rosen, S.; Ruiz-Fuertes, M. I.; Russo, F.; Sembay, S.; Serraller Vizcaino, I.; Short, A.; Siebert, A.; Silva, H.; Sinachopoulos, D.; Slezak, E.; Soffel, M.; Sosnowska, D.; Straižys, V.; ter Linden, M.; Terrell, D.; Theil, S.; Tiede, C.; Troisi, L.; Tsalmantza, P.; Tur, D.; Vaccari, M.; Vachier, F.; Valles, P.; Van Hamme, W.; Veltz, L.; Virtanen, J.; Wallut, J.-M.; Wichmann, R.; Wilkinson, M. I.; Ziaeepour, H.; Zschocke, S.

    2016-11-01

    Gaia is a cornerstone mission in the science programme of the EuropeanSpace Agency (ESA). The spacecraft construction was approved in 2006, following a study in which the original interferometric concept was changed to a direct-imaging approach. Both the spacecraft and the payload were built by European industry. The involvement of the scientific community focusses on data processing for which the international Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC) was selected in 2007. Gaia was launched on 19 December 2013 and arrived at its operating point, the second Lagrange point of the Sun-Earth-Moon system, a few weeks later. The commissioning of the spacecraft and payload was completed on 19 July 2014. The nominal five-year mission started with four weeks of special, ecliptic-pole scanning and subsequently transferred into full-sky scanning mode. We recall the scientific goals of Gaia and give a description of the as-built spacecraft that is currently (mid-2016) being operated to achieve these goals. We pay special attention to the payload module, the performance of which is closely related to the scientific performance of the mission. We provide a summary of the commissioning activities and findings, followed by a description of the routine operational mode. We summarise scientific performance estimates on the basis of in-orbit operations. Several intermediate Gaia data releases are planned and the data can be retrieved from the Gaia Archive, which is available through the Gaia home page. http://www.cosmos.esa.int/gaia

  12. The Juno Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Juno mission is the second mission in NASA's New Frontiers program. Launched in August 2011, Juno arrives at Jupiter in July 2016. Juno science goals include the study of Jupiter's origin, interior structure, deep atmosphere, aurora and magnetosphere. Jupiter's formation is fundamental to the evolution of our solar system and to the distribution of volatiles early in the solar system's history. Juno's measurements of the abundance of Oxygen and Nitrogen in Jupiter's atmosphere, and the detailed maps of Jupiter's gravity and magnetic field structure will constrain theories of early planetary development. Juno's orbit around Jupiter is a polar elliptical orbit with perijove approximately 5000 km above the visible cloud tops. The payload consists of a set of microwave antennas for deep sounding, magnetometers, gravity radio science, low and high energy charged particle detectors, electric and magnetic field radio and plasma wave experiment, ultraviolet imaging spectrograph, infrared imager and a visible camera. The Juno design enables the first detailed investigation of Jupiter's interior structure, and deep atmosphere as well as the first in depth exploration of Jupiter's polar magnetosphere. The Juno mission design, science goals, and measurements related to the origin of Jupiter will be presented.

  13. Mars Exploration Rover mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, Joy A.; Adler, Mark; Matijevic, Jacob R.; Squyres, Steven W.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Kass, David M.

    2003-10-01

    In January 2004 the Mars Exploration Rover mission will land two rovers at two different landing sites that show possible evidence for past liquid-water activity. The spacecraft design is based on the Mars Pathfinder configuration for cruise and entry, descent, and landing. Each of the identical rovers is equipped with a science payload of two remote-sensing instruments that will view the surrounding terrain from the top of a mast, a robotic arm that can place three instruments and a rock abrasion tool on selected rock and soil samples, and several onboard magnets and calibration targets. Engineering sensors and components useful for science investigations include stereo navigation cameras, stereo hazard cameras in front and rear, wheel motors, wheel motor current and voltage, the wheels themselves for digging, gyros, accelerometers, and reference solar cell readings. Mission operations will allow commanding of the rover each Martian day, or sol, on the basis of the previous sol's data. Over a 90-sol mission lifetime, the rovers are expected to drive hundreds of meters while carrying out field geology investigations, exploration, and atmospheric characterization. The data products will be delivered to the Planetary Data System as integrated batch archives.

  14. Landsat Data Continuity Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2012-01-01

    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) is a partnership formed between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to place the next Landsat satellite in orbit in January 2013. The Landsat era that began in 1972 will become a nearly 41-year global land record with the successful launch and operation of the LDCM. The LDCM will continue the acquisition, archiving, and distribution of multispectral imagery affording global, synoptic, and repetitive coverage of the Earth's land surfaces at a scale where natural and human-induced changes can be detected, differentiated, characterized, and monitored over time. The mission objectives of the LDCM are to (1) collect and archive medium resolution (30-meter spatial resolution) multispectral image data affording seasonal coverage of the global landmasses for a period of no less than 5 years; (2) ensure that LDCM data are sufficiently consistent with data from the earlier Landsat missions in terms of acquisition geometry, calibration, coverage characteristics, spectral characteristics, output product quality, and data availability to permit studies of landcover and land-use change over time; and (3) distribute LDCM data products to the general public on a nondiscriminatory basis at no cost to the user.

  15. Predicting non-sentinel lymph node status in breast cancer patients with sentinel lymph node involvement: evaluation of two scoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjuán, Alex; Escaramís, Georgia; Vidal-Sicart, Sergi; Illa, Miriam; Zanón, Gabriel; Pahisa, Jaume; Rubí, Sebastià; Velasco, Martín; Santamaría, Gorane; Farrús, Blanca; Muñoz, Montse; García, Yolanda; Fernández, Pedro Luís; Pons, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate a nomogram and a scoring system to predict non-sentinel lymph node status in breast cancer patients with sentinel lymph node (SLN) involvement. A total of 516 breast cancer patients underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy at our institution from January 2001 to August 2006. A prospective database was used to identify breast cancer patients with a positive SLN biopsy examination who underwent a completion axillary lymph node dissection. A total of 114 patients were identified. The Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) nomogram and an axilla scoring system from Paris (Hôpital Tenon) were used to predict the probability of having non-SLN involvement. One hundred fourteen patients were included in the study. The areas under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves were 0.671 (95% CI: 0.552-0.790) for the MSKCC nomogram and 0.703 (95% CI: 0.596-0.811) for the Tenon score. The univariate analysis shows that size of SLN metastases, the number of positive and negative SLN and the proportion of positive SLN were statistically significant. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, the size of SLN metastases and the proportion of positive SLN were statistically significant. The two scoring systems are similar according to their area under ROC curves, but should be improved to be valid and determinant to the general population. Meanwhile, the use of scoring systems could be applied in an individual manner in some patients.

  16. Orthorectification of Sentinel-1 SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) Data in Some Parts Of South-eastern Sulawesi Using Sentinel-1 Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdurahman Bayanudin, Athar; Heru Jatmiko, Retnadi

    2016-11-01

    Sentinel-1 satellite uses active microwave sensor that has a better ability than the optical system in generate satellite image without clouds cover and can operate in day or night in all weather conditions. However, the side looking viewing geometry of SAR system and the object height variation or topography on the surface of the earth causing various distortions of geometry in the SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) image. It needed to be corrected through orthorectifiation process before the further implementation. This research aims to Orthorectifying the Sentinel-1 of SAR data in some regions of Southern Sulawesiusing Sentinel-1 Toolbox software and assessing the geometrical accuracy of orthorectification's results. Two orthorectify methods have been used, namely Range-Doppler Terrain Correction and SAR-Simulation Terrain Correction. Each SAR data orthorectify results (resampling to 30 m resolution) compared qualitatively and quantitatively. Qualitative by visual comparison between the results orthorectify. Quantitative by the calculation of the accuracy results orthorectify both methods on the GLS (Global Land Survey) 2000 Landsat image using 99 test points coordinate then calculated the RMSEr (Root Mean Square Error). The results showed that, there is no significant differences in visual geometry between the orthorectify results. Orthorectified SAR image in some parts of South-eastern Sulawesi from both method showed the same RMSEr value is 25.27 m which means the horizontal accuracy is less than one pixel.

  17. Inappropriate cervical injection of radiotracer for sentinel node mapping in a uterine cervix cancer patient: importance of lymphoscintigraphy and blue dye injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Kadkhodayan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we report a case of sentinel lymph node mapping in a uterine cervix cancer patient, referring to the nuclear medicine department of our institute. Lymphoscintigraphy images showed inappropriate intra‐cervical injection of radiotracer. Blue dye technique was applied for sentinel lymph node mapping, using intra‐cervical injection of methylene blue. Two blue/cold sentinel lymph nodes, with no pathological involvement, were intra‐operatively identified, and the patient was spared pelvic lymph node dissection. The present case underscores the importance of lymphoscintigraphy imaging in sentinel lymph node mapping and demonstrates the added value of blue dye injection in selected patients. It is suggested that preoperative lymphoscintigraphy imaging be considered as an integral part of sentinel lymph node mapping in surgical oncology. Detailed results of lymphoscintigraphy images should be provided for surgeons prior to surgery, and in case the sentinel lymph nodes are not visualized, use of blue dye for sentinel node mapping should be encouraged.

  18. Multi-Mission SDR Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Wireless transceivers used for NASA space missions have traditionally been highly custom and mission specific. Programs such as the GRC Space Transceiver Radio...

  19. Mission Critical Occupation (MCO) Charts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — Agencies report resource data and targets for government-wide mission critical occupations and agency specific mission critical and/or high risk occupations. These...

  20. CTC Sentinel. Volume 5, Issue 8, August 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    in Cyberspace By Jonalan Brickey a 1999 study prepared for the Defense Intelligence Agency and produced at the Naval Postgraduate School began with...in Nigeria’s top oil- producing city of Port Harcourt, Rivers State. The Boko Haram cell was reportedly on a mission to carry out a bomb attack on...Osarogiagbon, “SSS Confirms Arrests of Boko Haram Suspects,” Nigerian Observer, January 3, 2012. 18 Ola Ajayi, “Suspected Boko Haram Member Nabbed in

  1. Mapping wave heights in sea ice with Sentinel 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stopa, Justin; Ardhuin, Fabrice; Collard, Fabrice; Mouche, Alexis; Guitton, Gilles; Sutherland, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Sea ice plays an important role in the Earth system by regulating air-sea fluxes. These fluxes can be enhanced by the breaking of ice into floes which critically depends on wave heights propagating across the ice. Remote sensing with SAR provides a unique coverage of the polar regions but so far the measurement of wave heights has been performed routinely only for open water. The presence of ice completely changes the mechanisms by which waves make patterns in radar images. Namely, in the open ocean, the constructed images appear blurred due to the fact that the high frequency waves are unresolved by the sensor. Instead, in ice-covered seas, high frequency waves have been dissipated or scattered away, and only the low-frequency swell components are observed. Two new algorithms have been proposed by Ardhuin et al. (2015). Refining these algorithms, we analyze the intricate wave patterns captured over sea ice by Sentinel 1-A, and measure both the wave heights and directional spreading of the wave spectrum. The procedure is a two-step process which uses an estimation of the orbital vertical velocities that produce the observed image intensity. The first step is implemented when wiggly lines are present. Wiggly lines are created by the presence of two swell systems and are removed by estimating the wave orbital velocity that causes the amplitude in the wiggly line. The second step uses Fourier analysis to invert the straightened image into a velocity field. As a result we obtain a full non-linear inversion the mapping from the velocity field to the SAR intensity image. The inverted velocities can be used to obtain the wavenumber-direction spectrum. Our algorithm is applied to S1A images from the Arctic and Antarctic and discussions follow in terms of wave-ice interaction. These data will be validated using in situ measurements from the ONR Sea State DRI (Beaufort sea, 2016), and combined with numerical modeling using the WAVEWATCH III model to adjust parameterization

  2. Exomars Mission Achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte, J.; Juillet, J. J.

    2016-12-01

    ExoMars is the first step of the European Space Agency's Aurora Exploration Programme. Comprising two missions, the first one launched in 2016 and the second one to be launched in 2020, ExoMars is a program developed in a broad ESA and Roscosmos co-operation, with significant contribution from NASA that addresses the scientific question of whether life ever existed on Mars and demonstrate key technologies for entry, descent, landing, drilling and roving on the Martian surface . Thales Alenia Space is the overall prime contractor of the Exomars program leading a large industrial team The Spacecraft Composite (SCC), consisting of a Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) and an EDL (Entry Descend and Landing) Demonstrator Module (EDM) named Schiaparelli, has been launched on 14 March 2016 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome by a Proton Launcher. The two modules will separate on 16 October 2016 after a 7 months cruise. The TGO will search for evidence of methane and other atmospheric gases that could be signatures of active biological or geological processes on Mars and will provide communications relay for the 2020 surface assets. The Schiaparelli module will prove the technologies required to safely land a payload on the surface of Mars, with a package of sensors aimed to support the reconstruction of the flown trajectory and the assessment of the performance of the EDL subsystems. For the second Exomars mission a space vehicle composed of a Carrier Module (CM) and a Descent Module (DM), whose Landing Platform (LP) will house a Rover, will begin a 7 months long trip to Mars in August 2020. In 2021 the Descent Module will be separated from the Carrier to carry out the entry into the planet's atmosphere and subsequently make the Landing Platform and the Rover land gently on the surface of Mars. While the LP will continue to measure the environmental parameters of the landing site, the Rover will begin exploration of the surface, which is expected to last 218 Martian days (approx. 230 Earth

  3. Solar sail mission design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leipold, M.

    2000-02-01

    The main subject of this work is the design and detailed orbit transfer analysis of space flight missions with solar sails utilizing solar pressure for primary propulsion. Such a sailcraft requires ultra-light weight, gossamer-like deployable structures and materials in order to effectively utilize the transfer of momentum of solar photons. Different design concepts as well as technological elements for solar sails are considered, and an innovative design of a deployable sail structure including new methods for sail folding and unfolding is presented. The main focus of this report is on trajectory analysis, simulation and optimization of planetocentric as well as heliocentric low-thrust orbit transfers with solar sails. In a parametric analysis, geocentric escape spiral trajectories are simulated and corresponding flight times are determined. In interplanetary space, solar sail missions to all planets in our solar system as well as selected minor bodies are included in the analysis. Comparisons to mission concepts utilizing chemical propulsion as well as ion propulsion are included in order to assess whether solar sailing could possibly enhance or even enable this mission. The emphasis in the interplanetary mission analysis is on novel concepts: a unique method to realize a sun-synchronous Mercury orbiter, fast missions to the outer planets and the outer heliosphere applying a ''solar photonic assist'', rendezvous and sample return missions to asteroids and comets, as well as innovative concepts to reach unique vantage points for solar observation (''Solar Polar Orbiter'' and ''Solar Probe''). Finally, a propellant-less sailcraft attitude control concept using an external torque due to solar pressure is analyzed. Examples for sail navigation and control in circular Earth orbit applying a PD-control algorithm are shown, illustrating the maneuverability of a sailcraft. (orig.) [German] Gegenstand dieser

  4. 75 FR 6178 - Mission Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ...), thermal coal, and palm oil exports for bio fuel, dominate energy exports. Sound fiscal and monetary.... Mission Statement Secretarial Indonesia Clean Energy Business Development Mission May 23-25, 2010. Mission... to Jakarta, Indonesia May 23-25, 2010 to discuss market development policies and promote U.S. exports...

  5. Blue dye can be safely omitted in most sentinel node procedures for melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ploeg, Iris M C; Madu, Max F; van der Hage, Jos A; Wouters, Michel W J M; Klop, W Martin C; van der Hiel, Bernies; van de Wiel, Bart A; van Akkooi, Alexander J C

    2016-10-01

    Sentinel node biopsy is a widely used staging procedure in melanoma. It is usually performed using the triple technique: lymphatic mapping after injection of a radiopharmaceutical, blue dye injection, and the use of a gamma probe. Blue dye offers visual confirmation of the location of the sentinel lymph node (SN). There are some disadvantages such as blurring of the surgical field, skin coloring, and possible anaphylactic reactions. We aimed to answer the question whether patent blue is truly necessary for correct intraoperative identification of the SN. One day preoperatively, lymphoscintigraphy (with or without single-photon emission computed tomography with integrated computed tomography) is performed and the location of the SN is marked on the skin. Perioperatively, patent blue is injected around the tumor. A handheld gamma-ray detection probe is used to determine the location of the incision and detect the SN during the operation. SNs are pursued in all regions indicated by imaging. In only six of the 681 patients (0.9%) a blue, not radioactive, sentinel node was removed. In one of them (0.15%), this was the only node excised. None of these lymph nodes harbored metastases. This study suggests that blue dye has no additional value in finding the sentinel node and is of low significance in detecting metastases. Therefore, blue dye can be safely omitted from the standardized triple technique. It may be useful in selected cases according to the surgeon's discretion.

  6. Quantitative analysis of superparamagnetic contrast agent in sentinel lymph nodes using ex vivo vibrating sample magnetometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, M.; Pouw, Joost Jacob; van Baarlen, J.; Klaase, J.M.; ten Haken, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    As the first step in developing a new clinical technique for the magnetic detection of colorectal sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs), a method is developed to measure the magnetic content in intact, formalin fixated lymph nodes using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). A suspension of superparamagnetic

  7. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy and Isolated Tumor Cells in Invasive Lobular Versus Ductal Breast Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truin, Wilfred; Roumen, Rudi M.; Siesling, Sabine; van der Heiden-van der Loo, Margriet; Lobbezoo, Dorien J.; Tjan-Heijnen, Vivianne C.G.; Voogd, Adri C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is the standard of care for axillary staging in invasive breast cancer. The introduction of SLN biopsy with an extensive pathology examination, in addition to the introduction of the 2002 TNM classification, led to different axillary classification

  8. Optimising magnetic sentinel lymph node biopsy in an in vivo porcine model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed, M.; Anninga, Bauke; Pouw, Joost Jacob; Vreemann, S.; Peek, M.; van Hemelrijck, Mieke; Pinder, Sara E.; ten Haken, Bernard; Pankhurst, Quentin A.; Douek, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The magnetic technique for sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has been evaluated in several clinical trials. An in vivo porcine model was developed to optimise the magnetic technique by evaluating the effect of differing volume, concentration and time of injection of magnetic tracer. A total of 60

  9. One-day or two-day procedure for sentinel node biopsy in melanoma?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakera, A H; Lock-Andersen, J; Hesse, U

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: We compared the outcome of a 1-day and a 2-day sentinel node (SN) biopsy procedure, evaluated in terms of lymphoscintigraphic, surgical and pathological findings. METHODS: We studied 476 patients with melanoma from two melanoma centres using static scintigraphy and blue dye. A proportional...

  10. Sentinel node localization in breast cancer patients using intradermal dye injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilum, Lars; Bak, Martin; Olsen, K E

    2000-01-01

    In a series of 161 consecutive breast cancer operations, intradermal injection of Patent Blue was used to localize the sentinel node (SN). The surgical localization rate was 60%. Including the blue lymph nodes found by the pathologist, localization rate was 70%. After the first 103 operations, th...

  11. National equipment of intraoperatory gamma detection in the identification of sentinel lymph node in animal model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Paula Cristina Fada dos [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Post-graduate Program on Plastic Surgery], e-mail: ppfada@hotmail.com; Santos, Ivan Dunshee de Abranches Oliveira [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. of Surgery; Nahas, Fabio Xerfan; Ferreira, Lydia Masako [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. of Surgery. Div. of Plastic Sugery; Oliveira Filho, Renato Santos de [University of Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculty of Medicine

    2009-07-01

    Purpose: To investigate a national equipment of intraoperatory gamma detection in the identification of sentinel lymph node. Methods: Thirty young adult male rats were used. After anesthetized, animals were divided into two groups of 15 animals each. Animals from group A received dextram 500 - Tc{sup 99} radiopharmaceutical and patent blue V and those from group B received only patent blue V to map the lymphatic drainage. The presence of radiation in the background area, in the area of injection and of the ex vivo sentinel lymph node of group A were measured. After the exeresis, each lymph node in group A and in group B was mixed forming a new random sequence and the radioactive reading of each lymph node was carried out, using both pieces of equipment. Results: The hottest sentinel lymph node was identified by the national equipment when radiation was measured in the area of lymphatic drainage after the Dextran 500 was injected. Also, the ex vivo sentinel lymph node. The national equipment has also detected radiation in the lymph nodes that had not received radiopharmaceutical, leading to false positive, checked by the application of Mann-Whitney tests and Student's paired t-tests. The Cronbach alpha has shown high internal consistency of data 0,9416. Conclusions: The national equipment of intraoperatory gamma detection identifies the LS and showed false positives LS and needs improvement. (author)

  12. CTC Sentinel. Volume 2, Issue 11, November 2009. Lashkar-i-Tayyiba: One Year After Mumbai

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    mechanical engineering. Muhammad `Atif (al-Qa`ida’s former military chief) was an agricultural engineer and later a policeman. Abd al-Salam Faraj (who...Illicit and Terrorist Activ- ity in Algeria’s Tamanrasset,” CTC Sentinel 1:9 (2008). 17 “Plan de Securite Alimentaire Commune Urbaine de Kidal

  13. Kennel dogs as sentinels of Leishmania infantum, Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in Majorca Island, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennel dogs can serve as sentinels and/or reservoirs of diseases of veterinary and zoonotic interest because they have often roamed free and lived outdoors, being exposed to pathogens. We tested for evidence of infection with three protozoans, Leishmania infantum, Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora cani...

  14. Low risk of recurrence in breast cancer with negative sentinel node

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, Malene Grubbe; Bartram, Peter; Bak, Martin;

    2011-01-01

    The sentinel lymph node (SLN) procedure has emerged as a safe staging method with a low morbidity. The objective of the present study was to examine the recurrence rates including especially the axillary recurrence rate in SLN-negative patients after a long follow-up period....

  15. The role of sentinel node biopsy in gynecological cancer : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonk, Maaike H. M.; van de Nieuwenhof, Hedwig P.; de Hullu, Joanne A.; van der Zee, Ate G. J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review In early-stage vulvar, cervical and endometrial cancer, lymph node status is the most important prognostic factor. Surgical treatment is aimed at removing the primary tumor and adequately staging the regional lymph nodes. As morbidity of regional lymphadenectomy is high, sentinel n

  16. What doctors and patients think about false-negative sentinel lymph nodes in vulvar cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hullu, J.A.; Ansink, A.C.; Tijmstra, T.; van der Zee, A. G. J.

    2001-01-01

    The sentinel lymph node procedure is a relatively new, minimally-invasive method for the assessment of nodal status in malignancies such as breast cancer, cutaneous melanoma and vulvar cancer. Although highly accurate, this new method is inevitably associated with a certain false-negative rate, poss

  17. Axillary recurrence rate 5 years after negative sentinel node biopsy for breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andersson, Y.; de Boniface, J.; Jonsson, P. -E.; Ingvar, C.; Liljegren, G.; Bergkvist, L.; Frisell, J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy has replaced axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) as the standard axillary staging procedure in breast cancer. Follow-up studies in SLN-negative women treated without ALND report low rates of axillary recurrence, but most studies have short follow-up, an

  18. Effects of previous surgery on the detection of sentinel nodes in women with vulvar cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ennik, T.A.; Allen, D.G; Bekkers, R.L.M.; Hyde, S.E.; Grant, P.T.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a growing interest to apply the sentinel node (SN) procedure in the treatment of vulvar cancer. Previous vulvar surgery might disrupt lymphatic patterns and thereby decrease SN detection rates, lengthen scintigraphic appearance time (SAT), and increase SN false-negative rate. Th

  19. Sentinel node localization in breast cancer patients using intradermal dye injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilum, Lars; Bak, Martin; Olsen, K E

    2000-01-01

    -sectioning and immunohistochemical staining for cytokeratin. In one case a benign epithelial inclusion was found. The sentinel node was false negative in 9.1% of cases. The consensus from the literature is that the best results are achieved using a combination of dye and isotopic techniques....

  20. Meta‐analysis of sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer using the magnetic technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zada, A.; Peek, M.C.L.; Ahmed, M.; Anninga, B.; Baker, R.; Kusakabe, M.; Sekino, M.; Klaase, J.M.; Haken, ten B.; Douek, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The standard for sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB), the dual technique (radiolabelled tracer and blue dye), has several drawbacks. A novel magnetic technique without these drawbacks has been evaluated in a number of clinical trials. It uses a magnetic tracer and a handheld magnetometer to

  1. Partial promoter substitutions generating transcriptional sentinels of diverse signaling pathways in embryonic stem cells and mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serup, Palle; Gustavsen, Carsten; Klein, Tino

    2012-01-01

    extracellular signals. We thereby created an allelic series of embryonic stem cells and mice, each containing a signal-responsive sentinel with different fluorescent reporters that respond with sensitivity and specificity to retinoic acids, bone morphogenic proteins, activin A, Wnts or Notch, and that can...

  2. Evaluating Sentinel-2 for Lakeshore Habitat Mapping Based on Airborne Hyperspectral Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris Stratoulias

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of lakeshore ecosystems requires fine-scale information to account for the high biodiversity typically encountered in the land-water ecotone. Sentinel-2 is a satellite with high spatial and spectral resolution and improved revisiting frequency and is expected to have significant potential for habitat mapping and classification of complex lakeshore ecosystems. In this context, investigations of the capabilities of Sentinel-2 in regard to the spatial and spectral dimensions are needed to assess its potential and the quality of the expected output. This study presents the first simulation of the high spatial resolution (i.e., 10 m and 20 m bands of Sentinel-2 for lakeshore mapping, based on the satellite’s Spectral Response Function and hyperspectral airborne data collected over Lake Balaton, Hungary in August 2010. A comparison of supervised classifications of the simulated products is presented and the information loss from spectral aggregation and spatial upscaling in the context of lakeshore vegetation classification is discussed. We conclude that Sentinel-2 imagery has a strong potential for monitoring fine-scale habitats, such as reed beds.

  3. Detection of Sentinel Lymph Nodes in Patients with Papillary Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Takami

    2003-07-01

    Conclusions: Sentinel lymph node biopsy may allow discrimination between patients with true lymph-node-negative papillary thyroid carcinoma and those with non-palpable metastatic lymph nodes. It may also be helpful in diagnosing metastases and avoiding unnecessary lymph node dissection in thyroid cancer.

  4. Axillary sentinel node identification in breast cancer patients: degree of radioactivity present at biopsy is critical

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristina R; Oturai, Peter S; Friis, Esbern;

    2011-01-01

    The radioactivity present in the patient (Act(rem) ) at sentinel node (SN) biopsy will depend on injected activity amount as well as on the time interval from tracer injection to biopsy, which both show great variations in the literature. The purpose of this study was to analyse the influence...

  5. Utility of sentinel node biopsy in patients with high-risk cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allen, J E; Stolle, L B

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Currently there is no consensual agreement on the standard use of Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy (SLNB) in staging of high-risk patients. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to define the predictive value and role of SLNB combined with the different high-risk factors to determine which patients...

  6. Iatrogenic displacement of tumor cells to the sentinel node after surgical excision in primary breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedskov, Tove F; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Kroman, Niels;

    2012-01-01

    Isolated tumor cells (ITC) are more common in the sentinel node (SN) after needle biopsy of a breast cancer, indicating iatrogenic displacement of tumor cells. We here investigate whether similar iatrogenic displacement occurs after surgical excision of a breast tumor. We compared the incidence...

  7. Clinical outcomes after sentinel lymph node biopsy in clinically node-negative breast cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Hee Ji; Keun Ki Chang; Suh, Chang Ok; Kim, Yong Bae [Dept.of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei Cancer Center, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ju Ree [Dept.of Radiation Oncology, Cheil General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Hee Rim [Dept.of Radiation Oncology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    To evaluate non-sentinel lymph node (LN) status after sentinel lymph node biopsy (SNB) in patients with breast cancer and to identify the predictive factors for disease failure. From January 2006 to December 2007, axillary lymph node (ALN) dissection after SNB was performed for patients with primary invasive breast cancer who had no clinical evidence of LN metastasis. A total of 320 patients were treated with breast-conserving surgery and radiotherapy. The median age of patients was 48 years, and the median follow-up time was 72.8 months. Close resection margin (RM) was observed in 13 patients. The median number of dissected SNB was two, and that of total retrieved ALNs was 11. Sentinel node accuracy was 94.7%, and the overall false negative rate (FNR) was 5.3%. Eleven patients experienced treatment failure. Local recurrence, regional LN recurrence, and distant metastasis were identified in 0.9%, 1.9%, and 2.8% of these patients, respectively. Sentinel LN status were not associated with locoregional recurrence (p > 0.05). Close RM was the only significant factor for disease-free survival (DFS) in univariate and multivariate analysis. The 5-year overall survival, DFS, and locoregional DFS were 100%, 96.8%, and 98.1%, respectively. In this study, SNB was performed with high accuracy and low FNR and high locoregional control was achieved.

  8. The sentinel node procedure in early stage cervical cancer, taking the next step; a diagnostic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tax, C.; Rovers, M.M.; Graaf, C. de; Zusterzeel, P.L.M.; Bekkers, R.L.M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Recent reviews on the sentinel lymph node (SLN) procedure in cervical cancer have shown that bilateral SLN detection and ultra staging are safe and superior options compared to a unilateral detection, frozen section and H&E analysis. So far, nobody identified a subgroup of patients in who

  9. [Sentinel lymph node biopsy in endometrial cancer--a part of modern operative treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordanov, A; Gorchev, G; Tomov, S; Hinkova, N

    2014-01-01

    After brest cancer the endometrial cancer is the most common gynaecological malignancy. The lymphno destatus is with great prognostic value. There is no agreement for the therapeutic valuae and the contents of the lymph node desectionin early stages. That is why the sentinel lymph node biopsy is a part of modern operative treatment of endometrial cancer.

  10. The potential of Sentinel-2 spectral configuration to assess rangeland quality

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramoelo, Abel

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available was measured using the analytical spectral device (ASD) in concert with leaf sample collections for leaf N chemical analysis. ASD reflectance data were resampled to the spectral bands of Sentinel-2 using published spectral response functions. Random forest (RF...

  11. Mooring Analysis of the Ocean Sentinel through Field Observation and Numerical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    through a snatch -block (pulley) attached to the strength-termination frame on the stern of the Ocean Sentinel (see Figure 61). The pull-line was...plan and was not Snatch -block Swivel end 62 ready by the end of July. The R/V ELAKHA was capable of deploying the AWAC, and could

  12. Comparison between hemosiderin and Technetium-99 in sentinel lymph node biopsy in human breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasques, Paulo Henrique Diogenes; Aquino, Ranniere Gurgel Furtado de; Pinheiro, Luiz Gonzaga Porto, E-mail: luizgporto@uol.com.br [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Departamento de Cirurgia; Alves, Mayara Maia [Rede Nordeste de Biotecnologia (RENORBIO/UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Torres, Roberto Vitor Almeida; Bezerra, Jose Lucas Martins [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Brasileiro, Luis Porto [Faculdades INTA, Sobral, CE (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: To assess the safety and potential equivalence of the use of hemosiderin compared to the Technetium-99 in sentinel lymph node biopsy in human breast cancer. Methods: Non-random sample of 14 volunteer women diagnosed with breast cancer with primary tumors (T1/T2) and clinically tumor-free axilla were submitted to the identification of sentinel lymph node using hemosiderin obtained from autologous blood injected in the periareolar region 24h before surgery on an outpatient basis. Patients received preoperative subareolar intradermal injection of Technetium-99 in the immediate preoperative period. Patients were submitted to sentinel lymph node biopsy, with incision in the axillary fold guided by Gamma-Probe, dissection by planes until the identification of the point of maximum uptake of Technetium-99, identifying the marked nodes and their colors. All surgical specimens were sent for pathological and immunohistochemical study. Results: The results showed no evidence of side effects and/or allergic and non-allergic reactions in patients submitted to SLNB with hemosiderin. The SLN identification rate per patient was 100%. SLNB identification rate per patient with hemosiderin was the same as that of Technetium, with a concordance rate of 100% between the methods. Conclusion: Hemosiderin is a safe dye that is equivalent to Technetium in breast sentinel lymph node biopsy. (author)

  13. SENTINEL-1/2 Data for Ship Traffic Monitoring on the Danube River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negula, I. Dana; Poenaru, V. D.; Olteanu, V. G.; Badea, A.

    2016-06-01

    After a long period of drought, the water level of the Danube River has significantly dropped especially on the Romanian sector, in July-August 2015. Danube reached the lowest water level recorded in the last 12 years, causing the blockage of the ships in the sector located close to Zimnicea Harbour. The rising sand banks in the navigable channel congested the commercial traffic for a few days with more than 100 ships involved. The monitoring of the decreasing water level and the traffic jam was performed based on Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 free data provided by the European Space Agency and the European Commission within the Copernicus Programme. Specific processing methods (calibration, speckle filtering, geocoding, change detection, image classification, principal component analysis, etc.) were applied in order to generate useful products that the responsible authorities could benefit from. The Sentinel data yielded good results for water mask extraction and ships detection. The analysis continued after the closure of the crisis situation when the water reached the nominal level again. The results indicate that Sentinel data can be successfully used for ship traffic monitoring, building the foundation of future endeavours for a durable monitoring of the Danube River.

  14. Assessment of Classification Accuracies of SENTINEL-2 and LANDSAT-8 Data for Land Cover / Use Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale Topaloğlu, Raziye; Sertel, Elif; Musaoğlu, Nebiye

    2016-06-01

    This study aims to compare classification accuracies of land cover/use maps created from Sentinel-2 and Landsat-8 data. Istanbul metropolitan city of Turkey, with a population of around 14 million, having different landscape characteristics was selected as study area. Water, forest, agricultural areas, grasslands, transport network, urban, airport- industrial units and barren land- mine land cover/use classes adapted from CORINE nomenclature were used as main land cover/use classes to identify. To fulfil the aims of this research, recently acquired dated 08/02/2016 Sentinel-2 and dated 22/02/2016 Landsat-8 images of Istanbul were obtained and image pre-processing steps like atmospheric and geometric correction were employed. Both Sentinel-2 and Landsat-8 images were resampled to 30m pixel size after geometric correction and similar spectral bands for both satellites were selected to create a similar base for these multi-sensor data. Maximum Likelihood (MLC) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) supervised classification methods were applied to both data sets to accurately identify eight different land cover/ use classes. Error matrix was created using same reference points for Sentinel-2 and Landsat-8 classifications. After the classification accuracy, results were compared to find out the best approach to create current land cover/use map of the region. The results of MLC and SVM classification methods were compared for both images.

  15. Short-Term Change Detection in Wetlands Using Sentinel-1 Time Series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muro, Javier; Canty, Morton; Conradsen, Knut

    2016-01-01

    as by agricultural practices, whether they are sudden changes, as well as gradual. S1-omnibus is capable of detecting a wider array of short-term changes than when using consecutive pairs of Sentinel-1 images. When compared to the Landsat-based change detection method, both show an overall good agreement, although...

  16. SENTINEL-1/2 DATA FOR SHIP TRAFFIC MONITORING ON THE DANUBE RIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Dana Negula

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available After a long period of drought, the water level of the Danube River has significantly dropped especially on the Romanian sector, in July-August 2015. Danube reached the lowest water level recorded in the last 12 years, causing the blockage of the ships in the sector located close to Zimnicea Harbour. The rising sand banks in the navigable channel congested the commercial traffic for a few days with more than 100 ships involved. The monitoring of the decreasing water level and the traffic jam was performed based on Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 free data provided by the European Space Agency and the European Commission within the Copernicus Programme. Specific processing methods (calibration, speckle filtering, geocoding, change detection, image classification, principal component analysis, etc. were applied in order to generate useful products that the responsible authorities could benefit from. The Sentinel data yielded good results for water mask extraction and ships detection. The analysis continued after the closure of the crisis situation when the water reached the nominal level again. The results indicate that Sentinel data can be successfully used for ship traffic monitoring, building the foundation of future endeavours for a durable monitoring of the Danube River.

  17. Phantom study quantifying the depth performance of a handheld magnetometer for sentinel lymph node biopsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pouw, Joost J.; Bastiaan, Daniel M.C.; Klaase, Joost M.; Haken, ten Bennie

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The use of a magnetic nanoparticle tracer and handheld magnetometer for sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) was recently introduced to overcome drawbacks associated with the use of radioisotope tracers. Unlike the gamma probe, the used magnetometers are not only sensitive to the tracer, but a

  18. Vanadium Mining and Cattle Health : Sentinel studies, epidemiological and veterinary public health issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gummow, B.

    2005-01-01

    The thesis covers a field outbreak investigation into the cause and pathogenesis of "illthrift" on a dairy farm that was due to vanadium exposure, it examines methods of treating vanadium poisoning in cattle using an experimental study, looks at the use of cattle as sentinels for detecting and monit

  19. Guideline adherence for early breast cancer before and after introduction of the sentinel node biopsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaapveld, M; de Vries, EGE; Otter, R; de Vries, J; Dolsma, WV; Willemse, PHB

    2005-01-01

    This population-based study aimed to analyse variations in surgical treatment and guideline compliance with respect to the application of radiotherapy and axillary lymph node dissection (ALND), for early breast cancer, before and after the sentinel node biopsy (SNB) introduction. The study included

  20. Partial promoter substitutions generating transcriptional sentinels of diverse signaling pathways in embryonic stem cells and mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serup, Palle; Gustavsen, Carsten; Klein, Tino;

    2012-01-01

    extracellular signals. We thereby created an allelic series of embryonic stem cells and mice, each containing a signal-responsive sentinel with different fluorescent reporters that respond with sensitivity and specificity to retinoic acids, bone morphogenic proteins, activin A, Wnts or Notch, and that can...