WorldWideScience

Sample records for lwr nuclear power

  1. Investigation of valve failure problems in LWR power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-04-01

    An analysis of component failures from information in the computerized Nuclear Safety Information Center (NSIC) data bank shows that for both PWR and BWR plants the component category most responsible for approximately 19.3% of light water reactor (LWR) power plant shutdowns. This investigation by Burns and Roe, Inc. shows that the greatest cause of shutdowns in LWRs due to valve failures is leakage from valve stem packing. Both BWR plants and PWR plants have stem leakage problems (BWRs, 21% and PWRs, 34%).

  2. LWR spent fuel reduction by the removal of U and the compact storage of Pu with FP for long-term nuclear sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukasawa, T.; Hoshino, K. [Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd, 3-1-1 Saiwai, Hitachi, Ibaraki, 317-0073 (Japan); Takano, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 3-1-1 Saiwai, Hitachi, Ibaraki, 317-0073 (Japan); Sato, S. [Hokkaido University, 3-1-1 Saiwai, Hitachi, Ibaraki, 317-0073 (Japan); Shimazu, Y. [Fukui University, 3-1-1 Saiwai, Hitachi, Ibaraki, 317-0073 (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    Fast breeder reactors (FBR) nuclear fuel cycle is needed for long-term nuclear sustainability while preventing global warming and maximum utilizing the limited uranium (U) resources. The 'Framework for Nuclear Energy Policy' by the Japanese government on October 2005 stated that commercial FBR deployment will start around 2050 under its suitable conditions by the successive replacement of light water reactors (LWR) to FBR. Even after Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident which made Japanese tendency slow down the nuclear power generation activities, Japan should have various options for energy resources including nuclear, and also consider the delay of FBR deployment and increase of LWR spent fuel (LWR-SF) storage amounts. As plutonium (Pu) for FBR deployment will be supplied from LWR-SF reprocessing and Japan will not possess surplus Pu, the authors have developed the flexible fuel cycle initiative (FFCI) for the transition from LWR to FBR. The FFCI system is based on the possibility to stored recycled materials (U, Pu)temporarily for a suitable period according to the FBR deployment rate to control the Pu demand/supply balance. This FFCI system is also effective after the Fukushima accident for the reduction of LWR-SF and future LWR-to-FBR transition. (authors)

  3. Improving the safety of LWR power plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-04-01

    This report documents the results of the Study to identify current, potential research issues and efforts for improving the safety of Light Water Reactor (LWR) power plants. This final report describes the work accomplished, the results obtained, the problem areas, and the recommended solutions. Specifically, for each of the issues identified in this report for improving the safety of LWR power plants, a description is provided in detail of the safety significance, the current status (including information sources, status of technical knowledge, problem solution and current activities), and the suggestions for further research and development. Further, the issues are ranked for action into high, medium, and low priority with respect to primarily (a) improved safety (e.g. potential reduction in public risk and occupational exposure), and secondly (b) reduction in safety-related costs (improving or maintaining level of safety with simpler systems or in a more cost-effective manner).

  4. Advanced LWR Nuclear Fuel Cladding System Development Trade-Off Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristine Barrett; Shannon Bragg-Sitton

    2012-09-01

    The Advanced Light Water Reactor (LWR) Nuclear Fuel Development Research and Development (R&D) Pathway encompasses strategic research focused on improving reactor core economics and safety margins through the development of an advanced fuel cladding system. To achieve significant operating improvements while remaining within safety boundaries, significant steps beyond incremental improvements in the current generation of nuclear fuel are required. Fundamental improvements are required in the areas of nuclear fuel composition, cladding integrity, and the fuel/cladding interaction to allow power uprates and increased fuel burn-up allowance while potentially improving safety margin through the adoption of an “accident tolerant” fuel system that would offer improved coping time under accident scenarios. With a development time of about 20 – 25 years, advanced fuel designs must be started today and proven in current reactors if future reactor designs are to be able to use them with confidence.

  5. North Korean nuclear issues and the LWR project; analysis of the key technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byung Koo; Kwack, E. H.; Shin, J. S.; An, J. S.; Lee, J. U.; Kim, H. T.; Kim, J. S.; Yoon, Y. C

    2000-11-01

    Year 2000 will be remembered as an epoch making period between two Koreas. Korean nuclear industries became activated with the KEDO LWR main contracts entering into force in February, 2000. Respective design, manufacturing and construction activities are mobilized in accordance with the total project schedule of about 100 months. What started out as the nuclear power plant design standardization project in the early '80s, is now being implemented as repeat construction of KSNPs at Yonggwang and Ulchin sites as well as at Kumho site in the DPRK. However, the KEDO construction schedule and the past nuclear inconsistency issues are closely linked due to the nonproliferation concerns. In practice, the IAEA must come to the conclusion that the correctness and completeness must be fulfilled before delivery of the first key component for the KEDO LWR unit 1. While the IAEA verification process tends to focus on the nuclear materials accountancy control, longer term objective between two Koreas is bound to take the form of confidence building. It is necessary to analyse the nuclear research and production facilities in order to make proper evaluation of a nation's nuclear capabilities. Close assessment on development status of graphite moderated reactors and their operation history, spent fuel reprocessing facilities, and HEU production capabilities would be essential. In addition, illicit trafficking possibilities should be addressed. Chapter 1 describes the graphite moderated reactors in general; Chapter 2 describes various reprocessing processes and their detection capabilities; Chapter 3 contains possible uranium enrichment processes with their detection capabilities, and Chapter 4 summarizes the international treaties in illicit trafficking control with the IAEA database.

  6. Comparative analysis of LWR and FBR spent fuels for nuclear forensics evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permana, Sidik; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Su'ud, Zaki

    2012-06-01

    Some interesting issues are attributed to nuclide compositions of spent fuels from thermal reactors as well as fast reactors such as a potential to reuse as recycled fuel, and a possible capability to be manage as a fuel for destructive devices. In addition, analysis on nuclear forensics which is related to spent fuel compositions becomes one of the interesting topics to evaluate the origin and the composition of spent fuels from the spent fuel foot-prints. Spent fuel compositions of different fuel types give some typical spent fuel foot prints and can be estimated the origin of source of those spent fuel compositions. Some technics or methods have been developing based on some science and technological capability including experimental and modeling or theoretical aspects of analyses. Some foot-print of nuclear forensics will identify the typical information of spent fuel compositions such as enrichment information, burnup or irradiation time, reactor types as well as the cooling time which is related to the age of spent fuels. This paper intends to evaluate the typical spent fuel compositions of light water (LWR) and fast breeder reactors (FBR) from the view point of some foot prints of nuclear forensics. An established depletion code of ORIGEN is adopted to analyze LWR spent fuel (SF) for several burnup constants and decay times. For analyzing some spent fuel compositions of FBR, some coupling codes such as SLAROM code, JOINT and CITATION codes including JFS-3-J-3.2R as nuclear data library have been adopted. Enriched U-235 fuel composition of oxide type is used for fresh fuel of LWR and a mixed oxide fuel (MOX) for FBR fresh fuel. Those MOX fuels of FBR come from the spent fuels of LWR. Some typical spent fuels from both LWR and FBR will be compared to distinguish some typical foot-prints of SF based on nuclear forensic analysis.

  7. Ice Thermal Storage Systems for LWR Supplemental Cooling and Peak Power Shifting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Phil Sharpe; Blaise Hamanaka; Wei Yan; WoonSeong Jeong

    2010-06-01

    Availability of enough cooling water has been one of the major issues for the nuclear power plant site selection. Cooling water issues have frequently disrupted the normal operation at some nuclear power plants during heat waves and long draught. The issues become more severe due to the new round of nuclear power expansion and global warming. During hot summer days, cooling water leaving a power plant may become too hot to threaten aquatic life so that environmental regulations may force the plant to reduce power output or even temporarily to be shutdown. For new nuclear power plants to be built at areas without enough cooling water, dry cooling can be used to remove waste heat directly into the atmosphere. However, dry cooling will result in much lower thermal efficiency when the weather is hot. One potential solution for the above mentioned issues is to use ice thermal storage systems (ITS) that reduce cooling water requirements and boost the plant’s thermal efficiency in hot hours. ITS uses cheap off-peak electricity to make ice and uses those ice for supplemental cooling during peak demand time. ITS is suitable for supplemental cooling storage due to its very high energy storage density. ITS also provides a way to shift large amount of electricity from off peak time to peak time. Some gas turbine plants already use ITS to increase thermal efficiency during peak hours in summer. ITSs have also been widely used for building cooling to save energy cost. Among three cooling methods for LWR applications: once-through, wet cooling tower, and dry cooling tower, once-through cooling plants near a large water body like an ocean or a large lake and wet cooling plants can maintain the designed turbine backpressure (or condensation temperature) during 99% of the time; therefore, adding ITS to those plants will not generate large benefits. For once-through cooling plants near a limited water body like a river or a small lake, adding ITS can bring significant economic

  8. Nuclear characteristics of Pu fueled LWR and cross section sensitivities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Toshikazu [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1998-03-01

    The present status of Pu utilization to thermal reactors in Japan, nuclear characteristics and topics and cross section sensitivities for analysis of Pu fueled thermal reactors are described. As topics we will discuss the spatial self-shielding effect on the Doppler reactivity effect and the cross section sensitivities with the JENDL-3.1 and 3.2 libraries. (author)

  9. Legal, institutional, and political issues in transportation of nuclear materials at the back end of the LWR nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippek, H.E.; Schuller, C.R.

    1979-03-01

    A study was conducted to identify major legal and institutional problems and issues in the transportation of spent fuel and associated processing wastes at the back end of the LWR nuclear fuel cycle. (Most of the discussion centers on the transportation of spent fuel, since this activity will involve virtually all of the legal and institutional problems likely to be encountered in moving waste materials, as well.) Actions or approaches that might be pursued to resolve the problems identified in the analysis are suggested. Two scenarios for the industrial-scale transportation of spent fuel and radioactive wastes, taken together, high-light most of the major problems and issues of a legal and institutional nature that are likely to arise: (1) utilizing the Allied General Nuclear Services (AGNS) facility at Barnwell, SC, as a temporary storage facility for spent fuel; and (2) utilizing AGNS for full-scale commercial reprocessing of spent LWR fuel.

  10. Identification of the impacts of maintenance and testing upon the safety of LWR power plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husseiny, A. A.; Sabri, Z. A.; Turnage, J. J.

    1980-04-01

    The present study was designed to identify the impact of maintenance and testing (M and T) upon the safety of LWR power plants. The study involved data extraction from various sources reporting safety-related and operation-related nuclear power plant experience. Primary sources reviewed, including Licensee Event Reports (LER's) submitted to the NRC, revealed that only ten percent of events reported could be identified as M and T problems. The collected data were collated in a manner that would allow identification of principal types of problems which are associated with the performance of M and T tasks in LWR power plants. Frequencies of occurrence of events and their general endemic nature were analyzed using data clustering and pattern recognition techniques, as well as chi-square analyses for sparse contingency tables. The results of these analyses identified seven major categories of M and T error modes which were related to individual facilities and reactor type. Data review indicated that few M and T problems were directly related to procedural inadequacies, with the majority of events being attributable to human error.

  11. Descriptions of reference LWR facilities for analysis of nuclear fuel cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, K.J.; Kabele, T.J.

    1979-09-01

    To contribute to the Department of Energy's identification of needs for improved environmental controls in nuclear fuel cycles, a study was made of a light water reactor system. A reference LWR fuel cycle was defined, and each step in this cycle was characterized by facility description and mainline and effluent treatment process performance. The reference fuel cycle uses fresh uranium in light water reactors. Final treatment and ultimate disposition of waste from the fuel cycle steps were not included, and the waste is assumed to be disposed of by approved but currently undefined means. The characterization of the reference fuel cycle system is intended as basic information for further evaluation of alternative effluent control systems.

  12. Descriptions of reference LWR facilities for analysis of nuclear fuel cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, K.J.; Kabele, T.J.

    1979-09-01

    To contribute to the Department of Energy's identification of needs for improved environmental controls in nuclear fuel cycles, a study was made of a light water reactor system. A reference LWR fuel cycle was defined, and each step in this cycle was characterized by facility description and mainline and effluent treatment process performance. The reference fuel cycle uses fresh uranium in light water reactors. Final treatment and ultimate disposition of waste from the fuel cycle steps were not included, and the waste is assumed to be disposed of by approved but currently undefined means. The characterization of the reference fuel cycle system is intended as basic information for further evaluation of alternative effluent control systems.

  13. Nuclear Theory - Nuclear Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svenne, J. P.; Canton, L.; Kozier, K. S.

    2008-01-01

    The results from modern nuclear theory are accurate and reliable enough to be used for practical applications, in particular for scattering that involves few-nucleon systems of importance to nuclear power. Using well-established nucleon-nucleon (NN) interactions that fit well the NN scattering data, and the AGS form of the three-body theory, we have performed precise calculations of low-energy neutron-deuteron (n+d) scattering. We show that three-nucleon force effects that have impact on the low-energy vector analyzing powers have no practical effects on the angular distribution of the n+d cross-section. There appear to be problems for this scattering in the evaluated nuclear data file (ENDF) libraries, at the incident neutron energies less than 3.2 MeV. Supporting experimental data in this energy region are rather old (>25 years), sparse and often inconsistent. Our three-body results at low energies, 50 keV to 10.0 MeV, are compared to the ENDF/B-VII.0 and JENDL (Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library) -3.3 evaluated angular distributions. The impact of these results on the calculated reactivity for various critical systems involving heavy water is shown.

  14. Engineered Zircaloy Cladding Modifications for Improved Accident Tolerance of LWR Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heuser, Brent [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Stubbins, James [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Kozlowski, Tomasz [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Uddin, Rizwan [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Trinkle, Dallas [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Downar, Thoms [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Was, Gary [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); ang, Yong [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Phillpot, Simon [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Sabharwall, piyush [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-07-25

    The DOE NEUP sponsored IRP on accident tolerant fuel (ATF) entitled Engineered Zircaloy Cladding Modifications for Improved Accident Tolerance of LWR Nuclear Fuel involved three academic institutions, Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and ATI Materials (ATI). Detailed descriptions of the work at the University of Illinois (UIUC, prime), the University of Florida (UF), the University of Michigan (UMich), and INL are included in this document as separate sections. This summary provides a synopsis of the work performed across the IRP team. Two ATF solution pathways were initially proposed, coatings on monolithic Zr-based LWR cladding material and selfhealing modifications of Zr-based alloys. The coating pathway was extensively investigated, both experimentally and in computations. Experimental activities related to ATF coatings were centered at UIUC, UF, and UMich and involved coating development and testing, and ion irradiation. Neutronic and thermal hydraulic aspects of ATF coatings were the focus of computational work at UIUC and UMich, while materials science aspects were the focus of computational work at UF and INL. ATI provided monolithic Zircaloy 2 and 4 material and a binary Zr-Y alloy material. The selfhealing pathway was investigated with advanced computations only. Beryllium was identified as a valid self-healing additive early in this work. However, all attempts to fabricate a Zr-Be alloy failed. Several avenues of fabrication were explored. ATI ultimately declined our fabrication request over health concerns associated with Be (we note that Be was not part of the original work scope and the ATI SOW). Likewise, Ames Laboratory declined our fabrication request, citing known litigation dating to the 1980s and 1990s involving the U.S. Federal government and U.S. National Laboratory employees involving the use of Be. Materion (formerly, Brush Wellman) also declined our fabrication request, citing the difficulty in working with a highly reactive Zr and Be

  15. 75 FR 5632 - Office of New Reactors; Interim Staff Guidance on the Review of Nuclear Power Plant Designs Using...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... COMMISSION Office of New Reactors; Interim Staff Guidance on the Review of Nuclear Power Plant Designs Using... Review of Nuclear Power Plant Designs Using a Gas Turbine Driven Standby Emergency Alternating Current... for Nuclear Power Plants (LWR Edition),'' June 2007. Background: Emergency diesel generators...

  16. Converting Maturing Nuclear Sites to Integrated Power Production Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles W. Solbrig

    2011-01-01

    plutonium. A nuclear island, an evolution of the integral fast reactor, utilizes all the Transuranics (Pu plus minor actinides produced in power production, and it eliminates all spent fuel shipments to and from the site. This latter attribute requires that fuel reprocessing occur on each site and that fast reactors be built on-site to utilize the TRU. All commercial spent fuel shipments could be eliminated by converting all LWR nuclear power sites to nuclear islands. Existing LWR sites have the added advantage of already possessing a license to produce nuclear power. Each could contribute to an increase in the nuclear power production by adding one or more fast reactors. Both the TRU and the depleted uranium obtained in reprocessing would be used on-site for fast fuel manufacture. Only fission products would be shipped to a repository for storage. The nuclear island concept could be used to alleviate the strain of LWR plant sites currently approaching or exceeding their spent fuel pool storage capacity. Fast reactor breeding ratio could be designed to convert existing sites to all fast reactors, or keep the majority thermal.

  17. Nuclear Power in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China’s vigorous efforts to propel development of nuclear power are paying off as the country’s nuclear power sector advances at an amazing pace. At present, China has set up three enormous nuclear power bases, one each in Qinshan of Zhejiang Province, Dayawan of Guangdong

  18. Nuclear Data Uncertainties for Typical LWR Fuel Assemblies and a Simple Reactor Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochman, D.; Leray, O.; Hursin, M.; Ferroukhi, H.; Vasiliev, A.; Aures, A.; Bostelmann, F.; Zwermann, W.; Cabellos, O.; Diez, C. J.; Dyrda, J.; Garcia-Herranz, N.; Castro, E.; van der Marck, S.; Sjöstrand, H.; Hernandez, A.; Fleming, M.; Sublet, J.-Ch.; Fiorito, L.

    2017-01-01

    The impact of the current nuclear data library covariances such as in ENDF/B-VII.1, JEFF-3.2, JENDL-4.0, SCALE and TENDL, for relevant current reactors is presented in this work. The uncertainties due to nuclear data are calculated for existing PWR and BWR fuel assemblies (with burn-up up to 40 GWd/tHM, followed by 10 years of cooling time) and for a simplified PWR full core model (without burn-up) for quantities such as k∞, macroscopic cross sections, pin power or isotope inventory. In this work, the method of propagation of uncertainties is based on random sampling of nuclear data, either from covariance files or directly from basic parameters. Additionally, possible biases on calculated quantities are investigated such as the self-shielding treatment. Different calculation schemes are used, based on CASMO, SCALE, DRAGON, MCNP or FISPACT-II, thus simulating real-life assignments for technical-support organizations. The outcome of such a study is a comparison of uncertainties with two consequences. One: although this study is not expected to lead to similar results between the involved calculation schemes, it provides an insight on what can happen when calculating uncertainties and allows to give some perspectives on the range of validity on these uncertainties. Two: it allows to dress a picture of the state of the knowledge as of today, using existing nuclear data library covariances and current methods.

  19. RETHINKING NUCLEAR POWER SAFETY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The Fukushima nuclear accident sounds alarm bells in China’s nuclear power industry In the wake of the Fukushima nucleara ccident caused by the earthquake andt sunami in Japan,the safety of nuclearp ower plants and the development of nuclear power have raised concerns,

  20. Nuclear Power Feasibility 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Aragonés Beltrán, José María; Hill, Barrie Frederick; Kadak, Andrew C.; Shultz, Donald F.; Spitalnik, Jorge

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear power is a proven technology and has the potential to generate virtually limitless energy with no significant greenhouse gas emissions. Nuclear power can become one of the main options to contribute to substantial cuts in global greenhouse gas emissions. Modern development of nuclear power technology and the established framework of international agreements and conventions are responding to the major political, economic and environmental issues -high capital costs, the risks posed by ...

  1. Neutron measurements at nuclear power reactors [55

    CERN Document Server

    Scherpelz, R I

    2002-01-01

    Staff from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (operated by Battelle Memorial Institute), have performed neutron measurements at a number of commercial nuclear power plants in the United States. Neutron radiation fields at light water reactor (LWR) power plants are typically characterized by low-energy distributions due to the presence of large amounts of scattering material such as water and concrete. These low-energy distributions make it difficult to accurately monitor personnel exposures, since most survey meters and dosimeters are calibrated to higher-energy fields such as those produced by bare or D sub 2 O-moderated sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf sources. Commercial plants typically use thermoluminescent dosimeters in an albedo configuration for personnel dosimetry and survey meters based on a thermal-neutron detector inside a cylindrical or spherical moderator for dose rate assessment, so their methods of routine monitoring are highly dependent on the energy of the neutron fields. Battelle has participate...

  2. LWR nuclear fuel bundle data for use in fuel bundle handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weihermiller, W.B.; Allison, G.S.

    1979-09-01

    Although increasing numbers of spent light water reactor (LWR) fuel bundles are moved into storage, no handling equipment is set up to manipulate all of the various types of fuel bundles. This report summarizes fuel bundle information of interest to the designer of such handling equipment. Dimensional descriptions are included with discussions of assembly procedure and manufacturer provisions for handling equipment. No attempt is made to make a complete compilation of dimensional information; the number of fuel bundle designs and design revisions makes it impractical. Because the fuel bundle designs are so varied, any equipment intended for handling all types of bundles will have to be designed with flexibility in mind. Besides the ability to manipulate fuel bundles in space, handling equipment may be required to locate an external surface or to position a cutting operation to avoid breaking a fuel rod pressure boundary. Even with the most sophisticated and flexible handling equipment, some situations will require use of the manufacturers' as-built descriptions of individual fuel bundles.

  3. Nuclear Power Plants. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell, Walter, III

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Why Use Nuclear Power?; From Atoms to Electricity; Reactor Types; Typical Plant Design Features; The Cost of Nuclear Power; Plants in the United States; Developments in Foreign…

  4. Nuclear power in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gittus, J. (British Nuclear Forum, London (UK))

    1991-04-01

    The 1990s are turning out to be a most crucial phase for the nuclear industries of Europe. A time of uncertainty, as well as considerable opportunity, lies ahead. Despite a measure of public and political opposition to nuclear power, many are beginning to realise that, as a method of generating electricity that produces only 1% of greenhouse gases compared to coal per unit of electricity, nuclear energy may be the best alternative to the burning of fossil fuels. Although advances have been made in renewable energy, nuclear power is still the main non-fossil fuel source that can cope with today's energy demands. (author).

  5. Nuclear Power in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    In the early years of the United States space program, lightweight batteries, fuel cells, and solar modules provided electric power for space missions. As missions became more ambitious and complex, power needs increased and scientists investigated various options to meet these challenging power requirements. One of the options was nuclear energy. By the mid-1950s, research had begun in earnest on ways to use nuclear power in space. These efforts resulted in the first radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs), which are nuclear power generators build specifically for space and special terrestrial uses. These RTGs convert the heat generated from the natural decay of their radioactive fuel into electricity. RTGs have powered many spacecraft used for exploring the outer planets of the solar system and orbiting the sun and Earth. They have also landed on Mars and the moon. They provide the power that enables us to see and learn about even the farthermost objects in our solar system.

  6. Safety and nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gittus, John; Gunning, Angela.

    1988-05-01

    Representatives of the supporters and opponents of civil nuclear power put forward the arguments they feel the public should consider when making up their mind about the nuclear industry. The main argument in favour of nuclear power is about the low risk in comparison with other risks and the amount of radiation received on average by the population in the United Kingdom from different sources. The aim is to show that the nuclear industry is fully committed to the cause of safety and this has resulted in a healthy workforce and a safe environment for the public. The arguments against are that the nuclear industry is deceitful, secretive and politically motivated and thus its arguments about safety, risks, etc, cannot be trusted. The question of safety is considered further - in particular the perceptions, definitions and responsibility. The economic case for nuclear electricity is not accepted. (U.K.).

  7. Nuclear Power Plant Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, George A.

    1975-01-01

    The author recognizes a body of basic knowledge in nuclear power plant technoogy that can be taught in school programs, and lists the various courses, aiming to fill the anticipated need for nuclear-trained manpower--persons holding an associate degree in engineering technology. (Author/BP)

  8. Nuclear Power Plant Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, George A.

    1975-01-01

    The author recognizes a body of basic knowledge in nuclear power plant technoogy that can be taught in school programs, and lists the various courses, aiming to fill the anticipated need for nuclear-trained manpower--persons holding an associate degree in engineering technology. (Author/BP)

  9. Nuclear power economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emsley, Ian; Cobb, Jonathan [World Nuclear Association, London (United Kingdom)

    2017-04-15

    Many countries recognize the substantial role which nuclear power has played in providing energy security of supply, reducing import dependence and reducing greenhouse gas and polluting emissions. Nevertheless, as such considerations are far from being fully accounted for in liberalized or deregulated power markets, nuclear plants must demonstrate their viability in these markets on commercial criteria as well as their lifecycle advantages. Nuclear plants are operating more efficiently than in the past and unit operating costs are low relative to those of alternative generating technologies. The political risk facing the economic functioning of nuclear in a number of countries has increased with the imposition of nuclear-specific taxes that in some cases have deprived operators of the economic incentive to continue to operate existing plants.

  10. Commercial nuclear power 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-28

    This report presents the status at the end of 1989 and the outlook for commercial nuclear capacity and generation for all countries in the world with free market economies (FME). The report provides documentation of the US nuclear capacity and generation projections through 2030. The long-term projections of US nuclear capacity and generation are provided to the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for use in estimating nuclear waste fund revenues and to aid in planning the disposal of nuclear waste. These projections also support the Energy Information Administration's annual report, Domestic Uranium Mining and Milling Industry: Viability Assessment, and are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The foreign nuclear capacity projections are used by the DOE uranium enrichment program in assessing potential markets for future enrichment contracts. The two major sections of this report discuss US and foreign commercial nuclear power. The US section (Chapters 2 and 3) deals with (1) the status of nuclear power as of the end of 1989; (2) projections of nuclear capacity and generation at 5-year intervals from 1990 through 2030; and (3) a discussion of institutional and technical issues that affect nuclear power. The nuclear capacity projections are discussed in terms of two projection periods: the intermediate term through 2010 and the long term through 2030. A No New Orders case is presented for each of the projection periods, as well as Lower Reference and Upper Reference cases. 5 figs., 30 tabs.

  11. Nuclear power industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-28

    This press dossier presented in Shanghai (China) in April 1999, describes first the activities of the Framatome group in the people`s republic of China with a short presentation of the Daya Bay power plant and of the future Ling Ao project, and with a description of the technological cooperation with China in the nuclear domain (technology transfers, nuclear fuels) and in other industrial domains (mechanics, oil and gas, connectors, food and agriculture, paper industry etc..). The general activities of the Framatome group in the domain of energy (nuclear realizations in France, EPR project, export activities, nuclear services, nuclear fuels, nuclear equipments, industrial equipments) and of connectors engineering are presented in a second and third part with the 1998 performances. (J.S.)

  12. Nuclear Power Plants (Rev.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell III, Walter [Southern Nuclear Engineering, Inc.

    1973-01-01

    Projected energy requirements for the future suggest that we must employ atomic energy to generate electric power or face depletion of our fossil-fuel resources—coal, oil, and gas. In short, both conservation and economic considerations will require us to use nuclear energy to generate the electricity that supports our civilization. Until we reach the time when nuclear power plants are as common as fossil-fueled or hydroelectric plants, many people will wonder how the nuclear plants work, how much they cost, where they are located, and what kinds of reactors they use. The purpose of this booklet is to answer these questions. In doing so, it will consider only central station plants, which are those that provide electric power for established utility systems.

  13. Plutonium rock-like fuel LWR nuclear characteristics and transient behavior in accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akie, Hiroshi; Anoda, Yoshinari; Takano, Hideki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Yamaguchi, Chouichi; Sugo, Yukihiro

    1998-03-01

    For the disposition of excess plutonium, rock-like oxide (ROX) fuel systems based on zirconia (ZrO{sub 2}) or thoria (ThO{sub 2}) have been studied. Safety analysis of ROX fueled PWR showed it is necessary to increase Doppler reactivity coefficient and to reduce power peaking factor of zirconia type ROX (Zr-ROX) fueled core. For these improvements, Zr-ROX fuel composition was modified by considering additives of ThO{sub 2}, UO{sub 2} or Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and reducing Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} content. As a result of the modification, comparable, transient behavior to UO{sub 2} fuel PWR was obtained with UO{sub 2}-Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} added Zr-ROX fuel, while the plutonium transmutation capability is slightly reduced. (author)

  14. Nuclear power plant maintainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seminara, J L; Parsons, S O

    1982-09-01

    In the mid-1970s a general awareness of human factors engineering deficiencies associated with power plant control rooms took shape and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) awarded the Lockheed Corporation a contract to review the human factors aspects of five representative operational control rooms and their associated simulators. This investigation revealed a host of major and minor deficiencies that assumed unforeseen dimensions in the post- Three Mile Island accident period. In the course of examining operational problems (Seminara et al, 1976) and subsequently the methods for overcoming such problems (Seminara et al, 1979, 1980) indications surfaced that power plants were far from ideal in meeting the needs of maintenance personnel. Accordingly, EPRI sponsored an investigation of the human factors aspects of power plant maintainability (Seminara, 1981). This paper provides an overview of the maintainability problems and issues encountered in the course of reviewing five nuclear power plants.

  15. Space Nuclear Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houts, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Fission power and propulsion systems can enable exciting space exploration missions. These include bases on the moon and Mars; and the exploration, development, and utilization of the solar system. In the near-term, fission surface power systems could provide abundant, constant, cost-effective power anywhere on the surface of the Moon or Mars, independent of available sunlight. Affordable access to Mars, the asteroid belt, or other destinations could be provided by nuclear thermal rockets. In the further term, high performance fission power supplies could enable both extremely high power levels on planetary surfaces and fission electric propulsion vehicles for rapid, efficient cargo and crew transfer. Advanced fission propulsion systems could eventually allow routine access to the entire solar system. Fission systems could also enable the utilization of resources within the solar system.

  16. Aging of reactor vessels in LWR type reactors; Envejecimiento de la vasija y de los internos del nuclear de los reactores tipo LWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez Briceno, D.; Lapena, J.; Serrano, M.

    2004-07-01

    Most of the degradation mechanisms of nuclear components were not included on the design so they have to be treated a posteriori, and that imply a loss of capacity. In this paper the state of the art on the reactor pressure vessel neutron embrittlement and on the irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking that affects internal components, are explained. Special attention is devoted on the influence of the neutron fluence on IASCC process, on the material alterations promoted by irradiation and their consequences on the susceptibility to this phenomenon. Regarding the reactor pressure vessel degradation, this paper discuss the application of the Master Curve on the structural integrity evaluation of the vessel. Other aspects related to further developments are also mentioned and the importance of a good materials ageing management on the operation of the plant is pointed out. (Author) 12 refs.

  17. Study of the reliability of the Auxiliary Feedwater System of a LWR nuclear power plant through the Fault Tree and Bayesian Network; Estudo de confiabilidade do Sistema Auxiliar de Agua de Alimentacao de uma central nuclear a agua leve por arvore de falhas e rede Bayesiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lava, Deise Diana

    2016-10-01

    This paper aims to present a study of the reliability of the Auxiliary Feedwater System (AFWS) through the methods of Fault Tree and Bayesian Network. Therefore, the paper consists of a literature review of the history of nuclear energy and the methodologies used. The AFWS is responsible for providing water system to cool the secondary circuit of nuclear reactors of the PWR type when normal feeding water system failure. How this system operates only when the primary system fails, it is expected that the AFWS failure probability is very low. The AFWS failure probability is divided into two cases: the first is the probability of failure in the first eight hours of operation and the second is the probability of failure after eight hours of operation, considering that the system has not failed within the first eight hours. The calculation of the probability of failure of the second case was made through the use of Fault Tree and Bayesian Network, that it was constructed from the Fault Tree. The results of the failure probability obtained were very close, on the order of 10{sup -3}. (author)

  18. Elecnuc. Nuclear power plants in the world; Elecnuc. Les centrales nucleaires dans le monde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This 2003 version of Elecnuc contents information, data and charts on the nuclear power plants in the world and general information on the national perspectives concerning the electric power industry. The following topics are presented: 2002 highlights; characteristics of main reactor types and on order; map of the French nuclear power plants; the worldwide status of nuclear power plants on 2002/12/3; units distributed by countries; nuclear power plants connected to the Grid by reactor type groups; nuclear power plants under construction; capacity of the nuclear power plants on the grid; first electric generations supplied by a nuclear unit; electrical generation from nuclear plants by country at the end 2002; performance indicator of french PWR units; trends of the generation indicator worldwide from 1960 to 2002; 2002 cumulative Load Factor by owners; nuclear power plants connected to the grid by countries; status of license renewal applications in Usa; nuclear power plants under construction; Shutdown nuclear power plants; exported nuclear power plants by type; exported nuclear power plants by countries; nuclear power plants under construction or order; steam generator replacements; recycling of Plutonium in LWR; projects of MOX fuel use in reactors; electricity needs of Germany, Belgium, Spain, Finland, United Kingdom; electricity indicators of the five countries. (A.L.B.)

  19. Overview paper on nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiewak, I.; Cope, D.F.

    1980-09-01

    This paper was prepared as an input to ORNL's Strategic Planning Activity, ORNL National Energy Perspective (ONEP). It is intended to provide historical background on nuclear power, an analysis of the mission of nuclear power, a discussion of the issues, the technology choices, and the suggestion of a strategy for encouraging further growth of nuclear power.

  20. Nuclear Security for Floating Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skiba, James M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Scherer, Carolynn P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-13

    Recently there has been a lot of interest in small modular reactors. A specific type of these small modular reactors (SMR,) are marine based power plants called floating nuclear power plants (FNPP). These FNPPs are typically built by countries with extensive knowledge of nuclear energy, such as Russia, France, China and the US. These FNPPs are built in one country and then sent to countries in need of power and/or seawater desalination. Fifteen countries have expressed interest in acquiring such power stations. Some designs for such power stations are briefly summarized. Several different avenues for cooperation in FNPP technology are proposed, including IAEA nuclear security (i.e. safeguards), multilateral or bilateral agreements, and working with Russian design that incorporates nuclear safeguards for IAEA inspections in non-nuclear weapons states

  1. Nuclear power renaissance or demise?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dossani, Umair

    2010-09-15

    Nuclear power is going through a renaissance or demise is widely debated around the world keeping in mind the facts that there are risks related to nuclear technology and at the same time that is it environmentally friendly. My part of the argument is that there is no better alternative than Nuclear power. Firstly Nuclear Power in comparison to all other alternative fuels is environmentally sustainable. Second Nuclear power at present is at the dawn of a new era with new designs and technologies. Third part of the debate is renovation in the nuclear fuel production, reprocessing and disposal.

  2. Let us learn nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Wan Sang

    2006-08-15

    This book teach us nuclear power through nine chapters with recommendation and a prolog. The contents of this book are how did Formi become a scientist? what does atom look like? discover of neutron, what is an isotope?, power in the nuclear, various radiation, artificial nuclear transformation, nuclear fission and clinging atomic nucleus. It also has an appendix on SF story ; an atom bomb war. It explains basic nuclear physic in easy way with pictures.

  3. Nuclear electric power sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements on radioactive commercial p-n junction silicon cells show that these units are capable of delivering several hundred microwatts per curie of Am-241 alpha source, indicating their usefulness in such electronic devices as hearing aids, heart pacemakers, electronic watches, delay timers and nuclear dosimeter chargers. It is concluded that the Am-241 sources are superior to the beta sources used previously, because of higher alpha specific ionization and simultaneous production of low energy photons which are easily converted into photoelectrons for additional power.

  4. Three dimensional considerations in thermal-hydraulics of helical cruciform fuel rods for LWR power uprates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirvan, Koroush, E-mail: kshirvan@mit.edu; Kazimi, Mujid S.

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • We benchmarked the 4 × 4 helical cruciform fuel (HCF) bundle pressure drop experimental data with CFD. • We also benchmarked the 4 × 4 HCF mixing experimental data with CFD. • We derived new friction factors for PWR and BWR designs at PWR and BWR operating conditions from CFD. • We showed the importance of modeling the 3D conduction in HCF in steady state and transient conditions. - Abstract: In order to increase the power density of current and new light water reactor designs, the helical cruciform fuel (HCF) rods have been proposed. The HCF rod is equivalent to a thin cylindrical rod, with 4 fuel containing vanes, wrapped around it. The HCF rods increase the surface area to volume ratio of the fuel and enhance the inter-subchannel mixing due to their helical shape. The rods do not need supporting grids, as they are packed to periodically contact their neighbors along the flow direction, enabling a higher power density in the core. The HCF rods were reported to have the potential to uprate existing PWRs by 45% and BWRs by 20%. In order to quantify the mixing behavior of the HCF rods based on their twist pitch, experiments were previously performed at atmospheric pressures with single phase water in a 4 by 4 HCF and cylindrical rod bundles. In this paper, the experimental results on pressure drop and mixing are benchmarked with computational fluid dynamic (CFD) using steady state the Reynolds average Navier–Stokes (RANS) turbulence model. The sensitivity of the CFD approach to computational domain, mesh size, mesh shape and RANS turbulence models are examined against the experimental conditions. Due to the refined radial velocity profile from the HCF rods twist, the turbulence models showed little sensitivity to the domain. Based on the CFD simulations, the total pressure drops under the PWR and BWR conditions are expected to be about 10% higher than the values previously reported solely from an empirical correlation based on the

  5. Nuclear power generation modern power station practice

    CERN Document Server

    1971-01-01

    Nuclear Power Generation focuses on the use of nuclear reactors as heat sources for electricity generation. This volume explains how nuclear energy can be harnessed to produce power by discussing the fundamental physical facts and the properties of matter underlying the operation of a reactor. This book is comprised of five chapters and opens with an overview of nuclear physics, first by considering the structure of matter and basic physical concepts such as atomic structure and nuclear reactions. The second chapter deals with the requirements of a reactor as a heat source, along with the diff

  6. Nuclear Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analia Bonelli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A description of the results for a Station Black-Out analysis for Atucha 2 Nuclear Power Plant is presented here. Calculations were performed with MELCOR 1.8.6 YV3165 Code. Atucha 2 is a pressurized heavy water reactor, cooled and moderated with heavy water, by two separate systems, presently under final construction in Argentina. The initiating event is loss of power, accompanied by the failure of four out of four diesel generators. All remaining plant safety systems are supposed to be available. It is assumed that during the Station Black-Out sequence the first pressurizer safety valve fails stuck open after 3 cycles of water release, respectively, 17 cycles in total. During the transient, the water in the fuel channels evaporates first while the moderator tank is still partially full. The moderator tank inventory acts as a temporary heat sink for the decay heat, which is evacuated through conduction and radiation heat transfer, delaying core degradation. This feature, together with the large volume of the steel filler pieces in the lower plenum and a high primary system volume to thermal power ratio, derives in a very slow transient in which RPV failure time is four to five times larger than that of other German PWRs.

  7. Nuclear Power Plant Module, NPP-1: Nuclear Power Cost Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelaw, Robert L.

    The purpose of the Nuclear Power Plant Modules, NPP-1, is to determine the total cost of electricity from a nuclear power plant in terms of all the components contributing to cost. The plan of analysis is in five parts: (1) general formulation of the cost equation; (2) capital cost and fixed charges thereon; (3) operational cost for labor,…

  8. PIE of nuclear grade SiC/SiC flexural coupons irradiated to 10 dpa at LWR temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyanagi, Takaaki [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Katoh, Yutai [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Silicon carbide fiber-reinforced SiC matrix (SiC/SiC) composites are being actively investigated for accident-tolerant core structures of light water reactors (LWRs). Owing to the limited number of irradiation studies previously conducted at LWR-coolant temperature, this study examined SiC/SiC composites following neutron irradiation at 230–340°C to 2.0 and 11.8 dpa in the High Flux Isotope Reactor. The investigated materials are chemical vapor infiltrated (CVI) SiC/SiC composites with three different reinforcement fibers. The fiber materials were monolayer pyrolytic carbon (PyC)-coated Hi-NicalonTM Type-S (HNS), TyrannoTM SA3 (SA3), and SCS-UltraTM (SCS) SiC fibers. The irradiation resistance of these composites was investigated based on flexural behavior, dynamic Young’s modulus, swelling, and microstructures. There was no notable mechanical properties degradation of the irradiated HNS and SA3 SiC/SiC composites except for reduction of the Young’s moduli by up to 18%. The microstructural stability of these composites supported the absence of degradation. In addition, no progressive swelling from 2.0 to 11.8 dpa was confirmed for these composites. On the other hand, the SCS composite showed significant mechanical degradation associated with cracking within the fiber. This study determined that SiC/SiC composites with HNS or SA3 SiC/SiC fibers, a PyC interphase, and a CVI SiC matrix retain their properties beyond the lifetime dose for LWR fuel cladding at the relevant temperature.

  9. Global Protest Against Nuclear Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Protest against nuclear power plants, uranium mining and nuclear testing was a major mobilizing force in the rise of mass environmental movements in the 1970s and 1980s around the globe. Nevertheless, the historiography of anti-nuclear protest remains largely limited to national stories about...

  10. Health Risks of Nuclear Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Bernard L.

    1978-01-01

    Deals with the wastes generated in nuclear power plants and the health risks involved as compared to those of wastes generated by coal-fired plants. Concludes that the risks of nuclear power plants are many times smaller than the risks from alternative energy resources. (GA)

  11. Nuclear Power Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Chengge; Li Shulan

    2009-01-01

    @@ China's nuclear power industry experienced such three stages as initiation, moderate development and active development. So far, there have been 11 nuclear power units in service in the Chinese mainland with a total installed capacity of 9 100 MW. In addition, there are 24 units being constructed or to be constructed as listed in the 11th Five-Year Plan.

  12. Nuclear power: Unexpected health benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellenberger, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Public fears of nuclear power are widespread, especially in the aftermath of accidents, yet their benefits are rarely fully considered. A new study shows how the closure of two nuclear power plants in the 1980s increased air pollution and led to a measurable reduction in birth weights, a key indicator of future health outcomes.

  13. Solid-State Nuclear Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    A strategy for "Solid-State" Nuclear Power is proposed to guide development of technologies and systems into the second 50 years of nuclear spaceflight. The strategy emphasizes a simple and highly integrated system architecture with few moving parts or fluid loops; the leverage of modern advances in materials, manufacturing, semiconductors, microelectromechanical and nanotechnology devices; and the targeted advancement of high temperature nuclear fuels, materials and static power conversion to enable high performance from simple system topologies.

  14. Towards sustainable nuclear power development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrianov, Andrei A.; Murogov, Victor M.; Kuptsov, Ilya S. [Obninsk Institute for Nuclear Power Engineering of NNRU MEPhl, Obninsk, Kaluga Region (Russian Federation)

    2014-05-15

    The review of the current situation in the nuclear energy sector carried out in this article brings to light key problems and contradictions, development trends and prospects, which finally determine the role and significance of nuclear power as a factor ensuring a sustainable energy development. Authors perspectives on the most appropriate developments of nuclear power, which should be based on a balanced use of proven innovative nuclear technologies and comprehensive multilateral approaches to the nuclear fuel cycle are expressed. The problems of wording appropriate and essential requirements for new countries with respect to their preparedness to develop nuclear programs, taking into account their development level of industry and infrastructure as well as national heritages and peculiarities, are explained. It is also indicated that one of the major components of sustainability in the development of nuclear power, which legitimates its public image as a power technology, is the necessity of developing and promoting the concepts of nuclear culture, nuclear education, and professional nuclear ethics. (orig.)

  15. Nuclear power plant simulation on the AD10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wulff, W.; Cheng, H.S.; Mallen, A.N.; Stritar, A.

    1985-01-01

    A combination of advanced modeling techniques and the modern, special-purpose peripheral minicomputer AD10 is presented which affords realistic predictions of plant transient and severe off-normal events in LWR power plants through on-line simulations at a speed ten times greater than actual process speeds. Results are shown for a BWR plant simulation. The mathematical models account for nonequilibrium, nonhomogeneous two-phase flow effects in the coolant, for acoustical effects in the steam line and for the dynamics of the recirculation loop and feedwater train. Point kinetics incorporate reactivity feedback for void fraction, for fuel temperature, for coolant temperature, and for boron concentration. Control systems and trip logic are simulated for the nuclear steam supply system. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Greenfield nuclear power for Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarenpaa, Tapio

    2010-09-15

    In Finland, licensing for new nuclear power is ongoing. The political approval is to be completed in 2010. Fennovoima's project is unique in various ways: (i) the company was established only in 2007, (ii) its ownership includes a mixture of local energy companies, electricity-intensive industries and international nuclear competence through E.ON, and (iii) it has two alternative greenfield sites. There are five prerequisites for a successful nuclear power project in a transparent democracy of today: (1) need for additional power capacity, (2) actor prepared to invest, (3) established competence, (4) available site, (5) open communications, and (6) favorable public opinion.

  17. Nuclear Power Plant Simulation Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Fran

    1979-01-01

    Presents a nuclear power plant simulation game which is designed to involve a class of 30 junior or senior high school students. Scientific, ecological, and social issues covered in the game are also presented. (HM)

  18. Operate a Nuclear Power Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimpter, Bonnie J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes classroom use of a computer program originally published in Creative Computing magazine. "The Nuclear Power Plant" (runs on Apple II with 48K memory) simulates the operating of a nuclear generating station, requiring students to make decisions as they assume the task of managing the plant. (JN)

  19. Nuclear Power Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China's nuclear power industry experienced such three stages as initiation,moderate development and active development.So far,there have been 11 nuclear power units in service in the Chinese mainland with a total installed capacity of 9 100 MW.In addition,there are 24 units being constructed or to be constructed as listed in the 11th Five-Year Plan.

  20. Climate change and nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, M

    2000-04-01

    The nuclear industry has increased its efforts to have nuclear power plants integrated into the post- Kyoto negotiating process of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) states: ''For many reasons, current and future nuclear energy projects are a superior method of generating emission credits that must be considered as the US expands the use of market- based mechanisms designed around emission credit creation and trading to achieve environmental goals ''. The NEI considers that nuclear energy should be allowed to enter all stages of the Kyoto ''flexibility Mechanisms'': emissions trading, joint implementation and the Clean Development Mechanism. The industry sees the operation of nuclear reactors as emission ''avoidance actions'' and believes that increasing the generation of nuclear power above the 1990 baseline year either through extension and renewal of operating licenses or new nuclear plant should be accepted under the flexibility mechanisms in the same way as wind, solar and hydro power. For the time being, there is no clear definition of the framework conditions for operating the flexibility mechanisms. However, eligible mechanisms must contribute to the ultimate objective of the Climate Convention of preventing ''dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system''. The information presented in the following sections of this report underlines that nuclear power is not a sustainable source of energy, for many reasons. In conclusion, an efficient greenhouse gas abatement strategy will be based on energy efficiency and not on the use of nuclear power. (author)

  1. Real issue with nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, J.W.

    1976-04-22

    The voter referendums on nuclear power planned in some states can affect the energy supply and economic health of the public at large more than it affects the industry that provides nuclear power, the author states. He makes the point that those responsible for energy supplies in the U. S.--the President and all relevant Federal agencies, the majority of Congress, the national utility industry, major laboratories, universities and consulting firms, and other energy industries--all favor nuclear power. The complex U.S. energy situation is reviewed, and the hope of alternative energy sources, practice of energy conservation, and benefits of nuclear power are summarized. Specifically, the California Initiative and its three conditions which it says should dictate the future of nuclear power are reviewed. The author does not believe that the reasons that are usually given in opposing nuclear power are the real reasons. He states that ''it seems clear that the principal philosophy behind the initiatives is one of halting economic growth by striking at the energy source that would make that growth possible.'' Attention is called to the morality of nuclear power by asking where is the morality: in leaving future generations an insufficient amount of energy, limiting their abilities to solve the economic and employment problems; in squandering our finite supply of fossil fuels while ignoring nuclear fuels; in forcing the nation into further dependence on unpredictable foreign nations for its energy supply; in expecting other states to provide California with the energy that it does not want to generate itself; and in allowing an arbitrary limit on growth to be set by groups of political activists. (MCW)

  2. Nuclear power - the glittering prizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton, C.C.

    The paper on the benefits of nuclear power is based on a lecture given for the Institution of Nuclear Engineers, London, 1986. Suggestions for short term benefits include a clean environment and a cheap energy source, whereas suggestions for long term benefits include freedom from want in the world and avoidance of 'energy wars'. These benefits are discussed along with alternative energy sources, the financial savings to be saved from nuclear power, world energy wealth, depletion of world energy reserves, and risks due to radiation exposure.

  3. Topics in nuclear power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budnitz, Robert J.

    2015-03-01

    The 101 nuclear plants operating in the US today are far safer than they were 20-30 years ago. For example, there's been about a 100-fold reduction in the occurrence of "significant events" since the late 1970s. Although the youngest of currently operating US plants was designed in the 1970s, all have been significantly modified over the years. Key contributors to the safety gains are a vigilant culture, much improved equipment reliability, greatly improved training of operators and maintenance workers, worldwide sharing of experience, and the effective use of probabilistic risk assessment. Several manufacturers have submitted high quality new designs for large reactors to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for design approval, and several companies are vigorously working on designs for smaller, modular reactors. Although the Fukushima reactor accident in March 2011 in Japan has been an almost unmitigated disaster for the local population due to their being displaced from their homes and workplaces and also due to the land contamination, its "lessons learned" have been important for the broader nuclear industry, and will surely result in safer nuclear plants worldwide - indeed, have already done so, with more safety improvements to come.

  4. The Potential Role of New Technology for Enhanced Safety and Performance of Nuclear Power Plants Through Improved Service Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    Analysis of Severe Core Damage Potential Nureg .1 150 and Nureg /CR 4550 (N-3,4,5,6). (2) Status reports on precursors to potential severe core damage...power plant PRAs, 14 of which are PWRs (G-1.2). A severe accident risks assessment report ( Nureg 1150), issued by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission...NRC) in June of 1989, summarized the Analysis of Core Damage Reports ( Nureg /CR-4550) for five light water reactors (LWR) along with other inputs. Nureg

  5. Nuclear power demonstrating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basmajian, V. V.; Haldeman, C. W.

    1980-08-12

    Apparatus for demonstrating the operation of a closed loop nuclear steam electric generating plant includes a transparent boiler assembly having immersion heating elements, which may be quartz lamps or stainless steel encased resistive immersion heating units with a quartz iodide lamp providing a source of visible radiation when using the encased immersion heating units. A variable voltage autotransformer is geared to a support rod for simulated reactor control rods for controlling the energy delivered to the heating elements and arranged so that when the voltage is high, the rods are withdrawn from the boiler to produce increased heating and illumination proportional to rod position, thereby simulating nuclear reaction. A relief valve, steam outlet pipe and water inlet pipe are connected to the boiler with a small stainless steel resistive heating element in the steam outlet pipe providing superheat. This heater is connected in series with a rheostat mounted on the front panel to provide superheat adjustments and an interlock switch that prevents the superheater from being energized when the steam valve is off with with no flow through the superheater. A heavy blue plastic radiation shield surrounds the boiler inside a bell jar.

  6. Nuclear power data; Kernenergie in Zahlen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-05-15

    The report ''nuclear power data'' includes data on the following issues: nuclear power plants in Germany including their operational characteristics, gross data on electricity generation in Germany, primary energy consumption in Germany, nuclear power plants worldwide, top ten nuclear power plants worldwide with respect to electricity generation in 2012.

  7. Nuclear power data; Kernenergie in Zahlen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-05-15

    The report ''nuclear power data'' includes data on the following issues: nuclear power plants in Germany including their operational characteristics, gross data on electricity generation in Germany, primary energy consumption in Germany, nuclear power plants worldwide, top ten nuclear power plants worldwide with respect to electricity generation in 2012.

  8. Nuclear power world report 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2014-07-15

    At the end of 2013, 435 nuclear power plants were available for energy supply in 31 countries of the world. This means that the number decreased by 2 units compared to the previous year's number on 31 December 2012. The aggregate gross power of the plants amounted to approx. 398,861 MWe, the aggregate net power, to 378,070 MWe (gross: 392,793 MWe, net: 372,572 MWe, new data base as of 2013: nameplate capacities). Four units were commissioned in 2014; three units in China and one in India. Eight units were shut down permanently in 2013; 2 units in Japan, and four units in the USA. Two units in Canada were declared permanently shut-down after a long-term shutdown. 70 nuclear generating units - 2 more than at the end of 2012 - were under construction in late 2013 in 15 countries with an aggregate gross power of approx. 73,814 MWe and net power of approx. 69,279 MWe. Six new projects have been started in 2013 in four countries (Belarus, China, the Republic of Korea, and the United Arab Emirates). Worldwide, some 125 new nuclear power plants are in the concrete project design, planning, and licensing phases; in some of these cases license applications have been submitted or contracts have already been signed. Some 100 further projects are planned. Net electricity generation in nuclear power plants worldwide in 2013 achieved a level of approx. 2,364.15 billion (109) kWh (2012: approx. 2,350.80 billion kWh). Since the first generation of electricity in a nuclear power plant in the EBR-I fast breeder (USA) on December 20, 1951, cumulated net production has reached approx. 70,310 billion kWh, and operating experience has grown to some 15,400 reactor years. (orig.)

  9. Global Protest Against Nuclear Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchhof, Astrid Mignon; Meyer, Jan-Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Protest against nuclear power plants, uranium mining and nuclear testing played a pivotal role in the rise of a mass environmental movement around the globe in the 1970s and 1980s. Nevertheless, the history of anti-nuclear activism has largely been told from a strictly national perspective....... This focus issue approaches the phenomenon from a transnational perspective for the first time. Against the backdrop of the debate on transnational history, this article develops a framework of analysis, and contextualizes anti-nuclear protest in a broader postwar perspective. The contributions show...... that anti-nuclear movements across the globe were transnationally connected. First, scientific expertise and protest practices were transferred between movements, and subsequently adapted to local requirements. Secondly, transnational cooperation and networks did indeed emerge, playing an important role...

  10. Nuclear power - menace or miracle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porritt, J.; Gittus, J.

    1988-04-01

    The main points of the anti-nuclear lobby are put by the Director of Friends of the Earth. These are on its failure to provide cheaper electricity, reactor safety (the Chernobyl accident is cited), on the problems of radioactive waste disposal and on the public preference for a non-nuclear energy programme. Coal is seen as able to provide most of the United Kingdom's energy needs until the 22nd century. Long-term solutions to the energy and environmental problems are energy conservation and renewable energy sources. The pro-nuclear case is made by the Director of Communication and Information at the UK Atomic Energy Authority. This is that renewable energy sources will not be viable for another 30 years or so and, anyway, do not solve all the environmental problems. The choice of energy is thus coal or nuclear. Coal gives rise to acid rain and, as it is in limited supply, is too valuable simply to burn. Nuclear power can provide the energy economically and safely. The accident at Chernobyl is not possible in the UK. The amount of high level nuclear waste generated is small and measures for its disposal will be taken. The levels of radiation due to the nuclear power industry are small compared with natural radiation levels, and have not been shown to cause higher than normal levels of leukaemia or cancer. (U.K.).

  11. The future of nuclear power

    CERN Document Server

    Mahaffey, James

    2012-01-01

    Newly conceived, safer reactor designs are being built in the United States (and around the world) to replace the 104 obsolete operating nuclear power reactors in this country alone. The designs--which once seemed exotic and futuristic--are now 40 years old, and one by one these vintage Generation II plants will reach the end of productive service in the next 30 years. The Future of Nuclear Power examines the advanced designs, practical concepts, and fully developed systems that have yet to be used. This book introduces readers to the traditional, American system of units, with some archaic te

  12. The UK nuclear power industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collier, J. G. [Nuclear Electric plc, Barnwood (United Kingdom)

    1995-08-01

    In the United Kingdom, nuclear power plants are operated by three companies: Nuclear Electric (NE), Scottish Nuclear (SN), and British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL). The state-operated power industry was privatized in 1989 with the exception of nuclear power generation activities, which were made part of the newly founded (state-owned) NE and SN. At the same time, a moratorium on the construction of new nuclear power plants was agreed. Only Sizewell B, the first plant in the UK to be equipped with a pressurized water reactor, was to be completed. That unit was first synchronized with the power grid on February 14, 1995. Another decision in 1989 provided for a review to be conducted in 1994 of the future of the peaceful uses of nuclear power in the country. The results of the review were presented by the government in a white paper on May 9, 1995. Accordingly, NE and SN will be merged and privatized in 1996; the headquarters of the new holding company will be in Scotland. The review does not foresee the construction of more nuclear power plants. However, NE hopes to gain a competitive edge over other sources of primary energy as a result of this privatization, and advocates construction of a dual-unit plant identical with Sizewell B so as to avoid recurrent design and development costs. Outside the UK, the company plans to act jointly with the reactor vendor, Westinghouse, especially in the Pacific region; a bid submitted by the consortium has been shortisted by the future operator of the Lungmen nuclear power plant project in Taiwan. In upgrading the safety of nuclear power plants in Eastern Europe, the new company will be able to work through existing contacts of SN. (orig.) [Deutsch] In Grossbritannien werden Kernkraftwerke von drei Gesellschaften betrieben: Nuclear Electric (NE), Scottish Nuclear (SN) und British Nuclear Fuels plc. (BNFL). Die staatliche Energieversorgung wurde im Jahre 1989 bis auf die Kernaktivitaeten privatisiert; diese wurden in die neu

  13. Nuclear power generation incorporating modern power system practice

    CERN Document Server

    Myerscough, PB

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear power generation has undergone major expansion and developments in recent years; this third edition contains much revised material in presenting the state-of-the-art of nuclear power station designs currently in operation throughout the world. The volume covers nuclear physics and basic technology, nuclear station design, nuclear station operation, and nuclear safety. Each chapter is independent but with the necessary technical overlap to provide a complete work on the safe and economic design and operation of nuclear power stations.

  14. Nuclear Power on Energy Agenda

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The big debate on whether or not to use nuclear power as an energy option has raged among countries like the U.S., Britain, and Germany for decades, with not even the advent and threat of global warming forcing a conclusion. China, however, has always stressed energy diversity and been determined to develop and use this alternative energy source.

  15. Global warming and nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, L., LLNL

    1998-07-10

    Nuclear fission power reactors represent a potential solution to many aspects of global change possibly induced by inputting of either particulate or carbon or sulfur oxides into the Earth`s atmosphere. Of proven technological feasibility, they presently produce high-grade heat for large-scale electricity generation, space heating and industrial process-energizing around the world, without emitting greenhouse gases or atmospheric particulates; importantly, electricity production costs from the best nuclear plants presently are closely comparable with those of the best fossil-fired plants. However, a substantial number of issues currently stand between nuclear power and widespread substitution for large stationary fossil fuel-fired systems. These include perceptual ones regarding both long-term and acute operational safety, plant decommissioning, fuel reprocessing, radwaste disposal, fissile materials diversion to military purposes and - perhaps most seriously- readily quantifiable concerns regarding long-term fuel supply and total unit electrical energy cost. We sketch a road-map for proceeding from the present situation toward a nuclear power-intensive world, addressing along the way each of the concerns which presently impede widespread nuclear substitution for fossil fuels, particularly for coal in the most populous and rapidly developing portions of the world, e.g., China and India. This `design to societal specifications` approach to large-scale nuclear fission power systems may lead to energy sources meeting essentially all stationary demands for high-temperature heat. Such advanced options offer a human population of ten billion the electricity supply levels currently enjoyed by Americans for 10,000 years. Nuclear power systems tailored to local needs-and-interests and having a common advanced technology base could reduce present-day world-wide C0{sub 2} emissions by two-fold, if universally employed. By application to small mobile demands, a second two

  16. Swedish Opinion on Nuclear Power 1986 - 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, Soeren

    2012-11-01

    This report contains the Swedish opinion on Nuclear Power and European Attitudes on Nuclear Power. It also includes European Attitudes Towards the Future of Three Energy Sources; Nuclear Energy, Wind Power and Solar Power - with a focus on the Swedish opinion. Results from measurements done by the SOM Inst. are presented.

  17. Nuclear power a reference handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Henderson, Harry R

    2014-01-01

    In the 21st century, nuclear power has been identified as a viable alternative to traditional energy sources to stem global climate change, and condemned as risky to human health and environmentally irresponsible. Do the advantages of nuclear energy outweigh the risks, especially in light of the meltdown at the Fukushima plant in 2011? This guide provides both a comprehensive overview of this critical and controversial technology, presenting reference tools that include important facts and statistics, biographical profiles, a chronology, and a glossary. It covers major controversies and proposed solutions in detail and contains contributions by experts and important stakeholders that provide invaluable perspective on the topic.

  18. Spallator: a new option for nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, M.; Grand, P.; Takahashi, H.; Powell, J.R.; Kouts, H.J.

    1983-06-01

    The principles of the spallator reactor are reviewed. Advances in linear accelerator technology allow the design and construction of high current (hundreds of mA) continuous wave high energy (thousands of MeV) proton machines in the near term. Spallation neutronic calculations building on existing experimental results, indicate substantial neutron yields on uranium targets. Spallator target assembly designs based on water cooled reactor technology indicate operable efficient systems. Fuel cycles are presented which supply fissile material to thermal power reactors and reduce fission product waste. Preliminary comparative analysis indicates an economically competitive system in which a single purpose self-sufficient spallator supplies fuel to a number of LWRs. The spallator assures a long-term LWR power reactor economy. International interest in advancing the technology is indicated.

  19. Improved and safer nuclear power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J J

    1989-04-21

    Recent progress in advanced nuclear power development in the United States is revealing high potential for nuclear reactor systems that are smaller and easier to operate than the present generation. Passive, or intrinsic, characteristics are applied not only to provide inherent stability of the chain reaction but also to ensure continued cooling of the fuel and its containment systems even if a major breakdown of the normal cooling and control functions were to occur. The chance of a severe accident is thereby substantially reduced. The plant designs that are emerging are simpler and more rugged, have a longer life span, and place less burden on equipment and operating personnel. Modular design concepts and design standardization are also used to reduce construction time and engineering costs, giving promise that the cost of generating power from these systems will be competitive with alternative methods.

  20. Sabotage at Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purvis, James W.

    1999-07-21

    Recently there has been a noted worldwide increase in violent actions including attempted sabotage at nuclear power plants. Several organizations, such as the International Atomic Energy Agency and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, have guidelines, recommendations, and formal threat- and risk-assessment processes for the protection of nuclear assets. Other examples are the former Defense Special Weapons Agency, which used a risk-assessment model to evaluate force-protection security requirements for terrorist incidents at DOD military bases. The US DOE uses a graded approach to protect its assets based on risk and vulnerability assessments. The Federal Aviation Administration and Federal Bureau of Investigation conduct joint threat and vulnerability assessments on high-risk US airports. Several private companies under contract to government agencies use formal risk-assessment models and methods to identify security requirements. The purpose of this paper is to survey these methods and present an overview of all potential types of sabotage at nuclear power plants. The paper discusses emerging threats and current methods of choice for sabotage--especially vehicle bombs and chemical attacks. Potential consequences of sabotage acts, including economic and political; not just those that may result in unacceptable radiological exposure to the public, are also discussed. Applicability of risk-assessment methods and mitigation techniques are also presented.

  1. LIFE vs. LWR: End of the Fuel Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J C; Blink, J A; Shaw, H F

    2008-10-02

    The worldwide energy consumption in 2003 was 421 quadrillion Btu (Quads), and included 162 quads for oil, 99 quads for natural gas, 100 quads for coal, 27 quads for nuclear energy, and 33 quads for renewable sources. The projected worldwide energy consumption for 2030 is 722 quads, corresponding to an increase of 71% over the consumption in 2003. The projected consumption for 2030 includes 239 quads for oil, 190 quads for natural gas, 196 quads for coal, 35 quads for nuclear energy, and 62 quads for renewable sources [International Energy Outlook, DOE/EIA-0484, Table D1 (2006) p. 133]. The current fleet of light water reactors (LRWs) provides about 20% of current U.S. electricity, and about 16% of current world electricity. The demand for electricity is expected to grow steeply in this century, as the developing world increases its standard of living. With the increasing price for oil and gasoline within the United States, as well as fear that our CO2 production may be driving intolerable global warming, there is growing pressure to move away from oil, natural gas, and coal towards nuclear energy. Although there is a clear need for nuclear energy, issues facing waste disposal have not been adequately dealt with, either domestically or internationally. Better technological approaches, with better public acceptance, are needed. Nuclear power has been criticized on both safety and waste disposal bases. The safety issues are based on the potential for plant damage and environmental effects due to either nuclear criticality excursions or loss of cooling. Redundant safety systems are used to reduce the probability and consequences of these risks for LWRs. LIFE engines are inherently subcritical, reducing the need for systems to control the fission reactivity. LIFE engines also have a fuel type that tolerates much higher temperatures than LWR fuel, and has two safety systems to remove decay heat in the event of loss of coolant or loss of coolant flow. These features of

  2. The economics of nuclear power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, Ronald L.

    We extend economic analysis of the nuclear power industry by developing and employing three tools. They are (1) compilation and unification of operating and accounting data sets for plants and sites, (2) an abstract industry model with major economic agents and features, and (3) a model of nuclear power plant operators. We build a matched data set to combine dissimilar but mutually dependant bodies of information. We match detailed information on the activities and conditions of individual plants to slightly more aggregated financial data. Others have exploited the data separately, but we extend the sets and pool available data sets. The data reveal dramatic changes in the industry over the past thirty years. The 1980s proved unprofitable for the industry. This is evident both in the cost data and in the operator activity data. Productivity then improved dramatically while cost growth stabilized to the point of industry profitability. Relative electricity prices may be rising after nearly two decades of decline. Such demand side trends, together with supply side improvements, suggest a healthy industry. Our microeconomic model of nuclear power plant operators employs a forward-looking component to capture the information set available to decision makers and to model the decision-making process. Our model includes features often overlooked elsewhere, including electricity price equations and liability. Failure to account for changes in electricity price trends perhaps misled earlier scholars, and they attributed to other causes the effects on profits of changing price structures. The model includes potential losses resulting from catastrophic nuclear accidents. Applications include historical simulations and forecasts. Nuclear power involves risk, and accident costs are borne both by plant owners and the public. Authorities regulate the industry and balance conflicting desires for economic gain and safety. We construct an extensible model with regulators, plant

  3. Modelling of nuclear power plant decommissioning financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemš, J; Knápek, J; Králík, T; Hejhal, M; Kubančák, J; Vašíček, J

    2015-06-01

    Costs related to the decommissioning of nuclear power plants create a significant financial burden for nuclear power plant operators. This article discusses the various methodologies employed by selected European countries for financing of the liabilities related to the nuclear power plant decommissioning. The article also presents methodology of allocation of future decommissioning costs to the running costs of nuclear power plant in the form of fee imposed on each megawatt hour generated. The application of the methodology is presented in the form of a case study on a new nuclear power plant with installed capacity 1000 MW.

  4. Assessment of LWR-HTR-GCFR Integrated Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Bomboni

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary analyses already performed showed that innovative GCRs, both thermal and fast, are very promising candidate to reach the Gen-IV sustainability goal. The integrated LWR-HTR-GCFR basically aims at closing the current nuclear fuel cycle: in principle, thanks to the unique characteristics of Helium coolant reactors, LWR SNF along with DU become valuable material to produce energy. Additionally, burning HMs of LWR SNF means not only a drastic reduction in the Unat demand but also a remarkable decrease in the long-term radiotoxic component of nuclear waste to be geologically stored. This paper focuses on the analyses of the LWR-HTR-GCFR cycle performed by the University of Pisa in the frame of the EU PUMA project (6th FP. Starting from a brief outline of the main characteristics of HTR and GCFR concepts and of the advantages of linking LWR, HTR and GCFR in a symbiotic way, this paper shows the integrated cycle involving a typical LWR (1000 MWe, a PBMR (400 MWth and a GCFR-“E” (2400 MWth. Additionally, a brief overview of the main technological constraints concerning (Pu+MA-based advanced fuels is given, in order to explain and justify the choices made in the framework of the considered cycle. Thereafter, calculations performed and results obtained are described.

  5. Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident and Nuclear Physicists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otsuka Takaharu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available I give an overview on the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident and a report on voluntary activities of Japanese nuclear physicists in this terrible event, including their major outcome.

  6. ALARA at nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baum, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    Implementation of the As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) principle at nuclear power plants presents a continuing challenge for health physicists at utility corporate and plant levels, for plant designers, and for regulatory agencies. The relatively large collective doses at some plants are being addressed though a variety of dose reduction techniques. It is planned that this report will include material on historical aspects, management, valuation of dose reduction, quantitative and qualitative aspects of optimization, design, operational considerations, and training. The status of this work is summarized in this report. 30 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  7. Nuclear Power and Merchant Shipping (Rev.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, Warren H. [Library of Congress

    1965-01-01

    This booklet tells about the use of nuclear energy for merchant ships. It explores its advantages and disadvantages, describes a nuclear merchant ship, speculates about the effect of nuclear power upon seaborne trade, and discusses some of the differences between conventional and nuclear merchant ships.

  8. Nuclear power a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Irvine, Maxwell

    2011-01-01

    With the World desperate to find energy sources that do not emit carbon gasses, nuclear power is back on the agenda and in the news, following the increasing cost of fossil fuels and concerns about the security of their future supply. However, the term 'nuclear power' causes anxiety in many people and there is confusion concerning the nature and extent of the associated risks. Here, Maxwell Irvine presents a concise introduction to the development of nuclear physics leading up to the emergence of the nuclear power industry. He discusses the nature of nuclear energy and deals with various aspec

  9. Getting More Out Of Nuclear Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    China’s first nuclear power plant generated 31 billion kw/h electricity from 1991 to 2007 Major repair work on the first phase of the Qinshan nuclear power plant,which began operation in 1991 as China’s first nuclear power plant,was completed on January 13,2008.The overhaul has improved the reliability and safety of the reactors and given the oper- ators experience for running,repairing

  10. Nuclear power plants for mobile applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Mobile nuclear powerplants for applications other than large ships and submarines will require compact, lightweight reactors with especially stringent impact-safety design. The technical and economic feasibility that the broadening role of civilian nuclear power, in general, (land-based nuclear electric generating plants and nuclear ships) can extend to lightweight, safe mobile nuclear powerplants are examined. The paper discusses technical experience, identifies potential sources of technology for advanced concepts, cites the results of economic studies of mobile nuclear powerplants, and surveys future technical capabilities needed by examining the current use and projected needs for vehicles, machines, and habitats that could effectively use mobile nuclear reactor powerplants.

  11. The role of actinide burning and the Integral Fast Reactor in the future of nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollaway, W.R.; Lidsky, L.M.; Miller, M.M.

    1990-12-01

    A preliminary assessment is made of the potential role of actinide burning and the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) in the future of nuclear power. The development of a usable actinide burning strategy could be an important factor in the acceptance and implementation of a next generation of nuclear power. First, the need for nuclear generating capacity is established through the analysis of energy and electricity demand forecasting models which cover the spectrum of bias from anti-nuclear to pro-nuclear. The analyses take into account the issues of global warming and the potential for technological advances in energy efficiency. We conclude, as do many others, that there will almost certainly be a need for substantial nuclear power capacity in the 2000--2030 time frame. We point out also that any reprocessing scheme will open up proliferation-related questions which can only be assessed in very specific contexts. The focus of this report is on the fuel cycle impacts of actinide burning. Scenarios are developed for the deployment of future nuclear generating capacity which exploit the advantages of actinide partitioning and actinide burning. Three alternative reactor designs are utilized in these future scenarios: The Light Water Reactor (LWR); the Modular Gas-Cooled Reactor (MGR); and the Integral Fast Reactor (FR). Each of these alternative reactor designs is described in some detail, with specific emphasis on their spent fuel streams and the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle. Four separation and partitioning processes are utilized in building the future nuclear power scenarios: Thermal reactor spent fuel preprocessing to reduce the ceramic oxide spent fuel to metallic form, the conventional PUREX process, the TRUEX process, and pyrometallurgical reprocessing.

  12. Nuclear power plant operation 2016. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2017-05-15

    A report is given on the operating results achieved in 2016, events important to plant safety, special and relevant repair, and retrofit measures from nuclear power plants in Germany. Reports about nuclear power plants in Belgium, Finland, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and Spain will be published in a further issue.

  13. Questions and Answers About Nuclear Power Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet is designed to answer many of the questions that have arisen about nuclear power plants and the environment. It is organized into a question and answer format, with the questions taken from those most often asked by the public. Topics include regulation of nuclear power sources, potential dangers to people's health, whether nuclear…

  14. Global warming and nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgson, P.E. [Nuclear and Particle Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Oxford Univ., Oxford (United Kingdom)

    1999-09-01

    The concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is steadily increasing and it is widely believed that this will lead to global warming that will have serious consequences for life on earth. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has estimated that the temperature of the earth will increase by between 1 and 3.5 degrees in the next century. This will melt some of the Antarctic ice cap, raise the sea level and flood many low-lying countries, and also produce unpredictable changes in the earth's climate. The possible ways of reducing carbon dioxide emission are discussed. It is essential to reduce the burning of fossil fuels, but then how are we to obtain the energy we need? We can try to reduce energy use, but we will still need to generate large amounts energy. Some possible ways of doing this are by using wind and solar generators, by hydroelectric and tidal plants, and also by nuclear power. These possibilities will be critically examined. (author)

  15. Acoustic sensors for fission gas characterization: R and D skills devoted to innovative instrumentation in MTR, non-destructive devices in hot lab facilities and specific transducers for measurements of LWR rods in nuclear plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrandis, J.Y.; Leveque, G.; Rosenkrantz, E.; Augereau, F.; Combette, P. [University Montpellier, IES, UMR 5214, F-34000, Montpellier (France); CNRS, IES, UMR 5214, F-34000, Montpellier (France)

    2015-07-01

    irradiation. The instrumented fuel rod incorporating the ultrasonic gas composition sensor was finally irradiated during 2 weeks in nominal conditions. Neutronics calculation will be performed in order to calculate the thermal and fast neutron fluence and the gamma dose absorbed by acoustic sensor. A first evaluation gives a thermal fluence about 4,5.10{sup 19} n/cm{sup 2}, a fast neutrons fluence about 4,5.1018 n/cm{sup 2} and a total gamma dose up to 0,25 MGy The maximal temperature during the irradiation test was about 150 C. Although the ultrasonic sensor appears to be damaged, the optimization of the electrical attack parameters and the development of a new signal processing maintain the measurement feasibility up the end of the irradiation campaign. It was the first time that the composition of fission gas has been monitored all along an irradiation experiment in a MTR, giving access to the gas release kinetics. New researches involve thick film transducers produced by screen-printing process in order to propose piezoelectric structures for harsh temperature and irradiation measurements. The second project consists in the development of a non-destructive device that can be directly applied on a LWR fuel rod. The problem to be solved relates to the measurement of the fission gas pressure and composition in a fuel rod using a non-destructive method. Fuel rod internal pressure is one of the safety criteria applied in nuclear power analyses. This criterion must be verified in order to avoid any fuel-cladding gap reopening risk and therefore any local clad ballooning. Apart from the safety implications, this parameter is also a fuel behaviour indicator and reflects the overall fuel performance in operation, but also during shipping and long-term storage. Rod internal pressure is one criterion amongst others, like cladding corrosion, against which the acceptable fuel burn-up limit is set. A sensor has been achieved in 2007. A full-scale hot cell test of the internal gas

  16. Advanced nuclear power plants for the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, J. [BNFL, Inc. (United States)

    1996-10-01

    This paper examines, following four issues: capacity; the closure of the fuel cycle; deregulation; and the need to maintain the development of the advanced systems. Demand is a governing parameter: if one doesn`t need the power then there is no need to increase generating capacity. However, there is no question but that the population is growing. All predictions are that new generating capacity will be needed -- the questions are when and how? Until the various issues involved in deregulation are played through it is not clear what form markets will take for the longer term or how investment in large-capital-cost facilities will fit into the financial structure. Deregulation needs the time to throw light on these matters and to gain some experience in the various financial options. The lack of closure of the fuel cycle is both a cost and public perception issue. The US program, as a result of a cold-war paranoia against recycling the partially used fuel, is based upon the final disposal of useful supplies of energy. However, the program itself is plagued with poor management, delays, and uncertainties that are due, in no small measure, to half-uttered thoughts by all concerned, that this is the wrong policy. Current efforts to rethink the policy, and its implementing projects, are welcome. Finally, if it is important to keep design options for advanced nuclear power plants open for the future, then it necessary to maintain valid research and development programs for those designs. Current US policy is damaging to a number of the more advanced options. This paper discusses the candidate systems: LWR, ALMR, HTGR, and CANDU systems for the special contributions they may each provide in an ideal electrical generating industry of the mid-twenty-first century, and makes suggestions for the future. (J.P.N.)

  17. U.S. Forward Operating Base Applications of Nuclear Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, George W. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a high level overview of current nuclear power technology and the potential use of nuclear power at military bases. The size, power ranges, and applicability of nuclear power units for military base power are reviewed. Previous and current reactor projects are described to further define the potential for nuclear power for military power.

  18. Nuclear Power Sources for Space Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukharkin, N. E.; Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N. N.; Usov, V. A.

    This chapter contains the information about nuclear power sources for space systems. Reactor nuclear sources are considered that use the energy of heavy nuclei fission generated by controlled chain fission reaction, as well as the isotope ones producing heat due to the energy of nuclei radioactive decay. Power of reactor nuclear sources is determined by the rate of heavy nuclei fission that may be controlled within a wide range from the zero up to the nominal one. Thermal power of isotope sources cannot be controlled. It is determined by the type and quantity of isotopes and decreases in time due to their radioactive decay. Both, in the reactor sources and in the isotope ones, nuclear power is converted into the thermal one that may be consumed for the coolant heating to produce thrust (Nuclear Power Propulsion System, NPPS) or may be converted into electricity (Nuclear Power Source, NPS) dynamically (a turbine generator) or statically (thermoelectric or thermionic converters). Electric power is supplied to the airborne equipment or is used to produce thrust in electric (ionic, plasma) low-thrust engines. A brief description is presented of the different nuclear systems with reactor and isotopic power sources implemented in Russia and the USA. The information is also given about isotopic sources for the ground-based application, mainly for navigation systems.

  19. Public opinion factors regarding nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper is an effort to identify, as comprehensively as possible, public concerns about nuclear power, and to assess, where possible, the relative importance of these concerns as they relate to government regulation of and policy towards nuclear power. It is based on some two dozen in-depth interviews with key communicators representing the nuclear power industry, the environmental community, and government, as well as on the parallel efforts in our research project: (1) review of federal court case law, (2) a selective examination of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) administrative process, and (3) the preceding George Mason University research project in this series. The paper synthesizes our findings about public attitudes towards nuclear power as expressed through federal court case law, NRC administrative law, public opinion surveys, and direct personal interviews. In so doing, we describe the public opinion environment in which the nuclear regulatory process must operate. Our premise is that public opinion ultimately underlies the approaches government agencies take towards regulating nuclear power, and that, to the degree that the nuclear power industry's practices are aligned with public opinion, a more favorable regulatory climate is possible.

  20. Public opinion factors regarding nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, B.

    1991-12-31

    This paper is an effort to identify, as comprehensively as possible, public concerns about nuclear power, and to assess, where possible, the relative importance of these concerns as they relate to government regulation of and policy towards nuclear power. It is based on some two dozen in-depth interviews with key communicators representing the nuclear power industry, the environmental community, and government, as well as on the parallel efforts in our research project: (1) review of federal court case law, (2) a selective examination of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) administrative process, and (3) the preceding George Mason University research project in this series. The paper synthesizes our findings about public attitudes towards nuclear power as expressed through federal court case law, NRC administrative law, public opinion surveys, and direct personal interviews. In so doing, we describe the public opinion environment in which the nuclear regulatory process must operate. Our premise is that public opinion ultimately underlies the approaches government agencies take towards regulating nuclear power, and that, to the degree that the nuclear power industry`s practices are aligned with public opinion, a more favorable regulatory climate is possible.

  1. Space nuclear power: a strategy for tomorrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buden, D.; Angelo, J. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Energy: reliable, portable, abundant and low cost will be a most critical factor, perhaps the sine qua non, for the unfolding of man's permanent presence in space. Space-based nuclear power, in turn, is a key technology for developing such space platforms and the transportation systems necessary to service them. A strategy for meeting space power requirements is the development of a 100-kW(e) nuclear reactor system for high earth orbit missions, transportation from Shuttle orbits to geosynchronous orbit, and for outer planet exploration. The component technology for this nuclear power plant is now underway at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. As permanent settlements are established on the Moon and in space, multimegawatt power plants will be needed. This would involve different technology similar to terrestrial nuclear power plants.

  2. Nuclear power propulsion system for spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroteev, A. S.; Oshev, Yu. A.; Popov, S. A.; Karevsky, A. V.; Solodukhin, A. Ye.; Zakharenkov, L. E.; Semenkin, A. V.

    2015-12-01

    The proposed designs of high-power space tugs that utilize solar or nuclear energy to power an electric jet engine are reviewed. The conceptual design of a nuclear power propulsion system (NPPS) is described; its structural diagram, gas circuit, and electric diagram are discussed. The NPPS incorporates a nuclear reactor, a thermal-to-electric energy conversion system, a system for the conversion and distribution of electric energy, and an electric propulsion system. Two criterion parameters were chosen in the considered NPPS design: the temperature of gaseous working medium at the nuclear reactor outlet and the rotor speed of turboalternators. The maintenance of these parameters at a given level guarantees that the needed electric voltage is generated and allows for power mode control. The processes of startup/shutdown and increasing/reducing the power, the principles of distribution of electric energy over loads, and the probable emergencies for the proposed NPPS design are discussed.

  3. Evaluation of fuel fabrication and the back end of the fuel cycle for light-water- and heavy-water-cooled nuclear power reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, W.L.; Olsen, A.R.

    1979-06-01

    The classification of water-cooled nuclear reactors offers a number of fuel cycles that present inherently low risk of weapons proliferation while making power available to the international community. Eight fuel cycles in light water reactor (LWR), heavy water reactor (HWR), and the spectral shift controlled reactor (SSCR) systems have been proposed to promote these objectives in the International Fuel Cycle Evaluation (INFCE) program. Each was examined in an effort to provide technical and economic data to INFCE on fuel fabrication, refabrication, and reprocessing for an initial comparison of alternate cycles. The fuel cycles include three once-through cycles that require only fresh fuel fabrication, shipping, and spent fuel storage; four cycles that utilize denatured uranium--thorium and require all recycle operations; and one cycle that considers the LWR--HWR tandem operation requiring refabrication but no reprocessing.

  4. Workshop on nuclear power growth and nonproliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilat, Joseph F [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    It is widely viewed that an expansion of nuclear power would have positive energy, economic and environmental benefits for the world. However, there are concerns about the economic competitiveness, safety and proliferation and terrorism risks of nuclear power. The prospects for a dramatic growth in nuclear power will depend on the ability of governments and industry to address these concerns, including the effectiveness of, and the resources devoted to, plans to develop and implement technologies and approaches that strengthen nonproliferation, nuclear materials accountability and nuclear security. In his Prague speech, President Obama stated: 'we should build a new framework for civil nuclear cooperation, including an international fuel bank, so that countries can access peaceful power without increasing the risks of proliferation. That must be the right of every nation that renounces nuclear weapons, especially developing countries embarking on peaceful programs. And no approach will succeed if it's based on the denial of rights to nations that play by the rules. We must harness the power of nuclear energy on behalf of our efforts to combat climate change, and to advance peace opportunity for all people.' How can the President's vision, which will rekindle a vigorous public debate over the future of nuclear power and its relation to proliferation, be realized? What critical issues will frame the reemerging debate? What policies must be put into place to address these issues? Will US policy be marked more by continuity or change? To address these and other questions, the Los Alamos National Laboratory in cooperation with the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars will host a workshop on the future of nuclear power and nonproliferation.

  5. 76 FR 1469 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2... Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, the licensee, for operation of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant..., Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant (NUREG-1437, Supplement 1), dated......

  6. Thermionic reactors for space nuclear power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griaznov, Georgii M.; Zhabotinskii, Evgenii E.; Serbin, Victor I.; Zrodnikov, Anatolii V.; Pupko, Victor Ia.; Ponomarev-Stepnoi, Nikolai N.; Usov, V. A.; Nikolaev, Iu. V.

    Compact thermionic nuclear reactor systems with satisfactory mass performance are competitive with space nuclear power systems based on the organic Rankine and closed Brayton cycles. The mass characteristics of the thermionic space nuclear power system are better than that of the solar power system for power levels beyond about 10 kWe. Longlife thermionic fuel element requirements, including their optimal dimensions, and common requirements for the in-core thermionic reactor design are formulated. Thermal and fast in-core thermionic reactors are considered and the ranges of their sensible use are discussed. Some design features of the fast in-core thermionic reactors cores (power range to 1 MWe) including a choice of coolants are discussed. Mass and dimensional performance for thermionic nuclear power reactor system are assessed. It is concluded that thermionic space nuclear power systems are promising power supplies for spacecrafts and that a single basic type of thermionic fuel element may be used for power requirements ranging to several hundred kWe.

  7. Nuclear Engineering Technologists in the Nuclear Power Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C. H.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Describes manpower needs in nuclear engineering in the areas of research and development, architectural engineering and construction supervision, power reactor operations, and regulatory tasks. Outlines a suitable curriculum to prepare students for the tasks related to construction and operation of power reactors. (GS)

  8. Reliability of emergency ac power systems at nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battle, R E; Campbell, D J

    1983-07-01

    Reliability of emergency onsite ac power systems at nuclear power plants has been questioned within the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) because of the number of diesel generator failures reported by nuclear plant licensees and the reactor core damage that could result from diesel failure during an emergency. This report contains the results of a reliability analysis of the onsite ac power system, and it uses the results of a separate analysis of offsite power systems to calculate the expected frequency of station blackout. Included is a design and operating experience review. Eighteen plants representative of typical onsite ac power systems and ten generic designs were selected to be modeled by fault trees. Operating experience data were collected from the NRC files and from nuclear plant licensee responses to a questionnaire sent out for this project.

  9. Nuclear power plant cable materials :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celina, Mathias C.; Gillen, Kenneth T; Lindgren, Eric Richard

    2013-05-01

    A selective literature review was conducted to assess whether currently available accelerated aging and original qualification data could be used to establish operational margins for the continued use of cable insulation and jacketing materials in nuclear power plant environments. The materials are subject to chemical and physical degradation under extended radiationthermal- oxidative conditions. Of particular interest were the circumstances under which existing aging data could be used to predict whether aged materials should pass loss of coolant accident (LOCA) performance requirements. Original LOCA qualification testing usually involved accelerated aging simulations of the 40-year expected ambient aging conditions followed by a LOCA simulation. The accelerated aging simulations were conducted under rapid accelerated aging conditions that did not account for many of the known limitations in accelerated polymer aging and therefore did not correctly simulate actual aging conditions. These highly accelerated aging conditions resulted in insulation materials with mostly inert aging processes as well as jacket materials where oxidative damage dropped quickly away from the air-exposed outside jacket surface. Therefore, for most LOCA performance predictions, testing appears to have relied upon heterogeneous aging behavior with oxidation often limited to the exterior of the cable cross-section a situation which is not comparable with the nearly homogenous oxidative aging that will occur over decades under low dose rate and low temperature plant conditions. The historical aging conditions are therefore insufficient to determine with reasonable confidence the remaining operational margins for these materials. This does not necessarily imply that the existing 40-year-old materials would fail if LOCA conditions occurred, but rather that unambiguous statements about the current aging state and anticipated LOCA performance cannot be provided based on

  10. The Role of Nuclear Power in Eurpoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-01-15

    The World Energy Council has published the results of an in-depth review of the current state of nuclear power in Europe, and the possible role of this energy source in Europe's energy future. This regional study combines policy insights, technical details and an analysis of the potential for nuclear as a part of the energy-mix.

  11. Argentina: Nuclear power development and Atucha 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogarin, Mauro

    2015-08-15

    In 2014, nuclear energy generated about 5,257 GWh of electricity or a total share of 4.05 % of the total electrical energy of about 129,747.63 GWh kWh produced in Argentina and there has been a trend for this production to increase. Argentina currently has a nuclear production capacity of 1,010 megawatts of electrical energy. However, when the Atucha 2 nuclear power plant is completed and starts commercial operation, it will add 745 megawatts to this electrical production capacity. There are two sites with nuclear power plants in Argentina: Atucha and Embalse. The Embalse nuclear power plant went into operation in 1984. At the Atucha site, the Atucha-1 nuclear power plant started operation in 1974. It was the first nuclear power plant in Latin America. Construction of Atucha-2 started in 1981 but advanced slowly due to funding and was suspended in 1994 when the plant was 81 % built. In 2003, new plans were approved to complete the Atucha 2. I summer 2014 the plant went critical for the first time. The construction was completed under a contract with AECL.

  12. Nuclear Power Plant Lifetime Management Study (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sung Yull; Jeong, Ill Seok; Jang, Chang Heui; Song, Taek Ho; Song, Woo Young [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Tae Eun [Korea Power Engineering Company Consulting and Architecture Engineers, (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Woo Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    As the operation-year of nuclear power plant increases and finding sites for new nuclear power plant becomes harder, a comprehensive and systematic nuclear plant lifetime management(PLIM) program including life extension has to be established for stable and safe supply of electricity. A feasibility study was conducted to systematically evaluate technical, economic and regulatory aspect of plant lifetime managements and plant life extension for Kori-1 nuclear power plant. For technical evaluation of nuclear power plant, 13 major components were selected for lifetime evaluation by screening system. structure, and components(SSCs) of the plant. It was found that except reactor pressure vessel, which needs detailed integrity analysis, and low pressure turbine, which is scheduled to be replaced, 11 out of 13 major components have sufficient service life, for more than 40 years. Because domestic rules and regulations related to license renewal has not yet been written, review on the regulatory aspect of life extensions was conducted using US NRC rules and regulations. A cooperative effort with nuclear regulatory body is needed for early completion of license renewal rules and regulations. For economic evaluation of plant lifetime extension, a computer program was developed and used. It was found that 10 to 20 year of extension operation of Kori-1 nuclear power plant was proved. Based on the results, next phase of plant lifetime management program for detailed lifetime evaluation and presenting detailed implementation schedule for plant refurbishment for lifetime extension should be followed. (author). 74 refs., figs.

  13. Uranium contamination due to nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin Sanchez, A.; Vera Tome, F.; Diaz Bejarano, J.; Garcia Aparicio, A. (Univ. de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain). Dept. de Fisica)

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of uranium isotopes and their daughters in the natural series were performed in the cooling reservoirs and their neighborhood of two nuclear power plants, [alpha] and [gamma] spectrometry of samples were used to measure the natural and artificial radionuclides. The nuclear power plants are in the southwest of Spain and one of them has been in operation since 1982, the other plant is in the construction phase. We compare the results obtained for the two sites. (orig.).

  14. Study on nuclear power introduction into Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuong Huu Tan [Vietnam Atomic Energy Commission, 59 Ly Thuong Kiet, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2000-03-01

    The report presents main results of the study on nuclear power introduction into Vietnam which have been carried out at Vietnam Atomic Energy Commission in collaboration with Ministry of Industry of Vietnam and other countries like Japan, Canada and Korea. The study covers all topics related to the nuclear power introduction into Vietnam such as electricity demands and supply, economics, finance, technology, safety, manpower, site selection etc. (author)

  15. Climate Change, Nuclear Power and Nuclear Proliferation: Magnitude Matters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert J. Goldston

    2010-03-03

    Integrated energy, environment and economics modeling suggests electrical energy use will increase from 2.4 TWe today to 12 TWe in 2100. It will be challenging to provide 40% of this electrical power from combustion with carbon sequestration, as it will be challenging to provide 30% from renewable energy sources. Thus nuclear power may be needed to provide ~30% by 2100. Calculations of the associated stocks and flows of uranium, plutonium and minor actinides indicate that the proliferation risks at mid-century, using current light-water reactor technology, are daunting. There are institutional arrangements that may be able to provide an acceptable level of risk mitigation, but they will be difficult to implement. If a transition is begun to fast-spectrum reactors at mid-century, without a dramatic change in the proliferation risks of such systems, at the end of the century proliferation risks are much greater, and more resistant to mitigation. The risks of nuclear power should be compared with the risks of the estimated 0.64oC long-term global surface-average temperature rise predicted if nuclear power were replaced with coal-fired power plants without carbon sequestration. Fusion energy, if developed, would provide a source of nuclear power with much lower proliferation risks than fission.

  16. 77 FR 47121 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2; Exemption 1.0 Background Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC (the licensee) is the holder of Renewed..., ``Fatigue Management for Nuclear Power Plant Personnel,'' endorses the Nuclear Energy......

  17. Nuclear power plant security assessment technical manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connor, Sharon L.; Whitehead, Donnie Wayne; Potter, Claude S., III

    2007-09-01

    This report (Nuclear Power Plant Security Assessment Technical Manual) is a revision to NUREG/CR-1345 (Nuclear Power Plant Design Concepts for Sabotage Protection) that was published in January 1981. It provides conceptual and specific technical guidance for U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission nuclear power plant design certification and combined operating license applicants as they: (1) develop the layout of a facility (i.e., how buildings are arranged on the site property and how they are arranged internally) to enhance protection against sabotage and facilitate the use of physical security features; (2) design the physical protection system to be used at the facility; and (3) analyze the effectiveness of the PPS against the design basis threat. It should be used as a technical manual in conjunction with the 'Nuclear Power Plant Security Assessment Format and Content Guide'. The opportunity to optimize physical protection in the design of a nuclear power plant is obtained when an applicant utilizes both documents when performing a security assessment. This document provides a set of best practices that incorporates knowledge gained from more than 30 years of physical protection system design and evaluation activities at Sandia National Laboratories and insights derived from U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission technical staff into a manual that describes a development and analysis process of physical protection systems suitable for future nuclear power plants. In addition, selected security system technologies that may be used in a physical protection system are discussed. The scope of this document is limited to the identification of a set of best practices associated with the design and evaluation of physical security at future nuclear power plants in general. As such, it does not provide specific recommendations for the design and evaluation of physical security for any specific reactor design. These best practices should be applicable to the design and

  18. Studies of Fourteen Nuclear-Powered Airplanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutton, J. N.; McCulloch, J. C.; Schmill, W. C.; Ward, W. H.

    1952-09-01

    A representative series of aircraft which could be powered by a relatively low-temperature liquid-coolant-cycle nuclear power plant are described. Present aircraft such as the B-36, B-52, and B-47 bombers as well as new designs were investigated. Design and performance characteristics of all the aircraft are presented.

  19. 78 FR 38739 - Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ... COMMISSION Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear... Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This regulatory guide provides guidance on recordkeeping and... nuclear material control and accounting system requirements for nuclear power plants. This guide applies...

  20. 77 FR 28407 - Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... COMMISSION Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear...-5028, ``Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants.'' In DG-5028... Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants.'' DATES: Submit comments by July 16, 2012...

  1. 78 FR 50458 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant, Vermont Yankee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant, Vermont Yankee Nuclear... petitioners'') has requested that the NRC take action with regard to James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant... with regard to James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant (Fitzpatrick), Vermont Yankee Nuclear...

  2. High-speed simulation of transients in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wulff, W.; Cheng, H.S.; Lekach, S.V.; Mallen, A.N.

    1984-01-01

    A combination of advanced modeling techniques and modern, special-purpose peripheral minicomputer technology is presented which affords realistic predictions of plant transient and severe off-normal events in LWR power plants through on-line simulations at a speed ten times greater than actual process speeds. Results are shown for a BWR plant simulation. Results are shown to demonstrate computing capacity, accuracy, and speed. Simulation speeds have been achieved which are 110 times larger than those of a CDC-7600 mainframe computer or ten times greater than real-time speed.

  3. Safety Assessment - Swedish Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjellstroem, B. [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden)

    1996-12-31

    After the reactor accident at Three Mile Island, the Swedish nuclear power plants were equipped with filtered venting of the containment. Several types of accidents can be identified where the filtered venting has no effect on the radioactive release. The probability for such accidents is hopefully very small. It is not possible however to estimate the probability accurately. Experiences gained in the last years, which have been documented in official reports from the Nuclear Power Inspectorate indicate that the probability for core melt accidents in Swedish reactors can be significantly larger than estimated earlier. A probability up to one in a thousand operating years can not be excluded. There are so far no indications that aging of the plants has contributed to an increased accident risk. Maintaining the safety level with aging nuclear power plants can however be expected to be increasingly difficult. It is concluded that the 12 Swedish plants remain a major threat for severe radioactive pollution of the Swedish environment despite measures taken since 1980 to improve their safety. Closing of the nuclear power plants is the only possibility to eliminate this threat. It is recommended that until this is done, quantitative safety goals, same for all Swedish plants, shall be defined and strictly enforced. It is also recommended that utilities distributing misleading information about nuclear power risks shall have their operating license withdrawn. 37 refs.

  4. The nuclear power discussion in change. Nuclear controversy has shifted

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt-Kuester, Wolf J.; Popp, Manfred

    2015-07-15

    The public discussion on nuclear energy is not focused on power plant safety anymore. A globally good safety statistic and years of information activity on safety technology provided progress, even though all incidents are still discussed with great dedication. Nevertheless the field of disposal receives more prominence in public discussions since 1976; reprocessing of irradiated fuels and storage of nuclear waste follow the topic of nuclear power plants with temporary shift. During a long preparation time technical and operational know-how was gathered for both fields that is now available for use on large technical scale. For the entire disposal complex exists a comprehensive concept prepared by the federal government, which has to be put into practice together with the industry. The priority assignment for a dialogue with the public is to comprehensively inform on extend and quality of problem solutions and to highlight that even here the safety of the biological-cycle is the guiding principle for all considerations.

  5. Nuclear Power: Entering the Stage of Active Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Lianyi; Zhu Li

    2009-01-01

    @@ Development course Since 1970 when the construction preparation of Qinshan No. 1 Nuclear Power Plant started, China's nuclear power industry has grown out of nothing, and then adjusted the step from moderate development to vigorous development. In this course, China's nuclear power equipment manufacturing industry has also been unceasingly developing and strengthening itself with the construction of nuclear power plants one by one.

  6. Thermodynamics in nuclear power plant systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zohuri, Bahman

    2015-01-01

    This book covers the fundamentals of thermodynamics required to understand electrical power generation systems, honing in on the application of these principles to nuclear reactor powersystems. It includes all the necessary information regarding the fundamental laws to gain a complete understanding and apply them specifically to the challenges of operating nuclear plants. Beginning with definitions of thermodynamic variables such as temperature, pressure and specific volume, the book then explains the laws in detail, focusing on pivotal concepts such as enthalpy and entropy, irreversibilit

  7. Recent Advances in Ocean Nuclear Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang-Heon Lee

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, recent advances in Ocean Nuclear Power Plants (ONPPs are reviewed, including their general arrangement, design parameters, and safety features. The development of ONPP concepts have continued due to initiatives taking place in France, Russia, South Korea, and the United States. Russia’s first floating nuclear power stations utilizing the PWR technology (KLT-40S and the spar-type offshore floating nuclear power plant designed by a research group in United States are considered herein. The APR1400 and SMART mounted Gravity Based Structure (GBS-type ONPPs proposed by a research group in South Korea are also considered. In addition, a submerged-type ONPP designed by DCNS of France is taken into account. Last, issues and challenges related to ONPPs are discussed and summarized.

  8. Evaluation of inorganic sorbent treatment for LWR coolant process streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roddy, J.W.

    1984-03-01

    This report presents results of a survey of the literature and of experience at selected nuclear installations to provide information on the feasibility of replacing organic ion exchangers with inorganic sorbents at light-water-cooled nuclear power plants. Radioactive contents of the various streams in boiling water reactors and pressurized water reactors were examined. In addition, the methods and performances of current methods used for controlling water quality at these plants were evaluated. The study also includes a brief review of the physical and chemical properties of selected inorganic sorbents. Some attributes of inorganic sorbents would be useful in processing light water reactor (LWR) streams. The inorganic resins are highly resistant to damage from ionizing radiation, and their exchange capacities are generally equivalent to those of organic ion exchangers. However, they are more limited in application, and there are problems with physical integrity, especially in acidic solutions. Research is also needed in the areas of selectivity and anion removal before inorganic sorbents can be considered as replacements for the synthetic organic resins presently used in LWRs. 11 figures, 14 tables.

  9. The Fundamentals and Status of Nuclear Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzie, Regis A.

    2011-11-01

    Nuclear power has enormous potential to provide clean, safe base-load electricity to the world's growing population. Harnessing this potential in an economic and responsible manner is not without challenges. Safety remains the principal tenet of our operating fleet, which currently provides ˜20% of U.S. electricity generated. The performance of this fleet from economic and safety standpoints has improved dramatically over the past several decades. This nuclear generation also represents greater than 70% of the emission free electricity with hydroelectric power providing the majority of the remainder. There have been many lessons learned from the more than 50 years of experience with nuclear power and these have been factored into the new designs now being constructed worldwide. These new designs, which have enhanced safety compared to the operating fleet, have been simplified by employing passive safety systems and modular construction. There are applications for licenses of more than 20 new reactors under review by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission; the first of these licenses will be completed in early 2012, and the first new U.S. reactor will start operating in 2016. Yet there are still more improvements that can be made and these are being pursued to achieve an even greater deployment of nuclear power technology.

  10. Virtual environments for nuclear power plant design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown-VanHoozer, S.A.; Singleterry, R.C. Jr.; King, R.W. [and others

    1996-03-01

    In the design and operation of nuclear power plants, the visualization process inherent in virtual environments (VE) allows for abstract design concepts to be made concrete and simulated without using a physical mock-up. This helps reduce the time and effort required to design and understand the system, thus providing the design team with a less complicated arrangement. Also, the outcome of human interactions with the components and system can be minimized through various testing of scenarios in real-time without the threat of injury to the user or damage to the equipment. If implemented, this will lead to a minimal total design and construction effort for nuclear power plants (NPP).

  11. 75 FR 66802 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2... Regulatory Commission (the Commission) has granted the request of Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC... Operating License Nos. DPR-53 and DPR-69 for the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit......

  12. 76 FR 39908 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2.... DPR-53 and DPR-69, for the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2 (CCNPP), respectively... (ISFSI), currently held by Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC as owner and licensed......

  13. Radiation Damage Assessment in the Reactor Pressure Vessel of the Integral Inherently Safe Light Water Reactor (I2S-LWR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaspoehler, Timothy; Petrovic, Bojan

    2016-02-01

    One of the major limiting factors to nuclear reactors lifetime is the radiation-induced material damage in the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV). While older reactors were designed assuming a 40-year operating lifetime, new reactor designs are expected to have lifetimes up to 100 years. For safe operation, the integrity of the RPV must be ensured against significant material property changes. In this work, typical neutron damage indicators are calculated in the RPV of the I2S-LWR (Integral Inherently Safe LWR) Power Plant, including DPA (displacements per atom) and fast neutron fluence (>1 MeV and >0.1MeV). I2S-LWR is a PWR of integral design, which means that its wider downcomer provides additional shielding to the vessel. However, its higher core power density and longer lifetime may offset this advantage. In order to accurately represent the neutron environment for RPV damage assessment, a detailed model based on the preliminary design specifications of the I2S-LWR was developed to be used in the MAVRIC (Monaco with Automated Variance Reduction using Importance Calculations) sequence of the Scale6.1 code package. MAVRIC uses the CADIS (Consistent Adjoint-Driven Importance Sampling) methodology to bias a fixed-source MC (Monte Carlo) simulation. To establish the upper limit of a bounding envelope, a flat-source distribution was used. For the low limit, a center-peaked source was generated using the KENO-VI criticality sequence assuming uniform fresh fuel core. Results based on the preliminary I2S-LWR model show that DPA rates and fast fluence rates are conservatively 75% lower than in typical PWRs being operated currently in the US.

  14. Radiation Damage Assessment in the Reactor Pressure Vessel of the Integral Inherently Safe Light Water Reactor (I2S-LWR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaspoehler Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major limiting factors to nuclear reactors lifetime is the radiation-induced material damage in the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV. While older reactors were designed assuming a 40-year operating lifetime, new reactor designs are expected to have lifetimes up to 100 years. For safe operation, the integrity of the RPV must be ensured against significant material property changes. In this work, typical neutron damage indicators are calculated in the RPV of the I2S-LWR (Integral Inherently Safe LWR Power Plant, including DPA (displacements per atom and fast neutron fluence (>1 MeV and >0.1MeV. I2S-LWR is a PWR of integral design, which means that its wider downcomer provides additional shielding to the vessel. However, its higher core power density and longer lifetime may offset this advantage. In order to accurately represent the neutron environment for RPV damage assessment, a detailed model based on the preliminary design specifications of the I2S-LWR was developed to be used in the MAVRIC (Monaco with Automated Variance Reduction using Importance Calculations sequence of the Scale6.1 code package. MAVRIC uses the CADIS (Consistent Adjoint-Driven Importance Sampling methodology to bias a fixed-source MC (Monte Carlo simulation. To establish the upper limit of a bounding envelope, a flat-source distribution was used. For the low limit, a center-peaked source was generated using the KENO-VI criticality sequence assuming uniform fresh fuel core. Results based on the preliminary I2S-LWR model show that DPA rates and fast fluence rates are conservatively 75% lower than in typical PWRs being operated currently in the US.

  15. What is nuclear power in Japan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Toshikazu

    2011-03-01

    The aggressive use of such non-fossil energy as the atomic energy with high power density and energy production efficiency is an indispensable choice aiming at the low-carbon society. There is a trial calculation that the carbon dioxide emission of 40000 ton can be suppressed by nuclear power generation by one ton of uranium. The basis of nuclear research after the Second World War in Japan was established by the researchers learnt in Argonne National Laboratory. In 2010, NPPs under operation are 54 units and the total electric generating power is 48.85GW. The amount of nuclear power generation per person of the people is 0.38kW in Japan, and it is near 0.34kW of the United States. However, the TMI accident and the Chernobyl disaster should have greatly stagnated the nuclear industry of Japan although it is not more serious than the United States. A lot of Japanese unconsciously associate a nuclear accident with the atomic bomb. According to the investigation which Science and Technology Agency carried out to the specialist in 1999, ``What will be the field where talent should be emphatically sent in the future?'' the rank of nuclear technology was the lowest in 32 fields. The influence of the nuclear industry stagnation was remarkable in the education. The subject related to the atomic energy of a university existed 19 in 1985 that was the previous year of the Chernobyl disaster decreased to 7 in 2003. In such a situation, we have to rely on the atomic energy because Japan depends for 96% of energy resources on import. The development of the fuel reprocessing and the fast breeder reactor has been continued in spite of a heavy failure. That is the only means left behind for Japan to be released from both fossil fuel and carbon dioxide.

  16. Assessment of nuclear power plant siting methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, M.D.; Hobbs, B.F.; Pierce, B.L.; Meier, P.M.

    1979-11-01

    Several different methods have been developed for selecting sites for nuclear power plants. This report summarizes the basic assumptions and formal requirements of each method and evaluates conditions under which each is correctly applied to power plant siting problems. It also describes conditions under which different siting methods can produce different results. Included are criteria for evaluating the skill with which site-selection methods have been applied.

  17. Development of information management system on LWR spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B. D.; Lee, S. H.; Song, D. Y.; Jeon, I.; Park, S. J.; Seo, D. S. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-10-01

    LWRs in Korea should manage all the information of spent fuel to implement the obligations under Korea-IAEA safeguards agreement and to perform the nuclear material accountancy work at the facility level. The information management system on LWR spent fuel was developed to manage all movement records from receipt to shipment of LWR fuels, and to get the necessary information such as nuclear fuel inventory lists and status, maps of fresh fuel storage, reactor and spent fuel pool, receipt and shipment records and so on. This information management system has a function to setup the system environments to cover the various kinds of storage types for all LWRs ; reactor, spent fuel pool and fresh fuel storage. The movements of nuclear fuel between the storages can be easily done by double click of the mouse to the destination. It also has a several error checking routines for maintaining the correct accounting data. Using this information management system of LWR spent fuel, facility operators can perform efficiently and effectively the safeguards related works including nuclear material accountancy at each facility.

  18. Public participation and trust in nuclear power development in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, G.; Mol, A.P.J.; Zhang, L.; Lu, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid expansion of nuclear power in China requires not only increasing institutional capacity to prevent and adequately cope with nuclear risks, but also increasing public trust in governmental agencies and nuclear enterprises managing nuclear risks. Using a case study on Haiyang nuclear power plant

  19. Public participation and trust in nuclear power development in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, G.; Mol, A.P.J.; Zhang, L.; Lu, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid expansion of nuclear power in China requires not only increasing institutional capacity to prevent and adequately cope with nuclear risks, but also increasing public trust in governmental agencies and nuclear enterprises managing nuclear risks. Using a case study on Haiyang nuclear power plant

  20. MODERATOR ELEMENTS FOR UNIFORM POWER NUCLEAR REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balent, R.

    1963-03-12

    This patent describes a method of obtaining a flatter flux and more uniform power generation across the core of a nuclear reactor. The method comprises using moderator elements having differing moderating strength. The elements have an increasing amount of the better moderating material as a function of radial and/or axial distance from the reactor core center. (AEC)

  1. CLAD CARBIDE NUCLEAR FUEL, THERMIONIC POWER, MODULES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The general objective is to evaluate a clad carbide emitter, thermionic power module which simulates nuclear reactor installation, design, and...performance. The module is an assembly of two series-connected converters with a single common cesium reservoir. The program goal is 500 hours

  2. Financing strategies for nuclear power decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-07-01

    The report analyzes several alternatives for financing the decommissioning of nuclear power plants from the point of view of assurance, cost, equity, and other criteria. Sensitivity analyses are performed on several important variables and possible impacts on representative companies' rates are discussed and illustrated.

  3. Nuclear Power: Problems in Information Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, William

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the problems encountered at the Duquesne Light Company of Pittsburgh's nuclear power plant as the result of an inability to process information effectively and keep pace with technological change. The creation of a separate division trained and directed to manage the plant's information flows is described and evaluated. (CLB)

  4. Human Mars Surface Mission Nuclear Power Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, Michelle A.

    2018-01-01

    A key decision facing Mars mission designers is how to power a crewed surface field station. Unlike the solar-powered Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) that could retreat to a very low power state during a Martian dust storm, human Mars surface missions are estimated to need at least 15 kilowatts of electrical (kWe) power simply to maintain critical life support and spacecraft functions. 'Hotel' loads alone for a pressurized crew rover approach two kWe; driving requires another five kWe-well beyond what the Curiosity rover’s Radioisotope Power System (RPS) was designed to deliver. Full operation of a four-crew Mars field station is estimated at about 40 kWe. Clearly, a crewed Mars field station will require a substantial and reliable power source, beyond the scale of robotic mission experience. This paper explores the applications for both fission and RPS nuclear options for Mars.

  5. NUPEC (Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation) annual report 1998, activities in fiscal 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    NUPEC was founded in March, 1976 under the initiative of scholars and private corporations including electric power companies, electric machinery and general construction companies. Ever since, NUPEC has been proceeding with its operations to meet the needs of the times with the support and cooperation of the government and academic circles. The specific activities so far include solving problems in the initial stage of light water reactors(LWRs) operation, engineering tests for improvement and standardization programs to develop domestic LWRs, seismic technology development and testing, assistance with accident analysis during safety examinations by government agency, human factor research, safety analysis of nuclear facilities, research of safety-related information, countermeasures for aging of LWRs and public acceptance activities. For such purposes, NUPEC has engineering laboratories in Tadotsu, Takasago, Isogo and Katsuta as well as a high performance parallel computer system for safety analysis at its headquarters. Among these facilities, the large-scale high-performance shaking table at Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory is attracting international attention for its capability for seismic testing. NUPEC is actively promoting international cooperation with international organizations and partners in the U.S., France, Germany, Russia and Asian countries through joint projects, information exchange, etc. NUPEC`s testing and analysis have contributed to improvement of safety and credibility of Nuclear power generation and to establishment and improvement of Japanese-originated LWR technology. A summary of our achievements in fiscal 1997 is presented in this annual report. (J.P.N.)

  6. 76 FR 66089 - Access Authorization Program for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... COMMISSION Access Authorization Program for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... revision to Regulatory Guide 5.66, ``Access Authorization Program for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This guide... Authorization Requirements for Nuclear Power Plants,'' and 10 CFR part 26, ``Fitness for Duty Programs.'' The......

  7. Nuclear-Powered GPS Spacecraft Design Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raab, Bernard

    1977-05-01

    This is the final report of a study to investigate the potential benefits of a nuclear (radioisotope) - powered satellite for advanced phases of the Global Positioning System (GPS) program. The critical parameters were: power to user; mean mission duration; orbital predictability; thermal control of on-board frequency standards; and vulnerability. The reference design approach is described, and input data are given for two power systems that are under development: an organic Rankine system and a Brayton cycle system. Reference design details are provided and structural design and analysis are discussed, as well as thermal design and analysis. A higher altitude version is also considered.

  8. Climate Change, Nuclear Power and Nuclear Proliferation: Magnitude Matters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert J. Goldston

    2011-04-28

    Integrated energy, environment and economics modeling suggests that worldwide electrical energy use will increase from 2.4 TWe today to ~12 TWe in 2100. It will be challenging to provide 40% of this electrical power from combustion with carbon sequestration, as it will be challenging to provide 30% from renewable energy sources derived from natural energy flows. Thus nuclear power may be needed to provide ~30%, 3600 GWe, by 2100. Calculations of the associated stocks and flows of uranium, plutonium and minor actinides indicate that the proliferation risks at mid-century, using current light-water reactor technology, are daunting. There are institutional arrangements that may be able to provide an acceptable level of risk mitigation, but they will be difficult to implement. If a transition is begun to fast-spectrum reactors at mid-century, without a dramatic change in the proliferation risks of such systems, at the end of the century global nuclear proliferation risks are much greater, and more resistant to mitigation. Fusion energy, if successfully demonstrated to be economically competitive, would provide a source of nuclear power with much lower proliferation risks than fission.

  9. Transactions of the fifth symposium on space nuclear power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Genk, M.S.; Hoover, M.D. (eds.)

    1988-01-01

    This paper contains the presented papers at the fourth symposium on space nuclear power systems. Topics of these paper include: space nuclear missions and applications, reactors and shielding, nuclear electric and nuclear propulsion, high-temperature materials, instrumentation and control, energy conversion and storage, space nuclear fuels, thermal management, nuclear safety, simulation and modeling, and multimegawatt system concepts. (LSP)

  10. Transactions of the fourth symposium on space nuclear power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Genk, M.S.; Hoover, M.D. (eds.)

    1987-01-01

    This paper contains the presented papers at the fourth symposium on space nuclear power systems. Topics of these papers include: space nuclear missions and applications, reactors and shielding, nuclear electric and nuclear propulsion, refractory alloys and high-temperature materials, instrumentation and control, energy conversion and storage, space nuclear fuels, thermal management, nuclear safety, simulation and modeling, and multimegawatt system concepts. (LSP)

  11. Photovoltaic cost reduction powered by nuclear spending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy; Deinert, Mark

    2013-04-01

    Between 1975 to 2010, Japan has spent an average of 2700 Million per year on nuclear R&D and 74 Million per year on solar energy R&D (2010 dollars). While the cost of photovoltaics dropped by a factor of 30 during that time, the overnight cost to build a nuclear power plant has doubled between 2003 and 2009. The price of commercially available photovoltaics has been shown to follow a power law reduction with the number of units produced. This begs the question as to what the current price of these systems would be had some of the available funds used for nuclear R&D been spent on the acquisition of photovoltaics. Here we show the reduction in price for single crystal photovoltaic panels if the Japanese government spent some of their nuclear R&D funds on the installation of these systems. We use historical cost and cumulative production for the world and Japan to build a learning curve model for PV. If the government had spent only 0.07% of its nuclear R&D budget toward PV technology since 1975, photovoltaics would now have reached 1/Watt, the point at which they are cost competitive with conventional resources.

  12. Intelligent Component Monitoring for Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefteri Tsoukalas

    2010-07-30

    Reliability and economy are two major concerns for a nuclear power generation system. Next generation nuclear power reactors are being developed to be more reliable and economic. An effective and efficient surveillance system can generously contribute toward this goal. Recent progress in computer systems and computational tools has made it necessary and possible to upgrade current surveillance/monitoring strategy for better performance. For example, intelligent computing techniques can be applied to develop algorithm that help people better understand the information collected from sensors and thus reduce human error to a new low level. Incidents incurred from human error in nuclear industry are not rare and have been proven costly. The goal of this project is to develop and test an intelligent prognostics methodology for predicting aging effects impacting long-term performance of nuclear components and systems. The approach is particularly suitable for predicting the performance of nuclear reactor systems which have low failure probabilities (e.g., less than 10-6 year-). Such components and systems are often perceived as peripheral to the reactor and are left somewhat unattended. That is, even when inspected, if they are not perceived to be causing some immediate problem, they may not be paid due attention. Attention to such systems normally involves long term monitoring and possibly reasoning with multiple features and evidence, requirements that are not best suited for humans.

  13. 76 FR 4391 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2; Exemption 1.0 Background Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, the licensee, is the holder of Facility Operating License Nos. DPR-53 and DPR-69 which authorizes operation of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear...

  14. Autonomous Control of Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basher, H.

    2003-10-20

    A nuclear reactor is a complex system that requires highly sophisticated controllers to ensure that desired performance and safety can be achieved and maintained during its operations. Higher-demanding operational requirements such as reliability, lower environmental impacts, and improved performance under adverse conditions in nuclear power plants, coupled with the complexity and uncertainty of the models, necessitate the use of an increased level of autonomy in the control methods. In the opinion of many researchers, the tasks involved during nuclear reactor design and operation (e.g., design optimization, transient diagnosis, and core reload optimization) involve important human cognition and decisions that may be more easily achieved with intelligent methods such as expert systems, fuzzy logic, neural networks, and genetic algorithms. Many experts in the field of control systems share the idea that a higher degree of autonomy in control of complex systems such as nuclear plants is more easily achievable through the integration of conventional control systems and the intelligent components. Researchers have investigated the feasibility of the integration of fuzzy logic, neural networks, genetic algorithms, and expert systems with the conventional control methods to achieve higher degrees of autonomy in different aspects of reactor operations such as reactor startup, shutdown in emergency situations, fault detection and diagnosis, nuclear reactor alarm processing and diagnosis, and reactor load-following operations, to name a few. With the advancement of new technologies and computing power, it is feasible to automate most of the nuclear reactor control and operation, which will result in increased safety and economical benefits. This study surveys current status, practices, and recent advances made towards developing autonomous control systems for nuclear reactors.

  15. Management of National Nuclear Power Programs for assured safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, T.J. (ed.)

    1985-01-01

    Topics discussed in this report include: nuclear utility organization; before the Florida Public Service Commission in re: St. Lucie Unit No. 2 cost recovery; nuclear reliability improvement and safety operations; nuclear utility management; training of nuclear facility personnel; US experience in key areas of nuclear safety; the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission - function and process; regulatory considerations of the risk of nuclear power plants; overview of the processes of reliability and risk management; management significance of risk analysis; international and domestic institutional issues for peaceful nuclear uses; the role of the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO); and nuclear safety activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).

  16. Design and construction of nuclear power plants

    CERN Document Server

    Schnell, Jürgen; Meiswinkel, Rüdiger; Bergmeister, Konrad; Fingerloos, Frank; Wörner, Johann-Dietrich

    2013-01-01

    Despite all the efforts being put into expanding renewable energy sources, large-scale power stations will be essential as part of a reliable energy supply strategy for a longer period. Given that they are low on CO2 emissions, many countries are moving into or expanding nuclear energy to cover their baseload supply.Building structures required for nuclear installations whose protective function means they are classified as safety-related, have to meet particular construction requirements more stringent than those involved in conventional construction. This book gives a comprehensive overv

  17. Economic analysis of nuclear power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ki Dong; Choi, Young Myung; Kim, Hwa Sup; Lee, Man Ki; Moon, Kee Hwan; Kim, Seung Su; Chae, Kyu Nam

    1996-12-01

    The major contents in this study are as follows : (1) Efforts are made to examine the role of nuclear energy considering environmental regulation. An econometric model for energy demand and supply including carbon tax imposition is established. (2) Analysis for the learning effect of nuclear power plant operation is performed. The study is focused to measure the effect of technology homogeneity on the operation performance. (3) A preliminary capital cost of the KALIMER is estimated by using cost computer program, which is developed in this study. (author). 36 refs.,46 tabs., 15 figs.

  18. Carbon pricing, nuclear power and electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, R.; Keppler, J. H. [OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, 12, boulevard des Iles, 92130 Issy-les-Moulineaux (France)

    2012-07-01

    In 2010, the NEA in conjunction with the International Energy Agency produced an analysis of the Projected Costs of Electricity for almost 200 power plants, covering nuclear, fossil fuel and renewable electricity generation. That analysis used lifetime costs to consider the merits of each technology. However, the lifetime cost analysis is less applicable in liberalised markets and does not look specifically at the viewpoint of the private investor. A follow-up NEA assessment of the competitiveness of nuclear energy against coal- and gas-fired generation under carbon pricing has considered just this question. The economic competition in electricity markets is today between nuclear energy and gas-fired power generation, with coal-fired power generation not being competitive as soon as even modest carbon pricing is introduced. Whether nuclear energy or natural gas comes out ahead in their competition depends on a number of assumptions, which, while all entirely reasonable, yield very different outcomes. The analysis in this study has been developed on the basis of daily data from European power markets over the last five-year period. Three different methodologies, a Profit Analysis looking at historic returns over the past five years, an Investment Analysis projecting the conditions of the past five years over the lifetime of plants and a Carbon Tax Analysis (differentiating the Investment Analysis for different carbon prices) look at the issue of competitiveness from different angles. They show that the competitiveness of nuclear energy depends on a number of variables which in different configurations determine whether electricity produced from nuclear power or from CCGTs generates higher profits for its investors. These are overnight costs, financing costs, gas prices, carbon prices, profit margins (or mark-ups), the amount of coal with carbon capture and electricity prices. This paper will present the outcomes of the analysis in the context of a liberalised

  19. ERDA LWR plant technology program: role of government/industry in improving LWR performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-10-07

    Information is presented under the following chapter headings: executive summary; LWR plant outages; LWR plant construction delays and cancellations; programs addressing plant outages, construction delays, and cancellations; need for additional programs to remedy continuing problems; criteria for government role in LWR commercialization; and the proposed government program.

  20. 75 FR 14638 - FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company; Perry Nuclear Power Plant; Environmental Assessment and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... COMMISSION FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company; Perry Nuclear Power Plant; Environmental Assessment and...Energy Nuclear Operating Company (FENOC, the licensee), for operation of the Perry Nuclear Power Plant... Manager, Plant Licensing Branch III-2, Division of Operating Reactor Licensing, Office of Nuclear...

  1. Enhanced Accident Tolerant LWR Fuels National Metrics Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lori Braase

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), in collaboration with the nuclear industry, has been conducting research and development (R&D) activities on advanced Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuels for the last few years. The emphasis for these activities was on improving the fuel performance in terms of increased burnup for waste minimization and increased power density for power upgrades, as well as collaborating with industry on fuel reliability. After the events at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant in Japan in March 2011, enhancing the accident tolerance of LWRs became a topic of serious discussion. In the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2012, Conference Report 112-75, the U.S. Congress directed DOE-NE to: • Give “priority to developing enhanced fuels and cladding for light water reactors to improve safety in the event of accidents in the reactor or spent fuel pools.” • Give “special technical emphasis and funding priority…to activities aimed at the development and near-term qualification of meltdown-resistant, accident-tolerant nuclear fuels that would enhance the safety of present and future generations of light water reactors.” • Report “to the Committee, within 90 days of enactment of this act, on its plan for development of meltdown-resistant fuels leading to reactor testing and utilization by 2020.” Fuels with enhanced accident tolerance are those that, in comparison with the standard UO2-zirconium alloy system currently used by the nuclear industry, can tolerate loss of active cooling in the reactor core for a considerably longer time period (depending on the LWR system and accident scenario) while maintaining or improving the fuel performance during normal operations, and operational transients, as well as design-basis and beyond design-basis events. The overall draft strategy for development and demonstration is comprised of three phases: Feasibility Assessment and Down-selection; Development and Qualification; and

  2. Construct ability Improvement for Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dae Soo; Lee, Jong Rim; Kim, Jong Ku [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this study was to identify methods for improving the construct ability of nuclear power plants. This study reviewed several references of current construction practices of domestic and overseas nuclear plants in order to identify potential methods for improving construct ability. The identified methods for improving construct ability were then evaluated based on the applicability to domestic nuclear plant construction. The selected methods are expected to reduce the construction period, improve the quality of construction, cost, safety, and productivity. Selection of which methods should be implemented will require further evaluation of construction modifications, design changes, contract revisions. Among construction methods studied, platform construction methods can be applied through construction sequence modification without significant design changes, and Over the Top construction method of the NSSS, automatic welding of RCL pipes, CLP modularization, etc., are considered to be applied after design modification and adjustment of material lead time. (author). 49 refs., figs., tabs.

  3. 75 FR 16524 - FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company, Perry Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... COMMISSION FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company, Perry Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption 1.0 Background First.... NFP-58, which authorizes operation of the Perry Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 (PNPP). The license... rule's compliance date for all operating nuclear power plants, but noted that the...

  4. U.S. Nuclear Power Reactor Plant Status

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — Demographic data on U.S. commercial nuclear power reactors, including: plant name/unit number, docket number, location, licensee, reactor/containment type, nuclear...

  5. Community conflict in the nuclear power issue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burt, R.S.

    1978-05-01

    This is the first of a two part discussion the purpose of which is to demonstrate that a frankly structural, or network, approach to the analysis of community decision-making allows an observer to anticipate and manage community response to specific policies. Here I am concerned with anticipating community response. In part two (Burt, 1978), I am concerned with conflict resolution strategies. The specific policy used as illustration is siting nuclear power facilities. Published accounts of siting nuclear facilities are used to identify basic social parameters of the nuclear power issue as a community conflict. Changes in the form and content of relations in the network among opponents and proponents of a facility are described. Subsequently, the description is used to specify a causal model of the manner in which conflict escalation is promoted or inhibited by the characteristics and leadership structure of a community in which a nuclear facility is proposed. Hypotheses are derived predicting what types of communities can be expected to become embroiled in conflict and the process that conflict escalation will follow.

  6. Commentary: childhood cancer near nuclear power stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fairlie Ian

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In 2008, the KiKK study in Germany reported a 1.6-fold increase in solid cancers and a 2.2-fold increase in leukemias among children living within 5 km of all German nuclear power stations. The study has triggered debates as to the cause(s of these increased cancers. This article reports on the findings of the KiKK study; discusses past and more recent epidemiological studies of leukemias near nuclear installations around the world, and outlines a possible biological mechanism to explain the increased cancers. This suggests that the observed high rates of infant leukemias may be a teratogenic effect from incorporated radionuclides. Doses from environmental emissions from nuclear reactors to embryos and fetuses in pregnant women near nuclear power stations may be larger than suspected. Hematopoietic tissues appear to be considerably more radiosensitive in embryos/fetuses than in newborn babies. Recommendations for advice to local residents and for further research are made.

  7. Key issues in space nuclear power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, Henry W.

    1991-01-01

    The future appears rich in missions that will extend the frontiers of knowledge, human presence in space, and opportunities for profitable commerce. Key to the success of these ventures is the availability of plentiful, cost effective electric power and assured, low cost access to space. While forecasts of space power needs are problematic, an assessment of future needs based on terrestrial experience has been made. These needs fall into three broad categories: survival, self sufficiency, and industrialization. The cost of delivering payloads to orbital locations from LEO to Mars has been determined and future launch cost reductions projected. From these factors, then, projections of the performance necessary for future solar and nuclear space power options has been made. These goals are largely dependent upon orbital location and energy storage needs. Finally the cost of present space power systems has been determined and projections made for future systems.

  8. Nuclear Power for Sustainable Development : Current Status and Future Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Adamantiades, A.; Kessides, I.

    2009-01-01

    Interest in nuclear power has been revived as a result of volatile fossil fuel prices, concerns about the security of energy supplies, and global climate change. This paper describes the current status and future plans for expansion of nuclear power, the advances in nuclear reactor technology, and their impacts on the associated risks and performance of nuclear power. Advanced nuclear reactors have been designed to be simpler and safer, and to have lower costs than currently operating reactor...

  9. Safety in nuclear power plants in India

    OpenAIRE

    Deolalikar R

    2008-01-01

    Safety in nuclear power plants (NPPs) in India is a very important topic and it is necessary to dissipate correct information to all the readers and the public at large. In this article, I have briefly described how the safety in our NPPs is maintained. Safety is accorded overriding priority in all the activities. NPPs in India are not only safe but are also well regulated, have proper radiological protection of workers and the public, regular surveillance, dosimetry, approved standard operat...

  10. Nuclear power development in the Eighties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibe, L.D.

    1974-01-01

    Plans to accelerate the nation-wide rural electrification program and tap energy sources to reduce dependency on oil-fired plants to reasonably low levels within the decade in the Philippines were announced. The specific goals of the National Energy Plan are: the reduction of the country's oil dependency for its total energy needs from the present high 93 percent to 76 percent by 1985; for power generation, the contribution of oil-fired power plants to be reduced from the present level of 75 percent to 37 percent by 1985; and for other energy uses, 15 percent to 20 percent savings through conservation measures and improvements in energy utilization efficiency. The Energy Plan aims at a balanced contribution from hydro, conventional thermal, geothermal, and nuclear plants by 1990. Plans for the power generation expansion program by the National Power Corporation (NPC) are described for the Luzon, Mindanao, and Visayas regions. It is concluded that the National Energy Plan and the NPC program encompass: no additional oil-fired generating units except for those planned or ordered; geothermal and nuclear power stations will provide energy for future base load operations; and hydro installation will provide peaking needs. (MCW)

  11. The Resurgence of U.S. Nuclear Power, 2. edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-15

    The updated report provides an overview of the opportunities for nuclear power in the U.S. electric industry, including a concise look at the challenges faced by nuclear power, the ability of advanced nuclear reactors to address these challenges, and the current state of nuclear power generation. Topics covered in the report include: an overview of U.S. Nuclear Power including its history, the current market environment, and the future of nuclear power in the U.S.; an analysis of the key business factors that are driving renewed interest in nuclear power; an analysis of the barriers that are hindering the implementation of new nuclear power plants; a description of nuclear power technology including existing reactors, as well as 3rd and 4th generation reactor designs; a review of the economics of new nuclear power projects and comparison to other generation alternatives; a discussion of the key government initiatives supporting nuclear power development; profiles of the key reactor manufacturers participating in the U.S. nuclear power market; and, profiles of the leading U.S. utilities participating in the U.S. nuclear power market.

  12. Survey of LWR environmental control technology performance and cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeb, C.M.; Aaberg, R.L.; Cole, B.M.; Engel, R.L.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Lewallen, M.A.

    1980-03-01

    This study attempts to establish a ranking for species that are routinely released to the environment for a projected nuclear power growth scenario. Unlike comparisons made to existing standards, which are subject to frequent revision, the ranking of releases can be used to form a more logical basis for identifying the areas where further development of control technology could be required. This report describes projections of releases for several fuel cycle scenarios, identifies areas where alternative control technologies may be implemented, and discusses the available alternative control technologies. The release factors were used in a computer code system called ENFORM, which calculates the annual release of any species from any part of the LWR nuclear fuel cycle given a projection of installed nuclear generation capacity. This survey of fuel cycle releases was performed for three reprocessing scenarios (stowaway, reprocessing without recycle of Pu and reprocessing with full recycle of U and Pu) for a 100-year period beginning in 1977. The radioactivity releases were ranked on the basis of a relative ranking factor. The relative ranking factor is based on the 100-year summation of the 50-year population dose commitment from an annual release of radioactive effluents. The nonradioactive releases were ranked on the basis of dilution factor. The twenty highest ranking radioactive releases were identified and each of these was analyzed in terms of the basis for calculating the release and a description of the currently employed control method. Alternative control technology is then discussed, along with the available capital and operating cost figures for alternative control methods.

  13. Nuclear power: Is the renaissance real or a mirage?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogner, H.-Holger; McDonald, Alan

    2010-09-15

    In 2009, in the midst of the global financial and economic crises that began in 2008, and as the nuclear power industry posted its first two-year decline in installed capacity in history, the IAEA revised its projections for future nuclear power growth upwards. This paper summarizes the status of nuclear power in the world today and the status of all steps in the nuclear fuel cycle. It summarizes nuclear power's prospects and important trends in key factors. It explains the reasons for optimism and rising expectations about nuclear power's future, and it acknowledges that there is, nonetheless, much uncertainty.

  14. Nuclear Propulsion and Power Non-Nuclear Test Facility (NP2NTF): Preliminary Analysis and Feasibility Assessment Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Nuclear reactors, which power nuclear propulsion and power systems, and the nuclear radiation and residual radioactivity associated with these systems, impose...

  15. Research, Development and Demonstration (RD&D) Needs for Light Water Reactor (LWR) Technologies A Report to the Reactor Technology Subcommittee of the Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee (NEAC) Office of Nuclear Energy U.S. Department of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, Kathryn A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Adams, Bradley J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The LWR RD&D Working Group developed a detailed list of RD&D suggestions and recommendations, which are provided in Appendix D. The Working Group then undertook a systematic ranking process, described in Appendix E. The results of the ranking process are not meant to be a strict set of priorities, but rather should provide insight into how the items generally ranked within the Working Group. Future discussions and investigation into these items could provide information that would support a change in these priorities or in their emphasis. The results of this prioritization are provided below. Note that in general, many RD&D ideas are applicable to both new Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) plants and currently operating plants.

  16. LWR decay heat calculations using a GRS improved ENDF/B-6 based ORIGEN data library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesse, U.; Hummelsheim, K.I.; Kilger, R.; Moser, F.E.; Langenbuch, S. [Gesellschaft fur Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Forschungsinstitute, Garching (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The known ORNL ORIGEN code is widely spread over the world for inventory, activity and decay heat tasks and is used stand-alone or implemented in activation, shielding or burn-up systems. More than 1000 isotopes with more than six coupled neutron capture and radioactive decay channels are handled simultaneously by the code. The characteristics of the calculated inventories, e.g., masses, activities, neutron and photon source terms or the decay heat during short or long decay time steps are achieved by summing over all isotopes, characterized in the ORIGEN libraries. An extended nuclear GRS-ORIGENX data library is now developed for practical appliance. The library was checked for activation tasks of structure material isotopes and for actinide and fission product burn-up calculations compared with experiments and standard methods. The paper is directed to the LWR decay heat calculation features of the new library and shows the differences of dynamical and time integrated results of Endf/B-6 based and older Endf/B-5 based libraries for decay heat tasks compared to fission burst experiments, ANS curves and some other published data. A multi-group time exponential evaluation is given for the fission burst power of {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 239}Pu and {sup 241}Pu, to be used in quick LWR reactor accident decay heat calculation tools. (authors)

  17. Effects of LWR coolant environments on fatigue design curves of carbon and low-alloy steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopra, O.K.; Shack, W.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1998-03-01

    The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code provides rules for the construction of nuclear power plant components. Figures I-9.1 through I-9.6 of Appendix I to Section III of the code specify fatigue design curves for structural materials. While effects of reactor coolant environments are not explicitly addressed by the design curves, test data indicate that the Code fatigue curves may not always be adequate in coolant environments. This report summarizes work performed by Argonne National Laboratory on fatigue of carbon and low-alloy steels in light water reactor (LWR) environments. The existing fatigue S-N data have been evaluated to establish the effects of various material and loading variables such as steel type, dissolved oxygen level, strain range, strain rate, temperature, orientation, and sulfur content on the fatigue life of these steels. Statistical models have been developed for estimating the fatigue S-N curves as a function of material, loading, and environmental variables. The results have been used to estimate the probability of fatigue cracking of reactor components. The different methods for incorporating the effects of LWR coolant environments on the ASME Code fatigue design curves are presented.

  18. Nuclear Power:Entering the Stage of Active Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Development course Since 1970 when the construction preparation of Qinshan No.1 Nuclear Power Plant started,China's nuclear power industry has grown out of nothing,and then adjusted the step from moderate development to vigorous development.In this course,China's nuclear power equipment manufacturing industry has also been unceasingly developing and strengthening itself with the construction of nuclear power plants one by one.

  19. Nuclear power generation and fuel cycle report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    Nuclear power is an important source of electric energy and the amount of nuclear-generated electricity continued to grow as the performance of nuclear power plants improved. In 1996, nuclear power plants supplied 23 percent of the electricity production for countries with nuclear units, and 17 percent of the total electricity generated worldwide. However, the likelihood of nuclear power assuming a much larger role or even retaining its current share of electricity generation production is uncertain. The industry faces a complex set of issues including economic competitiveness, social acceptance, and the handling of nuclear waste, all of which contribute to the uncertain future of nuclear power. Nevertheless, for some countries the installed nuclear generating capacity is projected to continue to grow. Insufficient indigenous energy resources and concerns over energy independence make nuclear electric generation a viable option, especially for the countries of the Far East.

  20. Internal Mainland Nuclear Power Liquid Waste Treatment Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOU; Xin-feng; ZHANG; Zhen-tao; ZHENG; Wen-jun; WANG; Lei; YANG; Lin-yue; HUA; Xiao-hui; ZHENG; Yu; YANG; Yong-gang; WU; Yan

    2013-01-01

    Taohuajiang power station is the first internal mainland nuclear power station,and it adopts AP1000nuclear technology belongs to the Westinghouse Electric Corporation.To ensure the safety of the environment around the station and satisfy the radio liquid waste discharge standards,our team has researched the liquid waste treatment technology for the internal mainland nuclear power plant.According

  1. Risks of potential accidents of nuclear power plants in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaper H; Eggink GJ; Blaauboer RO

    1993-01-01

    Over 200 nuclear power plants for commercial electricity production are presently operational in Europe. The 1986 accident with the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl has shown that severe accidents with a nuclear power plant can lead to a large scale contamination of Europe. This report is focussed

  2. Risks of potential accidents of nuclear power plants in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaper H; Eggink GJ; Blaauboer RO

    1993-01-01

    Over 200 nuclear power plants for commercial electricity production are presently operational in Europe. The 1986 accident with the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl has shown that severe accidents with a nuclear power plant can lead to a large scale contamination of Europe. This report is focussed o

  3. Risks of potential accidents of nuclear power plants in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaper H; Eggink GJ; Blaauboer RO

    1993-01-01

    Over 200 nuclear power plants for commercial electricity production are presently operational in Europe. The 1986 accident with the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl has shown that severe accidents with a nuclear power plant can lead to a large scale contamination of Europe. This report is focussed

  4. Nuclear power plant operation and training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanae, Katsushige [Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. (Japan); Mitsumori, Kojiro

    1997-07-01

    In this report, the system for operation of a nuclear power plant and the qualities required for its operators were summarized. In Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Atomic Power Plant of the Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. operation is continuously made by 6 groups containing each 10 workers on three shifts. A group including the person in charge participates in the operation through cooperation of the control center and the respective spots. The group leaders are chosen from those approved as a person responsible to its operation. The conditions for the person responsible were as follows: to receive simulator training for senior operator, to have more than 7 years experience of operating a nuclear power plant, to pass a practical examination on the ordinary operation and the emergency one, to receive a training course to master the knowledge and techniques for operating an atomic reactor and to success the oral examination on practical knowledge required to perform the duty. Further, the simulators for ABWR training produced by Toshiba Corp. and Hitachi Ltd. were introduced as an example. And the practical training procedures to manipulate the simulator were presented. (M.N.)

  5. Funding nuclear power research 1956 to 2010. Startup finance or subsidy?; Forschungsfoerderung Kernenergie 1956 bis 2010. Anschubfinanzierung oder Subvention?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weis, Michael; Bevern, Katrin van; Linnemann, Thomas [VGB PowerTech e.V., Essen (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    In the public debate about the use and the benefits of nuclear power plants the allegation is being made again and again that nuclear power to this day had received public subsidies. That was the only reason why electricity from nuclear power plants was economically viable. That statement is wrong. Various federal governments, including the former federal government under Chancellor Schroeder and Vice Chancellor Fischer, which surely cannot be suspected of ever having supported nuclear power, said so in clear words. In actual fact, the use of nuclear power in Germany to this day, corrected for inflation and assuming an average production cost edge of euro cent 2/kWh, has saved the German economy approx. EUR 90 billion. If the 17 remaining nuclear generating units were allowed to spend also the second half of their minimum technical lifespan of 60 years, a production cost edge of 6 euro cent/kWh (no more depreciation, and rising market prices as a result of including carbon costs) again would save a calculated EUR 270 billion (in current money). The development of nuclear power and its fuel cycle of course has been supported with public funds like any other energy resource in current use. In this connection, extreme lump sum amounts are mentioned that merit more exact analysis and investigation. This was done for the first time in detail in 2004 and updated in 2008. The article constitutes another update for 2011 and contains information about the current debate. EUR 7.83 billion to date have been spent on R and D in connection with LWR technology and its fuel cycle. Another EUR 9.37 billion were spent on other reactors not used commercially in Germany, such as fast breeders, high-temperature reactors, and nuclear fusion. However, these must be separated from LWR technology and thus have not made, and are not making, any contribution to today's electricity supply from nuclear power. Again, it becomes evident that the R and D funds provided by the government

  6. The future of nuclear power: value orientations and risk perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Stephen C; Rosa, Eugene A; Dan, Amy; Dietz, Thomas

    2009-03-01

    Since the turn of the 21st century, there has been a revival of interest in nuclear power. Two decades ago, the expansion of nuclear power in the United States was halted by widespread public opposition as well as rising costs and less than projected increases in demand for electricity. Can the renewed enthusiasm for nuclear power overcome its history of public resistance that has persisted for decades? We propose that attitudes toward nuclear power are a function of perceived risk, and that both attitudes and risk perceptions are a function of values, beliefs, and trust in the institutions that influence nuclear policy. Applying structural equation models to data from a U.S. national survey, we find that increased trust in the nuclear governance institutions reduces perceived risk of nuclear power and together higher trust and lower risk perceptions predict positive attitudes toward nuclear power. Trust in environmental institutions and perceived risks from global environmental problems do not predict attitudes toward nuclear power. Values do predict attitudes: individuals with traditional values have greater support for, while those with altruistic values have greater opposition to, nuclear power. Nuclear attitudes do not vary by gender, age, education, income, or political orientation, though nonwhites are more supportive than whites. These findings are consistent with, and provide an explanation for, a long series of public opinion polls showing public ambivalence toward nuclear power that persists even in the face of renewed interest for nuclear power in policy circles.

  7. The fourth nuclear power plant in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogarin, Mauro

    2017-01-15

    Since 2006 the nuclear sector in Argentina has aimed at recovering and strengthening its capabilities and facilities. Part of the challenge posed by this revival has been to also accompany the development of activities with a higher level of responsibility for safety and the environment. Among the strategic decisions taken in recent years, one main highlight is the construction of the nuclear power plant CAREM25 entirely with Argentine technology and design under the responsibility of the National Atomic Energy Commission. On February 4, 2015, the Ministry of Federal Planning and the National Energy Administration (NEA) signed the agreement for cooperation and construction of pressurized water reactor (PWR) with ACP-1000 technology, developed in the Peoples Republic of China.

  8. 75 FR 3942 - Carolina Power & Light Company Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 Environmental Assessment...), for operation of the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 (HNP), located in New Hill, North... Environmental Impact Statement for License Renewal of Nuclear Plants: Regarding Shearon Harris Nuclear......

  9. Future Expectation for China's Nuclear Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ China:the future of nuclear power Wang Yonggan:In terms of the highlighted issue of energy security,oil is of paramount importance,coal is the foundation and electricity is the pivot according to China's energy strategy.The national total installed power capacity will hit a record high of 900 GW in 2010,and will probably approach 1 500 GW in 2020 when coal-fired power will continue to dominate,and alternative energy such as nuclear energy,hydroenergy,wind energy,and others will take up only 30% at most.Therefore,China remains in dire need to create more room for alternative energy.To solve this problem,solutions should be found in the diversification of energy,especially large-scale development of alternative energy,by which a lowered-and ultimately zeroed-growth of coal-fired generating units could be realized,and the target of low,even zero carbon emission could come true.

  10. Nuclear power plant for deep sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sako, Jun; Itoh, Yasuyoshi; Kobayashi, Hideo; Hashidate, Koji; Ambo, Noriaki; Ishizaka, Yuichi; Kusunoki, Tsuyoshi.

    1991-08-29

    The present invention provides a nuclear reactor utilized as an energy source for a deep-sea submarine boat and a fixed energy source at the bottom of the sea. Here to fore, electric power generation by using chemical cells or radioisotopes has been considered as such an energy source. However, since the power and the heat generation density per weight is small, it is poor in the practicality. Then, utilization of a small-sized and highly safe nuclear reactor easy to operate is desired. That is, a reactor is disposed in the lower portion of a pressure resistant shell filled with water. An electric power generator which is directly connected to a steam turbine is contained in the upper portion. The space above the reactor containing water is used as a condenser for the turbine. In the reactor having such a constitution, countermeasures for the occurrence of accidents such as pipeline rupture can be simplified and the structure is simple to improve the safety. (I.S.).

  11. Migration of Older to New Digital Control Systems in Nuclear Power Plant Main Control Rooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovesdi, Casey Robert [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Joe, Jeffrey Clark [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) has the primary mission to advance nuclear power by resolving socio-technical issues through research and development (R&D). One DOE-NE activity supporting this mission is the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program. LWRS has the overall objective to sustain the operation of existing commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) through conducting R&D across multiple “pathways,” or R&D focus areas. The Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control (II&C) Systems Technologies pathway conducts targeted R&D to address aging and reliability concerns with the legacy instrumentation and control (I&C) and related information systems in operating U.S. NPPs. This work involves (1) ensuring that legacy analog II&C systems are not life-limiting issues for the LWR fleet, and (2) implementing digital II&C technology in a manner that enables broad innovation and business improvement in the NPP operating model. Under the LWRS Advanced II&C pathway, Human Factors experts at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) have been conducting R&D in support of NPP main control room (MCR) modernization activities. Work in prior years has focused on migrating analog I&C systems to new digital I&C systems (). In fiscal year 2016 (FY16), one new focus area for this research is migrating older digital I&C systems to new and advanced digital I&C systems. This report summarizes a plan for conducting a digital-to-digital migration of a legacy digital I&C system to a new digital I&C system in support of control room modernization activities.

  12. Nuclear power generation and fuel cycle report 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report presents the current status and projections through 2015 of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. It also contains information and forecasts of developments in the worldwide nuclear fuel market. Long term projections of U.S. nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges for two different scenarios through 2040 are developed. A discussion on decommissioning of nuclear power plants is included.

  13. Nuclear Power and the World's Energy Requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Castellano, V; Dunning-Davies, J

    2004-01-01

    The global requirements for energy are increasing rapidly as the global population increases and the under-developed nations become more advanced. The traditional fuels used in their traditional ways will become increasingly unable to meet the demand. The need for a review of the energy sources available is paramount, although the subsequent need to develop a realistic strategy to deal with all local and global energy requirements is almost as important. Here attention will be restricted to examining some of the claims and problems of using nuclear power to attempt to solve this major question.

  14. DCS emulator development for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakashima, Y. [Hitachi Canada Ltd., Power and Industry Div., Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Ishii, K.; Chiba, D. [Hitachi Ltd., Information and Control Systems Div., Ibaraki-ken (Japan)

    2009-07-01

    Continual training of operators is one of the principal means by which Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) operational efficiency can be improved. Since this training cannot take place in the actual NPP, NPP simulator applications must be used instead. While digitalization scope of Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems has been expanded to the entire plant by using Distributed Control System (DCS) implementation, Hitachi has implemented DCS emulator on a general purpose Personal Computer (PC) and applied it to simulator applications. This paper reviews such DCS emulator development for NPP by Hitachi. (author)

  15. 77 FR 30030 - Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... COMMISSION Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants.'' This guide endorses Revision 4A to Nuclear Management and Resources... Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants,'' Part 50, ``Domestic......

  16. TREAT Neutronics Analysis of Water-Loop Concept Accommodating LWR 9-rod Bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Connie M.; Woolstenhulme, Nicolas E.; Parry, James R.; Bess, John D.; Housley, Gregory K.

    2016-09-01

    Abstract. Simulation of a variety of transient conditions has been successfully achieved in the Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) facility during operation between 1959 and 1994 to support characterization and safety analysis of nuclear fuels and materials. A majority of previously conducted tests were focused on supporting sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) designs. Experiments evolved in complexity. Simulation of thermal-hydraulic conditions expected to be encountered by fuels and materials in a reactor environment was realized in the development of TREAT sodium loop experiment vehicles. These loops accommodated up to 7-pin fuel bundles and served to simulate more closely the reactor environment while safely delivering large quantities of energy into the test specimen. Some of the immediate TREAT restart operations will be focused on testing light water reactor (LWR) accident tolerant fuels (ATF). Similar to the sodium loop objectives, a water loop concept, developed and analyzed in the 1990’s, aimed at achieving thermal-hydraulic conditions encountered in commercial power reactors. The historic water loop concept has been analyzed in the context of a reactivity insertion accident (RIA) simulation for high burnup LWR 2-pin and 3-pin fuel bundles. Findings showed sufficient energy could be deposited into the specimens for evaluation. Similar results of experimental feasibility for the water loop concept (past and present) have recently been obtained using MCNP6.1 with ENDF/B-VII.1 nuclear data libraries. The old water loop concept required only two central TREAT core grid spaces. Preparation for future experiments has resulted in a modified water loop conceptual design designated the TREAT water environment recirculating loop (TWERL). The current TWERL design requires nine TREAT core grid spaces in order to place the water recirculating pump under the TREAT core. Due to the effectiveness of water moderation, neutronics analysis shows that removal of seven additional

  17. Financing strategy for Indonesian Nuclear Power Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subki, I.M.; Arbie, B.; Adiwardojo; Seotrisnanto, A.Y. [National Atomic Enegy Agency, Batan (Indonesia)

    1998-07-01

    In anticipation of the introduction in the early 2000s of a nuclear power plant, the Government of Indonesia (GOI), through the National Atomic Energy Agency (BATAN) , has formulated a Bid Invitation Specification (BIS) in parallel with the completion of the NPP Feasibility Study. This BIS formulation assumed an open international tender for the first unit of the NPP with project financing as a conventional loan. The GOI's recent policy is to minimize government financial support for power development. This paper summarizes a financing strategy for the Indonesian NPP project to make the NPP economically viable, and provides a general discussion on project financing using a conventional approach, Build--Own-Operate (BOO) and a counter-purchase approach. Innovative approaches for financing are still being pursued in order to obtain an optimum solution for investors and owners, to fulfill the Indonesian government's requirements. (author)

  18. 75 FR 80547 - Carolina Power & Light Company, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit No. 1; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit No. 1; Exemption 1.0... License No. NPF-63, which authorizes operation of the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant (HNP), Unit 1... request to generically extend the rule's compliance date for all operating nuclear power plants, but...

  19. 75 FR 77919 - Carolina Power & Light Company Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Environmental... Progress Energy Carolinas, Inc., for operation of the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant (HNP), Unit 1...: Regarding Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1--Final Report (NUREG-1437, Supplement 33).''...

  20. 75 FR 9958 - Carolina Power & Light Company, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Exemption 1.0... of the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 (HNP). The license provides, among other things... operating nuclear power plants, but noted that the Commission's regulations provide mechanisms...

  1. 78 FR 66785 - Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., and Korea Electric Power Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... APR1400 Standard Plant Design submitted by Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (KHNP) and Korea... COMMISSION Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., and Korea Electric Power Corporation AGENCY: Nuclear..., construction, operation and maintenance of the Optimized Power Reactor 1000 (OPR1000), the APR1400...

  2. International nuclear power status 2002; International kernekraftstatus 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, B.; Majborn, B.; Nonboel, E.; Oelgaard, P.L. (eds.)

    2003-03-01

    This report is the ninth in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power with special emphasis on reactor safety. For 2002, the report contains: 1) General trends in the development of nuclear power; 2) Decommissioning of the nuclear facilities at Risoe National Laboratory: 3) Statistical information on nuclear power production (in 2001); 4) An overview of safety-relevant incidents in 2002; 5) The development in West Europe; 6) The development in East Europe; 7) The development in the rest of the world; 8) Development of reactor types; 9) The nuclear fuel cycle; 10) International nuclear organisations. (au)

  3. International nuclear power status 2001; International kernekraftstatus 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, B.; Majborn, B.; Nonboel, E.; Oelgaard, P.L. (eds.)

    2002-04-01

    This report is the eighth in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power with special emphasis on reactor safety. For 2001, the report contains: 1) General trends in the development of nuclear power; 2) Nuclear terrorism; 3) Statistical information on nuclear power production (in 2000); 4) An overview of safety-relevant incidents in 2001; 5) The development in West Europe; 6) The development in East Europe; 7) The development in the rest of the world; 8) Development of reactor types; 9) The nuclear fuel cycle; 10) International nuclear organisations. (au)

  4. [Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident and Tokaimura criticality accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Jun

    2012-03-01

    It is clear from inspection of historical incidents that the scale of disasters in a nuclear power plant accident is quite low level overwhelmingly compared with a nuclear explosion in nuclear war. Two cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were destroyed by nuclear blast with about 20 kt TNT equivalent and then approximately 100,000 people have died respectively. On the other hand, the number of acute death is 30 in the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. In this chapter, we review health hazards and doses in two historical nuclear incidents of Chernobyl and Tokaimura criticality accident and then understand the feature of the radiation accident in peaceful utilization of nuclear power.

  5. Yawning chasm of French nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-02-01

    The financial problems of the nuclear power industry in France are explained. Cogema, the waste reprocessing company ventured into the French financial futures market and lost money. It is trying to sue its brokers over this disaster. Framatome, the State reactor manufacturer is trying to diversify into aeronautics, electronics and foodstuffs. The electric utility EdF is sliding into debt and, with no price rise allowed, this situation will get worse. Theoretically EdF should be delivering cheap electricity from nuclear power stations. However, French electricity prices are not significantly cheaper than those of Germany and the United Kingdom. The generating capacity will increase greatly over the next few years. The availability of existing plants is also improving. In spite of efforts to export its electricity (about 10% is exported) EdF seem unable to make its extra electricity cheaper and is heavily in debt. The fast breeder programme has also not lived up to expectations due to a sodium leak at Superphenix. (U.K.).

  6. Safety in nuclear power plants in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deolalikar R

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Safety in nuclear power plants (NPPs in India is a very important topic and it is necessary to dissipate correct information to all the readers and the public at large. In this article, I have briefly described how the safety in our NPPs is maintained. Safety is accorded overriding priority in all the activities. NPPs in India are not only safe but are also well regulated, have proper radiological protection of workers and the public, regular surveillance, dosimetry, approved standard operating and maintenance procedures, a well-defined waste management methodology, proper well documented and periodically rehearsed emergency preparedness and disaster management plans. The NPPs have occupational health policies covering periodic medical examinations, dosimetry and bioassay and are backed-up by fully equipped Personnel Decontamination Centers manned by doctors qualified in Occupational and Industrial Health. All the operating plants are ISO 14001 and IS 18001 certified plants. The Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited today has 17 operating plants and five plants under construction, and our scientists and engineers are fully geared to take up many more in order to meet the national requirements.

  7. Safety in nuclear power plants in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deolalikar, R

    2008-12-01

    Safety in nuclear power plants (NPPs) in India is a very important topic and it is necessary to dissipate correct information to all the readers and the public at large. In this article, I have briefly described how the safety in our NPPs is maintained. Safety is accorded overriding priority in all the activities. NPPs in India are not only safe but are also well regulated, have proper radiological protection of workers and the public, regular surveillance, dosimetry, approved standard operating and maintenance procedures, a well-defined waste management methodology, proper well documented and periodically rehearsed emergency preparedness and disaster management plans. The NPPs have occupational health policies covering periodic medical examinations, dosimetry and bioassay and are backed-up by fully equipped Personnel Decontamination Centers manned by doctors qualified in Occupational and Industrial Health. All the operating plants are ISO 14001 and IS 18001 certified plants. The Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited today has 17 operating plants and five plants under construction, and our scientists and engineers are fully geared to take up many more in order to meet the national requirements.

  8. International nuclear power status 1999; International kernekraftstatus 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoejerup, C.F.; Oelgaard, P.L. [eds.

    2000-03-01

    This report isthe sixth in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power with special emphasis on reactor safety. For 1999, the report contains: General trends in the development of nuclear power; The past and possible future of Barsebaeck Nuclear Power Plant; Statistical information on nuclear power production (in 1998); An overview of safety-relevant incidents in 1999; The development in Sweden; The development in Eastern Europe; The development in the rest of the world; Trends in the development of reactor types; Trends in the development of the nuclear fuel cycle. (au)

  9. 76 FR 75771 - Emergency Planning Guidance for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ... Part 52 RIN 3150-AI10 Emergency Planning Guidance for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... Regulatory Commission (NRC) is issuing Supplement 3, ``Guidance for Protective Action Strategies,'' to NUREG... Guidance Emergency Planning for Nuclear Power Plants;'' and NUREG/CR-7002, ``Criteria for Development of...

  10. Nuclear Power Important for China’s Future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Will China change its nuclear power development goal after the nuclear crisis in Japan? Yu Zhouping, former Head othe Chinese Delegation to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA),and Tian jiashu, Director of the Nuclea Safety Center under the Ministry of Environmental Protection believe thatChina’s nuclear power

  11. Exergoeconomic analysis of a nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Roman Miguel

    Exergoeconomic analysis of a nuclear power plant is a focus of this dissertation. Specifically, the performance of the Palo Verde Nuclear Power Plant in Arizona is examined. The analysis combines thermodynamic second law exergy analysis with economics in order to assign costs to the loss and destruction of exergy. This work was done entirely with an interacting spreadsheets notebook. The procedures are to first determine conventional energy flow, where the thermodynamic stream state points are calculated automatically. Exergy flow is then evaluated along with destruction and losses. The capital cost and fixed investment rate used for the economics do not apply specifically to the Palo Verde Plant. Exergy costing is done next involving the solution of about 90 equations by matrix inversion. Finally, the analysis assigns cost to the exergy destruction and losses in each component. In this work, the cost of electricity (exergy), including capital cost, leaving the generator came to 38,400 /hr. The major exergy destruction occurs in the reactor where fission energy transfer is limited by the maxiμm permissible clad temperature. Exergy destruction costs were: reactor--18,207 hr, the low pressure turbine-2,000 /hr, the condenser--1,700 hr, the steam generator-1,200 $/hr. The inclusion of capital cost and O&M are important in new system design assessments. When investigating operational performance, however, these are sunk costs; only fuel cost needs to be considered. The application of a case study is included based on a real modification instituted at Palo Verde to reduce corrosion steam generator problems; the pressure in the steam generator was reduced from 1072 to 980 psi. Exergy destruction costs increased in the low pressure turbine and in the steam generator, but decreased in the reactor vessel and the condenser. The dissertation demonstrates the procedures and tools required for exergoeconomic analysis whether in the evaluation of a new nuclear reactor system

  12. Nuclear power and the public: an update of collected survey research on nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rankin, W.L.; Melber, B.D.; Overcast, T.D.; Nealey, S.M.

    1981-12-01

    The purpose of this research was to collect, analyze, and summarize all of the nuclear power-related surveys conducted in the United States through June 1981, that we could obtain. The surveys collected were national, statewide, and areawide in scope. Slightly over 100 surveys were collected for an earlier, similar effort carried out in 1977. About 130 new surveys were added to the earlier survey data. Thus, about 230 surveys were screened for inclusion in this report. Because of space limitations, national surveys were used most frequently in this report, followed distantly by state surveys. In drawing our conclusions about public beliefs and attitudes toward nuclear power, we placed most of our confidence in survey questions that were used by national polling firms at several points in time. A summary of the research findings is presented, beginning with general attitudes toward nuclear power, followed by a summary of beliefs and attitudes about nuclear power issues, and ended by a summary of beliefs and attitudes regarding more general energy issues.

  13. Affective imagery and acceptance of replacing nuclear power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Carmen; Visschers, Vivianne; Siegrist, Michael

    2012-03-01

    This study examined the relationship between the content of spontaneous associations with nuclear power plants and the acceptance of using new-generation nuclear power plants to replace old ones. The study also considered gender as a variable. A representative sample of the German- and French-speaking population of Switzerland (N= 1,221) was used. Log-linear models revealed significant two-way interactions between the association content and acceptance, association content and gender, and gender and acceptance. Correspondence analysis revealed that participants who were opposed to nuclear power plants mainly associated nuclear power plants with risk, negative feelings, accidents, radioactivity, waste disposal, military use, and negative consequences for health and environment; whereas participants favoring nuclear power plants mainly associated them with energy, appearance descriptions of nuclear power plants, and necessity. Thus, individuals opposing nuclear power plants had both more concrete and more diverse associations with them than people who were in favor of nuclear power plants. In addition, participants who were undecided often mentioned similar associations to those participants who were in favor. Males more often expressed associations with energy, waste disposal, and negative health effects. Females more often made associations with appearance descriptions, negative feelings, and negative environmental effects. The results further suggest that acceptance of replacing nuclear power plants was higher in the German-speaking part of the country, where all of the Swiss nuclear power plants are physically located. Practical implications for risk communication are discussed.

  14. Economics of nuclear power and climate change mitigation policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Nico; Brecha, Robert J; Luderer, Gunnar

    2012-10-16

    The events of March 2011 at the nuclear power complex in Fukushima, Japan, raised questions about the safe operation of nuclear power plants, with early retirement of existing nuclear power plants being debated in the policy arena and considered by regulators. Also, the future of building new nuclear power plants is highly uncertain. Should nuclear power policies become more restrictive, one potential option for climate change mitigation will be less available. However, a systematic analysis of nuclear power policies, including early retirement, has been missing in the climate change mitigation literature. We apply an energy economy model framework to derive scenarios and analyze the interactions and tradeoffs between these two policy fields. Our results indicate that early retirement of nuclear power plants leads to discounted cumulative global GDP losses of 0.07% by 2020. If, in addition, new nuclear investments are excluded, total losses will double. The effect of climate policies imposed by an intertemporal carbon budget on incremental costs of policies restricting nuclear power use is small. However, climate policies have much larger impacts than policies restricting the use of nuclear power. The carbon budget leads to cumulative discounted near term reductions of global GDP of 0.64% until 2020. Intertemporal flexibility of the carbon budget approach enables higher near-term emissions as a result of increased power generation from natural gas to fill the emerging gap in electricity supply, while still remaining within the overall carbon budget. Demand reductions and efficiency improvements are the second major response strategy.

  15. Economics of Nuclear Power Plant and the development of nuclear power in Viet Nam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanh, Thuy Nguyen Thi; Song, JinHo [University of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Kwang Soon [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    There are many factors affecting the capital costs like: increased plant size, multiple unit construction, improved construct methods, increase the lifetime of plant and so on, and beside is technical to enhancing the safety for NPPs. For the question that whether building a NPP is really economic than other energy resources or not, we will find the answer by comparing the USD per kWh of different energy sources as: nuclear power, coal, oil, hydro natural energy sources. The situation of energy in Vietnam was also mentioned in this paper. Vietnam has an abundant natural resources likes: coal, gas, hydro power etc, but from year 2013 to now Vietnam facing of electricity shortage and to solve the problem, Vietnam Government has chosen nuclear power energy to achieve energy balance between the rate of energy consumption and the ability to energy supply. Eight units will be built in Vietnam and in October 2014 Vietnamese officials have chosen Rosatom's AES-2006 design with VVER-1200/v-491 reactors for country's first nuclear power plant at Ninh Thuan and a second plant should follow based on a partnership with Japan. In this paper, the breakdown of NPP costs is considered. All the costs for building a NPP includes: the investment costs are the largest components (about 60%), fuel costs (15%), O and M costs (25%) and external costs are lower than 1% of the kWh costs. The situation for energy in Vietnam was mentioned with increase annually by 5.5 %, and now the shortage electricity is the big problem in power section. The purpose of this report is to give a general picture to consider the cost of nuclear power. It includes all the costs for building a nuclear power plant like total capital investment costs, production costs, external costs in which the capital investment costs is the largest component of the kWh cost. Nuclear energy Power was chosen to deal with situation of diminishing resources shortages.

  16. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2007; Kernekraft og nuklear sikkerhed 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, B.; OElgaard, P.L. (eds.); Kampmann, D.; Majborn, B.; Nonboel, E.; Nystrup, P.E.

    2008-05-15

    The report is the fifth report in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is written in collaboration between Risoe DTU and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2007 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development, safety related events of nuclear power, and international relations and conflicts. (LN)

  17. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2008; Kernekraft og nuklear sikkerhed 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, B.; OElgaard, P.L. (eds.); Nonboel, E. (Risoe DTU, Roskilde (Denmark)); Kampmann, D. (Beredskabsstyrelsen, Birkeroed (Denmark))

    2009-06-15

    The report is the fifth report in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is written in collaboration between Risoe DTU and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2008 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development, safety related events of nuclear power, and international relations and conflicts. (LN)

  18. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2004; Kernekraft og nuklear sikkerhed 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-03-01

    The report is the second report in a new series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is written in collaboration between Risoe National Laboratory and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2004 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development and development of emergency management systems, safety related events of nuclear power and international relations and conflicts. (ln)

  19. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2006; Kernekraft og nuklear sikkerhed 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, B.; Oelgaard, P.L. (eds.); Kampmann, D.; Majborn, B.; Nonboel, E.; Nystrup, P.E.

    2007-04-15

    The report is the fourth report in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is written in collaboration between Risoe National Laboratory and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2006 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development and development of emergency management systems, safety related events of nuclear power, and international relations and conflicts. (LN)

  20. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2005; Kernekraft of nuklear sikkerhed 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, B.; Oelgaard, P.L.; Kampman, D.; Majborn, B.; Nonboel, E.; Nystrup, P.E.

    2006-03-15

    The report is the third report in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is written in collaboration between Risoe National Laboratory and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2005 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development and development of emergency management systems, safety related events of nuclear power and international relations and conflicts. (ln)

  1. A Study on the Economic Feasibility of Nuclear Power Caused by Fukushima Nuclear Power Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dongwon [Korea Nuclear Energy Promotion Agency, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    It would be necessary to utilize the economic competitiveness of the generation cost calculated based on the previous power plant generation cost and the overall safety related costs taken into account after the Fukushima incident, i. e. expenses related to safety facilities, legal restrictions, environmental expenses and social expenses for the mid and long-term strategy establishment of energy. The above conclusion is premised on utilizing the levelized generation cost method, base load operation (based on a certain utilization rate), straight-line depreciation method, etc. However, this thesis would be significantly meaningful at this point where the general public, including civic groups, etc. are concerned with the economic feasibility and safety of nuclear power plant, and that even after considering the social expenses such as safety related expenses after the Fukushima incident, the generation cost of nuclear power plant still remains competitive.

  2. Novel Nuclear Powered Photocatalytic Energy Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White,John R.; Kinsmen,Douglas; Regan,Thomas M.; Bobek,Leo M.

    2005-08-29

    The University of Massachusetts Lowell Radiation Laboratory (UMLRL) is involved in a comprehensive project to investigate a unique radiation sensing and energy conversion technology with applications for in-situ monitoring of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) during cask transport and storage. The technology makes use of the gamma photons emitted from the SNF as an inherent power source for driving a GPS-class transceiver that has the ability to verify the position and contents of the SNF cask. The power conversion process, which converts the gamma photon energy into electrical power, is based on a variation of the successful dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) design developed by Konarka Technologies, Inc. (KTI). In particular, the focus of the current research is to make direct use of the high-energy gamma photons emitted from SNF, coupled with a scintillator material to convert some of the incident gamma photons into photons having wavelengths within the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The high-energy gammas from the SNF will generate some power directly via Compton scattering and the photoelectric effect, and the generated visible photons output from the scintillator material can also be converted to electrical power in a manner similar to that of a standard solar cell. Upon successful implementation of an energy conversion device based on this new gammavoltaic principle, this inherent power source could then be utilized within SNF storage casks to drive a tamper-proof, low-power, electronic detection/security monitoring system for the spent fuel. The current project has addressed several aspects associated with this new energy conversion concept, including the development of a base conceptual design for an inherent gamma-induced power conversion unit for SNF monitoring, the characterization of the radiation environment that can be expected within a typical SNF storage system, the initial evaluation of Konarka's base solar cell design, the design and

  3. Survey on the consciousness structure toward nuclear power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, M.; Yoshida, T. (Nomura Research Institute, Kamakura, Kanagawa (Japan))

    1981-05-01

    A survey on the popular consciousness toward nuclear power generation was carried out by direct means of questionnaire to 1600 persons, ages from 20 to 69, in power demand areas (Tokyo and Osaka) and power supply areas (sites of nuclear power generation) from early February to early March, 1980, and the recovery rate was 74.4% (1190 persons). The results are described by way of their explanation. The purpose is to clarify the structure of popular consciousness toward nuclear energy, in particular nuclear power generation, and the nature of its acceptance. That is, it was surveyed how general people in the power supply and the power demand areas are taking nuclear power generation concerning its need and safety, and further how the attitudes are constituted and vary.

  4. Reframing nuclear power in the UK energy debate: nuclear power, climate change mitigation and radioactive waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickerstaff, K; Lorenzoni, I; Pidgeon, N F; Poortinga, W; Simmons, P

    2008-04-01

    In the past decade, human influence on the climate through increased use of fossil fuels has become widely acknowledged as one of the most pressing issues for the global community. For the United Kingdom, we suggest that these concerns have increasingly become manifest in a new strand of political debate around energy policy, which reframes nuclear power as part of the solution to the need for low-carbon energy options. A mixed-methods analysis of citizen views of climate change and radioactive waste is presented, integrating focus group data and a nationally representative survey. The data allow us to explore how UK citizens might now and in the future interpret and make sense of this new framing of nuclear power--which ultimately centers on a risk-risk trade-off scenario. We use the term "reluctant acceptance" to describe how, in complex ways, many focus group participants discursively re-negotiated their position on nuclear energy when it was positioned alongside climate change. In the concluding section of the paper, we reflect on the societal implications of the emerging discourse of new nuclear build as a means of delivering climate change mitigation and set an agenda for future research regarding the (re)framing of the nuclear energy debate in the UK and beyond.

  5. Dosimetry in nuclear power plants; Dosimetria en centrales nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lastra B, J. A. [CFE, Central Laguna Verde, Km. 42.5 Carretera Cardel-Nautla, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2008-12-15

    To control the occupationally exposed personnel dose working at the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant, two types of dosemeters are used, the thermoluminescent (TLD) which is processed monthly, and the direct reading dosemeter that is electronic and works as daily control of personal dose. In the case of the electronic dosemeters of direct reading conventional, the readings and dose automatic registers and the user identity to which he was assigned to each dosemeter was to carry out the restricted area exit. In activities where the ionizing radiation sources are not fully characterized, it is necessary to relocate the personal dosemeter or assigned auxiliary dosemeters (TLDs and electronics) to determine the dose received by the user to both whole body and in any specific area of it. In jobs more complicated are used a tele dosimetry system where the radiation protection technician can be monitoring the user dose to remote control, the data transmission is by radio. The dosimetry activities are documented in procedures that include dosemeter inventories realization, the equipment and dosemeters calibration, the dosimetry quality control and the discrepancies investigation between the direct reading and TLD systems. TLD dosimetry to have technical expertise in direct and indirect dosimetry and two technicians in TLD dosimetry; electronic dosimetry to have 4 calibration technicians. For the electronic dosemeters are based on a calibrator source of Cesium-137. TLD dosemeters to have an automatic radiator, an automatic reader which can read up to 100 TLD dosemeters per hour and a semiautomatic reader. To keep the equipment under a quality process was development a process of initial entry into service and carried out a periodic verification of the heating cycles. It also has a maintenance contract for the equipment directly with the manufacturer to ensure their proper functioning. The vision in perspective of the dosimetry services of Laguna Verde nuclear power plant

  6. Configuration management in nuclear power plants

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    Configuration management (CM) is the process of identifying and documenting the characteristics of a facility's structures, systems and components of a facility, and of ensuring that changes to these characteristics are properly developed, assessed, approved, issued, implemented, verified, recorded and incorporated into the facility documentation. The need for a CM system is a result of the long term operation of any nuclear power plant. The main challenges are caused particularly by ageing plant technology, plant modifications, the application of new safety and operational requirements, and in general by human factors arising from migration of plant personnel and possible human failures. The IAEA Incident Reporting System (IRS) shows that on average 25% of recorded events could be caused by configuration errors or deficiencies. CM processes correctly applied ensure that the construction, operation, maintenance and testing of a physical facility are in accordance with design requirements as expressed in the d...

  7. Seismic analysis of nuclear power plant structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    Primary structures for nuclear power plants are designed to resist expected earthquakes of the site. Two intensities are referred to as Operating Basis Earthquake and Design Basis Earthquake. These structures are required to accommodate these seismic loadings without loss of their functional integrity. Thus, no plastic yield is allowed. The application of NASTRAN in analyzing some of these seismic induced structural dynamic problems is described. NASTRAN, with some modifications, can be used to analyze most structures that are subjected to seismic loads. A brief review of the formulation of seismic-induced structural dynamics is also presented. Two typical structural problems were selected to illustrate the application of the various methods of seismic structural analysis by the NASTRAN system.

  8. Fatigue monitoring in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ware, A.G.; Shah, V.N. [Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-04-01

    This paper summarizes fatigue monitoring methods and surveys their application in the nuclear power industry. The paper is based on a review of the technical literature. Two main reasons for fatigue monitoring are more frequent occurrence of some transients than that assumed in the fatigue design analysis and the discovery of stressors that were not included in the fatigue design analysis but may cause significant fatigue damage at some locations. One fatigue monitoring method involves use of plant operating data and procedures to update the fatigue usage. Another method involves monitoring of plant operating parameters using existing, or if needed, supplementary plant instrumentation for online computation of fatigue usage. Use of fatigue monitoring has better defined the operational transients. Most operational transients have been found less severe and fewer in numbers than anticipated in the design fatigue analysis. Use of fatigue monitoring has assisted in quantifying newly discovered stressors and has helped in detecting the presence of thermal stratification of unsuspected locations.

  9. Detecting Cyber Attacks On Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rrushi, Julian; Campbell, Roy

    This paper proposes an unconventional anomaly detection approach that provides digital instrumentation and control (I&C) systems in a nuclear power plant (NPP) with the capability to probabilistically discern between legitimate protocol frames and attack frames. The stochastic activity network (SAN) formalism is used to model the fusion of protocol activity in each digital I&C system and the operation of physical components of an NPP. SAN models are employed to analyze links between protocol frames as streams of bytes, their semantics in terms of NPP operations, control data as stored in the memory of I&C systems, the operations of I&C systems on NPP components, and NPP processes. Reward rates and impulse rewards are defined in the SAN models based on the activity-marking reward structure to estimate NPP operation profiles. These profiles are then used to probabilistically estimate the legitimacy of the semantics and payloads of protocol frames received by I&C systems.

  10. Nuclear power's mysterious afterlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1991-10-10

    As the number of nuclear reactors which have reached the end of their service life or will do so by the end of the 1990s grows, nuclear power plant decommissioning is becoming a major issue. A table shows more than thirty reactors in Germany, France, Italy, Spain and the UK are candidates for decommissioning. Definite plans and cost estimates are being demanded of the plant owners. However it is becoming clear that even the USA, which has the greatest decommissioning experience, has not had to deal with the large reactors which now have to be dealt with. The experience and progress of decommissioning in the UK, France, Germany and the rest of Europe is reviewed. Problems of disposing of the mainly low-level radio-active wastes generated by decommissioning are discussed. The estimation of costs has become complicated by the idea of discounting costs which means relatively small sums set aside now will be sufficient to pay for the decommissioning in the decades to come. (UK).

  11. 77 FR 13156 - Carolina Power & Light Company; Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company; Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Exemption 1.0... Harris Nuclear Power Plant (HNP), Unit 1. The license provides, among other things, that the facility is...) 50.46, ``Acceptance criteria for emergency core cooling systems for light- water nuclear...

  12. Emotional consequences of nuclear power plant disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromet, Evelyn J

    2014-02-01

    The emotional consequences of nuclear power plant disasters include depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, and medically unexplained somatic symptoms. These effects are often long term and associated with fears about developing cancer. Research on disasters involving radiation, particularly evidence from Chernobyl, indicates that mothers of young children and cleanup workers are the highest risk groups. The emotional consequences occur independently of the actual exposure received. In contrast, studies of children raised in the shadows of the Three Mile Island (TMI) and Chernobyl accidents suggest that although their self-rated health is less satisfactory than that of their peers, their emotional, academic, and psychosocial development is comparable. The importance of the psychological impact is underscored by its chronicity and by several studies showing that poor mental health is associated with physical health conditions, early mortality, disability, and overuse of medical services. Given the established increase in mental health problems following TMI and Chernobyl, it is likely that the same pattern will occur in residents and evacuees affected by the Fukushima meltdowns. Preliminary data from Fukushima indeed suggest that workers and mothers of young children are at risk of depression, anxiety, psychosomatic, and post-traumatic symptoms both as a direct result of their fears about radiation exposure and an indirect result of societal stigma. Thus, it is important that non-mental health providers learn to recognize and manage psychological symptoms and that medical programs be designed to reduce stigma and alleviate psychological suffering by integrating psychiatric and medical treatment within the walls of their clinics.Introduction of Emotional Consequences of Nuclear Power Plant Disasters (Video 2:15, http://links.lww.com/HP/A34).

  13. Power, power density and efficiency optimization for a closed cycle helium turbine nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Lingen E-mail: lgchenna@public.wh.hb.cn; Zheng Junlin; Sun Fengrui; Wu Chih

    2003-09-01

    The performance of a closed cycle helium turbine nuclear power plant for submarine propulsion is optimized in this paper. The power output, power density (ratio of power output to maximum specific volume in the cycle) and thermal efficiency of the cycle are derived. The maximum power, power density and efficiency are obtained by searching for the optimum heat conductance distribution among the hot side heat exchanger (intermediate heat exchanger), cold side heat exchanger (precooler) and recuperator for fixed total heat exchanger inventory with respect to the corresponding optimization objectives. The optimum results are compared with those reported in recent references for the conceptual design of a closed cycle helium turbine nuclear power plant for submarine propulsion. The numerical example shows that the method herein is valid and effective.

  14. Systematic technology evaluation program for SiC/SiC composite-based accident-tolerant LWR fuel cladding and core structures: Revision 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katoh, Yutai [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Terrani, Kurt A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Fuels and core structures in current light water reactors (LWR’s) are vulnerable to catastrophic failure in severe accidents as unfortunately evidenced by the March 2011 Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident. This vulnerability is attributed primarily to the rapid oxidation kinetics of zirconium alloys in a water vapor environment at very high temperatures. Zr alloys are the primary material in LWR cores except for the fuel itself. Therefore, alternative materials with reduced oxidation kinetics as compared to zirconium alloys are sought to enable enhanced accident-tolerant fuels and cores.

  15. 75 FR 16523 - FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company; Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... COMMISSION FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company; Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station; Exemption 1.0 Background FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company (FENOC, the licensee) is the holder of Facility Operating License... M.S. Fertel, Nuclear Energy Institute). The licensee's request for an exemption is...

  16. Safety research programs sponsored by Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. Quarterly progress report, January 1-March 31, 1983. Volume 3, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bari, R A; Cerbone, R J; Ginsberg, T; Greene, G A; Guppy, J G; Hall, R E; Luckas, Jr, W J; Reich, M; Saha, P; Sastre, C

    1983-06-01

    The projects reported are the following: HTGR Safety Evaluation, SSC Development, Validation and Application, CRBR Balance of Plant Modeling, Thermal-Hydraulic Reactor Safety Experiments, LWR Plant Analyzer Development, LWR Code Assessment and Application; Stress Corrosion Cracking of PWR Steam Generator Tubing, Bolting Failure Analysis, Probability Based Load Combinations for Design of Category I Structures, Mechanical Piping Benchmark Problems, Soil Structure Interaction; Human Error Data for Nuclear Power Plant Safety Related Events, Criteria for Human Engineering Regulatory Guides and Human Factors in Nuclear Power Plant Safeguards.

  17. Safety research programs sponsored by Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. Volume 3. No. 2. Quarterly progress report, April 1-June 30, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bari, R A; Cerbone, R J; Ginsberg, T; Greene, G A; Guppy, J G; Hall, R E; Luckas, Jr, W J; Reich, M; Saha, P; Sastre, C

    1983-09-01

    The projects reported are the following: HTGR Safety Evaluation, SSC development, Validation and Application, CRBR balance of plant modeling, thermal-hydraulic reactor safety experiments, LWR plant analyzer development, LWR code assessment and application, thermal reactor code development (RAMONA-3B); stress corrosion cracking of PWR steam generator tubing, bolting failure analysis, probability based load combinations for design of category I structures, mechanical piping benchmark problems; human error data for nuclear power plant safety related events, criteria for human engineering regulatory guides and human factors in nuclear power plant safeguards.

  18. Human Factors in Nuclear Power Engineering in Polish Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kaczmarek-Kacprzak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper “Human factors in nuclear power engineering in Polish conditions” focuses on analysis of dynamics of preparing Polish society to build fi rst nuclear power plant in XXI century in Poland. Authors compare experience from constructing nuclear power plant Sizewell B (Great Britain and Sizewell C, which is in preparation phase with polish nuclear power program. Paper includes aspects e.g. of creating nuclear safety culture and social opinion about investment. Human factors in nuclear power engineering are as well important as relevant economical and technical factors, but very often negligible. In Poland where history about Czarnobyl is still alive, and social opinion is created on emotions after accident in Fukushima, human factors are crucial and should be under comprehensive consideration.

  19. [Risk communication in construction of new nuclear power plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Gui-Zhen; Lü, Yong-Long

    2013-03-01

    Accompanied by construction of new nuclear power plants in the coming decades in China, risk management has become increasingly politicized and contentious. Nuclear risk communication is a critical component in helping individuals prepare for, respond to, and recover from nuclear power emergencies. It was discussed that awareness of trust and public attitudes are important determinants in nuclear power risk communication and management. However, there is limited knowledge about how to best communicate with at-risk populations around nuclear power plant in China. To bridge this gap, this study presented the attitudinal data from a field survey in under-building Haiyang nuclear power plant, Shandong Province to measure public support for and opposition to the local construction of nuclear power plant. The paper discussed the structure of the communication process from a descriptive point of view, recognizing the importance of trust and understanding the information openness. The results showed that decision-making on nuclear power was dominated by a closed "iron nuclear triangle" of national governmental agencies, state-owned nuclear enterprises and scientific experts. Public participation and public access to information on nuclear constructions and assessments have been marginal and media was a key information source. As information on nuclear power and related risks is very restricted in China, Chinese citizens (51%) tend to choose the government as the most trustworthy source. More respondents took the negative attitudes toward nuclear power plant construction around home. It drew on studies about risk communication to develop some guidelines for successful risk communication. The conclusions have vast implications for how we approach risk management in the future. The findings should be of interest to state and local emergency managers, community-based organizations, public health researchers, and policy makers.

  20. 76 FR 55137 - Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... COMMISSION Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory..., ``Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants.'' This guide endorses Revision 4A to... Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants,'' which provides methods that......

  1. Nuclear Systems (NS): Kilopower Small Fission Power Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Nuclear power systems enable human and robotic exploration missions to solar system locations where other power system alternatives are infeasible,...

  2. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2003 (in Danish); Kernekraft og nuklear sikkerhed 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, B.; Majborn, B.; Nonboel, E.; Oelgaard, P.L. (eds.)

    2004-03-01

    The report, 'Kernekraft og nuklear sikkerhed 2003' (Nuclear power and nuclear safe-ty 2003) is the first report in a new series of annual reports on the international devel-opment of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nu-clear emergency preparedness. The report series is written in collaboration between Risoe National Laboratory and the Danish Emergency Management Agency and re-places the previous series, 'International kernekraftstatus' (International Nuclear Po-wer Status). The report for 2003 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production and regional trends, development of reactors and emergency management systems, safety-related events with nuclear power production, and international rela-tions and conflicts. (au)

  3. Fukushima nuclear power plant accident was preventable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoglu, Utku; Synolakis, Costas

    2015-04-01

    On 11 March 2011, the fourth largest earthquake in recorded history triggered a large tsunami, which will probably be remembered from the dramatic live pictures in a country, which is possibly the most tsunami-prepared in the world. The earthquake and tsunami caused a major nuclear power plant (NPP) accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi, owned by Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO). The accident was likely more severe than the 1979 Three Mile Island and less severe than the Chernobyl 1986 accidents. Yet, after the 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami had hit the Madras Atomic Power Station there had been renewed interest in the resilience of NPPs to tsunamis. The 11 March 2011 tsunami hit the Onagawa, Fukushima Dai-ichi, Fukushima Dai-ni, and Tokai Dai-ni NPPs, all located approximately in a 230km stretch along the east coast of Honshu. The Onagawa NPP was the closest to the source and was hit by an approximately height of 13m tsunami, of the same height as the one that hit the Fukushima Dai-ichi. Even though the Onagawa site also subsided by 1m, the tsunami did not reach to the main critical facilities. As the International Atomic Energy Agency put it, the Onagawa NPP survived the event "remarkably undamaged." At Fukushima Dai-ichi, the three reactors in operation were shut down due to strong ground shaking. The earthquake damaged all offsite electric transmission facilities. Emergency diesel generators (EDGs) provided back up power and started cooling down the reactors. However, the tsunami flooded the facilities damaging 12 of its 13 EDGs and caused a blackout. Among the consequences were hydrogen explosions that released radioactive material in the environment. It is unfortunately clear that TEPCO and Japan's principal regulator Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) had failed in providing a professional hazard analysis for the plant, even though their last assessment had taken place only months before the accident. The main reasons are the following. One

  4. Feasibility Research of Nuclear-power System for Car

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; Xiao-chun; SUN; Zheng; LIU; Xin-ming; LI; Long; XU; Zhi-long; SHAO; Jing

    2013-01-01

    The idea of making nuclear-powered car can dated back to 1950s,and Ford company developed the first nuclear-powered car Nucleon which theoretically based on uranium-235 fission powered engine.Recently,General Motors released its Cadillac"World Thorium Fuel Concept"car at 2009 Chicago Auto Show,which didn’t include a working thorium-powered engine.But it’s claimed that the thorium laser

  5. Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Containment Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, H.L.; Naus, D.J.; Norris, W.E.

    1998-12-01

    Safety-related nuclear power plant (NPP) structures are designed to withstand loadings from a number of low-probability external and interval events, such as earthquakes, tornadoes, and loss-of-coolant accidents. Loadings incurred during normal plant operation therefore generally are not significant enough to cause appreciable degradation. However, these structures are susceptible to aging by various processes depending on the operating environment and service conditions. The effects of these processes may accumulate within these structures over time to cause failure under design conditions, or lead to costly repair. In the late 1980s and early 1990s several occurrences of degradation of NPP structures were discovered at various facilities (e.g., corrosion of pressure boundary components, freeze- thaw damage of concrete, and larger than anticipated loss of prestressing force). Despite these degradation occurrences and a trend for an increasing rate of occurrence, in-service inspection of the safety-related structures continued to be performed in a somewhat cursory manner. Starting in 1991, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) published the first of several new requirements to help ensure that adequate in-service inspection of these structures is performed. Current regulatory in-service inspection requirements are reviewed and a summary of degradation experience presented. Nondestructive examination techniques commonly used to inspect the NPP steel and concrete structures to identify and quantify the amount of damage present are reviewed. Finally, areas where nondestructive evaluation techniques require development (i.e., inaccessible portions of the containment pressure boundary, and thick heavily reinforced concrete sections are discussed.

  6. 75 FR 13323 - James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption 1.0 Background Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. (the licensee) is the holder of Facility Operating License No. DPR-59, which authorizes operation...

  7. 75 FR 16520 - James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption 1.0 Background Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. (the licensee) is the holder of Facility Operating License No. DPR-59, which authorizes operation...

  8. Nuclear power policy as a differential game

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines nuclear energy output in a differential game framework involving two countries. The countries differ regarding nuclear technology with one being relatively safe and the other less safe. Simulation of a numerical model gives the following results, (i) A cooperative agreement will imply less use of nuclear energy compared with both a noncooperative Nash equilibrium and an uncontrolled market solution, (ii) The country with relatively safe nuclear energy technology benefits m...

  9. International nuclear power status 2000; International kernekraftstatus 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, B.; Majborn, B.; Nonboel, E.; Oelgaard, P.L. [eds.

    2001-03-01

    This report is the seventh in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power with special emphasis on reactor safety. For 2000, the report contains: 1. General trends in the development of nuclear power. 2. Deposition of low-level radioactive waste. 3. Statistical information on nuclear power production (in 1999). 4. An overview of safety-relevant incidents in 2000. 5. The development in Sweden. 6. The development in Eastern Europe. 7. The development in the rest of the world. 8. Trends in the development of reactor types. 9. Trends in the development of the nuclear fuel cycle. (au)

  10. Space Nuclear Power Public and Stakeholder Risk Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Sandra M.; Sklar, Maria

    2005-01-01

    The 1986 Challenger accident coupled with the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident increased public concern about the safety of spacecraft using nuclear technology. While three nuclear powered spacecraft had been launched before 1986 with little public interest, future nuclear powered missions would see significantly more public concern and require NASA to increase its efforts to communicate mission risks to the public. In 1987 a separate risk communication area within the Launch Approval Planning Group of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory was created to address public concern about the health, environmental, and safety risks of NASA missions. The lessons learned from the risk communication strategies developed for the nuclear powered Galileo, Ulysses, and Cassini missions are reviewed in this paper and recommendations are given as to how these lessons can be applied to future NASA missions that may use nuclear power systems and other potentially controversial NASA missions.

  11. China’s Nuclear Power Plants in Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Qinshan Plant Phase I Located in Haiyan,Zhejiang Province,Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant Phase I is t he first 300-megawatt pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant independently designed,constructed,operated and managed by China.The plant came into commercial operation in April 1994.

  12. Operating results 2015. Nuclear power plants. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2016-05-15

    A report is given on the opening results achieved in 2015, events important to plant safety, special and relevant repair, and retrofit measures from nuclear power plants in Germany. Reports about nuclear power plants in Belgium, Finland, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and Spain will be published in further issue.

  13. Nuclear space power safety and facility guidelines study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehlman, W.F.

    1995-09-11

    This report addresses safety guidelines for space nuclear reactor power missions and was prepared by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) under a Department of Energy grant, DE-FG01-94NE32180 dated 27 September 1994. This grant was based on a proposal submitted by the JHU/APL in response to an {open_quotes}Invitation for Proposals Designed to Support Federal Agencies and Commercial Interests in Meeting Special Power and Propulsion Needs for Future Space Missions{close_quotes}. The United States has not launched a nuclear reactor since SNAP 10A in April 1965 although many Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) have been launched. An RTG powered system is planned for launch as part of the Cassini mission to Saturn in 1997. Recently the Ballistic Missile Defense Office (BMDO) sponsored the Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Program (NEPSTP) which was to demonstrate and evaluate the Russian-built TOPAZ II nuclear reactor as a power source in space. As of late 1993 the flight portion of this program was canceled but work to investigate the attributes of the reactor were continued but at a reduced level. While the future of space nuclear power systems is uncertain there are potential space missions which would require space nuclear power systems. The differences between space nuclear power systems and RTG devices are sufficient that safety and facility requirements warrant a review in the context of the unique features of a space nuclear reactor power system.

  14. From the first nuclear power plant to fourth-generation nuclear power installations [on the 60th anniversary of the World's First nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachkov, V. I.; Kalyakin, S. G.; Kukharchuk, O. F.; Orlov, Yu. I.; Sorokin, A. P.

    2014-05-01

    Successful commissioning in the 1954 of the World's First nuclear power plant constructed at the Institute for Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE) in Obninsk signaled a turn from military programs to peaceful utilization of atomic energy. Up to the decommissioning of this plant, the AM reactor served as one of the main reactor bases on which neutron-physical investigations and investigations in solid state physics were carried out, fuel rods and electricity generating channels were tested, and isotope products were bred. The plant served as a center for training Soviet and foreign specialists on nuclear power plants, the personnel of the Lenin nuclear-powered icebreaker, and others. The IPPE development history is linked with the names of I.V. Kurchatov, A.I. Leipunskii, D.I. Blokhintsev, A.P. Aleksandrov, and E.P. Slavskii. More than 120 projects of various nuclear power installations were developed under the scientific leadership of the IPPE for submarine, terrestrial, and space applications, including two water-cooled power units at the Beloyarsk NPP in Ural, the Bilibino nuclear cogeneration station in Chukotka, crawler-mounted transportable TES-3 power station, the BN-350 reactor in Kazakhstan, and the BN-600 power unit at the Beloyarsk NPP. Owing to efforts taken on implementing the program for developing fast-neutron reactors, Russia occupied leading positions around the world in this field. All this time, IPPE specialists worked on elaborating the principles of energy supertechnologies of the 21st century. New large experimental installations have been put in operation, including the nuclear-laser setup B, the EGP-15 accelerator, the large physical setup BFS, the high-pressure setup SVD-2; scientific, engineering, and technological schools have been established in the field of high- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics, electrostatic accelerators of multicharge ions, plasma processes in thermionic converters and nuclear-pumped lasers, physics of compact

  15. Nuclear power plants. Site choice; Usinas nucleoeletricas. Escolha de local

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atala, Drausio Lima

    2009-07-01

    This book establishes the standards for selection and development of criteria for evaluation of new nuclear sites in Brazil. The places where the new nuclear power plants will be installed must be adequate for construction and operation of the power plants will be submitted to Brazilian environmental and nuclear legislation of the Union, states and the local governments, besides to accomplish the world good practices of this activity.

  16. Nuclear Power Plant Maintenance Optimization with Heuristic Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Andrija Volkanovski; Leon Cizelj

    2014-01-01

    The test and maintenance activities are conducted in the nuclear power plants in order to prevent or limit failures resulting from the ageing or deterioration. The components and systems are partially or fully unavailable during the maintenance activities. This is especially important for the safety systems and corresponding equipment because they are important contributors to the overall nuclear power plant safety. A novel method for optimization of the maintenance activities in the nuclear ...

  17. The nuclear power option in the Italian energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Nucci, M.R.

    2006-07-15

    Italy took a pioneering role in the early development of nuclear power. This source of energy should have provided the answer to the lack of domestic fossil resources. Due to the cheap oil prices, the influence of the state hydrocarbons company ENI and an influential petroleum lobby, following the nationalisation of the electricity sector in the early sixties, the nuclear option was no longer consequently pursued. Italy became heavily dependent on imported oil. Although in the period 1974-1975 an intensive nuclear power development programme was launched, the share of nuclear power remained marginal. In the aftermath of the Chernobyl disaster and following the referendum phasing out nuclear power in 1987, the national energy policy was newly defined. Our analysis will follow the customary practice to subdivide the Italian nuclear power development into three phases: the pioneering years till the mid-1960s; the period between 1966 and 1987 and the post-Chernobyl phase. We discuss the early phase at a certain length, since it is symptomatic of the way in Italy technological and industrial matters are dealt with and well illustrates the alliance games and behaviour of still existing market players. Although disputes about the alleged advantages of nuclear power are revived with certain regularity and are justified with arguments such as climate change and dependence on imported fuel, we argue that a return to nuclear power in Italy is not foreseeable. Nonetheless, the country cannot be considered a nuclear-free area. Nuclear wastes still play a disquieting role and imported electricity is generated also by nuclear power. Moreover, another tendency has set through. Due to a large liquidity provided by the mandated divestments in the framework of the liberalisation of the electricity market, the previous monopolist ENEL is heavily investing in generating capacities, including stakes in nuclear plants abroad, especially in new EU countries. (author)

  18. Operating experience with nuclear power plants 2015. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2016-07-01

    The VGB Technical Committee ''Nuclear Plant Operation'' has been exchanging operating experience about nuclear power plants for more than 30 years. Plant operators from several European countries are participating in the exchange. A report is given on the operating results achieved in 2015, events important to plant safety, special and relevant repair, and retrofit measures from Germany. The second part of this report will focus on nuclear power plant in Belgium, Finland, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and Spain.

  19. Integrated diagnostic technique for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gofuku, Akio [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, Okayama (Japan)

    2014-12-15

    It is very important to detect and identify small anomalies and component failures for the safe operation of complex and large-scale artifacts such as nuclear power plants. Each diagnostic technique has its own advantages and limitations. These facts inspire us not only to enhance the capability of diagnostic techniques but also to integrate the results of diagnostic subsystems in order to obtain more accurate diagnostic results. The article describes the outline of four diagnostic techniques developed for the condition monitoring of the fast breeder reactor 'Monju'. The techniques are (1) estimation technique of important state variables based on a physical model of the component, (2) a state identification technique by non-linear discrimination function applying SVM (Support Vector Machine), (3) a diagnostic technique applying WT (Wavelet Transformation) to detect changes in the characteristics of measurement signals, and (4) a state identification technique effectively using past cases. In addition, a hybrid diagnostic system in which a final diagnostic result is given by integrating the results from subsystems is introduced, where two sets of values called confidence values and trust values are used. A technique to determine the trust value is investigated under the condition that the confidence value is determined by each subsystem.

  20. Macrofouling control in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekis, E.W. Jr.; Keoplin-Gall, S.M.; McCarthy, R.E.

    1991-11-01

    Macrofouling of cooling-water systems is one of the more significant and costly problems encountered in the nuclear power industry. Both marine and freshwater macroinvertebrates can be responsible for losses in plant availability because of plugged intakes and heat transfer equipment. There is a greater diversity of macrofouling organisms in marine waters than in fresh waters. Marine macrofouling organisms include barnacles, mollusks, bryozoans, and hydroids. Barnacles are crustaceans with feathery appendages, which allow them to attach to a variety of surfaces. They are a major cause of severe macrofouling because they can remain attached even after death. The major freshwater macrofouling organisms include the Asiatic Clam (Corbicula fluminea) and the newest freshwater macrofouler, the Zebra Mussel (Dreissena polymorpha). The introduction of the Zebra Mussel into the Great Lakes has created economic and ecological problems that will not easily be solved. The threat of intercontinental dispersal of the Zebra Mussel in America is serious. Research programs have been initiated around the country to develop control methods for this macrofouling problem. The various control methodologies can be classified in the following categories: biological, chemical, physical, and mechanical. Laboratory experiments were performed to evaluate the efficacy of Actibrom against mature Zebra Mussels.

  1. Nuclear power plant Severe Accident Research Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larkins, J T; Cunningham, M A

    1983-01-01

    The Severe Accident Research Plan (SARP) will provide technical information necessary to support regulatory decisions in the severe accident area for existing or planned nuclear power plants, and covers research for the time period of January 1982 through January 1986. SARP will develop generic bases to determine how safe the plants are and where and how their level of safety ought to be improved. The analysis to address these issues will be performed using improved probabilistic risk assessment methodology, as benchmarked to more exact data and analysis. There are thirteen program elements in the plan and the work is phased in two parts, with the first phase being completed in early 1984, at which time an assessment will be made whether or not any major changes will be recommended to the Commission for operating plants to handle severe accidents. Additionally at this time, all of the thirteen program elements in Chapter 5 will be reviewed and assessed in terms of how much additional work is necessary and where major impacts in probabilistic risk assessment might be achieved. Confirmatory research will be carried out in phase II to provide additional assurance on the appropriateness of phase I decisions. Most of this work will be concluded by early 1986.

  2. Seismic hazard mitigation for nuclear power plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Frieder Seible

    2013-01-01

    The seismic safety of nuclear power plant(NPP) has always been a major consideration in the site selection,design,operation,and more recently recertification of existing installations.In addition to the actual NPP and all their operational and safety related support systems,the storage of spent fuel in temporary or permanent storage facilities also poses a seismic risk.This seismic risk is typically assessed with state-of-the-art modeling and analytical tools that capture everything from the ground rupture or source of the earthquake to the site specific ground shaking,taking geotechnical parameters and soil-foundation-structure-interaction (SFSI) into account to the non-linear structural response of the reactor core,the containment structure,the core cooling system and the emergency cooling system(s),to support systems,piping systems and non-structural components,and finally the performance of spent fuel storage in the probabilistically determined operational basis earthquake (OBE) or the safe shutdown earthquake (SSE) scenario.The best and most meaningful validation and verification of these advanced analytical tools is in the form of full or very large scale experimental testing,designed and conducted in direct support of model and analysis tool calibration.This paper outlines the principles under which such calibration testing should be conducted and illustrates with examples the kind of testing and parameter evaluation required.

  3. General digitalized system on nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akagi, Katsumi; Kadohara, Hozumi; Taniguchi, Manabu [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-08-01

    Hitherto, instrumentation control system in a PWR nuclear power plant has stepwisely adopted digital technology such as application of digital instrumentation control device to ordinary use (primary/secondary system control device, and so on), application of CRT display system to monitoring function, and so forth, to realize load reduction of an operator due to expansion of operation automation range, upgrading of reliability and maintenance due to self-diagnosis function, reduction of mass in cables due to multiple transfer, and upgrading of visual recognition due to information integration. In next term PWR plant instrumentation control system, under consideration of application practice of conventional digital technology, application of general digitalisation system to adopt digitalisation of overall instrumentation control system containing safety protection system, and central instrumentation system (new type of instrumentation system) and to intend to further upgrade economics, maintenance, operability/monitoring under security of reliability/safety is planned. And, together with embodiment of construction program of the next-term plant, verification at the general digitalisation proto-system aiming at establishment of basic technology on the system is carried out. Then, here was described on abstract of the general digitalisation system and characteristics of a digital type safety protection apparatus to be adopted in the next-term plant. (G.K.)

  4. Applications of neutron radiography for the nuclear power industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craft, Aaron E.; Barton, John P.

    2016-11-01

    The World Conference on Neutron Radiography (WCNR) and International Topical Meeting on Neutron Radiography (ITMNR) series have been running over 35 years. The most recent event, ITMNR-8, focused on industrial applications and was the first time this series was hosted in China. In China, more than twenty new nuclear power plants are in construction and plans have been announced to increase the nuclear capacity further by a factor of three within fifteen years. There are additional prospects in many other nations. Neutron tests were vital during previous developments of materials and components for nuclear power applications, as reported in this conference series. For example a majority of the 140 papers in the Proceedings of the First WCNR are for the benefit of the nuclear power industry. Included are reviews of the diverse techniques being applied in Europe, Japan, the United States, and at many other centers. Many of those techniques are being utilized and advanced to the present time. Neutron radiography of irradiated nuclear fuel provides more comprehensive information about the internal condition of irradiated nuclear fuel than any other non-destructive technique to date. Applications include examination of nuclear waste, nuclear fuels, cladding, control elements, and other critical components. In this paper, the techniques developed and applied internationally for the nuclear power industry since the earliest years are reviewed, and the question is asked whether neutron test techniques can be of value in development of the present and future generations of nuclear power plants world-wide.

  5. Introduction to the neutron kinetics of nuclear power reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Tyror, J G; Grant, P J

    2013-01-01

    An Introduction to the Neutron Kinetics of Nuclear Power Reactors introduces the reader to the neutron kinetics of nuclear power reactors. Topics covered include the neutron physics of reactor kinetics, feedback effects, water-moderated reactors, fast reactors, and methods of plant control. The reactor transients following faults are also discussed, along with the use of computers in the study of power reactor kinetics. This book is comprised of eight chapters and begins with an overview of the reactor physics characteristics of a nuclear power reactor and their influence on system design and

  6. Nuclear electric power safety, operation, and control aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Knowles, J Brian

    2013-01-01

    Assesses the engineering of renewable sources for commercial power generation and discusses the safety, operation, and control aspects of nuclear electric power From an expert who advised the European Commission and UK government in the aftermath of Three Mile Island and Chernobyl comes a book that contains experienced engineering assessments of the options for replacing the existing, aged, fossil-fired power stations with renewable, gas-fired, or nuclear plants. From geothermal, solar, and wind to tidal and hydro generation, Nuclear Electric Power: Safety, Operation, and Control Aspects ass

  7. Resource Needs for Nuclear Power Generation in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J. B. Nyarko

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear power is a proven technology that has served humanity for the past fifty years. It has provided electricity for several countries and shall continue to serve as a viable base load source of electric power. The need for skilled human resources for nuclear practice cannot be overlooked in the quest of any nation to adopt the technology. The Ghana Atomic Energy Commission and the University of Ghana in collaboration with the International Atomic Energy Agency have thus started a Graduate School of Nuclear and Allied Sciences to provide the human resources needed for nuclear power generation in Ghana. The School currently offers second degree courses as well as doctor of philosophy courses. Financial, land and water resource needs for nuclear power generation have been discussed. Availability of the national grid due to the deregulation of the electric power sector has also been discussed. Nuclear Fuel availability has been discussed along with the steps Ghana has to go through to obtain the technology to her development. The legal and legislative framework for nuclear power generation has also been presented. The programs currently available from the IAEA to assist Ghana to develop nuclear power have also been discussed. Conclusions have been drawn based on the discussions made.

  8. The outlook for application of powerful nuclear thermionic reactor - powered space electric jet propulsion engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semyonov, Y.P.; Bakanov, Y.A.; Synyavsky, V.V.; Yuditsky, V.D. [Rocket-Space Corp. `Energia`, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    This paper summarizes main study results for application of powerful space electric jet propulsion unit (EJPUs) which is powered by Nuclear Thermionic Power Unit (NTPU). They are combined in Nuclear Power/Propulsion Unit (NPPU) which serves as means of spacecraft equipment power supply and spacecraft movement. Problems the paper deals with are the following: information satellites delivery and their on-orbit power supply during 10-15 years, removal of especially hazardous nuclear wastes, mining of asteroid resources and others. Evaluations on power/time/mass relationship for this type of mission are given. EJPU parameters are compatible with Russian existent or being under development launch vehicle. (author)

  9. Economic Conditions and Factors Affecting New Nuclear Power Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Thomas J [ORNL

    2014-10-01

    This report documents work performed in support of the US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Advanced Small Modular Reactor (AdvSMR) program. The report presents information and results from economic analyses to describe current electricity market conditions and those key factors that may impact the deployment of AdvSMRs or any other new nuclear power plants. Thus, this report serves as a reference document for DOE as it moves forward with its plans to develop advanced reactors, including AdvSMRs. For the purpose of this analysis, information on electricity markets and nuclear power plant operating costs will be combined to examine the current state of the nuclear industry and the process required to successfully move forward with new nuclear power in general and AdvSMRs in particular. The current electricity market is generally unfavorable to new nuclear construction, especially in deregulated markets with heavy competition from natural gas and subsidized renewables. The successful and profitable operation of a nuclear power plant (or any power plant) requires the rate at which the electricity is sold to be sufficiently greater than the cost to operate. The wholesale rates in most US markets have settled into values that provide profits for most operating nuclear power plants but are too low to support the added cost of capital recovery for new nuclear construction. There is a strong geographic dependence on the wholesale rate, with some markets currently able to support new nuclear construction. However, there is also a strong geographic dependence on pronuclear public opinion; the areas where power prices are high tend to have unfavorable views on the construction of new nuclear power plants. The use of government-backed incentives, such as subsidies, can help provide a margin to help justify construction projects that otherwise may not seem viable. Similarly, low interest rates for the project will also add a positive margin to the economic

  10. Psychological empowerment in French nuclear power plants

    OpenAIRE

    Fillol, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    Since the eighties, nuclear safety has been discussed in organizational studies and constitutes nowadays a specific stream with several standpoints. Regarding the reliability of nuclear plants, the nuclear safety literature has emphasized on the crucial role of individuals and human factors. Especially, some researchers have noticed rule breaking behavior and the impact of individual self-confidence on thebehavior; but without deepening their analyses. As high self-esteem and confidence, i.e....

  11. History of nuclear power in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, L.P.

    2006-07-15

    The 1973 energy crisis prompted the United States to suspend supplies of enriched uranium to the reactor being built in Brazil, Angra I. In 1975, the Brazil-Germany Nuclear Agreement was announced. The Programme was a failure. Today the Angra II nuclear reactor has been completed, the only reactor completed under the agreement with Germany. Brazil's last military President implemented the Parallel Nuclear Programme, which included uranium enrichment with the justification of developing the technology that had not been transferred through the Nuclear Agreement with Germany. In 1986, the existence of a deep shaft drilled by the Air Force was revealed. A Technical Report concluded that it had all the characteristics and dimensions required to test a nuclear bomb. Some years later, the Civilian Government acknowledged the existence of an underground nuclear explosion facility and symbolically sealed this shaft. The situation in Brazil has improved recently. Brazil ratified the Treaty of Tlatelolco on the denuclearisation of Latin America and established ABACC, an agency handling mutual inspections of nuclear facilities in Brazil and Argentina. Brazil also signed the Nuclear Weapons Non-Proliferation Treaty. The uranium enrichment activities are being transferred to a civilian industry. More importantly, I do not believe that the uranium enrichment project is intended to endow Brazil with the capacity to produce nuclear weapons. (author)

  12. Site selection for new nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzo, Paul C.; Dubinsky, Melissa; Tastan, Erdem Onur, E-mail: paul.rizzo@rizzoassoc.com, E-mail: melissa.dubinsky@rizzoassoc.com, E-mail: onur.tastan@rizzoassoc.com [RIZZO Associates Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Miano, Sandra C., E-mail: scm27@psu.edu [Eletrobras Termonuclear S.A. (ELETRONUCLEAR), RJ (Brazil); Pennsylvania State University, Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, State College, PA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The current methodology for selecting the most advantageous site(s) for nuclear power plant (NPP) development is based on the latest evolution of protocols originally established in the 1990's by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and others for programs in the USA, and more recently by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), among others. The methodology includes protocols that account for lessons learned from both the Gen III projects and the catastrophic event at Fukushima, Japan. In general, the approach requires consideration of Exclusionary or 'fatal flaw' Criteria first, based on safety as well as significant impact to the environment or human health. Sites must meet all of these Exclusionary Criteria to be considered for NPP development. Next, the remaining sites are evaluated for Avoidance Criteria that affect primarily ease of construction and operations, which allow a ranking of sites best suited for NPP development. Finally, Suitability Criteria are applied to the potential sites to better differentiate between closely ranked sites. Generally, final selection of a Preferred and an Alternate Site will require balancing of factors, expert judgment, and client input, as sites being compared will differ in their scores associated with different Avoidance Criteria and Suitability Criteria. RIZZO Associates (RIZZO) offers in this paper a modification to this methodology for selecting the site for NPP development, which accords to the categories of Exclusionary, Avoidance and Suitability Criteria strict definitions which can be considered as Absolute Factors, Critical Factors, and Economic Factors for a more focused approach to site selection. Absolute Factors include all of the safety-related Exclusionary Criteria. Critical Factors are those that are difficult to overcome unless extraordinary mitigation measures are implemented; they have a significant impact on the ability of the project to be successful and may cause the

  13. Golden Nuclear Power:A Big Cake of Irresistible Temptations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pang Bo; Wang Ben

    2006-01-01

    @@ By 2020, the nuclear power installed capacity in China will go up from 8700 MW in 2005 to 40,000 MW. It signifies that30 generating units with a capacity of 1000 MW each will have been built. In fact, the development of nuclear power wants not merely enthusiasm. "The national policy maintains that we should take a road of localized development This is of great benefit to the expansion of nuclear power in China. However, many people still doubt whether the manufacturing capability and level can meet the requirements of nuclear safety, and multiple introductions are not good for digestion and assimilation, so that there exist potential risks in operation, maintenance and technical support," said Zeng Qingxiong, manager of financing section, Daya Bay Financial Company, China Guangdong Nuclear Power Holding Co. Ltd (CGNPC).

  14. 77 FR 35080 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station; Record of Decision and Issuance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... fossil fuel generation, renewable energy sources, demand-side measures such as energy conservation, and... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station; Record of Decision and Issuance...

  15. Knowledge of and Attitude to Nuclear Power among Residents around Tianwan Nuclear Power Plant in Jiangsu of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningle Yu, Yimei Zhang, Jin Wang, Xingjiang Cao, Xiangyong Fan, Xiaosan Xu, Furu Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aims of this paper were to determine the level of knowledge of and attitude to nuclear power among residents around Tianwan Nuclear power plant in Jiangsu of China.Design: A descriptive, cross-sectional design was adopted.Participants: 1,616 eligible participants who lived around the Tianwan nuclear power plant within a radius of 30km and at least 18 years old were recruited into our study and accepted epidemiological survey.Methods: Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires consisting of a socio-demographic sheet. Inferential statistics, t-test, ANOVA test and multivariate regression analysis were used to compare the differences between each subgroup and correlation analysis was conducted to understand the relationship between different factors and dependent variables.Results: Our investigation found that the level of awareness and acceptance of nuclear power was generally not high. Respondents' gender, age, marital status, residence, educational level, family income and the distance away from the nuclear power plant are important effect factors to the knowledge of and attitude to nuclear power.Conclusions: The public concerns about nuclear energy's impact are widespread. The level of awareness and acceptance of nuclear power needs to be improved urgently.

  16. Nuclear Power from Fission Reactors. An Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Technical Information Center.

    The purpose of this booklet is to provide a basic understanding of nuclear fission energy and different fission reaction concepts. Topics discussed are: energy use and production, current uses of fuels, oil and gas consumption, alternative energy sources, fossil fuel plants, nuclear plants, boiling water and pressurized water reactors, the light…

  17. 75 FR 61779 - R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant Environmental Assessment and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... COMMISSION R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant Environmental Assessment and... Operating License No. DPR-18, issued to R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant, LLC (the licensee), for operation of the R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant (Ginna), located in Ontario, New York. In accordance with 10 CFR...

  18. Recent Advances in Nuclear Powered Electric Propulsion for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassady, R. Joseph; Frisbee, Robert H.; Gilland, James H.; Houts, Michael G.; LaPointe, Michael R.; Maresse-Reading, Colleen M.; Oleson, Steven R.; Polk, James E.; Russell, Derrek; Sengupta, Anita

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear and radioisotope powered electric thrusters are being developed as primary in-space propulsion systems for potential future robotic and piloted space missions. Possible applications for high power nuclear electric propulsion include orbit raising and maneuvering of large space platforms, lunar and Mars cargo transport, asteroid rendezvous and sample return, and robotic and piloted planetary missions, while lower power radioisotope electric propulsion could significantly enhance or enable some future robotic deep space science missions. This paper provides an overview of recent U.S. high power electric thruster research programs, describing the operating principles, challenges, and status of each technology. Mission analysis is presented that compares the benefits and performance of each thruster type for high priority NASA missions. The status of space nuclear power systems for high power electric propulsion is presented. The paper concludes with a discussion of power and thruster development strategies for future radioisotope electric propulsion systems,

  19. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2010; Kernekraft og nuklear sikkerhed 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, B.; OElgaard, P.L. (eds.); Nonboel, E. (Risoe DTU, Roskilde (Denmark)); Kampmann, D.; Nystrup, P.E. (Beredskabsstyrelsen, Birkeroed (Denmark))

    2011-07-15

    The report is the eighth report in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is written in collaboration between Risoe DTU and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2010 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development, safety related events, international relations, and conflicts and the Fukushima accident. (LN)

  20. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2009; Kernekraft og nuklear sikkerhed 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, B.; OElgaard, P.L. (eds.); Nonboel, E. (Risoe DTU, Roskilde (Denmark)); Kampmann, D.; Nystrup, P.E.; Thorlaksen, B. (Beredskabsstyrelsen, Birkeroed (Denmark))

    2010-05-15

    The report is the seventh report in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is written in collaboration between Risoe DTU and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2009 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development, safety related events, international relations, conflicts and the European safety directive. (LN)

  1. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2011; Kernekraft og nuklear sikkerhed 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, B.; OElgaard, P.L. (eds.); Hedemann Jensen, P.; Nonboel, E. (Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Risoe Campus, Roskilde (Denmark)); Aage, H.K.; Kampmann, D.; Nystrup, P.E.; Thomsen, J. (Beredskabsstyrelsen, Birkeroed (Denmark))

    2012-07-15

    The report is the ninth report in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is written in collaboration between Risoe DTU and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2011 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development, safety related events, international relations and conflicts, and the Fukushima accident. (LN)

  2. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2012; Kernekraft og nuklear sikkerhed 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, B.; Nonboel, E. (eds.); Oelgaard, P.L. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Risoe Campus, Roskilde (Denmark); Israelson, C.; Kampmann, D.; Nystrup, P.E.; Thomsen, J. [Beredskabsstyrelsen, Birkeroed (Denmark)

    2013-11-15

    The report is the tenth report in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is prepared in collaboration between DTU Nutech and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2012 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development, safety related events, international relations and conflicts, and the results of the EU stress test. (LN)

  3. Valuing modular nuclear power plants in finite time decision horizon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jain, S.; Roelofs, F; Oosterlee, C.W.

    2013-01-01

    Small and medium sized reactors, SMRs, (according to IAEA, ‘small’ refers to reactors with power less than 300 MWe, and ‘medium’ with power less than 700 MWe) are considered as an attractive option for investment in nuclear power plants. SMRs may benefit from flexibility of investment, reduced upfro

  4. Nuclear power program and technology development in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Byung-Oke

    1994-12-31

    KEPCO has successfully implemented the construction and operation of nuclear power plants since the early 1970s, and will continue to build safer and more efficient nuclear plants in the future in accordance with the nuclear power development plan previously established. KEPCO will also make every effort to enhance nuclear safety and obtain the public`s acceptance for nuclear power. We are, however, facing the same difficulties, as United States and other countries have, in strengthened regulatory requirements, public acceptance, radwaste disposal, and acquisition of new plant sites despite an active nuclear power program. Story of Ted Turner, CNN; {open_quotes}It ain`t as easy as it looks.{close_quotes} Yes! It is difficult. But we will cope with these issues so that we can promote the nuclear power development and continue to supply a highly economical and clean energy to the world. In this regard, it is my sincere wish that each organization participating in the nuclear industry, especially Korea and United States strengthen their ties and help each other so that we together can successfully accomplish our goals.

  5. Dose reduction and optimization studies (ALARA) at nuclear power facilities. [PWR; BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baum, J.W.; Meinhold, C.B.

    1983-01-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has been commissioned by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to study dose-reduction techniques and effectiveness of as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) planning at LWR plants. These studies have the following objectives: identify high-dose maintenance tasks; identify dose-reduction techniques; examine incentives for dose reduction; evaluate cost-effectiveness and optimization of dose-reduction techniques; and compile an ALARA handbook on data, engineering modifications, cost-effectiveness calculations, and other information of interest to ALARA practioners.

  6. Computer Security for Commercial Nuclear Power Plants - Literature Review for Korea Hydro Nuclear Power Central Research Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, Felicia Angelica [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Security Systems Analysis Dept.; Waymire, Russell L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Security Systems Analysis Dept.

    2013-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is providing training and consultation activities on security planning and design for the Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Central Research Institute (KHNPCRI). As part of this effort, SNL performed a literature review on computer security requirements, guidance and best practices that are applicable to an advanced nuclear power plant. This report documents the review of reports generated by SNL and other organizations [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Nuclear Energy Institute, and International Atomic Energy Agency] related to protection of information technology resources, primarily digital controls and computer resources and their data networks. Copies of the key documents have also been provided to KHNP-CRI.

  7. Malaysian public perception towards nuclear power energy-related issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misnon, Fauzan Amin; Hu, Yeoh Siong; Rahman, Irman Abd.; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi

    2017-01-01

    Malaysia had considered nuclear energy as an option for future electricity generation during the 9th Malaysia Development Plan. Since 2009, Malaysia had implemented a number of important preparatory steps towards this goal, including the establishment of Nuclear Power Corporation of Malaysia (MNPC) as first Nuclear Energy Programme Implementing Organization (NEPIO) in Malaysia. In light of the establishment of MNPC, the National Nuclear Policy was formulated in 2010 and a new comprehensive nuclear law to replace the existing Atomic Energy Licensing Act (Act 304) is currently in the pipeline. Internationally, public acceptance is generally used to gauge the acceptance of nuclear energy by the public whenever a government decides to engage in nuclear energy. A public survey was conducted in between 14 March 2016 to 10 May 2016 focusing on the Malaysian public acceptance and perception towards the implementation of nuclear energy in Malaysia. The methodology of this research was aim on finding an overview of the general knowledge, public-relation recommendation, perception and acceptance of Malaysian towards the nuclear power development program. The combination of information gathered from this study can be interpreted as an indication of the complexity surrounding the development of nuclear energy and its relationship with the unique background of Malaysian demography. This paper will focus mainly on energy-related section in the survey in comparison with nuclear energy.

  8. Seismic isolation of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittaker, Andrew S.; Kuma, Manish [Dept. of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering, State University of New York, Buffalo (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Seismic isolation is a viable strategy for protecting safety-related nuclear structures from the effects of moderate to severe earthquake shaking. Although seismic isolation has been deployed in nuclear structures in France and South Africa, it has not seen widespread use because of limited new build nuclear construction in the past 30 years and a lack of guidelines, codes and standards for the analysis, design and construction of isolation systems specific to nuclear structures. The funding by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission of a research project to the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and MCEER/University at Buffalo facilitated the writing of a soon-to-be-published NUREG on seismic isolation. Funding of MCEER by the National Science Foundation led to research products that provide the technical basis for a new section in ASCE Standard 4 on the seismic isolation of safety-related nuclear facilities. The performance expectations identified in the NUREG and ASCE 4 for seismic isolation systems, and superstructures and substructures are described in the paper. Robust numerical models capable of capturing isolator behaviors under extreme loadings, which have been verified and validated following ASME protocols, and implemented in the open source code OpenSees, are introduced.

  9. The Politics of Nuclear Power and Waste Storage in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin (National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore)), e-mail: bsovacool@nus.edu.sg

    2010-09-15

    A complex interplay of social, economic, and political factors makes anticipating the scale and scope of nuclear power expansion difficult for both established and aspiring nuclear nations. In response, this article investigates the forms of social, political, and economic organization conducive to nuclear power expansion. We define 'socio-political economy' as the dynamic forces of state and society which influence the nuclear power industry. We begin by developing a theoretical framework of nuclear socio-political economy based primarily upon the evolution of nuclear energy in France (with supplemental insights from the former Soviet Union, United Kingdom, and United States). This emergent framework posits that strong state involvement in guiding economic development, centralization of national energy planning, campaigns to link technological progress to a national revitalization, influence of technocratic ideology on policy decisions, subordination of challenges to political authority, and low levels of civic activism were influential factors in supporting the expansion of nuclear power in France. These six catalysts create conducive conditions in unique ways. First, a history of strong government intervention in guiding the direction of economic development is a requisite condition seemingly because nuclear power is a 'socio--technically inflexible' technology that requires a high degree of supply chain coordination which only the government is capable of unifying. Second, a highly centralized energy sector infuses the requisite control for planning and implementing a sustained expansion of nuclear power in the midst of a politicized environment. Third, the presence of a government strategy that attempts to link technological developments to a national renaissance fosters the formation of a national culture which tolerates risks associated with risk-prone technologies. Fourth, the dominance of a technocratic approach to policymaking appears

  10. An overview of future sustainable nuclear power reactors

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Poullikkas

    2013-01-01

    In this paper an overview of the current and future nuclear power reactor technologies is carried out. In particular, the nuclear technology is described and the classification of the current and future nuclear reactors according to their generation is provided. The analysis has shown that generation II reactors currently in operation all around the world lack significantly in safety precautions and are prone to loss of coolant accident (LOCA). In contrast, generation III reactors, which are ...

  11. Nuclear power sources in outer space. [spacecraft propulsion legal aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosenball, S. N.

    1978-01-01

    Legal problems associated with nuclear power sources in space are discussed with particular reference to the Cosmos 954 incident. Deliberations of the Legal and Scientific and Technical Subcommittees on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space on this subject are discussed.

  12. China's First Salvaging Robot for Nuclear Power Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Researchers from the CAS Institute of Optics and Electronics in Chengdu,capital of southwest China's Sichuan Province, have been successful in building China's first robot for searching and retrieving underwater foreign objects in nuclear power stations.

  13. Construction, Maintenance and Demolition of Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smet, Camiel de [Hilti Corporation, P.O. Box 333, FL-9494 Schaan (Liechtenstein)

    2008-07-01

    Hilti is your reliable partner in nuclear power plant construction, maintenance and demolition worldwide. Professional advice and innovative solutions for virtually every phase of construction and supply technologically leading products and systems to increase your productivity and help to create and maintain safe and lasting plants is offered. The solutions for nuclear power plants construction, maintenance and demolition have been employed with great success in many different countries on a wide variety of projects due in no small way to their worldwide availability. An unbroken, international exchange of experience upholds a permanent innovation process. This assures our customers that they always receive products on the very latest technological standard. This paper is not intended to cover all topics related to nuclear power plants. The idea is more to give a kind of an overview. The paper covers briefly the following topics: safety (corrosion and fire), fastenings, measuring and finally decommissioning of nuclear power plants. (author)

  14. Applying Functional Modeling for Accident Management of Nuclear Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten; Zhang, Xinxin

    2014-01-01

    The paper investigate applications of functional modeling for accident management in complex industrial plant with special reference to nuclear power production. Main applications for information sharing among decision makers and decision support are identified. An overview of Multilevel Flow...

  15. FMDP reactor alternative summary report: Volume 4, Evolutionary LWR alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    Significant quantities of weapons-usable fissile materials [primarily plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU)] have become surplus to national defense needs both in the United States and Russia. These stocks of fissile materials pose significant dangers to national and international security. The dangers exist not only in the potential proliferation of nuclear weapons but also in the potential for environmental, safety, and health (ES&H) consequences if surplus fissile materials are not properly managed. The purpose of this report is to provide schedule, cost, and technical information that will be used to support the Record of Process (ROD). Following the screening process, DOE/MD via its national laboratories initiated a more detailed analysis activity to further evaluate each of the ten plutonium disposition alternatives that survived the screening process. Three ``Alternative Teams,`` chartered by DOE and comprised of technical experts from across the DOE national laboratory complex, conducted these analyses. One team was chartered for each of the major disposition classes (borehole, immobilization, and reactors). During the last year and a half, the Fissile Materials Disposition Program (FMDP) Reactor Alternative Team (RxAT) has conducted extensive analyses of the cost, schedule, technical maturity, S&S, and other characteristics of reactor-based plutonium disposition. The results of the RxAT`s analyses of the existing LWR, CANDU, and partially complete LWR alternatives are documented in Volumes 1-3 of this report. This document (Volume 4) summarizes the results of these analyses for the ELWR-based plutonium disposition option.

  16. Power counting for nuclear forces in chiral effective field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Long, Bingwei

    2016-01-01

    The present note summarizes the discourse on power counting issues of chiral nuclear forces, with an emphasis on renormalization-group invariance. Given its introductory nature, I will lean toward narrating a coherent point of view on the concepts, rather than covering comprehensively the development of chiral nuclear forces in different approaches.

  17. Power counting for nuclear forces in chiral effective field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Bingwei

    2016-02-01

    The present note summarizes the discourse on power counting issues of chiral nuclear forces, with an emphasis on renormalization-group invariance. Given its introductory nature, I will lean toward narrating a coherent point of view on the concepts, rather than covering comprehensively the development of chiral nuclear forces in different approaches.

  18. Fuel element concept for long life high power nuclear reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, G. E.; Rom, F. E.

    1969-01-01

    Nuclear reactor fuel elements have burnups that are an order of magnitude higher than can currently be achieved by conventional design practice. Elements have greater time integrated power producing capacity per unit volume. Element design concept capitalizes on known design principles and observed behavior of nuclear fuel.

  19. Possible genetic damage in the Czech nuclear power plant workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sram, Radim J. [Laboratory of Genetic Ecotoxicology, Health Institute of Central Bohemia and Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Praha 4 (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: sram@biomed.cas.cz; Roessner, Pavel [Laboratory of Genetic Ecotoxicology, Health Institute of Central Bohemia and Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Praha 4 (Czech Republic); Rubes, Jiri [Veterinary Research Institute, Hudcova 70, 621 32 Brno (Czech Republic); Beskid, Olena [Laboratory of Genetic Ecotoxicology, Health Institute of Central Bohemia and Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Praha 4 (Czech Republic); Dusek, Zdik [Laboratory of Genetic Ecotoxicology, Health Institute of Central Bohemia and Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Praha 4 (Czech Republic); Chvatalova, Irena [Laboratory of Genetic Ecotoxicology, Health Institute of Central Bohemia and Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Praha 4 (Czech Republic); Schmuczerova, Jana [Laboratory of Genetic Ecotoxicology, Health Institute of Central Bohemia and Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Praha 4 (Czech Republic); Milcova, Alena [Laboratory of Genetic Ecotoxicology, Health Institute of Central Bohemia and Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Praha 4 (Czech Republic); Solansky, Ivo [Laboratory of Genetic Ecotoxicology, Health Institute of Central Bohemia and Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Praha 4 (Czech Republic); Bavorova, Hana [National Institute of Public Health, Srobarova 48, 100 42 Praha 10 (Czech Republic); Ocadlikova, Dana [National Institute of Public Health, Srobarova 48, 100 42 Praha 10 (Czech Republic); Kopecna, Olga [Veterinary Research Institute, Hudcova 70, 621 32 Brno (Czech Republic); Musilova, Petra [Veterinary Research Institute, Hudcova 70, 621 32 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2006-01-29

    The aim of our study was to identify occupational risk of irradiation exposure in the Czech nuclear power plant workers. We analyzed levels of chromosomal aberrations, a well-known biomarker of early biological effects and a predictor of cancer risk. We applied the conventional method of cytogenetic analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, whole chromosome painting for chromosomes 1 and 4, combined with a pancentromeric probe) to three groups: 123 subjects in the Temelin nuclear power plant (2 years in use), 114 subjects in the Dukovany nuclear power plant (20 years in use), and 53 matched controls from Ceske Budejovice. Nuclear power plant workers were divided into two groups: subjects with admittance into the monitored zone, and others. Following factors were also analyzed: GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1, XPD, XRCC1, hOGG1, p53, MTHFR, and MS gene polymorphisms, levels of vitamins A, C, E, and folate in plasma, and level of cotinine in urine. Long-term exposure to ionizing radiation in the monitored zone was 0.47 {+-} 1.50 mSv (miliSievert) in the Temelin nuclear power plant and 5.74 {+-} 9.57 mSv in the Dukovany nuclear power plant. Using the conventional cytogenetic analysis, we observed 1.90 {+-} 0.95 and 1.82 {+-} 1.19% AB.C. (percent of aberrant cells) in the Temelin nuclear power plant, and 2.39 {+-} 1.01 and 2.33 {+-} 1.04% AB.C. in the Dukovany nuclear power plant, for monitored zone workers and others, respectively. In the control group, we found 2.25 {+-} 0.82% AB.C. Genomic frequency of translocations F {sub G}/100 measured by FISH was 1.89 {+-} 1.40 and 2.01 {+-} 1.68 in the Temelin nuclear power plant, and 2.48 {+-} 1.93 and 2.14 {+-} 1.62 in the Dukovany nuclear power plant for monitored zone workers and others, respectively. In the control group, F {sub G}/100 was 1.83 {+-} 1.19. Following factors were identified as potential confounders by the conventional cytogenetic analysis: XPD-6, by the FISH: age, GSTP1 and p53Bst genotypes, long-term use

  20. Coaxial Ring Cyclotron as a Perspective Nuclear Power Engineering Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Tumanyan, A. R.; Simonyan, Kh. A.; Mkrtchyan, R. L.; Amatuni, A. Ts.; Avakyan, R. O.; Khudaverdyan, A. G.

    1995-01-01

    The circuit arrangement of the proposed coaxial ring cyclotron (CRC) is described, and its main advantages, such as simple injection technique, several injected beams summation option, high efficiency, are considered. The proposed proton accelerator is a perspective machine for the solution of the main problems of the present day nuclear power engineering as well as for the next-generation nuclear power plants, representing a combination of subcritical reactors and particle accelerators. The ...

  1. International nuclear power status 1994; International kernekraftstatus 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoejerup, C.F.; Majborn, B.; Oelgaard, P.L. [eds.

    1995-02-01

    This report is the first in a planned series of annual reports covering the international development in the field of nuclear power. The report deals with: statistical information on the electricity produced by nuclear power plants; major safety-related incidents in 1994; the development in Sweden, Eastern Europe, and the rest of the world; the trends of development of a number of reactor types; the trends of development in the fuel cycle. (au).

  2. Nuclear power in our societies; Le nucleaire dans nos societes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fardeau, J.C.

    2011-07-01

    Hiroshima, Chernobyl, Fukushima Daiichi are the well known sad milestones on the path toward a broad development of nuclear energy. They are so well known that they have blurred certainly for long in a very unfair way the positive image of nuclear energy in the public eye. The impact of the media appetite for disasters favours the fear and puts aside all the achievements of nuclear sciences like nuclear medicine for instance and all the assets of nuclear power like the quasi absence of greenhouse gas emission or its massive capacity to produce electricity or heat. The unique solution to enhance nuclear acceptance is the reduction of the fear through a better understanding of nuclear sciences by the public. (A.C.)

  3. Development of human resources for Indian nuclear power programme

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R B Grover; R R Puri

    2013-10-01

    The continuing research and development on nuclear technology by research establishments in the country and maturing of Indian industry have brought the nuclear energy programme in India to a stage where it is poised to take a quantum leap forward. The vision of expansion of nuclear power also requires a wellstructured specialized human resource development programme. This paper discusses the requirements of the human resource development programme for nuclear energy, the challenges in the way of its realization, its national and international status and traces the history of nuclear education in the country. It brings out the linkage of human resource development programme with the nuclear energy programme in the country. It also describes the initiatives by the university system in the area of nuclear education and support provided by the Department of Atomic Energy to the university system by way of extra-mural funding and by providing access to research facilities.

  4. Cyber Norms for Civilian Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spirito, Christopher

    2016-11-01

    The international community agrees that the safe operation of civilian nuclear infrastructure is in every population’s best interest. One challenge each government must address is defining and agreeing to a set of acceptable norms of behavior in cyberspace as they relate to these facilities. The introduction of digital systems and networking technologies into these environments has led to the possibility that control and supporting computer systems are now accessible and exploitable, especially where interconnections to global information and communications technology (ICT) networks exist. The need for norms of behavior in cyberspace includes what is expected of system architects and cyber defenders as well as adversaries who should abide by rules of engagement even while conducting acts that violate national and international laws. The goal of this paper is to offer three behavioral cyber norms to improve the overall security of the ICT and Operational Technology (OT) networks and systems that underlie the operations of nuclear facilities. These norms of behavior will be specifically defined with the goals of reducing the threats associated to the theft of nuclear materials, accidental release of radiation and sabotage of nuclear processes. These norms would also include instances where an unwitting attacker or intelligence collection entity inadvertently makes their way into a nuclear facility network or system and can recognize they are in a protected zone and an approach to ensuring that these zones are not exploitable by bad actors to place their sensitive cyber effect delivery systems.

  5. Russian nuclear power plants for marine applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reistad, O. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Oelgaard, P.L. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark)

    2006-04-15

    In order to establish a systematic approach for future proliferation and environmental analyses of Russia's marine nuclear reactor systems, this paper summarizes and analyzes the available open-source information on the design properties of reactor systems and nuclear fuels. The most distinctive features of Russian marine reactor development are pointed out, and similarities and differences between Russian military and civilian reactor systems and fuel are discussed. Relevant updated information on all Russian vessels using nuclear propulsion is presented in Annex I. The basic analytic division in this paper follows vessel generations first to third generation; and reactor types PWR and LMC technology. Most of the available information is related to nuclear icebreakers. This information is systematically analyzed in order to identify stages in the development of Russia's civilian naval nuclear reactors. Three different reactor models are discussed: OK-150, OK-900 and KLT-40, together with several versions of these. Concerning military reactors, it is not possible to identify characteristics for the individual reactor models, so the basic division follows vessel generations first to third generation. From the information available, however, it is possible to identify the main lines along which the design of submarines of especially the first and the second generation has been made. The conclusions contain a discussion of possible implications of the results, in addition to suggestions for further work. (au)

  6. Occupational Radiation Exposure at Commercial Nuclear Power Reactors and Other Facilities 2010, Prepared for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, May 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. E. Lewis D. A. Hagemeyer Y. U. McCormick

    2012-07-07

    (LWR) licensees was 83 person-rem. This represents a 14% decrease from the value reported for 2009 (96 person-rem). The decrease in collective dose for commercial nuclear power reactors was due to an 11% decrease in total outage hours in 2010. During outages, activities involving increased radiation exposure such as refueling and maintenance are performed while the reactor is not in operation. The average annual collective dose per reactor for boiling water reactors (BWRs) was 137 personrem for 35 BWRs, and 55 person-rem for 69 pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Analyses of transient individual data indicate that 29,333 individuals completed work assignments at two or more licensees during the monitoring year. The dose distributions are adjusted each year to account for the duplicate reporting of transient individuals by multiple licensees. The adjustment to account for transient individuals has been specifically noted in footnotes in the figures and tables for commercial nuclear power reactors. In 2010, the average measurable dose per individual for all licensees calculated from reported data was 0.13 rem. Although the average measurable dose per individual from data submitted by licensees was 0.13 rem, a corrected dose distribution resulted in an average measurable dose per individual of 0.17 rem.

  7. Emerging Environmental Justice Issues in Nuclear Power and Radioactive Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyne, Dean; Bolin, Bob

    2016-07-12

    Nuclear hazards, linked to both U.S. weapons programs and civilian nuclear power, pose substantial environment justice issues. Nuclear power plant (NPP) reactors produce low-level ionizing radiation, high level nuclear waste, and are subject to catastrophic contamination events. Justice concerns include plant locations and the large potentially exposed populations, as well as issues in siting, nuclear safety, and barriers to public participation. Other justice issues relate to extensive contamination in the U.S. nuclear weapons complex, and the mining and processing industries that have supported it. To approach the topic, first we discuss distributional justice issues of NPP sites in the U.S. and related procedural injustices in siting, operation, and emergency preparedness. Then we discuss justice concerns involving the U.S. nuclear weapons complex and the ways that uranium mining, processing, and weapons development have affected those living downwind, including a substantial American Indian population. Next we examine the problem of high-level nuclear waste and the risk implications of the lack of secure long-term storage. The handling and deposition of toxic nuclear wastes pose new transgenerational justice issues of unprecedented duration, in comparison to any other industry. Finally, we discuss the persistent risks of nuclear technologies and renewable energy alternatives.

  8. Emerging Environmental Justice Issues in Nuclear Power and Radioactive Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Kyne

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear hazards, linked to both U.S. weapons programs and civilian nuclear power, pose substantial environment justice issues. Nuclear power plant (NPP reactors produce low-level ionizing radiation, high level nuclear waste, and are subject to catastrophic contamination events. Justice concerns include plant locations and the large potentially exposed populations, as well as issues in siting, nuclear safety, and barriers to public participation. Other justice issues relate to extensive contamination in the U.S. nuclear weapons complex, and the mining and processing industries that have supported it. To approach the topic, first we discuss distributional justice issues of NPP sites in the U.S. and related procedural injustices in siting, operation, and emergency preparedness. Then we discuss justice concerns involving the U.S. nuclear weapons complex and the ways that uranium mining, processing, and weapons development have affected those living downwind, including a substantial American Indian population. Next we examine the problem of high-level nuclear waste and the risk implications of the lack of secure long-term storage. The handling and deposition of toxic nuclear wastes pose new transgenerational justice issues of unprecedented duration, in comparison to any other industry. Finally, we discuss the persistent risks of nuclear technologies and renewable energy alternatives.

  9. Regulatory instrument review: Aging management of LWR cables, containment and basemat, reactor coolant pumps, and motor-operated valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werry, E.V.; Somasundaram, S.

    1995-09-01

    The results of Stage 2 of the Regulatory Instrument Review are presented in this volume. Selected regulatory instruments, such as the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Regulatory Guides, and ASME Codes, were investigated to determine the extent to which these regulations apply aging management to selected safety-related components in nuclear power plants. The Regulatory Instrument Review was funded by the NRC under the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program. Stage 2 of the review focused on four safety-related structures and components; namely, cables, containment and basemat, reactor coolant pumps, and motor-operated valves. The review suggests that the primary-emphasis of the regulatory instruments was on the design, construction, start-up, and operation of a nuclear power plant, and that aging issues were primarily addressed after an aging-related problem was recognized. This Stage 2 review confirms the results of the prior review; (see Regulatory Instrument Review: Management of Aging of LWR Major Safety-Related Components NUREG/CR-5490. The observations indicate that the regulations generally address management of age-related degradation indirectly. Specific age-related degradation phenomena frequently are dealt with in bulletins and notices or through generic issues, letters, etc. The major recommendation of this report, therefore, is that the regulatory instruments should more directly and explicitly address the aging phenomenon and the management of the age-related degradation process.

  10. Moldova Power Sources Development including Nuclear Power Plant possible participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comendant

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available For the new power market conditions Moldova power sources development options up to 2030 are evaluated, attempting to propose the best solutions in this respect and the ways they be realized.

  11. A Series Dissertation on Tianwan Nuclear Power Station--Summary of Tianwan Nuclear Power Station Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Qiankun

    2006-01-01

    This is a summary in relation to the construction and operation of Tianwan Nuclear Power Station (the Project) at Lianyungang, Jiangsu Province, the People' s Republic of China. The breakdown specialty topic shall been given in times to come. In this report, the author attempted to give some general description of the Project, including the Project site' s general layout and geographical conditions. A description of its exposure to the elements is also provided, supported by some data made available to us. The key component parts of the Project are described, namely, the nuclear island which includes the reactor, steam generator and so on; the conventional island and the balance of plant. Wherever possible, the improvements to the reactor design over the operating V320 are highlighted, which result in the V428 reactor model. The supplier and contractor for the major equipment such as the reactor and the turbine is the Russian company, namely Atomstroyexport (ASE). There are third country suppliers who provide other equipment. For instance, Siemens supplies the full digital I&C system and Framatome ANP supplies the emergency diesel generators; the metal-clad switchgear cabinet by ABB of Australia; the main steam isolation valve unit by CCI AG of Switzerland. All these foreign suppliers are well known globally. Their experience and quality of the equipment supplied by them are well recognized by the people in the respective fields. As for the civil work and erection work, the most experienced and trustworthy local contractors have been selected. These contractors have proven their competence in similar contract work before. For the testing of the equipment, stringent and proper procedures which meet international standards are adopted. Finally, the author wished on this report could provide the world a safety and advanced Nuclear Project building in China.

  12. SNPSAM - Space Nuclear Power System Analysis Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Seo, Jong T.

    The current version of SNPSAM is described, and the results of the integrated thermoeletric SP-100 system performance studies using SNPSAM are reported. The electric power output, conversion efficiency, coolant temperatures, and specific pumping power of the system are calculated as functions of the reactor thermal power and the liquid metal coolant type (Li or NaK-78) during steady state operation. The transient behavior of the system is also discussed.

  13. Nuclear power: on line; Kernenergie Online

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thieme, Christian [atw Redaktion, Hattingen (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    Presentation of these contents in the World Wide Web (WWW): Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU) - itu.jrc.ec.europa.eu Kernkraftwerk Gundremmingen (Germany) - www.kkw-gundremmingen.de Canadian Nuclear Association (Canada) - www.cna.ca Kernkraftwerk Krsko (Slovenia) - www.nek.si. (orig.)

  14. Nuclear power: The beginning of the end

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seltmann, Thomas

    2009-07-01

    The global significance of nuclear energy is greatly overestimated - accounting for share of barely two per cent of worldwide energy consumption, it is a rather phoney giant: The closer one look at facts, the less potential this controversial energy source seems to hold for the future. (orig.)

  15. Moving Beyond Pretense: Nuclear Power and Nonproliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    an epidemic, such as the interhuman transmission of the H5N1 bird flu virus , or prospective conflicts resulting from cli- mate change do not have...Nuclear Industry of Iran.” 32. Gordon, “Russia to Offer U.S. Deal.” 181 33. David Albright, Paul Brannan, and Robert Kelley, “Mys- teries Deepen Over

  16. Regulatory and safety aspects of ageing in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufer, B. [OECD/Nuclear Energy Agency, Issy-les-Moulineaux (France). Nuclear Safety Div.

    2002-08-01

    The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) is a semi-autonomous body within the OECD established in 1958 with the mandate to promote co-operation among the governments of its participating countries in furthering the development of nuclear power as a safe, environmentally acceptable and economicy energy source. While all of groups have detailed programmes involving important aspects, this paper will focus specifically on the work of Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA) and the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI). (orig.)

  17. Operating experience from Swedish nuclear power plants 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    2004 was somewhat of a record year for the Swedish nuclear power stations. No serious faults occurred, and production exceeded previous record outputs. Total output from the eleven nuclear power units during the year amounted to 75 TWh, which is the largest amount of power ever produced by nuclear power in Sweden. Corresponding figures for earlier years are 59 TWh (2003), 65 TWh (2002) and 69 TWh (2001). An important reason for this excellent result was the very high energy availability. Forsmark 1, for example, exceeded 97 % availability, while Forsmark 2 just reached 97 %. For all the Swedish nuclear power stations as a whole, availability in 2004 amounted to 91 %. In addition to the connection between production and energy availability, there is also a connection with safety. During the year, safety in the Swedish power stations has been high, not only in absolute terms but also in an international perspective. One measure of safety is to be found in the number of accidents, incidents, anomalies or deviations reported to the IAEA on a scale known as the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES). Sweden has undertaken to report all events in accordance with this international system. Three reports were submitted by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, which is responsible for national reporting, during the year. None of them had any significance for reactor safety: all were categorised as incidents or minor deviations from the regulations. Summarising, 2004 has been an excellent year for nuclear power safety, which is also reflected by the record electricity production during the year.

  18. Power Counting and Wilsonian Renormalization in Nuclear Effective Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Valderrama, Manuel Pavon

    2016-01-01

    Effective field theories are the most general tool for the description of low energy phenomena. They are universal and systematic: they can be formulated for any low energy systems we can think of and offer a clear guide on how to calculate predictions with reliable error estimates, a feature that is called power counting. These properties can be easily understood in Wilsonian renormalization, in which effective field theories are the low energy renormalization group evolution of a more fundamental ---perhaps unknown or unsolvable--- high energy theory. In nuclear physics they provide the possibility of a theoretically sound derivation of nuclear forces without having to solve quantum chromodynamics explicitly. However there is the problem of how to organize calculations within nuclear effective field theory: the traditional knowledge about power counting is perturbative but nuclear physics is not. Yet power counting can be derived in Wilsonian renormalization and there is already a fairly good understanding ...

  19. Appliance of software engineering in development of nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Y. W.; Kim, H. C.; Yun, C. [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, B. R. [KINS, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-10-01

    Application of computer technology in nuclear power plant is also a necessary transformation as in other industry fields. But until now, application of software technology was not wide-spread because of its potential effect to safety in nuclear field. It is an urgent theme to develop evaluation guide and regulation techniques to guarantee safety, reliability and quality assurance. To meet these changes, techniques for development and operation should be enhanced to ensure the quality of software systems. In this study, we show the difference between waterfall model and software life-cycle needed in development of nuclear power plant and propose the consistent framework needed in development of instrumentation and control system of nuclear power plant.

  20. Limitations of Nuclear Power as a Sustainable Energy Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua M. Pearce

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a review and analysis of the challenges that nuclear power must overcome in order to be considered sustainable. The results make it clear that not only do innovative technical solutions need to be generated for the fundamental inherent environmental burdens of nuclear energy technology, but the nuclear industry must also address difficult issues of equity both in the present and for future generations. The results show that if the concept of just sustainability is applied to the nuclear energy sector a global large-scale sustainable nuclear energy system to replace fossil fuel combustion requires the following: (i a radical improvement in greenhouse gas emissions intensity by improved technology and efficiency through the entire life cycle to prevent energy cannibalism during rapid growth; (ii the elimination of nuclear insecurity to reduce the risks associated with nuclear power so that the free market can indemnify it without substantial public nuclear energy insurance subsidies; (iii the elimination of radioactive waste at the end of life and minimization of environmental impact during mining and operations; and (iv the nuclear industry must regain public trust or face obsolescence as a swarm of renewable energy technologies quickly improve both technical and economic performance.

  1. Nuclear Waste Management, Nuclear Power, and Energy Choices Public Preferences, Perceptions, and Trust

    CERN Document Server

    Greenberg, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Hundreds of studies have investigated public perceptions and preferences about nuclear power, waste management, and technology. However there is clear lack of uniformity in the style, aims and methods applied.  Consequently, the body of results is inconsistent and it is difficult to isolate relevant patterns or interpretations. Nuclear Waste Management, Nuclear Power and Energy Choices: Public Preferences, Perceptions and Trust presents a theoretical base for public reactions then classifies and reviews the large body of surveys carried out over the past decade.   Particular focus is placed on residents within 50 miles US nuclear waste facilities due to the disproportionate presence of nuclear factors in their lives such as the legacy of nuclear waste disposal and job dependency. The motivations and reasons for their views such as fear, attraction to the economic benefits, trust of site managers and federal agencies, cultural views, personal history, and demographic attributes of the people are also conside...

  2. Advanced materials for space nuclear power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titran, Robert H.; Grobstein, Toni L.; Ellis, David L.

    1991-01-01

    The overall philosophy of the research was to develop and characterize new high temperature power conversion and radiator materials and to provide spacecraft designers with material selection options and design information. Research on three candidate materials (carbide strengthened niobium alloy PWC-11 for fuel cladding, graphite fiber reinforced copper matrix composites for heat rejection fins, and tungsten fiber reinforced niobium matrix composites for fuel containment and structural supports) considered for space power system applications is discussed. Each of these types of materials offers unique advantages for space power applications.

  3. Power Spectrum Analyses of Nuclear Decay Rates

    CERN Document Server

    Javorsek, D; Lasenby, R N; Lasenby, A N; Buncher, J B; Fischbach, E; Gruenwald, J T; Hoft, A W; Horan, T J; Jenkins, J H; Kerford, J L; Lee, R H; Longman, A; Mattes, J J; Morreale, B L; Morris, D B; Mudry, R N; Newport, J R; O'Keefe, D; Petrelli, M A; Silver, M A; Stewart, C A; Terry, B; 10.1016/j.astropartphys.2010.06.011

    2010-01-01

    We provide the results from a spectral analysis of nuclear decay data displaying annually varying periodic fluctuations. The analyzed data were obtained from three distinct data sets: 32Si and 36Cl decays reported by an experiment performed at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), 56Mn decay reported by the Children's Nutrition Research Center (CNRC), but also performed at BNL, and 226Ra decay reported by an experiment performed at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Germany. All three data sets exhibit the same primary frequency mode consisting of an annual period. Additional spectral comparisons of the data to local ambient temperature, atmospheric pressure, relative humidity, Earth-Sun distance, and their reciprocals were performed. No common phases were found between the factors investigated and those exhibited by the nuclear decay data. This suggests that either a combination of factors was responsible, or that, if it was a single factor, its effects on the decay rate experiments are n...

  4. Technological Transfer from Research Nuclear Reactors to New Generation Nuclear Power Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulescu, Laura; Pavelescu, Margarit

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this paper is the analysis of the technological transfer role in the nuclear field, with particular emphasis on nuclear reactors domain. The presentation is sustained by historical arguments. In this frame, it is very important to start with the achievements of the first nuclear systems, for instant those with natural uranium as fuel and heavy water as moderator, following in time through the history until the New Generation Nuclear Power Reactors. Starting with 1940, the accelerated development of the industry has implied the increase of the global demand for energy. In this respect, the nuclear energy could play an important role, being essentially an unlimited source of energy. However, the nuclear option faces the challenges of increasingly demanding safety requirements, economic competitiveness and public acceptance. Worldwide, a significant amount of experience has been accumulated during development, licensing, construction, and operation of nuclear power reactors. The experience gained is a strong basis for further improvements. Actually, the nuclear programs of many countries are addressing the development of advanced reactors, which are intended to have better economics, higher reliability, improved safety, and proliferation-resistant characteristics in order to overcome the current concerns about nuclear power. Advanced reactors, now under development, may help to meet the demand for energy power of both developed and developing countries as well as for district heating, desalination and for process heat. The paper gives historical examples that illustrate the steps pursued from first research nuclear reactors to present advanced power reactors. Emphasis was laid upon the fact that the progress is due to the great discoveries of the nuclear scientists using the technological transfer.

  5. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tichler, J.; Norden, K.; Congemi, J. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA))

    1991-05-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1988 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1988 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized. 16 tabs.

  6. Development of nuclear power plant real-time engineering simulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Meng; YANG Yan-Hua; ZHANG Rong-Hua; HU Rui

    2005-01-01

    A nuclear power plant real-time engineering simulator was developed based on general-purpose thermal-hydraulic system simulation code RELAP5. It main1y consists of three parts: improved thermal-hydraulic system simulation code RELAP5, control and protection system and human-machine interface. A normal transient of CHASHMA nuclear power plant turbine step load change from 100% to 90% of full power, was simulated by the engineering simulator as an application example. This paper presents structure and main features of the engineering simulator, and application results are shown and discussed.

  7. Method for assigning sites to projected generic nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holter, G.M.; Purcell, W.L.; Shutz, M.E.; Young, J.R.

    1986-07-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory developed a method for forecasting potential locations and startup sequences of nuclear power plants that will be required in the future but have not yet been specifically identified by electric utilities. Use of the method results in numerical ratings for potential nuclear power plant sites located in each of the 10 federal energy regions. The rating for each potential site is obtained from numerical factors assigned to each of 5 primary siting characteristics: (1) cooling water availability, (2) site land area, (3) power transmission land area, (4) proximity to metropolitan areas, and (5) utility plans for the site. The sequence of plant startups in each federal energy region is obtained by use of the numerical ratings and the forecasts of generic nuclear power plant startups obtained from the EIA Middle Case electricity forecast. Sites are assigned to generic plants in chronological order according to startup date.

  8. Refueling outage services in Spanish Nuclear Power Plants; Servicios en recargas de centrales nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landete, J. L.; Soto, M.; Nunuez, A.

    2007-07-01

    DOMINGUIS Group, through its 75 years of business development, has positioned as the Spanish leader Group in Services for the Nuclear Energy and Petrochemical Sectors. In this article, we present the most significant services summary that, through the companies that constitute DOMINGUIS Group, we have developed in Refueling Outage in Spanish Nuclear Power Plants. (Author)

  9. Evaluation of seismic input for nuclear power plants; Evaluacion del input sismico para plantas nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saragoni, G. R.

    2012-07-01

    The accident that affected the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant on March 11th 2011 was the result of the Tohoku earthquake (Japan), the fifth largest ever registered in the world. The characteristics of the event will be a subject for study by the nuclear and seismology communities for many years to come. (Author)

  10. Tecnatom support to new nuclear power plant projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manrique, A. B. [TECNATOM, S. A., Av. Montes de Oca 1, 28709 San Sebastian de los Reyes, Madrid (Spain)], e-mail: amanrique@tecnatom.es

    2009-10-15

    Tecnatom is a Spanish engineering company with more than 50 years of experience working for the nuclear industry all over the world. It has worked in over 30 countries in activities related to the operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants. Along this half century of history. Tecnatom has been providing its services to nuclear utilities, regulators, NPP vendors, NPP owners / operators and nuclear fuel manufacturers not only in Spain but also abroad. It started to work in the design of new nuclear power plants in the early 90 s and since then has continued collaborating with different suppliers in the design and licensing of new reactors especially in the areas of plant systems design, man-machine interface design, main control room simulators building, training, qualification of equipment and PSI/ISI engineering services. Some challenges to the reactivation of nuclear power plants construction are common worldwide, including: regulatory processes, workforce availability, construction project management, etc. Being some keys to success the following: apply qualified resources, enough resources for early planning, project leadership, organization and integration, establish a strong integrated management team. The goal of this paper is to inform regarding the capabilities of Tecnatom in the construction of new power plants. (Author)

  11. New reactor technology: safety improvements in nuclear power systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradini, M L

    2007-11-01

    Almost 450 nuclear power plants are currently operating throughout the world and supplying about 17% of the world's electricity. These plants perform safely, reliably, and have no free-release of byproducts to the environment. Given the current rate of growth in electricity demand and the ever growing concerns for the environment, nuclear power can only satisfy the need for electricity and other energy-intensive products if it can demonstrate (1) enhanced safety and system reliability, (2) minimal environmental impact via sustainable system designs, and (3) competitive economics. The U.S. Department of Energy with the international community has begun research on the next generation of nuclear energy systems that can be made available to the market by 2030 or earlier, and that can offer significant advances toward these challenging goals; in particular, six candidate reactor system designs have been identified. These future nuclear power systems will require advances in materials, reactor physics, as well as thermal-hydraulics to realize their full potential. However, all of these designs must demonstrate enhanced safety above and beyond current light water reactor systems if the next generation of nuclear power plants is to grow in number far beyond the current population. This paper reviews the advanced Generation-IV reactor systems and the key safety phenomena that must be considered to guarantee that enhanced safety can be assured in future nuclear reactor systems.

  12. Role of research reactors for nuclear power program in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soentono, S.; Arbie, B. [National Atomic Energy Agency, Batan (Indonesia)

    1994-12-31

    The main objectives of nuclear development program in Indonesia are to master nuclear science and technology, as well as to utilise peaceful uses of nuclear know-how, aiming at stepwisely socioeconomic development. A Triga Mark II, previously of 250 kW, reactor in Bandung has been in operation since 1965 and its design power has been increased to 1000 kW in 1972. Using core grid of the Triga 250 kW, BATAN designed and constructed the Kartini Reactor in Yogyakarta which started its operation in 1979. Both of these Triga reactors have served a wide spectrum of utilisation, such as training of manpower in nuclear engineering as well as radiochemistry, isotope production and beam research activities in solid state physics. In order to support the nuclear power development program in general and to suffice the reactor experiments further, simultaneously meeting the ever increasing demand for radioisotope, the third reactor, a multipurpose reactor of 30 MW called GA. Siwabessy (RSG-GAS) has been in operation since 1987 at Serpong near Jakarta. Each of these reactors has strong cooperation with Universities, namely the Bandung Institute of Technology at Bandung, the Gadjah Mada University at Yogyakarta, and the Indonesia University at Jakarta and has facilitated the man power development required. The role of these reactors, especially the multipurpose GA. Siwabessy reactor, as essential tools in nuclear power program are described including the experience gained during preproject, construction and commissioning, as well as through their operation, maintenance and utilisation.

  13. Irradiation effects on thermal properties of LWR hydride fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrani, Kurt; Balooch, Mehdi; Carpenter, David; Kohse, Gordon; Keiser, Dennis; Meyer, Mitchell; Olander, Donald

    2017-04-01

    Three hydride mini-fuel rods were fabricated and irradiated at the MIT nuclear reactor with a maximum burnup of 0.31% FIMA or ∼5 MWd/kgU equivalent oxide fuel burnup. Fuel rods consisted of uranium-zirconium hydride (U (30 wt%)ZrH1.6) pellets clad inside a LWR Zircaloy-2 tubing. The gap between the fuel and the cladding was filled with lead-bismuth eutectic alloy to eliminate the gas gap and the large temperature drop across it. Each mini-fuel rod was instrumented with two thermocouples with tips that are axially located halfway through the fuel centerline and cladding surface. In-pile temperature measurements enabled calculation of thermal conductivity in this fuel as a function of temperature and burnup. In-pile thermal conductivity at the beginning of test agreed well with out-of-pile measurements on unirradiated fuel and decreased rapidly with burnup.

  14. Reconciling nuclear risk: The impact of the Fukushima accident on comparative preferences for nuclear power in UK electricity generation

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, C.; Elgueta, H.; Eiser, J.

    2015-01-01

    Polls conducted in the United Kingdom following the Fukushima nuclear accident (March 2011) indicated a fairly muted and temporary shift in public approval of nuclear power. This study investigated how: (a) comparative preferences for nuclear power in the U nited Kingdom might have been affected by the accident; and (b) how “supporters” of nuclear power reconciled their pro-nuclear attitude in the wake of the disaster. Between-subjects comparisons with a pre-Fukushima sample revealed our post...

  15. Laser applications in nuclear power plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D N Sanyal

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the state of the art of using a solid-state Nd:YAG laser for material processing applications such as cutting, welding and drilling of several components of operational nuclear reactors in radioactive environment. We have demonstrated several advantages of laserbased material processing over conventional methods, and these are discussed briefly. At NPCIL, we have used laser techniques to cut stainless steel sheets up to 14 mm thickness and stainless steel weld up to a depth of 3 mm. This remotely operable laser system has been engineered for its robustness with proper fixtures and tooling for various material processing operations on industrial scale.

  16. Optimization Algorithms for Nuclear Reactor Power Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeong Min; Oh, Won Jong; Oh, Seung Jin; Chun, Won Gee; Lee, Yoon Joon [Jeju National University, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    One of the control techniques that could replace the present conventional PID controllers in nuclear plants is the linear quadratic regulator (LQR) method. The most attractive feature of the LQR method is that it can provide the systematic environments for the control design. However, the LQR approach heavily depends on the selection of cost function and the determination of the suitable weighting matrices of cost function is not an easy task, particularly when the system order is high. The purpose of this paper is to develop an efficient and reliable algorithm that could optimize the weighting matrices of the LQR system

  17. Insights into the Societal Risk of Nuclear Power Plant Accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Richard; Mubayi, Vinod

    2017-01-01

    The elements of societal risk from a nuclear power plant accident are clearly illustrated by the Fukushima accident: land contamination, long-term relocation of large numbers of people, loss of productive farm area, loss of industrial production, and significant loss of electric capacity. NUREG-1150 and other studies have provided compelling evidence that the individual health risk of nuclear power plant accidents is effectively negligible relative to other comparable risks, even for people living in close proximity to a plant. The objective of this study is to compare the societal risk of nuclear power plant accidents to that of other events to which the public is exposed. We have characterized the monetized societal risk in the United States from major societally disruptive events, such as hurricanes, in the form of a complementary cumulative distribution function. These risks are compared with nuclear power plant risks, based on NUREG-1150 analyses and new MACCS code calculations to account for differences in source terms determined in the more recent SOARCA study. A candidate quantitative societal objective is discussed for potential adoption by the NRC. The results are also interpreted with regard to the acceptability of nuclear power as a major source of future energy supply.

  18. Nuclear Power Plant Maintenance Optimization with Heuristic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrija Volkanovski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The test and maintenance activities are conducted in the nuclear power plants in order to prevent or limit failures resulting from the ageing or deterioration. The components and systems are partially or fully unavailable during the maintenance activities. This is especially important for the safety systems and corresponding equipment because they are important contributors to the overall nuclear power plant safety. A novel method for optimization of the maintenance activities in the nuclear power plant considering the plant safety is developed and presented. The objective function of the optimization is the mean value of the selected risk measure. The risk measure is assessed from the minimal cut sets identified in the Probabilistic Safety Assessment. The optimal solution of the objective function is estimated with genetic algorithm. The proposed method is applied on probabilistic safety analysis model of the selected safety system of the reference nuclear power plant. Obtained results show that optimization of maintenance decreases the risk and thus improves the plant safety. The implications of the consideration of different constraints on the obtained results are investigated and presented. The future prospects for the optimization of the maintenance activities in the nuclear power plants with the presented method are discussed.

  19. Survey of nuclear fuel cycle economics: 1970--1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prince, B. E.; Peerenboom, J. P.; Delene, J. G.

    1977-03-01

    This report is intended to provide a coherent view of the diversity of factors that may affect nuclear fuel cycle economics through about 1985. The nuclear fuel cycle was surveyed as to past trends, current problems, and future considerations. Unit costs were projected for each step in the fuel cycle. Nuclear fuel accounting procedures were reviewed; methods of calculating fuel costs were examined; and application was made to Light Water Reactors (LWR) over the next decade. A method conforming to Federal Power Commission accounting procedures and used by utilities to account for backend fuel-cycle costs was described which assigns a zero net salvage value to discharged fuel. LWR fuel cycle costs of from 4 to 6 mills/kWhr (1976 dollars) were estimated for 1985. These are expected to reach 6 to 9 mills/kWr if the effect of inflation is included.

  20. 77 FR 3009 - Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Advanced Boiling Water Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Advanced Boiling Water Reactors..., ``Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Advanced Boiling Water Reactors.''...

  1. 76 FR 73720 - Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Westinghouse AP1000...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Westinghouse AP1000 Pressurized..., NUREG-2103, Revision 0, ``Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant...

  2. Enhanced Accident Tolerant LWR Fuels: Metrics Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shannon Bragg-Sitton; Lori Braase; Rose Montgomery; Chris Stanek; Robert Montgomery; Lance Snead; Larry Ott; Mike Billone

    2013-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) is conducting research and development on enhanced Accident Tolerant Fuels (ATF) for light water reactors (LWRs). This mission emphasizes the development of novel fuel and cladding concepts to replace the current zirconium alloy-uranium dioxide (UO2) fuel system. The overall mission of the ATF research is to develop advanced fuels/cladding with improved performance, reliability and safety characteristics during normal operations and accident conditions, while minimizing waste generation. The initial effort will focus on implementation in operating reactors or reactors with design certifications. To initiate the development of quantitative metrics for ATR, a LWR Enhanced Accident Tolerant Fuels Metrics Development Workshop was held in October 2012 in Germantown, MD. This paper summarizes the outcome of that workshop and the current status of metrics development for LWR ATF.

  3. Regenerating the U.S. nuclear power program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowden, Marcus A.; Kraemer, Jay R.; Koehn, Mark R. [Fried, Frank, Harris, Shriver and Jacobson, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Through industry planning initiatives, new licensing regulations, favorable court decisions and supportive legislation, the U.A. nuclear community - in both its private and governmental sectors - has, during the last five years, produced fundamental changes in the approach to planning, ordering, licensing and operating future nuclear power plants. Integrated and well-planned initiatives are leading to a more hospitable and promising institutional framework for regeneration of the U.S. nuclear option. While demonstrable progress has been made on many fronts - a streamlined plant licensing framework and standardized design development to name the most apparent - other critical path obstacles must still be surmounted to transform current progress into an order for a new nuclear power plant or a family of plants. Early signs are encouraging, but much work remains to be done. (author).

  4. Regulatory practices for nuclear power plants in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S S Bajaj

    2013-10-01

    The Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) is the national authority for ensuring that the use of ionizing radiation and nuclear energy does not cause any undue risk to the health of workers, members of the public and to the environment. AERB is responsible for the stipulation and enforcement of rules and regulations pertaining to nuclear and radiological safety. This paper describes the regulatory process followed by AERB for ensuring the safety of nuclear power plants (NPPs) during their construction as well as operation. This regulatory process has been continuously evolving to cater to the new developments in reactor technology. Some of the recent initiatives taken by AERB in this direction are briefly described. Today, AERB faces new challenges like simultaneous review of a large number of new projects of diverse designs, a fast growing nuclear power program and functioning of operating plants in a competitive environment. This paper delineates how AERB is gearing up to meet these challenges in an effective manner.

  5. Nuclear power in Canada : a review of a critique. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masri, M.; Prince, P.; Jazayeri, S.; Kralovic, P.; Al-Qudsi, S.; McColl, D.; Naini, A.; Walden, T.

    2008-10-15

    The Pembina Institute released a report in December 2006, entitled Nuclear Power in Canada: an Examination of Risks, Impacts and Sustainability. The report addressed the suitability of nuclear power as an energy source in modern society. It focused on safety, reliability, cleanliness, greenhouse gases, sustainability, and cost-effectiveness of nuclear power. The Institute found nuclear power wanting on all of these counts.

  6. Space nuclear power, propulsion, and related technologies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, Marshall

    1992-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) is one of the nation's largest research and development (R&D) facilities, with headquarters at Albuquerque, New Mexico; a laboratory at Livermore, California; and a test range near Tonopah, Nevada. Smaller testing facilities are also operated at other locations. Established in 1945, Sandia was operated by the University of California until 1949, when, at the request of President Truman, Sandia Corporation was formed as a subsidiary of Bell Lab's Western Electric Company to operate Sandia as a service to the U.S. Government without profit or fee. Sandia is currently operated for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by AT&T Technologies, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of AT&T. Sandia's responsibility is national security programs in defense and energy with primary emphasis on nuclear weapon research and development (R&D). However, Sandia also supports a wide variety of projects ranging from basic materials research to the design of specialized parachutes. Assets, owned by DOE and valued at more than $1.2 billion, include about 600 major buildings containing about 372,000 square meters (m2) (4 million square feet [ft2]) of floor space, located on land totalling approximately 1460 square kilometers (km2) (562 square miles [mi]). Sandia employs about 8500 people, the majority in Albuquerque, with about 1000 in Livermore. Approximately 60% of Sandia's employees are in technical and scientific positions, and the remainder are in crafts, skilled labor, and administrative positions. As a multiprogram national laboratory, Sandia has much to offer both industrial and government customers in pursuing space nuclear technologies. The purpose of this brochure is to provide the reader with a brief summary of Sandia's technical capabilities, test facilities, and example programs that relate to military and civilian objectives in space. Sandia is interested in forming partnerships with industry and government

  7. Comment: collection of assay data on isotopic composition in LWR spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naito, Yoshitaka; Kurosawa, Masayoshi; Suyama, Kenya [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    Many assay data of LWR spent fuels have been collected from reactors in the world and some of them are already stored in the database SFCOMPO which was constructed on a personal computer IBM PC/AT. On the other hand, Group constant libraries for burnup calculation code ORIGEN-II were generated from the nuclear data file JENDL3.2. These libraries were evaluated by using the assay data in SFCOMPO. (author)

  8. The United States Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program - Over 151 Million Miles Safely Steamed on Nuclear Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-03-01

    NNSA’s third mission pillar is supporting the U.S. Navy’s ability to protect and defend American interests across the globe. The Naval Reactors Program remains at the forefront of technological developments in naval nuclear propulsion and ensures a commanding edge in warfighting capabilities by advancing new technologies and improvements in naval reactor performance and reliability. In 2015, the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program pioneered advances in nuclear reactor and warship design – such as increasing reactor lifetimes, improving submarine operational effectiveness, and reducing propulsion plant crewing. The Naval Reactors Program continued its record of operational excellence by providing the technical expertise required to resolve emergent issues in the Nation’s nuclear-powered fleet, enabling the Fleet to safely steam more than two million miles. Naval Reactors safely maintains, operates, and oversees the reactors on the Navy’s 82 nuclear-powered warships, constituting more than 45 percent of the Navy’s major combatants.

  9. Scoping calculations of power sources for nuclear electric propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Difilippo, F.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-05-01

    This technical memorandum describes models and calculational procedures to fully characterize the nuclear island of power sources for nuclear electric propulsion. Two computer codes were written: one for the gas-cooled NERVA derivative reactor and the other for liquid metal-cooled fuel pin reactors. These codes are going to be interfaced by NASA with the balance of plant in order to making scoping calculations for mission analysis.

  10. Modular Lead-Bismuth Fast Reactors in Nuclear Power

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir Petrochenko; Georgy Toshinsky

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of the unique experience of operating reactors with heavy liquid metal coolant–eutectic lead-bismuth alloy in nuclear submarines, the concept of modular small fast reactors SVBR-100 for civilian nuclear power has been developed and validated. The features of this innovative technology are as follows: a monoblock (integral) design of the reactor with fast neutron spectrum, which can operate using different types of fuel in various fuel cycles including MOX fuel in a self-providing...

  11. Nuclear power and the public: analysis of collected survey research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melber, B.D.; Nealey, S.M.; Hammersla, J.; Rankin, W.L.

    1977-11-01

    This executive summary highlights the major findings of a comprehensive synthesis and analysis of over 100 existing surveys dealing with public attitudes toward nuclear power issues. Questions of immediate policy relevance to the nuclear debate are posed and answered on the basis of these major findings. For each issue area, those sections of the report in which more-detailed discussion and presentation of relevant data may be found are indicated.

  12. Operating experience from Swedish nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    During 1997 the PWRs in Ringhals performed extremely well (capability factors 85-90%), the unit Ringhals 2 reached the best capability factor since commercial operation started in 1976. The BWRs made an average 76% capability, which is somewhat less than in 1996. The slightly reduced capability derives from ongoing modernization projects at several units. At the youngest plants, Forsmark 3 and Oskarshamn 3, capability and utilization were very high. Events and data for 1997 are given for each reactor, together with operational statistics for the years 1990-1997. A number of safety-related events are reported, which occurred st the Swedish plants during 1997. These events are classified as level 1 or higher on the international nuclear event scale (INES).

  13. POWER GENERATION FROM LIQUID METAL NUCLEAR FUEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, O.E.

    1958-12-23

    A nuclear reactor system is described wherein the reactor is the type using a liquid metal fuel, such as a dispersion of fissile material in bismuth. The reactor is designed ln the form of a closed loop having a core sectlon and heat exchanger sections. The liquid fuel is clrculated through the loop undergoing flssion in the core section to produce heat energy and transferrlng this heat energy to secondary fluids in the heat exchanger sections. The fission in the core may be produced by a separate neutron source or by a selfsustained chain reaction of the liquid fuel present in the core section. Additional auxiliary heat exchangers are used in the system to convert water into steam which drives a turbine.

  14. 76 FR 81994 - UniStar Nuclear Energy; Combined License Application for Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION UniStar Nuclear Energy; Combined License Application for Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 3; Exemption 1.0 Background: UniStar Nuclear Energy (UNE) submitted to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory...

  15. Type Selection for Present Nuclear Power Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gu Junyang; Shi Wenbao; Ye Qing

    2006-01-01

    With rapid development of nuclear power in China, in view of reactor type selection, this paper analyzes the current situation that faces nuclear power industry, the technical characteristics of optional reactors and the tendency of nuclear power technology development in the future. The proposals put forward in this paper include choosing and introducing GW-class advanced PWR as main reactors, carrying out self-supporting projects and technical transfer negotiations, in addition, promoting the design of the advanced generation-Ⅱ PWR and initiating small-scaled construction. The ultimate target is to catch up with the world advanced level by means of technical upgrading and recreation based on technology importation and assimilation.

  16. Innovative Nuclear Power Plant Building Arrangement in Consideration of Decommissioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won-Jun Choi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A new concept termed the Innovative Nuclear Power Plant Building Arrangement (INBA strategy is a new nuclear power plant building arrangement method which encompasses upfront consideration of more efficient decommissioning. Although existing decommissioning strategies such as immediate dismantling and differed dismantling has the advantage of either early site restoration or radioactive decommissioning waste reduction, the INBA strategy has the advantages of both strategies. In this research paper, the concept and the implementation method of the INBA strategy will be described. Two primary benefits will be further described: (1 early site restoration; and (2 radioactive waste reduction. Several other potential benefits will also be identified. For the estimation of economic benefit, the INBA strategy, with two primary benefits, will be compared with the immediate dismantling strategy. The effect of a short life cycle nuclear power plant in combination with the INBA strategy will be reviewed. Finally, some of the major impediments to the realization of this strategy will be discussed.

  17. Nuclear power for energy and for scientific progress

    CERN Document Server

    Giacomelli, G

    2012-01-01

    The Introduction in this paper underlines the present general situation for energy and the environment using the words of the US Secretary of Energy. A short presentation is made of some major nuclear power plants used to study one fundamental parameter for neutrino oscillations. The nuclear power status in some Far East Nations is summarized. The 4th generation of nuclear power stations, with emphasis on Fast Neutron Reactors, is recollected. The world consumptions of all forms of energies is recalled, fuel reserves are considered and the opportunities for a sustainable energy future is discussed. These considerations are applied to the italian situation, which is rather peculiar, also due to the many consequencies of the strong Nimby effects in Italy.

  18. Integrated approach to economical, reliable, safe nuclear power production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-06-01

    An Integrated Approach to Economical, Reliable, Safe Nuclear Power Production is the latest evolution of a concept which originated with the Defense-in-Depth philosophy of the nuclear industry. As Defense-in-Depth provided a framework for viewing physical barriers and equipment redundancy, the Integrated Approach gives a framework for viewing nuclear power production in terms of functions and institutions. In the Integrated Approach, four plant Goals are defined (Normal Operation, Core and Plant Protection, Containment Integrity and Emergency Preparedness) with the attendant Functional and Institutional Classifications that support them. The Integrated Approach provides a systematic perspective that combines the economic objective of reliable power production with the safety objective of consistent, controlled plant operation.

  19. Innovative nuclear power plant building arragement in consideration of decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Won Jun; Roh, Myung Sub; Kim, Chang Lak [Dept. of Nuclear Power Plant Engineering, KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    A new concept termed the Innovative Nuclear Power Plant Building Arrangement (INBA) strategy is a new nuclear power plant building arrangement method which encompasses upfront consideration of more efficient decommissioning. Although existing decommissioning strategies such as immediate dismantling and differed dismantling has the advantage of either early site restoration or radioactive decommissioning waste reduction, the INBA strategy has the advantages of both strategies. In this research paper, the concept and the implementation method of the INBA strategy will be described. Two primary benefits will be further described: (1) early site restoration; and (2) radioactive waste reduction. Several other potential benefits will also be identified. For the estimation of economic benefit, the INBA strategy, with two primary benefits, will be compared with the immediate dismantling strategy. The effect of a short life cycle nuclear power plant in combination with the INBA strategy will be reviewed. Finally, some of the major impediments to the realization of this strategy will be discussed.

  20. Study on evaluation system for Chinese nuclear power plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Song-bai; CHENG Jian-xiu

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the meaning, structure, function and assessment methods of a nuclear power plant evaluation system, and the similarities and differences among various assessment methods. Based on this research an integrated and detailed suggestion is proposed on how to establish and improve internal and external evaluation systems for Chinese NPPs. It includes: to prepare and implement the nuclear power plant operational management program, to build an integrated performance indicator system, to improve the present audit system and conduct the comprehensive evaluation system, to set up and implement the integrated corrective action system, to position precisely the status of operation assessment of nuclear power plants, to conduct the assessment activities on constructing NPP, to initiate the specific assessment in some important areas, to establish industry performance indicator system, to improve the assessment methods, to share the assessment results, to select,cultivate and certify the reviewers, and to enhance international communication and cooperation.

  1. Consequences and countermeasures in a nuclear power accident: Chernobyl experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirichenko, Vladimir A; Kirichenko, Alexander V; Werts, Day E

    2012-09-01

    Despite the tragic accidents in Fukushima and Chernobyl, the nuclear power industry will continue to contribute to the production of electric energy worldwide until there are efficient and sustainable alternative sources of energy. The Chernobyl nuclear accident, which occurred 26 years ago in the former Soviet Union, released an immense amount of radioactivity over vast territories of Belarus, Ukraine, and the Russian Federation, extending into northern Europe, and became the most severe accident in the history of the nuclear industry. This disaster was a result of numerous factors including inadequate nuclear power plant design, human errors, and violation of safety measures. The lessons learned from nuclear accidents will continue to strengthen the safety design of new reactor installations, but with more than 400 active nuclear power stations worldwide and 104 reactors in the Unites States, it is essential to reassess fundamental issues related to the Chernobyl experience as it continues to evolve. This article summarizes early and late events of the incident, the impact on thyroid health, and attempts to reduce agricultural radioactive contamination.

  2. Radiation protection performance indicators at the Nuclear Power Plant Krsko.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzekovic, Helena

    2006-06-01

    Nuclear power plant safety performance indicators are developed "by nuclear operating organisations to monitor their own performance and progress, to set their own challenging goals for improvement, and to gain additional perspective on performance relative to that of other plants". In addition, performance indicators are widely used by regulatory authorities although the use is not harmonised. Two basic performance indicators related to good radiation protection practice are collective radiation exposure and volume of low-level radioactive waste. In 2000, Nuclear Power Plant Krsko, a Westinghouse pressurised water reactor with electrical output 700 MW, finished an extensive modernisation including the replacement of both steam generators. While the annual volume of low-level radioactive waste does not show a specific trend related to modernisation, the annual collective dose reached maximum, i.e. 2.60 man Sv, and dropped to 1.13 man Sv in 2001. During the replacement of the steam generators in 2000, the dose associated with this activity was 1.48 man Sv. The annual doses in 2002 and 2003 were 0.53 and 0.80 man Sv, respectively, nearing thus the goal set by the US Institute of Nuclear Power Operators, which is 0.65 man Sv. Therefore, inasmuch as collective dose as the radiation protection performance indicator are concerned, the modernisation of the Krsko nuclear power plant was a success.

  3. The Acceptance Strategy for Nuclear Power Plant In Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhaemi, Tjipta; Syaukat, Achmad

    2010-06-01

    THE ACCEPTANCE STRATEGY FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANT IN INDONESIA. Indonesia has planned to build nuclear power plants. Some feasibility studies have been conducted intensively. However, the processes of NPP introduction are still uncertain. National Energy Plan in Indonesia, which has been made by some governmental agencies, does not yet give positive impact to the government decision to construct the nuclear power plant (NPP). This paper discusses the process of NPP introduction in Indonesia, which has been colored with debate of stakeholder and has delayed decision for go-nuclear. The technology paradigm is used to promote NPP as an alternative of reliable energy resources. This paradigm should be complemented with international politic-economic point of view. The international politic-economic point of view shows that structural powers, consisting of security, production, finance, and knowledge structures, within which the NPP is introduced, have dynamic characteristics. The process of NPP introduction in Indonesia contains some infrastructure development (R&D, legislation, regulation, energy planning, site study, public acceptance efforts, etc), but they need a better coherent NPP implementation program and NPP Acceptance Program. Strategic patterns for NPP acceptance described in this paper are made by considering nuclear regulation development and the interest of basic domestic participation. The first NPP program in Indonesia having proven technology and basic domestic participation is and important milestone toward and optimal national energy-mix.

  4. Energy market impacts of nuclear power phase-out policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glomsroed, Solveig; Taoyuan, Wei; Mideksa, Torben; Samset, Bjoern H.

    2013-03-01

    After the Fukushima disaster in March 2011 safety concerns have escalated and policies towards nuclear power are being reconsidered in several countries. This article presents a study of the effect of nuclear power phase-out on regional electricity prices. We consider 4 scenarios with various levels of ambition to scale down the nuclear industry using a multiple region, multiple sector global general equilibrium model. Non-nuclear power production follows the New Policies scenario of the World Energy Outlook (IEA, 2010). Phase-out in Germany and Switzerland increases electricity prices of OECD-Europe moderately by 2-3 per cent early on to 4-5 per cent by 2035 if transmission capacity within the region is sufficient. If all regions shut down old plants built before 2011, North America, OECD-Europe and Japan face increasing electricity prices in the range of 23-28 per cent in 2035. These price increases illustrate the incentives for further investments in renewable electricity or improved technologies in nuclear power production. (Author)

  5. Power counting and Wilsonian renormalization in nuclear effective field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valderrama, Manuel Pavón

    2016-05-01

    Effective field theories are the most general tool for the description of low energy phenomena. They are universal and systematic: they can be formulated for any low energy systems we can think of and offer a clear guide on how to calculate predictions with reliable error estimates, a feature that is called power counting. These properties can be easily understood in Wilsonian renormalization, in which effective field theories are the low energy renormalization group evolution of a more fundamental — perhaps unknown or unsolvable — high energy theory. In nuclear physics they provide the possibility of a theoretically sound derivation of nuclear forces without having to solve quantum chromodynamics explicitly. However there is the problem of how to organize calculations within nuclear effective field theory: the traditional knowledge about power counting is perturbative but nuclear physics is not. Yet power counting can be derived in Wilsonian renormalization and there is already a fairly good understanding of how to apply these ideas to non-perturbative phenomena and in particular to nuclear physics. Here we review a few of these ideas, explain power counting in two-nucleon scattering and reactions with external probes and hint at how to extend the present analysis beyond the two-body problem.

  6. Report on aging of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Ellingwood, B.R. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1996-03-01

    The Structural Aging Program provides the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission with potential structural safety issues and acceptance criteria for use in continued service assessments of nuclear power plant safety-related concrete structures. The program was organized under four task areas: Program Management, Materials Property Data Base, Structural Component Assessment/Repair Technology, and Quantitative Methodology for Continued Service Determinations. Under these tasks, over 90 papers and reports were prepared addressing pertinent aspects associated with aging management of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures. Contained in this report is a summary of program results in the form of information related to longevity of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures, a Structural Materials Information Center presenting data and information on the time variation of concrete materials under the influence of environmental stressors and aging factors, in-service inspection and condition assessments techniques, repair materials and methods, evaluation of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures, and a reliability-based methodology for current and future condition assessments. Recommendations for future activities are also provided. 308 refs., 61 figs., 50 tabs.

  7. Dangers associated with civil nuclear power programmes: weaponization and nuclear waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, Frank

    2015-07-24

    The number of nuclear power plants in the world rose exponentially to 420 by 1990 and peaked at 438 in 2002; but by 2014, as closed plants were not replaced, there were just 388. In spite of using more renewable energy, the world still relies on fossil fuels, but some countries plan to develop new nuclear programmes. Spent nuclear fuel, one of the most dangerous and toxic materials known, can be reprocessed into fresh fuel or into weapons-grade materials, and generates large amounts of highly active waste. This article reviews available literature on government and industry websites and from independent analysts on world energy production, the aspirations of the 'new nuclear build' programmes in China and the UK, and the difficulties in keeping the environment safe over an immense timescale while minimizing adverse health impacts and production of greenhouse gases, and preventing weaponization by non-nuclear-weapons states acquiring civil nuclear technology.

  8. Cable fire risk of a nuclear power plant; Ydinvoimalaitoksen kaapelipaloriski

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aulamo, H.

    1998-02-01

    The aim of the study is to carry out a comprehensive review of cable fire risk issues of nuclear power plants (NPP) taking into account latest fire and risk assessment research results. A special emphasis is put on considering the fire risk analysis of cable rooms in the framework of TVO Olkiluoto NPP probabilistic safety assessment. The assumptions made in the analysis are assessed. The literature study section considers significant fire events at nuclear power plants, the most severe of which have nearly led to a reactor core damage (Browns Ferry, Greifswald, Armenia, Belojarsk, Narora). Cable fire research results are also examined. 62 refs.

  9. Nuclear power plant alarm systems: Problems and issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hara, J.M.; Brown, W.S.

    1991-01-01

    Despite the incorporation of advanced technology into nuclear power plant alarm systems, human factors problems remain. This paper identifies to be addressed in order to allow advanced technology to be used effectively in the design of nuclear power plant alarm systems. The operator's use and processing of alarm system information will be considered. Based upon a review of alarm system research, issues related to general system design, alarm processing, display and control are discussed. It is concluded that the design of effective alarm systems depends on an understanding of the information processing capabilities and limitations of the operator. 39 refs.

  10. A methodology for evaluating ``new`` technologies in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korsah, K.; Clark, R.L.; Holcomb, D.E.

    1994-06-01

    As obsolescence and spare parts issues drive nuclear power plants to upgrade with new technology (such as optical fiber communication systems), the ability of the new technology to withstand stressors present where it is installed needs to be determined. In particular, new standards may be required to address qualification criteria and their application to the nuclear power plants of tomorrow. This paper discusses the failure modes and age-related degradation mechanisms of fiber optic communication systems, and suggests a methodology for identifying when accelerated aging should be performed during qualification testing.

  11. Tritium release during nuclear power operation in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, D J; Chen, X Q; Li, B

    2012-06-01

    Overviews were evaluated of tritium releases and related doses to the public from airborne and liquid effluents from nuclear power plants on the mainland of China before 2009. The differences between tritium releases from various nuclear power plants were also evaluated. The tritium releases are mainly from liquid pathways for pressurised water reactors, but tritium releases between airborne and liquid effluents are comparable for heavy water reactors. The airborne release from a heavy water reactor is obviously higher than that from a pressurised water reactor.

  12. Use of expert systems in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhrig, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    The application of technologies, particularly expert systems, to the control room activities in a nuclear power plant has the potential to reduce operator error and increase plant safety, reliability, and efficiency. Furthermore, there are a large number of nonoperating activities (testing, routine maintenance, outage planning, equipment diagnostics, and fuel management) in which expert systems can increase the efficiency and effectiveness of overall plant and corporate operations. This document presents a number of potential applications of expert systems in the nuclear power field. 36 refs., 2 tabs.

  13. Contracting and subcontracting by the French nuclear power industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thébaud-Mony, A

    1999-01-01

    The French nuclear power industry contracts out 80% of the maintenance work in its plants to independent companies. The workers in these companies are seldom protected by unions or by government regulations. The average dose of radiation received by such a worker is four times that received by a permanent employee of the contracting entity. As the contract worker approaches a specified dose limit, he is laid off, with no support other than welfare and no compensation for medical expenses that may arise as a result of the radiation exposure or occupational stress. There is a danger that this pattern of worker exploitation will spread as nuclear power plants proliferate around the world.

  14. Design data and safety features of commerical nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heddleson, F.A.

    1976-06-01

    Design data, safety features, and site characteristics are summarized for 34 nuclear power units in 17 power stations in the United States. Six pages of data are presented for each plant, consisting of thermal-hydraulic and nuclear factors, containment features, emergency-core-cooling systems, site features, circulating water system data, and miscellaneous factors. An aerial perspective is also presented for each plant. This volume covers Light Water Reactors (LWRs) with dockets 50-508 through 50-549, four HTGRs--50-171, 50-267, 50-450/451, 50-463/464, the Atlantic Floating Station 50-477/478, and the Clinch River Breeder 50-537.

  15. Safety and effective developing nuclear power to realize green and low-carbon development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi-Zhen Ye

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the role of nuclear power of China's energy structure and industry system. Comparing with other renewable energy the nuclear power chain has very low greenhouse gas emission, so it will play more important role in China's low-carbon economy. The paper also discussed the necessity of nuclear power development to achieve emission reduction, energy structure adjustment, nuclear power safety, environmental protection, enhancement of nuclear power technology, nuclear waste treatment, and disposal, as well as nuclear power plant decommissioning. Based on the safety record and situation of the existing power plants in China, the current status of the development of world nuclear power technology, and the features of the independently designed advanced power plants in China, this paper aims to demonstrate the safety of nuclear power. A nuclear power plant will not cause harm either to the environment and nor to the public according to the real data of radioactivity release, which are obtained from an operational nuclear plant. The development of nuclear power technology can enhance the safety of nuclear power. Further, this paper discusses issues related to the nuclear fuel cycle, the treatment, and disposal strategies of nuclear waste, and the decommissioning of a nuclear power plant, all of which are issues of public concern.

  16. Silicon Carbide Based Power Mangement and Distribution for Space Nuclear Power Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR project, APEI, Inc. is proposing to develop a high efficiency, rad-hard, 100's kWe power management and distribution (PMAD) system for space nuclear...

  17. Improving human reliability through better nuclear power plant system design: Program for advanced nuclear power studies. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golay, M.W.

    1993-10-10

    The project on ``Development of a Theory of the Dependence of Human Reliability upon System Designs as a Means of Improving Nuclear Power Plant Performance`` was been undertaken in order to address the problem of human error in advanced nuclear power plant designs. Lack of a mature theory has retarded progress in reducing likely frequencies of human errors. Work being pursued in this project is to perform a set of experiments involving human subjects who are required to operate, diagnose and respond to changes in computer-simulated systems, relevant to those encountered in nuclear power plants, which are made to differ in complexity in a systematic manner. The computer program used to present the problems to be solved also records the response of the operator as it unfolds.

  18. Problems and prospects of nuclear power plants construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pergamenshhik Boris Klimentyevich

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available 60 years ago, in July 1954 in the city of Obninsk near Moscow the world's first nuclear power plant was commissioned with a capacity of 5 MW. Today more than 430 nuclear units with a total capacity of almost 375000 MW are in operation in dozens of the countries worldwide. 72 electrical power units are currently under construction, 8 of them are located in the Russian Federation. There will be no alternative to nuclear energy in the coming decades. Among the factors contributing to the construction of nuclear power plants reckon limited fossil fuel supply, lack of air and primarily carbon dioxide emissions. The holding back factors are breakdown, hazard, radioactive wastes, high construction costs and long construction period. Nuclear accidents in the power plant of «Three-Mile-Island» in the USA, in Chernobyl and in Japan have resulted in termination of construction projects and closure of several nuclear power plants in the Western Europe. The safety systems have become more complex, material consumption and construction costs have significantly increased. The success of modern competing projects like EPR-1600, AP1000, ABWR, national ones AES-2006 and VVER-TOI, as well as several others, depends not only on structural and configuration but also on construction and technological solutions. The increase of the construction term by one year leads to growth of estimated total costs by 3—10 %. The main improvement potentials include external plate reinforcement, pre-fabricated large-block assembly, production and installation of the equipment packages and other. One of the crucial success factors is highly skilled civil engineers training.

  19. Nuclear power plant waste heat utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryther, J.H.; Huke, R.E.; Archer, J.C.; Price, D.R.; Jewell, W.J.; Hayes, T.D.; Witherby, H.R.

    1977-09-01

    The possibility of using Vermont Yankee condenser effluent for commercial food growth enhancement was examined. It was concluded that for the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Station, commercial success, both for horticulture and aquaculture endeavors, could not be assured without additional research in both areas. This is due primarily to two problems. First, the particularly low heat quality of our condenser discharge, being nominally 72 +- 2/sup 0/F; and second, to the capital intensive support systems. The capital needed for the support systems include costs of pumps, piping and controls to move the heated water to growing facilities and the costs of large, efficient heat exchangers that may be necessary to avoid regulatory difficulties due to the 1958 Delaney Amendment to the U.S. Food, Drug and Cosmetics Act. Recommendations for further work include construction of a permanent aquaculture research laboratory and a test greenhouse complex based on a greenhouse wherein a variety of heating configurations would be installed and tested. One greenhouse would be heated with biogas from an adjacent anaerobic digester thermally boosted during winter months by Vermont Yankee condenser effluent. The aquaculture laboratory would initially be dedicated to the Atlantic salmon restoration program. It appears possible to raise fingerling salmon to smolt size within 7 months using water warmed to about 60/sup 0/F. The growth rate by this technique is increased by a factor of 2 to 3. A system concept has been developed which includes an aqua-laboratory, producing 25,000 salmon smolt annually, a 4-unit greenhouse test horticulture complex and an 18,000 square foot commercial fish-rearing facility producing 100,000 pounds of wet fish (brook trout) per year. The aqualab and horticulture test complex would form the initial phase of construction. The trout-rearing facility would be delayed pending results of laboratory studies confirming its commercial viability.

  20. Preparedness organisations at Nordic nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droeivoldsmo, A.; Porsmyr, J.; Nystad, E. (Institute for Energy Technology (IFE), Halden (Norway))

    2011-08-15

    The report presents an overview of Emergency Preparedness Organisations (EPO) in Sweden, Finland and Norway and presentations of insights from a study of the staff positions' work instructions in the command centre in an emergency situation. The results indicate potential for improvement in several areas. A number of the improvements are related to introduction of new technology and they should be seen in connection with ensuring safe and reliable communication lines and power supply. Analysis of the data identified four main categories where further studies could contribute to improvement: 1) Communication and exchange of information. 2) Tools and technology. 3) Staffing and organisation. 4) Procedures. The usefulness of the Man Technology and Organisation method in analysing the emergency management decision-making process within the authorities was considered as an interesting issue for continuation of the project. The interface between utility and authorities was pointed out as an important area for continuation. (Author)

  1. On maintenance management of wind and nuclear power plants

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Electrical production in Sweden today is mainly from nuclear and hydro power. However, there is large increase in renewable energy like wind power and the installed new capacity goals are large. Several electrical production sources are important for the sustainability of the energy system. Maintenance is an approach for keeping a system sustainable. The importance of structured maintenance for reliable electrical production systems triggers the development of qualitative and quantitative mai...

  2. US nuclear power plant operating cost and experience summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohn, W.E.; Reid, R.L.; White, V.S.

    1998-02-01

    NUREG/CR-6577, U.S. Nuclear Power Plant Operating Cost and Experience Summaries, has been prepared to provide historical operating cost and experience information on U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Cost incurred after initial construction are characterized as annual production costs, representing fuel and plant operating and maintenance expenses, and capital expenditures related to facility additions/modifications which are included in the plant capital asset base. As discussed in the report, annual data for these two cost categories were obtained from publicly available reports and must be accepted as having different degrees of accuracy and completeness. Treatment of inconclusive and incomplete data is discussed. As an aid to understanding the fluctuations in the cost histories, operating summaries for each nuclear unit are provided. The intent of these summaries is to identify important operating events; refueling, major maintenance, and other significant outages; operating milestones; and significant licensing or enforcement actions. Information used in the summaries is condensed from annual operating reports submitted by the licensees, plant histories contained in Nuclear Power Experience, trade press articles, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) web site (www.nrc.gov).

  3. Power quality considerations for nuclear spectroscopy applications: Grounding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Hernández, J.M., E-mail: josemanuel.garcia@inin.gob.mx [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, ININ, Carretera México-Toluca S/N, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, 52750 Estado de México, México (Mexico); Instituto Tecnológico de Toluca, Departamento de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigación, Av. Tecnológico S/N, ExRancho La Virgen, 52140 Metepec, México (Mexico); Ramírez-Jiménez, F.J., E-mail: fjr@ieee.org [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, ININ, Carretera México-Toluca S/N, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, 52750 Estado de México, México (Mexico); Instituto Tecnológico de Toluca, Departamento de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigación, Av. Tecnológico S/N, ExRancho La Virgen, 52140 Metepec, México (Mexico); Mondragón-Contreras, L.; López-Callejas, R. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, ININ, Carretera México-Toluca S/N, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, 52750 Estado de México, México (Mexico); Instituto Tecnológico de Toluca, Departamento de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigación, Av. Tecnológico S/N, ExRancho La Virgen, 52140 Metepec, México (Mexico); Torres-Bribiesca, M.A. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, ININ, Carretera México-Toluca S/N, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, 52750 Estado de México, México (Mexico); and others

    2013-11-21

    Traditionally the electrical installations are designed for supplying power and to assure the personnel safety. In nuclear analysis laboratories, additional issues about grounding also must be considered for proper operation of high resolution nuclear spectroscopy systems. This paper shows the traditional ways of grounding nuclear spectroscopy systems and through different scenarios, it shows the effects on the more sensitive parameter of these systems: the energy resolution, it also proposes the constant monitoring of a power quality parameter as a way to preserve or to improve the resolution of the systems, avoiding the influence of excessive extrinsic noise. -- Highlights: •We analyze the performance of nuclear spectroscopy systems with different configurations of the grounding system. •The neutral to ground voltage is an indicator of the ground conditions, a high value may contribute to the increase of the FWHM in nuclear spectroscopy systems. •The use of an isolated ground system is the best option to preserve the best FWHM value. •The application of power quality concepts can help to guaranty the best configuration of the grounding system.

  4. Adaptive Neural Network Algorithm for Power Control in Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masri Husam Fayiz, Al

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to design, test and evaluate a prototype of an adaptive neural network algorithm for the power controlling system of a nuclear power plant. The task of power control in nuclear reactors is one of the fundamental tasks in this field. Therefore, researches are constantly conducted to ameliorate the power reactor control process. Currently, in the Department of Automation in the National Research Nuclear University (NRNU) MEPhI, numerous studies are utilizing various methodologies of artificial intelligence (expert systems, neural networks, fuzzy systems and genetic algorithms) to enhance the performance, safety, efficiency and reliability of nuclear power plants. In particular, a study of an adaptive artificial intelligent power regulator in the control systems of nuclear power reactors is being undertaken to enhance performance and to minimize the output error of the Automatic Power Controller (APC) on the grounds of a multifunctional computer analyzer (simulator) of the Water-Water Energetic Reactor known as Vodo-Vodyanoi Energetichesky Reaktor (VVER) in Russian. In this paper, a block diagram of an adaptive reactor power controller was built on the basis of an intelligent control algorithm. When implementing intelligent neural network principles, it is possible to improve the quality and dynamic of any control system in accordance with the principles of adaptive control. It is common knowledge that an adaptive control system permits adjusting the controller’s parameters according to the transitions in the characteristics of the control object or external disturbances. In this project, it is demonstrated that the propitious options for an automatic power controller in nuclear power plants is a control system constructed on intelligent neural network algorithms.

  5. Nuclear power in the 21st century: Challenges and possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Akos; Rachlew, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    The current situation and possible future developments for nuclear power--including fission and fusion processes--is presented. The fission nuclear power continues to be an essential part of the low-carbon electricity generation in the world for decades to come. There are breakthrough possibilities in the development of new generation nuclear reactors where the life-time of the nuclear waste can be reduced to some hundreds of years instead of the present time-scales of hundred thousand of years. Research on the fourth generation reactors is needed for the realisation of this development. For the fast nuclear reactors, a substantial research and development effort is required in many fields--from material sciences to safety demonstration--to attain the envisaged goals. Fusion provides a long-term vision for an efficient energy production. The fusion option for a nuclear reactor for efficient production of electricity has been set out in a focussed European programme including the international project of ITER after which a fusion electricity DEMO reactor is envisaged.

  6. Recognition of Instrumentation Gauge in the Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jai Wan; Jeong, Kyung Min [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Nuclear emergency robots were developed in 2001 as the countermeasure following the criticality accident at the JCO (uranium refinery facility) in Tokaimura, Japan in 1999. We assumed that these nuclear emergency robots were deployed (or put into) for a mitigation (or management) of severe accident, for example, occurred at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. In the case, the image understanding using a color CCD camera, loaded on the nuclear emergency robot, is important. We proposed an image processing technique to read indication value of the IC water level gauges using the structural characteristics of the instrumentation panels (water level gauges) located inside the reactor building. At first, we recognized the scales on the instrumentation panel using the geometric shape of the panel. And then, we could read the values of the instrumentation gauge by calculating the slope of the needle on the gauge. Using the proposed algorithm, we deciphered instrumentation panels for the four water level gauges and indicators shown on the IC video released by TEPCO and Japanese Nuclear Regulatory Commission of Japan. In this paper, recognition of the instrumentation gauges inside reactor building of the nuclear power plant by an image processing technology is described.

  7. Nuclear power industry: Tendencies in the world and Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babenko, V. A.; Jenkovszky, L. L.; Pavlovych, V. N.

    2007-11-01

    This review deals with new trends in nuclear reactors physics. It opens by an easily understood introduction to nuclear fission energy physics, starting with some history, including the achievements of the Kharkov nuclear physics school. Attention has been given to the development of fission theory, the Strutinsky theory, and the possible use of “nonstandard” fissile elements. The evolution of the design of nuclear reactors, including the merits and demerits of various structures used worldwide, is given in detail. A detailed description of nuclear power plants operating in Ukraine and their (large!) contribution to Ukraine’s total electricity production as compared with other countries is presented. A comparative evaluation of different energy sources influencing environment contamination and the pollution caused by the Chernobyl accident are presented. The lessons of the Chernobyl accident are summarized, including the features of the shelter (“Sarkofag”) covering the remaining of the power plant fourth block and some examples of calculations of the radioactive evolution of the station’s fuel-containing mass (by authors of the present review). The evolution of traditional nuclear reactors designs set forth under the separate heading of next-generation reactors including new projects such as subcritical assemblies controlled by an external beam of particles (neutrons and protons). The Feoktistov reactor operation and the possibility of its realization are discussed among the new ideas.

  8. Heat and power sources based on nuclear shipbuilding technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veshnyakov, K.; Fadeev, Y.; Panov, Y.; Polunichev, V. [JSC Afrikantov OKBM, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    2009-07-01

    The report gives information on the application of power units with small-power nuclear reactors as advanced energy sources to provide world consumers with electric power, domestic and industrial heat and fresh water. The report describes the technical concept of ABV unified reactor plant (RP) for floating and ground small power plants (SPP) developed in JSC 'Afrikantov OKBM'. The report contains the technical specification of the ABV RP utilizing an integral water-cooled reactor with thermal power of 38 to 45 MW, natural coolant circulation and improved inherent safety, as well as main characteristics of the reactor and core fuel ensuring acceptable mobility of the RP and NPP as a whole. The indicated refueling interval is 10-12 years. The report gives a detailed description of the concept for RP safety provision and compliance with international radiation and nuclear safety requirements, as well as the description of passive and other safety systems securing stability to any low-probability internal events, personnel errors and external impacts. The report provides data on application and technological properties of the floating and ground SPPs with a unified ABV RP; absence of spent fuel and radioactive waste at floating nuclear power plants (FNPP); FNPP transportation to consumers in a ready-to-operate state; arrangement, operation and disposal requirements.

  9. An overview of future sustainable nuclear power reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Poullikkas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an overview of the current and future nuclear power reactor technologies is carried out. In particular, the nuclear technology is described and the classification of the current and future nuclear reactors according to their generation is provided. The analysis has shown that generation II reactors currently in operation all around the world lack significantly in safety precautions and are prone to loss of coolant accident (LOCA. In contrast, generation III reactors, which are an evolution of generation II reactors, incorporate passive or inherent safety features that require no active controls or operational intervention to avoid accidents in the event of malfunction, and may rely on gravity, natural convection or resistance to high temperatures. Today, partly due to the high capital cost of large power reactors generating electricity and partly due to the consideration of public perception, there is a shift towards the development of smaller units. These may be built independently or as modules in a larger complex, with capacity added incrementally as required. Small reactors most importantly benefit from reduced capital costs, simpler units and the ability to produce power away from main grid systems. These factors combined with the ability of a nuclear power plant to use process heat for co-generation, make the small reactors an attractive option. Generally, modern small reactors for power generation are expected to have greater simplicity of design, economy of mass production and reduced installation costs. Many are also designed for a high level of passive or inherent safety in the event of malfunction. Generation III+ designs are generally extensions of the generation III concept, which include advanced passive safety features. These designs can maintain the safe state without the use of any active control components. Generation IV reactors, which are future designs that are currently under research and development, will

  10. The future of nuclear power: A world-wide perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktar, Ismail

    This study analyzes the future of commercial nuclear electric generation worldwide using the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) concept. The Tobit panel data estimation technique is applied to analyze the data between 1980 and 1998 for 105 countries. EKC assumes that low-income countries increase their nuclear reliance in total electric production whereas high-income countries decrease their nuclear reliance. Hence, we expect that high-income countries should shut down existing nuclear reactors and/or not build any new ones. We encounter two reasons for shutdowns: economic or political/environmental concerns. To distinguish these two effects, reasons for shut down are also investigated by using the Hazard Model technique. Hence, the load factor of a reactor is used as an approximation for economic reason to shut down the reactor. If a shut downed reactor had high load factor, this could be attributable to political/environmental concern or else economic concern. The only countries with nuclear power are considered in this model. The two data sets are created. In the first data set, the single entry for each reactor is created as of 1998 whereas in the second data set, the multiple entries are created for each reactor beginning from 1980 to 1998. The dependent variable takes 1 if operational or zero if shut downed. The empirical findings provide strong evidence for EKC relationship for commercial nuclear electric generation. Furthermore, higher natural resources suggest alternative electric generation methods rather than nuclear power. Economic index as an institutional variable suggests higher the economic freedom, lower the nuclear electric generation as expected. This model does not support the idea to cut the carbon dioxide emission via increasing nuclear share. The Hazard Model findings suggest that higher the load factor is, less likely the reactor will shut down. However, if it is still permanently closed downed, then this could be attributable to political

  11. EVMS for nuclear power plant construction: status and implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, M. S.; Kwak, J. K.; Park, S. Y. [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    The Earned Value Management System (EVMS) method integrates three critical elements of project management scope, cost and time management. It requires the periodic monitoring of actual expenditures and physical scope accomplishments and allows calculation of cost and schedule variances along with performance indices. It allows for casting of project cost and schedule at completion and highlights the possible need for corrective action. It is anticipated that there will be intense competition in the nuclear industry as the cost and time for nuclear power plant construction. In order to attain competitive advantages, utilizing advanced project control systems by integrating cost and time management is of great concern for practitioners. This paper is to review the status of EVMS and its effective implementation to nuclear power plant construction.

  12. Human factor engineering applied to nuclear power plant design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manrique, A. [TECNATOM SA, BWR General Electric Business Manager, Madrid (Spain); Valdivia, J.C. [TECNATOM SA, Operation Engineering Project Manager, Madrid (Spain); Jimenez, A. [TECNATOM SA, Operation Engineering Div. Manager, Madrid (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    For the design and construction of new nuclear power plants as well as for maintenance and operation of the existing ones new man-machine interface designs and modifications are been produced. For these new designs Human Factor Engineering must be applied the same as for any other traditional engineering discipline. Advantages of implementing adequate Human Factor Engineering techniques in the design of nuclear reactors have become not only a fact recognized by the majority of engineers and operators but also an explicit requirement regulated and mandatory for the new designs of the so called advanced reactors. Additionally, the big saving achieved by a nuclear power plant having an operating methodology which significantly decreases the risk of operating errors makes it necessary and almost vital its implementation. The first step for this is preparing a plan to incorporate all the Human Factor Engineering principles and developing an integral design of the Instrumentation and Control and Man-machine interface systems. (author)

  13. European standards and approaches to EMC in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardsley, D.J.; Dillingham, S.R.; McMinn, K. [AEA Technology, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1995-04-01

    Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) arising from a wide range of sources can threaten nuclear power plant operation. The need for measures to mitigate its effects have long been recognised although there are difference in approaches worldwide. The US industry approaches the problem by comprehensive site surveys defining an envelope of emissions for the environmental whilst the UK nuclear industry defined many years ago generic levels which cover power station environments. Moves to standardisation within the European community have led to slight changes in UK approach, in particular how large systems can be tested. The tests undertaken on UK nuclear plant include tests for immunity to conducted as well as radiated interference. Similar tests are also performed elsewhere in Europe but are not, to the authors` knowledge, commonly undertaken in the USA. Currently work is proceeding on draft international standards under the auspices of the IEC.

  14. Climate Change or Nuclear Power - Which Risk do we Prefer?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce, Donald [Church of Scotland, Edinburgh (United Kingdom). Society, Religion and Technology Project

    2006-09-15

    Climate change and nuclear power provide two of the biggest technological risks of our times. Both involve widespread risks, long-term wastes and inter-generational equity, but in rather different ways. If it came to a choice, which is the worse set of risks to run? Serious doubts have been raised whether the implementation of renewable energies and energy saving are able in practice to deliver quickly enough the radical reductions of CO{sub 2} emissions that are needed to tackle climate change. Some countries may face a dilemma - to continue another generation of nuclear power or to accept that its CO{sub 2} emissions will rise when current nuclear stations finish their time? This paper compares the risks, and explores the ethical issues around which a society would have to weigh up such a choice, the role of the precautionary principle, and the place of expert and lay evaluations of risk (full text of contribution)

  15. The japan a nuclear power?; Le Japon puissance nucleaire?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cumin, D.; Joubert, J.P. [Universite Jean Moulon Lyon-3, Centre Lyonnais d' Etudes de Securite Internationale et de Defense, 69 - Lyon (France)

    2003-07-01

    This work analyzes the Japan nuclear policy, in the frame of its foreign and safety policy in Pacific Asia, since the end of the cold war, especially the relations with the Usa and China. The Japan is a civil power because it has submitted the military institution to juridical restrictions and because it does not rely on the armed force to promote its national interests. The anti nuclear speech is joined with the acknowledgement of the dissuasion necessity, of the control of industrial processes and energy channels susceptible of military applications. Cultivating the ambiguity, the Japanese government can send a dissuasive message, perfectly legible, kind of communication of latent intimidation constituted by the virtual nuclear power of a state that takes part to the non proliferation treaty. (N.C.)

  16. Investment decisions under uncertainties: a case of nuclear power plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jain, S.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis discusses the role of flexibility of decisions when investing in projects that are affected by economic uncertainties. It uses the theory of real options to value such investment decisions. The thesis focuses on investment decisions related to nuclear power plants, which usually are aff

  17. Evaluation and assessment of nuclear power plant seismic methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernreuter, D.; Tokarz, F.; Wight, L.; Smith, P.; Wells, J.; Barlow, R.

    1977-03-01

    The major emphasis of this study is to develop a methodology that can be used to assess the current methods used for assuring the seismic safety of nuclear power plants. The proposed methodology makes use of system-analysis techniques and Monte Carlo schemes. Also, in this study, we evaluate previous assessments of the current seismic-design methodology.

  18. Development of TSC SAMG for Nuclear Power Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANGDong-xing; PUSheng-di; ZHAOShou-zhi; LIJi-gen

    2003-01-01

    Severe Accident Management Guidance (SAMG) is developed to prevent the severe accident progress and mitigate the consequences of severe accident in nuclear power plant. Technical Support Center (TSC) SAMG is one of important components of the strategies. It contains Severe Accident Guidelines (SAGs) and Severe Challenge Guidelines (SCGs).

  19. Is natural background or radiation from nuclear power plants leukemogenic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronkite, E.P.

    1989-01-01

    The objective in this review is to provide some facts about normal hemopoietic cell proliferation relevant to leukemogenesis, physical, chemical, and biological facts about radiation effects with the hope that each person will be able to decide for themselves whether background radiation or emissions from nuclear power plants and facilities significantly add to the spontaneous leukemia incidence. 23 refs., 1 tab.

  20. Near-Term Demonstration of Benign, Sustainable, Nuclear Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, C.E.

    2000-09-21

    Nuclear power reactors have been studied, researched, developed, constructed, demonstrated, deployed, operated, reviewed, discussed, praised and maligned in the United States for over half a century. These activities now transcend our national borders and nuclear power reactors are in commercial use by many nations. Throughout the world, many have been built, some have been shut down, and new ones are coming on line. Almost one-fifth of the world's electricity in 1997 was produced from these reactors. Nuclear power is no longer an unknown new technology. A large increase in world electricity demand is projected for the coming century. In lieu of endless research programs on ''new'' concepts, it is now time to proceed vigorously with widespread deployment of the best nuclear power option for which most parameters are already established. Here, we develop an aggressive approach for initiating the deployment of such a system--with the potential to produce over half of the world's electricity by mid-century, and to continue at that level for several centuries.

  1. Radioactive Effluents from Nuclear Power Plants Annual Report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation

    2010-12-10

    This report describes radioactive effluents from commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States. This information was reported by the licensees for radioactive discharges that occurred in 2007. The report provides information relevant to the potential impact of NPPs on the environment and on public health.

  2. Radioactive Effluents from Nuclear Power Plants Annual Report 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation

    2010-12-10

    This report describes radioactive effluents from commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States. This information was reported by the licensees for radioactive discharges that occurred in 2008. The report provides information relevant to the potential impact of NPPs on the environment and on public health.

  3. Edison Electric, Exxon Push Nuclear Power in Nation's Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Dede

    1978-01-01

    Pro-nuclear power "educational materials" designed or promoted by energy and utility companies lack objectivity about alternative energy resources. A free comic book distributed to public schools in New Mexico and a simulation game supplied to Maryland public schools at the expense of utility customers are described. (SW)

  4. Emergy Evaluation of a Swedish Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kindberg, Anna

    2007-03-15

    Today it is common to evaluate and compare energy systems in terms of emission of greenhouse gases. However, energy systems should not only reduce their pollution but also give a large energy return. One method used to measure energy efficiency is emergy (embodied energy, energy memory) evaluation, which was developed by the system ecologist Howard T. Odum. Odum defines emergy as the available energy of one kind previously used up directly and indirectly to make a service or product. Both work of nature and work of human economy in generating products and services are calculated in terms of emergy. Work of nature takes the form of natural resources and work of human economy includes labour, services and products used to transform natural resources into something of value to the economy. The quotient between work of nature and work of human economy gives the emergy return on investment of the investigated product. With this in mind the present work is an attempt to make an emergy evaluation of a Swedish nuclear power plant to estimate its emergy return on investment. The emergy return on investment ratio of a Swedish nuclear power plant is calculated to approximately 11 in this diploma thesis. This means that for all emergy the Swedish economy has invested in the nuclear power plant it gets 11 times more emergy in return in the form of electricity generated by nuclear power. The method used in this work may facilitate future emergy evaluations of other energy systems.

  5. Maintenance of process instrumentation in nuclear power plants

    CERN Document Server

    Hashemian, H M

    2006-01-01

    Compiles 30 years of practical knowledge gained by the author and his staff in testing the I and C systems of nuclear power plants around the world. This book focuses on process temperature and pressure sensors and the verification of these sensors' calibration and response time.

  6. Cost estimate guidelines for advanced nuclear power technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, C.R. II

    1987-07-01

    To make comparative assessments of competing technologies, consistent ground rules must be applied when developing cost estimates. This document provides a uniform set of assumptions, ground rules, and requirements that can be used in developing cost estimates for advanced nuclear power technologies.

  7. Cost estimate guidelines for advanced nuclear power technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delene, J.G.; Hudson, C.R. II.

    1990-03-01

    To make comparative assessments of competing technologies, consistent ground rules must be applied when developing cost estimates. This document provides a uniform set of assumptions, ground rules, and requirements that can be used in developing cost estimates for advanced nuclear power technologies. 10 refs., 8 figs., 32 tabs.

  8. Cost estimate guidelines for advanced nuclear power technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, C.R. II

    1986-07-01

    To make comparative assessments of competing technologies, consistent ground rules must be applied when developing cost estimates. This document provides a uniform set of assumptions, ground rules, and requirements that can be used in developing cost estimates for advanced nuclear power technologies.

  9. Layout of China’s Nuclear Power Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Plants in operation Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant-total installed capacity of 2.956 gigawatts The first stage started construction in March 1985, was incorporated into grids in December 1991 and began business operation in April 1994. It has an installed capacity of 300

  10. Delays in nuclear power plant construction. Volume II. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, G.E.; Larew, R.E.; Borcherding, J.D.; Okes, S.R. Jr.; Rad, P.F.

    1977-12-14

    The report identifies barriers to shortening nuclear power plant construction schedules and recommends research efforts which should minimize or eliminate the identified barriers. The identified barriers include (1) Design and Construction Interfacing Problems; (2) Problems Relating to the Selection and Use of Permanent Materials and Construction Methods; (3) Construction Coordination and Communication Problems; and (4) Problems Associated with Manpower Availability and Productivity.

  11. Energy Perspectives In Switzerland: The Potential Of Nuclear Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foskolos, K.; Hardegger, P

    2005-03-01

    In 2004, discussions were started in Switzerland concerning future of energy supply, including domestic electricity generation. On behalf of the Federal Office of Energy, PSI undertook a study to evaluate the potential of future nuclear technologies, covering electricity demand, with a time horizon up to 2050. It has been shown that nuclear power plants (NPPs) of the Third Generation, similar to the ones currently under construction in several other countries, built on the existing nuclear sites in Switzerland, have the potential to replace, at competitive costs, the existing nuclear plants, and even to cover (postulated) increases in electricity demand. Because of their late maturity (expected at the earliest around 2030), NPPs of the Fourth Generation, which are currently under development, cannot play a major role in Switzerland, since, with the exception of the Leibstadt NPP, all decisions regarding replacement of the current Swiss NPPs have to be taken before 2030. (author)

  12. Natural Disasters and Safety Risks at Nuclear Power Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutnova, T.

    2012-04-01

    In the aftermath of Fukushima natural-technological disaster the global opinion on nuclear energy divided even deeper. While Germany, Italy and the USA are currently reevaluating their previous plans on nuclear growth, many states are committed to expand nuclear energy output. In China and France, where the industry is widely supported by policymakers, there is little talk about abandoning further development of nuclear energy. Moreover, China displays the most remarkable pace of nuclear development in the world: it is responsible for 40% of worldwide reactors under construction, and aims at least to quadruple its nuclear capacity by 2020. In these states the consequences of Fukushima natural-technological accident will probably result in safety checks and advancement of new reactor technologies. Thus, China is buying newer reactor design from the USA which relies on "passive safety systems". It means that emergency power generators, crucial for reactor cooling in case of an accident, won't depend on electricity, so that tsunami won't disable them like it happened in the case of Fukushima. Nuclear energy managed to draw lessons from previous nuclear accidents where technological and human factors played crucial role. But the Fukushima lesson shows that the natural hazards, nevertheless, were undervalued. Though the ongoing technological advancements make it possible to increase the safety of nuclear power plants with consideration of natural risks, it is not just a question of technology improvement. A necessary action that must be taken is the reevaluation of the character and sources of the potential hazards which natural disasters can bring to nuclear industry. One of the examples is a devastating impact of more than one natural disaster happening at the same time. This subject, in fact, was not taken into account before, while it must be a significant point in planning sites for new nuclear power plants. Another important lesson unveiled is that world nuclear

  13. The Active Field of Nuclear and Radiochemistry: Not Just Nuclear Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Clemens

    2016-08-01

    " … The number of universities teaching nuclear and radiochemistry has decreased, not least as radiochemistry is erroneously linked to the use of nuclear power … Radiochemistry is essential for a variety of fields, including radiopharmaceuticals, as well as the management of radioactive waste … we are facing a lack of specialists in the area of radiation protection …" Read more in the Editorial by Clemens Walther.

  14. Personality Factors and Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Initial License Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVita-Cochrane, Cynthia

    Commercial nuclear power utilities are under pressure to effectively recruit and retain licensed reactor operators in light of poor candidate training completion rates and recent candidate failures on the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) license exam. One candidate failure can cost a utility over $400,000, making the successful licensing of new operators a critical path to operational excellence. This study was designed to discover if the NEO-PI-3, a 5-factor measure of personality, could improve selection in nuclear utilities by identifying personality factors that predict license candidate success. Two large U.S. commercial nuclear power corporations provided potential participant contact information and candidate results on the 2014 NRC exam from their nuclear power units nation-wide. License candidates who participated (n = 75) completed the NEO-PI-3 personality test and results were compared to 3 outcomes on the NRC exam: written exam, simulated operating exam, and overall exam result. Significant correlations were found between several personality factors and both written and operating exam outcomes on the NRC exam. Further, a regression analysis indicated that personality factors, particularly Conscientiousness, predicted simulated operating exam scores. The results of this study may be used to support the use of the NEO-PI-3 to improve operator selection as an addition to the current selection protocol. Positive social change implications from this study include support for the use of a personality measure by utilities to improve their return-on-investment in candidates and by individual candidates to avoid career failures. The results of this study may also positively impact the public by supporting the safe and reliable operation of commercial nuclear power utilities in the United States.

  15. 76 FR 46856 - Qualification of Connection Assemblies for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... COMMISSION Qualification of Connection Assemblies for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This guide describes a method that the NRC considers acceptable for... environmental seals in combination with cables or wires as assemblies for service in nuclear power plants....

  16. 76 FR 63541 - Design-Basis Hurricane and Hurricane Missiles for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ...-2010-0288] Design-Basis Hurricane and Hurricane Missiles for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear... Hurricane Missiles for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This regulatory guide provides licensees and applicants with... hurricane and design-basis hurricane-generated missiles that a nuclear power plant should be designed...

  17. 78 FR 67206 - Qualification Tests for Safety-Related Actuators in Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... COMMISSION Qualification Tests for Safety-Related Actuators in Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear...-Related Actuators in Nuclear Power Plants.'' This RG is being revised to provide applicants and licensees with the most current information on testing safety-related actuators in nuclear power plants. This...

  18. 10 CFR 50.65 - Requirements for monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... maintenance at nuclear power plants. 50.65 Section 50.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC... Construction Permits § 50.65 Requirements for monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power..., including normal shutdown operations. (a)(1) Each holder of an operating license for a nuclear power......

  19. 78 FR 35330 - Initial Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... COMMISSION Initial Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... revision to Regulatory Guide (RG), 1.68, ``Initial Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants... Initial Test Programs (ITPs) for light water cooled nuclear power plants. ADDRESSES: Please refer...

  20. Nuclear power, society and environment; Nucleaire, societe et environnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1999-03-01

    2 subjects are treated: the regular public opinion poll ordered by CEA, EdF, COGEMA and FRAMATOME and the denuclearization of one of the nuclear research center belonging to CEA. Every year in december the BVA polling institute leads a public opinion poll about how nuclear activities are perceived by people. This year about 1000 people have been questioned about the French nuclear power program, radioactivity, safety in nuclear facilities, nuclear wastes, information and public debates. The most meaningful result is that now fewer people think that nuclear energy will play a major role in 10 or 20 years. More people now think that radioactivity even at very low doses is dangerous. In 1946 the ZOE reactor was built on the site of the ancient stronghold of Chatillon which became the nuclear research center of Fontenay-aux-roses in april 1957. From 1958 to 1962 ZOE and a pilot unit of spent fuel reprocessing were dismantled. The test reactor Triton whose definitive shutdown took place in 1982, underwent a complete decontamination, as for Minerve reactor it was removed to Cadarache. The hot laboratories in which methods concerning the fabrication of plutonium fuels, the reprocessing and the handling of high activity wastes have been settled and tested, are due to be dismantled. 20 hot cells, 134 glove boxes and about 100 tanks of liquid effluents are involved. CEA has budgeted 910 millions of francs for the complete denuclearization of this site, it will be over in 2010. (A.C.)

  1. Democratic People`s Republic of Korea LWR project status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulligan, J.B.

    1996-07-01

    In October 1994, at Geneva, the United States and the Democratic People`s Republic of Korea (DPRK) signed an Agreed Framework as a first step toward resolving international concerns about nuclear activities in the DPRK. This Agreement, when implemented, will ultimately lead to the complete dismantlement of those aspects of the DPRK`s nuclear program, including reprocessing-related facilities, that have undermined the viability of the international nuclear non-proliferation regime and the stability of the Asia-Pacific region. The essence of the Agreement is that the DPRK will take near-term action to cease the activities of concern and permit some International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) verification inspection. In the future, it will dismantle its production reactors and accept full-scope IAWA safeguards. In return, the United Stated agreed to lead an international effort to supply the DPRK with light-water reactors which are less of proliferation concern than are graphite-moderated production reactors. Until the first LWR is in operation the DPRK will receive shipments of heavy oil to replace the energy lost by shutting down the production reactors.

  2. Ground acceleration in a nuclear power plant; Aceleracion del suelo en una central nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena G, P.; Balcazar, M.; Vega R, E., E-mail: pablo.pena@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    A methodology that adopts the recommendations of international organizations for determining the ground acceleration at a nuclear power plant is outlined. Systematic presented here emphasizes the type of geological, geophysical and geotechnical studies in different areas of influence, culminating in assessments of Design Basis earthquake and the earthquake Operating Base. The methodology indicates that in regional areas where the site of the nuclear power plant is located, failures are identified in geological structures, and seismic histories of the region are documented. In the area of detail geophysical tools to generate effects to determine subsurface propagation velocities and spectra of the induced seismic waves are used. The mechanical analysis of drill cores allows estimating the efforts that generate and earthquake postulate. Studies show that the magnitude of the Fukushima earthquake, did not affect the integrity of nuclear power plants due to the rocky settlement found. (Author)

  3. Multilevel flow modeling of Monju Nuclear Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2011-01-01

    Multilevel Flow Modeling is a method for modeling complex processes on multiple levels of means-end and part-whole abstraction. The modeling method has been applied on a wide range of processes including power plants, chemical engineering plants and power systems. The modeling method is supported...... functions and structure. The paper will describe how MFM can be used to represent the goals and functions of the Japanese Monju Nuclear Power Plant. A detailed explanation will be given of the model describing the relations between levels of goal, function and structural. Furthermore, it will be explained...

  4. Study for wireless power transmission of nuclear robot system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jongseog [Central Research Institute of Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Gasoline engine or electric motor is generally used for driving power of working. Gasoline tank is uncomfortable to carry. Battery capacity does not sustain long time working. Frequent moving back of robot to power charger or refueling tank is inconvenient. Long power cable connection occur winding problem if there are complex structures in walking way. We need some solution for continuous supply of robot energy at the free moving condition of robot. 'Wireless power transmission' is one of the solutions. Some experiment result to transmit wireless power to moving robot is described herein. To find possible wireless power transmission method for nuclear robot, wireless power transmission tests were performed. As result of these tests, it was confirmed that wireless power transmission by using dipole and mat type magnetic induction were possible. As result of flying robot experiment, it was realized that development of light weight core for receiver and wave reflection device for high directional transmitter are necessary for practical use of the dipole type wireless power transmission. Small size core and high directional transmitter will be next target. Mat type wireless power transmission is regarded as useful for robot power charging station in the inside containment.

  5. Nuclear power is not competitive: Climate protection in UK and France also viable without it

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenz, Casimir; Brauers, Hanna; Gerbaulet, Clemens; von Hirschhausen, Christian R.; Kemfert, Claudia; Kendziorski, Mario; Oei, Pao-Yu

    2016-01-01

    The nuclear power industry is faced with profound challenges- not only in Germany, but throughout Europe as well. New nuclear power plants are very expensive to build and even at high carbon prices, nuclear power is not competitive. Nevertheless, the EU reference scenario assumes that within the next three decades, new nuclear power plants will be built with a total capacity of at least 50 gigawatts (GW), and licenses will be renewed for a further 86 GW. Model calculations show that nuclear p...

  6. Safety and Nuclear Power Sources for Space Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segalas, Corinne C.; Schmidt, George R.

    2010-09-01

    Nuclear power sources have been used in space applications for decades. They have been used extensively for electrical power production, and their future potential for propulsion has been recognized since the dawn of the spaceflight era. Nuclear power sources offer many advantages in terms of long duration operation and high power densities independent of distance and orientation with respect to the Sun. However, it is also broadly known that use of radioactive materials do carry more risk that must be addressed to ensure safe operation during all phases of the mission, particularly before and during launch into orbit. Almost all of the nuclear-powered missions to date have been flown by the United States and former Soviet Union, but other space-faring nations have recognized its importance for their future missions. Consequently, many in the space community have advocated the development of a broad set of principles that could be applied on an international basis. This paper examines the current guidelines by the major space-faring nations, and suggests a framework primarily based on the U.S. methodology for ensuring reduction of risk, mitigating environmental impact and promoting launch safety.

  7. Multimegawatt space nuclear power supply, Phase 1 Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-02-17

    This Specification establishes the performance, design, development, and test requirements for the Boeing Multimegawatt Space Nuclear Power System (MSNPS). The Boeing Multimegawatt Space Power System is part of the DOE/SDIO Multimegawatt Space Nuclear Power Program. The purpose of this program is to provide a space-based nuclear power system to meet the needs of SDIO missions. The Boeing MSNPS is a category 1 concept which is capable of delivering 10's of MW(e) for 100's of seconds with effluent permitted. A design goal is for the system to have growth or downscale capability for other power system concepts. The growth objective is to meet the category 3 capability of 100's of MW(e) for 100's of seconds, also with effluent permitted. The purpose of this preliminary document is to guide the conceptual design effort throughout the Phase 1 study effort. This document will be updated through out the study. It will thus result in a record of the development of the design effort.

  8. [Accidents of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants and future].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshi, Masaharu

    2012-01-01

    A massive earthquake of magnitude 9 terribly happened far out at sea of Tohoku area on 11 March, 2011. After this earthquake the hugest tsunami in the history came to the hundreds km of the seashore of Tohoku area. Due to this tsunami all of the four nuclear power plants of Fukushima Daiichi lost every electric power and, soon after this, loss nuclear fuels from number 1 to 3 reactors melt through their power containers. According to this phenomena, large amount of the radio-activities have been released in the air. There were some releases but major contaminations happened at the time of the two releases in the morning of 15 March, 2011. Due to this, to the direction of the northwest until the Iitate Village over 30km zone was contaminated. In this paper I explain the time course of the accidents and that how contaminated.

  9. Pipe rupture incident of Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station Unit-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Yushi; Nakagami, Motonori; Hayashi, Haruhisa; Ichikawa, Yoshihiro [Chubu Electric Power Co. Inc., Nagoya (Japan)

    2002-11-01

    At the Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station Unit-1 (540 MWe of electric output; BWR-4 type) of the Chubu Electric Power Co., Ltd., an incident of pipe rupture of residual heat removal system on steam condenser system occurred on November, 2001. This incident gave no effects on outer parts of the station, because safety system apparatuses in the station worked adequately from a standpoint of accidental phenomenon. On the other hand, on its forming processes, as it is no similar case at the nuclear power stations in and out of Japan, to securely carry out countermeasures for preventing a recurrence of the incidence, its cause was striven to elucidate thoroughly. This paper was introduced about contents and results on site surveys, and surveys such as tests, analysis, and so on performed for about a half year after the incident, for preventing a recurrence of similar incidents. (G.K.)

  10. Evaluation of FSV-1 cask for the transport of LWR irradiated fuel assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    The Model FSV-1 spent fuel shipping cask was designed by General Atomic Company (GA) to service the Fort St. Vrain (FSV) nuclear generating station, a High Temperature Gas Reactor (HTGR) owned and operated by Public Service Company of Colorado (PSC). This report presents an evaluation of the suitability of the FSV-1 cask for the transport of irradiated Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuel assemblies from both Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) and Boiling Water Reactors (BWR). The FSV-1 cask evaluation parameters covered a wide spectrum of LWR fuel assemblies, based on burnup in Megawatt Days/Metric Ton of Heavy Metal (MWD/MTHM) and years of decay since irradiation. The criteria for suitability included allowable radiation dose rates, cask surface and interior temperatures and the Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW) of the complete shipping system.

  11. FABRICATION AND MATERIAL ISSUES FOR THE APPLICATION OF SiC COMPOSITES TO LWR FUEL CLADDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WEON-JU KIM

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The fabrication methods and requirements of the fiber, interphase, and matrix of nuclear grade SiCf/SiC composites are briefly reviewed. A CVI-processed SiCf/SiC composite with a PyC or (PyC-SiCn interphase utilizing Hi-Nicalon Type S or Tyranno SA3 fiber is currently the best combination in terms of the irradiation performance. We also describe important material issues for the application of SiC composites to LWR fuel cladding. The kinetics of the SiC corrosion under LWR conditions needs to be clarified to confirm the possibility of a burn-up extension and the cost-benefit effect of the SiC composite cladding. In addition, the development of end-plug joining technology and fission products retention capability of the ceramic composite tube would be key challenges for the successful application of SiC composite cladding.

  12. Preventive maintenance instrumentation results in Spanish nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curiel, M. [Logistica y Acondicionamientos Industriales SAU, Sorolla Center, local 10, Av. de las Cortes Valencianas No. 58, 46015 Valencia (Spain); Palomo, M. J.; Verdu, G. [ISIRYM, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, Valencia (Spain); Arnaldos, A., E-mail: m.curiel@lainsa.co [TITANIA Servicios Tecnologicos SL, Sorolla Center, local 10, Av. de las Cortes Valencianas No. 58, 46015 Valencia (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    This paper is a recompilation of the most significance results in relation to the researching in preventive and predictive maintenance in critical nuclear instrumentation for power plant operation, which it is being developed by Logistica y Acondicionamientos Industriales and the Isirym Institute of the Polytechnic University of Valencia. Instrumentation verification and test, it is a priority of the power plants control and instrumentation department's technicians. These procedures are necessary information for the daily power plant work. It is performed according to different procedures and in different moments of the fuel cycle depending on the instrumentation critical state and the monitoring process. Normally, this study is developed taking into account the instantaneous values of the instrumentation measures and, after their conversion to physical magnitude, they are analyzed according to the power plant operation point. Moreover, redundant sensors measurements are taken into consideration to the equipment and/or power plant monitoring. This work goes forward and it is in advanced to the instrument analysis as it is, independently of the operation point, using specific signal analysis techniques for preventive and predictive maintenance, with the object to obtain not only information about possible malfunctions, but the degradation scale presented in the instrument or in the system measured. We present seven real case studies of Spanish nuclear power plants each of them shall give a significant contribution to problem resolution and power plant performance. (Author)

  13. An Approach to Autonomous Control for Space Nuclear Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Richard Thomas [ORNL; Upadhyaya, Belle R. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2011-01-01

    Under Project Prometheus, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) investigated deep space missions that would utilize space nuclear power systems (SNPSs) to provide energy for propulsion and spacecraft power. The initial study involved the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO), which was proposed to conduct in-depth studies of three Jovian moons. Current radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) and solar power systems cannot meet expected mission power demands, which include propulsion, scientific instrument packages, and communications. Historically, RTGs have provided long-lived, highly reliable, low-power-level systems. Solar power systems can provide much greater levels of power, but power density levels decrease dramatically at {approx} 1.5 astronomical units (AU) and beyond. Alternatively, an SNPS can supply high-sustained power for space applications that is both reliable and mass efficient. Terrestrial nuclear reactors employ varying degrees of human control and decision-making for operations and benefit from periodic human interaction for maintenance. In contrast, the control system of an SNPS must be able to provide continuous operatio for the mission duration with limited immediate human interaction and no opportunity for hardware maintenance or sensor calibration. In effect, the SNPS control system must be able to independently operate the power plant while maintaining power production even when subject to off-normal events and component failure. This capability is critical because it will not be possible to rely upon continuous, immediate human interaction for control due to communications delays and periods of planetary occlusion. In addition, uncertainties, rare events, and component degradation combine with the aforementioned inaccessibility and unattended operation to pose unique challenges that an SNPS control system must accommodate. Autonomous control is needed to address these challenges and optimize the reactor control design.

  14. Effect of the Fukushima nuclear accident on the risk perception of residents near a nuclear power plant in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Zhou, Ying; Han, Yuting; Hammitt, James K; Bi, Jun; Liu, Yang

    2013-12-03

    We assessed the influence of the Fukushima nuclear accident (FNA) on the Chinese public's attitude and acceptance of nuclear power plants in China. Two surveys (before and after the FNA) were administered to separate subsamples of residents near the Tianwan nuclear power plant in Lianyungang, China. A structural equation model was constructed to describe the public acceptance of nuclear power and four risk perception factors: knowledge, perceived risk, benefit, and trust. Regression analysis was conducted to estimate the relationship between acceptance of nuclear power and the risk perception factors while controlling for demographic variables. Meanwhile, we assessed the median public acceptable frequencies for three levels of nuclear events. The FNA had a significant impact on risk perception of the Chinese public, especially on the factor of perceived risk, which increased from limited risk to great risk. Public acceptance of nuclear power decreased significantly after the FNA. The most sensitive groups include females, those not in public service, those with lower income, and those living close to the Tianwan nuclear power plant. Fifty percent of the survey respondents considered it acceptable to have a nuclear anomaly no more than once in 50 y. For nuclear incidents and serious incidents, the frequencies are once in 100 y and 150 y, respectively. The change in risk perception and acceptance may be attributed to the FNA. Decreased acceptance of nuclear power after the FNA among the Chinese public creates additional obstacles to further development of nuclear power in China and require effective communication strategies.

  15. The Net Contribution of Nuclear Power to the National Economy in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Manki; Kim, Seung-su; Lee, Jong Hee; Kim, Soo-eun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The objective of the study is to quantify the net contribution of nuclear power to the national economy in Korea focusing on the operating phase of nuclear power. This study is to see what would have happened to the Korean national economy, if all the nuclear power had been completely replaced with its substitute, coal power, providing a mechanism addressing a possible feedback between price and output on a national economy, triggered by the structural change in power sector. The role of nuclear power is estimated to be significant in terms of total output, GDP, price level, and labor employment in Korean economy. The net contribution of nuclear power estimated in this study can be recognized as positive externalities of nuclear power, which can be used to balance between positive externalities and negative externalities in the estimation of social cost of nuclear power, on which public concerns are substantially growing in the wake of the Fukushima nuclear power accident in Japan.

  16. Review on studies for external cost of nuclear power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byung Heung [Korea National University of Transportation, Chungju (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Won Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    External cost is cost imposed on a third party when producing or consuming a good or service. Since the 1990s, the external costs of nuclear powered electricity production have been studied. Costs are a very important factor in policy decision and the external cost is considered for cost comparison on electricity production. As for nuclear fuel cycle, a chosen technology will determine the external cost. However, there has been little research on this issue. For this study, methods for external cost on nuclear power production have been surveyed and analyzed to develop an approach for evaluating external cost on nuclear fuel cycles. Before the Fukushima accident, external cost research had focused on damage costs during normal operation of a fuel cycle. However, accident cost becomes a major concern after the accident. Various considerations for external cost including accident cost have been used to different studies, and different methods have been applied corresponding to the considerations. In this study, the results of the evaluation were compared and analyzed to identify methodological applicability to the external cost estimation with nuclear fuel cycles.

  17. Multilevel transport solution of LWR reactor cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jose Ignacio Marquez Damian; Cassiano R.E. de Oliveira; HyeonKae Park

    2008-09-01

    This work presents a multilevel approach for the solution of the transport equation in typical LWR assemblies and core configurations. It is based on the second-order, even-parity formulation of the transport equation, which is solved within the framework provided by the finite element-spherical harmonics code EVENT. The performance of the new solver has been compared with that of the standard conjugate gradient solver for diffusion and transport problems on structured and unstruc-tured grids. Numerical results demonstrate the potential of the multilevel scheme for realistic reactor calculations.

  18. Reliability methods in nuclear power plant ageing management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simola, K. [VTT Automation, Espoo (Finland). Industrial Automation

    1999-07-01

    The aim of nuclear power plant ageing management is to maintain an adequate safety level throughout the lifetime of the plant. In ageing studies, the reliability of components, systems and structures is evaluated taking into account the possible time-dependent degradation. The phases of ageing analyses are generally the identification of critical components, identification and evaluation of ageing effects, and development of mitigation methods. This thesis focuses on the use of reliability methods and analyses of plant- specific operating experience in nuclear power plant ageing studies. The presented applications and method development have been related to nuclear power plants, but many of the approaches can also be applied outside the nuclear industry. The thesis consists of a summary and seven publications. The summary provides an overview of ageing management and discusses the role of reliability methods in ageing analyses. In the publications, practical applications and method development are described in more detail. The application areas at component and system level are motor-operated valves and protection automation systems, for which experience-based ageing analyses have been demonstrated. Furthermore, Bayesian ageing models for repairable components have been developed, and the management of ageing by improving maintenance practices is discussed. Recommendations for improvement of plant information management in order to facilitate ageing analyses are also given. The evaluation and mitigation of ageing effects on structural components is addressed by promoting the use of probabilistic modelling of crack growth, and developing models for evaluation of the reliability of inspection results. (orig.)

  19. Anthology of disaster at Japanese nuclear power plant Fukushima-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N. Tikhonov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The extensive material about the origin and deepening up to turning into a disaster and the elimination of an emergency at the nuclear power plant Fukushima-1 is systematized and generalized based on the analysis of public government data and results of scientific researches. The events that have resulted in the destruction of buildings and structures, loss of life, evacuation of the population from the zone of radioactive contamination are presented chronologically. The article demonstrates the large scale and complexity of problems existing in the field of ensuring the nuclear and radiation safety of the population. The ways to minimize the risk of accidents and reduce the risk of negative impacts on the environment and public health are described. The ideas about the different approaches of the countries of the world to the prospects of the nuclear power development taking into account the consequences of the accident at the nuclear power plant Fukushima-1 are specified. The comparative characteristics of different types of technical solutions in terms of safety are provided.

  20. Automatization of welding for nuclear power equipments and facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamai, Y.; Matsumoto, T.; Koyama, T. (Hitachi Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan). Hitachi Works)

    1980-09-01

    For the requirement of high reliability in the construction of nuclear power plants and the reduction of radiation exposure in the modefying works of existing plants, the automation and remote operation of welding have increased their necessity. In this paper, the present state of the automation of welding for making machines, equipments and pipings for nuclear power plants in Hitachi Ltd. is described, and the aim of developing the automation, the features of the equipments and the state of application to actual plants are introduced, centering around the automation of welding for large structures such as reactor containment vessels and the remote type automatic welding system for pipings. By these automations, the large outcomes were obtained in the improvement of welding quality required for the machines and equipments for atomic energy. Moreover, the conspicuous results were also obtained in case of the peculiar works to nuclear power plants, in which the reduction of the radiation exposure related to human bodies and the welding of high quality are demanded. The present state of the automation of welding for nuclear installations in Hitachi Ltd., the development of automatic welding equipments and the present state of application to actual plants, and the development and application of the automatic pipe working machine for reducing radiation exposure are explained.

  1. Hydro and nuclear power for African less-carbon development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Gazzar, Mohamed; Ibrahim, Yassin Mohamed; Bedrous, Maher Aziz

    2007-07-01

    Though the overall picture reveal availability of enormous energy resources which far exceed energy requirements of Africa, most of these resources are grossly underutilized, particularly hydro and nuclear resources. It suggests that Africa's problem is not lack of energy resources but its development and utilization. The region will remain a major net exporter of energy for several decades to com. In dealing with its energy problems Africa faces a unique set of initial conditions, defined mainly by its level and pattern of economic growth, social and demographic characteristics, energy resource endowment, location distances between supply sources and consumption areas, technological underdevelopment, and poverty-driven energy-environment conflict. A key challenge is the optimal utilization of the Africa's energy resources to facilitate both individual country and regional energy and economic development. Stronger emphasis on a more integrated energy supply network based on more widespread regional initiatives, particularly in electricity is essential to sustainable energy development in Africa. This paper discusses the prospects for hydro and nuclear power in Africa. The continent is the poorest in the world. The lack of reliable, accessible and affordable energy hinders its development. Hydro and nuclear power promises to be the least-carbon energy sources, while being the cheapest and most reliable among all. The role the hydropower can play in securing a sustainable energy future for Africa is highly emphasized. Also, nuclear power has many advantages to Africa. Opportunities for hydropower and nuclear power in Africa are all considered. Advantages and disadvantages are also all discussed. (auth)

  2. Use of neurals networks in nuclear power plant diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhrig, R.E. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1989-01-01

    A technique using neural networks as a means of diagnosing transients or abnormal conditions in nuclear power plants is investigated and found to be feasible. The technique is based on the fact that each physical state of the plant can be represented by a unique pattern of sensor outputs or instrument readings that can be related to the condition of the plant. Neural networks are used to relate this pattern to the fault, problem, or transient condition of the plant. A demonstration of the ability of this technique to identify causes of perturbations in the steam generator of a nuclear plant is presented. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  3. Social responsible communication of nuclear power plant with external stakeholders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simoncic, Milan [Nuclear Power Plant Krsko (Slovenia); Zurga, Gordana [Faculty of Organisation Studies in Novo Mesto (Slovenia)

    2016-11-15

    Implications that nuclear technology brings to common physical and social environment, are on daily lists of questions that stakeholders address to owners and operators of nuclear power plants. In this respect, stakeholders expect and demand narrow and explicit answers to concrete questions set. We claim that the acceptability of the NPP in the society can be achieved and maintained also through active communication and trust building between NPP and its stakeholders. A research in this respect was conducted on case of the Krsko NPP, Slovenia. Some institutional and international implications are presented, as well as possible areas for further investigation and research.

  4. Activities in the field of small nuclear power reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranaev, Yu.D.; Dolgov, V.V.; Sergeev, Yu.A. [Physics and Power Eng. Inst., Obninsk (Russian Federation). State Res. Centre

    1997-10-01

    Considerable efforts have been undertaken for development, design, construction and operation of small nuclear power plants (SNPP) in Russia. Systematic work in this area was started in the mid-1950s. The driving force for this activity was the awareness that the use of nuclear fuel would practically solve the problem of fuel transportation. As far as the remote northern regions are concerned, this provides the key advantage of nuclear over conventional energy sources. The activity in the field of SNPP has included pre-design analytical feasibility studies and experimental research including large-scale experiments on critical assemblies, thermal and hydraulic test facilities, research and development work, construction and operation of pilot and demonstration SNPPs, and finally, construction and more than 20 years of operation of the commercial SNPP, namely Bilibino nuclear co-generation plant (NCGP) located in Chukotka autonomous district, which is one of the most remote regions in the far north-east of Russia. In recent years, studies have been carried out on the development of several new SNPP designs using advanced reactors of the new generation. Among these are the second stage of Bilibino NCGP, floating NCGP VOLNOLOM-3, designated for siting in the Arctic sea coast area, and a nuclear district heating plant for the town of Apatity, in the Murmansk region. In this paper, the background and current status of the SNPPs are given, and the problems as well as prospects of small nuclear reactors development and implementation are considered. (orig.) 20 refs.

  5. Nuclear power research priorities and electricity future of Germany in the context of nuclear phase out

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Nevado, Mireia

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of the German power system in the context of nuclear phase out. An energy system model has been developed to study different scenarios taking into account an immediate or a delayed phase out of the operating reactors. The model has a regional focus considering the plans of the German government regarding renewable technologies expansion and the current installed capacity of all the power generating technologies. The model is developed using OSeMOSYS, an op...

  6. Nuclear power plants making a comeback in Japan; El retorno de la centrales nucleares en Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torralbo, J. R.

    2016-08-01

    We reproduce in this magazine the interesting article published by the president of the SNE in issue 46 of Cuadernos de Energia in October 2015, which describes the events that have taken place since the March 11, 2011 earthquake in Japan, the largest in its history, and the subsequent tsunami, which affected the Fukushima power plant, as well as the measures implemented since then and how some of this country nuclear power plants are being started up again. (Author)

  7. Coal and nuclear power: Illinois' energy future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    This conference was sponsored by the Energy Resources Center, University of Illinois at Chicago; the US Department of Energy; the Illinois Energy Resources Commission; and the Illinois Department of Energy and Natural Resources. The theme for the conference, Coal and Nuclear Power: Illinois' Energy Future, was based on two major observations: (1) Illinois has the largest reserves of bituminous coal of any state and is surpassed in total reserves only by North Dakota, and Montana; and (2) Illinois has made a heavy commitment to the use of nuclear power as a source of electrical power generation. Currently, nuclear power represents 30% of the electrical energy produced in the State. The primary objective of the 1982 conference was to review these two energy sources in view of the current energy policy of the Reagan Administration, and to examine the impact these policies have on the Midwest energy scene. The conference dealt with issues unique to Illinois as well as those facing the entire nation. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 30 individual presentations.

  8. Ready for nuclear energy?: An assessment of capacities and motivations for launching new national nuclear power programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jewell, Jessica, E-mail: Jewell_Jessica@ceu-budapest.ed [Central European University, Nador utca 9, 1051 Budapest (Hungary)

    2011-03-15

    The International Atomic Energy Agency reports that as of July 2009 there were 52 countries interested in building their first nuclear power plant. This paper characterizes and evaluates these 'Newcomer Countries' in terms of their capacity and motivations to develop nuclear power. It quantifies factors historically associated with the development of nuclear energy programs and then benchmarks the Newcomers against these data. Countries with established nuclear power programs, particularly where nuclear facilities are privately owned, are typically larger, wealthier and politically stable economies with high government effectiveness. Nuclear power was historically launched during periods of high electricity consumption growth. Other indicators for the potential of nuclear power include: the size of the national grid, the presence of international grid connections and security of fuel supply for electricity production. We identify 10 Newcomers which most closely resemble the Established Nuclear Power Countries and thus are most likely to deploy nuclear energy, 10 countries where the development of nuclear energy is uncertain due to high political instability, 14 countries with lower capacities where pursuing nuclear energy may require especially strong international cooperation and 18 countries where the development of nuclear power is less likely due to their significantly lower capacities and motivations. - Research Highlights: {yields}Historically, nuclear power was used in larger, wealthier, politically stable economies. {yields}Nuclear power was typically launched in periods of high electricity demand growth. {yields}Only 10 out of 52 'Newcomer' countries share similar characteristics. {yields}10 other 'Newcomers' with high motivations and capacities are politically unstable. {yields}Nuclear power would need international help in 14 countries and is unlikely in the rest (18).

  9. Operating Experience at the Aagesta Nuclear Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstroem, S. (ed.)

    1966-09-15

    Sweden's first nuclear power reactor Agesta, achieved criticality on July 17, 1963. Full power (65 MW{sub t}) was attained on March 20, 1964. Aagesta is a heavy water cooled and moderated pressure vessel reactor used for production of electricity as well as for district heating. The design, assembly and construction etc, of the reactor was described in detail in a staff report by AB Atomenergi, 'The Aagesta Nuclear Power Station' edited by B McHugh, which was published in September, 1964. In the book experiences from the commissioning and the first operation of the reactor were reported as well as findings from the extensive reactor physics studies made during this period. The report now presented is written by members of the operating team at Aagesta since its start. It reflects in general the experiences up to the end of 1965. The Aagesta Log, however, covers the period up to the normal summer stop 1966. The reactor has hitherto produced 506,000 MWh power of which 48,700 MWh have been electric power. In July 1965 the responsibility for the reactor operation was taken over by the Swedish State Power Board from AB Atomenergi, which company had started the reactor and operated it until the summer break 1965.

  10. Challenges of deploying nuclear energy for power generation in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar, Mohd Zamzam; Nazaruddin, Nurul Huda; Lye, Jonathan Tan Thiam

    2017-01-01

    Under the 10th Malaysia Plan (2010-2015) and the Economic Transformation Programme (ETP), nuclear energy was identified as a potential long-term option to be explored for electricity generation in Peninsular Malaysia. The energy sector in Malaysia currently faces several concerns including depleting domestic gas supply which will affect security and reliability of supply as well as overdependance on fossil fuels - mainly gas and imported coal, and nuclear energy may offer a possible solution to these issues as well as global climate change concern. Pursuing the nuclear option, Malaysia Nuclear Power Corporation (MNPC) is undertaking a series of comprehensive studies to facilitate an informed Government decision on the matter. This paper aims to discuss the many challenges towards the peaceful use of nuclear energy for electricity generation in the context of the New Energy Policy 2010 to achieve a balanced and sustainable energy mix. This effort will continue in the 11th Malaysia Plan (2016-2020) with emphasis on implementing a comprehensive communications plan and public awareness programme for the potential use of nuclear energy in the future. In analysing the challenges for the development of nuclear energy in Malaysia, the traditional triple bottom line (TBL) framework for sustainability, encompassing economic, social and environmental objectives is utilized. An additional factor, technical, is also included in the analysis to provide a more holistic view. It is opined that the main challenges of developing nuclear energy for electricity generation in a newcomer country like Malaysia can be attributed primarily to domestic non-technical factors compared to the technical factor.

  11. Elecnuc. Nuclear power plants in the world; Elecnuc. Les centrales nucleaires dans le monde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    This small booklet summarizes in tables all the numerical data relative to the nuclear power plants worldwide. These data come from the French CEA/DSE/SEE Elecnuc database. The following aspects are reviewed: 1997 highlights; main characteristics of the reactor types in operation, under construction or on order; map of the French nuclear power plants; worldwide status of nuclear power plants at the end of 1997; nuclear power plants in operation, under construction and on order; capacity of nuclear power plants in operation; net and gross capacity of nuclear power plants on the grid and in commercial operation; forecasts; first power generation of nuclear origin per country, achieved or expected; performance indicator of PWR units in France; worldwide trend of the power generation indicator; nuclear power plants in operation, under construction, on order, planned, cancelled, shutdown, and exported; planning of steam generators replacement; MOX fuel program for plutonium recycling. (J.S.)

  12. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume II. Proliferation resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    The purpose of this volume is limited to an assessment of the relative effects that particular choices of nuclear-power systems, for whatever reasons, may have on the possible spread of nuclear-weapons capabilities. This volume addresses the concern that non-nuclear-weapons states may be able to initiate efforts to acquire or to improve nuclear-weapons capabilities through civilian nuclear-power programs; it also addresses the concern that subnational groups may obtain and abuse the nuclear materials or facilities of such programs, whether in nuclear-weapons states (NWS's) or nonnuclear-weapons states (NNW's). Accordingly, this volume emphasizes one important factor in such decisions, the resistance of nuclear-power systems to the proliferation of nuclear-weapons capabilities.

  13. Conceivable new recycling of nuclear waste by nuclear power companies in their plants

    CERN Document Server

    Santilli, R M

    1997-01-01

    We outline the basic principles and the needed experiments for a conceivable new recycling of nuclear waste by the power plants themselves to avoid its transportation and storage to a (yet unknown) dumping area. Details are provided in an adjoining paper and in patents pending.

  14. Periodic safety review of French nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirrier, D.; Debes, M. [Electricite de France, Paris (France)

    1997-12-01

    The safety of nuclear power plants (NPPs) is checked through different types of safety evaluations, for example, a continuous process, with followup of operational feedback and over-all evaluation every year by each NPP; specific examination, with the study of generic problems when they occur; and a 10-yr outage inspection. In France, the license does not explicitly require periodic safety reviews (PSRs), but an article has been added to the Decree of December 11, 1963 concerning nuclear installations that states, {open_quotes}The Ministers may jointly request the operating utility at any time to proceed to a review of nuclear safety,{close_quotes} which supports requests for PSRs from the safety authority.

  15. Understanding seismic design criteria for Japanese Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Y.J.; Hofmayer, C.H. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Costello, J.F. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-04-01

    This paper summarizes the results of recent survey studies on the seismic design practice for nuclear power plants in Japan. The seismic design codes and standards for both nuclear as well as non-nuclear structures have been reviewed and summarized. Some key documents for understanding Japanese seismic design criteria are also listed with brief descriptions. The paper highlights the design criteria to determine the seismic demand and component capacity in comparison with U.S. criteria, the background studies which have led to the current Japanese design criteria, and a survey of current research activities. More detailed technical descriptions are presented on the development of Japanese shear wall equations, design requirements for containment structures, and ductility requirements.

  16. Development of life evaluation technology for nuclear power plant components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Jin; Kim, Yun Jae; Choi, Jae Boong [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2002-03-15

    This project focuses on developing reliable life evaluation technology for nuclear power plant components, and is divided into two parts, development of a life evaluation system for nuclear pressure vessels and evaluation of applicability of emerging technology to operating plants. For the development of life evaluation system for nuclear pressure vessels, the following seven topics are covered in this project: defect assessment method for steam generator tubes, development of fatigue monitoring system, assessment of corroded pipes, domestic round robin analysis for constructing P-T limit curve for RPV, development of probabilistic integrity assessment technique, effect of aging on strength of dissimilar welds, applicability of LBB to cast stainless steel, and development of probabilistic piping fracture mechanics.

  17. Nuclear-powered Hysat spacecraft: comparative design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raab, B.

    1975-08-01

    The study shows that the all-nuclear spacecraft can have a substantial weight advantage over a hybrid (nuclear/solar) or all-solar spacecraft, owing to a further reduction in power requirement, and to the elimination of such equipment as the sensor gimbal and rotating joint assemblies. Because the need for a sun-oriented section is eliminated, the all-nuclear spacecraft can be designed as a monolithic structure, with the sensor and other payload firmly secured in a fixed position on the structure. This enhances attitude stability while minimizing structural weight and eliminating the need for flexible fluid lines. Sensor motion can be produced, varied, and controlled within the limits specified by the study contractors by moving the entire spacecraft in the prescribed pattern. A simple attitude control system using available hardware suffices to meet all requirements.

  18. Elecnuc. Nuclear power plants in the world; Elecnuc. Les centrales nucleaires dans le monde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This small booklet summarizes in tables all data relative to the nuclear power plants worldwide. These data come from the IAEA's PRIS and AREVA-CEA's GAIA databases. The following aspects are reviewed: 2007 highlights; Main characteristics of reactor types; Map of the French nuclear power plants on 2007/01/01; Worldwide status of nuclear power plants (12/31/2007); Units distributed by countries; Nuclear power plants connected to the Grid- by reactor type groups; Nuclear power plants under construction on 2007; Evolution of nuclear power plants capacities connected to the grid; First electric generations supplied by a nuclear unit in each country; Electrical generation from nuclear power plants by country at the end 2007; Performance indicator of French PWR units; Evolution of the generation indicators worldwide by type; Nuclear operator ranking according to their installed capacity; Units connected to the grid by countries at 12/31/2007; Status of licence renewal applications in USA; Nuclear power plants under construction at 12/31/2007; Shutdown reactors; Exported nuclear capacity in net MWe; Exported and national nuclear capacity connected to the grid; Exported nuclear power plants under construction; Exported and national nuclear capacity under construction; Nuclear power plants ordered at 12/31/2007; Long term shutdown units at 12/31/2007; COL (combined licences) applications in the USA; Recycling of Plutonium in reactors and experiences; Mox licence plants projects; Appendix - historical development; Meaning of the used acronyms; Glossary.

  19. COMMERCIAL UTILITY PERSPECTIVES ON NUCLEAR POWER PLANT CONTROL ROOM MODERNIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey C. Joe; Ronald L. Boring; Julius J. Persensky

    2012-07-01

    Commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States need to modernize their main control rooms (MCR). Many NPPs have done partial upgrades with some success and with some challenges. The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program, and in particular the Advanced Instrumentation and Controls (I&C) and Information Systems Technologies Research and Development (R&D) Pathway within LWRS, is designed to assist commercial nuclear power industry with their MCR modernization efforts. As part of this framework, a survey was issued to utility representatives of the LWRS Program Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems/Technologies (II&C) Utility Working Group to obtain their views on a range of issues related to MCR modernization, including: drivers, barriers, and technology options, and the effects these aspects will have on concepts of operations, modernization strategies, and staffing. This paper summarizes the key survey results and discusses their implications.

  20. Nuclear Power Plant Operator Reliability Research Based on Fuzzy Math

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Xiang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes use of the concept and theory of fuzzy number in fuzzy mathematics, to research for the response time of operator in accident of Chinese nuclear power plant. Through the quantitative analysis for the performance shape factors (PSFs which influence the response time of operators, the formula of the operator response time is obtained based on the possibilistic fuzzy linear regression model which is used for the first time in this kind of research. The research result shows that the correct research method can be achieved through the analysis of the information from a small sample. This method breaks through the traditional research method and can be used not only for the reference to the safe operation of nuclear power plant, but also in other areas.

  1. Directions for advanced use of nuclear power in century XXI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, C E

    1999-05-01

    Nuclear power can provide a significant contribution to electricity generation and meet other needs of the world and the US during the next century provided that certain directions are taken to achieve its public acceptance. These directions include formulation of projections of population, energy consumption, and energy resources over a responsible period of time. These projections will allow assessment of cumulative effects on the environment and on fixed resources. Use of fossil energy resources in a century of growing demand for energy must be considered in the context of long-term environmental damage and resource depletion. Although some question the validity of these consequences, they can be mitigated by use of advanced fast reactor technology. It must be demonstrated that nuclear power technology is safe, resistant to material diversion for weapon use, and economical. An unbiased examination of all the issues related to energy use, especially of electricity, is an essential direction to take.

  2. Results of LWR snubber aging research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D P [Lake Engineering Co., Greenville, RI (United States); Werry, E V; Blahnik, D E [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1992-05-01

    This report describes the aging research results and recommendations for snubbers used in commercial nuclear power plants. Snubbers are safety-related devices used to restrain undesirable dynamic loads at various piping and equipment locations in nuclear power plants (NPPs). Each snubber must accommodate a plant's normal thermal movements and must be capable of restraining the maximum off-normal dynamic loads, such as a seismic event or a transient, postulated for its specific location. The effects of snubber aging and the factors that contribute to the degradation of their safety performance need to be better understood. Thus, Phase II of Nuclear Plant Aging Research was conducted to enhance the understanding of snubber aging and its consequences. Pacific Northwest Laboratory staff and their subcontractors, Lake Engineering and Wyle Laboratories, visited eight sites (encompassing thirteen plants) to conduct interviews with NPP staff and to collect data on snubber aging, testing, and maintenance. The Phase II research methodology, evaluation, results, conclusions, and recommendations are described in the report. Effective methods for service-life monitoring of snubbers are included in the recommendations.

  3. Increasing nuclear power at liberalised energy markets- case Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syri, S.; Kurki-Suonio, T.; Satka, V.

    2012-10-01

    Several Finnish projections for future electricity demand and the need for peak load capacity indicate a demand growth of about 2 GW from the present to the year 2030. The retirement of existing fossil fuel plants and old nuclear power plants will cause increased net import needs during 2020's, even when assuming additional energy efficiency measures and the commissioning of two new nuclear power plants recently approved by the Finnish Parliament. By the year 2030, the need for additional new capacity will be about 6 GW. The increased dependence on import is in contradiction with the official Government targets. This situation is not unique to Finland, but rather is likely to be the case in many other European countries as well. Both the energy company Fortum and energy-intensive industry in Finland see nuclear energy as a viable future generation technology. We describe the « Mankala » concept which is successfully used to build new nuclear capacity at liberalised electricity market in Finland.

  4. Increasing nuclear power at liberalised energy markets- case Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satka V.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Several Finnish projections for future electricity demand and the need for peak load capacity indicate a demand growth of about 2 GW from the present to the year 2030. The retirement of existing fossil fuel plants and old nuclear power plants will cause increased net import needs during 2020’s, even when assuming additional energy efficiency measures and the commissioning of two new nuclear power plants recently approved by the Finnish Parliament. By the year 2030, the need for additional new capacity will be about 6 GW. The increased dependence on import is in contradiction with the official Government targets. This situation is not unique to Finland, but rather is likely to be the case in many other European countries as well. Both the energy company Fortum and energy-intensive industry in Finland see nuclear energy as a viable future generation technology. We describe the « Mankala » concept which is successfully used to build new nuclear capacity at liberalised electricity market in Finland.

  5. Structures and construction of nuclear power plants on lunar surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Katsunori; Kobatake, Masuhiko; Ogawa, Sachio; Kanamori, Hiroshi; Okada, Yasuhiko; Mano, Hideyuki; Takagi, Kenji

    1991-07-01

    The best structure and construction techniques of nuclear power plants in the severe environments on the lunar surface are studied. Facility construction types (functional conditions such as stable structure, shield thickness, maintainability, safety distances, and service life), construction conditions (such as construction methods, construction equipment, number of personnel, time required for construction, external power supply, and required transportation) and construction feasibility (construction method, reactor transportation between the moon and the earth, ground excavation for installation, loading and unloading, transportation, and installation, filling up the ground, electric power supply of plant S (300 kW class) and plant L (3000 kW class)) are outlined. Items to pay attention to in construction are (1) automation and robotization of construction; (2) cost reduction by multi functional robots; and (3) methods of supplying power to robots. A precast concrete block manufacturing plant is also outlined.

  6. Key issues in space nuclear power challenges for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The future appears rich in missions that will extend the frontiers of knowledge, human presence in space, and opportunities for profitable commerce. Key to the success of these ventures is the availability of plentiful, cost effective electric power and assured, low cost access to space. While forecasts of space power needs are problematic, an assessment of future needs based on terrestrial experience has been made. These needs fall into three broad categories: survival, self sufficiency, and industrialization. The cost of delivering payloads to orbital locations from LEO to Mars has been determined and future launch cost reductions projected. From these factors, then, projections of the performance necessary for future solar and nuclear space power options has been made. These goals are largely dependent upon orbital location and energy storage needs. Finally the cost of present space power systems has been determined and projections made for future systems.

  7. The virtual digital nuclear power plant: A modern tool for supporting the lifecycle of VVER-based nuclear power units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkadov, G. V.; Zhukavin, A. P.; Kroshilin, A. E.; Parshikov, I. A.; Solov'ev, S. L.; Shishov, A. V.

    2014-10-01

    The article describes the "Virtual Digital VVER-Based Nuclear Power Plant" computerized system comprising a totality of verified initial data (sets of input data for a model intended for describing the behavior of nuclear power plant (NPP) systems in design and emergency modes of their operation) and a unified system of new-generation computation codes intended for carrying out coordinated computation of the variety of physical processes in the reactor core and NPP equipment. Experiments with the demonstration version of the "Virtual Digital VVER-Based NPP" computerized system has shown that it is in principle possible to set up a unified system of computation codes in a common software environment for carrying out interconnected calculations of various physical phenomena at NPPs constructed according to the standard AES-2006 project. With the full-scale version of the "Virtual Digital VVER-Based NPP" computerized system put in operation, the concerned engineering, design, construction, and operating organizations will have access to all necessary information relating to the NPP power unit project throughout its entire lifecycle. The domestically developed commercial-grade software product set to operate as an independently operating application to the project will bring about additional competitive advantages in the modern market of nuclear power technologies.

  8. Multilevel Flow Modeling for Nuclear Power Plant Diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gola, G; Thunem, Harald P-J; Thunem, Atoosa P-J

    2012-01-01

    As complexity and safety requirements of current and future nuclear power plants increase, innovative methods are being investigated to perform accurate and reliable system diagnoses. Detecting malfunctions, identifying their causes and possibly predicting their consequences are major challenges...... detected anomalies. The combination of a data reconciliation system and the Multilevel Flow Modeling approach is illustrated with regard to the secondary loop of the Loviisa-2 Pressurized Water Reactor located in Finland....

  9. Nuclear Power Plant Mechanical Component Flooding Fragility Experiments Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope, C. L. [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States); Savage, B. [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States); Johnson, B. [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States); Muchmore, C. [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States); Nichols, L. [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States); Roberts, G. [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States); Ryan, E. [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States); Suresh, S. [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States); Tahhan, A. [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States); Tuladhar, R. [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States); Wells, A. [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States); Smith, C. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-07-24

    This report describes progress on Nuclear Power Plant mechanical component flooding fragility experiments and supporting research. The progress includes execution of full scale fragility experiments using hollow-core doors, design of improvements to the Portal Evaluation Tank, equipment procurement and initial installation of PET improvements, designation of experiments exploiting the improved PET capabilities, fragility mathematical model development, Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamic simulations, wave impact simulation device research, and pipe rupture mechanics research.

  10. Predicting and Preventing Flow Accelerated Corrosion in Nuclear Power Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Bryan Poulson

    2014-01-01

    Flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) of carbon steels in water has been a concern in nuclear power production for over 40 years. Many theoretical models or empirical approaches have been developed to predict the possible occurrence, position, and rate of FAC. There are a number of parameters, which need to be incorporated into any model. Firstly there is a measure defining the hydrodynamic severity of the flow; this is usually the mass transfer rate. The development of roughness due to FAC and it...

  11. Circuit for power variation rate measurements in a nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moisin, L.H.

    1980-01-01

    An asychronous digital circuit for the power variation rate of a nuclear reactor is proposed. The circuit is based on the fact that the variation rate can be obtained by a simple division between the difference of two time normalized adjacent measurements of the neutron flux and the total value of the first measurement. The circuit maintains a constant precision of the counting rate due to the effect of an automatic time constant switch. 4 references.

  12. Improving automated load flexibility of nuclear power plants with ALFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, Andreas [AREVA GmbH, Karlstein (Germany). Plant Control/Training; Klaus, Peter [E.ON NPP Isar 2, Essenbach (Germany). Plant Operation/Production Engineering

    2016-07-01

    In several German and Swiss Nuclear Power Plants with Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) the control of the reactor power was and will be improved in order to be able to support the energy transition with increasing volatile renewable energy in the grid by flexible load operation according to the need of the load dispatcher (power system stability). Especially regarding the mentioned German NPPs with a nominal electric power of approx. 1,500 MW, the general objectives are the main automated grid relevant operation modes. The new possibilities of digital I and C (as TELEPERM {sup registered} XS) enable the automation of the operating modes provided that manual support is no longer necessary. These possibilities were and will be implemented by AREVA within the ALFC-projects. Manifold adaption algorithms to the reactor physical variations during the nuclear load cycle enable a precise control of the axial power density distribution and of the reactivity management in the reactor core. Finally this is the basis for a highly automated load flexibility with the parallel respect and surveillance of the operational limits of a PWR.

  13. System aspects of a Space Nuclear Reactor Power System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaffe, L.; Fujita, T.; Beatty, R.; Bhandari, P.; Chow, E.; Deininger, W.; Ewell, R.; Grossman, M.; Kia, T.; Nesmith, B.

    1988-01-01

    Selected systems aspects of a 300 kW nuclear reactor power system for spacecraft have been studied. The approach included examination of two candidate missions and their associated spacecraft, and a number of special topics dealing with the power system design and operation. The missions considered were a reusable orbital transfer vehicle and a space-based radar. The special topics included: power system configuration and scaling, launch vehicle integration, operating altitude, orbital storage, start-up, thawing, control, load following, procedures in case of malfunction, restart, thermal and nuclear radiation to other portions of the spacecraft, thermal stresses between subsystems, boom and cable designs, vibration modes, altitude control, reliability, and survivability. Among the findings are that the stowed length of the power system is important to mission design and that orbital storage for months to years may be needed for missions involving orbital assembly. The power system design evolved during the study and has continued to evolve; the current design differs somewhat from that examined in this paper.

  14. RTC-control of power transients in nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratemi, Wajdi Mohamed [Alfateh University, PO Box 13040, Tripoli (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya)

    2006-07-01

    In this paper, the new Reactivity Trace Curve (RTC) method (Ratemi 1993,1994), which is based on the dynamic period studies (Bernard et al.,1984), has been studied for maneuvering of the nuclear reactor power without power shooting. The reactor is modeled with one group of delayed neutrons with temperature feedback effect, as well as, Xenon feedback effect. A precursors concentration model is used to provide for the effective dynamic decay constant (in one group case, it is a static one). The RTC-identifier which is given by a differential equation is then solved at each sampling time (for one group, it has an analytical solution). Its solution is what is called the Reactivity Trace Curve which keeps the power steady at the desired power. An inverse kinetic model which uses the on-line power data for reactivity calculation is used to provide initial condition (initial reactivity) for the RTC- power controller. Also feedback model are needed to evaluate both the temperature and Xenon reactivities which when subtracted from the RTC-value, one then can determine the reactivity required to keep the reactor power steady without power shooting. (authors)

  15. A methodology for nuclear power plant operational events evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Jeferson, E-mail: jeferson@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CGRC/CNEN), Rio de janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao Geral de Reatores e do Ciclo de Combustivel; Costa, Sergio Dias, E-mail: sergiodiascosta@hotmail.com [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Operational events are normal occurrences in industrial plants and in nuclear power plants. The evaluation of operational events gains importance when it comes specifically to nuclear power plants due to the proportions that the impact and the consequences of these events may cause to the installation itself, their workers, the external area of the nuclear installation, the environment and to the public in general. These consequences, for the operation of these facilities can range from very little, until the consequences that lead to accidents and can cause significant impacts. Operational events may be associated or have influence in many fields of knowledge, such as operation, maintenance, engineering, Radiological Protection, physical protection, chemistry, Human or Organizational Factors and external events, among others. The accident at the Fukushima Daichi nuclear power plant, shows the importance of exhausting all the studies concerning operational events in order to improve the operational safety of nuclear plants, considering all the causes and possible consequences. In this context, the evaluation of operational events discipline emerges as an important and relevant tool to contribute to the maintenance and/or improvement of the operational safety of nuclear installations. Not without reason the nuclear industry actively participates in programs of exchange of operational experience, where relevant events are thoroughly evaluated and discussed in specific forums, such as power plant operators, regulators and/or joint technical meetings, always with the purpose to prevent, minimize or mitigate its consequences. Any evaluation of operational events passes necessarily by an in-depth study of the circumstances of the event, culminating with the identification of your cause and proposition of corrective actions to prevent recurrence of similar events. Additionally, the events should not be studied individually, but evaluated within a temporal context in order

  16. Evaluation of the feasibility, economic impact, and effectiveness of underground nuclear power plants. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-05-01

    Information on underground nuclear power plants is presented concerning underground nuclear power plant concepts; public health impacts; technical feasibility of underground concepts; economic impacts of underground construction; and evaluation of related issues.

  17. Nuclear power plant maintenance optimisation SENUF network activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlstrand, R.; Bieth, M.; Pla, P.; Rieg, C.; Trampus, P. [Inst. for Energy, EC DG Joint Research Centre, Petten (Netherlands)

    2004-07-01

    During providing scientific and technical support to TACIS and PHARE nuclear safety programs a large amount of knowledge related to Russian design reactor systems has accumulated and led to creation of a new Network concerning Nuclear Safety in Central and Eastern Europe called ''Safety of Eastern European type Nuclear Facilities'' (SENUF). SENUF contributes to bring together all stakeholders of TACIS and PHARE: beneficiaries, end users, Eastern und Western nuclear industries, and thus, to favour fruitful technical exchanges and feedback of experience. At present the main focus of SENUF is the nuclear power plant maintenance as substantial element of plant operational safety as well as life management. A Working Group has been established on plant maintenance. One of its major tasks in 2004 is to prepare a status report on advanced strategies to optimise maintenance. Optimisation projects have an interface with the plant's overall life management program. Today, almost all plants involved in SENUF network have an explicit policy to extend their service life, thus, component ageing management, modernization and refurbishment actions became much more important. A database is also under development, which intends to help sharing the available knowledge and specific equipment and tools. (orig.)

  18. Dynamic performance of concrete undercut anchors for Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahrenholtz, Christoph, E-mail: christoph@mahrenholtz.net; Eligehausen, Rolf

    2013-12-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Behavior of undercut anchors under dynamic actions simulating earthquakes. • First high frequency load and crack cycling tests on installed concrete anchors ever. • Comprehensive review of anchor qualification for Nuclear Power Plants. - Abstract: Post-installed anchors are widely used for structural and nonstructural connections to concrete. In many countries, concrete anchors used for Nuclear Power Plants have to be qualified to ensure reliable behavior even under extreme conditions. The tests required for qualification of concrete anchors are carried out at quasi-static loading rates well below the rates to be expected for dynamic actions deriving from earthquakes, airplane impacts or explosions. To investigate potentially beneficial effects of high loading rates and cycling frequencies, performance tests on installed undercut anchors were conducted. After introductory notes on anchor technology and a comprehensive literature review, this paper discusses the qualification of anchors for Nuclear Power Plants and the testing carried out to quantify experimentally the effects of dynamic actions on the load–displacement behavior of undercut anchors.

  19. Revised seismic and geologic siting regulations for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, A.J.; Chokshi, N.C. [Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The primary regulatory basis governing the seismic design of nuclear power plants is contained in Appendix A to Part 50, General Design Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants, of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). General Design Criteria (GDC) 2 defines requirements for design bases for protection against natural phenomena. GDC 2 states the performance criterion that {open_quotes}Structures, systems, and components important to safety shall be designed to withstand the effects of natural phenomena such as earthquakes, . . . without loss of capability to perform their safety functions. . .{close_quotes}. Appendix A to Part 100, Seismic and Geologic Siting Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants, has been the principal document which provided detailed criteria to evaluate the suitability of proposed sites and suitability of the plant design basis established in consideration of the seismic and geologic characteristics of the proposed sites. Appendix A defines required seismological and geological investigations and requirements for other design conditions such as soil stability, slope stability, and seismically induced floods and water waves, and requirements for seismic instrumentation. The NRC staff is in the process of revising Appendix A. The NRC has recently revised seismic siting and design regulations for future applications. These revisions are discussed in detail in this paper.

  20. IR-360 nuclear power plant safety functions and component classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousefpour, F., E-mail: fyousefpour@snira.co [Management of Nuclear Power Plant Construction Company (MASNA) (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shokri, F.; Soltani, H. [Management of Nuclear Power Plant Construction Company (MASNA) (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    The IR-360 nuclear power plant as a 2-loop PWR of 360 MWe power generation capacity is under design in MASNA Company. For design of the IR-360 structures, systems and components (SSCs), the codes and standards and their design requirements must be determined. It is a prerequisite to classify the IR-360 safety functions and safety grade of structures, systems and components correctly for selecting and adopting the suitable design codes and standards. This paper refers to the IAEA nuclear safety codes and standards as well as USNRC standard system to determine the IR-360 safety functions and to formulate the principles of the IR-360 component classification in accordance with the safety philosophy and feature of the IR-360. By implementation of defined classification procedures for the IR-360 SSCs, the appropriate design codes and standards are specified. The requirements of specific codes and standards are used in design process of IR-360 SSCs by design engineers of MASNA Company. In this paper, individual determination of the IR-360 safety functions and definition of the classification procedures and roles are presented. Implementation of this work which is described with example ensures the safety and reliability of the IR-360 nuclear power plant.

  1. Nuclear Power: Is It a New Clear Choice for Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besar, Idris B.

    2008-05-01

    Energy is essential for socio-economic development. Any nation's standard of living is closely related to its access to energy. To put into perspective, the per capita electricity consumptions in developed countries of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) is currently estimated at 8600 kilowatts-hour per year as compared to the consumption rates in Malaysia and some African countries of 3300 and 50 kilowatts-hour per year, respectively. Energy is therefore an important pre-requisite for achieving the Malaysian vision of becoming a developed nation by the year 2020, in that it is needed not only for industrialization programme but also in maintaining quality of life. In Malaysia, the main concern currently is still on the supply in term of adequacy, reliability and quality; and moving slowly but steadily towards security, sustainability, environmentally friendly and contribution to climate change. With this new dimension, nuclear power emerged as a good match to a possible alternative in the comprehensive national energy policy. Many studies presented the positive aspects of nuclear power while others indicated the bad sides and potential risks. This paper will highlight some of those pros and cons as well as the potential risks beside a discussion on relevant requirements for a nuclear power programme in particular those of interest to the professionals in the physical sciences.

  2. Radiological protection in nuclear power plants; La proteccion radiologica en las centrales nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorrilla R, S. [CFE. Central Laguna Verde, Km. 42.5 Carretera Cardel-Nautla, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2008-12-15

    This presentation sharing experiences which correspond to the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde. This nuclear power plant is located at level 2 of four possible, in the classification performance of the World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO), which means the mexican nuclear power plant is classified in terms of its performance indicators and above the average achieved by their counterparts americans and canadians. In the national context, the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde has also been honored with several awards such as the National Quality Award, the Clean Industry Certificate, the distinction of Environmental Excellence and others of similar importance. For the standards of WANO, the basic idea is that there are shortcomings in one of nuclear power plant concern to all partners. The indicators used for the classification will always go beyond more compliance with regulations, which are assumed, and rather assume come or a path to excellence. Among the most important indicators are: the collective dose, the percentage of areas declared as contaminated, the number, type and tendency of contamination personal cases, the number of dosimetry alarms, the number of unplanned exposures, loss control of high radiation areas and the release of contaminated material outside the restricted areas. Furthermore, as already indicated, nuclear power plants are of special care situations, such as, carrying out work in areas with radiation fields of more than 15 mSv h{sup -1}, the movement of spent fuel in the reload floor. The consideration of the minimum total effective dose equivalent as a criterion for prescribing tools that reduce exposures, but may increase the external cases of contaminated casualties, the experience in portals such as workers subject to radiology, where exposure in industrial radiography, and so on. Special mention deserve the conditions generated during fuel reload stops, which causes a massive personnel movement, working simultaneously on

  3. Developing the concept of maintenance and repairs in projects of power units for new-generation nuclear power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurinovich, V. D.; Yanchenko, Yu. A.

    2012-05-01

    Results from conceptual elaboration of individual requirements for the system of maintenance and repairs that must be implemented in the projects of new-generation nuclear power stations are presented taking as an example the power unit project for a nuclear power station equipped with a standard optimized VVER reactor with enhanced information support (the so-called VVER TOI reactor). Implementation of these concepts will help to achieve competitiveness of such nuclear power stations in the domestic and international markets.

  4. 76 FR 65753 - Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... COMMISSION Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory..., ``Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants,'' in the Federal Register for a 60 day... (NUMARC) 93-01, ``Industry Guideline for Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear......

  5. A Nuclear Renaissance: The Role of Nuclear Power in Mitigating Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winslow, Anne

    2011-06-01

    The U. N. Framework Convention on Climate Change calls for the stabilization of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at double the preindustrial atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration to avoid dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. To achieve this goal, carbon emissions in 2050 must not exceed their current level, despite predictions of a dramatic increase in global electricity demand. The need to reduce GHG emissions and simultaneously provide for additional electricity demand has led to a renewed interest in the expansion of alternatives to fossil fuels—particularly renewable energy and nuclear power. As renewable energy sources are often constrained by the intermittency of natural energy forms, scale-ability concerns, cost and environmental barriers, many governments and even prominent environmentalist turn to nuclear energy as a source of clean, reliable base-load electricity. Described by some as a "nuclear renaissance", this trend of embracing nuclear power as a tool to mitigate climate change will dramatically influence the feasibility of emerging nuclear programs around the world.

  6. An Evaluation of Energy Storage Options for Nuclear Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, Justin L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Dufek, Eric J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Energy supply, distribution, and demand are continuing to evolve as new generation sources come online and new appliances are installed. A larger percentage of the United States (U.S.) energy mix is provided by variable energy sources such as wind and solar each year, and distributed generation is becoming more common. In parallel, an evolution in consumer products such as electrical vehicles, information technology devices for residential and industrial applications, and appliances is changing how energy is consumed. As a result of these trends, nuclear power plants (NPPs) are being called upon to operate more flexibly than ever before. Furthermore, advanced nuclear power plants (A-NPPs) might operate as part of an electricity system that looks very different than when the current NPP fleet was constructed. A-NPPs face the possibility that they will need to operate in an environment where flexibility (e.g., fast ramping) is more highly valued than stability (e.g., baseload generation for conventional demand curves). The current fleet of NPPs is struggling to remain economical in competitive markets in an era of historically low natural gas prices and renewable sources with very low marginal costs. These factors, overlaid with an ambiguous national policy related to nuclear energy and a decision-making context that struggles with multi-decade capital investments, raise key questions and present significant challenges to the economics of nuclear power in the evolving grid. Multiple factors could improve the economics of A-NPPs, including: (1) minimizing the need for active safety systems, (2) minimizing adoption of one-off reactor designs, (3) establishing policies that credit low carbon emitting technologies, and (4) integrating energy storage technologies that increase revenue and reduce costs through a combination of ancillary services, market hedging, and reduced costs via stable operation. This report focuses on Item (4), containing an overview, synthesis, and

  7. Results of the LIRES Round Robin test on high temperature reference electrodes for LWR applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosch, R.W. [SCK.CEN, Nuclear Research Centre Belgium, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Nagy, G. [Magyar Tudomanyos Akademia KFKI Atomenergia Kutatointezet, AEKI, Konkoly Thege ut 29-33, 1121 Budapest (Hungary); Feron, D. [CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Navas, M. [CIEMAT, Edificio 30, Dpto. Fision Nuclear, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid, (Spain); Bogaerts, W. [KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 31, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Karnik, D. [Nuclear Research Institute, NRI, Rez (Czech Republic); Dorsch, T. [Framatone ANP, Inc., Charlotte, North Carolina (United States); Molander, A. [Studsvik AB SE-611 82 Nykoeping (Sweden); Maekelae, K. [Materials and Structural Integrity, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Kemistintie 3, P.O. Box 1704, FIN-02044 VTT (Finland)

    2004-07-01

    A European sponsored research project has been started on 1 October 2000 to develop high temperature reference electrodes that can be used for in-core electrochemical measurements in Light Water Reactors (LWR's). This LIRES-project (Development of Light Water Reactor Reference Electrodes) consists of 9 partners (SCK-CEN, AEKI, CEA, CIEMAT, KU Leuven, NRI Rez, Framatone ANP, Studsvik Nuclear and VTT) and will last for four years. The main objective of this LIRES project is to develop a reference electrode, which is robust enough to be used inside a LWR. Emphasize is put on the radiation hardness of both the mechanical design of the electrode as the proper functioning of the electrode. A four steps development trajectory is foreseen: (1) To set a testing standard for a Round Robin, (2) To develop different reference electrodes, (3) To perform a Round Robin test of these reference electrodes followed by selection of the best reference electrode(s), (4) To perform irradiation tests under appropriate LWR conditions in a Material Test Reactor (MTR). Four different high temperature reference electrodes have been developed and are being tested in a Round Robin test. These electrodes are: A Ceramic Membrane Electrode (CME), a Rhodium electrode, an external Ag/AgCl electrode and a Palladium electrode. The presentation will focus on the results obtained with the Round Robin test. (authors)

  8. Nuclear Power Industry of China Enters a New Stage of Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the basic conditions of nuclear power plants or projects in China, which have been built up, or under construction, or approved by the State Council. Excellent operating indexes of the existing nuclear power plants and the capability of independent design, manufacture, construction and operation are briefly enumerated.There are over thirty nuclear power plant sites in the coastal and inland areas, which have been checked or preevaluated. This proves that a solid foundation for large-scaled development of nuclear power industry has been laid and nuclear power will certainly play an important role in power supply and environment protection of China.

  9. Human Reliability Analysis for Digitized Nuclear Power Plants: Case Study on the LingAo II Nuclear Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhua Zou

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The main control room (MCR in advanced nuclear power plants (NPPs has changed from analog to digital control system (DCS. Operation and control have become more automated, centralized, and accurate due to the digitalization of NPPs, which has improved the efficiency and security of the system. New issues associated with human reliability inevitably arise due to the adoption of new accident procedures and digitalization of main control rooms in NPPs. The LingAo II NPP is the first digital NPP in China to apply the state-oriented procedure. In order to address issues related to human reliability analysis for DCS and DCS + state-oriented procedure, the Hunan Institute of Technology conducted a research project based on a cooperative agreement with the LingDong Nuclear Power Co. Ltd. This paper is a brief introduction to the project.

  10. Preventive maintenance instrumentation results in Spanish nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomo Anaya, M. Jose; Verdu Martin, Gumersindo, E-mail: mpalomo@iqn.upv.es, E-mail: gverdu@iqn.upv.es [ISIRYM Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Arnaldos Gonzalvez, Adoracion, E-mail: a.arnaldos@titaniast.com [TITANIA Servicios Tecnologicos SL, Valencia (Spain); Nieva, Marcelino Curiel, E-mail: m.curiel@lainsa.com [Logistica y Acondicionamientos Industriales SAU (LAINSA), Valencia (Spain)

    2011-07-01

    This paper is a recompilation of the most significant results in relation to the researching in Preventive and Predictive Maintenance in critical nuclear instrumentation for power plant operation, which it is being developed by Logistica y Acondicionamientos Industriales and The Isirym Institute of the Polytechnic University of Valencia. Instrumentation verification and test, it is a priority of the Power Plants Control and Instrumentation Department technicians. These procedures are necessary information for the daily power plant work. It is performed according to different procedures and in different moments of the fuel cycle depending on the instrumentation critical state and the monitoring process. Normally, this study is developed taking into account the instantaneous values of the instrumentation measures and, after their conversion to physical magnitude, they are analyzed according to the power plant operation point. Moreover, redundant sensors measurements are taken into consideration to the equipment and/or power plant monitoring. This work goes forward and it is in advanced to the instrument analysis as it is, independently of the operation point, using specific signal analysis techniques for preventive and predictive maintenance, with the aim to obtain not only information about possible malfunctions, but the degradation scale presented in the instrument or in the system measured. We present seven real case studies of Spanish Nuclear Power Plants each of them shall give a significant contribution to problem resolution and power plant performance: Fluctuations in sensor lines (case 1), Air presence in feed water lines (case 2), Root valve partially closed (case 3), Sensor malfunctions (case 4), Electrical source malfunctions (case 5), RTD malfunctions (case 6) and LPRM malfunctions (case 7). (author)

  11. 78 FR 37324 - Preparation of Environmental Reports for Nuclear Power Plant License Renewal Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Parts 51 and 54 RIN 3150-AI42 Preparation of Environmental Reports for Nuclear Power Plant..., Supplement 1 (RG 4.2S1), ``Preparation of Environmental Reports for Nuclear Power Plant License Renewal... reports that are submitted with the application for the renewal of a nuclear power plant operating...

  12. 10 CFR 50.120 - Training and qualification of nuclear power plant personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Training and qualification of nuclear power plant... Training and qualification of nuclear power plant personnel. (a) Applicability. The requirements of this... each holder of a combined license issued under part 52 of this chapter for a nuclear power plant of...

  13. 33 CFR 165.106 - Security Zone: Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant, Seabrook, New Hampshire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Guard District § 165.106 Security Zone: Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant, Seabrook, New Hampshire. (a... property boundary of Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant identified as follows: beginning at position 42°53′58″ N, 070°51′06″ W then running along the property boundaries of Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant to position...

  14. 78 FR 46255 - Revisions to Environmental Review for Renewal of Nuclear Power Plant Operating Licenses; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 51 RIN 3150-AI42 Revisions to Environmental Review for Renewal of Nuclear Power Plant... environmental effect of renewing the operating license of a nuclear power plant. Compliance with the provisions... nuclear power plant. This document is necessary to clarify and correct the revisions made to the......

  15. 33 CFR 165.1155 - Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California. 165.1155 Section 165.1155 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Coast Guard District § 165.1155 Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach... surface to bottom, within a 2,000 yard radius of Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant centered at position...

  16. 77 FR 1743 - Facility Operating License Amendment From Florida Power Corporation, Crystal River Nuclear...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ... COMMISSION Facility Operating License Amendment From Florida Power Corporation, Crystal River Nuclear... Florida Power Corporation for operation of the Crystal River Nuclear Generating Plant, Unit 3. The proposed amendment would increase the licensed core power level for Crystal River Nuclear Generating Plant...

  17. 10 CFR Appendix S to Part 50 - Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants S... FACILITIES Pt. 50, App. S Appendix S to Part 50—Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants..., as specified in § 50.54(ff), nuclear power plants that have implemented the earthquake...

  18. Safety and Radiation Protection at Swedish Nuclear Power Plants 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-05-15

    In 2005, no severe events occurred which challenged the safety at the Swedish nuclear power plants. However, some events have been given a special focus. The 'Gudrun' storm, which occurred in January 2005, affected the operation of the reactors at Ringhals and Barsebaeck 2. At Ringhals, the switchyards were affected by salt deposits and, at Barsebaeck, the 400kV grid was subjected to interruptions. The long-term trend is that the total number of fuel defects in Swedish reactors is decreasing. The damage that occurs nowadays has mainly been caused by small objects entering the fuel via the coolant and fretting holes in the cladding. To reduce the number of defects of this type, fuel with filters is successively being introduced to prevent debris from entering the fuel assemblies and cyclone filters in the facility which cleans the coolant. Since the mid-nineties, the pressurised water reactors, Ringhals 2, 3 and 4, have had problems with fuel rod bowing in excess of the safety analysis calculations. Ringhals AB (RAB) has adopted measures to rectify the bowing. Follow-up work shows that the fuel rod bowing is decreasing. The followup in 2005 of damaged tubes in the Ringhals 4 steam generators indicates a continued slow damage propagation. Tubes with defects of such a limited extent that there are adequate margins to rupture and loosening have been kept in operation. Damaged tubes with insufficient margins have plugged. During the year, previously observed minor leakage from the reactor containment in Ringhals 2 was investigated in greater detail and repaired. The investigations showed extensive corrosion attack caused by deficiencies in connection with containment construction. The ageing of electrical cables and other equipment in the I-C systems has been examined by SKI. Regulatory supervision has so far shown that these issues are largely handled in a satisfactory manner by the licensees but that certain supplementary investigations and other measures

  19. Human Factors Considerations in New Nuclear Power Plants: Detailed Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OHara,J.; Higgins, J.; Brown, W.; Fink, R.

    2008-02-14

    This Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) sponsored study has identified human-performance issues in new and advanced nuclear power plants. To identify the issues, current industry developments and trends were evaluated in the areas of reactor technology, instrumentation and control technology, human-system integration technology, and human factors engineering (HFE) methods and tools. The issues were organized into seven high-level HFE topic areas: Role of Personnel and Automation, Staffing and Training, Normal Operations Management, Disturbance and Emergency Management, Maintenance and Change Management, Plant Design and Construction, and HFE Methods and Tools. The issues where then prioritized into four categories using a 'Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table' methodology based on evaluations provided by 14 independent subject matter experts. The subject matter experts were knowledgeable in a variety of disciplines. Vendors, utilities, research organizations and regulators all participated. Twenty issues were categorized into the top priority category. This Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) technical report provides the detailed methodology, issue analysis, and results. A summary of the results of this study can be found in NUREG/CR-6947. The research performed for this project has identified a large number of human-performance issues for new control stations and new nuclear power plant designs. The information gathered in this project can serve as input to the development of a long-term strategy and plan for addressing human performance in these areas through regulatory research. Addressing human-performance issues will provide the technical basis from which regulatory review guidance can be developed to meet these challenges. The availability of this review guidance will help set clear expectations for how the NRC staff will evaluate new designs, reduce regulatory uncertainty, and provide a well-defined path to new nuclear power plant

  20. Operating experience from Swedish nuclear power plants 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The total production of electricity from Swedish nuclear power plants was 65.6 TWh during 2002, which is a decrease compared to 2001. The energy capability factor for the 11 Swedish reactors averaged 80.8%. The PWRs at Ringhals averaged 87.6%, while the BWRs, not counting Oskarshamn 1, reached 89.2%. No events, which in accordance to conventions should be reported to IAEA, have occurred during 2002. Operational statistics are presented for each Swedish reactor. The hydroelectric power was 66 TWh, 16% lower than 2000. Wind power contributed 0.5 TWh, and remaining production sources, mainly from solid fuel plants combined with district heating, contributed 10.9 TWh. The electricity generation totalled 143 TWh, considerably less than the record high 2001 figure of 158.7 TWh. The preliminary figures for export were 14.8 TWh and and for import 20.1 TWh.