WorldWideScience

Sample records for lwr fuel consumption

  1. Enhanced Accident Tolerant LWR Fuels: Metrics Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shannon Bragg-Sitton; Lori Braase; Rose Montgomery; Chris Stanek; Robert Montgomery; Lance Snead; Larry Ott; Mike Billone

    2013-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) is conducting research and development on enhanced Accident Tolerant Fuels (ATF) for light water reactors (LWRs). This mission emphasizes the development of novel fuel and cladding concepts to replace the current zirconium alloy-uranium dioxide (UO2) fuel system. The overall mission of the ATF research is to develop advanced fuels/cladding with improved performance, reliability and safety characteristics during normal operations and accident conditions, while minimizing waste generation. The initial effort will focus on implementation in operating reactors or reactors with design certifications. To initiate the development of quantitative metrics for ATR, a LWR Enhanced Accident Tolerant Fuels Metrics Development Workshop was held in October 2012 in Germantown, MD. This paper summarizes the outcome of that workshop and the current status of metrics development for LWR ATF.

  2. LIFE vs. LWR: End of the Fuel Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J C; Blink, J A; Shaw, H F

    2008-10-02

    The worldwide energy consumption in 2003 was 421 quadrillion Btu (Quads), and included 162 quads for oil, 99 quads for natural gas, 100 quads for coal, 27 quads for nuclear energy, and 33 quads for renewable sources. The projected worldwide energy consumption for 2030 is 722 quads, corresponding to an increase of 71% over the consumption in 2003. The projected consumption for 2030 includes 239 quads for oil, 190 quads for natural gas, 196 quads for coal, 35 quads for nuclear energy, and 62 quads for renewable sources [International Energy Outlook, DOE/EIA-0484, Table D1 (2006) p. 133]. The current fleet of light water reactors (LRWs) provides about 20% of current U.S. electricity, and about 16% of current world electricity. The demand for electricity is expected to grow steeply in this century, as the developing world increases its standard of living. With the increasing price for oil and gasoline within the United States, as well as fear that our CO2 production may be driving intolerable global warming, there is growing pressure to move away from oil, natural gas, and coal towards nuclear energy. Although there is a clear need for nuclear energy, issues facing waste disposal have not been adequately dealt with, either domestically or internationally. Better technological approaches, with better public acceptance, are needed. Nuclear power has been criticized on both safety and waste disposal bases. The safety issues are based on the potential for plant damage and environmental effects due to either nuclear criticality excursions or loss of cooling. Redundant safety systems are used to reduce the probability and consequences of these risks for LWRs. LIFE engines are inherently subcritical, reducing the need for systems to control the fission reactivity. LIFE engines also have a fuel type that tolerates much higher temperatures than LWR fuel, and has two safety systems to remove decay heat in the event of loss of coolant or loss of coolant flow. These features of

  3. Micro reactor physics of MOX fueled LWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Toshikazu [Osaka Univ. (Japan)

    2001-09-01

    Upon the background that the LWR fuels become complicated in recent years because of the introduction of high burnup fuels, high density Gd fuels, MOX fuels, the author proposes the Micro Reactor Physics. He intends to investigate the behaviors of neutrons and reactions in a pin rod that have not yet been paid attention. Conventionally the resonance absorption has been evaluated by assuming the uniform effective cross sections in a pin rod. However, due to the self-shielding, the neutron spectrum near the surface of the rod is quite different with that of the center of rod. This fact affects the spatial distributions of Pu isotopes produced during burnup. The spatial distribution of temperature in a rod affects the Doppler coefficient. He solved this problem by the multi-band method. In the case where MOX rods are adjacent with U rods, the spectrum of the current from MOX rods to U rods is different with that of U to MOX. That makes the spatial distribution of azimuthal direction together with that of the infinite lattice. He solved this problem by a cell calculation based on the characteristic method. This report introduces several numerical results of his Micro Reactor Physics. One of the important results is the indication that the conventional Doppler coefficient gives 20% higher (not conservative) value. (K. Tsuchihashi)

  4. Micro reactor physics of MOX fueled LWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Toshikazu [Osaka Univ. (Japan)

    2001-09-01

    Upon the background that the LWR fuels become complicated in recent years because of the introduction of high burnup fuels, high density Gd fuels, MOX fuels, the author proposes the Micro Reactor Physics. He intends to investigate the behaviors of neutrons and reactions in a pin rod that have not yet been paid attention. Conventionally the resonance absorption has been evaluated by assuming the uniform effective cross sections in a pin rod. However, due to the self-shielding, the neutron spectrum near the surface of the rod is quite different with that of the center of rod. This fact affects the spatial distributions of Pu isotopes produced during burnup. The spatial distribution of temperature in a rod affects the Doppler coefficient. He solved this problem by the multi-band method. In the case where MOX rods are adjacent with U rods, the spectrum of the current from MOX rods to U rods is different with that of U to MOX. That makes the spatial distribution of azimuthal direction together with that of the infinite lattice. He solved this problem by a cell calculation based on the characteristic method. This report introduces several numerical results of his Micro Reactor Physics. One of the important results is the indication that the conventional Doppler coefficient gives 20% higher (not conservative) value. (K. Tsuchihashi)

  5. Basic Design of a LWR Fuel Compatibility Test Facility (PLUTO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Chang Hwan; Chun, Se Young; Kim, Bok Deuk; Park, Jong Kuk; Chun, Tae Hyun; Kim, Hyoung Kyu; Oh, Dong Seok

    2009-04-15

    KAERI is performing a project for developing a compatibility test facility and the relevant technology for an LWR fuel assembly. It includes the compatibility test and the long term wear test for dual fuel assemblies, and the pressure drop test, uplift force test, flow-induced vibration test, damping test, and the debris filtering capability test for a single fuel assembly. This compatibility test facility of the fuel assemblies is named PLUTO from Performance Test Facility for Fuel Assembly Hydraulics and Vibrations. The PLUTO will be basically constructed for a PWR fuel assembly, and it will be considered to test for the fuel assemblies of other reactors.

  6. Development of information management system on LWR spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B. D.; Lee, S. H.; Song, D. Y.; Jeon, I.; Park, S. J.; Seo, D. S. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-10-01

    LWRs in Korea should manage all the information of spent fuel to implement the obligations under Korea-IAEA safeguards agreement and to perform the nuclear material accountancy work at the facility level. The information management system on LWR spent fuel was developed to manage all movement records from receipt to shipment of LWR fuels, and to get the necessary information such as nuclear fuel inventory lists and status, maps of fresh fuel storage, reactor and spent fuel pool, receipt and shipment records and so on. This information management system has a function to setup the system environments to cover the various kinds of storage types for all LWRs ; reactor, spent fuel pool and fresh fuel storage. The movements of nuclear fuel between the storages can be easily done by double click of the mouse to the destination. It also has a several error checking routines for maintaining the correct accounting data. Using this information management system of LWR spent fuel, facility operators can perform efficiently and effectively the safeguards related works including nuclear material accountancy at each facility.

  7. Thermal conductivity of heterogeneous LWR MOX fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staicu, D.; Barker, M.

    2013-11-01

    It is generally observed that the thermal conductivity of LWR MOX fuel is lower than that of pure UO2. For MOX, the degradation is usually only interpreted as an effect of the substitution of U atoms by Pu. This hypothesis is however in contradiction with the observations of Duriez and Philiponneau showing that the thermal conductivity of MOX is independent of the Pu content in the ranges 3-15 and 15-30 wt.% PuO2 respectively. Attributing this degradation to Pu only implies that stoichiometric heterogeneous MOX can be obtained, while we show that any heterogeneity in the plutonium distribution in the sample introduces a variation in the local stoichiometry which in turn has a strong impact on the thermal conductivity. A model quantifying this effect is obtained and a new set of experimental results for homogeneous and heterogeneous MOX fuels is presented and used to validate the proposed model. In irradiated fuels, this effect is predicted to disappear early during irradiation. The 3, 6 and 10 wt.% Pu samples have a similar thermal conductivity. Comparison of the results for this homogeneous microstructure with MIMAS (heterogeneous) fuel of the same composition showed no difference for the Pu contents of 3, 5.9, 6, 7.87 and 10 wt.%. A small increase of the thermal conductivity was obtained for 15 wt.% Pu. This increase is of about 6% when compared to the average of the values obtained for 3, 6 and 10 wt.% Pu. For comparison purposes, Duriez also measured the thermal conductivity of FBR MOX with 21.4 wt.% Pu with O/M = 1.982 and a density close to 95% TD and found a value in good agreement with the estimation obtained using the formula of Philipponneau [8] for FBR MOX, and significantly lower than his results corresponding to the range 3-15 wt.% Pu. This difference in thermal conductivity is of about 20%, i.e. higher than the measurement uncertainties.Thus, a significant difference was observed between FBR and PWR MOX fuels, but was not explained. This difference

  8. Simulated Fission Gas Behavior in Silicide Fuel at LWR Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Yinbin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mo, Kun [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Yacout, Abdellatif [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Harp, Jason [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-09-15

    As a promising candidate for the accident tolerant fuel (ATF) used in light water reactors (LWRs), the fuel performance of uranium silicide (U3Si2) at LWR conditions needs to be well-understood. However, existing experimental post-irradiation examination (PIE) data are limited to the research reactor conditions, which involve lower fuel temperature compared to LWR conditions. This lack of appropriate experimental data significantly affects the development of fuel performance codes that can precisely predict the microstructure evolution and property degradation at LWR conditions, and therefore evaluate the qualification of U3Si2 as an AFT for LWRs. Considering the high cost, long timescale, and restrictive access of the in-pile irradiation experiments, this study aims to utilize ion irradiation to simulate the inpile behavior of the U3Si2 fuel. Both in situ TEM ion irradiation and ex situ high-energy ATLAS ion irradiation experiments were employed to simulate different types of microstructure modifications in U3Si2. Multiple PIE techniques were used or will be used to quantitatively analyze the microstructure evolution induced by ion irradiation so as to provide valuable reference for the development of fuel performance code prior to the availability of the in-pile irradiation data.

  9. Simulated Fission Gas Behavior in Silicide Fuel at LWR Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Yinbin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mo, Kun [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Yacout, Abdellatif [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Harp, Jason [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-09-15

    As a promising candidate for the accident tolerant fuel (ATF) used in light water reactors (LWRs), the fuel performance of uranium silicide (U3Si2) at LWR conditions need to be well-understood. However, existing experimental post-irradiation examination (PIE) data are limited to the research reactor conditions, which involve lower fuel temperature compared to LWR conditions. This lack of appropriate experimental data significantly affects the development of fuel performance codes that can precisely predict the microstructure evolution and property degradation at LWR conditions and therefore evaluate the qualification of U3Si2 as an AFT for LWRs. Considering the high cost, long timescale, and restrictive access of the in-pile irradiation experiments, this study aims to utilize ion irradiation to simulate the inpile behavior of the U3Si2 fuel. Both in situ TEM ion irradiation and ex situ high-energy ATLAS ion irradiation experiments were employed to simulate different types of microstructure modifications in U3Si2. Multiple PIE techniques were used or will be used to quantitatively analyze the microstructure evolution induced by ion irradiation so as to provide valuable reference for the development of fuel performance code prior to the availability of the in-pile irradiation data.

  10. Irradiation effects on thermal properties of LWR hydride fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrani, Kurt; Balooch, Mehdi; Carpenter, David; Kohse, Gordon; Keiser, Dennis; Meyer, Mitchell; Olander, Donald

    2017-04-01

    Three hydride mini-fuel rods were fabricated and irradiated at the MIT nuclear reactor with a maximum burnup of 0.31% FIMA or ∼5 MWd/kgU equivalent oxide fuel burnup. Fuel rods consisted of uranium-zirconium hydride (U (30 wt%)ZrH1.6) pellets clad inside a LWR Zircaloy-2 tubing. The gap between the fuel and the cladding was filled with lead-bismuth eutectic alloy to eliminate the gas gap and the large temperature drop across it. Each mini-fuel rod was instrumented with two thermocouples with tips that are axially located halfway through the fuel centerline and cladding surface. In-pile temperature measurements enabled calculation of thermal conductivity in this fuel as a function of temperature and burnup. In-pile thermal conductivity at the beginning of test agreed well with out-of-pile measurements on unirradiated fuel and decreased rapidly with burnup.

  11. Spent LWR fuel leach tests: Waste Isolation Safety Assessment program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katayama, Y.B.

    1979-04-01

    Spent light-water-reactor (LWR) fuels with burnups of 54.5, 28 and 9 MWd/kgU were leach-tested in deionized water at 25/sup 0/C. Fuel burnup has no apparent effect on the calculated leach rates based upon the behavior of /sup 137/Cs and /sup 239 +240/Pu. A leach test of 54.5 MWd/kgU spent fuel in synthetic sea brine showed that the cesium-based leach rate is lower in sea brine than in deionized water. A rise in the leach rate was observed after approximately 600 d of cumulative leaching. During the rise, the leach rate for all the measured radionuclides become nearly equal. Evidence suggests that exposure of new surfaces to the leachant may cause the increase. As a result, experimental work to study leaching mechanisms of spent fuel has been initiated. 22 figures.

  12. Nondestructive evaluation of LWR spent fuel shipping casks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballard, D.W.

    1978-02-01

    An analysis of nondestructve testing (NDT) methods currently being used to evaluate the integrity of Light Water Reactor (LWR) spent fuel shipping casks is presented. An assessment of anticipated NDT needs related to breeder reactor cask requirements is included. Specific R and D approaches to probable NDT problem areas such as the evaluation of austenitic stainless steel weldments are outlined. A comprehensive bibliography of current NDT methods for cask evaluation in the USA, Great Britain, Japan and West Germany was compiled for this study.

  13. Development of advanced LWR fuel cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Yong Hwan; Park, S. Y.; Lee, M. H. [and others

    2000-04-01

    This report describes the results from evaluating the preliminary Zr-based alloys to develop the advanced Zr-based alloys for the nuclear fuel claddings, which should have good corrosion resistance and mechanical properties at high burn-up over 70,000MWD/MTU. It also includes the results from the basic studies for optimizing the processes which are involved in the development of the advanced Zr-based alloys. Ten(10) kinds of candidates for the alloys of which performance is over that of the existing Zircaloy-4 or ZIRLO alloy were selected out of the preliminary alloys of 150 kinds which were newly designed and repeatedly manufactured and evaluated to find out the promising alloys. First of all, the corrosion tests on the preliminary alloys were carried out to evaluate their performance in both pure water and LiOH solution at 360 deg C and in steam at 400 deg C. The tensile tests were performed on the alloys which proved to be good in the corrosion resistance. The creep behaviors were tested at 400 deg C for 10 days with the application of constant load on the samples which showed good performance in the corrosion resistance and tensile properties. The effect of the final heat treatment and A-parameters as well as Sn or Nb on the corrosion resistance, tensile properties, hardness, microstructures of the alloys was evaluated for some alloys interested. The other basic researches on the oxides, electrochemical properties, corrosion mechanism, and the establishment of the phase diagrams of some alloys were also carried out.

  14. Enhanced Accident Tolerant LWR Fuels National Metrics Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lori Braase

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), in collaboration with the nuclear industry, has been conducting research and development (R&D) activities on advanced Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuels for the last few years. The emphasis for these activities was on improving the fuel performance in terms of increased burnup for waste minimization and increased power density for power upgrades, as well as collaborating with industry on fuel reliability. After the events at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant in Japan in March 2011, enhancing the accident tolerance of LWRs became a topic of serious discussion. In the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2012, Conference Report 112-75, the U.S. Congress directed DOE-NE to: • Give “priority to developing enhanced fuels and cladding for light water reactors to improve safety in the event of accidents in the reactor or spent fuel pools.” • Give “special technical emphasis and funding priority…to activities aimed at the development and near-term qualification of meltdown-resistant, accident-tolerant nuclear fuels that would enhance the safety of present and future generations of light water reactors.” • Report “to the Committee, within 90 days of enactment of this act, on its plan for development of meltdown-resistant fuels leading to reactor testing and utilization by 2020.” Fuels with enhanced accident tolerance are those that, in comparison with the standard UO2-zirconium alloy system currently used by the nuclear industry, can tolerate loss of active cooling in the reactor core for a considerably longer time period (depending on the LWR system and accident scenario) while maintaining or improving the fuel performance during normal operations, and operational transients, as well as design-basis and beyond design-basis events. The overall draft strategy for development and demonstration is comprised of three phases: Feasibility Assessment and Down-selection; Development and Qualification; and

  15. Feasibility study on the development of advanced LWR fuel technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Youn Ho; Sohn, D. S.; Jeong, Y. H.; Song, K. W.; Song, K. N.; Chun, T. H.; Bang, J. G.; Bae, K. K.; Kim, D. H. and others

    1997-07-01

    Worldwide R and D trends related to core technology of LWR fuels and status of patents have been surveyed for the feasibility study. In addition, various fuel cycle schemes have been studied to establish the target performance parameters. For the development of cladding material, establishment of long-term research plan for alloy development and optimization of melting process and manufacturing technology were conducted. A work which could characterize the effect of sintering additives on the microstructure of UO{sub 2} pellet has been experimentally undertaken, and major sintering variables and their ranges have been found in the sintering process of UO{sub 2}-Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} burnable absorber pellet. The analysis of state of the art technology related to flow mixing device for spacer grid and debris filtering device for bottom nozzle and the investigation of the physical phenomena related to CHF enhancement and the establishment of the data base for thermal-hydraulic performance tests has been done in this study. In addition, survey on the documents of the up-to-date PWR fuel assemblies developed by foreign vendors have been carried out to understand their R and D trends and establish the direction of R and D for these structural components. And, to set the performance target of the new fuel, to be developed, fuel burnup and economy under the extended fuel cycle length scheme were estimated. A preliminary study on the failure mechanism of CANDU fuel, key technology and advanced coating has been performed. (author). 190 refs., 31 tabs., 129 figs.

  16. Extending dry storage of spent LWR fuel for 100 years.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Einziger, R. E.

    1998-12-16

    Because of delays in closing the back end of the fuel cycle in the U.S., there is a need to extend dry inert storage of spent fuel beyond its originally anticipated 20-year duration. Many of the methodologies developed to support initial licensing for 20-year storage should be able to support the longer storage periods envisioned. This paper evaluates the applicability of existing information and methodologies to support dry storage up to 100 years. The thrust of the analysis is the potential behavior of the spent fuel. In the USA, the criteria for dry storage of LWR spent fuel are delineated in 10 CFR 72 [1]. The criteria fall into four general categories: maintain subcriticality, prevent the release of radioactive material above acceptable limits, ensure that radiation rates and doses do not exceed acceptable levels, and maintain retrievability of the stored radioactive material. These criteria need to be considered for normal, off-normal, and postulated accident conditions. The initial safety analysis report submitted for licensing evaluated the fuel's ability to meet the requirements for 20 years. It is not the intent to repeat these calculations, but to look at expected behavior over the additional 80 years, during which the temperatures and radiation fields are lower. During the first 20 years, the properties of the components may change because of elevated temperatures, presence of moisture, effects of radiation, etc. During normal storage in an inert atmosphere, there is potential for the cladding mechanical properties to change due to annealing or interaction with cask materials. The emissivity of the cladding could also change due to storage conditions. If there is air leakage into the cask, additional degradation could occur through oxidation in breached rods, which could lead to additional fission gas release and enlargement of cladding breaches. Air in-leakage could also affect cover gas conductivity, cladding oxidation, emissivity changes, and

  17. Comparative analysis of LWR and FBR spent fuels for nuclear forensics evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permana, Sidik; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Su'ud, Zaki

    2012-06-01

    Some interesting issues are attributed to nuclide compositions of spent fuels from thermal reactors as well as fast reactors such as a potential to reuse as recycled fuel, and a possible capability to be manage as a fuel for destructive devices. In addition, analysis on nuclear forensics which is related to spent fuel compositions becomes one of the interesting topics to evaluate the origin and the composition of spent fuels from the spent fuel foot-prints. Spent fuel compositions of different fuel types give some typical spent fuel foot prints and can be estimated the origin of source of those spent fuel compositions. Some technics or methods have been developing based on some science and technological capability including experimental and modeling or theoretical aspects of analyses. Some foot-print of nuclear forensics will identify the typical information of spent fuel compositions such as enrichment information, burnup or irradiation time, reactor types as well as the cooling time which is related to the age of spent fuels. This paper intends to evaluate the typical spent fuel compositions of light water (LWR) and fast breeder reactors (FBR) from the view point of some foot prints of nuclear forensics. An established depletion code of ORIGEN is adopted to analyze LWR spent fuel (SF) for several burnup constants and decay times. For analyzing some spent fuel compositions of FBR, some coupling codes such as SLAROM code, JOINT and CITATION codes including JFS-3-J-3.2R as nuclear data library have been adopted. Enriched U-235 fuel composition of oxide type is used for fresh fuel of LWR and a mixed oxide fuel (MOX) for FBR fresh fuel. Those MOX fuels of FBR come from the spent fuels of LWR. Some typical spent fuels from both LWR and FBR will be compared to distinguish some typical foot-prints of SF based on nuclear forensic analysis.

  18. Technical Development on Burn-up Credit for Spent LWR Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauld, I.C.

    2001-12-26

    Technical development on burn-up credit for spent LWR fuels had been performed at JAERI since 1990 under the contract with Science and Technology Agency of Japan entitled ''Technical Development on Criticality Safety Management for Spent LWR Fuels.'' Main purposes of this work are to obtain the experimental data on criticality properties and isotopic compositions of spent LWR fuels and to verify burnup and criticality calculation codes. In this work three major experiments of exponential experiments for spent fuel assemblies to obtain criticality data, non-destructive gamma-ray measurement of spent fuel rods for evaluating axial burn-up profiles, and destructive analyses of spent fuel samples for determining precise burn-up and isotopic compositions were carried out. The measured data obtained were used for validating calculation codes as well as an examination of criticality safety analyses. Details of the work are described in this report.

  19. Technical development on burn-up credit for spent LWR fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakahara, Yoshinori; Suyama, Kenya; Suzaki, Takenori [eds.] [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2000-10-01

    Technical development on burn-up credit for spent LWR fuels had been performed at JAERI since 1990 under the contract with Science and Technology Agency of Japan entitled 'Technical Development on Criticality Safety Management for Spent LWR Fuels'. Main purposes of this work are to obtain the experimental data on criticality properties and isotopic compositions of spent LWR fuels and to verify burn-up and criticality calculation codes. In this work three major experiments of exponential experiments for spent fuel assemblies to obtain criticality data, non-destructive gamma-ray measurement of spent fuel rods for evaluating axial burn-up profiles, and destructive analyses of spent fuel samples for determining precise burn-up and isotopic compositions were carried out. The measured data obtained were used for validating calculation codes as well as an examination of criticality safety analyses. Details of the work are described in this report. (author)

  20. LWR fuel recycle program quarterly progress report, April--June 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarrett, J.H. (comp.)

    1977-08-01

    The LWR Fuel Recycle Program is designed to provide information needed by industry to close the back end of the commercial light water reactor (LWR) fuel cycle. Included in this program are activities in support of specific design studies as well as activities with more general application to fuel recycle technology: economic and environmental studies; spent fuel receipt and storage; head-end processes; off-gas treatment; purex process (solvent extraction); finishing processes; waste management; environmental effects; and general support. 11 figures, 7 tables. (DLC)

  1. Literature search on Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuel and absorber rod fabrication, 1960--1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sample, C R [comp.

    1977-02-01

    A literature search was conducted to provide information supporting the design of a conceptual Light Water Reactor (LWR) Fuel Fabrication plant. Emphasis was placed on fuel processing and pin bundle fabrication, effects of fuel impurities and microstructure on performance and densification, quality assurance, absorber and poison rod fabrication, and fuel pin welding. All data have been taken from publicly available documents, journals, and books. This work was sponsored by the Finishing Processes-Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Studies program at HEDL.

  2. Stress analysis for the candidate of lower end fitting of advanced LWR fuel using FEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S. S.; Moon, Y. C. [Korea University of Technology and Education, Chonan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, H. K. [Korea Nuclear Fuel Company, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-10-01

    The geometric modeling has been conducted for the candidate of advanced LWR fuel using the three-dimensional solid modeler. Then the three-dimensional stress analysis using MSC/NASTRAN has been performed. The evaluation for the mechanical integrity of the candidate has been performed based on the stress distribution obtained from the finite elements analysis.

  3. Mathematical Description of Wafer-1, a Three-Dimensional Code for LWR Fuel Performance Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær-Pedersen, Niels

    1975-01-01

    This article describes in detail the mathematical formulation used in the WAFER-1 code, which is presently used for three-dimensional analysis of LWR fuel pin performance. The code aims at a prediction of the local stress-strain history in the cladding, especially with regard to the ridging pheno...

  4. LWR nuclear fuel bundle data for use in fuel bundle handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weihermiller, W.B.; Allison, G.S.

    1979-09-01

    Although increasing numbers of spent light water reactor (LWR) fuel bundles are moved into storage, no handling equipment is set up to manipulate all of the various types of fuel bundles. This report summarizes fuel bundle information of interest to the designer of such handling equipment. Dimensional descriptions are included with discussions of assembly procedure and manufacturer provisions for handling equipment. No attempt is made to make a complete compilation of dimensional information; the number of fuel bundle designs and design revisions makes it impractical. Because the fuel bundle designs are so varied, any equipment intended for handling all types of bundles will have to be designed with flexibility in mind. Besides the ability to manipulate fuel bundles in space, handling equipment may be required to locate an external surface or to position a cutting operation to avoid breaking a fuel rod pressure boundary. Even with the most sophisticated and flexible handling equipment, some situations will require use of the manufacturers' as-built descriptions of individual fuel bundles.

  5. Evaluation of FSV-1 cask for the transport of LWR irradiated fuel assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    The Model FSV-1 spent fuel shipping cask was designed by General Atomic Company (GA) to service the Fort St. Vrain (FSV) nuclear generating station, a High Temperature Gas Reactor (HTGR) owned and operated by Public Service Company of Colorado (PSC). This report presents an evaluation of the suitability of the FSV-1 cask for the transport of irradiated Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuel assemblies from both Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) and Boiling Water Reactors (BWR). The FSV-1 cask evaluation parameters covered a wide spectrum of LWR fuel assemblies, based on burnup in Megawatt Days/Metric Ton of Heavy Metal (MWD/MTHM) and years of decay since irradiation. The criteria for suitability included allowable radiation dose rates, cask surface and interior temperatures and the Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW) of the complete shipping system.

  6. Advanced LWR Nuclear Fuel Cladding System Development Trade-Off Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristine Barrett; Shannon Bragg-Sitton

    2012-09-01

    The Advanced Light Water Reactor (LWR) Nuclear Fuel Development Research and Development (R&D) Pathway encompasses strategic research focused on improving reactor core economics and safety margins through the development of an advanced fuel cladding system. To achieve significant operating improvements while remaining within safety boundaries, significant steps beyond incremental improvements in the current generation of nuclear fuel are required. Fundamental improvements are required in the areas of nuclear fuel composition, cladding integrity, and the fuel/cladding interaction to allow power uprates and increased fuel burn-up allowance while potentially improving safety margin through the adoption of an “accident tolerant” fuel system that would offer improved coping time under accident scenarios. With a development time of about 20 – 25 years, advanced fuel designs must be started today and proven in current reactors if future reactor designs are to be able to use them with confidence.

  7. Chemical thermodynamics of complex systems: fission product behavior in LWR fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohli, R.

    1981-03-01

    A detailed thermodynamic assessment has been made of the chemical reactions of fission products in LWR fuel rods. Using recent thermodynamic data and the in-reactor oxygen potential and temperature range of LWRs, equilibrium thermodynamic calculations were performed for the most plausible reactions of the fission products. The emphasis in this model is on the chemistry of cesium and rubidium and their reactions with the fuel, other fission products, and the zircaloy cladding. The model predictions are discussed for their implications in fuel-cladding interactions.

  8. Rate Theory Modeling and Simulation of Silicide Fuel at LWR Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Yinbin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Ye, Bei [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Hofman, Gerard [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Yacout, Abdellatif [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Gamble, Kyle [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Fuel Modeling and Simulation; Mei, Zhi-Gang [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division

    2016-08-29

    As a promising candidate for the accident tolerant fuel (ATF) used in light water reactors (LWRs), the fuel performance of uranium silicide (U3Si2) at LWR conditions needs to be well understood. In this report, rate theory model was developed based on existing experimental data and density functional theory (DFT) calculations so as to predict the fission gas behavior in U3Si2 at LWR conditions. The fission gas behavior of U3Si2 can be divided into three temperature regimes. During steady-state operation, the majority of the fission gas stays in intragranular bubbles, whereas the dominance of intergranular bubbles and fission gas release only occurs beyond 1000 K. The steady-state rate theory model was also used as reference to establish a gaseous swelling correlation of U3Si2 for the BISON code. Meanwhile, the overpressurized bubble model was also developed so that the fission gas behavior at LOCA can be simulated. LOCA simulation showed that intragranular bubbles are still dominant after a 70 second LOCA, resulting in a controllable gaseous swelling. The fission gas behavior of U3Si2 at LWR conditions is benign according to the rate theory prediction at both steady-state and LOCA conditions, which provides important references to the qualification of U3Si2 as a LWR fuel material with excellent fuel performance and enhanced accident tolerance.

  9. Comment: collection of assay data on isotopic composition in LWR spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naito, Yoshitaka; Kurosawa, Masayoshi; Suyama, Kenya [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    Many assay data of LWR spent fuels have been collected from reactors in the world and some of them are already stored in the database SFCOMPO which was constructed on a personal computer IBM PC/AT. On the other hand, Group constant libraries for burnup calculation code ORIGEN-II were generated from the nuclear data file JENDL3.2. These libraries were evaluated by using the assay data in SFCOMPO. (author)

  10. Rate Theory Modeling and Simulation of Silicide Fuel at LWR Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Yinbin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Ye, Bei [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Hofman, Gerard [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Yacout, Abdellatif [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Gamble, Kyle [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Fuel Modeling and Simulation; Mei, Zhi-Gang [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division

    2016-08-29

    As a promising candidate for the accident tolerant fuel (ATF) used in light water reactors (LWRs), the fuel performance of uranium silicide (U3Si2) at LWR conditions need to be well-understood. In this report, rate theory model was developed based on existing experimental data and density functional theory (DFT) calculations so as to predict the fission gas behavior in U3Si2 at LWR conditions. The fission gas behavior of U3Si2 can be divided into three temperature regimes. During steady-state operation, the majority of the fission gas stays in intragranular bubbles, whereas the dominance of intergranular bubbles and fission gas release only occurs beyond 1000 K. The steady-state rate theory model was also used as reference to establish a gaseous swelling correlation of U3Si2 for the BISON code. Meanwhile, the overpressurized bubble model was also developed so that the fission gas behavior at LOCA can be simulated. LOCA simulation showed that intragranular bubbles are still dominant after a 70 second LOCA, resulting in a controllable gaseous swelling. The fission gas behavior of U3Si2 at LWR conditions is benign according to the rate theory prediction at both steady-state and LOCA conditions, which provides important references to the qualification of U3Si2 as a LWR fuel material with excellent fuel performance and enhanced accident tolerance.

  11. Irradiated test fuel shipment plan for the LWR MOX fuel irradiation test project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shappert, L.B.; Dickerson, L.S.; Ludwig, S.B.

    1998-10-16

    This document outlines the responsibilities of DOE, DOE contractors, the commercial carrier, and other organizations participating in a shipping campaign of irradiated test specimen capsules containing mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel from the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The shipments described here will be conducted according to applicable regulations of the US Department of Transportation (DOT), US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and all applicable DOE Orders. This Irradiated Test Fuel Shipment Plan for the LWR MOX Fuel Irradiation Test Project addresses the shipments of a small number of irradiated test specimen capsules and has been reviewed and agreed to by INEEL and ORNL (as participants in the shipment campaign). Minor refinements to data entries in this plan, such as actual shipment dates, exact quantities and characteristics of materials to be shipped, and final approved shipment routing, will be communicated between the shipper, receiver, and carrier, as needed, using faxes, e-mail, official shipping papers, or other backup documents (e.g., shipment safety evaluations). Any major changes in responsibilities or data beyond refinements of dates and quantities of material will be prepared as additional revisions to this document and will undergo a full review and approval cycle.

  12. Testing of LWR fuel rods to support criticality safety analysis of transport accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purcell, P.C. [BNFL International Transport, Spent Fuel Services (United Kingdom); Dallongeville, M. [COGEMA Logistics (AREVA Group) (France)

    2004-07-01

    For the transport of low enriched materials, criticality safety may be demonstrated by applying pessimistic modelling assumptions that bound any realistic case. Where Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuel is being transported, enrichment levels are usually too high to permit this approach and more realistic data is needed. This requires a method by which the response of LWR fuel under impact accident conditions can be approximated or bounded. In 2000, BNFL and COGEMA LOGISTICS jointly commenced the Fuel Integrity Project (FIP) whose objective was to develop such methods. COGEMA LOGISTICS were well advanced with a method for determining the impact response of unirradiated fuel, but required further test data before acceptance by the Transport Regulators. The joint project team extensively discussed the required inputs to the FIP, from which it was agreed that BNFL would organise new tests on both unirradiated and irradiated fuel samples and COGEMA LOGISTICS would take major responsibility for evaluating the test results. Tests on unirradiated fuel rod samples involved both dynamic and quasi-static loading on fuel samples. PWR fuel rods loaded with uranium pellets were dropped vertically from 9m onto a rigid target and this was repeated on BWR fuel rods, similar tests on empty fuel rods were also conducted. Quasi-static tests were conducted on 530 mm long PWR and BWR fuel specimens under axial loading. Tests on irradiated fuel samples were conducted on high burn-up fuel rods of both PWR and BWR types. These were believed original to the FIP project and involved applying bending loads to simply supported pressurised rod specimens. In one test the fuel rod was heated to nearly 500oC during loading, all specimens were subject to axial impact before testing. Considerable experience of fuel rod testing and new data was gained from this test programme.

  13. FABRICATION AND MATERIAL ISSUES FOR THE APPLICATION OF SiC COMPOSITES TO LWR FUEL CLADDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WEON-JU KIM

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The fabrication methods and requirements of the fiber, interphase, and matrix of nuclear grade SiCf/SiC composites are briefly reviewed. A CVI-processed SiCf/SiC composite with a PyC or (PyC-SiCn interphase utilizing Hi-Nicalon Type S or Tyranno SA3 fiber is currently the best combination in terms of the irradiation performance. We also describe important material issues for the application of SiC composites to LWR fuel cladding. The kinetics of the SiC corrosion under LWR conditions needs to be clarified to confirm the possibility of a burn-up extension and the cost-benefit effect of the SiC composite cladding. In addition, the development of end-plug joining technology and fission products retention capability of the ceramic composite tube would be key challenges for the successful application of SiC composite cladding.

  14. Development of Voloxidation Process for Treatment of LWR Spent Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. J.; Jung, I. H.; Shin, J. M. (and others)

    2007-08-15

    The objective of the project is to develop a process which provides a means to recover fuel from the cladding, and to simplify downstream processes by recovering volatile fission products. This work focuses on the process development in three areas ; the measurement and assessment of the release behavior for the volatile and semi-volatile fission products from the voloxidation process, the assessment of techniques to trap and recover gaseous fission products, and the development of process cycles to optimize fuel cladding separation and fuel particle size. High temperature adsorption method of KAERI was adopted in the co-design of OTS for hot experiment in INL. KAERI supplied 6 sets of filter for hot experiment. Three hot experiment in INL hot cell from the 25th of November for two weeks with attaching 4 KAERI staffs had been carried out. The results were promising. For example, trapping efficiency of Cs was 95% and that of I was 99%, etc.

  15. Descriptions of reference LWR facilities for analysis of nuclear fuel cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, K.J.; Kabele, T.J.

    1979-09-01

    To contribute to the Department of Energy's identification of needs for improved environmental controls in nuclear fuel cycles, a study was made of a light water reactor system. A reference LWR fuel cycle was defined, and each step in this cycle was characterized by facility description and mainline and effluent treatment process performance. The reference fuel cycle uses fresh uranium in light water reactors. Final treatment and ultimate disposition of waste from the fuel cycle steps were not included, and the waste is assumed to be disposed of by approved but currently undefined means. The characterization of the reference fuel cycle system is intended as basic information for further evaluation of alternative effluent control systems.

  16. Descriptions of reference LWR facilities for analysis of nuclear fuel cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, K.J.; Kabele, T.J.

    1979-09-01

    To contribute to the Department of Energy's identification of needs for improved environmental controls in nuclear fuel cycles, a study was made of a light water reactor system. A reference LWR fuel cycle was defined, and each step in this cycle was characterized by facility description and mainline and effluent treatment process performance. The reference fuel cycle uses fresh uranium in light water reactors. Final treatment and ultimate disposition of waste from the fuel cycle steps were not included, and the waste is assumed to be disposed of by approved but currently undefined means. The characterization of the reference fuel cycle system is intended as basic information for further evaluation of alternative effluent control systems.

  17. Nuclear characteristics of Pu fueled LWR and cross section sensitivities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Toshikazu [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1998-03-01

    The present status of Pu utilization to thermal reactors in Japan, nuclear characteristics and topics and cross section sensitivities for analysis of Pu fueled thermal reactors are described. As topics we will discuss the spatial self-shielding effect on the Doppler reactivity effect and the cross section sensitivities with the JENDL-3.1 and 3.2 libraries. (author)

  18. Physical and decay characteristics of commercial LWR spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roddy, J.W.; Claiborne, H.C.; Ashline, R.C.; Johnson, P.J.; Rhyne, B.T.

    1985-10-01

    Information was collected from the literature and from major manufacturers that will be useful in the design and construction of a mined geologic repository for the disposal of light-water-reactor spent fuel. Pertinent data are included on mechanical design characteristics and materials of construction for fuel assemblies and fuel rods and computed values for heat generation rates, radioactivity, and photon and neutron emission rates as a function of time for four reference cases. Calculations were made with the ORIGEN2 computer code for burnups of 27,500 and 40,000 MWd for a typical boiling-water reactor and 33,000 and 60,000 MWd for a typical pressurized-water reactor. The results are presented in figures depicting the individual contributions per metric ton of initial heavy metal for the activation products, fission products, and actinides and their daughters to the radioactivity and thermal power as a function of time. Tables are also presented that list the contribution of each major nuclide to the radioactivity, thermal power, and photons and neutrons emitted for disposal periods from 1 to 100,000 years.

  19. Physical and decay characteristics of commercial LWR spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roddy, J.W.; Claiborne, H.C.; Ashline, R.C.; Johnson, P.J.; Rhyne, B.T.

    1986-01-01

    Information was collected from the literature and from major manufacturers that will be useful in the design and construction of a mined geologic repository for the disposal of light-water-reactor spent fuel. Pertinent data are included on mechanical design characteristics and materials of construction for fuel assemblies and fuel rods and computed values for heat generation rates, radioactivity, and photon and neutron emission rates as a function of time for four reference cases. Calculations were made with the ORIGEN2 computer code for burnups of 27,500 and 40,000 MWd for a typical boiling-water reactor and 33,000 and 60,000 MWd for a typical pressurized-water reactor. The results are presented in figures depicting the individual contributions per metric ton of initial heavy metal for the activation products, fission products, and actinides and their daughters to the radioactivity and thermal power as a function of time. Tables are also presented that list the contribution of each major nuclide to the radioactivity, thermal power, and photons and neutrons emitted for disposal emitted for disposal periods from 1 to 100,000 years.

  20. Economic incentives and recommended development for commercial use of high burnup fuels in the once-through LWR fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stout, R.B.; Merckx, K.R.; Holm, J.S.

    1981-01-01

    This study calculates the reduced uranium requirements and the economic incentives for increasing the burnup of current design LWR fuels from the current range of 25 to 35 MWD/Kg to a range of 45 to 55 MWD/Kg. The changes in fuel management strategies which may be required to accommodate these high burnup fuels and longer fuel cycles are discussed. The material behavior problems which may present obstacles to achieving high burnup or to license fuel are identified and discussed. These problems are presented in terms of integral fuel response and the informational needs for commercial and licensing acceptance. Research and development programs are outlined which are aimed at achieving a licensing position and commercial acceptance of high burnup fuels.

  1. Thermochemical prediction of chemical form distributions of fission products in LWR mixed oxide fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriyama, Kouki; Furuya, Hirotaka [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1998-06-01

    Radial distribution of chemical forms of fission products (FPs) in LWR mixed oxide (MOX) fuel pins was theoretically predicted by a thermochemical computer code SOLGASMIX-PV. The amounts of fission products generated in the fuel were calculated by ORIGEN-2 code, and the radial distributions of temperature and oxygen potential were calculated by taking the neutron depression and oxygen redistribution in the fuel into account. A fuel pellet was radially divided into 51 sections and chemical forms of FPs were calculated in each section. The effects of linear heat rating (LHR) and average O/U ratio on radial distribution of chemical form were evaluated. It was found that the radial distribution of chemical forms depends strongly on the LHR and the O/M ratio, and is not proportional to that of burnup. (author)

  2. Development of LWR Fuels with Enhanced Accident Tolerance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahoda, Edward J. [Westinghouse Electric Company, LLC, Cranberry Woods, PA (United States); Boylan, Frank A. [Westinghouse Electric Company, LLC, Cranberry Woods, PA (United States)

    2015-10-30

    Significant progress was made on the technical, licensing, and business aspects of the Westinghouse Electric Company’s Enhanced Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) by the Westinghouse ATF team. The fuel pellet options included waterproofed U15N and U3Si2 and the cladding options SiC composites and zirconium alloys with surface treatments. Technology was developed that resulted in U3Si2 pellets with densities of >94% being achieved at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The use of U3Si2 will represent a 15% increase in U235 loadings over those in UO₂ fuel pellets. This technology was then applied to manufacture pellets for 6 test rodlets which were inserted in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) in early 2015 in zirconium alloy cladding. The first of these rodlets are expected to be removed in about 2017. Key characteristics to be determined include verification of the centerline temperature calculations, thermal conductivity, fission gas release, swelling and degree of amorphization. Waterproofed UN pellets have achieved >94% density for a 32% U3Si2/68% UN composite pellet at Texas A&M University. This represents a U235 increase of about 31% over current UO2 pellets. Pellets and powders of UO2, UN, and U3Si2the were tested by Westinghouse and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) using differential scanning calorimetry to determine what their steam and 20% oxygen corrosion temperatures were as compared to UO2. Cold spray application of either the amorphous steel or the Ti2AlC was successful in forming an adherent ~20 micron coating that remained after testing at 420°C in a steam autoclave. Tests at 1200°C in 100% steam on coatings for Zr alloy have not been successful, possibly due to the low density of the coatings which allowed steam transport to the base zirconium metal. Significant modeling and testing

  3. Information on the evolution of severe LWR fuel element damage obtained in the CORA program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schanz, G.; Hagen, S.; Hofmann, P.; Schumacher, G.; Sepold, L.

    1992-06-01

    In the CORA program a series of out-of-pile experiments on LWR severe accidental situations is being performed, in which test bundles of LWR typical components and arrangements (PWR, BWR) are exposed to temperature transients up to about 2400°C under flowing steam. The individual features of the facility, the test conduct, and the evaluation will be presented. In the frame of the international cooperation in severe fuel damage (SFD) programs the CORA tests are contributing confirmatory and complementary informations to the results from the limited number of in-pile tests. The identification of basic phenomena of the fuel element destruction, observed as a function of temperature, is supported by separate-effects test results. Most important mechanisms are the steam oxidation of the Zircaloy cladding, which determines the temperature escalation, the chemical interaction between UO 2 fuel and cladding, which dominates fuel liquefaction, relocation and resulting blockage formation, as well as chemical interactions with Inconel spacer grids and absorber units ((Ag, In, Cd) alloy or B 4C), which are leading to extensive low-temperature melt formation around 1200°C. Interrelations between those basic phenomena, resulting for example in cladding deformation ("flowering") and the dramatic hydrogen formation in response to the fast cooling of a hot bundle by cold water ("quenching") are determining the evolution paths of fuel element destruction, which are to be identified. A further important task is the abstraction from mechanistic and microstructural details in order to get a rough classification of damage regimes (temperature and extent), a practicable analytical treatment of the materials behaviour, and a basis for decisions in accident mitigation and management procedures.

  4. Rate Theory Modeling and Simulations of Silicide Fuel at LWR Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Yinbin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Ye, Bei [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mei, Zhigang [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hofman, Gerard [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Yacout, Abdellatif [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-12-10

    Uranium silicide (U3Si2) fuel has higher thermal conductivity and higher uranium density, making it a promising candidate for the accident-tolerant fuel (ATF) used in light water reactors (LWRs). However, previous studies on the fuel performance of U3Si2, including both experimental and computational approaches, have been focusing on the irradiation conditions in research reactors, which usually involve low operation temperatures and high fuel burnups. Thus, it is important to examine the fuel performance of U3Si2 at typical LWR conditions so as to evaluate the feasibility of replacing conventional uranium dioxide fuel with this silicide fuel material. As in-reactor irradiation experiments involve significant time and financial cost, it is appropriate to utilize modeling tools to estimate the behavior of U3Si2 in LWRs based on all those available research reactor experimental references and state-of-the-art density functional theory (DFT) calculation capabilities at the early development stage. Hence, in this report, a comprehensive investigation of the fission gas swelling behavior of U3Si2 at LWR conditions is introduced. The modeling efforts mentioned in this report was based on the rate theory (RT) model of fission gas bubble evolution that has been successfully applied for a variety of fuel materials at devious reactor conditions. Both existing experimental data and DFT-calculated results were used for the optimization of the parameters adopted by the RT model. Meanwhile, the fuel-cladding interaction was captured by the coupling of the RT model with simplified mechanical correlations. Therefore, the swelling behavior of U3Si2 fuel and its consequent interaction with cladding in LWRs was predicted by the rate theory modeling, providing valuable information for the development of U3Si2 fuel as an accident

  5. Legal, institutional, and political issues in transportation of nuclear materials at the back end of the LWR nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippek, H.E.; Schuller, C.R.

    1979-03-01

    A study was conducted to identify major legal and institutional problems and issues in the transportation of spent fuel and associated processing wastes at the back end of the LWR nuclear fuel cycle. (Most of the discussion centers on the transportation of spent fuel, since this activity will involve virtually all of the legal and institutional problems likely to be encountered in moving waste materials, as well.) Actions or approaches that might be pursued to resolve the problems identified in the analysis are suggested. Two scenarios for the industrial-scale transportation of spent fuel and radioactive wastes, taken together, high-light most of the major problems and issues of a legal and institutional nature that are likely to arise: (1) utilizing the Allied General Nuclear Services (AGNS) facility at Barnwell, SC, as a temporary storage facility for spent fuel; and (2) utilizing AGNS for full-scale commercial reprocessing of spent LWR fuel.

  6. Characteristics of spent fuel, high-level waste, and other radioactive wastes which may require long-term isolation: Appendix 2B, User's guide to the LWR assemblies data base, Appendix 2C, User's guide to the LWR radiological data base, Appendix 2D, User's guide to the LWR quantities data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1987-12-01

    This User's Guide for the LWR Assemblies data base system is part of the Characteristics Data Base being developed under the Waste Systems Data Development Program. The objective of the LWR Assemblies data base is to provide access at the personal computer level to information about fuel assemblies used in light-water reactors. The information available is physical descriptions of intact fuel assemblies and radiological descriptions of spent fuel disassembly hardware. The LWR Assemblies data base is a user-oriented menu driven system. Each menu is instructive about its use. Section 5 of this guide provides a sample session with the data base to assist the user.

  7. Storage of LWR (light-water-reactor) spent fuel in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, L.E.; Charlot, L.A.; Coleman, J.E. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Knoll, R.W. (Johnson Controls, Inc., Madison, WI (USA))

    1989-12-01

    An experimental program is being conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to determine the oxidation response of light-water-reactor (LWR) spent fuels under conditions appropriate to fuel storage in air. The program is designed to investigate several independent variables that might affect the oxidation behavior of spent fuel. Included are temperature (135 to 230{degree}C), fuel burnup (to about 34 MWd/kgM), reactor type (pressurized and boiling water reactors), moisture level in the air, and the presence of a high gamma field. In continuing tests with declad spent fuel and nonirradiated UO{sub 2} specimens, oxidation rates were monitored by weight-gain measurements and the microstructures of subsamples taken during the weighing intervals were characterized by several analytical methods. The oxidation behavior indicated by weight gain and time to form powder will be reported in Volume III of this series. The characterization results obtained from x-ray diffractometry, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Auger electron spectrometry of oxidized fuel samples are presented in this report. 28 refs., 21 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Analysis of fission gas release in LWR fuel using the BISON code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Pastore; J.D. Hales; S.R. Novascone; D.M. Perez; B.W. Spencer; R.L. Williamson

    2013-09-01

    Recent advances in the development of the finite-element based, multidimensional fuel performance code BISON of Idaho National Laboratory are presented. Specifically, the development, implementation and testing of a new model for the analysis of fission gas behavior in LWR-UO2 fuel during irradiation are summarized. While retaining a physics-based description of the relevant mechanisms, the model is characterized by a level of complexity suitable for application to engineering-scale nuclear fuel analysis and consistent with the uncertainties pertaining to some parameters. The treatment includes the fundamental features of fission gas behavior, among which are gas diffusion and precipitation in fuel grains, growth and coalescence of gas bubbles at grain faces, grain growth and grain boundary sweeping effects, thermal, athermal, and transient gas release. The BISON code incorporating the new model is applied to the simulation of irradiation experiments from the OECD/NEA International Fuel Performance Experiments database, also included in the IAEA coordinated research projects FUMEX-II and FUMEX-III. The comparison of the results with the available experimental data at moderate burn-up is presented, pointing out an encouraging predictive accuracy, without any fitting applied to the model parameters.

  9. Analysis of the Reuse of Uranium Recovered from the Reprocessing of Commercial LWR Spent Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DelCul, Guillermo Daniel [ORNL; Trowbridge, Lee D [ORNL; Renier, John-Paul [ORNL; Ellis, Ronald James [ORNL; Williams, Kent Alan [ORNL; Spencer, Barry B [ORNL; Collins, Emory D [ORNL

    2009-02-01

    This report provides an analysis of the factors involved in the reuse of uranium recovered from commercial light-water-reactor (LWR) spent fuels (1) by reenrichment and recycling as fuel to LWRs and/or (2) by recycling directly as fuel to heavy-water-reactors (HWRs), such as the CANDU (registered trade name for the Canadian Deuterium Uranium Reactor). Reuse is an attractive alternative to the current Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) baseline plan, which stores the reprocessed uranium (RU) for an uncertain future or attempts to dispose of it as 'greater-than-Class C' waste. Considering that the open fuel cycle currently deployed in the United States already creates a huge excess quantity of depleted uranium, the closed fuel cycle should enable the recycle of the major components of spent fuel, such as the uranium and the hazardous, long-lived transuranic (TRU) actinides, as well as the managed disposal of fission product wastes. Compared with the GNEP baseline scenario, the reuse of RU in the uranium fuel cycle has a number of potential advantages: (1) avoidance of purchase costs of 11-20% of the natural uranium feed; (2) avoidance of disposal costs for a large majority of the volume of spent fuel that is reprocessed; (3) avoidance of disposal costs for a portion of the depleted uranium from the enrichment step; (4) depending on the {sup 235}U assay of the RU, possible avoidance of separative work costs; and (5) a significant increase in the production of {sup 238}Pu due to the presence of {sup 236}U, which benefits somewhat the transmutation value of the plutonium and also provides some proliferation resistance.

  10. Uranium nitride as LWR TRISO fuel: Thermodynamic modeling of U-C-N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besmann, Theodore M.; Shin, Dongwon; Lindemer, Terrence B.

    2012-08-01

    TRISO coated particle fuel is envisioned as a next generation replacement for current urania pellet fuel in LWR applications. To obtain adequate fissile loading the kernel of the TRISO particle will likely need to be UN instead of UO2. In support of the necessary development effort for this new fuel system, an assessment of phase regions of interest in the U-C-N system was undertaken as the fuel will be prepared by the carbothermic reduction of the oxide followed by nitriding, will be in equilibrium with carbon within the TRISO particle, and will react with minor actinides and fission products. The phase equilibria and thermochemistry of the U-C-N system is reviewed, including nitrogen pressure measurements above various phase fields. Measurements were used to confirm an ideal solution model of UN and UC adequately represents the UC1-xNx phase. Agreement with the data was significantly improved by effectively adjusting the Gibbs free energy of UN by +12 kJ/mol. This also required adjustment of the value for the sesquinitride by +17 kJ/mol to obtain agreement with phase equilibria. The resultant model together with reported values for other phases in the system was used to generate isothermal sections of the U-C-N phase diagram. Nitrogen partial pressures were also computed for regions of interest.

  11. LWR spent fuel reduction by the removal of U and the compact storage of Pu with FP for long-term nuclear sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukasawa, T.; Hoshino, K. [Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd, 3-1-1 Saiwai, Hitachi, Ibaraki, 317-0073 (Japan); Takano, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 3-1-1 Saiwai, Hitachi, Ibaraki, 317-0073 (Japan); Sato, S. [Hokkaido University, 3-1-1 Saiwai, Hitachi, Ibaraki, 317-0073 (Japan); Shimazu, Y. [Fukui University, 3-1-1 Saiwai, Hitachi, Ibaraki, 317-0073 (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    Fast breeder reactors (FBR) nuclear fuel cycle is needed for long-term nuclear sustainability while preventing global warming and maximum utilizing the limited uranium (U) resources. The 'Framework for Nuclear Energy Policy' by the Japanese government on October 2005 stated that commercial FBR deployment will start around 2050 under its suitable conditions by the successive replacement of light water reactors (LWR) to FBR. Even after Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident which made Japanese tendency slow down the nuclear power generation activities, Japan should have various options for energy resources including nuclear, and also consider the delay of FBR deployment and increase of LWR spent fuel (LWR-SF) storage amounts. As plutonium (Pu) for FBR deployment will be supplied from LWR-SF reprocessing and Japan will not possess surplus Pu, the authors have developed the flexible fuel cycle initiative (FFCI) for the transition from LWR to FBR. The FFCI system is based on the possibility to stored recycled materials (U, Pu)temporarily for a suitable period according to the FBR deployment rate to control the Pu demand/supply balance. This FFCI system is also effective after the Fukushima accident for the reduction of LWR-SF and future LWR-to-FBR transition. (authors)

  12. Engineered Zircaloy Cladding Modifications for Improved Accident Tolerance of LWR Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heuser, Brent [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Stubbins, James [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Kozlowski, Tomasz [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Uddin, Rizwan [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Trinkle, Dallas [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Downar, Thoms [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Was, Gary [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); ang, Yong [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Phillpot, Simon [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Sabharwall, piyush [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-07-25

    The DOE NEUP sponsored IRP on accident tolerant fuel (ATF) entitled Engineered Zircaloy Cladding Modifications for Improved Accident Tolerance of LWR Nuclear Fuel involved three academic institutions, Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and ATI Materials (ATI). Detailed descriptions of the work at the University of Illinois (UIUC, prime), the University of Florida (UF), the University of Michigan (UMich), and INL are included in this document as separate sections. This summary provides a synopsis of the work performed across the IRP team. Two ATF solution pathways were initially proposed, coatings on monolithic Zr-based LWR cladding material and selfhealing modifications of Zr-based alloys. The coating pathway was extensively investigated, both experimentally and in computations. Experimental activities related to ATF coatings were centered at UIUC, UF, and UMich and involved coating development and testing, and ion irradiation. Neutronic and thermal hydraulic aspects of ATF coatings were the focus of computational work at UIUC and UMich, while materials science aspects were the focus of computational work at UF and INL. ATI provided monolithic Zircaloy 2 and 4 material and a binary Zr-Y alloy material. The selfhealing pathway was investigated with advanced computations only. Beryllium was identified as a valid self-healing additive early in this work. However, all attempts to fabricate a Zr-Be alloy failed. Several avenues of fabrication were explored. ATI ultimately declined our fabrication request over health concerns associated with Be (we note that Be was not part of the original work scope and the ATI SOW). Likewise, Ames Laboratory declined our fabrication request, citing known litigation dating to the 1980s and 1990s involving the U.S. Federal government and U.S. National Laboratory employees involving the use of Be. Materion (formerly, Brush Wellman) also declined our fabrication request, citing the difficulty in working with a highly reactive Zr and Be

  13. Fission Product Release and Survivability of UN-Kernel LWR TRISO Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besmann, Theodore M [ORNL; Ferber, Mattison K [ORNL; Lin, Hua-Tay [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    A thermomechanical assessment of the LWR application of TRISO fuel with UN kernels was performed. Fission product release under operational and transient temperature conditions was determined by extrapolation from range calculations and limited data from irradiated UN pellets. Both fission recoil and diffusive release were considered and internal particle pressures computed for both 650 and 800 m diameter kernels as a function of buffer layer thickness. These pressures were used in conjunction with a finite element program to compute the radial and tangential stresses generated with a TRISO particle as a function of fluence. Creep and swelling of the inner and outer pyrolytic carbon layers were included in the analyses. A measure of reliability of the TRISO particle was obtained by measuring the probability of survival of the SiC barrier layer and the maximum tensile stress generated in the pyrolytic carbon layers as a function of fluence. These reliability estimates were obtained as functions of the kernel diameter, buffer layer thickness, and pyrolytic carbon layer thickness. The value of the probability of survival at the end of irradiation was inversely proportional to the maximum pressure.

  14. Proposal and analysis of the benchmark problem suite for reactor physics study of LWR next generation fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-10-01

    In order to investigate the calculation accuracy of the nuclear characteristics of LWR next generation fuels, the Research Committee on Reactor Physics organized by JAERI has established the Working Party on Reactor Physics for LWR Next Generation Fuels. The next generation fuels mean the ones aiming for further extended burn-up such as 70 GWd/t over the current design. The Working Party has proposed six benchmark problems, which consists of pin-cell, PWR fuel assembly and BWR fuel assembly geometries loaded with uranium and MOX fuels, respectively. The specifications of the benchmark problem neglect some of the current limitations such as 5 wt% {sup 235}U to achieve the above-mentioned target. Eleven organizations in the Working Party have carried out the analyses of the benchmark problems. As a result, status of accuracy with the current data and method and some problems to be solved in the future were clarified. In this report, details of the benchmark problems, result by each organization, and their comparisons are presented. (author)

  15. Predicting Ship Fuel Consumption: Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-07-01

    ship propulsion fuel consumption as a function of ship speed for U.S. Navy combatant and auxiliary ships. Prediction is based on fitting an analytic function to published ship class speed-fuel use data using nonlinear regression. The form of the analytic function fitted is motivated by the literature on ship powering and resistance. The report discusses data sources and data issues, and the impact of ship propulsion plant configuration on fuel use. The regression coefficients of the exponential function fitted, tabular numerical comparison of

  16. Multi-Dimensional Simulation of LWR Fuel Behavior in the BISON Fuel Performance Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, R. L.; Capps, N. A.; Liu, W.; Rashid, Y. R.; Wirth, B. D.

    2016-09-01

    Nuclear fuel operates in an extreme environment that induces complex multiphysics phenomena occurring over distances ranging from inter-atomic spacing to meters, and times scales ranging from microseconds to years. To simulate this behavior requires a wide variety of material models that are often complex and nonlinear. The recently developed BISON code represents a powerful fuel performance simulation tool based on its material and physical behavior capabilities, finite-element versatility of spatial representation, and use of parallel computing. The code can operate in full three dimensional (3D) mode, as well as in reduced two dimensional (2D) modes, e.g., axisymmetric radial-axial (R-Z) or plane radial-circumferential (R-θ), to suit the application and to allow treatment of global and local effects. A BISON case study was used to illustrate analysis of Pellet Clad Mechanical Interaction failures from manufacturing defects using combined 2D and 3D analyses. The analysis involved commercial fuel rods and demonstrated successful computation of metrics of interest to fuel failures, including cladding peak hoop stress and strain energy density. In comparison with a failure threshold derived from power ramp tests, results corroborate industry analyses of the root cause of the pellet-clad interaction failures and illustrate the importance of modeling 3D local effects around fuel pellet defects, which can produce complex effects including cold spots in the cladding, stress concentrations, and hot spots in the fuel that can lead to enhanced cladding degradation such as hydriding, oxidation, CRUD formation, and stress corrosion cracking.

  17. Multi-Dimensional Simulation of LWR Fuel Behavior in the BISON Fuel Performance Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, R. L.; Capps, N. A.; Liu, W.; Rashid, Y. R.; Wirth, B. D.

    2016-11-01

    Nuclear fuel operates in an extreme environment that induces complex multiphysics phenomena occurring over distances ranging from inter-atomic spacing to meters, and times scales ranging from microseconds to years. To simulate this behavior requires a wide variety of material models that are often complex and nonlinear. The recently developed BISON code represents a powerful fuel performance simulation tool based on its material and physical behavior capabilities, finite-element versatility of spatial representation, and use of parallel computing. The code can operate in full three dimensional (3D) mode, as well as in reduced two dimensional (2D) modes, e.g., axisymmetric radial-axial ( R- Z) or plane radial-circumferential ( R- θ), to suit the application and to allow treatment of global and local effects. A BISON case study was used to illustrate analysis of Pellet Clad Mechanical Interaction failures from manufacturing defects using combined 2D and 3D analyses. The analysis involved commercial fuel rods and demonstrated successful computation of metrics of interest to fuel failures, including cladding peak hoop stress and strain energy density. In comparison with a failure threshold derived from power ramp tests, results corroborate industry analyses of the root cause of the pellet-clad interaction failures and illustrate the importance of modeling 3D local effects around fuel pellet defects, which can produce complex effects including cold spots in the cladding, stress concentrations, and hot spots in the fuel that can lead to enhanced cladding degradation such as hydriding, oxidation, CRUD formation, and stress corrosion cracking.

  18. A Review and Analysis of European Industrial Experience in Handling LWR Spent Fuel and Vitrified High-Level Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomeke, J.O.

    2001-07-10

    The industrial facilities that have been built or are under construction in France, the United Kingdom, Sweden, and West Germany to handle light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel and canisters of vitrified high-level waste before ultimate disposal are described and illustrated with drawings and photographs. Published information on the operating performance of these facilities is also given. This information was assembled for consideration in planning and design of similar equipment and facilities needed for the Federal Waste Management System in the United States.

  19. Monitoring of bunker fuel consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, J.; Nelissen, D.; Smit, M.

    2013-03-15

    Monitoring of fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions from international shipping is currently under discussion at the EU level as well as at the IMO (International Maritime Organization). There are several approaches to monitoring, each with different characteristics. Based on a survey of the literature and information from equipment suppliers, this report analyses the four main methods for monitoring emissions: (1) Bunker delivery notes (i.e. a note provided by the bunker fuel supplier specifying, inter alia, the amount of fuel bunkered); (2) Tank sounding (i.e. systems for measuring the amount of fuel in the fuel tanks); (3) Fuel flow meters (i.e. systems for measuring the amount of fuel supplied to the engines, generators or boilers); and (4) Direct emissions monitoring (i.e. measuring the exhaust emissions in the stack). The report finds that bunker delivery notes and tank soundings have the lowest investment cost. However, unless tank sounding is automated, these systems have higher operational costs than fuel flow meters or direct emissions monitoring because manual readings have to be entered in monitoring systems. Fuel flow meters have the highest potential accuracy. Depending on the technology selected, their accuracy can be an order of magnitude better than the other systems, which typically have errors of a few percent. By providing real-time feed-back on fuel use or emissions, fuel flow meters and direct emissions monitoring provide ship operators with the means to train their crew to adopt fuel-efficient sailing methods and to optimise their maintenance and hull cleaning schedules. Except for bunker delivery notes, all systems allow for both time-based and route-based (or otherwise geographically delineated) systems.

  20. Hybrid reprocessing technology of fluoride volatility and solvent extraction. New reprocessing technology, FLUOREX, for LWR fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, Fumio [Hitachi Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan)

    2002-11-01

    Hybrid Process of Fluoride Volatility and Solvent Extraction (FLUOREX) has been objected to develop a low cost reprocessing technology for collection of U and MOX (mixture U and Pu) in LWR fuel cycle. Outline, characteristics, technologies, problems and material balance of FLUOREX are explained. LWR spent fuel consists of about 96% U, 1% Pu and about 3% fission products (FP) and minor actinides (MA). FLUOREX method is hybrid system, which isolates about 90% U at high speed and refines by fluoride volatility process and residue about 10% U, Pu, MA and FP are processed by PUREX method after dissolution in acid. The special features are low cost by small type and lightweight, stable without gas Pu and stop of fluorine gas, reducing load of environment, resistance of nuclear proliferation, application of technologies demonstrated and flexible method for fast reactor. Three problems for development are selective fluoridation of U, transportation of oxides in the fluoride residue and dissolution of transported oxides. The preliminary examination of plan showed 800GWD/t processing volume, 200 day/year operation day, about 51 ten-thousand cubic meter volume of plant, about 1/3 Rokkasho reprocessing plant. (S.Y.)

  1. Thermochemical prediction of chemical form distributions of fission products in LWR oxide fuels irradiated to high burnup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriyama, Kouki; Furuya, Hirotaka [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-09-01

    Based on the result of micro-gamma scanning of a fuel pin irradiated to high burnup in a commercial PWR, the radial distribution of chemical forms of fission products (FPs) in LWR fuel pins was theoretically predicted by a thermochemical computer code SOLGASMIX-PV. The absolute amounts of fission products generated in the fuel was calculated by ORIGEN-2 code, and the radial distributions of temperature and oxygen potential were calculated by taking the neutron depression and oxygen redistribution in the fuel into account. A fuel pellet was radially divided into 51 sections and chemical forms of FPs were calculated in each section. In addition, the effects of linear heat rating (LHR) and average O/U ratio on radial distribution of chemical form were evaluated. It was found that approximately 13 mole% of the total amount of Cs compounds exists as CsI and virtually remaining fraction as Cs{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} under the operation condition of LHR below 400 W/cm. On the other hand, when LHR is beyond 400 W/cm under the transient operation condition, its distribution did not change so much from the one under normal operation condition. (author)

  2. Review of Technical Issues Related to Predicting Isotopic Compositions and Source Terms for High-Burnup LWR Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauld, I. C.; Parks, C. V.

    2000-12-11

    This report has been prepared to review the technical issues important to the prediction of isotopic compositions and source terms for high-burnup, light-water-reactor (LWR) fuel as utilized in the licensing of spent fuel transport and storage systems. The current trend towards higher initial 235U enrichments, more complex assembly designs, and more efficient fuel management schemes has resulted in higher spent fuel burnups than seen in the past. This trend has led to a situation where high-burnup assemblies from operating LWRs now extend beyond the area where available experimental data can be used to validate the computational methods employed to calculate spent fuel inventories and source terms. This report provides a brief review of currently available validation data, including isotopic assays, decay heat measurements, and shielded dose-rate measurements. Potential new sources of experimental data available in the near term are identified. A review of the background issues important to isotopic predictions and some of the perceived technical challenges that high-burnup fuel presents to the current computational methods are discussed. Based on the review, the phenomena that need to be investigated further and the technical issues that require resolution are presented. The methods and data development that may be required to address the possible shortcomings of physics and depletion methods in the high-burnup and high-enrichment regime are also discussed. Finally, a sensitivity analysis methodology is presented. This methodology is currently being investigated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory as a computational tool to better understand the changing relative significance of the underlying nuclear data in the different enrichment and burnup regimes and to identify the processes that are dominant in the high-burnup regime. The potential application of the sensitivity analysis methodology to help establish a range of applicability for experimental

  3. Consequences of postulated losses of LWR spent fuel and plutonium shipping packages at sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heaberlin, S.W.; Baker, D.A.; Beyer, C.E.; Friley, J.R.; Mandel, S.; Peterson, P.L.; Sominen, F.A.

    1977-10-01

    The potential consequences of the loss of a large spent fuel cask and of a single 6M plutonium shipping package into the sea for two specific accident cases are estimated. The radiation dose to man through the marine food chain following the loss of undamaged and fire-damaged packages to the continental shelf and in the deep ocean are conservatively estimated. Two failure mechanisms that could lead to release of radioactive material after loss of packages into the ocean have been considered: corrosion and hydrostatic pressure. A third possible mechanism is thermal overpressurization following burial in marine sediments. It was determined that the seals or pressure relief devices on an undamaged spent fuel cask might fail from hydrostatic forces for losses on the continental shelf although some cask designs would retain their integrity at this depth. The population dose to man through the marine food chain following these scenarios has been estimated. The dose estimates are made relating the radioactive material released and the seafood productivity in the region of the release. Doses are based on a one-year consumption of contaminated seafood. The loss of a single plutonium package on the continental shelf is estimated to produce a population dose commitment of less than 250 man-rem for recycle plutonium. The dose commitment to the average individual is less than one millirem. Doses for losses of undamaged casks to the continental shelf and deep ocean and for loss of a fire-damaged cask to the deep ocean were determined to be several orders of magnitude smaller. 22 tables, 10 figures.

  4. Development of FUELSIM/MOD0 for the detailed analysis of LWR fuel rod behavior under normal operation conditions with extended burnup fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berna, G.A.; Allison, C.M. [Innovative Systems Software LLC, 1284 South Woodruff, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1999-07-01

    The FUELSIM code is being developed by Innovative Systems Software as part of the international SCDAP Development and Training Program. FUELSIM is being developed as a 'stand-alone' best-estimate fuel behavior code with evaluation modeling options. The long term goal of the code is to predict fuel performance over the full range of conditions from normal operating behavior to severe accident conditions using a combination of models from the FRAPCON-3, FRAP-T6, SCDAP, and MATPRO fuel behavior codes. FUELSIM/MOD0 is the first release of the code and includes models to predict the behavior of LWR fuel rods during normal operating conditions including the influence of extended burnup fuel. The code calculates the temperature, pressure, and deformation of a fuel rod as functions of time-dependent fuel rod power and coolant boundary conditions. The code models all the important phenomena that occur during normal operating conditions and contains necessary materials properties, water properties, and heat transfer correlations. The code runs on a variety of computers and operating systems including UNIX, LINUX, and Windows NT or 95. (author)

  5. Fuel performance improvement program. Quarterly progress report, April--June 1978. [LWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crouthamel, C.E. (comp.)

    1978-07-01

    The Fuel Performance Improvement Program has as its objective the identification and demonstration of fuel concepts with improved power ramp performance. Improved fuels are being sought to allow reduction or elimination of fuel related operating guidelines on nuclear power plants such that the fuel may be power maneuvered within the rates allowed by the system technical specifications. The program contains a combination of out-of-reactor studies, in-reactor experiments and in-reactor demonstrations. Fuel concepts initially being considered include annular pellets, cladding internally coated with graphite and packed-particle fuels. The performance capability of each concept will be compared to a reference fuel of contemporary pellet design by irradiations in the Halden Boiling Water Reactor. Fuel design and process development is being completed and fuel rod fabrication will begin for the Halden test rods and for the first series of in-reactor experiments. The in-reactor demonstrations are being performed in the Big Rock Point reactor to show that the concepts pose no undue risk to commercial operation. Additional concepts may be considered as the result of a state-of-the-technology review of fuel-cladding interaction and assessment of fuel concepts and the out-of-reactor studies. The results of the program will be used to establish the technical bases for design of fuels with improved power ramp performance.

  6. Systematic technology evaluation program for SiC/SiC composite-based accident-tolerant LWR fuel cladding and core structures: Revision 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katoh, Yutai [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Terrani, Kurt A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Fuels and core structures in current light water reactors (LWR’s) are vulnerable to catastrophic failure in severe accidents as unfortunately evidenced by the March 2011 Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident. This vulnerability is attributed primarily to the rapid oxidation kinetics of zirconium alloys in a water vapor environment at very high temperatures. Zr alloys are the primary material in LWR cores except for the fuel itself. Therefore, alternative materials with reduced oxidation kinetics as compared to zirconium alloys are sought to enable enhanced accident-tolerant fuels and cores.

  7. Categorization of failed and damaged spent LWR (light-water reactor) fuel currently in storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, W.J.

    1987-11-01

    The results of a study that was jointly sponsored by the US Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute are described in this report. The purpose of the study was to (1) estimate the number of failed fuel assemblies and damaged fuel assemblies (i.e., ones that have sustained mechanical or chemical damage but with fuel rod cladding that is not breached) in storage, (2) categorize those fuel assemblies, and (3) prepare this report as an authoritative, illustrated source of information on such fuel. Among the more than 45,975 spent light-water reactor fuel assemblies currently in storage in the United States, it appears that there are nearly 5000 failed or damaged fuel assemblies. 78 refs., 23 figs., 19 tabs.

  8. Plutonium rock-like fuel LWR nuclear characteristics and transient behavior in accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akie, Hiroshi; Anoda, Yoshinari; Takano, Hideki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Yamaguchi, Chouichi; Sugo, Yukihiro

    1998-03-01

    For the disposition of excess plutonium, rock-like oxide (ROX) fuel systems based on zirconia (ZrO{sub 2}) or thoria (ThO{sub 2}) have been studied. Safety analysis of ROX fueled PWR showed it is necessary to increase Doppler reactivity coefficient and to reduce power peaking factor of zirconia type ROX (Zr-ROX) fueled core. For these improvements, Zr-ROX fuel composition was modified by considering additives of ThO{sub 2}, UO{sub 2} or Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and reducing Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} content. As a result of the modification, comparable, transient behavior to UO{sub 2} fuel PWR was obtained with UO{sub 2}-Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} added Zr-ROX fuel, while the plutonium transmutation capability is slightly reduced. (author)

  9. Assessment of precision gamma scanning for inspecting LWR fuel rods. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, J.R.; Barnes, B.K.; Barnes, M.L.; Hamlin, D.K.; Medina-Ortega, E.G.

    1981-07-01

    Reconstruction of the radial two-dimensional distributions of fission products using projections obtained by nondestructive gamma scanning was evaluated. The filtered backprojection algorithm provided the best reconstruction for simulated gamma-ray sources, as well as for actual irradiated fuel material. Both a low-burnup (11.5 GWd/tU) light-water reactor fuel rod and a high-burnup (179.1 GWd/tU) fast breeder reactor fuel rod were examined using this technique.

  10. Analysis of triso packing fraction and fissile material to DB-MHR using LWR reprocessed fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Clarysson A.M. da; Pereira, Claubia; Costa, Antonella L.; Veloso, Maria Auxiliadora F.; Gual, Maritza R., E-mail: clarysson@nuclear.ufmg.br, E-mail: claubia@nuclear.ufmg.br, E-mail: antonella@nuclear.ufmg.br, E-mail: dora@nuclear.ufmg.br, E-mail: maritzargual@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear

    2013-07-01

    Gas-cooled and graphite-moderated reactor is being considered the next generation of nuclear power plants because of its characteristic to operate with reprocessed fuel. The typical fuel element consists of a hexagonal block with coolant and fuel channels. The fuel pin is manufactured into compacted ceramic-coated particles (TRISO) which are used to achieve both a high burnup and a high degree of passive safety. This work uses the MCNPX 2.6.0 to simulate the active core of Deep Burn Modular Helium Reactor (DB-MHR) employing PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) reprocessed fuel. However, before a complete study of DB-MHR fuel cycle and recharge, it is necessary to evaluate the neutronic parameters to some values of TRISO Packing Fractions (PF) and Fissile Material (FM). Each PF and FM combination would generate the best behaviour of neutronic parameters. Therefore, this study configures several PF and FM combinations considering the heterogeneity of TRISO layers and lattice. The results present the best combination of PF and FM values according with the more appropriated behaviour of the neutronic parameters during the burnup. In this way, the optimized combination can be used to future works of MHR fuel cycle and recharge. (author)

  11. Ceria-thoria pellet manufacturing in preparation for plutonia-thoria LWR fuel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drera, Saleem S.; Björk, Klara Insulander; Sobieska, Matylda

    2016-10-01

    Thorium dioxide (thoria) has potential to assist in niche roles as fuel for light water reactors (LWRs). One such application for thoria is its use as the fertile component to burn plutonium in a mixed oxide fuel (MOX). Thor Energy and an international consortium are currently irradiating plutonia-thoria (Th-MOX) fuel in an effort to produce data for its licensing basis. During fuel-manufacturing research and development (R&D), surrogate materials were utilized to highlight procedures and build experience. Cerium dioxide (ceria) provides a good surrogate platform to replicate the chemical nature of plutonium dioxide. The project's fuel manufacturing R&D focused on powder metallurgical techniques to ensure manufacturability with the current commercial MOX fuel production infrastructure. The following paper highlights basics of the ceria-thoria fuel production including powder milling, pellet pressing and pellet sintering. Green pellets and sintered pellets were manufactured with average densities of 67.0% and 95.5% that of theoretical density respectively.

  12. Artificial neural network modeling for fission gas release in LWR UO 2 fuel under RIA conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Yang-Hyun; Oh, Jae-Yong; Lee, Byung-Ho; Tahk, Young-Wook; Song, Kun-Woo

    2010-10-01

    A fission gas release (FGR) model was developed by using an artificial neural network method to predict fission gas release in UO 2 fuel under reactivity initiated accident (RIA) conditions. Based on the test data obtained in the CABRI test reactor and nuclear safety research reactor, the model takes into account the effect of the five parameters: pellet average burnup, peak fuel enthalpy, the ratio of peak fuel enthalpy to pulse width, fission gas release during base-irradiation, and grain size of a fuel pellet. The parametric study of the model, producing a physically reasonable trend of FGR for each parameter, shows that the pellet average burnup and the ratio of peak fuel enthalpy to pulse width are two of the most important parameters. Depending on the combination of input values for the five parameters, the application of the model to a fuel rod under typical RIA conditions of light water reactor produces 1.7-14.0% of FGR for the pellet average burnup ranging from 20 to 70 MW d/kg U.

  13. Oxygen potential measurements in high burnup LWR U0 2 fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzke, Hj.

    1995-05-01

    A miniature solid state galvanic cell was used to measure the oxygen potential Δ overlineG( O2) of reactor irradiated U0 2 fuel at different burnups in the range of 28 to ⩾ 150 GWd d/t M. This very high burnup was achieved in the rim region of a fuel with a cross section average burnup of 75 GWd d/t M. The fuels had different enrichments and therefore different contributions of fission of 235U and 239Pu. The temperature range covered was 900 to 1350 K. None of the fuels showed a significant oxidation. Rather, if allowance is made for the dissolved rare earth fission products and the Pu formed during irradiation, some of the fuels were very slightly substoichiometric and the highest possible degree of oxidation corresponded to U0 2.001. In general, the Δ overlineG( O2) at 750°C was about -400 kJ/mol, corresponding to the Δ overlineG( O2) of the reaction Mo + O 2 → MoO 2. The implication of these results which are in contrast to commonly assumed ideas that U0 2 fuel oxidizes due to burnup, are discussed and the importance of the fission product Mo and of the zircaloy clad as oxygen buffers is outlined.

  14. Material Performance of Fully-Ceramic Micro-Encapsulated Fuel under Selected LWR Design Basis Scenarios: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Boer; R. S. Sen; M. A. Pope; A. M. Ougouag

    2011-09-01

    The extension to LWRs of the use of Deep-Burn coated particle fuel envisaged for HTRs has been investigated. TRISO coated fuel particles are used in Fully-Ceramic Microencapsulated (FCM) fuel within a SiC matrix rather than the graphite of HTRs. TRISO particles are well characterized for uranium-fueled HTRs. However, operating conditions of LWRs are different from those of HTRs (temperature, neutron energy spectrum, fast fluence levels, power density). Furthermore, the time scales of transient core behavior during accidents are usually much shorter and thus more severe in LWRs. The PASTA code was updated for analysis of stresses in coated particle FCM fuel. The code extensions enable the automatic use of neutronic data (burnup, fast fluence as a function of irradiation time) obtained using the DRAGON neutronics code. An input option for automatic evaluation of temperature rise during anticipated transients was also added. A new thermal model for FCM was incorporated into the code; so-were updated correlations (for pyrocarbon coating layers) suitable to estimating dimensional changes at the high fluence levels attained in LWR DB fuel. Analyses of the FCM fuel using the updated PASTA code under nominal and accident conditions show: (1) Stress levels in SiC-coatings are low for low fission gas release (FGR) fractions of several percent, as based on data of fission gas diffusion in UO{sub 2} kernels. However, the high burnup level of LWR-DB fuel implies that the FGR fraction is more likely to be in the range of 50-100%, similar to Inert Matrix Fuels (IMFs). For this range the predicted stresses and failure fractions of the SiC coating are high for the reference particle design (500 {micro}mm kernel diameter, 100 {micro}mm buffer, 35 {micro}mm IPyC, 35 {micro}mm SiC, 40 {micro}mm OPyC). A conservative case, assuming 100% FGR, 900K fuel temperature and 705 MWd/kg (77% FIMA) fuel burnup, results in a 8.0 x 10{sup -2} failure probability. For a &apos

  15. Fission Gas Release in LWR Fuel Rods Exhibiting Very High Burn-Up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, H.

    1980-01-01

    Two UO2Zr BWR type test fuel rods were irradiated to a burn-up of about 38000 MWd/tUO2. After non-destructive characterization, the fission gas released to the internal free volume was extracted and analysed. The irradiation was simulated by means of the Danish fuel performance code WAFER-2, which...... uses an empirical gas release model combined with a strongly burn-up dependent correction term, developed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The paper presents the experimental results and the code calculations. It is concluded that the model predictions are in reasonable agreement (within 15...

  16. Fuel Consumption Impacts of Auto Roof Racks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yuche; Meier, Alan

    2016-05-01

    The after-market roof rack is one of the most common components attached to a vehicle for carrying over-sized items, such as bicycles and skis. It is important to understand these racks' fuel consumption impacts on both individual vehicles and the national fleet because they are widely used. We estimate the national fuel consumption impacts of roof racks using a bottom-up approach. Our model incorporates real-world data and vehicle stock information to enable assessing fuel consumption impacts for several categories of vehicles, rack configurations, and usage conditions. In addition, the model draws on two new data-gathering techniques, on-line forums and crowd-sourcing. The results show that nationwide, roof racks are responsible for 0.8% of light duty vehicle fuel consumption in 2015, corresponding to 100 million gallons of gasoline per year. Sensitivity analyses show that results are most sensitive to the fraction of vehicles with installed roof racks but carrying no equipment. The aerodynamic efficiency of typical roof racks can be greatly improved and reduce individual vehicle fuel consumption; however, government policies to minimize extensive driving with empty racks--if successful--could save more fuel nationally.

  17. Three dimensional considerations in thermal-hydraulics of helical cruciform fuel rods for LWR power uprates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirvan, Koroush, E-mail: kshirvan@mit.edu; Kazimi, Mujid S.

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • We benchmarked the 4 × 4 helical cruciform fuel (HCF) bundle pressure drop experimental data with CFD. • We also benchmarked the 4 × 4 HCF mixing experimental data with CFD. • We derived new friction factors for PWR and BWR designs at PWR and BWR operating conditions from CFD. • We showed the importance of modeling the 3D conduction in HCF in steady state and transient conditions. - Abstract: In order to increase the power density of current and new light water reactor designs, the helical cruciform fuel (HCF) rods have been proposed. The HCF rod is equivalent to a thin cylindrical rod, with 4 fuel containing vanes, wrapped around it. The HCF rods increase the surface area to volume ratio of the fuel and enhance the inter-subchannel mixing due to their helical shape. The rods do not need supporting grids, as they are packed to periodically contact their neighbors along the flow direction, enabling a higher power density in the core. The HCF rods were reported to have the potential to uprate existing PWRs by 45% and BWRs by 20%. In order to quantify the mixing behavior of the HCF rods based on their twist pitch, experiments were previously performed at atmospheric pressures with single phase water in a 4 by 4 HCF and cylindrical rod bundles. In this paper, the experimental results on pressure drop and mixing are benchmarked with computational fluid dynamic (CFD) using steady state the Reynolds average Navier–Stokes (RANS) turbulence model. The sensitivity of the CFD approach to computational domain, mesh size, mesh shape and RANS turbulence models are examined against the experimental conditions. Due to the refined radial velocity profile from the HCF rods twist, the turbulence models showed little sensitivity to the domain. Based on the CFD simulations, the total pressure drops under the PWR and BWR conditions are expected to be about 10% higher than the values previously reported solely from an empirical correlation based on the

  18. Review of experimental data for modelling LWR fuel cladding behaviour under loss of coolant accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massih, Ali R. [Quantum Technologies AB, Uppsala Science Park (Sweden)

    2007-02-15

    Extensive range of experiments has been conducted in the past to quantitatively identify and understand the behaviour of fuel rod under loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) conditions in light water reactors (LWRs). The obtained experimental data provide the basis for the current emergency core cooling system acceptance criteria under LOCA conditions for LWRs. The results of recent experiments indicate that the cladding alloy composition and high burnup effects influence LOCA acceptance criteria margins. In this report, we review some past important and recent experimental results. We first discuss the background to acceptance criteria for LOCA, namely, clad embrittlement phenomenology, clad embrittlement criteria (limitations on maximum clad oxidation and peak clad temperature) and the experimental bases for the criteria. Two broad kinds of test have been carried out under LOCA conditions: (i) Separate effect tests to study clad oxidation, clad deformation and rupture, and zirconium alloy allotropic phase transition during LOCA. (ii) Integral LOCA tests, in which the entire LOCA sequence is simulated on a single rod or a multi-rod array in a fuel bundle, in laboratory or in a tests and results are discussed and empirical correlations deduced from these tests and quantitative models are conferred. In particular, the impact of niobium in zirconium base clad and hydrogen content of the clad on allotropic phase transformation during LOCA and also the burst stress are discussed. We review some recent LOCA integral test results with emphasis on thermal shock tests. Finally, suggestions for modelling and further evaluation of certain experimental results are made.

  19. Public comments and Task Force responses regarding the environmental survey of the reprocessing and waste management portions of the LWR fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-03-01

    This document contains responses by the NRC Task Force to comments received on the report ''Environmental Survey of the Reprocessing and Waste Management Portions of the LWR Fuel Cycle'' (NUREG-0116). These responses are directed at all comments, inclding those received after the close of the comment period. Additional information on the environmental impacts of reprocessing and waste management which has either become available since the publication of NUREG-0116 or which adds requested clarification to the information in that document.

  20. Nuclear Data Uncertainties for Typical LWR Fuel Assemblies and a Simple Reactor Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochman, D.; Leray, O.; Hursin, M.; Ferroukhi, H.; Vasiliev, A.; Aures, A.; Bostelmann, F.; Zwermann, W.; Cabellos, O.; Diez, C. J.; Dyrda, J.; Garcia-Herranz, N.; Castro, E.; van der Marck, S.; Sjöstrand, H.; Hernandez, A.; Fleming, M.; Sublet, J.-Ch.; Fiorito, L.

    2017-01-01

    The impact of the current nuclear data library covariances such as in ENDF/B-VII.1, JEFF-3.2, JENDL-4.0, SCALE and TENDL, for relevant current reactors is presented in this work. The uncertainties due to nuclear data are calculated for existing PWR and BWR fuel assemblies (with burn-up up to 40 GWd/tHM, followed by 10 years of cooling time) and for a simplified PWR full core model (without burn-up) for quantities such as k∞, macroscopic cross sections, pin power or isotope inventory. In this work, the method of propagation of uncertainties is based on random sampling of nuclear data, either from covariance files or directly from basic parameters. Additionally, possible biases on calculated quantities are investigated such as the self-shielding treatment. Different calculation schemes are used, based on CASMO, SCALE, DRAGON, MCNP or FISPACT-II, thus simulating real-life assignments for technical-support organizations. The outcome of such a study is a comparison of uncertainties with two consequences. One: although this study is not expected to lead to similar results between the involved calculation schemes, it provides an insight on what can happen when calculating uncertainties and allows to give some perspectives on the range of validity on these uncertainties. Two: it allows to dress a picture of the state of the knowledge as of today, using existing nuclear data library covariances and current methods.

  1. Wood fuels consumption in households in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glavonjić Branko D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of researching wood fuels consumption in households in Montenegro in the heating season 2011/2012. The research was conducted in the period October-November 2012 on the sample of 5% of the total number of households which stated to use solid fuels for heating purposes in the 2011 census. Results of the conducted researches on the presence and amounts of fuels consumed in households in Montenegro showed that total firewood consumption in the heating season 2011/2012 (both urban and rural households was 703,571 m3. Wood consumption is the lowest in the households in the municipalities in the coastal zone, it is somewhat higher in central zone and the highest in the zone on the north of Montenegro. Average wood consumption in households in the coastal zone municipalities is 3.79 m3, in the central zone it is 5.02 m3 and on the north of Montenegro it is 6.74 m3/household. Observed on the level of Montenegro, average firewood consumption per household was 5.49 m3 and as such it best represents relatively low consumption level in the coastal zone and high consumption level on the north of Montenegro. Compared to the neighboring countries, average firewood consumption per household in Montenegro in the amount of 5.49 m3 is significantly lower than the average consumption in Serbia which is 7.3 m3/household as well as in Slovenia in the amount of 6.5 m3.

  2. Storage of LWR spent fuel in air. Volume 3, Results from exposure of spent fuel to fluorine-contaminated air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, M.E.; Thomas, L.E.

    1995-06-01

    The Behavior of Spent Fuel in Storage (BSFS) Project has conducted research to develop data on spent nuclear fuel (irradiated U0{sub 2}) that could be used to support design, licensing, and operation of dry storage installations. Test Series B conducted by the BSFS Project was designed as a long-term study of the oxidation of spent fuel exposed to air. It was discovered after the exposures were completed in September 1990 that the test specimens had been exposed to an atmosphere of bottled air contaminated with an unknown quantity of fluorine. This exposure resulted in the test specimens reacting with both the oxygen and the fluorine in the oven atmospheres. The apparent source of the fluorine was gamma radiation-induced chemical decomposition of the fluoro-elastomer gaskets used to seal the oven doors. This chemical decomposition apparently released hydrofluoric acid (HF) vapor into the oven atmospheres. Because the Test Series B specimens were exposed to a fluorine-contaminated oven atmosphere and reacted with the fluorine, it is recommended that the Test Series B data not be used to develop time-temperature limits for exposure of spent nuclear fuel to air. This report has been prepared to document Test Series B and present the collected data and observations.

  3. Analysis of Virtual Sensors for Predicting Aircraft Fuel Consumption

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Previous research described the use of machine learning algorithms to predict aircraft fuel consumption. This technique, known as Virtual Sensors, models fuel...

  4. Options for Burning LWR SNF in LIFE Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J

    2008-09-09

    We have pursued two processes in parallel for the burning of LWR SNF in the LIFE engine: (1) solid fuel option and (2) liquid fuel option. Approaches with both are discussed. The assigned Topical Report on liquid fuels is attached.

  5. Fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of aircrafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechler, R. [Institute of Flightmechanics, Braunschweig (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The reduction of contamination of sensitive atmospheric layers by improved flight planning steps, is investigated. Calculated results have shown, that a further development of flight track planning allows considerable improvements on fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. Even if air traffic will further increase, optimistic investigations forecast a reduction of the environmental damage by aircraft exhausts, if the effects of improved flight track arrangement and engine innovations will be combined. (R.P.) 4 refs.

  6. Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Modeling fuel consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger D. Ottmar

    2014-01-01

    Fuel consumption specifies the amount of vegetative biomass consumed during wildland fire. It is a two-stage process of pyrolysis and combustion that occurs simultaneously and at different rates depending on the characteristics and condition of the fuel, weather, topography, and in the case of prescribed fire, ignition rate and pattern. Fuel consumption is the basic...

  7. Fuel consumption impact on gas pipeline projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Sidney P. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Kurz, Rainer; Lubomirsky, Matt [Solar Turbines, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    2005-07-01

    An optimized gas pipeline design requires not only a qualified management of good engineering and planning, but also accurate estimates of capital investment and O and M. Compressor stations play a very important role on the success of a gas pipeline design and a careful selection of centrifugal compressors and drivers are key aspects for the success of the project. The state of the art design available nowadays for these kind of equipment provides overall high thermodynamic performance and consequently minimizes installed power requirements and energy usage with expressive savings on operating expenses along the economic life of the project. This paper will present a guideline for proper station design and selection of its turbo-compressors giving emphasis on the impact of fuel consumption on the economics of a gas pipeline project. (author)

  8. REDUCING GREENHOUSE EMISSIONS AND FUEL CONSUMPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan A. SHAHEEN, Ph.D.

    2007-01-01

    Fortunately, transportation technologies and strategies are emerging that can help to meet the climate challenge. These include automotive and fuel technologies, intelligent transportation systems (ITS, and mobility management strategies that can reduce the demand for private vehicles. While the climate change benefits of innovative engine and vehicle technologies are relatively well understood, there are fewer studies available on the energy and emission impacts of ITS and mobility management strategies. In the future, ITS and mobility management will likely play a greater role in reducing fuel consumption. Studies are often based on simulation models, scenario analysis, and limited deployment experience. Thus, more research is needed to quantify potential impacts. Of the nine ITS technologies examined, traffic signal control, electronic toll collection, bus rapid transit, and traveler information have been deployed more widely and demonstrated positive impacts (but often on a limited basis. Mobility management approaches that have established the greatest CO2 reduction potential, to date, include road pricing policies (congestion and cordon and carsharing (short-term auto access. Other approaches have also indicated CO2 reduction potential including: low-speed modes, integrated regional smart cards, park-and-ride facilities, parking cash out, smart growth, telecommuting, and carpooling.

  9. Environmental survey of the reprocessing and waste management portions of the LWR fuel cycle: a task force report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, W.P.; Miraglia, F.J. Jr. (eds.)

    1976-10-01

    This Supplement deals with the reprocessing and waste management portions of the nuclear fuel cycle for uranium-fueled reactors. The scope of the report is limited to the illumination of fuel reprocessing and waste management activities, and examination of the environmental impacts caused by these activities on a per-reactor basis. The approach is to select one realistic reprocessing and waste management system and to treat it in enough depth to illuminate the issues involved, the technology available, and the relationships of these to the nuclear fuel cycle in general and its environmental impacts.

  10. Preliminary assessment of accident-tolerant fuels on LWR performance during normal operation and under DB and BDB accident conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, L. J.; Robb, K. R.; Wang, D.

    2014-05-01

    Following the severe accidents at the Japanese Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station in 2011, the US Department of Energy initiated research and development on the enhancement of the accident tolerance of light water reactors by the development of fuels/cladding that, in comparison with the standard UO2/Zircaloy (Zr) system, can tolerate loss of active cooling in the core for a considerably longer time period while maintaining or improving the fuel performance during normal operations. Analyses are presented that illustrate the impact of these new candidate fuel/cladding materials on the fuel performance at normal operating conditions and on the reactor system under DB and BDB accident conditions.

  11. Real-world fuel consumption of passenger cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligterink, N.E.; Eijk, A.R.A.

    2014-01-01

    Since 2008 Travelcard Nederland BV and TNO collaborate to determine the real-world fuel consumption of modern vehicles. The difference between the official type-approval value and the actual fuel consumption has been reported over the years (Ligterink, 2010 and Ligterink, 2013 and Ligterink, 2014).

  12. System analysis with improved thermo-mechanical fuel rod models for modeling current and advanced LWR materials in accident scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Ian Edward

    A nuclear reactor systems code has the ability to model the system response in an accident scenario based on known initial conditions at the onset of the transient. However, there has been a tendency for these codes to lack the detailed thermo-mechanical fuel rod response models needed for accurate prediction of fuel rod failure. This proposed work will couple today's most widely used steady-state (FRAPCON) and transient (FRAPTRAN) fuel rod models with a systems code TRACE for best-estimate modeling of system response in accident scenarios such as a loss of coolant accident (LOCA). In doing so, code modifications will be made to model gamma heating in LWRs during steady-state and accident conditions and to improve fuel rod thermal/mechanical analysis by allowing axial nodalization of burnup-dependent phenomena such as swelling, cladding creep and oxidation. With the ability to model both burnup-dependent parameters and transient fuel rod response, a fuel dispersal study will be conducted using a hypothetical accident scenario under both PWR and BWR conditions to determine the amount of fuel dispersed under varying conditions. Due to the fuel fragmentation size and internal rod pressure both being dependent on burnup, this analysis will be conducted at beginning, middle and end of cycle to examine the effects that cycle time can play on fuel rod failure and dispersal. Current fuel rod and system codes used by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) are compilations of legacy codes with only commonly used light water reactor materials, Uranium Dioxide (UO2), Mixed Oxide (U/PuO 2) and zirconium alloys. However, the events at Fukushima Daiichi and Three Mile Island accident have shown the need for exploration into advanced materials possessing improved accident tolerance. This work looks to further modify the NRC codes to include silicon carbide (SiC), an advanced cladding material proposed by current DOE funded research on accident tolerant fuels (ATF). Several

  13. Fuel consumption and pollution level by automobiles in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazrl Islam, S.M.; Sarkar, A.R. [Dacca Univ. (Bangladesh); Talukder, M.A.B.S. [Bangladesh Ordnance Factory, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    1996-08-01

    Due to economic conditions, a substantial number of people use old models of cars on roads. Actual fuel consumption of these cars is remarkably high in comparison to new models. The new models have more efficient engines, better transmission and better aerodynamics which tend to decrease consumption of new models. In this study a sample of cars of models ranging from 1972 to 1993 was taken, and tested on roads. The results show a substantial reduction of fuel consumption in the case of new models. The fuel consumption at variable loads on cars was measured, and its dependency on car mass and piston displacement was estimated. (author)

  14. Fuel consumption models for pine flatwoods fuel types in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton S. Wright

    2013-01-01

    Modeling fire effects, including terrestrial and atmospheric carbon fluxes and pollutant emissions during wildland fires, requires accurate predictions of fuel consumption. Empirical models were developed for predicting fuel consumption from fuel and environmental measurements on a series of operational prescribed fires in pine flatwoods ecosystems in the southeastern...

  15. Spent fuel data for waste storage programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, E M

    1980-09-01

    Data on LWR spent fuel were compiled for dissemination to participants in DOE-sponsored waste storage programs. Included are mechanical descriptions of the existing major types of LWR fuel assemblies, spent LWR fuel fission product inventories and decay heat data, and inventories of LWR spent fuel currently in storage, with projections of future quantities.

  16. On the development of LWR fuel analysis code (1). Analysis of the FEMAXI code and proposal of a new model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemehov, Sergei; Suzuki, Motoe [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes the review on the modeling features of FEMAXI code and proposal of a new theoretical equation model of clad creep on the basis of irradiation-induced microstructure change. It was pointed out that plutonium build-up in fuel matrix and non-uniform radial power profile at high burn-up affect significantly fuel behavior through the interconnected effects with such phenomena as clad irradiation-induced creep, fission gas release, fuel thermal conductivity degradation, rim porous band formation and associated fuel swelling. Therefore, these combined effects should be properly incorporated into the models of the FEMAXI code so that the code can carry out numerical analysis at the level of accuracy and elaboration that modern experimental data obtained in test reactors have. Also, the proposed new mechanistic clad creep model has a general formalism which allows the model to be flexibly applied for clad behavior analysis under normal operation conditions and power transients as well for Zr-based clad materials by the use of established out-of-pile mechanical properties. The model has been tested against experimental data, while further verification is needed with specific emphasis on power ramps and transients. (author)

  17. In-pile tests at Karlsruhe of LWR fuel-rod behavior during the heatup phase of a LOCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karb, E.H.

    1980-01-01

    In order to investigate the influence of a nuclar environment on the mechanisms of fuel-rod failure, in-pile tests simulating the heatup phase of a loss-of-coolant accident in a pressurized-water reactor are being conducted with irradiated and unirradiated short-length single rods in the FR2 reactor at Kernforschungszentrum karlsruhe (Karlsruhe Nuclear Reasearch Center), Federal Republic of Germany, within the Project Nuclear Safety. With nearly 70% of the scheduled tests completed, no such influences have been found. The in-pile burst and deformation data are in good agreement with results from nonnuclear tests with electrically heated fuel-rod simulators. The phenomenon of pellet disintegration, which has been observed in all tests with previously irradiated rods, needs further investigation.

  18. Estimation of the radionuclide inventory in LWR spent fuel assembly structural materials for long-term safety analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caruso Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The radionuclide inventory of materials irradiated in a reactor depends on the initial material composition, irradiation history and on the magnitude and spectrum of the neutron flux. The material composition of a fuel assembly structure includes various alloys of Zircaloy, Inconel and stainless steel. The existing impurities in these materials are very important for accurate determination of the activation of all nuclides with a view to assessing the radiological consequences of their geological disposal. In fact, the safety assessments of geological repositories require the average and maximum (in the sense of very conservative inventories of the very long-lived nuclides as input. The purpose of the present work is to describe the methodology applied for determining the activation of these nuclides in fuel assembly structural materials by means of coupled depletion/activation calculations and also to crosscheck the results obtained from two approaches. UO2 and MOX PWR fuels have been simulated using SCALE/TRITON, simultaneously irradiating the fuel region in POWER mode and the cladding region in FLUX mode and aiming to produce binary macro cross-section libraries by applying accurate local neutron spectra in the cladding region as a function of irradiation history that are suitable for activation calculations. The developed activation libraries have been re-employed in a second run using the ORIGEN-S program for a dedicated activation calculation. The axial variation of the neutron flux along the fuel assembly length has also been considered. The SCALE calculations were performed using a 238-group cross-section library, according to the ENDF/B-VII. The results obtained with the ORIGEN-S activation calculations are compared with the results obtained from TRITON via direct irradiation of the cladding, as allowed by the FLUX mode. It is shown that an agreement on the total calculated activities can be found within 55% for MOX and within 22% for

  19. Extension and validation of the TRANSURANUS burn-up model for helium production in high burn-up LWR fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botazzoli, Pietro; Luzzi, Lelio; Brémier, Stephane; Schubert, Arndt; Van Uffelen, Paul; Walker, Clive T.; Haeck, Wim; Goll, Wolfgang

    2011-12-01

    The TRANSURANUS burn-up model (TUBRNP) calculates the local concentration of the actinides, the main fission products, and 4He as a function of the radial position across a fuel rod. In this paper, the improvements in the helium production model as well as the extensions in the simulation of 238-242Pu, 241Am, 243Am and 242-245Cm isotopes are described. Experimental data used for the extended validation include new EPMA measurements of the local concentrations of Nd and Pu and recent SIMS measurements of the radial distributions of Pu, Am and Cm isotopes, both in a 3.5% enriched commercial PWR UO 2 fuel with a burn-up of 80 and 65 MWd/kgHM, respectively. Good agreement has been found between TUBRNP and the experimental data. The analysis has been complemented by detailed neutron transport calculations (VESTA code), and also revealed the need to update the branching ratio for the 241Am(n,γ) 242mAm reaction in typical PWR conditions.

  20. The preliminary study of urbanization, fossil fuels consumptions and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-29

    Mar 29, 2010 ... As a result the demand of more energy in form of fossil fuels increased for domestic ... Key words: Urbanization, fossil fuels, CO2 emission, energy consumption, population growth. ..... energy and biofuels. It will help to reduce ...

  1. Biomass burning fuel consumption rates: a field measurement database

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Leeuwen, TT

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Landscape fires show large variability in the amount of biomass or fuel consumed per unit area burned. These fuel consumption (FC) rates depend on the biomass available to burn and the fraction of the biomass that is actually combusted, and can...

  2. PLUTON: Three-group neutronic code for burnup analysis of isotope generation and depletion in highly irradiated LWR fuel rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemehov, Sergei E; Suzuki, Motoe [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-08-01

    PLUTON is a three-group neutronic code analyzing, as functions of time and burnup, the change of radial profiles, together with average values, of power density, burnup, concentration of trans-uranium elements, plutonium buildup, depletion of fissile elements, and fission product generation in water reactor fuel rod with standard UO{sub 2}, UO{sub 2}-Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}, inhomogeneous MOX, and UO{sub 2}-ThO{sub 2}. The PLUTON code, which has been designed to be run on Windows PC, has adopted a theoretical shape function of neutron attenuation in pellet, which enables users to perform a very fast and accurate calculation easily. The present code includes the irradiation conditions of the Halden Reactor which gives verification data for the code. The total list of trans-uranium elements included in the calculations consists of {sub 92}U{sup 233-239}, {sub 93}Np{sup 237-239}, {sub 94}Pu{sup 238-243}, {sub 95}Am{sup 241-244} (including isomers), and {sub 96}Cm{sup 242-245}. Poisoning fission products are represented by {sub 54}Xe{sup 131,133,135}, {sub 48}Cd{sup 113}, {sub 62}Sm{sup 149,151,152}, {sub 64}Gd{sup 154-160}, {sub 63}Eu{sup 153,155}, {sub 36}Kr{sup 83,85}, {sub 42}Mo{sup 95}, {sub 43}Tc{sup 99}, {sub 45}Rh{sup 103}, {sub 47}Ag{sup 109}, {sub 53}I{sup 127,129,131}, {sub 55}Cs{sup 133}, {sub 57}La{sup 139}, {sub 59}Pr{sup 141}, {sub 60}Nd{sup 143-150}, {sub 61}Pm{sup 147}. Fission gases and volatiles included in the code are {sub 36}Kr{sup 83-86}, {sub 54}Xe{sup 129-136}, {sub 52}Te{sup 125-130}, {sub 53}I{sup 127-131}, {sub 55}Cs{sup 133-137}, and {sub 56}Ba{sup 135-140}. Verification has been performed up to 83 GWd/tU, and a satisfactory agreement has been obtained. (author)

  3. Effects of heat transfer coefficient treatments on thermal shock fracture prediction for LWR fuel claddings in water quenching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youho; Lee, Jeong Ik; Cheon, Hee [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Accurate modeling of thermal shock induced stresses has become ever most important to emerging accident-tolerant ceramic cladding concepts, such as silicon carbide (SiC) and SiC coated zircaloy. Since fractures of ceramic (entirely ceramic or coated) occur by excessive tensile stresses with linear elasticity, modeling transient stress distribution in the material provides a direct indication of the structural integrity. Indeed, even for the current zircaloy cladding material, the oxide layer formed on the surface - where cracks starts to develop upon water quenching - essentially behaves as a brittle ceramic. Hence, enhanced understanding of thermal shock fracture of a brittle material would fundamentally contribute to safety of nuclear reactors for both the current fuel design and that of the coming future. Understanding thermal shock fracture of a brittle material requires heat transfer rate between the solid and the fluid for transient temperature fields of the solid, and structural response of the solid under the obtained transient temperature fields. In water quenching, a solid experiences dynamic time-varying heat transfer rates with phase changes of the fluid over a short quenching period. Yet, such a dynamic change of heat transfer rates during the water quenching transience has been overlooked in assessments of mechanisms, predictability, and uncertainties for thermal shock fracture. Rather, a time-constant heat transfer coefficient, named 'effective heat transfer coefficient' has become a conventional input to thermal shock fracture analysis. No single constant heat transfer could suffice to depict the actual stress evolution subject to dynamic heat transfer coefficient changes with fluid phase changes. Use of the surface temperature dependent heat transfer coefficient will remarkably increase predictability of thermal shock fracture of brittle materials and complete the picture of stress evolution in the quenched solid. The presented result

  4. Testing of a low specific fuel consumption turbocompound engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holtman, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    Refinements to reduce the operating costs of heavy-duty diesel engines have resulted in new production engines with specific fuel consumption (sfc) below 200 g/kW-hr. Turbocompounding the heavy-duty diesel engine results in further reductions in sfc. This paper describes a research program for testing of an 11.3 liter, 6 cylinder turbocompound diesel engine which has demonstrated a significant reduction in specific fuel consumption, down to 180 g/kW-hr, as well as improved transient emissions and response.

  5. Fuel consumption and emission on fuel mixer low-grade bioethanol fuelled motorcycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abikusna Setia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol is currently used as an alternative fuel for gasoline substitute (fossil fuel because it can reduce the dependence on fossil fuel and also emissions produced by fossil fuel which are CO2, HO, NOx. Bioethanol is usually used as a fuel mixed with gasoline with certain comparison. In Indonesia, the usage is still rare. Bioethanol that is commonly used is bioethanol anhydrous 99.5%. In the previous studies, bioethanol was distilled from low to high grade to produce ethanol anhydrous. But the result is only able to reach 95% or ethanol hydrous. This study is objected to design a simple mechanism in the mixing of bioethanol hydrous with the gasoline using a fuel mixer mechanism. By this mechanism, the fuel consumption and the resulting emissions from combustion engine can be analyzed. The fuel blend composition is prepared as E5, E10, and E15/E20, the result of fuel consumption and emission will be compared with pure gasoline. The using of bioethanol hydrous as a fuel mixture was tended to produce more stable bioethanol fuel consumption. However, the utilization of the mixture was found able to reduce the exhaust emissions (CO, HC, and NOx.

  6. Fuel consumption of gasoline ethanol blends at different engine rotational

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Barakat

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fuel consumption (mf kg/h was estimated for two hydrocarbon gasolines (BG1-OE and BG2-OE and their ethanol blends which contain from 4 to 20 vol.% of ethanol. Fuel consumption experiments for sixteen fuel samples (5 L each, were conducted on a four cylinder, four stroke spark ignition test vehicle Sahin car, Type 1.45, model 2001. The engine has a swept volume of 1400 c.c., a compression ratio of 8.3:1 and a maximum power of 78 HP at 5500 rpm. The obtained data reveal that the relation between fuel consumption and ethanol concentration is linear. Six linear equations for BG1-ethanol blends and BG2-ethanol ones at the investigated rotational speeds, were developed. Fuel consumption values of the first set of gasoline-ethanol blends are lower than that of the second set. This may be attributed to the difference in the chemical composition of base gasolines BG1 in the first set which is enriched in the less volatile reformate if compared with the second set which is more enriched in isomerate, the more volatile refinery stream.

  7. Fuel consumption of a sugarcane harvester in different operational settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos R. G. Ramos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The interventions performed during the mechanized harvesting are essential to improve the operational performance of sugarcane harvesters and reduce operational costs. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the fuel consumption of a sugarcane harvester in different forward speeds and engine rotations. Harvesting was conducted in a green cane plot, with the variety RB 855156. Flow meters were installed in the harvester's fuel supply system and an electronic device was used for data acquisition. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design in a factorial scheme (3 x 2, using three engine rotations and two forward speeds, with six replicates. Harvesting capacity and fuel consumption per hour, per area and per ton of harvested sugarcane were analyzed. The results were subjected to analysis of variance and means were compared by Tukey test. The variations in engine rotation did not affect the performance for harvesting capacity, but influenced fuel consumption. Forward speed influenced both harvesting capacity and fuel consumption.

  8. Fuel Consumption and Emissions from Airport Taxi Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yoon

    2010-01-01

    Developed a method to calculate fuel consumption and emissions of phases of taxi operations. Results at DFW showed that up to 18% of fuel can be saved by eliminating stop-and-go situations. Developed an energy efficient and environmentally friendly surface concept: Spot and Runway Departure Advisory (SARDA) tool. The SARDA tool has been identified as a potential candidate for a technology transfer to the FAA.

  9. Partial Substitution of Fuel Alcohol for Oil Consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ With the rapid development of the national economy in the 21st century, China has constantly increased its oil consumption and already depends on imported oil for close to 50% of its supply. Due to various factors, the price of oil keeps increasing. Various biological energy sources have therefore aroused people's interest. As fuel alcohol was developed ahead of the pack, and its technology has now matured worldwide, it has become a focus as a partial substitute in petroleum based fuels.

  10. Fuel consumption of the Autark hybrid in test rig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehn, B.R. [VDI (Germany); Pflaum, H.; Guttenberg, P.

    2002-07-01

    The Autark Hybrid of the Technical University Munich is a parallel hybrid concept for passenger cars with the aims of saving fuel and reducing exhaust gas emissions. The drive line consists of an electric engine supplied by a 120V-Ni/MH-battery and a diesel engine. Both engines use the same gearbox, a specially developed i{sup 2}-gearbox with continuously variable transmission and wide spreading. In the meantime the concept has been realised and fuel consumption is investigated in a drive line test rig. The paper presents the actual state of fuel measurements along with energetic analysis of drive line operation. (orig.)

  11. Assessment of LWR-HTR-GCFR Integrated Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Bomboni

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary analyses already performed showed that innovative GCRs, both thermal and fast, are very promising candidate to reach the Gen-IV sustainability goal. The integrated LWR-HTR-GCFR basically aims at closing the current nuclear fuel cycle: in principle, thanks to the unique characteristics of Helium coolant reactors, LWR SNF along with DU become valuable material to produce energy. Additionally, burning HMs of LWR SNF means not only a drastic reduction in the Unat demand but also a remarkable decrease in the long-term radiotoxic component of nuclear waste to be geologically stored. This paper focuses on the analyses of the LWR-HTR-GCFR cycle performed by the University of Pisa in the frame of the EU PUMA project (6th FP. Starting from a brief outline of the main characteristics of HTR and GCFR concepts and of the advantages of linking LWR, HTR and GCFR in a symbiotic way, this paper shows the integrated cycle involving a typical LWR (1000 MWe, a PBMR (400 MWth and a GCFR-“E” (2400 MWth. Additionally, a brief overview of the main technological constraints concerning (Pu+MA-based advanced fuels is given, in order to explain and justify the choices made in the framework of the considered cycle. Thereafter, calculations performed and results obtained are described.

  12. Nonresidential buildings energy consumption survey: 1979 consumption and expenditures. Part 2. Steam, fuel oil, LPG, and all fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patinkin, L.

    1983-12-01

    This report presents data on square footage and on total energy consumption and expenditures for commercial buildings in the contiguous United States. Also included are detailed consumption and expenditures tables for fuel oil or kerosene, liquid petroleum gas (LPG), and purchased steam. Commercial buildings include all nonresidential buildings with the exception of those where industrial activities occupy more of the total square footage than any other type of activity. 7 figures, 23 tables.

  13. Comments on the Calculations of Specific Electricity and Fuel Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1996-01-01

    Calculation of specific consumption of electricity and fuel for model electrical vehicles (passenger cars and vans). Both the present technological level and projected future technological developments. Used as background paper for a review of the scope for electrical vehicles in Denmark, carried...

  14. Bulk Fuel: Actions Needed to Improve DODs Fuel Consumption Budget Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    be difficult and labor intensive. GAO believes the recommendation remains valid to ensure that Congress has information to assess trends in fuel...consumption spending and DLA’s fuel sales to the Air Force could be attributable to the inclusion of fuel sales to U.S. Transportation Command in DLA’s...budget submissions. However, DOD stated that it would be very difficult and labor intensive to implement a system to separate base from OCO data and

  15. Fuel Consumption Management in the Transportation Sector in Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dastjerdi, Aliasghar M.; Araghi, Bahar Namaki

    2011-01-01

    Energy consumption in the transportation sector in Iran is significantly higher than global norms and standards which caused some issues including wasting national resources, deteriorating air quality, GHG emissions etc. The major purpose of this paper is to introduce practical policies, strategies...... and technologies to reduce liquid fuel consumption known as a dominant source of energy in transport sector in Iran. Since, the road subsector has the major share in consuming liquid fuel amongst others, more attention is given to the methods for reducing consumption in this subsector. The relating policies...... and actions were classified by optimization measures according to four separate categories as follows; “Optimization of Supply of Transportation Services”, “Optimization of Transport Demand”, “Optimization of Energy Consumption” and “Optimization of Car Manufacturing”....

  16. Heavy truck modeling for fuel consumption. Simulations and measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandberg, T.

    2001-12-01

    Fuel consumption for heavy trucks depends on many factors like roads, weather, and driver behavior that are hard for a manufacturer to influence. However, one design possibility is the power train configuration. Here a new simulation program for heavy trucks is created to find the configuration of the power train that gives the lowest fuel consumption for each transport task. For efficient simulations the model uses production code for speed and gear control, and it uses exchangeable data sets to allow simulation of the whole production range of engine types, on recorded road profiles from all over the world. Combined with a graphical user interface this application is called STARS (Scania Truck And Road Simulation). The forces of rolling resistance and air resistance in the model are validated through an experiment where the propeller shaft torque of a heavy truck is measured. It is found that the coefficient of rolling resistance is strongly dependent on tire temperature, not only on vehicle speed as expected. This led to the development of a new model for rolling resistance. The model includes the dynamic behavior of the tires and relates rolling resistance to tire temperature and vehicle speed. In another experiment the fuel consumption of a test truck in highway driving is measured. The altitude of the road is recorded with a barometer and used in the corresponding simulations. Despite of the limited accuracy of this equipment the simulation program manage to predict a level of fuel consumption only 2% lower than the real measurements. It is concluded that STARS is a good tool for predicting fuel consumption for trucks in highway driving and for comparing different power train configurations.

  17. Heavy truck modeling for fuel consumption. Simulations and measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandberg, T.

    2001-12-01

    Fuel consumption for heavy trucks depends on many factors like roads, weather, and driver behavior that are hard for a manufacturer to influence. However, one design possibility is the power train configuration. Here a new simulation program for heavy trucks is created to find the configuration of the power train that gives the lowest fuel consumption for each transport task. For efficient simulations the model uses production code for speed and gear control, and it uses exchangeable data sets to allow simulation of the whole production range of engine types, on recorded road profiles from all over the world. Combined with a graphical user interface this application is called STARS (Scania Truck And Road Simulation). The forces of rolling resistance and air resistance in the model are validated through an experiment where the propeller shaft torque of a heavy truck is measured. It is found that the coefficient of rolling resistance is strongly dependent on tire temperature, not only on vehicle speed as expected. This led to the development of a new model for rolling resistance. The model includes the dynamic behavior of the tires and relates rolling resistance to tire temperature and vehicle speed. In another experiment the fuel consumption of a test truck in highway driving is measured. The altitude of the road is recorded with a barometer and used in the corresponding simulations. Despite of the limited accuracy of this equipment the simulation program manage to predict a level of fuel consumption only 2% lower than the real measurements. It is concluded that STARS is a good tool for predicting fuel consumption for trucks in highway driving and for comparing different power train configurations.

  18. Characteristics of spent fuel, high-level waste, and other radioactive wastes which may require long-term isolation: Appendix 2E, Physical descriptions of LWR nonfuel assembly hardware, Appendix 2F, User's guide to the LWR nonfuel assembly data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1987-12-01

    This appendix includes a two to three page Physical Description report for each Non-fuel Assembly (NFA) Hardware item identified from the current data. Information was obtained via subcontracts with these NFA hardware vendors: Babcock and Wildox, Combustion Engineering and Westinghouse. Data for some NFA hardware are not available. For such hardware, the information shown in this report was obtained from the open literature. Efforts to obtain additional information are continuing. NFA hardware can be grouped into six categories: BWR Channels, Control Elements, Guide Tube Plugs/Orifice Rods, Instrumentation, Neutron Poisons, and Neutron Sources. This appendix lists Physical Description reports alphabetically by vendor within each category. Individual Physical Description reports can be generated interactively through the menu-driven LWR Non-Fuel Assembly Hardware Data Base system. These reports can be viewed on the screen, directed to a printer, or saved in a text file for later use. Special reports and compilations of specific data items can be produced on request.

  19. 75 FR 66008 - Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction for New Federal Buildings and Major...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... Parts 433 and 435 RIN 1904-AB96 Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction for New Federal... proposed rulemaking (NOPR) regarding the fossil fuel- generated energy consumption ] requirements for new... regarding the fossil fuel-generated energy consumption requirements for new Federal buildings and...

  20. Improvement and Primary Application of Theory of Fuel Specific Consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The high efficiency utilization of energy conversion systems has been regarded as one of the most effective ways to cope with the everincreasing depletion of fossil fuel and the greenhouse gas effect. The design, optimization and refurbishment of thermal systems definitely need the help of proper application of energy conservation theory, especially exergy analysis. Conventional exergy analysis only considers the energy consumption of each device in isolation without taking the interactions among devices into consideration. In addition, the exergy destruction and exergetic efficiency are always the criterion for the evaluation of the device performances; however, great controversies exist. This paper presents the development of fuel specific consumption analysis considering the interactions among devices to provide more information for energy-savings of thermal systems.

  1. A historical reconstruction of ships' fuel consumption and emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endresen, Øyvind; Sørgârd, Eirik; Behrens, Hanna Lee; Brett, Per Olaf; Isaksen, Ivar S. A.

    2007-06-01

    Shipping activity has increased considerably over the last century and currently represents a significant contribution to the global emissions of pollutants and greenhouse gases. Despite this, information about the historical development of fuel consumption and emissions is generally limited, with little data published pre-1950 and large deviations reported for estimates covering the last 3 decades. To better understand the historical development in ship emissions and the uncertainties associated with the estimates, we present fuel-based CO2 and SO2 emission inventories from 1925 up to 2002 and activity-based estimates from 1970 up to 2000. The global CO2 emissions from ships in 1925 have been estimated to 229 Tg (CO2), growing to about 634 Tg (CO2) in 2002. The corresponding SO2 emissions are about 2.5 Tg (SO2) and 8.5 Tg (SO2), respectively. Our activity-based estimates of fuel consumption from 1970 to 2000, covering all oceangoing civil ships above or equal to 100 gross tonnage (GT), are lower compared to previous activity-based studies. We have applied a more detailed model approach, which includes variation in the demand for sea transport, as well as operational and technological changes of the past. This study concludes that the main reason for the large deviations found in reported inventories is the applied number of days at sea. Moreover, our modeling indicates that the ship size and the degree of utilization of the fleet, combined with the shift to diesel engines, have been the major factors determining yearly fuel consumption. Interestingly, the model results from around 1973 suggest that the fleet growth is not necessarily followed by increased fuel consumption, as technical and operational characteristics have changed. Results from this study indicate that reported sales over the last 3 decades seems not to be significantly underreported as previous simplified activity-based studies have suggested. The results confirm our previously reported modeling

  2. Reducing stress and fuel consumption providing road information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor CORCOBA MAGAÑA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a solution to reduce the stress level of the driver, minimize fuel consumption and improve safety. The system analyzes the driving style and the driver’s workload during the trip while driving. If it discovers an area where the stress increases and the driving style is not appropriate from the point of view of energy efficiency and safety for a particular driver, the location of this area is saved in a shared database. On the other hand, the implemented solution warns a particular user when approaching a region where the driving is difficult (high fuel consumption and stress using the shared database based on previous recorded knowledge of similar drivers in that area. In this case, the proposal provides an optimal deceleration profile if the vehicle speed is not adequate. Therefore, he or she may adjust the vehicle speed with both a positive impact on the driver workload and fuel consumption. The Data Envelopment Analysis algorithm is used to estimate the efficiency of driving and the driver’s workload in in each area. We employ this method because there is no preconceived form on the data in order to calculate the efficiency and stress level. A validation experiment has been conducted using both a driving simulator and a real environment with 12 participants who made 168 driving tests. The system reduced the slowdowns (38%, heart rate (4.70%, and fuel consumption (12.41% in the real environment. The proposed solution is implemented on Android mobile devices and does not require the installation of infrastructure on the road. It can be installed on any model of vehicle.

  3. 77 FR 18718 - Petroleum Reduction and Alternative Fuel Consumption Requirements for Federal Fleets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 438 RIN 1904-AB98 Petroleum Reduction and Alternative Fuel Consumption... issue implementing regulations for a statutorily-required reduction in petroleum consumption and... petroleum consumption and increase in alternative fuel consumption for Federal fleets (77 FR 14,482 (Mar. 12...

  4. Framing car fuel efficiency : linearity heuristic for fuel consumption and fuel-efficiency ratings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, T.M.; Bolderdijk, J.W.; Steg, L.

    2014-01-01

    People are sensitive to the way information on fuel efficiency is conveyed. When the fuel efficiency of cars is framed in terms of fuel per distance (FPD; e.g. l/100 km), instead of distance per units of fuel (DPF; e.g. km/l), people have a more accurate perception of potential fuel savings. People

  5. Perodua Myvi engine fuel consumption map and fuel economy vehicle simulation on the drive cycles based on Malaysian roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramdan Muhammad Iftishah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the fuel consumption engine map for a 1.3L Perodua Myvi passenger car. The engine dynamometer and the engine throttle are controlled, to create the operating conditions for the engine map. Interpolation work is done in MATLAB, to create a 3D fuel consumption engine map. The engine map is used in a fuel-economy estimation simulation, using the city and the highway drive cycles based on Malaysian roads. The fuel economy values generated from the simulations are similar to experimental fuel consumption results.

  6. Forces on wheels and fuel consumption in cars

    CERN Document Server

    Güémez, J

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by real classroom discussions, we analyse the forces acting on moving vehicles, specifically friction forces on the wheels. In usual cars, with front-wheel drive, when the car accelerates these forces are in the forward direction in the front wheels, but they are in the opposite direction in the rear wheels. The situation may be intriguing for students, but it may also be helpful and stimulating to clarify the role of friction forces on rolling objects. In this article we also study thermodynamical aspects of an accelerating car, relating the distance traveled with the amount of fuel consumed. The fuel consumption is explicitly shown to be Galilean invariant and we identify the Gibbs free energy as the relevant quantity that enters in the thermodynamical description of the accelerating car. The more realistic case of the car's motion taking into account the dragging forces is also discussed.

  7. Impact of Bulldozer's Engine Load Factor on Fuel Consumption, CO2 Emission and Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kecojevic

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Bulldozers consume a large amount of diesel fuel and consequently produce a significant quantity of CO2. Environmental and economic cost issues related to fuel consumption and CO2 emission represent a substantial challenge to the mining industry. Approach: Impact of engine load conditions on fuel consumption and the subsequent CO2 emission and cost was analyzed for Caterpillar bulldozers. Results were compared with the data on bulldozers' fuel consumption from an operating coal surface mine in the United States. Results: There is a strong linear correlation among power, fuel consumption and engine load factor. Reduction in load factor by 15% may significantly reduce the fuel consumption and the CO2 emission. Conclusion/Recommendation: Application of appropriate bulldozer's load factor may help mine operators manage fuel consumption, cost and environmental burden.

  8. The design of a low specific fuel consumption turbocompound engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    Continued emphasis has been placed on reducing the specific fuel consumption (sfc) of heavy-duty diesel engines. Through design improvements, engines with sfc levels of 200 g/kW-hr are now reaching the consumer. With the addition of turbocompounding, sfc can be reduced below 185 g/kW-hr. This paper describes the concept, design, and initial performance test of an 11.3 liter, 6 cylinder non-insulated turbocompound engine. Improvements in the turbocharged engine design resulted in a rated sfc of 192 g/kW-hr. The turbocompound engine demonstrated an sfc of 182 g/kW-hr at the same rating.

  9. Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Fossil-Fuel Consumption in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, J. S.; Robert, A. J.

    2005-05-01

    Applying monthly sales and consumption data of coal, petroleum and natural gas, a monthly time series of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel consumption is created for Indonesia. These are then modeled with an autoregressive function to produce a quantitative description of the seasonal distribution and long-term pattern of CO2 emissions. Currently, Indonesia holds the 21st ranked position in total anthropogenic CO2 emissions among countries of the world. The demand for energy in Indonesia has been growing rapidly in recent years as Indonesia attempts to modernize and upgrade the standard of living for its citizens. With such a large population (a quarter of a billion people), the recent increase observed in the per capita energy use equates to a large escalation in total CO2 emissions. However, the economy and political climate is rather turbulent and thus emissions tend to fluctuate wildly. For example, Indonesia's energy consumption dropped substantially during the Asian economic crisis in the late 1990s. It is likely that the recent tsunami will also significantly impact energy consumption as the hard-hit Aceh region is the largest fuel-producing region of Indonesia. Therefore, Indonesia is a country whose emissions are more unpredictable than most countries that emit comparable levels of CO2. Complicating matters further, data collection practices in Indonesia are less diligent than in other countries with more stable economies. Thus, though CO2 emissions from Indonesia are a particular challenge to model, they are an important component to understanding the total global carbon cycle.

  10. Biomass burning fuel consumption rates: a field measurement database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. T. van Leeuwen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Landscape fires show large variability in the amount of biomass or fuel consumed per unit area burned. These fuel consumption (FC rates depend on the biomass available to burn and the fraction of the biomass that is actually combusted, and can be combined with estimates of area burned to assess emissions. While burned area can be detected from space and estimates are becoming more reliable due to improved algorithms and sensors, FC rates are either modeled or taken selectively from the literature. We compiled the peer-reviewed literature on FC rates for various biomes and fuel categories to better understand FC rates and variability, and to provide a~database that can be used to constrain biogeochemical models with fire modules. We compiled in total 76 studies covering 10 biomes including savanna (15 studies, average FC of 4.6 t DM (dry matter ha−1, tropical forest (n = 19, FC = 126, temperate forest (n = 11, FC = 93, boreal forest (n = 16, FC = 39, pasture (n = 6, FC = 28, crop residue (n = 4, FC = 6.5, chaparral (n = 2, FC = 32, tropical peatland (n = 4, FC = 314, boreal peatland (n = 2, FC = 42, and tundra (n = 1, FC = 40. Within biomes the regional variability in the number of measurements was sometimes large, with e.g. only 3 measurement locations in boreal Russia and 35 sites in North America. Substantial regional differences were found within the defined biomes: for example FC rates of temperate pine forests in the USA were 38% higher than Australian forests dominated by eucalypt trees. Besides showing the differences between biomes, FC estimates were also grouped into different fuel classes. Our results highlight the large variability in FC rates, not only between biomes but also within biomes and fuel classes. This implies that care should be taken with using averaged values, and our comparison with FC rates from GFED3 indicates that also modeling studies have difficulty in representing the dynamics governing FC.

  11. Vehicle Routing Problems with Fuel Consumption and Stochastic Travel Speeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanling Feng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional vehicle routing problems (VRP always assume that the vehicle travel speed is fixed or time-dependent on arcs. However, due to the uncertainty of weather, traffic conditions, and other random factors, it is not appropriate to set travel speeds to fixed constants in advance. Consequently, we propose a mathematic model for calculating expected fuel consumption and fixed vehicle cost where average speed is assumed to obey normal distribution on each arc which is more realistic than the existing model. For small-scaled problems, we make a linear transformation and solve them by existing solver CPLEX, while, for large-scaled problems, an improved simulated annealing (ISA algorithm is constructed. Finally, instances from real road networks of England are performed with the ISA algorithm. Computational results show that our ISA algorithm performs well in a reasonable amount of time. We also find that when taking stochastic speeds into consideration, the fuel consumption is always larger than that with fixed speed model.

  12. Biomass burning fuel consumption dynamics in the tropics and subtropics assessed from satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andela, Niels; van der Werf, Guido R.; Kaiser, Johannes W.; van Leeuwen, Thijs T.; Wooster, Martin J.; Lehmann, Caroline E. R.

    2016-06-01

    Landscape fires occur on a large scale in (sub)tropical savannas and grasslands, affecting ecosystem dynamics, regional air quality and concentrations of atmospheric trace gasses. Fuel consumption per unit of area burned is an important but poorly constrained parameter in fire emission modelling. We combined satellite-derived burned area with fire radiative power (FRP) data to derive fuel consumption estimates for land cover types with low tree cover in South America, Sub-Saharan Africa, and Australia. We developed a new approach to estimate fuel consumption, based on FRP data from the polar-orbiting Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the geostationary Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) in combination with MODIS burned-area estimates. The fuel consumption estimates based on the geostationary and polar-orbiting instruments showed good agreement in terms of spatial patterns. We used field measurements of fuel consumption to constrain our results, but the large variation in fuel consumption in both space and time complicated this comparison and absolute fuel consumption estimates remained more uncertain. Spatial patterns in fuel consumption could be partly explained by vegetation productivity and fire return periods. In South America, most fires occurred in savannas with relatively long fire return periods, resulting in comparatively high fuel consumption as opposed to the more frequently burning savannas in Sub-Saharan Africa. Strikingly, we found the infrequently burning interior of Australia to have higher fuel consumption than the more productive but frequently burning savannas in northern Australia. Vegetation type also played an important role in explaining the distribution of fuel consumption, by affecting both fuel build-up rates and fire return periods. Hummock grasslands, which were responsible for a large share of Australian biomass burning, showed larger fuel build-up rates than equally productive grasslands in

  13. Carbon emissions from fossil fuel consumption of Beijing in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Ling; Guan, Dabo; Zhang, Ning; Shan, Yuli; Chen, G. Q.

    2016-11-01

    The present study analyzed the consumption-based carbon emissions from fossil fuel consumption of Beijing in 2012. The multi-scale input-output analysis method was applied. It is capable of tracing the carbon emissions embodied in imports based on a global multi-regional input-output analysis using Eora data. The results show that the consumption-based carbon emission of Beijing has increased by 18% since 2007, which is 2.57 times higher than the production-based carbon emission in 2012. Only approximately 1/10 of the total carbon emissions embodied in Beijing’s local final demand originated from local direct carbon emissions. Meanwhile, more than 4/5 were from domestically imported products. The carbon emission nexus between Beijing and other Chinese regions has become closer since 2007, while the imbalance as the carbon emission transfer from Beijing to other regions has been mitigated. Instead, Beijing has imported more carbon emissions from foreign countries. Some carbon emission reduction strategies for Beijing concerning different goals are presented on the basis of detailed discussion.

  14. Economic growth, CO{sub 2} emissions, and fossil fuels consumption in Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotfalipour, Mohammad Reza; Falahi, Mohammad Ali; Ashena, Malihe [Department of Economics, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    Environmental issues have attracted renewed interest and more attention during recent years due to climatic problems associated with the increased levels of pollution and the deterioration of the environmental quality as a result of increased human activity. This paper investigates the causal relationships between economic growth, carbon emission, and fossil fuels consumption, using the relatively new time series technique known as the Toda-Yamamoto method for Iran during the period 1967-2007. Total fossil fuels, petroleum products, and natural gas consumption are used as three proxies for energy consumption. Empirical results suggest a unidirectional Granger causality running from GDP and two proxies of energy consumption (petroleum products and natural gas consumption) to carbon emissions, and no Granger causality running from total fossil fuels consumption to carbon emissions in the long run. The results also show that carbon emissions, petroleum products, and total fossil fuels consumption do not lead to economic growth, though gas consumption does. (author)

  15. Alternatives for managing wastes from reactors and post-fission operations in the LWR fuel cycle. Volume 3. Alternatives for interim storage and transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-05-01

    Volume III of the five-volume report contains information on alternatives for interim storage and transportation. Section titles are: interim storage of spent fuel elements; interim storage of chop-leach fuel bundle residues; tank storage of high-level liquid waste; interim storage of solid non-high-level wastes; interim storage of solidified high-level waste; and, transportation alternatives. (JGB)

  16. LWR fuel rod behavior during reactor tests under loss-of-coolant conditions: Results of the FR2 in-pile tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karb, E.H.; Sepold, L.; Hofmann, P.; Petersen, C.; Schanz, G.; Zimmermann, H. (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe G.m.b.H. (Germany, F.R.))

    1982-05-01

    Results of the FR2 in-pile tests on fuel rod behavior under loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) conditions are presented. To investigate the possible influence of a nuclear environment on fuel rod failure mechanisms, unirradiated as well as irradiated (2500 to 35,000 MWd/tsub(U)) PWR-type test fuel rods were exposed to temperature transients simulating the second heatup phase of a LOCA. Loaded by internal overpressure, the cladding ballooned and ruptured. The burst data do not indicate major differences from results obtained out-of-pile with electrically heated fuel rod simulators, and do not show an influence of burnup. The fuel pellets in previously irradiated rods, already cracked during normal operation, crumbled completely in the regions with large cladding deformation. Post-test examinations revealed cladding mechanical behavior and oxidation to be comparable to out-of-pile results, with relatively little fission gas release during the transient.

  17. Alternatives for managing wastes from reactors and post-fission operations in the LWR fuel cycle. Volume 2. Alternatives for waste treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-05-01

    Volume II of the five-volume report is devoted to the description of alternatives for waste treatment. The discussion is presented under the following section titles: fuel reprocessing modifications; high-level liquid waste solidification; treatment and immobilization of chop-leach fuel bundle residues; treatment of noncombustible solid wastes; treatment of combustible wastes; treatment of non-high-level liquid wastes; recovery of transuranics from non-high-level wastes; immobilization of miscellaneous non-high-level wastes; volatile radioisotope recovery and off-gas treatment; immobilization of volatile radioisotopes; retired facilities (decontamination and decommissioning); and, modification and use of selected fuel reprocessing wastes. (JGB)

  18. Characteristics Data Base: Programmer's guide to the LWR Quantities Data Base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, K.E. (DataPhile, Inc., Knoxville, TN (USA)); Moore, R.S. (Automated Sciences Group, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (USA))

    1990-08-01

    The LWR Quantities Data Base is a menu-driven PC data base developed as part of OCRWM's waste, technical data base on the characteristics of potential repository wastes, which also includes non-LWR spent fuel, high-level and other materials. This programmer's guide completes the documentation for the LWR Quantities Data Base, the user's guide having been published previously. The PC data base itself may be requested from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, using the order form provided in Volume 1 of publication DOE/RW-0184.

  19. Emissions and Fuel Consumption Modeling for Evaluating Environmental Effectiveness of ITS Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-yuan Song

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Road transportation is a major fuel consumer and greenhouse gas emitter. Recently, the intelligent transportation systems (ITSs technologies, which can improve traffic flow and safety, have been developed to reduce the fuel consumption and vehicle emissions. Emission and fuel consumption estimation models play a key role in the evaluation of ITS technologies. Based on the influence analysis of driving parameters on vehicle emissions, this paper establishes a set of mesoscopic vehicle emission and fuel consumption models using the real-world vehicle operation and emission data. The results demonstrate that these models are more appropriate to evaluate the environmental effectiveness of ITS strategies with enough estimation accuracy.

  20. Dataset for analysing the relationships among economic growth, fossil fuel and non-fossil fuel consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asafu-Adjaye, John; Byrne, Dominic; Alvarez, Maximiliano

    2017-02-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled 'Economic Growth, Fossil Fuel and Non-Fossil Consumption: A Pooled Mean Group Analysis using Proxies for Capital' (J. Asafu-Adjaye, D. Byrne, M. Alvarez, 2016) [1]. This article describes data modified from three publicly available data sources: the World Bank׳s World Development Indicators (http://databank.worldbank.org/data/reports.aspx?source=world-development-indicators), the U.S. Energy Information Administration׳s International Energy Statistics (http://www.eia.gov/cfapps/ipdbproject/IEDIndex3.cfm?tid=44&pid=44&aid=2) and the Barro-Lee Educational Attainment Dataset (http://www.barrolee.com). These data can be used to examine the relationships between economic growth and different forms of energy consumption. The dataset is made publicly available to promote further analyses.

  1. The relationship of post-fire white ash cover to surface fuel consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew T. Hudak; Roger D. Ottmar; Robert E. Vihnanek; Nolan W. Brewer; Alistair M. S. Smith; Penelope Morgan

    2013-01-01

    White ash results from the complete combustion of surface fuels, making it a logically simple retrospective indicator of surface fuel consumption. However, the strength of this relationship has been neither tested nor adequately demonstrated with field measurements. We measured surface fuel loads and cover fractions of white ash and four other surface materials (green...

  2. Fuel consumption in the transport of technical broadleaf roundwood in lowland areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilović Milorad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an analysis of fuel consumption in the transport of technical roundwood of soft broadleaves from the felling site to a roadside landing using forwarders and tractor assemblies. The research was performed in various operating conditions in the area of FE "Banat" Pančevo. On the basis of the results of the analysis of variance, the data recorded in a variety of conditions were grouped. In addition, the dependence of fuel consumption on the average volume of tour was estimated. The results of the conducted analysis indicate that operating conditions significantly affect fuel consumption of the investigated vehicles. The elements of statistical analysis of the dependence of fuel consumption on the volume of load indicate that an increase in load causes increased fuel consumption per unit of production. Having in mind the results of the analysis of variance, unique norms of fuel consumption were adopted for practical purposes. The highest average consumption (1.21 L/m3 was achieved by a tractor assembly (Same Laser 130 tractor and Imako TP12 trailer with a Loglift 61F hydraulic crane, while significantly lower consumption was achieved by a John Deere 1210E forwarder (1.06 L/m3. In favourable operating conditions, consumption of the forwarder was about 0.9 L/m3.

  3. Improvement of fuel consumption and exhaust emissions in ceramics low heat rejection engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, Hideo; Higashino, Akira; Sasaki, Hiroshi [Isuzu Ceramics Research Inst. Co., Ltd. (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    In order to improve fuel consumption and eliminate the cooling system on a diesel engine having low fuel consumption, a low heat rejection (LHR) engine constructed with the thermos structure was studied. Since air temperature at the end of the compression stroke in a LHR engine are much higher than that of a water-cooled engine, the combustion of LHR engine deteriorated and the fuel consumption and exhaust emissions degraded. The combustion phenomenon in the LHR engine were observed. The reason of deterioration in combustion was insufficient air and fuel mixing. In order to improve the mixing, a new pre-combustion chamber was located in the center of the cylinder. Drilled connecting holes radiating to cylinder wall were developed. The desired characteristics at the LHR engine including fuel consumption and exhaust emissions was achieved in the LHR engine with the new precombustion chamber.

  4. Field Measurement and Calibration of HDM-4 Fuel Consumption Model on Interstate Highway in Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Jiao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fuel consumptions are measured by operating passenger car and tractor-trailer on two interstate roadway sites in Florida. Each site contains flexible pavement and rigid pavement with similar pavement, traffic and environmental condition. Field test reveals that the average fuel consumption differences between vehicle operating on flexible pavement and rigid pavement at given test condition are 4.04% for tractor-trailer and 2.50% for passenger car, with a fuel saving on rigid pavement. The fuel consumption differences are found statistically significant at 95% confidence level for both vehicle types. Test data are then used to calibrate the Highway Development and Management IV (HDM-4 fuel consumption model and model coefficients are obtained for three sets of observations. Field measurement and prediction by calibrated model shows generally good agreement. Nevertheless, verification and adjustment with more experiment or data sources would be expected in future studies.

  5. Impact of methanol-gasoline fuel blend on the fuel consumption and exhaust emission of a SI engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifal, Mohamad; Sinaga, Nazaruddin

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the effect of methanol-gasoline fuel blend (M15, M30 and M50) on the fuel consumption and exhaust emission of a spark ignition engine (SI) were investigated. In the experiment, an engine four-cylinder, four stroke injection system (engine of Toyota Kijang Innova 1TR-FE) was used. Test were did to know the relation of fuel consumption and exhaust emission (CO, CO2, HC) were analyzed under the idle throttle operating condition and variable engine speed ranging from 1000 to 4000 rpm. The experimental result showed that the fuel consumption decrease with the use of methanol. It was also shown that the CO and HC emission were reduced with the increase methanol content while CO2 were increased.

  6. Effects of signal light on the fuel consumption and emissions under car-following model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tie-Qiao; Yi, Zhi-Yan; Lin, Qing-Feng

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, a car-following model is utilized to study the effects of signal light on each vehicle's fuel consumption, CO, HC and NOX. The numerical results show that each vehicle's fuel consumption and emissions are influenced by the signal light and that the effects are related to the green split of the signal light and the vehicle's time headway at the origin, which can help drivers adjust their micro driving behavior on the road with a signal light to reduce their fuel consumption and emissions.

  7. The Potential of Turboprops to Reduce Aviation Fuel Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Aviation system planning, particularly fleet selection and adoption, is challenged by fuel price uncertainty. Fuel price uncertainty is due fuel and energy price fluctuations and a growing awareness of the environmental externalities related to transportation activities, particularly as they relate to climate change. To assist in aviation systems planning under such fuel price uncertainty and environmental regulation, this study takes a total logistic cost approach and evaluates three represe...

  8. A PARAMETRIC STUDY ON EXERGETIC ASPECTS OF HYDROGEN ENERGY IN REDUCING FOSSIL FUEL CONSUMPTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adnan Midilli [Energy Division, Mechanical Engineering Department, Nigde University, Nigde (Turkey); Ibrahim Dincer [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Oshawa, ON (Canada)

    2008-09-30

    This paper presents a parametric analysis on the exergetic dimension of hydrogen in reducing global fossil fuels consumption. Some key parameters such as fossil fuel based-global waste exergy factor, hydrogen based-global exergetic efficiency, and fossil fuel based-global irreversibility coefficient are proposed and studied in this regard. In order to verify these exergetic parameters, the actual fossil fuel consumption and production data are used as the base data in the analysis. Due to the unavailability of appropriate hydrogen data for the present study, it is assumed that the utilization ratio of hydrogen is practically ranged between 0 and 1. As a result, if exergetic utilization ratio of hydrogen from non-fossil fuel sources at a certain exergetic utilization ratio of fossil fuels increases, the fossil fuel based-global irreversibility coefficient will decrease.

  9. Hydrogen as a renewable and sustainable solution in reducing global fossil fuel consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Midilli, Adnan; Dincer, Ibrahim [Energy Division, Mechanical Engineering Department, Nigde University, 51100 Nigde (Turkey); Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ontario L1H 7K4 (Canada)

    2008-08-15

    In this paper, hydrogen is considered as a renewable and sustainable solution for reducing global fossil fuel consumption and combating global warming and studied exergetically through a parametric performance analysis. The environmental impact results are then compared with the ones obtained for fossil fuels. In this regard, some exergetic expressions are derived depending primarily upon the exergetic utilization ratios of fossil fuels and hydrogen: the fossil fuel based global waste exergy factor, hydrogen based global exergetic efficiency, fossil fuel based global irreversibility coefficient and hydrogen based global exergetic indicator. These relations incorporate predicted exergetic utilization ratios for hydrogen energy from non-fossil fuel resources such as water, etc., and are used to investigate whether or not exergetic utilization of hydrogen can significantly reduce the fossil fuel based global irreversibility coefficient (ranging from 1 to +{infinity}) indicating the fossil fuel consumption and contribute to increase the hydrogen based global exergetic indicator (ranging from 0 to 1) indicating the hydrogen utilization at a certain ratio of fossil fuel utilization. In order to verify all these exergetic expressions, the actual fossil fuel consumption and production data are taken from the literature. Due to the unavailability of appropriate hydrogen data for analysis, it is assumed that the utilization ratios of hydrogen are ranged between 0 and 1. For the verification of these parameters, the variations of fossil fuel based global irreversibility coefficient and hydrogen based global exergetic indicator as the functions of fossil fuel based global waste exergy factor, hydrogen based global exergetic efficiency and exergetic utilization of hydrogen from non-fossil fuels are analyzed and discussed in detail. Consequently, if exergetic utilization ratio of hydrogen from non-fossil fuel sources at a certain exergetic utilization ratio of fossil fuels

  10. ERDA LWR plant technology program: role of government/industry in improving LWR performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-10-07

    Information is presented under the following chapter headings: executive summary; LWR plant outages; LWR plant construction delays and cancellations; programs addressing plant outages, construction delays, and cancellations; need for additional programs to remedy continuing problems; criteria for government role in LWR commercialization; and the proposed government program.

  11. An econometrics view of worldwide fossil fuel consumption and the role of US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafiee, Shahriar [School of Engineering, University of Queensland, Qld. 4072 (Australia); CRC Mining, University of Queensland, Qld. 4072 (Australia); Topal, Erkan [School of Engineering, University of Queensland, Qld. 4072 (Australia); CRC Mining, University of Queensland, Qld. 4072 (Australia)], E-mail: e.topal@uq.edu.au

    2008-02-15

    Crude oil, coal and gas, known as fossil fuels, play a crucial role in the global economy. This paper proposes new econometrics modelling to demonstrate the trend of fossil fuels consumption. The main variables affecting consumption trends are: world reserves, the price of fossil fuels, US production and US net imports. All variables have been analysed individually for more than half a century. The research found that while the consumption of fossil fuels worldwide has increased trends in the US production and net imports have been dependent on the type of fossil fuels. Most of the US coal and gas production has been for domestic use, which is why it does not have a strong influence on worldwide fossil fuel prices. Moreover, the reserves of fossil fuels have not shown any diminution during the last couple of decades and predictions that they were about to run out are not substantiated. The nominal and real price of fossil fuels was found to change depending on the type. Finally, estimates of three econometric models for the consumption of fossil fuels from 1949 to 2006 are presented which identify the effects of significant variables.

  12. OPTIMUM PLANNING OF EXPERIMENTS AT MODELING FUEL CONSUMPTION IN INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Koshevoy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of optimum experiments planning by cost expenses at studying the processes of fuel consumption internal combustion engines is shown. The mathematical models of these processes in different state of engine working are synthesized.

  13. FUEL CONSUMPTION: A MAJOR FACTOR INFLUENCING SALES OF NEW PERSONAL VEHICLES. EVIDENCE FROM ROMANIAN DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Pîrvu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate empirically the validity of our supposition: the fuel consumption is currently the most important factor that influences sales of new personal vehicles. Factors that characterize an economical vehicle make 60 per cent of new personal vehicle buying decisions and the fuel consumption is the most important of these factors. The linear model for estimating the number of new personal vehicle registrations has good fit to the data.

  14. Impact Assessment of Changing Fuel on Water Consumption in Kuwait’s Power Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad Alhajri

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Demands on electricity are in continuous increase and as a result an increase on water consumption and withdrawal. A huge expansion is done by Kuwait seven stations to meet the need of water and electricity using different combinations of four types of fuel (natural gas, gas oil, heavy fuel oil and crude oil. This study aims to determine the optimum fuel for reducing water consumption and cost without changing the capacity of electricity production in Kuwait. To attain that water consumption and/or withdrawal factor had been calculated for each fuel in each station depending on electricity and water consumption and production values, then cost of each mega watt produced had been determined using calculated cost of each fuel. It is concluded that natural gas is the least consuming water and least productivity for electricity where heavy fuel oil is the cheapest one and gas oil is the most expensive and most consuming water. However more time and detailed analysis are needed to determine the optimum fuel. Three scenarios had been assumed on different stations, best one was in Az-zour station when we decreased natural gas percentage and it was compensated by crude oil with keeping gas oil as it was. Consequently, it was noticed there was increase in water consumption and decrease in the cost: about 2 million Kuwait dinars.

  15. Vegetation structure and fire weather influence variation in burn severity and fuel consumption during peatland wildfires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Davies

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Temperate peatland wildfires are of significant environmental concern but information on their environmental effects is lacking. We assessed variation in burn severity and fuel consumption within and between wildfires that burnt British moorlands in 2011 and 2012. We adapted the Composite Burn Index (pCBI to provide semi-quantitative estimates of burn severity. Pre- and post-fire surface (shrubs and graminoids and ground (litter, moss, duff fuel loads associated with large wildfires were assessed using destructive sampling and analysed using a Generalised Linear Mixed Model (GLMM. Consumption during wildfires was compared with published estimates of consumption during prescribed burns. Burn severity and fuel consumption were related to fire weather, assessed using the Canadian Fire Weather Index System (FWI System, and pre-fire fuel structure. pCBI varied 1.6 fold between, and up to 1.7 fold within, wildfires. pCBI was higher where moisture codes of the FWI System indicated drier fuels. Spatial variation in pre- and post-fire fuel load accounted for a substantial proportion of the variance in fuel loads. Average surface fuel consumption was a linear function of pre-fire fuel load. Average ground fuel combustion completeness could be predicted by the Buildup Index. Carbon release ranged between 0.36 and 1.00 kg C m−2. The flammability of ground fuel layers may explain the higher C release-rates seen for wildfires in comparison to prescribed burns. Drier moorland community types appear to be at greater risk of severe burns than blanket-bog communities.

  16. Fuel consumption as cost indicator. [Cost of machine use in forestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svanqvist, N.

    1988-01-01

    The scope of the study is to update the data files from 1979 and 1982 concerning forest machine costs and determine changes in these costs over time. Machine costs as a function of fuel consumption is derived. The share of fuel of the total cost has increased from 6 to 13 percent since 1978. (G.B.).

  17. Measurements relating fire radiative energy density and surface fuel consumption - RxCADRE 2011 and 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew T. Hudak; Matthew B. Dickinson; Benjamin C. Bright; Robert L. Kremens; E. Louise Loudermilk; Joseph J. O' Brien; Benjamin S. Hornsby; Roger D. Ottmar

    2016-01-01

    Small-scale experiments have demonstrated that fire radiative energy is linearly related to fuel combusted but such a relationship has not been shown at the landscape level of prescribed fires. This paper presents field and remotely sensed measures of pre-fire fuel loads, consumption, fire radiative energy density (FRED) and fire radiative power flux density (FRFD),...

  18. Performance evaluation and post-irradiation examination of a novel LWR fuel composed of U0.17ZrH1.6 fuel pellets bonded to Zircaloy-2 cladding by lead bismuth eutectic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balooch, Mehdi; Olander, Donald R.; Terrani, Kurt A.; Hosemann, Peter; Casella, Andrew M.; Senor, David J.; Buck, Edgar C.

    2017-04-01

    A novel light water reactor fuel has been designed and fabricated at the University of California, Berkeley; irradiated at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Reactor; and examined within the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. This fuel consists of U0.17ZrH1.6 fuel pellets core-drilled from TRIGA reactor fuel elements that are clad in Zircaloy-2 and bonded with lead-bismuth eutectic. The performance evaluation and post irradiation examination of this fuel are presented here.

  19. Official list of results of fuel-consumption tests on passenger cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    This booklet contains the results of the officially approved fuel consumption tests recorded by the Department of Transport to late March 1981 and gives car buyers comparative information about the fuel economy of different models achieved in standard tests. The official tests have been designed to be representative of real-life driving situations and the results achieved provide a guide to the models which are likely to be more economical in their fuel use.

  20. Data-driven fuel consumption estimation: A multivariate adaptive regression spline approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yuche; Zhu, Lei; Gonder, Jeffrey; Young, Stanley; Walkowicz, Kevin

    2017-10-01

    Providing guidance and information to drivers to help them make fuel-efficient route choices remains an important and effective strategy in the near term to reduce fuel consumption from the transportation sector. One key component in implementing this strategy is a fuel-consumption estimation model. In this paper, we developed a mesoscopic fuel consumption estimation model that can be implemented into an eco-routing system. Our proposed model presents a framework that utilizes large-scale, real-world driving data, clusters road links by free-flow speed and fits one statistical model for each of cluster. This model includes predicting variables that were rarely or never considered before, such as free-flow speed and number of lanes. We applied the model to a real-world driving data set based on a global positioning system travel survey in the Philadelphia-Camden-Trenton metropolitan area. Results from the statistical analyses indicate that the independent variables we chose influence the fuel consumption rates of vehicles. But the magnitude and direction of the influences are dependent on the type of road links, specifically free-flow speeds of links. A statistical diagnostic is conducted to ensure the validity of the models and results. Although the real-world driving data we used to develop statistical relationships are specific to one region, the framework we developed can be easily adjusted and used to explore the fuel consumption relationship in other regions.

  1. Measured effect of wind generation on the fuel consumption of an isolated diesel power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiller, P. H.; Scott, G. W.; Shaltens, R. K.

    1983-01-01

    The Block Island Power Company (BIPCO), on Block Island, Rhode Island, operates an isolated electric power system consisting of diesel generation and an experimental wind turbine. The 150-kW wind turbine, designated MOD-OA by the U.S. Department of Energy is typically operated in parallel with two diesel generators to serve an average winter load of 350 kW. Wind generation serves up to 60 percent of the system demand depending on wind speed and total system load. Results of diesel fuel consumption measurements are given for the diesel units operated in parallel with the wind turbine and again without the wind turbine. The fuel consumption data are used to calculate the amount of fuel displaced by wind energy. Results indicate that the wind turbine displaced 25,700 lbs. of the diesel fuel during the test period, representing a calculated reduction in fuel consumption of 6.7 percent while generating 11 percent of the total electric energy. The amount of displaced fuel depends on operating conditions and system load. It is also shown that diesel engine throttle activity resulting from wind gusts which rapidly change the wind turbine output do not significantly influence fuel consumption.

  2. RANKING OF LOCAL AND DOMESTIC FUEL-ENERGY RECOURSES IN GROSS CONSUMPTION OF BELARUSSIAN FUEL-ENERGY RECOURSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. N. Rumiantsava

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Local and domestic fuel-energy recourses of theRepublicofBelarusin gross consumption of fuel-energy  recourses  has  been ranked on the  basis of the  analysis of scientific  literature,  statistical information and also fundamental documentation in the sphere of energy policy and power saving. The paper proposes to give a special emphasis on usage of products after processing domestically manufactured fuel-energy recourses that have been obtained from local and imported raw-materials with the purpose to estimate a power security level of the Republic from a new point of view.

  3. Characterizing SI Engine Transient Fuel Consumption in ALPHA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Examine typical transient engine operation encountered over the EPA's vehicle and engine testing drive cycles to characterize that transient fuel usage, and then describe the changes made to ALPHA to better model transient engine operation.

  4. Characterizing SI Engine Transient Fuel Consumption in ALPHA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Examine typical transient engine operation encountered over the EPA's vehicle and engine testing drive cycles to characterize that transient fuel usage, and then describe the changes made to ALPHA to better model transient engine operation.

  5. Evaluations of 1997 Fuel Consumption Patterns of Heavy Duty Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santini, Danilo

    2001-08-05

    The proposed 21st Century Truck program selected three truck classes for focused analysis. On the basis of gross vehicle weight (GVW) classification, these were Class 8 (representing heavy), Class 6 (representing medium), and Class 2b (representing light). To develop and verify these selections, an evaluation of fuel use of commercial trucks was conducted, using data from the 1997 Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey (VIUS). Truck fuel use was analyzed by registered GVW class, and by body type.

  6. Development of advanced LWR fuel pellet technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Kun Woo; Kang, K.W.; Kim, K. S.; Yang, J. H.; Kim, Y. M.; Kim, J. H.; Bang, J. B.; Kim, D. H.; Bae, S. O.; Jung, Y. H.; Lee, Y. S.; Kim, B. G.; Kim, S. H

    2000-03-01

    A UO{sub 2} pellet was designed to have a grain size of larger than 12 {mu}m, and a new duplex design that UO{sub 2}-Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} is in the core and UO{sub 2}-Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the periphery was proposed. A master mixing method was developed to make a uniform mixture of UO{sub 2} and additives. The open porosity of UO{sub 2} pellet was reduced by only mixing AUC-UO{sub 2} powder with ADU-UO{sub 2} or milled powder. Duplex compaction tools (die and punch) were designed and fabricated, and duplex compacting procedures were developed to fabricate the duplex BA pellet. In UO{sub 2} sintering, the relations between sintering variables (additive, sintering gas, sintering temperature) and pellet properties (density, grain size, pore size) were experimentally found. The UO{sub 2}-U{sub 3}O{sub 8} powder which is inherently not sinterable to high density could be sintered well with the aid of additives. U{sub 3}O{sub 8} single crystals were added to UO{sub 2} powder, and homogeneous powder mixture was pressed and sintered in a reducing atmosphere. This technology leads to a large-grained pellet of 12-20 {mu}m. In UO{sub 2}-Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} sintering, the relations between sintering variables (additives, sintering gas) and pellet properties (density, grain size) were experimentally found. The developed technology of fabricating a large-grained UO{sub 2} pellet has been optimized in a lab scale. Pellet properties were investigated in the fields of (1) creep properties, (2) thermal properties, (3) O/M ratios and (4) unit cell lattice. (author)

  7. An analysis of the fuel consumption of commercial vehicles by computer simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renouf, M.A.

    A computer simulation model was used to estimate the fuel consumption of goods vehicles operating in the UK over four major operating conditions, each represented by a duty cycle. The vehicles chosen for simulation ranged from 2 to 44 tons gross vehicle weight and represented vehicles operating in Europe. The compilation of data representing light vans, rigid and articulated vehicles (platform and box bodies) was related where possible to trends in vehicle characteristics with increasing gross vehicle weight. The simulation model provided the data for the formation of regression equations relating fuel consumption to gross vehicle weight for each body type and duty cycle. Four vehicles representing the major vehicle classes were chosen to examine the sensitivity of the fuel consumption changes in the assumptions made. Two additional contributions to fuel consumption considered were the extra fuel used during cold starts and delivery stops. As a check, the equations were used to calculate the fuel used by the UK national goods vehicle fleet; this figure was compared with an estimate based upon tax revenue. (Copyright (c) Crown Copyright 1981.)

  8. Water consumption footprint and land requirements of large-scale alternative diesel and jet fuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staples, Mark D; Olcay, Hakan; Malina, Robert; Trivedi, Parthsarathi; Pearlson, Matthew N; Strzepek, Kenneth; Paltsev, Sergey V; Wollersheim, Christoph; Barrett, Steven R H

    2013-01-01

    Middle distillate (MD) transportation fuels, including diesel and jet fuel, make up almost 30% of liquid fuel consumption in the United States. Alternative drop-in MD and biodiesel could potentially reduce dependence on crude oil and the greenhouse gas intensity of transportation. However, the water and land resource requirements of these novel fuel production technologies must be better understood. This analysis quantifies the lifecycle green and blue water consumption footprints of producing: MD from conventional crude oil; Fischer-Tropsch MD from natural gas and coal; fermentation and advanced fermentation MD from biomass; and hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids MD and biodiesel from oilseed crops, throughout the contiguous United States. We find that FT MD and alternative MD derived from rainfed biomass have lifecycle blue water consumption footprints of 1.6 to 20.1 Lwater/LMD, comparable to conventional MD, which ranges between 4.1 and 7.4 Lwater/LMD. Alternative MD derived from irrigated biomass has a lifecycle blue water consumption footprint potentially several orders of magnitude larger, between 2.7 and 22 600 Lwater/LMD. Alternative MD derived from biomass has a lifecycle green water consumption footprint between 1.1 and 19 200 Lwater/LMD. Results are disaggregated to characterize the relationship between geo-spatial location and lifecycle water consumption footprint. We also quantify the trade-offs between blue water consumption footprint and areal MD productivity, which ranges from 490 to 4200 LMD/ha, under assumptions of rainfed and irrigated biomass cultivation. Finally, we show that if biomass cultivation for alternative MD is irrigated, the ratio of the increase in areal MD productivity to the increase in blue water consumption footprint is a function of geo-spatial location and feedstock-to-fuel production pathway.

  9. CAUSAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FOSSIL FUEL CONSUMPTION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN JAPAN: A MULTIVARIATE APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazuki Ishida

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores whether Japanese economy can continue to grow without extensive dependence on fossil fuels. The paper conducts time series analysis using a multivariate model of fossil fuels, non-fossil energy, labor, stock and GDP to investigate the relationship between fossil fuel consumption and economic growth in Japan. The results of cointegration tests indicate long-run relationships among the variables. Using a vector error-correction model, the study reveals bidirectional causality between fossil fuels and GDP. The results also show that there is no causal relationship between non-fossil energy and GDP. The results of cointegration analysis, Granger causality tests, and variance decomposition analysis imply that non-fossil energy may not necessarily be able to play the role of fossil fuels. Japan cannot seem to realize both continuous economic growth and the departure from dependence on fossil fuels. Hence, growth-oriented macroeconomic policies should be re-examined.

  10. Fuel Consumption Management in the Transportation Sector in Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dastjerdi, Aliasghar M.; Araghi, Bahar Namaki

    2011-01-01

    Energy consumption in the transportation sector in Iran is significantly higher than global norms and standards which caused some issues including wasting national resources, deteriorating air quality, GHG emissions etc. The major purpose of this paper is to introduce practical policies, strategi...

  11. Decadal trends in fossil fuel energy consumption and related air pollutant emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekar Reddy, M.; Venkataraman, C.; Boucher, O.

    2003-04-01

    The economic liberalization in the early 1990s in India fuelled the industrial production, enabled the decadal annual average rate of 5.9% in the gross domestic product (GDP) during 1990-2000. This resulted in a steady increase of fossil fuels energy consumption throughout the decade. This paper investigates the trends in the GDP growth rate, sectoral fossil fuels consumption and resultant atmospheric air pollutant emissions during the above period. The fossil fuels energy consumption in the 1990 was 6875 PJ, and increased to 10801 PJ in 2000, with a decadal annual average growth rate of 5.7%. Share of the coal and petroleum fuels are 52% and 35%, respectively during 2000. The relative share contribution of power, industrial, transport, and domestic sectors are 40%, 48%, 5% and 7%, respectively. The contribution of various sectors to fossil fuels energy consumption, and the relative distribution of the different fuels within each sector will be discussed. The annual sulfur dioxide (SO_2) and aerosols (particulate matter, black carbon, organic carbon) emissions are estimated using sector and fuel specific average emission factors (mass of pollutant per unit mass of fuel burnt). The estimates take into account the changes in the fuel characteristics and technology during the study period. The estimated SO_2 emissions are 1.7 Tg S yr-1 in 1990 and increased to 2.5 Tg S yr-1 in 2000, with an annual average increase of 5%. Majority of the SO_2 emissions are from coal consumption accounting 62%, predominantly from the power plants. Trends in fuel and sectoral contributions to SO2 emissions over the decade will be presented. In the transportation sector, diesels contribute significantly to BC. Notably, in India, two-stroke engines account for 78% of total vehicle fleet, and contribute significantly to organic carbon emissions. An analysis of available SO_2 and aerosols concentration measurements will be made to explore the possible correlations between trends in the

  12. Fuel consumption as indicator of the economics in mechanization-. [Cost of mechanization in forestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, U.; Svanqvist, N.

    1987-01-01

    After a brief discussion of production functions as models for input/output relations in forest work operations, studies of the cost of machine use are reviewed. It is suggested that the fuel consumption of a forest machine can be used as a parameter for assessing the true, total cost of using a machine, exclusively the wage of the operator. Fuel then is not only an input but also represents all other cost items such as capital (depreciation, interest), repairs and maintenance. This has the advantage that all machines in a system can be aggregated and their costs assessed by an easily quantified parameter. Capital (in the form of machines) in production functions, through which the optimum mix of labour and machines for minimizing the cost per unit of production is determined, can be substituted by fuel. It is also suggested that fuel consumption can be used in management as an aggregate indicator in planning, control, remuneration of work and forecasting. (authors).

  13. Fuel Consumption Reduction and Weight Estimate of an Intercooled-Recuperated Turboprop Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriani, Roberto; Ghezzi, Umberto; Ingenito, Antonella; Gamma, Fausto

    2012-09-01

    The introduction of intercooling and regeneration in a gas turbine engine can lead to performance improvement and fuel consumption reduction. Moreover, as first consequence of the saved fuel, also the pollutant emission can be greatly reduced. Turboprop seems to be the most suitable gas turbine engine to be equipped with intercooler and heat recuperator thanks to the relatively small mass flow rate and the small propulsion power fraction due to the exhaust nozzle. However, the extra weight and drag due to the heat exchangers must be carefully considered. An intercooled-recuperated turboprop engine is studied by means of a thermodynamic numeric code that, computing the thermal cycle, simulates the engine behavior at different operating conditions. The main aero engine performances, as specific power and specific fuel consumption, are then evaluated from the cycle analysis. The saved fuel, the pollution reduction, and the engine weight are then estimated for an example case.

  14. Prediction of the fuel consumption of heavy goods vehicles by computer simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renouf, M.A.

    The requirement for a computer simulation model of the fuel consumption of Heavy Goods Vehicles is identified and a model is defined. Different operating conditions are simulated and the results compared with those produced by an instrumented articulated vehicle operating at different gross vehicle weights. A comparison is made over short distances and defined conditions on the TRRL test track, and definition of driver behavior enables the experimental situation to be represented. Longer road routes including sections of urban, rural and motorway roads were also simulated and the model accurately predicted the fuel consumption for all gross vehicle weights tested.

  15. Estimate of Fuel Consumption and GHG Emission Impact on an Automated Mobility District: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yuche; Young, Stanley; Gonder, Jeff; Qi, Xuewei

    2015-12-11

    This study estimates the range of fuel and emissions impact of an automated-vehicle (AV) based transit system that services campus-based developments, termed an automated mobility district (AMD). The study develops a framework to quantify the fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission impacts of a transit system comprised of AVs, taking into consideration average vehicle fleet composition, fuel consumption/GHG emission of vehicles within specific speed bins, and the average occupancy of passenger vehicles and transit vehicles. The framework is exercised using a previous mobility analysis of a personal rapid transit (PRT) system, a system which shares many attributes with envisioned AV-based transit systems. Total fuel consumption and GHG emissions with and without an AMD are estimated, providing a range of potential system impacts on sustainability. The results of a previous case study based of a proposed implementation of PRT on the Kansas State University (KSU) campus in Manhattan, Kansas, serves as the basis to estimate personal miles traveled supplanted by an AMD at varying levels of service. The results show that an AMD has the potential to reduce total system fuel consumption and GHG emissions, but the amount is largely dependent on operating and ridership assumptions. The study points to the need to better understand ride-sharing scenarios and calls for future research on sustainability benefits of an AMD system at both vehicle and system levels.

  16. The fuel consumption increase in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas M Fullerton Jr; Gabriel Muñoz Sapien; Martha Patricia Barraza de Anda; Lisbeily Domínguez Ruvalcaba

    2012-01-01

    This research analyzes short–run gasoline consumption dynamics in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, México. Parameter estimation is carried out using linear transfer function arima analysis. This market is of interest because it is influenced by regional, national, and international economic conditions due to its location on the border with the United States. Explanatory variables that satisfy the significance criterion include the real price of gasoline in Ciudad Juárez, the price of gasoline in Ciu...

  17. Fuel Wood Consumption and Species Degradation in South-Western Nigeria: The Ecological Relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orimoogunje Oluwagbenga O.I.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The continuous dependence of man on fuel and service wood has resulted in serious degradation of the fragile forest ecosystem. Therefore, this study evaluated the sources and patterns of fuel wood and examined the rate of consumption in the study area. This was with the aim to assess the ecological implications of fuelwood consumption on species degradation. The study utilized both, primary and secondary data. Information was extracted from topographic map on the scale of 1: 50,000 and satellites imageries that cover the study area. Questionnaire administration, field observation and weight measurement of fuel wood were carried out. The results showed that the sources of fuel wood for domestic cooking were forest, nearby bush and abandoned farm while the sources of domestic energy were fuel wood (61.17%, charcoal (27%, kerosene (10%, electricity (1.33% and gas (0.5%. Fuel wood for small scale industries were: forest (49.23%, farmland (34.62 and fallow land (16.15%. The trend of fuel wood consumption was on the high side from 1995 to 2011, it was 58% in 1995, 70% in 2000, 82% in 2005 and 92% in 2010 and 2011 respectively. Many valuable economic tree species such as Triplochiton scleroxylon, Nesogordonia papaverifera, and Cordia spp. are near their extinction. Animals such as antelope, wolf and fox are going into extinction while monkey, grasscutter, hare, rabbit were endemic in the study area. The study concluded that the patterns of fuel wood use and fuel wood saturation presents a great danger for biodiversity products and services.

  18. Monthly, global emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andres, R.J.; Gregg, Jay Sterling; Losey, L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines available data, develops a strategy and presents a monthly, global time series of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions for the years 1950–2006. This monthly time series was constructed from detailed study of monthly data from the 21 countries that account for approximately 80...... reproduces monthly patterns in the data and the global monthly pattern of emissions is relatively insensitive to the exact proxy assignments used. The data and results presented here should lead to a better understanding of global and regional carbon cycles, especially when the mass data are combined...... with the stable carbon isotope data in atmospheric transport models....

  19. Research on Fuel Consumption of Hybrid Bulldozer under Typical Duty Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qiang; Wang, Wen-Jun; Jia, Chao; Yao, You-Liang; Wang, Sheng-Bo

    The hybrid drive bulldozer adopts a dual-motor independent drive system with engine-generator assembly as its power source. The mathematical model of the whole system is constructed on the software platform of MATLAB/Simulink. And then according to the velocity data gained from a real test experiment, a typical duty cycle is build up. Finally the fuel consumption of the bulldozer is calculated under this duty-cycle. Simulation results show that, compared with the traditional mechanical one, the hybrid electric drive system can save fuel up to 16% and therefore indicates great potential for lifting up fuel economy.

  20. Linking biomass fuel consumption and improve cooking stove: A study from Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohel, Md. Shawkat Islam; Rana, Md. Parvez; Akhter, Sayma

    2010-09-15

    The study determines the biomass fuel consumption pattern and environmental consequences of biomass fuel usage in the traditional and improve cooking stove. The introduction of improved cooking stove minimizes people's forest dependence by reducing the amount of fuelwood required to meet their household needs. Firewood was the most frequently used biomass fuel. It has been figured out that the incomplete combustion of biomass in the traditional cooking stove poses severe epidemiological consequences to human health and contributes to global warming. While improve cooking stove help to reduce such consequences.

  1. 49 CFR 1243.3 - Report of fuel cost, consumption, and surcharge revenue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...'s reporting form. Such reports shall be filed, in duplicate, with the Office of Economics... days after the end of the quarter reported. Appendix to Section 49 CFR 1243.3 OMB Control No. 2140-0014... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Report of fuel cost, consumption, and...

  2. Prediction Method of the Fuel Consumption of Wheel Loaders in the V-Type Loading Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxing Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheel loaders in the V-type loading cycle are characterized by complicated loading conditions, nonlinear power-train system, and time-variable engine power distribution. Therefore, it is difficult to predict the fuel consumption of wheel loaders in the V-type loading cycle. The static matching methods cannot provide fuel consumption prediction for the loading cycle. In this paper, the prediction method and model of the fuel consumption for wheel loaders in the V-type loading cycle were proposed. Firstly, the hydraulic system data were tested when a wheel loader loaded three different materials in a typical V-type loading cycle. Secondly, the tested data were filtered by the 8th-order Butterworth filter and the dimensionless power deduction equations of hydraulic power system for loading three different materials were obtained by Gaussian and linear fitting based on the filtered data in the loading cycle. Finally, fuel consumption was obtained with the compiling dynamic calculation program as well as input parameters of tested vehicle speed, throttle parameter, and the dimensionless equation. The simulation results agreed well with experiment results. Dynamic calculation program is applicable to calculate loading economy and can provide academic guidance for wheel loader’s design and optimization.

  3. Effect of Traffic and Tillage on Agriculture Machine Traction and Fuel Consumption in Northern China Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Chen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Controlled traffic with conservation tillage can reduce soil compaction, thus to improve operation performance and fuel consumption of agricultural machine. Northern Chinese Plain is one of the main agricultural production bases with high level of agricultural mechanization. To explore the effect of wheel traffic on machine traction force and fuel consumption, three treatments were conducted: zero tillage with Controlled Traffic (NTCN, Compacted Treatment (CT and traditional tillage system with random traffic (CK. Results showed that wheel traffic increased soil bulk density in the top soil layer in both fully compacted and random compacted plots. Controlled traffic system should certain potential on soil compaction amelioration. Controlled traffic system reduced traction force on winter wheat planting by 9.5 and 6.3%, compared with fully compacted treatment and random compacted treatment. Controlled traffic system reduced fuel consumption in both winter wheat planting and sub soiling (significantly, compared with fully compacted treatment and random compacted treatment. Results indicated that controlled traffic system had certain advantages in soil compaction and fuel consumption in this region and with high application potential.

  4. Fuel consumption and particulate emissions during fires in the New Jersey Pinelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ken Clark; Nicholas Skowronski; Gallagher Michael; Warren E. Heilman; John Hom

    2010-01-01

    We quantified loading and consumption losses of 1-hour and 10-hour fuels on the forest floor and understory vegetation during 24 operational prescribed burns conducted in the Pinelands National Reserve of New Jersey. PM 2.5 emissions were calculated using published emission factors, and atmospheric PM 2.5 was measured under ambient conditions and during prescribed...

  5. Fuel load, humus consumption and humus moisture dynamics in Central European Scots pine stands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hille, M.G.; Ouden, den J.

    2005-01-01

    Samples of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) humus were burned under different moisture and fuel load scenarios to model humus consumption. For moisture levels below 120% on a dry mass basis, a parabolic increase of humus remaining with increasing moisture content was observed while, for higher moist

  6. The fuel consumption increase in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Fullerton Jr

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzes short–run gasoline consumption dynamics in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, México. Parameter estimation is carried out using linear transfer function arima analysis. This market is of interest because it is influenced by regional, national, and international economic conditions due to its location on the border with the United States. Explanatory variables that satisfy the significance criterion include the real price of gasoline in Ciudad Juárez, the price of gasoline in Ciudad Juárez relative to that charged across the border in el Paso, Texas, USA, and formal sector employment in Ciudad Juárez. Out–of–sample simulations indicate that the model is relatively accurate for forecasts of to 1 to 24 months into the future.

  7. Using the Relationship between Vehicle Fuel Consumption and CO[subscript 2] Emissions to Illustrate Chemical Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver-Hoyo, Maria T.; Pinto, Gabriel

    2008-01-01

    This instructional resource utilizes consumer product information by which students compare theoretical stoichiometric calculations to CO[subscript 2] car emissions and fuel consumption data. Representing graphically the emission of CO[subscript 2] versus consumption of fuel provides a tangible way of connecting concepts studied in chemistry…

  8. More efficiency in fuel consumption using gearbox optimization based on Taguchi method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goharimanesh, Masoud; Akbari, Aliakbar; Akbarzadeh Tootoonchi, Alireza

    2014-05-01

    Automotive emission is becoming a critical threat to today's human health. Many researchers are studying engine designs leading to less fuel consumption. Gearbox selection plays a key role in an engine design. In this study, Taguchi quality engineering method is employed, and optimum gear ratios in a five speed gear box is obtained. A table of various gear ratios is suggested by design of experiment techniques. Fuel consumption is calculated through simulating the corresponding combustion dynamics model. Using a 95 % confidence level, optimal parameter combinations are determined using the Taguchi method. The level of importance of the parameters on the fuel efficiency is resolved using the analysis of signal-to-noise ratio as well as analysis of variance.

  9. Development of a Life Cycle Inventory of Water Consumption Associated with the Production of Transportation Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampert, David J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cai, Hao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, Zhichao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Keisman, Jennifer [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wu, May [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Han, Jeongwoo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dunn, Jennifer [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sullivan, John L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Elgowainy, Amgad [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Keisman, Jennifer [American Association for the Advancemetn of Science (AAAS), Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The production of all forms of energy consumes water. To meet increased energy demands, it is essential to quantify the amount of water consumed in the production of different forms of energy. By analyzing the water consumed in different technologies, it is possible to identify areas for improvement in water conservation and reduce water stress in energy-producing regions. The transportation sector is a major consumer of energy in the United States. Because of the relationships between water and energy, the sustainability of transportation is tied to management of water resources. Assessment of water consumption throughout the life cycle of a fuel is necessary to understand its water resource implications. To perform a comparative life cycle assessment of transportation fuels, it is necessary first to develop an inventory of the water consumed in each process in each production supply chain. The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model is an analytical tool that can used to estimate the full life-cycle environmental impacts of various transportation fuel pathways from wells to wheels. GREET is currently being expanded to include water consumption as a sustainability metric. The purpose of this report was to document data sources and methodologies to estimate water consumption factors (WCF) for the various transportation fuel pathways in GREET. WCFs reflect the quantity of freshwater directly consumed per unit production for various production processes in GREET. These factors do not include consumption of precipitation or low-quality water (e.g., seawater) and reflect only water that is consumed (i.e., not returned to the source from which it was withdrawn). The data in the report can be combined with GREET to compare the life cycle water consumption for different transportation fuels.

  10. The effect of conservation tillage forward speed and depth on farm fuel consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Jalali

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In recent years, production techniques and equipment have been developed for conservation tillage systems that have been adopted by many farmers. With proper management, overall yield averages for conventional and reduced tillage systems are nearly identical. Sometimes, field operations can be combined by connecting two or more implements. Much research has focused on either reducing or eliminating tillage operations to develop sustainable crop production methods. The greatest costs in farm operations are associated with tillage due to greater specific energy requirement in tillage and the high fuel costs. Combined operations reduce both fuel consumption and time and labor requirements by eliminating at least one individual trip over the field. Light tillage, spraying, or fertilizing operations can be combined with eitherprimary or secondary tillage or planting operations. The amount of fuel saved depends on the combined operations. Generally, light tillage, spraying, and fertilizing operations consume between 0.25 and 0.50 gallons of diesel fuel per acre. Fuel savings of 0.12 to 0.33 gallons per acre can usually be expected from combining operations. Eliminating one primary tillage operation and combining one light tillage, spraying, or fertilizing operation with another tillage or planting operation can usually save at least a gallon of diesel fuel per acre. Combining operations has the added benefit of reducing wheel traffic and compaction. To improve the tillage energy efficiency, implementing effective and agronomic strategies should be improved. Different tillage systems should be tested to determine the most energy efficient ones. Tillage helps seed growth and germination through providing appropriate conditions for soil to absorb sufficient temperature and humidity. Tillage is a time consuming and expensive procedure. With the application of agricultural operations, we can save considerable amounts of fuel, time and

  11. Modelling fuel consumption in kerbside source segregated food waste collection: separate collection and co-collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, T W; Heaven, S; Gredmaier, L

    2015-01-01

    Source separated food waste is a valuable feedstock for renewable energy production through anaerobic digestion, and a variety of collection schemes for this material have recently been introduced. The aim of this study was to identify options that maximize collection efficiency and reduce fuel consumption as part of the overall energy balance. A mechanistic model was developed to calculate the fuel consumption of kerbside collection of source segregated food waste, co-mingled dry recyclables and residual waste. A hypothetical city of 20,000 households was considered and nine scenarios were tested with different combinations of collection frequencies, vehicle types and waste types. The results showed that the potential fuel savings from weekly and fortnightly co-collection of household waste range from 7.4% to 22.4% and 1.8% to 26.6%, respectively, when compared to separate collection. A compartmentalized vehicle split 30:70 always performed better than one with two compartments of equal size. Weekly food waste collection with alternate weekly collection of the recyclables and residual waste by two-compartment collection vehicles was the best option to reduce the overall fuel consumption.

  12. Development of PIE techniques for irradiated LWR pressure vessel steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishi, Masahiro; Kizaki, Minoru; Sukegawa, Tomohide [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1999-09-01

    For the evaluation of safety and integrity of light water reactors (LWRs), various post irradiation examinations (PIEs) of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels and fuel claddings have been carried out in the Research Hot Laboratory (RHL). In recent years, the instrumented Charpy impact testing machine was remodeled aiming at the improvement of accuracy and reliability. By this remodeling, absorbed energy and other useful information on impact properties can be delivered from the force-displacement curve for the evaluation of neutron irradiation embrittlement behavior of LWR-RPV steels at one-time striking. In addition, two advanced PIE technologies are now under development. One is the remote machining of mechanical test pieces from actual irradiated pressure vessel steels. The other is development of low-cycle and high-cycle fatigue test technology in order to clarify the post-irradiation fatigue characteristics of structural and fuel cladding materials. (author)

  13. Effect of biofuel E85 combustion on fuel consumption in spark-ignition engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Polcar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels represent an alternative source of energy that should gradually decrease our dependence on crude oil. A rapid development of their use in combustion engines is above all the consequence of their very positive balance of emissions. The possibility of use of biofuels in conventional combustion engines is given by their physico-chemical properties. Bioethanol is one of biofuels that can be used in spark-ignition engines. However, because of its lower heating value, it is necessary to change the mixing ratio fuel/air. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effect of combustion of a mixture of bioethanol with gasoline (in the ratio 85:15 on fuel consumption in the spark-ignition engine. Experimental measurements were performed using a six-cylinder spark-ignition Peugeot engine with the overall volume of 2.946 cm3, which was equipped with a multi-hole system of indirect injection. Obtained results indicated that the combustion of E85 biofuel markedly increased the reduction of specific fuel consumption (corrected to atmospheric conditions. As compared with gasoline Natural 95, the actual volume consumption of E85 biofuel increased under the maximum engine load in average by 30.4 %. In spite of a relatively high consumption of E85 biofuel the total costs associated with running of a modified engine were lower than those of the engine combusting gasoline Natural 95.

  14. Study of operational parameters impacting helicopter fuel consumption. [using computer techniques (computer programs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, J. L.; Stevens, D. D.

    1976-01-01

    A computerized study of operational parameters affecting helicopter fuel consumption was conducted as an integral part of the NASA Civil Helicopter Technology Program. The study utilized the Helicopter Sizing and Performance Computer Program (HESCOMP) developed by the Boeing-Vertol Company and NASA Ames Research Center. An introduction to HESCOMP is incorporated in this report. The results presented were calculated using the NASA CH-53 civil helicopter research aircraft specifications. Plots from which optimum flight conditions for minimum fuel use that can be obtained are presented for this aircraft. The results of the study are considered to be generally indicative of trends for all helicopters.

  15. Comparison of flexible fuel vehicle and life-cycle fuel consumption and emissions of selected pollutants and greenhouse gases for ethanol 85 versus gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Haibo; Frey, H Christopher; Rouphail, Nagui M; Gonçalves, Gonçalo A; Farias, Tiago L

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this research is to evaluate differences in fuel consumption and tailpipe emissions of flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) operated on ethanol 85 (E85) versus gasoline. Theoretical ratios of fuel consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions for both fuels are estimated based on the same amount of energy released. Second-by-second fuel consumption and emissions from one FFV Ford Focus fueled with E85 and gasoline were measured under real-world traffic conditions in Lisbon, Portugal, using a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS). Cycle average dynamometer fuel consumption and emission test results for FFVs are available from the U.S. Department of Energy, and emissions certification test results for ethanol-fueled vehicles are available from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. On the basis of the PEMS data, vehicle-specific power (VSP)-based modal average fuel and emission rates for both fuels are estimated. For E85 versus gasoline, empirical ratios of fuel consumption and CO2 emissions agree within a margin of error to the theoretical expectations. Carbon monoxide (CO) emissions were found to be typically lower. From the PEMS data, nitric oxide (NO) emissions associated with some higher VSP modes are higher for E85. From the dynamometer and certification data, average hydrocarbon (HC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission differences vary depending on the vehicle. The differences of average E85 versus gasoline emission rates for all vehicle models are -22% for CO, 12% for HC, and -8% for NOx emissions, which imply that replacing gasoline with E85 reduces CO emissions, may moderately decrease NOx tailpipe emissions, and may increase HC tailpipe emissions. On a fuel life cycle basis for corn-based ethanol versus gasoline, CO emissions are estimated to decrease by 18%. Life-cycle total and fossil CO2 emissions are estimated to decrease by 25 and 50%, respectively; however, life-cycle HC and NOx emissions are estimated to increase by 18 and 82

  16. Repeated soil application of organic waste amendments reduces draught force and fuel consumption for soil tillage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peltrea, Clément; Nyord, Tavs; Bruun, Sander

    2015-01-01

    for different organic wastes influenced the specific draught. Overall, the decrease in draught force could lead to a decrease in tractor fuel consumption for soil tillage of up to 25% for compost applied at an accelerated rate and up to 14% for compost applied at a normal rate. This reduced fuel consumption......Abstract Soil application of organic waste products (OWP) can maintain or increase soil organic carbon (SOC) content, which in turn could lead to increased porosity and potentially to reduced energy use for soil tillage. Only a few studies have addressed the effect of SOC content on draught force...... for soil tillage, and this still needs to be addressed for fields that receive diverse types of organic waste of urban, agricultural and agro-industrial origin. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of changes in SOC induced by repeated soil application of OWP on draught force for soil...

  17. Jet transport energy management for minimum fuel consumption and noise impact in the terminal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, J. S.; Foster, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    Significant reductions in both noise and fuel consumption can be gained through careful tailoring of approach flightpath and airspeed profile, and the point at which the landing gear and flaps are lowered. For example, the noise problem has been successfully attacked in recent years with development of the 'two-segment' approach, which brings the aircraft in at a steeper angle initially, thereby achieving noise reduction through lower thrust settings and higher altitudes. A further reduction in noise and a significant reduction in fuel consumption can be achieved with the 'decelerating approach' concept. In this case, the approach is initiated at high airspeed and in a drag configuration that allows for low thrust. The landing flaps are then lowered at the appropriate time so that the airspeed slowly decelerates to V sub r at touchdown. The decelerating approach concept can be applied to constant glideslope flightpaths or segmented flightpaths such as the two-segment approach.

  18. The methodology of variable management of propellant fuel consumption by jet-propulsion engines of a spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovtun, V. S.

    2012-12-01

    Traditionally, management of propellant fuel consumption on board of a spacecraft is only associated with the operation of jet-propulsion engines (JPE) that are actuator devices of motion control systems (MCS). The efficiency of propellant fuel consumption depends not only on the operation of the MCS, but also, to one extent or another, on all systems functioning on board of a spacecraft, and on processes that occur in them and involve conversion of variable management of propellant fuel consumption by JPEs as a constituent part of the control of the complex process of spacecraft flight.

  19. Optimizing Ship Speed to Minimize Total Fuel Consumption with Multiple Time Windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Gon Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the ship speed optimization problem with the objective of minimizing the total fuel consumption. We consider multiple time windows for each port call as constraints and formulate the problem as a nonlinear mixed integer program. We derive intrinsic properties of the problem and develop an exact algorithm based on the properties. Computational experiments show that the suggested algorithm is very efficient in finding an optimal solution.

  20. Background paper for the development of motor vehicle fuel consumption regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-01-15

    The automotive industry is Canada's largest manufacturing sector and consists of 23 passenger or commercial vehicle assembly plants and more than 640 auto parts plants. Over 150,000 people are employed in automotive assembly and component manufacturing. Manufacturing is clustered in central Canada, while distribution is spread across the country. This paper provided background information on the development of motor vehicle consumption regulations. Contextual information was provided on the Canadian motor vehicle manufacturing industry; the history of motor vehicle fuel consumption regulations; and Canadian regulation of fuel consumption. Experience under the standards and developments in Canada in this area were also discussed. Last, the paper identified and discussed other international policies and regulatory regimes. The paper presented a comparison of the current and future standards or targets in the various regimes that were standardized to North American test methods and applicable to cars and passenger-carrying light trucks against those of the United States and California. It was concluded that there are no widely used international standards for fuel efficiency that could be adopted in Canada. 13 refs., 4 tabs., 9 figs.

  1. Influence of malfunctions of the maintenance activities on the urban buses fuel consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Crişan; Nicolae, Filip

    2014-06-01

    Optimization of activities with the aim to provide quality service in conditions of high profitability, is one of the main objectives chased by managers in transportation companies. As a consequence, directing the attention towards monitoring of maintenance activities of vehicles fleet, can achieve desired results. Two of the most important issues related to the maintenance activity, is the increase of reliability and reduction of fuel consumption of the vehicles fleet. Aforementioned actions represents a way forward for raising the quality and profitability of services offered. In this paper, the main ways of monitoring the fuel consumption, in order to reduce it and increase the reliability of transportation vehicles fleet, are presented. For the evaluation of the maintenance system and the degree of influence of malfunctions recorded on the fuel consumption, using the Pareto -ABC method, following case study on a fleet of buses for urban public transport has been conducted. Results obtained highlights the deficiencies of the maintenance process carried out and constitutes a solid base for the reorganization of the maintenance activity, involving preventive maintenance activities, in order to contribute decisively to the results targeted by the management of transport companies.

  2. Usage of Production Functions in the Comparative Analysis of Transport Related Fuel Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torok Adam

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribution aims to examine the relationship between the transport sector and the macroeconomy, particularly in fossil energy use, capital and labour relations. The authors have investigated the transport related fossil fuel consumption 2003 -2010 in a macroeconomic context in Hungary and Germany. The Cobb-Douglas type of production function could be justified empirically, while originating from the general CES (Constant Elasticity of Substitution production function. Furthermore, as a policy implication, the results suggest that a solution for the for the reduction of anthropogenic CO2 driven by the combustion of fossil fuels presupposes technological innovation to reach emission reduction targets. Other measures, such as increasing the fossil fuel price by levying taxes, would consequently lead to an undesirable GDP decline.

  3. Approaches of Japan and Western nations to automobile fuel consumption improvement; Jidosha nenpi kaizen ni kansuru Nippon Obei no torikumi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshino, M. [Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-04-01

    Some views are expressed toward the improvement of automobile fuel consumption. There is no need to give up the convenience that the automobile offers for the purpose of energy-saving. What is needed is the effective use of energy, and the most important technological tasks in this connection is the improvement of fuel consumption. Thanks to the efforts exerted by Japanese businesses, and to reduction in automobile size and improvement on engine performance in the Western countries, fuel consumption has steadily improved, only to reach a level where no more large-scale progress is expected without innovative technologies. For example, the adoption of the lean-burn system for higher performance will deteriorate the convenience that automobiles offer and efforts for lightening automobile bodies will encounter constraints (germane to recycling and pricing) in choosing proper materials. This report also evaluates alternate-energy automobiles and comments on Japan`s decision on its fuel consumption improvement targets. 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Optimization Study of Fuel Consumption of an Engine%某发动机油耗优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王泰晟; 黄勇; 黄勇和

    2016-01-01

    由于整车油耗限值要求,对某发动机进行油耗优化研究。综合多方面考虑,采取低摩擦优化设计和增加冷却EGR装置两种油耗优化措施,成功使整车油耗降低0.5 L/100 km,同时也为降低整车油耗提供了宝贵的经验。%Because of the vehicle fuel consumption limits, the optimization of the fuel consumption of an engine is studied. Via multiple comprehensive consideration, taking low friction design optimization and cooled EGR, the success makes the vehicle fuel consumption reduced 0.5 L/100 km, also provides valuable experience for vehicle fuel consumption reduction.

  5. Fuel consumption and emissions from navigation in Denmark from 1990-2005 - and projections from 2006-2030

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Morten

    sea transport is the most dominant source of emissions from navigation. For national sea transport, a new time series of fuel consumption has been calculated which is considered as much more accurate than fuel sales data reported by the Danish Energy Authority (DEA). The introduction of engine age...... dependent fuel consumption and emission factors has improved the accuracy of the inventory time series results considerably. Results show a need for more strict fuel quality and NOx emission standards for navigation in the future, in order to gain emission improvements in line with those achieved for other......This report documents the fuel consumption and emission inventory for navigation (national sea transport, fisheries and international sea transport) in Denmark, for the historical period 1990-2005 and the forecast period 2006-2030. The inventory follows the UNFCCC (United Nations Framework...

  6. Effect Of Platooning on Fuel Consumption of Class 8 Vehicles Over a Range of Speeds, Following Distances, and Mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammert, M. P.; Duran, A.; Diez, J.; Burton, K.; Nicholson, A.

    2014-10-01

    This research project evaluates fuel consumption results of two Class 8 tractor-trailer combinations platooned together compared to their standalone fuel consumption. A series of ten modified SAE Type II J1321 fuel consumption track tests were performed to document fuel consumption of two platooned vehicles and a control vehicle at varying steady-state speeds, following distances, and gross vehicle weights (GVWs). The steady-state speeds ranged from 55 mph to 70 mph, the following distances ranged from a 20-ft following distance to a 75-ft following distance, and the GVWs were 65K lbs and 80K lbs. All tractors involved had U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) SmartWay-compliant aerodynamics packages installed, and the trailers were equipped with side skirts. Effects of vehicle speed, following distance, and GVW on fuel consumption were observed and analyzed. The platooning demonstration system used in this study consisted of radar systems, Dedicated Short-Range Communication (DSRC) vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications, vehicle braking and torque control interface, cameras and driver displays. The lead tractor consistently demonstrated an improvement in average fuel consumption reduction as following distance decreased, with results showing 2.7% to 5.3% fuel savings at a GVW of 65k. The trailing vehicle achieved fuel consumption savings ranging from 2.8% to 9.7%; tests during which the engine cooling fan did not operate achieved savings of 8.4% to 9.7%. 'Team' fuel savings, considering the platooned vehicles as one, ranged from 3.7% to 6.4%, with the best combined result being for 55 mph, 30-ft following distance, and 65k GVW.

  7. Wood fuel consumption and mortality rates in Sub-Saharan Africa: Evidence from a dynamic panel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Chindo; Abdul-Rahim, A S; Chin, Lee; Mohd-Shahwahid, H O

    2017-06-01

    This study examined the impact of wood fuel consumption on health outcomes, specifically under-five and adult mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa, where wood usage for cooking and heating is on the increase. Generalized method of moment (GMM) estimators were used to estimate the impact of wood fuel consumption on under-five and adult mortality (and also male and female mortality) in the region. The findings revealed that wood fuel consumption had significant positive impact on under-five and adult mortality. It suggests that over the studied period, an increase in wood fuel consumption has increased the mortality of under-five and adult. Importantly, it indicated that the magnitude of the effect of wood fuel consumption was more on the under-five than the adults. Similarly, assessing the effect on a gender basis, it was revealed that the effect was more on female than male adults. This finding suggests that the resultant mortality from wood smoke related infections is more on under-five children than adults, and also are more on female adults than male adults. We, therefore, recommended that an alternative affordable, clean energy source for cooking and heating should be provided to reduce the wood fuel consumption.

  8. Fuel Consumption and Vehicle Emission Models for Evaluating Environmental Impacts of the ETC System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiancheng Weng

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The environmental outcome of the Electronic Toll Collection (ETC system is an important aspect in evaluating the impacts of the ETC system, which is influenced by various factors including the vehicle type, travel speed, traffic volume, and average queue length of Manual Toll Collection (MTC lanes. The primary objective of this paper is to develop a field data-based practical model for evaluating the effects of ETC system on the fuel efficiency and vehicle emission. First, laboratory experiments of seven types of vehicles under various scenarios for toll collection were conducted based on the Vehicle Emissions Testing System (VETS. The indicator calculation models were then established to estimate the comprehensive benefit of ETC system by comparing the test results of MTC lane and ETC lane. Finally, taking Beijing as a case study, the paper calibrated the model parameters, and estimated the monetization value of environmental benefit of the ETC system in terms of vehicle emissions reduction and fuel consumption decrease. The results shows that the applications of ETC system are expected to save fuel consumption of 4.1 million liters and reduce pollution emissions by 730.89 tons in 2013 in Beijing.

  9. Influence of driving cycles on exhaust emissions and fuel consumption of gasoline passenger car in Bangkok.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutramon, Tamsanya; Supachart, Chungpaibulpatana

    2009-01-01

    The influence of different driving cycles on their exhaust emissions and fuel consumption rate of gasoline passenger car was investigated in Bangkok based on the actual measurements obtained from a test vehicle driving on a standard chassis dynamometer. A newly established Bangkok driving cycle (BDC) and the European driving cycle (EDC) which is presently adopted as the legislative cycle for testing automobiles registered in Thailand were used. The newly developed BDC is constructed using the driving characteristic data obtained from the real on-road driving tests along selected traffic routes. A method for selecting appropriate road routes for real driving tests is also introduced. Variations of keyed driving parameters of BDC with different driving cycles were discussed. The results showed that the HC and CO emission factors of BDC are almost two and four times greater than those of EDC, respectively. Although the difference in the NOx emission factor is small, the value from BDC is still greater than that of EDC by 10%. Under BDC, the test vehicle consumes fuel about 25% more than it does under EDC. All these differences are mainly attributed to the greater proportion of idle periods and higher fluctuations of vehicle speed in the BDC cycle. This result indicated that the exhausted emissions and fuel consumption of vehicles obtained from tests under the legislative modal-type driving cycle (EDC) are significantly different from those actually produced under real traffic conditions especially during peak periods.

  10. Influence of driving cycles on exhaust emissions and fuel consumption of gasoline passenger car in Bangkok

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NUTRAMON Tamsanya; SUPACHART Chungpaibulpatana

    2009-01-01

    The influence of different driving cycles on their exhaust emissions and fuel consumption rate of gasoline passenger car was investigated in Bangkok based on the actual measurements obtained from a test vehicle driving on a standard chassis dynamometer. A newly established Bangkok driving cycle (BDC) and the European driving cycle (EDC) which is presently adopted as the legislative cycle for testing automobiles registered in Thailand were used. The newly developed BDC is constructed using the driving characteristic data obtained from the real on-road driving tests along selected traffic routes. A method for selecting appropriate road routes for real driving tests is also introduced. Variations of keyed driving parameters of BDC with different driving cycles were discussed. The results showed that the HC and CO emission factors of BDC are almost two and four times greater than those of EDC, respectively. Although the difference in the NOx emission factor is small, the value from BDC is still greater than that of EDC by 10%. Under BDC, the test vehicle consumes fuel about 25% more than it does under EDC. All these differences are mainly attributed to the greater proportion of idle periods and higher fluctuations of vehicle speed in the BDC cycle. This result indicated that the exhausted emissions and fuel consumption of vehicles obtained from tests under the legislative modal-type driving cycle (EDC) are significantly different from those actually produced under real traffic conditions especially during peak periods.

  11. STRUCTURIZATION OF OWN FUEL-ENERGY RECOURSES OF THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS IN BASIC DIRECTIONS OF CONSUMPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. N. Rumiantsava

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of an analysis of scientific, reference and encyclopaedic literature, statistical information, and also main documents concerning power engineering policy a composition systemization of «own fuel-energy recourses» and «local fuel-energy recourses» categories in the Republic of Belarus is given in the paper. The paper also contains a structurization of power resources of the mentioned categories in accordance with directions of consumption of fuel-energy resources for generation of heat and electrical energy and usage of fuel-energy resources directly as a fuel.In order to increase an objectivity of actual and forecasting estimations of efficiency in respect of power resources’ usage  the paper proposes to analyze consumption of every fuel-energy resources’ type/group separately in accordance with basic directions of consumption but not as a part of boiler-oven fuel. Local fuel-energy recourses are to be considered not as end in itself, but only as a part of own fuel-energy recourses of the Republic of Belarus.

  12. An experimental study on the effects of the thermal barrier plating over engine fuel consumption exhaust temperature and emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Gürbüz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study, the combustion chamber elements of a one-cylinder diesel engine which is air-cooled, single-cylinder, direct injection, 4-stroke and starter motor were plated with thermal barrier plating and tested with diesel fuel between the speeds of 1600 1/min to 3200 1/min and determined the effects of the thermal barrier plating on the engine exhaust gas temperature, emissions and fuel consumption. Increase in the temperature of the exhaust gas, decrease in HC and CO emissions that are harmful to the environment and living things and improvement in fuel consumption were observed.

  13. An innovative multivariate tool for fuel consumption and costs estimation of agricultural operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Guerrieri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of operating costs of agricultural and forestry machineries is a key factor in both planning agricultural policies and farm management. Few works have tried to estimate operating costs and the produced models are normally based on deterministic approaches. Conversely, in the statistical model randomness is present and variable states are not described by unique values, but rather by probability distributions. In this study, for the first time, a multivariate statistical model based on Partial Least Squares (PLS was adopted to predict the fuel consumption and costs of six agricultural operations such as: ploughing, harrowing, fertilization, sowing, weed control and shredding. The prediction was conducted on two steps: first of all few initial selected parameters (time per surface-area unit, maximum engine power, purchase price of the tractor and purchase price of the operating machinery were used to estimate the fuel consumption; then the predicted fuel consumption together with the initial parameters were used to estimate the operational costs. Since the obtained models were based on an input dataset very heterogeneous, these resulted to be extremely efficient and so generalizable and robust. In details the results show prediction values in the test with r always ≥ 0.91. Thus, the approach may results extremely useful for both farmers (in terms of economic advantages and at institutional level (representing an innovative and efficient tool for planning future Rural Development Programmes and the Common Agricultural Policy. In light of these advantages the proposed approach may as well be implemented on a web platform and made available to all the stakeholders.

  14. Possibilities of electronics and microelectronics for optimation of the fuel consumption of cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dziwisch, G.F.; Meissner, F.

    1980-01-01

    Electronics in cars have established themselves internationally not only because the increase in safety and comfort but also where optimation of energy transformation is concerned. Those elements and functional groups have to operate in wide ranges of operational temperature, they have to have a high tolerance for shocks and vibratory stresses, they must be resistent against air humidity and against aggressive and corrosive media. Further demands are: indifference to fluctuations of the voltage, active and passive interference safety, high reliability, low price. They can be used in: engine (electronic ignition, fuel metering, speed control); power transmission (automatic gear); control equipment (indication of momentary fuel consumption, board diagnosis, speed warning system, indicator for position of choke and handbrake). Further possibilities for successful use of microlectronics and electronics are recording and processing of traffic flows for tasks of traffic planning and channeling, optimization of routing, traffic stream control and utilization of transport capacities.

  15. Opportunities and insights for reducing fossil fuel consumption by households and organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Paul C.; Janda, Kathryn B.; Brown, Marilyn A.; Steg, Linda; Vine, Edward L.; Lutzenhiser, Loren

    2016-05-01

    Realizing the ambitious commitments of the 2015 Paris Climate Conference (COP21) will require new ways of meeting human needs previously met by burning fossil fuels. Technological developments will be critical, but so will accelerated adoption of promising low-emission technologies and practices. National commitments will be more achievable if interventions take into account key psychological, social, cultural and organizational factors that influence energy choices, along with factors of an infrastructural, technical and economic nature. Broader engagement of social and behavioural science is needed to identify promising opportunities for reducing fossil fuel consumption. Here we discuss opportunities for change in households and organizations, primarily at short and intermediate timescales, and identify opportunities that have been underused in much of energy policy. Based on this survey, we suggest design principles for interventions by governments and other organizations, and identify areas of emphasis for future social science and interdisciplinary research.

  16. Impact of the electric compressor for automotive air conditioning system on fuel consumption and performance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkifli, A. A.; Dahlan, A. A.; Zulkifli, A. H.; Nasution, H.; Aziz, A. A.; Perang, M. R. M.; Jamil, H. M.; Misseri, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    Air conditioning system is the biggest auxiliary load in a vehicle where the compressor consumed the largest. Problem with conventional compressor is the cooling capacity cannot be control directly to fulfill the demand of thermal load inside vehicle cabin. This study is conducted experimentally to analyze the difference of fuel usage and air conditioning performance between conventional compressor and electric compressor of the air conditioning system in automobile. The electric compressor is powered by the car battery in non-electric vehicle which the alternator will recharge the battery. The car is setup on a roller dynamometer and the vehicle speed is varied at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 110 km/h at cabin temperature of 25°C and internal heat load of 100 and 400 Watt. The results shows electric compressor has better fuel consumption and coefficient of performance compared to the conventional compressor.

  17. Cost and energy consumption estimates for the aluminum-air battery anode fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphreys, K.K.; Brown, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    At the request of DOE's Office of Energy Storage and Distribution (OESD), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted a study to generate estimates of the energy use and costs associated with the aluminum anode fuel cycle of the aluminum-air (Al-air) battery. The results of this analysis indicate that the cost and energy consumption characteristics of the mechanically rechargeable Al-air battery system are not as attractive as some other electrically rechargeable electric vehicle battery systems being developed by OESD. However, there are distinct advantages to mechanically rechargeable batteries, which may make the Al-air battery (or other mechanically rechargeable batteries) attractive for other uses, such as stand-alone applications. Fuel cells, such as the proton exchange membrane (PEM), and advanced secondary batteries may be better suited to electric vehicle applications. 26 refs., 3 figs., 25 tabs.

  18. Energy consumption of electric systems compared with fuel-fired systems. Advantage of energy measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betray, A.; Delabby, P.; Mannoni, P.; Sola, J.

    1981-06-01

    Growth of the applications of electricity for heating purposes is often impeded by habits and preconceived ideas. However, in spite of a rather poor efficiency at the generating stage (Carnot's principle) electric processes are economic and save both raw materials and prime energy. The initial handicap of a low efficiency of electricity generating plants is offset by the efficiencies achievable in actual practice with electrically operated equipment. The comparative analysis of electric and fuel-fired equipment calls for complex measurements (energy and raw material consumptions...). Though expensive these measurements are instrumental in saving energy and may in the medium-range lead to a new plant design.

  19. Reducing Fuel Consumption in Bucharest Terminal Area for Flights Using a Standard Instrument Departure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alin George DIACONU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Reconfiguration of the standard instrument departure and standard arrival routes at certain airports can bring significant reductions in fuel consumption and level of noise. This can be done either by implementing modern radionavigation aids for terminal areas or by eliminating the flying restrictions over cities and inhabited places and designing of low level of noise procedures for these areas. These solutions have other important benefits like decreasing the workload for the air traffic controllers and reducing the total flight time. The paper describes an operational solution in this manner for Bucharest Henri Coanda International Airport.

  20. Mathematical optimization of variable valve timing for reducing fuel consumption of A SI engine

    OpenAIRE

    Kakaee, Amir-Hasan; Keshavarz, Mehdi; Paykani, Amin; Keshavarz, Mohaamad

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the sensitivity analysis and Quasi-Newton algorithms are used to optimize valve timing XU7/L3 engine in order to reduce fuel consumption and increase engine performance. At first, all components of engine are modeled in GT-POWER and a comparison with experimental results is performed to confirm the accuracy of the model. Then, GT-POWER model is coupled with MATLAB-SIMULINK to control inputs and outputs with sensitivity analysis and Quasi-Newton algorithms. The results obtained ...

  1. Measures of Decreasing Blast Furnace Fuel Consumption and Improving Sinter Performance in Guofeng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Yuan-hao; FENG Gen-sheng; SU Dong-xue

    2008-01-01

    To further decrease the fuel consumption of blast furnace in Tangshan Guofcng Iron and Steel Co Ltd,measures of improving the quality of sinter and pellet and the performances of raw materials were put forward through phase analysis and physical and chemical performance testing.The measures of increasing the grade of sinter,decreasing the sinter reduction degradation index at low temperature,and increasing the sinter soft melt performance at elevated temperature,as well as the reasonable process parameters of sintering were described in detail.

  2. Study of fuel consumption and cooling system in low heat rejection turbocharged diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taymaz, I.; Gur, M.; Cally, I.; Mimaroglu, A.

    1998-07-01

    In a conventional internal combustion engine, approximately one-third of total fuel input energy is converted to useful work. Since the working gas in a practical engine cycle is not exhausted at ambient temperature, a major part of the energy is lost with the exhaust gases. In addition another major part of energy input is rejected in the form of heat via the cooling system. If the energy normally rejected to the coolant could be recovered instead on the crankshaft as useful work, then a substantial improvement in fuel economy would result. At the same time, the cooling water, antifreeze, thermostat, radiator, water pump, cooling fan, and associated hoses and clamps could be eliminated. A new trend in the field of internal combustion engines is to insulate the heat transfer surfaces such as the combustion chamber, cylinder wall, cylinder head, piston and valves by ceramic insulating materials for the improvement of engine performance and elimination of cooling system. In this study, the effect of insulated heat transfer surfaces on direct injected and turbocharged diesel engine fuel consumption and cooling system were investigated. The research engine was a four-stroke, direct injected, six cylinder, turbocharged and intercooled diesel engine. This engine was tested at different speeds and loads conditions without coating. Then, combustion chamber surfaces, cylinder head, valves and piston crown faces was coated with ceramic materials. Ceramic layers were made of CaZrO{sub 3} and MgZrO{sub 3} and plasma coated onto base of the NiCrAl bond coat. The ceramic coated research engine was tested at the same operation conditions as the standard (without coating) engine. The results indicate a reduction in fuel consumption and heat losses to engine cooling system of the ceramic coated engine.

  3. Fuel consumption and associated emissions from seagoing ships at berth derived from an on-board survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulskotte, J. H. J.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.

    2010-03-01

    A methodology is presented to estimate the emissions of ships at berth based on their actual fuel consumption and the fuel quality. Accurate estimates of emissions from ships at berth demand reliable knowledge of the fuel consumption while at berth and associated fuel characteristics. However, assured information about energy use and fuel consumption of seagoing ships at berth is scarce. Proper estimation of ship emissions at berth is crucial for understanding the impact of shipping emissions on air quality and health in harbour cities as well as for a proper evaluation of the impact of abatement measures such as shore-side electricity and/or restrictions of sulphur content for shipping fuels to be used in ports. Therefore, a survey of energy consumption and fuel use on board of 89 seagoing ships was made in close cooperation with the Port of Rotterdam. Rotterdam is the major port of Europe ensuring that the results will have relevance for the larger European domain. On board of the ships at berth, a questionnaire was filled in by the chief engineer of that particular ship, assisted by two former mechanical shipping engineers employed at our organization. Survey results as well as the emission estimations are compared to the (scarce) information that is available and expert judgements in recent studies. The compiled survey data underlie the current Dutch emission estimation methodology for emissions of ships at berth.

  4. Forecasting Fossil Fuel Energy Consumption for Power Generation Using QHSA-Based LSSVM Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate forecasting of fossil fuel energy consumption for power generation is important and fundamental for rational power energy planning in the electricity industry. The least squares support vector machine (LSSVM is a powerful methodology for solving nonlinear forecasting issues with small samples. The key point is how to determine the appropriate parameters which have great effect on the performance of LSSVM model. In this paper, a novel hybrid quantum harmony search algorithm-based LSSVM (QHSA-LSSVM energy forecasting model is proposed. The QHSA which combines the quantum computation theory and harmony search algorithm is applied to searching the optimal values of and C in LSSVM model to enhance the learning and generalization ability. The case study on annual fossil fuel energy consumption for power generation in China shows that the proposed model outperforms other four comparative models, namely regression, grey model (1, 1 (GM (1, 1, back propagation (BP and LSSVM, in terms of prediction accuracy and forecasting risk.

  5. MATHEMATICAL ASPECTS OF AIRCRAFT ENGINES RUNNING OPTIMIZATION FOR MINIMUM FUEL CONSUMPTION WHILE LANDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy Michaylovich Chinyuchin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The consistency of the potential increase of fuel efficiency, based on aircraft maintenance optimization, is mathe- matically proved. The mathematical apparatus and a set mathematical model of aircraft spatial motion allow to analyze aircraft behavior on the stage before landing and to draw optimal flight path for minimum fuel consumption with fixed time.For effective problem solving the choice and realization of optimal flight paths are made. The algorithm for the problem of optimal civil aircraft flight control aimed at the most accurate realization of chosen soft path under limited time conditions is proposed. The optimization of the given process is made by solving a point-to-point boundary canonical sys- tem based on the Pontryagin maximum principle.The necessary initial data and conditions for the statement of problem are given. The mathematical model for the simplification of calculations is created and its equivalent representation is given by uniting problems of controls by thrust channels and the angle of attack as the thrust control function. The boundary-value problem is mathematically composed and the analytical apparatus of its solution is presented. Optimal aircraft landing paths reflecting the behavior of the angle of attack and thrust are constructed. The potential of this method is proved by the economic justifiability and its effectiveness, in particular the compar- ison of total aircraft fuel consumption on obtained optimal path to the classic path on which there are rectilinear sections what allowed to confirm the conclusion about the economical expedience and effectiveness of the method of aircraft con- stant landing while making flights.

  6. ROUTE OPTIMIZATION TO INCREASE ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND REDUCE FUEL CONSUMPTION OF COMMUNAL VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebojša M Jovičić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Collection and transportation within the system of solid waste management may account more than 60% of the overall budget, most of which is for fuel costs. Furthermore, municipal vehicles have great environmental impact through exhaust gases emissions. The aim of this research was to estimate the potential for reduction of fuel consumption and thus the emission of CO2 through the communal vehicles route optimization. General methodology for route optimization is also presented. For the area under study, detailed field experimental research in the City of Kragujevac was conducted. Using GIS and GPS technology, whole municipally infrastructure for waste collection was scanned and all paths of communal tracks was recorded and allocated in developed database. Based on experimental and numerical results, one typical municipal vehicle route was analyzed by using ArcGis software. The obtained result indicates 2700 km of possible savings per year concerning one communal vehicle. In addition, the most fuel-economical route was extracted and compared with the original route, and with the routes extracted from criterions concerning the traffic time and shortest distance. According to available information for the City of Kragujevac and the results from this study, it was estimated that the total savings could be 20% in costs and the associated emissions.

  7. Developing Singapore Driving Cycle for passenger cars to estimate fuel consumption and vehicular emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Sze-Hwee; Wong, Yiik-Diew; Chang, Victor Wei-Chung

    2014-11-01

    Singapore has pledged to attain 7-11% Business-As-Usual carbon emissions reduction by 2020. Road transport sector is a significant source of carbon emissions, estimated to be the third largest sector in Singapore. A current gap in environmental evaluation for road transport activities in Singapore is the lack of a representative driving cycle for passenger cars (64% of the total population of 974,170 vehicles). This Singapore Driving Cycle (SDC) is hence developed for Singapore roads and traffic conditions. A chase-car (instrumented vehicle) was used to collect on-road data along 12 designed routes, and circulation driving on highly utilized arterial roads (including those in Central Business District (CBD) and both inner and outer ring roads fringing the CBD area). The SDC was thus hence constructed, with consideration of road type proportions, time periods and desired distance, duration and peak-lull proportion. In essence, the SDC is a 2400-s speed-time profile to represent the driving pattern for passenger car in Singapore. Microscopic estimation model (CMEM) shows that, as compared to SDC, the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) underestimates most of the vehicular emissions (fuel, CO2, HC and NOx by 5%, 5%, 22% and 47%, respectively) and overestimates CO by 8%. The SDC is thus more suitable than the NEDC that is currently in use in Singapore; the SDC can be used to generate more accurate fuel consumption and emissions ratings for various uses (for example, inventory of vehicular emissions and fuel economy labelling).

  8. TREAT Neutronics Analysis of Water-Loop Concept Accommodating LWR 9-rod Bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Connie M.; Woolstenhulme, Nicolas E.; Parry, James R.; Bess, John D.; Housley, Gregory K.

    2016-09-01

    Abstract. Simulation of a variety of transient conditions has been successfully achieved in the Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) facility during operation between 1959 and 1994 to support characterization and safety analysis of nuclear fuels and materials. A majority of previously conducted tests were focused on supporting sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) designs. Experiments evolved in complexity. Simulation of thermal-hydraulic conditions expected to be encountered by fuels and materials in a reactor environment was realized in the development of TREAT sodium loop experiment vehicles. These loops accommodated up to 7-pin fuel bundles and served to simulate more closely the reactor environment while safely delivering large quantities of energy into the test specimen. Some of the immediate TREAT restart operations will be focused on testing light water reactor (LWR) accident tolerant fuels (ATF). Similar to the sodium loop objectives, a water loop concept, developed and analyzed in the 1990’s, aimed at achieving thermal-hydraulic conditions encountered in commercial power reactors. The historic water loop concept has been analyzed in the context of a reactivity insertion accident (RIA) simulation for high burnup LWR 2-pin and 3-pin fuel bundles. Findings showed sufficient energy could be deposited into the specimens for evaluation. Similar results of experimental feasibility for the water loop concept (past and present) have recently been obtained using MCNP6.1 with ENDF/B-VII.1 nuclear data libraries. The old water loop concept required only two central TREAT core grid spaces. Preparation for future experiments has resulted in a modified water loop conceptual design designated the TREAT water environment recirculating loop (TWERL). The current TWERL design requires nine TREAT core grid spaces in order to place the water recirculating pump under the TREAT core. Due to the effectiveness of water moderation, neutronics analysis shows that removal of seven additional

  9. Instruments for reducing the specific fuel consumption of cars; Instrumente zur Absenkung des spezifischen Treibstoffverbrauchs von Personenwagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, S.; Maibach, M. [Infras, Zuerich (Switzerland); Marti, P. [Metron, Brugg (Switzerland)

    2001-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents three possible courses of action that are to be taken to reduce the specific fuel consumption of private cars. The report first examines existing targets and the degree to which they have been met up to now, whereby the situation both in Switzerland and in the European Union is looked at. The report makes a suggestion for a future target scenario and elaborates three possible ways to met these targets: regulations on fuel-consumption, a bonus/malus system and tradable certificates. For each of the proposed instruments, the report examines implementation variants and discusses the means for their implementation. The report presents the best models for each of the implementation-variants on the basis of comparisons and the results of evaluations of their effects. For these chosen variants, the authors present comparisons of their effect on fuel consumption in graphical form and recommend tradable certificates as the best instrument.

  10. An Efficient Two-Objective Hybrid Local Search Algorithm for Solving the Fuel Consumption Vehicle Routing Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weizhen Rao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The classical model of vehicle routing problem (VRP generally minimizes either the total vehicle travelling distance or the total number of dispatched vehicles. Due to the increased importance of environmental sustainability, one variant of VRPs that minimizes the total vehicle fuel consumption has gained much attention. The resulting fuel consumption VRP (FCVRP becomes increasingly important yet difficult. We present a mixed integer programming model for the FCVRP, and fuel consumption is measured through the degree of road gradient. Complexity analysis of FCVRP is presented through analogy with the capacitated VRP. To tackle the FCVRP’s computational intractability, we propose an efficient two-objective hybrid local search algorithm (TOHLS. TOHLS is based on a hybrid local search algorithm (HLS that is also used to solve FCVRP. Based on the Golden CVRP benchmarks, 60 FCVRP instances are generated and tested. Finally, the computational results show that the proposed TOHLS significantly outperforms the HLS.

  11. Exploratory Design of a Reactor/Fuel Cycle Using Spent Nuclear Fuel Without Conventional Reprocessing - 13579

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertch, Timothy C.; Schleicher, Robert W.; Rawls, John D. [General Atomics 3550 General Atomics Court San Diego, CA 92130 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    General Atomics has started design of a waste to energy nuclear reactor (EM2) that can use light water reactor (LWR) spent nuclear fuel (SNF). This effort addresses two problems: using an advanced small reactor with long core life to reduce nuclear energy overnight cost and providing a disposal path for LWR SNF. LWR SNF is re-fabricated into new EM2 fuel using a dry voloxidation process modeled on AIROX/ OREOX processes which remove some of the fission products but no heavy metals. By not removing all of the fission products the fuel remains self-protecting. By not separating heavy metals, the process remains proliferation resistant. Implementation of Energy Multiplier Module (EM2) fuel cycle will provide low cost nuclear energy while providing a long term LWR SNF disposition path which is important for LWR waste confidence. With LWR waste confidence recent impacts on reactor licensing, an alternate disposition path is highly relevant. Centered on a reactor operating at 250 MWe, the compact electricity generating system design maximizes site flexibility with truck transport of all system components and available dry cooling features that removes the need to be located near a body of water. A high temperature system using helium coolant, electricity is efficiently produced using an asynchronous high-speed gas turbine while the LWR SNF is converted to fission products. Reactor design features such as vented fuel and silicon carbide cladding support reactor operation for decades between refueling, with improved fuel utilization. Beyond the reactor, the fuel cycle is designed so that subsequent generations of EM2 reactor fuel will use the previous EM2 discharge, providing its own waste confidence plus eliminating the need for enrichment after the first generation. Additional LWR SNF is added at each re-fabrication to replace the removed fission products. The fuel cycle uses a dry voloxidation process for both the initial LWR SNF re-fabrication and later for EM2

  12. The Pneumatic Hybrid Vehicle - A New Concept for Fuel Consumption Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trajkovic, Sasa

    2010-07-01

    Urban traffic involves frequent acceleration and deceleration. During deceleration, the energy previously used to accelerate the vehicle is mainly wasted on heat generated by the friction brakes. If this energy that is wasted in traditional internal combustion engines (ICE) could be saved, the fuel economy would improve. Today there are several solutions to meet the demand for better fuel economy and one of them is the pneumatic hybrids. The idea with pneumatic hybridization is to reduce the fuel consumption by taking advantage of the, otherwise lost, brake energy. In the work presented in this study heavy duty Scania engines were converted to operate as pneumatic hybrid engines. During pneumatic hybrid operation the engine can be used as a 2-stroke compressor for generation of compressed air during vehicle deceleration (compressor mode) and during vehicle acceleration the engine can be operated as an air-motor driven by the previously stored pressurized air (air-motor mode). The compressed air is stored in a pressure tank connected to one of the inlet ports. One of the engine inlet valves has been modified to work as a tank valve in order to control the pressurized air flow to and from the pressure tank. In order to switch between different modes of engine operation there is a need for a fully variable valve actuation (FVVA) system. The engines used in this study are equipped with pneumatic valve actuators that use compressed air in order to drive the valves and the motion of the valves is controlled by a combination of electronics and hydraulics. Initial testing concerning the different pneumatic hybrid engine modes of operation was conducted. Both compressor mode (CM) and air-motor mode (AM) were executed successfully. Optimization of CM and AM with regards to valve timing and valve geometry has been done with great improvements in regenerative efficiency which is defined as the ratio between the energy extracted during AM and the energy consumed during CM. A

  13. In-core materials testing under LWR conditions in the Halden reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, P.J.; Hauso, E.; Hoegberg, N.W.; Karlsen, T.M.; McGrath, M.A. [OECD Halden Reactor Project (Norway)

    2002-07-01

    The Halden boiling water reactor (HBWR) has been in operation since 1958. It is a test reactor with a maximum power of 18 MW and is cooled and moderated by boiling heavy water, with a normal operating temperature of 230 C and a pressure of 34 bar. In the past 15 years increasing emphasis has been placed on materials testing, both of in-core structural materials and fuel claddings. These tests require representative light water reactor (LWR) conditions, which are achieved by housing the test rigs in pressure flasks that are positioned in fuel channels in the reactor and connected to dedicated water loops, in which boiling water reactor (BWR) or pressurised water reactor (PWR) conditions are simulated. Understanding of the in-core behaviour of fuel or reactor materials can be greatly improved by on-line measurements during power operation. The Halden Project has performed in-pile measurements for a period of over 35 years, beginning with fuel temperature measurements using thermocouples and use of differential transformers for measurement of fuel pellet or cladding dimensional changes and internal rod pressure. Experience gained over this period has been applied to on-line instrumentation for use in materials tests. This paper gives details of the systems used at Halden for materials testing under LWR conditions. The techniques used to provide on-line data are described and illustrative results are presented. (authors)

  14. ANALISYS OF THE EFFICENCY OF THE SOURCES OF ELECTRIC AND THERMAL ENERGY IN VIEW OF SPECIFIC FUEL CONSUMPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Postolaty V.M.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Methodological approach to the evaluation of specific energy consumption of the primary fuel for electricity and heat for the various types of power plants is designed. Method of reduction electrical energy to a thermal unit is offered. Analysis of changes specific energy consumption for different shares of electric and heat energy in the total production of energy is held. Advantages of combined cycle power plants are shown.

  15. Estimation of NOx Emission from Fossil Fuel Consumption in China for the Period 1980-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the largest consumer of fossil fuel, China NOx emission from energy consumption has become a hotspot for studies. In this study, emission inventory was used to analysis the historical variation of NOx emission in china for the period 1980 to 2012. Results indicate that NOx mission of China has increased from 446.45 × 104t to 2499.72 × 104t during 1980-2012, electricity, industry and transportation was the main contributor and NOx emission has increased from 145.04 × 104t, 206.75 × 104t, 39.44 × 104t to 1311.6 × 104t, 479.46 × 104t, 576.31 × 104t respectively; from the spatial pattern, high total NOx emission with mainly concentrated in the north of China and the high emission intensity mainly concentrate in eastern China.

  16. Improvement of fuel consumption and maintenance of heating furnaces using a modified heating pattern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hsun-Heng Tsai; Shiuh-Ming Chang

    2007-01-01

    This article studies the transient heat conduction in a slab when passing through various sections of the furnace,and focuses on the thickness of the scale layer formed on the slab.The transient heat conduction behavior ora slab in various sections of the heating furnace is analyzed using the Laplace transformation method,including the pre-heating zone,the first heating zone,the second heating zone,and the soaking zone.The heating pattern of the furnace is then modified to reduce fuel consumption.The simulation results show that the scale layer formed on the slab significantly influences the quality of the hot rolled coil formed,and how the furnace parameters affect the efficiency of the furnace and the quality of the coil.

  17. Reduction of fuel consumption in gasoline engines by introducing HHO gas into intake manifold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Rousan, Ammar A. (Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Mutah University, Mutah, Al-Karak 61710 Jordan)

    2010-12-15

    Brown's gas (HHO) has recently been introduced to the auto industry as a new source of energy. The present work proposes the design of a new device attached to the engine to integrate an HHO production system with the gasoline engine. The proposed HHO generating device is compact and can be installed in the engine compartment. This auxiliary device was designed, constructed, integrated and tested on a gasoline engine. Test experiments were conducted on a 197cc (Honda G 200) single-cylinder engine. The outcome shows that the optimal surface area of an electrolyte needed to generate sufficient amount of HHO is twenty times that of the piston surface area. Also, the volume of water needed in the cell is about one and half times that of the engine capacity. Eventually, the goals of the integration are: a 20-30% reduction in fuel consumption, lower exhaust temperature, and consequently a reduction in pollution. (author)

  18. Multilevel transport solution of LWR reactor cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jose Ignacio Marquez Damian; Cassiano R.E. de Oliveira; HyeonKae Park

    2008-09-01

    This work presents a multilevel approach for the solution of the transport equation in typical LWR assemblies and core configurations. It is based on the second-order, even-parity formulation of the transport equation, which is solved within the framework provided by the finite element-spherical harmonics code EVENT. The performance of the new solver has been compared with that of the standard conjugate gradient solver for diffusion and transport problems on structured and unstruc-tured grids. Numerical results demonstrate the potential of the multilevel scheme for realistic reactor calculations.

  19. Evaluation of fuel consumption potential of medium and heavy duty vehicles through modeling and simulation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delorme, A.; Karbowski, D.; Sharer, P.; Energy Systems

    2010-03-31

    The main objective of this report is to provide quantitative data to support the Committee in its task of establishing a report to support rulemaking on medium- and heavy-duty fuel efficiency improvement. In particular, it is of paramount importance for the Committee to base or illustrate their conclusions on established models and actual state-of-the art data. The simulations studies presented in the report have been defined and requested by the members of the National Academy committee to provide quantitative inputs to support their recommendations. As such, various technologies and usage scenarios were considered for several applications. One of the objective is to provide the results along with their associated assumptions (both vehicle and drive cycles), information generally missing from public discussions on literature search. Finally, the advantages and limitations of using simulation will be summarized. The study addresses several of the committee tasks, including: (1) Discussion of the implication of metric selection; (2) Assessing the impact of existing technologies on fuel consumption through energy balance analysis (both steady-state and standard cycles) as well as real world drive cycles; and (3) Impact of future technologies, both individually and collectively.

  20. Contactless Electric Igniter for Vehicle to Lower Exhaust Emission and Fuel Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Lung Shen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An electric igniter for engine/hybrid vehicles is presented. The igniter comprises a flyback converter, a voltage-stacked capacitor, a PIC-based controller, a differential voltage detector, and an ignition coil, of which structure is non-contact type. Since the electric igniter adopts a capacitor to accumulate energy for engine ignition instead of traditional contacttype approach, it enhances the igniting performance of a spark plug effectively. As a result, combustion efficiency is promoted, fuel consumption is saved, and exhaust emission is reduced. The igniter not only is good for fuel efficiency but also can reduce HC and CO emission significantly, which therefore is an environmentally friendly product. The control core of the igniter is implemented on a single chip, which lowers discrete component count, reduces system volume, and increases reliability. In addition, the ignition timing can be programmed so that a timing regulator can be removed from the proposed system, simplifying its structure. To verify the feasibility and functionality of the igniter, key waveforms are measured and real-car experiments are performed as well.

  1. Investigation of effects of chemical dosing on fuel consumption in central heating systems with superheated water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilen, Kemal [Kirikkale University, Engineering Faculty, Mechanical Engineering Department, Kirikkale (Turkey); email: kemal.bilen92@gmail.com

    2011-07-01

    In Turkey, a significant percentage of energy is consumed by buildings and heating accounts for most of it. These is therefore a need to increase the efficiency of such systems. As a regional heating option, central heating systems with superheated water are preferred and chemical dosing of these systems has become prevalent in recent years. This study analyses the energy and exergy of a superheated water, central heating system operated on natural gas, on a university campus with a population of 15000 people, and investigates the effect of chemical dosing on their efficiencies. The study results showed that the average energy and exergy efficiencies of the system were 92.07% and 62.45%, respectively. The results also demonstrated that there was a 5.21% and 2.74% increase in hourly gas consumption when the dosing concentration was changed from 5 ppm to 101 ppm and 50 ppm to 101 ppm, respectively. It was concluded that for lower fuel consumption, chemical dosing should be avoided.

  2. Quantitative Effects of Vehicle Parameters on Fuel Consumption for Heavy-Duty Vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lijuan; Kelly, Kenneth; Walkowicz, Kevin; Duran, Adam

    2015-10-16

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Fleet Test and Evaluations team recently conducted chassis dynamometer tests of a class 8 conventional regional delivery truck over the Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT), West Virginia University City (WVU City), and Composite International Truck Local and Commuter Cycle (CILCC) drive cycles. A quantitative study was conducted by analyzing the impacts of various factors on fuel consumption (FC) and fuel economy (FE) by modeling and simulating the truck using NREL's Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator (FASTSim). Factors used in this study included vehicle weight, and the coefficients of rolling resistance and aerodynamic drag. The simulation results from a single parametric study revealed that FC was approximately a linear function of the weight, coefficient of aerodynamic drag, and rolling resistance over various drive cycles. Among these parameters, the truck weight had the largest effect on FC. The study of the impact of two technologies on FE suggested that, depending on the circumstances, it may be more cost effective to reduce one parameter (such as coefficient of aerodynamic drag) to increase fuel economy, or it may be more beneficial to reduce another (such as the coefficient of rolling resistance). It also provided a convenient way to estimate FE by interpolating within the parameter values and extrapolating outside of them. The simulation results indicated that the FC could be reduced from 38.70 L/100 km, 50.72 L/100 km, and 38.42 L/100 km in the baseline truck to 26.78 L/100 km, 43.14 L/100 km and 29.84 L/100 km over the HHDDT, WVU City and CILCC drive cycles, respectively, when the U.S. Department of Energy's three targeted new technologies were applied simultaneously.

  3. Systems Analysis of an Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle Based on a Modified UREX+3c Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. R. Johnson; R. E. Best

    2009-12-28

    materials were produced and consumed in a fleet of 100 1,000 MWe LWRs and in FRs. The model also included recycle and reuse of extant inventories of spent LWR fuel. The results of the simulations allowed comparisons of the two fuel cycles from the standpoints of cost, non-proliferation, radiological health, wastes generated, and sustainability. Results of the research also provide insights regarding (i) multiple recycling of uranium and plutonium from spent MOX fuel in LWRs, (ii) costs and benefits of reenriching and reusing uranium from spent LWR fuel; (iii) effects of using uranium, plutonium, and minor actinides from LWR spent fuels to produce fuel for FRs; (iv) net rates of consumption (burning) in FRs of actinide elements produced in LWRs, and (v) ependencies of and interactions among the different systems of an advanced nuclear fuel cycle -- and the flows of nuclear materials between these systems.

  4. Determination of Fuel Consumption Indexes of Co-generation Combined Cycle Steam and Gas Units with unfired waste heat boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Kachan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the developed methodology and the results of determination of fuel consumption indexes of co-generation combined cycle steam and gas units (PGU with unfired waste heat boilers apply to PGU-230 of 3-d co-generation power plant ofMinsk. 

  5. Test methods for evaluating energy consumption and emissions of vehicles with electric, hybrid and fuel cell power trains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smokers, R.T.M.; Ploumen, S.; Conte, M.; Buning, L.; Meier-Engel, K.

    2000-01-01

    As part of the MATADOR-project measurement methods have been developed for the evaluation of the energy consumption and emissions of vehicles with advanced propulsion systems, such as battery-electric, hybrid electric and fuel cell vehicles. Based on an inventory of existing and prospective standard

  6. Test methods for evaluating energy consumption and emissions of vehicles with electric, hybrid and fuel cell power trains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smokers, R.T.M.; Ploumen, S.; Conte, M.; Buning, L.; Meier-Engel, K.

    2000-01-01

    As part of the MATADOR-project measurement methods have been developed for the evaluation of the energy consumption and emissions of vehicles with advanced propulsion systems, such as battery-electric, hybrid electric and fuel cell vehicles. Based on an inventory of existing and prospective standard

  7. MATPRO: a handbook of materials properties for use in the analysis of light water reactor fuel rod behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, P.E.; Thompson, L.B. (eds.)

    1976-02-01

    This handbook describes the materials properties correlations and computer subcodes (MATPRO) developed for use with various LWR fuel rod behavior analytical programs at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Documentation and formulations that are generally semiempirical in nature are presented for uranium dioxide and mixed uranium-plutonium dioxide fuel, zircaloy cladding, gas mixture, and LWR fuel rod material properties.

  8. Comparison and Impact of Waste Heat Recovery Technologies on Passenger Car Fuel Consumption in a Normalized Driving Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Legros Arnaud

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article was to compare different waste heat recovery system technologies designed for automotive applications. A complete literature review is done and results in two comparative graphs. In the second part, simulation models are built and calibrated in order to assess the fuel consumption reduction that can be achieved on a real driving cycle. The strength of this article is that the models are calibrated using actual data. Finally, those simulations results are analyzed and the Rankine cycle and turbocompound are the two most profitable solutions. However the simulations of the turbocompound shows its limitations because the impact on the exhaust pressure drop is not taken into account in the assessment of the car fuel consumption. Fuel reduction of up to 6% could be achieved, depending on the driving cycle and the waste heat recovery technology.

  9. Household fuel consumption and resource use in rural-urban Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebreegziabher, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: biofuels; land degradation; technology adoption; fuel-savings efficiency; stove R&D; household and community tree investments; fuelwood availability; animal dung; biogas; urban fuel demand; rural hinterlands; northern Ethiopia.   Fuel scarcity and land degradation are intertwin

  10. Household fuel consumption and resource use in rural-urban Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebreegziabher, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: biofuels; land degradation; technology adoption; fuel-savings efficiency; stove R&D; household and community tree investments; fuelwood availability; animal dung; biogas; urban fuel demand; rural hinterlands; northern Ethiopia.   Fuel scarcity and land degradation are intertwin

  11. Survey of LWR environmental control technology performance and cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeb, C.M.; Aaberg, R.L.; Cole, B.M.; Engel, R.L.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Lewallen, M.A.

    1980-03-01

    This study attempts to establish a ranking for species that are routinely released to the environment for a projected nuclear power growth scenario. Unlike comparisons made to existing standards, which are subject to frequent revision, the ranking of releases can be used to form a more logical basis for identifying the areas where further development of control technology could be required. This report describes projections of releases for several fuel cycle scenarios, identifies areas where alternative control technologies may be implemented, and discusses the available alternative control technologies. The release factors were used in a computer code system called ENFORM, which calculates the annual release of any species from any part of the LWR nuclear fuel cycle given a projection of installed nuclear generation capacity. This survey of fuel cycle releases was performed for three reprocessing scenarios (stowaway, reprocessing without recycle of Pu and reprocessing with full recycle of U and Pu) for a 100-year period beginning in 1977. The radioactivity releases were ranked on the basis of a relative ranking factor. The relative ranking factor is based on the 100-year summation of the 50-year population dose commitment from an annual release of radioactive effluents. The nonradioactive releases were ranked on the basis of dilution factor. The twenty highest ranking radioactive releases were identified and each of these was analyzed in terms of the basis for calculating the release and a description of the currently employed control method. Alternative control technology is then discussed, along with the available capital and operating cost figures for alternative control methods.

  12. Optimization of Fuel Consumption and Emissions for Auxiliary Power Unit Based on Multi-Objective Optimization Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongpeng Shen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Auxiliary power units (APUs are widely used for electric power generation in various types of electric vehicles, improvements in fuel economy and emissions of these vehicles directly depend on the operating point of the APUs. In order to balance the conflicting goals of fuel consumption and emissions reduction in the process of operating point choice, the APU operating point optimization problem is formulated as a constrained multi-objective optimization problem (CMOP firstly. The four competing objectives of this CMOP are fuel-electricity conversion cost, hydrocarbon (HC emissions, carbon monoxide (CO emissions and nitric oxide (NO x emissions. Then, the multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO algorithm and weighted metric decision making method are employed to solve the APU operating point multi-objective optimization model. Finally, bench experiments under New European driving cycle (NEDC, Federal test procedure (FTP and high way fuel economy test (HWFET driving cycles show that, compared with the results of the traditional fuel consumption single-objective optimization approach, the proposed multi-objective optimization approach shows significant improvements in emissions performance, at the expense of a slight drop in fuel efficiency.

  13. The Utility of Fire Radiative Energy for Understanding Fuel Consumption due to Wildfire in Boreal Peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banskota, A.; Falkowski, M. J.; Kane, E. S.; Smith, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    Radiative energy from active fire has been found to correlate well with the amount of fuel consumed during the lifetime of a fire event. Fire radiative power (FRP) detected by sensors onboard MODIS satellites may therefore provide direct estimates of CO2 emissions related to biomass burning. Less known is the ability of satellite data to detect active fire from predominantly smoldering burns in boreal peatlands. Boreal peatlands store a large amount of soil carbon that is likely to become increasingly vulnerable to wildfire as climate change lowers water tables and exposes C-rich peat to burning. In this study, we investigate the utility of fire radiative energy (FRE) to estimate fuel consumption associated with wildfire in 2004 in boreal peatlands in Alaska. FRE values are generally estimated from FRP retrieved at detected active fire locations and times by summing the FRP values multiplied by the time difference between acquisitions. One central issue in deriving reliable FRE estimates by such approach is the requirement for sufficient sampling of the FRP to capture spatiotemporal variability in the fire. Our preliminary analysis confirms that the detection of active fire in peatlands are indeed not spatially exhaustive and temporally continuous. Thus we are further investigating the fusion of instantaneous FRP from MODIS active fire detection with the MODIS burned area product to derive FRE estimates across the burned area. We are following a previously tested strategy for such fusion for temporal integration of instantaneous FRP to derive FRE and spatial extrapolation of FRE over the burned area. The FRE estimates are then related to ground-measured peatland burn depths across different wildfire locations. The results of this study will ultimately indicate the utility of MODIS fire products for providing reliable biomass burned estimates in boreal peatlands.

  14. An unusual way of looking at the fuel consumption of passenger cars; Einige unkonventionelle Betrachtungen zum Kraftstoffverbrauch von PKW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tschoeke, H.; Heinze, H.E. [Magdeburg Univ. (DE). Inst. fuer Maschinenmesstechnik und Kolbenmaschinen (IMKO)

    2001-07-01

    Conventionally, fuel consumption of cars is given as consumption of volume or mass per distance or as consumption of energy, depending on the objectives. Drivers are mainly interested in fuel consumption in liter per 100 km, while engineers often take the specific consumption values based on energy into account. A Diesel engine has an advantage of consumption, referring to the volume, of approximately 14% compared to an Otto engine with the same consumption of energy. The higher density of Diesel fuel compared with its volume causes a higher emission of CO{sub 2} of approximately 10% more on a basis of a usual consumption of 7 to 9 liter per 100 km. A more careful consideration on consumption maps of internal combustion engines shows that focusing the minimal specific consumption of fuel is not sufficient to estimate the efficiency of drive unit. A new method of evaluation is proposed in a simple and comprehensible way. Out of the whole area of the characteristic diagram this part is taken out, that refers to an additional consumption of 10 to 20%. This is compared to the minimal consumption of the engine and used as an evaluation parameter. This method shows that engines with the same minimal specific consumption of fuel have a different 'quality of consumption'. To carry out a so called '1- to 2-liter-car' considerable improvements regarding air resistance, rolling resistance, drive efficiency and mass are necessary. The target values are defined by means of simple examples. Besides consumption and the number of persons or load carried, a new factor of mobility also considers the driving time, which is important for characterizing mobility. Coach and ICE trains show most reasonable factors of mobility in short- and medium-distance traffic (up to 300 km). (orig.) [German] Der Kraftstoffverbrauch eines Kraftfahrzeuges war schon immer ein wichtiges Kriterium fuer die Beurteilung der Effizienz des Verbrennungsmotors, der Konzeption des Fahrzeuges

  15. A Linear Model for the Estimation of Fuel Consumption and the Impact Evaluation of Advanced Driving Assistance Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennaro Nicola Bifulco

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Reduction of the environmental impact of cars represents one of the biggest transport industry challenges. Beyond more efficient engines, a promising approach is to use eco-driving technologies that help drivers achieve lower fuel consumption and emission levels. In this study, a real-time microscopic fuel consumption model was developed. It was designed to be integrated into simulation platforms for the design and testing of Advanced Driving Assistance Systems (ADAS, aimed at keeping the vehicle within the environmentally friendly driving zone and hence reducing harmful exhaust gases. To allow integration in platforms employed at early stages of ADAS development and testing, the model was kept very simple and dependent on a few easily computable variables. To show the feasibility of the identification of the model (and to validate it, a large experiment involving more than 100 drivers and about 8000 km of driving was carried out using an instrumented vehicle. An instantaneous model was identified based on vehicle speed, acceleration level and gas pedal excursion, applicable in an extra-urban traffic context. Both instantaneous and aggregate validation was performed and the model was shown to estimate vehicle fuel consumption consistently with in-field instantaneous measurements. Very accurate estimations were also shown for the aggregate consumption of each driving session.

  16. Household level domestic fuel consumption and forest resource in relation to agroforestry adoption: Evidence against need-based approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sood, Kamal Kishor [Division of Agroforestry, Shere-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu Main Campus-Chatha, Jammu (J and K) 180 009 (India); Mitchell, C. Paul [Institute of Energy Technologies, Fraser Noble Building, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 3UE (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    The need-based approach (assuming that higher consumption of tree products would motivate farmers to adopt agroforestry) has led to uneven success, in many cases failure, of many agroforestry projects. Current study investigated the association between fuelwood and forest resource use, and agroforestry adoption based on a survey of 401 households in the Indian Western Himalaya. Data on household domestic fuel utilisation and forest resource use were collected using a questionnaire in personal interviews. Agroforestry adoption increased significantly with increase in distance of nearest State forest from the house, distance travelled to collect fuelwood, and consumption of cattle dung, crop residues, charcoal, kerosene and liquid petroleum gas as domestic fuels by the household. Agroforestry adoption was also significantly higher in households with non-forest than those with State forests as primary source of fuelwood and timber. The proportion of adopters decreased significantly with increase in quantity of fuelwood used for domestic consumption, frequency of collection from State forests, total domestic energy consumption, fuelwood dependency, timber consumption and availability of timber through rights of households on State forests. Logistic regression analysis revealed that none of the factors related to need (quantity of fuelwood and timber used) appeared in the model but primary source of fuelwood, distance travelled to collect fuelwood and availability of timber through rights on the State forests appeared as important factors. This implies that need of the tree products is not a necessary condition to motivate farmers to adopt agroforestry, rather, it is accessibility of tree products which influence agroforestry adoption. (author)

  17. Influences of vehicles’ fuel consumption and exhaust emissions on the trip cost without late arrival under car-following model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tie-Qiao; Yu, Qiang

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we use car-following model to explore the influences of the vehicle’s fuel consumption and exhaust emissions on each commuter’s trip cost without late arrival on one open road. Our results illustrate that considering the vehicle’s fuel cost and emission cost only enhances each commuter’s trip cost and the system’s total cost, but has no prominent impacts on his optimal time headway at the origin of each open road under the minimum total cost.

  18. The Influence on Exhaust Gas Components and Fuel Consumption of Injection of Concentrated NOx into Diesel Engine Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Keiichiro; Kuwahara, Takuya; Kuroki, Tomoyuki; Okubo, Masaaki

    The authors inject NO into a diesel engine intake and investigate the reduction of NOx generation at the combustion chamber at first. The result shows that 20 - 30% of the injected NO (0.225 ∼ 0.72 slm) is reduced. Discussion through the calculation of the extended Zeldovich mechanism suggests that the reduction is mainly attributed to the region where equivalence ratio ranges in 1.1 - 1.5 and that the reaction between NO and hydrocarbon species slightly contributes to the NO reduction. Moreover, another experimental result shows that the injection of NO slightly improves specific fuel consumption, e.g. 0.4% at NO injection of 0.72 slm for intake airflow of 285 slm. Calculation of reaction enthalpy of NO reduction and CO oxidation considerably meets the experimental results on the change in fuel consumption.

  19. Gasoline prices, gasoline consumption, and new-vehicle fuel economy: Evidence for a large sample of countries

    OpenAIRE

    Paul J Burke; Shuhei Nishitateno

    2011-01-01

    Countries differ considerably in terms of the price drivers pay for gasoline. This paper uses data for a large sample of countries to provide new evidence on the implications of these differences for the consumption of gasoline for road transport and the fuel economy of new vehicles. To address the potential for simultaneity bias in ordinary least squares estimation, we use a country's oil reserves as an instrument for its average gasoline pump price. We obtain estimates of the long-run price...

  20. Rational schemes of control of aviation fuel quality in the places of its consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. М. Кулишенко

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Considered is aviation fuel quality corresponding to normatives of standard. Determined are the optimal correlation between the expenditure and the results of the analysis of fuel quality control

  1. Alternative Fuel Vehicle Adoption Increases Fleet Gasoline Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions under United States Corporate Average Fuel Economy Policy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenn, Alan; Azevedo, Inês M L; Michalek, Jeremy J

    2016-03-01

    The United States Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emission standards are designed to reduce petroleum consumption and GHG emissions from light-duty passenger vehicles. They do so by requiring automakers to meet aggregate criteria for fleet fuel efficiency and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission rates. Several incentives for manufacturers to sell alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) have been introduced in recent updates of CAFE/GHG policy for vehicles sold from 2012 through 2025 to help encourage a fleet technology transition. These incentives allow automakers that sell AFVs to meet less-stringent fleet efficiency targets, resulting in increased fleet-wide gasoline consumption and emissions. We derive a closed-form expression to quantify these effects. We find that each time an AFV is sold in place of a conventional vehicle, fleet emissions increase by 0 to 60 t of CO2 and gasoline consumption increases by 0 to 7000 gallons (26,000 L), depending on the AFV and year of sale. Using projections for vehicles sold from 2012 to 2025 from the Energy Information Administration, we estimate that the CAFE/GHG AFV incentives lead to a cumulative increase of 30 to 70 million metric tons of CO2 and 3 to 8 billion gallons (11 to 30 billion liters) of gasoline consumed over the vehicles' lifetimes - the largest share of which is due to legacy GHG flex-fuel vehicle credits that expire in 2016. These effects may be 30-40% larger in practice than we estimate here due to optimistic laboratory vehicle efficiency tests used in policy compliance calculations.

  2. TILLAGE EFFECTS ON SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS, L. EMERGENCE, YIELD, QUALITY, AND FUEL CONSUMPTION IN DOUBLE CROPPING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDULLAH SESSIZ

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The relation between crop growing and soil tillage treatment are play important role in agricultural production. Soils under conventional tillage (CT generally have lower bulk density and associated higher total porosity within the plough layer than under no tillage (NT. No-till farming can reduce soil erosion, conserve soil moisture and minimize labor and fuel consumption. The aim of this study were to investigate the effects of conventional, reduced and notillage methods on soil physical properties, sunfl ower yield and yield components, protein and oil content and fuel consumption in Southeastern of Turkey. Six tillage methods for the second crop sunfl ower were tested and compared each other within after lentil harvesting at 2003 and 2004 years in a clay loam soil. According to results, the fi rst year, the bulk density had decreased from 1.29 to 1.09 g cm-3, the second year the δb had decreased from 1.41 to 1.23 g cm-3. Differences between years and tillage methods in terms of yield were found signifi cant (p<0.05. However, no differences were found between the NT and CT. There were also no signifi cance differences in content of protein, oil and ash among six tillage methods. The highest fuel consumption was measured in conventional method (CT whereas the lowest value was found in direct seeding method as 33.48 L ha-1 and 6.6 L ha-1, respectively.

  3. A Cooperative Traffic Control of Vehicle–Intersection (CTCVI) for the Reduction of Traffic Delays and Fuel Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinjian; Dridi, Mahjoub; El-Moudni, Abdellah

    2016-01-01

    The problem of reducing traffic delays and decreasing fuel consumption simultaneously in a network of intersections without traffic lights is solved by a cooperative traffic control algorithm, where the cooperation is executed based on the connection of Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I). This resolution of the problem contains two main steps. The first step concerns the itinerary of which intersections are chosen by vehicles to arrive at their destination from their starting point. Based on the principle of minimal travel distance, each vehicle chooses its itinerary dynamically based on the traffic loads in the adjacent intersections. The second step is related to the following proposed cooperative procedures to allow vehicles to pass through each intersection rapidly and economically: on one hand, according to the real-time information sent by vehicles via V2I in the edge of the communication zone, each intersection applies Dynamic Programming (DP) to cooperatively optimize the vehicle passing sequence with minimal traffic delays so that the vehicles may rapidly pass the intersection under the relevant safety constraints; on the other hand, after receiving this sequence, each vehicle finds the optimal speed profiles with the minimal fuel consumption by an exhaustive search. The simulation results reveal that the proposed algorithm can significantly reduce both travel delays and fuel consumption compared with other papers under different traffic volumes. PMID:27999333

  4. A Cooperative Traffic Control of Vehicle-Intersection (CTCVI) for the Reduction of Traffic Delays and Fuel Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinjian; Dridi, Mahjoub; El-Moudni, Abdellah

    2016-12-17

    The problem of reducing traffic delays and decreasing fuel consumption simultaneously in a network of intersections without traffic lights is solved by a cooperative traffic control algorithm, where the cooperation is executed based on the connection of Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I). This resolution of the problem contains two main steps. The first step concerns the itinerary of which intersections are chosen by vehicles to arrive at their destination from their starting point. Based on the principle of minimal travel distance, each vehicle chooses its itinerary dynamically based on the traffic loads in the adjacent intersections. The second step is related to the following proposed cooperative procedures to allow vehicles to pass through each intersection rapidly and economically: on one hand, according to the real-time information sent by vehicles via V2I in the edge of the communication zone, each intersection applies Dynamic Programming (DP) to cooperatively optimize the vehicle passing sequence with minimal traffic delays so that the vehicles may rapidly pass the intersection under the relevant safety constraints; on the other hand, after receiving this sequence, each vehicle finds the optimal speed profiles with the minimal fuel consumption by an exhaustive search. The simulation results reveal that the proposed algorithm can significantly reduce both travel delays and fuel consumption compared with other papers under different traffic volumes.

  5. Optimizing the Fuel Consumption and Providing the Environmental Indicators in Green Architecture by using the Exergy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Bahmn

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the reduced consumption of fossil fuels which lead to the environmental pollution, high costs and intensified fuel crisis in global markets. This research is applied based on the objective, has a type of library research and is among the survey research based on the method. The method of library studies with the document branch is applied in order to collect the required¬ data; and the information related to the variables of research is extracted by referring to the scientific sources and accessible documents of relevant organizations. Providing the consumed electric power in this article has been classified into three sections of manufacturing, distribution and consumption. As noted in the theoretical studies, the library studies and review of Ministry of Energy statistics indicate that about 80% of fuel of industry sector is consumed in power plants and refineries and the power plants play the highest role in the environmental pollution after the transportation sector. Therefore, by using the exergy and pinch technologies and developing the thermodynamic laws, it has been tried to provide the computational methods to reduce the energy consumption.

  6. Modeling Heavy/Medium-Duty Fuel Consumption Based on Drive Cycle Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lijuan; Duran, Adam; Gonder, Jeffrey; Kelly, Kenneth

    2015-10-13

    This paper presents multiple methods for predicting heavy/medium-duty vehicle fuel consumption based on driving cycle information. A polynomial model, a black box artificial neural net model, a polynomial neural network model, and a multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) model were developed and verified using data collected from chassis testing performed on a parcel delivery diesel truck operating over the Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT), City Suburban Heavy Vehicle Cycle (CSHVC), New York Composite Cycle (NYCC), and hydraulic hybrid vehicle (HHV) drive cycles. Each model was trained using one of four drive cycles as a training cycle and the other three as testing cycles. By comparing the training and testing results, a representative training cycle was chosen and used to further tune each method. HHDDT as the training cycle gave the best predictive results, because HHDDT contains a variety of drive characteristics, such as high speed, acceleration, idling, and deceleration. Among the four model approaches, MARS gave the best predictive performance, with an average absolute percent error of -1.84% over the four chassis dynamometer drive cycles. To further evaluate the accuracy of the predictive models, the approaches were first applied to real-world data. MARS outperformed the other three approaches, providing an average absolute percent error of -2.2% of four real-world road segments. The MARS model performance was then compared to HHDDT, CSHVC, NYCC, and HHV drive cycles with the performance from Future Automotive System Technology Simulator (FASTSim). The results indicated that the MARS method achieved a comparative predictive performance with FASTSim.

  7. Powertrain management in sports cars in order to reduce fuel consumption; Antriebsmanagement bei Sportfahrzeugen zur Reduzierung des Kraftstoffverbrauchs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiegel, L.; Kerkau, M.; Bofinger, G.; Mueller, S.; Meier, R.; Neusser, H.J. [Dr. Ing. h.c. F. Porsche AG, Weissach (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    In current sports car development - where fuel efficiency has always played a predominant role - one of the central targets is the reduction of fuel consumption. In order to maximize the benefits of improved fuel economy it is necessary to consistently optimize many of the known parameters and have them controlled by a corresponding Powertrain Management System. This presentation explains Porsche's layout philosophy and outlines the technologies used to implement a Powertrain Management specifically designed for application in sports cars. This Powertrain Management System coordinates the chosen technologies and combines them into an efficient drive system. The driver is given the possibility of making his choice between a regular program and a sports option. Further, this presentation describes a Thermal Management System meant to optimize engine warm-up as well as the part-load and full-load modes while giving consideration to the specific requirements of sports car operation. It also deals in great detail with the inherent potential of an idle stop system and its integration into the car, which is rather complicated. In addition, this paper looks into adaptive shift strategies for automatic transmissions with the aim of automatically selecting performance-oriented shift points tuned for optimum fuel consumption values. (orig.)

  8. Projections of motor vehicle growth, fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions for the next thirty years in China.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, D.; Wang, M.

    2000-12-12

    Since the early 1990s, China's motor vehicles have entered a period of fast growth resultant from the rapid economic expansion. As the largest developing country, the fast growth of China's motor vehicles will have tremendous effects on the world's automotive and fuel market and on global CO{sub 2} emissions. In this study, we projected Chinese vehicle stocks for different vehicle types on the provincial level. First, we reviewed the historical data of China's vehicle growth in the past 10 years and the correlations between vehicle growth and economic growth in China. Second, we investigated historical vehicle growth trends in selected developed countries over the past 50 or so years. Third, we established a vehicle growth scenario based on the historical trends in several developed nations. Fourth, we estimated fuel economy, annual mileage and other vehicle usage parameters for Chinese vehicles. Finally, we projected vehicle stocks and estimated motor fuel use and CO{sub 2} emissions in each Chinese province from 2000 to 2030. Our results show that China will continue the rapid vehicle growth, increase gasoline and diesel consumption and increased CO{sub 2} emissions in the next 30 years. We estimated that by year 2030, Chinese motor vehicle fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions could reach the current US levels.

  9. Modeling studies of water consumption for transportation fuel options: Hawaii, US-48

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, C. W.; Webber, M. E.

    2011-12-01

    There are now major drivers to move from petroleum transportation: moving to low-carbon transport life cycles for climate change mitigation, fuel diversity to reduce reliance on imported oil, and economic concerns regarding the relatively high price of oil ( $100/barrel) and the resulting impact on discretionary income. Unfortunately many transportation fuel alternatives also have some environmental impacts, particularly with regard to water consumption and biodiversity. In this presentation we will discuss the water and energy sustainability struggle ongoing in Hawai'i on the island of Maui with a brief history and discussion of energy and water modeling scenarios. The vast majority of surface water on Maui is diverted via man-made ditches for irrigation on sugar cane plantations. Maui currently allocates between 250 and 300 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) of irrigation water for sugarcane cultivation each day, and it is likely that the island could support a biofuel-focused sugarcane plantation by shifting production focus from raw sugar to ethanol. However, future water availability is likely to be less than existing water availability because Maui is growing, more water is being reserved for environmental purposes, and precipitation levels are on decline for the past two decades and some expect this trend to continue. While Maui residents cannot control precipitation patterns, they can control the levels of increased requirements for instream flow in Maui's streams. The Hawaii State Commission on Water Resource Management (CWRM) sets instream flow standards, and choosing not to restore instream flow could have what many locals consider negative environmental and cultural impacts that must be weighed against the effects of reducing surface water availability for agriculture. Instream flow standards that reduce legal withdrawals for streams that supply irrigation water would reduce the amount of surface water available for biofuel crop irrigation. Environmental

  10. Quantitative Estimate of the Relation Between Rolling Resistance on Fuel Consumption of Class 8 Tractor Trailers Using Both New and Retreaded Tires (SAE Paper 2014-01-2425)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Road tests of class 8 tractor trailers were conducted by the US Environmental Protection Agency on new and retreaded tires of varying rolling resistance in order to provide estimates of the quantitative relationship between rolling resistance and fuel consumption.

  11. Common feature of concave growth pattern of oscillations in terms of speed, acceleration, fuel consumption and emission in car following: experiment and modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, Junfang; Treiber, Martin; Ma, Shoufeng; Jia, Bin; Zhang, Wenyi

    2016-01-01

    This paper has investigated the growth pattern of traffic oscillations by using vehicle trajectory data in a car following experiment. We measured the standard deviation of acceleration, emission and fuel consumption of each vehicle in the car-following platoon. We found that: (1) Similar to the standard deviation of speed, these indices exhibit a common feature of concave growth pattern along vehicles in the platoon; (2) The emission and fuel consumption of each vehicle decrease remarkably when the average speed of the platoon increases from low value; However, when reaches 30km/h, the change of emission and fuel consumption with is not so significant; (3), the correlations of emission and fuel consumption with both the standard deviation of acceleration and the speed oscillation are strong. Simulations show that with the memory effect of drivers taken into account, the improved two-dimensional intelligent driver model is able to reproduce the common feature of traffic oscillation evolution quite well.

  12. Life-Cycle Analyses of Energy Consumption and GHG Emissions of Natural Gas-Based Alternative Vehicle Fuels in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xunmin Ou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tsinghua life-cycle analysis model (TLCAM has been used to examine the primary fossil energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions for natural gas- (NG- based alternative vehicle fuels in China. The results show that (1 compress NG- and liquid NG-powered vehicles have similar well-to-wheels (WTW fossil energy uses to conventional gasoline- and diesel-fueled vehicles, but differences emerge with the distance of NG transportation. Additionally, thanks to NG having a lower carbon content than petroleum, CNG- and LNG-powered vehicles emit 10–20% and 5–10% less GHGs than gasoline- and diesel-fueled vehicles, respectively; (2 gas-to-liquid- (GTL- powered vehicles involve approximately 50% more WTW fossil energy uses than conventional gasoline- and diesel-fueled vehicles, primarily because of the low efficiency of GTL production. Nevertheless, since NG has a lower carbon content than petroleum, GTL-powered vehicles emit approximately 30% more GHGs than conventional-fuel vehicles; (3 The carbon emission intensity of the LNG energy chain is highly sensitive to the efficiency of NG liquefaction and the form of energy used in that process.

  13. 基于喷油脉宽测试法的汽车油耗智能测试技术%Automobile fuel consumption intelligent testing technology based on fuel injection pulse-width test method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付百学; 胡胜海

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid growth of automobile ownership in China, the control of automobile fuel consumption is not only an energy problem, but also an environmental one. The carbon balance method is a major, indirect way of testing the automobile fuel consumption with high precision, but the test equipment is expensive, bulky, and hard to move, and the demands of the test environment are high; the sampling connection needs sealing and connecting to the exhaust pipe, so its application is limited. The direct test method tests the automobile fuel consumption through measuring fuel volume and quality within a certain distance or time, and the engine oil circuit needs to be taken apart in order to put in the fuel consumption meter. This method is inconvenient, time-consuming, and poses a security risk, which affects the test precision. At present, the electronic fuel injection system (EFI) engine adopts a special EFI fuel consumption sensor to test automobile fuel consumption, or uses two sets of ordinary flow sensors. Its testing principle is roughly the same: They all concatenate engine oil flow sensors to fuel line of engine, they are complicated operations, and the signal lag of the sensor is greater. Because the fuel injection pressure of the EFI engine is high, the amount of oil return is greater, and the oil temperature is higher, which may easily cause the return pipe of connection on the sensor to inflate and explode. Aiming at the existing problem of automobile fuel-consumption testing, using the single chip microcomputer control technology, we tested automobile fuel consumption through direct measurement of the fuel injection pulse width. We then developed an intelligent testing instrument for automobile fuel consumption. The injection pulse signal from the engine ECU is directly collected by the automobile fuel consumption test system. After it is filtered and embedded into single-chip microcomputer, the injector's cumulative injection time and the number of fuel

  14. A comparative study of hybrid electric vehicle fuel consumption over diverse driving cycles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Environmental pollution and declining resources of fossil fuels in recent years,have increased demand for better fuel economy and less pollution for ground transportation.Among the alternative solutions provided by researchers in recent decades,hybrid electric vehicles consisted of an internal combustion engine and an electric motor have been considered as a promising solution in the short-term.In the present study,fuel economy characteristics of a parallel hybrid electric vehicle are investigated by using ...

  15. A STUDY OF THE DISCREPANCY BETWEEN FEDERAL AND STATE MEASUREMENTS OF ON-HIGHWAY FUEL CONSUMPTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, HL

    2003-08-11

    Annual highway fuel taxes are collected by the Treasury Department and placed in the Highway Trust Fund (HTF). There is, however, no direct connection between the taxes collected by the Treasury Department and the gallons of on-highway fuel use, which can lead to a discrepancy between these totals. This study was conducted to determine how much of a discrepancy exists between the total fuel usages estimated based on highway revenue funds as reported by the Treasury Department and the total fuel usages used in the apportionment of the HTF to the States. The analysis was conducted using data from Highway Statistics Tables MF-27 and FE-9 for the years 1991-2001. It was found that the overall discrepancy is relatively small, mostly within 5% difference. The amount of the discrepancy varies from year to year and varies among the three fuel types (gasoline, gasohol, special fuels). Several potential explanations for these discrepancies were identified, including issues on data, tax measurement, gallon measurement, HTF receipts, and timing. Data anomalies caused by outside forces, such as deferment of tax payments from one fiscal year to the next, can skew fuel tax data. Fuel tax evasion can lead to differences between actual fuel use and fuel taxes collected. Furthermore, differences in data collection and reporting among States can impact fuel use data. Refunds, credits, and transfers from the HTF can impact the total fuel tax receipt data. Timing issues, such as calendar year vs. fiscal year, can also cause some discrepancy between the two data sources.

  16. EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF BRAKE THERMAL EFFICIENCY AND BRAKE SPECIFIC FUEL CONSUMPTION OF DIESEL ENGINE FUELLED WITH BIO-DIESEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SHIVA SHANKAR

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The rapid depletion in world petroleum reserves and uncertainty in petroleum supply due to political and economical reasons, as well as, the sharp escalations in the petroleum prices have stimulated the search for alternatives to petroleum fuels. The situation is very grave in developing countries like India which imports 70% of the required fuel, spending 30% of her total foreign exchange earnings on oil imports. Petroleum fuels are being consumed by agriculture and transport sector for which diesel engine happens to be the prime mover. Diesel fuelled vehicles discharge significant amount of pollutants like CO, HC, NOx, soot, lead compounds which are harmful to the universe. Though there are wide varieties of alternative fuels available, the research has not yet provided the right renewable fuel to replace diesel. Vegetable oils due to their properties being close to diesel fuel may be a promising alternative for its use in diesel engines. The high viscosity and low volatility are the major drawbacks of the use of vegetable oils in diesel engines. India is the second largest cotton producing country in the world today. The cotton seeds are available in India at cheaper price. Experiments were conducted on 5.2 BHP single cylinder four stroke water-cooled variable compression diesel engine. Methyl ester of cottonseed oil is blended with the commercially available Xtramile diesel. Cottonseed oil methyl ester (CSOME is blended in four different compositions varying from 10% to 40% in steps of 10 vol%. Using these four blends and Xtramile diesel brake thermal efficiency (BTE and brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC are determined at 17.5 compression ratio.

  17. Study of the potential uses of the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-25

    The purpose of this study is to provide an evaluation of possible international and domestic uses for the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant, located in South Carolina, at the conclusion of the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation. Four generic categories of use options for the Barnwell plant have been considered: storage of spent LWR fuel; reprocessing of LWR spent fuel; safeguards development and training; and non-use. Chapters are devoted to institutional options and integrated institutional-use options.

  18. Preliminary concepts: coordinated safeguards for materials management in a thorium--uranium fuel reprocessing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakkila, E.A.; Barnes, J.W.; Dayem, H.A.; Dietz, R.J.; Shipley, J.P.

    1978-10-01

    This report addresses preliminary concepts for coordinated safeguards materials management in a typical generic thorium--uranium-fueled light-water reactor (LWR) fuels reprocessing plant. The reference facility is designed to recover thorium and uranium from first-generation (denatured /sup 235/U) startup fuels, first-recycle and equilibrium (denatured /sup 233/U) thorium--uranium LWR fuels, and to recover the plutonium generated in the /sup 238/U denaturant as well. 12 figures, 3 tables.

  19. INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT SOIL TILLAGE SYSTEMS ON FUEL CONSUMPTION, LABOUR REQUIREMENT AND YIELD IN MAIZE AND WINTER WHEAT PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravko Filipović

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment with five different tillage systems and their influence on fuel consumption, labour requirement and yield of tested crops was carried out on Albic Luvisol in northwest Slavonia in the period of 1996.-2000. The compared tillage systems were: 1. conventional tillage system (CT, 2. reduced tillage system (RT, 3. conservation tillage system I (CP, 4. conservation tillage system II (CM, 5. no-tillage system (NT. The crop rotation was maize (Zea mays L. - winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. – maize – winter wheat. Comparing the fuel consumption to CT system, RT system consumed 6.8% less, CP system 12.1% less, CM system 27.4% less, while NT system consumed even 82.7% less fuel. The labour requirement showed that RT system saved 7.6%, while CP system required 21.8% less, CM system 38.6% less labour, respectively. NT system saved 81.7% of labour in comparison to CT system. The highest yield of maize in the first experimental year was achieved under CT system and the lowest under RT system. In all others experimental years the highest yield of winter wheat and maize was achieved under CM system, while the lowest under RT system.

  20. Multi-objective comprehensive optimization of fuel consumption and emission for hybrid electric vehicles 

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Han-bing; LIU Xiao-fei; HE Yi-tuan; PENG Zhi-yuan

    2014-01-01

    Aiming to reduce fuel consumption and emissions of a dual-clutch hybrid electric vehicle during cold start, multi-objective optimization for fuel consumption and HC/CO emission from a TWC (three-way catalytic converter) outlet is presented in this paper. DP (dynamic programming) considering dual-state variables is proposed based on the Bellman optimality principle. Both the battery SOC (state of charge) and the temperature of TWC monolith are considered in the algorithm simultaneously. In this way the global optimal control strategy and the Pareto optimal solution of multi-objective function are derived. Simulation results show that the proposed method is able to promote the TWC light-off significantly by decreasing the engine’s load and improving exhaust temperature from the outlet of the engine, in comparison with original DP considering the single battery SOC. Compared to the results achieved by rule-based control strategy, fuel economy and emission of TWC outlet for cold start are optimized comprehensively. Each indicator of Pareto solution set shows the significant improvement.

  1. Hybrid-Electric Passenger Car Carbon Dioxide and Fuel Consumption Benefits Based on Real-World Driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmén, Britt A; Sentoff, Karen M

    2015-08-18

    Hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) have lower fuel consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions than conventional vehicles (CVs), on average, based on laboratory tests, but there is a paucity of real-world, on-road HEV emissions and performance data needed to assess energy use and emissions associated with real-world driving, including the effects of road grade. This need is especially great as the electrification of the passenger vehicle fleet (from HEVs to PHEVs to BEVs) increases in response to climate and energy concerns. We compared tailpipe CO2 emissions and fuel consumption of an HEV passenger car to a CV of the same make and model during real-world, on-the-road network driving to quantify the in-use benefit of one popular full HEV technology. Using vehicle specific power (VSP) assignments that account for measured road grade, the mean CV/HEV ratios of CO2 tailpipe emissions or fuel consumption defined the corresponding HEV "benefit" factor for each VSP class (1 kW/ton resolution). Averaging over all VSP classes for driving in all seasons, including temperatures from -13 to +35 °C in relatively steep (-13.2 to +11.5% grade), hilly terrain, mean (±SD) CO2 emission benefit factors were 4.5 ± 3.6, 2.5 ± 1.7, and 1.4 ± 0.5 for city, exurban/suburban arterial and highway driving, respectively. Benefit factor magnitude corresponded to the frequency of electric-drive-only (EDO) operation, which was modeled as a logarithmic function of VSP. A combined model explained 95% of the variance in HEV benefit for city, 75% for arterial and 57% for highway driving. Benefit factors consistently exceeded 2 for VSP classes with greater than 50% EDO (i.e., only city and arterial driving). The reported HEV benefits account for real-world road grade that is often neglected in regulatory emissions and fuel economy tests. Fuel use HEV benefit factors were 1.3 and 2 for the regulatory highway (HWFET) and city (FTP) cycles, respectively, 18% and 31% higher than the EPA adjusted

  2. The growth pattern and fuel life cycle analysis of the electricity consumption of Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, W M; Lai, T M; Lo, W C; Lam, K H; Chung, W L

    2012-06-01

    As the consumption of electricity increases, air pollutants from power generation increase. In metropolitans such as Hong Kong and other Asian cities, the surge of electricity consumption has been phenomenal over the past decades. This paper presents a historical review about electricity consumption, population, and change in economic structure in Hong Kong. It is hypothesized that the growth of electricity consumption and change in gross domestic product can be modeled by 4-parameter logistic functions. The accuracy of the functions was assessed by Pearson's correlation coefficient, mean absolute percent error, and root mean squared percent error. The paper also applies the life cycle approach to determine carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxide emissions for the electricity consumption of Hong Kong. Monte Carlo simulations were applied to determine the confidence intervals of pollutant emissions. The implications of importing more nuclear power are discussed.

  3. Identification of Federal Aviation Administration regulations and procedures that impact fuel consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mckinly, J.B.

    1979-10-01

    The impact of the Federal Aviation Regulations (FARs) on fuel conservation in the air-transportation system. To date there exist over 89 identifiable fuel-conservation program and research areas. Operational constraints in the areas of FARs and Air Traffic Control (ATC), which hinder further fuel savings in any of the 89 program and research areas, are identified. The nature of this investigation presents an update of analyses from previous FAA, DOE, and NASA publications from a DOE viewpoint. The short duration and cost constraints of this study did not allow an assessment of safety, social, or any of the broader impacts of the regulations. However, this study was not intended to solve all of the regulatory problems. Rather, this was a cursory review of the FARs intended to pinpoint those fuel inefficient regulations which could be changed to improve the overall fuel-conservation effort in the air transportation industry. The program and research areas identified as being negatively impacted by FARs were analyzed to quantify the fuel savings available through revision or removal of those constraints. A recommended list of new R and D initiatives are proposed in order to improve fuel efficiency of the FARs in the air-transportation industry.

  4. Fuel consumption and fire emissions estimates using Fire Radiative Power, burned area and statistical modelling on the fire event scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruecker, Gernot; Leimbach, David; Guenther, Felix; Barradas, Carol; Hoffmann, Anja

    2016-04-01

    Fire Radiative Power (FRP) retrieved by infrared sensors, such as flown on several polar orbiting and geostationary satellites, has been shown to be proportional to fuel consumption rates in vegetation fires, and hence the total radiative energy released by a fire (Fire Radiative Energy, FRE) is proportional to the total amount of biomass burned. However, due to the sparse temporal coverage of polar orbiting and the coarse spatial resolution of geostationary sensors, it is difficult to estimate fuel consumption for single fire events. Here we explore an approach for estimating FRE through temporal integration of MODIS FRP retrievals over MODIS-derived burned areas. Temporal integration is aided by statistical modelling to estimate missing observations using a generalized additive model (GAM) and taking advantage of additional information such as land cover and a global dataset of the Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI), as well as diurnal and annual FRP fluctuation patterns. Based on results from study areas located in savannah regions of Southern and Eastern Africa and Brazil, we compare this method to estimates based on simple temporal integration of FRP retrievals over the fire lifetime, and estimate the potential variability of FRP integration results across a range of fire sizes. We compare FRE-based fuel consumption against a database of field experiments in similar landscapes. Results show that for larger fires, this method yields realistic estimates and is more robust when only a small number of observations is available than the simple temporal integration. Finally, we offer an outlook on the integration of data from other satellites, specifically FireBird, S-NPP VIIRS and Sentinel-3, as well as on using higher resolution burned area data sets derived from Landsat and similar sensors.

  5. Fuel Consumption and Fire Emissions Estimates in Siberia: Impact of Vegetation Types, Meteorological Conditions, Forestry Practices and Fire Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukavskaya, Elena; Conard, Susan; Ivanova, Galina; Buryak, Ludmila; Soja, Amber; Zhila, Sergey

    2015-04-01

    Boreal forests play a crucial role in carbon budgets with Siberian carbon fluxes and pools making a major contribution to the regional and global carbon cycle. Wildfire is the main ecological disturbance in Siberia that leads to changes in forest species composition and structure and in carbon storage, as well as direct emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols to the atmosphere. At present, the global scientific community is highly interested in quantitative and accurate estimates of fire emissions. Little research on wildland fuel consumption and carbon emission estimates has been carried out in Russia until recently. From 2000 to 2007 we conducted a series of experimental fires of varying fireline intensity in light-coniferous forest of central Siberia to obtain quantitative and qualitative data on fire behavior and carbon emissions due to fires of known behavior. From 2009 to 2013 we examined a number of burned logged areas to assess the potential impact of forest practices on fire emissions. In 2013-2014 burned areas in dark-coniferous and deciduous forests were examined to determine fuel consumption and carbon emissions. We have combined and analyzed the scarce data available in the literature with data obtained in the course of our long-term research to determine the impact of various factors on fuel consumption and to develop models of carbon emissions for different ecosystems of Siberia. Carbon emissions varied drastically (from 0.5 to 40.9 tC/ha) as a function of vegetation type, weather conditions, anthropogenic effects and fire behavior characteristics and periodicity. Our study provides a basis for better understanding of the feedbacks between wildland fire emissions and changing anthropogenic disturbance patterns and climate. The data obtained could be used by air quality agencies to calculate local emissions and by managers to develop strategies to mitigate negative smoke impacts on the environmentand human health.

  6. Automotive Transient Fuel Consumption Test Method and Test Analysis%汽车瞬时油耗检测方法与试验分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚焕新

    2011-01-01

    设计了以AT89S8252单片机为核心的汽车瞬时油耗检测系统,该系统利用汽车喷油器脉冲宽度信号和车速传感器信号检测瞬时燃油消耗量,并具有瞬时油耗和百公里油耗实时显示功能.测试结果表明,该检测方法简单,检测数据相对误差小于15%;信号读取无滞后,系统动态特性好,与其它油耗仪相比具有体积小、成本低、操作和维修方便等优点.%Automotive transient fuel consumption test system with AT89S8252 single-chip machine was designed, this system uses automotive fuel injector pulse width signal and vehicle speed sensor signal to detect transient fuel consumption and can also real-time display transient fuel consumption and fuel consumption per 100 km. The test results show that this test method is easy to use, and relative error of test data is less than 15%; and the system has no lag of signal reading, showing good dynamic property and has advantages of smaller size, lower cost, ease of operation and repair as compared with other fuel consumption gauges.

  7. Fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions (Car Labelling); Consommations de carburant et emissions de CO{sub 2} (Car Labelling)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-03-01

    CO{sub 2} is the most important greenhouse gas produced by internal combustion engines. In the framework of the Kyoto protocol, actions have been implemented in the transportation sector for the abatement of vehicles fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. This study presents the 'honors list' established by the French agency of environment and energy mastery (Ademe) of the fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions of gasoline, diesel, LPG, NGV, and hybrid electric-powered vehicles. Results are presented in tables per company and model. These data are compiled and summarized in a last part which presents the key data about the evolution of the French automotive market, the emissions and consumptions of vehicles and the technological evolution of the vehicles and its influence on the fuel consumption. (J.S.)

  8. 75 FR 63404 - Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction for New Federal Buildings and Major...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... software. DOE will accept comments, data, and information regarding this notice of proposed rulemaking... consumption. For purposes of simplification, values in these tables have been truncated to the nearest kBtu/ft...

  9. Roadmap for Development of Natural Gas Vehicle Fueling Infrastructructure and Analysis of Vehicular Natural Gas Consumption by Niche Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen C. Yborra

    2007-04-30

    Vehicular natural gas consumption is on the rise, totaling nearly 200 million GGEs in 2005, despite declines in total NGV inventory in recent years. This may be attributed to greater deployment of higher fuel use medium- and heavy-duty NGVs as compared to the low fuel use of the natural gas-powered LDVs that exited the market through attrition, many of which were bi-fuel. Natural gas station counts are down to about 1100 from their peak of about 1300. Many of the stations that closed were under-utilized or not used at all while most new stations were developed with greater attention to critical business fundamentals such as site selection, projected customer counts, peak and off-peak fueling capacity needs and total station throughput. Essentially, the nation's NGV fueling infrastructure has been--and will continue--going through a 'market correction'. While current economic fundamentals have shortened payback and improved life-cycle savings for investment in NGVs and fueling infrastructure, a combination of grants and other financial incentives will still be needed to overcome general fleet market inertia to maintain status quo. Also imperative to the market's adoption of NGVs and other alternative fueled vehicle and fueling technologies is a clear statement of long-term federal government commitment to diversifying our nation's transportation fuel use portfolio and, more specifically, the role of natural gas in that policy. Based on the current NGV market there, and the continued promulgation of clean air and transportation policies, the Western Region is--and will continue to be--the dominant region for vehicular natural gas use and growth. In other regions, especially the Northeast, Mid-Atlantic states and Texas, increased awareness and attention to air quality and energy security concerns by the public and - more important, elected officials--are spurring policies and programs that facilitate deployment of NGVs and fueling

  10. NODAL3 Sensitivity Analysis for NEACRP 3D LWR Core Transient Benchmark (PWR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surian Pinem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of sensitivity analysis of the multidimension, multigroup neutron diffusion NODAL3 code for the NEACRP 3D LWR core transient benchmarks (PWR. The code input parameters covered in the sensitivity analysis are the radial and axial node sizes (the number of radial node per fuel assembly and the number of axial layers, heat conduction node size in the fuel pellet and cladding, and the maximum time step. The output parameters considered in this analysis followed the above-mentioned core transient benchmarks, that is, power peak, time of power peak, power, averaged Doppler temperature, maximum fuel centerline temperature, and coolant outlet temperature at the end of simulation (5 s. The sensitivity analysis results showed that the radial node size and maximum time step give a significant effect on the transient parameters, especially the time of power peak, for the HZP and HFP conditions. The number of ring divisions for fuel pellet and cladding gives negligible effect on the transient solutions. For productive work of the PWR transient analysis, based on the present sensitivity analysis results, we recommend NODAL3 users to use 2×2 radial nodes per assembly, 1×18 axial layers per assembly, the maximum time step of 10 ms, and 9 and 1 ring divisions for fuel pellet and cladding, respectively.

  11. Database of in-situ field measurements for estimates of fuel consumption and fire emissions in Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukavskaya, Elena; Conard, Susan; Buryak, Ludmila; Ivanova, Galina; Soja, Amber; Kalenskaya, Olga; Zhila, Sergey; Zarubin, Denis; Groisman, Pavel

    2016-04-01

    Wildfires show great variability in the amount of fuel consumed and carbon emitted to the atmosphere. Various types of models are used to calculate global or large scale regional fire emissions. However, in the databases used to estimate fuel consumptions, data for Russia are typically under-represented. Meanwhile, the differences in vegetation and fire regimes in the boreal forests in North America and Eurasia argue strongly for the need of regional ecosystem-specific data. For about 15 years we have been collecting field data on fuel loads and consumption in different ecosystem types of Siberia. We conducted a series of experimental burnings of varying fireline intensity in Scots pine and larch forests of central Siberia to obtain quantitative and qualitative data on fire behavior and carbon emissions. In addition, we examined wildfire behavior and effects in different vegetation types including Scots pine, Siberian pine, fir, birch, poplar, and larch-dominated forests; evergreen coniferous shrubs; grasslands, and peats. We investigated various ecosystem zones of Siberia (central and southern taiga, forest-steppe, steppe, mountains) in the different subjects of the Russian Federation (Krasnoyarsk Kray, Republic of Khakassia, Republic of Buryatia, Tuva Republic, Zabaikalsky Kray). To evaluate the impact of forest practices on fire emissions, burned and unburned logged sites and forest plantations were examined. We found large variations of fuel consumption and fire emission rates among different vegetation types depending on growing conditions, fire behavior characteristics and anthropogenic factors. Changes in the climate system result in an increase in fire frequency, area burned, the number of extreme fires, fire season length, fire season severity, and the number of ignitions from lightning. This leads to an increase of fire-related emissions of carbon to the atmosphere. The field measurement database we compiled is required for improving accuracy of existing

  12. THE DYNAMIC STOCHASTIC LINEAR PROGRAMMING MODEL FOR MANAGEMENT IN THE CONSUMPTION OF FUEL IN FLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar Chagas Rodrigues

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available From the amount invested in fuel prices, the rate of road that owners of vehicles powered by combustion need to run within the city and on the roads in the region, began a study in order to allow a better definition as to the cost of supply of vehicle with Ethanol or gasoline. And to analyze the equation that the government, through Petrobras announces in the media, because it is mentioned that to obtain the lowest cost when the supply should divide the value of a liter of Ethanol Gasoline for that case stay above 0.70 is the ideal fuel to petrol and vice versa.

  13. Anion-Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells with Improved CO2 Tolerance: Impact of Chemically Induced Bicarbonate Ion Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Yu; Yamauchi, Kosuke; Hayashi, Kohei; Okanishi, Takeou; Muroyama, Hiroki; Matsui, Toshiaki; Kikkawa, Yuuki; Negishi, Takayuki; Watanabe, Shin; Isomura, Takenori; Eguchi, Koichi

    2017-08-30

    Over the last few decades, because of the significant development of anion exchange membranes, increasing efforts have been devoted the realization of anion exchange membrane fuel cells (AEMFCs) that operate with the supply of hydrogen generated on-site. In this paper, ammonia was selected as a hydrogen source, following which the effect of conceivable impurities, unreacted NH3 and atmospheric CO2, on the performance of AEMFCs was established. As expected, we show that these impurities worsen the performance of AEMFCs significantly. Furthermore, with the help of in situ attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy, it was revealed that the degradation of the cell performance was primarily due to the inhibition of the hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR). This is attributed to the active site occupation by CO-related adspecies derived from (bi)carbonate adspecies. Interestingly, this degradation in the HOR activity is suppressed in the presence of both NH3 and HCO3(-) because of the bicarbonate ion consumption reaction induced by the existence of NH3. Further analysis using in situ ATR-IR and electrochemical methods revealed that the poisonous CO-related adspecies were completely removed under NH3-HCO3(-) conditions, accompanied by the improvement in HOR activity. Finally, a fuel cell test was conducted by using the practical AEMFC with the supply of NH3-contained H2 gas to the anode and ambient air to the cathode. The result confirmed the validity of this positive effect of NH3-HCO3(-) coexistence on CO2-tolerence of AEMFCs. The cell performance achieved nearly 95% of that without any impurity in the fuels. These results clearly show the impact of the chemically induced bicarbonate ion consumption reaction on the realization of highly CO2-tolerent AEMFCs.

  14. Impact of Solar Control PVB Glass on Vehicle Interior Temperatures, Air-Conditioning Capacity, Fuel Consumption, and Vehicle Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rugh, J.; Chaney, L.; Venson, T.; Ramroth, L.; Rose, M.

    2013-04-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the impact of Saflex1 S-series Solar Control PVB (polyvinyl butyral) configurations on conventional vehicle fuel economy and electric vehicle (EV) range. The approach included outdoor vehicle thermal soak testing, RadTherm cool-down analysis, and vehicle simulations. Thermal soak tests were conducted at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Vehicle Testing and Integration Facility in Golden, Colorado. The test results quantified interior temperature reductions and were used to generate initial conditions for the RadTherm cool-down analysis. The RadTherm model determined the potential reduction in air-conditioning (A/C) capacity, which was used to calculate the A/C load for the vehicle simulations. The vehicle simulation tool identified the potential reduction in fuel consumption or improvement in EV range between a baseline and modified configurations for the city and highway drive cycles. The thermal analysis determined a potential 4.0% reduction in A/C power for the Saflex Solar PVB solar control configuration. The reduction in A/C power improved the vehicle range of EVs and fuel economy of conventional vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

  15. Optimization of the overall energy consumption in cascade fueling stations for hydrogen vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothuizen, Erasmus Damgaard; Rokni, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    the vehicles. The cascade system at the station has to be refueled as the tank sizes are limited by the high pressures. The process of filling a vehicle and afterward bringing the tanks in refueling station back to same pressures, are called a complete refueling cycle. This study analyzes power consumption...... of refueling stations as a function of number of tanks, volume of the tanks and the pressure in the tanks. This is done for a complete refueling cycle. It is found that the energy consumption decreases with the number of tanks approaching an exponential function. The compressor accounts for app. 50......% of the energy consumption. Going from one tank to three tanks gives an energy saving of app. 30%. Adding more than four tanks the energy saving per extra added tank is less than 4%. The optimal numbers of tanks in the cascade system are three or four....

  16. Roadmap for Development of Natural Gas Vehicle Fueling Infrastructructure and Analysis of Vehicular Natural Gas Consumption by Niche Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen C. Yborra

    2007-04-30

    Vehicular natural gas consumption is on the rise, totaling nearly 200 million GGEs in 2005, despite declines in total NGV inventory in recent years. This may be attributed to greater deployment of higher fuel use medium- and heavy-duty NGVs as compared to the low fuel use of the natural gas-powered LDVs that exited the market through attrition, many of which were bi-fuel. Natural gas station counts are down to about 1100 from their peak of about 1300. Many of the stations that closed were under-utilized or not used at all while most new stations were developed with greater attention to critical business fundamentals such as site selection, projected customer counts, peak and off-peak fueling capacity needs and total station throughput. Essentially, the nation's NGV fueling infrastructure has been--and will continue--going through a 'market correction'. While current economic fundamentals have shortened payback and improved life-cycle savings for investment in NGVs and fueling infrastructure, a combination of grants and other financial incentives will still be needed to overcome general fleet market inertia to maintain status quo. Also imperative to the market's adoption of NGVs and other alternative fueled vehicle and fueling technologies is a clear statement of long-term federal government commitment to diversifying our nation's transportation fuel use portfolio and, more specifically, the role of natural gas in that policy. Based on the current NGV market there, and the continued promulgation of clean air and transportation policies, the Western Region is--and will continue to be--the dominant region for vehicular natural gas use and growth. In other regions, especially the Northeast, Mid-Atlantic states and Texas, increased awareness and attention to air quality and energy security concerns by the public and - more important, elected officials--are spurring policies and programs that facilitate deployment of NGVs and fueling

  17. 77 FR 14482 - Petroleum Reduction and Alternative Fuel Consumption Requirements for Federal Fleets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-12

    ... Administration (GSA) to develop a methodology to determine optimal fleet size and composition and instructs... level surface; and (2) Is propelled by an electric motor and an on-board, rechargeable energy storage...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 438 RIN 1904-AB98 Petroleum Reduction and Alternative Fuel...

  18. Radiant flux density, energy density, and fuel consumption in mixed-oak forest surface fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.L. Kremens; M.B. Dickinson; A.S. Bova

    2012-01-01

    Closing the wildland fire heat budget involves characterising the heat source and energy dissipation across the range of variability in fuels and fire behaviour. Meeting this challenge will lay the foundation for predicting direct ecological effects of fires and fire-atmosphere coupling. In this paper, we focus on the relationships between the fire radiation field, as...

  19. Analysis of Technology Options to Reduce the Fuel Consumption of Idling Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Stodolsky; L. Gaines; A. Vyas

    2000-06-01

    Long-haul trucks idling overnight consume more than 838 million gallons (20 million barrels) of fuel annually. Idling also emits pollutants. Truck drivers idle their engines primarily to (1) heat or cool the cab and/or sleeper, (2) keep the fuel warm in winter, and (3) keep the engine warm in the winter so that the engine is easier to start. Alternatives to overnight idling could save much of this fuel, reduce emissions, and cut operating costs. Several fuel-efficient alternatives to idling are available to provide heating and cooling: (1) direct-fired heater for cab/sleeper heating, with or without storage cooling; (2) auxiliary power units; and (3) truck stop electrification. Many of these technologies have drawbacks that limit market acceptance. Options that supply electricity are economically viable for trucks that are idled for 1,000-3,000 or more hours a year, while heater units could be used across the board. Payback times for fleets, which would receive quantity discounts on the prices, would be somewhat shorter.

  20. Effects of Village Power Quality on Fuel Consumption and Operating Expenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Wies; Ron Johnson

    2008-12-31

    Alaska's rural village electric utilities are isolated from the Alaska railbelt electrical grid intertie and from each other. Different strategies have been developed for providing power to meet demand in each of these rural communities. Many of these communities rely on diesel electric generators (DEGs) for power. Some villages have also installed renewable power sources and automated generation systems for controlling the DEGs and other sources of power. For example, Lime Village has installed a diesel battery photovoltaic hybrid system, Kotzebue and Wales have wind-diesel hybrid systems, and McGrath has installed a highly automated system for controlling diesel generators. Poor power quality and diesel engine efficiency in village power systems increases the cost of meeting the load. Power quality problems may consist of poor power factor (PF) or waveform disturbances, while diesel engine efficiency depends primarily on loading, the fuel type, the engine temperature, and the use of waste heat for nearby buildings. These costs take the form of increased fuel use, increased generator maintenance, and decreased reliability. With the cost of bulk fuel in some villages approaching $1.32/liter ($5.00/gallon) a modest 5% decrease in fuel use can result in substantial savings with short payback periods depending on the village's load profile and the cost of corrective measures. This project over its five year history has investigated approaches to improving power quality and implementing fuel savings measures through the use of performance assessment software tools developed in MATLAB{reg_sign} Simulink{reg_sign} and the implementation of remote monitoring, automated generation control, and the addition of renewable energy sources in select villages. The results have shown how many of these communities would benefit from the use of automated generation control by implementing a simple economic dispatch scheme and the integration of renewable energy sources

  1. Improving the performance and fuel consumption of dual chamber stratified charge spark ignition engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorenson, S.C.; Pan, S.S.; Bruckbauer, J.J.; Gehrke, G.R.

    1979-09-01

    A combined experimental and theoretical investigation of the nature of the combustion processes in a dual chamber stratified charge spark ignition engine is described. This work concentrated on understanding the mixing process in the main chamber gases. A specially constructed single cylinder engine was used to both conduct experiments to study mixing effects and to obtain experimental data for the validation of the computer model which was constructed in the theoretical portion of the study. The test procedures are described. Studies were conducted on the effect of fuel injection timing on performance and emissions using the combination of orifice size and prechamber to main chamber flow rate ratio which gave the best overall compromise between emissions and performance. In general, fuel injection gave slightly higher oxides of nitrogen, but considerably lower hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions than the carbureted form of the engine. Experiments with engine intake port redesign to promote swirl mixing indicated a substantial increase in the power output from the engine and, that an equivalent power levels, the nitric oxide emissions are approximately 30% lower with swirl in the main chamber than without swirl. The development of a computer simulation of the combustion process showed that a one-dimensional combustion model can be used to accurately predict trends in engine operation conditions and nitric oxide emissions even though the actual flame in the engine is not completely one-dimensional, and that a simple model for mixing of the main chamber and prechamber intake gases at the start of compression proved adequate to explain the effects of swirl, ignition timing, overall fuel air ratio, volumetric efficiency, and variations in prechamber air fuel ratio and fuel rate percentage on engine power and nitric oxide emissions. (LCL)

  2. The impact of anti-congestion policies on fuel consumption, carbon dioxide emissions and urban sprawl: Application of RELU-TRAN2, a CGE model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramatsu, Tomoru

    RELU-TRAN (Regional Economy and Land Use and Transportation) is a numerically solvable general equilibrium model (Anas and Liu, 2007), which treats in a unified manner the regional economy, urban land use and urban personal transportation sectors. In this dissertation, the model is extended by adding the consumer-workers' choice of private vehicle type according to the vehicle's fuel economy, by treating congestion on local roads as well as on major roads and by introducing car fuel consumption as a function of congested vehicle speed. By making the extensions, the model becomes more suitable to analyze the fuel consumption and CO2 emission consequences of urban development. The model is calibrated and simulated for the Chicago metropolitan area. By adjusting the model to the longer time span gradually, the shortand long-run price elasticities of fuel consumption are examined. As the time span becomes longer, fuel consumption becomes more elastic with respect to gasoline price, but when technological improvements in car fuel economy over comparable time spans are introduced exogenously, then the elasticity of fuel with respect to gasoline price becomes similar to that estimated in the econometric literature. Comparative statics exercises show that, if travel by auto becomes relatively more attractive in terms of travel time or travel cost than travel by public transit, then the Chicago MSA becomes more sprawled in total developed land area, whereas if public transit travel becomes relatively more attractive, then the Chicago MSA becomes more centralized. To mitigate fuel consumption and CO2 emissions, relative effectiveness of quasi-Pigouvian congestion tolls, a fuel tax on gasoline, a cordon toll around the downtown and a downtown parking fee are tested. All of these policies successfully reduce the aggregate fuel consumption and CO2. The urban growth boundary (UGB) is an alternative policy tested by the model. The UGB directly makes the Chicago MSA more

  3. Integrated Computational Modeling of Water Side Corrosion in Zirconium Metal Clad Under Nominal LWR Operating Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryanfar, Asghar; Thomas, John; Van der Ven, Anton; Xu, Donghua; Youssef, Mostafa; Yang, Jing; Yildiz, Bilge; Marian, Jaime

    2016-10-01

    A mesoscopic chemical reaction kinetics model to predict the formation of zirconium oxide and hydride accumulation light-water reactor (LWR) fuel clad is presented. The model is designed to include thermodynamic information from ab initio electronic structure methods as well as parametric information in terms of diffusion coefficients, thermal conductivities and reaction constants. In contrast to approaches where the experimentally observed time exponents are captured by the models by design, our approach is designed to be predictive and to provide an improved understanding of the corrosion process. We calculate the time evolution of the oxide/metal interface and evaluate the order of the chemical reactions that are conducive to a t 1/3 dependence. We also show calculations of hydrogen cluster accumulation as a function of temperature and depth using spatially dependent cluster dynamics. Strategies to further cohesively integrate the different elements of the model are provided.

  4. Integrated Computational Modeling of Water Side Corrosion in Zirconium Metal Clad Under Nominal LWR Operating Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryanfar, Asghar; Thomas, John; Van der Ven, Anton; Xu, Donghua; Youssef, Mostafa; Yang, Jing; Yildiz, Bilge; Marian, Jaime

    2016-11-01

    A mesoscopic chemical reaction kinetics model to predict the formation of zirconium oxide and hydride accumulation light-water reactor (LWR) fuel clad is presented. The model is designed to include thermodynamic information from ab initio electronic structure methods as well as parametric information in terms of diffusion coefficients, thermal conductivities and reaction constants. In contrast to approaches where the experimentally observed time exponents are captured by the models by design, our approach is designed to be predictive and to provide an improved understanding of the corrosion process. We calculate the time evolution of the oxide/metal interface and evaluate the order of the chemical reactions that are conducive to a t 1/3 dependence. We also show calculations of hydrogen cluster accumulation as a function of temperature and depth using spatially dependent cluster dynamics. Strategies to further cohesively integrate the different elements of the model are provided.

  5. The influence of number and values of ratios in stepped gearbox on mileage fuel consumption in NEDC test and real traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, P.; Wędrychowicz, D.

    2016-09-01

    The article presents the influence of number and values of ratios in stepped gearbox on mileage fuel consumption in a city passenger car. The simulations were conducted for a particular vehicle characterized by its mass, body shape, size of tires and equipped with a combustion engine for which the characteristic of fuel consumption in dynamic states was already designated on the basis of engine test bed measurements. Several designs of transmission with different number of gears and their ratios were used in virtual simulations of road traffic, particularly in the NEDC test, to calculate mileage fuel consumption. This allows for a quantitative assessment of transmission parameters in terms of both vehicle economy and dynamic properties. Also, based on obtained results, recommendations for the selection of a particular vehicle for a specific type of exploitation have been formulated.

  6. HTGR Technology Family Assessment for a Range of Fuel Cycle Missions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven J. Piet; Samuel E. Bays; Nick Soelberg

    2010-08-01

    This report examines how the HTGR technology family can provide options for the once through, modified open cycle (MOC), or full recycle fuel cycle strategies. The HTGR can serve all the fuel cycle missions that an LWR can; both are thermal reactors. Additional analyses are warranted to determine if HTGR “full recycle” service could provide improved consumption of transuranic (TRU) material than LWRs (as expected), to analyze the unique proliferation resistance issues associated with the “pebble bed” approach, and to further test and analyze methods to separate TRISO-coated fuel particles from graphite and/or to separate used HTGR fuel meat from its TRISO coating. The feasibility of these two separation issues is not in doubt, but further R&D could clarify and reduce the cost and enable options not adequately explored at present. The analyses here and the now-demonstrated higher fuel burnup tests (after the illustrative designs studied here) should enable future MOC and full recycle HTGR concepts to more rapidly consume TRU, thereby offering waste management advantages. Interest in “limited separation” or “minimum fuel treatment” separation approaches motivates study of impurity-tolerant fuel fabrication. Several issues are outside the scope of this report, including the following: thorium fuel cycles, gas-cooled fast reactors, the reliability of TRISO-coated particles (billions in a reactor), and how soon any new reactor or fuel type could be licensed and then deployed and therefore impact fuel cycle performance measures.

  7. Thermal modeling in an engine cooling system to control coolant flow for fuel consumption improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sangki; Woo, Seungchul; Kim, Minho; Lee, Kihyung

    2016-09-01

    The design and evaluation of engine cooling and lubrication systems is generally based on real vehicle tests. Our goal here was to establish an engine heat balance model based on mathematical and interpretive analysis of each element of a passenger diesel engine cooling system using a 1-D numerical model. The purpose of this model is to determine ways of optimizing the cooling and lubrication components of an engine and then to apply these methods to actual cooling and lubrication systems of engines that will be developed in the future. Our model was operated under the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) mode conditions, which represent the fuel economy evaluation mode in Europe. The flow rate of the cooling system was controlled using a control valve. Our results showed that the fuel efficiency was improved by as much as 1.23 %, cooling loss by 1.35 %, and friction loss by 2.21 % throughout NEDC modes by modification of control conditions.

  8. Main Influencing Factors of Automobile Fuel Consumption Testing with Ultrasonic Technology%汽车超声波油耗测试主要影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付百学; 胡胜海

    2014-01-01

    Combining with the development level and development trend of automotive fuel consumption test technology, and adopting the ultrasonic technology and single-chip microcomputer control technology, a research was made on the automotive fuel consumption test technology. The mathematical calculation model of automobile fuel consumption test was established based on the fuel consumption test theory of ultrasonic time difference method. The fuel flow rate was modified by means of flow correction coefficient based on fluid mechanics theory. Analyzing the geometry parameters’ influence of the ultrasonic flow sensor on automobile fuel consumption test, and using the 3 d coordinate method, the ultrasonic flow sensor’s geometry parameters can be accurately calculated. By analyzing the environmental temperature’s influence on the flow rate correction coefficient and the propagation velocity of ultrasonic wave in the fuel, modification measures were put forward. Quantitatively analyzing the parameters of sound and threshold value which influence calculating ultrasonic transmission time, eliminating the frequency noise using the maximum likelihood estimation method, and reasonably choosing the threshold value, the simulation results showed that automobile fuel consumption testing accuracy was up to 12 ns. Comprehensively taking into account the influencing factors of fuel consumption test and taking corrective measures can optimize the mathematical calculation model of automobile fuel consumption test, and improve the automobile fuel consumption test accuracy. Thus, it will lay a theoretical foundation for the research and development of an ultrasonic automobile fuel consumption testing instrument.%结合汽车油耗测试技术的研发水平及发展趋势,采用超声波技术和单片机控制技术,进行汽车油耗测试技术研究。基于超声波时差法油耗测试理论,构建汽车油耗测试的数学计算模型。基于流体力学理论,采用

  9. Reducing Fuel Consumption through Semi-Automated Platooning with Class 8 Tractor Trailer Combinations (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammert, M.; Gonder, J.

    2014-07-01

    This poster describes the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's evaluation of the fuel savings potential of semi-automated truck platooning. Platooning involves reducing aerodynamic drag by grouping vehicles together and decreasing the distance between them through the use of electronic coupling, which allows multiple vehicles to accelerate or brake simultaneously. The NREL study addressed the need for data on American style line-haul sleeper cabs with modern aerodynamics and over a range of trucking speeds common in the United States.

  10. Trajectory Optimization Using Adjoint Method and Chebyshev Polynomial Approximation for Minimizing Fuel Consumption During Climb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan T.; Hornby, Gregory; Ishihara, Abe

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes two methods of trajectory optimization to obtain an optimal trajectory of minimum-fuel- to-climb for an aircraft. The first method is based on the adjoint method, and the second method is based on a direct trajectory optimization method using a Chebyshev polynomial approximation and cubic spine approximation. The approximate optimal trajectory will be compared with the adjoint-based optimal trajectory which is considered as the true optimal solution of the trajectory optimization problem. The adjoint-based optimization problem leads to a singular optimal control solution which results in a bang-singular-bang optimal control.

  11. Urban transportation energy conservation: analytic procedures for estimating changes in travel demand and fuel consumption. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atherton, T.J.; Suhrbier, J.H.

    1979-10-01

    This series of reports provides metropolitan planning organizations with analytical tools that can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of alternative transportation policies in achieving reductions in overall fuel consumption. To ensure a high measure of accuracy, the analysis goes beyond the first order effects, i.e., the shift from single occupant autos as the mode chosen for the work trip to more fuel efficient means of travel. Questions treated include what will happen with the autos left at home as a result of increased carpooling for work trips. Will certain policies, such as gasoline price increases, directly impact non-work tripmaking. Will a particular transportation policy affect all segments of the population, or will certain groups be impacted significantly more than others. The methodology developed links together several disaggregate travel demand models to predict auto ownership, work trip mode choice, and non-work travel demands. This report introduces the theoretical basis for the travel demand models used, describes these models and their linkages both with each other and with the various submodels, and documents the assumptions made in developing the model system and using it to forecast responses to alternative transportation policies. Emphasis is placed on the conceptual framework of the model system and specification of the individual models and submodels.

  12. Radiation Damage Assessment in the Reactor Pressure Vessel of the Integral Inherently Safe Light Water Reactor (I2S-LWR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaspoehler, Timothy; Petrovic, Bojan

    2016-02-01

    One of the major limiting factors to nuclear reactors lifetime is the radiation-induced material damage in the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV). While older reactors were designed assuming a 40-year operating lifetime, new reactor designs are expected to have lifetimes up to 100 years. For safe operation, the integrity of the RPV must be ensured against significant material property changes. In this work, typical neutron damage indicators are calculated in the RPV of the I2S-LWR (Integral Inherently Safe LWR) Power Plant, including DPA (displacements per atom) and fast neutron fluence (>1 MeV and >0.1MeV). I2S-LWR is a PWR of integral design, which means that its wider downcomer provides additional shielding to the vessel. However, its higher core power density and longer lifetime may offset this advantage. In order to accurately represent the neutron environment for RPV damage assessment, a detailed model based on the preliminary design specifications of the I2S-LWR was developed to be used in the MAVRIC (Monaco with Automated Variance Reduction using Importance Calculations) sequence of the Scale6.1 code package. MAVRIC uses the CADIS (Consistent Adjoint-Driven Importance Sampling) methodology to bias a fixed-source MC (Monte Carlo) simulation. To establish the upper limit of a bounding envelope, a flat-source distribution was used. For the low limit, a center-peaked source was generated using the KENO-VI criticality sequence assuming uniform fresh fuel core. Results based on the preliminary I2S-LWR model show that DPA rates and fast fluence rates are conservatively 75% lower than in typical PWRs being operated currently in the US.

  13. Radiation Damage Assessment in the Reactor Pressure Vessel of the Integral Inherently Safe Light Water Reactor (I2S-LWR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaspoehler Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major limiting factors to nuclear reactors lifetime is the radiation-induced material damage in the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV. While older reactors were designed assuming a 40-year operating lifetime, new reactor designs are expected to have lifetimes up to 100 years. For safe operation, the integrity of the RPV must be ensured against significant material property changes. In this work, typical neutron damage indicators are calculated in the RPV of the I2S-LWR (Integral Inherently Safe LWR Power Plant, including DPA (displacements per atom and fast neutron fluence (>1 MeV and >0.1MeV. I2S-LWR is a PWR of integral design, which means that its wider downcomer provides additional shielding to the vessel. However, its higher core power density and longer lifetime may offset this advantage. In order to accurately represent the neutron environment for RPV damage assessment, a detailed model based on the preliminary design specifications of the I2S-LWR was developed to be used in the MAVRIC (Monaco with Automated Variance Reduction using Importance Calculations sequence of the Scale6.1 code package. MAVRIC uses the CADIS (Consistent Adjoint-Driven Importance Sampling methodology to bias a fixed-source MC (Monte Carlo simulation. To establish the upper limit of a bounding envelope, a flat-source distribution was used. For the low limit, a center-peaked source was generated using the KENO-VI criticality sequence assuming uniform fresh fuel core. Results based on the preliminary I2S-LWR model show that DPA rates and fast fluence rates are conservatively 75% lower than in typical PWRs being operated currently in the US.

  14. Do biofuel blending mandates reduce gasoline consumption? Implications of state-level renewable fuel standards for energy security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Shinling

    In an effort to keep America's addiction to oil under control, federal and state governments have implemented a variety of policy measures including those that determine the composition of motor gasoline sold at the pump. Biofuel blending mandates known as Renewable Fuel Standards (RFS) are designed to reduce the amount of foreign crude oil needed to be imported as well as to boost the local ethanol and corn industry. Yet beyond looking at changes in gasoline prices associated with increased ethanol production, there have been no empirical studies that examine effects of state-level RFS implementation on gasoline consumption. I estimate a Generalized Least Squares model for the gasoline demand for the 1993 to 2010 period with state and time fixed effects controlling for RFS. States with active RFS are Minnesota, Hawaii, Missouri, Florida, Washington, and Oregon. I find that, despite the onset of federal biofuel mandates across states in 2007 and the lower energy content of blended gasoline, being in a state that has implemented RFS is associated with 1.5% decrease in gasoline consumption (including blended gasoline). This is encouraging evidence for efforts to lessen dependence on gasoline and has positive implications for energy security.

  15. Aerodynamic Improvements of an Empty Timber Truck can Have the Potential of Significantly Reducing Fuel Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Magnus; Marashi, Seyedeh Sepideh; Karlsson, Matts

    2012-11-01

    In the present study, aerodynamic drag (AD) has been estimated for an empty and a fully loaded conceptual timber truck (TT) using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The increasing fuel prices have challenged heavy duty vehicle (HDV) manufactures to strive for better fuel economy, by e.g. utilizing drag reducing external devices. Despite this knowledge, the TT fleets seem to be left in the dark. Like HDV aerodynamics, similarities can be observed as a large low pressure wake is formed behind the tractor (unloaded) and downstream of the trailer (full load) thus generating AD. As TTs travel half the time without any cargo, focus on drag reduction is important. The full scaled TTs where simulated using the realizable k-epsilon model with grid adaption techniques for mesh independence. Our results indicate that a loaded TT reduces the AD significantly as both wake size and turbulence kinetic energy are lowered. In contrast to HDV the unloaded TTs have a much larger design space available for possible drag reducing devices, e.g. plastic wrapping and/or flaps. This conceptual CFD study has given an indication of the large AD difference between the unloaded and fully loaded TT, showing the potential for significant AD improvements.

  16. Improving the safety of LWR power plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-04-01

    This report documents the results of the Study to identify current, potential research issues and efforts for improving the safety of Light Water Reactor (LWR) power plants. This final report describes the work accomplished, the results obtained, the problem areas, and the recommended solutions. Specifically, for each of the issues identified in this report for improving the safety of LWR power plants, a description is provided in detail of the safety significance, the current status (including information sources, status of technical knowledge, problem solution and current activities), and the suggestions for further research and development. Further, the issues are ranked for action into high, medium, and low priority with respect to primarily (a) improved safety (e.g. potential reduction in public risk and occupational exposure), and secondly (b) reduction in safety-related costs (improving or maintaining level of safety with simpler systems or in a more cost-effective manner).

  17. CO variability and its association with household cooking fuels consumption over the Indo-Gangetic Plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Alok Kumar; Mishra, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Ritesh; Berwal, Shivesh; Devadas, Rakhesh; Huete, Alfredo; Kumar, Krishan

    2017-03-01

    This study examines the spatio-temporal trends obtained from decade long (Jan 2003-Dec 2014) satellite observational data of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) on carbon monoxide (CO) concentration over the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) region. The time sequence plots of columnar CO levels over the western, central and eastern IGP regions reveal marked seasonal behaviour, with lowest CO levels occurring during the monsoon months and the highest CO levels occurring during the pre-monsoon period. A negative correlation between CO levels and rainfall is observed. CO vertical profiles show relatively high values in the upper troposphere at ∼200 hPa level during the monsoon months, thus suggesting the role of convective transport and advection in addition to washout behind the decreased CO levels during this period. MOPITT and AIRS observations show a decreasing trend of 9.6 × 10(15) and 1.5 × 10(16) molecules cm(-2) yr(-1), respectively, in columnar CO levels over the IGP region. The results show the existence of a spatial gradient in CO from the eastern (higher levels) to western IGP region (lower levels). Data from the Census of India on the number of households using various cooking fuels in the IGP region shows the prevalence of biomass-fuel (i.e. firewood, crop residue, cowdung etc.) use over the eastern and central IGP regions and that of liquefied petroleum gas over the western IGP region. CO emission estimates from cooking activity over the three IGP regions are found to be in the order east > central > west, which support the existence of the spatial gradient in CO from eastern to the western IGP region. Our results support the intervention of present Indian government on limiting the use of biomass-fuels in domestic cooking to achieve the benefits in terms of the better air quality, household health and regional/global climate change mitigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  18. Understanding EUV mask blank surface roughness induced LWR and associated roughness requirement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Pei-Yang [Intel Corp., Santa Clara, CA (United States); Zhang, Guojing [Intel Corp., Santa Clara, CA (United States); Gullickson, Eric M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldberg, Kenneth A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Benk, Markus P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) mask multi-layer (ML) blank surface roughness specification historically comes from blank defect inspection tool requirement. Later, new concerns on ML surface roughness induced wafer pattern line width roughness (LWR) arise. In this paper, we have studied wafer level pattern LWR as a function of EUVL mask surface roughness via High-NA Actinic Reticle Review Tool. We found that the blank surface roughness induced LWR at current blank roughness level is in the order of 0.5nm 3σ for NA=0.42 at the best focus. At defocus of ±40nm, the corresponding LWR will be 0.2nm higher. Further reducing EUVL mask blank surface roughness will increase the blank cost with limited benefit in improving the pattern LWR, provided that the intrinsic resist LWR is in the order of 1nm and above.

  19. Fair division of generation profile and fuel consumption in isolated micro-grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosek, Anna Magdalena; Heussen, Kai

    2014-01-01

    leads to more stressed loading conditions of diesel generators. We propose a control strategy employing fair division of generator allocation using a compensation procedure based on social choice methods. A co-simulation set up with separate power system and control strategy simulators is used......Islands and rural areas can decrease their cost of energy by exploiting renewable energy as compared to diesel- only generation. Operation of such isolated micro-grids requires allocation of units for grid stability. Depending on the control strategy employed, the fluctuating renewable production...... to provide a proof-of-concept case study of an isolated micro-grid with two wind turbines and three diesel generators. In comparison with a simple master- slave allocation, the proposed coordination scheme improves the distribution of fuel allocation by 27,5%, reduces under-load time by 43,5% and decreases...

  20. Analysis of the Influencing Facters on Running Vehicle Fuel Consumption%运行车辆燃料消耗影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐展

    2009-01-01

    Reducing running vehicle fuel consumption is an important element to achieve energy-saving and emission reduction for our country. According to the status quo of running vehilce consumption in our country, the article analyses a variety of subjective and objective factors impacting on fuel consumption, putting forward some measures to reduce fuel consumption. And this article researches on saving rate of our country's fuel-efficient products commonly used. It has great significance for the guidance of sustained and stable development of road tansport industry.%减少运行车辆燃料消耗是我国实现节能减排的一项重要内容,根据我国运行车辆燃料消耗的现状,分析影响燃料消耗的主观因素和客观因素,提出减少燃料消耗的措施,并对我国常用节油产品的节油率进行分析,对于道路运输业持续、稳定的发展具有重要意义.

  1. Assessment of LWR piping design loading based on plant operating experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, P. O.

    1980-08-01

    The objective of this study has been to: (1) identify current Light Water Reactor (LWR) piping design load parameters, (2) identify significant actual LWR piping loads from plant operating experience, (3) perform a comparison of these two sets of data and determine the significance of any differences, and (4) make an evaluation of the load representation in current LWR piping design practice, in view of plant operating experience with respect to piping behavior and response to loading.

  2. Fuel consumption of private cars in France 1988-2006; Consommations de carburants des voitures particulieres en France 1988-2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-12-15

    The results of this study come from the exploitation of the 'TNSworldpanel Petrol' inquiry launched in April 1987. This panel follows the consumption of 3300 cars belonging to individuals living in France (company vehicles are excluded). This is the only operation of this scale ever carried out in France. The main results indicate: the continuation of the average consumption decay of individual cars (all kind of fuel considered); a new and significant progress of diesel-fueled vehicles: 57% of the cars purchased by households (50% in 2003, 33% in 1995); a new decay of the total distance covered by households: -1.1% in parallel to the rise of fuel prices. (J.S.)

  3. Spent fuel data base: commercial light water reactors. [PWR; BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauf, M.J.; Kniazewycz, B.G.

    1979-12-01

    As a consequence of this country's non-proliferation policy, the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel has been delayed indefinitely. This has resulted in spent light water reactor (LWR) fuel being considered as a potential waste form for disposal. Since the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is currently developing methodologies for use in the regulation of the management and disposal of high-level and transuranic wastes, a comprehensive data base describing LWR fuel technology must be compiled. This document provides that technology baseline and, as such, will support the development of those evaluation standards and criteria applicable to spent nuclear fuel.

  4. 基于行驶工况特征的汽车燃油消耗的预测%Vehicle Fuel Consumption Prediction Based on Driving Cycle Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜平; 石琴

    2014-01-01

    Fuel consumptions are predicted according to the characteristic parameters of driving cycle in the paper. Firstly the collected data on 100km fuel consumption and driving cycles on typical roads are divided into a large number of driving segments. Then three principal components are obtained from 13 characteristic parameters of all driving segments by principal component analysis. Finally fuel consumptions are predicted by BP neural network based on the scores of three principal components. The results show that compared with BP neural network, the fuel consumption prediction model based on the combination of principal component analysis and neural network can bet-ter predict the fuel consumption of driving cycle on urban roads with simplified network structure and improved pre-diction accuracy.%本文从行驶工况特征参数来进行燃油消耗的预测。首先对典型道路上采集的百公里燃油消耗和行驶工况数据进行划分,获得大量行驶片段。接着用主成分分析法从所有行驶片段的13个特征参数中得到了3个主成分。最后利用BP神经网络对3个主成分的得分进行燃油消耗的预测。结果表明,与一般的BP神经网络相比,采用主成分分析和神经网络相结合的燃油消耗预测模型,简化了网络结构,提高了预测精度,可用来预测城市道路行驶工况的燃油消耗。

  5. North Korean nuclear issues and the LWR project; analysis of the key technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byung Koo; Kwack, E. H.; Shin, J. S.; An, J. S.; Lee, J. U.; Kim, H. T.; Kim, J. S.; Yoon, Y. C

    2000-11-01

    Year 2000 will be remembered as an epoch making period between two Koreas. Korean nuclear industries became activated with the KEDO LWR main contracts entering into force in February, 2000. Respective design, manufacturing and construction activities are mobilized in accordance with the total project schedule of about 100 months. What started out as the nuclear power plant design standardization project in the early '80s, is now being implemented as repeat construction of KSNPs at Yonggwang and Ulchin sites as well as at Kumho site in the DPRK. However, the KEDO construction schedule and the past nuclear inconsistency issues are closely linked due to the nonproliferation concerns. In practice, the IAEA must come to the conclusion that the correctness and completeness must be fulfilled before delivery of the first key component for the KEDO LWR unit 1. While the IAEA verification process tends to focus on the nuclear materials accountancy control, longer term objective between two Koreas is bound to take the form of confidence building. It is necessary to analyse the nuclear research and production facilities in order to make proper evaluation of a nation's nuclear capabilities. Close assessment on development status of graphite moderated reactors and their operation history, spent fuel reprocessing facilities, and HEU production capabilities would be essential. In addition, illicit trafficking possibilities should be addressed. Chapter 1 describes the graphite moderated reactors in general; Chapter 2 describes various reprocessing processes and their detection capabilities; Chapter 3 contains possible uranium enrichment processes with their detection capabilities, and Chapter 4 summarizes the international treaties in illicit trafficking control with the IAEA database.

  6. Characteriztion of particulate plutonium released in fuel cycle operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seefeldt, W.B.; Mecham, W.J.; Steindler, M.J.

    1976-05-01

    An estimate of the plutonium source terms is made for the fuel cycles of three reactor types on the basis of currently applied, currently available, and estimated future technology. The three reactors are LWR-U, LWR-Pu, and LMFBR. The source terms are characterized as to quantity, form, and particle size distribution. Historical operating data for existing plants and the state of the art of the technology of air cleaning are reviewed.

  7. Radiation protection of MOX-fuel by doping with Pa-23 and U-232

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kryuchkov, EF; Glebov, VB; Apse, VA; Shmelev, AN

    2005-01-01

    The paper addresses the problem of MOX-fuel self-protection at the "Spent Fuel Standard" level and more during full cycle of MOX-fuel management. Under conditions of the closed LWR cycle the proliferation-resistance levels were evaluated for fresh and spent MOX-fuel doped with Pa-231 and U-232. Acco

  8. Validation of the AZTRAN 1.1 code with problems Benchmark of LWR reactors; Validacion del codigo AZTRAN 1.1 con problemas Benchmark de reactores LWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallejo Q, J. A.; Bastida O, G. E.; Francois L, J. L. [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Xolocostli M, J. V.; Gomez T, A. M., E-mail: amhed.jvq@gmail.com [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2016-09-15

    The AZTRAN module is a computational program that is part of the AZTLAN platform (Mexican modeling platform for the analysis and design of nuclear reactors) and that solves the neutron transport equation in 3-dimensional using the discrete ordinates method S{sub N}, steady state and Cartesian geometry. As part of the activities of Working Group 4 (users group) of the AZTLAN project, this work validates the AZTRAN code using the 2002 Yamamoto Benchmark for LWR reactors. For comparison, the commercial code CASMO-4 and the free code Serpent-2 are used; in addition, the results are compared with the data obtained from an article of the PHYSOR 2002 conference. The Benchmark consists of a fuel pin, two UO{sub 2} cells and two other of MOX cells; there is a problem of each cell for each type of reactor PWR and BWR. Although the AZTRAN code is at an early stage of development, the results obtained are encouraging and close to those reported with other internationally accepted codes and methodologies. (Author)

  9. Reprocessing method for spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshikawa, Tadahiro; Sawa, Toshio; Suzuoki, Akira [Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Takashima, Yoichi; Kumagai, Mikiro

    1998-09-29

    The present invention provides a method of reprocessing spent fuels to form MOX having a Pu/U ratio suitable to fuels of LWR or fast reactors and uranium oxides of fuels of an LWR reactor. In a brief separation step for uranium, carbonate is added to a nitric acid solution in which spent fuels are dissolved, to dissolve a portion of uranium in the nitric acid solution. The residual uranium, plutonium and fission products are made into complexes of carboxylic acid ions and precipitated. The precipitated complexes of carboxylic acid ions are brought into contact with a different nitric acid solution to recover the uranium, plutonium and fission products. The concentration of the carbonate in the nitric acid solution in which uranium is partially dissolved is determined in accordance with the plutonium/uranium ratio based on the relation between the saturation concentration of uranium to the concentration of carbonate in the nitric acid solution. (T.M.)

  10. Trends in the size distribution, highway use, and consumption of gasoline and diesel fuels of the U.S. Commercial Truck Fleet, 1977-2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertram, K. M.; Santini, D. J.; Anderson, J. L.; Vyas, A. D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on various major long-range (1977-2002, 1982-2002) U.S. commercial trucking trends by using U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census Vehicle/Truck Inventory and Use Survey (VIUS/TIUS) data from this period, as well as selected 1977-2002 data from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Energy Information Administration (EIA) and the U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration's (FHWA's) Highway Statistics. Analyses are made of (1) overall passenger vehicle versus truck consumption patterns of gasoline and diesel fuel and (2) the population growth and fuels used by all commercial truck classes and selected truck types (single unit and combination). Selected vehicle miles traveled, gallons per vehicle miles traveled, and gallons per cargo ton-miles traveled trends, as well as the effect of cargo tons per truck on fuel consumption, are also assessed. In addition, long-range trends of related factors (such as long-haul mileages driven by heavy trucks) and their impacts on both reducing fuel consumption per cargo-ton-mile and the relative shares of total commercial fuel use among truck classes were examined. Results of these trends on U.S. petroleum consumption are identified. The effects of basic engineering design and performance, national Interstate highway construction legislation, national demographic trends (such as suburbanization), and changes in U.S. corporate operational requirements are discussed. Their impacts on both the long-distance hauling and shorter-distance urban and suburban delivery markets of the commercial trucking industry are highlighted.

  11. The tires and their effect in fuel consumption; Los neumaticos y su efecto en el consumo de combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barjau Peralta, Emilio; Fernandez Ramirez, Adrian; Maldonado Susano, Armando [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    In this paper are presented some of the impacts that the tire has in the fuel consumption in the light vehicles as well as in the heavy ones; emphasis is made in the measures that can be taken to diminish this effect and some of the results of the investigations or experiences obtained in other countries are also presented. Also mention is made of the most frequent faults of the tires and the cause of the same ones. This affects not so much the life of the tire as the operation cost, but also it involves energy costs when having to invest energy in the manufacture of new tires. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presentan algunas de los impactos que tienen el neumatico en el consumo de combustible en los vehiculos tanto ligeros como pesados, se hace enfasis en las medidas que pueden ser tomadas para disminuir este efecto y se muestran algunos resultados de las investigaciones o experiencias obtenidas en otros paises. Tambien se hace mencion de las fallas mas frecuentes en los neumaticos y la causa de las mismas. Esto afecta tanto la vida del neumatico como el costo de operacion, pero tambien involucra costos energeticos al tener que invertir energia en la fabricacion de neumaticos nuevos.

  12. Investigation of valve failure problems in LWR power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-04-01

    An analysis of component failures from information in the computerized Nuclear Safety Information Center (NSIC) data bank shows that for both PWR and BWR plants the component category most responsible for approximately 19.3% of light water reactor (LWR) power plant shutdowns. This investigation by Burns and Roe, Inc. shows that the greatest cause of shutdowns in LWRs due to valve failures is leakage from valve stem packing. Both BWR plants and PWR plants have stem leakage problems (BWRs, 21% and PWRs, 34%).

  13. Effect of turbo charger system on engine fuel consumption and tractor power and traction (ITM475, ITM485 and ITM800

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh PashaiHulasu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tractors are considered as the main power generators in mechanized agriculture. Hence, the experts and engineers in tractor manufacturing of the country, are required to focus on developing and designing new features in tractor manufacturing. This must be, of course, paralleled with the economic aspects. Achieving this goal, Iran Tractor Manufactories Co., (ITMCO has designed and developed tractors equipped with turbochargers. This has been performed on ITM800 & ITM485 models, according to world standards. The turbocharger system, with harnessing of lost energy in engine output fumes, compresses the air entering the engine and more air enters the cylinder. This will cause the engine to burn fuel more efficiently and thus produce more power. Materials and Methods: This study has been carried out on ITM485 & ITM800 tractors (with turbocharger system and ITM285 & ITM475 tractors (without turbocharger system to assure the improvement of engine performance and compare them employing OECD world standards. Experiments were performed in the concrete runway of Tabriz Tractor Manufacturing Company. For experiments, a dynamometer was used to measure the traction force between two tractors, a measuring unit for fuel, a thermometer unit and a timer to measure the quantities of fuel consumption, drawbar force and power. For drawbar traction test, each of the tested tractors pulled the rear tractor in different gears and the dynamometer between these 2 tractors recorded the tractors traction force by data loggers. To measure tractors fuel consumption, a measuring unit of fuel (VDO - EDM 1404 was used that calculated the flow rate in the path of fuel from the fuel tank to the engine and the return path from the engine to the fuel tank and showed the quantity of fuel consumption in liters per hour digitally. Results and Discussion: In comparison of traction power and force of tractors with turbochargers and without turbochargers in different gears

  14. Minimum Specific Fuel Consumption of a Liquid-Cooled Multicylinder Aircraft Engine as Affected by Compression Ratio and Engine Operating Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Rinaldo J.; Feder, Melvin S.; Harries, Myron L.

    1947-01-01

    An investigation was conducted on a 12-cylinder V-type liquid-cooled aircraft engine of 1710-cubic-inch displacement to determine the minimum specific fuel consumption at constant cruising engine speed and compression ratios of 6.65, 7.93, and 9.68. At each compression ratio, the effect.of the following variables was investigated at manifold pressures of 28, 34, 40, and 50 inches of mercury absolute: temperature of the inlet-air to the auxiliary-stage supercharger, fuel-air ratio, and spark advance. Standard sea-level atmospheric pressure was maintained at the auxiliary-stage supercharger inlet and the exhaust pressure was atmospheric. Advancing the spark timing from 34 deg and 28 deg B.T.C. (exhaust and intake, respectively) to 42 deg and 36 deg B.T.C. at a compression ratio of 6.65 resulted in a decrease of approximately 3 percent in brake specific fuel consumption. Further decreases in brake specific fuel consumption of 10.5 to 14.1 percent (depending on power level) were observed as the compression ratio was increased from 6.65 to 9.68, maintaining at each compression ratio the spark advance required for maximum torque at a fuel-air ratio of 0.06. This increase in compression ratio with a power output of 0.585 horsepower per cubic inch required a change from . a fuel- lend of 6-percent triptane with 94-percent 68--R fuel at a compression ratio of 6.65 to a fuel blend of 58-percent, triptane with 42-percent 28-R fuel at a compression ratio of 9.68 to provide for knock-free engine operation. As an aid in the evaluation of engine mechanical endurance, peak cylinder pressures were measured on a single-cylinder engine at several operating conditions. Peak cylinder pressures of 1900 pounds per square inch can be expected at a compression ratio of 9.68 and an indicated mean effective pressure of 320 pounds per square inch. The engine durability was considerably reduced at these conditions.

  15. Development of Advanced High Uranium Density Fuels for Light Water Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, James [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Butt, Darryl [Boise State Univ., ID (United States); Meyer, Mitchell [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Xu, Peng [Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    This work conducts basic materials research (fabrication, radiation resistance, thermal conductivity, and corrosion response) on U3Si2 and UN, two high uranium density fuel forms that have a high potential for success as advanced light water reactor (LWR) fuels. The outcome of this proposed work will serve as the basis for the development of advance LWR fuels, and utilization of such fuel forms can lead to the optimization of the fuel performance related plant operating limits such as power density, power ramp rate and cycle length.

  16. Stationary Liquid Fuel Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Won Sik [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Grandy, Andrew [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Boroski, Andrew [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Krajtl, Lubomir [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Johnson, Terry [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-30

    container is penetrated by twelve hexagonal control assembly (CA) guide tubes, each of which has 3.0 mm thickness and 69.4 mm flat-to-flat outer distance. The distance between two neighboring CA guide tube is selected to be 26 cm to provide an adequate space for CA driving systems. The fuel container has 18181 penetrating coolant tubes of 6.0 mm inner diameter and 2.0 mm thickness. The coolant tubes are arranged in a triangular lattice with a lattice pitch of 1.21 cm. The fuel, structure, and coolant volume fractions inside the fuel container are 0.386, 0.383, and 0.231, respectively. Separate steel reflectors and B4C shields are used outside of the fuel container. Six gas expansion modules (GEMs) of 5.0 cm thickness are introduced in the radial reflector region. Between the radial reflector and the fuel container is a 2.5 cm sodium gap. The TRU inventory at the beginning of equilibrium cycle (BOEC) is 5081 kg, whereas the TRU inventory at the beginning of life (BOL) was 3541 kg. This is because the equilibrium cycle fuel contains a significantly smaller fissile fraction than the LWR TRU feed. The fuel inventory at BOEC is composed of 34.0 a/o TRU, 41.4 a/o Ce, 23.6 a/o Co, and 1.03 a/o solid fission products. Since uranium-free fuel is used, a theoretical maximum TRU consumption rate of 1.011 kg/day is achieved. The semi-continuous fuel cycle based on the 300-batch, 1- day cycle approximation yields a burnup reactivity loss of 26 pcm/day, and requires a daily reprocessing of 32.5 kg of SLFFR fuel. This yields a daily TRU charge rate of 17.45 kg, including a makeup TRU feed of 1.011 kg recovered from the LWR used fuel. The charged TRU-Ce-Co fuel is composed of 34.4 a/o TRU, 40.6 a/o Ce, and 25.0 a/o Co.

  17. Thermodynamic analysis for high burn-up fuel internal chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuji, Kensho; Kyoh, Bunkei [Kinki Univ., Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology

    1997-09-01

    Chemical states of fission products and actinide elements in high burn-up LWR fuel pellets have been analyzed thermodynamically using the computer program SOLGASMIX-PV. Calculations with this computer code have been performed for a complex multi-component system, which comprises 54 chemical species. The analysis shows that neither alkali nor alkaline-earth uranates are formed, but alkali and alkaline-earth molybdates exist in irradiated LWR fuel pellets in contrast with their post irradiation examinations. These molybdates tend to increase with increasing oxygen potential in the fuel under operating conditions, whereas the zirconates decrease. (author)

  18. A New Coupled CFD/Neutron Kinetics System for High Fidelity Simulations of LWR Core Phenomena: Proof of Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Pérez Mañes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology (INR at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT is investigating the application of the meso- and microscale analysis for the prediction of local safety parameters for light water reactors (LWR. By applying codes like CFD (computational fluid dynamics and SP3 (simplified transport reactor dynamics it is possible to describe the underlying phenomena in a more accurate manner than by the nodal/coarse 1D thermal hydraulic coupled codes. By coupling the transport (SP3 based neutron kinetics (NK code DYN3D with NEPTUNE-CFD, within a parallel MPI-environment, the NHESDYN platform is created. The newly developed system will allow high fidelity simulations of LWR fuel assemblies and cores. In NHESDYN, a heat conduction solver, SYRTHES, is coupled to NEPTUNE-CFD. The driver module of NHESDYN controls the sequence of execution of the solvers as well as the communication between the solvers based on MPI. In this paper, the main features of NHESDYN are discussed and the proof of the concept is done by solving a single pin problem. The prediction capability of NHESDYN is demonstrated by a code-to-code comparison with the DYNSUB code. Finally, the future developments and validation efforts are highlighted.

  19. Fuel Thermal Expansion (FTHEXP). [BWR; PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reymann, G. A.

    1978-07-01

    A model is presented which deals with dimensional changes in LWR fuel pellets caused by changes in temperature. It is capable of dealing with any combination of UO/sub 2/ and PuO/sub 2/ in solid, liquid or mixed phase states, and includes expansion due to the solid-liquid phase change. The function FTHEXP models fuel thermal expansion as a function of temperature, fraction of PuO/sub 2/, and the fraction of fuel which is molten.

  20. Advanced Fuels Campaign FY 2014 Accomplishments Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lori Braase; W. Edgar May

    2014-10-01

    The overall goal of ATF development is to identify alternative fuel system technologies to further enhance the safety, competitiveness, and economics of commercial nuclear power. The complex multiphysics behavior of LWR nuclear fuel in the integrated reactor system makes defining specific material or design improvements difficult; as such, establishing desirable performance attributes is critical in guiding the design and development of fuels and cladding with enhanced accident tolerance.

  1. Effects of Specific Fuel Consumption and Exhaust Emissions of Four Stroke Diesel Engine with CuO/Water Nanofluid as Coolant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthilraja S.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the effects of CuO/water based coolant on specific fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of four stroke single cylinder diesel engine. The CuO nanoparticles of 27 nm were used to prepare the nanofluid-based engine coolant. Three different volume concentrations (i.e 0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.2% of CuO/water nanofluids were prepared by using two-step method. The purpose of this study is to investigate the exhaust emissions (NOx, exhaust gas temperature and specific fuel consumption under different load conditions with CuO/water nanofluid. After a series of experiments, it was observed that the CuO/water nanofluids, even at low volume concentrations, have a significant influence on exhaust emissions. The experimental results revealed that, at full load condition, the specific fuel consumption was reduced by 8.6%, 15.1% and 21.1% for the addition of 0.05%, 0.1% and 0.2% CuO nanoparticles with water, respectively. Also, the emission tests were concluded that 881 ppm, 853 ppm and 833 ppm of NOx emissions were observed at high load with 0.05%, 0.1% and 0.2% volume concentrations of CuO/water nanofluids, respectively.

  2. FMDP reactor alternative summary report: Volume 4, Evolutionary LWR alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    Significant quantities of weapons-usable fissile materials [primarily plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU)] have become surplus to national defense needs both in the United States and Russia. These stocks of fissile materials pose significant dangers to national and international security. The dangers exist not only in the potential proliferation of nuclear weapons but also in the potential for environmental, safety, and health (ES&H) consequences if surplus fissile materials are not properly managed. The purpose of this report is to provide schedule, cost, and technical information that will be used to support the Record of Process (ROD). Following the screening process, DOE/MD via its national laboratories initiated a more detailed analysis activity to further evaluate each of the ten plutonium disposition alternatives that survived the screening process. Three ``Alternative Teams,`` chartered by DOE and comprised of technical experts from across the DOE national laboratory complex, conducted these analyses. One team was chartered for each of the major disposition classes (borehole, immobilization, and reactors). During the last year and a half, the Fissile Materials Disposition Program (FMDP) Reactor Alternative Team (RxAT) has conducted extensive analyses of the cost, schedule, technical maturity, S&S, and other characteristics of reactor-based plutonium disposition. The results of the RxAT`s analyses of the existing LWR, CANDU, and partially complete LWR alternatives are documented in Volumes 1-3 of this report. This document (Volume 4) summarizes the results of these analyses for the ELWR-based plutonium disposition option.

  3. LWR and defectivity improvement on EUV track system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harumoto, Masahiko; Stokes, Harold; Thouroude, Yan; Kaneyama, Koji; Pieczulewski, Charles; Asai, Masaya

    2016-03-01

    EUV lithography (EUVL) is well known to be a strong candidate for next generation, single exposure sub-30nm halfpitch lithography.[1] Furthermore, high-NA EUV exposure tool(s) released two years ago gave a strong impression by finer pattern results. On the other hand, it seems that the coat-develop track process remains very similar and in many aspects returns to KrF or ArF dry process fundamentals, but in practice a 26-32nm pitch patterning coat develop track process also has challenges with EUV resists. As access to EUV lithography exposures has become more readily available over the last five (5) years, several challenges and accomplishments in the track process have been reported, such as the improvement of ultra-thin film coating, CD uniformity, defectivity, line width roughness (LWR), and so on.[2-8] The coat-develop track process has evolved along with novel materials and metrology capability. Line width roughness (LWR) control and defect reduction are demonstrated utilizing the SOKUDO DUO coat-develop track system with ASML NXE:3100 and NXE:3300 exposures in the IMEC (Leuven, Belgium) cleanroom environment. Additionally, we will show the latest lithographic results obtained by novel processing approaches in the EUV coat develop track system.

  4. Reduction of motor fuel consumption - Which recipes does the state have at its disposal?; Absenkung des Treibstoffverbrauchs: Welche Rezepte hat der Staat?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volken, T.

    2008-07-01

    This presentation made at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic by Thomas Volken from the Energy Policy Section of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy SFOE takes a look at how motor-fuel consumption can be reduced. First of all, the present situation with regard to heating oil and motor fuels is examined and the gap between actual CO{sub 2} emissions from motor fuels and the target aimed for is discussed. Various legal and economical measures available are examined as are the promotion of technical innovation and motivational measures. The federal energy efficiency action plan and bonus/malus schemes are discussed and the environment label for cars is examined. Further, the situation in the European Union is discussed.

  5. The relationship between air pollution, fossil fuel energy consumption, and water resources in the panel of selected Asia-Pacific countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafindadi, Abdulkadir Abdulrashid; Yusof, Zarinah; Zaman, Khalid; Kyophilavong, Phouphet; Akhmat, Ghulam

    2014-10-01

    The objective of the study is to examine the relationship between air pollution, fossil fuel energy consumption, water resources, and natural resource rents in the panel of selected Asia-Pacific countries, over a period of 1975-2012. The study includes number of variables in the model for robust analysis. The results of cross-sectional analysis show that there is a significant relationship between air pollution, energy consumption, and water productivity in the individual countries of Asia-Pacific. However, the results of each country vary according to the time invariant shocks. For this purpose, the study employed the panel least square technique which includes the panel least square regression, panel fixed effect regression, and panel two-stage least square regression. In general, all the panel tests indicate that there is a significant and positive relationship between air pollution, energy consumption, and water resources in the region. The fossil fuel energy consumption has a major dominating impact on the changes in the air pollution in the region.

  6. Frigate Fuel Consumption Indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    PM Wageningen The Netherlands PWGSC Contract Number: W7707-115112/001/HAL Contract Scientific Authority: Eric Thornhill, Defence Scientist...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) MARIN,2, Haagsteeg,6708 PM Wageningen The Netherlands, 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9...192 183 174 165 157 149 143 137 133 Wageningen , September 2010 MARITIME RESEARCH INSTITUTE NETHERLANDS Report No. 24650-1-SP A1.1 T F

  7. Reactor Physics Assessment of Thick Silicon Carbide Clad PWR Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Loss of Coolant Accident LWR Light Water Reactor MOX Mixed Oxide Fuel MTC Moderator Temperature Coefficient MWd/kgIHM Megawatt days per...working only with UO2 and UO2/PuO2 mixed oxide ( MOX ) fuels. 3.1 Studsvik Core Management Software CASMO-4E and SIMULATE-3 are the primary computational

  8. Survey of nuclear fuel cycle economics: 1970--1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prince, B. E.; Peerenboom, J. P.; Delene, J. G.

    1977-03-01

    This report is intended to provide a coherent view of the diversity of factors that may affect nuclear fuel cycle economics through about 1985. The nuclear fuel cycle was surveyed as to past trends, current problems, and future considerations. Unit costs were projected for each step in the fuel cycle. Nuclear fuel accounting procedures were reviewed; methods of calculating fuel costs were examined; and application was made to Light Water Reactors (LWR) over the next decade. A method conforming to Federal Power Commission accounting procedures and used by utilities to account for backend fuel-cycle costs was described which assigns a zero net salvage value to discharged fuel. LWR fuel cycle costs of from 4 to 6 mills/kWhr (1976 dollars) were estimated for 1985. These are expected to reach 6 to 9 mills/kWr if the effect of inflation is included.

  9. FUEL SERVICES: Customer focused on Product Support during the whole Life Time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langenberger, J.; Hummel, W.

    2015-07-01

    For more than 40 years, Fuel Services of AREVA has been delivering devices and providing on-site services primary at LWR worldwide. We support our worldwide customers in achieving safe and economic operation of the fuel assemblies (FA) and core components (CC) and have received excellent feedback from them. But the Fuel Services support goes beyond on-site activities. (Author)

  10. EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF BRAKE THERMAL EFFICIENCY AND BRAKE SPECIFIC FUEL CONSUMPTION OF DIESEL ENGINE FUELLED WITH BIO-DIESEL

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The rapid depletion in world petroleum reserves and uncertainty in petroleum supply due to political and economical reasons, as well as, the sharp escalations in the petroleum prices have stimulated the search for alternatives to petroleum fuels. The situation is very grave in developing countries like India which imports 70% of the required fuel, spending 30% of her total foreign exchange earnings on oil imports. Petroleum fuels are being consumed by agriculture and transport sector for whic...

  11. Traditional Homegardens and Domestic Biomass Fuel Consumption Pattern in the Developing World: The Case of a South-Central Rural Village of Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukul, S.A. (Dept. of Forestry and Environmental Science, School of Agriculture and Mineral sciences, Shahjalal Univ. of Science and Technology, Sylhet 3114 (Bangladesh)). E-mail: sharif_a_mukul@yahoo.com

    2008-10-15

    Peoples living in most developing countries meet majority of their biomass fuel requirements from the forest. However, this usual practice becomes difficult to maintain as the forest of this region decreases in an alarming rate. In such context, homegardens will have to play the key role in near future where in many forest poor regions it's already playing the vital role. An exploratory study was conducted in a south-central rural village of Bangladesh to realize this potential contribution of homegardens to households domestic biomass fuel supplies, which is as well a virtually forest poor region of the country. Households were grouped into three different land holding categories and a total of thirty respondents, 10 from each category were selected randomly to understand their domestic biomass fuel consumption pattern as well as the role of homegardens to meet this fuel supply. Study suggested that, majority (87%) of the households of the area rely extensively on their homegardens to meet their domestic cooking energy requirements. During the study 47 homestead species were identified having fuel value of which 12 were identified as the most preferred species in the area. The contribution of wood fuel in households domestic energy sharing was reported as 56% followed by dried leaves (21%), dung cake/sticks (14%), crop residues (6%) and others (3%). Study finally concluded for a rich homegarden system in forest near regions to conserve country's remaining forest by providing an alternative source of biomass fuel. A participatory management of governments' fallow and khas lands, public places including road, railway and canal banks for tree farming to benefit rural land-less and marginal people were also recommended

  12. 汽车超声波油耗测试计算方法%Ultrasonic Method for Automobile Fuel Consumption Testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付百学; 胡胜海; 袁纲; 刘伟

    2012-01-01

    Aimed at the shortcoming of indirect or direct testing methods for automobile fuel consumption, a mathematical computational model of automobile fuel consumption testing was designed on the basis of the ultrasonic technology, single-chip microcomputer control technology and the ultrasonic flow testing principle of time difference method. Fuel flow was tested with the ultrasonic flow sensor on the basis of ultrasonic propagation time and geometrical parameters and time difference was calculated using the extended Kalman filtering method. The geometrical parameters of the ultrasonic flow sensor were estimated by 3D coordinate method and their calculation errors were analyzed and corrected. Finally, an integral correction and calibration was made on the flow errors generated from the limited information calculation of ultrasonic path speed. The results show that the computational method lays the theoretical foundation for optimizing the mathematical model of fuel consumption testing and for improving the testing accuracy of automobile fuel consumption.%针对汽车油耗间接测试法和直接测试法存在的不足,基于超声波技术和单片机控制技术,根据时差法超声波流量测试原理,构建汽车油耗测试数学计算模型。超声波流量传感器基于声时和几何参数测试燃油流量,采用扩展卡尔曼滤波法计算声时;利用三维坐标法测算超声波流量传感器的几何参数,进行了几何参数计算误差分析与修正。最后,对采用有限数量声路速度信息计算得到的流量误差进行了积分修正和校准。分析结果表明:该方法可为优化油耗测试数学模型、提高汽车油耗测试精度提供理论依据。

  13. Interpretation of driving style tips : application of the major driving style tips of "New Style Driving" by passenger car drivers and the effects on fuel consumption and tail pipe emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgwal, H.C. van de; Gense, N.L.J.

    2002-01-01

    Besides the applied engine and vehicle technology, the fuel economy of a car is also influenced by the behaviour of its driver. In the order to address the influence of a driver on the fuel consumption of road vehicles, the Dutch government and Novem have developed a national programme called "The N

  14. A discrete-event model to simulate the effect of truck bunching due to payload variance on cycle time, hauled mine materials and fuel consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. Soofastaei; S.M. Aminossadati; M.S. Kizil; P. Knights

    2016-01-01

    Data collected from truck payload management systems at various surface mines shows that the payload variance is significant and must be considered in analysing the mine productivity, energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions and associated cost. Payload variance causes significant differences in gross vehicle weights. Heavily loaded trucks travel slower up ramps than lightly loaded trucks. Faster trucks are slowed by the presence of slower trucks, resulting in‘bunching’, production losses and increasing fuel consumptions. This paper simulates the truck bunching phenomena in large surface mines to improve truck and shovel systems’ efficiency and minimise fuel consumption. The study concentrated on complet-ing a practical simulation model based on a discrete event method which is most commonly used in this field of research in other industries. The simulation model has been validated by a dataset collected from a large surface mine in Arizona state, USA. The results have shown that there is a good agreement between the actual and estimated values of investigated parameters.

  15. Ice Thermal Storage Systems for LWR Supplemental Cooling and Peak Power Shifting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Phil Sharpe; Blaise Hamanaka; Wei Yan; WoonSeong Jeong

    2010-06-01

    benefits and avoid forced derating and shutdown during extremely hot weather. For the new plants using dry cooling towers, adding the ice thermal storage systems can effectively reduce the efficiency loss and water consumption during hot weather so that new LWRs could be considered in regions without enough cooling water. \\ This paper presents the feasibility study of using ice thermal storage systems for LWR supplemental cooling and peak power shifting. LWR cooling issues and ITS application status will be reviewed. Two ITS application case studies will be presented and compared with alternative options: one for once-through cooling without enough cooling for short time, and the other with dry cooling. Because capital cost, especially the ice storage structure/building cost, is the major cost for ITS, two different cost estimation models are developed: one based on scaling method, and the other based on a preliminary design using Building Information Modeling (BIM), an emerging technology in Architecture/Engineering/Construction, which enables design options, performance analysis and cost estimating in the early design stage.

  16. Fission product releases at severe LWR accident conditions: ORNL/CEA measurements versus calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andre, B.; Ducros, G.; Leveque, J.P. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Grenoble, 38 (France). Dept. de Thermohydraulique et de Physique; Osborne, M.F.; Lorenz, R.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Maro, D. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Dept. de Protection de l`Environnement et des Installations

    1995-12-31

    Experimental programs in the United States and France have followed similar paths in supplying much of the data needed to analyze severe accidents. Both the HI/VI program, conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under the sponsorship of the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the HEVA/VERCORS program, supported by IPSN-Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique (CEA) and carried out at the Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble, have studied fission product release from light water reactor (LWR) fuel samples during test sequences representative of severe accidents. Recognizing that more accurate data, i.e., a better defined source term, could reduce the safety margins included in the rather conservative source terms originating from WASH-1400, the primary objective of these programs has been to improve the data base concerning fission product release and behavior at high temperatures. To facilitate the comparison, a model based on fission product diffusion mechanisms that was developed at ORNL and adapted with CEA experimental data is proposed. This CEA model is compared with the ORNL experimental data in a blind test. The two experimental programs used similar techniques in out-of-pile studies. Highly irradiated fuel samples were heated in radiofrequency induction furnaces to very high temperatures (up to 2700 K at ORNL and 2750 K at CEA) in oxidizing (H{sub 2}O), reducing (H{sub 2}) or mixed (H{sub 2}O+H{sub 2}) environments. The experimental parameters, which were chosen from calculated accident scenarios, did not duplicate specific accidents, but rather emphasized careful control of test conditions to facilitate extrapolation of the results to a wide variety of accident situations. This paper presents a broad and consistent database from ORNL and CEA release results obtained independently since the early 1980`S. A comparison of CORSOR and CORSOR Booth calculations, currently used in safety analysis, and the experimental results is presented and

  17. Neutronic experiment planning for the Fuels Refabrication and Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gore, B.F.; NcNeese, J.P.; Zimmerman, M.G.; Konzek, G.J.

    1979-12-01

    A program of experiments using /sup 233/UO/sub 2/ - ThO/sub 2/ fuel was proposed to provide new and improved neutronic and criticality data for thorium based nuclear fuels, in order to support the licensing of /sup 233/UO/sub 2/ - ThO/sub 2/ fuels in LWR cores. This would support the goal to develop technology for proliferation resistant fuel cycles to a point where fuel cycle choice is not limited by refabrication technology. The proposed experimental program is described in this document, along with initial planning and fuel acquisition activities undertaken during FY 1979. The program was terminated following notification that the DOE-sponsored denatured LWR Fuel Program which the experiments supported was to be discontinued.

  18. Do biomass fuel use and consumption of unsafe water mediate educational inequalities in stillbirth risk? An analysis of the 2007 Ghana Maternal Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amegah, A Kofi; Näyhä, Simo; Jaakkola, Jouni J K

    2017-02-07

    Numerous studies have explored the association between educational inequalities and stillbirth but most have failed to elaborate how low educational attainment leads to an increased risk of stillbirth. We hypothesised that use of biomass fuels and consumption of unsafe water related to low educational attainment could explain the stillbirth burden in Ghana attributable to socioeconomic disadvantage. Data from the 2007 Ghana Maternal Health Survey, a nationally representative population-based survey were analysed for this study. Of the10 370 women aged 15-49 years interviewed via structured questionnaires for the survey, 7183 primiparous and multiparous women qualified for inclusion in the present study. In a logistic regression analysis that adjusted for age, area of residence, marital status and ethnicity of women, lower maternal primary education was associated with a 62% (OR=1.62; 95% CI 1.04 to 2.52) increased lifetime risk of stillbirth. Biomass fuel use and consumption of unsafe water mediated 18% and 8% of the observed effects, respectively. Jointly these two exposures explained 24% of the observed effects. The generalised additive modelling revealed a very flat inverted spoon-shaped smoothed curve which peaked at low levels of schooling (2-3 years) and confirms the findings from the logistic regression analysis. Our results show that biomass fuel use and unsafe water consumption could be important pathways through which low maternal educational attainment leads to stillbirths in Ghana and similar developing countries. Addressing educational inequalities in developing countries is thus essential for ensuring household choices that curtail environmental exposures and help improve pregnancy outcomes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Do biomass fuel use and consumption of unsafe water mediate educational inequalities in stillbirth risk? An analysis of the 2007 Ghana Maternal Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Näyhä, Simo; Jaakkola, Jouni J K

    2017-01-01

    Background Numerous studies have explored the association between educational inequalities and stillbirth but most have failed to elaborate how low educational attainment leads to an increased risk of stillbirth. We hypothesised that use of biomass fuels and consumption of unsafe water related to low educational attainment could explain the stillbirth burden in Ghana attributable to socioeconomic disadvantage. Methods Data from the 2007 Ghana Maternal Health Survey, a nationally representative population-based survey were analysed for this study. Of the10 370 women aged 15–49 years interviewed via structured questionnaires for the survey, 7183 primiparous and multiparous women qualified for inclusion in the present study. Results In a logistic regression analysis that adjusted for age, area of residence, marital status and ethnicity of women, lower maternal primary education was associated with a 62% (OR=1.62; 95% CI 1.04 to 2.52) increased lifetime risk of stillbirth. Biomass fuel use and consumption of unsafe water mediated 18% and 8% of the observed effects, respectively. Jointly these two exposures explained 24% of the observed effects. The generalised additive modelling revealed a very flat inverted spoon-shaped smoothed curve which peaked at low levels of schooling (2–3 years) and confirms the findings from the logistic regression analysis. Conclusions Our results show that biomass fuel use and unsafe water consumption could be important pathways through which low maternal educational attainment leads to stillbirths in Ghana and similar developing countries. Addressing educational inequalities in developing countries is thus essential for ensuring household choices that curtail environmental exposures and help improve pregnancy outcomes. PMID:28174221

  20. Metholology for the selection of LWR safety R and D projects. Phase I, status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sheikh, K. A.

    1980-03-01

    The objective of the LWR R and D Selection Methodology Program is to develop and demonstrate an R and D selection methodology appropriate for LWR safety technology. This report documents the development work from the program beginning in April, 1979 to the end of Fiscal Year 1979. The scope of work for this period included three tasks; methodology review (Task 1), measures development (Task 2), and methodology development for the first phase of application (Task 3). The accomplishments of these tasks are presented.

  1. Capability of a SOFC-APU to optimise the fuel consumption of motor vehicles; Potenzial einer SOFC-APU bei der Verbrauchsoptimierung von Kraftfahrzeugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diegelmann, Christian B.

    2008-04-28

    While the energy system motor vehicle is analysed in this work different application possibilities of a SOFC-Auxiliary Power Unit for reducing the fuel consumption are identified. Apart from the pure electric power supply the APU can support functions like the engine-stop automatism or electric driving (hybrid vehicle). In addition the SOFC-APU generates waste heat at a high temperature level. The waste heat can be used for heating the passenger cabin or for preheating the combustion engine. Several methods are used for evaluating the conservation potentials. A simple estimate of the fuel consumption by means of medium efficiency and power already suffices to identify and evaluate the major impacts. The conservation potential of a SOFC-APU mainly depends on three factors, the start-up consumption of the APU, the operating period and the required electric power. A cold APU must first be heated-up to an operational temperature between 700 and 800 degrees Celsius. The heat-up process requires energy resulting in an excess consumption first. This excess consumption will only be compensated by the high efficiency of the SOFC-APU after a longer operating period. The operating period strongly depends on the electric power. In case of higher electric power the APU achieves a higher conservation rate. An APU is particularly interesting in standard applications with high energy demand. The APU avoids an operation of the combustion engine in the extreme underload range. In case of an air-conditioning at idling speed lasting for 30 minutes a fuel conservation of approx. 36% can be achieved including the start-up consumption. Conservation potentials in fuel consumption can only be achieved in the driving mode if the APU is operational and in case of a longer operating period. The difference in consumption compared to vehicles without APU was determined at vehicles with different basic operating strategies (current vehicle, vehicle with engine-stop automatism, vehicle with

  2. Capability of a SOFC-APU to optimise the fuel consumption of motor vehicles; Potenzial einer SOFC-APU bei der Verbrauchsoptimierung von Kraftfahrzeugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diegelmann, Christian B.

    2008-04-28

    While the energy system motor vehicle is analysed in this work different application possibilities of a SOFC-Auxiliary Power Unit for reducing the fuel consumption are identified. Apart from the pure electric power supply the APU can support functions like the engine-stop automatism or electric driving (hybrid vehicle). In addition the SOFC-APU generates waste heat at a high temperature level. The waste heat can be used for heating the passenger cabin or for preheating the combustion engine. Several methods are used for evaluating the conservation potentials. A simple estimate of the fuel consumption by means of medium efficiency and power already suffices to identify and evaluate the major impacts. The conservation potential of a SOFC-APU mainly depends on three factors, the start-up consumption of the APU, the operating period and the required electric power. A cold APU must first be heated-up to an operational temperature between 700 and 800 degrees Celsius. The heat-up process requires energy resulting in an excess consumption first. This excess consumption will only be compensated by the high efficiency of the SOFC-APU after a longer operating period. The operating period strongly depends on the electric power. In case of higher electric power the APU achieves a higher conservation rate. An APU is particularly interesting in standard applications with high energy demand. The APU avoids an operation of the combustion engine in the extreme underload range. In case of an air-conditioning at idling speed lasting for 30 minutes a fuel conservation of approx. 36% can be achieved including the start-up consumption. Conservation potentials in fuel consumption can only be achieved in the driving mode if the APU is operational and in case of a longer operating period. The difference in consumption compared to vehicles without APU was determined at vehicles with different basic operating strategies (current vehicle, vehicle with engine-stop automatism, vehicle with

  3. Computer program for prediction of fuel consumption statistical data for an upper stage three-axes stabilized on-off control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    A FORTRAN coded computer program and method to predict the reaction control fuel consumption statistics for a three axis stabilized rocket vehicle upper stage is described. A Monte Carlo approach is used which is more efficient by using closed form estimates of impulses. The effects of rocket motor thrust misalignment, static unbalance, aerodynamic disturbances, and deviations in trajectory, mass properties and control system characteristics are included. This routine can be applied to many types of on-off reaction controlled vehicles. The pseudorandom number generation and statistical analyses subroutines including the output histograms can be used for other Monte Carlo analyses problems.

  4. Advanced Fuels Campaign FY 2015 Accomplishments Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braase, Lori Ann [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Carmack, William Jonathan [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-10-29

    The mission of the Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) is to perform research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) activities for advanced fuel forms (including cladding) to enhance the performance and safety of the nation’s current and future reactors; enhance proliferation resistance of nuclear fuel; effectively utilize nuclear energy resources; and address the longer-term waste management challenges. This report is a compilation of technical accomplishment summaries for FY-15. Emphasis is on advanced accident-tolerant LWR fuel systems, advanced transmutation fuels technologies, and capability development.

  5. Release of segregated nuclides from spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, L.H.; Tait, J.C. [Atomic Energy Canada Ltd., Pinawa, MB (Canada). Whiteshell Laboratories

    1997-10-01

    The potential release of fission and activation products from spent nuclear fuel into groundwater after container failure in the Swedish deep repository is discussed. Data from studies of fission gas release from representative Swedish BWR fuel are used to estimate the average fission gas release for the spent fuel population. Information from a variety of leaching studies on LWR and CANDU fuel are then reviewed as a basis for estimating the fraction of the inventory of key radionuclides that could be released preferentially (the Instant Release Fraction of IRF) upon failure of the fuel cladding. The uncertainties associated with these estimates are discussed. 33 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs.

  6. A methodology to assess the benefit of operational or tactic adjustments to reduce Marine Corps fuel consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Burns, Joseph; Cibull, Sarah; Gardner, Benjamin; Monera, Shaun; Streeter, Jared; Colby, Dye; Team E2O; Cohort 311-142M

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited TheUnited States Marine Corps is too dependent on fossil fuel, which leaves logistics fuel support and supply lines vulnerable to attack, potentially degrading Marine Corps capabilities and ultimately putting Marines at risk. A need exists to identify doctrine, organization, training, materiel, leadership and education, personnel, and facilities (DOTMLPF) changes that provide a positive impact on energy efficiency while maintaining or ...

  7. Macstor system for spent fuel storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pattantyus, P. (Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Power Projects)

    1993-01-01

    In 1989, Transnuclear Inc. and AECL jointly developed the conceptual design for the Modular Aircooled Canister Storage System (Macstor) for LWR fuel. The development effort has proceeded to the completion of successful full-scale thermal testing. In 1990, AECL adapted the Macstor System approach for use with Candu fuel. The adapted design, called Canstor, has also successfully completed full-scale thermal testing, and the final system design has been completed. (author) 1 fig.

  8. Critical experiments supporting close proximity water storage of power reactor fuel. Technical progress report, October 1, 1977-December 31, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, M.N.; Hoovler, G.S.

    1978-03-01

    Experiments are being conducted on critical configurations of clusters of fuel rods, mocking up LWR-type fuel elements in close proximity water storage. Spacings between fuel clusters and the intervening material are being varied to provide a variety of benchmark loadings. (DLC)

  9. Nuclear fuels - Present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olander, D.

    2009-06-01

    The important developments in nuclear fuels and their problems are reviewed and compared with the status of present light-water reactor fuels. The limitations of LWR fuels are reviewed with respect to important recent concerns, namely provision of outlet coolant temperatures high enough for use in H 2 production, destruction of plutonium to eliminate proliferation concerns, and burning of the minor actinides to reduce the waste repository heat load and long-term radiation hazard. In addition to current oxide-based fuel rod designs, the hydride fuel with liquid-metal thermal bonding of the fuel-cladding gap is covered. Finally, two of the most promising Generation IV reactor concepts, the very high temperature reactor and the sodium fast reactor, and the accompanying reprocessing technologies, aqueous-based UREX+1a and pyrometallurgical, are summarized. In all of the topics covered, the thermodynamics involved in the fuel's behavior under irradiation and in the reprocessing schemes are emphasized.

  10. Influence of mobile air-conditioning on vehicle emissions and fuel consumption: a model approach for modern gasoline cars used in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weilenmann, Martin F; Vasic, Ana-Marija; Stettler, Peter; Novak, Philippe

    2005-12-15

    The influence of air-conditioning activity on the emissions and fuel consumption of passenger cars is an important issue, since fleet penetration and use of these systems have reached a high level. Apart from the MOBILE6 study in the United States, little data is available on the impact of air-conditioning devices (A/Cs). Since weather conditions and A/C technologies both differ from those in the U. S., a test series was designed for the European setting. A fleet of six modern gasoline passenger cars was tested in different weather conditions. Separate test series were carried out for the initial cooldown and for the stationary situation of keeping the interior of the vehicle cool. As assumed, CO2 emissions and fuel consumption rise with the thermal load. This also causes a notable rise in CO and hydrocarbons (HCs). Moreover, A/Cs do not stop automatically at low ambient temperatures; if necessary, they produce dry air to demist the windscreen. A model is proposed that shows a constant load for lower temperatures and a linear trend for higher temperatures. The initial cooldown tests highlight significant differences among cars but show that A/C operation for the initial cooling of an overheated passenger compartment does not result in any extra emissions for the fleet as a whole.

  11. Vehicle emissions and fuel consumption of diesel vehicles fueled with ethanol-butanol-diesel blends%乙醇-丁醇-柴油混合燃料的车辆排放性和经济性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈振斌; 倪计民; 张惜辉; 叶年业; 郝汝林; 麦瑞礼

    2012-01-01

    Exhaust emissions and fuel consumption of a diesel passenger car and a diesel minibus on road were measured to investigate the vehicle emissions and fuel consumption with ethanol-butanol-diesel blends. The experimental data from the car fueled with an E10 blend that contains 10% ethanol and 4% butanol by volume, was compared with those from the fossil diesel, it resulted in decreases of 10.42% in NOX emissions, 27.43% in HC+NOX emissions and 2.13% in PM emissions. The fuel consumption also declined by 7.66% and 3.71% under the car in constant velocity conditions of 90 and 120 km/h, respectively. Nevertheless, the results showed increases of 31.43% in CO emissions and 4.48% in fuel consumption for the car in terms of New European Driving Cycle or NEDC. Yet the E10 mixture in the minibus reduced the emissions of free acceleration exhaust smoke by 31.11%. This research demonstrates the practical applications of ethanol-butanol- diesel blends for improving vehicle emissions and fuel consumption.%为了研究乙醇-丁醇-柴油混合燃料的车辆排放性和经济性,该文对分别使用乙醇-丁醇-柴油混合燃料和柴油的在用柴油轿车的排放性能和燃油经济性,以及在用柴油客车的自由加速排气烟度排放进行了对比试验.研究结果表明:相对于柴油,在用柴油轿车使用E10(体积比,乙醇10%、丁醇4%、柴油86%)混合燃料的NOx排放减少10.42%,HC+NOx排放减少27.43%,微粒(PM)排放减少2.13%,90和120km/h等速行驶燃料消耗量分别减少7.66%和3.71%;然而CO排放增加31.43%,工况循环综合燃料消耗量增加4.48%.此外,在用柴油客车使用E10混合燃料的自由加速排气烟度排放减少31.11%.该研究结果对于完善乙醇柴油混合燃料的车辆排放性和经济性具有实用价值.

  12. Criticality benchmark guide for light-water-reactor fuel in transportation and storage packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichtenwalter, J.J.; Bowman, S.M.; DeHart, M.D.; Hopper, C.M.

    1997-03-01

    This report is designed as a guide for performing criticality benchmark calculations for light-water-reactor (LWR) fuel applications. The guide provides documentation of 180 criticality experiments with geometries, materials, and neutron interaction characteristics representative of transportation packages containing LWR fuel or uranium oxide pellets or powder. These experiments should benefit the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and licensees in validation of computational methods used in LWR fuel storage and transportation concerns. The experiments are classified by key parameters such as enrichment, water/fuel volume, hydrogen-to-fissile ratio (H/X), and lattice pitch. Groups of experiments with common features such as separator plates, shielding walls, and soluble boron are also identified. In addition, a sample validation using these experiments and a statistical analysis of the results are provided. Recommendations for selecting suitable experiments and determination of calculational bias and uncertainty are presented as part of this benchmark guide.

  13. PIE of nuclear grade SiC/SiC flexural coupons irradiated to 10 dpa at LWR temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyanagi, Takaaki [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Katoh, Yutai [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Silicon carbide fiber-reinforced SiC matrix (SiC/SiC) composites are being actively investigated for accident-tolerant core structures of light water reactors (LWRs). Owing to the limited number of irradiation studies previously conducted at LWR-coolant temperature, this study examined SiC/SiC composites following neutron irradiation at 230–340°C to 2.0 and 11.8 dpa in the High Flux Isotope Reactor. The investigated materials are chemical vapor infiltrated (CVI) SiC/SiC composites with three different reinforcement fibers. The fiber materials were monolayer pyrolytic carbon (PyC)-coated Hi-NicalonTM Type-S (HNS), TyrannoTM SA3 (SA3), and SCS-UltraTM (SCS) SiC fibers. The irradiation resistance of these composites was investigated based on flexural behavior, dynamic Young’s modulus, swelling, and microstructures. There was no notable mechanical properties degradation of the irradiated HNS and SA3 SiC/SiC composites except for reduction of the Young’s moduli by up to 18%. The microstructural stability of these composites supported the absence of degradation. In addition, no progressive swelling from 2.0 to 11.8 dpa was confirmed for these composites. On the other hand, the SCS composite showed significant mechanical degradation associated with cracking within the fiber. This study determined that SiC/SiC composites with HNS or SA3 SiC/SiC fibers, a PyC interphase, and a CVI SiC matrix retain their properties beyond the lifetime dose for LWR fuel cladding at the relevant temperature.

  14. Energy Optimization on the Battlefield: How Integrating Energy Efficient Technologies at the Tactical Level Can Reduce Fuel Consumption and Lessen the Burden of Fuel Logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    Blanket Source: HDG Global , Base X-Press Shelters,” http://www.hdtglobal.com/products/ shelters/base- xpress / (accessed May 13, 2014...and the way ahead. It states as long as we are dependent on fossil fuels, we need to ensure the security and free flow of global energy resources by...of today’s defense mission. Challenges to future U.S. national security are increasingly global and complex, requiring a broad range of military

  15. The Evaluation of the Impact of New Technologies for Medium-Duty Parcel Delivery Trucks on Fuel Consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lijuan; Duran, Adam; Kelly, Kenneth; Konan, Arnaud; Lammert, Michael; Prohaska, Robert

    2016-10-06

    In this paper, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory present the results of simulation studies to evaluate potential fuel savings as a result of improvements to vehicle rolling resistance, coefficient of drag, and vehicle weight as well as hybridization for four power trains for medium-duty parcel delivery vehicles. The vehicles will be modeled and simulated over 1,290 real-world driving trips to determine the fuel savings potential based on improvements to each technology and to identify best use cases for each platform. The results of impacts of new technologies on fuel saving will be presented, and the most favorable driving routes on which to adopt them will be explored.

  16. The Evaluation of the Impact of New Technologies for Different Powertrain Medium-Duty Trucks on Fuel Consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lijuan; Duran, Adam; Kelly, Kenneth; Konan, Arnaud; Lammert, Michael; Prohaska, Robert

    2016-09-27

    In this paper, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory present the results of simulation studies to evaluate potential fuel savings as a result of improvements to vehicle rolling resistance, coefficient of drag, and vehicle weight as well as hybridization for four powertrains for medium-duty parcel delivery vehicles. The vehicles will be modeled and simulated over 1,290 real-world driving trips to determine the fuel savings potential based on improvements to each technology and to identify best use cases for each platform. The results of impacts of new technologies on fuel saving will be presented, and the most favorable driving routes on which to adopt them will be explored.

  17. Reactivity Insertion Accident (RIA) Capability Status in the BISON Fuel Performance Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, Richard L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Folsom, Charles Pearson [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Pastore, Giovanni [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Veeraraghavan, Swetha [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-05-01

    One of the Challenge Problems being considered within CASL relates to modelling and simulation of Light Water Reactor LWR) fuel under Reactivity Insertion Accident (RIA) conditions. BISON is the fuel performance code used within CASL for LWR fuel under both normal operating and accident conditions, and thus must be capable of addressing the RIA challenge problem. This report outlines required BISON capabilities for RIAs and describes the current status of the code. Information on recent accident capability enhancements, application of BISON to a RIA benchmark exercise, and plans for validation to RIA behavior are included.

  18. Evaluation of inorganic sorbent treatment for LWR coolant process streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roddy, J.W.

    1984-03-01

    This report presents results of a survey of the literature and of experience at selected nuclear installations to provide information on the feasibility of replacing organic ion exchangers with inorganic sorbents at light-water-cooled nuclear power plants. Radioactive contents of the various streams in boiling water reactors and pressurized water reactors were examined. In addition, the methods and performances of current methods used for controlling water quality at these plants were evaluated. The study also includes a brief review of the physical and chemical properties of selected inorganic sorbents. Some attributes of inorganic sorbents would be useful in processing light water reactor (LWR) streams. The inorganic resins are highly resistant to damage from ionizing radiation, and their exchange capacities are generally equivalent to those of organic ion exchangers. However, they are more limited in application, and there are problems with physical integrity, especially in acidic solutions. Research is also needed in the areas of selectivity and anion removal before inorganic sorbents can be considered as replacements for the synthetic organic resins presently used in LWRs. 11 figures, 14 tables.

  19. Robot Kinematics Identification: KUKA LWR4+ Redundant Manipulator Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolyubin, Sergey; Paramonov, Leonid; Shiriaev, Anton

    2015-11-01

    This work is aimed at a comprehensive discussion of algorithms for the kinematic parameters identification of robotic manipulators. We deal with an open-loop geometric calibration task, when a full 6D robot's end-effector pose is measured. Effective solutions of such a task is of high interest in many practical applications, because it can dramatically improve key robot characteristics. On the first step, we select optimal calibration configurations. A comparative analysis of three different algorithms and two observability indexes used for numerical optimization is provided. Afterwards, using the acquired and pre-processed experimental data we identify modified Denavit-Hartenberg parameters of the manipulator. Estimates are obtained resolving original nonlinear forward kinematics relations. Finally, we compare nominal and calibrated geometric parameters and show how much deviations in these parameters affect robot positioning accuracy. To the best of our knowledge, such integrated efforts are new for the KUKA LWR4+ robot and Nikon K610 optical coordinate measuring machine (CMM), which were used in the study. Discussion of practical issues on how to organise the experiment is an additional contribution of this work. The proposed procedure is highly automated and can be implemented to improve manipulator's performance on a periodic basis.

  20. Democratic People`s Republic of Korea LWR project status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulligan, J.B.

    1996-07-01

    In October 1994, at Geneva, the United States and the Democratic People`s Republic of Korea (DPRK) signed an Agreed Framework as a first step toward resolving international concerns about nuclear activities in the DPRK. This Agreement, when implemented, will ultimately lead to the complete dismantlement of those aspects of the DPRK`s nuclear program, including reprocessing-related facilities, that have undermined the viability of the international nuclear non-proliferation regime and the stability of the Asia-Pacific region. The essence of the Agreement is that the DPRK will take near-term action to cease the activities of concern and permit some International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) verification inspection. In the future, it will dismantle its production reactors and accept full-scope IAWA safeguards. In return, the United Stated agreed to lead an international effort to supply the DPRK with light-water reactors which are less of proliferation concern than are graphite-moderated production reactors. Until the first LWR is in operation the DPRK will receive shipments of heavy oil to replace the energy lost by shutting down the production reactors.

  1. Real-world emissions and fuel consumption of diesel buses and trucks in Macao: From on-road measurement to policy implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaomeng; Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Li, Zhenhua; Zhou, Yu; Fu, Lixin; Hao, Jiming

    2015-11-01

    A total of 13 diesel buses and 12 diesel trucks in Macao were tested using portable emission measurement systems (PEMS) including a SEMTECH-DS for gaseous emissions and a SEMTECH-PPMD for PM2.5. The average emission rates of gaseous pollutants and CO2 are developed with the operating mode defined by the instantaneous vehicle specific power (VSP) and vehicle speed. Both distance-based and fuel mass-based emission factors for gaseous pollutants (e.g., CO, THC and NOX) are further estimated under typical driving conditions. The average distance-based NOX emission of heavy-duty buses (HDBs) is higher than 13 g km-1. Considering the unfavorable conditions for selective reductions catalyst (SCR) systems, such as low-speed driving conditions, more effective technology options (e.g., dedicated natural gas buses and electric buses) should be considered by policy makers in Macao. We identified strong effects of the vehicle size, engine displacement and driving conditions on real-world CO2 emission factors and fuel consumption for diesel vehicles. Therefore, detailed profiles regarding vehicle specifications can reduce the uncertainty in their fleet-average on-road fuel consumption. In addition, strong correlations between relative emission factors and driving conditions indicated by the average speed of generated micro-trips are identified based on a micro-trip method. For example, distance-based emission factors of HDBs will increase by 39% for CO, 29% for THC, 43% for NOX and 26% for CO2 when the average speed decreases from 30 km h-1 to 20 km h-1. The mitigation of on-road emissions from diesel buses and trucks by improving traffic conditions through effective traffic and economic management measures is therefore required. This study demonstrates the important role of PEMS in understanding vehicle emissions and mitigation strategies from science to policy perspectives.

  2. Life-Cycle Analysis of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Water Consumption – Effects of Coal and Biomass Conversion to Liquid Fuels as Analyzed with the GREET Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qianfeng [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cai, Hao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Han, Jeongwoo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-06-01

    The vast reserves of coal in the U.S. provide a significant incentive for the development of processes for coal conversion to liquid fuels (CTL). Also, CTL using domestic coal can help move the U.S. toward greater energy independence and security. However, current conversion technologies are less economically competitive and generate greater greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions than production of petroleum fuels. Altex Technologies Corporation (Altex, hereinafter) and Pennsylvania State University have developed a hybrid technology to produce jet fuel from a feedstock blend of coal and biomass. Collaborating with Altex, Argonne National Laboratory has expanded and used the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET®) model to assess the life-cycle GHG emissions and water consumption of this hybrid technology. Biomass feedstocks include corn stover, switchgrass, and wheat straw. The option of biomass densification (bales to pellets) is also evaluated in this study. The results show that the densification process generates additional GHG emissions as a result of additional biomass process energy demand. This process coproduces a large amount of char, and this study investigates two scenarios to treat char: landfill disposal (Char-LF) and combustion for combined heat and power (CHP). Since the CHP scenarios export excess heat and electricity as coproducts, two coproduct handling methods are used for well-to-wake (WTWa) analysis: displacement (Char-CHP-Disp) and energy allocation (Char-CHP-EnAllo). When the feedstock contains 15 wt% densified wheat straw and 85 wt% lignite coal, WTWa GHG emissions of the coal-and-biomass-to-liquid pathways are 116, 97, and 137 gCO2e per megajoule (MJ) under the Char-LF, Char-CHP-Disp, and Char-CHP-EnAllo scenarios, respectively, as compared to conventional jet fuel production at 84 gCO2e/MJ. WTWa water consumption values are 0.072, -0.046, and 0.044 gal/MJ for Char-LF, Char-CHP-Disp, and Char

  3. Municipal solid waste conversion to transportation fuels: a life-cycle estimation of global warming potential and energy consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pressley, Phillip N.; Aziz, Tarek N.; DeCarolis, Joseph F.

    2014-01-01

    of default assumptions, the model estimates that 1 Mg of MSW entering the RDF facility yields 123 L of gasoline, 57 L of diesel, 79 kg of other FT products, and 193 kWh of gross electricity production. For each Mg of MSW, the conversion process consumes 4.4 GJ of primary energy while creating fuels...

  4. Icare/Cathare coupling: three-dimensional thermal hydraulics of severe LWR accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillard, V.; Fichot, F. [CEA Fontenay aux Roses, Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Dept. de Recherches en Securite, DRS, 92 (France); Boudier, P.; Parent, M. [CEA Grenoble, Dir. des Reacteurs Nucleaires, DRN, 38 (France); Roser, R. [Communication et Systemes Systemes d' Information, CS SI, 38 - Fontaine (France)

    2001-07-01

    In the phenomenology of severe LWR accidents considered in safety studies, the accidental sequences can be divided into three phases: the initial phase, where no severe damage of fuel or control rods and structures occurs; the early core degradation phase, where limited material melting and relocation takes place; and the late core degradation phase during which substantial material relocation happens, molten pools and debris beds can form and corium may fall into the lower plenum and, in case of vessel failure, come into the containment. The CATHARE2 code is a system code which has been developed by CEA for IPSN, EDF and FRAMATOME to describe the thermal-hydraulics behavior of a whole PWR circuit during the first of these three phases, with a core degradation model limited to clad rupture. The ICARE2 code, developed by IPSN, allows the complete description of early and late core degradation phases, with a thermal-hydraulics model limited to the vessel, initial and boundary conditions being provided by a system code. The aim of this paper is to present the main features of the new version of the coupling, ICARE/CATHARE V2. First, the general characteristics of ICARE2 V3mod1 and CATHARE2 V1.5 standard codes, dealing with physical models and numerical aspects, are described. Second, the technical features of the coupling between the two codes are detailed. At last, some results of ICARE/CATHARE V2 calculations are presented which demonstrate the ability of the code to simulate a severe accident in a PWR and notably to describe multi-dimensional effects occurring in the core during the LOCA and degradation phases. (authors)

  5. Impacts of transient heat transfer modeling on prediction of advanced cladding fracture during LWR LBLOCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youho, E-mail: euo@kaist.ac.kr; Lee, Jeong Ik, E-mail: jeongiklee@kaist.ac.kr; NO, Hee Cheon, E-mail: hcno@kaist.ac.kr

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • Use of constant heat transfer coefficient for fracture analysis is not sound. • On-time heat transfer coefficient should be used for thermal fracture prediction. • ∼90% of the actual fracture stresses were predicted with the on-time transient h. • Thermal-hydraulic codes can be used to better predict brittle cladding fracture. • Effects of surface oxides on thermal shock fracture should be accounted by h. - Abstract: This study presents the importance of coherency in modeling thermal-hydraulics and mechanical behavior of a solid for an advanced prediction of cladding thermal shock fracture. In water quenching, a solid experiences dynamic heat transfer rate evolutions with phase changes of the fluid over a short quenching period. Yet, such a dynamic change of heat transfer rates has been overlooked in the analysis of thermal shock fracture. In this study, we are presenting quantitative evidence against the prevailing use of a constant heat transfer coefficient for thermal shock fracture analysis in water. We conclude that no single constant heat transfer could suffice to depict the actual stress evolution subject to dynamic fluid phase changes. Use of the surface temperature dependent heat transfer coefficient will remarkably increase predictability of thermal shock fracture of brittle materials. The presented results show a remarkable stress prediction improvement up to 80–90% of the actual stress with the use of the surface temperature dependent heat transfer coefficient. For thermal shock fracture analysis of brittle fuel cladding such as oxidized zirconium-based alloy or silicon carbide during LWR reflood, transient subchannel heat transfer coefficients obtained from a thermal-hydraulics code should be used as input for stress analysis. Such efforts will lead to a fundamental improvement in thermal shock fracture predictability over the current experimental empiricism for cladding fracture analysis during reflood.

  6. Planning Strategies for Transportation Fuel Consumption Reduction: An Evaluation of the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative’s Transportation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    are ethanol biofuels derived from corn , soybeans, sugars, grasses, and wood chips (Knittel 2012). While the direct consumption of petroleum by...Ready Program as well as existing partnerships with automotive and infrastructure suppliers throughout the private sector (HCEI 2011). Analysis and

  7. Measuring Fuel Consumption of Mining Truck with Engine Traction Characteristics and Actual Road Condition%利用发动机牵引特性及实际路况测算矿山运输卡车油耗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宪权

    2015-01-01

    This paper puts forward the current problems of budgeting the fuel consumption of mining truck. Combining the actual experience,the paper discusses the main factors that impact the fuel consumption. It also offers a new method to measure the fuel consumption of mining with the engine traction characteristics and actual road conditions.%针对目前矿山运输卡车油耗环节成本测算中存在的问题,结合实际经验,讨论影响油耗的主要因素,并提出了利用发动机牵引特性及实际路况测算开采油耗的新方法,供同行参考。

  8. Assessment of reactivity transient experiments with high burnup fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozer, O.; Yang, R.L.; Rashid, Y.R.; Montgomery, R.O.

    1996-03-01

    A few recent experiments aimed at determining the response of high-burnup LWR fuel during a reactivity initiated accident (RIA) have raised concerns that existing failure criteria may be inappropriate for such fuel. In particular, three experiments (SPERT CDC-859, NSRR HBO-1 and CABRI REP Na-1) appear to have resulted in fuel failures at only a fraction of the anticipated enthalpy levels. In evaluating the results of such RIA simulation experiments, however, it is necessary that the following two key considerations be taken into account: (1) Are the experiments representative of conditions that LWR fuel would experience during an in-reactor RIA event? (2) Is the fuel that is being utilized in the tests representative of the present (or anticipated) population of LWR fuel? Conducting experiments under conditions that can not occur in-reactor can trigger response modes that could not take place during in-reactor operation. Similarly, using unrepresentative fuel samples for the tests will produce failure information that is of limited relevance to commercial LWR fuel. This is particularly important for high-burnup fuel since the manner under which the test samples are base-irradiated prior to the test will impact the mechanical properties of the cladding and will therefore affect the RIA response. A good example of this effect can be seen in the results of the SPERT CDC-859 test and in the NSRR JM-4 and JM-5 tests. The conditions under which the fuel used for these tests was fabricated and/or base-irradiated prior to the RIA pulse resulted in the formation of multiple cladding defects in the form of hydride blisters. When this fuel was subjected to the RIA power pulse, it failed by developing multiple cracks that were closely correlated with the locations of the pre-existing hydride blisters. In the case of the JM tests, many of the cracks formed within the blisters themselves and did not propagate beyond the heavily hydrided regions.

  9. Improvements in aerodynamics for the purpose of either increasing power output or reducing fuel consumption of commercial vehicles. Einsatz des Fahrleistungsgewinnes durch verbesserte Aerodynamik zur Fahrleistungssteigerung oder zur Verbrauchsminimierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porth, D.; Kraemer, W.

    1993-05-01

    The effects of particularly efficient aerodynamic measures on fuel consumption, power output and economy have been detemined by means of systematic investigations carried out in the wind tunnel with a 1:2,5 model of a heavy-duty tractor/semitrailer combination and an original vehicle, and by means of corresponding comparative measurements in driving operation. The excess output gained from reducing the drag coefficient is another useful potential for improvement, which can be used for either increasing power output or further reducing fuel consumption by adapting the drive line. (orig.)

  10. Improved LWR Cladding Performance by EPD Surface Modification Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corradini, Michael; Sridharan, Kumar

    2012-11-26

    This project will utilize the electro-phoretic deposition technique (EPD) in conjunction with nanofluids to deposit oxide coatings on prototypic zirconium alloy cladding surfaces. After demonstrating that this surface modification is reproducible and robust, the team will subject the modified surface to boiling and corrosion tests to characterize the improved nucleate boiling behavior and superior corrosion performance. The scope of work consists of the following three tasks: The first task will employ the EPD surface modification technique to coat the surface of a prototypic set of zirconium alloy cladding tube materials (e.g. Zircaloy and advanced alloys such as M5) with a micron-thick layer of zirconium oxide nanoparticles. The team will characterize the modified surface for uniformity using optical microscopy and scanning-electron microscopy, and for robustness using standard hardness measurements. After zirconium alloy cladding samples have been prepared and characterized using the EPD technique, the team will begin a set of boiling experiments to measure the heat transfer coefficient and critical heat flux (CHF) limit for each prepared sample and its control sample. This work will provide a relative comparison of the heat transfer performance for each alloy and the surface modification technique employed. As the boiling heat transfer experiments begin, the team will also begin corrosion tests for these zirconium alloy samples using a water corrosion test loop that can mimic light water reactor (LWR) operational environments. They will perform extended corrosion tests on the surface-modified zirconium alloy samples and control samples to examine the robustness of the modified surface, as well as the effect on surface oxidation

  11. Performance of Transuranic-Loaded Fully Ceramic Micro-Encapsulated Fuel in LWRs Final Report, Including Void Reactivity Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael A. Pope; R. Sonat Sen; Brian Boer; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; Gilles Youinou

    2011-09-01

    The current focus of the Deep Burn Project is on once-through burning of transuranics (TRU) in light-water reactors (LWRs). The fuel form is called Fully-Ceramic Micro-encapsulated (FCM) fuel, a concept that borrows the tri-isotropic (TRISO) fuel particle design from high-temperature reactor technology. In the Deep Burn LWR (DB-LWR) concept, these fuel particles are pressed into compacts using SiC matrix material and loaded into fuel pins for use in conventional LWRs. The TRU loading comes from the spent fuel of a conventional LWR after 5 years of cooling. Unit cell and assembly calculations have been performed using the DRAGON-4 code to assess the physics attributes of TRU-only FCM fuel in an LWR lattice. Depletion calculations assuming an infinite lattice condition were performed with calculations of various reactivity coefficients performed at each step. Unit cells and assemblies containing typical UO2 and mixed oxide (MOX) fuel were analyzed in the same way to provide a baseline against which to compare the TRU-only FCM fuel. Then, assembly calculations were performed evaluating the performance of heterogeneous arrangements of TRU-only FCM fuel pins along with UO2 pins.

  12. Implications from the Use of Non-timber Forest Products on the Consumption of Wood as a Fuel Source in Human-Dominated Semiarid Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Maria Clara B. T.; Ramos, Marcelo Alves; Araújo, Elcida L.; Albuquerque, Ulysses P.

    2015-08-01

    Little is known about what possible effects on wood resources might be caused by non-timber forest products (NTFPs). Here, we assessed the patterns of fuelwood consumption related to an NTFP ( Caryocar coriaceum) oil extraction and how this non-domestic activity can indirectly increase the use pressure on fuelwood species in a protected area, semiarid of Brazil. We conducted semi-structured interviews, in situ inventories, phytosociological surveys, and analyses of wood quality to identify the set of woody plants used in oil production. Householders use large volumes of dry wood and a set of woody species, which are highly exploited. Additionally, many preferred species have low fuel potential and suffer much use pressure. The best fuelwood species are underused, what requires management strategies to improve their potential as a source of energy. As a result, we suggest some conservation and management actions of fuelwood resources related to the use of NTFPs.

  13. Combining artificial neural network and multi-objective optimization to reduce a heavy-duty diesel engine emissions and fuel consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amir-Hasan; Kakaee; Pourya; Rahnama; Amin; Paykani; Behrooz; Mashadi

    2015-01-01

    Nondominated sorting genetic algorithm Ⅱ(NSGA-Ⅱ) is well known for engine optimization problem. Artificial neural networks(ANNs) followed by multi-objective optimization including a NSGA-Ⅱ and strength pareto evolutionary algorithm(SPEA2) were used to optimize the operating parameters of a compression ignition(CI) heavy-duty diesel engine. First, a multi-layer perception(MLP) network was used for the ANN modeling and the back propagation algorithm was utilized as training algorithm. Then, two different multi-objective evolutionary algorithms were implemented to determine the optimal engine parameters. The objective of the present study is to decide which algorithm is preferable in terms of performance in engine emission and fuel consumption optimization problem.

  14. Combining artificial neural network and multi-objective optimization to reduce a heavy-duty diesel engine emissions and fuel consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amir-Hasan Kakaee; Pourya Rahnama; Amin Paykani; Behrooz Mashadi

    2015-01-01

    Nondominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) is well known for engine optimization problem. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) followed by multi-objective optimization including a NSGA-II and strength pareto evolutionary algorithm (SPEA2) were used to optimize the operating parameters of a compression ignition (CI) heavy-duty diesel engine. First, a multi-layer perception (MLP) network was used for the ANN modeling and the back propagation algorithm was utilized as training algorithm. Then, two different multi-objective evolutionary algorithms were implemented to determine the optimal engine parameters. The objective of the present study is to decide which algorithm is preferable in terms of performance in engine emission and fuel consumption optimization problem.

  15. Status report on assessment of environmentally assisted fatigue for LWR extended service conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohanty, S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Soppet, W. K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Majumdar, S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Natesan, K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-07-09

    This report provides an update on an earlier assessment of environmentally assisted fatigue for light water reactor (LWR) materials under extended service conditions. This report is a deliverable in September 2013, under the work package for environmentally assisted fatigue in the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program. The overall objective of this LWRS project is to assess the degradation by environmentally assisted cracking/fatigue of LWR materials, such as various alloy base metals and their welds used in reactor coolant system piping. This effort is to support the U.S. Department of Energy LWRS program for developing tools to predict the aging/failure mechanism and to correspondingly predict the remaining life of LWR components for anticipated 60-80 year operation.

  16. Effects of Listening While Reading (LWR on Swahili Reading Fluency and Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipo Lubua

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies have examined the contribution of technology in teaching such languages as English, French, and Spanish, among many others. Contrarily, most LCTL’s, have received very little attention. This study investigates if listening while reading (LWR may expedite Swahili reading fluency and comprehension. The study employed the iBook Author tool to create weekly mediated and interactive reading texts, with comprehension exercises, which were eventually used to collect descriptive and qualitative data from four Elementary Swahili students. Participants participated in a seven week reading program, which provided them with some kind of directed self-learning, and met with the instructor for at least 30 minutes every week for observation and more reading activities. The teacher recorded their reading scores, and a number of themes on how LWR influenced reading fluency and comprehension are discussed here. It shows that participants have a positive attitude towards LWR and they suggest it for all the reading classes.

  17. Evaluation of fuel fabrication and the back end of the fuel cycle for light-water- and heavy-water-cooled nuclear power reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, W.L.; Olsen, A.R.

    1979-06-01

    The classification of water-cooled nuclear reactors offers a number of fuel cycles that present inherently low risk of weapons proliferation while making power available to the international community. Eight fuel cycles in light water reactor (LWR), heavy water reactor (HWR), and the spectral shift controlled reactor (SSCR) systems have been proposed to promote these objectives in the International Fuel Cycle Evaluation (INFCE) program. Each was examined in an effort to provide technical and economic data to INFCE on fuel fabrication, refabrication, and reprocessing for an initial comparison of alternate cycles. The fuel cycles include three once-through cycles that require only fresh fuel fabrication, shipping, and spent fuel storage; four cycles that utilize denatured uranium--thorium and require all recycle operations; and one cycle that considers the LWR--HWR tandem operation requiring refabrication but no reprocessing.

  18. Matpro--version 10: a handbook of materials properties for use in the analysis of light water reactor fuel rod behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reymann, G.A. (comp.)

    1978-02-01

    The materials properties correlations and computer subcodes (MATPRO--Version 10) developed for use with various LWR fuel rod behavior analytical programs at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory are described. Formulations of fuel rod material properties, which are generally semiempirical in nature, are presented for uranium dioxide and mixed uranium--plutonium dioxide fuel, zircaloy cladding, and fill gas mixtures.

  19. Radiation protection potential of MOX-fuel doped with 231Pa and Cs radioisotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryuchkov, E F; Glebov, V B; Apse, V A; Shmelev, A N

    2005-01-01

    The paper addresses the problem of MOX-fuel self-protection during full cycle of MOX-fuel management. Under conditions of the closed LWR cycle the proliferation-resistance levels were evaluated for fresh and spent MOX-fuel with 231Pa and Cs feed. As it follows from the paper results, combination of these two admixtures being doped into MOX-fuel is able to enhance the inherent radiation barrier and to weaken shortcomings of both proliferation deterrents.

  20. Life Cycle Assessment of Vehicle Lightweighting: A Physics-Based Model To Estimate Use-Phase Fuel Consumption of Electrified Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung Chul; Wallington, Timothy J

    2016-10-18

    Assessing the life-cycle benefits of vehicle lightweighting requires a quantitative description of mass-induced fuel consumption (MIF) and fuel reduction values (FRVs). We have extended our physics-based model of MIF and FRVs for internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs) to electrified vehicles (EVs) including hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and battery electric vehicles (BEVs). We illustrate the utility of the model by calculating MIFs and FRVs for 37 EVs and 13 ICEVs. BEVs have much smaller MIF and FRVs, both in the range 0.04-0.07 Le/(100 km 100 kg), than those for ICEVs which are in the ranges 0.19-0.32 and 0.16-0.22 L/(100 km 100 kg), respectively. The MIF and FRVs for HEVs and PHEVs mostly lie between those for ICEVs and BEVs. Powertrain resizing increases the FRVs for ICEVs, HEVs and PHEVs. Lightweighting EVs is less effective in reducing greenhouse gas emissions than lightweighting ICEVs, however the benefits differ substantially for different vehicle models. The physics-based approach outlined here enables model specific assessments for ICEVs, HEVs, PHEVs, and BEVs required to determine the optimal strategy for maximizing the life-cycle benefits of lightweighting the light-duty vehicle fleet.

  1. In-situ TEM ion irradiation investigations on U3Si2 at LWR temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yinbin; Harp, Jason; Mo, Kun; Bhattacharya, Sumit; Baldo, Peter; Yacout, Abdellatif M.

    2017-02-01

    The radiation-induced amorphization of U3Si2 was investigated by in-situ transmission electron microscopy using 1 MeV Kr ion irradiation. Both arc-melted and sintered U3Si2 specimens were irradiated at room temperature to confirm the similarity in their responses to radiation. The sintered specimens were then irradiated at 350 °C and 550 °C up to 7.2 × 1015 ions/cm2 to examine their amorphization behavior under light water reactor (LWR) conditions. U3Si2 remains crystalline under irradiation at LWR temperatures. Oxidation of the material was observed at high irradiation doses.

  2. Review of literature on the TMI accident and correlation to the LWR Safety Technology Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, W.J.

    1980-05-01

    This report is the result of approximately two man-months of effort devoted to assimilating and comprehending significant publicly available material related to Three Mile Island Unit 2 and events during and subsequent to the accident experienced on March 28, 1979. Those events were then correlated with the Preliminary LWR Safety Technology Program Plan (Preliminary Program Plan) prepared for the US Department of Energy by Sandia National Lab. This report is being submitted simultaneously with the SAI report entitled Preliminary Prioritization of Tasks in the Draft LWR Safety Technology Program Plan.

  3. Biogas and Renewable Fuel Consumption : 2008 Figures for Linköping and Östergötland

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, biogas consumption in Linköping has been increasing. With the expansion of infrastructure and vehicles capable of using biogas, Linköping is a leading model for biogas vehicles and fleet worldwide. Over the past few years biogas production has grown at a nearly constant rate of 20%. Since the start when only a limited amount of biogas was delivered primarily to the bus fleet, over 8.5 million m3 were delivered in 2009 (Svensk Biogas, 2009). Currently biogas is used in t...

  4. Macstor dry spent fuel storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pare, F. E. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Montreal (Canada)

    1996-04-15

    AECL, a Canadian Grown Corporation established since 1952, is unique among the world's nuclear organizations. It is both supplier of research reactors and heavy water moderated CANDU power reactors as well as operator of extensive nuclear research facilities. As part of its mandate, AECL has developed products and conceptual designs for the short, intermediate and long term storage and disposal of spent nuclear fuel. AECL has also assumed leadership in the area of dry storage of spent fuel. This Canadian Crown Corporation first started to look into dry storage for the management of its spent nuclear fuel in the early 1970's. After developing silo-like structures called concrete canisters for the storage of its research reactor enriched uranium fuel, AECL went on to perfect that technology for spent CANDU natural uranium fuel. In 1989 AECL teamed up with Trans nuclear, Inc.,(TN), a US based member of the international Trans nuclear Group, to extend its dry storage technology to LWR spent fuel. This association combines AECL's expertise and many years experience in the design of spent fuel storage facilities with TN's proven capabilities of processing, transportation, storage and handling of LWR spent fuel. From the early AECL-designed unventilated concrete canisters to the advanced MACSTOR concept - Modular Air-Cooled Canister Storage - now available also for LWR fuel - dry storage is proving to be safe, economical, practical and, most of all, well accepted by the general public. AECL's experience with different fuels and circumstances has been conclusive.

  5. Improving the fuel consumption and the operational behaviour of internal combustion engines with turbocompounding. Verbesserung von Kraftstoffverbrauch und Betriebsverhalten von Verbrennungsmotoren durch Turbocompounding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergbauer, F.

    1989-07-18

    The energy contained in the exhaust fumes of an internal combustion engine is equal to the energy used for performance. It is therefore desirable to recapture and recycle part of this energy. This thesis investigates the utilization of the pressure difference between exhaust gas and ambient air by means of a turbine located in the exhaust gas flow of the engine. The turbine is expected to contribute to an improved fuel consumption and operational behaviour. The effect of combustion chamber insulation and the influence of exhaust gas treatment systems on the turbocompoundmotor are also investigated. Detailed are supplied on: theoretical improvement of consumption, carrying out of the tests, a comparison between calculation and measurements for diesel engines, optimation of diesel engines and their partial load behaviour (medium-speed engine, utility vehicle-diesel engine). Similar comparisons were made with otto-engines whose partial load behaviour was also investigated. The turbocompound engine with insulated combustion chamber and the impact of exhaust gas treatment methods are dealt with. (HWJ).

  6. Performance model to assist solar thermal power plant siting in northern Chile based on backup fuel consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larrain, Teresita; Escobar, Rodrigo; Vergara, Julio [Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica y Metalurgica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Macul, Santiago (Chile)

    2010-08-15

    In response to environmental awareness, Chile introduced sustainability goals in its electricity law. Power producers must deliver 5% from renewable sources by 2010 and 10% by 2024. The Chilean desert has a large available surface with one of the highest radiation levels and clearest skies in the World. These factors imply that solar power is an option for this task. However, a commercial plant requires a fossil fuel system to backup the sunlight intermittency. The authors developed a thermodynamical model to estimate the backup fraction needed in a 100 MW hybrid -solar-fossil- parabolic trough power plant. This paper presents the model aiming to predicting the performance and exploring its usefulness in assisting site selection among four locations. Since solar radiation data are only available in a monthly average, we introduced two approaches to feed the model. One data set provided an average month with identical days throughout and the other one considered an artificial month of different daylight profiles on an hourly basis for the same monthly average. We recommend a best plant location based on minimum fossil fuel backup, contributing to optimal siting from the energy perspective. Utilities will refine their policy goals more closely when a precise solar energy data set becomes available. (author)

  7. Heat insulation of combustion chamber walls - A measure to decrease the fuel consumption of I. C. engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woschni, G.; Spindler, W.; Kolesa, K.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental investigations were made with a single-cylinder direct-injection Diesel engine with heat-insulated piston. The most important result is an inferior economy compared with the not insulated aluminum-piston engine. It was found that this phenomenon is not caused by neither a changed combustion process nor increased blowby nor different friction losses, but rather by a drastic increase of the heat transfer coefficient during the first part of combustion with increasing surface temperature. This is taken into account in a modified equation for the heat transfer coefficient. Cycle-simulations using this modified equation show that there is neither a gain in fuel economy of naturally aspirated nor of turbocharged nor of turbocompound Diesel engines with ''heat insulated'' combustion chamber walls.

  8. Fuel consumption of tractor for different soil types in semi-arid regions; Consumo de combustivel de um trator agricola para diferentes tipos de solo em regioes semi-aridas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montanha, Gustavo K. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FAC/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Engenharia Rural], E-mail: gmontanha@fca.unesp.br; Guerra, Saulo P.S. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Gestao e Tecnologia Agroindustrial; Andrade-Sanchez, Pedro; Heun, John [The University of Arizona, Maricopa, AZ (United States); Monteiro, Leonardo A. [The University of Arizona (MAC/UA), Maricopa, AZ (United States). Maricopa Agricultural Center

    2010-07-01

    The appropriate use of agricultural machinery enables greater operational efficiency and higher productivity for the farmer. Some factors such as soil type can influence the fuel consumption, one of the biggest costs. This study aimed to compare the fuel consumption of a tractor operating in two different conditions of soil in semi-arid regions. The area used for testing is located in the city of Maricopa, in Arizona, belonging to 'The University of Arizona'. The area 1 is classified as sandy clay loam soil (52% sand, 35% clay, 13% silt). The area 2 is classified as a sandy loam soil (71% sand, 12% clay and 17% silt). The tractor 4 x 2 TDA, with 88 kw (120 hp) engine power equipped with auto pilot system and an implement for tillage were used in the experiment. A data acquisition system was installed in the tractor to collect the data generated by the GPS and fuel consumption sensor. The results showed significant statistical difference in fuel consumption between soil textures. (author)

  9. Research on a Vensim simulation based prediction method of urban vehicle fuel consumption%基于Vensim仿真的城市机动车耗油量预测方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩雨; 张喜

    2012-01-01

    Correct prediction of fuel consumption of urban cars has great significance to scientifically evaluate urban traffic environment pollution and even to formulate the relevant policies.This paper constructs the causal diagram and system flow chart of urban car fuel consumption with the theory and method of system dynamics.We quantify the factors influencing fuel consumption and present a predictive model.We eventually analyze fuel consumption of Beijing as a concrete example and verify its correctness with simulation software,Vensim.%正确预测城市机动车耗油量,对科学评估城市交通环境污染及制定相关政策都具有重要意义。本文基于系统动力学的原理和方法,构造了城市机动车耗油量的因果关系图和系统流图,并将影响燃油消耗量的内、外部因素一并考虑加以量化,提出了消耗量预测模型。最后运用Vensim仿真软件,对北京市小汽车燃油消耗总量进行了实例分析,验证了模型的正确性。

  10. The Effect and Potential Study of Eco-driving on Taxi Fuel Consumption%出租车驾驶员驾驶行为对油耗的影响及潜力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓华; 陈晨; 伍毅平; 荣建; 刘莹; 程颖; 胡莹

    2015-01-01

    Taxi actual operating data on Beijing urban basic freeway section is taken and then divided according to driving cycle and level of service(LOS), based on which the effect and potential to fuel consumption of eco-driving under different conditions is analyzed. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is used to analyze the effect to fuel consumption of driver behavior under different conditions. The result shows that taxis accelerating and decelerating are frequently on urban basic freeway section. With the improvement of LOS, taxi fuel consumption is increased under the condition of acceleration and steady running, but it is reduced under deceleration. The main vehicle fuel consumption comes from the accelerating process at low LOS. Considering the conditions' contribution to total fuel consumption, eco-driving fuel-saving potential calculation method is proposed to analyze benefits of eco-driving. It turns out that accelerating process has highest fuel-saving potential and the whole fuel consumption reduction on urban basic freeway section could be 11.18%when adopting eco-driving.%本文基于北京市出租车实际运行数据,研究城市快速路基本路段不同工况、服务水平下驾驶行为对出租车油耗的影响,分析各条件下生态驾驶节能潜力.应用方差分析方法,分析不同条件下驾驶行为对出租车油耗的影响.研究结果表明,出租车在城市快速路基本路段加、减速频繁;随服务水平提高,加速、匀速工况下车辆油耗升高,减速工况下车辆油耗降低;低服务水平下加速工况油耗是车辆油耗的主要来源.考虑各条件下油耗对出租车总油耗的贡献,提出生态驾驶行为节能潜力计算方法.分析结果表明,加速工况下生态驾驶节能潜力最高,出租车在快速路基本路段取生态驾驶行为的综合节能潜力可达11.18%.

  11. Research and modification of jet fuel consumption evaluation index based on ridge regression%基于岭回归法的航油消耗评价指标研究与修正

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓津; 张蝶

    2013-01-01

    Along with the constant increase of China air transportation turnover volume,jet fuel consumption continues to rise.However,as the jet fuel price and environmental costs(i.e,from carbon trade schemes or taxes) are higher and higher,airlines have to take good measures on fuel-saving.To evaluate the jet fuel consumption of airlines more precisely,this paper studies the existing evaluation index of fuel consumption,per ton-kilometer,based on the 1981-2010 statistical data of China air transportation with least square method,introduces the index of taking off and landing fuel consumption,solves multicollinearity by method of ridge regression and achieves standard ridge regression equation.The results show that the fuel consumption when taking off and landing is higher than when cruising,and introducing the index of taking off and landing fuel consumption is more in line with the actual situation of China air transportation.%随着中国航空运输周转量不断增长,航油消耗量也在持续增长.然而,航油价格和环境成本(碳交易或碳税)的增加使航空公司不得不大力节油.为了更加精确地评估航空公司的航油消耗,基于中国航空运输业1981-2010年的统计数据,运用最小二乘法对现有的油耗评价指标——单位吨公里油耗进行研究,并在此基础上引入了起飞爬升下降油耗这个指标,同时运用岭回归法解决了回归过程中存在的多重共线性问题,最终得到标准化的岭回归方程.结果表明,飞机起飞爬升下降时耗油比巡航时要高,增加指标更符合中国航空运输业的实际情况.

  12. Characteristic test technology for PWR fuel and its components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae Ho; Lee, Chan Bock; Bang, Je Gun; Jung, Yeon Ho; Jeong, Yong Hwan; Park, Sang Yoon; Kim, Kyeng Ho; Nam, Cheol; Baek, Jong Hyuk; Lee, Myung Ho; Choi, Byoung Kwon; Song, Kun Woo; Kang, Ki Won; Kim, Keon Sik; Kim, Jong Hun; Kim, Young Min; Yang, Jae Ho; Song, Kee Nam; Kim, Hyung Kyu; Kang, Heung Seok; Yoon, Kyung Ho; Chun, Tae Hyun; In, Wang Kee; Oh, Dong Seok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-01-01

    Characteristic tests of fuel assembly and its components being developed in the Advanced LWR Fuel Development Project supported by the mid-long term nuclear R and D program are described in this report. Performance verification of fuel and its components by the characteristic tests are essential to their development. Fuel components being developed in the Advanced LWR Fuel Development Project are zirconium alloy cladding, UO{sub 2} and burnable absorber pellets, spacer grid and top and bottom end pieces. Detailed test plans for those fuel components are described in this report, and test procedures of cladding and pellet are also described in the Appendix. Examples of the described tests are in- and out-of- pile corrosion and mechanical tests such as creep and burst tests for the cladding, in-pile capsule and ramp tests for the pellet, mechanical tests such as strength and vibration, and thermal-hydraulic tests such as pressure drop and critical heat flux for the spacer grid and top and bottom end pieces. It is expected that this report could be used as the standard reference for the performance verification tests in the development of LWR fuel and its components. 11 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  13. Treatment of post-consumption oils from Paraiba state - Brazil - clays for application as bio fuel; Tratamento de oleos pos-consumo a partir de argilas da Paraiba para aplicacao como biocombustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, E.P.; Oliveira, S.V. de; Medeiros, K.M. de; Silva, D.F. da; Araujo, E.M.; Fook, M.V.L. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (DEMa/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais], e-mail: elainepatriciaaraujo@yahoo.com.br

    2008-07-01

    The utilization of fuels of agricultural origin in the cycle diesel engines is a good alternative to reduce dependence on importation petroleum, since these fuels are a renewable source of energy. The utilization of biodiesel as biofuel is a contribution to the environment, reducing the qualitative and quantitative form levels of environmental pollution. The recycling of post-consumption oil helps reduce the uncontrolled disposal and environmentally dangerous, than to obtain fuel with a cost / benefit and offering a competitive alternative commercial advantage. However, these oils should go through a process of decontamination and clearing up the stage of chemical conversion which is used clay to lighten the oil. This work had as its objective to make a literature revision evaluating the potential of the clearing clay modified in Paraiba, used in post-consumption oils for application as biofuel. (author)

  14. Determination of optimal LWR containment design, excluding accidents more severe than Class 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cave, L.; Min, T.K.

    1980-04-01

    Information is presented concerning the restrictive effect of existing NRC requirements; definition of possible targets for containment; possible containment systems for LWR; optimization of containment design for class 3 through class 8 accidents (PWR); estimated costs of some possible containment arrangements for PWR relative to the standard dry containment system; estimated costs of BWR containment.

  15. FMDP Reactor Alternative Summary Report: Volume 3 - partially complete LWR alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, S.R.; Fisher, S.E.; Bevard, B.B. [and others

    1996-09-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (DOE/MD) initiated a detailed analysis activity to evaluate each of ten plutonium disposition alternatives that survived an initial screening process. This document, Volume 3 of a four volume report summarizes the results of these analyses for the partially complete LWR (PCLWR) reactor based plutonium disposition alternative.

  16. Fuel consumption and CO2/pollutant emissions of mobile air conditioning at fleet level - new data and model comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weilenmann, Martin F; Alvarez, Robert; Keller, Mario

    2010-07-01

    Mobile air conditioning (MAC) systems are the second-largest energy consumers in cars after driving itself. While different measurement series are available to illustrate their behavior in hot ambient conditions, little data are available for lower temperatures. There are also no data available on diesel vehicles, despite these being quite common in Europe (up to 70% of the fleet in some countries). In the present study, six representative modern diesel passenger cars were tested. In combination with data from previous measurements on gasoline cars, a new model was developed - EEMAC = Empa Emission model for Mobile Air Conditioning systems - to predict emissions from air conditioning. The measurements obtained show that A/C activity still occurs at temperatures below the desired interior temperature. The EEMAC model was applied to the average meteorological year of a central European region and compared with the US EPA MOBILE6 model. As temperatures in central Europe are often below 20 degrees C (the point below which the two models differ), the overall results differ clearly. The estimated average annual CO(2) output according to EEMAC is six times higher than that of MOBILE6. EEMAC also indicates that around two-thirds of the fuel used for air conditioning could be saved by switching the MAC system off below 18 degrees C.

  17. Estimated performance of an adaptive trailing-edge device aimed at reducing fuel consumption on a medium-size aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diodati, Gianluca; Concilio, Antonio; Ricci, Sergio; De Gaspari, Alessandro; Huvelin, Fabien; Dumont, Antoine; Godard, Jean-Luc

    2013-03-01

    This paper deals with the estimation of the performance of a medium-size aircraft (3-hour flight range) equipped with an adaptive trailing edge device (ATED) that runs span-wise from the wing root in the flap zone and extends chord-wise for a limited percentage of the MAC. Computations are calculated referring to the full wing and do not refer to the complete aircraft configuration. Aerodynamic computations, taking into account ideal shapes, have been performed by using both Euler and Navier- Stokes method in order to extract the wing polars for the reference and the optimal wing, implementing an ATED, deflected upwards and downwards. A comparison of the achieved results is discussed. Considering the shape domain, a suitable interpolation procedure has been set up to obtain the wing polar envelop of the adaptive wing, intended as the set of "best" values, picked by each different polar. At the end, the performances of the complete reference and adaptive wing are computed and compared for a symmetric, centered, leveled and steady cruise flight for a medium size aircraft. A significant fuel burn reduction estimate or, alternatively, an increased range capability is demonstrated, with margins of further improvements. The research leading to these results has gratefully received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007- 2013) under Grant Agreement n° 284562.

  18. Advanced Fuels Campaign Cladding & Coatings Meeting Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Not Listed

    2013-03-01

    The Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) organized a Cladding and Coatings operational meeting February 12-13, 2013, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Representatives from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), national laboratories, industry, and universities attended the two-day meeting. The purpose of the meeting was to discuss advanced cladding and cladding coating research and development (R&D); review experimental testing capabilities for assessing accident tolerant fuels; and review industry/university plans and experience in light water reactor (LWR) cladding and coating R&D.

  19. Actinide consumption: Nuclear resource conservation without breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannum, W.H.; Battles, J.E.; Johnson, T.R.; McPheeters, C.C.

    1991-01-01

    A new approach to the nuclear power issue based on a metallic fast reactor fuel and pyrometallurgical processing of spent fuel is showing great potential and is approaching a critical demonstration phase. If successful, this approach will complement and validate the LWR reactor systems and the attendant infrastructure (including repository development) and will alleviate the dominant concerns over the acceptability of nuclear power. The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept is a metal-fueled, sodium-cooled pool-type fast reactor supported by a pyrometallurgical reprocessing system. The concept of a sodium cooled fast reactor is broadly demonstrated by the EBR-II and FFTF in the US; DFR and PFR in the UK; Phenix and SuperPhenix in France; BOR-60, BN-350, BN-600 in the USSR; and JOYO in Japan. The metallic fuel is an evolution from early EBR-II fuels. This fuel, a ternary U-Pu-Zr alloy, has been demonstrated to be highly reliable and fault tolerant even at very high burnup (160-180,000 MWd/MT). The fuel, coupled with the pool type reactor configuration, has been shown to have outstanding safety characteristics: even with all active safety systems disabled, such a reactor can survive a loss of coolant flow, a loss of heat sink, or other major accidents. Design studies based on a small modular approach show not only its impressive safety characteristics, but are projected to be economically competitive. The program to explore the feasibility of actinide recovery from spent LWR fuel is in its initial phase, but it is expected that technical feasibility could be demonstrated by about 1995; DOE has not yet committed funds to achieve this objective. 27 refs.

  20. Enhanced Accident Tolerant Fuels for LWRS - A Preliminary Systems Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilles Youinou; R. Sonat Sen

    2013-09-01

    The severe accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plants illustrates the need for continuous improvements through developing and implementing technologies that contribute to safe, reliable and cost-effective operation of the nuclear fleet. Development of enhanced accident tolerant fuel contributes to this effort. These fuels, in comparison with the standard zircaloy – UO2 system currently used by the LWR industry, should be designed such that they tolerate loss of active cooling in the core for a longer time period (depending on the LWR system and accident scenario) while maintaining or improving the fuel performance during normal operations, operational transients, and design-basis events. This report presents a preliminary systems analysis related to most of these concepts. The potential impacts of these innovative LWR fuels on the front-end of the fuel cycle, on the reactor operation and on the back-end of the fuel cycle are succinctly described without having the pretension of being exhaustive. Since the design of these various concepts is still a work in progress, this analysis can only be preliminary and could be updated as the designs converge on their respective final version.

  1. Research and Development in the Vehicle Fuel Consumption Information Extraction and Remote Monitoring System%车辆油耗信息提取与远程监控系统研发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙国凯; 褚林涛; 刘应吉

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve the level of the vehicle's energy consumption statistics,a vehicle fuel on a local extraction and remote monitoring system has been designed.This system is based on vehicles which use the CAN-bus,and Integrates GPS,GPRS and SD card module.This system can collect and store the vehicle fuel consumption information through the CAN-bus,and feedback this information to the business' monitoring center by GPRS.The system allows managers to remotely understand the vehicle's fuel consumption information and to make appropriate management measures.Hence,the vehicle's fuel economical efficiency could be improved by this system.%为提高车辆的能源消耗统计水平,提出并设计了车辆油耗本地提取与远程监控系统。该系统以带CAN总线的车辆为基础,整合GPS、GPRS以及SD卡模块,可通过CAN总线采集并存储车辆的油耗信息,并通过GPRS无线传输网络传至监控中心。该系统可使管理人员远程了解车辆的油耗信息,并做出相应的经营管理对策,提高车辆的燃油经济性。

  2. Development and experimental verification of SST-GRASS: a steady-state and transient fuel response and fission-product release code. [BWR; PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rest, J.; Seitz, M.G.; Gehl, S.M.; Kelman, L.R.

    1976-01-01

    A comprehensive fission-product release model (GRASS), based on a mechanistic understanding of fuel behavior in LWR fuel elements for a wide range of accidental overheating conditions as well as steady-state irradiations, is being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. Experimental support for GRASS is provided by out-of-reactor transient heating of irradiated commercial LWR fuel using a direct-electrical-heating technique. The GRASS calculations are described, benchmarked against standard theoretical treatments, and verified for steady-state irradiations. In addition, preliminary results from the direct-electrical-heating experiments are reported. Possible mechanisms for fission-gas release during transient heating of LWR fuel are discussed based on comparisons of GRASS results with experimental observations.

  3. Meeting Summary Advanced Light Water Reactor Fuels Industry Meeting Washington DC October 27 - 28, 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Not Listed

    2011-11-01

    The Advanced LWR Fuel Working Group first met in November of 2010 with the objective of looking 20 years ahead to the role that advanced fuels could play in improving light water reactor technology, such as waste reduction and economics. When the group met again in March 2011, the Fukushima incident was still unfolding. After the March meeting, the focus of the program changed to determining what we could do in the near term to improve fuel accident tolerance. Any discussion of fuels with enhanced accident tolerance will likely need to consider an advanced light water reactor with enhanced accident tolerance, along with the fuel. The Advanced LWR Fuel Working Group met in Washington D.C. on October 72-18, 2011 to continue discussions on this important topic.

  4. Neutronic evaluation of coating and cladding materials for accident tolerant fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Younker, I; Fratoni, M

    2016-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. In severe accident conditions with loss of active cooling in the core, zirconium alloys, used as fuel cladding materials for current light water reactors (LWR), undergo a rapid oxidation by high temperature steam with consequent hydrogen generation. Novel fuel technologies, named accident tolerant fuels (ATF), seek to improve the endurance of severe accident conditions in LWRs by eliminating or at least mitigating such detrimental steam-cladding inter...

  5. A review of irradiation effects on LWR core internal materials - IASCC susceptibility and crack growth rates of austenitic stainless steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, O. K.; Rao, A. S.

    2011-02-01

    Austenitic stainless steels (SSs) are used extensively as structural alloys in the internal components of light water reactor (LWR) pressure vessels because of their relatively high strength, ductility, and fracture toughness. However, exposure to neutron irradiation for extended periods changes the microstructure (radiation hardening) and microchemistry (radiation-induced segregation) of these steels, and degrades their fracture properties. Irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) is another degradation process that affects LWR internal components exposed to neutron radiation. The existing data on irradiated austenitic SSs were reviewed to evaluate the effects of key parameters such as material composition, irradiation dose, and water chemistry on IASCC susceptibility and crack growth rates of these materials in LWR environments. The significance of microstructural and microchemistry changes in the material on IASCC susceptibility is also discussed. The results are used to determine (a) the threshold fluence for IASCC and (b) the disposition curves for cyclic and IASCC growth rates for irradiated SSs in LWR environments.

  6. Development of a Reliable Fuel Depletion Methodology for the HTR-10 Spent Fuel Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Kiwhan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Beddingfield, David H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Geist, William H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lee, Sang-Yoon [unaffiliated

    2012-07-03

    A technical working group formed in 2007 between NNSA and CAEA to develop a reliable fuel depletion method for HTR-10 based on MCNPX and to analyze the isotopic inventory and radiation source terms of the HTR-10 spent fuel. Conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Established a fuel depletion methodology and demonstrated its safeguards application; (2) Proliferation resistant at high discharge burnup ({approx}80 GWD/MtHM) - Unfavorable isotopics, high number of pebbles needed, harder to reprocess pebbles; (3) SF should remain under safeguards comparable to that of LWR; and (4) Diversion scenarios not considered, but can be performed.

  7. Safety and Regulatory Issues of the Thorium Fuel Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ade, Brian [ORNL; Worrall, Andrew [ORNL; Powers, Jeffrey [ORNL; Bowman, Steve [ORNL; Flanagan, George [ORNL; Gehin, Jess [ORNL

    2014-02-01

    Thorium has been widely considered an alternative to uranium fuel because of its relatively large natural abundance and its ability to breed fissile fuel (233U) from natural thorium (232Th). Possible scenarios for using thorium in the nuclear fuel cycle include use in different nuclear reactor types (light water, high temperature gas cooled, fast spectrum sodium, molten salt, etc.), advanced accelerator-driven systems, or even fission-fusion hybrid systems. The most likely near-term application of thorium in the United States is in currently operating light water reactors (LWRs). This use is primarily based on concepts that mix thorium with uranium (UO2 + ThO2), add fertile thorium (ThO2) fuel pins to LWR fuel assemblies, or use mixed plutonium and thorium (PuO2 + ThO2) fuel assemblies. The addition of thorium to currently operating LWRs would result in a number of different phenomenological impacts on the nuclear fuel. Thorium and its irradiation products have nuclear characteristics that are different from those of uranium. In addition, ThO2, alone or mixed with UO2 fuel, leads to different chemical and physical properties of the fuel. These aspects are key to reactor safety-related issues. The primary objectives of this report are to summarize historical, current, and proposed uses of thorium in nuclear reactors; provide some important properties of thorium fuel; perform qualitative and quantitative evaluations of both in-reactor and out-of-reactor safety issues and requirements specific to a thorium-based fuel cycle for current LWR reactor designs; and identify key knowledge gaps and technical issues that need to be addressed for the licensing of thorium LWR fuel in the United States.

  8. A Stochastic LWR Model with Consideration of the Driver's Individual Property%A Stochastic LWR Model with Consideration of the Driver's Individual Property

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐铁桥; 王云鹏; 余贵珍; 黄海军

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,we develop a stochastic LWR model based on the influences of the driver's individual property on his/her perceived density and speed deviation.The numerical results show that the driver's individual property has great effects on traffic flow only when the initial density is moderate,i.e.,at this time,oscillating traffic flow will occur and the oscillating phenomena in the traffic system consisting of the conservative and aggressive drivers is more serious than that in the traffic system consisting of the conservative (aggressive) drivers.

  9. Assessment of LWR spent fuel disposal options. Volume 2. System definition and assessments. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    Volume 2, in addition to introducing and defining the requirements for the study, contains the detailed evaluation of the study cases in each of six assessment areas, and describes and evaluates a number of study variations.

  10. High Temperature and Pressure Steam-H2 Interaction with Candidate Advanced LWR Fuel Claddings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pint, Bruce A [ORNL

    2012-08-01

    This report summarizes the work completed to evaluate cladding materials that could serve as improvements to Zircaloy in terms of accident tolerance. This testing involved oxidation resistance to steam or H{sub 2}-50% steam environments at 800-1350 C at 1-20 bar for short times. A selection of conventional alloys, SiC-based ceramics and model alloys were used to explore a wide range of materials options and provide guidance for future materials development work. Typically, the SiC-based ceramic materials, alumina-forming alloys and Fe-Cr alloys with {ge}25% Cr showed the best potential for oxidation resistance at {ge}1200 C. At 1350 C, FeCrAl alloys and SiC remained oxidation resistant in steam. Conventional austenitic steels do not have sufficient oxidation resistance with only {approx}18Cr-10Ni. Higher alloyed type 310 stainless steel is protective but Ni is not a desirable alloy addition for this application and high Cr contents raise concern about {alpha}{prime} formation. Higher pressures (up to 20.7 bar) and H{sub 2} additions appeared to have a limited effect on the oxidation behavior of the most oxidation resistant alloys but higher pressures accelerated the maximum metal loss for less oxidation resistant steels and less metal loss was observed in a H{sub 2}-50%H{sub 2}O environment at 10.3 bar. As some of the results regarding low-alloyed FeCrAl and Fe-Cr alloys were unexpected, further work is needed to fundamentally understand the minimum Cr and Al alloy contents needed for protective behavior in these environments in order to assist in alloy selection and guide alloy development.

  11. Evaluation of Methods for Decladding LWR Fuel for a Pyroprocessing-Based Reprocessing Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-01

    removed prior to any other operation that has the potential to contaminate the plenum structure. The compression springs, typically made of Inconel - 718 ...44 A.1.4 Dissolution in Hydrofluoric Acid .............................. 46 A.1.5 Nonaqueous Dissolution ...46 A.1.6 Alcholic HCl Solutions ..................................... 48 A.1.7 Direct Dissolution in Molten Lead or Zinc Chloride

  12. 锰矿烧结降低固体燃耗的生产实践%PRODUCTION PRACTICE ON MANGANESE ORE SIN-TERING TO REDUCE SOLID FUEL CONSUMPTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘亮; 王刚; 龙遇海; 朱洁

    2015-01-01

    For production status of sintering machine and material condition, it analyses the main factors which influ-ences the sintering solid fuel consumption, through a thick layer sintering and other advanced technologies, technical in-novation and use of new equipment to continuously reduce the sintering solid fuel consumption. That cost decreasing and benefit increasing, energy conservation and emissions reduction effect is remarkable.%针对烧结机生产情况及原料条件,分析了影响烧结固体燃耗的主要因素,通过推行厚料层烧结等先进工艺、技术改造、采用新设备,不断降低了烧结机的固体燃耗。降本增效,节能减排效果显著。

  13. Precharacterization Report for Instrumented Fuel Assembly (IFA)-527

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, M. E.; Bradley, E. R.; Daniel, J. L.; Davis, N. C.; Lanning, D. D.; Williford, R. E.

    1981-07-01

    This report is a resource document covering the rationale, design, fabrication, and preirradiation characterization of instrumented fuel assembly (IFA)-527. This assembly is being irradiated in the Halden Boiling Water Reactor (HBWR) in Norway as part of the Experimental Support and Development of Single-Rod Fuel Codes Program conducted by Pacific Northwest laboratory (PNL) and sponsored by the Fuel Behavior Research Branch of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Data from this assembly will be used to better understand light water reactor (LWR) fuel behavior under normal operating conditions.

  14. Validation of the BISON 3D Fuel Performance Code: Temperature Comparisons for Concentrically and Eccentrically Located Fuel Pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. D. Hales; D. M. Perez; R. L. Williamson; S. R. Novascone; B. W. Spencer

    2013-03-01

    BISON is a modern finite-element based nuclear fuel performance code that has been under development at the Idaho National Laboratory (USA) since 2009. The code is applicable to both steady and transient fuel behaviour and is used to analyse either 2D axisymmetric or 3D geometries. BISON has been applied to a variety of fuel forms including LWR fuel rods, TRISO-coated fuel particles, and metallic fuel in both rod and plate geometries. Code validation is currently in progress, principally by comparison to instrumented LWR fuel rods. Halden IFA experiments constitute a large percentage of the current BISON validation base. The validation emphasis here is centreline temperatures at the beginning of fuel life, with comparisons made to seven rods from the IFA-431 and 432 assemblies. The principal focus is IFA-431 Rod 4, which included concentric and eccentrically located fuel pellets. This experiment provides an opportunity to explore 3D thermomechanical behaviour and assess the 3D simulation capabilities of BISON. Analysis results agree with experimental results showing lower fuel centreline temperatures for eccentric fuel with the peak temperature shifted from the centreline. The comparison confirms with modern 3D analysis tools that the measured temperature difference between concentric and eccentric pellets is not an artefact and provides a quantitative explanation for the difference.

  15. Review of Severe Accident Phenomena in LWR and Related Severe Accident Analysis Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hashim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Firstly, importance of severe accident provision is highlighted in view of Fukushima Daiichi accident. Then, extensive review of the past researches on severe accident phenomena in LWR is presented within this study. Various complexes, physicochemical and radiological phenomena take place during various stages of the severe accidents of Light Water Reactor (LWR plants. The review deals with progression of the severe accidents phenomena by dividing into core degradation phenomena in reactor vessel and post core melt phenomena in the containment. The development of various computer codes to analyze these severe accidents phenomena is also summarized in the review. Lastly, the need of international activity is stressed to assemble various severe accidents related knowledge systematically from research organs and compile them on the open knowledge base via the internet to be available worldwide.

  16. Draft report: a selection methodology for LWR safety R and D programs and proposals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husseiny, A. A.; Ritzman, R. L.

    1980-03-01

    The results of work done to develop a methodology for selecting LWR safety R and D programs and proposals is described. A critical survey of relevant decision analysis methods is provided including the specifics of multiattribute utility theory. This latter method forms the basis of the developed selection methodology. Details of the methodology and its use are provided along with a sample illustration of its application.

  17. Dynamic programming for reduction of fuel consumption in a photovoltaic/wind/diesel generating system; Doteki keikakuho ni yoru taiyoko/furyoku/diesel hatsuden system no nenryo shohiryo no sakugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, K.; Kenmoku, Y.; Sakakibara, T. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Nakagawa, S. [Maizuru National College of Technology, Kyoto (Japan); Kawamoto, T. [Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Dynamic programming is employed in the study of the operation of the diesel engine in a photovoltaic/wind-force/diesel-engine power generating system, which aims at reduction in the system fuel consumption and at determining an optimum system constitution. The parameters set in this system are the photovoltaic/wind-force supply rate, photovoltaic/wind-force power generation ratio, and battery capacity. An island in Ise Bay, with an annual load power of approximately 1.59-million kWh and mean daily load power of approximately 4336kWh is assumed as the location for the system. Observation data of Ommaezaki Weather Station are utilized for the calculation of the amount of photovoltaic/wind-force power generation. It is found as the result that the fuel consumption of the diesel engine in this system decreases to 82-84% when the natural energy supply rate is 20%. It is also found that the fuel consumption of the system records the minimum at a photovoltaic/wind-force ratio of 60/40, irrespective of the battery capacity or natural energy supply rate, and this ratio is the optimum ratio. 3 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  18. JAEA key facilities for global advanced fuel cycle R and D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomura, Shigeo; Yamamoto, Ryuichi [Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Labos, JAEA, 4-33 Tokai-mura, Ibaraki, 319-1194 (Japan)

    2008-07-01

    Advanced fuel cycle will be realized with the mid and long term R and D during the long-term transition period from LWR cycle to advanced reactor fuel cycle. Most of JAEA facilities have been utilized to establish the current LWR and FBR (Fast Breeder Reactor) fuel cycle by implementing evolutionary R and D. An assessment of today's state experimental facilities concerning the following research issues: reprocessing, Mox fuel fabrication, irradiation and post-irradiation examination, waste management and nuclear data measurement, is made. The revolutionary R and D requests new issues to be studied: the TRU multi-recycling, minor actinide recycling, the assessment of proliferation resistance and the assessment of cost reduction. To implement the revolutionary R and D for advanced fuel cycle, however, these facilities should be refurbished to install new machines and process equipment to provide more flexible testing parameters.

  19. Preliminary Investigation of Candidate Materials for Use in Accident Resistant Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason M. Harp; Paul A. Lessing; Blair H. Park; Jakeob Maupin

    2013-09-01

    As part of a Collaborative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with industry, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is investigating several options for accident resistant uranium compounds including silicides, and nitrides for use in future light water reactor (LWR) fuels. This work is part of a larger effort to create accident tolerant fuel forms where changes to the fuel pellets, cladding, and cladding treatment are considered. The goal fuel form should have a resistance to water corrosion comparable to UO2, have an equal to or larger thermal conductivity than uranium dioxide, a melting temperature that allows the material to stay solid under power reactor conditions, and a uranium loading that maintains or improves current LWR power densities. During the course of this research, fuel fabricated at INL will be characterized, irradiated at the INL Advanced Test Reactor, and examined after irradiation at INL facilities to help inform industrial partners on candidate technologies.

  20. Results of the LIRES Round Robin test on high temperature reference electrodes for LWR applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosch, R.W. [SCK.CEN, Nuclear Research Centre Belgium, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Nagy, G. [Magyar Tudomanyos Akademia KFKI Atomenergia Kutatointezet, AEKI, Konkoly Thege ut 29-33, 1121 Budapest (Hungary); Feron, D. [CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Navas, M. [CIEMAT, Edificio 30, Dpto. Fision Nuclear, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid, (Spain); Bogaerts, W. [KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 31, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Karnik, D. [Nuclear Research Institute, NRI, Rez (Czech Republic); Dorsch, T. [Framatone ANP, Inc., Charlotte, North Carolina (United States); Molander, A. [Studsvik AB SE-611 82 Nykoeping (Sweden); Maekelae, K. [Materials and Structural Integrity, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Kemistintie 3, P.O. Box 1704, FIN-02044 VTT (Finland)

    2004-07-01

    A European sponsored research project has been started on 1 October 2000 to develop high temperature reference electrodes that can be used for in-core electrochemical measurements in Light Water Reactors (LWR's). This LIRES-project (Development of Light Water Reactor Reference Electrodes) consists of 9 partners (SCK-CEN, AEKI, CEA, CIEMAT, KU Leuven, NRI Rez, Framatone ANP, Studsvik Nuclear and VTT) and will last for four years. The main objective of this LIRES project is to develop a reference electrode, which is robust enough to be used inside a LWR. Emphasize is put on the radiation hardness of both the mechanical design of the electrode as the proper functioning of the electrode. A four steps development trajectory is foreseen: (1) To set a testing standard for a Round Robin, (2) To develop different reference electrodes, (3) To perform a Round Robin test of these reference electrodes followed by selection of the best reference electrode(s), (4) To perform irradiation tests under appropriate LWR conditions in a Material Test Reactor (MTR). Four different high temperature reference electrodes have been developed and are being tested in a Round Robin test. These electrodes are: A Ceramic Membrane Electrode (CME), a Rhodium electrode, an external Ag/AgCl electrode and a Palladium electrode. The presentation will focus on the results obtained with the Round Robin test. (authors)

  1. Analysis of advanced european nuclear fuel cycle scenarios including transmutation and economical estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merino Rodriguez, I.; Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Martin-Fuertes, F. [CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense, 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-07-01

    In this work the transition from the existing Light Water Reactors (LWR) to the advanced reactors is analyzed, including Generation III+ reactors in a European framework. Four European fuel cycle scenarios involving transmutation options have been addressed. The first scenario (i.e., reference) is the current fleet using LWR technology and open fuel cycle. The second scenario assumes a full replacement of the initial fleet with Fast Reactors (FR) burning U-Pu MOX fuel. The third scenario is a modification of the second one introducing Minor Actinide (MA) transmutation in a fraction of the FR fleet. Finally, in the fourth scenario, the LWR fleet is replaced using FR with MOX fuel as well as Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) for MA transmutation. All scenarios consider an intermediate period of GEN-III+ LWR deployment and they extend for a period of 200 years looking for equilibrium mass flows. The simulations were made using the TR-EVOL code, a tool for fuel cycle studies developed by CIEMAT. The results reveal that all scenarios are feasible according to nuclear resources demand (U and Pu). Concerning to no transmutation cases, the second scenario reduces considerably the Pu inventory in repositories compared to the reference scenario, although the MA inventory increases. The transmutation scenarios show that elimination of the LWR MA legacy requires on one hand a maximum of 33% fraction (i.e., a peak value of 26 FR units) of the FR fleet dedicated to transmutation (MA in MOX fuel, homogeneous transmutation). On the other hand a maximum number of ADS plants accounting for 5% of electricity generation are predicted in the fourth scenario (i.e., 35 ADS units). Regarding the economic analysis, the estimations show an increase of LCOE (Levelized cost of electricity) - averaged over the whole period - with respect to the reference scenario of 21% and 29% for FR and FR with transmutation scenarios respectively, and 34% for the fourth scenario. (authors)

  2. Physics studies of higher actinide consumption in an LMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, R.N.; Wade, D.C.; Fujita, E.K.; Khalil, H.S.

    1990-01-01

    The core physics aspects of the transuranic burning potential of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) are assessed. The actinide behavior in fissile self-sufficient IFR closed cycles of 1200 MWt size is characterized, and the transuranic isotopics and risk potential of the working inventory are compared to those from a once-through LWR. The core neutronic performance effects of rare-earth impurities present in the recycled fuel are addressed. Fuel cycle strategies for burning transuranics from an external source are discussed, and specialized actinide burner designs are described. 4 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Physics studies of higher actinide consumption in an LMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, R.N.; Wade, D.C.; Fujita, E.K.; Khalil, H.S.

    1990-01-01

    The core physics aspects of the transuranic burning potential of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) are assessed. The actinide behavior in fissile self-sufficient IFR closed cycles of 1200 MWt size is characterized, and the transuranic isotopics and risk potential of the working inventory are compared to those from a once-through LWR. The core neutronic performance effects of rare-earth impurities present in the recycled fuel are addressed. Fuel cycle strategies for burning transuranics from an external source are discussed, and specialized actinide burner designs are described. 4 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Chemical state of tellurium in a degraded LWR core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imoto, S.; Tanabe, T.

    1988-06-01

    Changes of the chemical state of tellurium in the heatup stage of a severe fuel damage accident are estimated thermodynamically. According to equilibrium calculations with the SOLGASMIX-PV code, tellurium exists as cesium telluride, as the element or possibly as PdTe during normal operation. In the heatup stage of an accident, elemental tellurium is absorbed in the Zircaloy cladding by formation of ZrTe x ( x = 1-2). Cesium telluride does not react with Zr even under the low oxygen potentials favoring the {Zr}/{UO 2} reaction. Tellurium is also absorbed in oxygen-stabilized alpha-zirconium. The stability of Cs 2Te in the steam/hydrogen atmosphere is discussed.

  5. Remote fabrication and irradiation test of recycled nuclear fuel prepared by the oxidation and reduction of spent oxide fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin Ryu, Ho; Chan Song, Kee; Il Park, Geun; Won Lee, Jung; Seung Yang, Myung

    2005-02-01

    A direct dry recycling process was developed in order to reuse spent pressurized light water reactor (LWR) nuclear fuel in CANDU reactors without the separation of sensitive nuclear materials such as plutonium. The benefits of the dry recycling process are the saving of uranium resources and the reduction of spent fuel accumulation as well as a higher proliferation resistance. In the process of direct dry recycling, fuel pellets separated from spent LWR fuel rods are oxidized from UO2 to U3O8 at 500 °C in an air atmosphere and reduced into UO2 at 700 °C in a hydrogen atmosphere, which is called OREOX (oxidation and reduction of oxide fuel). The pellets are pulverized during the oxidation and reduction processes due to the phase transformation between cubic UO2 and orthorhombic U3O8. Using the oxide powder prepared from the OREOX process, the compaction and sintering processes are performed in a remote manner in a shielded hot cell due to the high radioactivity of the spent fuel. Most of the fission gas and volatile fission products are removed during the OREOX and sintering processes. The mini-elements fabricated by the direct dry recycling process are irradiated in the HANARO research reactor for the performance evaluation of the recycled fuel pellets. Post-irradiation examination of the irradiated fuel showed that microstructural evolution and fission gas release behavior of the dry-recycled fuel were similar to high burnup UO2 fuel.

  6. Electrolytic hydrogen production at off-peak consumption and his utilization as energy vector at peak consumption through use of fuel cells; Producao de hidrogenio eletrolitico nos horarios fora de ponta e sua utilizacao como vetor energetico nos horarios de ponta atraves do uso de celulas a combustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambetta, Francielle [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia]. E-mail: fgambetta@fem.unicamp.br; Silva, Ennio Peres da [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Lab. de Hidrogenio

    2008-07-01

    Due the fact that consumers have different demand, depending on the pace of economic activities and their daily habits of consumption, there is a different electrical demand throughout the day. Demand, in general, is minimal during the morning and it grows with the move for hours to reach peak consumption between 18:00 and 22:00, then turning to fall. It is old the idea of storing electricity produced in off-peak for its consumption in peak hours. To store large amounts of electrical power is required its conversion into some other form of energy, since it is impossible to store electrical energy as such in large quantities. One way of storing electricity is in the form of hydrogen produced by electrolysis of water which then can be stored, purified and converted into electricity through fuel cells. When there is an increase in demand for electricity, there is a need to expand the supply of energy, which means investments in generation, transmission and distribution. This work was performed a preliminary analysis of the production of electrolytic hydrogen in hours of low demand and its use in the generation of electricity in peak hours, making use of the fuel cells, so that to a certain limit value of increased electricity demand, there is no need for expansion of supply of Foz do Iguacu/PR. Moreover, at this work, the ability to harness the heat generated in fuel cells for heating water in homes was considered. (author)

  7. 考虑油耗的车辆调度问题模型与算法%Model and Algorithm for Fuel Consumption Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任盼; 刘冉; 江志斌; 董蕊

    2015-01-01

    Aiming at the fact that energy consumption has become an important factor of social environment and operating cost in transportation industry , the fuel consumption vehicle routing problem with time win-dows is discussed .Based on fuel consumption rules analysis and quantitative description , an accurate mathematical model is built by considering the fuel consumption objective and constraints such as time win -dows.For the NP-hard character of vehicle routing problem , a modified tabu search algorithm is designed to solve large scale such problem .The new algorithm introduces the large neighborhood theory and propo-ses a new kind neighborhood based on virtual vehicle .The validity of the new algorithm has been verified by computational study .%针对目前运输行业中能源消耗已经成为影响社会环境和运行成本的重要因素这一实际,在分析汽车行驶油耗规律和定量描述的基础上,引入考虑能源消耗的车辆调度问题,考虑了车辆运行能耗目标以及客户的需求时间窗等约束,建立问题的精确数学模型。由于问题具有NP-hard性质,为了求解实际大规模此类问题而设计了一种新型禁忌搜索算法。该算法引入大规模邻域搜索思想,并提出基于虚拟车辆的新型搜索邻域。通过算例试验验证了算法的有效性。

  8. Energy consumption: energy consumption in mainland Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnussen, Inger Helene; Killingland, Magnus; Spilde, Dag

    2012-07-25

    The purpose of this report is to describe trends in energy consumption in mainland Norway, with an emphasis on key trends within the largest consumer groups. We also explain common terms and concepts in the field of energy consumption. Finally, we look at forecasts for future energy consumption, produced by bodies outside NVE. Total final energy consumption in mainland Norway in 2009 was 207 TWh. The most important end-user groups are households, service industries, manufacturing industry and transport. In addition, the energy sector in mainland Norway consumed 15 TWh. Energy consumed in the energy sector is not considered as final consumption, as the energy is used to produce new energy products. The long-term trend in energy consumption in mainland Norway is that fuel in the transport sector and electricity for the energy sector increases, while energy consumption in other sectors flattens out. The main reason for an increased use of fuel in the transport sector is the rise in the number of motorised machinery and vehicles in mainland Norway. This has caused a rise in gasoline and diesel consumption of 75 per cent since 1976. The petroleum sector is the largest consumer of energy within the energy sector in mainland Norway, and electricity from onshore to platforms in the North Sea and to new shore side installations has led to a rise in electricity consumption from 1 TWh in 1995 to 5 TWh in 2009. The energy consumption in households showed flat trend from 1996 to 2009, after many years of growth. The main reasons are a warmer climate, higher energy prices, the use of heats pumps and more energy-efficient buildings. In the service industries, the growth in energy consumptions has slightly decreased since the late 1990s, for much the same reasons as for households. In manufacturing industries the energy consumption have flatten out mainly due to the closure of energy-intensive businesses and the establishment of new more energy-efficient businesses. Electricity is

  9. The Economy-wide Impact of Fuel Oil, Gas and Electricity Pricing and Subsidy Policies as well as Their Consumption Improvement Efficiency in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Djoni Hartono; Budy P. Resosudarmo

    2006-01-01

    In Indonesia, the government determines the domestic prices of energy; namely fuel oil, such as gasoline, automotive diesel oil (ADO) and kerosene, gas and electricity. In response to the weakening of rupiah during the 1997/1998 economic crisis and the increasing of the world price of crude oil, the government tends to increase the energy subsidy on domestic prices of fuel oil, gas and electricity, rather than letting these domestic prices follows the world prices of fuel oil, gas and electri...

  10. A comparison of mechanical algorithms of fuel performance code systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, C. J.; Park, J. H.; Kang, K. H.; Ryu, H. J.; Moon, J. S.; Jeong, I. H.; Lee, C. Y.; Song, K. C

    2003-11-01

    The goal of fuel rod performance evaluation is to identify the robustness of fuel rod with cladding material during fuel irradiation. Computer simulation of fuel rod performance becomes important to develop new nuclear systems. To construct the computing code system for fuel rod performance, we compared several algorithms of existing fuel rod performance code systems and summarized the details and tips as a preliminary work. Among several code systems, FRAPCON, FEMAXI for LWR, ELESTRES for CANDU reactor, and LIFE for fast reactor are reviewed. The computational algorithms related to mechanical interaction of the fuel rod are compared including methodologies and subroutines. This work will be utilized to develop the computing code system for dry process fuel rod performance.

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-01

    Fact sheet describes the Alternative Fuels Data Center, which provides information, data, and tools to help fleets and other transportation decision makers find ways to reduce petroleum consumption through the use of alternative and renewable fuels, advanced vehicles, and other fuel-saving measures.

  12. The influence of external source intensity in accelerator/target/blanket system on conversion ratio and fuel cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochurov, Boris P.

    1995-09-01

    The analysis of neutron balance relation for a subcritical system with external source shows that a high ratio of neutron utilization (conversion ratio, breeding ratio) much exceeding similar values for nuclear reactors (both thermal or fast spectrum) is reachable in accelerator/target/blanket system with high external neutron source intensity. An accelerator/target/blanket systems with thermal power in blanket about 1850 Mwt and operating during 30 years have been investigated. Continual feed up by plutonium (fissile material) and Tc-99 (transmuted material) was assumed. Accelerator beam intensity differed 6.3 times (16 mA-Case 1, and 100 mA-Case 2). Conversion ratio (CR) was defined as the ratio of Tc-99 nuclei transmuted to the number of Pu nuclei consumed. The results for two cases are as follows: Case 1Case 2CR 0.77 1.66N(LWR) 8.6 19.1Power MWt(el) 512 225 where N(LWR)-number of LWRs(3000 MWt(th)) from which yearly discharge of Tc-99 is transmuted during 30 years. High value of conversion ratio considerably exceeding 1 (CR=1.66) was obtained in the system with high source intensity as compared with low source system (CR=0.77). Net output of electric power of high source intensity system is about twice lower due to consumption of electric power for accelerator feed up. The loss of energy for Tc-99 transmutation is estimated as 40 Mev(el)/nuclei. Yet high conversion ratio (or breeding ratio) achievable in electronuclear installations with high intensity of external source can effectively be used to close fuel cycle (including incineration of wastes) or to develop growing nuclear power production system.

  13. MCOR - Monte Carlo depletion code for reference LWR calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puente Espel, Federico, E-mail: fup104@psu.edu [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Pennsylvania State University (United States); Tippayakul, Chanatip, E-mail: cut110@psu.edu [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Pennsylvania State University (United States); Ivanov, Kostadin, E-mail: kni1@psu.edu [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Pennsylvania State University (United States); Misu, Stefan, E-mail: Stefan.Misu@areva.com [AREVA, AREVA NP GmbH, Erlangen (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    Research highlights: > Introduction of a reference Monte Carlo based depletion code with extended capabilities. > Verification and validation results for MCOR. > Utilization of MCOR for benchmarking deterministic lattice physics (spectral) codes. - Abstract: The MCOR (MCnp-kORigen) code system is a Monte Carlo based depletion system for reference fuel assembly and core calculations. The MCOR code is designed as an interfacing code that provides depletion capability to the LANL Monte Carlo code by coupling two codes: MCNP5 with the AREVA NP depletion code, KORIGEN. The physical quality of both codes is unchanged. The MCOR code system has been maintained and continuously enhanced since it was initially developed and validated. The verification of the coupling was made by evaluating the MCOR code against similar sophisticated code systems like MONTEBURNS, OCTOPUS and TRIPOLI-PEPIN. After its validation, the MCOR code has been further improved with important features. The MCOR code presents several valuable capabilities such as: (a) a predictor-corrector depletion algorithm, (b) utilization of KORIGEN as the depletion module, (c) individual depletion calculation of each burnup zone (no burnup zone grouping is required, which is particularly important for the modeling of gadolinium rings), and (d) on-line burnup cross-section generation by the Monte Carlo calculation for 88 isotopes and usage of the KORIGEN libraries for PWR and BWR typical spectra for the remaining isotopes. Besides the just mentioned capabilities, the MCOR code newest enhancements focus on the possibility of executing the MCNP5 calculation in sequential or parallel mode, a user-friendly automatic re-start capability, a modification of the burnup step size evaluation, and a post-processor and test-matrix, just to name the most important. The article describes the capabilities of the MCOR code system; from its design and development to its latest improvements and further ameliorations. Additionally

  14. Determination of consumption biogenic solid fuels in the commercial sector, trade, services (tertiary sector). Final report; Ermittlung des Verbrauchs biogener Festbrennstoffe im Sektor Gewerbe, Handel, Dienstleistungen (GHD-Sektor). Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viehmann, Cornelia; Westerkamp, Tanja; Schwenker, Andre; Schenker, Marian; Thraen, Daniela; Lenz, Volker [DBFZ Deutsches BiomasseForschungsZentrum gemeinnuetzige GmbH, Leipzig (Germany); Ebert, Marcel [Leipziger Institut fuer Energie GmbH (Ireland), Leipzig (DE)

    2012-07-01

    The policy has both national and European level ambitious program aimed at expansion of renewable energy and related to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. In the national action plan for renewable energy of the Federal Republic of Germany these goals are defined by 2020. The share of renewable energy in the provision of heat and cold should therefore rise from 6.6% to 15.5% of gross final energy consumption. According to the increasing importance of solar-thermal, near-surface and geothermal heat, the relative share of biomass is decreasing. However biomass makes with those listed in the national action plan with 79% an essential amount in regenerative heat market [BMU 2010]. For the pursuit of goals and reviews, the support measures and packages of measures which are initiated in this context, a regular and timely reporting on the development of the above objectives is mandatory. The diverse and growing reporting requirements such as in the EU directive on the promotion of renewable energy, require, however well-founded knowledge of the sector-specific energy consumption from renewable sources. While the data available for use of biogenic solid fuels in the sectors household and industry has improved significantly in recent years, for the sector commercial sector, trade, services (tertiary sector) reliable figures are still lacking. Against this background, the objective is to present study, in close cooperation with the Federal Environment Agency (UBA), the determination of the final energy consumption biogenic solid fuels in the tertiary sector in Germany for the year 2008. The basis is, in addition to the development of the current knowledge of the energy and heat consumption, the delimitation and characterization of the sector and the development of an extrapolation tools. The demand for this tool is its expandability and update possibility. From the industry-nonspecific and industry-specific input data can be derived, collecting for the extrapolation

  15. Technology of the light water reactor fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wymer, R. G.

    1979-01-01

    This essay presents elements of the processes used in the fuel cycle steps and gives an indication of the types of equipment used. The amounts of radioactivity released in normal operation of the processes are indicated and related to radiation doses. Types and costs of equipment or processes required to lower these radioactivity releases are in some cases suggested. Mining and milling, conversion of uranium concentrate to UF/sub 6/, uranium isotope separation, LWR fuel fabrication, fuel reprocessing, transportation, and waste management are covered in this essay. 40 figures, 34 tables. (DLC)

  16. Using Less Oil Despite the unquenchable thirst for oil to fuel nina's fast growing economy,the oil consumption growth rate is dropping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    At first glance, the official figures of China's oil consumption in 2005 seem a bit confusing. With a robust economic growth and rising annual oil imports, China made the surprise announcement that its oil consumption growth rate was dropping sharply, from 15.3 percent in 2004 to 2.1 percent in 2005. Earlier, China's Ministry of

  17. Energy and resource consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The present and projected energy requirements for the United States are discussed. The energy consumption and demand sectors are divided into the categories: residential and commercial, transportation, and industrial and electrical generation (utilities). All sectors except electrical generation use varying amounts of fossile fuel resources for non-energy purposes. The highest percentage of non-energy use by sector is industrial with 71.3 percent. The household and commercial sector uses 28.4 percent, and transportation about 0.3 percent. Graphs are developed to project fossil fuel demands for non-energy purposes and the perdentage of the total fossil fuel used for non-energy needs.

  18. Cold spray deposition of Ti2AlC coatings for improved nuclear fuel cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Benjamin R.; Garcia-Diaz, Brenda L.; Hauch, Benjamin; Olson, Luke C.; Sindelar, Robert L.; Sridharan, Kumar

    2015-11-01

    Coatings of Ti2AlC MAX phase compound have been successfully deposited on Zircaloy-4 (Zry-4) test flats, with the goal of enhancing the accident tolerance of LWR fuel cladding. Low temperature powder spray process, also known as cold spray, has been used to deposit coatings ∼90 μm in thickness using powder particles of accident tolerance to nuclear fuel cladding.

  19. RADIOACTIVE WASTE STREAMS FROM VARIOUS POTENTIAL NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE OPTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nick Soelberg; Steve Piet

    2010-11-01

    Five fuel cycle options, about which little is known compared to more commonly known options, have been studied in the past year for the United States Department of Energy. These fuel cycle options, and their features relative to uranium-fueled light water reactor (LWR)-based fuel cycles, include: • Advanced once-through reactor concepts (Advanced Once-Through, or AOT) – intended for high uranium utilization and long reactor operating life, use depleted uranium in some cases, and avoid or minimize used fuel reprocessing • Fission-fusion hybrid (FFH) reactor concepts – potential variations are intended for high uranium or thorium utilization, produce fissile material for use in power generating reactors, or transmute transuranic (TRU) and some radioactive fission product (FP) isotopes • High temperature gas reactor (HTGR) concepts - intended for high uranium utilization, high reactor thermal efficiencies; they have unique fuel designs • Molten salt reactor (MSR) concepts – can breed fissile U-233 from Th fuel and avoid or minimize U fuel enrichment, use on-line reprocessing of the used fuel, produce lesser amounts of long-lived, highly radiotoxic TRU elements, and avoid fuel assembly fabrication • Thorium/U-233 fueled LWR (Th/U-233) concepts – can breed fissile U-233 from Th fuel and avoid or minimize U fuel enrichment, and produce lesser amounts of long-lived, highly radiotoxic TRU elements. These fuel cycle options could result in widely different types and amounts of used or spent fuels, spent reactor core materials, and waste streams from used fuel reprocessing, such as: • Highly radioactive, high-burnup used metal, oxide, or inert matrix U and/or Th fuels, clad in Zr, steel, or composite non-metal cladding or coatings • Spent radioactive-contaminated graphite, SiC, carbon-carbon-composite, metal, and Be reactor core materials • Li-Be-F salts containing U, TRU, Th, and fission products • Ranges of separated or un-separated activation

  20. Proposals for the gradual reduction of the inefficiencies associated with the account of consumption of fossil fuels of isolated systems; Propostas para a gradativa reducao das ineficiencias associadas a conta de consumo de combustiveis fosseis dos sistemas isolados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, Pedro Coelho de Souza Monteiro; Tiryaki, Gisele Ferreira [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), BA (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Restricted access to electricity, the existence of an energy matrix based on fossil fueled electricity plants and the lack of financial means by the population living in the Northern region of Brazil to afford the costs with electricity generation, transmission and distribution in the region created the need to implement cross subsidies in the country's Electric Sector Isolated System. The subsidy policies have aimed at allowing the access to electricity for the population and industries in the north of Brazil and at promoting the economic development of this region, but have brought a great cost to society, particularly the Fuel Consumption Account (CCC). This paper evaluates the current structure and the regulatory norms of the electricity sector' subsidies granted to the Isolated Systems, and indicates solutions to the inefficiency associated to cross-subsidization. (author)

  1. Design of Fuel Consumption Monitoring System for Fishing Vessels Based on STM 32%基于 STM32的渔船油耗监测系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨郑明; 徐轶群

    2016-01-01

    Considering the fuel consumption of fishing vessels is too high as well as the inconvenience for fishery supervision department of a large number of fishing vessels , the function of the Internet of wireless communication technology is used to de-signed the fishing vessels fuel consumption monitoring system based on STM 32.The system consists of a monitoring center com-puter, a fuel consumption data acquisition gateway , a wireless transmission module and an inductive flow meter .Using ZigBee CC2530F256 chip as the core module , it can realize the function of all port network interconnection .By using the ZigBee coordi-nator and distribution on the fishing boat ZigBee router connected to the Internet , the system can realize acquisition and transmis-sion of the fishing vessel fuel consumption data , and data analysis and storage by the STM 32F207Z master control chip .Through the experiment of a certain port in Fuzhou , the real-time data acquisition and supervision department of the fishing vessel oil con -sumption is realized .%针对渔船燃油消耗过高以及渔业监管部门对大量渔船监管不便的问题,利用物联网无线通信技术的功能,设计基于STM32的渔船油耗监测系统,系统由监测中心计算机、油耗数据采集网关、无线传透模块和感应式流量计构成。利用CC2530F256芯片为核心的ZigBee模块,实现全港口网络互联的功能。下行通过ZigBee协调器与分布在渔船上的ZigBee路由器联网,实现渔船油耗数据的采集与传输,经由油耗数据采集网关主控芯片STM32F207Z进行数据的解析与存储,上行通过RS232实现与监测计算机的通讯。在福州某港口试验证明,可实现渔船油耗实时数据采集和监管部门对渔船的远程监测。

  2. 营运货车道路运行油耗及碳排放因子研究%Research on Fuel Consumption & Carbon Emission Factor of Road Freight Trucks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭美春; 李嘉如; 胡红斐

    2015-01-01

    针对营运货车实际道路运行油耗及碳排放因子进行了测算,以不同载质量的125辆营运货车为试验车辆,采用车载测试方法采集了连续6个月车辆运行油耗、里程等数据,运用数据甄别筛选、正态分布检验、均值求解、误差分析、质量控制分析等方法进行数据处理统计分析,测算出各类营运货车百公里油耗均值与偏差,并基于碳平衡方法计算出各类货车的碳排放因子均值。测算结果可用于对营运货车道路运行油耗和碳排放水平进行评价,及对碳排放总量进行估算。%Fuel consumption and carbon emission factor of road freight trucks are measured. A total of 125 road freight trucks of different payload mass are chosen for test. The study collects the vehicle operating data including fuel consumption, driving mileage and so on for 6 months continuously by test device on vehicle, and test data are processed for statistic analysis with the methods of data screening, normal distribution test, solution of mean value, error analysis, quality control methods, etc, through which the mean value and deviation of fuel consumption of different freight trucks and average carbon emission factor based on carbon neutral principle for 5 kinds of freight vehicle. The measurement results can be used in evaluation of the fuel consumption and carbon emission of freight trucks as well as estimation of total carbon emission.

  3. Technical program to study the benefits of nonlinear analysis methods in LWR component designs. Technical report TR-3723-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raju, P. P.

    1980-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of the study program to assess the benefits of nonlinear analysis methods in Light Water Reactor (LWR) component designs. The current study reveals that despite its increased cost and other complexities, nonlinear analysis is a practical and valuable tool for the design of LWR components, especially under ASME Level D service conditions (faulted conditions) and it will greatly assist in the evaluation of ductile fracture potential of pressure boundary components. Since the nonlinear behavior is generally a local phenomenon, the design of complex components can be accomplished through substructuring isolated localized regions and evaluating them in detail using nonlinear analysis methods.

  4. Equipamento para medição do consumo de combustível em experimentos agrícolas An equipment for measuring tractor fuel consumption in agricultural experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Valdemar Gonzalez Maziero

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available É descrito e aferido (em condições de laboratório um equipamento para medição de consumo de combustível para uso em experimentos com máquinas agrícolas. O medidor, construído com tubos-reservatórios de PVC, tubo de vidro graduado, tanque plástico de combustível e eletroválvulas (12 VCC, é ligado ao sistema de alimentação do trator com mangueiras de plástico de baixa pressão, controlando-se o fluxo de combustível mediante uma chave elétrica liga/desliga. Faz parte do conjunto um medidor de temperatura para possibilitar o cálculo da densidade do combustível, quando necessário medir seu consumo específico. O equipamento, desenvolvido pela Seção de Máquinas de Tração e de Potência, é simples, econômico, de fácil utilização, e tem precisão adequada para medir consumo de combustível variando de 5,0 a 50,0 l/h.A description and test's results of an equipment for measuring tractor fuel consumption in agricultural experiments are presented. The equipment was constructed with two reservoir tanks made of PVC tube, a feeder tank, a graduated glass tube and solenoidal valves (12 VCC which are connected to the tractor fuel system with low pressure hoses. The flow is controlled by input/output key. A thermometer integrates the equipment for determining the density of fuel when it is necessary to measure the specific fuel consumption. This equipment developed by the Seção de Máquinas de Tração e de Potência, State of São Paulo, Brazil, is simple, inexpensive, easy to use and has satisfactory accuracy for measuring tractor fuel consumption from 5.0 to 50.0 l/h.

  5. 基于驾驶模拟实验的生态驾驶行为节能减排潜力%Potential of Eco-driving in Reducing Fuel Consumption and Emissions Based on a Driving Simulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍毅平; 赵晓华; 荣建; 刘莹; 徐龙

    2015-01-01

    Eco-driving has been proven to have a great potentialin reducing vehicle fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in many developed countries, however, this potential in China might be different due to different vehicle technologies, driving groups and driving habits. In China, eco-driving was just introduced in recent years and the potentialin energy saving and emissions reduction of this fuel-efficient driving concept is not clear. Based on a driving simulator, the amount of fuel consumption and emissions before and after eco-driving training of 22 recruited drivers was calculated and compared. The training has two different levels, from receiving only staticinformation ( education) to guided practicing of eco-driving rules ( coaching) . Results show that the potential of eco-drivingin saving fuel consumptionis 3. 43%-5. 45%, and the potential of eco-driving on emissions reduction is 3. 39%-26. 15%, corresponding to different emission indexes. The benefits of eco-driving will be enlarged as the level of training reinforced. Additionally, the potential of fuel consumption saving and emissions reduction after eco-driving training is different between professional and non-professional drivers.%针对生态驾驶行为在中国节能减排潜力尚不明确的问题,研究基于驾驶模拟实验平台,选取22名驾驶人进行生态驾驶行为培训和驾驶模拟实验测试,通过对比分析生态驾驶行为培训前和培训后的车辆能耗排放改善情况,确定生态驾驶行为的节能减排潜力.研究结果表明:生态驾驶行为节约汽车燃油消耗的潜力可达3.43%~5.45%;对应不同尾气排放物( CO2、CO、HC和NOx ),生态驾驶行为的减排潜力可达3.39%~26.15%.随着培训强度的增加,生态驾驶行为所体现出的节能减排效益也相应增大.另外,职业和非职业司机驾驶行为节能减排潜力存在明显差异.

  6. Transient fuel behavior of preirradiated PWR fuels under reactivity initiated accident conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujishiro, Toshio; Yanagisawa, Kazuaki; Ishijima, Kiyomi; Shiba, Koreyuki

    1992-06-01

    Since 1975, extensive studies on transient fuel behavior under reactivity initiated accident (RIA) conditions have been continued in the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR) of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. A new experimental program with preirradiated LWR fuel rods as test samples has recently been started. In this program, transient behavior and failure initiation have been studied with 14 × 14 type PWR fuel rods preirradiated to a burnup of 20 to 42 MWd/kgU. The test fuel rods contained in a capsule filled with the coolant water were subjected to a pulse irradiation in the NSRR to simulate a prompt power surge in an RIA. The effects of preirradiation on the transient fission gas release, pellet-cladding mechanical interaction and fuel failure were clearly observed through the transient in-core measurements and postirradiation examination.

  7. Fuel consumption analysis of diesel-electric hybrid system of fishing boat%渔船柴电混合动力系统油耗分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹建军; 李胜勇

    2016-01-01

    为了探索海洋渔船推进系统的节油减排,以一艘安装有柴电混合动力系统,成功实现节能减排的金枪鱼延绳钓船为例,通过剖析柴电混合动力系统的结构,柴油机理论负荷特性,结合渔船实际使用情况,分析其节能原因。结果显示,渔船柴电混合动力系统在使用过程中,可根据工况需要,随意切换常规动力与电力推进系统;通过选择合理的主机工况,提高柴油机输出效率,降低柴油机油耗率;综合各种工况,能节油15%以上。研究表明,现阶段在金枪鱼延绳钓渔船上使用混合动力技术是可行的,能起到节能减排的作用。在核心技术不变的情况下,运用一些创新技术手段,如采用多机多桨拆分系统,赋予系统更高的智能调配作用,可以把混合动力系统推广到拖网渔船和围网渔船上。%In order to explore the energy conservation performance of ocean fishing boat propulsion systems,in this paper,a tuna longline vessel that has realized energy-saving and emission-reducing was taken as an example to analyze the reasons behind,through probing into the structure of its diesel-electric hybrid system, engine load characteristics and the actual using conditions of the vessel. The results showed that the diesel-electric hybrid system of the vessel in use can easily switch between the conventional power and the electricity propulsion systems in accordance with the actual working conditions; by selecting the reasonable working conditions of the main engine,the output efficiency of the diesel engine could thus be improved and the diesel fuel consumption rate decreased,and considering the various working conditions,the system could save energy by more than 15%.The research showed that,at present,using hybrid power technology in tuna longline vessels is feasible and can play a role in energy conservation. With the core technology remaining the same and by adopting some

  8. LWR decay heat calculations using a GRS improved ENDF/B-6 based ORIGEN data library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesse, U.; Hummelsheim, K.I.; Kilger, R.; Moser, F.E.; Langenbuch, S. [Gesellschaft fur Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Forschungsinstitute, Garching (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The known ORNL ORIGEN code is widely spread over the world for inventory, activity and decay heat tasks and is used stand-alone or implemented in activation, shielding or burn-up systems. More than 1000 isotopes with more than six coupled neutron capture and radioactive decay channels are handled simultaneously by the code. The characteristics of the calculated inventories, e.g., masses, activities, neutron and photon source terms or the decay heat during short or long decay time steps are achieved by summing over all isotopes, characterized in the ORIGEN libraries. An extended nuclear GRS-ORIGENX data library is now developed for practical appliance. The library was checked for activation tasks of structure material isotopes and for actinide and fission product burn-up calculations compared with experiments and standard methods. The paper is directed to the LWR decay heat calculation features of the new library and shows the differences of dynamical and time integrated results of Endf/B-6 based and older Endf/B-5 based libraries for decay heat tasks compared to fission burst experiments, ANS curves and some other published data. A multi-group time exponential evaluation is given for the fission burst power of {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 239}Pu and {sup 241}Pu, to be used in quick LWR reactor accident decay heat calculation tools. (authors)

  9. Effects of LWR coolant environments on fatigue design curves of carbon and low-alloy steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopra, O.K.; Shack, W.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1998-03-01

    The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code provides rules for the construction of nuclear power plant components. Figures I-9.1 through I-9.6 of Appendix I to Section III of the code specify fatigue design curves for structural materials. While effects of reactor coolant environments are not explicitly addressed by the design curves, test data indicate that the Code fatigue curves may not always be adequate in coolant environments. This report summarizes work performed by Argonne National Laboratory on fatigue of carbon and low-alloy steels in light water reactor (LWR) environments. The existing fatigue S-N data have been evaluated to establish the effects of various material and loading variables such as steel type, dissolved oxygen level, strain range, strain rate, temperature, orientation, and sulfur content on the fatigue life of these steels. Statistical models have been developed for estimating the fatigue S-N curves as a function of material, loading, and environmental variables. The results have been used to estimate the probability of fatigue cracking of reactor components. The different methods for incorporating the effects of LWR coolant environments on the ASME Code fatigue design curves are presented.

  10. On the Diffusion Coefficient of Two-step Method for LWR analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Deokjung; Choi, Sooyoung [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Smith, Kord S. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (United States)

    2015-10-15

    The few-group constants including diffusion coefficients are generated from the assembly calculation results. Once the assembly calculation is done, the cross sections (XSs) are spatially homogenized, and a critical spectrum calculation is performed in order to take into account the neutron leakages of the lattice. The diffusion coefficient is also generated through the critical spectrum calculation. Three different methods of the critical spectrum calculation such as B1 method, P1 method, and fundamental mode (FM) calculation method are considered in this paper. The diffusion coefficients can also be affected by transport approximations for the transport XS calculation which is used in the assembly transport lattice calculation in order to account for the anisotropic scattering effects. The outflow transport approximation and the inflow transport approximation are investigated in this paper. The accuracy of the few group data especially the diffusion coefficients has been studied to optimize the combination of the transport correction methods and the critical spectrum calculation methods using the UNIST lattice physics code STREAM. The combination of the inflow transport approximation and the FM method is shown to provide the highest accuracy in the LWR core calculations. The methodologies to calculate the diffusion coefficients have been reviewed, and the performances of them have been investigated with a LWR core problem. The combination of the inflow transport approximation and the fundamental mode critical spectrum calculation shows the smallest errors in terms of assembly power distribution.

  11. Assessment of Possible Cycle Lengths for Fully-Ceramic Micro-Encapsulated Fuel-Based Light Water Reactor Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Sonat Sen; Michael A. Pope; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; Kemal O. Pasamehmetoglu

    2012-04-01

    The tri-isotropic (TRISO) fuel developed for High Temperature reactors is known for its extraordinary fission product retention capabilities [1]. Recently, the possibility of extending the use of TRISO particle fuel to Light Water Reactor (LWR) technology, and perhaps other reactor concepts, has received significant attention [2]. The Deep Burn project [3] currently focuses on once-through burning of transuranic fissile and fissionable isotopes (TRU) in LWRs. The fuel form for this purpose is called Fully-Ceramic Micro-encapsulated (FCM) fuel, a concept that borrows the TRISO fuel particle design from high temperature reactor technology, but uses SiC as a matrix material rather than graphite. In addition, FCM fuel may also use a cladding made of a variety of possible material, again including SiC as an admissible choice. The FCM fuel used in the Deep Burn (DB) project showed promising results in terms of fission product retention at high burnup values and during high-temperature transients. In the case of DB applications, the fuel loading within a TRISO particle is constituted entirely of fissile or fissionable isotopes. Consequently, the fuel was shown to be capable of achieving reasonable burnup levels and cycle lengths, especially in the case of mixed cores (with coexisting DB and regular LWR UO2 fuels). In contrast, as shown below, the use of UO2-only FCM fuel in a LWR results in considerably shorter cycle length when compared to current-generation ordinary LWR designs. Indeed, the constraint of limited space availability for heavy metal loading within the TRISO particles of FCM fuel and the constraint of low (i.e., below 20 w/0) 235U enrichment combine to result in shorter cycle lengths compared to ordinary LWRs if typical LWR power densities are also assumed and if typical TRISO particle dimensions and UO2 kernels are specified. The primary focus of this summary is on using TRISO particles with up to 20 w/0 enriched uranium kernels loaded in Pressurized Water

  12. Development of dual cooled annular fuel and its possibility to enhance both economy and safety of light water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Yanghyun; Kim, Keonsik; Park, Jeongyong; Yang, Yongsik; Kim, Hyungkyu; In, Wangkee; Song, Kunwoo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Over the past few decades, extensive studies have been performed to improve the reliability and safety of light water reactor (LWR) fuel. In recent years, power updating of about 10% is being achieved by modifying safety analysis methodology and subsequent increase in safety margin. But departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) and loss of coolant accident (LOCA) are still two of the most important limiting factors which would restrict power updating more than 10%. Duel cooled annular fuel, cooled in both internal and external cooling channel, has advantages of considerably lower heat flux and lower fuel temperature than conventional solid fuel. While lower heat flus gives higher DNB margin for the same power retie, lower temperature reduces the stored energy of fuel. However, there are many technical issues that should be addressed before any new type of fuel can be considered for application to LWR. This paper describes the key technologies that Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has developed for dual cooled annular fuel and discusses the feasibility of its application to LWR.

  13. Fuel flexible fuel injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuthill, Richard S; Davis, Dustin W; Dai, Zhongtao

    2015-02-03

    A disclosed fuel injector provides mixing of fuel with airflow by surrounding a swirled fuel flow with first and second swirled airflows that ensures mixing prior to or upon entering the combustion chamber. Fuel tubes produce a central fuel flow along with a central airflow through a plurality of openings to generate the high velocity fuel/air mixture along the axis of the fuel injector in addition to the swirled fuel/air mixture.

  14. Spent fuel characteristics & disposal considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oversby, V.M.

    1996-06-01

    The fuel used in commercial nuclear power reactors is uranium, generally in the form of an oxide. The gas-cooled reactors developed in England use metallic uranium enclosed in a thin layer of Magnox. Since this fuel must be processed into a more stable form before disposal, we will not consider the characteristics of the Magnox spent fuel. The vast majority of the remaining power reactors in the world use uranium dioxide pellets in Zircaloy cladding as the fuel material. Reactors that are fueled with uranium dioxide generally use water as the moderator. If ordinary water is used, the reactors are called Light Water Reactors (LWR), while if water enriched in the deuterium isotope of hydrogen is used, the reactors are called Heavy Water reactors. The LWRs can be either pressurized reactors (PWR) or boiling water reactors (BWR). Both of these reactor types use uranium that has been enriched in the 235 isotope to about 3.5 to 4% total abundance. There may be minor differences in the details of the spent fuel characteristics for PWRs and BWRs, but for simplicity we will not consider these second-order effects. The Canadian designed reactor (CANDU) that is moderated by heavy water uses natural uranium without enrichment of the 235 isotope as the fuel. These reactors run at higher linear power density than LWRs and produce spent fuel with lower total burn-up than LWRs. Where these difference are important with respect to spent fuel management, we will discuss them. Otherwise, we will concentrate on spent fuel from LWRs.

  15. Energy consumption in the Danish fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Mikkel

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies based on life-cycle assessment (LCA) in Denmark and Sweden have shown that the fishery is the environmental "hot spot" in the life cycle of certain fish products. Within the fishery, fuel consumption is one of the most important factors addressed by LCA. The present study reveals...... that there are great differences in fuel consumption between fisheries targeting groundfish or shellfish and those targeting pelagic fish or industrial fish. Here, I show that fuel consumption per kilogram of caught fish varies considerably as a function of fishing gear and vessel size, even considering the same......) in Denmark and Sweden have shown that the fishery is the environmental "hot spot" in the life cycle of certain fish products. Within the fishery, fuel consumption is one of the most important factors addressed by LCA. The present study reveals that there are great differences in fuel consumption between...

  16. Integral Inherently Safe Light Water Reactor (I2S-LWR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrovic, Bojan [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Memmott, Matthew [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States); Boy, Guy [Florida Inst. of Technology, Melbourne, FL (United States); Charit, Indrajit [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States); Manera, Annalisa [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Downar, Thomas [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Lee, John [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Muldrow, Lycurgus [Morehouse College, Atlanta, GA (United States); Upadhyaya, Belle [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Hines, Wesley [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Haghighat, Alierza [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2017-10-02

    This final report summarizes results of the multi-year effort performed during the period 2/2013- 12/2016 under the DOE NEUP IRP Project “Integral Inherently Safe Light Water Reactors (I2S-LWR)”. The goal of the project was to develop a concept of a 1 GWe PWR with integral configuration and inherent safety features, at the same time accounting for lessons learned from the Fukushima accident, and keeping in mind the economic viability of the new concept. Essentially (see Figure 1-1) the project aimed to implement attractive safety features, typically found only in SMRs, to a larger power (1 GWe) reactor, to address the preference of some utilities in the US power market for unit power level on the order of 1 GWe.

  17. Nonlinear analysis of LWR components: areas of investigation/benefits/recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, S. J. [ed.

    1980-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify specific topics of investigation into design procedures, design concepts, methods of analysis, testing practices, and standards which are characterized by nonlinear behavior (both geometric and material) and which are considered to offer some economic and/or technical benefits to the LWR industry (excluding piping). In this study these topics were collected, compiled, and subjectively evaluated as to their potential benefit. The topics considered to have the greatest benefit/impact potential are discussed. The topics of investigation were found to fall basically into three areas: component, code interpretation, and load/failure mechanism. The topics are arbitrarily reorganized into six areas of investigation: Fracture, Fatigue, Vibration/Dynamic/Seismic, Plasticity, Component/Computational Considerations, and Code Interpretation.

  18. Outlook for alternative transportation fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gushee, D.E. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This presentation provides a brief review of regulatory issues and Federal programs regarding alternative fuel use in automobiles. A number of U.S. DOE initiatives and studies aimed at increasing alternative fuels are outlined, and tax incentives in effect at the state and Federal levels are discussed. Data on alternative fuel consumption and alternative fuel vehicle use are also presented. Despite mandates, tax incentives, and programs, it is concluded alternative fuels will have minimal market penetration. 7 refs., 5 tabs.

  19. 轻水堆乏燃料和钍燃料在ACR-700利用的探索%Investigation of Potential Utilization for Light Water Reactor Spent Fuel and Thorium Fuel in ACR-700

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹春燕; 陈金根; 蔡翔舟; 蒋大真; 郭锐; 陈堃; 郭威; 马余刚; 胡碧涛

    2013-01-01

    轻水堆乏燃料和钍燃料的利用是解决乏燃料后处理问题和核燃料短缺的有效途径之一.本工作以ACR 700标准燃料为参考,研究了4种不同混合比例的轻水堆乏燃料及钍燃料在ACR-700中的k∞和燃耗.研究结果表明,将裂变产物分离后,轻水堆乏燃料的重锕系核素在ACR-700中可作为一很好的燃料;只要加入足够的启动燃料,钍燃料也可作为很好的转换燃料,使反应堆内生成233U的速率大于易裂变燃料的消耗速率,233U的生成对反应堆运行后期维持临界起重要作用.%The potential utilization of light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel and thorium fuel is a very efficient way for solving spent fuel processing and nuclear fuel shortage problems.Four different mixed fuel types with LWR spent fuel and Th fuel were researched in ACR-700 using SCALE5.1 code system.Compared with the ACR-700 standard fuel,the fuel cycle model 1 and 4 can reach higher burnup.According to the research on the lattice physics of ACR-700 fuel bundle,it is indicated that LWR spent fuel after separation of the fission products is a very prospective fuel in ACR-700 and 232Th can be a preferable fertile isotope if sufficient booster fuel is supplied.

  20. Closed Fuel Cycle Waste Treatment Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vienna, J. D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Collins, E. D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Crum, J. V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ebert, W. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Frank, S. M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Garn, T. G. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Gombert, D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jones, R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jubin, R. T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Maio, V. C. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Marra, J. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Matyas, J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Nenoff, T. M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Riley, B. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sevigny, G. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Soelberg, N. R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Strachan, D. M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Thallapally, P. K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Westsik, J. H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This study is aimed at evaluating the existing waste management approaches for nuclear fuel cycle facilities in comparison to the objectives of implementing an advanced fuel cycle in the U.S. under current legal, regulatory, and logistical constructs. The study begins with the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) Integrated Waste Management Strategy (IWMS) (Gombert et al. 2008) as a general strategy and associated Waste Treatment Baseline Study (WTBS) (Gombert et al. 2007). The tenets of the IWMS are equally valid to the current waste management study. However, the flowsheet details have changed significantly from those considered under GNEP. In addition, significant additional waste management technology development has occurred since the GNEP waste management studies were performed. This study updates the information found in the WTBS, summarizes the results of more recent technology development efforts, and describes waste management approaches as they apply to a representative full recycle reprocessing flowsheet. Many of the waste management technologies discussed also apply to other potential flowsheets that involve reprocessing. These applications are occasionally discussed where the data are more readily available. The report summarizes the waste arising from aqueous reprocessing of a typical light-water reactor (LWR) fuel to separate actinides for use in fabricating metal sodium fast reactor (SFR) fuel and from electrochemical reprocessing of the metal SFR fuel to separate actinides for recycle back into the SFR in the form of metal fuel. The primary streams considered and the recommended waste forms include; Tritium in low-water cement in high integrity containers (HICs); Iodine-129: As a reference case, a glass composite material (GCM) formed by the encapsulation of the silver Mordenite (AgZ) getter material in a low-temperature glass is assumed. A number of alternatives with distinct advantages are also considered including a fused silica waste form

  1. Alternative aviation turbine fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobman, J.

    1977-01-01

    The efficient utilization of fossil fuels by future jet aircraft may necessitate the broadening of current aviation turbine fuel specifications. The most significant changes in specifications would be an increased aromatics content and a higher final boiling point in order to minimize refinery energy consumption and costs. These changes would increase the freezing point and might lower the thermal stability of the fuel and could cause increased pollutant emissions, increased smoke and carbon formation, increased combustor liner temperatures, and poorer ignition characteristics. This paper discusses the effects that broadened specification fuels may have on present-day jet aircraft and engine components and the technology required to use fuels with broadened specifications.

  2. Development of a quasidimensional multizone model for optimisation of the emission characteristics and fuel consumption of DI diesel engines. Final report; Entwicklung eines quasidimensionalen Mehrzonen-Modells zur Optimierung des Emissionsverhaltens und des Kraftstoffverbrauchs direkteinspritzender Dieselmotoren. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stiesch, G.; Merker, G.P.

    2000-09-01

    The focus in modern diesel engines is on low fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. Computer modelling serves to reduce costly and time-consuming experiments. Models should have a valid physical basis and use only a few empirical equations in order to make it more generally valid than existing models. [German] Bei der Entwicklung moderner Dieselmotoren liegen Schwerpunkte gleichzeitig auf der Reduzierung des Kraftstoffverbrauches und auf der Reduzierung der Schadstoffemissionen. Rechenmodelle, die beide Groessen zuverlaessig berechnen koennen, tragen dazu bei, die Anzahl von zeit- und kostenintensiven experimentellen Untersuchungen zu reduzieren, und fuehren so zu einer schnelleren Entwicklung von schadstoffarmen und verbrauchsguenstigen Motoren. Das zu entwickelnde Modell soll auf einer abgesicherten physikalischen Basis stehen und mit moeglichst wenigen empirischen Gleichungen auskommen, so dass eine wesentlich verbesserte Allgemeingueltigkeit gegenueber existierenden Modellen erreicht wird. (orig.)

  3. Assembling consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assembling Consumption marks a definitive step in the institutionalisation of qualitative business research. By gathering leading scholars and educators who study markets, marketing and consumption through the lenses of philosophy, sociology and anthropology, this book clarifies and applies...... societies. This is an essential reading for both seasoned scholars and advanced students of markets, economies and social forms of consumption....

  4. 基于油耗调查的2010年天津市农业机械排放研究%Estimation of agricultural machinery emissions in Tianjin in 2010 based on fuel consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金陶胜; 陈东; 付雪梅; 李雅琦; 易忠芹; 陆凯波

    2014-01-01

    通过问卷调查,采用基于燃油消耗量的方法估算出天津市2010年农业机械氮氧化物(NOx)和颗粒物(PM)的总排放量.2010年天津市农业机械总保有量为57.5万台,其中种植业机械最大约占52.5%;总动力为588万kW,运输机械占比最大为47.3%.估算出2010年天津市农业机械总油耗(主要为柴油)为6.7万t,其中运输机械耗油量为4.5万t.再根据燃油消耗量估算了天津2010年农业机械污染物排放量,NOx和PM年排放量分别为3470t和303t.%In this paper, particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions of agricultural machinery in Tianjin were estimated based on fleet make-up and fuel consumption from a survey questionnaire. In 2010, total count of agricultural machinery in Tianjin was approximately 575000, 52.5% being planting machinery. The total power of all agricultural machinery was approximately 5.88 million kilowatts, while transport machinery had the greatest share of 47.3%. Total fuel consumption of agricultural machinery in Tianjin was estimated as 67000 t; over-half of it was by transport machinery (45000t). The annual PM and NOx emission estimates from agricultural machinery in Tianjin were 303and 3470tons, respectively.

  5. Performance of Trasuranic-Loaded Fully Ceramic Micro-Encapsulated Fuel in LWRs Interim Report, Including Void Reactivity Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael A. Pope; Brian Boer; Gilles Youinou; Abderrafi M. Ougouag

    2011-03-01

    The current focus of the Deep Burn Project is on once-through burning of transuranice (TRU) in light water reactors (LWRs). The fuel form is called Fully-Ceramic Micro-encapsulated (FCM) fuel, a concept that borrows the tri-isotropic (TRISO) fuel particle design from high-temperature reactor technology. In the Deep Burn LWR (DB-LWR) concept, these fuel particles would be pressed into compacts using SiC matrix material and loaded into fuel pins for use in conventional LWRs. The TRU loading comes from the spent fuel of a conventional LWR after 5 years of cooling. Unit cell calculations have been performed using the DRAGON-4 code in order assess the physics attributes of TRU-only FCM fuel in an LWR lattice. Depletion calculations assuming an infinite lattice condition were performed with calculations of various reactivity coefficients performed at each step. Unit cells containing typical UO2 and MOX fuel were analyzed in the same way to provide a baseline against which to compare the TRU-only FCM fuel. Loading of TRU-only FCM fuel into a pin without significant quantities of uranium challenges the design from the standpoint of several key reactivity parameters, particularly void reactivity, and to some degree, the Doppler coefficient. These unit cells, while providing an indication of how a whole core of similar fuel would behave, also provide information of how individual pins of TRU-only FCM fuel would influence the reactivity behavior of a heterogeneous assembly. If these FCM fuel pins are included in a heterogeneous assembly with LEU fuel pins, the overall reactivity behavior would be dominated by the uranium pins while attractive TRU destruction performance of the TRU-only FCM fuel pins may be preserved. A configuration such as this would be similar to CONFU assemblies analyzed in previous studies. Analogous to the plutonium content limits imposed on MOX fuel, some amount of TRU-only FCM pins in an otherwise-uranium fuel assembly may give acceptable reactivity

  6. Modeling and Analysis of FCM UN TRISO Fuel Using the PARFUME Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaise Collin

    2013-09-01

    The PARFUME (PARticle Fuel ModEl) modeling code was used to assess the overall fuel performance of uranium nitride (UN) tri-structural isotropic (TRISO) ceramic fuel in the frame of the design and development of Fully Ceramic Matrix (FCM) fuel. A specific modeling of a TRISO particle with UN kernel was developed with PARFUME, and its behavior was assessed in irradiation conditions typical of a Light Water Reactor (LWR). The calculations were used to access the dimensional changes of the fuel particle layers and kernel, including the formation of an internal gap. The survivability of the UN TRISO particle was estimated depending on the strain behavior of the constituent materials at high fast fluence and burn-up. For nominal cases, internal gas pressure and representative thermal profiles across the kernel and layers were determined along with stress levels in the pyrolytic carbon (PyC) and silicon carbide (SiC) layers. These parameters were then used to evaluate fuel particle failure probabilities. Results of the study show that the survivability of UN TRISO fuel under LWR irradiation conditions might only be guaranteed if the kernel and PyC swelling rates are limited at high fast fluence and burn-up. These material properties are unknown at the irradiation levels expected to be reached by UN TRISO fuel in LWRs. Therefore, more effort is needed to determine them and positively conclude on the applicability of FCM fuel to LWRs.

  7. Conceptual design and economic analysis of a light water reactor fuel enricher/regenerator. FY 1978 year-end report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grand, P; Kouts, H J; Powell, J R; Steinberg, M; Takahashi, H

    1979-05-01

    A study has been performed to evaluate the use of high-energy particle accelerators as nuclear fuel enrichers and nuclear fuel regenerators. This builds on ideas that have been current for many years. The new study has, however, explored some novel approaches that have not been examined before. A specific conceptual system chosen for more detailed study would stretch the energy available from natural uranium by a factor of about 3, reduce the separative work requirements by a factor of about 4, and reduce the volume of spent fuel to be stored by a factor of 2, compared to the current once-through light water reactor (LWR) fuel cycle. The concept avoids the need for chemical reprocessing of spent fuel, and would permit continued use of LWR's beyond the time when limitations on fuel resources might otherwise lead to their being phased out. This concept, which is called the Linear Accelerator Fuel Enricher/Regenerator, is therefore viewed as offering a practical means of stretching the use of the nuclear fuel resource in the framework of the existing light water reactor fuel cycle. This report describes and analyzes the concept referred to. An explanation of the principles underlying the concept is given. Particular attention is devoted to engineering feasibility, proliferation resistance, and economics. It is seen that the concept draws on only proven technology as regards bothaccelerator design and the fuel irradiation process, and is adapted to existing LWR designs with no change except in fuel-handling practices. A preliminary evaluation of radiation damage, coolant options, and power conversion systems is provided. Neutronic, thermal-hydraulic, and burnup calculations are presented. An analysis is made of fuel economy. Approximate costs of electric power produced using this concept are evaluated and discussed. Estimated development costs of commercialization are provided.

  8. Sustainability Features of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Passerini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear fuel cycle is the series of stages that nuclear fuel materials go through in a cradle to grave framework. The Once Through Cycle (OTC is the current fuel cycle implemented in the United States; in which an appropriate form of the fuel is irradiated through a nuclear reactor only once before it is disposed of as waste. The discharged fuel contains materials that can be suitable for use as fuel. Thus, different types of fuel recycling technologies may be introduced in order to more fully utilize the energy potential of the fuel, or reduce the environmental impacts and proliferation concerns about the discarded fuel materials. Nuclear fuel cycle systems analysis is applied in this paper to attain a better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of fuel cycle alternatives. Through the use of the nuclear fuel cycle analysis code CAFCA (Code for Advanced Fuel Cycle Analysis, the impact of a number of recycling technologies and the associated fuel cycle options is explored in the context of the U.S. energy scenario over 100 years. Particular focus is given to the quantification of Uranium utilization, the amount of Transuranic Material (TRU generated and the economics of the different options compared to the base-line case, the OTC option. It is concluded that LWRs and the OTC are likely to dominate the nuclear energy supply system for the period considered due to limitations on availability of TRU to initiate recycling technologies. While the introduction of U-235 initiated fast reactors can accelerate their penetration of the nuclear energy system, their higher capital cost may lead to continued preference for the LWR-OTC cycle.

  9. Analysis of high burnup fuel safety issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chan Bock; Kim, D. H.; Bang, J. G.; Kim, Y. M.; Yang, Y. S.; Jung, Y. H.; Jeong, Y. H.; Nam, C.; Baik, J. H.; Song, K. W.; Kim, K. S

    2000-12-01

    Safety issues in steady state and transient behavior of high burnup LWR fuel above 50 - 60 MWD/kgU were analyzed. Effects of burnup extension upon fuel performance parameters was reviewed, and validity of both the fuel safety criteria and the performance analysis models which were based upon the lower burnup fuel test results was analyzed. It was found that further tests would be necessary in such areas as fuel failure and dispersion for RIA, and high temperature cladding corrosion and mechanical deformation for LOCA. Since domestic fuels have been irradiated in PWR up to burnup higher than 55 MWD/kgU-rod. avg., it can be said that Korea is in the same situation as the other countries in the high burnup fuel safety issues. Therefore, necessary research areas to be performed in Korea were derived. Considering that post-irradiation examination(PIE) for the domestic fuel of burnup higher than 30 MWD/kgU has not been done so far at all, it is primarily necessary to perform PIE for high burnup fuel, and then simulation tests for RIA and LOCA could be performed by using high burnup fuel specimens. For the areas which can not be performed in Korea, international cooperation will be helpful to obtain the test results. With those data base, safety of high burnup domestic fuels will be confirmed, current fuel safety criteria will be re-evaluated, and finally transient high burnup fuel behavior analysis technology will be developed through the fuel performance analysis code development.

  10. Evaluation of CASMO-3 and HELIOS for Fuel Assembly Analysis from Monte Carlo Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Hyung Jin; Song, Jae Seung; Lee, Chung Chan

    2007-05-15

    This report presents a study comparing deterministic lattice physics calculations with Monte Carlo calculations for LWR fuel pin and assembly problems. The study has focused on comparing results from the lattice physics code CASMO-3 and HELIOS against those from the continuous-energy Monte Carlo code McCARD. The comparisons include k{sub inf}, isotopic number densities, and pin power distributions. The CASMO-3 and HELIOS calculations for the k{sub inf}'s of the LWR fuel pin problems show good agreement with McCARD within 956pcm and 658pcm, respectively. For the assembly problems with Gadolinia burnable poison rods, the largest difference between the k{sub inf}'s is 1463pcm with CASMO-3 and 1141pcm with HELIOS. RMS errors for the pin power distributions of CASMO-3 and HELIOS are within 1.3% and 1.5%, respectively.

  11. The combined effect of reduced fossil fuel consumption and increasing biomass combustion on Athens' air quality, as inferred from long term CO measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratsea, Myrto; Liakakou, Eleni; Mihalopoulos, Nikos; Adamopoulos, Anastasios; Tsilibari, Eirini; Gerasopoulos, Evangelos

    2017-03-14

    To evaluate the role of biomass burning emissions, and in particular of residential wood heating, as a result of the economic recession in Greece, carbon monoxide (CO) atmospheric concentrations from five (5) stations of the National Air Pollution Monitoring Network in Athens, spanning the period 2000-2015, in conjunction with black carbon (BC) concentrations from the NOA (National Observatory of Athens) station at Thissio were analysed. The contribution of the different sources to the diurnal cycle of these two pollutants is clear, resulting to a morning peak, mainly due to traffic, and a late evening peak attributed both to fossil fuel (traffic plus central heating) and biomass combustion. Calculated morning and evening integrals of CO peaks, for the investigated period, show consistent seasonal modulations, characterised by low summer and high winter values. The summer and winter morning CO peak integrals demonstrate an almost constant decreasing trend of CO concentrations over time (by almost 50% since 2000), attributed to the renewal of passenger car fleet and to reduced anthropogenic activities during the last years. On the other hand, an increase of 23%-78% (depending on the monitoring site) in the winter evening integrals since 2012, provides evidence of the significant contribution of biomass combustion, which has prevailed over fossil fuel for domestic heating. CO emitted by wood burning was found to contribute almost 50% to the total CO emissions during night time (16:00-5:00), suggesting that emissions from biomass combustion have gained an increasing role in atmospheric pollution levels in Athens.

  12. Nuclear Material Attractiveness: An Assessment of Material from PHWR's in a Closed Thorium Fuel Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sleaford, Brad W.; Ebbinghaus, B. B.; Bradley, Keith S.; Robel, Martin; Prichard, Andrew W.; Smith, Brian W.; Collins, Brian A.; Hase, Kevin R.; Jarvinen, G. D.; Ireland, J. R.; Johnson, M. W.; Bathke, Charles G.; Wallace, R. K.

    2010-06-11

    This paper examines the attractiveness of material mixtures containing special nuclear materials (SNM) associated with reprocessing and the thorium-based LWR fuel cycle. This paper expands upon the results from earlier studies [ , ] that examined the attractiveness of SNM associated with the reprocessing of spent light water reactor (LWR) fuel by various reprocessing schemes and the recycle of plutonium as a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel in LWR. This study shows that 233U that is produced in thorium-based fuel cycles is very attractive for weapons use. Consistent with other studies, these results also show that all fuel cycles examined to date need to be rigorously safeguarded and provided moderate to high levels of physical protection. These studies were performed at the request of the United States Department of Energy (DOE), and are based on the calculation of "attractiveness levels" that has been couched in terms chosen for consistency with those normally used for nuclear materials in DOE nuclear facilities [ ]. The methodology and key findings will be presented.

  13. The future of the otto-engine as a passenger car drive - chances of further reduced fuel consumption; Die Zukunft des Ottomotors als PKW-Antrieb - Entwicklungschancen unter Verbrauchsaspekten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, M.

    1998-07-01

    The article looks at possibilities to further reduce consumption of induction-type otto-engines. Compared to the best possible process 15% of the fuel energy remain unused at full load, 33% at partial load (n=2000l/min). For modern serial otto-engines with external fuel induction it is possible to increase efficiencies up to 8% in stationary operation (p{sub me}=2 bar, n=2000 1/min). The best option is charge leaning as it reduces losses during the high pressure phase as well as the phase of load alteration. Combined with maeasures that stabilise and accelerate combustion (short combustion times owing to twin ignition of 2-valve engines or high charge swirl owing to induction valve shut-off in multi-valve engines) allows leaning of the cyclinder charge down to a value where consumption is reduced by 5% (if a stochiometric mixture is leaned with exhaust gas) or 10% (if leaning goes down to an air ratio of 1.4). Leaner cyclinder charges for otto engines require stratification of charge, i.e. direct injection. This, in turn reduces consumption by about 20%.(orig.) [German] Im Rahmen der vorliegenden Arbeit wird der Frage nachgegangen, welches Potential zur Verbrauchsreduzierung gemischansaugende Ottomotoren noch besitzen und wie es genutzt werden kann. Gegenueber dem bestmoeglichen Vergleichzprozess bleiben bei Vollast ca. 15% und bei Teillast ca. 33% der eingesetzten Kraftstoffenergie im Ottomotor ungenutzt (n=2000 1/min). Auf der Basis moderner Otto-Serienmotoren sind mit externer Gemischbildung Wirkungsgradsteigerungen durch Einzelmassnahmen von bis zu 8% im Stationaerbetrieb (p{sub me}=2 bar, n=2000 1/min) erzielbar. Die Ladungsverduennung birgt dabei das groesste Potential, da sie sowohl die Verluste in der Hochdruckphase als auch in der Ladungswechselphase vermindert. In Kombination mit Massnahmen zur Beschleunigung und Stabilisierung der Verbrennung (kurze Brennwege durch Doppelzuendung bei 2-Ventilmotoren oder hoher Ladungsdrall durch Einlassventilabschaltung

  14. Preliminary test results of a flight management algorithm for fuel conservative descents in a time based metered traffic environment. [flight tests of an algorithm to minimize fuel consumption of aircraft based on flight time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, C. E.; Cannon, D. G.

    1979-01-01

    A flight management algorithm designed to improve the accuracy of delivering the airplane fuel efficiently to a metering fix at a time designated by air traffic control is discussed. The algorithm provides a 3-D path with time control (4-D) for a test B 737 airplane to make an idle thrust, clean configured descent to arrive at the metering fix at a predetermined time, altitude, and airspeed. The descent path is calculated for a constant Mach/airspeed schedule from linear approximations of airplane performance with considerations given for gross weight, wind, and nonstandard pressure and temperature effects. The flight management descent algorithms and the results of the flight tests are discussed.

  15. Sustainable Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2015-01-01

    The intention of this chapter is to explore the role of consumption and consumers in relation to sustainability transition processes and wider systemic transformations. In contrast to the individualistic focus in much research on sustainable consumption, the embeddedness of consumption activities...... in wider social, economic and technological frameworks is emphasised. In particular, the chapter is inspired by practice theory and transition theory. First, various trends in consumption are outlined to highlight some of the challenges for sustainability transitions. Then, it is discussed how consumption...... patterns are shaped over time and what should be considered in sustainability strategies. While discussions on consumption often take their point of departure in the perspective of the individual and then zoom to the wider context, the present approach is the opposite. The outline starts with the basic...

  16. Reactor physics modelling of accident tolerant fuel for LWRs using ANSWERS codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindley Benjamin A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of nuclear reactors operating in the world today and similarly the majority of near-term new build reactors will be LWRs. These currently accommodate traditional Zr clad UO2/PuO2 fuel designs which have an excellent performance record for normal operation. However, the events at Fukushima culminated in significant hydrogen production and hydrogen explosions, resulting from high temperature Zr/steam interaction following core uncovering for an extended period. These events have resulted in increased emphasis towards developing more accident tolerant fuels (ATFs-clad systems, particularly for current and near-term build LWRs. R&D programmes are underway in the US and elsewhere to develop ATFs and the UK is engaging in these international programmes. Candidate advanced fuel materials include uranium nitride (UN and uranium silicide (U3Si2. Candidate cladding materials include advanced stainless steel (FeCrAl and silicon carbide. The UK has a long history in industrial fuel manufacture and fabrication for a wide range of reactor systems including LWRs. This is supported by a national infrastructure to perform experimental and theoretical R&D in fuel performance, fuel transient behaviour and reactor physics. In this paper, an analysis of the Integral Inherently Safe LWR design (I2S-LWR, a reactor concept developed by an international collaboration led by the Georgia Institute of Technology, within a US DOE Nuclear Energy University Program (NEUP Integrated Research Project (IRP is considered. The analysis is performed using the ANSWERS reactor physics code WIMS and the EDF Energy core simulator PANTHER by researchers at the University of Cambridge. The I2S-LWR is an advanced 2850 MWt integral PWR with inherent safety features. In order to enhance the safety features, the baseline fuel and cladding materials that were chosen for the I2S-LWR design are U3Si2 and advanced stainless steel respectively. In addition, the I2S-LWR design

  17. Advanced Fuels Campaign Light Water Reactor Accident Tolerant Fuel Performance Metrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad Merrill; Melissa Teague; Robert Youngblood; Larry Ott; Kevin Robb; Michael Todosow; Chris Stanek; Mitchell Farmer; Michael Billone; Robert Montgomery; Nicholas Brown; Shannon Bragg-Sitton

    2014-02-01

    The safe, reliable and economic operation of the nation’s nuclear power reactor fleet has always been a top priority for the United States’ nuclear industry. As a result, continual improvement of technology, including advanced materials and nuclear fuels, remains central to industry’s success. Decades of research combined with continual operation have produced steady advancements in technology and yielded an extensive base of data, experience, and knowledge on light water reactor (LWR) fuel performance under both normal and accident conditions. In 2011, following the Great East Japan Earthquake, resulting tsunami, and subsequent damage to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant complex, enhancing the accident tolerance of LWRs became a topic of serious discussion. As a result of direction from the U.S. Congress, the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) initiated an Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) Development program. The complex multiphysics behavior of LWR nuclear fuel makes defining specific material or design improvements difficult; as such, establishing qualitative attributes is critical to guide the design and development of fuels and cladding with enhanced accident tolerance. This report summarizes a common set of technical evaluation metrics to aid in the optimization and down selection of candidate designs. As used herein, “metrics” describe a set of technical bases by which multiple concepts can be fairly evaluated against a common baseline and against one another. Furthermore, this report describes a proposed technical evaluation methodology that can be applied to assess the ability of each concept to meet performance and safety goals relative to the current UO2 – zirconium alloy system and relative to one another. The resultant ranked evaluation can then inform concept down-selection, such that the most promising accident tolerant fuel design option(s) can continue to be developed for lead test rod or lead test assembly

  18. Modelling of LOCA Tests with the BISON Fuel Performance Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, Richard L [Idaho National Laboratory; Pastore, Giovanni [Idaho National Laboratory; Novascone, Stephen Rhead [Idaho National Laboratory; Spencer, Benjamin Whiting [Idaho National Laboratory; Hales, Jason Dean [Idaho National Laboratory

    2016-05-01

    BISON is a modern finite-element based, multidimensional nuclear fuel performance code that is under development at Idaho National Laboratory (USA). Recent advances of BISON include the extension of the code to the analysis of LWR fuel rod behaviour during loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs). In this work, BISON models for the phenomena relevant to LWR cladding behaviour during LOCAs are described, followed by presentation of code results for the simulation of LOCA tests. Analysed experiments include separate effects tests of cladding ballooning and burst, as well as the Halden IFA-650.2 fuel rod test. Two-dimensional modelling of the experiments is performed, and calculations are compared to available experimental data. Comparisons include cladding burst pressure and temperature in separate effects tests, as well as the evolution of fuel rod inner pressure during ballooning and time to cladding burst. Furthermore, BISON three-dimensional simulations of separate effects tests are performed, which demonstrate the capability to reproduce the effect of azimuthal temperature variations in the cladding. The work has been carried out in the frame of the collaboration between Idaho National Laboratory and Halden Reactor Project, and the IAEA Coordinated Research Project FUMAC.

  19. Uniform corrosion of FeCrAl alloys in LWR coolant environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrani, K. A.; Pint, B. A.; Kim, Y.-J.; Unocic, K. A.; Yang, Y.; Silva, C. M.; Meyer, H. M.; Rebak, R. B.

    2016-10-01

    The corrosion behavior of commercial and model FeCrAl alloys and type 310 stainless steel was examined by autoclave tests and compared to Zircaloy-4, the reference cladding materials in light water reactors. The corrosion studies were carried out in three distinct water chemistry environments found in pressurized and boiling water reactor primary coolant loop conditions for up to one year. The structure and morphology of the oxides formed on the surface of these alloys was consistent with thermodynamic predictions. Spinel-type oxides were found to be present after hydrogen water chemistry exposures, while the oxygenated water tests resulted in the formation of very thin and protective hematite-type oxides. Unlike the alloys exposed to oxygenated water tests, the alloys tested in hydrogen water chemistry conditions experienced mass loss as a function of time. This mass loss was the result of net sum of mass gain due to parabolic oxidation and mass loss due to dissolution that also exhibits parabolic kinetics. The maximum thickness loss after one year of LWR water corrosion in the absence of irradiation was ∼2 μm, which is inconsequential for a ∼300-500 μm thick cladding.

  20. Proceedings of the IAEA specialists` meeting on cracking in LWR RPV head penetrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugh, C.E.; Raney, S.J. [comps.] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-07-01

    This report contains 17 papers that were presented in four sessions at the IAEA Specialists` meeting on Cracking in LWR RPV Head Penetrations held at ASTM Headquarters in Philadelphia on May 2-3, 1995. The papers are compiled here in the order that presentations were made in the sessions, and they relate to operational observations, inspection techniques, analytical modeling, and regulatory control. The goal of the meeting was to allow international experts to review experience in the field of ensuring adequate performance of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) heads and penetrations. The emphasis was to allow a better understanding of RPV material behavior, to provide guidance supporting reliability and adequate performance, and to assist in defining directions for further investigations. The international nature of the meeting is illustrated by the fact that papers were presented by researchers from 10 countries. There were technical experts present form other countries who participated in discussions of the results presented. This present document incorporates the final version of the papers as received from the authors. The final chapter includes conclusions and recommendations. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.