WorldWideScience

Sample records for lv wedge preparations

  1. Direct Preparation of Nano-Quasicrystals via a Water-Cooled Wedge-Shaped Copper Mould

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifeng Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We have successfully synthesized multicomponent Mg-based nano-quasicrystals (nano-QCs through a simple route by using a water-cooled wedge-shaped copper mould. Nanoscale QCs are prepared directly on tip of wedge-shaped castings. The further study shows that nano-QCs in the Mg71Zn26Y2Cu1 alloy show well microhardness of greater than HV450. Electrochemical properties of three kinds of quasicrystal alloys are investigated in simulated seawater. The Mg71Zn26Y2Cu1 nano-QC alloy presents the best corrosion resistance in this study for the formation of well-distributed nano-QC phases (1~5 nm and polygonal Mg2(Cu,Y nanophases (40~50 nm.

  2. A developed wedge fixtures assisted high precision TEM samples pre-thinning method: Towards the batch lamella preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandan Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ion milling, wedge cutting or polishing, and focused ion beam (FIB milling are widely-used techniques for the transmission electron microscope (TEM sample preparation. Especially, the FIB milling provides a site-specific analysis, deposition, and ablation of materials in the micrometer and nanometer scale. However, the cost of FIB tools has been always a significant concern. Since it is inevitable to use the FIB technique, the improvement of efficiency is a key point. Traditional TEM sample preparation with FIB was routinely implemented on a single sample each time. Aiming at cost efficiency, a new pre-thinning technique for batch sample preparation was developed in this paper. The present proposal combines the sample preparation techniques with multi-samples thinning, cross-section scanning electron microscopy (SEM, wedge cutting, FIB and other sample pre-thinning techniques. The new pre-thinning technique is to prepare an edge TEM sample on a grinding and polishing fixture with a slant surface. The thickness of the wedges sample can be measured to 1∼2 μm under optical microscope. Therefore, this fixture is superior to the traditional optical method of estimating the membrane thickness. Moreover, by utilizing a multi-sample holding fixture, more samples can be pre-thinned simultaneously, which significantly improved the productivity of TEM sample preparation.

  3. Rethinking wedges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Steven J.; Cao, Long; Caldeira, Ken; Hoffert, Martin I.

    2013-03-01

    Abstract Stabilizing CO2 emissions at current levels for fifty years is not consistent with either an atmospheric CO2 concentration below 500 ppm or global temperature increases below 2 °C. Accepting these targets, solving the climate problem requires that emissions peak and decline in the next few decades, and ultimately fall to near zero. Phasing out emissions over 50 years could be achieved by deploying on the order of 19 'wedges', each of which ramps up linearly over a period of 50 years to ultimately avoid 1 GtC y-1 of CO2 emissions. But this level of mitigation will require affordable carbon-free energy systems to be deployed at the scale of tens of terawatts. Any hope for such fundamental and disruptive transformation of the global energy system depends upon coordinated efforts to innovate, plan, and deploy new transportation and energy systems that can provide affordable energy at this scale without emitting CO2 to the atmosphere. 1. Introduction In 2004, Pacala and Socolow published a study in Science arguing that '[h]umanity can solve the carbon and climate problem in the first half of this century simply by scaling up what we already know how to do' [1]. Specifically, they presented 15 options for 'stabilization wedges' that would grow linearly from zero to 1 Gt of carbon emissions avoided per year (GtC y-1 1 Gt = 1012 kg) over 50 years. The solution to the carbon and climate problem, they asserted, was 'to deploy the technologies and/or lifestyle changes necessary to fill all seven wedges of the stabilization triangle'. They claimed this would offset the growth of emissions and put us on a trajectory to stabilize atmospheric CO2 concentration at 500 ppm if emissions decreased sharply in the second half of the 21st century. The wedge concept has proven popular as an analytical tool for considering the potential of different technologies to reduce CO2 emissions. In the years since the paper was published, it has been cited more than 400 times, and

  4. Radial wedge flange clamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Karl H.

    2002-01-01

    A radial wedge flange clamp comprising a pair of flanges each comprising a plurality of peripheral flat wedge facets having flat wedge surfaces and opposed and mating flat surfaces attached to or otherwise engaged with two elements to be joined and including a series of generally U-shaped wedge clamps each having flat wedge interior surfaces and engaging one pair of said peripheral flat wedge facets. Each of said generally U-shaped wedge clamps has in its opposing extremities apertures for the tangential insertion of bolts to apply uniform radial force to said wedge clamps when assembled about said wedge segments.

  5. Formation and characterization of FeLV iscoms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Akerblom; K. Strö mstedt; S. Hö glund; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); B. Morein (Bror)

    1989-01-01

    textabstractImmunostimulating complexes (ISCOMs) have been prepared from feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) envelope proteins. The ISCOMs were characterized biochemically in SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showing the presence of proteins of estimated molecular weights of 15,000, 27,000 and 70,000

  6. Cloning and characterization of a novel hemocyanin variant LvHMCV4 from shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xin; Lu, Hui; Guo, Lingling; Zhang, Zehui; Zhao, Xianliang; Zhong, Mingqi; Li, Shengkang; Zhang, Yueling

    2015-10-01

    Recently, we found 3 variants of hemocyanin subunit with higher molecular weight in shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Named as LvHMCV1-3). In this study, a novel L. vannamei hemocyanin variant (Named as LvHMCV4) was further cloned and characterized. Bioinformatic analysis predicted that LvHMCV4 contains one open reading frame of 2137 bp and encodes a polypeptide of 678 amino acids. It shares 84-99% cDNA sequences identity to that of the classical form of L. vannamei hemocyanin (LvHMC, AJ250830.1) and LvHMCV1-3. LvHMCV4 possesses a conserved structure characteristic of the hemocyanin family and can be clustered into one branch along with other arthropod hemocyanins in a phylogenetic tree. Further, the full-length DNA of LvHMCV4 contains 2660 bp and two introns, which are located at the 80-538 bp and 2063-2227 bp regions, respectively. In addition, the mRNA transcript of LvHMCV4 was expressed highly in the hepatopancreas, lymphoid, brain and hemocytes, and weakly in the heart, intestine and gill, while no expression was found in the muscle, stomach and gut. Infection by Escherichia coli K12, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio fluvialis, Streptococcus pyogenes or Staphylococcus aureus up-regulated significantly LvHMCV4 mRNA expression in the hepatopancreas. Furthermore, the recombinant protein of LvHMCV4 (rLvHMCV4) was prepared, which showed agglutination activities against six pathogenic bacteria at concentrations ranging from 15.6 to 125 μg/ml. When co-injected with V. parahaemolyticus in L.vannamei, rLvHMCV4 significantly increased the survival rate after 48 h injection. Together, these studies suggested that hemocyanin variant, LvHMCV4, might be involved in shrimp resistance to pathogenic infection.

  7. Efficacy of an inactivated FeLV vaccine compared to a recombinant FeLV vaccine in minimum age cats following virulent FeLV challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuke, Kristin; King, Vickie; Southwick, Kendra; Stoeva, Mira I; Thomas, Anne; Winkler, M Teresa C

    2014-05-07

    The aim of the study was to determine the efficacy of an inactivated feline leukemia virus (FeLV) vaccine (Versifel(®) FeLV, Zoetis.) compared to a recombinant FeLV vaccine (Purevax(®) FeLV, Merial Animal Health) in young cats, exposed under laboratory conditions to a highly virulent challenge model. The study was designed to be consistent with the general immunogenicity requirements of the European Pharmacopoeia 6.0 Monograph 01/2008:1321-Feline Leukaemia Vaccine (Inactivated) with the exception that commercial-strength vaccines were assessed. Fifty seronegative cats (8-9 weeks old) were vaccinated subcutaneously on two occasions, three weeks apart, with either placebo (treatment group T01), Versifel FeLV Vaccine (treatment group T02), or Purevax FeLV Vaccine (treatment group T03) according to the manufacturer's directions. Cats were challenged three weeks after the second vaccination with a virulent FeLV isolate (61E strain). Persistent FeLV antigenemia was determined from 3 to 15 weeks postchallenge. Bone marrow samples were tested for the presence of FeLV proviral DNA to determine FeLV latent infection. At week 15 after challenge with the virulent FeLV 61E strain, the Versifel FeLV Vaccine conferred 89.5% protection against FeLV persistent antigenemia and 94.7% protection against FeLV proviral DNA integration in bone marrow cells. In comparison, the Purevax FeLV Vaccine conferred 20% protection against FeLV persistent antigenemia and 35% protection against FeLV proviral DNA integration in bone marrow cells following challenge. The data from this study show that the Versifel FeLV Vaccine was efficacious in preventing both FeLV persistent p27 antigenemia and FeLV proviral DNA integration in bone marrow cells of cats challenged with this particular challenge model under laboratory conditions and provided better protection than Purevax FeLV in this experimental challenge model with highly virulent FeLV.

  8. Wedges of Anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellström, Maria; Brandt, Eva

    2005-01-01

    The Heraclitian notion of a reality in constant flux seems to have settled even in the public consciousness. We are, to an ever-increasing extent, on the move; in motion between different places of abode, between domiciles and places of residence, between temporary addresses and provisory settlem...... cones of light, as the cut their way into the unknown, like wedges of anxiety...

  9. Protection of LV system against lightning

    OpenAIRE

    Yordanova Nedyalkova, Greta

    2010-01-01

    Lightning is a natural hazard and one of the greatest local mysteries. Scientists have not fully understood the mechanism of lightning. It is one of the most beautiful displays in nature and one of the nature's most dangerous phenomenon known to man. Overvoltage due to lightning is a very important problem of LV systems. Some lightning flashes damage buildings and a few kill or injure people and animals, either directly or indirectly, by causing fire and explosions. The need for protect...

  10. Shock detachment from curved wedges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mölder, S.

    2017-03-01

    Curved shock theory is used to show that the flow behind attached shocks on doubly curved wedges can have either positive or negative post-shock pressure gradients depending on the freestream Mach number, the wedge angle and the two wedge curvatures. Given enough wedge length, the flow near the leading edge can choke to force the shock to detach from the wedge. This local choking can preempt both the maximum deflection and the sonic criteria for shock detachment. Analytical predictions for detachment by local choking are supported by CFD results.

  11. Shock detachment from curved wedges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mölder, S.

    2017-09-01

    Curved shock theory is used to show that the flow behind attached shocks on doubly curved wedges can have either positive or negative post-shock pressure gradients depending on the freestream Mach number, the wedge angle and the two wedge curvatures. Given enough wedge length, the flow near the leading edge can choke to force the shock to detach from the wedge. This local choking can preempt both the maximum deflection and the sonic criteria for shock detachment. Analytical predictions for detachment by local choking are supported by CFD results.

  12. Association Between Myocardial Mechanics and Ischemic LV Remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Elia, Nicholas; D'hooge, Jan; Marwick, Thomas H

    2015-12-01

    The outcomes associated with heart failure after myocardial infarction are still poor. Both global and regional left ventricular (LV) remodeling are associated with the progression of the post-infarct patient to heart failure, but although global remodeling can be accurately measured, regional LV remodeling has been more difficult to investigate. Preliminary evidence suggests that post-MI assessment of LV mechanics using stress and strain may predict global (and possibly regional) LV remodeling. A method of predicting both global and regional LV remodeling might facilitate earlier, targeted, and more extensive clinical intervention in those most likely to benefit from novel interventions such as cell therapy.

  13. 重组Lv-SWD蛋白的表达、纯化与细菌结合试验%Expression, Purification and Bacteria Binding Test of a Recombinant Lv-SWD Protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜志强; 林涛

    2014-01-01

    The recombinant Lv-SWD protein of Litopenaeus vannamei function in innate immunity system was researched through protein recombinant expression, polyclonal antibody preparation, and bacteria binding assay. The results showed that the predicted molecular weight of Lv-SWD was 12.9 ku, and the virtual molecular weight was consistent with the predicted value. The polyclonal antibody was prepared by recombinant Lv-SWD protein and could identify the protein antigen. The re-combinant Lv-SWD protein could directly bind to Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Vibrio.%通过重组Lv-SWD蛋白的表达与纯化,进行多克隆抗体的制备与细菌结合试验,研究凡纳对虾(Litopenaeus vannamei)重组SWD蛋白在先天免疫系统中的功能。结果表明,Lv-SWD的预测分子质量为12.9 ku,实际大小与理论值相符合。重组Lv-SWD蛋白作为抗原制备的多克隆抗体,可以较好地识别蛋白质本身,且可以直接结合巨大芽孢杆菌(Bacillus subtilis)、金黄色葡萄球菌(Staphylococcus aureus)、绿脓杆菌(Pseudomonas aeruginosa)以及弧菌(Vibrio)4种细菌。

  14. Application of MV/LV Transformers with OLTC for Increasing the PV Hosting Capacity Of LV Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashemi Toghroljerdi, Seyedmostafa; Heckmann, Wolfram; Geibel, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    the operation of OLTC during high PV generation periods are investigated and the methods are applied to an LV feeder with an MV/LV transformer equipped by OLTC located in Felsberg, Germany. The potential interferences between OLTCs and two other overvoltage prevention methods, the demand side management (DSM...

  15. Duwamish Waterways Navigation Improvement Study: Analysis of Impacts on Water Quality and Salt Wedge Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-01

    dissolved oxygen consumption in the saltwater wedge is emphasized. A section has also been prepared discussing sediment transport in the estuary...biomass produced and sedimented 23 1,000 800 00 0 400 Xi. . *-*’* 200 ox- :~. ---0 - .....’ ~ ’J FIGURE 6 Annual Dissolved Oxygen Consumption in the wedge

  16. Value of dobutamine stress tissue Doppler in evaluation of LV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shaimaa Ahmed Mostafa

    2014-12-12

    Dec 12, 2014 ... Prosthetic valve disease. Complicated PCI. LVEF less .... annulus moved toward the cardiac apex due to longitudinal contraction of the LV. ..... to fibrotic tissue is too high and also, improved the integrity of cardiac myocyte cell ...

  17. Noninvasive LV pressure estimation using subharmonic emissions from microbubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Jaydev K; Halldorsdottir, Valgerdur G; Eisenbrey, John R; Raichlen, Joel S; Liu, Ji-Bin; McDonald, Maureen E; Dickie, Kris; Wang, Shumin; Leung, Corina; Forsberg, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    To develop a new noninvasive approach to quantify left ventricular (LV) pressures using subharmonic emissions from microbubbles, an ultrasound scanner was used in pulse inversion grayscale mode; unprocessed radiofrequency data were obtained with pulsed wave Doppler from the aorta and/or LV during Sonazoid infusion. Subharmonic data (in dB) were extracted and processed. Calibration factor (mm Hg/dB) from the aortic pressure was used to estimate LV pressures. Errors ranged from 0.19 to 2.50 mm Hg when estimating pressures using the aortic calibration factor, and were higher (0.64 to 8.98 mm Hg) using a mean aortic calibration factor. Subharmonic emissions from ultrasound contrast agents have the potential to noninvasively monitor LV pressures.

  18. Portal dosimetry in wedged beams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spreeuw, H.; Rozendaal, R.; Camargo, P.; Mans, A.; Wendling, M.; Olaciregui-Ruiz, I.; Sonke, J.J.; Herk, M. van; Mijnheer, B.

    2015-01-01

    Portal dosimetry using electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) is often applied to verify high-energy photon beam treatments. Due to the change in photon energy spectrum, the resulting dose values are, however, not very accurate in the case of wedged beams if the pixel-to-dose conversion for the s

  19. Wedge wetting by electrolyte solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mußotter, Maximilian; Bier, Markus

    2017-09-01

    The wetting of a charged wedgelike wall by an electrolyte solution is investigated by means of classical density functional theory. As in other studies on wedge wetting, this geometry is considered as the most simple deviation from a planar substrate, and it serves as a first step toward more complex confinements of fluids. By focusing on fluids containing ions and surface charges, features of real systems are covered that are not accessible within the vast majority of previous theoretical studies concentrating on simple fluids in contact with uncharged wedges. In particular, the filling transition of charged wedges is necessarily of first order, because wetting transitions of charged substrates are of first order and the barrier in the effective interface potential persists below the wetting transition of a planar wall; hence, critical filling transitions are not expected to occur for ionic systems. The dependence of the critical opening angle on the surface charge, as well as the dependence of the filling height, of the wedge adsorption, and of the line tension on the opening angle and on the surface charge are analyzed in detail.

  20. Contact process in a wedge

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, J Theodore; Schinazi, Rinaldo B

    2009-01-01

    We prove that the supercritical one-dimensional contact process survives in certain wedge-like space-time regions, and that when it survives it couples with the unrestricted contact process started from its upper invariant measure. As an application we show that a type of weak coexistence is possible in the nearest-neighbor ``grass-bushes-trees'' successional model introduced in Durrett and Swindle (1991).

  1. Locally resolved investigation of wedged Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} films prepared by physical vapor deposition using hard X-ray photoelectron and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvet, Wolfram, E-mail: wolfram.calvet@helmholtz-berlin.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Ümsür, Bünyamin; Höpfner, Britta; Lauermann, Iver; Prietzel, Karsten; Kaufmann, Christan A.; Unold, Thomas [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Lux-Steiner, Martha C. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Freie Universität Berlin, Department of Physics, Arnimallee 14, D-14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-05-01

    We have investigated a specially grown Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGSe) absorber, which was deposited by co-evaporation of Cu, In, Ga, and Se using a modified three stage process. Prior to the growth, the molybdenum-coated glass substrate was covered by a bent shroud made from tantalum (Ta), leading to a wedged absorber structure with a width of about 2 mm where the film thickness varies from 0 to 2 μm. In this region of interest the thickness dependency of morphology, concentration ratios and electronic properties was studied with secondary electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES), probing the CIGSe sample along the thickness gradient. The evidence of the thickness gradient itself was proven with SEM measurements in cross section geometry. By using XRF it was found that with decreasing film thickness the Cu concentration decreases significantly. This finding was also verified by HAXPES measurements. Furthermore, an enrichment of Ga towards the Mo back contact was found using the same technique. Besides these results the formation of a molybdenum selenide (MoSe) phase was observed on the fully covered part of the Mo coated substrate indicating a high mobility of Se on Mo under the given temperature conditions of the modified three stage deposition process. - Highlights: • Growth of a CIGSe wedge • Application of HAXPES and XRF as local probing techniques • Good agreement with former studies • Wedged CIGSe structures can be used for further, locally resolved experiments.

  2. Geometry and kinematics of extensional structural wedges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Baoling; He, Dengfa; Zhang, Yongsheng; Sun, Yanpeng; Huang, Jingyi; Zhang, Wenjun

    2017-03-01

    Structural wedges in the compressive environment have been recognized and studied in different locations. However, extension structural wedges are less well-understood. Based on the normal fault-bend folding theory and inclined shear model, this paper quantitatively analyses deformations related to extensional structural wedges and builds a series of geometric models for them. An extensional structural wedge is a fault-block held by two or more normal faults, the action of which would fold its overlying strata. Extensional structural wedges of different shapes will lead to different deformation results for the overlying strata, and this paper illustrates both the triangular and quadrangular wedges and their related deformations. This paper also discusses differences between the extensional structural wedges and the normal fault-bend-folding. By analysing two seismic sections from Langfang-Gu'an Sag, East China, this paper provides two natural examples of the triangular and quadrangular extensional structural wedges, where the models can reasonably explain the overlying distinct highs and lows without obvious faults. The establishment of a geometric model of extensional structural wedges can provide reference and theoretical bases for future quantitative analysis of deformations in the extensional environment.

  3. Avoided losses on LV networks as a result of microgeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Paulo Moises [Escola Superior Tecnologia Viseu, Instituto Politecnico Viseu, Campus Politecnico Repeses, 3504-510 Viseu (Portugal); Matos, Manuel A. [INESC Porto, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Porto (Portugal)

    2009-04-15

    In the scope of the discussions about microgeneration (and microgrids), the avoided electrical losses are often pointed out as an important value to be credited to those entities. Therefore, methods to assess the impact of microgeneration on losses must be developed in order to support the definition of a suitable regulatory framework for the economic integration of microgeneration on distribution networks. This paper presents an analytical method to quantify the value of avoided losses that microgeneration may produce on LV networks. Intervals of expected avoided losses are used to account for the variation of avoided losses due to the number, size and location of microgenerators, as well as for the kind of load distribution on LV networks. (author)

  4. Novel approach for automatic segmentation of LV endocardium via SPCNN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yurun; Wang, Deyuan; Ma, Yide; Lei, Ruoming; Wang, Kemin

    2017-02-01

    Automatic segmentation of Left Ventricle (LV) is an essential task in the field of computer-aided analysis of cardiac function. In this paper, a simplified pulse coupled neural network (SPCNN) based approach is proposed to segment LV endocardium automatically. Different from the traditional image-driven methods, the SPCNN based approach is independent of the image gray distribution models, which makes it more stable. Firstly, the temporal and spatial characteristics of the cardiac magnetic resonance image are used to extract a region of interest and to locate LV cavity. Then, SPCNN model is iteratively applied with an increasing parameter to segment an optimal cavity. Finally, the endocardium is delineated via several post-processing operations. Quantitative evaluation is performed on the public database provided by MICCAI 2009. Over all studies, all slices, and two phases (end-diastole and end-systole), the average percentage of good contours is 91.02%, the average perpendicular distance is 2.24 mm and the overlapping dice metric is 0.86.These results indicate that the proposed approach possesses high precision and good competitiveness.

  5. A Dynamic and Heuristic Phase Balancing Method for LV Feeders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Taghipour Boroujeni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the single-phase loads and their stochastic behavior, the current in the distribution feeders is not balanced. In addition, the single-phase loads are located in different positions along the LV feeders. So the amount of the unbalanced load and its location affect the feeder losses. An unbalanced load causes the feeder losses and the voltage drop. Because of time-varying behavior of the single-phase loads, phase balancing is a dynamic and combinatorial problem. In this research, a heuristic and dynamic solution for the phase balancing of the LV feeders is proposed. In this method, it is supposed that the loads’ tie could be connected to all phases through a three-phase switch. The aim of the proposed method is to make the feeder conditions as balanced as possible. The amount and the location of single-phase loads are considered in the proposed phase balancing method. Since the proposed method needs no communication interface or no remote controller, it is inexpensive, simple, practical, and robust. Applying this method provides a distributed and dynamic phase balancing control. In addition, the feasibility of reducing the used switches is investigated. The ability of the proposed method in the phase balancing of the LV feeders is approved by carrying out some simulations.

  6. Ice Particle Impacts on a Moving Wedge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Mario; Struk, Peter M.; Kreeger, Richard E.; Palacios, Jose; Iyer, Kaushik A.; Gold, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    This work presents the results of an experimental study of ice particle impacts on a moving wedge. The experiment was conducted in the Adverse Environment Rotor Test Stand (AERTS) facility located at Penn State University. The wedge was placed at the tip of a rotating blade. Ice particles shot from a pressure gun intercepted the moving wedge and impacted it at a location along its circular path. The upward velocity of the ice particles varied from 7 to 12 meters per second. Wedge velocities were varied from 0 to 120 meters per second. Wedge angles tested were 0 deg, 30 deg, 45 deg, and 60 deg. High speed imaging combined with backlighting captured the impact allowing observation of the effect of velocity and wedge angle on the impact and the post-impact fragment behavior. It was found that the pressure gun and the rotating wedge could be synchronized to consistently obtain ice particle impacts on the target wedge. It was observed that the number of fragments increase with the normal component of the impact velocity. Particle fragments ejected immediately after impact showed velocities higher than the impact velocity. The results followed the major qualitative features observed by other researchers for hailstone impacts, even though the reduced scale size of the particles used in the present experiment as compared to hailstones was 4:1.

  7. 77 FR 21620 - Notice of the Buy America Waiver Request for Vossloh 101-LV Concrete Ties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Notice of the Buy America Waiver Request for Vossloh 101-LV Concrete Ties... requirements for the purchase of Vossloh 101-LV concrete ties, which contain certain components not... consist of the installation of Vossloh 101-LV concrete ties. FRA has received this request from the four...

  8. Voltage rise mitigation for solar PV integration at LV grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Guangya; Marra, Francesco; Juamperez Goñi, Miguel Angel

    2015-01-01

    Solar energy from photovoltaic (PV) is among the fastest developing renewable energy systems worldwide. Driven by governmental subsidies and technological development, Europe has seen a fast expansion of solar PV in the last few years. Among the installed PV plants, most of them are situated...... at the distribution systems and bring various operational challenges such as power quality and power flow management. The paper discusses the modelling requirements for PV system integration studies, as well as the possible techniques for voltage rise mitigation at low voltage (LV) grids for increasing PV penetration...

  9. Optical dating of relict sand wedges and composite-wedge pseudomorphs in Flanders, Belgium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Ghysels, Günther; Murray, Andrew S.;

    2009-01-01

    We report on quartz Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating of the infill of 14 relict sand wedges and composite-wedge pseudomorphs at 5 different sites in Flanders, Belgium. A laboratory dose recovery test indicates that the single-aliquot regenerative-dose (SAR) procedure is suitable...... appear to have been commonplace in Flanders during the Late Pleniglacial (Oxygen Isotope Stage 2; OIS2); more specifically, around the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, similar to 21 kyr ago) and the transition period between the LGM and the start of the Lateglacial (similar to 15 kyr ago). Optical dating...... at one site has revealed two significantly older wedge levels, the younger inset into the older; the younger wedge has an age of 36 +/- 4 kyr (Middle Pleniglacial; OIS3), the older wedge 129 +/- 11 kyr, which points to formation during the Late Saalian (OIS6). Our OSL ages of the wedges and host...

  10. Use of Wedge Absorbers in MICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuffer, D. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Summers, D. [Univ. of Mississippi, Oxford, MS (United States); Mohayai, T. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); IIT, Chicago, IL (United States); Snopok, P. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); IIT, Chicago, IL (United States); Rogers, C. [Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Oxford (United Kingdom). Rutherford Appleton Lab. (RAL)

    2017-03-01

    Wedge absorbers are needed to obtain longitudinal cooling in ionization cooling. They also can be used to obtain emittance exchanges between longitudinal and transverse phase space. There can be large exchanges in emittance, even with single wedges. In the present note we explore the use of wedge absorbers in the MICE experiment to obtain transverse–longitudinal emittance exchanges within present and future operational conditions. The same wedge can be used to explore “direct” and “reverse” emittance exchange dynamics, where direct indicates a configuration that reduces momentum spread and reverse is a configuration that increases momentum spread. Analytical estimated and ICOOL and G4BeamLine simulations of the exchanges at MICE parameters are presented. Large exchanges can be obtained in both reverse and direct configurations.

  11. Benchmarking numerical models of brittle thrust wedges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buiter, Susanne J H; Schreurs, Guido; Albertz, Markus; Gerya, Taras V.; Kaus, Boris; Landry, Walter; le Pourhiet, Laetitia; Mishin, Yury; Egholm, David L.; Cooke, Michele; Maillot, Bertrand; Thieulot, Cedric|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/270177493; Crook, Tony; May, Dave; Souloumiac, Pauline; Beaumont, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    We report quantitative results from three brittle thrust wedge experiments, comparing numerical results directly with each other and with corresponding analogue results. We first test whether the participating codes reproduce predictions from analytical critical taper theory. Eleven codes pass the

  12. A specially curved wedge for eliminating wedge angle effect in unsteady shock reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, He; Zhai, Zhigang; Luo, Xisheng; Yang, Jiming; Lu, Xiyun

    2017-08-01

    A curved wedge with a specific shape is designed and manufactured to guarantee the wedge angle unvaried during the cylindrically converging shock moving along the wedge. Thus the variation of the wedge angle caused by the wedge will be eliminated in unsteady shock reflection. Different initial wedge angles are considered to observe regular reflection and Mach reflection. When Mach reflection occurs, it is found that direct Mach reflection is persisted over the wedge without wave pattern transitions, which differs from our previous work with varied wedge angles [Zhang et al. "Reflection of cylindrical converging shock wave over a plane wedge," Phys. Fluids 28, 086101 (2016)]. Moreover, the Mach stem is nearly straight when the wedge angle is relatively large, and the trajectory of triple point can be well predicted by three-shock theory. It is believed that the straight Mach stem results from the coupling effect of the converging shock and the convexly curved wedge, which exert opposite effects on the Mach stem curvature. As the wedge angle reduces, the three-shock theory prediction deviates from the present results owing to the curved Mach stem. Stronger vortices are produced near the wall, which are caused by the interaction of two shear layers, and whether the stronger vortices will be generated near the wall depends on the reflection number of the shock wave over the tube wall and wedge. The length of disturbed shock front in the Mach reflection is found to increase nonlinearly due to the unsteady feature of the flow. The growth rate of length reduces as the shock converges because of the geometrical contraction effect. Further the lengths of the Mach stem and the disturbed shock front are compared, and the results show that although the difference exists between them, both of them show a similar variation tendency. Compared with our previous work with varied wedge angles, the variation of the wedge angle has great effects on the Mach stem length and wave

  13. Mantle wedge dynamics from seismic anisotropy (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, M. D.; Wirth, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    The mantle wedge above subducting slabs plays a critical role in many of the physical processes associated with subduction, including water transport into the upper mantle and the generation and transport of melts. Our understanding of mantle wedge dynamics is incomplete; in particular, the mantle flow field above subducting slabs remains poorly understood. Because seismic anisotropy is a consequence of deformation, observations of anisotropy (such as shear wave splitting and P-to-SH converted waves) can constrain the geometry of the wedge flow field. Additionally, because the presence of water (either in nominally anhydrous minerals or as hydrous phases) can have a large effect on anisotropic structure, a detailed understanding of mantle wedge anisotropy can help to constrain processes related to water cycling in subduction systems. We present a global, synoptic view of anisotropy observations in subduction zone mantle wedges, compiled from a large number of individual studies, with the goal of understanding the first-order controls on wedge anisotropy and flow patterns. This compilation allows us to explicitly test the predictions made by many different conceptual models for wedge anisotropy, as well as to explore the relationships between observed anisotropy parameters and other parameters that describe subduction. We find that no simple model can explain all of the trends observed in the global data set. Mantle wedge flow is likely controlled by a combination of downdip motion of the slab, trench migration, ambient mantle flow, small-scale convection, proximity to slab edges, and slab morphology, with the relative contributions of these in any given subduction system controlled by the subduction kinematics and mantle rheology. There is also a likely contribution from B-type olivine and/or serpentinite fabric in many subduction zones, governed by the local thermal structure and volatile distribution.

  14. Long-range hybrid wedge plasmonic waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhonglai; Wang, Jian

    2014-11-03

    We design a novel long-range hybrid wedge plasmonic (LRHWP) waveguide composed of two identical dielectric nanowires symmetrically placed on two opposed wedges of a diamond shaped metal wire. With strong coupling between the dielectric nanowire mode and long-range surface plasmon polariton (SPP) mode, both deep subwavelength mode confinement and low propagation loss are achieved. On one hand, when compared to the previous long-range hybrid SPP waveguide, LRHWP waveguide can achieve smaller mode size with similar propagation length; on the other hand, when compared to the previous hybrid wedge SPP waveguide, LRHWP waveguide can provide an order of magnitude longer propagation length with similar level of mode confinement. The designed LRHWP waveguide also features an overall advantage of one-order improvement of Figure of Merit. We further evaluate in detail the impacts of possible practical fabrication imperfections on the mode properties. The obtained results of mode properties show that the proposed LRHWP waveguide with an optimized wedge tip angle of 140 degree is fairly tolerant to practical fabrication errors in geometry parameters such as misalignment in the horizontal direction, asymmetry in the vertical direction, variation of wedge tip angle, tilt or rotation of metal wire, and variation of wedge tip curvature radius.

  15. Studying wedge factors and beam profiles for physical and enhanced dynamic wedges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Misbah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate variation in Varian′s Physical and Enhanced Dynamic Wedge Factors (WF as a function of depth and field size. The profiles for physical wedges (PWs and enhanced dynamic wedges (EDWs were also measured using LDA-99 array and compared for confirmation of EDW angles at different depths and field sizes. WF measurements were performed in water phantom using cylindrical 0.66 cc ionization chamber. WF was measured by taking the ratio of wedge and open field ionization data. A normalized wedge factor (NWF was introduced to circumvent large differences between wedge factors for different wedge angles. A strong linear dependence of PW Factor (PWF with depth was observed. Maximum variation of 8.9% and 4.1% was observed for 60° PW with depth at 6 and 15 MV beams respectively. The variation in EDW Factor (EDWF with depth was almost negligible and less than two per cent. The highest variation in PWF as a function of field size was 4.1% and 3.4% for thicker wedge (60° at 6 and 15 MV beams respectively and decreases with decreasing wedge angle. EDWF shows strong field size dependence and significant variation was observed for all wedges at both photon energies. Differences in profiles between PW and EDW were observed on toe and heel sides. These differences were dominant for larger fields, shallow depths, thicker wedges and low energy beam. The study indicated that ignoring depth and field size dependence of WF may result in under/over dose to the patient especially doing manual point dose calculation.

  16. Mantle wedge serpentinization effects on slab dips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eh Tan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical coupling between a subducting slab and the overlying mantle wedge is an important factor in controlling the subduction dip angle and the flow in mantel wedge. This paper investigates the role of the amount of mantle serpentinization on the subduction zone evolution. With numerical thermos-mechanical models with elasto-visco-plastic rheology, we vary the thickness and depth extent of mantle serpentinization in the mantle wedge to control the degree of coupling between the slab and mantle wedge. A thin serpentinized mantle layer is required for stable subduction. For models with stable subduction, we find that the slab dip is affected by the down-dip extent and the mantle serpentinization thickness. A critical down-dip extent exists in mantle serpentinization, determined by the thickness of the overriding lithosphere. If the down-dip extent does not exceed the critical depth, the slab is partially coupled to the overriding lithosphere and has a constant dip angle regardless of the mantle serpentinization thickness. However, if the down-dip extent exceeds the critical depth, the slab and the base of the overriding lithosphere would be separated and decoupled by a thick layer of serpentinized peridotite. This allows further slab bending and results in steeper slab dip. Increasing mantle serpentinization thickness will also result in larger slab dip. We also find that with weak mantle wedge, there is no material flowing from the asthenosphere into the serpentinized mantle wedge. All of these results indicate that serpentinization is an important ingredient when studying the subduction dynamics in the mantle wedge.

  17. Wedged tibial components for total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, R S; Orton, M A; Denham, R A

    1994-08-01

    Severe coronal deformity of the knee is frequently associated with erosion of one tibial condyle. This can cause problems with fixation and alignment during total knee arthroplasty. If the tibia is cut to the level of the more worn side, valuable bone is sacrificed; if the less worn side is chosen, the deficiency must be filled with bone--graft, cement, or a prosthesis. Tibial components with an integral polyethylene wedge on the undersurface were introduced in 1980 for use in patients with a bony deficit on one tibial condyle. The authors believe that the Denham prosthesis (Biomet, Wales, U.K.) was the first knee arthroplasty to offer such spacers. Twenty-six patients with preoperative varus deformity in whom a wedged component was used were compared with 29 historic control subjects. None of the wedged components loosened after a median follow-up period of 8 years compared with loosening in five of the control subjects (P = .01). In three of the control subjects a fractured triangle of cement was present on the radiographs. Use of the wedges was not accompanied by an improvement in postoperative alignment. The authors conclude that the wedges resulted in improved fixation that was independent of postoperative alignment.

  18. Long polymers near wedges and cones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Yosi; Kantor, Yacov

    2015-12-01

    We perform a Monte Carlo study of N -step self-avoiding walks, attached to the corner of an impenetrable wedge in two dimensions (d =2 ), or the tip of an impenetrable cone in d =3 , of sizes ranging up to N =106 steps. We find that the critical exponent γα, which determines the dependence of the number of available conformations on N for a cone or wedge with opening angle α , is in good agreement with the theory for d =2 . We study the end-point distribution of the walks in the allowed space and find similarities to the known behavior of random walks (ideal polymers) in the same geometry. For example, the ratio between the mean square end-to-end distances of a polymer near the cone or wedge and a polymer in free space depends linearly on γα, as is known for ideal polymers. We show that the end-point distribution of polymers attached to a wedge does not separate into a product of angular and radial functions, as it does for ideal polymers in the same geometry. The angular dependence of the end position of polymers near the wedge differs from theoretical predictions.

  19. Commissioning, clinical implementation and quality assurance of Siemen's Virtual Wedge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathee, S; Kwok, C B; MacGillivray, C; Mirzaei, M

    1999-01-01

    This report presents the results of commissioning, clinical implementation and quality assurance of Siemens Virtual Wedge. Our measurements show that: (1) wedge factors are within 2% of unity, (2) percentage depth doses are within 1% of open beam data, and (3) wedged beam profiles can be modeled similarly to a physical wedge and follow a well defined equation to facilitate modeling of an arbitrary wedge angle. The gantry angle dependence of wedge profiles is similar to open beam profiles. The output of wedged fields is linear with delivered monitor units within 1%. Quality assurance results indicate the wedge profiles are very stable over time. Day to day variations of two points measured along the wedge gradient direction are within 1.5%.

  20. Structure of turbulent wedges created by isolated surface roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuester, Matthew S.; White, Edward B.

    2016-04-01

    Isolated surface roughness in a laminar boundary layer can create a wedge of turbulence that spreads laterally into the surrounding laminar flow. Some recent studies have identified high- and low-speed streaks along the exterior of turbulent wedges. In this experiment, developing turbulent wedges are measured to observe the creation of these streaks. Naphthalene shear stress surface visualization and hotwire measurements are utilized to investigate the details of turbulent wedges created by cylinders in a laminar flat-plate boundary layer. Both the surface visualization and the hotwire measurements show high- and low-speed streaks in the wake of the cylinder that devolve into a turbulent wedge. The turbulent wedge spreading is associated with the emergence of these high- and low-speed streaks along the outside of the wedge. As the wedge evolves in the streamwise direction, these streaks persist inside of the core of the wedge, while new, lower amplitude streaks form along the outside of the wedge. Adding asymmetry to the cylinder moved the virtual origin closer to the roughness and increased the vortex shedding frequency, while adding small-scale roughness features did not strongly affect turbulent wedge development. Intermittency calculations additionally show the origin of the turbulent core inside of the wedge. The structure and spacing of the high-speed streaks along the extremities of the turbulent wedge give insight into the spreading angle of the turbulent wedge.

  1. Explicit reconstruction of the entanglement wedge

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Jung-Wook

    2016-01-01

    The problem of bulk locality, or how the boundary encodes the bulk in AdS/CFT, is still a subject of study today. One of the major issues that needs more elucidation is the problem of subregion duality; what information of the bulk a given boundary subregion encodes. Although proofs given by two teams of researchers, Dong, Harlow, and Wall and Bao, and Kim, state that the entanglement wedge of the bulk should be reconstructible from boudnary subregions, no explicit procedure for reconstructing the entanglement wedge was as of yet given. In this paper, mode sum approach to obtaining smearing functions is generalised to include bulk reconstruction in the entanglement wedge of boundary subregions. It is generally expectated that solutions to the wave equation on a complicated coordinate patch are needed, but this hard problem has been transferred to a less hard but tractable problem of matrix inversion.

  2. Non-Newtonian viscosity wedge in film formation of EHL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUOF.; WONGP.L.

    2001-01-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the action of viscosity wedge in the oil film formation ofEHL at opposite sliding and zero entrainment. Using solvers developed for Newtonian and Eyringfluids, the film formation behavior originating from viscosity wedge is investigated. The numericalsimulation displays that lubricant film formation induced by viscosity wedge is different from that bythe well-known geometrical wedge with entrainment in classic EHL. The numerical analyses showthat at high opposite sliding speed the viscosity wedge acts as a leading role in film formation, thenon-Newtonian effects can have a pronounced influence on action of the viscosity wedge.

  3. A review of dynamics modelling of friction wedge suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qing; Cole, Colin; Spiryagin, Maksym; Sun, Yan Quan

    2014-11-01

    Three-piece bogies with friction wedge suspensions are the most widely used bogies in heavy haul trains. Fiction wedge suspensions play a key role in these wagon systems. This article reviews current techniques in dynamic modelling of friction wedge suspension with various motivations: to improve dynamic models of friction wedge suspensions so as to improve general wagon dynamics simulations; to seek better friction wedge suspension models for wagon stability assessments in complex train systems; to improve the modelling of other friction devices, such as friction draft gear. Relevant theories and friction wedge suspension models developed by using commercial simulation packages and in-house simulation packages are reviewed.

  4. Efficient Control of Active Transformers for Increasing the PV Hosting Capacity of LV Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashemi Toghroljerdi, Seyedmostafa; Østergaard, Jacob; Degner, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    on decreasing the voltage rise along LV feeders, and the potential of active medium voltage to low voltage (MV/LV) transformers for overvoltage prevention has not been thoroughly investigated. This paper presents the application of active MV/LV transformers for increasing the PV hosting capacity of LV grids...... increase the PV hosting capacity of the grid, while eliminating the need for a complex and centralized controller. The voltages of specific locations or the grid state estimations provide adequate data for adjustments of the droop parameters. The simulations and field test results associated...

  5. Graphene Plasmons in Triangular Wedges and Grooves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonçalves, P. A. D.; Dias, E. J. C.; Xiao, Sanshui

    2016-01-01

    and electric-field distributions. We have found that the dispersion of wedge/groove graphene plasmons follows the same functional dependence as their flat-graphene plasmon counterparts, but now scaled by a (purely) geometric factor in which all the information about the system’s geometry is contained. We...... and tunability of graphene plasmons guided along the apex of a graphene-covered dielectric wedge or groove. In particular, we present a quasi-analytic model to describe the plasmonic eigenmodes in such a system, including the complete determination of their spectrum and corresponding induced potential...

  6. Assessment of the LV-S2 & LV-S3 Stack Sampling Probe Locations for Compliance with ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glissmeyer, John A.; Antonio, Ernest J.; Flaherty, Julia E.; Amidan, Brett G.

    2014-09-30

    This document reports on a series of tests conducted to assess the proposed air sampling locations for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Group 1-2A exhaust stacks with respect to the applicable criteria regarding the placement of an air sampling probe. The LV-C2, LV-S2, and LV-S3 exhaust stacks were tested together as a group (Test Group 1-2A). This report only covers the results of LV-S2 and LV-S3; LV-C2 will be reported on separately. Federal regulations1 require that a sampling probe be located in the exhaust stack according to the criteria established by the American National Standards Institute/Health Physics Society (ANSI/HPS) N13.1-1999, Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances from the Stack and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities. 2 These criteria address the capability of the sampling probe to extract a sample that represents the effluent stream.

  7. LvDJ-1 plays an important role in resistance against Vibrio alginolyticus in Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mingzhu; Liu, Yuan; Xie, Chenying; Wang, Wei-Na

    2015-05-01

    DJ-1 was first identified as an oncogene that transformed mouse NIH3T3 cells in cooperation with activated Ras. It has since exhibited a variety of functions in a range of organisms. In this study, the DJ-1 gene in Litopenaeus vannamei (LvDJ-1) was identified and characterized. A recombinant protein LvDJ-1 was produced in Pichia pastoris. LvDJ-1 expression in vivo was knocked down by dsRNA-mediated RNA interference (RNAi), which led to significantly decreased levels of LvDJ-1 mRNA and protein. When the L. vannamei were challenged with RNAi and Vibrio alginolyticus, the transcription and expression of copper zinc superoxide dismutase (LvCZSOD) in the hepatopancreas were dramatically lower in shrimp with knocked down LvDJ-1 than in controls. Transcription and expression of P53 (LvP53) were significantly higher in shrimp lacking LvDJ-1 than in controls. Hepatopancreas samples were analyzed using real time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Moreover, blood samples from the shrimp, assessed with flow cytometry, showed significant increases in respiratory burst and apoptosis in those lacking LvDJ-1 compared to the controls. Cumulative mortality in the shrimp lacking LvDJ-1 was significantly different from that in the control group after challenge with V. alginolyticus. Altogether, the results prove that LvDJ-1 regulates apoptosis and antioxidant activity, and that these functions play an important role in L. vannamei resistance against V. alginolyticus.

  8. Benchmarking numerical models of brittle thrust wedges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buiter, Susanne J H; Schreurs, Guido; Albertz, Markus; Gerya, Taras V.; Kaus, Boris; Landry, Walter; le Pourhiet, Laetitia; Mishin, Yury; Egholm, David L.; Cooke, Michele; Maillot, Bertrand; Thieulot, Cedric; Crook, Tony; May, Dave; Souloumiac, Pauline; Beaumont, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    We report quantitative results from three brittle thrust wedge experiments, comparing numerical results directly with each other and with corresponding analogue results. We first test whether the participating codes reproduce predictions from analytical critical taper theory. Eleven codes pass the s

  9. PARADOX SOLUTION ON ELASTIC WEDGE DISSIMILAR MATERIALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚伟岸; 张兵茹

    2003-01-01

    According to the Hellinger-Reissner variational principle and introducing proper transformation of variables, the problem on elastic wedge dissimilar materials can be led to Hamiltonian system, so the solution of the problem can be got by employing the separation of variables method and symplectic eigenfunction expansion under symplectic space, which consists of original variables and their dual variables. The eigenvalue - 1 is a special one of all symplectic eigenvalue for Hamiltonian system in polar coordinate. In general, the eigenvalue - is a single eigenvalue, and the classical solution of an elastic wedge dissimilar materials subjected to a unit concentrated couple at the vertex is got directly by solving the eigenfunction vector for eigenvalue - 1 . But the eigenvalue - 1 becomes a double eigenvalue when the vertex angles and modulus of the materials satisfy certain definite relationships and the classical solution for the stress distribution becomes infinite at this moment, that is, the paradox should occur. Here the Jordan form eigenfunction vector for eigenvalue - 1 exists, and solution of the paradox on elastic wedge dissimilar materials subjected to a unit concentrated couple at the vertex is obtained directly by solving this special Jordan form eigenfunction. The result shows again that the solutions of the special paradox on elastic wedge in the classical theory of elasticity are just Jordan form solutions in symplectic space under Hamiltonian system.

  10. Radiotherapy treatment planning with dynamic wedges--an algorithm for generating wedge factors and beam data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, S J; Foster, K R

    1995-09-01

    If the jaws of a linear accelerator are moved under computer control during irradiation, dose distributions similar to those with wedge filters can be produced. Varian linear accelerators utilize this effect to give a 'dynamic wedge', using segmented treatment tables (STTs). An algorithm is described to generate the dose per monitor unit at any point in a beam, using the STT values. Dynamically wedged beams are modelled as the superposition of static asymmetric beams, using an algorithm based on beam data measured for symmetric beams. Predictions of wedge factors, depth doses and profiles generated using the algorithm are compared with measurements. Good agreement is found between predictions and measurements. The calculation time is typically 5 ms/dose point on a PC with a 486DX processor.

  11. A comparison of exact TM plane wave diffraction by coated wedges and impedance wedges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars S.; Breinbjerg, Olav; Moore, John T.

    1996-01-01

    without interference from direct fields or reflected fields. Results have been obtained in the case of illumination by a transverse magnetic (TM) uniform plane wave. The analysis of the coated wedge is based on an integral equation formulation combined with a hybrid technique, while the analysis......The purpose of this work is to numerically investigate the accuracy of the standard impedance boundary condition (SIBC) approximation for edge diffraction. To this end, we compare the scattering by coated wedges and SIBC wedges for which the diffracted field from a single edge can be observed...... of the SIBC wedge is based on Maliuzhinets' solution. Comparisons have been carried out for a series of configurations including lossy coatings as well as lossless coatings permitting unattenuated propagation of surface waves. The results show that the presence of an edge in a coated structure does...

  12. Benchmarking numerical models of brittle thrust wedges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buiter, Susanne J. H.; Schreurs, Guido; Albertz, Markus; Gerya, Taras V.; Kaus, Boris; Landry, Walter; le Pourhiet, Laetitia; Mishin, Yury; Egholm, David L.; Cooke, Michele; Maillot, Bertrand; Thieulot, Cedric; Crook, Tony; May, Dave; Souloumiac, Pauline; Beaumont, Christopher

    2016-11-01

    We report quantitative results from three brittle thrust wedge experiments, comparing numerical results directly with each other and with corresponding analogue results. We first test whether the participating codes reproduce predictions from analytical critical taper theory. Eleven codes pass the stable wedge test, showing negligible internal deformation and maintaining the initial surface slope upon horizontal translation over a frictional interface. Eight codes participated in the unstable wedge test that examines the evolution of a wedge by thrust formation from a subcritical state to the critical taper geometry. The critical taper is recovered, but the models show two deformation modes characterised by either mainly forward dipping thrusts or a series of thrust pop-ups. We speculate that the two modes are caused by differences in effective basal boundary friction related to different algorithms for modelling boundary friction. The third experiment examines stacking of forward thrusts that are translated upward along a backward thrust. The results of the seven codes that run this experiment show variability in deformation style, number of thrusts, thrust dip angles and surface slope. Overall, our experiments show that numerical models run with different numerical techniques can successfully simulate laboratory brittle thrust wedge models at the cm-scale. In more detail, however, we find that it is challenging to reproduce sandbox-type setups numerically, because of frictional boundary conditions and velocity discontinuities. We recommend that future numerical-analogue comparisons use simple boundary conditions and that the numerical Earth Science community defines a plasticity test to resolve the variability in model shear zones.

  13. Application of SPCALC for chemical and thermodynamic speciation of fluids -example for wells LV-4A, LV-11 and LV-13, Las Tres Virgenes geothermal field, BCS; Aplicacion del SPCALC en la especiacion quimica y termodinamica de fluidos: ejemplo del caso de los pozos LV-4A, LV-11 y LV-13, del campo geotermico de Las Tres Virgenes, BCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viggiano Guerra, J.C.; Sandoval Medina, F.; Flores Armenta, M.C. [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: fernando.sandoval@cfe.gob.mx, E-mail: magaly.flores@cfe.gob.mx; Perez, R.J. [Universidad de Calgary (Canada); Gonzalez Partida, E. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Centro de Geociencias, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-01-15

    SPCALC is an excellent software application providing chemical and multi-phase speciation for geothermal fluids. Recently it was acquired by the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) through a contract with the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) and the University of Calgary, Canada. Software methodology consists of calculating thermodynamic variables, such as activity (a) and fugacity (f) of chemical species, as well as the saturation indices (log Q/K) of mineral phases of the reservoir. In other words, it models the thermodynamic conditions of the reservoir (pH among other) and simulates the fluid-corrosion rate. This allows the software to foresee scaling and corrosion. In this paper, pervasive fluids in Cretaceous granitic rocks penetrated by wells LV-4A, LV-11 and LV-13 in Las Tres Virgenes geothermal field, BCS, are modeled, starting with chemical analyses. The more important ratios among activities [those which influence the fluid-rock interaction (i.e. {sup a}K{sup +}/{sup a}H{sup +}, {sup a}Ca{sup ++}/{sup a}H{sup +}, {sup a}Na{sup +}/{sup a}H{sup +}, {sup a}Mg{sup ++}/{sup a}H{sup +}) and whose results are the minerals visible under a microscope] are graphed in balance diagrams compatible with the pressure (P) and temperature (T) conditions in the reservoir. Epidote (zoisite) is the mineral found in congruent equilibrium with the system. The main mineral association at those conditions (200-250 degrees Celsius and {approx}18 bar), as observed in the well cuttings, is calcite+illite-quartz{+-}epidote, which is explained by the hydrolithic reactions that form replacement calcite in the presence of CO{sub 2}, thus restricting the formation of epidote and eventually eliminating it. The process enhances the CO{sub 2} molarity in the residual fluid, even up to {sup m}CO{sub 2} 1, which means the CO{sub 2} can be diluted back into fluid and intervene again in the process of calcite formation (2HCO{sub 3}{sup -} + Ca{sup ++} = calcite + H{sub 2}O

  14. Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Dardir

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Some hexanamide-mono and di-linoleniate esters were prepared by the reaction of linolenic acid and hexanamide (derived from the reaction of hexanoic acid and diethanolamine. The chemical structure for the newly prepared hexanamide-mono and di-linoleniate esters were elucidated using elemental analysis, (FTIR, H 1NMR and chemical ionization mass spectra (CI/Ms spectroscopic techniques. The results of the spectroscopic analysis indicated that they were prepared through the right method and they have high purity. The new prepared esters have high biodegradability and lower toxicity (environmentally friendly so they were evaluated as a synthetic-based mud (ester-based mud for oil-well drilling fluids. The evaluation included study of the rheological properties, filtration and thermal properties of the ester based-muds formulated with the newly prepared esters compared to the reference commercial synthetic-based mud.

  15. Life at the wedge: the activity and diversity of arctic ice wedge microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Roland C; Radtke, Kristin J; Mykytczuk, Nadia C S; Greer, Charles W; Whyte, Lyle G

    2012-04-01

    The discovery of polygonal terrain on Mars underlain by ice heightens interest in the possibility that this water-bearing habitat may be, or may have been, a suitable habitat for extant life. The possibility is supported by the recurring detection of terrestrial microorganisms in subsurface ice environments, such as ice wedges found beneath tundra polygon features. A characterization of the microbial community of ice wedges from the high Arctic was performed to determine whether this ice environment can sustain actively respiring microorganisms and to assess the ecology of this extreme niche. We found that ice wedge samples contained a relatively abundant number of culturable cells compared to other ice habitats (∼10(5) CFU·mL(-1)). Respiration assays in which radio-labeled acetate and in situ measurement of CO(2) flux were used suggested low levels of microbial activity, though more sensitive techniques are required to confirm these findings. Based on 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, bacterial and archaeal ice wedge communities appeared to reflect surrounding soil communities. Two Pseudomonas sp. were the most abundant taxa in the ice wedge bacterial library (∼50%), while taxa related to ammonia-oxidizing Thaumarchaeota occupied 90% of the archaeal library. The tolerance of a variety of isolates to salinity and temperature revealed characteristics of a psychrotolerant, halotolerant community. Our findings support the hypothesis that ice wedges are capable of sustaining a diverse, plausibly active microbial community. As such, ice wedges, compared to other forms of less habitable ground ice, could serve as a reservoir for life on permanently cold, water-scarce, ice-rich extraterrestrial bodies and are therefore of interest to astrobiologists and ecologists alike. .

  16. Radiation pressure on a dielectric wedge

    CERN Document Server

    Mansuripur, Masud; Moloney, Jerome V

    2014-01-01

    The force of electromagnetic radiation on a dielectric medium may be derived by a direct application of the Lorentz law of classical electrodynamics. While the light's electric field acts upon the (induced) bound charges in the medium, its magnetic field exerts a force on the bound currents. We use the example of a wedge-shaped solid dielectric, immersed in a transparent liquid and illuminated at Brewster's angle, to demonstrate that the linear momentum of the electromagnetic field within dielectrics has neither the Minkowski nor the Abraham form; rather, the correct expression for momentum density has equal contributions from both. The time rate of change of the incident momentum thus expressed is equal to the force exerted on the wedge plus that experienced by the surrounding liquid.

  17. Graphene Plasmons in Triangular Wedges and Grooves

    CERN Document Server

    Gonçalves, P A D; Xiao, Sanshui; Vasilevskiy, M I; Mortensen, N Asger; Peres, N M R

    2016-01-01

    The ability to effectively guide electromagnetic radiation below the diffraction limit is of the utmost importance in the prospect of all-optical plasmonic circuitry. Here, we propose an alternative solution to conventional metal-based plasmonics by exploiting the deep subwavelength confinement and tunability of graphene plasmons guided along the apex of a graphene-covered dielectric wedge or groove. In particular, we present a quasi-analytic model to describe the plasmonic eigenmodes in such a system, including the complete determination of their spectrum and corresponding induced potential and electric field distributions. We have found that the dispersion of wedge/groove graphene plasmons follows the same functional dependence as their flat-graphene plasmons counterparts, but now scaled by a (purely) geometric factor in which all the information about the system's geometry is contained. We believe our results pave the way for the development of novel custom-tailored photonic devices for subwavelength waveg...

  18. Checking the virtual treatment modality Wedge from Siemens; Verificacion de la modalidad de tratamiento virtual WEDGE de SIEMENS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suero Rodrigo, M. A.; Marques Fraguela, E.

    2011-07-01

    The treatment modality Virtual Wedge (VW) or implemented by Siemens virtual wedge in electron linear accelerators achieved dose distributions are similar but not identical, to those obtained with physical wedges. Among the advantages against the latter is the greater ease of use, wedge factor close to one, and lower peripheral dose. However, these benefits are to be effective requires a through quality control dependence because a larger number of parameters that control the generation of the beam, the dose monitor system and the movement of the jaws of the collimator. We performed a study of the wedge taking into account different configurations that can affect their behavior from the dosimetric point of view.

  19. Mantle flow in subduction systems: The mantle wedge flow field and implications for wedge processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Maureen D.; Wirth, Erin A.

    2013-02-01

    The mantle wedge above subducting slabs is associated with many important processes, including the transport of melt and volatiles. Our understanding of mantle wedge dynamics is incomplete, as the mantle flow field above subducting slabs remains poorly understood. Because seismic anisotropy is a consequence of deformation, measurements of shear wave splitting can constrain the geometry of mantle flow. In order to identify processes that make first-order contributions to the pattern of wedge flow, we have compiled a data set of local S splitting measurements from mantle wedges worldwide. There is a large amount of variability in splitting parameters, with average delay times ranging from ~0.1 to 0.3 s up to ~1.0-1.5 s and large variations in fast directions. We tested for relationships between splitting parameters and a variety of parameters related to subduction processes. We also explicitly tested the predictions made by 10 different models that have been proposed to explain splitting patterns in the mantle wedge. We find that no simple model can explain all of the trends observed in the global data set. Mantle wedge flow is likely controlled by a combination of downdip motion of the slab, trench migration, ambient mantle flow, small-scale convection, proximity to slab edges, and slab morphology, with the relative contributions of these in any given subduction system controlled by the subduction kinematics and mantle rheology. There is also a likely contribution from B-type olivine and/or serpentinite fabric in many subduction zones, governed by the local thermal structure and volatile distribution.

  20. Investigation of a Wedge Adhesion Test for Edge Seals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kempe, Michael; Wohlgemuth, John; Miller, David; Postak, Lori; Booth, Dennis; Phillips, Nancy

    2016-09-26

    Many photovoltaic (PV) technologies have been found to be sensitive to moisture that diffuses into a PV package. Even with the use of impermeable frontsheets and backsheets, moisture can penetrate from the edges of a module. To limit this moisture ingress pathway from occurring, manufacturers often use a low permeability polyisobutylene (PIB) based edge seal filled with desiccant to further restrict moisture ingress. Moisture ingress studies have shown that these materials are capable of blocking moisture for the 25-year life of a module; but to do so, they must remain well-adhered and free of cracks. This work focuses on adapting the Boeing Wedge test for use with edge seals laminated using glass substrates as part of a strategy to assess the long-term durability of edge seals. The advantage of this method is that it duplicates the residual stresses and strains that a glass/glass module may have when the lamination process results in some residual glass bending that puts the perimeter in tension. Additionally, this method allows one to simultaneously expose the material to thermal stress, humidity, mechanical stress, and ultraviolet radiation. The disadvantage of this method generally is that we are limited by the fracture toughness of the glass substrates that the edge seal is adhered to. However, the low toughness of typical uncrosslinked or sparsely crosslinked PIB makes them suitable for this technique. We present data obtained during the development of the wedge test for use with PV edge seal materials. This includes development of the measuring techniques and evaluation of the test method with relevant materials. We find consistent data within a given experiment, along with the theoretical independence of fracture toughness measurements with wedge thickness. This indicates that the test methodology is reproducible. However, even though individual experimental sets are consistent, the reproducibility between experimental sets is poor. We believe this may be

  1. Investigation of a wedge adhesion test for edge seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempe, Michael; Wohlgemuth, John; Miller, David; Postak, Lori; Booth, Dennis; Phillips, Nancy

    2016-09-01

    Many photovoltaic (PV) technologies have been found to be sensitive to moisture that diffuses into a PV package. Even with the use of impermeable frontsheets and backsheets, moisture can penetrate from the edges of a module. To limit this moisture ingress pathway from occurring, manufacturers often use a low permeability polyisobutylene (PIB) based edge seal filled with desiccant to further restrict moisture ingress. Moisture ingress studies have shown that these materials are capable of blocking moisture for the 25-year life of a module; but to do so, they must remain well-adhered and free of cracks. This work focuses on adapting the Boeing Wedge test for use with edge seals laminated using glass substrates as part of a strategy to assess the long-term durability of edge seals. The advantage of this method is that it duplicates the residual stresses and strains that a glass/glass module may have when the lamination process results in some residual glass bending that puts the perimeter in tension. Additionally, this method allows one to simultaneously expose the material to thermal stress, humidity, mechanical stress, and ultraviolet radiation. The disadvantage of this method generally is that we are limited by the fracture toughness of the glass substrates that the edge seal is adhered to. However, the low toughness of typical uncrosslinked or sparsely crosslinked PIB makes them suitable for this technique. We present data obtained during the development of the wedge test for use with PV edge seal materials. This includes development of the measuring techniques and evaluation of the test method with relevant materials. We find consistent data within a given experiment, along with the theoretical independence of fracture toughness measurements with wedge thickness. This indicates that the test methodology is reproducible. However, even though individual experimental sets are consistent, the reproducibility between experimental sets is poor. We believe this may be

  2. Hydrodynamics of slip wedge and optimization of surface slip property

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The hydrodynamic load support generated by a slip wedge of a slider bearing was studied. The surface slip property was optimized so that a maximum hydrodynamic load support could be obtained. A multi-linearity method was given for the slip control equation of two-dimensional (2-D) wall slip. We investigated 2-D wall slip and the hydrodynamics of a finite length bearing with any values of the surface limiting shear stress. It was found that the hydrodynamic effect of the slip wedge is greater than the traditional geometrical convergent-wedge. Even though the geo- metrical gap is a parallel or divergent sliding gap, the slip wedge still gives rise to a very big hydrodynamic pressure. The optimized slip wedge can give rise to a hy- drodynamic load support as high as 2.5 times of what the geometrical conver- gent-wedge can produce. Wall slip usually gives a small surface friction.

  3. Hydrodynamics of slip wedge and optimization of surface slip property

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA GuoJun; WU ChengWei; ZHOU Ping

    2007-01-01

    The hydrodynamic load support generated by a slip wedge of a slider bearing was studied. The surface slip property was optimized so that a maximum hydrodynamic load support could be obtained. A multi-linearity method was given for the slip control equation of two-dimensional (2-D) wall slip. We investigated 2-D wall slip and the hydrodynamics of a finite length bearing with any values of the surface limiting shear stress. It was found that the hydrodynamic effect of the slip wedge is greater than the traditional geometrical convergent-wedge. Even though the geometrical gap is a parallel or divergent sliding gap, the slip wedge still gives rise to a very big hydrodynamic pressure. The optimized slip wedge can give rise to a hydrodynamic load support as high as 2.5 times of what the geometrical convergent-wedge can produce. Wall slip usually gives a small surface friction.

  4. Knee abduction angular impulses during prolonged running with wedged insoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewinson, Ryan T; Worobets, Jay T; Stefanyshyn, Darren J

    2013-07-01

    Wedged insoles may produce immediate effects on knee abduction angular impulses during running; however, it is currently not known whether these knee abduction angular impulse magnitudes are maintained throughout a run when fatigue sets in. If changes occur, this could affect the clinical utility of wedged insoles in treating conditions such as patellofemoral pain. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine whether knee abduction angular impulses are altered during a prolonged run with wedged insoles. It was hypothesized that knee abduction angular impulses would be reduced following a prolonged run with wedged insoles. Nine healthy runners participated. Runners were randomly assigned to either a 6-mm medial wedge condition or a 6-mm lateral wedge condition and then ran continuously overground for 30 min. Knee abduction angular impulses were quantified at 0 and 30 min using a gait analysis procedure. After 2 days, participants returned to perform the same test but with the other wedge type. Two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to evaluate main effects of wedge condition and time and interactions between wedge condition and time (α = 0.05). Paired t-tests were used for post hoc analysis (α = 0.01). No interaction effects (p = 0.958) were found, and knee abduction angular impulses were not significantly different over time (p = 0.384). Lateral wedge conditions produced lesser knee abduction angular impulses than medial conditions at 0 min (difference of 2.79 N m s, p = 0.006) and at 30 min (difference of 2.76 N m s, p < 0.001). It is concluded that significant knee abduction angular impulse changes within wedge conditions do not occur during a 30-min run. Additionally, knee abduction angular impulse differences between wedge conditions are maintained during a 30-min run.

  5. Plastic deformation of a wedge by a sliding punch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepershin, R. I.

    2016-11-01

    We present a self-similar solution of the problem of deformation of an ideally plastic wedge by a sliding punch with regard to contact friction; such a solution generalizes the well-known solutions of the problem of wedge penetration into a plastic half-space and of compression of an ideally plastic wedge by a plane punch. The problem is of interest for modeling the processes of plastic deformation of rough surfaces of metal pieces by a rigid tool.

  6. Optimal clinical implementation of the Siemens virtual wedge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, C P; Richmond, N D; Lambert, G D

    2003-01-01

    Installation of a modern high-energy Siemens Primus linear accelerator at the Northern Centre for Cancer Treatment (NCCT) provided the opportunity to investigate the optimal clinical implementation of the Siemens virtual wedge filter. Previously published work has concentrated on the production of virtual wedge angles at 15 degrees, 30 degrees, 45 degrees, and 60 degrees as replacements for the Siemens hard wedges of the same nominal angles. However, treatment plan optimization of the dose distribution can be achieved with the Primus, as its control software permits the selection of any virtual wedge angle from 15 degrees to 60 degrees in increments of 1 degrees. The same result can also be produced from a combination of open and 60 degrees wedged fields. Helax-TMS models both of these modes of virtual wedge delivery by the wedge angle and the wedge fraction methods respectively. This paper describes results of timing studies in the planning of optimized patient dose distributions by both methods and in the subsequent treatment delivery procedures. Employment of the wedge fraction method results in the delivery of small numbers of monitor units to the beam's central axis; therefore, wedge profile stability and delivered dose with low numbers of monitor units were also investigated. The wedge fraction was proven to be the most efficient method when the time taken for both planning and treatment delivery were taken into consideration, and is now used exclusively for virtual wedge treatment delivery in Newcastle. It has also been shown that there are no unfavorable dosimetric consequences from its practical implementation.

  7. Vibration frequencies of a constrained cantilever wedge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craver, W. Lionel, Jr.; Lu, Yangshan

    1989-05-01

    This paper presents the solution for the natural frequencies of a beam tapered in one direction, or a wedge, with both a rotational and a translational constraint at a position along the length of the beam. The eigenfrequencies were determined using an incremental search and bisection method, accurate to the fourth decimal place. The taper ratio was varied from 1.4 to 5.0 and the dimensionless spring constants were varied from 0 to 1000. Graphs are provided to illustrate some results.

  8. Impingement of water droplets on wedges and double-wedge airfoils at supersonic speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, John S

    1954-01-01

    An analytical solution has been obtained for the equations of motion of water droplets impinging on a wedge in a two-dimensional supersonic flow field with a shock wave attached to the wedge. The closed-form solution yields analytical expressions for the equation of the droplet trajectory, the local rate of impingement and the impingement velocity at any point on the wedge surface, and the total rate of impingement. The analytical expressions are utilized to determine the impingement on the forward surfaces of diamond airfoils in supersonic flow fields with attached shock waves. The results presented include the following conditions: droplet diameters from 2 to 100 microns, pressure altitudes from sea level to 30,000 feet, free-stream static temperatures from 420 degrees r, free stream Mach numbers from 1.1 to 2.0, semiapex angles for the wedge from 1.14 degrees to 7.97 degrees, thickness-to-chord ratios for the diamond airfoil from 0.02 to 0.14, chord lengths from 1 to 20 feet, and angles of attack from zero to the inverse tangent of the airfoil thickness-to-chord ratio.

  9. Global Existence of a Shock for the Supersonic Flow Past a Curved Wedge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Cheng YIN

    2006-01-01

    This note is devoted to the study of the global existence of a shock wave for the supersonic flow past a curved wedge. When the curved wedge is a small perturbation of a straight wedge and the angle of the wedge is less than some critical value, we show that a shock attached at the wedge will exist globally.

  10. Molecular depth profiling by wedged crater beveling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Dan; Lu, Caiyan; Winograd, Nicholas; Wucher, Andreas

    2011-08-15

    Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and atomic force microscopy are employed to characterize a wedge-shaped crater eroded by a 40-keV C(60)(+) cluster ion beam on an organic film of Irganox 1010 doped with Irganox 3114 delta layers. From an examination of the resulting surface, the information about depth resolution, topography, and erosion rate can be obtained as a function of crater depth for every depth in a single experiment. It is shown that when measurements are performed at liquid nitrogen temperature, a constant erosion rate and reduced bombardment induced surface roughness is observed. At room temperature, however, the erosion rate drops by ∼(1)/(3) during the removal of the 400 nm Irganox film and the roughness gradually increased to from 1 nm to ∼4 nm. From SIMS lateral images of the beveled crater and AFM topography results, depth resolution was further improved by employing glancing angles of incidence and lower primary ion beam energy. Sub-10 nm depth resolution was observed under the optimized conditions on a routine basis. In general, we show that the wedge-crater beveling is an important tool for elucidating the factors that are important for molecular depth profiling experiments.

  11. Ice-Creams and Wedge Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Ackerman, Eyal; Pinchasi, Rom

    2011-01-01

    We show that for every compact convex set $S$ in the plane and every $0 < \\alpha < \\pi$, there exist a point $O$ and two supporting lines to $S$ passing through $O$ and touching $S$ at two \\emph{single points} $X$ and $Y$, respectively, such that $|OX|=|OY|$ and the angle between the two lines has measure $\\alpha$. As a consequence, we provide a simplified proof to the following result by Carmi, Katz, Lotker, and Ros\\'en \\cite{CKLR10}. Given a set of $\\frac{\\pi}{3}$-directional antennas (that is, antennas each of which can communicate along a wedge of angle $\\frac{\\pi}{3}$), one can always assign a direction to each antenna such that the resulting communication graph is connected, where two antennas can communicate if and only if each lies in the wedge assigned to the other. In fact we obtain a much stronger and optimal result (see Theorem \\ref{theorem:main}) saying in particular that one can chose the directions of the antennas so that the communication graph has diameter $\\le 4$.

  12. Inferring microbial interaction networks from metagenomic data using SgLV-EKF algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshawaqfeh, Mustafa; Serpedin, Erchin; Younes, Ahmad Bani

    2017-03-27

    Inferring the microbial interaction networks (MINs) and modeling their dynamics are critical in understanding the mechanisms of the bacterial ecosystem and designing antibiotic and/or probiotic therapies. Recently, several approaches were proposed to infer MINs using the generalized Lotka-Volterra (gLV) model. Main drawbacks of these models include the fact that these models only consider the measurement noise without taking into consideration the uncertainties in the underlying dynamics. Furthermore, inferring the MIN is characterized by the limited number of observations and nonlinearity in the regulatory mechanisms. Therefore, novel estimation techniques are needed to address these challenges. This work proposes SgLV-EKF: a stochastic gLV model that adopts the extended Kalman filter (EKF) algorithm to model the MIN dynamics. In particular, SgLV-EKF employs a stochastic modeling of the MIN by adding a noise term to the dynamical model to compensate for modeling uncertainties. This stochastic modeling is more realistic than the conventional gLV model which assumes that the MIN dynamics are perfectly governed by the gLV equations. After specifying the stochastic model structure, we propose the EKF to estimate the MIN. SgLV-EKF was compared with two similarity-based algorithms, one algorithm from the integral-based family and two regression-based algorithms, in terms of the achieved performance on two synthetic data-sets and two real data-sets. The first data-set models the randomness in measurement data, whereas, the second data-set incorporates uncertainties in the underlying dynamics. The real data-sets are provided by a recent study pertaining to an antibiotic-mediated Clostridium difficile infection. The experimental results demonstrate that SgLV-EKF outperforms the alternative methods in terms of robustness to measurement noise, modeling errors, and tracking the dynamics of the MIN. Performance analysis demonstrates that the proposed SgLV-EKF algorithm

  13. 49 CFR 215.113 - Defective plain bearing wedge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.113 Defective plain bearing wedge. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if a plain bearing wedge on that car is— (a) Missing; (b) Cracked; (c) Broken; or (d) Not...

  14. Comparison of wedge resection (Winograd procedure) and wedge resection plus complete nail plate avulsion in the treatment of ingrown toenails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jia-Zhang; Zhang, Yi-Jun; Ma, Xin; Wang, Xu; Zhang, Chao; Chen, Li

    2015-01-01

    The present retrospective study compared the efficacy of wedge resection (Winograd procedure) and wedge resection plus complete nail plate avulsion for the treatment of ingrown toenails (onychocryptosis). Two surgical methods were performed in 95 patients with a stage 2 or 3 ingrown toenail. Each patient was examined weekly until healing and then at 1, 6, and 12 months of follow-up. The outcomes measured were surgical duration, healing time, recurrence rate, the incidence of postoperative infection, and cosmetic appearance after surgery. Of the 95 patients (115 ingrown toenails) included in the present study, 39 (41.1%) underwent wedge resection (Winograd procedure) and 56 (59%), wedge resection plus complete nail plate avulsion. The mean surgical duration for wedge resection (Winograd procedure) and wedge resection plus complete nail plate avulsion was 14.9 ± 2.4 minutes and 15.1 ± 3.2 minutes, respectively (p = .73). The corresponding healing times were 2.8 ± 1.2 weeks and 2.7 ± 1.3 weeks (p = .70). Recurrence developed in 3 (3.2%) patients after wedge resection (Winograd procedure) and in 4 (4.2%) after wedge resection plus complete nail plate avulsion. In addition, postoperative infection occurred in 3 (3.2%) patients after wedge resection (Winograd procedure) and 2 (2.1%) after wedge resection plus complete nail plate avulsion. Both of the surgical procedures were practical and appropriate for the treatment of ingrown toenails, being simple and associated with low morbidity and a high success rate. However, cosmetically, wedge resection (Winograd procedure) would be the better choice because the nail plate remains intact.

  15. Ground penetrating radar estimates of permafrost ice wedge depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsekian, A.; Slater, L. D.; Nolan, J. T.; Grosse, G.; Walter Anthony, K. M.

    2013-12-01

    Vertical ground ice wedges associated with polygonal patterning in permafrost environments form due to frost cracking of soils under harsh winter conditions and subsequent infilling of cracks with snow melt water. Ice wedge polygon patterns have implications for lowland geomorphology, hydrology, and vulnerability of permafrost to thaw. Ice wedge dimensions may exceed two meters width at the surface and several meters depth, however few studies have addressed the question of ice wedge depth due to challenges related to measuring the vertical dimension below the ground. Vertical exposures where ice wedges maybe observed are limited to rapidly retreating lake, river, and coastal bluffs. Coring though the ice wedges to determine vertical extent is possible, however that approach is time consuming and labor intensive. Many geophysical investigations have noted signal anomalies related to the presence of ice wedges, but no reliable method for extracting wedge dimensions from geophysical data has been yet proposed. Here we present new evidence that ground penetrating radar (GPR) may be a viable method for estimating ice wedge depth. We present three new perspectives on processing GPR data collected over ice wedges that show considerable promise for use as a fast, cost effective method for evaluating ice wedge depth. Our novel approaches include 1) a simple frequency-domain analysis, 2) an S-transform frequency domain analysis and 3) an analysis of the returned signal power as a radar cross section (RCS) treating subsurface ice wedges as dihedral corner retro-reflectors. Our methods are demonstrated and validated using finite-difference time domain FDTD) GPR forward models of synthetic idealized ice wedges and field data from permafrost sites in Alaska. Our results indicate that frequency domain and signal power data provide information that is easier to extract from raw GPR data than similar information in the time domain. We also show that we can simplify the problem by

  16. Characterization of CNRS Fizeau wedge laser tuner

    Science.gov (United States)

    A fringe detection and measurement system was constructed for use with the CNRS Fizeau wedge laser tuner, consisting of three circuit boards. The first board is a standard Reticon RC-100 B motherboard which is used to provide the timing, video processing, and housekeeping functions required by the Reticon RL-512 G photodiode array used in the system. The sampled and held video signal from the motherboard is processed by a second, custom fabricated circuit board which contains a high speed fringe detection and locating circuit. This board includes a dc level discriminator type fringe detector, a counter circuit to determine fringe center, a pulsed laser triggering circuit, and a control circuit to operate the shutter for the He-Ne reference laser beam. The fringe center information is supplied to the third board, a commercial single board computer, which governs the data collection process and interprets the results.

  17. 三洋推出Easy Radio IC系列LV24000PL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    三洋(Sanyo)公司日前推出Easy Radio IC系列LV24000PL。LV24000PL是一款不需要使用外部元器件的便携式Device用FM调谐器芯片,尺寸仅约5mm×5mm×0.8mm,尺寸缩减为原来的六分之一,适用于手机、PDA等便携式产品。

  18. La piattaforma POS/LV di Applanix nelle applicazioni di laser scanner cinematico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Santarsiero

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The Applanix POS/LV platform in cinematic laser scanner applicationsOn the 11th of march the GEOmedia editorial unit had the pleasure of hosting a technical meeting dedicated to the Applanix LANDMark new Position and Orientation System for Land Vehicles (POS/LVfield test. The meeting, which is part of an italian tour organized by Louis Nastro (Applanix Director of Land Products and Terenzio Mariani (Sales manager for Italy, helped to test the functionalities of a complete POS/LV system equipped with a laser and an imaging acquisition software installed on board of a SUV.

  19. The Tax Wedge in Slovenia: International Comparison and Policy Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primož Dolenc

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available When taxes on labor are introduced, a “tax wedge” appears between the labor costs paid by the employer (gross wage and the net wage received by an employee. At a certain level of wage, a higher tax wedge increases unemployment and decreases employment, all other things being equal. The paper tackles three main questions: the characteristics of the tax wedge, unemployment and employment rates in OECD countries in the recent past, tax wedge policy in the EU15 and the new EU members and the tax system and its effects on the unemployment and employment rates in Slovenia. We found that the OECD countries can be classified into two groups of countries if the tax wedge, the unemployment rate and the employment rate are taken into consideration. The first group is the high tax wedge, high unemployment rate and low employment rate group of countries, whereas the other group has the opposite characteristics. European member states (old and new have on average a higher tax burden on labor than the OECD average, consequently suffering from higher unemployment rates. Slovenia has an unreasonably high tax wedge; in the EU only Belgium and Germany have a higher tax burden. According to previous and our empirical findings we suggest that Slovenia could benefit from a reduction in the tax wedge.

  20. Characterization and DNA sequence of the mobilization region of pLV22a from Bacteroides fragilis.

    OpenAIRE

    Novicki, T. J.; Hecht, D. W.

    1995-01-01

    A 4.2-kb plasmid (pLV22a) native to Bacteroides fragilis LV22 became fused to a transfer-deficient Bacteroides spp.-Escherichia coli shuttle vector by an inverse transposition event, resulting in a transferrable phenotype. The transfer phenotype was attributable to pLV22a, which was also capable of mobilization within E. coli when coresident with the IncP beta R751 plasmid. Transposon mutagenesis with Tn1000 localized the mobilization region to a 1.5-kb DNA segment in pLV22a. The mobilization...

  1. Group sequential designs for stepped-wedge cluster randomised trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayling, Michael J; Wason, James Ms; Mander, Adrian P

    2017-06-01

    The stepped-wedge cluster randomised trial design has received substantial attention in recent years. Although various extensions to the original design have been proposed, no guidance is available on the design of stepped-wedge cluster randomised trials with interim analyses. In an individually randomised trial setting, group sequential methods can provide notable efficiency gains and ethical benefits. We address this by discussing how established group sequential methodology can be adapted for stepped-wedge designs. Utilising the error spending approach to group sequential trial design, we detail the assumptions required for the determination of stepped-wedge cluster randomised trials with interim analyses. We consider early stopping for efficacy, futility, or efficacy and futility. We describe first how this can be done for any specified linear mixed model for data analysis. We then focus on one particular commonly utilised model and, using a recently completed stepped-wedge cluster randomised trial, compare the performance of several designs with interim analyses to the classical stepped-wedge design. Finally, the performance of a quantile substitution procedure for dealing with the case of unknown variance is explored. We demonstrate that the incorporation of early stopping in stepped-wedge cluster randomised trial designs could reduce the expected sample size under the null and alternative hypotheses by up to 31% and 22%, respectively, with no cost to the trial's type-I and type-II error rates. The use of restricted error maximum likelihood estimation was found to be more important than quantile substitution for controlling the type-I error rate. The addition of interim analyses into stepped-wedge cluster randomised trials could help guard against time-consuming trials conducted on poor performing treatments and also help expedite the implementation of efficacious treatments. In future, trialists should consider incorporating early stopping of some kind into

  2. Stable and Critical Noncohesive Coulomb Wedges: Exact Elastic Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K.; Hu, Y.

    2004-12-01

    The theory of critically tapered Coulomb wedge has been successfully applied to model active fold-and-thrust belts or submarine accretionary prisms. Brittle mountain building is episodic in nature, controlled by changes in basal friction, erosion and sedimentation, and hydrogeology. Sediment accretion may be modulated by great subduction earthquakes. Between deformation episodes and/or during transition between compressional and extensional tectonics, the Coulomb wedges are stable (i.e., supercritical), to which the critical taper theory does not apply. In this work, we provide an exact elastic solution for stable wedges based on Airy stress functions. The stress equilibrium equation and definition of basal friction and basal and internal pore fluid pressure ratios are exactly the same as those used for Dahlen's [1984] exact solution for critical noncohesive Coulomb wedges, but internal friction μ becomes irrelevant. Given elastic - perfectly Coulomb-plastic rheology, for stresses in a wedge on the verge of Coulomb failure there must co-exist a critical taper solution involving μ and a unique equivalent elastic solution not involving μ . Our elastic solution precisely reduces to Dahlen's critical taper solution for critical conditions. For stable conditions, normal stress perpendicular to the surface slope σ z and shear stress τ xz are identical with those in a critical taper, but the slope-parallel normal stress is different. The elastic solution is also generally applicable to purely elastic wedges and useful for modeling geodetic observations. A stable noncohesive Coulomb wedge differs from a general elastic wedge in that its upper and lower surfaces stay at zero curvature during loading. Dahlen, F.A. (1984), Noncohesive critical Coulomb wedges: An exact solution, JGR, 89, 10,125-10,133.

  3. 3D quantitative visualization of altered LV wall thickening dynamics caused by coronary microembolization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eusemann, Christian D.; Mohlenkamp, Stefan; Ritman, Erik L.; Robb, Richard A.

    2001-05-01

    Regional heart wall dynamics has been shown to be a sensitive indicator of LV wall ischemia. Rates of local LV wall thickening during a cardiac cycle can be measured and illustrated using functional parametric mappings. This display conveys the spatial distribution of dynamic strain in the myocardium and thereby provides a rapid qualitative appreciation of the severity and extent of the ischemic region. 3D reconstructions were obtained in an anesthetized pig from 8 adjacent, shortaxis, slices of the left ventricle imaged with an Electron Beam Computer Tomograph at 11 time points through one complete cardiac cycle. The 3D reconstructions were obtained before and after injection of 100 micrometer microspheres into the Left Anterior Descending (LAD) coronary artery. This injection causes microembolization of LAD artery branches within the heart wall. The image processing involved radially dividing the tomographic images of the myocardium into small subdivisions with color encoding of the local magnitude of regional thickness or regional velocities of LV wall thickening throughout the cardiac cycle. We compared the effectiveness of animation of wall thickness encoded in color versus a static image of computed rate of wall thickness change in color. The location, extent and severity of regional wall akinesis or dyskinesis, as determined from these displays, can then be compared to the region of embolization as indicated by the distribution of altered LV wall perfusion.

  4. Extinction in the Galaxy from surface brightnesses of ESO-LV galaxies : Testing "standard" extinction maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choloniewski, J.; Valentijn, E. A.

    2003-01-01

    A new method for the determination of the extinction in the Galaxy is proposed. The method uses surface brightnesses of external galaxies in the B and R-bands. The observational data have been taken from the ESO-LV galaxy catalog. As a first application of our model we derive the ratio of R-band to

  5. Revisión diagramas de equilibrio Txy (LV y LLV)

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes Labarta, Juan Antonio

    2007-01-01

    Este tema se encarca en el contexto del estudio del equilibrio entre fases líquido-vapor. Se muestra de forma cualitativa diferentes ejemplos de diagramas de equilibrio LV, temperatura-composición (a presión constante), así como bibliografía relacionada. Universidad de Alicante. Dpto. Ingeniería Química

  6. Voltage unbalance mitigation in LV networks using three-phase PV systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia Bajo, Cristina; Hashemi Toghroljerdi, Seyedmostafa; Bækhøj Kjær, Søren;

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a new method is proposed to mitigate voltage unbalance caused by single-phase solar inverters in low voltage (LV) networks. The method is based on uneven reactive power absorption and injection by three-phase solar inverters. Independent control of each phase is performed to achieve...

  7. Employment and productivity: The role of the tax wedge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea FESTA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available After the economic crisis, many countries aim at reducing unemployment and foster productivity. To address these issues one of the most common policy indications recommends lowering the tax wedge on labour in order to increase employment and growth. As a consequence, a review of the empirical studies focused on the relation between tax wedge, employment and productivity is an useful and demanding exercise, especially in those European countries where the topic is on the front page of the domestic policy debate because the productivity growth is low and the tax wedge on labour is high.

  8. Automatic lumbar vertebra segmentation from clinical CT for wedge compression fracture diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Subarna; Alomari, Raja'S.; Chaudhary, Vipin; Dhillon, Gurmeet

    2011-03-01

    Lumbar vertebral fractures vary greatly in types and causes and usually result from severe trauma or pathological conditions such as osteoporosis. Lumbar wedge compression fractures are amongst the most common ones where the vertebra is severely compressed forming a wedge shape and causing pain and pressure on the nerve roots and the spine. Since vertebral segmentation is the first step in any automated diagnosis task, we present a fully automated method for robustly localizing and segmenting the vertebrae for preparation of vertebral fracture diagnosis. Our segmentation method consists of five main steps towards the CAD(Computer-Aided Diagnosis) system: 1) Localization of the intervertebral discs. 2) Localization of the vertebral skeleton. 3) Segmentation of the individual vertebra. 4) Detection of the vertebrae center line and 5) Detection of the vertebrae major boundary points. Our segmentation results are promising with an average error of 1.5mm (modified Hausdorff distance metric) on 50 clinical CT cases i.e. a total of 250 lumbar vertebrae. We also present promising preliminary results for automatic wedge compression fracture diagnosis on 15 cases, 7 of which have one or more vertebral compression fracture, and obtain an accuracy of 97.33%.

  9. Identification and function analysis of a novel vascular endothelial growth factor, LvVEGF3, in the Pacific whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiwei; Li, Shihao; Li, Fuhua; Xie, Shijun; Xiang, Jianhai

    2016-10-01

    VEGF signaling pathway is first discovered in mammals and proved to play important roles in the biological processes of angiogenesis, tumor migration, cell differentiation, apoptosis, host-virus interaction etc. Three members in the VEGF signaling pathway, including LvVEGFR, LvVEGF1 and LvVEGF2 in shrimp have been proved to be related with WSSV infection in our previous studies. Currently, another member of VEGF family, LvVEGF3, was isolated and its function during the WSSV infection of shrimp was studied. The deduced amino acid sequence of LvVEGF3 contained a signal peptide, a typical PDGF/VEGF domain and a cysteine-knot motif (CXCXC). Tissue distribution analysis showed that LvVEGF3 was predominantly expressed in hemocytes. The transcriptional level of LvVEGF3 in hemocytes was apparently up-regulated during WSSV infection. Silencing of LvVEGF3 with double-stranded RNA caused a reduction of the cumulative mortality rate of shrimp during WSSV infection. The expression of LvVEGFR was apparently down-regulated after LvVEGF3 silencing and up-regulated after injection of recombinant LvVEGF3 protein, suggesting an interaction between LvVEGF3 and LvVEGFR. Furthermore, the interaction between LvVEGFR and LvVEGF3 was confirmed using the yeast two-hybrid system. The results provided new insights into understanding the role of VEGF signaling pathway during virus infection.

  10. Flow braking and the substorm current wedge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birn, J.; Hesse, M.; Haerendel, G.; Baumjohann, W.; Shiokawa, K.

    1999-09-01

    Recent models of magnetotail activity have associated the braking of earthward flow with dipolarization and the reduction and diversion of cross-tail current, that is, the signatures of the substorm current wedge. Estimates of the magnitude of the diverted current by Haerendel [1992] and Shiokawa et al. [1997, 1998] tend to be lower than results from computer simulations of magnetotail reconnection and tail collapse [Birn and Hesse, 1996], despite similar underlying models. An analysis of the differences between these estimates on the basis of the simulations gives a more refined picture of the diversion of perpendicular into parallel currents. The inertial currents considered by Haerendel [1992] and Shiokawa et al. [1997] contribute to the initial current reduction and diversion, but the dominant and more permanent contribution stems from the pressure gradient terms, which change in connection with the field collapse and distortion. The major effect results from pressure gradients in the z direction, rather than from the azimuthal gradients [Shiokawa et al., 1998], combined with changes in By and Bx. The reduction of the current density near the equatorial plane is associated with a reduction of the curvature drift which overcompensates changes of the magnetization current and of the gradient B drift current. In contrast to the inertial current effects, the pressure gradient effects persist even after the burst of earthward flow ends.

  11. Casimir Effect for a Semitransparent Wedge and an Annular Piston

    CERN Document Server

    Milton, Kimball A; Kirsten, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    We consider the Casimir energy due to a massless scalar field in a geometry of an infinite wedge closed by a Dirichlet circular cylinder, where the wedge is formed by $\\delta$-function potentials, so-called semitransparent boundaries. A finite expression for the Casimir energy corresponding to the arc and the presence of both semitransparent potentials is obtained, from which the torque on the sidewalls can be derived. The most interesting part of the calculation is the nontrivial nature of the angular mode functions. Numerical results are obtained which are closely analogous to those recently found for a magnetodielectric wedge, with the same speed of light on both sides of the wedge boundaries. Alternative methods are developed for annular regions with radial semitransparent potentials, based on reduced Green's functions for the angular dependence, which allows calculations using the multiple-scattering formalism. Numerical results corresponding to the torque on the radial plates are likewise computed, whic...

  12. Electrodynamic Casimir effect in a medium-filled wedge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, Iver; Ellingsen, Simen A; Milton, Kimball A

    2009-04-01

    We re-examine the electrodynamic Casimir effect in a wedge defined by two perfect conductors making dihedral angle alpha=pi/p. This system is analogous to the system defined by a cosmic string. We consider the wedge region as filled with an azimuthally symmetric material, with permittivity and permeability epsilon1, micro1 for distance from the axis ra. The results are closely related to those for a circular-cylindrical geometry, but with noninteger azimuthal quantum number mp. Apart from a zero-mode divergence, which may be removed by choosing periodic boundary conditions on the wedge, and may be made finite if dispersion is included, we obtain finite results for the free energy corresponding to changes in a for the case when the speed of light is the same inside and outside the radius a , and for weak coupling, |epsilon1-epsilon2|cosmic string, situated along the cusp line of the pre-existing wedge.

  13. ELASTIC INTERACTION BETWEEN WEDGE DISCLINATION DIPOLE AND INTERNAL CRACK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Qi-hong; LIU You-wen

    2006-01-01

    The system of a wedge disclination dipole interacting with an internal crack was investigated. By using the complex variable method, the closed form solutions of complex potentials to this problem were presented. The analytic formulae of the physics variables, such as stress intensity factors at the tips of the crack produced by the wedge disclination dipole and the image force acting on disclination dipole center were obtained.The influence of the orientation, the dipole arm and the location of the disclination dipole on the stress intensity factors was discussed in detail. Furthermore, the equilibrium position of the wedge disclination dipole was also examined. It is shown that the shielding or antishielding effect of the wedge disclination to the stress intensity factors is significant when the disclination dipole moves to the crack tips.

  14. Reactive Atom Plasma Processing of Slumped Glass Wedges Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Reactive Atom Plasma (RAPTM) process will be evaluated as a rapid and practical method for fabricating precision wedges in glass sheets. The glass sheets are to...

  15. Structure and Kinematics of the Indo-Burmese Wedge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurin, T.; Rangin, C.

    2007-12-01

    The Burma subduction trench and the associated Indo Burmese wedge mark the present eastern boundary of the Indian plate in the northern Bengal area. The initiation, duration and history of the Bengal crust subduction beneath Burma is still debated. The aim of this paper is to provide a structural and kinematic analysis of the Indo- Burmese wedge in order to better constraints the Bengal crust subduction history beneath Burma. On the basis of field observations, seismic reflection data interpretation and well logs data we present a structural analysis of the Outer Indo-Burmese Wedge. We also constrain the onset of this Outer Wedge to be younger than 2Ma, implying a recent and fast westward growth (~10cm/yr) since Late Pliocene in close relationship with the onset of the Shillong plateau. Restoration process of a synthetic cross section through the Outer Wedge allowed us to estimate the amount of EW shortening accommodated in the Outer Wedge to be 5.1mm/yr since 2Ma. These results combined with previous available GPS data from central Myanmar suggest strain partitioning at wedge scale. The core of the wedge is affected by shear deformation and acts as a buttress for a frontal wedge that accommodates a more compressive strain component. Finally we propose that the main characteristic of the Indo-Burmese wedge growth mechanism is the progressive incorporation of the most internal part of the wedge, formerly affected by transpressive thin-skinned tectonics, to the buttress where they are subsequently affected by shear deformation. The crustal structure boarding the newly formed buttress seems to be guided by the subducting crust fabrics. We are in favour of a very recent (Late Miocene) onset of the present Indian crust subduction beneath Burma coeval with the global plate kinematics reorganisation related to the Indian/Australian plate spliting. This subduction postdates the Indo Burmese range onset that must have started in early Miocene. This range first began to

  16. Scattering of wedges and cones with impedance boundary conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Lyalinov, Mikhail

    2012-01-01

    This book is a systematic and detailed exposition of different analytical techniques used in studying two of the canonical problems, the wave scattering by wedges or cones with impedance boundary conditions. It is the first reference on novel, highly efficient analytical-numerical approaches for wave diffraction by impedance wedges or cones. The applicability of the reported solution procedures and formulae to existing software packages designed for real-world high-frequency problems encountered in antenna, wave propagation, and radar cross section.

  17. The immune responses triggered by CpG ODNs in shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei are associated with LvTolls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rui; Wang, Mengqiang; Wang, Lingling; Yue, Feng; Yi, Qilin; Huang, Mengmeng; Liu, Rui; Qiu, Limei; Song, Linsheng

    2014-03-01

    CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) represent a kind of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) as well as a novel adjuvant that activate the innate immune system through interaction with Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) in mammals. In the present study, the synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides, CpG ODN 2395, was employed to investigate the interactive mode of CpG ODNs with three known Tolls (LvToll1-3) from shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. The mature peptides of extracellular domains of LvTolls (LvToll-ECDs) were recombinant expressed and their binding activities to CpG ODN 2395 were further examined by ELISA. rLvToll1-ECD and rLvToll3-ECD exhibited affinity to CpG ODN 2395 in a dose-dependent manner when their concentrations ranged from 0.25 to 2.00 μmol/L, while rLvToll2-ECD did not show any binding activities to CpG ODN 2395 in tested concentrations. Additionally, after the stimulation of CpG ODN 2395, the luciferase activities of HEK293T cells transfected with LvToll1-mosaic or LvToll3-mosaic were significantly increased to 2.38-fold (pvannamei were indispensable for the triggering of immune responses by CpG ODNs, and the results provided a foundation for the application of CpG ODNs as the novel immunostimulants in aquaculture.

  18. Optical refractometry based on Fresnel diffraction from a phase wedge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavassoly, M Taghi; Saber, Ahad

    2010-11-01

    A method that utilizes the Fresnel diffraction of light from the phase step formed by a transparent wedge is introduced for measuring the refractive indices of transparent solids, liquids, and solutions. It is shown that, as a transparent wedge of small apex angle is illuminated perpendicular to its surface by a monochromatic parallel beam of light, the Fresnel fringes, caused by abrupt change in refractive index at the wedge lateral boundary, are formed on a screen held perpendicular to the beam propagation direction. The visibility of the fringes varies periodically between zero and 1 in the direction normal to the wedge apex. For a known or measured apex angle, the wedge refractive index is obtained by measuring the period length by a CCD. To measure the refractive index of a transparent liquid or solution, the wedge is installed in a transparent rectangle cell containing the sample. Then, the cell is illuminated perpendicularly and the visibility period is measured. By using modest optics, one can measure the refractive index at a relative uncertainty level of 10(-5). There is no limitation on the refractive index range. The method can be applied easily with no mechanical manipulation. The measuring apparatus can be very compact with low mechanical and optical noises.

  19. Conceptual design of heavy ion beam compression using a wedge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan C. Wong

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Heavy ion beams are a useful tool for conducting high energy density physics (HEDP experiments. Target heating can be enhanced by beam compression, because a shorter pulse diminishes hydrodynamic expansion during irradiation. A conceptual design is introduced to compress ∼100  MeV/u to ∼GeV/u heavy ion beams using a wedge. By deflecting the beam with a time-varying field and placing a tailor-made wedge amid its path downstream, each transverse slice passes through matter of different thickness. The resulting energy loss creates a head-to-tail velocity gradient, and the wedge shape can be designed by using stopping power models to give maximum compression at the target. The compression ratio at the target was found to vary linearly with (head-to-tail centroid offset/spot radius at the wedge. The latter should be approximately 10 to attain tenfold compression. The decline in beam quality due to projectile ionization, energy straggling, fragmentation, and scattering is shown to be acceptable for well-chosen wedge materials. A test experiment is proposed to verify the compression scheme and to study the beam-wedge interaction and its associated beam dynamics, which will facilitate further efforts towards a HEDP facility.

  20. Comparison of three feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) point-of-care antigen test kits using blood and saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westman, Mark E; Malik, Richard; Hall, Evelyn; Sheehy, Paul A; Norris, Jacqueline M

    2017-02-01

    Feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) can be a challenging infection to diagnose due to a complex feline host-pathogen relationship and occasionally unreliable test results. This study compared the accuracy of three point-of-care (PoC) FeLV p27 antigen test kits commonly used in Australia and available commercially worldwide (SNAP FIV/FeLV Combo, Witness FeLV/FIV and Anigen Rapid FIV/FeLV), using detection of FeLV provirus by an in-house real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay as the diagnostic gold standard. Blood (n=563) and saliva (n=419) specimens were collected from a population of cats determined to include 491 FeLV-uninfected and 72 FeLV-infected individuals (45 progressive infections [p27 and qPCR positive], 27 regressive infections [p27 negative, qPCR positive]). Sensitivity and specificity using whole blood was 63% and 94% for SNAP Combo, 57% and 98% for Witness, and 57% and 98% for Anigen Rapid, respectively. SNAP Combo had a significantly lower specificity using blood compared to the other two kits (P=0.004 compared to Witness, P=0.007 compared to Anigen Rapid). False-positive test results occurred with all three kits using blood, and although using any two kits in parallel increased specificity, no combination of kits completely eliminated the occurrence of false-positive results. We therefore recommend FeLV proviral PCR testing for any cat that tests positive with a PoC FeLV antigen kit, as well as for any cat that has been potentially exposed to FeLV but tests negative with a FeLV antigen kit, before final assignment of FeLV status can be made with confidence. For saliva testing, sensitivity and specificity was 54% and 100%, respectively, for all three test kits. The reduced sensitivity of saliva testing compared to blood testing, although not statistically significant, suggests saliva testing with the current generation of PoC FeLV antigen kits is unsuitable for screening large populations of cats, such as in shelters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  1. Benchmarking analogue models of brittle thrust wedges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreurs, Guido; Buiter, Susanne J. H.; Boutelier, Jennifer; Burberry, Caroline; Callot, Jean-Paul; Cavozzi, Cristian; Cerca, Mariano; Chen, Jian-Hong; Cristallini, Ernesto; Cruden, Alexander R.; Cruz, Leonardo; Daniel, Jean-Marc; Da Poian, Gabriela; Garcia, Victor H.; Gomes, Caroline J. S.; Grall, Céline; Guillot, Yannick; Guzmán, Cecilia; Hidayah, Triyani Nur; Hilley, George; Klinkmüller, Matthias; Koyi, Hemin A.; Lu, Chia-Yu; Maillot, Bertrand; Meriaux, Catherine; Nilfouroushan, Faramarz; Pan, Chang-Chih; Pillot, Daniel; Portillo, Rodrigo; Rosenau, Matthias; Schellart, Wouter P.; Schlische, Roy W.; Take, Andy; Vendeville, Bruno; Vergnaud, Marine; Vettori, Matteo; Wang, Shih-Hsien; Withjack, Martha O.; Yagupsky, Daniel; Yamada, Yasuhiro

    2016-11-01

    We performed a quantitative comparison of brittle thrust wedge experiments to evaluate the variability among analogue models and to appraise the reproducibility and limits of model interpretation. Fifteen analogue modeling laboratories participated in this benchmark initiative. Each laboratory received a shipment of the same type of quartz and corundum sand and all laboratories adhered to a stringent model building protocol and used the same type of foil to cover base and sidewalls of the sandbox. Sieve structure, sifting height, filling rate, and details on off-scraping of excess sand followed prescribed procedures. Our analogue benchmark shows that even for simple plane-strain experiments with prescribed stringent model construction techniques, quantitative model results show variability, most notably for surface slope, thrust spacing and number of forward and backthrusts. One of the sources of the variability in model results is related to slight variations in how sand is deposited in the sandbox. Small changes in sifting height, sifting rate, and scraping will result in slightly heterogeneous material bulk densities, which will affect the mechanical properties of the sand, and will result in lateral and vertical differences in peak and boundary friction angles, as well as cohesion values once the model is constructed. Initial variations in basal friction are inferred to play the most important role in causing model variability. Our comparison shows that the human factor plays a decisive role, and even when one modeler repeats the same experiment, quantitative model results still show variability. Our observations highlight the limits of up-scaling quantitative analogue model results to nature or for making comparisons with numerical models. The frictional behavior of sand is highly sensitive to small variations in material state or experimental set-up, and hence, it will remain difficult to scale quantitative results such as number of thrusts, thrust spacing

  2. Calculating dose distributions and wedge factors for photon treatment fields with dynamic wedges based on a convolution/superposition method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H H; McCullough, E C; Mackie, T R

    1998-01-01

    A convolution/superposition based method was developed to calculate dose distributions and wedge factors in photon treatment fields generated by dynamic wedges. This algorithm used a dual source photon beam model that accounted for both primary photons from the target and secondary photons scattered from the machine head. The segmented treatment tables (STT) were used to calculate realistic photon fluence distributions in the wedged fields. The inclusion of the extra-focal photons resulted in more accurate dose calculation in high dose gradient regions, particularly in the beam penumbra. The wedge factors calculated using the convolution method were also compared to the measured data and showed good agreement within 0.5%. The wedge factor varied significantly with the field width along the moving jaw direction, but not along the static jaw or the depth direction. This variation was found to be determined by the ending position of the moving jaw, or the STT of the dynamic wedge. In conclusion, the convolution method proposed in this work can be used to accurately compute dose for a dynamic or an intensity modulated treatment based on the fluence modulation in the treatment field.

  3. Ice wedges as climate archives - opportunities and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opel, Thomas; Meyer, Hanno; Dereviagin, Alexander; Wetterich, Sebastian; Schirrmeister, Lutz

    2014-05-01

    Permafrost regions are assumed to play a major role for Global Climate Change as they are susceptible to recent warming in particular with regard to the potential release of stored fossil carbon. Permafrost serves as archive of past environmental and climate conditions (such as sedimentation processes, temperature and precipitation regimes as well as landscape and ecosystem development) over tens of thousands of years that can be traced by the study of the frozen deposits, paleontological content and ground ice. Ground ice comprises all types of ice contained in frozen ground, including pore ice, segregation ice and ice wedges. Here, we focus on ice wedges as the most promising climate archive that can be studied by stable water isotope methods analogously to glacier ice. They may be identified by their vertically oriented foliations. Ice wedges form by the repeated filling of wintertime thermal contraction cracks by snow melt water in spring. As the melt water quickly refreezes at negative ground temperature no isotopic fractionation takes place. Hence, the isotopic composition (δ18O, δD, d excess) of wedge ice is assumed to be representative of annual cold period climate conditions, i.e. winter and spring. Ice wedges are widely distributed in non-glaciated high northern latitudes, are diagnostic of permafrost and, in general, indicative of cold and stable climate conditions. They are found in continuous and discontinuous permafrost zones and may also have formed during and survived interglacials. They may provide unique paleo information that is not captured by other climate archives. Usually, ice wedges are dated by radiocarbon dating of organic material incorporated in the ice, but also 36Cl/Cl ratios have been successfully used to date ice wedges. Nevertheless reliable age determination is challenging when studying ice wedges. Here we tackle the potential of ice wedges from the Siberian and American Arctic to trace past climate changes from stable isotope

  4. Analysis of critical operating conditions for LV distribution networks with microgrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehir, M. A.; Batman, A.; Sonmez, M. A.; Font, A.; Tsiamitros, D.; Stimoniaris, D.; Kollatou, T.; Bagriyanik, M.; Ozdemir, A.; Dialynas, E.

    2016-11-01

    Increase in the penetration of Distributed Generation (DG) in distribution networks, raises the risk of voltage limit violations while contributing to line losses. Especially in low voltage (LV) distribution networks (secondary distribution networks), impacts of active power flows on the bus voltages and on the network losses are more dominant. As network operators must meet regulatory limitations, they have to take into account the most critical operating conditions in their systems. In this study, it is aimed to present the impact of the worst operation cases of LV distribution networks comprising microgrids. Simulation studies are performed on a field data-based virtual test-bed. The simulations are repeated for several cases consisting different microgrid points of connection with different network loading and microgrid supply/demand conditions.

  5. Capability to provide reactive power in PV farms. Implementation of LV capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gal, Isabelle; NGuyen, Minh Quang [Schneider Electric (France)

    2011-07-01

    The latest French grid code assigns a new role to generators connected to the distribution system: they have to contribute to the grid operation by ancillary services, even though they may use renewable energies. Among others, the likely incapacity of such a generator to provide the requested reactive power during steady state operation or during a fault may impose the use of capacitors. For economical reasons, it could be worth installing LV- instead of HV-capacitors. This paper analyses an example photovoltaic fram to evaluate the risks encountered. Results obtained show that the installation of LV capacitors may be possible if very carefully. Indeed, steady state harmonics generated by the inverter can be amplified, and there may be high overvoltages in the installation after upstream switching off. Further analysis should be done to extend the validity of conclusions, but at this stage, installing HV capacitors should be preferred. (orig.)

  6. Seismic monitoring during acid stimulation of wells LV-4 and LV-13 at the Las Tres Virgenes geothermal field, BCS, Mexico; Monitoreo sismico durante la estimulacion acida de los pozos LV-4 y LV-13 del campo geotermico de Las Tres Virgenes, BCS, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venegas Salgado, Saul; Arredondo Fragoso, Jesus; Ramirez Silva, German; Flores Armenta, Magaly; Ramirez Montes, Miguel [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: magaly.flores@cfe.gob.mx

    2006-07-15

    From September through December 2004 a seismic monitoring in the Las Tres Virgenes, BCS, geothermal field was carried out simultaneously with the acid stimulation of wells LV-4 and LV-13. The seismic network had four digital seismographs and recorded 174 local seismic events, 131 regional ones and many more volcanic signals at seismic station TV20 during the acid stimulation. Additionally, 37 seismic events were located, 22 of them inside the most important geothermal zone at depths between 0.4 and 4 km with typically low magnitudes (0.7 to 2.2 Md). Two relevant zones were determined: Zone A related to the El Volcan fault system and Zone B related to injection well LV-8. In Zone A the well-induction stage and the operation start of the wells LV-4 and LV-13 after acidification on October 30 and November 17, 2004, increased seismic activity to a maximum of 12 daily events in early December. When the two wells in Zone B were cooled before the acidification, the seismic events recorded there increased to a maximum of 6 daily events on October 2, and then decreased. Also in Zone B the seismic activity increased after well-induction and the start of well production once they were acidified, recording up to 11 daily events in late November. According to the seismic distribution, we may conclude that the most active fault systems are El Volcan and El Viejo. New proposals for well locations in the field are supported by these results. [Spanish] De septiembre a diciembre de 2004 se realizo un estudio de monitoreo sismico en el campo geotermico de Las Tres Virgenes, BCS, simultaneamente con las estimulaciones acidas de los pozos LV-4 y LV-13. Se utilizo una red sismica conformada por cuatro sismografos digitales, logrando registrar en la estacion sismica TV20 un total de 174 sismos locales, 131 sismos regionales y muchas mas senales de tipo volcanico, durante el periodo del monitoreo de la estimulacion acida. Ademas, se localizaron un total de 37 sismos, de los cuales 22 se

  7. Short-time Lv transform and its application for non-linear FM signal detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan Luo; Xiumei Li; Guoan Bi

    2015-01-01

    A new time-frequency transform, known as short-time Lv transform (STLVT), is proposed by applying the inverse Lv dis-tribution to process consecutive segments of long data sequence. Compared with other time-frequency representations, the STLVT is able to achieve better energy concentration in the time-frequency domain for signals containing multiple linear and/or non-linear frequency modulated components. The merits of the STLVT are demonstrated in terms of the effects of window length and overlap length between adjacent segments on signal energy concentra-tion in the time-frequency domain, and the required computational complexity. An application on the spectrum sensing for cognitive ratio (CR) by using a joint use of the STLVT and Hough transform (HT) is proposed and simulated.

  8. Voltage regulation in LV grids by coordinated volt-var control strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juamperez Goñi, Miguel Angel; Yang, Guangya; Kjær, Søren Bækhøj

    2014-01-01

    in terms of network power losses and voltage level along the feeder. As a practical implementation, a reconfigurable hardware is used for developing a testing platform based on real-time measurements to regulate the reactive power level. The proposed testing platform has been developed within PVNET......The increasing penetration level of photovoltaic (PV) power generation in low voltage (LV) networks results in voltage rise issues, particularly at the end of the feeders. In order to mitigate this problem, several strategies, such as grid reinforcement, transformer tap change, demand......-side management, active power curtailment, and reactive power optimization methods, show their contribution to voltage support, yet still limited. This paper proposes a coordinated volt-var control architecture between the LV distribution transformer and solar inverters to optimize the PV power penetration level...

  9. Effect of HPMC - E15 LV premium polymer on release profile and compression characteristics of chitosan/ pectin colon targeted mesalamine matrix tablets and in vitro study on effect of pH impact on the drug release profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, A M J; Lakshmanan, Prabakaran

    2014-04-01

    The study was designed to investigate the in vitro dissolution profile and compression characteristics of colon targeted matrix tablets prepared with HPMC E15 LV in combination with pectin and Chitosan. The matrix tablets were subjected to two dissolution models in various simulated fluids such as pH 1.2, 6, 6.8, 7.2, 5.5. The fluctuations in colonic pH conditions during IBD (inflammatory bowel disease) and the nature of less fluid content in the colon may limit the expected drug release in the polysaccharide-based matrices when used alone. The Hydrophilic hydroxyl propyl methylcellulose ether premium polymer (HPMC E15 LV) of low viscosity grade was used in the formulation design, which made an excellent modification in physical and compression characteristics of the granules. The release studies indicated that the prepared matrices could control the drug release until the dosage form reaches the colon and the addition HPMC E15 LV showed the desirable changes in the dissolution profile by its hydrophilic nature since the colon is known for its less fluid content. The hydrophilic HPMC E15 LV allowed the colonic fluids to enter into the matrix and confirmed the drug release at the target site from a poorly water soluble polymer such as Chitosan and also from water soluble Pectin. The dramatic changes occurred in the drug release profile and physicochemical characteristics of the Pectin, Chitosan matrix tablets when a premium polymer HPMC E15 LV added in the formulation design in the optimized concentration. Various drug release mechanisms used for the examination of drug release characteristics. Drug release followed the combined mechanism of diffusion, erosion, swelling and polymer entanglement. In recent decade, IBD attracts many patents in novel treatment methods by using novel drug delivery systems.

  10. EV Charging Facilities and Their Application in LV Feeders with Photovoltaics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marra, Francesco; Yang, Guangya; Træholt, Chresten

    2013-01-01

    for the different locations in the feeder. With time-series simulations, we quantify the energy size required for a station ESS. A Belgian LV residential grid, modeled using real PV generation and load profiles, is used as case study. The method and simulation results show the effectiveness of using public EV...... charging facilities with the additional function of voltage regulation in feeders with PV....

  11. Cooling Performance Test of the SCT LV&HV Power Supply Rack

    CERN Document Server

    Böhm, J; Vacek, V

    2005-01-01

    The cooling performance test of the 52U rack, housing SCT LV&HV power supplies for 192 detector modules, being located in USA15 cavern, has been curried out. The rack was equipped with two air-water heat exchangers, air turbine, four vertical fan tray units under crates and horizontal fans in four Artesyn AC/DC power supply units. The resistive dummy loads for 192 power supply channels have been placed in four crates and housed in the adjacent rack.

  12. A New Protection System for Islanding Detection in LV Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rita Di Fazio

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The growth of penetration of Distributed Generators (DGs is increasing the risk of unwanted islanded operation in Low Voltage (LV distribution systems. In this scenario, the existing anti-islanding protection systems, installed at the DG premises and based on classical voltage and frequency relays, are no longer effective, especially in the cases of islands characterized by a close match between generation and load. In this paper, a new protection system for islanding detection in LV distribution systems is proposed. The classical voltage and frequency relays in the DG interface protections are enriched with an innovative Smart Islanding Detector, which adopts a new passive islanding detection method. The aim is to keep the advantages of the classical relays while overcoming the problem of their limited sensitivity in detecting balanced islands. In the paper, to define the requirements of the anti-islanding protection system, the events causing the islanded operation of the LV distribution systems are firstly identified and classified. Then, referring to proposed protection system, its architecture and operation are described and, eventually, its performance is analyzed and validated by experimental laboratory tests, carried out with a hardware-in-the-loop technique.

  13. On the Interpretation of the l-v Features in the Milky Way Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Junichi; Saitoh, Takayuki R.; Wada, Keiichi

    2010-12-01

    We modeled the gas dynamics of barred galaxies using a three-dimensional, high-resolution, N-body + hydrodynamical simulation, and applied it to the Milky Way in an attempt to reproduce both the large-scale structure and the clumpy morphology observed in galactic H I and CO l-v diagrams. Owing to including of the multi-phase interstellar medium, self-gravity, star-formation, and supernovae feedback, the clumpy morphology, as well as the large-scale features, in observed l-v diagrams were naturally reproduced. We identified in our l-v diagrams with a number of not only large-scale peculiar features, such as the `3-kpc arm', `135-km s-1 arm', and `Connecting arm', but also clumpy features, such as `Bania clumps', and then linked these features in a face-on view of our model. We give suggestions on the real structure of the Milky Way and on the fate of gas clumps in the central region.

  14. Quantifying grain shape with MorpheoLV: A case study using Holocene glacial marine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Isabelle; Staszyc, Alicia B.; Wellner, Julia S.; Alejandro, Vanessa

    2017-06-01

    As demonstrated in earlier works, quantitative grain shape analysis has revealed to be a strong proxy for determining sediment transport history and depositional environments. MorpheoLV, devoted to the calculation of roughness coefficients from pictures of unique clastic sediment grains using Fourier analysis, drives computations for a collection of samples of grain images. This process may be applied to sedimentary deposits assuming core/interval/image archives for the storage of samples collected along depth. This study uses a 25.8 m jumbo piston core, NBP1203 JPC36, taken from a 100 m thick sedimentary drift deposit from Perseverance Drift on the northern Antarctic Peninsula continental shelf. Changes in ocean and ice conditions throughout the Holocene recorded in this sedimentary archive can be assessed by studying grain shape, grain texture, and other proxies. Ninety six intervals were sampled and a total of 2319 individual particle images were used. Microtextures of individual grains observed by SEM show a very high abundance of authigenically precipitated silica that obscures the original grain shape. Grain roughness, computed along depth with MorpheoLV, only shows small variation confirming the qualitative observation deduced from the SEM. Despite this, trends can be seen confirming the reliability of MorpheoLV as a tool for quantitative grain shape analysis.

  15. The evolving energy budget of accretionary wedges

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBeck, Jessica; Cooke, Michele; Maillot, Bertrand; Souloumiac, Pauline

    2017-04-01

    The energy budget of evolving accretionary systems reveals how deformational processes partition energy as faults slip, topography uplifts, and layer-parallel shortening produces distributed off-fault deformation. The energy budget provides a quantitative framework for evaluating the energetic contribution or consumption of diverse deformation mechanisms. We investigate energy partitioning in evolving accretionary prisms by synthesizing data from physical sand accretion experiments and numerical accretion simulations. We incorporate incremental strain fields and cumulative force measurements from two suites of experiments to design numerical simulations that represent accretionary wedges with stronger and weaker detachment faults. One suite of the physical experiments includes a basal glass bead layer and the other does not. Two physical experiments within each suite implement different boundary conditions (stable base versus moving base configuration). Synthesizing observations from the differing base configurations reduces the influence of sidewall friction because the force vector produced by sidewall friction points in opposite directions depending on whether the base is fixed or moving. With the numerical simulations, we calculate the energy budget at two stages of accretion: at the maximum force preceding the development of the first thrust pair, and at the minimum force following the development of the pair. To identify the appropriate combination of material and fault properties to apply in the simulations, we systematically vary the Young's modulus and the fault static and dynamic friction coefficients in numerical accretion simulations, and identify the set of parameters that minimizes the misfit between the normal force measured on the physical backwall and the numerically simulated force. Following this derivation of the appropriate material and fault properties, we calculate the components of the work budget in the numerical simulations and in the

  16. Envelope Proteins of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV Interact with Litopenaeus vannamei Peritrophin-Like Protein (LvPT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijun Xie

    Full Text Available White spot syndrome virus (WSSV is a major pathogen in shrimp cultures. The interactions between viral proteins and their receptors on the surface of cells in a frontier target tissue are crucial for triggering an infection. In this study, a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H library was constructed using cDNA obtained from the stomach and gut of Litopenaeus vannamei, to ascertain the role of envelope proteins in WSSV infection. For this purpose, VP37 was used as the bait in the Y2H library screening. Forty positive clones were detected after screening. The positive clones were analyzed and discriminated, and two clones belonging to the peritrophin family were subsequently confirmed as genuine positive clones. Sequence analysis revealed that both clones could be considered as the same gene, LV-peritrophin (LvPT. Co-immunoprecipitation confirmed the interaction between LvPT and VP37. Further studies in the Y2H system revealed that LvPT could also interact with other WSSV envelope proteins such as VP32, VP38A, VP39B, and VP41A. The distribution of LvPT in tissues revealed that LvPT was mainly expressed in the stomach than in other tissues. In addition, LvPT was found to be a secretory protein, and its chitin-binding ability was also confirmed.

  17. Envelope Proteins of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) Interact with Litopenaeus vannamei Peritrophin-Like Protein (LvPT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shijun; Zhang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Jiquan; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai

    2015-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major pathogen in shrimp cultures. The interactions between viral proteins and their receptors on the surface of cells in a frontier target tissue are crucial for triggering an infection. In this study, a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) library was constructed using cDNA obtained from the stomach and gut of Litopenaeus vannamei, to ascertain the role of envelope proteins in WSSV infection. For this purpose, VP37 was used as the bait in the Y2H library screening. Forty positive clones were detected after screening. The positive clones were analyzed and discriminated, and two clones belonging to the peritrophin family were subsequently confirmed as genuine positive clones. Sequence analysis revealed that both clones could be considered as the same gene, LV-peritrophin (LvPT). Co-immunoprecipitation confirmed the interaction between LvPT and VP37. Further studies in the Y2H system revealed that LvPT could also interact with other WSSV envelope proteins such as VP32, VP38A, VP39B, and VP41A. The distribution of LvPT in tissues revealed that LvPT was mainly expressed in the stomach than in other tissues. In addition, LvPT was found to be a secretory protein, and its chitin-binding ability was also confirmed.

  18. Implementation of enhanced dynamic wedge in the focus rtp system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miften, M; Wiesmeyer, M; Beavis, A; Takahashi, K; Broad, S

    2000-01-01

    The FOCUS RTP system implementation of Varian's enhanced dynamic wedge (EDW) is presented. Calculations of both dose distributions and wedge factors (WFs) are based on segmented treatment tables (STTs). Calculating dose requires a "transmission matrix" derived from an STT to model the modified fluence from the source. The dose calculation is then performed using either the Clarkson or convolution/superposition algorithms. An initial "primary dose/monitor unit (MU) fraction" WF estimate at the weight point of symmetric and asymmetric fields is calculated from the STT as the ratio of MU delivered on the axis of the weight point divided by total MU delivered for the treatment field. In our approach, we go beyond this initial estimate with a "scatter dose" correction. This requires measured 60 degrees WFs for 5 fields. Scatter corrections derived from measured WFs are interpolated for other wedge angles and field sizes in much the same way as arbitrary wedge angle STTs are derived from a "golden STT" using the "ratio of tangents" formalism. Dose comparisons with measured distributions show good agreement to within 3% or 3 mm for 6-MV beams and all EDW angles. Agreement with measurements to within 1% is obtained for WFs in all symmetric and asymmetric fields for 6- and 10-MV beams. For large wedge angles and field sizes, this represents a significant improvement over the 3% to 4% errors often observed using the MU fraction model alone.

  19. The Effect of Phenazine-1-Carboxylic Acid on Mycelial Growth of Botrytis cinerea Produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa LV Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ane S. Simionato

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important postharvest plant pathogens that affect strawberries, grapes and tomatoes is Botrytis cinerea, known as gray mold. The fungus remains in latent form until spore germination conditions are good, making infection control difficult, causing great losses in the whole production chain. This study aimed to purify and identify phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA produced by the Pseudomonas aeruginosa LV strain and to determine its antifungal activity against B. cinerea. The compounds produced were extracted with dichloromethane and passed through a chromatographic process. The purity level of PCA was determined by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography semi-preparative. The structure of PCA was confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Antifungal activity was determined by the dry paper disk and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC methods and identified by scanning electron microscopy and confocal microscopy. The results showed that PCA inhibited mycelial growth, where MIC was 25 μg mL-1. Microscopic analysis revealed a reduction in exopolysaccharide (EPS formation, showing distorted and damaged hyphae of B. cinerea. The results suggested that PCA has a high potential in the control of B. cinerea and inhibition of EPS (important virulence factor. This natural compound is a potential alternative to postharvest control of gray mold disease.

  20. Parámetros inmunitaríos en camarones juveniles lv en piscinas camaroneras infectadas con white spot syndrom virus

    OpenAIRE

    Montesdeoca, Bélgica Mercedes; Ibarra, Eulalia; Rodríguez, Jenny

    2002-01-01

    Parámetros inmunitarios en camarones juveniles LV en piscinas camaroneras infectadas con White Spot Syndrom Virus Parámetros inmunitarios en camarones juveniles LV en piscinas camaroneras infectadas con White Spot Syndrom Virus

  1. Casimir effect at nonzero temperature for wedges and cylinders

    CERN Document Server

    Ellingsen, Simen Å; Milton, Kimball A

    2010-01-01

    We consider the Casimir-Helmholtz free energy at nonzero temperature $T$ for a circular cylinder and perfectly conducting wedge closed by a cylindrical arc, either perfectly conducting or isorefractive. The energy expression at nonzero temperature may be regularized to obtain a finite value, except for a singular corner term in the case of the wedge which is present also at zero temperature. Assuming the medium in the interior of the cylinder or wedge be nondispersive with refractive index $n$, the temperature dependence enters only through the non-dimensional parameter $2\\pi naT$, $a$ being the radius of the cylinder or cylindrical arc. We show explicitly that the known zero temperature result is regained in the limit $aT\\to 0$ and that previously derived high temperature asymptotics for the cylindrical shell are reproduced exactly.

  2. Dislocation Nucleation and Pileup under a Wedge Contact at Nanoscale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. F. Gao

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Indentation responses of crystalline materials have been found to be radically different at micrometer and nanometer scales. The latter is usually thought to be controlled by the nucleation of dislocations. To explore this physical process, a dislocation mechanics study is performed to determine the conditions for the nucleation of a finite number of dislocations under a two-dimensional wedge indenter, using the Rice-Thomson nucleation criterion. The configurational force on the dislocation consists of the applied force, the image force, and the interaction force between dislocations. Dislocations reach equilibrium positions when the total driving force equals the effective Peierls stress, giving a set of nonlinear equations that can be solved using the Newton-Raphson method. When the apex angle of the wedge indenter increases, the critical contact size for dislocation nucleation increases rapidly, indicating that dislocation multiplication near a blunt wedge tip is extremely difficult. This geometric dependence agrees well with experimental findings.

  3. Indentation tectonics in the accretionary wedge of middle Manila Trench

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jiabiao; JIN Xianglong; RUAN Aiguo; WU Shimin; WU Ziyin; LIU Jianhua

    2004-01-01

    Based on the multibeam morpho-tectonic analysis of the Manila Trench accretionary wedge and its indentation tectonics and the contrasting researches with other geological and geophysical data, three tectonic zones of the wedge are established, faulting features, tectonic distribution and stress mechanism for the indentation tectonicsareanalyzed,oblique subduction along Manila Trench with convergent stress of NW55. Is presented, and the relationship of the ceasing of Eastern Subbasin spreading of South China Sea Basin to the formation of subduction zone of Manila Trench is discussed. By the model analysis and regional research, it is found that the seamount subduction along Manila Trenchoes not lead to the erosion of the accretionary wedge and the oblique subduction actually is a NWWtrending obducfion of Luzon micro-plate that results from the NWW-trending displacement of the Philippine Sea plate.

  4. Surface Geophysical Measurements for Locating and Mapping Ice-Wedges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas; Tomaskovicova, Sonia; Larsen, S.H.

    2012-01-01

    With the presently observed trend of permafrost warming and degradation, the development and availability of effective tools to locate and map ice-rich soils and massive ground ice is of increasing importance. This paper presents a geophysical study of an area with polygonal landforms in order...... to test the applicability of DC electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) to identifying and mapping ice-wedge occurrences. The site is located in Central West Greenland, and the ice-wedges are found in a permafrozen peat soil with an active layer of about 30 cm. ERT...... and GPR measurements give a coherent interpretation of possible ice-wedge locations, and active layer probing show a tendency for larger thaw depth in the major trench systems consistent with a significant temperature (at 10 cm depth) increase in these trenches identified by thermal profiling. Three...

  5. Modeling and Stability Analysis of Wedge Clutch System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Yao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A wedge clutch with unique features of self-reinforcement and small actuation force was designed. Its self-reinforcement feature, associated with different factors such as the wedge angle and friction coefficient, brings different dynamics and unstable problem with improper parameters. To analyze this system, a complete mathematical model of the actuation system is built, which includes the DC motor, the wedge mechanism, and the actuated clutch pack. By considering several nonlinear factors, such as the slip-stick friction and the contact or not of the clutch plates, the system is piecewise linear. Through the stability analysis of the linearized system in clutch slipping phase, the stable condition of the designed parameters is obtained as α>arctan⁡(μc. The mathematical model of the actuation system is validated by prototype testing. And with the validated model, the system dynamics in both stable and unstable conditions is investigated and discussed in engineering side.

  6. Tricritical wedge filling transitions with short-ranged forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero-Enrique, J M [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Area de Fisica Teorica, Universidad de Sevilla, Apartado de Correos 1065, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); Parry, A O [Department of Mathematics, Imperial College 180 Queen' s Gate, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom)

    2005-11-16

    We show that the 3D wedge filling transition in the presence of short-ranged interactions can be first order or second order depending on the strength of the line tension associated with the wedge bottom. This fact implies the existence of a tricritical point characterized by a short-distance expansion which differs from the usual continuous filling transition. Our analysis is based on an effective one-dimensional model for the 3D wedge filling, which arises from the identification of the breather modes as the only relevant interfacial fluctuations. From such analysis we find a correspondence between continuous 3D filling at bulk coexistence and 2D wetting transitions with random-bond disorder.

  7. Flow Analysis for the Falkner–Skan Wedge Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bararnia, H; Haghparast, N; Miansari, M

    2012-01-01

    the constant coefficients in the approximated solution. The effects of the polynomial terms of HAM are considered and the accuracy of the results is shown, which increases with the increasing polynomial terms of HAM. Analytical results for the dimensionless velocity and temperature profiles of the wedge flow......In this article an analytical technique, namely the homotopy analysis method (HAM), is applied to solve the momentum and energy equations in the case of a two-dimensional incompressible flow passing over a wedge. The trail and error method and Padé approximation strategies have been used to obtain...

  8. Molecular Depth Profiling with Cluster SIMS and Wedges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Dan; Wucher, Andreas; Winograd, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    Secondary ion mass spectrometry and atomic force microscopy are employed to characterize a wedge-shaped crater eroded by 40 keV C60+ bombardment of a 395-nm thin film of Irganox 1010 doped with four delta layers of Irganox 3114. The wedge structure creates a laterally magnified cross section of the film. From an examination of the resulting surface, information about depth resolution, topography and erosion rate can be obtained as a function of crater depth in a single experiment. This protocol provides a straightforward way to determine the parameters necessary to characterize molecular depth profiles, and to obtain an accurate depth scale for erosion experiments. PMID:19968247

  9. Surgical treatment of idiopathic syringomyelia: Silastic wedge syringosubarachnoid shunting technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teck M Soo

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Shunting procedures for the syringomyelia disease spectrum have been criticized due to the inconsistent long-term outcomes. This surgical technique used to treat symptomatic idiopathic syringomyelia has been devised based on our intraoperative experience, surgical outcomes, and evaluation of the literature. The purpose of the wedges is to preserve patency of the communication between the syrinx cavity and the expanded subarachnoid space by preventing healing of the myelotomy edges and by maintaining an artificial conduit between the syrinx cavity and the subarachnoid space. Although short-term results are promising, continued long-term follow up is needed to determine the ultimate success of the silastic wedge shunting procedure.

  10. Three-dimensional wedge filling in ordered and disordered systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenall, M J [Department of Mathematics, Imperial College London, 180 Queen' s Gate, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Parry, A O [Department of Mathematics, Imperial College London, 180 Queen' s Gate, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Romero-Enrique, J M [Department of Mathematics, Imperial College London, 180 Queen' s Gate, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom)

    2004-04-21

    We investigate interfacial structural and fluctuation effects occurring at continuous filling transitions in 3D wedge geometries. We show that fluctuation-induced wedge covariance relations that have been reported recently for 2D filling and wetting have mean-field or classical analogues that apply to higher-dimensional systems. Classical wedge covariance emerges from analysis of filling in shallow wedges based on a simple interfacial Hamiltonian model and is supported by detailed numerical investigations of filling within a more microscopic Landau-like density functional theory. Evidence is presented that classical wedge covariance is also obeyed for filling in more acute wedges in the asymptotic critical regime. For sufficiently short-ranged forces mean-field predictions for the filling critical exponents and covariance are destroyed by pseudo-one-dimensional interfacial fluctuations. We argue that in this filling fluctuation regime the critical exponents describing the divergence of length scales are related to values of the interfacial wandering exponent {zeta}(d) defined for planar interfaces in (bulk) two-dimensional (d = 2) and three-dimensional (d = 3) systems. For the interfacial height l{sub w} {approx} {theta}-{alpha}){sup -{beta}}{sub w}, with {theta} the contact angle and {alpha} the wedge tilt angle, we find {beta}{sub w} = {zeta}(2)/2(1-{zeta}(3)). For pure systems (thermal disorder) we recover the known result {beta}{sub w} = 1/4 predicted by interfacial Hamiltonian studies whilst for random-bond disorder we predict the universal critical exponent {beta} {approx} even in the presence of dispersion forces. We revisit the transfer matrix theory of three-dimensional filling based on an effective interfacial Hamiltonian model and discuss the interplay between breather, tilt and torsional interfacial fluctuations. We show that the coupling of the modes allows the problem to be mapped onto a quantum mechanical problem as conjectured by previous authors

  11. Left Ventricle: Fully Automated Segmentation Based on Spatiotemporal Continuity and Myocardium Information in Cine Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging (LV-FAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijia Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available CMR quantification of LV chamber volumes typically and manually defines the basal-most LV, which adds processing time and user-dependence. This study developed an LV segmentation method that is fully automated based on the spatiotemporal continuity of the LV (LV-FAST. An iteratively decreasing threshold region growing approach was used first from the midventricle to the apex, until the LV area and shape discontinued, and then from midventricle to the base, until less than 50% of the myocardium circumference was observable. Region growth was constrained by LV spatiotemporal continuity to improve robustness of apical and basal segmentations. The LV-FAST method was compared with manual tracing on cardiac cine MRI data of 45 consecutive patients. Of the 45 patients, LV-FAST and manual selection identified the same apical slices at both ED and ES and the same basal slices at both ED and ES in 38, 38, 38, and 41 cases, respectively, and their measurements agreed within -1.6±8.7 mL, -1.4±7.8 mL, and 1.0±5.8% for EDV, ESV, and EF, respectively. LV-FAST allowed LV volume-time course quantitatively measured within 3 seconds on a standard desktop computer, which is fast and accurate for processing the cine volumetric cardiac MRI data, and enables LV filling course quantification over the cardiac cycle.

  12. Quantifying coronary sinus flow and global LV perfusion at 3T

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bloch Karin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the large availability of 3T MR scanners and the potential of high field imaging, this technical platform has yet to prove its usefulness in the cardiac MR setting, where 1.5T remains the established standard. Global perfusion of the left ventricle, as well as the coronary flow reserve (CFR, can provide relevant diagnostic information, and MR measurements of these parameters may benefit from increased field strength. Quantitative flow measurements in the coronary sinus (CS provide one method to investigate these parameters. However, the ability of newly developed faster MR sequences to measure coronary flow during a breath-hold at 3T has not been evaluated. Methods The aim of this work was to measure CS flow using segmented phase contrast MR (PC MR on a clinical 3T MR scanner. Parallel imaging was employed to reduce the total acquisition time. Global LV perfusion was calculated by dividing CS flow with left ventricular (LV mass. The repeatability of the method was investigated by measuring the flow three times in each of the twelve volunteers. Phantom experiments were performed to investigate potential error sources. Results The average CS flow was determined to 88 ± 33 ml/min and the deduced LV perfusion was 0.60 ± 0.22 ml/min·g, in agreement with published values. The repeatability (1-error of the three repeated measurements in each subject was on average 84%. Conclusion This work demonstrates that the combination of high field strength (3T, parallel imaging and segmented gradient echo sequences allow for quantification of the CS flow and global perfusion within a breath-hold.

  13. Non-linear critical taper model and determination of accretionary wedge strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Che-Ming; Dong, Jia-Jyun; Hsieh, Yuan-Lung; Liu, Hsueh-Hua; Liu, Cheng-Lung

    2016-12-01

    The critical taper model has been widely used to evaluate the strength contrast between the wedge and the basal detachment of fold-and-thrust belts and accretionary wedges. However, determination of the strength parameters using the traditional critical taper model, which adopts the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion, is difficult, if not impossible. In this study, we propose a modified critical taper model that incorporates the non-linear Hoek-Brown failure criterion. The parameters in the proposed critical Hoek-Brown wedge CHBW model can be directly evaluated via field investigations and laboratory tests. Meanwhile, the wedge strength is a function of the wedge thickness, which is oriented from stress non-linearity. The fold-and-thrust belt in western central Taiwan was used as an example to validate the proposed model. The determined wedge strength was 0.86 using a representative wedge thickness of 5.3 km; this was close to the inferred value of 0.6 from the critical taper. Interestingly, a concave topographic relief is predicted as a result of the wedge thickness dependency of the wedge strength, even if the wedge is composed of homogeneous materials and if the strength of the detachment is uniform. This study demonstrates that the influence of wedge strength on the critical taper angle can be quantified by the spatial distribution of strength variables and by the consideration of the wedge thickness dependency of wedge strength.

  14. Reduction of low voltage power cables electromagnetic field emission in MV/LV substations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltran San Segundo, Hector [Dpt. Industrial Systems Engineering and Design, Campus del Riu Sec, Universitat Jaume I, 12071 Castello (Spain); Fuster Roig, Vicente [Instituto de Tecnologia Electrica, Avda. Juan de la Cierva 24, Parc Tecnologic de Valencia, 46980 Paterna (Spain)

    2008-06-15

    In this paper a solution to reduce magnetic field emission levels generated by MV/LV substation power cables is proposed. The reduction is obtained by the arrangement of the phases in a proper way and by shielding the cables with magnetic or conductive materials. The effects introduced by these two options have been analyzed by means of simulations, using finite elements method calculation software, and by experimental measurements. The introduced results allow selecting an optimal arrangement and the best screening material in order to reduce the magnetic fields in those directions required to protect. (author)

  15. Clustered PV Inverters in LV Networks: An Overview of Impacts and Comparison of Voltage Control Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demirok, Erhan; Sera, Dezso; Teodorescu, Remus;

    2009-01-01

    and power quality must be maintained or improved by adding cooperative control features to the grid-connected inverters. This paper first gives an overview of bilateral impacts between multiple distributed generations (DG) and grid. Regarding of these impacts, recent advances in static grid voltage support......High penetration of photovoltaic (PV) inverters in low voltage (LV) distribution network challenges the voltage stability due to interaction between multiple inverters and grid. As the main objective is to provide more power injection from VSC-based PV inverters, grid stability, reliability...

  16. Power flow analysis for droop controlled LV hybrid AC-DC microgrids with virtual impedance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chendan; Chaudhary, Sanjay; Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The AC-DC hybrid microgrid is an effective form of utilizing different energy resources and the analysis of this system requires a proper power flow algorithm. This paper proposes a suitable power flow algorithm for LV hybrid AC-DC microgrid based on droop control and virtual impedance. Droop...... and virtual impedance concepts for AC network, DC network and interlinking converter are reviewed so as to model it in the power flow analysis. The validation of the algorithm is verified by comparing it with steady state results from detailed time domain simulation. The effectiveness of the proposed...

  17. locally fabricated metal step wedge for quality assurance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    materials, as well as to investigate an alternative wedge material. The values of the ... The use of low performance x-ray machines. b. ... machine in the Radiology Department of. JUTH is .... the x-ray beam, while ms determines the interaction.

  18. Stark effect in a wedge-shaped quantum box

    CERN Document Server

    Reyes-Esqueda, J A; Castillo-Mussot, M; Vazquez, G J; Reyes-Esqueda, Jorge-Alejandro; Mendoza, Carlos I.; Castillo-Mussot, Marcelo del; Vazquez, Gerardo J.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of an external applied electric field on the electronic ground state energy of a quantum box with a geometry defined by a wedge is studied by carrying out a variational calculation. This geometry could be used as an approximation for a tip of a cantilever of an atomic force microscope. We study theoretically the Stark effect as function of the parameters of the wedge: its diameter, angular aperture and thickness; as well as function of the intensity of the external electric field applied along the axis of the wedge in both directions; pushing the carrier towards the wider or the narrower parts. A confining electronic effect, which is sharper as the wedge dimensions are smaller, is clearly observed for the first case. Besides, the sign of the Stark shift changes when the angular aperture is changed from small angles to angles theta>pi. For the opposite field, the electronic confinement for large diameters is very small and it is also observed that the Stark shift is almost independent with respect t...

  19. Thoracoscopic pulmonary wedge resection without post-operative chest drain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbek, Bo Laksafoss; Hansen, Henrik Jessen; Kehlet, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    : Forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) ≥60 % of expected, FEV1/forced vital capacity ≥70 %, tumour diameter ≤2 cm, distance from tumour to visceral pleura ≤3 cm, ≤2 separate wedges, no air leak on an intraoperative air leakage test and absence of severe adhesions, bullous/emphysematous disease, pleural...

  20. Wedges, Cones, Cosmic Strings, and the Reality of Vacuum Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Fulling, S A; Truong, P N; Wagner, J

    2012-01-01

    One of J. Stuart Dowker's most significant achievements has been to observe that the theory of diffraction by wedges developed a century ago by Sommerfeld and others provided the key to solving two problems of great interest in general-relativistic quantum field theory during the last quarter of the twentieth century: the vacuum energy associated with an infinitely thin, straight cosmic string, and (after an interchange of time with a space coordinate) the apparent vacuum energy of empty space as viewed by an accelerating observer. In a sense the string problem is more elementary than the wedge, since Sommerfeld's technique was to relate the wedge problem to that of a conical manifold by the method of images. Indeed, Minkowski space, as well as all cone and wedge problems, are related by images to an infinitely sheeted master manifold, which we call Dowker space. We review the research in this area and exhibit in detail the vacuum expectation values of the energy density and pressure of a scalar field in Dowk...

  1. Discrete dislocation plasticity analysis of the wedge indentation of films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balint, D. S.; Deshpande, V. S.; Needleman, A.; Van der Giessen, E.

    2006-01-01

    The plane strain indentation of single crystal films on a rigid substrate by a rigid wedge indenter is analyzed using discrete dislocation plasticity. The crystals have three slip systems at +/- 35.3 degrees and 90 degrees with respect to the indentation direction. The analyses are carried out for

  2. Fixed Points of Maps of a Nonaspherical Wedge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merrill Keith

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Let be a finite polyhedron that has the homotopy type of the wedge of the projective plane and the circle. With the aid of techniques from combinatorial group theory, we obtain formulas for the Nielsen numbers of the selfmaps of .

  3. Magnetic and structural instabilities of ultrathin Fe(100) wedges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bader, S.D.; Li, Dongqi; Qiu, Z.Q.

    1994-05-01

    An overview is provided of recent efforts to explore magnetic and related structural issues for ultrathin Fe films grown epitaxially as wedge structures onto Ag(100) and Cu(100). Experiments were carried out utilizing the surface magneto-optic Kerr effect (SMOKE). Ordinary bcc Fe is lattice-matched to the primitive unit cell of the Ag(100) surface. Fe wedges on Ag(100) can be fabricated whose thick end has in-plane magnetic easy axes due to the shape anisotropy, and whose thin end has perpendicular easy axes due to the surface magnetic anisotrophy. A spin-reorientation transition can thus be studied in the center of the wedge where the competing anisotropies cancel. The goal is to test the Mermin-Wagner theorem which states that long-range order is lost at finite temperatures in an isotropic two-dimensional Heisenberg system. Fe wedges on Cu(100) can be studied in like manner, but the lattice matching permits fcc and tetragonally-distorted fcc phases to provide structural complexity in addition to the interplay of competing magnetic anisotropies. The results of these studies are new phase identifications that help both to put previous work into perspective and to define issues to pursue in the future.

  4. An efficient method for accurate segmentation of LV in contrast-enhanced cardiac MR images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryanarayana K., Venkata; Mitra, Abhishek; Srikrishnan, V.; Jo, Hyun Hee; Bidesi, Anup

    2016-03-01

    Segmentation of left ventricle (LV) in contrast-enhanced cardiac MR images is a challenging task because of high variability in the image intensity. This is due to a) wash-in and wash-out of the contrast agent over time and b) poor contrast around the epicardium (outer wall) region. Current approaches for segmentation of the endocardium (inner wall) usually involve application of a threshold within the region of interest, followed by refinement techniques like active contours. A limitation of this method is under-segmentation of the inner wall because of gradual loss of contrast at the wall boundary. On the other hand, the challenge in outer wall segmentation is the lack of reliable boundaries because of poor contrast. There are four main contributions in this paper to address the aforementioned issues. First, a seed image is selected using variance based approach on 4D time-frame images over which initial endocardium and epicardium is segmented. Secondly, we propose a patch based feature which overcomes the problem of gradual contrast loss for LV endocardium segmentation. Third, we propose a novel Iterative-Edge-Refinement (IER) technique for epicardium segmentation. Fourth, we propose a greedy search algorithm for propagating the initial contour segmented on seed-image across other time frame images. We have experimented our technique on five contrast-enhanced cardiac MR Datasets (4D) having a total of 1097 images. The segmentation results for all 1097 images have been visually inspected by a clinical expert and have shown good accuracy.

  5. ATP synthase subunit alpha and LV mass in ischaemic human hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roselló-Lletí, Esther; Tarazón, Estefanía; Barderas, María G; Ortega, Ana; Molina-Navarro, Maria Micaela; Martínez, Alba; Lago, Francisca; Martínez-Dolz, Luis; González-Juanatey, Jose Ramón; Salvador, Antonio; Portolés, Manuel; Rivera, Miguel

    2015-02-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a critical role in the development of ischaemic cardiomyopathy (ICM). In this study, the mitochondrial proteome in the cardiac tissue of ICM patients was analysed by quantitative differential electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and mass spectrometry (MS) for the first time to provide new insights into cardiac dysfunction in this cardiomyopathy. We isolated mitochondria from LV samples of explanted hearts of ICM patients (n = 8) and control donors (n = 8) and used a proteomic approach to investigate the variations in mitochondrial protein expression. We found that most of the altered proteins were involved in cardiac energy metabolism (82%). We focused on ATPA, which is involved in energy production, and dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase, implicated in substrate utilization, and observed that these molecules were overexpressed and that the changes detected in the processes mediated by these proteins were closely related. Notably, we found that ATPA overexpression was associated with reduction in LV mass (r = -0.74, P ATPA could serve as a molecular target suitable for new therapeutic interventions.

  6. Solution to avoid unwanted trips for PV systems connected to LV network facing voltage sags

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Thi Minh, Chau; Tran-Quoc, Tuan; Kieny, Christophe [IDEA, Saint-Martin-d' Heres (France); Bacha, Seddik [Grenoble Electric Engineering Laboratory, Saint-Martin-d' Heres (France); Cabanac, Philippe; Grenard, Sebastien [Electricite de France, Clamart (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches; Goulielmakis, David [Schneider Electric, Grenoble (France). Projects and Engineering Center

    2011-07-01

    Most of photovoltaic (PV) systems connected to low voltage (LV) distribution networks have a single-phase connection. The analysis of the behavior of these single-phase connection. The analysis of the behavior of these single-phase PV inverters facing voltage sags caused by short circuits is of major concern. These behaviors depend on fault types, fault location, types of grid architecture, grid protection systems (with or without auto-recloser system) and PV protection types. Therefore, the first investigation of this work is to study comprehensively the behaviors of PV systems connected to real LV networks facing voltage sags in different scenarios by taking into account the real network protection. Furthermore, future power systems with a large share of PV systems connected could be severely affected if several of the PV systems are tripping at the same instant. From these results of simulation, unwanted trip cases, due to the disconnection protection of PV systems are identified. Finally, a simple efficient solution by using the voltage-time characteristic for PV system is proposed. The validation by simulations shows the efficiency of the proposed solution. (orig.)

  7. Classification of LV wall motion in cardiac MRI using kernel Dictionary Learning with a parametric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantilla, Juan; Paredes, Jose; Bellanger, Jean-J; Donal, Erwan; Leclercq, Christophe; Medina, Ruben; Garreau, Mireille

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a parametric approach for the assessment of wall motion in Left Ventricle (LV) function in cardiac cine-Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Time-signal intensity curves (TSICs) are identified in Spatio-temporal image profiles extracted from different anatomical segments in a cardiac MRI sequence. Different parameters are constructed from specific TSICs that present a decreasing then increasing shape reflecting dynamic information of the LV contraction. The parameters extracted from these curves are related to: 1) an average curve based on a clustering process, 2) curve skewness and 3) cross correlation values between each average clustered curve and a patient-specific reference. Several tests are performed in order to construct different vectors to train a sparse classifier based on kernel Dictionary Learning (DL). Results are compared with other classifiers like Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Discriminative Dictionary Learning. The best classification performance is obtained with information of skewness and the average curve with an accuracy about 94% using the mentioned sparse based kernel DL with a radial basis function kernel.

  8. Influência da forma e do processo de obtenção do entalhe na carga máxima e na energia de fratura de argamassas utilizando o método da cunha para propagação estável de trinca Influence of notch shape and preparation on the maximum load and fracture energy of mortars evaluated by the wedge splitting method for stable crack propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ribeiro

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho mostra a influência da forma e do processo de obtenção do entalhe na estabilidade da propagação de trinca em materiais cerâmicos de microestrutura heterogênea e conseqüentemente, na carga máxima e energia de fratura quando esses materiais são submetidos ao carregamento utilizando o método da cunha. Foram preparadas argamassas com cimento Portland, areia e água, que foram moldadas, curadas a 25 ºC por 7 dias e secadas a 50 ºC por 48 h. Foram estudadas duas proporções (dosagens ou traços de areia:cimento de 3:1 e 2:1. Foram testados dois tipos de entalhe: um com perfil quadrado da ponta e outro em "V" com ângulo de 60º. Os entalhes de formato quadrado foram obtidos de duas formas: produzidos mecanicamente a partir de disco diamantado e outro na própria moldagem das amostras. Para produzir as amostras entalhadas e ranhuradas já na moldagem, foi desenvolvido um molde de PVC munido de lâminas de aço internas. A partir dos testes preliminares foram estabelecidas as condições de propagação estável da trinca. A trinca percorre um plano imaginário definido pelas ranhuras laterais da amostra. Os resultados mostraram que o entalhe que proporciona melhores condições de estabilidade de propagação de trinca é o de forma em "V", obtido durante o processo de moldagem das amostras.This paper discusses how the shape and preparation of the notch affect crack propagation in ceramic materials with heterogeneous microstructures and, as a result, the maximum load and fracture energy when these materials are subjected to loads using the wedge splitting test. Mortars were prepared with Portland cement, sand and water, which were mixed, molded, and cured at 25 ºC for seven days. After curing, the samples were dried at 55 ºC for 48 h. Two mortar compositions were prepared with proportions of sand:cement of 3:1 and 2:1. Two types of notches were tested: one with a square-tipped profile and the other V-shaped with a 60º

  9. Wedges, cones, cosmic strings and their vacuum energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulling, S. A.; Trendafilova, C. S.; Truong, P. N.; Wagner, J.

    2012-09-01

    One of J Stuart Dowker’s most significant achievements has been to observe that the theory of diffraction by wedges developed a century ago by Sommerfeld and others provided the key to solving two problems of great interest in general-relativistic quantum field theory during the last quarter of the 20th century: the vacuum energy associated with an infinitely thin, straight cosmic string, and (after an interchange of time with a space coordinate) the apparent vacuum energy of empty space as viewed by an accelerating observer. In a sense the string problem is more elementary than the wedge, since Sommerfeld’s technique was to relate the wedge problem to that of a conical manifold by the method of images. Indeed, Minkowski space, as well as all cone and wedge problems, are related by images to an infinitely sheeted master manifold, which we call Dowker space. We review the research in this area and exhibit in detail the vacuum expectation values of the energy density and pressure of a scalar field in Dowker space and the cone and wedge spaces that result from it. We point out that the (vanishing) vacuum energy of Minkowski space results, from the point of view of Dowker space, from the quantization of angular modes, in precisely the way that the Casimir energy of a toroidal closed universe results from the quantization of Fourier modes; we hope that this understanding dispels any lingering doubts about the reality of cosmological vacuum energy. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical in honour of Stuart Dowker’s 75th birthday devoted to ‘Applications of zeta functions and other spectral functions in mathematics and physics’.

  10. Restraint of fatigue crack growth by wedge effects of fine particles

    CERN Document Server

    Takahashi, I; Kotani, N

    2000-01-01

    Presents some experimental results which demonstrate restraint of fatigue crack growth in an Al-Mg alloy by wedge effects of fine particles. Fatigue test specimens were machined from a JIS A5083P-O Al-Mg alloy plate of 5 mm thickness and an EDM starter notch was introduced to each specimen. Three kinds of fine particles were prepared as the materials to be wedged into the fatigue cracks, i.e. magnetic particles and two kinds of alumina particles having different mean particle sizes of 47.3 mu m and 15.2 mu m. Particles of each kind were suspended in an oil to form a paste, which was applied on the specimen surface covering the notch zone prior to the fatigue tests. In order to make some fracture mechanics approaches, in situ observations of fatigue cracks were performed for the two cases using a CCD microscope, with a magnification of *1000. The crack length and the crack opening displacement (COD) at the notch root, delta , were measured. The crack retardation effect continues almost through the entire lifet...

  11. Vertebral Osteotomies in Ankylosing Spondylitis-Comparison of Outcomes Following Closing Wedge Osteotomy versus Opening Wedge Osteotomy: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravinsky, Robert A; Ouellet, Jean-Albert; Brodt, Erika D; Dettori, Joseph R

    2013-04-01

    Study Design Systematic review. Study Rationale To seek out and assess the best quality evidence available comparing opening wedge osteotomy (OWO) and closing wedge osteotomy (CWO) in patients with ankylosing spondylitis to determine whether their results differ with regard to several different subjective and objective outcome measures. Objective The aim of this study is to determine whether there is a difference in subjective and objective outcomes when comparing CWO and OWO in patients with ankylosing spondylitis suffering from clinically significant thoracolumbar kyphosis with respect to quality-of-life assessments, complication risks, and the amount of correction of the spine achieved at follow-up. Methods A systematic review was undertaken of articles published up to July 2012. Electronic databases and reference lists of key articles were searched to identify studies comparing effectiveness and safety outcomes between adult patients with ankylosing spondylitis who received closing wedge versus opening wedge osteotomies. Studies that included pediatric patients, polysegmental osteotomies, or revision procedures were excluded. Two independent reviewers assessed the strength of evidence using the GRADE criteria and disagreements were resolved by consensus. Results From a total of 67 possible citations, 4 retrospective cohorts (class of evidence III) met our inclusion criteria and form the basis for this report. No differences in Oswestry Disability Index, visual analog scale for pain, Scoliosis Research Society (SRS)-24 score, SRS-22 score, and patient satisfaction were reported between the closing and opening wedge groups across two studies. Regarding radiological outcomes following closing versus opening osteotomies, mean change in sagittal vertical axis ranged from 8.9 to 10.8 cm and 8.0 to 10.9 cm, respectively, across three studies; mean change in lumbar lordosis ranged from 36 to 47 degrees and 19 to 41 degrees across four studies; and mean change

  12. Comparison of clinical and radiological outcomes between opening-wedge and closing-wedge high tibial osteotomy: A comprehensive meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lingfeng; Lin, Jun; Jin, Zhicheng; Cai, Xiaobin; Gao, Weiyang

    2017-01-01

    High tibial osteotomy (HTO) has been widely used for clinical treatment of osteoarthritis of the medial compartment of the knee, and both opening-wedge and closing-wedge HTO are the most commonly used methods. However, it remains unclear which technique has better clinical and radiological outcomes in practice. To systematically evaluate this issue, we conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis by pooling all available data for the opening-wedge HTO and closing-wedge HTO techniques from the electronic databases including PubMed, Embase, Wed of Science and Cochrane Library. A total of 22 studies encompassing 2582 cases were finally enrolled in the meta-analysis. There was no significant difference regarding surgery time, duration of hospitalization, knee pain VAS, Lysholm score and HSS knee score (clinical outcomes) between the opening-wedge and closing-wedge HTO groups (P > 0.05). However, the opening-wedge HTO group showed wider range of motion than the closing-wedge HTO group (P = 0.003). Moreover, as for Hip-Knee-Ankle angle and mean angle of correction, no significant difference was observed between the opening-wedge and closing-wedge HTO groups (P > 0.05), while the opening-wedge HTO group showed greater posterior tibial slope angle (P < 0.001) and lesser patellar height than the closing-wedge HTO group (P < 0.001). On light of the above analysis, we believe that individualized surgical approach should be introduced based on the clinical characteristics of each patient. PMID:28182736

  13. Current status of the Citrus leprosis virus (CiLV -C and its vector Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo León M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Citrus leprosis virus CiLV-C is a quarantine disease of economic importance. Over the past 15 years, this disease has spread to several countries of Central and South America. Colombia has about 45,000 hectares of citrus planted with an annual production of 750,000 tonnes. The CiLV-C has only been detected in the departments of Meta, Casanare and recently Tolima. Meta has 4,300 hectares representing 10% of the national cultivated area, and Casanare, where CiLV-C appeared in 2004, has no more than 500 ha planted with citrus. The presence of the Citrus leprosis virus in Colombia could affect the international market for citrus, other crops and ornamental plants with the United States and other countries without the disease. The false spider mite Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes (Acari: Tenuipalpidae is the main vector of the CiLV-C. Disease management is based on control programs of the vector and diminishing host plants. Chemical mite control is expensive, wasteful and generates resistance to different acaricides. This paper provides basic information on CiLV-C and its vector, advances in diagnosis and methods to control the disease and prevention of its spread

  14. 一种新的LV-BPL宽带通信系统仿真%Simulation of Digital Fountain Concatenated Coding Wavelet-Packet-Based Broadband System in LV-BPL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨航; 茹乐; 杜兴民; 唐红

    2007-01-01

    室内低压电力线(LV-BPL)通信是一种新的宽带接入技术,基于数字喷泉码与正交小波包调制提出了一种新的LV-BPL编码多载波调制通信系统模型.系统采用Raptor码作外码,块编码作内码,按块编码调制(BCM)映射到正交小波包调制时频平面.由于小波包稳定的正交性、自由的时频铺砌,数字喷泉码与码率无关的性质及BCM抗脉冲干扰的特点,系统在LV-BPL信道具有比编码DFT-OFDM更好的性能.

  15. Extinction in SC galaxies - an analysis of the ESO-LV data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, J. E.; van Albada, T. S.

    1992-02-01

    The surface photometry of Sc galaxies in the ESO-LV database in view of recent claims by Valentijn that spiral galaxies are opaque over their entire disks is analyzed. Using diameter-limited and magnitude-limited subsamples, it can discriminate between the opaque and transparent cases with the axis-ratio distribution test. Results support the traditional view that Sc galaxies are semitransparent, but the brightness difference between face-on and edge-on can be as large as 1.0 to 1.5 mag. Analyzing surface-brightness profiles at various radii, it is seen that the central regions are essentially opaque, and the outer regions nearly fully transparent. It is shown that conclusions differ from those of Valentijn, because of neglect to take secondary inclination effects into account.

  16. Efficient Control of Energy Storage for Increasing the PV Hosting Capacity of LV Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashemi Toghroljerdi, Seyedmostafa; Østergaard, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    hosting capacity of LV grids by determining dynamic set points for EESS management. The method has the effectiveness of central control methods and can effectively decrease the energy storage required for overvoltage prevention, yet it eliminates the need for a broadband and fast communication. The net...... power injected into the grid and the amount of reactive power absorbed by PV inverters are estimated using the PV generation forecast and load consumption forecast, and the dynamic operating points for energy storage management are determined for a specific period of time by solving a linear...... grid is usually limited by overvoltage, and the efficient control of distributed electrical energy storage systems (EESSs) can considerably increase this capacity. In this paper, a new control approach based on the voltage sensitivity analysis is proposed to prevent overvoltage and increase the PV...

  17. Estimation of Maximum Allowable PV Connection to LV Residential Power Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demirok, Erhan; Sera, Dezso; Teodorescu, Remus

    2011-01-01

    transformer or using solar inverters with new grid support features. This study presents a methodology for the estimation of maximum PV hosting capacity including IEC 60076-7 based thermal model of distribution transformer. Certain part of a real distribution network of Braedstrup suburban area in Denmark...... is used in simulation as a case study model. Furthermore, varying solutions (utilizing thermally upgraded insulation paper in transformers, reactive power services from solar inverters, etc.) are implemented on the network under investigation to examine PV penetration level and finally key results learnt......Maximum photovoltaic (PV) hosting capacity of low voltage (LV) power networks is mainly restricted by either thermal limits of network components or grid voltage quality resulted from high penetration of distributed PV systems. This maximum hosting capacity may be lower than the available solar...

  18. Curva de rotação óptica de ESO-LV 5100550

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, D. B.; Soares, D. S. L.

    2003-08-01

    ESO-LV 5100550 é o membro mais fraco do par de galáxias austral SBG 357 (Soares et al. 1995). É classificada no catálogo RC3 como uma espiral ordinária de tipo inicial (early-type); porém, uma análise morfológica sugere que ela tenha uma grande barra. O objetivo do estudo é determinar sua cinemática de tal modo que possamos inferir mais a respeito de sua dinâmica, provavelmente perturbada, já que se espera que esteja sob forte influência da companheira ESO-LV 5100560. Apresentarei resultados parciais determinados a partir de espectros obtidos com o instrumento Double Spectrograph montado no telescópio Hale do Monte Palomar, EUA. As observações foram realizadas por D.S.L. Soares, P.M.V. Veiga e T.E. Nordgren, em 1998. Foram tomados espectros de fenda longa posicionada sobre a linha dos nodos do disco e ao longo da suposta barra. Os dados foram reduzidos com uso do pacote IRAF. Obtivemos o perfil de velocidades radiais na linha de visada ao longo das fendas e calculamos o desvio para o vermelho cosmológico do sistema, com base no espectro central. Determinamos as curvas de rotação deprojetadas, com base em cálculos para os valores teóricos esperados das componentes de velocidades puramente circulares em um disco inclinado. A inclinação do disco, dado fundamental nesta deprojeção, foi estimada através da média das elipticidades das isofotas mais externas.

  19. Impact of Distributed Generation Grid Code Requirements on Islanding Detection in LV Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Bignucolo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent growing diffusion of dispersed generation in low voltage (LV distribution networks is entailing new rules to make local generators participate in network stability. Consequently, national and international grid codes, which define the connection rules for stability and safety of electrical power systems, have been updated requiring distributed generators and electrical storage systems to supply stabilizing contributions. In this scenario, specific attention to the uncontrolled islanding issue has to be addressed since currently required anti-islanding protection systems, based on relays locally measuring voltage and frequency, could no longer be suitable. In this paper, the effects on the interface protection performance of different LV generators’ stabilizing functions are analysed. The study takes into account existing requirements, such as the generators’ active power regulation (according to the measured frequency and reactive power regulation (depending on the local measured voltage. In addition, the paper focuses on other stabilizing features under discussion, derived from the medium voltage (MV distribution network grid codes or proposed in the literature, such as fast voltage support (FVS and inertia emulation. Stabilizing functions have been reproduced in the DIgSILENT PowerFactory 2016 software environment, making use of its native programming language. Later, they are tested both alone and together, aiming to obtain a comprehensive analysis on their impact on the anti-islanding protection effectiveness. Through dynamic simulations in several network scenarios the paper demonstrates the detrimental impact that such stabilizing regulations may have on loss-of-main protection effectiveness, leading to an increased risk of unintentional islanding.

  20. New machining and testing method of large angle infrared wedge mirror parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ying; Guo, Rui; Zhang, Fumei; Zhang, Zheng; Liu, Xuanmin; Zengqi, Xu; Li, Wenting; Zhang, Feng

    2016-10-01

    Large angle wedge parts were widely used in the optical system that was used for achieving a wide range of scanning. Due to the parts having the characteristic of large difference in the thickness of both ends and high density, the accuracy of the wedge angle was hard to ensure to reach second level in optical processing. Generally, wedge mirror angle was measured by contact comparison method which was easy to damage the surface. In view of the existence of two practical problems, in this paper, based on theoretical analysis, by taking three key measures that were the accurate positioning for the central position of the large angle wedge part, the accuracy control of angle precision machined of wedge mirror and fast and non destructive laser assisted absolute measurement of large angle wedge, the qualified rate of parts were increased to 100%, a feasible, controllable and efficient process route for large angle infrared wedge parts was found out.

  1. Electrodynamic Casimir Effect in a Medium-Filled Wedge II

    CERN Document Server

    Ellingsen, Simen Adnoy; Milton, Kimball A

    2009-01-01

    We consider the Casimir energy in a geometry of an infinite magnetodielectric wedge closed by a circularly cylindrical arc embedded in another magnetodielectric medium, under the condition that the speed of light be the same in both media. An expression for the Casimir energy corresponding to the arc is obtained and it is found that in the limit where the reflectivity of the boundaries tends to unity the finite part of the Casimir energy of a perfectly conducting wedge-shaped sheet closed by a circular cylinder is regained. The energy of the latter geometry possesses divergences due to the presence of sharp corners. We argue how this is a pathology of the assumption of ideal conductor boundaries, and that no analogous term enters in the present geometry.

  2. MHD Casson nanofluid flow past a wedge with Newtonian heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Kartini; Hanouf, Zahir; Ishak, Anuar

    2017-02-01

    The problem of steady Casson nanofluid flow past a wedge is studied in this paper. The presence of magnetic field along with Newtonian heating at the surface is considered. The governing partial differential equations are first transformed into a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations by similarity transformations, before being solved numerically using the Keller-box method. The effects of the wedge angle Ω from 0° (horizontal plate) to 180° (vertical plate) as well as of as the magnetic parameter M on the non-Newtonian fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics are investigated. It is found that the surface temperature is slightly higher for the flow over a horizontal plate compared to that over a vertical plate. It is also found that the magnetic field decreases the surface temperature but increases the skin friction. The flow of a Newtonian fluid is found to give higher skin friction as compared to that of Casson fluid.

  3. Wedge Diffraction as an Instance of Radiative Shielding

    CERN Document Server

    Grzesik, J A

    2016-01-01

    The celebrated Sommerfeld wedge diffraction solution is reexamined from a null interior field perspective. Exact surface currents provided by that solution, when considered as disembodied half-plane laminae radiating into an ambient, uniform space both inside and outside the wedge proper, do succeed in reconstituting both a specular, mirror field above the exposed face, and a shielding plane-wave field of a sign opposite to that of the incoming excitation which, under superposition, creates both the classical, geometric-optics shadow, and a strictly null interior field at the dominant, plane-wave level. Both mirror and shadow radiated fields are controlled by the residue at just one simple pole encountered during a spectral radiative field assembly, fixed in place by incidence direction $\\phi_{0}$ as measured from the exposed face. The radiated fields further provide diffractive contributions drawn from two saddle points that track observation angle $\\phi.$ Even these, more or less asymptotic contributions, a...

  4. Direct FVM Simulation for Sound Propagation in an Ideal Wedge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Ji

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The sound propagation in a wedge-shaped waveguide with perfectly reflecting boundaries is one of the few range-dependent problems with an analytical solution. This provides a benchmark for the theoretical and computational studies on the simulation of ocean acoustic applications. We present a direct finite volume method (FVM simulation for the ideal wedge problem, and both time and frequency domain results are analyzed. We also study the broadband problem with large-scale parallel simulations. The results presented in this paper validate the accuracy of the numerical techniques and show that the direct FVM simulation could be applied to large-scale complex acoustic applications with a high performance computing platform.

  5. Wedge Splitting Test and Fracture Energy on Particulate Reinforced Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Seong Hyeon; Kim, Jae Hoon; Choi, Hoon Seok [Chungnam National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae Beom; Kim, Shin Hoe; Jung, Gyoo Dong [Agency for Defense Developmen, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    The effect of temperature on the fracture energy, crack propagation, and crack tip opening displacement(CTOD) was determined for particulate reinforced composites using the wedge splitting test. The materials that were used consisted of a polymer binder, an oxidizing agent, and aluminum particles. The test rate of the wedge splitting specimen was 50 mm/min, the temperature conditions were 50℃, room temperature, -40℃, and -60℃. The fracture energy, calculated from splitting load-crack mouth opening displacement(CMOD) curves, increased with decreasing temperature from 50℃ to -40℃. In addition, the strength of the particulate reinforced composites increased sharply at -60℃, and the composites evidenced brittle fracture due to the glass transition temperature. The strain fields near the crack tip were analyzed using digital image correlation.

  6. Decoupled external forces in a predictor-corrector segmentation scheme for LV contours in Tagged MR images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Barnes, Jaume; Andaluz, Albert; Carreras, Francesc; Gil, Debora

    2010-01-01

    Computation of functional regional scores requires proper identification of LV contours. On one hand, manual segmentation is robust, but it is time consuming and requires high expertise. On the other hand, the tag pattern in TMR sequences is a problem for automatic segmentation of LV boundaries. We propose a segmentation method based on a predictor-corrector (Active Contours - Shape Models) scheme. Special stress is put in the definition of the AC external forces. First, we introduce a semantic description of the LV that discriminates myocardial tissue by using texture and motion descriptors. Second, in order to ensure convergence regardless of the initial contour, the external energy is decoupled according to the orientation of the edges in the image potential. We have validated the model in terms of error in segmented contours and accuracy of regional clinical scores.

  7. Modal Analysis in Lined Wedge-Shaped Ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechel, F. P.

    1998-10-01

    It has been suggested to describe the sound field in a wedge-shaped duct in a cylindrical co-ordinate system in which the boundaries of the wedge lie in a co-ordinate surface. This suggestion was developed in a companion paper [1]. The wave equation can be separated only if the boundaries are ideally reflecting (rigid or soft). Two solutions were proposed in reference [1] for absorbing boundaries. In the first solution the sound field is composed of “ideal modes” (modes in a wedge with ideally reflecting boundaries); the boundary condition at the absorbing boundary then leads to a system of equations for the mode amplitudes. The problem with this method lies in the fact that there is no radial orthogonality of the ideal modes so that the precision of the field synthesis by ideal modes is doubtful. In the second method in reference [1] one defines “fictitious modes” which satisfy the boundary conditions at the flanks exactly and which are based on hypergeometric functions as radial functions, but which produce a “rest” in the wave equation. It was described how this rest can be minimized; this procedure leads to slow numerical integrations. In the present paper, the wedge is subdivided into duct sections with parallel walls (the boundary is stepped); the fields in the sections are composed of duct modes (modes in a straight lined duct); the mode amplitudes are determined from the boundary conditions at the section limits. The advantages of the present method are (analytically) the duct modes are orthogonal across the sections, so the mode amplitudes can be determined with the usual precision of a modal analysis, and (numerically) no numerical integrations are needed.

  8. Large scale test of wedge shaped micro strip gas counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, M.; Atz, S.; Aulchenko, V.; Bachmann, S.; Baiboussinov, B.; Barthe, S.; Beaumont, W.; Beckers, T.; Beissel, F.; Benhammou, Y.; Bergdolt, A.M.; Bernier, K.; Bluem, P.; Bondar, A.; Bouhali, O.; Boulogne, I.; Bozzo, M.; Brom, J.M.; Camps, C.; Chorowicz, V.; Coffin, J.; Commichau, V.; Contardo, D.; Croix, J.; Troy, J. de; Drouhin, F.; Eberle, H.; Fluegge, G.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Geist, W.; Goerlach, U.; Gundlfinger, K.; Hangarter, K.; Haroutunian, R.; Helleboid, J.M.; Henkes, Th.; Hoffer, M.; Hoffman, C.; Huss, D.; Ischebeck, R.; Jeanneau, F.; Juillot, P.; Junghans, S.; Kapp, M.R.; Kaercher, K.; Knoblauch, D.; Kraeber, M.; Krauth, M.; Kremp, J.; Lounis, A.; Luebelsmeyer, K.; Maazouzi, C.; Macke, D.; Metri, R.; Mirabito, L.; Mueller, Th.; Nagaslaev, V.; Neuberger, D.; Nowack, A.; Pallares, A.; Pandoulas, D.; Petertill, M.; Pooth, O.; Racca, C.; Ripp, I.; Ruoff, E.; Sauer, A.; Schmitz, P.; Schulte, R.; Schultz von Dratzig, A.; Schunk, J.P.; Schuster, G.; Schwaller, B.; Shektman, L.; Siedling, R.; Sigward, M.H.; Simonis, H.J.; Smadja, G.; Stefanescu, J.; Szczesny, H.; Tatarinov, A.; Thuemmel, W.H.; Tissot, S.; Titov, V.; Todorov, T.; Tonutti, M.; Udo, F.; Velde, C. Vander. E-mail: vandervelde@hep.iihe.ac.be; Doninck, W. van; Dyck, Ch. van; Vanlaer, P.; Lancker, L. van; Verdini, P.G.; Weseler, S.; Wittmer, B.; Wortmann, R.; Zghiche, A.; Zhukov, V

    1999-11-01

    In order to check the system aspects of the forward-backward MSGC tracker designed for the future CMS experiment at LHC, 38 trapezoidal MSGC counters assembled in six multi-substrates detector modules were built and exposed to a muon beam at the CERN SPS. Results on the gain uniformity along the wedge-shaped strip pattern and across the detector modules are shown together with measurements of the detection efficiency and the spatial resolution.

  9. Large scale test of wedge shaped micro strip gas counters

    CERN Document Server

    Ackermann, M; Aulchenko, V M; Bachmann, S; Baibusinov, B O; Barthe, S; Beaumont, W; Beckers, T; Beissel, F; Benhammou, Ya; Bergdolt, A M; Bernier, K; Blüm, H P; Bondar, A E; Bouhali, O; Boulogne, I; Bozzo, M; Brom, J M; Camps, C; Chorowicz, V; Coffin, J P; Commichau, V; Contardo, D; Croix, J; De Troy, J G; Drouhin, F; Eberle, H; Flügge, G; Fontaine, J C; Geist, Walter M; Goerlach, U; Gundlfinger, K; Hangarter, K; Haroutunian, R; Helleboid, J M; Henkes, T; Hoffer, M; Hoffmann, C; Huss, D; Ischebeck, R; Jeanneau, F; Juillot, P; Junghans, S; Kapp, M R; Kärcher, K; Knoblauch, D; Kräber, M H; Krauth, M; Kremp, J; Lounis, A; Lübelsmeyer, K; Maazouzi, C; Macke, D; Metri, R; Mirabito, L; Müller, T; Nagaslaev, V; Neuberger, D; Nowak, A; Pallarès, A; Pandoulas, D; Petertill, M; Pooth, O; Racca, C; Ripp, I; Ruoff, E; Sauer, A; Schmitz, P; Schulte, R; Schultz von Dratzig, A; Schunk, J P; Schuster, G; Schwaller, B; Shekhtman, L I; Siedling, R; Sigward, M H; Simonis, H J; Smadja, G; Stefanescu, J; Szczesny, H; Tatarinov, A A; Thümmel, W H; Tissot, S; Titov, V; Todorov, T; Tonutti, M; Udo, Fred; Van der Velde, C; Van Doninck, W K; Van Dyck, C; Vanlaer, P; Van Lancker, L; Verdini, P G; Weseler, S; Wittmer, B; Wortmann, R; Zghiche, A; Zhukov, V

    1999-01-01

    In order to check the system aspects of the forward-backward MSGC tracker designed for the future CMS experiment at LHC, 38 trapezoidal MSGC counters assembled in six multi-substrates detector modules were built and exposed to a muon beam at the CERN SPS. Results on the gain uniformity along the wedge-shaped strip pattern and across the detector modules are shown together with measurements of the detection efficiency and the spatial resolution. (8 refs).

  10. DNS of compressible turbulent boundary layer over a blunt wedge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xinliang; FU Dexun; MA Yanwan

    2005-01-01

    Direct numerical simulation of spatially evolving compressible boundary layer over a blunt wedge is performed in this paper. The free-stream Mach number is 6 and the disturbance source produced by wall blowing and suction is located downstream of the sound-speed point. Statistics are studied and compared with the results in incompressible flat-plate boundary layer. The mean pressure gradient effects on the vortex structure are studied.

  11. Water-saturated physical modeling of accretionary wedges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Y.; Zhang, M.; Nakajima, H.; Driss, E.

    2005-12-01

    Accretionary wedges have been an important research target from view points of earthquake mechanism at the subduction zone, sediment deformation that is closely coupled with hydrology, and resource exploration such as methane hydrates. The knowledge obtained from the study may also be useful for site selection of geological disposal of hazardous materials including radioactive nuclear wastes, in coastal areas of tectonically unstable island arc systems like Japan. The wedges have been well-investigated with analogue models in particular sandbox experiments that typically use dry granular materials, thus the inter-granular pore space of the sandbox experiments is filled with air. In natural sediments, however, the pore space is filled with formation water and its pressure has special effects on structural development. In order to accurately simulate the in-situ conditions and to examine the effects of water on the deformation process of accretionary wedge, a new apparatus was recently constructed in AIST, Japan, to perform physical analog experiments of accretionary wedges under water-saturated condition. For comparisons, equivalent experiments with dry materials were also conducted. The physical properties of the materials were also measured with tri-axial compression tests to interpret the experimental observations. Preliminary results obtained from this study showed that the fundamental parameters on structural geometry, such as taper angle and fault spacing, can be correlated well in wet and dry experiments. These are also in good agreement with physical properties obtained by the tri-axial compression tests, suggesting that the internal friction coefficient decreases as the overburden pressure increases. In the under water models, buoyancy decreases apparent grain density and overburden pressure thus the internal friction coefficient also decreases. This also agrees with the structural geometry of the experimental results. These results suggest that under

  12. Opening- and Closing-Wedge Distal Femoral Osteotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahla, Jorge; Mitchell, Justin J.; Liechti, Daniel J.; Moatshe, Gilbert; Menge, Travis J.; Dean, Chase S.; LaPrade, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lateral compartment osteoarthritis of the knee can be a challenging pathology in the younger, active population due to limited treatment options and high patient expectations. Distal femoral osteotomy (DFO) has been reported to be a potential treatment option. Purpose: To perform a systematic review on the survival, outcomes, and complications of DFO for treatment of genu valgum with concomitant lateral compartment osteoarthritis of the knee. Study Design: Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was performed using the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, the Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials, PubMed, and MEDLINE from 1980 to present. Inclusion criteria were as follows: outcomes of opening- and closing-wedge DFOs performed for treatment of genu valgum with concomitant lateral compartment osteoarthritis of the knee, English language, minimum 2-year follow-up, and human studies. Data abstracted from the selected studies included type of osteotomy (opening vs closing), survival rate, patient-reported and radiographic outcomes, and complications. Results: Fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria and were considered for the review. A total of 9 closing-wedge and 5 opening-wedge DFO studies were included. All were retrospective studies and reported good to excellent patient-reported outcomes after DFO. Survival decreased with increasing time from surgery, with 1 study reporting a 100% survival rate at 6.5 years, compared with 21.5% at 20 years in another study. A low rate of complications was reported throughout the review. Conclusion: Highly heterogeneous literature exists for both opening- and closing-wedge DFOs for the treatment of isolated lateral compartment osteoarthritis with valgus malalignment. A mean survival rate of 80% at 10-year follow-up was reported, supporting that this procedure can be a viable treatment option to delay or reduce the need for joint arthroplasty. A low

  13. Wedge-local quantum fields on a nonconstant noncommutative spacetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Much, A. [Max-Planck-Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences, 04103 Leipzig (Germany) and Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Leipzig, 04009 Leipzig (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    Within the framework of warped convolutions we deform the massless free scalar field. The deformation is performed by using the generators of the special conformal transformations. The investigation shows that the deformed field turns out to be wedge-local. Furthermore, it is shown that the spacetime induced by the deformation with the special conformal operators is nonconstant noncommutative. The noncommutativity is obtained by calculating the deformed commutator of the coordinates.

  14. On the acoustic wedge design and simulation of anechoic chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Changyong; Zhang, Shangyu; Huang, Lixi

    2016-10-01

    This study proposes an alternative to the classic wedge design for anechoic chambers, which is the uniform-then-gradient, flat-wall (UGFW) structure. The working mechanisms of the proposed structure and the traditional wedge are analyzed. It is found that their absorption patterns are different. The parameters of both structures are optimized for achieving minimum absorber depth, under the condition of absorbing 99% of normal incident sound energy. It is found that, the UGFW structure achieves a smaller total depth for the cut-off frequencies ranging from 100 Hz to 250 Hz. This paper also proposes a modification for the complex source image (CSI) model for the empirical simulation of anechoic chambers, originally proposed by Bonfiglio et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 134 (1), 285-291 (2013)]. The modified CSI model considers the non-locally reactive effect of absorbers at oblique incidence, and the improvement is verified by a full, finite-element simulation of a small chamber. With the modified CSI model, the performance of both decorations with the optimized parameters in a large chamber is simulated. The simulation results are analyzed and checked against the tolerance of 1.5 dB deviation from the inverse square law, stipulated in the ISO standard 3745(2003). In terms of the total decoration depth and anechoic chamber performance, the UGFW structure is better than the classic wedge design.

  15. Wave dynamic processes in cellular detonation reflection from wedges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zongmin Hu; Zonglin Jiang

    2007-01-01

    When the cell width of the incident deto-nation wave (IDW) is comparable to or larger than theMach stem height,self-similarity will fail during IDWreflection from a wedge surface.In this paper,the det-onation reflection from wedges is investigated for thewave dynamic processes occurring in the wave front,including transverse shock motion and detonation cellvariations behind the Mach stem.A detailed reactionmodel is implemented to simulate two-dimensional cel-lular detonations in stoichiometric mixtures of H2/O2diluted by Argon.The numerical results show that thetransverse waves,which cross the triple point trajec-tory of Mach reflection,travel along the Mach stem andreflect back from the wedge surface,control the size ofthe cells in the region swept by the Mach stem.It is theenergy carried by these transverse waves that sustainsthe triple-wave-collision with a higher frequency withinthe over-driven Mach stem.In some cases,local wavedynamic processes and wave structures play a dominantrole in determining the pattern of cellular record,lead-ing to the fact that the cellular patterns after the Machstem exhibit some peculiar modes.

  16. Robustness of oscillatory α2 dynamos in spherical wedges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, E.; Brandenburg, A.; Käpylä, P. J.; Käpylä, M. J.

    2016-10-01

    Context. Large-scale dynamo simulations are sometimes confined to spherical wedge geometries by imposing artificial boundary conditions at high latitudes. This may lead to spatio-temporal behaviours that are not representative of those in full spherical shells. Aims: We study the connection between spherical wedge and full spherical shell geometries using simple mean-field dynamos. Methods: We solve the equations for one-dimensional time-dependent α2 and α2Ω mean-field dynamos with only latitudinal extent to examine the effects of varying the polar angle θ0 between the latitudinal boundaries and the poles in spherical coordinates. Results: In the case of constant α and ηt profiles, we find oscillatory solutions only with the commonly used perfect conductor boundary condition in a wedge geometry, while for full spheres all boundary conditions produce stationary solutions, indicating that perfect conductor conditions lead to unphysical solutions in such a wedge setup. To search for configurations in which this problem can be alleviated we choose a profile of the turbulent magnetic diffusivity that decreases toward the poles, corresponding to high conductivity there. Oscillatory solutions are now achieved with models extending to the poles, but the magnetic field is strongly concentrated near the poles and the oscillation period is very long. By changing both the turbulent magnetic diffusivity and α profiles so that both effects are more concentrated toward the equator, we see oscillatory dynamos with equatorward drift, shorter cycles, and magnetic fields distributed over a wider range of latitudes. Those profiles thus remove the sensitive and unphysical dependence on θ0. When introducing radial shear, we again see oscillatory dynamos, and the direction of drift follows the Parker-Yoshimura rule. Conclusions: A reduced α effect near the poles with a turbulent diffusivity concentrated toward the equator yields oscillatory dynamos with equatorward migration and

  17. Chronology and palaeoenvironmental implications of the ice-wedge pseudomorphs and composite-wedge casts on the Magdalen Islands (eastern Canada)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remillard, A.M.; Hetu, B.; Bernatchez, P.

    2015-01-01

    The Magdalen Islands are a valuable terrestrial record, evidencing the complex glacial and periglacial history of the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Thirteen structures interpreted as ice-wedge pseudomorphs or composite-wedge casts were observed at four sites on the southern Magdalen Islands and testify...

  18. Assessment of computerized treatment planning system accuracy in calculating wedge factors of physical wedged fields for 6 MV photon beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Wazir; Maqbool, Muhammad; Shahid, Muhammad; Hussain, Amjad; Tahir, Sajjad; Matiullah; Rooh, Gul; Ahmad, Tanveer; Lee, Sang Hoon

    2011-07-01

    Wedge filters are commonly used in external beam radiotherapy to achieve a uniform dose distribution within the target volume. The main objective of this study was to investigate the accuracy of the beam modifier algorithm of Theraplan plus (TPP version 3.8) treatment planning system and to confirm that either the beam hardening, beam softening and attenuation coefficients along with wedge geometry and measured wedge factor at single depth and multiple fields sizes can be the replacement of wedged profile and wedged cross-sectional data or not. In this regard the effect of beam hardening and beam softening was studied with physical wedges for 6 MV photons. The Normalized Wedge Factors (NWFs) were measured experimentally as well as calculated with the Theraplan plus, as a function of depth and field size in a water phantom for 15°, 30°, 45°, and 60° wedge filters. The beam hardening and softening was determined experimentally by deriving the required coefficients for all wedge angles. The TPP version 3.8 requires wedge transmission factor at single depth and multiple field sizes. Without incorporating the hardening and softening coefficients the percent difference between measured and calculated NFWs was as high as 7%. After the introduction of these parameters into the algorithm, the agreement between measured and TPP (V 3.8) calculated NWFs were improved to within 2 percent for various depths. Similar improvement was observed in TPP version 3.8 while calculating NWFs for various field sizes when the required coefficients were adjusted. In conclusion, the dose calculation algorithm of TPP version 3.8 showed good accuracy for a 6 MV photon beam provided beam hardening and softening parameters are taken into account. From the results, it is also concluded that, the beam hardening, beam softening and attenuation coefficients along with wedge geometry and measured wedge factor at single depth and multiple fields sizes can be the replacement of wedged profile and

  19. Remediation of Anomia in lvPPA and svPPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Meyer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Anomia treatment efficacy has been examined in cases with different subtypes of primary progressive aphasia (PPA, and it has been evaluated in groups of participants with the semantic variant (svPPA, but efficacy has not been examined in groups with different subtypes of PPA. Method Participants. Four individuals with the logopenic variant (lvPPA and four individuals with svPPA participated. Procedure. At baseline, participants attempted to name two sets of pictured nouns. One set (Exemplar 1 was utilized during treatment. The second set (Exemplar 2 was never trained and was used to assess stimulus generalization. For each participant, nouns that were consistently named incorrectly were divided among three conditions: Orthographic treatment (OTC, Phonological treatment (PTC, and Untrained (UC. The nouns were matched across conditions for frequency, semantic category, and number of syllables, phonemes, and letters. In the OTC, participants viewed a picture and the corresponding word, read the word out loud, and transcribed the word. In the PTC, participants viewed the picture and a string of symbols. The auditory word was then presented, and participants repeated it. There were two treatment sessions per week during the first month. During the subsequent five months, subjects participated in monthly treatment sessions, in addition to thrice-weekly practice sessions. A post-treatment evaluation began one month after treatment ended. Results lvPPA. From baseline to post-treatment, there was a significant or marginally significant increase in naming accuracy for both exemplars, within every condition [Exemplar 1: UC: t(3 = 2.78, p = .07; PTC: t(3 = 5.75, p = .01; OTC: t(3 = 3.62, p = .04; Exemplar 2: UC: t(3 = 7.82, p = .004; PTC: t(3 = 3.59, p = .04; OTC: t(3 = 3.78, p = .03]. Compared to UC, accuracy at post-treatment was marginally greater for Exemplar 1 in the PTC, t(3 = 3.03, p = .06. There were no other significant or marginally significant

  20. Observation of wedge waves and their mode transformation by laser ultrasonic technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Jia; Zhonghua Shen; Lijuan Wang; Ling Yuan

    2011-01-01

    Wedge waves (WWs) in wedges, including their dispersion characteristics and mode transformation, are investigated using the laser ultrasound technique. Pulsed laser excitation and optical deflection beam method for detection are used to record WWs. Numerous WWs are detected by scanning the excitation laser along the wedge tip. Dispersions of WWs are obtained by using the two-dimensional (2D) Fourier transformation method, and different WW orders are revealed on the wedges. Mode transformation is determined by fixing the distance between the excitation and detection position, as well as by scanning the samples along the normal direction of the wedge tip.%@@ Wedge waves (WWs) in wedges, including their dispersion characteristics and mode transformation, are investigated using the laser ultrasound technique. Pulsed laser excitation and optical deflection beam method for detection are used to record WWs. Numerous WWs are detected by scanning the excitation laser along the wedge tip. Dispersions of WWs are obtained by using the two-dimensional (2D) Fourier transformation method, and different WW orders are revealed on the wedges. Mode transformation is determined by fixing the distance between the excitation and detection position, as well as by scanning the samples along the normal direction of the wedge tip.

  1. LV305, a dendritic cell-targeting integration-deficient ZVex(TM)-based lentiviral vector encoding NY-ESO-1, induces potent anti-tumor immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albershardt, Tina Chang; Campbell, David James; Parsons, Andrea Jean; Slough, Megan Merrill; Ter Meulen, Jan; Berglund, Peter

    2016-01-01

    We have engineered an integration-deficient lentiviral vector, LV305, to deliver the tumor antigen NY-ESO-1 to human dendritic cells in vivo through pseudotyping with a modified Sindbis virus envelop protein. Mice immunized once with LV305 developed strong, dose-dependent, multifunctional, and cytotoxic NY-ESO-1-specific cluster of differentiation 8 (CD8) T cells within 14 days post-immunization and could be boosted with LV305 at least twice to recall peak-level CD8 T-cell responses. Immunization with LV305 protected mice against tumor growth in an NY-ESO-1-expressing CT26 lung metastasis model, with the protective effect abrogated upon depletion of CD8 T cells. Adoptive transfer of CD8 T cells, alone or together with CD4 T cells or natural killer cells, from LV305-immunized donor mice to tumor-bearing recipient mice conferred significant protection against metastatic tumor growth. Biodistribution of injected LV305 in mice was limited to the site of injection and the draining lymph node, and injected LV305 exhibited minimal excretion. Mice injected with LV305 developed little to no adverse effects, as evaluated by toxicology studies adherent to good laboratory practices. Taken together, these data support the development of LV305 as a clinical candidate for treatment against tumors expressing NY-ESO-1.

  2. Weltkulturerbe Konstantinbasilika Trier. Wandmalerei in freier Bewitterung als konservatorische Herausforderung (ICOMOS Hefte des Deutschen Nationalkomitees LV), hg. v. Nicole Riedl, Berlin 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Wedekind, Wanja

    2013-01-01

    Weltkulturerbe Konstantinbasilika Trier. Wandmalerei in freier Bewitterung als konservatorische Herausforderung (ICOMOS Hefte des Deutschen Nationalkomitees LV, hg. v. Nicole Riedl, Berlin 2013, rezensiert von Wanja Wedekind

  3. Difficulties in demonstrating long term immunity in FeLV vaccinated cats due to increasing age-related resistance to infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Stephen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feline leukaemia virus (FeLV is a pathogen causing fatal illness in cats worldwide, and as such there is a high demand for products to protect against disease. The duration of immunity provided by an inactivated FeLV vaccine, Versifel FeLV, when administered to cats of the target age was determined. Kittens received two vaccinations when aged 7 to 9 weeks old, and were subsequently challenged up to 36 months later with the FeLV-A Glasgow isolate. Results In all studies, all of the younger aged control kittens showed persistent FeLV p27 antigenaemia confirming that the challenge virus was severe and efficacious. In contrast, the control cats did not show the required level of persistent antigenaemia, with a maximum of 45% cats affected in the middle duration study and only 10% in the longer study. However, apart from one animal in the short duration study, all of the cats vaccinated with Versifel FeLV were negative for persistent antigenaemia and can be considered treatment successes. Conclusion In conclusion, we have shown that although age-related resistance to infection with a virulent FeLV challenge is evident from as early as 10 months of age, vaccination with Versifel FeLV may aid in the protection of cats from FeLV related disease up to three years after primary vaccination as kittens.

  4. Molecular characterization of LvAV in response to white spot syndrome virus infection in the Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shulin; Song, Lei; Qian, Zhaoying; Hou, Fujun; Liu, Yongjie; Wang, Xianzong; Peng, Zhangming; Sun, Chengbo; Liu, Xiaolin

    2015-07-01

    Litopenaeus vannamei is the most important farmed shrimp species globally, but its production is affected by several factors, including infectious disease. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), in particular, causes significant shrimp losses. To understand the shrimp's immune response against WSSV, we cloned LvAV from L. vannamei and analyzed its expression pattern in different tissues, in addition to its expression following infection. We employed dsRNA and recombinant (r)LvAV to explore the potential role of LvAV in shrimp immunity when infected with WSSV. We find that LvAV is a C-type Lectin composed of 176 amino acids with a signal peptide and a specific C-type Lectin-type domain (CTLD). It shares 81% amino acid similarity with PmAV, an antiviral-like C-type Lectin from Penaeus monodom, and it is highly expressed in the hepatopancreas. Its expression is affected by infection with both WSSV and V. parahaemolyticus. Significantly, injection with rLvAV slowed WSSV replication, while injection with LvAV dsRNA initially led to enhanced virus propagation. Surprisingly, LvAV dsRNA subsequently led to a dramatic decrease in viral load in the later stages of infection, suggesting that LvAV may be subverted by WSSV to enhance viral replication or immune avoidance. Our results indicate that LvAV plays an important, but potentially complex role in the Pacific white shrimp's immune defense.

  5. LV305, a dendritic cell-targeting integration-deficient ZVexTM-based lentiviral vector encoding NY-ESO-1, induces potent anti-tumor immune response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albershardt, Tina Chang; Campbell, David James; Parsons, Andrea Jean; Slough, Megan Merrill; ter Meulen, Jan; Berglund, Peter

    2016-01-01

    We have engineered an integration-deficient lentiviral vector, LV305, to deliver the tumor antigen NY-ESO-1 to human dendritic cells in vivo through pseudotyping with a modified Sindbis virus envelop protein. Mice immunized once with LV305 developed strong, dose-dependent, multifunctional, and cytotoxic NY-ESO-1-specific cluster of differentiation 8 (CD8) T cells within 14 days post-immunization and could be boosted with LV305 at least twice to recall peak-level CD8 T-cell responses. Immunization with LV305 protected mice against tumor growth in an NY-ESO-1-expressing CT26 lung metastasis model, with the protective effect abrogated upon depletion of CD8 T cells. Adoptive transfer of CD8 T cells, alone or together with CD4 T cells or natural killer cells, from LV305-immunized donor mice to tumor-bearing recipient mice conferred significant protection against metastatic tumor growth. Biodistribution of injected LV305 in mice was limited to the site of injection and the draining lymph node, and injected LV305 exhibited minimal excretion. Mice injected with LV305 developed little to no adverse effects, as evaluated by toxicology studies adherent to good laboratory practices. Taken together, these data support the development of LV305 as a clinical candidate for treatment against tumors expressing NY-ESO-1. PMID:27626061

  6. Peritrophin-like protein from Litopenaeus vannamei (LvPT) involved in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection in digestive tract challenged with reverse gavage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shijun; Li, Fuhua; Zhang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Jiquan; Xiang, Jianhai

    2017-05-01

    The peritrophic membrane plays an important role in the defense system of the arthropod gut. The digestive tract is considered one of the major tissues targeted by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in shrimp. In this study, the nucleotide sequence encoding peritrophin-like protein of Litopenaeus vannamei (LvPT) was amplified from a yeast two-hybrid library of L. vannamei. The epitope peptide of LvPT was predicted with the GenScript OptimumAntigen™ design tool. An anti-LvPT polyclonal antibody was produced and shown to specifically bind a band at 27 kDa, identified as LvPT. The LvPT protein was expressed and its concentration determined. LvPT dsRNA (4 μg per shrimp) was used to inhibit LvPT expression in shrimp, and a WSSV challenge experiment was then performed with reverse gavage. The pleopods, stomachs, and guts were collected from the shrimp at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h post-infection (hpi). Viral load quantification showed that the levels of WSSV were significantly lower in the pleopods, stomachs, and guts of shrimp after LvPT dsRNA interference than in those of the controls at 48 and 72 hpi. Our results imply that LvPT plays an important role during WSSV infection of the digestive tract.

  7. Modelling wetland-groundwater interactions in the boreal Kälväsvaara esker, Northern Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaros, Anna; Rossi, Pekka; Ronkanen, Anna-Kaisa; Kløve, Bjørn

    2016-04-01

    Many types of boreal peatland ecosystems such as alkaline fens, aapa mires and Fennoscandia spring fens rely on the presence of groundwater. In these ecosystems groundwater creates unique conditions for flora and fauna by providing water, nutrients and constant water temperature enriching local biodiversity. The groundwater-peatland interactions and their dynamics are not, however, in many cases fully understood and their measurement and quantification is difficult due to highly heterogeneous structure of peatlands and large spatial extend of these ecosystems. Understanding of these interactions and their changes due to anthropogenic impact on groundwater resources would benefit the protection of the groundwater dependent peatlands. The groundwater-peatland interactions were investigated using the fully-integrated physically-based groundwater-surface water code HydroGeoSphere in a case study of the Kälväsvaara esker aquifer, Northern Finland. The Kälväsvaara is a geologically complex esker and it is surrounded by vast aapa mire system including alkaline and springs fens. In addition, numerous small springs occur in the discharge zone of the esker. In order to quantify groundwater-peatland interactions a simple steady-state model was built and results were evaluated using expected trends and field measurements. The employed model reproduced relatively well spatially distributed hydrological variables such as soil water content, water depths and groundwater-surface water exchange fluxes within the wetland and esker areas. The wetlands emerged in simulations as a result of geological and topographical conditions. They could be identified by high saturation levels at ground surface and by presence of shallow ponded water over some areas. The model outputs exhibited also strong surface water-groundwater interactions in some parts of the aapa system. These areas were noted to be regions of substantial diffusive groundwater discharge by the earlier studies. In

  8. Extinction in the Galaxy from Surface Brightnesses of ESO-LV Galaxies : Determination of A_R/A_B ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choloniewski, J.; Valentijn, E. A.

    2003-01-01

    A new method for the determination of the extinction in the Galaxy is proposed. The method uses surface brightnesses of external galaxies in the B and R-bands. The observational data have been taken from the ESO-LV galaxy catalog. As a first application of our model we derive the ratio of R-band to

  9. Chemical abundances in the protoplanetary disk LV2 (Orion) - II: High dispersion VLT observations and microjet properties

    CERN Document Server

    Tsamis, Y G

    2011-01-01

    Integral field spectroscopy of the LV2 proplyd is presented taken with the VLT/FLAMES Argus array at an angular resolution of 0.31x0.31 arcsec^2 and velocity resolutions down to 2 km/s per pixel. Following subtraction of the local M42 emission, the spectrum of LV2 is isolated from the surrounding nebula. We measured the heliocentric velocities and widths of a number of lines detected in the intrinsic spectrum of the proplyd, as well as in the adjacent Orion nebula within a 6.6 x 4.2 arcsec^2 FoV. It is found that far-UV to optical collisional lines with critical densities, Ncrit, ranging from 10^3 to 10^9 /cm^3 suffer collisional de-excitation near the rest velocity of the proplyd correlating tightly with their critical densities. Lines of low Ncrit are suppressed the most. The bipolar jet arising from LV2 is spectrally and spatially well-detected in several emission lines. We compute the [O III] electron temperature profile across LV2 in velocity space and measure steep temperature variations associated with...

  10. Toxicity during l-LV/5FU adjuvant chemotherapy as a modified RPMI regimen for patients with colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Tsukasa; Takifuji, Katsunari; Arii, Kazuo; Yokoyama, Shozo; Matsuda, Kenji; Higashiguchi, Takashi; Tominaga, Toshiji; Oku, Yoshimasa; Yamaue, Hiroki

    2005-08-01

    l-leucovorin (LV)/5-fluorouracil (5FU) may play an important role, as an adjuvant chemotherapy, in improving the survival of patients with stage III colorectal cancer. However, severe toxicity of the chemotherapeutic agent could be fatal. Adverse effects, including bone marrow suppression, liver damage, renal damage, and glucose tolerance, were evaluated daily during 3 courses of l-LV/5FU-modified RPMI regimen adjuvant chemotherapy for 22 patients with stage III colorectal cancer. Decrease in the serum levels of neutrophils and platelets occurred in the 1st course, which became more obvious after three or four administrations of l-LV/5FU in the 1st course. Furthermore, serum levels of leukocytes, neutrophils, and platelets on the re-start day of this chemotherapy after 2-week intervals were lower than those on the start day of this chemotherapy. In the evaluation of liver damage, renal damage, and glucose tolerance; serum alanine aminotransferase level in the 2nd course, serum total bilirubin (T.Bil) level in the 1st course, and serum creatinine level in the 1st course deteriorated during the course. T.Bil levels on the re-start day of this chemotherapy after 2-week intervals were especially high compared to that on the start day. The more courses of this chemotherapy we perform, the more attention we must pay to bone marrow suppression and hyperbilirubinemia. Thus, we clarified the attentive point of side effect of l-LV/5FU adjuvant chemotherapy for colorectal cancer.

  11. The Real-Time Optimisation of DNO Owned Storage Devices on the LV Network for Peak Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Rowe

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy storage is a potential alternative to conventional network reinforcement of the low voltage (LV distribution network to ensure the grid’s infrastructure remains within its operating constraints. This paper presents a study on the control of such storage devices, owned by distribution network operators. A deterministic model predictive control (MPC controller and a stochastic receding horizon controller (SRHC are presented, where the objective is to achieve the greatest peak reduction in demand, for a given storage device specification, taking into account the high level of uncertainty in the prediction of LV demand. The algorithms presented in this paper are compared to a standard set-point controller and bench marked against a control algorithm with a perfect forecast. A specific case study, using storage on the LV network, is presented, and the results of each algorithm are compared. A comprehensive analysis is then carried out simulating a large number of LV networks of varying numbers of households. The results show that the performance of each algorithm is dependent on the number of aggregated households. However, on a typical aggregation, the novel SRHC algorithm presented in this paper is shown to outperform each of the comparable storage control techniques.

  12. Impact of biogenic nanoscale metals Fe, Cu, Zn and Se on reproductive LV chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khiem Nguyen, Quy; Dieu Nguyen, Duy; Kien Nguyen, Van; Thinh Nguyen, Khac; Chau Nguyen, Hoai; Tin Tran, Xuan; Nguyen, Huu Cuong; Tien Phung, Duc

    2015-09-01

    Using biogenic nanoscale metals (Fe, Cu, ZnO, Se) to supplement into diet premix of reproductive LV (a Vietnamese Luong Phuong chicken breed) chickens resulted in certain improvement of poultry farming. The experimental data obtained showed that the farming indices depend mainly on the quantity of nanocrystalline metals which replaced the inorganic mineral component in the feed premix. All four experimental groups with different quantities of the replacement nano component grew and developed normally with livability reaching 91 to 94%, hen’s bodyweight at 38 weeks of age and egg weight ranged from 2.53-2.60 kg/hen and 50.86-51.55 g/egg, respectively. All these farming indices together with laying rate, egg productivity and chick hatchability peaked at group 5 with 25% of nanoscale metals compared to the standard inorganic mineral supplement, while feed consumption was lowest. The results also confirmed that nanocrystalline metals Fe, Cu, ZnO and Se supplemented to chicken feed were able to decrease inorganic minerals in the diet premixes at least four times, allowing animals to more effectively absorb feed minerals, consequently decreasing environmental pollution risks.

  13. Smart MV/LV distribution transformer for Smart Grid with active prosumer participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Adamowicz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available With the development of distribution networks and their gradual transformation into intelligent Smart Grid type networks the relevance and share of controlled power converter systems used as interfaces between energy sources and the grid, and between grid and the recipients, will grow. This paper elaborates on the concept of replacing conventional 50 Hz distribution transformers with intelligent distribution transformers. A solution of a three-stage smart distribution transformer of modular design is proposed, oriented to connecting prosumers as active recipients of electricity with enhanced requirements, and owners of small renewable energy systems (RES. Two active stages: AC-DC on the MV side and DC-AC on the LV side provide the ability to compensate reactive power and shape voltage parameters. The simulation results presented here confi rm that the smart transformer’s intermediate stage, through the use of isolated DC-DC converters with high-speed semiconductor devices, provides the ability to quickly adjust the power flow between the primary and secondary sides.

  14. MV and LV Residential Grid Impact of Combined Slow and Fast Charging of Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Leemput

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the combined low voltage (LV and medium voltage (MV residential grid impact for slow and fast electric vehicle (EV charging, for an increasing local penetration rate and for different residential slow charging strategies. A realistic case study for a Flemish urban distribution grid is used, for which three residential slow charging strategies are modeled: uncoordinated charging, residential off-peak charging, and EV-based peak shaving. For each slow charging strategy, the EV hosting capacity is determined, with and without the possibility of fast charging, while keeping the grid within its operating limits. The results show that the distribution grid impact is much less sensitive to the presence of fast charging compared to the slow charging strategy. EV-based peak shaving results in the lowest grid impact, allowing for the highest EV hosting capacity. Residential off-peak charging has the highest grid impact, due the load synchronization effect that occurs, resulting in the lowest EV hosting capacity. Therefore, the EV users should be incentivized to charge their EVs in a more grid-friendly manner when the local EV penetration rate becomes significant, as this increases the EV hosting capacity much more than the presence of fast charging decreases it.

  15. Characterization and DNA sequence of the mobilization region of pLV22a from Bacteroides fragilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novicki, T J; Hecht, D W

    1995-08-01

    A 4.2-kb plasmid (pLV22a) native to Bacteroides fragilis LV22 became fused to a transfer-deficient Bacteroides spp.-Escherichia coli shuttle vector by an inverse transposition event, resulting in a transferrable phenotype. The transfer phenotype was attributable to pLV22a, which was also capable of mobilization within E. coli when coresident with the IncP beta R751 plasmid. Transposon mutagenesis with Tn1000 localized the mobilization region to a 1.5-kb DNA segment in pLV22a. The mobilization region has been sequenced, and five open reading frames have been identified. Mutants carrying disruptions in any of the three genes designated mbpA, mbpB, and mbpC and coding for deduced products of 11.3, 30.4, and 17.1 kDa, respectively, cannot be mobilized when coresident with R751. Mutations in all three genes can be complemented in the presence of the respective wild-type genes, indicating that the products of mbpA, mbpB, and mbpC have roles in the mobilization process and function in trans. The deduced 30.4-kDa MbpB protein contains a 14-amino-acid conserved motif that is also found in the DNA relaxases of a variety of conjugal and mobilizable plasmids and the conjugative transposon Tn4399. Deletion analysis and complementation experiments have localized a cis-acting region of pLV22a within mbpA.

  16. Shrimp with knockdown of LvSOCS2, a negative feedback loop regulator of JAK/STAT pathway in Litopenaeus vannamei, exhibit enhanced resistance against WSSV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng; Song, Xuan; Zhang, Zijian; Li, Haoyang; L, Kai; Yin, Bin; He, Jianguo; Li, Chaozheng

    2016-12-01

    JAK/STAT pathway is one of cytokine signaling pathways and mediates diversity immune responses to protect host from viral infection. In this study, LvSOCS2, a member of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) families, has been cloned and identified from Litopenaeus vannamei. The full length of LvSOCS2 is 1601 bp, including an 1194 bp open reading frame (ORF) coding for a putative protein of 397 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of ∼42.3 kDa. LvSOCS2 expression was most abundant in gills and could respond to the challenge of LPS, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphhylococcus aureus, Poly (I: C) and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). There are several STAT binding motifs presented in the proximal promoter region of LvSOCS2 and its expression was induced by LvJAK or LvSTAT protein in a dose dependent manner, suggesting LvSOCS2 could be the transcriptional target gene of JAK/STAT pathway. Moreover, the transcription of DmVir-1, a read out of the activation of JAK/STAT pathway in Drosophila, was promoted by LvJAK but inhibited by LvSOCS2, indicating that LvSOCS2 could be a negative regulator in this pathway and thus can form a negative feedback loop. Our previous study indicated that shrimp JAK/STAT pathway played a positive role against WSSV. In this study, RNAi-mediated knockdown of LvSOCS2 shrimps showed lower susceptibility to WSSV infection and caused lessened virus loads, which further demonstrated that the JAK/STAT pathway could function as an anti-viral immunity in shrimp.

  17. Modes of continental extension in a crustal wedge

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Guangliang

    2015-07-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. We ran numerical experiments of the extension of a crustal wedge as an approximation to extension in an orogenic belt or a continental margin. We study the effects of the strength of the lower crust and of a weak mid-crustal shear zone on the resulting extension styles. A weak mid-crustal shear zone effectively decouples upper crustal extension from lower crustal flow. Without the mid-crustal shear zone, the degree of coupling between the upper and the lower crust increases and extension of the whole crust tends to focus on the thickest part of the wedge. We identify three distinct modes of extension determined by the strength of the lower crust, which are characterized by 1) localized, asymmetric crustal exhumation in a single massif when the lower crust is weak, 2) the formation of rolling-hinge normal faults and the exhumation of lower crust in multiple core complexes with an intermediate strength lower crust, and 3) distributed domino faulting over the weak mid-crustal shear zone when the lower crust is strong. A frictionally stronger mid-crustal shear zone does not change the overall model behaviors but extension occurred over multiple rolling-hinges. The 3 modes of extension share characteristics similar to geological models proposed to explain the formation of metamorphic core complexes: 1) the crustal flow model for the weak lower crust, 2) the rolling-hinge and crustal flow models when the lower crust is intermediate and 3) the flexural uplift model when the lower crust is strong. Finally we show that the intensity of decoupling between the far field extension and lower crustal flow driven by the regional pressure gradient in the wedge control the overall style of extension in the models.

  18. Modes of continental extension in a crustal wedge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guangliang; Lavier, Luc L.; Choi, Eunseo

    2015-07-01

    We ran numerical experiments of the extension of a crustal wedge as an approximation to extension in an orogenic belt or a continental margin. We study the effects of the strength of the lower crust and of a weak mid-crustal shear zone on the resulting extension styles. A weak mid-crustal shear zone effectively decouples upper crustal extension from lower crustal flow. Without the mid-crustal shear zone, the degree of coupling between the upper and the lower crust increases and extension of the whole crust tends to focus on the thickest part of the wedge. We identify three distinct modes of extension determined by the strength of the lower crust, which are characterized by 1) localized, asymmetric crustal exhumation in a single massif when the lower crust is weak, 2) the formation of rolling-hinge normal faults and the exhumation of lower crust in multiple core complexes with an intermediate strength lower crust, and 3) distributed domino faulting over the weak mid-crustal shear zone when the lower crust is strong. A frictionally stronger mid-crustal shear zone does not change the overall model behaviors but extension occurred over multiple rolling-hinges. The 3 modes of extension share characteristics similar to geological models proposed to explain the formation of metamorphic core complexes: 1) the crustal flow model for the weak lower crust, 2) the rolling-hinge and crustal flow models when the lower crust is intermediate and 3) the flexural uplift model when the lower crust is strong. Finally we show that the intensity of decoupling between the far field extension and lower crustal flow driven by the regional pressure gradient in the wedge control the overall style of extension in the models.

  19. Heat conduction problem of an evaporating liquid wedge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Barta

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We consider the stationary heat transfer near the contact line of an evaporating liquid wedge surrounded by the atmosphere of its pure vapor. In a simplified setting, the problem reduces to the Laplace equation in a half circle, subject to a non-homogeneous and singular boundary condition. By classical tools (conformal mapping, Green's function, we reformulate the problem as an integral equation for the unknown Neumann boundary condition in the setting of appropriate fractional Sobolev and weighted space. The unique solvability is then obtained by means of the Fredholm theorem.

  20. Interpretation and inverse analysis of the wedge splitting test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lennart; Stang, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    Determination of the stress-crack opening relationship, s(w) a material parameter in the fictitious crack model by Hillerborg has proven to be problematic and is still not a simple task to perform. However, this paper demonstrates that the cracked non-linear hinge model by Olesen may be applied...... to the wedge splitting test and that it is well suited for the interpretation of test results in terms of s(w). A fine agreement between the hinge and FEM-models has been found. It has also been found that the test and the hinge model form a solid basis for inverse analysis. The paper also discusses possible...

  1. Magmatism significantly alters the thermal structure of the wedge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees Jones, D. W.; Katz, R. F.; Rudge, J. F.; Tian, M.

    2016-12-01

    The temperature structure of the mantle wedge is typically modelled as a balance between thermal diffusion and advection by the solid mantle [e.g., 1]. The thermal state of the wedge promotes melting and melt transport in the natural system, but the thermal consequences of these processes have been neglected from previous models. We show that advective transport of sensible and latent heat by liquid magma can locally alter the temperature structure from canonical models by up to 200K. Liquids are liberated from the subducting slab by de-volatilization reactions. They trigger melting and become silicic en route to the surface, where they cause arc volcanism. These liquids transport heat advectively, and consume or supply latent heat as they melt or freeze. To analyse these effects, we parameterise melting in the presence of volatile species. We combine this with a one-dimensional "melting-column model," previously used to understand mid-ocean ridge volcanism. Our calculations highlight the thermal and chemical response to melt transport across the mantle wedge. Finally, we solve two-dimensional geodynamic models with a prescribed slab flux [2]. These models allow us to identify the most thermally significant fluxes of melt in the system. Perturbations of 200K are found at the base of the overriding lithosphere. This thermal signature of melt migration should be considered when interpreting heat flow, petrologic and seismic data [e.g., 3]. Such a thermal perturbation is likely to affect the chemistry of arc volcanoes, the solid mantle flow and, perhaps, the location of the volcanos themselves [4]. [1] van Keken, P. E., Currie, C., King, S. D., Behn, M. D., Cagnioncle, A., He, J., et al. (2008). A community benchmark for subduction zone modeling. PEPI, doi:10.1016/j.pepi.2008.04.015 [2] Wilson, C. R., Spiegelman, M., van Keken, P. E., & Hacker, B. R. (2014). Fluid flow in subduction zones: The role of solid rheology and compaction pressure. EPSL, doi:10.1016/j

  2. Inverse analysis of the wedge-splitting test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skocek, Jan; Stang, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    The amount of information which it is possible to retrieve from the wedge-splitting test is investigated. Inverse analysis is undertaken based on the analytical hinge model for various multi-linear softening curves. This showed that the commonly used bi-linear softening curve can be replaced...... by an tip to quad-linear curve, which is reflected by increased accuracy of the test simulation. Furthermore it was demonstrated that the next refinement of the softening curve leads to convergence problems due to problems with local minima. Finally, the semi-analytically obtained results are verified using...

  3. Electric monopoles in generalised B\\wedge F theories

    CERN Document Server

    Temple-Raston, M

    1996-01-01

    A tensor product generalisation of B\\wedge F theories is proposed to give a Bogomol'nyi structure. Non-singular, stable, finite-energy particle-like solutions to the Bogomol'nyi equations are studied. Unlike Yang-Mills(-Higgs) theory, the Bogomol'nyi structure does not appear as a perfect square in the Lagrangian. Consequently, the Bogomol'nyi energy can be obtained in more than one way. The added flexibility permits electric monopole solutions to the field equations.

  4. The effect of shoe design and lateral wedging on knee loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Carsten; Kersting, Uwe G.

    -dimensional gait analysis. Barefoot walking, walking in a running shoe, an Oxford-type leather shoe, and a rocker shoe were analyzed. The shoes were tested both with and without a 10-degree full length laterally wedged insole. Results: Similar, significant reductions in the peak knee adduction moment with lateral...... wedges were observed in all three types of shoes. However, differences between shoe design were of similar magnitude as the effect of laterally wedged insoles. Only marginal changes in muscle activity for lateral hamstrings during barefoot toe-out walking and gastrocnemius when using the Oxford wedged...

  5. Modified retro-tubercle opening-wedge versus conventional high tibial osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyhani, Sohrab; Abbasian, Mohammad Reza; Kazemi, Seyed Morteza; Esmailiejah, Ali Akbar; Seyed Hosseinzadeh, Hamid Reza; Shahi, Alisina; Shahi, Ali Sina; Firouzi, Farzad

    2011-01-01

    Despite the fact that common surgical techniques for the treatment of genu varum usually correct the malalignment in the affected knee, these methods have significant complications and cause problems in the long term. Retro-tubercle opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy is among the newer techniques for the treatment of genu varum. The goal of this study was to compare the results of retro-tubercle opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy with those of medial opening-wedge osteotomy. In a randomized, controlled trial, 72 patients with varus knees who were scheduled for surgery were assigned into either the retro-tubercle opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy (n=34) or medial opening-wedge osteotomy groups (n=38). Groups were matched for age and sex. The position of the patella was compared with respect to the tuberosity and the upper tibial slope pre- and postoperatively. Patients were followed for an average of 13 months (range, 10-21 months). In the retro-tubercle opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy group, the length of the patellar tendon did not significantly differ pre- and postoperatively (P≥.5); however, in the medial opening-wedge osteotomy group, a statistically significant shortening was noted in patellar tendon postoperatively (P≤.05). Similarly, the tibial plateau inclination showed a statistically significant difference postoperatively in the medial opening-wedge osteotomy group, while the difference in the retro-tubercle opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy group did not reach statistical significance.

  6. Triangular metal wedges for subwavelength plasmon-polariton guiding at telecom wavelengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boltasseva, Alexandra; Volkov, V.S.; Nielsen, Rasmus Bundgaard

    2008-01-01

    . Using scanning near-field optical imaging at the wavelengths in the range of 1.43 - 1.52 µm, we demonstrate low-loss (propagation length ~ 120 µm) and well-confined (mode width ≅ 1.3 µm) wedge plasmon-polariton guiding along triangular 6-µm-high and 70.5°- angle gold wedges. Experimental observations......We report on subwavelength plasmon-polariton guiding by triangular metal wedges at telecom wavelengths. A high-quality fabrication procedure for making gold wedge waveguides, which is also mass- production compatible offering large-scale parallel fabrication of plasmonic components, is developed...

  7. Decollement controls on pro versus retro wedge deformation in mountain belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grool, Arjan; Huismans, Ritske S.; Ford, Mary

    2017-04-01

    Doubly vergent orogens have a pro-wedge (lower plate) and a retro-wedge (upper plate). Most shortening is accommodated on the pro-wedge while retro-wedge shortening is typically limited. For example, the Eastern Pyrenees have experienced about 145 km of convergence, of which about 125 km (86%) was accommodated in the pro-wedge and about 20 km (14%) in the retro-wedge. Strain partitioning between pro- and retro-wedge is influenced by several factors, some of which have been identified in past work: Extensional inheritance and syn-orogenic sedimentation can help to increase the percentage of total shortening accommodated in the retro-wedge while erosion promotes pro-wedge shortening. We use high-resolution 2D numerical models to investigate factors that control pro- versus retro-wedge shortening. For a total convergence similar to the Eastern Pyrenees, our models predict that variations in extensional inheritance and syn-orogenic sedimentation will result in a maximum of 10% of total shortening being accommodated in the retro-wedge. Here, we investigate the role of 1) the rheology and 2) distribution of a decollement layer. Our models show that: 1) Decollement rheology has a first order control on strain distribution between the pro- and the retro-wedge. After 145 km of total convergence, a model with a weak frictional (φ=2, shale-like) decollement will only accommodate 9% of total shortening in the retro-wedge. In contrast in models with a weak viscous (μ=1018, salt-like) decollement retro-wedge shortening amounts to 18% and a stronger, but still weak, viscous decollement (μ=1019) leads to 21%. 2) Décollement distribution influences the timing of the first outward propagation of thick-skinned deformation in the retro-wedge. In the Eastern Pyrenees, thick-skinned deformation propagated out into the retro-wedge within 145 km of total convergence. In models with a decollement on both sides of the orogen this only occurred after 240 km. If, as in the Eastern

  8. Acumulación/eliminación de oxitetraciclina en el camarón blanco, lv y su residualidad en dietas artificiales

    OpenAIRE

    Montoya, Nelson; Reyes, Eduardo

    2002-01-01

    Acumulación/eliminación de oxitetraciclina en el camarón blanco, LV y su residualidad en dietas artificiales Acumulación/eliminación de oxitetraciclina en el camarón blanco, LV y su residualidad en dietas artificiales

  9. The Natural History of Left Ventricular Geometry in the Community: Clinical Correlates and Prognostic Significance of Change in LV Geometric Pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieb, Wolfgang; Gona, Philimon; Larson, Martin G.; Aragam, Jayashri; Zile, Michael R.; Cheng, Susan; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We evaluated pattern and clinical correlates of change in left ventricular (LV) geometry over a 4-year period in the community; we also assessed whether the pattern of change in LV geometry over 4 years predicts incident cardiovascular disease (CVD), including myocardial infarction, heart failure and cardiovascular death during an additional subsequent follow-up period. Background It is unclear how LV geometric patterns change over time and whether changes in LV geometry have prognostic significance. Methods We evaluated 4492 observations (2604 unique Framingham Study participants attending consecutive examinations) to categorize LV geometry at baseline and after 4 years. Four groups were defined based on the sex-specific distributions of LV mass (LVM) and relative wall thickness (RWT) (normal: LVM and RWTgeometric pattern over 4 years was associated with increased CVD risk (140 events) during a subsequent median follow-up of 12.0 years (adjusted-hazards ratio, 1.59; 95%CI, 1.04–2.43). Conclusions Our longitudinal observations in the community suggest that dynamic changes in LV geometric pattern over time are common. Higher blood pressure and greater BMI are modifiable factors associated with the development of abnormal LV geometry, and such progression portends an adverse prognosis. PMID:25129518

  10. La respuesta inmunitaria celular del camarón lv y su utilidad en el control de la enfermedad en estanques

    OpenAIRE

    Motesdeoca, Mercedes; Amano, Yasuji; Echeverría, Fabrizio; Betancourt, Irma; Panchana, Fanny; Sotomayor, Mariuxi; Rodríguez, Jenny

    2002-01-01

    La respuesta inmunitaria celular del camarón LV y su utilidad en el control de la enfermedad en estanques La respuesta inmunitaria celular del camarón LV y su utilidad en el control de la enfermedad en estanques

  11. SVM-based classification of LV wall motion in cardiac MRI with the assessment of STE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantilla, Juan; Garreau, Mireille; Bellanger, Jean-Jacques; Paredes, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an automated method to classify normal/abnormal wall motion in Left Ventricle (LV) function in cardiac cine-Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), taking as reference, strain information obtained from 2D Speckle Tracking Echocardiography (STE). Without the need of pre-processing and by exploiting all the images acquired during a cardiac cycle, spatio-temporal profiles are extracted from a subset of radial lines from the ventricle centroid to points outside the epicardial border. Classical Support Vector Machines (SVM) are used to classify features extracted from gray levels of the spatio-temporal profile as well as their representations in the Wavelet domain under the assumption that the data may be sparse in that domain. Based on information obtained from radial strain curves in 2D-STE studies, we label all the spatio-temporal profiles that belong to a particular segment as normal if the peak systolic radial strain curve of this segment presents normal kinesis, or abnormal if the peak systolic radial strain curve presents hypokinesis or akinesis. For this study, short-axis cine- MR images are collected from 9 patients with cardiac dyssynchrony for which we have the radial strain tracings at the mid-papilary muscle obtained by 2D STE; and from one control group formed by 9 healthy subjects. The best classification performance is obtained with the gray level information of the spatio-temporal profiles using a RBF kernel with 91.88% of accuracy, 92.75% of sensitivity and 91.52% of specificity.

  12. Regulation of FeLV-945 by c-Myb binding and CBP recruitment to the LTR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finstad Samantha L

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feline leukemia virus (FeLV induces degenerative, proliferative and malignant hematologic disorders in its natural host, the domestic cat. FeLV-945 is a viral variant identified as predominant in a cohort of naturally infected animals. FeLV-945 contains a unique sequence motif in the long terminal repeat (LTR comprised of a single copy of transcriptional enhancer followed by a 21-bp sequence triplicated in tandem. The LTR is precisely conserved among independent cases of multicentric lymphoma, myeloproliferative disease and anemia in animals from the cohort. The 21-bp triplication was previously shown to act as a transcriptional enhancer preferentially in hematopoietic cells and to confer a replicative advantage. The objective of the present study was to examine the molecular mechanism by which the 21-bp triplication exerts its influence and the selective advantage responsible for its precise conservation. Results Potential binding sites for the transcription factor, c-Myb, were identified across the repeat junctions of the 21-bp triplication. Such sites would not occur in the absence of the repeat; thus, a requirement for c-Myb binding to the repeat junctions of the triplication would exert a selective pressure to conserve its sequence precisely. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated specific binding of c-Myb to the 21-bp triplication. Reporter gene assays showed that the triplication-containing LTR is responsive to c-Myb, and that responsiveness requires the presence of both c-Myb binding sites. Results further indicated that c-Myb in complex with the 21-bp triplication recruits the transcriptional co-activator, CBP, a regulator of normal hematopoiesis. FeLV-945 replication was shown to be positively regulated by CBP in a manner dependent on the presence of the 21-bp triplication. Conclusion Binding sites for c-Myb across the repeat junctions of the 21-bp triplication may account for its precise conservation in

  13. Chemical abundances in the protoplanetary disc LV 2 (Orion) - II. High-dispersion VLT observations and microjet properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsamis, Y. G.; Walsh, J. R.

    2011-11-01

    Integral field spectroscopy of the LV 2 proplyd is presented taken with the Very Large Telescope (VLT)/FLAMES Argus array at an angular resolution of 0.31 × 0.31 arcsec2 and velocity resolutions down to 2 km s-1 pixel-1. Following subtraction of the local M42 emission, the spectrum of LV 2 is isolated from the surrounding nebula. We measured the heliocentric velocities and widths of a number of lines detected in the intrinsic spectrum of the proplyd, as well as in the adjacent Orion nebula falling within a 6.6 × 4.2 arcsec2 field of view. It is found that far-ultraviolet to optical collisional lines with critical densities, Ncr, ranging from 103 to 109 cm-3 suffer collisional de-excitation near the rest velocity of the proplyd correlating tightly with their critical densities. Lines of low Ncr are suppressed the most. The bipolar jet arising from LV 2 is spectrally and spatially well detected in several emission lines. We compute the [O III] electron temperature profile across LV 2 in velocity space and measure steep temperature variations associated with the red-shifted lobe of the jet, possibly being due to a shock discontinuity. From the velocity-resolved analysis the ionized gas near the rest frame of LV 2 has Te= 9200 ± 800 K and Ne˜ 106 cm-3, while the red-shifted jet lobe has Te≈ 9000-104 K and Ne˜ 106-107 cm-3. The jet flow is highly ionized but contains dense semineutral clumps emitting neutral oxygen lines. The abundances of N+, O2 +, Ne2 +, Fe2 +, S+and S2 +are measured for the strong red-shifted jet lobe. Iron in the core of LV 2 is depleted by 2.54 dex with respect to solar as a result of sedimentation on dust, whereas the efficient destruction of dust grains in the fast microjet raises its Fe abundance to at least 30 per cent solar. Sulphur does not show evidence of significant depletion on dust, but its abundance both in the core and the jet is only about half solar. Based on observations made with ESO telescopes at the Paranal Observatory

  14. Dying Flow Bursts as Generators of the Substorm Current Wedge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haerendel, Gerhard

    2016-07-01

    Many theories or conjectures exist on the driver of the substorm current wedge, e.g. rerouting of the tail current, current disruption, flow braking, vortex formation, and current sheet collapse. Magnitude, spatial scale, and temporal development of the related magnetic perturbations suggest that the generator is related to the interaction of the flow bursts with the dipolar magnetosphere after onset of reconnection in the near-Earth tail. The question remains whether it is the flow energy that feeds the wedge current or the internal energy of the arriving plasma. In this presentation I argue for the latter. The current generation is attributed to the force exerted by the dipolarized magnetic field of the flow bursts on the preceding layer of high-beta plasma after flow braking. The generator current is the grad-B current at the outer boundary of the compressed high-beta plasma layers. It needs the sequential arrival of several flow bursts to account for duration and magnitude of the ionospheric closure current.

  15. Growth and mixing dynamics of mantle wedge plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorczyk, Weronika; Gerya, Taras V.; Connolly, James A. D.; Yuen, David A.

    2007-07-01

    Recent work suggests that hydrated partially molten thermal-chemical plumes that originate from subducted slab as a consequence of Rayleigh-Taylor instability are responsible for the heterogeneous composition of the mantle wedge. We use a two-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution numerical simulation involving 10 × 109 active markers to anticipate the detailed evolution of the internal structure of natural plumes beneath volcanic arcs in intraoceanic subduction settings. The plumes consist of partially molten hydrated peridotite, dry solid mantle, and subducted oceanic crust, which may compose as much as 12% of the plume. As plumes grow and mature these materials mix chaotically, resulting in attenuation and duplication of the original layering on scales of 1-1000 m. Comparison of numerical results with geological observations from the Horoman ultramafic complex in Japan suggests that mixing and differentiation processes related to development of partially molten plumes above slabs may be responsible for the strongly layered lithologically mixed (marble cake) structure of asthenospheric mantle wedges.

  16. Relation of the auroral substorm to the substorm current wedge

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherron, Robert L.; Chu, Xiangning

    2016-12-01

    The auroral substorm is an organized sequence of events seen in the aurora near midnight. It is a manifestation of the magnetospheric substorm which is a disturbance of the magnetosphere brought about by the solar wind transfer of magnetic flux from the dayside to the tail lobes and its return through the plasma sheet to the dayside. The most dramatic feature of the auroral substorm is the sudden brightening and poleward expansion of the aurora. Intimately associated with this expansion is a westward electrical current flowing across the bulge of expanding aurora. This current is fed by a downward field-aligned current (FAC) at its eastern edge and an upward current at its western edge. This current system is called the substorm current wedge (SCW). The SCW forms within a minute of auroral expansion. FAC are created by pressure gradients and field line bending from shears in plasma flow. Both of these are the result of pileup and diversion of plasma flows in the near-earth plasma sheet. The origins of these flows are reconnection sites further back in the tail. The auroral expansion can be explained by a combination of a change in field line mapping caused by the substorm current wedge and a tailward growth of the outer edge of the pileup region. We illustrate this scenario with a complex substorm and discuss some of the problems associated with this interpretation.

  17. An automated optical wedge calibrator for Dobson ozone spectrophotometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, R. D.; Komhyr, W. D.; Grass, R. D.

    1994-01-01

    The Dobson ozone spectrophotometer measures the difference of intensity between selected wavelengths in the ultraviolet. The method uses an optical attenuator (the 'Wedge') in this measurement. The knowledge of the relationship of the wedge position to the attenuation is critical to the correct calculation of ozone from the measurement. The procedure to determine this relationship is time-consuming, and requires a highly skilled person to perform it correctly. The relationship has been found to change with time. For reliable ozone values, the procedure should be done on a Dobson instrument at regular intervals. Due to the skill and time necessary to perform this procedure, many instruments have gone as long as 15 years between procedures. This article describes an apparatus that performs the procedure under computer control, and is adaptable to the majority of existing Dobson instruments. Part of the apparatus is usable for normal operation of the Dobson instrument, and would allow computer collection of the data and real-time ozone measurements.

  18. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV, feline leukaemia virus (FeLV and Leishmania sp. in domestic cats in the Midwest of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella Poffo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This search aimed to investigate FIV and FeLV infections in domestic cats, analysing the epidemiological profile of the disease as well as additional infection with Leishmania sp. We evaluated 88 domestic cats for the presence of FIV, FeLV and Leishmania sp. infection. Eleven (12.5% cats were positive for FIV infection, four (4.5% were positive for FeLV, and two were co-infected. However, none was infected with Leishmania sp. The prevalence for FIV infection was higher than FeLV, and those observed in other regions, but no factor was associated with the infection by FIV and FeLV in this study.

  19. 10A1-MuLV but not the related amphotropic 4070A MuLV is highly neurovirulent: importance of sequences upstream of the structural Gag coding region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münk, Carsten; Prassolov, Vladimir; Rodenburg, Michaela; Kalinin, Viacheslav; Löhler, Jürgen; Stocking, Carol

    2003-08-15

    Recombinants of Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMuLV) with either an amphotropic (MoAmphoV) or 10A1-tropic host range (Mo10A1V) induce a spongiform neurodegenerative disease in susceptible mice. To test whether MoMuLV -derived sequences are required for induction of neuropathology, mice were inoculated with either the original 10A1 or the amphotropic (4070A) MuLV isolate. Strikingly, wild-type 10A1 was more neurovirulent than Mo10A1V, inducing severe neurological clinical symptoms with a median latency of 99 days in 100% of infected mice. In contrast, no motor disturbances were detected in any of the 4070A-infected mice, although limited central nervous system lesions were observed. A viral determinant conferring high neurovirulence to 10A1 was mapped to a region encompassing the first 676 bases of the viral genome, including the U5 LTR and encoding the amino-terminus of glycosylated Gag (glycoGag). In contrast to studies with the highly neurovirulent CasFr(KP) virus, an inverse correlation between surface expression levels of glycoGag and neurovirulence was not observed; however, this does not rule out a common underlying mechanism regulating virus pathogenicity.

  20. Zygotic LvBMP5-8 is required for skeletal patterning and for left-right but not dorsal-ventral specification in the sea urchin embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacentino, Michael L; Chung, Oliver; Ramachandran, Janani; Zuch, Daniel T; Yu, Jia; Conaway, Evan A; Reyna, Arlene E; Bradham, Cynthia A

    2016-04-01

    Skeletal patterning in the sea urchin embryo requires coordinated signaling between the pattern-dictating ectoderm and the skeletogenic primary mesenchyme cells (PMCs); recent studies have begun to uncover the molecular basis for this process. Using an unbiased RNA-Seq-based screen, we have previously identified the TGF-ß superfamily ligand, LvBMP5-8, as a skeletal patterning gene in Lytechinus variegatus embryos. This result is surprising, since both BMP5-8 and BMP2/4 ligands have been implicated in sea urchin dorsal-ventral (DV) and left-right (LR) axis specification. Here, we demonstrate that zygotic LvBMP5-8 is required for normal skeletal patterning on the left side, as well as for normal PMC positioning during gastrulation. Zygotic LvBMP5-8 is required for expression of the left-side marker soxE, suggesting that LvBMP5-8 is required for left-side specification. Interestingly, we also find that LvBMP5-8 knockdown suppresses serotonergic neurogenesis on the left side. While LvBMP5-8 overexpression is sufficient to dorsalize embryos, we find that zygotic LvBMP5-8 is not required for normal DV specification or development. In addition, ectopic LvBMP5-8 does not dorsalize LvBMP2/4 morphant embryos, indicating that, in the absence of BMP2/4, BMP5-8 is insufficient to specify dorsal. Taken together, our data demonstrate that zygotic LvBMP5-8 signaling is essential for left-side specification, and for normal left-side skeletal and neural patterning, but not for DV specification. Thus, while both BMP2/4 and BMP5-8 regulate LR axis specification, BMP2/4 but not zygotic BMP5-8 regulates DV axis specification in sea urchin embryos.

  1. Duality in nonlinear B$\\wedge$F models equivalence between self-dual and topologically massive Born-Infeld B$\\wedge$F models

    CERN Document Server

    Menezes, R; Ribeiro, R F; Wotzasek, C

    2002-01-01

    We study the dual equivalence between the nonlinear generalization of the self-dual ($NSD_{B\\wedge F}$) and the topologically massive $B\\wedge F$ models with particular emphasis on the nonlinear electrodynamics proposed by Born and Infeld. This is done through a dynamical gauge embedding of the nonlinear self-dual model yielding to a gauge invariant and dynamically equivalent theory. We clearly show that nonpolinomial $NSD_{B\\wedge F}$ models can be mapped, through a properly defined duality transformation, into $TM_{B\\wedge F}$ actions. The general result obtained is then particularized for a number of examples, including the Born-Infeld-BF (BIBF) model that has experienced a revival in the recent literature.

  2. Optimization of cDNA amplification of Apricot Latent Virus (ApLV) from various plant tissues sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumus, M; Sipahioğlu, H M; Paylan, I C; Erkan, S

    2007-03-15

    Although the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) procedure is basically simple operation, often it is not possible to achieve optimum results without optimizing the protocols. An RT-PCR method targeting a 200 bp sequence of the CP gene of Apricot Latent Virus (ApLV) was used as a model to improve the detection limit and to compare the behavior of three different plant tissues in a RT-PCR assay. A number of factors should be considered when selecting the optimal system for RT-PCR. Important considerations include the optimal concentrations of MgCl2, dNTP, Taq DNA polymerase enzyme, specific primer and the amount of cDNA for the downstream applications. This study therefore discusses a series of critical PCR parameters and feasible strategies for optimization of RT-PCR detection of ApLV.

  3. Recognizing the fingerprints of the Galactic bar: a quantitative approach to comparing model (l,v) distributions to observation

    CERN Document Server

    Sormani, Mattia C

    2014-01-01

    We present a new method for fitting simple hydrodynamical models to the (l,v) distribution of atomic and molecular gas observed in the Milky Way. The method works by matching features found in models and observations. It is based on the assumption that the large-scale features seen in (l,v) plots, such as ridgelines and the terminal velocity curve, are influenced primarily by the underlying large-scale Galactic potential and are only weakly dependent on local ISM heating and cooling processes. In our scheme one first identifies by hand the features in the observations: this only has to be done once. We describe a procedure for automatically extracting similar features from simple hydrodynamical models and quantifying the "distance" between each model's features and the observations. Application to models of the Galactic Bar region (|l|<30deg) shows that our feature-fitting method performs better than \\chi^2 or envelope distances at identifying the correct underlying galaxy model.

  4. MV/LV PDS transformers: Novel approach for the maximization of the preventive maintenance activities- A case study

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoudi Morad; El barkany Abdellah; El khalfi Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    In today’s energy market in Morocco, a stable and reliable electric power supply system is an inevitable prerequisite for the technological and economic growth of the kingdom. Due to this, manypublic distribution companies are increasing their competitiveness by adopting new maintenance philosophies to reduce their Operation and Maintenance (O&M) costs. Indeed, being one of the most important parts of the medium voltage network, MV/LV public distribution substations transformer (PDS) play a k...

  5. Spatial and temporal distribution of deformation at the front of the Andean orogenic wedge in Bolivia and implications for incremental wedge evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, J. R.; Brooks, B. A.; Vergani, G.; Arrowsmith, R.

    2012-12-01

    There is no consensus regarding how orogenic wedges accommodate deformation over seismo-tectonic timescales. Results from the Himalaya and Taiwan suggest differing mechanisms including localized deformation along a single wedge-front structure and distributed shortening across multiple structures respectively. Here we provide the first detailed constraints on the distribution and timing of deformation at the front of the Andean orogenic wedge using industry acquired seismic reflection data from the ~500-km-long thin-skinned fold-and-thrust belt of the Bolivian Subandes (BSA). Almost no information exists on the recent history of BSA wedge-front deformation despite the presence of multiple ~10-m-high topographic scarps on Holocene surfaces and a recent analysis of the GPS-derived velocity field, which suggests the frontal Mandeyapecua thrust fault system (MTFS) is capable of >Mw 8 earthquakes. We use stratigraphic relationships across fault-related folds to depict the onset of deformation for the complete suite of structures comprising the MTFS. For each structure we determine the uncertainty in timing using an envelope of seismic velocity models from ~70 well-logs and published Quaternary sedimentation rates for the region. We further explore fault geometry and fault slip parameters associated with the displacement field of seismic reflection horizons using elastic dislocation theory. Our analyses reveal the presence of at least eight distinct fault segments comprising the MTFS, including previously unrecognized subsurface thrust faults that have been active since ~1 Ma. Shortening rates are generally higher across the younger, northern portion of the fault system but across-strike, in a ~50-km-wide zone from west to east, no distinct pattern of deformation migration exists. We estimate the percentage of whole-wedge deformation accommodated by wedge-front structures using our new fault slip rates combined with the wedge-loading rate of ~10 mm/yr and place our

  6. A Preliminary Analysis of LV Kun's Conception of Sage%吕坤的圣人观浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    萧自强

    2011-01-01

    吕坤认为,在圣人的内涵上,圣人能够把握天理,与天理合一,并且能够达到无心而无境的地位,能够超越性情之限制;在圣人的成长上,吕坤认为圣人可以通过修身",克己复礼"而达到;在圣人与众人之关系上,吕坤认为,圣人与众人并不是完全割裂的,圣人即超越于众人,又生活在众人之中。%On the connotation of sage,LV Kun esteemed that sage could grasp the natural principle and united it,got the position without the mind and the state,and went beyond the restrictions of temper.On the growth of the sage,LV Kun thought that sage could be self-cultivation,achieved with "Denying self and observing the proprieties".And on the relationships between the sage and the masses,LV Kun acknowledged that the sage and the masses were not completely separated,namely,the sage transcended the masses,and also,the sage could'nt go beyond them.

  7. First direct dating of Late Pleistocene ice-wedges by AMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasil'chuk, YK; van der Plicht, J; Jungner, H; Sonninen, E; Vasil'chuk, AC; Vasil'chuk, Yurij K.; Vasil'chuk, Alla C.

    2000-01-01

    We present the first direct dating by C-14-accelerator mass spectrometry of three Late Pleistocene syngenetic ice-wedges from the Seyaha cross-section. They are representative of permafrost with multistage ice-wedges from the North of Western Siberia. The most important result is the clear vertical

  8. Revisit the classical Newmark displacement method for earthquake-induced wedge slide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Che-Ming; Cheng, Hui-Yun; Wu, Wen-Jie; Hsu, Chang-Hsuan; Dong, Jia-Jyun; Lee, Chyi-Tyi

    2016-04-01

    Newmark displacement method has been widely used to study the earthquake-induced landslides and adopted to explore the initiation and kinematics of catastrophic planar failure in recent years. However, surprisingly few researchers utilize the Newmark displacement method to study the earthquake-induced wedge slide. The classical Newmark displacement method for earthquake-induced wedge sliding assumed the wedge is rigid and the vertical acceleration, as well as the horizontal acceleration perpendicular to the sliding direction, is neglected. Moreover, the friction coefficients on the weak planes are assumed as unchanged during sliding. The purpose of this study is to test the reasonableness of the aforementioned assumptions. This study uses Newmark displacement method incorporating the rigid wedge method (RWM) and maximum shear stress method (MSSM) to evaluate the influence of wedge deformation. We design the geometry of the wedge and input the synthetic seismicity to trigger the wedge slide. The influence for neglecting the vertical and horizontal (perpendicular to the sliding direction) accelerations is also assessed. Besides, this research incorporates the velocity-displacement dependent friction law in the analysis to evaluate the influence of constant friction coefficient assumption. Result of this study illustrated that the aforementioned assumptions have significant effects on the calculated permeant displacement, moving speed, and failure initiation. To conclude, this study provides new insights on the initiation and kinematics of an earthquake induced wedge slide.

  9. Enhancement of linear and second-order hyperpolarizabilities in wedge-shaped nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayabalan, J.; Singh, Manoranjan P.; Rustagi, K. C.

    2003-08-01

    Analytical solutions for the wave functions for free electrons inside a wedge-shaped quantum dot are reported. For silver wedge-shaped quantum dots, linear and second-order hyperpolarizabilities are calculated for various apex angles. It is found that linear and nonlinear hyperpolarizabilities both increase with decreasing apex angle.

  10. Reflection of a converging cylindrical shock wave segment by a straight wedge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, B.; Skews, B.

    2017-01-01

    As a converging cylindrical shock wave propagates over a wedge, the shock wave accelerates and the angle between the shock wave and the wedge decreases. This causes the conditions at the reflection point to move from what would be the irregular reflection domain for a straight shock wave into the regular reflection domain. This paper covers a largely qualitative study of the reflection of converging shock wave segments with Mach numbers between 1.2 and 2.1 by wedges inclined at angles between 15° and 60° from experimental and numerical results. The sonic condition conventionally used for predicting the type of reflection of straight shock waves was found to also be suitable for predicting the initial reflection of a curved shock wave. Initially regular reflections persisted until the shock was completely reflected by the wedge, whereas the triple point of initially irregular reflections was observed to return to the wedge surface, forming transitioned regular reflection. After the incident shock wave was completely reflected by the wedge, a shock wave focusing mechanism was observed to amplify the pressure on the surface of the wedge by a factor of up to 100 for low wedge angles.

  11. A quantum hybrid with a thin antenna at the vertex of a wedge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlone, Raffaele; Posilicano, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    We study the spectrum, resonances and scattering matrix of a quantum Hamiltonian on a "hybrid surface" consisting of a half-line attached by its endpoint to the vertex of a concave planar wedge. At the boundary of the wedge, outside the vertex, homogeneous Dirichlet conditions are imposed. The system is tunable by varying the measure of the angle at the vertex.

  12. Immediate and 1 week effects of laterally wedge insoles on gait biomechanics in healthy females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinhandl, Joshua T; Sudheimer, Sarah E; Van Lunen, Bonnie L; Stewart, Kimberly; Hoch, Matthew C

    2016-03-01

    It is estimated that approximately 45% of the U.S. population will develop knee osteoarthritis, a disease that creates significant economic burdens in both direct and indirect costs. Laterally wedged insoles have been frequently recommended to reduce knee abduction moments and to manage knee osteoarthritis. However, it remains unknown whether the lateral wedge will reduce knee abduction moments over a prolonged period of time. Thus, the purposes of this study were to (1) examine the immediate effects of a laterally wedged insole in individuals normally aligned knees and (2) determine prolonged effects after the insole was worn for 1 week. Gait analysis was performed on ten women with and without a laterally wedged insole. After participants wore the wedges for a week, a second gait analysis was performed with and without the insole. The wedged insole did not affect peak knee abduction moment, although there was a significant increase in knee abduction angular impulse after wearing the insoles for 1 week. Furthermore, there was a significant increase in vertical ground reaction force at the instance of peak knee abduction moment with the wedges. While the laterally wedged insole used in the current study did not alter knee abduction moments as expected, other studies have shown alterations. Future studies should also examine a longer acclimation period, the influence of gait speed, and the effect of different shoe types with the insole.

  13. Pan-Arctic ice-wedge degradation in warming permafrost and its influence on tundra hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljedahl, Anna K.; Boike, Julia; Daanen, Ronald P.; Fedorov, Alexander N.; Frost, Gerald V.; Grosse, Guido; Hinzman, Larry D.; Iijma, Yoshihiro; Jorgenson, Janet C.; Matveyeva, Nadya; Necsoiu, Marius; Raynolds, Martha K.; Romanovsky, Vladimir E.; Schulla, Jörg; Tape, Ken D.; Walker, Donald A.; Wilson, Cathy J.; Yabuki, Hironori; Zona, Donatella

    2016-04-01

    Ice wedges are common features of the subsurface in permafrost regions. They develop by repeated frost cracking and ice vein growth over hundreds to thousands of years. Ice-wedge formation causes the archetypal polygonal patterns seen in tundra across the Arctic landscape. Here we use field and remote sensing observations to document polygon succession due to ice-wedge degradation and trough development in ten Arctic localities over sub-decadal timescales. Initial thaw drains polygon centres and forms disconnected troughs that hold isolated ponds. Continued ice-wedge melting leads to increased trough connectivity and an overall draining of the landscape. We find that melting at the tops of ice wedges over recent decades and subsequent decimetre-scale ground subsidence is a widespread Arctic phenomenon. Although permafrost temperatures have been increasing gradually, we find that ice-wedge degradation is occurring on sub-decadal timescales. Our hydrological model simulations show that advanced ice-wedge degradation can significantly alter the water balance of lowland tundra by reducing inundation and increasing runoff, in particular due to changes in snow distribution as troughs form. We predict that ice-wedge degradation and the hydrological changes associated with the resulting differential ground subsidence will expand and amplify in rapidly warming permafrost regions.

  14. Comparison of dosimetric characteristics of Siemens virtual and physical wedges for ONCOR linear accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attalla Ehab

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dosimetric properties of virtual wedge (VW and physical wedge (PW in 6- and 10-MV photon beams from a Siemens ONCOR linear accelerator, including wedge factors, depth doses, dose profiles, peripheral doses, are compared. While there is a great difference in absolute values of wedge factors, VW factors (VWFs and PW factors (PWFs have a similar trend as a function of field size. PWFs have stronger depth dependence than VWF due to beam hardening in PW fields. VW dose profiles in the wedge direction, in general, match very well with those of PW, except in the toe area of large wedge angles with large field sizes. Dose profiles in the nonwedge direction show a significant reduction in PW fields due to off-axis beam softening and oblique filtration. PW fields have significantly higher peripheral doses than open and VW fields. VW fields have similar surface doses as the open fields, while PW fields have lower surface doses. Surface doses for both VW and PW increase with field size and slightly with wedge angle. For VW fields with wedge angles 45° and less, the initial gap up to 3 cm is dosimetrically acceptable when compared to dose profiles of PW. VW fields in general use less monitor units than PW fields.

  15. A novel technique to predict pulmonary capillary wedge pressure utilizing central venous pressure and tissue Doppler tricuspid/mitral annular velocities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Kazunori; Inagaki, Masashi; Zheng, Can; Li, Meihua; Kawada, Toru; Sugimachi, Masaru

    2015-07-01

    Assessing left ventricular (LV) filling pressure (pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, PCWP) is an important aspect in the care of patients with heart failure (HF). Physicians rely on right ventricular (RV) filling pressures such as central venous pressure (CVP) to predict PCWP, assuming concordance between CVP and PCWP. However, the use of this method is limited because discordance between CVP and PCWP is observed. We hypothesized that PCWP can be reliably predicted by CVP corrected by the relationship between RV and LV function, provided by the ratio of tissue Doppler peak systolic velocity of tricuspid annulus (S(T)) to that of mitral annulus (S(M)) (corrected CVP:CVP·S(T)/S(M)). In 16 anesthetized closed-chest dogs, S T and S M were measured by transthoracic tissue Doppler echocardiography. PCWP was varied over a wide range (1.8-40.0 mmHg) under normal condition and various types of acute and chronic HF. A significantly stronger linear correlation was observed between CVP·S(T)/S(M) and PCWP (R2 = 0.78) than between CVP and PCWP (R2 = 0.22) (P 10.5 mmHg predicted PCWP >18 mmHg with 85% sensitivity and 88% specificity. Area under ROC curve for CVP·S T/S M to predict PCWP >18 mmHg was 0.93, which was significantly larger than that for CVP (0.66) (P < 0.01). Peripheral venous pressure (PVP) corrected by S T/S M (PVP·S(T)/S(M) also predicted PCWP reasonably well, suggesting that PVP·S(T)/S (M) may be a minimally invasive alternative to CVP·S(T)/S(M) In conclusion, our technique is potentially useful for the reliable prediction of PCWP in HF patients.

  16. The effect of shoe design and lateral wedging on knee loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Carsten; Kersting, Uwe G.

    The increasing number of patients with developing osteoarthritis is accompanied by a growing scientific interest in non-operative early treatment strategies. It is generally believed that laterally wedged insoles can change the distribution of the knee loading, but the importance of footwear design......-dimensional gait analysis. Barefoot walking, walking in a running shoe, an Oxford-type leather shoe, and a rocker shoe were analyzed. The shoes were tested both with and without a 10-degree full length laterally wedged insole. Results: Similar, significant reductions in the peak knee adduction moment with lateral...... wedges were observed in all three types of shoes. However, differences between shoe design were of similar magnitude as the effect of laterally wedged insoles. Only marginal changes in muscle activity for lateral hamstrings during barefoot toe-out walking and gastrocnemius when using the Oxford wedged...

  17. Bonding mechanism of ultrasonic wedge bonding of copper wire on Au/Ni/Cu substrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Yan-hong; WANG Chun-qing; Y. Norman ZHOU

    2008-01-01

    The ultrasonic wedge bonding with d25 μm copper wire was achieved on Au/Ni plated Cu substrate at ambient temperature. Ultrasonic wedge bonding mechanism was investigated by using SEM/EDX, pull test, shear test and microhardness test. The results show that the thinning of the Au layer occurs directly below the center of the bonding tool with the bonding power increasing. The interdiffusion between copper wire and Au metallization during the wedge bonding is assumed negligible, and the wedge bonding is achieved by wear action induced by ultrasonic vibration. The ultrasonic power contributes to enhance the deformation of copper wire due to ultrasonic softening effect which is then followed by the strain hardening of the copper wedge bonding.

  18. Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy with birefringent wedges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Réhault, Julien; Maiuri, Margherita; Oriana, Aurelio; Cerullo, Giulio [IFN-CNR, Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2014-12-15

    We present a simple experimental setup for performing two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectroscopy in the partially collinear pump-probe geometry. The setup uses a sequence of birefringent wedges to create and delay a pair of phase-locked, collinear pump pulses, with extremely high phase stability and reproducibility. Continuous delay scanning is possible without any active stabilization or position tracking, and allows to record rapidly and easily 2D spectra. The setup works over a broad spectral range from the ultraviolet to the near-IR, it is compatible with few-optical-cycle pulses and can be easily reconfigured to two-colour operation. A simple method for scattering suppression is also introduced. As a proof of principle, we present degenerate and two-color 2D spectra of the light-harvesting complex 1 of purple bacteria.

  19. Regulation of the immediate-early genes of white spot syndrome virus by Litopenaeus vannamei kruppel-like factor (LvKLF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ping-Han; Lu, Shao-Chia; Yang, Shu-Han; Cai, Pei-Si; Lo, Chu-Fang; Chang, Li-Kwan

    2014-10-01

    Kruppel-like factors (KLFs) belong to a subclass of Cys2/His2 zinc-finger DNA-binding proteins, and act as important regulators with diverse roles in cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and tumorigenesis. Our previous research showed that PmKLF from Penaeus monodon is crucial for white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection, yet the mechanisms by which PmKLF influences WSSV infection remain unclear. This study cloned KLF from Litopenaeus vannamei (LvKLF), which had 93% similarity with PmKLF. LvKLF formed a dimer via the C-terminal zinc-finger motif. Knockdown of LvKLF expression by dsRNA injection in WSSV-challenged shrimps was found to significantly inhibit the transcription of two important immediate-early (IE) genes, IE1 and WSSV304, and also reduced WSSV copy numbers. Moreover, reporter assays revealed that the promoter activities of these two WSSV IE genes were substantially enhanced by LvKLF. Mutations introduced in the promoter sequences of IE1 and WSSV304 were shown to abolish LvKLF activation of promoter activities; and an electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated that LvKLF binds to putative KLF-response elements (KRE) in the promoters. Taken together, these results indicate that LvKLF transcriptional regulation of key IE genes is critical to WSSV replication.

  20. Isolating active orogenic wedge deformation in the southern Subandes of Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jonathan R.; Brooks, Benjamin A.; Foster, James H.; Bevis, Michael; Echalar, Arturo; Caccamise, Dana; Heck, Jacob; Kendrick, Eric; Ahlgren, Kevin; Raleigh, David; Smalley, Robert; Vergani, Gustavo

    2016-08-01

    A new GPS-derived surface velocity field for the central Andean backarc permits an assessment of orogenic wedge deformation across the southern Subandes of Bolivia, where recent studies suggest that great earthquakes (>Mw 8) are possible. We find that the backarc is not isolated from the main plate boundary seismic cycle. Rather, signals from subduction zone earthquakes contaminate the velocity field at distances greater than 800 km from the Chile trench. Two new wedge-crossing velocity profiles, corrected for seasonal and earthquake affects, reveal distinct regions that reflect (1) locking of the main plate boundary across the high Andes, (2) the location of and loading rate at the back of orogenic wedge, and (3) an east flank velocity gradient indicative of décollement locking beneath the Subandes. Modeling of the Subandean portions of the profiles indicates along-strike variations in the décollement locked width (WL) and wedge loading rate; the northern wedge décollement has a WL of ~100 km while accumulating slip at a rate of ~14 mm/yr, whereas the southern wedge has a WL of ~61 km and a slip rate of ~7 mm/yr. When compared to Quaternary estimates of geologic shortening and evidence for Holocene internal wedge deformation, the new GPS-derived wedge loading rates may indicate that the southern wedge is experiencing a phase of thickening via reactivation of preexisting internal structures. In contrast, we suspect that the northern wedge is undergoing an accretion or widening phase primarily via slip on relatively young thrust-front faults.

  1. The use of sternal wedge osteotomy in pectus surgery: when is it necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Murat; Gundogdu, Ahmet Gokhan; Kadioglu, Salih Zeki; Cayirci, Ertug Can; Taskin, Necati

    2016-09-01

    The Ravitch procedure is a well-established surgical procedure for correction of chest wall deformities. Sternal wedge osteotomy is an important part of this procedure. We studied the incidence of wedge osteotomy with respect to the type of chest wall deformity in patients undergoing surgical correction with the use of a recently developed chest wall stabilization system. A total of 47 patients, 39 (83%) male and 8 (17%) female with a mean age of 14.9 ± 2.1 years, underwent the Ravitch procedure. Twenty-four (51.1%) had pectus carinatum, 19 (40.4%) had pectus excavatum, and 4 (8.5%) had pectus arcuatum. A conventional or oblique sternal wedge osteotomy was performed as indicated, followed by chest wall stabilization using the MedXpert system. Of the 47 patients, 27 (57.4%) had a sternal wedge osteotomy. All cases of pectus arcuatum and redo cases underwent sternal wedge osteotomy. Pectus excavatum cases tended to have a greater incidence of wedge osteotomy compared to pectus carinatum cases (68.4% vs. 41.7%, p = 0.052). Patients with more resected ribs had a greater rate of wedge osteotomy (63.4%) compared to those with fewer resected ribs (16.7%, p = 0.043). A sternal wedge osteotomy is more commonly performed in patients with pectus excavatum compared to those with pectus carinatum. All redo and pectus arcuatum cases need a wedge osteotomy for proper correction. Wedge osteotomy is very likely in more aggressive corrections with more rib resections. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Effective RNA-silencing strategy of Lv-MSTN/GDF11 gene and its effects on the growth in shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Hyun; Momani, Jalal; Kim, Young Mog; Kang, Chang-Keun; Choi, Jung-Hwa; Baek, Hae-Ja; Kim, Hyun-Woo

    2015-01-01

    Myostatin (MSTN), also known as GDF8, is a member of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily and plays an important role in muscle growth, development, and differentiation. Recently, Lv-MSTN/GDF11, the primitive isoform of MSTN and GDF11, was identified from the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. The major production site for Lv-MSTN/GDF11 is in the heart, not the tail muscle, which differs from MSTNs in mammals. Among the three injected RNAs, long dsRNA was the most effective for Lv-MSTN/GDF11 knockdown and transcripts of Lv-MSTN/GDF11 decreased in both the heart (88.85%) and skeletal muscles (43.36%) 72h after injection of 10pmol of long dsRNA. We also found that higher doses of dsRNA did not lead to greater decreases in Lv-MSTN/GDF11 transcripts for amounts between 1pmol and 100pmol. Injection of Lv-MSTN/GDF11 dsRNA did not affect the upregulation of the skeletal actin gene (Lv-ACTINSK) in the tail muscle, but the expression of cytoplasmic and cardiac actins were upregulated in both the heart and tail muscle. Over the course of 8weeks of dsRNA injection, considerably higher mortality (~71%) was seen in the dsRNA-injected group compared to the control group (40%). Surviving shrimp in the dsRNA injected group had a lower growth rate due to the adverse effects of Lv-MSTN/GDF11 knockdown. Lv-MSTN/GDF11 appears to be involved in muscular or neuronal development, but not in doubling muscle fibers, as is the case with mammalian MSTN. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Anti-lipopolysaccharide factor in Litopenaeus vannamei (LvALF): a broad spectrum antimicrobial peptide essential for shrimp immunity against bacterial and fungal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Vega, Enrique; O'Leary, Nuala A; Shockey, Jessica E; Robalino, Javier; Payne, Caroline; Browdy, Craig L; Warr, Gregory W; Gross, Paul S

    2008-04-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are an essential component of the innate immune system of most organisms. Expressed sequence tag analysis from various shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) tissues revealed transcripts corresponding to two distinct sequences (LvALF1 and LvALF2) with strong sequence similarity to anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF), an antimicrobial peptide originally isolated from the horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus. Full-length clones contained a 528bp transcript with a predicted open reading frame coding for 120 amino acids in LvALF1, and a 623bp transcript with a predicted open reading frame coding for 93 amino acids in LvALF2. A reverse genetic approach was implemented to study the in vivo role of LvALF1 in protecting shrimp from bacterial, fungal and viral infections. Injection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) corresponding to the LvALF1 message resulted in a significant reduction of LvALF1 mRNA transcript abundance as determined by qPCR. Following knockdown, shrimp were challenged with low pathogenic doses of Vibrio penaeicida, Fusarium oxysporum or white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and the resulting mortality curves were compared with controls. A significant increase of mortality in the LvALF1 knockdown shrimp was observed in the V. penaeicida and F. oxysporum infections when compared to controls, showing that this gene has a role in protecting shrimp from both bacterial and fungal infections. In contrast, LvALF1 dsRNA activated the sequence-independent innate anti-viral immune response giving increased protection from WSSV infection.

  4. Vertebral body or intervertebral disc wedging: which contributes more to thoracolumbar kyphosis in ankylosing spondylitis patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Qian, Bang-Ping; Qiu, Yong; Wang, Yan; Wang, Bin; Yu, Yang; Zhu, Ze-Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Both vertebral body wedging and disc wedging are found in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients with thoracolumbar kyphosis. However, their relative contribution to thoracolumbar kyphosis is not fully understood. The objective of this study was to compare different contributions of vertebral and disc wedging to the thoracolumbar kyphosis in AS patients, and to analyze the relationship between the apical vertebral wedging angle and thoracolumbar kyphosis. From October 2009 to October 2013, a total of 59 consecutive AS patients with thoracolumbar kyphosis with a mean age of 38.1 years were recruited in this study. Based on global kyphosis (GK), 26 patients with GK < 70° were assigned to group A, and the other 33 patients with GK ≥ 70° were included in group B. Each GK was divided into disc wedge angles and vertebral wedge angles. The wedging angle of each disc and vertebra comprising the thoracolumbar kyphosis was measured, and the proportion of the wedging angle to the GK was calculated accordingly. Intergroup and intragroup comparisons were subsequently performed to investigate the different contributions of disc and vertebra to the GK. The correlation between the apical vertebral wedging angle and GK was calculated by Pearson correlation analysis. The duration of disease and sex were also recorded in this study. With respect to the mean disease duration, significant difference was observed between the two groups (P < 0.01). The wedging angle and wedging percentage of discs were significantly higher than those of vertebrae in group A (34.8° ± 2.5° vs 26.7° ± 2.7°, P < 0.01 and 56.6% vs 43.4%, P < 0.01), whereas disc wedging and disc wedging percentage were significantly lower than vertebrae in group B (37.6° ± 7.0° vs 50.1° ± 5.1°, P < 0.01 and 42.7% vs 57.3%, P < 0.01). The wedging of vertebrae was significantly higher in group B than in group A (50.1° ± 5.1° vs 26.7° ± 2.7°, P < 0

  5. Mechanism of bone incorporation of beta-TCP bone substitute in open wedge tibial osteotomy in patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaasbeek, R.D.A.; Toonen, H.G.; Heerwaarden, R.J. van; Buma, P.

    2005-01-01

    A histological study was performed of bone biopsies from 16 patients (17 biopsies) treated with open wedge high tibial osteotomies for medial knee osteoarthritis. The open wedge osteotomies were filled with a wedge of osteoconductive beta tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) ceramic bone replacement. At

  6. Variabilidade biológica de isolados do Citrus leprosis virus (CiLV oriundos de cultivares de laranjeira Biological variability of Citrus leprosis virus (CiLV isolates from sweet orange cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadier de Oliveira Cunha Junior

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A leprose, causada pelo Citrus leprosis virus (CiLV, é uma das principais doenças presentes em pomares cítricos fluminenses. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar o quadro sintomatológico desenvolvido por isolados de CiLV obtidos de cultivares comerciais de laranjeira (Lima, Pêra e Seleta, inoculados mecanicamente em Chenopodium amaranticolor, em três diluições. Após cinco a sete dias da inoculação foram observadas lesões necróticas, com pequeno halo clorótico quando observadas contra a luz. O maior número de lesões, nas três diluições, foi obtido do isolado de 'Seleta', seguido por 'Pêra' e 'Lima'. A melhor diluição utilizada para a observação das lesões foi de 1:10. Os resultados demonstram uma possível variabilidade biológica entre os isolados virais e/ou uma menor ou maior replicação viral, dependendo da cultivar, indicando um possível mecanismo de resistência da planta ao vírus.Citrus leprosis, caused by Citrus leprosis virus (CiLV is one of the major diseases in citrus orchards in the State of Rio de Janeiro. The objective of this study was to compare the development of symptoms on Chenopodium amaranticolor inoculated with CiLV isolates from 'Lima', 'Pera' and 'Seleta' sweet oranges using three different dilutions. Five to seven-days after inoculation, necrotic lesions exhibiting a small chlorotic halo when exposed to the light, were observed. The highest number of lesions developed using the three dilutions was obtained from 'Seleta', an intermediate value from 'Pêra' and the lowest number from 'Lima'. The best dilution for lesions development was 1:10. The results demonstrate a possible biological variability among the virus isolates and/or a lower or higher viral replication, dependent on the cultivar. This indicates a putative mechanism of Citrus resistance to the virus.

  7. Verification of Varian Enhanced Dynamic Wedge implementation in masterplan treatment planning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquino, Massimo; Casanova Borca, Valeria; Tofani, Santi; Ozzello, Franca

    2009-04-22

    This paper investigates the accuracy of the two available calculation algorithms of the Oncentra MasterPlan three-dimensional treatment planning system (TPS)-- the pencil beam method and collapsed-cone convolution--in modeling the Varian enhanced dynamic wedge (EDW). Measurements were carried out for a dual high energy (6-15 MV) Varian DHX-S linear accelerator using ionization chambers for beam axis measurements (wedge factors and depth doses), film dosimetry for off-axis dose profiles measurements, and a diode matrix detector for two dimensional absolute dose distributions. Using both calculation algorithms, different configuration of symmetric and asymmetric fields varying the wedge's angle were tested. Accuracy of the treatment planning system was evaluated in terms of percentage differences between measured and calculated values for wedge factors, depth doses, and profiles. As far as the absolute dose distribution was concerned, the gamma index method (Low et al.) was used with 3% and 3 mm as acceptance criteria for dose difference and distance-to-agreement, respectively. Wedge factors and percentage depth doses were within 1% deviation between calculated and measured values. The comparison of measured and calculated dose profiles shows that the Van Dyk's acceptance criteria (Van Dyk et al.) are generally met; a disagreement can be noted for large wedge angles and field size limited to the low dose-low gradient region only. The 2D absolute dose distribution analysis confirms the good accuracy of the two calculation algorithms in modeling the enhanced dynamic wedge.

  8. Biomechanical effects of lateral and medial wedge insoles on unilateral weight bearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Tomonori; Kito, Nobuhiro; Yukimune, Masaki; Tokuda, Kazuki; Tanimoto, Kenji; Anan, Masaya; Takahashi, Makoto; Shinkoda, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Lateral wedge insoles reduce the peak external knee adduction moment and are advocated for patients with knee osteoarthritis. However, some patients demonstrate adverse biomechanical effects with treatment. In this study, we examined the immediate effects of lateral and medial wedge insoles under unilateral weight bearing. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty healthy young adults participated in this study. The subjects were assessed by using the foot posture index, and were divided into three groups: normal foot, pronated foot, and supinated foot groups. The knee adduction moment and knee-ground reaction force lever arm under the studied conditions were measured by using a three-dimensional motion capture system and force plates. [Results] In the normal and pronated groups, the change in knee adduction moment significantly decreased under the lateral wedge insole condition compared with the medial wedge insole condition. In the normal group, the change in the knee-ground reaction force lever arm also significantly decreased under the lateral wedge insole condition than under the medial wedge insole condition. [Conclusion] Lateral wedge insoles significantly reduced the knee adduction moment and knee-ground reaction force lever arm during unilateral weight bearing in subjects with normal feet, and the biomechanical effects varied according to individual foot alignment.

  9. A hemocyte-expressed fibrinogen-related protein gene (LvFrep) from the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: Expression analysis after microbial infection and during larval development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Jaqueline da Rosa; Barreto, Cairé; Silveira, Amanda da Silva; Vieira, Graziela Cleusa; Rosa, Rafael Diego; Perazzolo, Luciane Maria

    2016-09-01

    Fibrinogen-related proteins (FREPs) comprise a large family of microbial recognition proteins involved in many biological functions in both vertebrate and invertebrate animals. By taking advantage of publicly accessible databases, we have identified a FREP-like homolog in the most cultivated penaeid shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (LvFrep). The obtained sequence showed a conserved fibrinogen-related domain (FReD) and displayed significant similarities to FREP-like proteins from other invertebrates and to ficolins from crustaceans. The expression of LvFrep appeared to be limited to circulating hemocytes. Interestingly, LvFrep gene expression was induced in shrimp hemocytes only in response to a Vibrio infection but not to the White spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Moreover, LvFrep transcript levels were detected early in fertilized eggs, suggesting the participation of this immune-related gene in the antimicrobial defenses during shrimp development.

  10. Measured Two-Dimensional Ice-Wedge Polygon Thermal Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, William; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Busey, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Ice-wedge polygons are perhaps the most dominant permafrost related features in the arctic landscape. The microtopography of these features, that includes rims, troughs, and high and low polygon centers, alters the local hydrology, as water tends to collect in the low areas. During winter, wind redistribution of snow leads to an increased snowpack depth in the low areas, while the slightly higher areas often have very thin snow cover, leading to differences across the landscape in vegetation communities and soil moisture between higher and lower areas. These differences in local surface conditions lead to spatial variability of the ground thermal regime in the different microtopographic areas and between different types of ice-wedge polygons. To study these features in depth, we established temperature transects across four different types of ice-wedge polygons near Barrow, Alaska. The transects were composed of five vertical array thermistor probes (VATP) beginning in the center of each polygon and extending through the trough to the rim of the adjacent polygon. Each VATP had 16 thermistors from the surface to a depth of 1.5 m. In addition to these 80 subsurface temperature measurement points per polygon, soil moisture, thermal conductivity, heat flux, and snow depth were all measured in multiple locations for each polygon. Above ground, a full suite of micrometeorological instrumentation was present at each polygon. Data from these sites has been collected continuously for the last three years. We found snow cover, timing and depth, and active layer soil moisture to be major controlling factors in the observed thermal regimes. In troughs and in the centers of low-center polygons, the combined effect of typically saturated soils and increased snow accumulation resulted in the highest mean annual ground temperatures (MAGT). Additionally, these areas were the last part of the polygon to refreeze during the winter. However, increased active layer thickness was not

  11. Relationship of basal-septal fibrosis with LV outflow tract obstruction in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: insights from cardiac magnetic resonance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Takashi; Iwanaga, Yoshitaka; Yasuda, Masakazu; Kawamura, Takayuki; Miyaji, Yuki; Morooka, Hanako; Miyazaki, Shunichi

    2016-04-01

    Myocardial fibrosis is frequently observed and may be associated with the prognosis in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM); however, the clinical pathophysiological features, particularly in terms of fibrosis, of hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) remain unclear. This study aimed to determine a role of local fibrosis in HOCM using cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). 108 consecutive HCM patients underwent CMR. HOCM was defined as a left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) pressure gradient ≥30 mmHg at rest. Myocardial mass and fibrosis mass by late gadolinium-enhancement CMR (LGE-CMR) were calculated and the distribution/pattern was analyzed using the AHA 17-segment model. LV ejection fraction (LVEF) was significantly higher in patients with HOCM (n = 19) than in those with nonobstructive HCM (n = 89) (P < 0.05). Both total myocardial and fibrosis masses in LV were similar in the two groups (P = 0.385 and P = 0.859, respectively). However, fibrosis in the basal septum was significantly less frequent in the HOCM group than in the nonobstructive HCM group (P < 0.01). The LVOT pressure gradient was significantly higher in the basal-septal non-fibrosis group than in the fibrosis group (23.6 ± 37.3 vs. 4.8 ± 11.4 mmHg, P < 0.01). Multivariate analysis revealed that basal-septal fibrosis was an independent negative predictor of LVOT obstruction in addition to the local wall thickness and LVEF as positive predictors in HCM patients. In conclusion, a significant association was observed between LVOT obstruction and basal septal fibrosis by LGE-CMR in HCM patients. In addition to negative impact of basal-septal fibrosis, basal-septal hypertrophy and preserved global LV contractility may be associated with the pathophysiological features of LVOT obstruction.

  12. Pharmacoeconomic analysis of adjuvant oral capecitabine vs intravenous 5-FU/LV in Dukes' C colon cancer: the X-ACT trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, J; Douillard, J-Y; Twelves, C; McKendrick, J J; Scheithauer, W; Bustová, I; Johnston, P G; Lesniewski-Kmak, K; Jelic, S; Fountzilas, G; Coxon, F; Díaz-Rubio, E; Maughan, T S; Malzyner, A; Bertetto, O; Beham, A; Figer, A; Dufour, P; Patel, K K; Cowell, W; Garrison, L P

    2006-01-01

    Oral capecitabine (Xeloda®) is an effective drug with favourable safety in adjuvant and metastatic colorectal cancer. Oxaliplatin-based therapy is becoming standard for Dukes' C colon cancer in patients suitable for combination therapy, but is not yet approved by the UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) in the adjuvant setting. Adjuvant capecitabine is at least as effective as 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin (5-FU/LV), with significant superiority in relapse-free survival and a trend towards improved disease-free and overall survival. We assessed the cost-effectiveness of adjuvant capecitabine from payer (UK National Health Service (NHS)) and societal perspectives. We used clinical trial data and published sources to estimate incremental direct and societal costs and gains in quality-adjusted life months (QALMs). Acquisition costs were higher for capecitabine than 5-FU/LV, but higher 5-FU/LV administration costs resulted in 57% lower chemotherapy costs for capecitabine. Capecitabine vs 5-FU/LV-associated adverse events required fewer medications and hospitalisations (cost savings £3653). Societal costs, including patient travel/time costs, were reduced by >75% with capecitabine vs 5-FU/LV (cost savings £1318), with lifetime gain in QALMs of 9 months. Medical resource utilisation is significantly decreased with capecitabine vs 5-FU/LV, with cost savings to the NHS and society. Capecitabine is also projected to increase life expectancy vs 5-FU/LV. Cost savings and better outcomes make capecitabine a preferred adjuvant therapy for Dukes' C colon cancer. This pharmacoeconomic analysis strongly supports replacing 5-FU/LV with capecitabine in the adjuvant treatment of colon cancer in the UK. PMID:16622438

  13. LV reverse remodeling imparted by aortic valve replacement for severe aortic stenosis; is it durable? A cardiovascular MRI study sponsored by the American Heart Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caruppannan Ketheswaram

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS, long-term data tracking surgically induced effects of afterload reduction on reverse LV remodeling are not available. Echocardiographic data is available short term, but in limited fashion beyond one year. Cardiovascular MRI (CMR offers the ability to serially track changes in LV metrics with small numbers due to its inherent high spatial resolution and low variability. Hypothesis We hypothesize that changes in LV structure and function following aortic valve replacement (AVR are detectable by CMR and once triggered by AVR, continue for an extended period. Methods Tweny-four patients of which ten (67 ± 12 years, 6 female with severe, but compensated AS underwent CMR pre-AVR, 6 months, 1 year and up to 4 years post-AVR. 3D LV mass index, volumetrics, LV geometry, and EF were measured. Results All patients survived AVR and underwent CMR 4 serial CMR's. LVMI markedly decreased by 6 months (157 ± 42 to 134 ± 32 g/m2, p 2. Similarly, EF increased pre to post-AVR (55 ± 22 to 65 ± 11%,(p 2. LV stroke volume increased rapidly from pre to post-AVR (40 ± 11 to 44 ± 7 ml, p Conclusion After initial beneficial effects imparted by AVR in severe AS patients, there are, as expected, marked improvements in LV reverse remodeling. Via CMR, surgically induced benefits to LV structure and function are durable and, unexpectedly express continued, albeit markedly incomplete improvement through 4 years post-AVR concordant with sustained improved clinical status. This supports down-regulation of both mRNA and MMP activity acutely with robust suppression long term.

  14. A Scenario-Based Approach for Energy Storage Capacity Determination in LV Grids with High PV Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashemi Toghroljerdi, Seyedmostafa; Østergaard, Jacob; Yang, Guangya

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a new method is proposed to determine the minimum energy storage required to be installed at different locations of a low voltage (LV) grid in order to prevent the overvoltage due to high residential photovoltaic (PV) penetration. The method is based on the voltage sensitivity...... with different occurrence probabilities without involving the time-series studies problems. The proposed method is capable of modeling output power of PV panels with different orientations as well as different electric vehicle (EV) charging patterns....

  15. Innovation in Cable Outgoing Pattern of LV Cabinets%低压柜电缆出线方式创新

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申景阳

    2015-01-01

    老山自行车馆工程低压柜为上出线方式,低压柜的出线电缆放置在两层1 000 mm × 200 mm的桥架中, 由于出线回路复杂, 上下层桥架中的电缆存在进入同一面低压柜的情况, 特别是1AA1~1AA7, 2AA1~2AA7两列低压柜中集中了场馆近90%的用电负荷, 共需配出百余条供电电缆. 两层配电桥架的设计不可能合理安装上下交错的电缆. 通过自主创新和方案策划, 设计并实施了柜顶配线箱, 有效地解决了低压柜上出线的各种问题, 保证了安装质量和观感效果.%The LV cabinets of Laoshan Velodrome Project are characterized by upper cables outgoing, which are arranged between two layers of 1 000 mm × 200 mm bridging structure. The loop of the outgoing cables is complex, the cable in the upper layer of the bridging structure and that in the lower layer enter the same LV cabinet, and especially 90 % of the electrical loads of Laoshan Velodrome is concentrated in 1AA1~1AA7 and 2AA1~2AA7 LV cabinets, so hundreds of power supply cables are required. The design of two-layer power distribution bridging structure is unable to realize reasonable installation of the cables staggered up and down. Through independent innovation and program planning, a cable distribution box is designed to arrange on the cabinet top to effectively solve various problems caused by upper cables outgoing of LV cabinets and guarantee the installation quality and appearance effect.

  16. Metastable olivine wedge beneath northeast China and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, G.; Zhao, D.; Zhang, G.

    2013-12-01

    When the Pacific slab subducted into the mantle transition zone, there might exist a metastable olivine wedge (MOW) inside the slab due to the phase transition. Lots of researchers have adopted such various methods to detect the characteristics of this MOW as the forward modeling of travel times, shear wave amplitude patterns, teleseismic P wave coda, receiver function imaging, thermodynamic simulation and so on. Almost all results could be more or less affected by the source, the receiver and/or the velocity model passed through by the seismic rays. In this study, we have used 21 deep earthquakes, greater than 400 km and locating beneath northeast China, to study the velocity within the MOW. For more precisions, we have done further modifications in two ways based on our previous studies. (1) Double-difference location method is used to relocate all events with an error of 1-2 km with the data recorded by stations both at northeast China and at Japan. All relocated events locate in a zone about 30 km away from the upper boundary of Pacific slab. (2) Double residual travel times, generated by an event-pair at a common station at only Japan, are used to constrain the velocity anomaly rather than the residuals themselves. As a result, we have found that an ultra-lower velocity zone (ULVZ), averagely -7% relative to the iasp91 model, exists within the subducted Pacific slab around the deep earthquakes, which might be represented as the metastable olivine wedge. Because of the lower-velocity corresponding to the lower-density, the MOW would provide upward buoyancy forces which might prevent the slab from free subduction into the mantle transition zone. This feed-back mechanism of MOW to the slab is called ';parachute-effect', which is characterized by other researchers. In addition, the existence of the ULVZ or the MOW in the slab may supply a possible mechanism for triggering deep earthquakes, called ';phase transformation faulting', which was already proposed few

  17. Verbālās metaforas ziņu valodā Latvijas ziņās (ziņu portālos apollo.lv un delfi.lv: 2010–2012)

    OpenAIRE

    Puriņa, Krista

    2013-01-01

    Bakalaura darba „Verbālās metaforas ziņu valodā Latvijas ziņās (ziņu portālos apollo.lv un delfi.lv: 2010–2012)” mērķis ir parādīt, ka ziņu valodā ir daudz metaforas, kuras padara interesantāku vēstījumu, ietekmē tā efektivitāti. Pētnieciskā problēma ir: 1) noskaidrot, vai ziņu valodā ir sastopamas metaforas, 2) kādas, 3) vai to vēstījums nevar tikt uztverts kļūdaini, 4) kas ir vēstījuma efektivitātes pamatā? Teorētiskajā daļā – valoda, semiotika, ziņas, preses relīzes, metaforas Leiko...

  18. Study on the Fermentation Conditions of a Mucopolysaccharide-producing Bacterium LV-1%一株粘性多糖产生菌LV-1的发酵条件研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁玉丽; 郭继强; 陈晓艺; 刘志文; 李宪臻

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The fermentation conditions of a mucopolysaccharide-producing bacterium LV-1 which isolated from soil sample were studied.[Method] The polysaccharide-producing bacterium was isolated by serial dilution method, the effects of carbon source, nitrogen source, the initial pH and temperature on producing polysaccharide by it were discussed to confirm the optimum fermentation conditions.[Result] The physicochemical properties showed that the polysaccharide was water-soluble, but insoluble in organic solvents including ethanol, butanol, and chloroform.It was neutral polysaccharide with negative charge and without reducing terminal. The pH of its solution was pH=7.5. There were no protein, fructose, uronic acid, sulphate and starch-like structure included in polysaccharide molecules. The optimum fermentation conditions for polysaccharide production were 3% mannitol as carbon source, 0.25% yeast extract as nitrogen source, culture temperature 28 ℃ and pH=7.5. [Conclusion] The research could provie basis for development and utilization of LV-1 and industrialized production of mucopolysaccharide.

  19. Interneta sociālie tīkli draugiem.lv, mammam/tetiem.lv un twitter.com kā reklāmas nesēji Latvijā (2009.gads)

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Maģistra darba tēma ir „Interneta sociālie tīkli draugiem.lv, mammam/tetiem.lv un twitter.com kā reklāmas nesēji Latvijā (2009.gads)”. Darba mērķis ir izpētīt Latvijas interneta sociālo tīklu vidi kā potenciāli augošu un reklāmai piemērotu, kā arī izpētīt pamanāmākos reklāmas gadījumus šajos portālos. Teorijas daļā tiek apskatīta Web 2.0 ēra, interneta reklāmas un sociālo mediju mārketinga īpatnības, sociālo tīklu fenomens un teorijas, Latvijas reklāmas tirgus un auditorija, kā arī sociāl...

  20. Litopenaeus vannamei sterile-alpha and armadillo motif containing protein (LvSARM is involved in regulation of Penaeidins and antilipopolysaccharide factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Hui Wang

    Full Text Available The Toll-like receptor (TLR-mediated NF-κB pathway is tightly controlled because overactivation may result in severe damage to the host, such as in the case of chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer. In mammals, sterile-alpha and armadillo motif-containing protein (SARM plays an important role in negatively regulating this pathway. While Caenorhabditis elegans SARM is crucial for an efficient immune response against bacterial and fungal infections, it is still unknown whether Drosophila SARM participates in immune responses. Here, Litopenaeus vannamei SARM (LvSARM was cloned and functionally characterized. LvSARM shared signature domains with and exhibited significant similarities to mammalian SARM. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis indicated that the expression of LvSARM was responsive to Vibrio alginolyticus and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV infections in the hemocyte, gill, hepatopancreas and intestine. In Drosophila S2 cells, LvSARM was widely distributed in the cytoplasm and could significantly inhibit the promoters of the NF-κB pathway-controlled antimicrobial peptide genes (AMPs. Silencing of LvSARM using dsRNA-mediated RNA interference increased the expression levels of Penaeidins and antilipopolysaccharide factors, which are L.vannamei AMPs, and increased the mortality rate after V. alginolyticus infection. Taken together, our results reveal that LvSARM may be a novel component of the shrimp Toll pathway that negatively regulates shrimp AMPs, particularly Penaeidins and antilipopolysaccharide factors.

  1. Litopenaeus vannamei sterile-alpha and armadillo motif containing protein (LvSARM) is involved in regulation of Penaeidins and antilipopolysaccharide factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei-Hui; Gu, Zhi-Hua; Wan, Ding-Hui; Zhu, Wei-Bin; Qiu, Wei; Weng, Shao-Ping; Yu, Xiao-Qiang; He, Jian-Guo

    2013-01-01

    The Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated NF-κB pathway is tightly controlled because overactivation may result in severe damage to the host, such as in the case of chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer. In mammals, sterile-alpha and armadillo motif-containing protein (SARM) plays an important role in negatively regulating this pathway. While Caenorhabditis elegans SARM is crucial for an efficient immune response against bacterial and fungal infections, it is still unknown whether Drosophila SARM participates in immune responses. Here, Litopenaeus vannamei SARM (LvSARM) was cloned and functionally characterized. LvSARM shared signature domains with and exhibited significant similarities to mammalian SARM. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis indicated that the expression of LvSARM was responsive to Vibrio alginolyticus and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infections in the hemocyte, gill, hepatopancreas and intestine. In Drosophila S2 cells, LvSARM was widely distributed in the cytoplasm and could significantly inhibit the promoters of the NF-κB pathway-controlled antimicrobial peptide genes (AMPs). Silencing of LvSARM using dsRNA-mediated RNA interference increased the expression levels of Penaeidins and antilipopolysaccharide factors, which are L.vannamei AMPs, and increased the mortality rate after V. alginolyticus infection. Taken together, our results reveal that LvSARM may be a novel component of the shrimp Toll pathway that negatively regulates shrimp AMPs, particularly Penaeidins and antilipopolysaccharide factors.

  2. Analysis of distribution rule of surface stress on cross wedge rolling contact zone by finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Xuedao; Li, Lianpeng; Hu, Zhenghuan

    2005-12-01

    Contact surface of cross-wedge rolling is a complicated space surface and distribution rule of contact surface stress is very complicated. So far, its analyzed result was still based on slippery line method. Designing mould and actual production mainly depend on experiential factor. Application and development of cross-wedge rolling was baffled seriously. Based on the forming characteristics of cross-wedge rolling with flat wedge-shape, the ANSYS/DYNA software was developed secondly on the basis of itself, and the corresponding command program was compiled. Rolling process of cross-wedge rolling with flat wedge-shape was simulated successfully. Through simulation, space surface shape of contact surface was achieved, and distribution rule of contact surface stress was analyzed detailed and obtained. The results provide important theoretical foundation for avoiding appearing bug on surface of rolled part, instructing to design cross-wedge mould and confirming force and energy parameter.

  3. One-way successive plate cross wedge rolling machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In our last paper(Sci China Ser E-Tech Sci,2009,52(11):3117-3121) we designed the precision forming machine with rolling plate CWR(cross wedge rolling).This kind of machine colligates the advantages of high rigidity and small floor space for roller CWR machine and those of simple die manufacture and high precision for plate CWR machine.At the same time,it abandons the shortcomings of complex die manufacture and poor precision for roller CWR machine,and those of poor rigidity and large floor space for plate CWR machine.During rolling,the upper and lower rolling plates of the machine make reciprocating slide toward or away from each other,so the inertial forces should be overcome,which will cause great energy loss,besides,large floor space is needed when the rolled workpiece is large.In order to solve the above problems,this paper presents the one-way successive plate CWR machine,whose rolling plates need not make reciprocating slide.Hence,it has high energy utilization efficiency and production efficiency.Furthermore,the roll scale can be removed automatically.In particular,the machine can produce large axisymmetrical workpieces.

  4. Sinking, wedging, spreading - viscous spreading on a layer of fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergemann, Nico; Juel, Anne; Heil, Matthias

    2016-11-01

    We study the axisymmetric spreading of a sessile drop on a pre-existing layer of the same fluid in a regime where the drop is sufficiently large so that the spreading is driven by gravity while capillary and inertial effects are negligible. Experiments performed with 5 ml drops and layer thicknesses in the range 0.1 mm drop evolves as R tn , where the spreading exponent n increases with the layer thickness h. Numerical simulations, based on the axisymmetric free-surface Navier-Stokes equations, reveal three distinct spreading regimes depending on the layer thickness. For thick layers the drop sinks into the layer, accompanied by significant flow in the layer. By contrast, for thin layers the layer ahead of the propagating front is at rest and the spreading behaviour resembles that of a gravity-driven drop spreading on a dry substrate. In the intermediate regime the spreading is characterised by an advancing wedge, which is sustained by fluid flow from the drop into the layer.

  5. Precision forming machine with rolling plate cross wedge rolling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Roller cross wedge rolling(CWR)machines have high rigidity, but sector dies are difficult to process. Plate CWR machines have low rigidity and need large floor space, but plate dies are easy to process. Neither roller CWR machine nor plate CWR machine can produce larger workpieces. Based on the above conclusions, this paper presents the mechanical principle of the precision forming machine with rolling plate CWR. Then, its design principle and machine construction are presented. There are a top press roller above the upper sliding plate and a bottom press roller under the lower sliding plate. The press rollers make rolling contact with the sliding plates. The plate dies are mounted on the upper and lower sliding plates, respectively. Furthermore, the axes of both press rollers and centerline of work-piece always keep in the identical vertical plane during forming process. These make the machine retain advantages of high rigidity for roller CWR machine and simpleness of manufacturing dies for plate CWR machine, and abandon defects of poor rigidity for plate CWR machine and difficulty of manufac-turing dies for roller CWR machine. Moreover, the machine can produce larger workpieces.

  6. Lateral closed wedge osteotomy for cubitus varus deformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava Amit

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lateral closed wedge (LCW osteotomy is a commonly accepted method for the correction of the cubitus varus deformity. The fixation of osteotomy is required to prevent loss of correction achieved. The fixation of the osteotomy by the two screw and figure of eight wire is not stable enough to maintain the correction achieved during surgery. In this prospective study we supplemented the fixation by Kirschner′s (K- wires for stable fixation and evaluated the results. Materials and Methods: Twenty-one cases of the cubitus varus deformity following supracondylar fractures of the humerus were operated by LCW osteotomy during February 2001 to June 2006. The mean age of the patients at the time of corrective surgery was 8.5 years (range 6.6-14 years. The osteotomy was fixed by two screws with figure of eight tension band wire between them and the fixation was supplemented by passing two to three K-wires from the lateral condyle engaging the proximal medial cortex through the osteotomy site. Result: The mean follow-up period was 2.5 years (range seven months to 3.4 years. The results were assessed as per Morrey criteria. Eighteen cases showed excellent results and three cases showed good results. Two cases had superficial pin tract infection. Conclusion: The additional fixation by K wires controls rotational forces effectively besides angulation and translation forces and maintains the correction achieved peroperatively.

  7. Precision forming machine with rolling plate cross wedge rolling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG YuQuan; LI ZhiGang; WANG MingHui; GUAN XiaoFang

    2009-01-01

    Roller cross wedge rolling (CWR) machines have high rigidity, but sector dies are difficult to process.Plate CWR machines have low rigidity and need large floor space, but plate dies are easy to process.Neither roller CWR machine nor plate CWR machine can produce larger workpieces.Based on the above conclusions, this paper presents the mechanical principle of the precision forming machine with rolling plate CWR.Then, its design principle and machine construction are presented.There are a top press roller above the upper sliding plate and a bottom press roller under the lower sliding plate.The press rollers make rolling contact with the sliding plates.The plate dies are mounted on the upper and lower sliding plates, respectively.Furthermore, the axes of both press rollers and centerline of work-piece always keep in the identical vertical plane during forming process.These make the machine re-tain advantages of high rigidity for roller CWR machine and simpleness of manufacturing dies for plate CWR machine, and abandon defects of poor rigidity for plate CWR machine and difficulty of manufac-turing dies for roller CWR machine.Moreover, the machine can produce larger workpieces.

  8. Influence of intermolecular forces at critical-point wedge filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malijevský, Alexandr; Parry, Andrew O

    2016-04-01

    We use microscopic density functional theory to study filling transitions in systems with long-ranged wall-fluid and short-ranged fluid-fluid forces occurring in a right-angle wedge. By changing the strength of the wall-fluid interaction we can induce both wetting and filling transitions over a wide range of temperatures and study the order of these transitions. At low temperatures we find that both wetting and filling transitions are first order in keeping with predictions of simple local effective Hamiltonian models. However close to the bulk critical point the filling transition is observed to be continuous even though the wetting transition remains first order and the wetting binding potential still exhibits a small activation barrier. The critical singularities for adsorption for the continuous filling transitions depend on whether retarded or nonretarded wall-fluid forces are present and are in excellent agreement with predictions of effective Hamiltonian theory even though the change in the order of the transition was not anticipated.

  9. Influence of intermolecular forces at critical-point wedge filling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malijevský, Alexandr; Parry, Andrew O.

    2016-04-01

    We use microscopic density functional theory to study filling transitions in systems with long-ranged wall-fluid and short-ranged fluid-fluid forces occurring in a right-angle wedge. By changing the strength of the wall-fluid interaction we can induce both wetting and filling transitions over a wide range of temperatures and study the order of these transitions. At low temperatures we find that both wetting and filling transitions are first order in keeping with predictions of simple local effective Hamiltonian models. However close to the bulk critical point the filling transition is observed to be continuous even though the wetting transition remains first order and the wetting binding potential still exhibits a small activation barrier. The critical singularities for adsorption for the continuous filling transitions depend on whether retarded or nonretarded wall-fluid forces are present and are in excellent agreement with predictions of effective Hamiltonian theory even though the change in the order of the transition was not anticipated.

  10. Experimental and Numerical Procedures of a Sonar Platform with a Sound Absorption Wedge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Danzhu Yu; Xiongliang Yao; Shaoshi Dai

    2011-01-01

    Experiments involving a sonar platform with a sound absorption wedge were carried out for the purpose of obtaining the low frequency acoustic characteristics.Acoustic characteristics of a sonar platform model with a sound absorption wedge were measured,and the effects of different wedge laid areas on platform acoustic characteristic were tested.Vibration acceleration and self-noise caused by model vibration were measured in four conditions:0%,36%,60%,and 100% of wedge laid area when the sonar platform was under a single frequency excitation force.An experiment was performed to validate a corresponding numerical calculation.The numerical vibration characteristics of platform area were calculated by the finite element method,and self-noise caused by the vibration in it was predicted by an experiential formula.The conclusions prove that the numerical calculation method can partially replace the experimental process for obtaining vibration and sound characteristics.

  11. Fabrication and Determination of Refractive Index Profile of the Planar Waveguides by Wedge Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.; M.; R.; Sadat; Hosseini; A.; Darudi

    2003-01-01

    Several planar waveguides have been fabricated. The waveguides have been polished for determination of their refractive index profiles (RIP) by wedge method. The RIP determined by inserting the sample in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and applying fringe analysis methods.

  12. Fabrication and Determination of Refractive Index Profile of the Planar Waveguides by Wedge Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. M. R. Sadat Hosseini; A. Darudi

    2003-01-01

    Several planar waveguides have been fabricated. The waveguides have been polished for determination of their refractiveindex profiles (RIP) by wedge method. The RIP determined by inserting the sample in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer andapplying fringe analysis methods.

  13. Development of Cone Wedge Ring Expansion Test to Evaluate Mechanical Properties of Clad Tubing Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jy-An John [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-10-01

    To determine the hoop tensile properties of irradiated fuel cladding in a hot cell, a cone wedge ring expansion test method was developed. A four-piece wedge insert was designed with tapered angles matched to the cone shape of a loading piston. The ring specimen was expanded in the radial direction by the lateral expansion of the wedges under the downward movement of the piston. The advantages of the proposed method are that implementation of the test setup in a hot cell is simple and easy, and that it enables a direct strain measurement of the test specimen from the piston’s vertical displacement soon after the wedge-clad contact resistance is initiated.

  14. Distal femoral varus osteotomy: problems associated with the lateral open-wedge technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, Matthias; Wahl, Peter; Bouaicha, Samy; Jakob, Roland P; Gautier, Emanuel

    2011-06-01

    Varisation osteotomies on the distal femur are an established treatment method for valgus osteoarthritis of the knee in younger patients. Osteotomy can be done in a lateral open-wedge or medial closed-wedge manner. We retrospectively studied 14 patients treated by the lateral open-wedge technique, fixed with the Tomofix plate, with a mean duration of follow-up of 45 ± 3.4 months. We observed often delayed osteotomy healing after 3, 6 and 12 months, no secondary dislocations, and frequent troublesome irritation due to the plate being on the iliotibial band. However, outcome was satisfactory once the osteotomy healed and the plate was removed. Based on the often slow healing of the osteotomy and frequent irritation due to the plate, this procedure has been abandoned by the authors, and the medial closing-wedge osteotomy adopted as the alternative treatment.

  15. Medial opening wedge distal femoral osteotomy for post-traumatic secondary knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Gen; Akiyama, Takenori; Ikemura, Satoshi; Mawatari, Taro

    2014-04-30

    Osteoarthritis of the knee secondary to femoral fracture is difficult to treat. There are some surgical options, such as total knee arthroplasty or correction osteotomy. Opening wedge high tibial osteotomy is an established treatment of gonarthrosis. However, few reports are available on the effectiveness of a medial opening wedge distal femoral osteotomy. We present a case of a medial opening wedge distal femoral osteotomy on gonarthrosis secondary to a malunited femoral fracture with varus deformity and leg length discrepancy. This osteotomy was performed at the deformed femur, with locking plate fixation and autologous bone graft. Six months after the surgery, the osteotomy site was filled with bridging callus. Two years later, the Knee Society Score improved from 45 to 90 points. Medial opening wedge distal femoral osteotomy can be a useful method to treat knee osteoarthritis associated with distal femoral deformity.

  16. Diffraction of an inhomogeneous plane wave by an impedance wedge in a lossy medium

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Manara, G

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available The diffraction of an inhomogeneous plane wave by an impedance wedge embedded in a lossy medium is analyzed. The rigorous integral representation for the field is asymptotically evaluated in the context of the uniform geometrical theory...

  17. Second-law analysis of fluid flow over an isothermal moving wedge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Hedayati

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, entropy generation minimization (EGM was employed to optimize fluid flow and heat transfer over a moving wedge. Governing partial differential equations including continuity, momentum and energy are reduced to ordinary ones using similarity variables and solved numerically. The novelty of this study is to consider the effects of the moving wedge parameter λ, to find the stable system via entropy generation minimization (EGM method. The results indicated that as the slope of the wedge increases, the absolute values of the optimum moving wedge parameter λo grow as well. Moreover, it was found that the minimum value of entropy generation happens for the negative values of λo which gets smaller as Falkner–Skan power law parameter m increases.

  18. Optimization of parameters on material removal rate in micro-WEDG ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology ... Optimization of parameters on material removal rate in micro-WEDG process ... nonconventional machining method for manufacturing accurate and complex three dimensional ...

  19. Study on Mach stems induced by interaction of planar shock waves on two intersecting wedges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gaoxiang Xiang; Chun Wang; Honghui Teng; Yang Yang; Zonglin Jiang

    2016-01-01

    The properties of Mach stems in hypersonic corner flow induced by Mach interaction over 3D inter-secting wedges were studied theoretically and numerically. A new method called “spatial dimension reduction” was used to analyze theoretically the location and Mach num-ber behind Mach stems. By using this approach, the problem of 3D steady shock/shock interaction over 3D intersecting wedges was transformed into a 2D moving one on cross sec-tions, which can be solved by shock-polar theory and shock dynamics theory. The properties of Mach interaction over 3D intersecting wedges can be analyzed with the new method, including pressure, temperature, density in the vicinity of triple points, location, and Mach number behind Mach stems. Theoretical results were compared with numerical results, and good agreement was obtained. Also, the influence of Mach number and wedge angle on the properties of a 3D Mach stem was studied.

  20. Interaction between endoplasmic reticulum stress and caspase 8 activation in retrovirus MoMuLV-ts1-infected astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Na; Scofield, Virginia L; Qiang, Wenan; Yan, Mingshan; Kuang, Xianghong; Wong, Paul K Y

    2006-05-10

    The murine retrovirus, MoMuLV-ts1, induces progressive paralysis and immune deficiency in FVB/N mice. We have reported previously that ts1 infection causes apoptosis in astrocytes via endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondrial stress (Liu, N., Kuang, X., Kim, H.T., Stoica, G., Qiang, W., Scofield, V.L., Wong, P.K.Y. Wong. 2004. Possible involvement of both endoplasmic reticulum- and mitochondria-dependent pathways in MoMuLV-ts1-induced apoptosis in astrocytes. J. NeuroVirol. 10, 189-198). In the present study, we show that caspase 8 activation in these cells is mediated through ER stress-associated elevation of death receptor DR5 and the C/EBP homologous protein (GADD153/CHOP), an ER stress-initiated transcription factor, rather than through TNFalpha and TNF-R1 interactions on the cell surface. Treatment with Z-IETD-FMK, a specific inhibitor of caspase 8 enzymatic activity, reduced ER stress by two mechanisms: by inhibiting caspase 8 activation, and by preventing cleavage of the ER-associated membrane protein BAP31 into BAP20, which exacerbates the ER stress response. These findings suggest that caspase 8- and ER stress-associated apoptotic pathways are linked in ts1-infected astrocytes.

  1. Numerical Modeling of Two-Dimensional Temperature Dynamics Across Ice-Wedge Polygons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garayshin, Viacheslav V.

    The ice wedges on the North Slope of Alaska have been forming for many millennia, when the ground cracked and the cracks were filled with snowmelt water. The infiltrated water then became frozen and turned into ice. When the annual and summer air temperatures become higher, the depth of the active layer increases. A deeper seasonal thawing may cause melting of ice wedges from their tops. Consequently, the ground starts to settle and a trough begins to form above the ice wedge. The forming trough creates a local temperature anomaly in the surrounding ground, and the permafrost located immediately under the trough starts degrading further. Once the trough is formed, the winter snow cover becomes deeper at the trough area further degrading the permafrost. In this thesis we present a computational approach to study the seasonal temperature dynamics of the ground surrounding an ice wedge and ground subsidence associated with ice wedge degradation. A thermo-mechanical model of the ice wedge based on principles of macroscopic thermodynamics and continuum mechanics was developed and will be presented. The model includes heat conduction and quasi-static mechanical equilibrium equations, a visco-elastic rheology for ground deformation, and an empirical formula which relates unfrozen water content to temperature. The complete system is reduced to a computationally convenient set of coupled equations for temperature, ground displacement and ground porosity in a two-dimensional domain. A finite element method and an implicit scheme in time were utilized to construct a non-linear system of equations, which was solved iteratively. The model employs temperature and moisture content data collected from a field experiment at the Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE) sites in Barrow, Alaska. The model describes seasonal dynamics of temperature and the long-term ground motion near the ice wedges and helps to explain destabilization of the ice wedges north of Alaska's Brooks

  2. Comparison of the homogeneity of breast dose distributions with and without the medial wedge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikner, C L; Russo, R; Podgorsak, M B; Proulx, G M; Lee, R J

    1998-01-01

    Radiation of the intact breast often requires medial and lateral wedges to improve dose homogeneity of its pyramidal shape and to achieve acceptable cosmesis. There is some concern that radiation scatter from the medial wedge may contribute to cancer in the uninvolved breast, yet treatment without the medial wedge is associated with inhomogeneity of magnitudes that affect cosmesis. These homogeneities are identified on treatment plans generated at the central axis (CAX). It is not known if comparing isodose curves at the central axis reflect homogeneity in superior and inferior planes. A study was undertaken to both examine inhomogeneity with and without the medial wedge, and to determine if plan selection at the CAX was representative of homogeneity above and below the CAX. Ten consecutive patients with early breast cancers had cranial, CAX, and caudal CT images of each breast compared with two wedging conditions, lateral only (LW) and medial and lateral wedged conditions (dual wedges = DW). Dosimetry was optimized at the CAX for DW and LW conditions. Dose distributions and hot spots relative to prescribed dose were compared for cranial, CAX, and caudal images. Mean chest wall separations were measured. Six of ten patients had equivalent LW and DW distributions at the levels examined. Only one of these patients had a single off-axis hot spot > 20%. Six patients had comparable LW and DW dosimetry and acceptable hot spots at the central axis, as well as chest wall separations < or = 22 cm. In conclusion, if isodose configurations are commensurate at the CAX, these patients will have homogeneity above and below the CAX. In patients with chest wall separations < or = 22 cm, treatment without the medial wedge is feasible, sparing the contralateral breast dose with little compromise to inhomogeneity in the treated breast.

  3. Statics of Magnetic Fluid Drop with Compound Magnetic Core in a Wedge-Shaped Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Bashtovoi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A behavior of magnetic fluid drop with compound magnetic core in a wedge-shaped channel was studied experimentally. The study examines influence of magnetic fluid properties, its volume and magnetic field on statics of the system compound magnet – magnetic fluid drop in wedge-shaped channel. The possibility to change the static conditions of such system by altering magnetic field of the core was observed

  4. The effect of foot orthoses and in-shoe wedges during cycling: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Yeo, Boon K; Bonanno, Daniel R

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of foot orthoses and in-shoe wedges in cycling are largely based on theoretical benefits and anecdotal evidence. This review aimed to systematically collect all published research on this topic, critically evaluate the methods and summarise the findings. Methods Study inclusion criteria were: all empirical studies that evaluated the effects of foot orthoses or in-shoe wedges on cycling; outcome measures that investigated physiological parameters, kinematics and kinetics of ...

  5. Assessment of a multibeam Fizeau wedge interferometer for Doppler wind lidar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Jack A

    2002-03-20

    The Fabry-Perot interferometer is the standard instrument for the direct detection Doppler lidar measurement of atmospheric wind speeds. The multibeam Fizeau wedge has some practical advantages over the Fabry-Perot, such as the linear fringe pattern, and is evaluated for this application. The optimal Fizeau must have a resolving power of 10(6) or more. As the multibeam Fizeau wedge is pushed to such high resolving power, the interference fringes of the device become complicated by asymmetry and secondary maxima. A simple condition for the interferometer plate reflectance, optical gap, and wedge angle reveals whether a set of parameters will yield simple, Airy-like fringes or complex Fizeau fringes. Tilting of the Fizeau wedge improves the fringe shape and permits an extension of the regime of Airy-like fringes to higher resolving power. Sufficient resolving power for the wind lidar application is shown to be possible with a large-gap, low-finesse multibeam Fizeau wedge. Liabilities of the multibeam Fizeau wedge in the wind lidar application include a smaller acceptance solid angle and calibration sensitivity to localized deviations of the plates from the ideal.

  6. EFFECT OF SALT WEDGE INTRUSION IN KUSHIRO WETLAND CONSIDERING SEA LEVEL RISE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamoto, Atsushi; Shintani, Tetsuya; Nakayama, Keisuke; Maruya, Yasuyuki; Ishida, Tetsuya; Houmura, Kenichi

    This paper describes the effect of sea-level rise (SLR) on the salt wedge intrusion in terms of ecological system in Kushiro wetland. Kushiro wetland was registered by Ramsar Treaty and the largest wetland in Japan. A previous study demonstrates that the salt wedge intrusion may not affect ecological system of Kushiro wetland, such as loss of freshwater plants along Kushiro River. However, it is revealed that SLR may occur in the end of the 21st century, which enhances the increase in the distance of the salt wedge intrusion along Kushiro River and the loss of endangered species of Kushiro wetland along Kushiro River. This study thus aims to investigate the influence of the salt wedge intrusion on freshwater plants along Kushiro River, and to clarify the salt wedge intrusion when SLR occurs due to climate change. We attempted to investigate the influence of SLR on endangered species along Kyu-Kushiro River in which sea water is likely to intrude up to about 8 km from the river mouth. As results, it is suggested from field observations that salinity may decrease freshwater plants along Kushiro River, and it clarifies the possibility that the salt wedge intrudes Kushiro River due to SLR by using 3D hydrodynamic model, Fantom3D.

  7. Experimental study of slot jet impingement heat transfer on a wedge-shaped surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Mostafa; Irani, Mohammad

    2012-12-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to study the convective heat transfer rate from a wedge-shaped surface to a rectangular subsonic air jet impinging onto the apex of the wedge. The jet Reynolds number, nozzle-to-surface distance and the wedge angle were considered as the main parameters. Jet Reynolds number was ranged from 5,000 to 20,000 and two dimensionless nozzle-to-surface distances h/w = 4 and 10 were examined. The apex angle of the wedge ranged from 30° to 180° where the latter case corresponds with that of a flat surface. Velocity profile and turbulence intensity were provided for free jet flow using hot wire anemometer. Local and average Nusselt numbers on the impinged surface are presented for all the configurations. Based on the results presented, the local Nusselt number at the stagnation region increases as the wedge angle is decreased but, it then decreases over the remaining area of the impinged surface. Average Nusselt number over the whole surface is maximum when the wedge angle is 180° (i.e. plane surface) for any jet and nozzle-to-surface configuration.

  8. Improve the transconductance of a graphene field-effect transistor by folding graphene into a wedge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Guiming; Liu, Weihua; Cao, Meng; Li, Xin; Zhang, Anping; Wang, Xiaoli; Chen, Bangdao

    2016-07-01

    The transport property of a graphene wedge channel is studied theoretically and its leakage current through field emission is estimated when considering the effect of the internal electric field. The transconductance of the graphene transistor is improved from 0.016 to 0.321 μS μm-1 when the graphene is folded into a wedge (with angle of wedge π/6 and radius curvature 2.7 nm at the tip), while the wedge height is much smaller than the space between the top-gate and the channel. The improved transconductance is due to the locally enhanced electric field, which results in a potential well and causes electron accumulation at the wedge tip. The leakage current through field emission J FE shows a super-linear increase with the channel conductive current J DS, where overall the electron supply for the field emission at the wedge tip is improved by the channel bias voltage V DS.

  9. Serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii, Dirofilaria immitis, Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) infections in pet cats in Bangkok and vicinities, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhumavasi, Woraporn; Bellosa, Mary L; Lucio-Forster, Araceli; Liotta, Janice L; Lee, Alice C Y; Pornmingmas, Pitcha; Chungpivat, Sudchit; Mohammed, Hussni O; Lorentzen, Leif; Dubey, J P; Bowman, Dwight D

    2012-08-13

    The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, Dirofilaria immitis (heartworm), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infections was examined using serum or plasma samples from 746 pet cats collected between May and July 2009 from clinics and hospitals located in and around Bangkok, Thailand. The samples were tested for heartworm, FIV, and FeLV using a commercial ELISA. Of the 746 samples, 4.6% (34/746) were positive for heartworm antigen, 24.5% (183/746) had circulating FeLV antigen, and 20.1% (150/746) had antibodies against FIV. In addition, the first 348 submitted samples were tested for T. gondii antibodies using a modified agglutination test (MAT, cut off 1:25); 10.1% (35/348) were seropositive. Of the 348 cats sampled for all four pathogens, 11, 10, and 1 were positive for T. gondii antibodies and FIV antibodies, FeLV antigen, or D. immitis antigen, respectively. Of the 35 T. gondii-seropositive cats, 42.9% (15/35) were co-infected with at least one of the other three pathogens. The presence of antibodies to FIV was significantly associated with both age and gender, while FeLV antigen presence was only associated with age. In the case of FIV, males were twice as likely to be infected as females, and cats over 10 years of age were 13.5 times more likely to be infected than cats less than 1 year of age. FeLV antigen was more common in younger cats, with cats over 10 years of age being 10 times less likely to be FeLV positive than cats under 1 year of age. This is the first survey for these four pathogens affecting feline health in Thailand.

  10. Active Aerothermoelastic Control of Hypersonic Double-wedge Lifting Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laith K Abbas; Chen Qian; Piergiovanni Marzocca; Gürdal Zafer; Abdalla Mostafa

    2008-01-01

    Designing reentry space vehicles and high-speed aireraft requires special attention to the nonlinear thermoelastic and aerodynamic instability of their structural components. The thermal effects are important since temperature environment brings dramatic influences on the static and dynamic behaviors of flight structures in supersonic/hypersonic regimes and is likely to cause instability, catastrophic failure and oscillations resulting in structural failure due to fatigue. In order to understand the dynamic behaviors of these "hot"structures, a double-wedge lifting surface with combining freeplay and cubic structural nonlinearities in both plunging and pitching degrees-of-freedom operating in supersonic/hypersonic flight speed regimes has been analyzed. A third order piston theory aerodynamic isused to estimate the applied nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic loads. Also considered is the loss of torsiunal stiffness that may be incurredby lifting surfaces subject to axial stresses induced by aerodynamic heating. The aerodynamic heating effects are estimated based on theadiabatic wall temperature due to high speed airstreams. As a recently emerging technology, the active aerothermoelastic control isaimed at providing solutions to a large number of problems involving the aeronautica Faerospace flight vehicle structures. To preventsuch damaging phenomena from occurring, an application of linear and nonlinear active control methods on both flutter boundary andpost-flutter behavior has been fulfilled. In this paper, modeling issues as well as numerical simulation have been presented and pertinent conclusions outlined. It is evidenced that a serious loss of torsional stiffness may induce the dynamic instability; however active controlcan be used to expand the flutter boundary and convert unstable limit cycle oscillations (LCO) into the stable LCO and/or to shift the transition between these two states toward higher flight Mach numbers.

  11. Modes of continental extension in a lithospheric wedge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, G.; Lavier, L. L.; Choi, E.

    2014-12-01

    We studied extension of a lithospheric wedge as an approximation to an orogenic belt or a continental margin. We ran a series of numerical models to quantify the effects of the strength of the lower crust and a mid-crustal shear zone (MCSZ) on the extension processes. When the MCSZ is present, we found that the regional lower crustal flow plays a critical role in controlling the modes of extension. The compensation is long-wavelength when the lower crust flows from the highest to the lowest elevation in order to compensate upper crustal thinning. In response to this motion, the mantle flows towards the highest elevation in order to balance for the lower crust leaving the area under the highest topography. For weak (wet quartz regime with partial melting) or intermediate (wet quartz regime), or strong (dry quartz regime) lower crust, we recognized three predominantly decoupled modes of extension characterized by 1) significant lower crustal exhumation exemplified as a large massif, 2) formation of core complexes and detachment faults, and 3) distributive domino faulting, respectively. Without the MCSZ, however, the lower crustal flow is essentially subdued with predominantly coupled extension. For weak or intermediate, or strong lower crust, we recognized three coupled modes characterized by 1) localized generally symmetric crustal exhumation, 2) distributed grabens and narrow rifts, and 3) wide continental margins, respectively. The MCSZ controls the degree of decoupling of the lower crustal flow such that a frictionally stronger MCSZ does not change the behaviors of the models but results in a more distributed extension. Due to the long-wavelength compensation, subhorizontal Moho is achieved where intensive extension occurred for all the decoupled models with a MCSZ. Natural counterparts for each mode may be easily identified, for instance, in the Basin and Range or the Aegean.

  12. Laboratory investigation of water extraction effects on saltwater wedge displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Noorabadi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a close connection between saltwater intrusion into aquifers and groundwater extraction. Freshwater extraction in coastal aquifers is one of the most important reasons for the saltwater intrusion into these aquifers. Condition of extraction system such as well depth, discharge rate, saltwater concentration and etc. could affect this process widely. Thus, investigating different extraction conditions comprises many management advantages.  In the present study, the effects of freshwater extraction on saltwater interface displacement have been investigated in a laboratory box. Three different well depths (H were considered with combinations of 3 different extraction rates (Q and 3 saltwater concentrations (C for detailed investigation of the effects of these factors variations on saltwater displacement. SEAWAT model has been used to simulate all the scenarios to numerically study of the process. The experimental and numerical results showed that when the C and Q rates were small and the well depth was shallow, the saltwater interface wouldn’t reach the extraction well, so the extracted water remained uncontaminated. When the C and Q rates were increased and the well was deepened, the salinity of the extracted water became higher. When the Q and C rates were high enough, in the shallow well depth, the final concentration of the extracted water was low but a huge part of the porous media was contaminated by the saltwater, furthermore when the well was deepened enough, the final concentration of the extracted water was increased but a small part of the porous media was contaminated by the saltwater. Finally, the results showed that when the Q and H rates were high enough, the extraction well behaved like a barrier and didn’t allow the advancing saltwater wedge toe to be intruded beyond the wells.

  13. Church splits in the Don region in 1920-1930s. Collection of documents and materials / L.V. Tabunshchikovа, A.V. Shadrinа. Rostov-on-Don: Antaeus, 2015. 640 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey A. Kostryukov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The review is devoted to the collection of documents and materials “Church Split in the Don region in 1920–1930”, published in 2015. The Compilers, L.V. Tabunshchikovа and A.V. Shadrina, identified and prepared for publication 260 documents, covering the period from the beginning of Renovationist (1922 and Gregorian (1925 splits up to their elimination in the Rostov region in the mid-1940s. The vast majority of documents have been published for the first time. They show that the GPU initiated Renovationist and Gregorian schisms in the Don. The compilers identified four diocesan Renovationist centers, the names of not only Renovationist and Gregorian, but also anti-Renovationist Don bishops.

  14. Three-dimensional vertebral wedging in mild and moderate adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie-Anne Scherrer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vertebral wedging is associated with spinal deformity progression in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Reporting frontal and sagittal wedging separately could be misleading since these are projected values of a single three-dimensional deformation of the vertebral body. The objectives of this study were to determine if three-dimensional vertebral body wedging is present in mild scoliosis and if there are a preferential vertebral level, position and plane of deformation with increasing scoliotic severity. METHODOLOGY: Twenty-seven adolescent idiopathic scoliotic girls with mild to moderate Cobb angles (10° to 50° participated in this study. All subjects had at least one set of bi-planar radiographs taken with the EOS® X-ray imaging system prior to any treatment. Subjects were divided into two groups, separating the mild (under 20° from the moderate (20° and over spinal scoliotic deformities. Wedging was calculated in three different geometric planes with respect to the smallest edge of the vertebral body. RESULTS: Factorial analyses of variance revealed a main effect for the scoliosis severity but no main effect of vertebral Levels (apex and each of the three vertebrae above and below it (F = 1.78, p = 0.101. Main effects of vertebral Positions (apex and above or below it (F = 4.20, p = 0.015 and wedging Planes (F = 34.36, p<0.001 were also noted. Post-hoc analysis demonstrated a greater wedging in the inferior group of vertebrae (3.6° than the superior group (2.9°, p = 0.019 and a significantly greater wedging (p≤0.03 along the sagittal plane (4.3°. CONCLUSIONS: Vertebral wedging was present in mild scoliosis and increased as the scoliosis progressed. The greater wedging of the inferior group of vertebrae could be important in estimating the most distal vertebral segment to be restrained by bracing or to be fused in surgery. Largest vertebral body wedging values obtained in the sagittal plane support

  15. No Evidence of XMRV or MuLV Sequences in Prostate Cancer, Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma, or the UK Blood Donor Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark James Robinson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Xenotropic murine leukaemia virus-related virus (XMRV is a recently described retrovirus which has been claimed to infect humans and cause associated pathology. Initially identified in the US in patients with prostate cancer and subsequently in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome, doubt now exists that XMRV is a human pathogen. We studied the prevalence of genetic sequences of XMRV and related MuLV sequences in human prostate cancer, from B cell lymphoma patients and from UK blood donors. Nucleic acid was extracted from fresh prostate tissue biopsies, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE prostate tissue and FFPE B-cell lymphoma. The presence of XMRV-specific LTR or MuLV generic gag-like sequences was investigated by nested PCR. To control for mouse DNA contamination, a PCR that detected intracisternal A-type particle (IAP sequences was included. In addition, DNA and RNA were extracted from whole blood taken from UK blood donors and screened for XMRV sequences by real-time PCR. XMRV or MuLV-like sequences were not amplified from tissue samples. Occasionally MuLV gag and XMRV-LTR sequences were amplified from Indian prostate cancer samples, but were always detected in conjunction with contaminating murine genomic DNA. We found no evidence of XMRV or MuLV infection in the UK blood donors.

  16. The Mus cervicolor MuLV isolate M813 is highly fusogenic and induces a T-cell lymphoma associated with large multinucleated cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prassolov, V; Ivanov, D; Hein, S; Rutter, G; Münk, C; Löhler, J; Stocking, C

    2001-11-10

    M813 is a type-C murine leukemia virus (MuLV) isolated from the Asian rodent Mus cervicolor. We have recently demonstrated that M813 defines a distinct MuLV receptor interference group. Here we show that M813 rapidly induces fusion of MuLV-expressing fibroblasts from "without," with syncytia being observed within 1 h after exposure to virus. Infection of fibroblasts with MuLV from all tested receptor-interference groups imparts susceptibility to M813-induced fusion, provided the cells also express the M813 receptor. Syncytium induction is also observed in vivo; mice infected with M813 develop a peripheral T-cell lymphoma, which is associated with large multinucleated cells of macrophage origin. A recombinant Moloney MuLV/M813 chimeric virus demonstrated that syncytium induction is a function of the Env SU protein. We postulate that the highly fusogenic property of M813 is attributable to either its unique receptor usage or sequences in the proline-rich domain of the Env protein.

  17. Process Based Explanations for Correlations Between the Structural and Seismic Segmentation of the Cascadia Subduction Wedge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, C. W.; Brandon, M. T.; Willett, S. D.

    2006-12-01

    Variations in the geological and geophysical characteristics of the Cascadia subduction wedge, the region between the trench and arc, result in along-strike wedge segmentation. We focus on explaining the large-scale structural segmentation and how processes causing this segmentation influence segmentation with respect to the seismic behavior of the wedge and subduction thrust. The relationships we develop illustrate the fundamental interplay of processes controlling long-term structure and short-term seismic behavior. Our conclusions are based on the results of numerical models designed to simulate the growth and evolution of the Cascadia subduction wedge through the accretion of a thin layer of sediment to the basaltic Coast Range Terrane (CRT) of the Cascadia margin. Two aspects of wedge structural segmentation are of interest: (1) segmentation with respect to the location or absence of large, continental shelf, forearc basins, and (2) segmentation with respect to the Coastal Range (CR) structural high. Our models illustrate that the form of the submarine portion of the Cascadia wedge, including the basins or lack thereof, is a consequence of the frictional behavior of this region of wedge, subduction thrust strength, wedge strength, and dip thrust. We propose that basin segments have stronger wedge material, a weaker thrust, or a steeper thrust than basin free segments. The presence of basins is significant because they stabilize the margin and prevent subduction and accretion related deformation. This stabilization allows the thrust to preferentially support thermally induced, fluid overpressures and undergo fault healing thus increasing the likelihood of large coseismic slip within basin segments. While no historical earthquake data supporting this argument exists for Cascadia, such behavior has been observed in many margins (Song and Simons, 2003; Wells et al., 2003). It is reasonable to assume that large earthquakes in Cascadia will have the same association

  18. Rainfall induced groundwater mound in wedge-shaped promontories: The Strack-Chernyshov model revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacimov, A. R.; Kayumov, I. R.; Al-Maktoumi, A.

    2016-11-01

    An analytical solution to the Poisson equation governing Strack's discharge potential (squared thickness of a saturated zone in an unconfined aquifer) is obtained in a wedge-shaped domain with given head boundary conditions on the wedge sides (specified water level in an open water body around a porous promontory). The discharge vector components, maximum elevation of the water table in promontory vertical cross-sections, quantity of groundwater seeping through segments of the wedge sides, the volume of fresh groundwater in the mound are found. For acute angles, the solution to the problem is non-unique and specification of the behaviour at infinity is needed. A "basic" solution is distinguished, which minimizes the water table height above a horizontal bedrock. MODFLOW simulations are carried out in a finite triangular island and compare solutions with a constant-head, no-flow and "basic" boundary condition on one side of the triangle. Far from the tip of an infinite-size promontory one has to be cautious with truncation of the simulated flow domains and imposing corresponding boundary conditions. For a right and obtuse wedge angles, there are no positive solutions for the case of constant accretion on the water table. In a particular case of a confined rigid wedge-shaped aquifer and incompressible fluid, from an explicit solution to the Laplace equation for the hydraulic head with arbitrary time-space varying boundary conditions along the promontory rays, essentially 2-D transient Darcian flows within the wedge are computed. They illustrate that surface water waves on the promontory boundaries can generate strong Darcian waves inside the porous wedge. Evaporation from the water table and sea-water intruded interface (rather than a horizontal bed) are straightforward generalizations for the Poissonian Strack potential.

  19. Effect of Laterally Wedged Insoles on the External Knee Adduction Moment across Different Reference Frames.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Yamaguchi

    Full Text Available Biomechanical effects of laterally wedged insoles are assessed by reduction in the knee adduction moment. However, the degree of reduction may vary depending on the reference frame with which it is calculated. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of reference frame on the reduction in the knee adduction moment by laterally wedged insoles.Twenty-nine healthy participants performed gait trials with a laterally wedged insole and with a flat insole as a control. The knee adduction moment, including the first and second peaks and the angular impulse, were calculated using four different reference frames: the femoral frame, tibial frame, laboratory frame and the Joint Coordinate System.There were significant effects of reference frame on the knee adduction moment first and second peaks (P < 0.001 for both variables, while the effect was not significant for the angular impulse (P = 0.84. No significant interaction between the gait condition and reference frame was found in either of the knee adduction moment variables (P = 0.99 for all variables, indicating that the effects of laterally wedged insole on the knee adduction moments were similar across the four reference frames. On the other hand, the average percent changes ranged from 9% to 16% for the first peak, from 16% to 18% for the second peak and from 17% to 21% for the angular impulse when using the different reference frames.The effects of laterally wedged insole on the reduction in the knee adduction moment were similar across the reference frames. On the other hand, Researchers need to recognize that when the percent change was used as the parameter of the efficacy of laterally wedged insole, the choice of reference frame may influence the interpretation of how laterally wedged insoles affect the knee adduction moment.

  20. Prediction of knee joint moment changes during walking in response to wedged insole interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewinson, Ryan T; Stefanyshyn, Darren J

    2016-04-01

    Wedged insoles are prescribed for medial knee osteoarthritis to reduce the knee adduction moment; however, it is currently not possible to predict which patients will in fact experience reduced moments. The purpose of this study was to identify a simple method using two-dimensional data for predicting the expected change in knee adduction moments with wedged insoles. Knee adduction moments during walking were determined for healthy individuals (n = 15) and individuals with medial knee osteoarthritis (n = 19) while wearing their own shoe without an insole (control), with a 6-mm medial wedge and with a 6-mm lateral wedge. The percent changes relative to control were determined. Then, participants completed single-step trials with each footwear condition where only the changes in mediolateral positions of the knee joint center, shank center of mass, ankle joint center, and foot center of mass relative to control were determined. These variables were used as predictors in regression equations where the change in knee adduction moment during walking was the dependent variable. The change in mediolateral positions of the lower extremity during a single step significantly predicted the change in knee adduction moment during walking for the lateral wedge in both the healthy (R(2) = 0.72, p = 0.008) and knee osteoarthritis (R(2) = 0.52, p = 0.026) groups, and also for the medial wedge in both the healthy (R(2) = 0.67, p = 0.016) and knee osteoarthritis (R(2) = 0.54, p = 0.020) groups. The method of using mediolateral position data from a single-step movement to predict walking biomechanics was successful. These data are relatively simple to collect and analyze, offering the possibility for future incorporation into a wedge prediction system. © IMechE 2016.

  1. The effect of shoe design and lateral wedges on knee load and neuromuscular control in healthy subjects during walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Carsten Møller; Kersting, Uwe G.

    2013-01-01

    design/type on the effectiveness of lateral wedging has not been investigated so far. The Purpose of the present study was to explore alterations in knee loading due to lateral foot wedges in three different shoes. Methods: Thirteen healthy participants with no history of knee pain were tested using...... three-dimensional gait analysis. Barefoot walking, walking in a running shoe, an Oxford-type leather shoe, and a rocker shoe were analysed. The shoes were tested both with and without a 10-degree full-length laterally wedged insole. Results: There were significant shoe wedge interactions on the first...... and second peak knee adduction moments. However, the variability of this moment between shoe designs was of similar magnitude as the effect of laterally wedged insoles. Only marginal changes in muscle activity for gastrocnemius when walking with the wedged Oxford shoe were revealed. Conclusion: Lateral...

  2. Total knee arthroplasty after failed high tibial osteotomy: a systematic review of open versus closed wedge osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jae Hwi; Yang, Jae-Hyuk; Bhandare, Nikhl N; Suh, Dong Won; Lee, Jong Seong; Chang, Yong Suk; Yeom, Ji Woong; Nha, Kyung Wook

    2016-08-01

    Medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO) has become increasingly popular as an alternative to lateral closing wedge osteotomy for the treatment of medial compartment knee osteoarthritis with varus deformity. The present systematic review was conducted to provide an objective analysis of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) outcomes following previous knee osteotomy (medial opening wedge vs. lateral closing wedge). A literature search of online databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library database) was made, in addition to manual search of major orthopaedic journals. The methodological quality of each of the studies was assessed on the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and Effective Practice and Organization of Care. A total of ten studies were included in the review. There were eight studies with Level IV and two studies with Level III evidence. Eight studies reported clinical and radiologic scores. Comparative studies between TKA following medial opening and lateral closing wedge HTO did not demonstrate statistically significant clinical and radiologic differences. The revision rates were similar. However, more technical issues during TKA surgery after lateral closing wedge HTO were mentioned than the medial open wedge group. The quadriceps snip, tibial tubercle osteotomy, and lateral soft tissue release were more frequently needed in the lateral closing wedge HTO group. In addition, because of loss of proximal tibia bone geometry in the lateral closing wedge HTO group, concerns such as tibia stem impingement in the lateral tibial cortex was noted. The present systematic review suggests that TKA after medial opening and lateral closing wedge HTO showed similar performance. Clinical and radiologic outcome including revision rates did not statistically differ from included studies. However, there are more surgical technical concerns in TKA conversion from lateral closing wedge HTO than from the medial opening wedge HTO group. IV.

  3. Wedge filling and interface delocalization in finite Ising lattices with antisymmetric surface fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milchev, Andrey; Müller, M.; Binder, K.; Landau, D. P.

    2003-09-01

    Theoretical predictions by Parry et al. for wetting phenomena in a wedge geometry are tested by Monte Carlo simulations. Simple cubic L×L×Ly Ising lattices with nearest neighbor ferromagnetic exchange and four free L×Ly surfaces, at which antisymmetric surface fields ±Hs act, are studied for a wide range of linear dimensions (4⩽L⩽320, 30⩽Ly⩽1000), in an attempt to clarify finite size effects on the wedge filling transition in this “double-wedge” geometry. Interpreting the Ising model as a lattice gas, the problem is equivalent to a liquid-gas transition in a pore with quadratic cross section, where two walls favor the liquid and the other two walls favor the gas. For temperatures T below the bulk critical temperature Tc this boundary condition (where periodic boundary conditions are used in the y direction along the wedges) leads to the formation of two domains with oppositely oriented magnetization and separated by an interface. For L,Ly→∞ and T larger than the filling transition temperature Tf(Hs), this interface runs from the one wedge where the surface planes with a different sign of the surface field meet (on average) straight to the opposite wedge, so that the average magnetization of the system is zero. For Tinterface is bound either to the wedge where the two surfaces with field -Hs meet (then the total magnetization m of the system is positive) or to the opposite wedge (then minterface midpoint from the wedges is studied as T→Tf(Hs) from below, as is the corresponding behavior of the magnetization and its moments. We consider the variation of l0 for T>Tf(Hs) as a function of a bulk field and find that the associated exponents agree with theoretical predictions. The correlation length ξy in the y direction along the wedges is also studied, and we find no transition for finite L and Ly→∞. For L→∞ the prediction l0∝(Hsc-Hs)-1/4 is verified, where Hsc(T) is the inverse function of Tf(Hs) and ξy∝(Hsc-Hs)-3/4, respectively. We

  4. Alexa Fluor 546-ArIB[V11L;V16A] is a potent ligand for selectively labeling alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hone, Arik J; Whiteaker, Paul; Mohn, Jesse L; Jacob, Michele H; McIntosh, J Michael

    2010-08-01

    The alpha7* (*denotes the possible presence of additional subunits) nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtype is widely expressed in the vertebrate nervous system and implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders that compromise thought and cognition. In this report, we demonstrate that the recently developed fluorescent ligand Cy3-ArIB[V11L;V16A] labels alpha7 nAChRs in cultured hippocampal neurons. However, photobleaching of this ligand during long image acquisition times prompted us to develop a new derivative. In photostability studies, this new ligand, Alexa Fluor 546-ArIB[V11L;V16A], was significantly more resistant to bleaching than the Cy3 derivative. The classic alpha7 ligand alpha-bungarotoxin binds to alpha1* and alpha9* nAChRs. In contrast, Alexa Fluor 546-ArIB[V11L;V16A] potently (IC(50) 1.8 nM) and selectively blocked alpha7 nAChRs but not alpha1* or alpha9* nAChRs expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Selectivity was further confirmed by competition binding studies of native nAChRs in rat brain membranes. The fluorescence properties of Alexa Fluor 546-ArIB[V11L;V16A] were assessed using human embryonic kidney-293 cells stably transfected with nAChRs; labeling was observed on cells expressing alpha7 but not cells expressing alpha3beta2, alpha3beta4, or alpha4beta2 nAChRs. Further imaging studies demonstrate that Alexa Fluor 546-ArIB[V11L;V16A] labels hippocampal neurons from wild-type mice but not from nAChR alpha7 subunit-null mice. Thus, Alexa Fluor 546-ArIB[V11L;V16A] represents a potent and selective ligand for imaging alpha7 nAChRs.

  5. Study and evaluation of the Siemens virtual wedge factor: dosimetric monitor system and variable field effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sendon Rio, J R Sendon; Martinez, C Otero; GarcIa, M Sanchez; Busto, R Lobato; Vega, V Luna; Sueiro, J Mosquera; Camean, M Pombar [Servizo de Radiofisica e Proteccion Radioloxica, Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago de Compostela (CHUS), Santiago de Compostela (Spain)], E-mail: jose.ramon.sendon.del.rio@sergas.es

    2008-03-07

    In the year 1997 Siemens introduced the virtual wedge in its accelerators. The idea was that a dose profile similar to that of a physical wedge can be obtained by moving one of the accelerator jaws at a constant speed while the dose rate is changing. This work explores the observed behaviour of virtual wedge factors. A model is suggested which takes into account that at any point in time, when the jaw moves, the dose at a point of interest in the phantom is not only due to the direct beam. It also depends on the scattered radiation in the phantom, the head scatter and the behaviour of the monitoring system of the accelerator. Measurements are performed in a Siemens Primus accelerator and compared to the model predictions. It is shown that the model agrees reasonably well with measurements spanning a wide range of conditions. A strong dependence of virtual wedge factors on the dosimetric board has been confirmed and an explanation has been given on how the balance between different contributions is responsible for virtual wedge factors values.

  6. Analysis of bonded anisotropic wedges with interface crack under anti-plane shear loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.GHADIRI; A.R.SHAHANI

    2014-01-01

    The antiplane stress analysis of two anisotropic finite wedges with arbitrary radii and apex angles that are bonded together along a common edge is investigated. The wedge radial boundaries can be subjected to displacement-displacement boundary condi-tions, and the circular boundary of the wedge is free from any traction. The new finite complex transforms are employed to solve the problem. These finite complex transforms have complex analogies to both kinds of standard finite Mellin transforms. The traction free condition on the crack faces is expressed as a singular integral equation by using the exact analytical method. The explicit terms for the strength of singularity are extracted, showing the dependence of the order of the stress singularity on the wedge angle, material constants, and boundary conditions. A numerical method is used for solving the resul-tant singular integral equations. The displacement boundary condition may be a general term of the Taylor series expansion for the displacement prescribed on the radial edge of the wedge. Thus, the analysis of every kind of displacement boundary conditions can be obtained by the achieved results from the foregoing general displacement boundary condition. The obtained stress intensity factors (SIFs) at the crack tips are plotted and compared with those obtained by the finite element analysis (FEA).

  7. Proximal first metatarsal opening wedge osteotomy: geometric analysis on saw bone models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugan, R; Currall, V A; Johal, P; Clark, C I C

    2015-03-01

    For hallux valgus correction, distal first metatarsal osteotomy is generally used for minor to moderate deformities, diaphyseal osteotomy for moderate deformities and basal osteotomy or arthrodesis for severe deformities. With the advent of locking plates, there has been renewed interest in opening wedge basal osteotomy. We undertook this study in order to understand the power and limitations of this osteotomy. Proximal opening wedge osteotomies were performed on saw bone models in four orientations, with three different wedge sizes: (1) perpendicular to the ground (PG); (2) perpendicular to the shaft (PS); (3) perpendicular to shaft with 30° declination (DEC); (4) 30° oblique (OB). Pre- and post-osteotomy measurements were made of axial and plantar translation and inter-metatarsal angle. Plantar translation and intermetatarsal angle correction increased with increasing wedge size. The DEC osteotomy produced the greatest increase in length of metatarsal shaft, while the PS osteotomy gave the least. The most plantar translation was achieved with the DEC osteotomy. Overall, the PS osteotomy gave the largest correction of the intermetatarsal angle. Although there are several published clinical case series of the proximal opening wedge osteotomy, this is the first study to fully evaluate its geometry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Enhanced dynamic wedge output factors for Varian 2300CD and the case for a reference database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njeh, Christopher F

    2015-09-08

    Dose inhomogeneity in treatment planning can be compensated using physical wedges. Enhanced dynamic wedges (EDW) were introduced by Varian to overcome some of the shortcomings of physical wedges. The objectives of this study were to measure EDW output factors for 6 MV and 20 MV photon energies for a Varian 2300CD. Secondly, to review the literature in terms of published enhanced dynamic wedge output factors (EDWOF) for different Varian models and thereby add credence to the case of the validity of reference databases. The enhanced dynamic wedge output factors were measured for the Varian 2300CD for both 6MV and 20 MV photon energies. Twelve papers with published EDWOF for different Varian linac models were found in the literature. Comparing our results with the published mean, we found an excellent agreement for 6 MV EDWOF, with the percentage differences ranging from 0.01% to 0.57%, with a mean of 0.03%. The coefficient of variation of published EDWOF ranged from 0.17% to 0.85% and 0.1% to 0.9% for the for 6 MV and 18 MV photon energies, respectively. This paper provides the first published EDWOF for 20 MV photon energy. In addition, we have provided the first compendium of EDWOFs for different Varian linac models. The consistency of value across models and institution provide further support that a standard dataset of basic photon and electron dosimetry could be established as a guide for future commissioning, beam modeling, and quality assurance purposes.

  9. Seismic evidence for a cold serpentinized mantle wedge beneath Mount St Helens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, S M; Schmandt, B; Levander, A; Kiser, E; Vidale, J E; Abers, G A; Creager, K C

    2016-11-01

    Mount St Helens is the most active volcano within the Cascade arc; however, its location is unusual because it lies 50 km west of the main axis of arc volcanism. Subduction zone thermal models indicate that the down-going slab is decoupled from the overriding mantle wedge beneath the forearc, resulting in a cold mantle wedge that is unlikely to generate melt. Consequently, the forearc location of Mount St Helens raises questions regarding the extent of the cold mantle wedge and the source region of melts that are responsible for volcanism. Here using, high-resolution active-source seismic data, we show that Mount St Helens sits atop a sharp lateral boundary in Moho reflectivity. Weak-to-absent PmP reflections to the west are attributed to serpentinite in the mantle-wedge, which requires a cold hydrated mantle wedge beneath Mount St Helens (<∼700 °C). These results suggest that the melt source region lies east towards Mount Adams.

  10. Medial Closing-Wedge Distal Femoral Osteotomy for Genu Valgum With Lateral Compartment Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, James D; Maak, Travis G

    2016-12-01

    Lateral compartment disease combined with valgus alignment can lead to progressive knee joint degeneration. In the symptomatic patient with isolated lateral compartment disease, a varus-producing distal femoral osteotomy can unload the diseased lateral compartment. This osteotomy may be combined with other cartilage or meniscal restorative techniques to optimize knee joint preservation and pain relief. The osteotomy can be performed with a medial closing-wedge or lateral opening-wedge technique. Both techniques have been reported to improve knee-related quality of life in patients with lateral compartment disease. Advantages of the medial closing-wedge technique are direct bone apposition leading to inherent stability of the construct, as well as reliable bony healing, and less hardware irritation. Advantages of the lateral opening-wedge technique are a single bony cut and therefore more of an ability to adjust correction intraoperatively. However, this technique requires bone grafting and has a high rate of hardware irritation or removal. We present a surgical technique for the medial closing-wedge distal femoral osteotomy using an anteromedial-distal femoral locking plate.

  11. Parental arc magma compositions dominantly controlled by mantle-wedge thermal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Stephen J.; Langmuir, Charles H.; Katz, Richard F.; Dungan, Michael A.; Escrig, Stéphane

    2016-10-01

    The processes that lead to the fourfold variation in arc-averaged compositions of mafic arc lavas remain controversial. Control by the mantle-wedge thermal structure is supported by chemical correlations with the thickness of the underlying arc crust, which affects the thermal state of the wedge. Control by down-going slab temperature is supported by correlations with the slab thermal parameter. The Chilean Southern Volcanic Zone provides a test of these hypotheses. Here we use chemical data to demonstrate that the Southern Volcanic Zone and global arc averages define the same chemical trends, both among elements and between elements and crustal thickness. But in contrast to the global arc system, the Southern Volcanic Zone is built on crust of variable thickness with a constant slab thermal parameter. This natural experiment, along with a set of numerical simulations, shows that global arc compositional variability is dominated by different extents of melting that are controlled by the thermal structure of the mantle wedge. Slab temperatures play a subordinate role. Variations in the subducting slab's fluid flux and sediment compositions, as well as mantle-wedge heterogeneities, produce second-order effects that are manifested as distinctive trace element and isotopic signatures; these can be more clearly elucidated once the importance of wedge thermal structure is recognized.

  12. Simulation of water entry of an elastic wedge using the FDS scheme and HCIB method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIN Sangmook; BAE Sung Yong

    2013-01-01

    The hydroelasticity of water entry of an elastic wedge is simulated using a code developed using the flux-difference splitting scheme for immiscible and incompressible fluids and the hybrid Cartesian/immersed boundary method.The free surface is regarded as a moving contact discontinuity and is captured without any additional treatment along the interface.Immersed boundary nodes are distributed inside a fluid domain based on the edges that cross an instantaneous body boundary.Dependent variables are reconstructed at each immersed boundary node with the help of an interpolation along a local normal line for providing a boundary condition for a discretized flow problem.A dynamic beam equation is used for modeling the elastic deformation of a wedge.The developed code is validated through comparisons with other experimental and computational results for a free-falling wedge.The effects of the elastic deformation of the wedge on the pressure fields and time histories of the impact force are investigated in relation to the stiffness and density of the structure.Grid independence test is carried out for the computed time history of the force acting on an elastic wedge.

  13. Measurement of photoneutron dose produced by wedge filters of a high energy linac using polycarbonate films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Seyed Mehdi; Hashemi-Malayeri, Bijan; Raisali, Gholamreza; Shokrani, Parvaneh; Sharafi, Ali Akbar; Torkzadeh, Falamarz

    2008-05-01

    Radiotherapy represents the most widely spread technique to control and treat cancer. To increase the treatment efficiency, high energy linacs are used. However, applying high energy photon beams leads to a non-negligible dose of neutrons contaminating therapeutic beams. In addition, using conventional linacs necessitates applying wedge filters in some clinical conditions. However, there is not enough information on the effect of these filters on the photoneutrons produced. The aim of this study was to investigate the change of photoneutron dose equivalent due to the use of linac wedge filters. A high energy (18 MV) linear accelerator (Elekta SL 75/25) was studied. Polycarbonate films were used to measure the dose equivalent of photoneutrons. After electrochemical etching of the films, the neutron dose equivalent was calculated using Hp(10) factor, and its variation on the patient plane at 0, 5, 10, 50 and 100 cm from the center of the X-ray beam was determined. By increasing the distance from the center of the X-ray beam towards the periphery, the photoneutron dose equivalent decreased rapidly for the open and wedged fields. Increasing of the field size increased the photoneutron dose equivalent. The use of wedge filter increased the proportion of the neutron dose equivalent. The increase can be accounted for by the selective absorption of the high energy photons by the wedge filter.

  14. A fully integrated high-Q Whispering-Gallery Wedge Resonator

    CERN Document Server

    Ramiro-Manzano, F; Pavesi, L; Pucker, G; Ghulinyan, M

    2012-01-01

    Microresonator devices which posses ultra-high quality factors are essential for fundamental investigations and applications. Microsphere and microtoroid resonators support remarkably high Q's at optical frequencies, while planarity constrains preclude their integration into functional lightwave circuits. Conventional semiconductor processing can also be used to realize ultra-high-Q's with planar wedge-resonators. Still, their full integration with side-coupled dielectric waveguides remains an issue. Here we show the full monolithic integration of a wedge-resonator/waveguide vertically-coupled system on a silicon chip. In this approach the cavity and the waveguide lay in different planes. This permits to realize the shallow-angle wedge while the waveguide remains intact, allowing therefore to engineer a coupling of arbitrary strength between these two. The precise size-control and the robustness against post-processing operation due to its monolithic integration makes this system a prominent platform for indu...

  15. The synthesis and adsorption properties of some carbohydrate-terminated dendrimer wedges

    CERN Document Server

    Ainsworth, R L

    1997-01-01

    A range of dendritic molecules that are designed to bind to a cotton surface has been synthesised. The architecture of the molecules allows the location of various functional, property modifying units at the focus and the attachment of recognition groups at the periphery of a dendritic molecule with wedge topology. The synthesis and characterisation of dendrimer wedges up to the second generation using a divergent approach has been performed. These wedges are readily built up using a simple and efficient stepwise pathway from the central core, and surface recognising species are subsequently attached to the molecule utilising procedures developed in conjunction with Unilever Research Laboratories. Work has been carried out to assess their adsorption onto a cotton surface and the postulated adsorption mechanism is discussed.

  16. Open wedge metatarsal osteotomy versus crescentic osteotomy to correct severe hallux valgus deformity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wester, Jens Ulrik; Hamborg-Petersen, Ellen; Herold, Niels

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Different techniques of proximal osteotomies have been introduced to correct severe hallux valgus. The open wedge osteotomy is a newly introduced method for proximal osteotomy. The aim of this prospective randomized study was to compare the radiological and clinical results after...... operation for severe hallux valgus, comparing the open wedge osteotomy to the crescentic osteotomy which is our traditional treatment. METHODS: Forty-five patients with severe hallux valgus (hallux valgus angle >35̊, and intermetatarsal angle >15̊) were included in this study. The treatment was proximal...... open wedge osteotomy and fixation with plate (Hemax), group 1, or operation with proximal crescentic osteotomy and fixation with a 3mm cannulated screw, group 2. The mean age was 52 years (19-71). Forty-one females and four males were included. Clinical and radiological follow-ups were performed 4...

  17. Wedge Shock and Nozzle Exhaust Plume Interaction in a Supersonic Jet Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castner, Raymond; Zaman, Khairul; Fagan, Amy; Heath, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Fundamental research for sonic boom reduction is needed to quantify the interaction of shock waves generated from the aircraft wing or tail surfaces with the nozzle exhaust plume. Aft body shock waves that interact with the exhaust plume contribute to the near-field pressure signature of a vehicle. The plume and shock interaction was studied using computational fluid dynamics and compared with experimental data from a coaxial convergent-divergent nozzle flow in an open jet facility. A simple diamond-shaped wedge was used to generate the shock in the outer flow to study its impact on the inner jet flow. Results show that the compression from the wedge deflects the nozzle plume and shocks form on the opposite plume boundary. The sonic boom pressure signature of the nozzle exhaust plume was modified by the presence of the wedge. Both the experimental results and computational predictions show changes in plume deflection.

  18. Stress singularity in a top of composite wedge with internal functionally graded material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor V. Tikhomirov

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The antiplane problem of the composite wedge consisting of two homogeneous external wedge-shaped areas and an intermediate zone of the interphase is studied. The interphase material is assumed functionally graded. It is shown that the problem in each area is harmonic within the quadratic law of inhomogeneity of the material in the transverse direction. The influence of the interphase on the stress state at the top of the wedge is analyzed. As compared to the ideal contact of external materials, the presence of the interphase leads both to decrease and increase in the singularity exponent. Moreover, the stress asymptotic may have two singular terms for some values of the composite parameters.

  19. Water Impact of Rigid Wedges in Two-Dimensional Fluid Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawan Shah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A combined experimental and numerical investigation was conducted into impact of rigid wedges on water in two-dimensional fluid conditions. Drop test experiments were conducted involving symmetric rigid wedges of varying angle and mass impacted onto water. The kinematic behaviour of the wedge and water was characterised using high-speed video. Numerical models were analysed in LS-DYNA® that combined regions of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics particles and a Lagrangian element mesh. The analysis captured the majority of experimental results and trends, within the bounds of experimental variance. Further, the combined modelling technique presented a highly attractive combination of computational efficiency and accuracy, making it a suitable candidate for aircraft ditching investigations.

  20. A quantum hybrid with a thin antenna at the vertex of a wedge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlone, Raffaele, E-mail: raffaele.carlone@unina.it [Università “Federico II” di Napoli, Dipartimento di Matematica e Applicazioni “R. Caccioppoli”, MSA, via Cinthia, I-80126, Napoli (Italy); Posilicano, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.posilicano@uninsubria.it [DiSAT, Università dell' Insubria, via Valleggio 11, I-22100, Como (Italy)

    2017-03-26

    We study the spectrum, resonances and scattering matrix of a quantum Hamiltonian on a “hybrid surface” consisting of a half-line attached by its endpoint to the vertex of a concave planar wedge. At the boundary of the wedge, outside the vertex, homogeneous Dirichlet conditions are imposed. The system is tunable by varying the measure of the angle at the vertex. - Highlights: • Spectral characterization of a quantum Hamiltonian on “hybrid surface” consisting of a halfline attached to the vertex of a concave planar wedge. • The system is tunable by varying the measure of the angle at the vertex. • Relation between the conduction properties inside the hybrid and formation of resonances. • Easy generalization of the results to more complicated structures.

  1. Pervasive seismic wave reflectivity and metasomatism of the Tonga mantle wedge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yingcai; Lay, Thorne; Flanagan, Megan P; Williams, Quentin

    2007-05-11

    Subduction zones play critical roles in the recycling of oceanic lithosphere and the generation of continental crust. Seismic imaging can reveal structures associated with key dynamic processes occurring in the upper-mantle wedge above the sinking oceanic slab. Three-dimensional images of reflecting interfaces throughout the upper-mantle wedge above the subducting Tonga slab were obtained by migration of teleseismic recordings of underside P- and S-wave reflections. Laterally continuous weak reflectors with tens of kilometers of topography were detected at depths near 90, 125, 200, 250, 300, 330, 390, 410, and 450 kilometers. P- and S-wave impedances decreased at the 330-kilometer and 450-kilometer reflectors, and S-wave impedance decreased near 200 kilometers in the vicinity of the slab and near 390 kilometers, just above the global 410-kilometer increase. The pervasive seismic reflectivity results from phase transitions and compositional zonation associated with extensive metasomatism involving slab-derived fluids rising through the wedge.

  2. Global Paleobathymetry Reconstruction with Realistic Shelf-Slope and Sediment Wedge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, A.; Hinnov, L. A.; Gnanadesikan, A.; Olson, P.

    2013-12-01

    We present paleo-ocean bathymetry reconstructions in a 0.1°x0.1° resolution, using simple geophysical models (Plate Model Equation for oceanic lithosphere), published ages of the ocean floor (Müller et al. 2008), and modern world sediment thickness data (Divins 2003). The motivation is to create realistic paleobathymetry to understand the effect of ocean floor roughness on tides and heat transport in paleoclimate simulations. The values for the parameters in the Plate Model Equation are deduced from Crosby et al. (2006) and are used together with ocean floor age to model Depth to Basement. On top of the Depth to Basement, we added an isostatically adjusted multilayer sediment layer, as indicated from sediment thickness data of the modern oceans and marginal seas (Divins 2003). We also created another version of the sediment layer from the Müller et al. dataset. The Depth to Basement with the appropriate sediment layer together represent a realistic paleobathymetry. A Sediment Wedge was modeled to complement the reconstructed paleobathymetry by extending it to the coastlines. In this process we added a modeled Continental Shelf and Continental Slope to match the extent of the reconstructed paleobathymetry. The Sediment Wedge was prepared by studying the modern ocean where a complete history of seafloor spreading is preserved (north, south and central Atlantic Ocean, Southern Ocean between Australia-Antarctica, and the Pacific Ocean off the west coast of South America). The model takes into account the modern continental shelf-slope structure (as evident from ETOPO1/ETOPO5), tectonic margin type (active vs. passive margin) and age of the latest tectonic activity (USGS & CGMW). Once the complete ocean bathymetry is modeled, we combine it with PALEOMAP (Scotese, 2011) continental reconstructions to produce global paleoworld elevation-bathymetry maps. Modern time (00 Ma) was assumed as a test case. Using the above-described methodology we reconstructed modern ocean

  3. Growth of the deposit wedge in the mountain reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.; Song, G.

    2011-12-01

    The sedimentary problem of mountain reservoirs in Taiwan is getting serious year by year.Due to eroded sediments enter downstream reservoirs,the loss of sediment transport capacity may cause deposition of sediment in reservoirs.This phenomenon make problems to small mountain reservoirs.To realize the interaction between deposit wedges and mountain reservoirs,we selected Wushe reservoir which is situated in central Taiwan for a case study. Wushe reservoir is long and narrow.In recent years,most sediment is introduced during rain events that now accompany climate change are very important in sediment supply.In this thesis,we collected data of underwater landform and sub-bottom bedding information by using high resolution Multibeam Survey System(MBS) and seismic-reflection system.Up to now,we already had the bathymetric data for more than ten years,moreover,in 2010,we used 3.5kHz sub-bottom seismic profiler to analysis the sedimentary bedding situation in this area.These methods provide us accurate reservoir topography,sediment accumulation and the major ways of sediment transportation.The study purposes are as follows: First,according to the available underwater data for last ten years,we recognize the geomorphological characters of sedimentation as well as complete the mappings.Comparing to bathymetric images each year,we evaluate the carried ways of sediment.The flow water which enters this area transports along the thalweg,which in eastern reservoir.The range of water level variation cause alteration of sedimentary morphology,it also affects the scope of alluvial fan.The alluvial fan is located in the middle of the reservoir,the edge of it had moved forward 500 meters for last ten years.The annual mean of forward velocity was 50 meters,the elevation of fan edge also accelerated 10 meters per year.In a word,the large volume of the sedimentary delta is in Wushe reservoir now. Second,trying to clarify the composition of sedimentation and explain the sub

  4. Quantitative comparisons of analogue models of brittle wedge dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreurs, Guido

    2010-05-01

    Analogue model experiments are widely used to gain insights into the evolution of geological structures. In this study, we present a direct comparison of experimental results of 14 analogue modelling laboratories using prescribed set-ups. A quantitative analysis of the results will document the variability among models and will allow an appraisal of reproducibility and limits of interpretation. This has direct implications for comparisons between structures in analogue models and natural field examples. All laboratories used the same frictional analogue materials (quartz and corundum sand) and prescribed model-building techniques (sieving and levelling). Although each laboratory used its own experimental apparatus, the same type of self-adhesive foil was used to cover the base and all the walls of the experimental apparatus in order to guarantee identical boundary conditions (i.e. identical shear stresses at the base and walls). Three experimental set-ups using only brittle frictional materials were examined. In each of the three set-ups the model was shortened by a vertical wall, which moved with respect to the fixed base and the three remaining sidewalls. The minimum width of the model (dimension parallel to mobile wall) was also prescribed. In the first experimental set-up, a quartz sand wedge with a surface slope of ˜20° was pushed by a mobile wall. All models conformed to the critical taper theory, maintained a stable surface slope and did not show internal deformation. In the next two experimental set-ups, a horizontal sand pack consisting of alternating quartz sand and corundum sand layers was shortened from one side by the mobile wall. In one of the set-ups a thin rigid sheet covered part of the model base and was attached to the mobile wall (i.e. a basal velocity discontinuity distant from the mobile wall). In the other set-up a basal rigid sheet was absent and the basal velocity discontinuity was located at the mobile wall. In both types of experiments

  5. Balloon occlusion versus wedged hepatic venography using iodinated contrast for targeting the portal vein during TIPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporossi, J-M; Vidal, V; Jacquier, A; Reyre, A; Flavian, A; Muller, C; Gaubert, J-Y; Bartoli, J-M; Moulin, G; Varoquaux, A

    2015-04-01

    To assess the efficacy, safety and gain in procedure time of the technique of balloon occlusion hepatic venography with iodinated contrast used to target the portal vein during TIPS. The technique is assessed versus wedged hepatic venography. Fifty-eight TIPS were prospectively included. The portal vein was located in 30 cases by the wedged hepatic venography (group 1) and in 28 cases by balloon occlusion hepatic venography (group 2). To compare both techniques a "portogram quality" score was defined using a 5 points scale. The time required to achieve portal puncture was also recorded. The complications of both procedures were assessed and classified in groups as intrahepatic hematoma or intraperitoneal hemorrhage. The right portal vein was visualized in a significantly higher number of patients using balloon than with wedged retrograde venography 71.3% (20/28) versus 13.3% (4/30) respectively (P=0.002). The quality score for the portogram was significantly higher for balloon hepatic venography 2.21 than for wedged hepatic venography 1.07 (P=0.002). The mean time required to puncture the portal vein was significantly shorter when the right branch of the portal vein was visualized 21 min versus 33.5 min (P=0.046). We recorded one intrahepatic hematoma (3.3%) and 4 intraperitoneal hemorrhage (13.3%) secondary to wedged hepatic venography. There were no complications with balloon occlusion hepatic venography (P=0.053). The use of balloon occlusion hepatic venography improves the quality of the retrograde portal venography to target the portal vein and decreases procedure time. The balloon technique is also burdened with fewer complications than the standard wedged hepatic venography. Copyright © 2014 Éditions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. P-wave anisotropy, mantle wedge flow and olivine fabrics beneath Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Zhao, Dapeng

    2017-09-01

    We present a new 3-D anisotropic P-wave velocity (Vp) model for the crust and upper mantle of the Japan subduction zone obtained by inverting a large number of high-quality P-wave traveltime data of local earthquakes and teleseismic events. By assuming orthorhombic anisotropy with a vertical symmetry axis existing in the modeling space, isotropic Vp tomography and 3-D Vp azimuthal and radial anisotropies are determined simultaneously. According to a simple flow field and the obtained Vp anisotropic tomography, we estimate the distribution of olivine fabrics in the mantle wedge. Our results show that the forearc mantle wedge above the subducting Pacific slab beneath NE Japan exhibits an azimuthal anisotropy with trench-parallel fast velocity directions (FVDs) and Vhf > Vv > Vhs (here Vv is Vp in the vertical direction, Vhf and Vhs are P-wave velocities in the fast and slow directions in the horizontal plane), where B-type olivine fabric with vertical trench-parallel flow may dominate. Such an anisotropic feature is not obvious in the forearc mantle wedge above the Philippine Sea (PHS) slab under SW Japan, probably due to higher temperatures and more fluids there associated with the young and warm PHS slab subduction. Trench-normal FVDs and Vhf > Vv > Vhs are generally revealed in the mantle wedge beneath the arc and backarc in Japan, where E-type olivine fabric with FVD-parallel horizontal flow may dominate. Beneath western Honshu, however, the mantle wedge exhibits an anisotropy of Vv > Vhf > Vhs and so C-type olivine fabric may dominate, suggesting that the water content is the highest there, because both the PHS and Pacific slabs exist there and their dehydration reactions release abundant fluids to the overlying mantle wedge.

  7. Tectonic and gravity extensional collapses in overpressured cohesive and frictional wedges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, X. P.; Leroy, Y. M.; Maillot, B.

    2015-03-01

    Two modes of extensional collapse in a cohesive and frictional wedge of arbitrary topography, finite extent, and resting on an inclined weak décollement are examined by analytical means. The first mode consists of the gravitational collapse by the action of a half-graben, rooting on the décollement and pushing seaward the frontal part of the wedge. The second mode results from the tectonics extension at the back wall with a similar half-graben kinematics and the landward sliding of the rear part of the wedge. The predictions of the maximum strength theorem, equivalent to the kinematic approach of limit analysis and based on these two collapse mechanisms, not only match exactly the solutions of the critical Coulomb wedge theory, once properly amended, but generalizes them in several aspects: wedge of finite size, composed of cohesive material and of arbitrary topography. This generalization is advantageous to progress in our understanding of many laboratory experiments and field cases. For example, it is claimed from analytical results validated by experiments that the stability transition for a cohesive, triangular wedge occurs with the activation of the maximum length of the décollement. It is shown that the details of the topography, for the particular example of the Mejillones peninsula (North Chile) is, however, responsible for the selection of a short length-scale, dynamic instability corresponding to a frontal gravitational instability. A reasonable amount of cohesion is sufficient for the pressures proposed in the literature to correspond to a stability transition and not with a dynamically unstable state.

  8. Comparison of infinite and wedge fringe settings in Mach Zehnder interferometer for temperature field measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haridas, Divya [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Kerala, 673601 (India); P, Vibin Antony; Sajith, V.; Sobhan, C. B. [School of Nano Science and Technology, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Kerala, 673601 (India)

    2014-10-15

    Interferometric method, which utilizes the interference of coherent light beams, is used to determine the temperature distribution in the vicinity of a vertical heater plate. The optical components are arranged so as to obtain wedge fringe and infinite fringe patterns and isotherms obtained in each case were compared. In wedge fringe setting, image processing techniques has been used for obtaining isotherms by digital subtraction of initial parallel fringe pattern from deformed fringe pattern. The experimental results obtained are compared with theoretical correlations. The merits and demerits of the fringe analysis techniques are discussed on the basis of the experimental results.

  9. Wedge filling and interface delocalization in finite Ising lattices with antisymmetric surface fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milchev, Andrey; Müller, M; Binder, K; Landau, D P

    2003-09-01

    Theoretical predictions by Parry et al. for wetting phenomena in a wedge geometry are tested by Monte Carlo simulations. Simple cubic LxLxL(y) Ising lattices with nearest neighbor ferromagnetic exchange and four free LxL(y) surfaces, at which antisymmetric surface fields +/-H(s) act, are studied for a wide range of linear dimensions (4Ising model as a lattice gas, the problem is equivalent to a liquid-gas transition in a pore with quadratic cross section, where two walls favor the liquid and the other two walls favor the gas. For temperatures T below the bulk critical temperature T(c) this boundary condition (where periodic boundary conditions are used in the y direction along the wedges) leads to the formation of two domains with oppositely oriented magnetization and separated by an interface. For L,L(y)--> infinity and T larger than the filling transition temperature T(f)(H(s)), this interface runs from the one wedge where the surface planes with a different sign of the surface field meet (on average) straight to the opposite wedge, so that the average magnetization of the system is zero. For Tinterface is bound either to the wedge where the two surfaces with field -H(s) meet (then the total magnetization m of the system is positive) or to the opposite wedge (then minterface midpoint from the wedges is studied as T-->T(f)(H(s)) from below, as is the corresponding behavior of the magnetization and its moments. We consider the variation of l(0) for T>T(f)(H(s)) as a function of a bulk field and find that the associated exponents agree with theoretical predictions. The correlation length xi(y) in the y direction along the wedges is also studied, and we find no transition for finite L and L(y)--> infinity. For L--> infinity the prediction l(0) proportional, variant (H(sc)-H(s))(-1/4) is verified, where H(sc)(T) is the inverse function of T(f)(H(s)) and xi(y) proportional, variant (H(sc)-H(s))(-3/4), respectively. We also find that m vanishes discontinuously at the

  10. Molecular depth profiling with cluster secondary ion mass spectrometry and wedges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Dan; Wucher, Andreas; Winograd, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Secondary ion mass spectrometry and atomic force microscopy are employed to characterize a wedge-shaped crater eroded by 40 keV C(60)(+) bombardment of a 395 nm thin film of Irganox 1010 doped with four delta layers of Irganox 3114. The wedge structure creates a laterally magnified cross section of the film. From an examination of the resulting surface, information about depth resolution, topography, and erosion rate can be obtained as a function of crater depth in a single experiment. This protocol provides a straightforward way to determine the parameters necessary to characterize molecular depth profiles and to obtain an accurate depth scale for erosion experiments.

  11. Global Solutions of Shock Reflection by Wedges for the Nonlinear Wave Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuemei DENG; Wei XIANG

    2011-01-01

    When a plane shock hits a wedge head on,it experiences a reflection-diffraction process and then a self-similar reflected shock moves outward as the original shock moves forward in time.In this paper,shock reflection by large-angle wedges for compressible flow modeled by the nonlinear wave equation is studied and a global theory of existence,stability and regularity is established.Moreover,C0,1 is the optimal regularity for the solutions across the degenerate sonic boundary.

  12. Laparoscopic wedge resection of synchronous gastric intraepithelial neoplasia and stromal tumor: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Yi-Ping; Xu, Xiao-Wu; Xie, Kun; Zhou, Wei; Zhou, Yu-Cheng; Chen, Ke

    2010-10-21

    Synchronous occurrence of epithelial neoplasia and gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) in the stomach is uncommon. Only rare cases have been reported in the literature. We present here a 60-year-old female case of synchronous occurrence of gastric high-level intraepithelial neoplasia and GIST with the features of 22 similar cases and detailed information reported in the English-language literature summarized. In the present patient, epithelial neoplasia and GIST were removed en bloc by laparoscopic wedge resection. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case treated by laparoscopic wedge resection.

  13. RESEARCH ON THE MOTION CHARACTERISTICS OF FIBER SUSPENSIONS IN A WEDGE-SHAPED FLOW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper the motion of cylindrical particles in a wedge-shaped flow was studied. The velocity distribution of wedge-shaped flow was simulated first, then the Euler-Lagrange model used to calculate the motion of cylindrical particles. The evolution of particle location, velocity and orientation with time was examined. The trajectories of the particles with different particle Stokes number, rate of flow and initial particle orientation were drawn. The results indicate that the Stokes number and initial orientation are important parameters which affect the particle motion. The conclusions are helpful to the engineering applications.

  14. Reconstruction of Bulk Operators within the Entanglement Wedge in Gauge-Gravity Duality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xi; Harlow, Daniel; Wall, Aron C.

    2016-07-01

    In this Letter we prove a simple theorem in quantum information theory, which implies that bulk operators in the anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory (AdS/CFT) correspondence can be reconstructed as CFT operators in a spatial subregion A , provided that they lie in its entanglement wedge. This is an improvement on existing reconstruction methods, which have at most succeeded in the smaller causal wedge. The proof is a combination of the recent work of Jafferis, Lewkowycz, Maldacena, and Suh on the quantum relative entropy of a CFT subregion with earlier ideas interpreting the correspondence as a quantum error correcting code.

  15. Bulk Reconstruction in the Entanglement Wedge in AdS/CFT

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Xi; Wall, Aron C

    2016-01-01

    In this note we prove a simple theorem in quantum information theory, which implies that bulk operators in the Anti-de Sitter / Conformal Field Theory (AdS/CFT) correspondence can be reconstructed as CFT operators in a spatial subregion $A$, provided that they lie in its entanglement wedge. This is an improvement on existing reconstruction methods, which have at most succeeded in the smaller causal wedge. The proof is a combination of the recent work of Jafferis, Lewkowycz, Maldacena, and Suh on the quantum relative entropy of a CFT subregion with earlier ideas interpreting the correspondence as a quantum error correcting code.

  16. Serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii, Dirofilaria immitis, Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) infections in pet cats in Bangkok and vicinities, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, Dirofilaria immitis (heartworm), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infections was examined using serum or plasma samples from 746 pet cats collected between May and July 2009 from clinics and hospitals located in and around ...

  17. A two-component signal-transduction cascade in Carnobacterium piscicola LV17B : two signaling peptides and one sensor-transmitter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleerebezem, M; Kuipers, OP; de Vos, WM; Stiles, ME; Quadri, LEN; Vos, Willem M. de; Stiles, Michael E.; Quadri, Luis E.N.

    2001-01-01

    In the lactic acid bacterium Carnobacterium piscicola LV17B a peptide-pheromone dependent quorum-sensing mode is involved in the regulation of bacteriocin production. Bacteriocin CB2 was identified as an environmental signal that induces bacteriocin production. Here, we demonstrate that a second 24

  18. Effects of Benzalkonium Chloride, Proxel LV, P3 Hypochloran, Triton X-100 and DOWFAX 63N10 on anaerobic digestion processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores, German Antonio Enriquez; Fotidis, Ioannis; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the individual and synergistic toxicity of the following xenobiotics: Benzalkonium Chloride (BKC), Proxel LV (PRX), P3 Hypochloran (HPC), Triton X-100 (TRX), and DOWFAX 63N10 (DWF), on anaerobic digestion (AD) process, was assessed. The experiments were performed in batch and conti...

  19. A two-component signal-transduction cascade in Carnobacterium piscicola LV17B : two signaling peptides and one sensor-transmitter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleerebezem, M; Kuipers, OP; de Vos, WM; Stiles, ME; Quadri, LEN; Vos, Willem M. de; Stiles, Michael E.; Quadri, Luis E.N.

    2001-01-01

    In the lactic acid bacterium Carnobacterium piscicola LV17B a peptide-pheromone dependent quorum-sensing mode is involved in the regulation of bacteriocin production. Bacteriocin CB2 was identified as an environmental signal that induces bacteriocin production. Here, we demonstrate that a second 24

  20. Transspecies Transmission of Gammaretroviruses and the Origin of the Gibbon Ape Leukaemia Virus (GaLV and the Koala Retrovirus (KoRV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Denner

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Transspecies transmission of retroviruses is a frequent event, and the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1 is a well-known example. The gibbon ape leukaemia virus (GaLV and koala retrovirus (KoRV, two gammaretroviruses, are also the result of a transspecies transmission, however from a still unknown host. Related retroviruses have been found in Southeast Asian mice although the sequence similarity was limited. Viruses with a higher sequence homology were isolated from Melomys burtoni, the Australian and Indonesian grassland melomys. However, only the habitats of the koalas and the grassland melomys in Australia are overlapping, indicating that the melomys virus may not be the precursor of the GaLV. Viruses closely related to GaLV/KoRV were also detected in bats. Therefore, given the fact that the habitats of the gibbons in Thailand and the koalas in Australia are far away, and that bats are able to fly over long distances, the hypothesis that retroviruses of bats are the origin of GaLV and KoRV deserves consideration. Analysis of previous transspecies transmissions of retroviruses may help to evaluate the potential of transmission of related retroviruses in the future, e.g., that of porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs during xenotransplantation using pig cells, tissues or organs.

  1. The effect of shoe design and lateral wedges on knee load and neuromuscular control in healthy subjects during walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Carsten; Kersting, Uwe G.

    2014-01-01

    three-dimensional gait analysis. Barefoot walking, walking in a running shoe, an Oxford-type leather shoe, and a rocker shoe were analysed. The shoes were tested both with and without a 10-degree full-length laterally wedged insole. Results: There were significant shoe wedge interactions on the first...

  2. 76 FR 24856 - Heavy Forged Hand Tools (i.e., Axes & Adzes, Bars & Wedges, Hammers & Sledges, and Picks...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ..., and Picks & Mattocks) From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of the Expedited Sunset... & Adzes, Bars & Wedges, Hammers & Sledges, and Picks & Mattocks) from the People's Republic of China..., track tools and wedges; (3) picks and mattocks; and (4) axes, adzes and similar hewing tools. Hand...

  3. 76 FR 52313 - Heavy Forged Hand Tools (i.e., Axes & Adzes, Bars & Wedges, Hammers & Sledges, and Picks...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ..., and Picks & Mattocks) From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Orders... & Adzes, Bars & Wedges, Hammers & Sledges, and Picks & Mattocks) (``Hand Tools'') from the People's... & Wedges, Hammers & Sledges, and Picks & Mattocks) From the People's Republic of China: Final Results...

  4. Determination of refractive index of a simple negative, positive, or zero power lens using wedged plated interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, R. P.; Perera, G. M.; George, M. C.; Venkateswarlu, P.

    1990-01-01

    A nondestructive technique for measuring the refractive index of a negative lens using a wedged plate interferometer is described. The method can be also used for measuring the refractive index of convex or zero power lenses. Schematic diagrams are presented for the use of a wedged plate interferometer for measuring the refractive index of a concave lens and of a convex lens.

  5. Semi-infinite $q$-wedge construction of the level 2 Fock Space of $U_q(\\widehat{sl}_2)$

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, J U H

    1997-01-01

    In this proceedings a particular example from \\cite{KMPY} (q-alg/9603025) is presented: the construction of the level 2 Fock space of $\\U_q(\\affsl{2})$. The generating ideal of the wedge relations is given and the wedge space defined. Normal ordering of wedges is defined in terms of the energy function. Normally ordered wedges form a base of the wedge space. The q-deformed Fock space is defined as the space of semi-infinite wedges with a finite number of vectors in the wedge product differing from a ground state sequence, and endowed with a separated q-adic topology . Normally ordered wedges form a base of the Fock space. The action of $\\U_q(\\affsl{2})$ on the Fock space converges in the q-adic topology. On the Fock space the action of bosons, which commute with the $\\U_q(\\affsl{2})$-action, also converges in the q-adic topology. Hence follows the decomposition of the Fock space into irreducible $\\U_q(\\affsl{2})$-modules.

  6. The effects of various kinds of lateral wedge insoles on performance of individuals with knee joint osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Rafiaee

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Using lateral wedge insole is a simple, inexpensive therapy for decreasing pain and improving quality of life; however, most research must be carried out to find the effects of lateral wedge on severity of knee joint OA and aligning TFA.

  7. Commissioning Siemens Virtual Wedges in the Oncentra MasterPlan treatment planning system using Gafchromic EBT film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, A; Simonato, F; Zandonà, R; Reccanello, S; Fabbris, R

    2010-12-01

    Virtual Wedges were introduced in Siemens LINACs to improve the treatment workflow. The aim of the present work is the validation of dose calculation by MasterPlan-Oncentra treatment planning system for virtual wedged beams. The Oncor Siemens accelerator installed in the authors' department produces 6 and 15 MV photon beams. At first, the consistency of VW LINAC production was tested and the EBT film measuring method was verified. This method is based on the scanner uniformity correction and absolute dose calibration as reported in literature. Then, the measured and calculated wedge factors and beam profiles are compared. For 15 degrees, 30 degrees, 45 degrees, and 60 degrees wedge angles, the wedge factors for different field sizes were measured by an ionization chamber and the dose profiles were acquired by Gafchromic EBT film. Both types of measurements were collected in isocentric condition. The comparison between measured and calculated VW factors shows discrepancies that increase with field size and angle. The OTP Enhanced algorithm produces better agreement with measurements than the Classic one, with improvement overall visible for large angles. The agreement between measured and planned beam profiles is within limits reported by the ESTRO Booklet No. 7 in terms of confidence limits. The MasterPlan-Oncentra treatment planning system determines wedge factors and VW profiles within the requested accuracy in the majority of treatment conditions. For big field dimensions and wedge angle, wedge factor accordance was worse, but it may be increased with an improvement of the LINAC dosimetric board calibration.

  8. Accuracy and initial stability of open- and closed-wedge high tibial osteotomy: a cadaveric RSA study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaasbeek, R.D.A.; Welsing, R.T.C.; Verdonschot, N.J.J.; Rijnberg, W.J.; Loon, C.J.M. van; Kampen, A. van

    2005-01-01

    We analyzed the difference in angle-correction accuracy and initial stability between open-wedge (OWO) and closed-wedge tibial valgus osteotomy (CWO). Five fresh-frozen pairs of human cadaver lower limbs were used; their bone mineral density (BMD) was measured with DEXA and a planned 7 degrees valgu

  9. Mechanical Behaviors and Elastic Parameters of Laminated Fabric URETEK3216LV Subjected to Uniaxial and Biaxial Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianwen; Chen, Wujun; Wang, Mingyang; Ding, Yong; Zhou, Han; Zhao, Bing; Fan, Jin

    2017-01-01

    A comprehensive experimental study of the laminated fabric URETEK3216LV subjected to mono-uniaxial, uniaxial cyclic and biaxial cyclic loading was performed to expose the detailed mechanical behaviors and determine proper elastic parameters for the laminated fabrics under specific stress states. The elastic modulus-strain curves and elastic parameter response surfaces were used to reveal the mechanical behaviors, and a weighted average method of integrals was proposed to calculate the elastic parameters for different stress states. Results show that typical stress-strain curves consist of three distinct regions during loading: crimp region, nonlinear transition region and yarn extension region, which is consistent with those of the constitutive yarns. The elastic parameters and mechanical behaviors of the laminated fabric are stress-state specific, and they vary noticeably with the experimental protocols, stress ratios and stress levels. The proposed method is feasible to evaluate the elastic parameters no matter what stress states the materials are subjected to, and thus it may offer potential access to obtain accurate design and analysis of the airship structures under different loading conditions.

  10. Protective effects of Ping-Lv-Mixture (PLM), a medicinal formula on arrhythmias induced by myocardial ischemia-reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Wei; Yang, Jing

    2006-11-03

    Ping-Lv-Mixture (PLM) is a Chinese medicinal formula. The present study aimed to determine the effects of PLM on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (MI/R) induced arrhythmias in rats. Arrhythmia model was established by occlusion of the left arterial descending coronary artery and thereafter reperfusion. A lead II electrocardiogram was monitored throughout the experiment. The results showed that pretreatment of PLM to MI/R rats significantly reduced the incidence and duration of ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation. On induction of MI/R, the activities of creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase were increased in vehicle group. PLM (0.04-1.00 g/kg) administration prevented the increase of these enzymes. Moreover, a significant increase of myocardium superoxide dismutase and decrease of malondialdehyde contents were observed in rats of PLM groups. On the other hand, the expressions of platelet activating factor (PAF) receptor mRNA was down-regulated in a dose-dependent manner in the PLM-treated groups by RT-PCR. Thus, it can be concluded that pretreatment with PLM inhibited lipid peroxidation in rats through suppressing the expression of PAF receptor, which may contribute to its preventive effect on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion induced arrhythmias.

  11. Analysis of Maneuvering Targets with Complex Motions by Two-Dimensional Product Modified Lv's Distribution for Quadratic Frequency Modulation Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Fulong; Jiao, Shuhong; Hou, Changbo; Si, Weijian; Wang, Yu

    2017-06-21

    For targets with complex motion, such as ships fluctuating with oceanic waves and high maneuvering airplanes, azimuth echo signals can be modeled as multicomponent quadratic frequency modulation (QFM) signals after migration compensation and phase adjustment. For the QFM signal model, the chirp rate (CR) and the quadratic chirp rate (QCR) are two important physical quantities, which need to be estimated. For multicomponent QFM signals, the cross terms create a challenge for detection, which needs to be addressed. In this paper, by employing a novel multi-scale parametric symmetric self-correlation function (PSSF) and modified scaled Fourier transform (mSFT), an effective parameter estimation algorithm is proposed-referred to as the Two-Dimensional product modified Lv's distribution (2D-PMLVD)-for QFM signals. The 2D-PMLVD is simple and can be easily implemented by using fast Fourier transform (FFT) and complex multiplication. These measures are analyzed in the paper, including the principle, the cross term, anti-noise performance, and computational complexity. Compared to the other three representative methods, the 2D-PMLVD can achieve better anti-noise performance. The 2D-PMLVD, which is free of searching and has no identifiability problems, is more suitable for multicomponent situations. Through several simulations and analyses, the effectiveness of the proposed estimation algorithm is verified.

  12. Binding of Dumbbell Oligonucleotides to MoMuLV Reverse Transcriptase: Inhibitory Properties of RNase H Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dumbbell oligonucleotides with loops of various chemistry were synthesized. Incubation of dumbbell oligonucleotides containing phosphorothioate bonds or trimethylene phosphate linkages in loops with S1 nuclease did not result in significant cleavage under conditions which led to the degradation of dumbbell oligonucleotide containing phophodiester bonds in the loops. The binding of reverse transcriptase of Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus (MoMuLV was evaluated with all the five oligonucleotides. The protein binds to all the dumbbell oligonucleotides with similar affinity. The dissociation constants evaluated using PAGE band mobility shift assays were of the order of 10-7. The inhibitory properties of the retroviral RNase H activity was evaluated using 3H –UTP-labeled RNA:RNA-DNA hybrid. It was found that the best dumbbell oligonucleotide, inhibitor contained phosphorothioate residues in both the loops. Our value studies demonstrated that this particularly designed oligonucleotide displays an IC50 of 18 nM in its inhibition on the reverse transcriptase RNase H activity, a magnitude lower than that of first nucleotide reverse transcriptase of HIV-1, tenofovir, introduced by Gilead Science in the market.

  13. Molecular characterizations of a novel putative DNA-binding protein LvDBP23 in marine shrimp L. vannamei tissues and molting stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanisa Laoong-u-thai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Litopenaeus Vannamei, well known as pacific white shrimp, is the most popular shrimp in the world shrimp market. Identification and characterization of shrimp muscle regulatory genes are not only important for shrimp genetic improvement, but also facilitate comparative genomic tools for understanding of muscle development and regeneration. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A novel mRNA encoding for a putative DNA-binding protein LvDBP23 was identified from Litopenaeus vannamei abdominal muscle cDNA library. The LvDBP23 cDNA contains 639 nucleotides of protein-coding sequence with deduced 212 amino acids of predicted molecular mass 23.32 kDa with glycine-rich domain at amino acid position 94-130. The mRNA sequence is successfully used for producing LvDBP23 recombinant protein in sf9 insect cell expression system. The expression of LvDBP23 mRNA is presented in abdominal muscle and swimming leg muscle, as well as other tissues including intestine, lymphoid and gill. The mRNA expression has the highest level in abdominal muscle in all tested tissues. LVDBP23 transcript during the molt cycle is highly expressed in the intermolt stage. In vitro nucleic acid-binding assays reveal that LvDBP23 protein can bind to both ssDNA and dsDNA, indicating its possible role of regulation of gene transcription. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We are the first to report a DNA-binding protein identified from the abdominal muscle tissue of marine shrimp L. Vannamei. Its high-level specific expression during the intermot stage suggests its role in the regulation of muscle buildup during the growth phase of shrimp molt cycle.

  14. Formulation development, optimization and study on drug release kinetics of Eudragit® L100-HPMC E15 LV mixed film-coated colon-targeted Mesalamine tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Maria John Newton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to evaluate the in vitro dissolution characteristics of pH-sensitive polymer - HPMC E 15 LV-coated tablets - in various simulated fluids (pH range 1.2, 6, 7.2. The Mesalamine tablets were fabricated by mixing the drug with microcrystalline cellulose and other ingredients. The fabricated Mesalamine tablets were coated with Eudragit L100 polymer and HPMC E 15 LV. The fluctuation in colonic pH conditions during inflammatory bowel disease and the nature of less fluid content in the colon may limit the expected drug release in the colon. Addition of HPMC E 15 LV may control this problem by hydrophilic nature and excellent film-forming characteristics like ductility and elasticity. The different batches of Mesalamine tablets (FM1-FM5 were coated with increasing concentration of Eudragit L100 and HPMC E 15 LV. The coating was given up to 8% TWG(Total weight gain of the uncoated tablet. Drug release studies were conducted in different pH conditions in the presence of rat ceaecal contents. The different buffer conditions were chosen to mimic the pH changes in the terminal part of the ileum as well as in the colon. The drug release profile was analyzed for colon-targeting performance in vitro. The release profile of the tablets indicates that the drug release was retarded in the tablet by film coating. The addition of HPMC E 15 LV ensures the channels for allowing colonic fluids to penetrate into the core and subsequent drug release at the target site. The kinetics of the drug release also evaluated the release pattern that was best fitted with Higuchian release. The results of the mechanism of release revealed that drug release was found to be a complex one with diffusion, erosion and swelling.

  15. Long range hybrid tube-wedge plasmonic waveguide with extreme light confinement and good fabrication error tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Li; Qin, Jin; Xu, Kai; Wang, Liang

    2016-02-22

    We studied a novel long range hybrid tube-wedge plasmonic (LRHTWP) waveguide consisting of a high index dielectric nanotube placed above a triangular metal wedge substrate. Using comprehensive numerical simulations on guiding properties of the designed waveguide, it is found that extreme light confinement and low propagation loss are obtained due to strong coupling between dielectric nanotube mode and wedge plasmon polariton. Comparing with previous studied hybrid plasmonic waveguides, the LRHTWP waveguide has longer propagation length and tighter mode confinement. In addition, the LRHTWP waveguide is quite tolerant to practical fabrication errors such as variation of the wedge tip angle and the horizontal misalignment between the nanotube and the metal wedge. The proposed LRHTWP waveguide could have many application potentials for various high performance nanophotonic components.

  16. The distribution and depth of ion doses implanted into wedges by plasma immersion ion implantation in drifting and stationary plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarrant, R N; Devasahayam, S; McKenzie, D R; Bilek, M M M [School of Physics (A28), University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2006-08-15

    The distribution of ion dose arising from plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) of a complex shape in the form of a wedge is measured. Two types of plasma are considered: a drifting titanium plasma derived from a pulsed cathodic arc and a stationary plasma generated by PIII pulses in oxygen or nitrogen gas. The distributions of the implanted material over the surface of the aluminium wedge were studied using secondary ion mass spectroscopy and Rutherford backscattering. The effects of varying the apex angles of the wedge and the plasma density are investigated. We conclude that ion-focusing effects at the apex of the wedge were more important for the drifting plasma than for the stationary plasmas. In a drifting plasma, the ion drift velocity directed towards the apex of the wedge compresses the sheath close to the apex and enhances the concentration of the dose. For the stationary plasma, the dose is more uniform.

  17. Effects of two different degrees of lateral-wedge insoles on unilateral lower extremity load-bearing line in patients with medial knee osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilge Yılmaz

    2016-08-01

    Conclusion: Both wedge insoles was effective in moving of the unilateral lower extremity load carrying line to the lateral. Lateral wedged insoles are biomechanically effective and reduce loading of the medial compartment in patients with medial knee osteoarthritis.

  18. Analysis on electromagnetic scattering by a wedge with impedance faces under exact impedance boundary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴良超; 汪茂光

    1995-01-01

    Under the exact impedance boundary condition (EIBC), by using wave equations and the longitudinal field method, the electromagnetic scattenng by an impedance wedge has been analysed in detail, following the Maliuzhinets approach, and the uniform diffraction coefficient of the diffracted field has been presented.

  19. Estimation of treatment efficacy with complier average causal effects (CACE) in a randomized stepped wedge trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Joshua S; Arnold, Benjamin F; Reygadas, Fermin; Hubbard, Alan E; Colford, John M

    2014-05-01

    Complier average causal effects (CACE) estimate the impact of an intervention among treatment compliers in randomized trials. Methods used to estimate CACE have been outlined for parallel-arm trials (e.g., using an instrumental variables (IV) estimator) but not for other randomized study designs. Here, we propose a method for estimating CACE in randomized stepped wedge trials, where experimental units cross over from control conditions to intervention conditions in a randomized sequence. We illustrate the approach with a cluster-randomized drinking water trial conducted in rural Mexico from 2009 to 2011. Additionally, we evaluated the plausibility of assumptions required to estimate CACE using the IV approach, which are testable in stepped wedge trials but not in parallel-arm trials. We observed small increases in the magnitude of CACE risk differences compared with intention-to-treat estimates for drinking water contamination (risk difference (RD) = -22% (95% confidence interval (CI): -33, -11) vs. RD = -19% (95% CI: -26, -12)) and diarrhea (RD = -0.8% (95% CI: -2.1, 0.4) vs. RD = -0.1% (95% CI: -1.1, 0.9)). Assumptions required for IV analysis were probably violated. Stepped wedge trials allow investigators to estimate CACE with an approach that avoids the stronger assumptions required for CACE estimation in parallel-arm trials. Inclusion of CACE estimates in stepped wedge trials with imperfect compliance could enhance reporting and interpretation of the results of such trials.

  20. Nanoscale guiding for cold atoms based on surface plasmons along the tips of metallic wedges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zheng-Ling; Tang Wei-Min; Zhou Ming; Gao Chuan-Yu

    2013-01-01

    We propose a novel scheme to guide neutral cold atoms in a nanoscale region based on surface plasmons (SPs) of one pair and two pairs of tips of metallic wedges with locally enhanced light intensity and sub-optical wavelength resolution.We analyze the near-field intensity distribution of the tip of the metallic wedge by the FDTD method,and study the total intensity as well as the total potential of optical potentials and van der Waals potentials for 87Rb atoms in the light field of one pair and two pairs of tips of metallic wedges.It shows that the total potentials of one pair and two pairs of tips of metallic wedges can generate a gravito-optical trap and a dark closed trap for nanoscale guiding of neutral cold atoms.Guided atoms can be cooled with efficient intensity-gradient Sisyphus cooling by blue-detuned light field.This provides an important step towards the generation of hybrid systems consisting of isolated atoms and solid devices.

  1. Numerical Simulation and Experimental Validation of an Integrated Sleeve-Wedge Anchorage for CFRP Rods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup; Smith, Scott T.; Täljsten, Björn

    2011-01-01

    The tensioning of carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) rods for prestressed concrete applications or post-tensioning repair and strengthening has met with mixed success. This is primarily due to limitations inherent in the use of traditional wedge anchors typically used for steel tendons. Recen...

  2. Impingement of water droplets on wedges and diamond airfoils at supersonic speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, John S

    1953-01-01

    An analytical solution has been obtained for the equations of motion of water droplets impinging on a wedge in a two-dimensional supersonic flow field with a shock wave attached to the wedge. The closed-form solution yields analytical expressions for the equation of the droplet trajectory, the local rate of impingement and the impingement velocity at any point on the wedge surface, and the total rate of impingement. The analytical expressions are utilized to determine the impingement on the forward surfaces of diamond airfoils in supersonic flow fields with attached shock waves. The results presented include the following conditions: droplet diameters from 2 to 100 microns, pressure altitudes from sea level to 30,000 feet, free-stream static temperatures from 420 degrees to 460 degrees R. Also, free-stream Mach numbers from 1.1 to 2.0, semi-apex angles for the wedge from 1.14 degrees to 7.97 degrees, thickness-to-chord ratios for the diamond airfoil from 0.02 to 0.14, chord lengths from 1 to 20 feet, and angles of attack from zero to the inverse tangent of the airfoil thickness-to-chord ratio.

  3. Optical necklaces generated by the diffraction on a stack of dielectric wedges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izdebskaya, Yana [Nonlinear Physics Centre, Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Department of Physics, V.I. Vernandsky Taurida National University, Simferopol 95007, Crimea (Ukraine)], E-mail: yvi124@rsphysse.anu.edu.au

    2008-05-19

    We demonstrate that the regular ring-shaped arrays of Gaussian beams, or optical necklaces, can be generated using diffraction on a stack of dielectric wedges. A condition for self-similarity and structural stability of the beams has been derived and shows good comparison with experimental data.

  4. On the role of lateral waves in the radiation from the dielectric wedge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Peter

    1973-01-01

    The field on the dielectric wedge is approximated by a plane-wave expansion as in [1]. Contributions from this solution to both the surface field and the radiation field are examined. Finally, an experimental radiation field is compared with the plane-wave solution and with a geometric-optical di...

  5. On the shape of a droplet in a wedge: new insight from electrowetting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baratian, D.; Cavalli, A.; Ende, van den H.T.M.; Mugele, F.

    2015-01-01

    The equilibrium morphology of liquid drops exposed to geometric constraints can be rather complex. Even for simple geometries, analytical solutions are scarce. Here, we investigate the equilibrium shape and position of liquid drops confined in the wedge between two solid surfaces at an angle α. Usin

  6. Quantitative planar Raman imaging through a spectrograph: visualisation of a supersonic wedge flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolboom, R.A.L.; Dam, N.J.; Meulen, J.J. ter; Bakker, P.G.

    2005-01-01

    Planar Raman imaging through a spectrograph is demonstrated as a diagnostic tool for quantitative flow visualisation of internal supersonic wedge flow. A dedicated Bayesian deconvolution filter is used to remove the spectral structure that is introduced by the spectrograph. The 2D density field is d

  7. Fossil predation: did some clavilithine fasciolariid gastropods employ valve-wedging to feed on bivalves?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeij, Geerat J.

    2015-01-01

    Several gastropods, including members of the Busyconinae, wedge or chip bivalve prey by inserting the outer lip between the valves. This habit, which is associated with an abapically downwardly convex outer lip, often results in breakage and subsequent repair of the lip. I tested the hypothesis that

  8. Thick-Walled Cylinder Theory Applied on a Conical Wedge Anchorage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennitz, Anders; Grip, Niklas; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup

    2011-01-01

    Conical wedge anchorages are frequently used to anchor steel tendons in prestressing applications within the construction industry. To replace the steel tendons with non-corrosive and low weight FRPs (Fiber Reinforced Polymers), the different mechanical interactions between the steel and FRPs call...

  9. Dissolved organic carbon loss from Yedoma permafrost amplified by ice wedge thaw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, J. E.; Mann, P. J.; Dowdy, K. L.; Davydova, A.; Davydov, S. P.; Zimov, N.; Spencer, R. G. M.; Bulygina, E. B.; Eglinton, T. I.; Holmes, R. M.

    2013-01-01

    Pleistocene Yedoma permafrost contains nearly a third of all organic matter (OM) stored in circum-arctic permafrost and is characterized by the presence of massive ice wedges. Due to its rapid formation by sediment accumulation and subsequent frozen storage, Yedoma OM is relatively well preserved an

  10. A reciprocating ledge technique in closing wedge osteotomy for genu valgum in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Shabir Ahmed; Butt, Mohammed Farooq; Mir, Mohammed Ramzan; Dar, Tahir Ahmed; Sultan, Asif

    2009-12-01

    To describe a technique that preserves anterior and posterior alternate ledges in a closing wedge osteotomy. Five patients aged 14 to 19 years underwent a closing wedge osteotomy for genu valgum in 8 limbs using a reciprocating ledge technique. A unicortical wedge of bone was removed, with the anterior and posterior cortices spared. The anterior cortex at the proximal level and the posterior cortex at the distal level were cut through. With a wobbling action, the osteotomy site was rotated, and the distal fragment externally rotated. Manual force was applied to close the osteotomy site ensuring overlapping of the reciprocal ledges. The distal fragment was translated laterally to prevent club deformity. The osteotomy site was held with one or 2 staples. Stability was tested by flexion and extension of knee. All 8 limbs attained bone union within 12 weeks, and full range of motion within a mean of 13 (range, 12-15) weeks. The mean correction of the tibiofemoral angle was 13 degrees. At a mean follow-up of 12 months, all patients were pain-free and none developed club deformity. Sparing reciprocal ledges in a closing wedge osteotomy for genu valgum may increase stability in the flexion-extension axis, enable early range-of-motion exercises, and facilitate early bone union.

  11. Laterally wedged insoles in knee osteoarthritis: do biomechanical effects decline after one month of wear?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennell Kim L

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective This study aimed to determine whether the effect of laterally wedged insoles on the adduction moment in knee osteoarthritis (OA declined after one month of wear, and whether higher reported use of insoles was associated with a reduced effect on the adduction moment at one month. Methods Twenty people with medial compartment OA underwent gait analysis in their own shoes wearing i no insoles and; ii insoles wedged laterally 5° in random order. Testing occurred at baseline and after one month of use of the insoles. Participants recorded daily use of insoles in a log-book. Outcomes were the first and second peak external knee adduction moment and the adduction angular impulse, compared across conditions and time with repeated measures general linear models. Correlations were obtained between total insole use and change in gait parameters with used insoles at one month, and change scores were compared between high and low users of insoles using general linear models. Results There was a significant main effect for condition, whereby insoles significantly reduced the adduction moment (all p Conclusion Effects of laterally wedged insoles on the adduction moment do not appear to decline after one month of continuous use, suggesting that significant wedge degradation does not occur over the short-term.

  12. A Novel Continuous Extrusion Process to Fabricate Wedge-Shaped Light Guide Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Tse Hsiao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Backlight modules are key components in thin-film transistor liquid crystal displays (TFT-LCD. Among the components of a backlight module, the light guide plate (LGP plays the most important role controlling the light projected to the eyes of users. A wedge-shaped LGP, with its asymmetrical structure, is usually fabricated by an injection proces, but the fabrication time of this process is long. This study proposes a continuous extrusion process to fabricate wedge-shaped LGPs. This continuous process has advantages for mass production. Besides a T-die and rollers, this system also has an in situ monitor of the melt-bank that forms during the extrusion process, helping control the plate thickness. Results show that the melt bank has a close relationship with the plate thickness. The temperature of the bottom heater and roller was adjusted to reduce the surface deformation of the wedge-shaped plate. This continuous extrusion system can successfully manufacture wedge-shaped LGPs for mass production.

  13. Some Historical Treatments should not be Forgotten: A Review of Cast Wedging and A Trick to Normalize Non-Standardized Digital X-rays

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Cast wedging is a simple and reproducible method of manipulating a sub-optimally reduced fracture producing a correction and a final alignment that is amenable to definitive closed treatment. Multiple successful techniques have been previously described in the literature (opening wedge, closing wedge and combination). Technical Note: We present a simple reproducible method of templating and executing a proper cast wedging technique using digital imaging systems that are not cont...

  14. Three Years of High Resolution Year-Round Monitoring of Ice-Wedge Thermal Contraction Cracking in Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, H. H.

    2006-12-01

    Most likely ice-wedges are the most widespread periglacial landform in lowlands with continuous permafrost. With a changing climate it is important to understand better the geomorphological processes controlling ice- wedge growth and decay, as they might cause large changes to the surface of the landscape, particularly if the active layer thickness increases causing melting of the most ice-rich permafrost top layer. As most settlements on permafrost are located in lowland areas, ice-wedge formation can also influence the infrastructure. Understanding the processes of ice-wedge growth and their thaw transformation into ice-wedge casts are essential when using contemporary ice wedges as analogues of Pleistocene thermal contraction cracking in palaeoenvironmental reconstructions. As ice-wedges are largely controlled by winter conditions, improved understanding of the factors controlling their growth will enable better palaeoclimatic reconstructions both directly from ice-wedges, but also from ice-wedge casts, than just mean winter temperatures. Detailed studies of ice-wedge dynamics, including quantification of movement, have only been done in very few places in the Arctic. In high arctic Svalbard at 78°N climate at sea level locates these islands close to the southern limit of the continuous permafrost zone, with MAAT of as much as -4 to -6°C. However, thermal contraction cracking is demonstrated to be widespread in the Adventdalen study area in Svalbard. The year-round field access from the University Centre in Svalbard, UNIS, has enabled the collection of different continuous or high frequency ice-wedge process monitoring data since 2002 to improve the understanding of the geomorphological activity of this landform. In all the winters the air temperature was below -30°C for shorter or longer periods. During all the winters, the temperature in the top permafrost was below -15°C both in the ice-wedge top for shorter or longer periods. The snow cover was

  15. Crustal and Fault Strengths from Critical Taper Measurements: Insights into the behavior of Accretionary Wedges using Distinct-Element Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, L.; Suppe, J.

    2012-12-01

    It is increasingly clear that many major faults are weak relative to quasistatic friction because of dynamical effects involving the microprocesses of high-velocity friction and the energetics of large-scale fault rupture. Even at the toes of accretionary wedges where velocity strengthening is expected, large displacements can occur dynamically. We seek to better understand the relationship between the large-scale strength of such faults and of the crust containing them over a timescale much greater than seismic cycles. Critical-taper theory provides straightforward quantitative relationships between accretionary wedge geometry and absolute basal fault and wedge strengths with minimal assumptions. Wedge tapers constrain the far-field stresses under which detachments slip and wedges grow during wedge-growing events, whether they are dynamical or quasistatic. To date most applications of wedge mechanics to accretionary wedges involve analog and numerical modeling with largely conceptual insight, for example illuminating the role of geological heterogeneity. Here we demonstrate that recent theoretical advances that are successful in extracting absolute wedge and detachment strengths from the geometry of active wedges can also be applied to extract large-scale strengths in distinct element numerical models in both mechanically homogeneous and heterogeneous wedges. The distinct element method (DEM) is an ideal tool for the study and modeling of critical taper wedges: model wedges can be initially cohesive (bonded) or cohesionless. Faults and folds form naturally as the result of progressive bond breakage during shortening and wedge growth. Heterogeneity can be introduced by creating layered groups of particles of differing mechanical properties. The DEM suffers to some extent in that macro material properties cannot be directly prescribed but rather must be defined by a modest number of micro-properties and the process in necessarily iterative and developing a wide

  16. Phase transitions and interface fluctuations in double wedges and bi-pyramids with competing surface fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, M.; Milchev, A.; Binder, K.; Landau, D. P.

    2008-08-01

    The interplay between surface and interface effects on binary AB mixtures that are confined in unconventional geometries is investigated by Monte Carlo simulations and phenomenological considerations. Both double-wedge and bi-pyramid confinements are considered and competing surface fields are applied at the two opposing halves of the system. Below the bulk critical temperature, domains of opposite order parameter are stabilized at the corresponding corners and an interface runs across the middle of the bi-partite geometry. Upon decreasing the temperature further one encounters a phase transition at which the AB symmetry is broken. The interface is localized in one of the two wedges or pyramids, respectively, and the order parameter is finite. In both cases, the transition becomes discontinuous in the thermodynamic limit but it is not a first-order phase transition. In an antisymmetric double wedge geometry the transition is closely related to the wedge-filling transition. Choosing the ratio of the cross-section L × L of the wedge and its length L y according to L y / L 3 = const., simulations and phenomenological consideration show that the new type of phase transition is characterized by critical exponents α = 3/4, β = 0, and γ = 5/4 for the specific heat, order parameter, and susceptibility, respectively. In an antisymmetric bi-pyramid the transition occurs at the cone-filling transition of a single pyramid. The important critical fluctuations are associated with the uniform translation of the interface and they can be described by a Landau-type free energy. Monte Carlo results provide evidence that the coefficients of this Landau-type free energy exhibit a system-size dependence, which gives rise to critical amplitudes that diverge with system size and result in a transition that becomes discontinuous in the thermodynamic limit.

  17. Complex interactions between diapirs and 4-D subduction driven mantle wedge circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvia, R. T.; Kincaid, C. R.

    2015-12-01

    Analogue laboratory experiments generate 4-D flow of mantle wedge fluid and capture the evolution of buoyant mesoscale diapirs. The mantle is modeled with viscous glucose syrup with an Arrhenius type temperature dependent viscosity. To characterize diapir evolution we experiment with a variety of fluids injected from multiple point sources. Diapirs interact with kinematically induced flow fields forced by subducting plate motions replicating a range of styles observed in dynamic subduction models (e.g., rollback, steepening, gaps). Data is collected using high definition timelapse photography and quantified using image velocimetry techniques. While many studies assume direct vertical connections between the volcanic arc and the deeper mantle source region, our experiments demonstrate the difficulty of creating near vertical conduits. Results highlight extreme curvature of diapir rise paths. Trench-normal deflection occurs as diapirs are advected downward away from the trench before ascending into wedge apex directed return flow. Trench parallel deflections up to 75% of trench length are seen in all cases, exacerbated by complex geometry and rollback motion. Interdiapir interaction is also important; upwellings with similar trajectory coalesce and rapidly accelerate. Moreover, we observe a new mode of interaction whereby recycled diapir material is drawn down along the slab surface and then initiates rapid fluid migration updip along the slab-wedge interface. Variability in trajectory and residence time leads to complex petrologic inferences. Material from disparate source regions can surface at the same location, mix in the wedge, or become fully entrained in creeping flow adding heterogeneity to the mantle. Active diapirism or any other vertical fluid flux mechanism employing rheological weakening lowers viscosity in the recycling mantle wedge affecting both solid and fluid flow characteristics. Many interesting and insightful results have been presented based

  18. Efectos combinados de la vitamina c y e dietéticas en la inmunorespuest del juvenil lv antes y después de la suplementación con glucanos

    OpenAIRE

    Molina, César; Rodríguez, Jenny; Arango, José Ignacio; Echeverría, Fabrizio; Sotomayor, Mariuxi

    2002-01-01

    Efectos combinados de la vitamina C y E dietéticas en la inmunorespuest del juvenil LV antes y después de la suplementación con glucanos Efectos combinados de la vitamina C y E dietéticas en la inmunorespuest del juvenil LV antes y después de la suplementación con glucanos

  19. Astakine LvAST binds to the β subunit of F1-ATP synthase and likely plays a role in white shrimp Litopeneaus vannamei defense against white spot syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Gao-Feng; Liang, Yan; Xue, Qinggang; Lu, Jin-Feng; Cheng, Jun-Jun; Huang, Jie

    2015-03-01

    Cytokines play a critical role in innate and adaptive immunity. Astakines represent a group of invertebrate cytokines that are related to vertebrate prokineticin and function in promoting hematopoiesis in crustaceans. We have identified an astakine from the white shrimp Litopeneaus vannamei and named it LvAST in a previous research. In the present research, we investigated the interactions among LvAST, the envelope protein VP37 of white spot syndrome virus (i.e., WSSV), and the β subunit of F1-ATP synthase (ATPsyn-β) of the white shrimp (i.e., BP53) using binding assays and co-precipitations. We also examined the effects of LvAST on shrimp susceptibility to WSSV. We found that LvAST and VP37 competitively bound to BP53, but did not bind to each other. Shrimps that had been injected with recombinant LvAST exhibited significantly lower mortality and longer survival time in experimental infections by WSSV. In contrast, shrimps whose LvAST gene expression had been inhibited by RNA interference showed significantly higher WSSV infection intensity and shorter survival time following viral challenges. These results suggested that LvAST and WSSV both likely use ATPsyn-β as a receptor and LvAST plays a role in shrimp defense against WSSV infection. This represented the first research showing the involvement of astakines in host antiviral immunity.

  20. Late Holocene stable-isotope based winter temperature records from ice wedges in the Northeast Siberian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opel, Thomas; Meyer, Hanno; Laepple, Thomas; Dereviagin, Alexander Yu.

    2016-04-01

    The Arctic is currently undergoing an unprecedented warming. This highly dynamic response on changes in climate forcing and the global impact of the Arctic water, carbon and energy balances make the Arctic a key region to study past, recent and future climate changes. Recent proxy-based temperature reconstructions indicate a long-term cooling over the past about 8 millennia that is mainly related to a decrease in solar summer insolation and has been reversed only by the ongoing warming. Climate model results on the other hand show no significant change or even a slight warming over this period. This model-proxy data mismatch might be caused by a summer bias of the used climate proxies. Ice wedges may provide essential information on past winter temperatures for a comprehensive seasonal picture of Holocene Arctic climate variability. Polygonal ice wedges are a widespread permafrost feature in the Arctic tundra lowlands. Ice wedges form by the repeated filling of thermal contraction cracks with snow melt water, which quickly refreezes at subzero ground temperatures and forms ice veins. As the seasonality of frost cracking and infill is generally related to winter and spring, respectively, the isotopic composition of wedge ice is indicative of past climate conditions during the annual cold season (DJFMAM, hereafter referred to as winter). δ18O of ice is interpreted as proxy for regional surface air temperature. AMS radiocarbon dating of organic remains in ice-wedge samples provides age information to generate chronologies for single ice wedges as well as regionally stacked records with an up to centennial resolution. In this contribution we seek to summarize Holocene ice-wedge δ18O based temperature information from the Northeast Siberian Arctic. We strongly focus on own work in the Laptev Sea region but consider as well literature data from other regional study sites. We consider the stable-isotope composition of wedge ice, ice-wedge dating and chronological

  1. A phase II experience with neoadjuvant irinotecan (CPT-11, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU and leucovorin (LV for colorectal liver metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bigam David

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemotherapy may improve survival in patients undergoing resection of colorectal liver metastases (CLM. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy may help identify patients with occult extrahepatic disease (averting unnecessary metastasectomy, and it provides in vivo chemosensitivity data. Methods A phase II trial was initiated in which patients with resectable CLM received CPT-11, 5-FU and LV for 12 weeks. Metastasectomy was performed unless extrahepatic disease appeared. Postoperatively, patients with stable or responsive disease received the same regimen for 12 weeks. Patients with progressive disease received either second-line chemotherapy or best supportive care. The primary endpoint was disease-free survival (DFS; secondary endpoints included overall survival (OS and safety. Results 35 patients were accrued. During preoperative chemotherapy, 16 patients (46% had grade 3/4 toxicities. Resection was not possible in 5 patients. One patient died of arrhythmia following surgery, and 1 patient had transient liver failure. During the postoperative treatment phase, 12 patients (55% had grade 3/4 toxicities. Deep venous thrombosis (DVT occurred in 11 patients (34% at various times during treatment. Of those who underwent resection, median DFS was 23.0 mo. and median OS has not been reached. The overall survival from time of diagnosis of liver metastases was 51.6 mo for the entire cohort. Conclusion A short course of chemotherapy prior to hepatic metastasectomy may serve to select candidates best suited for resection and it may also direct postoperative systemic treatment. Given the significant incidence of DVT, alternative systemic neoadjuvant regimens should be investigated, particularly those that avoid the use of a central venous line. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00168155.

  2. 2D longitudinal LV speckle tracking strain pattern in breast cancer survivors: sports activity vs exercise as prescription model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanti, Giorgio; Pedrizzetti, Gianni; Pedri, Stefano; Stefani, Laura

    2017-09-05

    Prevention strategies are important to optimize and to manage heart care in breast cancer survivors. Regular physical activity at moderate intensity is normally proposed to maintain myocardial performance; however, no data is available about the different impact of different levels of physical exercise. 2D speckle tracking echocardiography (2DSTE) is an accepted method for early detection of myocardial dysfunction. The study aims to monitor the cardiac performances in breast cancer survivors by 2DSTE analysis to manage sports activity vs physical activity. Two groups of previous breast cancer survivors (33 BCS) trained at moderate intensity and 55 athletes practicing dragon boat (DBA) sport were enrolled. They were matched with two healthy subjects groups: 23 competitive female athletes practicing different sports and 20 healthy women trained with exercise as prescription model. All women were studied by a complete echo examination including LV global longitudinal strain (GLS) assessment (XStrain-Esaote). EF and GS are only significantly higher in healthy subjects (-25.4 ± 2.1). Nevertheless, GLS values are within the normal range for all groups. Particularly, GS does not show any significant differences among subjects (-19.93 ± 4) practicing exercise as prescription when compared to the DBA competitive trained group. 2DSTE method is an appropriate method to supervise the intensity of exercise in breast cancer patients. Particularly, GLS can optimize and improve cancer therapy supporting and creating efficiencies within the health system confirming the role of the exercise prescription therapy in maintaining normal heart function.

  3. Stable isotope and gas properties of two ice wedges from Cape Mamontov Klyk, Laptev Sea, Northern Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Boereboom

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and discusses the texture, fabric and gas properties (contents of total gas, O2, N2, CO2, and CH4 of two ice wedges from Cape Mamontov Klyk, Laptev Sea, Northern Siberia. The two ice wedges display contrasting structures: one being of relatively "clean" ice and the other showing clean ice at its centre as well as debris-rich ice on its sides (referred to as ice-sand wedge. A comparison of gas properties, crystal size, fabrics and stable isotope data (δ18O and δD allows discriminating between three different facies of ice with specific paleoenvironmental signatures, suggesting different climatic conditions and rates of biological activity. More specifically, total gas content and composition reveal variable intensities of meltwater infiltration and show the impact of biological processes with contrasting contributions from anaerobic and aerobic conditions. Stable isotope data are shown to be valid for discussing changes in paleoenvironmental conditions and/or decipher different sources for the snow feeding into the ice wedges with time. Our data also give support to the previous assumption that the composite ice wedge was formed in Pleistocene and the ice wedge in Holocene times. This study sheds more light on the conditions of ice wedge growth under changing environmental conditions.

  4. Orthotic Heel Wedges Do Not Alter Hindfoot Kinematics and Achilles Tendon Force During Level and Inclined Walking in Healthy Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinert-Aplin, Robert A; Bull, Anthony M J; McGregor, Alison H

    2016-04-01

    Conservative treatments such as in-shoe orthotic heel wedges to treat musculoskeletal injuries are not new. However, weak evidence supporting their use in the management of Achilles tendonitis suggests the mechanism by which these heel wedges works remains poorly understood. It was the aim of this study to test the underlying hypothesis that heel wedges can reduce Achilles tendon load. A musculoskeletal modeling approach was used to quantify changes in lower limb mechanics when walking due to the introduction of 12-mm orthotic heel wedges. Nineteen healthy volunteers walked on an inclinable walkway while optical motion, force plate, and plantar pressure data were recorded. Walking with heel wedges increased ankle dorsiflexion moments and reduced plantar flexion moments; this resulted in increased peak ankle dorsiflexor muscle forces during early stance and reduced tibialis posterior and toe flexor muscle forces during late stance. Heel wedges did not reduce overall Achilles tendon force during any walking condition, but did redistribute load from the medial to lateral triceps surae during inclined walking. These results add to the body of clinical evidence confirming that heel wedges do not reduce Achilles tendon load and our findings provide an explanation as to why this may be the case.

  5. Differential wedging of vertebral body and intervertebral disc in thoracic and lumbar spine in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis – A cross sectional study in 150 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Hak-Jun

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hueter-Volkmann's law regarding growth modulation suggests that increased pressure on the end plate of bone retards the growth (Hueter and conversely, reduced pressure accelerates the growth (Volkmann. Literature described the same principle in Rat-tail model. Human spine and its deformity i.e. scoliosis has also same kind of pattern during the growth period which causes wedging in disc or vertebral body. Methods This cross sectional study in 150 patients of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis was done to evaluate vertebral body and disc wedging in scoliosis and to compare the extent of differential wedging of body and disc, in thoracic and lumbar area. We measured wedging of vertebral bodies and discs, along with two adjacent vertebrae and disc, above and below the apex and evaluated them according to severity of curve (curve 30° to find the relationship of vertebral body or disc wedging with scoliosis in thoracic and lumbar spine. We also compared the wedging and rotations of vertebrae. Results In both thoracic and lumbar curves, we found that greater the degree of scoliosis, greater the wedging in both disc and body and the degree of wedging was more at apex supporting the theory of growth retardation in stress concentration area. However, the degree of wedging in vertebral body is more than the disc in thoracic spine while the wedging was more in disc than body in lumbar spine. On comparing the wedging with the rotation, we did not find any significant relationship suggesting that it has no relation with rotation. Conclusion From our study, we can conclude that wedging in disc and body are increasing with progression on scoliosis and maximum at apex; however there is differential wedging of body and disc, in thoracic and lumbar area, that is vertebral body wedging is more profound in thoracic area while disc wedging is more profound in lumbar area which possibly form 'vicious cycle' by asymmetric loading to spine for the

  6. Short- and long-term deformation and the earthquake cycle in the southern Bolivia Subandes: Implications for orogenic wedge processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, B. A.; Bevis, M. G.; Whipple, K. X.; Kendrick, E. C.; Smalley, R.; Arrowsmith, R.; Zapata, T.

    2009-12-01

    In the context of critical taper wedge mechanics, we analyze a new GPS-derived surface velocity field from the southern Subandean (SSA) range on the east flank of the central Andean Plateau. The SSA is one of the few active orogenic wedges located far enough from a plate boundary so that the geodetic signature of contractional processes may be isolated. We observe and model a strong strike-perpendicular surface velocity gradient as arising from the change in frictional behaviour of the SSA basal decollement from freely slipping to locked. The estimated width of the locked zone is ~130 km, a value that is significantly larger than in other similar wedges in Nepal or Taiwan and implies the SSA thrust front could host great (larger than M 8) intraplate thrust earthquakes. In support of this, topographic data (individual scarps and landslide scars) are consistent with the surface expression of the ~500 km long Mandeyepecua thrust fault resulting from large earthquake ruptures with long recurrence intervals. In comparison to other similar wedges (the northern Subandes, Nepal, and Taiwan) precipitation rates in the SSA are significantly lower and thus a wider orogenic wedge width is predicted by critical taper theory. We explore the hypothesis that the geodetically-determined width is equivalent to the orogenic wedge width by using earthquake scaling relations for individual faults and surface displacements predicted from decollement ruptures to model the velocity profile derived from published, sequentially restored balanced cross-sections in the region. Our work provides two new important insights on the interaction between climate and tectonics in orogenic wedges: 1) a drier climate favours increased size of potential thrust-front earthquakes by permitting the width of the active wedge to increase; 2) frictional variations on a decollement may be spatially persistent over geologic time-scales and so should be taken into account in surface process models of orogenic

  7. 浅谈吕叔湘的作文教学观%A Brief Discussion on Lv Shuxiang's Teaching Idea of Writing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑礼立

    2012-01-01

    Writing teaching is a most important link in Chinese teaching,so many Chinese educators have deeply studied on writing teaching,including Lv Shuxiang.This paper summarizes and introduces Mr.Lv's teaching idea of writing from four aspects:title of a composition,teaching methods of writing,requirements of writing and writing assessment.%作文教学是语文教学中最重要的环节之一,许多语文学家都对此进行了深入的研究,吕叔湘先生也不例外。这篇文章主要从作文题目、作文教学方法、作文要求、作文评改等四个方面对吕老的作文观点进行了整合与介绍。

  8. Landslide risk assessment in the Göta Älv river valley to limit consequences of climate change on society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedlund, Jonas; Lind, Bo; Tremblay, Marius; Zackrisson, Peter; Cederbom, Charlotte

    2010-05-01

    Higher temperatures, higher average precipitation and increased occurrence of extreme rainfall events are some expected climate changes in Sweden during the coming 70-100 years. Due to the changing climate the risk for floods, erosion and landslides are expected to increase. in large parts of the country. To prevent extensive floodings and damages of cities and infrastructure around Lake Vänern, it is necessary to allow controlled overflow from Lake Vänern through the river Göta Älv. An overflow in the river, in turn, leads to increased risk for erosion and landslides along the Göta Älv valley. In order to meet the upcoming climate changes and to handle the increasing flows through the river, we need to improve the knowledge of the stability of the entire river bank. The Swedish Government has commissioned the Swedish Geotechnical Institute (SGI) to investigate the landslide potential of the Göta Älv valley, taking the predicted climate changes into consideration. The investigated area includes the parts of Göta Älv that could be affected by the increased flows from Lake Vänern; areas where the increased flow will affect stability and where landslides could cause serious damages or damming of the river. The investigation area includes c. 90 km of the Göta Älv river plus tributaries in connection to Göta Älv. In the landslide risk analyses developed for Göta Älv, the likelihood of landslides and estimation of the subsequent consequences are included. The methodology involves mapping of landslide hazards and a judgement of the risk area on the basis of a risk matrix. The landslide risk analysis allows for an assessment of where geotechnical reinforcements would be necessary. A cost estimation for the required reinforcement measures is also provided. In areas where the estimated risk for a landslide is low (e.g. limited consequences), stability mapping in accordance with the model used by the Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency (MSB) is developed

  9. Hydrodynamic controls on oxygen dynamics in a riverine salt wedge estuary, the Yarra River estuary, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, L. C.; Cook, P. L. M.; Teakle, I.; Hipsey, M. R.

    2014-04-01

    Oxygen depletion in coastal and estuarine waters has been increasing rapidly around the globe over the past several decades, leading to decline in water quality and ecological health. In this study we apply a numerical model to understand how salt wedge dynamics, changes in river flow and temperature together control oxygen depletion in a micro-tidal riverine estuary, the Yarra River estuary, Australia. Coupled physical-biogeochemical models have been previously applied to study how hydrodynamics impact upon seasonal hypoxia; however, their application to relatively shallow, narrow riverine estuaries with highly transient patterns of river inputs and sporadic periods of oxygen depletion has remained challenging, largely due to difficulty in accurately simulating salt wedge dynamics in morphologically complex areas. In this study we overcome this issue through application of a flexible mesh 3-D hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model in order to predict the extent of salt wedge intrusion and consequent patterns of oxygen depletion. The extent of the salt wedge responded quickly to the sporadic riverine flows, with the strength of stratification and vertical density gradients heavily influenced by morphological features corresponding to shallow points in regions of tight curvature ("horseshoe" bends). The spatiotemporal patterns of stratification led to the emergence of two "hot spots" of anoxia, the first downstream of a shallow region of tight curvature and the second downstream of a sill. Whilst these areas corresponded to regions of intense stratification, it was found that antecedent conditions related to the placement of the salt wedge played a major role in the recovery of anoxic regions following episodic high flow events. Furthermore, whilst a threshold salt wedge intrusion was a requirement for oxygen depletion, analysis of the results allowed us to quantify the effect of temperature in determining the overall severity and extent of hypoxia and anoxia. Climate

  10. Subsurface Thermal Erosion Of Ice-Wedge Polygon Terrains: Implications For Arctic Geosystem In Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortier, D.; Godin, E.; Lévesque, E.; Veillette, A.

    2014-12-01

    Subsurface thermal erosion is triggered by convective heat transfers between flowing water and permafrost. For inland ice-wedge polygon terrains, heat advection due to infiltration of run-off in the massive ice wedges and the ice-rich upper portion of permafrost creates sink holes and networks of interconnected tunnels in the permafrost. Mass movements such as collapse of tunnel's roof, retrogressive thaw-slumping along exposed permafrost and active layer detachment slides lead to the development of extensive gully networks in the landscape. These gullies drastically change the hydrology of ice-wedge polygon terrains and the fluxes of heat, water, sediment and carbon within the permafrost geosystem. Exportation of sediments by fluvial processes within gullies are positive mechanical feed-back effects that keep gully channels active over decades. Along gully margins, drainage of disturbed polygons and ponds, slope drainage, soil consolidation, plant colonization of disturbed gully slopes and wet to mesic plant succession of drained polygons change the thermal properties of the active layer and create negative feedback effects that stabilize active erosion processes and promote permafrost recovery in gully slopes and adjacent disturbed polygons. On Bylot Island (Nunavut), over 40 gullies were mapped and monitored to characterize gully geomorphology, thermal and mechanical processes of gully erosion, rates of gully erosion over time within different sedimentary deposits, total volume of eroded permafrost at the landscape scale and gully hydrology. We conducted field and laboratory experiments to quantify heat convection processes and speed of ice wedge ablation in order to derive empirical equations to develop a numerical, fully-coupled, heat and mass (water) transfer model of ice-wedge thermal erosion. We used data collected over 10 years of geomorphological gully monitoring, regional climate scenarios, our physics-based numerical thermal erosion model and our field

  11. Molecular Characterizations of a Novel Putative DNA-Binding Protein LvDBP23 in Marine Shrimp L. vannamei Tissues and Molting Stages

    OpenAIRE

    Yanisa Laoong-u-thai; Baoping Zhao; Amornrat Phongdara; Jinzeng Yang

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Litopenaeus Vannamei, well known as pacific white shrimp, is the most popular shrimp in the world shrimp market. Identification and characterization of shrimp muscle regulatory genes are not only important for shrimp genetic improvement, but also facilitate comparative genomic tools for understanding of muscle development and regeneration. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A novel mRNA encoding for a putative DNA-binding protein LvDBP23 was identified from Litopenaeus vannamei abdom...

  12. A prospective randomized study of irinotecan (CPT-11), leucovorin (LV) and 5-fluorouracil (5FU) versus leucovorin and 5-fluorouracil in patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennatas, C; Papaxoinis, G; Michalaki, V; Mouratidou, D; Andreadis, C; Tsavaris, N; Pafiti, A

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the activity and toxicity of an irinotecan (CPT-11), leucovorin (LV) and 5-fluorouracil (5FU) combination with a standard regimen of 5FU and LV, in patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma. One hundred and sixty patients were randomized; 80 patients (group A) received LV 20 mg/m(2) bolus i.v. and 5FU 425 mg/m(2) bolus i.v. on days 1-5, every 28 days; 80 patients (group B) received CPT-11 80 mg/m(2) (30-90 min i.v. infusion), followed by LV 20 mg/m(2) bolus i.v. and 5FU 425 mg/m(2) bolus i.v. on days 1, 8, 15, 22, 29, and 36, every 8 weeks. The overall response rate was 30% and 47.5% in groups A and B respectively. Progression-free survival was significantly higher in the triple-drug combination arm (median 7.5 vs. 4.5 months; p= 0. 0335). However, overall survival did not differ significantly between the two arms (15 months vs. 14 months for the groups B and A respectively; p=0.3531). The main grade 3 adverse events were diarrhea (19%, in group A vs. 35% in group B; p=0.032) and mucositis (2% vs. 14%; p=0.017). The regimen containing irinotecan showed activity in advanced colorectal cancer. The overall safety data confirm this combination as a well-tolerated treatment.

  13. Handelsgødnings indflydelse på afgrøders indhold af arsen, bly, cadmium, krom, kviksølv og nikkel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bent Tolstrup; Elsgaard, Lars

    Denne rapport belyser indholdet af arsen (As), bly (Pb), cadmium (Cd), krom (Cr), kviksølv (Hg) og nikkel (Ni) i afgrøder, der er dyrket ved forskellige niveauer af handelsgødning (fra ugødet til to gange normal gødskning). Effekten af handelsgødning er sammenlignet med effekten af husdyrgødning...

  14. Some Historical Treatments should not be Forgotten: A Review of Cast Wedging and A Trick to Normalize Non-Standardized Digital X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Nathan A.; Lee, Christopher L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Cast wedging is a simple and reproducible method of manipulating a sub-optimally reduced fracture producing a correction and a final alignment that is amenable to definitive closed treatment. Multiple successful techniques have been previously described in the literature (opening wedge, closing wedge and combination). Technical Note: We present a simple reproducible method of templating and executing a proper cast wedging technique using digital imaging systems that are not controlled for magnification with an illustrative case. Conclusion: Renewed interest in cast wedging can provide a cost effective treatment with proven clinical outcomes in an ever changing and uncertain reimbursement climate. PMID:27298956

  15. Assessment of Longitudinal Reproducibility of Mice LV Function Parameters at 11.7 T Derived from Self-Gated CINE MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Zhi; Subgang, Anne; Abaei, Alireza; Rottbauer, Wolfgang; Stiller, Detlef; Ma, Genshan

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this work was the assessment of the reproducibility of self-gated cardiac MRI in mice at ultra-high-field strength. A group of adult mice (n = 5) was followed over 360 days with a standardized MR protocol including reproducible animal position and standardized planning of the scan planes. From the resulting CINE MRI data, global left ventricular (LV) function parameters including end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), stroke volume (SV), ejection fraction (EF), and left ventricular mass (LVM) were quantified. The reproducibility of the self-gated technique as well as the intragroup variability and longitudinal changes of the investigated parameters was assessed. Self-gated cardiac MRI proved excellent reproducibility of the global LV function parameters, which was in the order of the intragroup variability. Longitudinal assessment did not reveal any significant variations for EDV, ESV, SV, and EF but an expected increase of the LVM with increasing age. In summary, self-gated MRI in combination with a standardized protocol for animal positioning and scan plane planning ensures reproducible assessment of global LV function parameters. PMID:28321415

  16. Assessment of Longitudinal Reproducibility of Mice LV Function Parameters at 11.7 T Derived from Self-Gated CINE MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Zhi; Subgang, Anne; Abaei, Alireza; Rottbauer, Wolfgang; Stiller, Detlef; Ma, Genshan; Rasche, Volker

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this work was the assessment of the reproducibility of self-gated cardiac MRI in mice at ultra-high-field strength. A group of adult mice (n = 5) was followed over 360 days with a standardized MR protocol including reproducible animal position and standardized planning of the scan planes. From the resulting CINE MRI data, global left ventricular (LV) function parameters including end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), stroke volume (SV), ejection fraction (EF), and left ventricular mass (LVM) were quantified. The reproducibility of the self-gated technique as well as the intragroup variability and longitudinal changes of the investigated parameters was assessed. Self-gated cardiac MRI proved excellent reproducibility of the global LV function parameters, which was in the order of the intragroup variability. Longitudinal assessment did not reveal any significant variations for EDV, ESV, SV, and EF but an expected increase of the LVM with increasing age. In summary, self-gated MRI in combination with a standardized protocol for animal positioning and scan plane planning ensures reproducible assessment of global LV function parameters.

  17. Estimating effective wedge factor for enhanced dynamic wedge 2100CD a Varian Clinac; Calculo De factor cuna efectiva para cuna dinamica mejorada de un Clinac 2100CD de Varian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizarro Trigo, F.; Morillas Ruiz, J.; Nunuz Martinez, L.; Sanchez Jimenez, J.

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare different methods of calculating the effective factor enhanced dynamic wedge (EDWF) with the values ??obtained in measurements of symmetric and asymmetric fields.

  18. A Numerical Study on the Asymmetric Water Entry of A Wedge Section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. S. Seif; S. M. Mousaviraad; S. H. Saddathosseini

    2004-01-01

    The effect of the asymmetric water entry over a submerged part of a ship on the hydrodynamic impact is investigated numerically. A wedge body is considered and the problem is assumed to be two-dimensional. The results of symmetric and asymmetric impacts are compared. The effect is found significant in the numerical simulation. The maximum hydrodynamic pressure at a heel angle of 10 degrees becomes about 95% more than that of the symmetric entry. The result of the present work proves the importance of asymmetrical hydrodynamic impact loading for structural design of a ship. Besides, the numerical procedure is not limited to a wedge type cross section and it is possible to apply it for any real geometry of ships and high-speed craft.

  19. Generation of vector beams using a double-wedge depolarizer: Non-quantum entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samlan, C. T.; Viswanathan, Nirmal K.

    2016-07-01

    Propagation of horizontally polarized Gaussian beam through a double-wedge depolarizer generates vector beams with spatially varying state of polarization. Jones calculus is used to show that such beams are maximally nonseparable on the basis of even (Gaussian)-odd (Hermite-Gaussian) mode parity and horizontal-vertical polarization state. The maximum nonseparability in the two degrees of freedom of the vector beam at the double wedge depolarizer output is verified experimentally using a modified Sagnac interferometer and linear analyser projected interferograms to measure the concurrence 0.94±0.002 and violation of Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt form of Bell-like inequality 2.704±0.024. The investigation is carried out in the context of the use of vector beams for metrological applications.

  20. Plasmonic angular momentum on metal-dielectric nano-wedges in a sectorial indefinite metamaterial

    CERN Document Server

    Jin, Dafei

    2013-01-01

    We present an analytical study to the structure-modulated plasmonic angular momentum trapped on periodic metal-dielectric nano-wedges in the core region of a sectorial indefinite metamaterial. Employing a transfer-matrix calculation and a conformal-mapping technique, our theory is capable of dealing with realistic configurations of arbitrary sector numbers and rounded wedge tips. We demonstrate that in the deep-subwavelength regime strong electric field carrying high azimuthal variation can exist within only ten-nanometer length scale close to the structural center, and is naturally bounded by a characteristic radius of the order of hundred-nanometer away from the center. These extreme confining properties suggest that the structure under investigation may be superior to the conventional metal-dielectric waveguides or cavities in terms of nanoscale photonic manipulation.

  1. Experiments on melt-rock reaction in the shallow mantle wedge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Alexandra L.; Grove, Timothy L.

    2016-12-01

    This experimental study simulates the interaction of hotter, deeper hydrous mantle melts with shallower, cooler depleted mantle, a process that is expected to occur in the upper part of the mantle wedge. Hydrous reaction experiments ( 6 wt% H2O in the melt) were conducted on three different ratios of a 1.6 GPa mantle melt and an overlying 1.2 GPa harzburgite from 1060 to 1260 °C. Reaction coefficients were calculated for each experiment to determine the effect of temperature and starting bulk composition on final melt compositions and crystallizing assemblages. The experiments used to construct the melt-wall rock model closely approached equilibrium and experienced phase equilibria, melt compositions, and reaction coefficients provide a framework for understanding how melt-wall rock reaction occurs in the natural system during melt ascent in the mantle wedge.

  2. Effects of radiation on convection heat transfer of Cu-water nanofluid past a moving wedge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salama Faiza A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat transfer characteristics of a two-dimensional steady hydrodynamic flow of water-based copper(Cu nanofluid over a moving wedge, taking into account the effects of thermal radiation, have been investigated numerically. The Rosseland approximation is used to describe the radiative heat flux in the energy equation. The governing fundamental equations are first transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations and solved numerically by using the fourth-order Runge-kutta method with shooting technique. A comparison with previously published work has been carried out and the results are found to be in good agreement. The existence of unique and dual solutions for self-similar equations of the flow and heat transfer are analyzed numerically. The results indicate that there is strong dependence of the thermal gradient at the surface of the wedge on both velocity ratio parameter and thermal radiation.

  3. Wedge excision of the nail fold in the treatment of ingrown toenail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persichetti, Paolo; Simone, Pierfranco; Li Vecchi, Giancarlo; Di Lella, Filippo; Cagli, Barbara; Marangi, Giovanni Francesco

    2004-06-01

    Many treatment modalities of ingrown toenail are reported in the literature, often associated with unacceptably high recurrence rate. The authors present their technique, which aims at reducing the convexity of the nail fold. After complete removal of the nail plate and accurate debridement of the granulomatous tissue, a wedge-shaped ellipsis of skin and subcutaneous tissue, lateral to the affected nail fold, is removed. Approximation of the margins of the resulting defect determines eversion of the nail fold. One hundred twenty ingrown toenails were treated with the wedge excision of the nail fold at the outpatient clinic of the department of plastic surgery, Campus Bio-Medico University, Rome, Italy, between January 1998 and January 2002. Six recurrences were observed. In addition to the high cure rate, short postoperative pain duration, and morbidity as well as low risk of postoperative infection, the remarkable esthetic results achievable with this method are indicated.

  4. Structural control of the Gagua "Wedge" Zone east of Taiwan Island on the southern Okinawa Trough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Yanpeng; LIU Baohua; WU Jinlong; LIANG Ruicai; LIU Chenguang; ZHANG Zhengmin

    2005-01-01

    Based on compositive analysis and interpretation of the observed and historical data, the geophysical field characters and structural properties of the Gagua "Wedge" Zone of the sea area east of Taiwan Island and the primary tectonic stress direction and its variabilities of backarc spreading in the southern Okinawa Trough are studied. It is concluded from the study results that the Gagua "Wedge" Zone is structurally consistent with the Gagua ridge and two fault basins on both sides of the Gagua ridge, and adjusts the moving direction and distance of the western Philippine Sea plate to make the northwestward motion of the plate on its east side change to the northward subduction of the plate on its west side so that the primary tectonic stress direction of the Okinawa Trough changed from NW-SE to nearly N-S, which provided the stress source for the Okinawa Trough to enter the second spreading stage.

  5. Refinement of the wedge bar technique for compression tests at intermediate strain rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stander M.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A refined development of the wedge-bar technique [1] for compression tests at intermediate strain rates is presented. The concept uses a wedge mechanism to compress small cylindrical specimens at strain rates in the order of 10s−1 to strains of up to 0.3. Co-linear elastic impact principles are used to accelerate the actuation mechanism from rest to test speed in under 300μs while maintaining near uniform strain rates for up to 30 ms, i.e. the transient phase of the test is less than 1% of the total test duration. In particular, a new load frame, load cell and sliding anvil designs are presented and shown to significantly reduce the noise generated during testing. Typical dynamic test results for a selection of metals and polymers are reported and compared with quasistatic and split Hopkinson pressure bar results.

  6. Heat Transfer Analysis of MHD Water Functionalized Carbon Nanotube Flow over a Static/Moving Wedge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waqar A. Khan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The MHD flow and heat transfer from water functionalized CNTs over a static/moving wedge are studied numerically. Thermal conductivity and viscosity of both single and multiple wall carbon nanotubes (CNTs within a base fluid (water of similar volume are investigated to determine the impact of these properties on thermofluid performance. The governing partial differential equations are converted into nonlinear, ordinary, and coupled differential equations and are solved using an implicit finite difference method with quasi-linearization techniques. The effects of volume fraction of CNTs and magnetic and wedge parameters are investigated and presented graphically. The numerical results are compared with the published data and are found to be in good agreement. It is shown that the magnetic field reduces boundary layer thickness and increases skin friction and Nusselt numbers. Due to higher density and thermal conductivity, SWCNTs offer higher skin friction and Nusselt numbers.

  7. On the shape of a droplet in a wedge: new insight from electrowetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baratian, D; Cavalli, A; van den Ende, D; Mugele, F

    2015-10-21

    The equilibrium morphology of liquid drops exposed to geometric constraints can be rather complex. Even for simple geometries, analytical solutions are scarce. Here, we investigate the equilibrium shape and position of liquid drops confined in the wedge between two solid surfaces at an angle α. Using electrowetting, we control the contact angle and thereby manipulate the shape and the equilibrium position of aqueous drops in ambient oil. In the absence of contact angle hysteresis and buoyancy, we find that the equilibrium shape is given by a truncated sphere, at a position that is determined by the drop volume and the contact angle. At this position, the net normal force between drop and the surfaces vanishes. The effect of buoyancy gives rise to substantial deviations from this equilibrium configuration which we discuss here as well. We eventually show how the geometric constraint and electrowetting can be used to position droplets inside a wedge in a controlled way, without mechanical actuation.

  8. Soil carbon sequestration is a climate stabilization wedge: comments on Sommer and Bossio (2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassaletta, Luis; Aguilera, Eduardo

    2015-04-15

    Sommer and Bossio (2014) model the potential soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration in agricultural soils (croplands and grasslands) during the next 87 years, concluding that this process cannot be considered as a climate stabilization wedge. We argue, however, that the amounts of SOC potentially sequestered in both scenarios (pessimistic and optimistic) fulfil the requirements for being considered as wedge because in both cases at least 25 GtC would be sequestered during the next 50 years. We consider that it is precisely in the near future, and meanwhile other solutions are developed, when this stabilization effort is most urgent even if after some decades the sequestration rate is significantly reduced. Indirect effects of SOC sequestration on mitigation could reinforce the potential of this solution. We conclude that the sequestration of organic carbon in agricultural soils as a climate change mitigation tool still deserves important attention for scientists, managers and policy makers.

  9. 用楔子撬开问题%Using a Wedge to Pry Open a Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马提索夫

    2001-01-01

    When I elicited the Pumi word ts6 'wedge' in Kunming (March 1996), I was struck by its resemblance to Lahu jfl 'wedge'. Since the Qiangic languages are not particularly close to Loloish on the TB family tree,this apparent cognate for an item of non-core vocabulary was of interest. The first task in establishing a relationship between the Pumi and the Lahu forms was to reconstruct the PLB ancestor of Lahu jfi. Then possible cognates to the Pumi form in other Qiangic languages had to be examined.Given our present rudimentary knowledge of comparative Qiangic,could parallel examples establish a Proto-Qiangic reconstruction resembling our newly reconstructed PLB form?

  10. Behavior of the Siemens Virtual Wedge following an interruption to beam delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, N D; Walker, C P

    2003-01-01

    Investigations were made into the beam profile shape and dose delivered by the Siemens Virtual Wedge trade mark under standard operational conditions compared with those following delivery interruption on two Siemens Primus linear accelerators (Type 7445 and 8067) running different versions of control software (7.2 and 7.0, respectively). The shape of the Virtual Wedge trade mark profiles was found to be unaffected by beam delivery interruption. An increase in the dose delivered to the central axis was found when delivery was interrupted and subsequently resumed using information recorded in a recall data file on one of the accelerators. This dose increase was attributed to a difference in delivered monitor units recorded in the recall data file compared to those displayed on the linear accelerator control console.

  11. Large negative Goos-H(a)nchen shift from a wedge-shaped thin film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianping Bai; Yaoju Zhang

    2009-01-01

    The analytical expression for the complex amplitude of light reflected from a wedge-shaped thin film is derived.For plane wave incidence,a simple ray tracing approach is used to calculate Goos-H(a)nchen(GH)shifts;and for non-plane wave incidence,for example,a Gaussian beam,the angular spectrum approach of plane wave is used in simulation.The two approaches predict that a wedge-shaped thin film can produce large negative longitudinal GH shifts.Although the reflectivity is small near the condition of resonance,the large negative GH shifts can be more easily detected in comparison with the shift from a plane-paxallel film in vacuum.

  12. Effect of ultrasonic power on wedge bonding strength and interface microstructure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Fu-liang; LI Jun-hui; HAN Lei; ZHONG Jue

    2007-01-01

    During the aluminum wire wedge bonding, the ultrasonic power and bonding strength were obtained. Based on those data, the relationship between ultrasonic power and bonding strength was studied. The results show that: 1) ultrasonic power is affected by ultrasonic power ratio and other uncontrolled factors such as asymmetric substrate quality, unstable restriction on the interface between wedge tool and aluminum wire; 2) when ultrasonic power is less than 1.0 W, increasing ultrasonic power leads to increasing bonding strength and decreasing failure bonding; on the contrary, when ultrasonic power is greater than 1.6 W, increasing power leads to decreasing bonding strength and increasing failure bonding; 3) only when ultrasonic power is between 1.0 W and 1.6 W, can stable and high yield bonding be reached. Finally, the microstructure of bonding interface was observed, and a ring-shaped bond pattern is founded in the center and friction scrape besides the ring area.

  13. Analytic Study of Magnetohydrodynamic Flow and Boundary Layer Control Over a Wedge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Chandrasekar; S. Baskaran

    2008-01-01

    A genuine variational principle developed by Gyarmati, in the field of thermodynamics of irreversible processes unifying the theoretical requirements of technical, environmental and biological sciences is employed to study the effects of uniform suction and injection on MHD flow adjacent to an isothermal wedge with pressure gradient in the presence of a transverse magnetic field. The velocity distribution inside the boundary layer has been considered as a simple polynomial function and the variational principle is formulated. The Euler-Lagrange equation is reduced to a simple polynomial equation in terms of momentum boundary layer thickness. The velocity profiles, displacement thickness and the coefficient of skin friction are calculated for various values of wedge angle parameter m, magnetic parameter ε and suction/injection parameter H. The present results are compared with known available results and the comparison is found to be satisfactory. The present study establishes high accuracy of results obtained by this variational technique.

  14. On the Effect of Structural Response on the Hydrodynamic Loading of a Free-Falling Wedge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Christine; Taravella, Brandon; Judge, Carolyn

    2016-11-01

    High-speed planing craft are subjected to repeated slamming events in waves that can be very extreme depending on the wave topography, impact angle of the ship, forward speed of the ship, encounter angle, and height out of the water. The current work examines this fluid-structure interaction problem through the use of wedge drop experiments and a theoretical prediction. The experimental program consisted of two 20° deadrise angle wedges dropped from a range of heights, 0 . 15 code assumes a rigid structure, therefore, the results between the code and the first experiment are in good agreement. The second experiment shows pressure magnitudes that are lower than the predictions due to the energy required to deform the structure. This work is funded by the Office of Naval Research and the state of Louisiana Board of Regents Industrial Ties and Reseach Subprogram.

  15. A Single Photon Imaging System Based on Wedge and Strip Anodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIAO Zhen-Hua; ZHAO Bao-Sheng; ZHANG Xing-Hua; LIU Yong-An

    2008-01-01

    A new prototype of single photon imaging system based on wedge and strip anodes is developed. The prototype can directly measure the intensity and position information for an ultra-weak radiant source which takes on the character of single photons. The image of the ultra-weak radiant source can be reconstructed with a wedge and strip anodes detector and an electronic readout subsystem by photon counting and photon position sensitive detecting in a period of time. With proper evaluation, the prototype reveals a spatial resolution superior to 150μm, a 66-kHz maximal counting rate and a dark-count below 0.67count/cm2s.

  16. Discussion and Analysis on Common Mistakes in LV Circuit Breaker Type Selection%低压断路器选型误区探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王殿光

    2016-01-01

    There are various LV circuit breakers with different manufacturers, specifications and models available in the market. Regarding circuit breaker selection and using, there are some common mistakes of users that influence the actual effect. At best, such mistakes result in malfunction and movement resistance; at worst, they lead to life and property loss. From the aspect of product standard, issues like several common mistakes in LV circuit breaker selection: understanding and selection of parameters like Icu, Ics and Icw of LV circuit breaker; relationship between LV circuit breaker’s utilization category and full selective coordination; full and partial selective protections of circuit breakers in series; influence of circuit breaker’s trip value on selective coordination;let-though energy of LV circuit breaker and function of current limiting circuit breaker are illustrated. Suggestions are proposed on the basis of analysis.%市场上低压断路器的制造商众多,规格、型号各异。用户在选择使用断路器上还存在一些误区影响了实际使用效果,轻者误动拒动、重者遭受财产损失危及生命。文章试图从产品标准着眼解释几个主要对低压断路器选择认识的误区:如何理解和选择低压断路器的Ic u、 Ic s、 Ic w等参数,低压断路器的使用类别与全选择性配合的关系,串联断路器间的全选择性和局部选择性保护,断路器脱扣值的误差对选择性配合的影响,低压断路器的允通能量及限流型断路器的作用等,并在分析的基础上给出作者的建议。

  17. First-in-Human Treatment With a Dendritic Cell-targeting Lentiviral Vector-expressing NY-ESO-1, LV305, Induces Deep, Durable Response in Refractory Metastatic Synovial Sarcoma Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Seth M; Lu, Hailing; Gnjatic, Sacha; Somaiah, Neeta; O'Malley, Ryan B; Jones, Robin L; Hsu, Frank J; Ter Meulen, Jan

    2017-10-01

    Effective induction of antitumor T cells is a pivotal goal of cancer immunotherapy. To this end, lentiviral vectors (LV) are uniquely poised to directly prime CD8 T-cell responses via transduction of dendritic cells in vivo and have shown promise as active cancer therapeutics in preclinical tumor models. However, until now, significant barriers related to production and regulation have prevented their widespread use in the clinic. We developed LV305, a dendritic cell-targeting, integration-deficient, replication incompetent LV from the ZVex platform, encoding the full-length cancer-testis antigen NY-ESO-1. LV305 is currently being evaluated in phase 1 and 2 trials in metastatic recurrent cancer patients with NY-ESO-1 positive solid tumors as a single agent and in combination with anti-PD-L1. Here we report on the first patient treated with LV305, a young woman with metastatic, recurrent, therapy-refractive NY-ESO-1 synovial sarcoma. The patient developed a robust NY-ESO-1-specific CD4 and CD8 T-cell response after 3 intradermal injections with LV305, and subsequently over 85% disease regression that is continuing for >2.5 years posttherapy. No adverse events >grade 2 occurred. This case demonstrates that LV305 can be safely administered and has the potential to induce a significant clinical benefit and immunologic response in a patient with advanced stage cancer.

  18. Evolution of Landau levels in graphene-based topological insulators in the presence of wedge disclinations

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, J R S; Furtado, C; Sergeenkov, S

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we consider modification of electronic properties of graphene-based topological insulator in the presence of wedge disclination and magnetic field by adopting the Kane-Mele model with intrinsic spin-orbit coupling. Using the properly defined Dirac-Weyl equation for this system, an exact solution for the Landau levels is obtained. The influence of the topological defect on the evolution of Landau levels is discussed.

  19. Dehydration of chlorite explains anomalously high electrical conductivity in the mantle wedges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manthilake, Geeth; Bolfan-Casanova, Nathalie; Novella, Davide; Mookherjee, Mainak; Andrault, Denis

    2016-05-01

    Mantle wedge regions in subduction zone settings show anomalously high electrical conductivity (~1 S/m) that has often been attributed to the presence of aqueous fluids released by slab dehydration. Laboratory-based measurements of the electrical conductivity of hydrous phases and aqueous fluids are significantly lower and cannot readily explain the geophysically observed anomalously high electrical conductivity. The released aqueous fluid also rehydrates the mantle wedge and stabilizes a suite of hydrous phases, including serpentine and chlorite. In this present study, we have measured the electrical conductivity of a natural chlorite at pressures and temperatures relevant for the subduction zone setting. In our experiment, we observe two distinct conductivity enhancements when chlorite is heated to temperatures beyond its thermodynamic stability field. The initial increase in electrical conductivity to ~3 × 10(-3) S/m can be attributed to chlorite dehydration and the release of aqueous fluids. This is followed by a unique, subsequent enhancement of electrical conductivity of up to 7 × 10(-1) S/m. This is related to the growth of an interconnected network of a highly conductive and chemically impure magnetite mineral phase. Thus, the dehydration of chlorite and associated processes are likely to be crucial in explaining the anomalously high electrical conductivity observed in mantle wedges. Chlorite dehydration in the mantle wedge provides an additional source of aqueous fluid above the slab and could also be responsible for the fixed depth (120 ± 40 km) of melting at the top of the subducting slab beneath the subduction-related volcanic arc front.

  20. Margin Distance Does Not Influence Recurrence and Survival After Wedge Resection for Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurizi, Giulio; D'Andrilli, Antonio; Ciccone, Anna Maria; Ibrahim, Mohsen; Andreetti, Claudio; Tierno, Simone; Poggi, Camilla; Menna, Cecilia; Venuta, Federico; Rendina, Erino Angelo

    2015-09-01

    The relationship between the free margin distance and the recurrence rate and overall survival after R0 wedge resection for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is still not clear. We retrospectively evaluated the long-term oncologic outcome of patients who had undergone wedge resection for NSCLC to assess the prognostic effect of margin distance in this setting. Between 2003 and 2013, 243 consecutive patients with a functional contraindication to major lung resection underwent wedge resection with systematic lymph node dissection for clinical stage I NSCLC. The study enrolled 182 patients with pathologic stage I and R0 resection and divided them into three subgroups according to margin distance of less than 1 cm (n = 30), 1 to 2 cm (n = 80), and more than 2 cm (n = 72). The histologic assessment was adenocarcinoma in 112 patients, squamous cell in 30, and other in 40. Postoperative morbidity was 18.7%, and postoperative mortality was 1.1%. The median follow-up was 31 months (range, 2 to 133 months). The locoregional (lung parenchyma, hilum, mediastinum) recurrence rate was 26.4% (n = 48). The distant recurrence rate was 11% (n = 20). Overall 5-year survival was 70.4%. Disease-free 5-year survival was 51.7%. There was no statistical difference in locoregional (p = 0.9) and distant (p = 0.3) recurrence rate and no difference in overall survival (p = 0.07) when the three groups were compared. Wedge resection is a viable option for the surgical treatment of stage I NSCLC when lobectomy is contraindicated. The distance between the tumor and the parenchymal suture margin does not influence recurrence or the survival rate when an R0 resection is achieved. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A Concise UTD Formulation for the Scattering by a Wedge with Impedance Faces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Fei; ZHU Guo-qiang

    2004-01-01

    A concise formulation of the uniform geometrical theory of diffraction (UTD) solution for the scattering by a wedge with isotropic impedance faces at a plane wave normally incident case is deduced in this paper, which inherits the uniformity of the original result. It overcomes the complexity of the former, expresses clearly physical meanings, and is very prone to calculation with computer. The numerical results agree well with those given by published papers.

  2. Supersonic flow onto solid wedges, multidimensional shock waves and free boundary problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gui-Qiang

    2017-08-01

    When an upstream steady uniform supersonic flow impinges onto a symmetric straight-sided wedge, governed by the Euler equations, there are two possible steady oblique shock configurations if the wedge angle is less than the detachment angle -- the steady weak shock with supersonic or subsonic downstream flow (determined by the wedge angle that is less or larger than the sonic angle) and the steady strong shock with subsonic downstream flow, both of which satisfy the entropy condition. The fundamental issue -- whether one or both of the steady weak and strong shocks are physically admissible solutions -- has been vigorously debated over the past eight decades. In this paper, we survey some recent developments on the stability analysis of the steady shock solutions in both the steady and dynamic regimes. For the static stability, we first show how the stability problem can be formulated as an initial-boundary value type problem and then reformulate it into a free boundary problem when the perturbation of both the upstream steady supersonic flow and the wedge boundary are suitably regular and small, and we finally present some recent results on the static stability of the steady supersonic and transonic shocks. For the dynamic stability for potential flow, we first show how the stability problem can be formulated as an initial-boundary value problem and then use the self-similarity of the problem to reduce it into a boundary value problem and further reformulate it into a free boundary problem, and we finally survey some recent developments in solving this free boundary problem for the existence of the Prandtl-Meyer configurations that tend to the steady weak supersonic or transonic oblique shock solutions as time goes to infinity. Some further developments and mathematical challenges in this direction are also discussed.

  3. Hemi-wedge osteotomy in the management of large angular deformities around the knee joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Alfy, Barakat Sayed

    2016-08-01

    Angular deformity around the knee joint is a common orthopedic problem. Many options are available for the management of such problem with varying degrees of success and failure. The aim of the present study was to assess the results of hemi-wedge osteotomy in the management of big angular deformities about the knee joint. Twenty-eight limbs in 21 patients with large angular deformities around the knee joint were treated by the hemi-wedge osteotomy technique. The ages ranged from 12 to 43 years with an average of 19.8 years. The deformity ranged from 20° to 40° with a mean of 30.39° ± 5.99°. The deformities were genu varum in 12 cases and genu valgum in 9 cases. Seven cases had bilateral deformities. Small wedge was removed from the convex side of the bone and put in the gap created in the other side after correction of the deformity. At the final follow-up, the deformity was corrected in all cases except two. Full range of knee movement was regained in all cases. The complications included superficial wound infection in two cases, overcorrection in one case, pain along the lateral aspect of the knee in one case and recurrence of the deformity in one case. No cases were complicated by nerve injury or vascular injury. Hemi-wedge osteotomy is a good method for treatment of deformities around the knee joint. It can correct large angular deformities without major complications.

  4. Solution for a system of fractional heat equations of nanofluid along a wedge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Rabha W.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, authors set a new system of fractional heat equations of nanofluid along a wedge and establish the existence and uniqueness of a solution based on the Riemann-Liouville differential operators. Sufficient conditions on the parameters of the system are imposed. A numerical solution of the system is discussed, and applications are illustrated. The technique is based on the ability of Podlubny’s matrix in Matlab to formulate the operation of fractional calculus.

  5. 2D Traveling Wave Array Employing a Trapezoidal Dielectric Wedge for Beam Steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Host, Nicholas K.; Chen, Chi-Chih; Volakis, John L.; Miranada, Felix A.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation addresses the progress made so far in the development of an antenna array with reconfigurable transmission line feeds connecting each element in series. In particular, 2D traveling wave array employing trapezoidal Dielectric Wedge for Beam Steering will be discussed. The presentation includes current status of the effort and suggested future work. The work is being done as part of the NASA Office of the Chief Technologist's Space Technology Research Fellowship (NSTRF).

  6. Comparative Study between a Curved and a Wedge PEEK Cage for Single-level Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Interbody Fusion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kim, Hwan Soo; Song, Joon Suk; Heo, Weon; Cha, Jae Hoon; Rhee, Dong Youl

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficiency of a curved polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cage in comparison with a wedge PEEK cage according to radiologic and clinical outcomes in patients with cervical degenerative disease...

  7. Cubitus varus in adults correction with lateral closing wedge osteotomy and fixation with posterior plating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Pandey

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available To share the result of lateral closing wedge osteotomy and fixation with posterior reconstruction plate in correction of cubitus varus in adults. It is a retrospective case analysis of 8 cases of cubitus varus in adult treated with lateral closing wedge osteotomy through posterior triceps retracting approach. Internal fixation was done with two posterior reconstruction plates. All cases were from 15 to 29 years of age (mean 22.3 with 3 female and 5 male. All had cubitus varus ranging from 15- 28 deg (mean 20.16 deg due to childhood malunited supracondylar fracture of humerus. Indication for operation was cosmetic reason only. Follow up duration was 4-22 months (mean 12.5 months. All the osteotomy united clinically in mean duration of 9 weeks ( range 8-12 weeks with mean carrying angle 8.33 degree in postoperative phase. There was no loss of motion, no loss of fixation, no surgical site infection, nonunion or neurovascular deficit. Lateral closing wedge corrective osteotomy and fixation with posterior reconstruction plate is easy technique with satisfactory result in correction of cubitus varus in adults. Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal,2012,Vol-8,No-2, 49-53 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v8i2.6839

  8. Duodenal Wedge Resection for Large Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumour Presenting with Life-Threatening Haemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Shaw

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Duodenal gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs are an uncommon malignancy of the gastrointestinal (GI tract. We present a case of life-threatening haemorrhage caused by a large ulcerating duodenal GIST arising from the third part of the duodenum managed by a limited duodenal wedge resection. Case Presentation. A 61-year-old patient presented with acute life-threatening gastrointestinal bleeding. After oesophagogastroduodenoscopy failed to demonstrate the source of bleeding, a 5 cm ulcerating exophytic mass originating from the third part of the duodenum was identified at laparotomy. A successful limited wedge resection of the tumour mass was performed. Histopathology subsequently confirmed a duodenal GIST. The patient remained well at 12-month followup with no evidence of local recurrence or metastatic spread. Conclusion. Duodenal GISTs can present with life-threatening upper GI haemorrhage. In the context of acute haemorrhage, even relatively large duodenal GISTs can be treated by limited wedge resection. This is a preferable alternative to duodenopancreatectomy with lower morbidity and mortality but comparable oncological outcome.

  9. Analysis of stress-strain state on top of a rectangular wedge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frishter Lyudmila Yur'evna

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Modeling singular solutions of the elasticity theory problems, which are determined by geometric factor - bird's mouth of the edge, make it necessary to analyze the solutions with some peculiarity, which are obtained experimentally with the help of photoelasticity method. In this article the peculiar stress-strain state is analyzed on the example of the known experimental solutions for a wedge under a concentrated force obtained by M. Frocht. Solution analysis for a wedge with a power-type peculiarity obtained experimentally by photoelasticity method, helps to detach a singular solution field, where fringe contour is not visible. Due to idealization of the boundary shape and loading technique, infinitely large stresses arise, which are obtained as a singular solution of the boundary problem in a planar domain. Comparison of theoretical and experimental solutions obtained for a wedge shows areas of overlap and areas of significant and insignificant differences as a result of the inability to experimentally apply the force to a single point.

  10. Dose conformation to the spine during palliative treatments using dynamic wedges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ormsby, Matthew A., E-mail: Matthew.Ormsby@usoncology.com [West Texas Cancer Center at Medical Center Hospital, Odessa, TX (United States); Herndon, R. Craig; Kaczor, Joseph G. [West Texas Cancer Center at Medical Center Hospital, Odessa, TX (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Radiation therapy is commonly used to alleviate pain associated with metastatic disease of the spine. Often, isodose lines are manipulated using dynamic or physical wedges to encompass the section of spine needing treatment while minimizing dose to normal tissue. We will compare 2 methods used to treat the entire thoracic spine. The first method treats the thoracic spine with a single, nonwedged posterior-anterior (PA) field. Dose is prescribed to include the entire spine. Isodose lines tightly conform to the top and bottom vertebrae, but vertebrae between these 2 received more than enough coverage. The second method uses a combination of wedges to create an isodose line that mimics the curvature of the thoracic spine. This “C”-shaped curvature is created by overlapping 2 fields with opposing dynamic wedges. Machine constraints limit the treatment length and therefore 2 isocenters are used. Each of the 2 PA fields contributes a portion of the total daily dose. This technique creates a “C”-shaped isodose line that tightly conforms to the thoracic spine, minimizing normal tissue dose. Spinal cord maximum dose is reduced, as well as mean dose to the liver, esophagus, and heart.

  11. Analysis of Mechanical Energy Transport on Free-Falling Wedge during Water-Entry Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hua Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For better discussing and understanding the physical phenomena and body-fluid interaction of water-entry problem, here mechanical-energy transport (wedge, fluid, and each other of water-entry model for free falling wedge is studied by numerical method based on free surface capturing method and Cartesian cut cell mesh. In this method, incompressible Euler equations for a variable density fluid are numerically calculated by the finite volume method. Then artificial compressibility method, dual-time stepping technique, and Roe's approximate Riemann solver are applied in the numerical scheme. Furthermore, the projection method of momentum equations and exact Riemann solution are used to calculate the fluid pressure on solid boundary. On this basis, during water-entry phase of the free-falling wedge, macroscopic energy conversion of overall body-fluid system and microscopic energy transformation in fluid field are analyzed and discussed. Finally, based on test cases, many useful conclusions about mechanical energy transport for water entry problem are made and presented.

  12. The self-interaction of a fluid interface, the wavevector dependent surface tension and wedge filling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Andrew O.; Rascón, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    We argue that whenever an interface, separating bulk fluid phases, adopts a non-planar configuration (induced by a confining geometry or thermal fluctuations, say), the energy cost of it will contain a non-local self-interaction term. For systems with short-ranged forces and Ising symmetry, we determine the self-interaction by integrating out bulk-like degrees of freedom from a more microscopic Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson model. The self-interaction can be written in a simple diagrammatic form involving integrals over effective two-body forces acting at the interface and consistently accounts for a number of known features of the microscopic model, including the wavevector dependence of the surface tension describing the fluctuations of a near planar interface. When applied to wedge filling transitions, the self-interaction describes the attraction between the wetting films on either side of the wedge. We show that, for sufficiently acute wedges, this can alter the order of the filling phase transition.

  13. The self-interaction of a fluid interface, the wavevector dependent surface tension and wedge filling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parry, Andrew O [Department of Mathematics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Rascon, Carlos [Grupo Interdisciplinar de Sistemas Complejos (GISC), Departamento de Matematicas, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain)

    2011-01-12

    We argue that whenever an interface, separating bulk fluid phases, adopts a non-planar configuration (induced by a confining geometry or thermal fluctuations, say), the energy cost of it will contain a non-local self-interaction term. For systems with short-ranged forces and Ising symmetry, we determine the self-interaction by integrating out bulk-like degrees of freedom from a more microscopic Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson model. The self-interaction can be written in a simple diagrammatic form involving integrals over effective two-body forces acting at the interface and consistently accounts for a number of known features of the microscopic model, including the wavevector dependence of the surface tension describing the fluctuations of a near planar interface. When applied to wedge filling transitions, the self-interaction describes the attraction between the wetting films on either side of the wedge. We show that, for sufficiently acute wedges, this can alter the order of the filling phase transition.

  14. Spatial variability of E. coli in an urban salt-wedge estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, Dusan; Coleman, Rhys; Deletic, Ana; McCarthy, David

    2017-01-15

    This study investigated the spatial variability of a common faecal indicator organism, Escherichia coli, in an urban salt-wedge estuary in Melbourne, Australia. Data were collected through comprehensive depth profiling in the water column at four sites and included measurements of temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, and E. coli concentrations. Vertical variability of E. coli was closely related to the salt-wedge dynamics; in the presence of a salt-wedge, there was a significant decrease in E. coli concentrations with depth. Transverse variability was low and was most likely dwarfed by the analytical uncertainties of E. coli measurements. Longitudinal variability was also low, potentially reflecting minimal die-off, settling, and additional inputs entering along the estuary. These results were supported by a simple mixing model that predicted E. coli concentrations based on salinity measurements. Additionally, an assessment of a sentinel monitoring station suggested routine monitoring locations may produce conservative estimates of E. coli concentrations in stratified estuaries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Partial wedge resection of nail, nail bed and nail matrix in ingrown toenail treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Dönmez

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Ingrown toenail is a frequent problem which can be seen in all ages. There are many treatment methods both surgical and nonsurgical. In this study we evaluated the results of wedge resection of ingrown toe nail.Patients and Methods: A total of 80 toenails of 74 patients (55 female, 19 male who complaint with discharge and deformity of their toenail underwent partial wedge resection of the nail and nail matrix. According to the Heifetz’s staging system, 34 toenails were grade II, 46 toenails were grade III. There was active drainage due to an infectious process in all effected toe nails. All patients were operated after 10 day of oral antibiotic treatment. We evaluated the recurrence, postoperative infection, patient satisfaction and time to return to work.Results: The mean follow up period was 8 months (4-12 months. There was no recurrence in any patient. Two patients came with wound drainage in postoperative 14th day. Intravenous antibiotic treatment, debridement and wound dressing with rifampicine every other day were accomplished. All patients expressed their satisfaction with surgery.Conclusion: In treatment of ingrown toenail; wedge resection of nail, nail matrix and nail bed is a very effective treatment. Recurrence rate following this technique is negligible if it is done properly and it has high patient satisfaction.

  16. Computational analysis of asymmetric water entry of wedge and ship section at constant velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahaman, Md. Mashiur; Ullah, Al Habib; Afroz, Laboni; Shabnam, Sharmin; Sarkar, M. A. Rashid

    2016-07-01

    Water impact problems receive much attention due to their short duration and large unsteady component of hydrodynamic loads. The effect of water entry has several important applications in various aspects of the naval field. Significant attention has been given to various water entry phenomena such as ship slamming, planning hulls, high-speed hydrodynamics of seaplanes, surface-piercing propellers and the interaction of high-speed liquid drops with structural elements. Asymmetric water entry may be caused by various natural phenomena such as weather conditions or strong winds. Since the determination of hydrodynamic impact load plays a vital role in designing safe and effcient vessels, an accurate and reliable prediction method is necessary to investigate asymmetric water entry problems. In this paper, water entry of a two-dimensional wedge and ship section at constant velocity in asymmetric condition will be analysed numerically and the effects of asymmetric impact on the velocity and pressure distribution will be discussed. The finite volume method is employed to solve the dynamic motion of the wedge in two-phase flow. During the water entry, the air and water interface is described implicitly by the volume of fluid (VOF) scheme. The numerical code and method was first validated for symmetric condition by one of the present author is applied for asymmetric wedge and ship section. The free surface, velocity and pressure distribution for asymmetric water entry are investigated and visualized with contour plots at different time steps.

  17. Extension of a double-wedged orogen potentially leads to the current South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, G.; Lavier, L. L.

    2015-12-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) is surrounded by South China on the NW, Palawan and Reed Bank on the SE, as well as several microplates, resembling a jigsaw puzzle. In an attempt to better understand its evolution, we designed simplified thermomechanical models to simulate extension of a double-wedge-shaped orogen with highlands on both sides and lowland in the center to mimic the geological condition of the proto-SCS. We imposed constant extension rates on both sides and Gaussian-shaped thermal impulse in the center. We also varied the strength of lower crust but did not explicitly incorporate mid-ocean ridges and searfloor spreading mechanisms. We currently used symmetric double-wedge, but further tests are planed for asymmetric double-wedges. Our preliminary results show that the models produced many structures that resemble those of SCS, such as 1) a series of domino or conjugate faults sitting above a subsurface detachment (or décollement), 2) exhumed domes of middle-lower crust, 3) extreme thinning of both upper crust and lower crust, and 4) propagation of extension towards NW and SE margins. Our models suggest that superimposition of these modeled characteristics produced during several phases of extension of the SCS that may be due to thermal impulsion, magmatic events, and subduction related relaxation potentially produces high resemblance of the SCS.

  18. Analysis and design of wedge projection display system based on ray retracing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Kun; Lee, Taewon; Sung, Hyunsik; Min, Sung-Wook

    2013-06-10

    A design method for the wedge projection display system based on the ray retracing method is proposed. To analyze the principle of image formation on the inclined surface of the wedge-shaped waveguide, the bundle of rays is retraced from an imaging point on the inclined surface to the aperture of the waveguide. In consequence of ray retracing, we obtain the incident conditions of the ray, such as the position and the angle at the aperture, which provide clues for image formation. To illuminate the image formation, the concept of the equivalent imaging point is proposed, which is the intersection where the incident rays are extended over the space regardless of the refraction and reflection in the waveguide. Since the initial value of the rays arriving at the equivalent imaging point corresponds to that of the rays converging into the imaging point on the inclined surface, the image formation can be visualized by calculating the equivalent imaging point over the entire inclined surface. Then, we can find image characteristics, such as their size and position, and their degree of blur--by analyzing the distribution of the equivalent imaging point--and design the optimized wedge projection system by attaching the prism structure at the aperture. The simulation results show the feasibility of the ray retracing analysis and characterize the numerical relation between the waveguide parameters and the aperture structure for on-axis configuration. The experimental results verify the designed system based on the proposed method.

  19. The self-interaction of a fluid interface, the wavevector dependent surface tension and wedge filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Andrew O; Rascón, Carlos

    2011-01-12

    We argue that whenever an interface, separating bulk fluid phases, adopts a non-planar configuration (induced by a confining geometry or thermal fluctuations, say), the energy cost of it will contain a non-local self-interaction term. For systems with short-ranged forces and Ising symmetry, we determine the self-interaction by integrating out bulk-like degrees of freedom from a more microscopic Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson model. The self-interaction can be written in a simple diagrammatic form involving integrals over effective two-body forces acting at the interface and consistently accounts for a number of known features of the microscopic model, including the wavevector dependence of the surface tension describing the fluctuations of a near planar interface. When applied to wedge filling transitions, the self-interaction describes the attraction between the wetting films on either side of the wedge. We show that, for sufficiently acute wedges, this can alter the order of the filling phase transition.

  20. Flow Visualization around a Double Wedge Airfoil Model with Focusing Schlieren System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masashi KASHITANI; Yutaka YAMAGUCHI

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, aerodynamic characteristics of the double wedge airfoil model were investigated in a transonic flow by using the shock tube as an intermittent wind tunnel. The driver and driven gases of the shock tube are dry air. The airfoil model of double wedge has the span of 58 mm, chord length c = 75 mm and its maximum thickness is 7.5 mm. The apex of the double wedge airfoil model is located on the 35% chord length from the leading edge. The range of hot gas Mach numbers are from 0.80 to 0.88, and the Reynolds numbers based on chord length are 3.11×105~3.49×105, respectively. The flow visualizations were performed by the sharp focusing schlieren method which can visualize the three dimensional flow fields. The results show that the present system can visualize the transonic flowfield clearer than the previous system, and the shock wave profiles of the center of span in the test section are visualized

  1. Plastic ingestion by Newell's (Puffinus newelli) and wedge-tailed shearwaters (Ardenna pacifica) in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kain, Elizabeth C; Lavers, Jennifer L; Berg, Carl J; Raine, André F; Bond, Alexander L

    2016-12-01

    The ingestion of plastic by seabirds has been used as an indicator of pollution in the marine environment. On Kaua'i, HI, USA, 50.0 % of Newell's (Puffinus newelli) and 76.9 % of wedge-tailed shearwater (Ardenna pacifica) fledglings necropsied during 2007-2014 contained plastic items in their digestive tract, while 42.1 % of adult wedge-tailed shearwaters had ingested plastic. For both species, the frequency of plastic ingestion has increased since the 1980s with some evidence that the mass and the number of items ingested per bird have also increased. The color of plastic ingested by the shearwaters was assessed relative to beach-washed plastics by using Jaccard's index (where J = 1 complete similarity). The color (J = 0.65-0.68) of items ingested by both species, and the type ingested by wedge-tailed shearwaters (J = 0.85-0.87), overlapped with plastic available in the local environment indicating moderate selection for plastic color and type. This study has shown that the Hawaiian populations of shearwaters, like many seabird species, provide useful but worrying insights into plastic pollution and the health of our oceans.

  2. Midterm results following medial closed wedge distal femoral osteotomy stabilized with a locking internal fixation device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forkel, Philipp; Achtnich, Andrea; Metzlaff, Sebastian; Zantop, Thore; Petersen, Wolf

    2015-07-01

    Aim of this study was to evaluate the subjective and radiological outcome and to evaluate the complications of a medial closing wedge osteotomy at the femur for lateral osteoarthritis with genu valgum. Twenty-three patients with grade III to IV cartilage damage and valgus knee alignment were treated with medial closing wedge osteotomy at the distal femur. The osteotomy was stabilized with an internal plate fixator. Age varied between 25 and 55 years (mean 47 years). One patient was lost to final follow-up. After 3.5 years, all Knee Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) subitems increased significantly. There was no significant difference in the subgroup analysis of KOOS subitems for patients with and without microfracture or age (>50 vs. <50 years). There were no perioperative complications. One patient had an overcorrection. All, but one osteotomy, showed stable bone healing. There was a loss of correction due to delayed bone healing in one case. Possible explanations for this complication were injury of the lateral cortex or smoking. This case required revision with bone graft and an additional lateral plate. In no case, a conversion to an endoprosthesis was necessary. The femoral medial closing wedge osteotomy is a surgical method for improving symptoms of lateral osteoarthritis in the valgus knee. IV.

  3. CFD Simulations of the IHF Arc-Jet Flow: Compression-Pad/Separation Bolt Wedge Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokcen, Tahir; Skokova, Kristina A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports computational analyses in support of two wedge tests in a high enthalpy arc-jet facility at NASA Ames Research Center. These tests were conducted using two different wedge models, each placed in a free jet downstream of a corresponding different conical nozzle in the Ames 60-MW Interaction Heating Facility. Panel test articles included a metallic separation bolt imbedded in the compression-pad and heat shield materials, resulting in a circular protuberance over a flat plate. As part of the test calibration runs, surface pressure and heat flux measurements on water-cooled calibration plates integrated with the wedge models were also obtained. Surface heating distributions on the test articles as well as arc-jet test environment parameters for each test configuration are obtained through computational fluid dynamics simulations, consistent with the facility and calibration measurements. The present analysis comprises simulations of the non-equilibrium flow field in the facility nozzle, test box, and flow field over test articles, and comparisons with the measured calibration data.

  4. Integrated waste management as a climate change stabilisation wedge for the Maltese islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falzon, Clyde; Fabri, Simon G; Frysinger, Steven

    2013-01-01

    The continuous increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions occurring since the Industrial Revolution is offering significant ecological challenges to Earth. These emissions are leading to climate changes which bring about extensive damage to communities, ecosystems and resources. The analysis in this article is focussed on the waste sector within the Maltese islands, which is the largest greenhouse gas emitter in the archipelago following the energy and transportation sectors. This work shows how integrated waste management, based on a life cycle assessment methodology, acts as an effective stabilisation wedge strategy for climate change. Ten different scenarios applicable to the Maltese municipal solid waste management sector are analysed. It is shown that the scenario that is most coherent with the stabilisation wedges strategy for the Maltese islands consists of 50% landfilling, 30% mechanical biological treatment and 20% recyclable waste export for recycling. It is calculated that 16.6 Mt less CO2-e gases would be emitted over 50 years by means of this integrated waste management stabilisation wedge when compared to the business-as-usual scenario. These scientific results provide evidence in support of policy development in Malta that is implemented through legislation, economic instruments and other applicable tools.

  5. Groundwater response to tidal fluctuations in wedge-shaped confined aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuello, Julián E.; Guarracino, Luis; Monachesi, Leonardo B.

    2017-08-01

    Most of the analytical solutions to describe tide-induced head fluctuations assume that the coastal aquifer has a constant thickness. These solutions have been applied in many practical problems ignoring possible changes in aquifer thickness, which may lead to wrong estimates of the hydraulic parameters. In this study, a new analytical solution to describe tide-induced head fluctuations in a wedge-shaped coastal aquifer is presented. The proposed model assumes that the aquifer thickness decreases with the distance from the coastline. A closed-form analytical solution is obtained by solving a boundary-value problem with both a separation of variables method and a change of variables method. The analytical solution indicates that wedging significantly enhances the amplitude of the induced heads in the aquifer. However, the effect on time lag is almost negligible, particularly near the coast. The slope factor, which quantifies the degree of heterogeneity of the aquifer, is obtained and analyzed for a number of hypothetical scenarios. The slope factor provides a simple criterion to detect a possible wedging of the coastal aquifer.

  6. Open Wedge High Tibial Osteotomy and Combined Arthroscopic Surgery in Severe Medial Osteoarthritis and Varus Malalignment: Minimum 5-Year Results

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Moon-Jib; Shin, Yong-Eun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the radiologic and functional outcomes of medial open wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO) combined with arthroscopic procedure in patients with medial osteoarthritis. Materials and Methods From June 1996 to March 2010, 26 patients (32 knees) who underwent medial open wedge osteotomy and arthroscopic operation for medial osteoarthritis were retrospectively reviewed. Measurements included hip-knee-ankle (HKA) angle, femorotibial angle, medial proximal tibial angle, posterior t...

  7. HeLv – Helpdesk für Lehrer/innen verhaltensauffälliger Schüler/innen - eine netzbasierte Serviceplattform für Lehrer/innen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Germany

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the serviceplatform HeLv-Helpdesk for teachers for pupils with conduct disorder (http://helv.ph-noe.ac.at. HeLv offers easy access to its monitoring and coaching platform as well as a FAQ, contacts for networking with local institutions and a big offer of specialist literature. The focus of the article is on the genese of the service, actual developments and future work which will concentrate on better dissemination and awareness for the support being given by HeLv.

  8. An IBEM solution to the scattering of plane SH-waves by a lined tunnel in elastic wedge space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhongxian Liu; Lei Liu

    2015-01-01

    The indirect boundary element method (IBEM) is developed to solve the scattering of plane SH-waves by a lined tunnel in elastic wedge space.According to the theory of single-layer potential,the scattered-wave field can be constructed by applying virtual uniform loads on the surface of lined tunnel and the nearby wedge surface.The densities of virtual loads can be solved by establishing equations through the continuity conditions on the interface and zero-traction conditions on free surfaces.The total wave field is obtained by the superposition of free field and scattered-wave field in elastic wedge space.Numerical results indicate that the IBEM can solve the diffraction of elastic wave in elastic wedge space accurately and efficiently.The wave motion feature strongly depends on the wedge angle,the angle of incidence,incident frequency,the location of lined tunnel,and material parameters.The waves interference and amplification effect around the tunnel in wedge space is more significant,causing the dynamic stress concentration factor on rigid tunnel and the displacement amplitude of flexible tunnel up to 50.0 and 17.0,respectively,more than double that of the case of half-space.Hence,considerable attention should be paid to seismic resistant or anti-explosion design of the tunnel built on a slope or hillside.

  9. Great Earthquakes and Orogenic Wedge Front Processes in the Bolivian Backarc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, B. A.; Arrowsmith, R.; Echalar, A.; Yagupsky, D.; Ericksen, T. L.; Weiss, J. R.; Ahlgren, K.; Bevis, M. G.; Whipple, K. X.

    2011-12-01

    The potential for earthquakes greater than Mw 8 rupturing the decollement below Bolivia's Southern Subandes orogenic wedge has been recently recognized although great events are not documented in historical seismicity catalogs and paleoseismologic studies in this part of Bolivia are non-existent. Here, we present the first evidence for a recent surface-rupturing event of at least 7m at the range-front Mandeyapecua fault near the town of Carandaiti. SRTM topography and published industry sub-surface data demonstrate that the ~500km long fault has at least three main segments, each greater than 100 km, with total relief of 10s of meters. We acquired kinematic GPS and terrestrial laser scanner surveys at 26 sites along the 2 northern segments of the fault. Everywhere the profiles of the frontal scarp are very similar to one another: relief is ~8-12m and scarp face inclination is ~7 degrees. Moreover, the slope faces are unbroken and have constant dip, consistent with a single event rupturing each site. We estimate paleo- Mw using thrust earthquake scaling relations and an across-strike rupture length of 85-100km (the locked zone from the geodetic studies). A rupture aspect ratio of ~1:1 sets the lower limit at ~ Mw 8.0 although, if a single event is responsible, then minimum magnitude is more likely Mw ~ 8.2-8.4. Regional geomorphic studies constrain the age of the faulted lithofacies from 1.6 to 4.4ka and minimum short-term slip rates from 4.3 to 1.8 mm/yr. For comparison, published dates and seismic reflection data yield a Quaternary slip rate of 2.4mm/yr. Each of these estimates is significantly less than the geodetically-determined, currently accumulating slip rate of ~10mm/yr. The implication, then, is that some of the other structures within the wedge must be active, although, as yet, we have found no field evidence for this. We use minimum work orogenic models to investigate the physical controls on fault activity in the wedge and show that, whereas for high

  10. Study of semi-leptonic decay of B meson, in the ways lvD{sup *} and lvD with ALEPH detector at LEP: measurement of the fragmentation function of b quark and search for D{sup **} states; Etude des desintegrations semi-leptoniques du meson B, dans les canaux D*lv et Dlv, aupres du detecteur ALEPH au LEP: mesure de la fonction de fragmentation du quark b et recherche d`etats D**

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonis, I. de

    1994-06-01

    This work is dedicated to the measurement of the fragmentation function of the quark b, with the ALEPH detector, at LEP. The main aspects of this measure is to be as independent as possible from any model. For this, we reconstruct the semi-leptonic decay modes of the B meson, in the ways lvD deg., lvD{sup *+} and lvD{sup +}. In a first step, we describe the criteria used to select those modes. Then, we determine the fragmentation function by measuring the ratio X{sub B} = 2 E{sub B} / {radical} S, where E{sub B} is the B meson energy and {radical} s/2 the useful energy in the center of mass. The measure of E{sub B} needs a precise reconstruction of the neutrino energy, which is not detected. We present here the method that we used for this reconstruction. Once the acceptance correction is applied, we obtain, for the variable X{sub B}, a distribution with mean value: < X{sub B} > = 0.711 {+-} 0.009 (stat). To be as independent as possible of the model (Peterson function) used n the Monte-Carlo determination of the acceptance, we do an iterative calculation of the acceptance. We obtain < X{sub B}> = 0.712 {+-} 0.009(stat) {+-} 0.017 (syst). Furthermore, this measure depends of the D** contribution, badly known for now. Therefore, we search this contribution, using the events selected before, on the one hand by a direct observation, on the other hand by reconstructing the mass of the B meson. (author). 64 refs.

  11. Alternating augite-plagioclase wedges in basement dolerites of Lockne impact structure, Sweden: A new shock wave-induced deformation feature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, A.; Reznik, B.; Alva-Valdivia, L. M.; Srivastava, D. C.

    2017-03-01

    This paper reports peculiar alternating augite-plagioclase wedges in basement dolerites of Lockne impact structure, Sweden. The combined microscopic and spectroscopic studies of the micro/nanoscale wedges reveal that these are deformation-induced features. First, samples showing wedges, 12 out of 18 studied, are distributed in the impact structure within a radius of up to 10 km from the crater center. Second, the margins between the augite and labradorite wedges are sharp and the {110} prismatic cleavage of augite develops into fractures and thereafter into wedges. The fractures are filled with molten labradorite pushed from the neighboring bulk labradorite grain. Third, compared to the bulk labradorite, the dislocation density and the residual strain in the labradorite wedges are significantly higher. A possible mechanism of genesis of the wedges is proposed. The mechanism explains that passing of the shock waves in the basement dolerite induced (i) formation of microfractures in augite and labradorite; (ii) development of the augite prismatic cleavages into the wedges, which overprint the microfracture in the labradorite wedges; and (iii) thereafter, infilling of microfractures in the augite wedges by labradorite.

  12. Comparison of Lateral Closing-Wedge Versus Medial Opening-Wedge High Tibial Osteotomy on Knee Joint Alignment and Kinematics in the ACL-Deficient Knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranawat, Anil S; Nwachukwu, Benedict U; Pearle, Andrew D; Zuiderbaan, Hendrik A; Weeks, Kenneth D; Khamaisy, Saker

    2016-12-01

    Lateral closing-wedge (LCW) and medial opening-wedge (MOW) high tibial osteotomies (HTOs) correct varus knee alignment and stabilize the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-deficient knee. Tibiofemoral and patellofemoral alignment and kinematics after HTO are not well quantified. To compare the effect of LCW and MOW HTO on tibiofemoral and patellofemoral alignment in the ACL-deficient knee. Controlled laboratory study. Anterior drawer, Lachman, and pivot-shift tests were performed on cadaveric specimens (N = 16), and anterior tibial translation and tibial rotation were measured for the native and ACL-sectioned knee. The right and left knee of each cadaveric specimen underwent an LCW and MOW HTO, respectively, and stability testing was repeated. All cadavers underwent pre- and postosteotomy computerized tomography with 3-dimensional computer modeling to determine the effect of HTO on posterior tibial slope, as well as tibial and patellofemoral axial plane alignment (tibial axial rotation and patellar axial tilt). Correction to neutral coronal alignment was obtained with both osteotomy techniques; however, larger posterior tibial slope neutralization was achieved with LCW compared with MOW (mean ± SD, 11° ± 3.8° vs 5° ± 5°). LCW demonstrated a greater decrease in anterior tibial translation (P rotation with pivot shift. Relative to MOW, LCW resulted in greater tibial axial rotation and patellar axial tilt (7.7° ± 4° and 5.6° ± 3.9° [LCW], 2.8° ± 2.3° and 2.4° ± 0.9° [MOW], respectively; P rotation and lateral patellar tilt, which may adversely affect the patellofemoral joint. More work is needed to understand the clinical and functional outcome of these biomechanical findings in the ACL-deficient knee. © 2016 The Author(s).

  13. Chemical abundances in the protoplanetary disc LV 2 (Orion): clues to the causes of the abundance anomaly in H II regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsamis, Y. G.; Walsh, J. R.; Vílchez, J. M.; Péquignot, D.

    2011-04-01

    Optical integral field spectroscopy of the archetype protoplanetary disc LV 2 in the Orion nebula is presented, taken with the Very Large Telescope (VLT) FLAMES/Argus fibre array. The detection of recombination lines (RLs) of C II and O II from this class of objects is reported, and the lines are utilized as abundance diagnostics. The study is complemented with the analysis of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Faint Object Spectrograph ultraviolet and optical spectra of the target contained within the Argus field of view. By subtracting the local nebula background the intrinsic spectrum of the proplyd is obtained and its elemental composition is derived for the first time. The proplyd is found to be overabundant in carbon, oxygen and neon compared to the Orion nebula and the Sun. The simultaneous coverage over LV 2 of the C III]λ1908 and [O III]λ5007 collisionally excited lines (CELs) and C II and O II RLs has enabled us to measure the abundances of C2 + and O2 + for LV 2 with both sets of lines. The two methods yield consistent results for the intrinsic proplyd spectrum, but not for the proplyd spectrum contaminated by the generic nebula spectrum, thus providing one example where the long-standing abundance anomaly plaguing metallicity studies of H II regions has been resolved. These results would indicate that the standard forbidden-line methods used in the derivation of light metal abundances in H II regions in our own and other galaxies underestimate the true gas metallicity.

  14. DC-link Voltage Control to Compensate Voltage Deviation for PV–BESSs Integrated System in Low-Voltage (LV Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Gyu-sub

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The exhaustion of fossil fuel and the greenhouse gas emission are one of the most significant energy and environmental issues, respectively. Photovoltaic (PV generators and battery energy storage systems (BESSs have been significantly increased for recent years. The BESSs are mainly used for smoothing active power fluctuation of the PV. In this paper, PV–BESSs integration of two DC/DC converters and one AC/DC converter is investigated and DC-link voltage control to compensate the AC voltage deviation is proposed for the PV‒BESS system in low-voltage (LV networks.

  15. A comparison of the biomechanical effects of valgus knee braces and lateral wedged insoles in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Richard K; Nester, Christopher J; Richards, Jim D; Kim, Winston Y; Johnson, David S; Jari, Sanjiv; Laxton, Philip; Tyson, Sarah F

    2013-03-01

    Increases in the external knee adduction moment (EKAM) have been associated with increased mechanical load at the knee and progression of knee osteoarthritis. Valgus knee braces and lateral wedged insoles are common approaches to reducing this loading; however no study has directly compared the biomechanical and clinical effects of these two treatments in patients with medial tibiofemoral osteoarthritis. A cross-over randomised design was used where each intervention was worn by 28 patients for a two week period. Pre- and post-intervention gait kinematic/kinetic data and clinical outcomes were collected to evaluate the biomechanical and clinical effects on the knee joint. The valgus knee brace and the lateral wedged insole significantly increased walking speed, reduced the early stance EKAM by 7% and 12%, and the knee adduction angular impulse by 8.6 and 16.1% respectively. The lateral wedged insole significantly reduced the early stance EKAM compared to the valgus knee brace (p=0.001). The valgus knee brace significantly reduced the knee varus angle compared to the baseline and lateral wedged insole. Improvements in pain and function subscales were comparable for the valgus knee brace and lateral wedged insole. There were no significant differences between the two treatments in any of the clinical outcomes; however the lateral wedged insoles demonstrated greater levels of acceptance by patients. This is the first study to biomechanically compare these two treatments, and demonstrates that given the potential role of knee loading in osteoarthritis progression, that both treatments reduce this but lateral wedge insoles appear to have a greater effect.

  16. Control of structural inheritance on thrust initiation and material transfer in accretionary wedges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leever, Karen; Geersen, Jacob; Ritter, Malte; Lieser, Kathrin; Behrmann, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Faults in the incoming sediment layer are commonly observed in subduction zone settings and well developed in the incoming plate off Sumatra. To investigate how they affect the structural development of the accretionary wedge, we conducted a series of 2D analogue tectonic experiments in which a 2 cm thick quartz sand layer on top of a thin detachment layer of glass beads was pulled against a rigid backstop by a basal conveyor belt in a 20cm wide box with glass walls. A gap at the base of the back wall avoids entrainment of the glass beads. At regular spacing of either 2.3, 5.5 or 7.8 cm (fractions of the thrust sheet length in the reference model), conjugate pairs of weakness zones dipping 60deg were created by cutting the sand layer with a thin (1 mm) metal blade. Both the undisturbed sand and the pre-cuts have an angle of internal friction of ~29o, but their cohesion is different by 50 Pa (110 Pa for the undisturbed material, 60 Pa along the pre-cuts). Friction of the glass beads is ~24deg. The experiments are monitored with high resolution digital cameras; displacement fields derived from digital image correlation are used to constrain fault activity. In all experiments, a critically tapered wedge developed with a surface slope of 7.5deg. In the reference model (no weakness zones in the input section), the position of new thrust faults is controlled by the frontal slope break. The average length of the thrust sheets is 11 cm and the individual thrusts accommodate on average 8 cm displacement each. The presence of weakness zones causes thrust initiation at a position different from the reference case, and affects their dip. For a fault spacing of 7.8 cm (or 75% of the reference thrust sheet length), every single incoming weakness zone causes the formation of a new thrust, thus resulting in thrust sheets shorter than the equilibrium case. In addition, less displacement is accommodated on each thrust. As a consequence, the frontal taper is smaller than expected

  17. Observations of the Columbia River salt wedge and estuarine turbidity maximum using AUVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, C. L.; Shcherbina, A.; Litchendorf, T.; Sanford, T. B.; Martin, D.; Baptista, A. M.; Lopez, J.; Crump, B.

    2012-12-01

    We present detailed observations of the salt wedge and estuarine turbidity maxima (ETM) in the North Channel of the Columbia River estuary (OR, USA) under conditions of high river discharge during May 2012. Measurements were made using two REMUS-100 autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs; Hydroid, Inc.) equipped with SBE-49 CTDs (Seabird-Electronics, Inc.) for water temperature and salinity, upward/downward looking ADCPs (Teledyne RDI, Inc.) for currents, and ECO Puck triplets (WET Labs, Inc.) for optical backscatter measurement of turbidity. The acoustic backscatter intensity from the ADCP was also used as a proxy measurement for suspended sediments and was found to correlate quite well with the optical backscatter measurements. Daily forecasts of tidal currents in the estuary were used to simulate the AUV path in advance of deployment to aid data collection. Repeat AUV sections were made along and across the channel during flood tide. The turbidity and height above riverbed of the bottom boundary layer was observed to increase toward the deeper waters at the center of the channel. An ETM-like feature was observed ahead of the advancing salt wedge front with locally higher turbidity levels, presumably the result of flocculation and resuspension. To visualize better the repeat section measurements we made data movies. Each frame of the movie is our best estimate of a synoptic snapshot of along-section tracer distribution at a given point in time. These snapshots were created by re-location of non-synoptic AUV measurements to account for the advection of water parcels. An example data movie showing the intrusion of the salt wedge during the flood tide will be presented.

  18. Earthquake occurrence processes in the Indo-Burmese wedge and Sagaing fault region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Bhaskar; Gahalaut, V. K.

    2012-02-01

    Earthquakes in the Indo-Burmese wedge and Sagaing fault regions occur in response to the partitioning of the India-Sunda motion along these two distinct boundaries. Under the accretionary wedge of the Indo-Burmese arc, majority of the earthquakes occur in the depth range of 30-60 km and define an eastward gently dipping seismicity trend surface that coincides with the Indian slab. The dip of the slab steepens in the east direction and earthquakes occur down to a depth of 150 km, though the slab can be traced up to the 660 km discontinuity. Although these features are similar to a subduction zone, the nature of the earthquakes and our analysis of their focal mechanisms suggest that these earthquakes are of intra-slab type which occur on steep plane within the Indian plate and the sense of motion implies a northward relative motion with respect to the Sunda plate. Thus these earthquakes and the stress state do not support active subduction across the Indo-Burmese arc which is also consistent with the relative motion of India-Sunda plates. The absence of inter-plate earthquakes, lack of evidence of the occurrence of great earthquakes in the historical records and non-seismogenic nature of the plate interface under the accretionary wedge suggest that seismic hazard due to earthquakes along the plate boundary may be relatively low. However, major intra-slab earthquakes at shallow and intermediate depths may still cause damage in the sediment filled valley regions of Manipur and Cachar in India and Chittagong and Sylhet regions of Bangladesh. In the Sagaing fault region, earthquakes occur through dextral strike slip motion along the north-south oriented plane and the stress state is consistent with the plate motion across the Sagaing fault.

  19. Numerical modeling of mantle wedge processes and exhumation of UHP mantle in subduction zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorczyk, W.; Gerya, T. V.; Guillot, S.; Connolly, J. A.; Yuen, D.

    2007-12-01

    The upwelling of subduction generated partially molten rocks is potentially a mechanism for the exhumation of UHP rocks through the mantle wedge. We investigated this processes using a 2-D coupled petrological- thermomechanical model that incorporates slab dehydration and water transport as well as partial melting of mantle and crustal rocks. This approach allows us to study the dynamics of mantle wedge processes including evolution of partially molten plumes and their interaction with surrounding dry mantle. To study the internal structure of the plumes we used ultra-high resolution numerical simulations with 10 billion active markers to detail the internal structure of natural plumes originating from the slab. The plumes consist of partially molten hydrated peridotite, dry solid mantle and subducted oceanic crust, which may comprise up to 12 volume % of the plume. As the plumes grow and mature these materials mix chaotically resulting in attenuation and duplication of the original layering on scales of 1-1000 m. Comparison of numerical results with geological observations from the Horoman ultramafic complex in Japan suggests that mixing and differentiation processes related to development of partially molten plumes above slabs may be responsible for strongly layered lithologically mixed (marble cake) structure of asthenospheric mantle wedges. The recent discovery of garnet bearing peridotites in the subduction zone of the Great Antilles in Hispaniola has raised questions about the process that leads to their exhumation. To evaluate whether upwelling plumes are a plausible exhumation mechanism we investigated the dynamics of subduction of slow spreading ridges. The results show that subduction of strongly serpentinized oceanic plate causes strong dehydration of the slab and leads to a rheological weakening of the interface between subducting and overriding plate. This weakening triggers trench retreat and massive asthenospheric upwelling into the gap between the

  20. PROPERTIES OF NATURAL CAVITATION FLOWS AROUND A 2-D WEDGE IN SHALLOW WATER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xin; LU Chuan-jing; LI Jie; CHEN Ying

    2011-01-01

    When a body navigates with cavity in shallow water,both flexible free surface and rigid bottom wall will produce great influences on the cavity shape and hydrodynamic performances,and further affect the motion attitude and stability of the body.In the present work,characteristics of the natural cavitating flow around a 2-D symmetrical wedge in shallow water were investigated and the influences of two type boundaries on the flow pattern were analyzed.The Volume Of Fluid (VOF) multiphaseflow method which is suitable for free surface problems was utilized,coupled with a natural cavitation model to deal with the mass-transfer process between liquid and vapor phases.Within the range of the cavitation number for computation (0.07-1.81),the cavity configurations would be divided into three types,viz.,stable type,transition type and wake-vortex type.In this article,the shapes of the free surface and the cavity surface,and the hydrodynamic performance of the wedge were discussed under the conditions of relatively small cavitation number ( < 0.256 ).The present numerical cavity lengths generally accord with experimental data.When the cavitation number was decreased,the cavity was found to become longer and thicker,and the scope of the deformation of the free surface also gradually extends.The free surface and the upper cavity surface correspond fairly to their shapes.However,the lower side of the cavity surface was rather leveled due to the influence of wall boundary.The lift and drag coefficients of this 2-D wedge basically keep linear relations with the natural cavitation number smaller than 0.157,whereas direct proportion for drag and inverse proportion for lift.

  1. Assessing strain mapping by electron backscatter diffraction and confocal Raman microscopy using wedge-indented Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, Lawrence H.; Vaudin, Mark D.; Stranick, Stephan J.; Stan, Gheorghe; Gerbig, Yvonne B.; Osborn, William; Cook, Robert F., E-mail: robert.cook@nist.gov

    2016-04-15

    The accuracy of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and confocal Raman microscopy (CRM) for small-scale strain mapping are assessed using the multi-axial strain field surrounding a wedge indentation in Si as a test vehicle. The strain field is modeled using finite element analysis (FEA) that is adapted to the near-indentation surface profile measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The assessment consists of (1) direct experimental comparisons of strain and deformation and (2) comparisons in which the modeled strain field is used as an intermediate step. Direct experimental methods (1) consist of comparisons of surface elevation and gradient measured by AFM and EBSD and of Raman shifts measured and predicted by CRM and EBSD, respectively. Comparisons that utilize the combined FEA–AFM model (2) consist of predictions of distortion, strain, and rotation for comparison with EBSD measurements and predictions of Raman shift for comparison with CRM measurements. For both EBSD and CRM, convolution of measurements in depth-varying strain fields is considered. The interconnected comparisons suggest that EBSD was able to provide an accurate assessment of the wedge indentation deformation field to within the precision of the measurements, approximately 2×10{sup −4} in strain. CRM was similarly precise, but was limited in accuracy to several times this value. - Highlights: • We map strain by electron backscatter diffraction and confocal Raman microscopy. • The test vehicle is the multi-axial strain field of wedge-indented silicon. • Strain accuracy is assessed by direct experimental intercomparison. • Accuracy is also assessed by atomic force microscopy and finite element analyses. • Electron diffraction measurements are accurate; Raman measurements need refinement.

  2. Wedge Absorbers for Final Cooling for a High-Energy High-Luminosity Lepton Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuffer, David [Fermilab; Mohayai, Tanaz [IIT, Chicago (main); Snopok, Pavel [IIT, Chicago; Summers, Don [Mississippi U.

    2016-06-01

    A high-energy high-luminosity muon collider scenario requires a "final cooling" system that reduces transverse emittance to ~25 microns (normalized) while allowing longitudinal emittance increase. Ionization cooling using high-field solenoids (or Li Lens) can reduce transverse emittances to ~100 microns in readily achievable configurations, confirmed by simulation. Passing these muon beams at ~100 MeV/c through cm-sized diamond wedges can reduce transverse emittances to ~25 microns, while increasing longitudinal emittance by a factor of ~5. Implementation will require optical matching of the exiting beam into downstream acceleration systems.

  3. A new GTD slope diffraction coefficient for plane wave illumination of a wedge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lumholt, Michael; Breinbjerg, Olav

    1997-01-01

    Two wedge problems including slope diffraction are solved: one in which the incident field is a non-uniform plane wave, and one in which it is an inhomogeneous plane wave. The two solutions lead to the same GTD slope diffraction coefficient. This coefficient reveals the existence of a coupling...... effect between a transverse magnetic (or transverse electric) incident plane wave and the transverse electric (or transverse magnetic) slope-diffracted field. The coupling effect is not described by the existing GTD slope diffraction coefficient...

  4. Polarization sensitive localization based super-resolution microscopy with a birefringent wedge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkó, József; Gajdos, Tamás; Czvik, Elvira; Szabó, Gábor; Erdélyi, Miklós

    2017-03-01

    A practical method has been presented for polarization sensitive localization based super-resolution microscopy using a birefringent dual wedge. The measurement of the polarization degree at the single molecule level can reveal the chemical and physical properties of the local environment of the fluorescent dye molecule and can hence provide information about the sub-diffraction sized structure of biological samples. Polarization sensitive STORM imaging of the F-Actins proved correlation between the orientation of fluorescent dipoles and the axis of the fibril.

  5. A possible relict mantle wedge:Geochemical evidence from Paleogene volcanics in North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The major and trace element and isotopic composition were analyzed for the Paleogene volcanics in North China dated by the K-Ar method. The geochemical data show that most volcanics are in caic-alkaline series and the minor is in alkaline series. They differ obviously from Neogene and Quaternary volcanics in geochemistry. In particular, the Paleogene volcanics from the southern part of North China were derived from enriched lithospheric mantle (EMⅡ), which were likely to be a relict mantle wedge formed during the subduction of the Yangtze plate into the North China plate in late Triassic (Indo- Sinian).

  6. Design, performance, and calibration of CMS hadron-barrel calorimeter wedges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullin, S. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)]|[Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Abramov, V.; Goncharov, P.; Khmelnikov, A.; Korablev, A.; Korneev, Y.; Krinitsyn, A.; Kryshkin, V.; Lukanin, V.; Pikalov, V.; Ryazanov, A.; Talov, V.; Turchanovich, L.; Volkov, A. [IHEP, Protvino (Russian Federation); Acharya, B.; Banerjee, S.; Banerjee, S.; Chendvankar, S.; Dugad, S.; Kalmani, S.; Katta, S.; Mazumdar, K.; Mondal, N.; Nagaraj, P.; Patil, M.; Reddy, L.; Satyanarayana, B.; Sudhakar, K.; Verma, P. [Tata Inst. of Fundamental Research, Mumbai (India); Adams, M.; Burchesky, K.; Qian, W. [Univ. of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Akchurin, N.; Carrell, K.; Guemues, K.; Thomas, R. [Texas Tech Univ., Dept. of Physics, Lubbock, TX (United States); Akgun, U.; Ayan, S.; Duru, F.; Merlo, J.P.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Miller, M.; Norbeck, E.; Olson, J.; Onel, Y.; Schmidt, I. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Anderson, E.W.; Hauptman, J. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Antchev, G.; Hazen, E.; Lawlor, C.; Machado, E.; Posch, C.; Rohlf, J.; Wu, S.X. [Boston Univ., Boston, MA (United States); Aydin, S.; Dumanoglu, I.; Eskut, E.; Kayis-Topaksu, A.; Polatoz, A.; Onengut, G.; Ozdes-Koca, N. [Cukurova Univ., Adana (Turkey); Baarmand, M.; Ralich, R.; Vodopiyanov, I. [Florida Inst. of Technology, Melbourne, FL (United States); Baden, D.; Bard, R.; Eno, S.; Grassi, T.; Jarvis, C.; Kellogg, R.; Kunori, S.; Skuja, A. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Barnes, V.; Laasanen, A.; Pompos, A. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Bawa, H.; Beri, S.; Bhatnagar, V.; Kaur, M.; Kohli, J.; Kumar, A.; Singh, J. [Panjab Univ., Chandigarh (India); Baiatian, G.; Sirunyan, A. [Yerevan Physics Inst., Yerevan (Armenia); Bencze, G.; Vesztergombi, G.; Zalan, P. [KFKI-RMKI, Research Inst. for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Budapest (Hungary)] [and others

    2008-05-15

    Extensive measurements have been made with pions, electrons and muons on four production wedges of the compact muon solenoid (CMS) hadron barrel (HB) calorimeter in the H2 beam line at CERN with particle momenta varying from 20 to 300 GeV/c. The time structure of the events was measured with the full chain of preproduction front-end electronics running at 34 MHz. Moving-wire radioactive source data were also collected for all scintillator layers in the HB. The energy dependent time slewing effect was measured and tuned for optimal performance. (orig.)

  7. Modified closing-opening wedge osteotomy for the treatment of sagittal malalignment in thoracolumbar fractures malunion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourghli, Anouar; Boissière, Louis; Vital, Jean-Marc; Bourghli, Mohamed Aiman; Almusrea, Khaled; Khoury, Ghassan; Obeid, Ibrahim

    2015-12-01

    Many techniques have been described for the surgical treatment of rigid posttraumatic thoracolumbar kyphosis, but none is well adapted to the modified shape of the wedged vertebra. The study aimed to describe the modified closing-opening wedge osteotomy (MCOWO), a new osteotomy technique that adapts to the triangular shape of the wedged apical vertebra of the deformity. A retrospective assessment of the degree of correction before and after the MCOWO was carried out. Ten patients presenting rigid posttraumatic thoracolumbar kyphosis were enrolled in this study. We used preoperative and postoperative whole spine radiographs to assess the sagittal plane parameters, and computed tomography scan for measurement of the vertebral segment height at the osteotomy level, spinal cord length, aorta length, and fusion rate. Ten patients underwent the MCOWO at T12 or L1. The procedure involves removing the postero-superior triangular corner of the wedged vertebra and transforming it to a shape similar to a trapezoid. The patients' mean age was 36.6±7.5 years, the mean time between the fracture and the surgery was 12.2±5.6 months, and the mean follow-up was 30.6±5 months. In all patients, statistically significant improvement was observed in the sagittal plane after surgery. The thoracolumbar angle improved from 52±6° preoperatively to 7.1±5.7° at the last follow-up. Mean osteotomy angle was 38.1±2.6°, mean spinal cord shortening was 1.2±0.2 cm, and mean aorta lengthening was 2.3±0.4 cm. All the patients showed complete fusion at 2 years, and none required revision surgery. Two patients presented a temporary unilateral weakness that recovered completely within 3 months after the surgery. The MCOWO is an interesting procedure for patients with posttraumatic thoracolumbar kyphosis. The modified osteotomy is adapted to the modified shape of the compressed vertebra. Spinal cord shortening and aorta lengthening were well tolerated in all patients. Copyright © 2015

  8. External post-tensioning of cfrp tendons using integrated sleeve-wedge anchorage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup; Bennitz, Anders; Goltermann, Per

    2012-01-01

    Strengthening of structures using external post-tension CFRP systems have proven to be anefficient method as such system increases the structural capacity and reduces cracks and deflection. Sufficient anchorage is of significant importance since the anchorage provides the connection between...... the post-tensioning system and the remaining structure. A special designed integrated sleeve-wedge anchorage has therefore been designed to improve the reliability of the mounting procedure, reduce the possible modes of failure and thus provide desired anchorage. The present research shows that adequate...

  9. Tunable-angle wedge transducer for improved acoustophoretic control in a microfluidic chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iranmanesh, I.; Barnkob, Rune; Bruus, Henrik;

    2012-01-01

    coupling angle, and transducer actuation method (single-frequency actuation or frequency-modulation actuation). The energy-density analysis is based on measuring the transmitted light intensity through a microfluidic channel filled with a suspension of 5-μm-diameter beads and the results with the tunable...... particle patterns with average acoustic energy densities comparable to those obtained using single-frequency actuation.......We present a tunable-angle wedge ultrasound transducer for improved control of microparticle acoustophoresis in a microfluidic chip. The transducer is investigated by analyzing the pattern of aligned particles and induced acoustic energy density while varying the system geometry, transducer...

  10. Tunable-angle wedge transducer for improved acoustophoretic control in a microfluidic chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iranmanesh, I.; Barnkob, Rune; Bruus, Henrik;

    2013-01-01

    coupling angle, and transducer actuation method (single-frequency actuation or frequency-modulation actuation). The energy-density analysis is based on measuring the transmitted light intensity through a microfluidic channel filled with a suspension of 5 µm diameter beads and the results with the tunable...... uniform particle patterns with average acoustic energy densities comparable to those obtained using single-frequency actuation.......We present a tunable-angle wedge ultrasound transducer for improved control of microparticle acoustophoresis in a microfluidic chip. The transducer is investigated by analyzing the pattern of aligned particles and induced acoustic energy density while varying the transducer geometry, transducer...

  11. Solution of the Falkner Skan equation for wedge by Adomian Decomposition Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Ebrahim; Farhadi, Mousa; Sedighi, Kurosh; Ebrahimi-Kebria, H. R.; Ghafourian, Akbar

    2009-03-01

    The Adomian Decomposition Method is employed in the solution of the two dimensional laminar boundary layer of Falkner-Skan equation for wedge. This work aims at the solution of momentum equation in the case of accelerated flow and decelerated flow with separation. The Adomian Decomposition Method is provided an analytical solution in the form of an infinite power series. The effect of Adomian polynomials terms is considered on accuracy of the results. The velocity profiles in boundary layer are obtained. Results show a good accuracy compared to the exact solution.

  12. Researches on the distribution law of vector sound field in elastic wedge bottom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Haigang; PIAO Shengchun; YANG Shi'e; AN Xudong

    2011-01-01

    The method based on elastic parabolic equation method for calculating the sound vector field has been studied. The vector field in water and corresponding seismic wave field had been calculated for infra-sound in oceanic environment with elastic wedge bottom. The effects on sound field distribution for different frequency and depth of sound source had been researched, result shows that there is sound energy leakage into the bottom, the position where leakage occurred can be determined by the ratio of the ocean depth to the wavelength, as compared with normal mode theory.

  13. On the Accuracy of Asymptotic Solutions for TM Waves Diffracting on an Impedance Wedge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Fu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution focuses on the accuracy of two asymptotic solutions aimed at representing the electromagnetic field scattered by penetrable wedges. One is a heuristic manipulation of the solution for the perfect electrical conductor, and the other one is a more rigorous coefficient based on approximate boundary conditions. The results presented here extend those proposed by other authors by illustrating the accuracy of such solutions at the edge of validity of the uniform theory of diffraction. In particular, they show that the heuristic formulation can be freely applied in similar conditions, while the other might not always lead to accurate predictions.

  14. CHIRP seismic reflection study of falling-stage (forced regressive) sediment wedges on the New Jersey outer continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santra, M.; Goff, J.; Ron, S.; Austin, J.

    2007-12-01

    High-resolution (1-12 kHz), deep-towed and hull-mounted CHIRP seismic data were collected on the New Jersey outer shelf in 2001, 2002 and 2006 as part of Office of Naval Research-funded projects. These data have imaged two well-developed, offlapping sedimentary wedges (named outer-shelf wedge and deep-shelf wedge) that are now postulated to have developed on the falling-stage limb of the last glacial cycle, during some time prior to the Last Glacial Maximum (20-22 kyrs BP). These wedges formed atop the high-amplitude, regional R horizon, a complex erosional unconformity that formed about 40,000 years ago. The outer shelf wedge is also characterized in part by an enigmatic, erose boundary separating layered horizons below from a mostly transparent section above. New Jersey shelf wedges appear analogous to forced-regressive units imaged on the Rhone shelf edge, as well as Eocene sections documented from seismic-scale outcrops on Spitsbergen Island. These examples can reach thicknesses up to 100 m on the shelf edge and uppermost slope, but usually thin rapidly downslope. Such wedges represent one of two documented mechanisms involving sand transport across a shelf margin into deeper water settings, the other being a canyonized shelf-edge. Our study will includes analysis of the CHIRP data and, if available, additional ground truth provided by short cores collected in summer 2007 at numerous intra-wedge stratigraphic horizons. Our goals are to understand the external and internal geometry of the wedges and sediment pathways across the paleo-shelf. These data should allow us to characterize margin segments that build during sea-level fall by slope-apron accretion rather than by the formation of channel-levee complexes. The literature is heavily weighted by the latter and their associated canyon systems, but information on shelf-edge attached slope aprons and how they contribute to deep-water sedimentation, and in particular the delivery of clean sands to slope settings

  15. The optimal design of stepped wedge trials with equal allocation to sequences and a comparison to other trial designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jennifer A; Fielding, Katherine; Hargreaves, James; Copas, Andrew

    2017-08-01

    Background/Aims We sought to optimise the design of stepped wedge trials with an equal allocation of clusters to sequences and explored sample size comparisons with alternative trial designs. Methods We developed a new expression for the design effect for a stepped wedge trial, assuming that observations are equally correlated within clusters and an equal number of observations in each period between sequences switching to the intervention. We minimised the design effect with respect to (1) the fraction of observations before the first and after the final sequence switches (the periods with all clusters in the control or intervention condition, respectively) and (2) the number of sequences. We compared the design effect of this optimised stepped wedge trial to the design effects of a parallel cluster-randomised trial, a cluster-randomised trial with baseline observations, and a hybrid trial design (a mixture of cluster-randomised trial and stepped wedge trial) with the same total cluster size for all designs. Results We found that a stepped wedge trial with an equal allocation to sequences is optimised by obtaining all observations after the first sequence switches and before the final sequence switches to the intervention; this means that the first sequence remains in the control condition and the last sequence remains in the intervention condition for the duration of the trial. With this design, the optimal number of sequences is [Formula: see text], where [Formula: see text] is the cluster-mean correlation, [Formula: see text] is the intracluster correlation coefficient, and m is the total cluster size. The optimal number of sequences is small when the intracluster correlation coefficient and cluster size are small and large when the intracluster correlation coefficient or cluster size is large. A cluster-randomised trial remains more efficient than the optimised stepped wedge trial when the intracluster correlation coefficient or cluster size is small. A

  16. 论吕碧城护生思想的产生原因%Reasons for LV Bicheng’ s Protecting Animals Thought

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿春晓

    2014-01-01

    At her early ages ,LV Bicheng advocated feminist movement and female educa-tion,while she devoted more to animal protecting activities at her middle age .There were pro-found thoughts for her choosing different life course ,including religion ,peace and civilization . The environment at that time ,domestically and abroad ,was also decisive .LV Bicheng made this decision with years of consideration .As a Buddhist ,it was her way of saving the chaotic society .%晚清著名女词人吕碧城早年致力于女权运动和兴办女学,中年后却致力于护生,从事动物保护运动。她之所以选择与早年不同的人生轨迹,其实包含了许多对于宗教、和平与文明的深刻思考,与当时的国内外形势有着密不可分的关系。这是吕碧城经过多年思考而得出的选择,是身为佛教徒的她对纷乱社会的拯救方式。

  17. Clinical Research on Use of Oxaliplcrtin in Combination with HCPT, LV and 5FU in a Regimen for Advanced Gastric Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GuoqingHu; QiangFu; MaolinJin; JieLi; LiangxiPan; YuxianBai; HuaijinWang; JianweiZhang; DingYu

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To observe the effects and adverse reactions of a OXA-HCPT LV/5FU 3 regimen for patients with advanced gastric cancer.METHODS OHLF3 regimen: OXA 130 mg/m2iv d 1, HCPT6 mg/m2, iv d 1-5, LV 200 mg/m2iv 2 h followed by a 5FU 400 mg/m2 iv bolus and 5FU 600mg/m2 iv d 1-3, were given, every 21 days as 1 cycle. Assessment of the tumor was conducted after 3 cycles and the effective cases were confirmed after 4 weeks.RESULTS Among 39 patients, 36 were actually evaluable. Overall response rates (CR + PR} were 50%' the major adverse reactions were mild hematological toxicity, nausea and vomiting and peripheral nerve abnormalities.CONCLUSION The OHLF 3 regimen using OXA and HCPT is effective and results in mild toxicity when used in combined chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer.

  18. Coinfection of Leishmania chagasi with Toxoplasma gondii, Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) in cats from an endemic area of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrinho, Ludmila Silva Vicente; Rossi, Cláudio Nazaretian; Vides, Juliana Peloi; Braga, Eveline Tozzi; Gomes, Ana Amélia Domingues; de Lima, Valéria Marçal Félix; Perri, Sílvia Helena Venturoli; Generoso, Diego; Langoni, Hélio; Leutenegger, Christian; Biondo, Alexander Welker; Laurenti, Márcia Dalastra; Marcondes, Mary

    2012-06-08

    The aim of the present study was to determine the coinfection of Leishmania sp. with Toxoplasma gondii, Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) in a population of cats from an endemic area for zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis. An overall 66/302 (21.85%) cats were found positive for Leishmania sp., with infection determined by direct parasitological examination in 30/302 (9.93%), by serology in 46/302 (15.23%) and by both in 10/302 (3.31%) cats. Real time PCR followed by amplicon sequencing successfully confirmed Leishmania infantum (syn Leishmania chagasi) infection. Out of the Leishmania infected cats, coinfection with FIV was observed in 12/66 (18.18%), with T. gondii in 17/66 (25.75%) and with both agents in 5/66 (7.58%) cats. FeLV was found only in a single adult cat with no Leishmania infection. A positive association was observed in coinfection of Leishmania and FIV (p0.05). In conclusion, cats living in endemic areas of visceral leishmaniasis are significantly more likely to be coinfected with FIV, which may present confounding clinical signs and therefore cats in such areas should be always carefully screened for coinfections. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessment of the LV-C2 Stack Sampling Probe Location for Compliance with ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glissmeyer, John A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Antonio, Ernest J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Flaherty, Julia E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This document reports on a series of tests conducted to assess the proposed air sampling location for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low-Activity Waste (LAW) C2V (LV-C2) exhaust stack with respect to the applicable criteria regarding the placement of an air sampling probe. Federal regulations require that a sampling probe be located in the exhaust stack according to the criteria established by the American National Standards Institute/Health Physics Society (ANSI/HPS) N13.1-1999, Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances from the Stack and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities. These criteria address the capability of the sampling probe to extract a sample that represents the effluent stream. The tests were conducted on the LV-C2 scale model system. Based on the scale model tests, the location proposed for the air sampling probe in the scale model stack meets the requirements of the ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999 standard for velocity uniformity, flow angle, gas tracer and particle tracer uniformity. Additional velocity uniformity and flow angle tests on the actual stack will be necessary during cold startup to confirm the validity of the scale model results in representing the actual stack.

  20. American Society of Biomechanics Clinical Biomechanics Award 2013: tibiofemoral contact location changes associated with lateral heel wedging--a weight bearing MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrance, Peter J; Gade, Venkata; Allen, Jerome; Cole, Jeffrey L

    2014-11-01

    Vertically open magnetic resonance imaging permits study of knee joint contact during weight bearing. Lateral wedging is a low cost intervention for knee osteoarthritis that may influence load distribution and contact. This study assessed the ability of feedback-assisted weight bearing magnetic resonance imaging to detect changes in tibiofemoral contact associated with lateral wedging. One knee in each of fourteen subjects with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis was studied, without specification of compartmental involvement. Knees were imaged during upright standing and at 20° knee flexion. Bilateral external heel wedges were used to provide non-wedged and 5° lateral wedging conditions. Computer modeling was used to measure the medial and lateral compartment contact patch center coordinates on the tibial plateau and the respective contact areas. Lateral heel wedging in flexion was associated with a significant anterior shift of the contact patch of the lateral femoral condyle. Changes with knee flexion were similar to previous reports: both medial and lateral contact centers moved posteriorly with flexion, and lateral condyle contact also moved laterally. Lateral condyle contact area significantly reduced with flexion, while lateral wedging did not significantly affect contact areas. In symptomatic knee osteoarthritis patients standing in knee flexion, weight bearing magnetic resonance imaging recorded an anterior shift of lateral condyle contact in response to lateral heel wedging. Future studies may investigate lateral wedging effects more specifically in candidates for this clinical intervention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Study on effect of segments erection tolerance and wedge-shaped segment on segment ring in shield tunnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jun-sheng; MO Hai-hong

    2006-01-01

    Deformation and dislocations of segments of shield tunnel in construction stage have apparent effect on tunnel structure stress and even cause local cracks and breakage in tunnel. 3D finite element method was used to analyze two segment ring models under uniform injected pressure: (1) segment ring without wedge-shaped segment, which has 16 types of preinstall erection tolerance; (2) segment ring with wedge-shaped segment, which has no preinstall erection tolerance. The analysis results indicate that different erection tolerances can cause irregular deformation in segment ring under uniform injected pressure, and that the tolerance values are enlarged further. Wedge-shaped segment apparently affects the overall deformation of segment ring without erection tolerances. The uniform injected pressure can cause deformation of ring with wedge-shaped segment irregular,and dislocations also appear in this situation. The stress of segment with erection tolerances is much larger than that of segment without erection tolerances. Enlarging the central angle of wedge-shaped segment can make the irregular deformation and dislocations of segments smaller. The analysis results also provide basis for erection tolerance control and improvement of segment constitution.

  2. Comparative Study between a Curved and a Wedge PEEK Cage for Single-level Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Interbody Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hwan Soo; Song, Joon Suk; Heo, Weon; Cha, Jae Hoon; Rhee, Dong Youl

    2012-09-01

    This study evaluated the efficiency of a curved polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cage in comparison with a wedge PEEK cage according to radiologic and clinical outcomes in patients with cervical degenerative disease. A total of 37 patients who suffering from cervical disc disease with radiculopathy or myelopathy were reviewed retrospectively. Seventeen patients were underwent anterior cervical discectomy and interbody fusion with a curved shape PEEK cage (curved cage group), and twenty patients with wedge shape PEEK cage (wedge cage group). Clinical assessment was graded using Odom's criteria, NDI score and VAS score. For radiologic analysis, disc height (DH), segmental angle (SA), subsidence were measured at the preoperative and last follow up. A comparison of the preoperative and postoperative results revealed improvements after the surgery in the DH and SA in both cage groups. The change of postoperative DH between the preoperative and the last follow-up in wedge cage group and curved cage group was 6.85% and 25.5%, respectively. The change of postoperative SA was 1.75° and 0.95°, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in the DH and SA between the 2 groups. The subsidence rate in the wedge cage group and curved cage group was 20% and 6%, respectively. The 2 different cage groups showed significant improvements in the disc height, segmental angle and clinical outcomes. However, the shape of PEEK Cage influences the tendency for subsidence. Increasing contact surface area and fitting into two adjacent vertebral body prevent significant subsidence.

  3. Changes in basal dip and frictional properties controlling orogenic wedge propagation and frontal collapse: the External central Betics case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Bonilla, Alejandro; Torvela, Taija; Balanyá, Juan-Carlos; Díaz-Azpiroz, Manuel; Expósito, Inmaculada

    2016-04-01

    Orogenic wedges and their key component, thin-skinned fold-and-thrust belts (FTBs), have been extensively studied through both field examples and modelling. The overall dynamics of FTBs are, therefore, well understood. One of the less understood aspects is: what is the combined influence of across-strike changes in the detachment properties and the basement topography on the behaviour of an orogenic wedge, as the deformation progresses towards the foreland? In this study, we use field data combined with reflection seismic interpretation and well data from the External Zones of the Central Betics FTB, S Spain, to identify a basement "threshold" coinciding with a thinning out of a weak substrate (Triassic evaporites) in the wedge basal detachment. The basal changes influenced the tempo-spatial (4D) local wedge dynamics at ~Early Langhian times, leading to stagnation of FTB propagation, topographic build-up and subsequent collapse of the FTB front, which was enhanced by arc-parallel stretching. This development led to a formation of an important depocentre filled with a thick Langhian mélange unit and later sediments deposited in the NW-migrating foreland basin. This case study illustrates the importance of across-strike changes in wedge basal properties to the stability of the FTB front, especially in terms of the collapse/extensional structures.

  4. Numerical study on flow rate limitation of open capillary channel flow through a wedge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Ting Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The flow characteristics of slender-column flow in wedge-shaped channel under microgravity condition are investigated in this work. The one-dimensional theoretical model is applied to predict the critical flow rate and surface contour of stable flow. However, the one-dimensional model overestimates the critical flow rate for not considering the extra pressure loss. Then, we develop a three-dimensional simulation method with OpenFOAM, a computational fluid dynamics tool, to simulate various phenomena in wedge channels with different lengths. The numerical results are verified with the capillary channel flow experimental data on the International Space Station. We find that the three-dimensional simulation perfectly predicts the critical flow rates and surface contours under various flow conditions. Meanwhile, the general behaviors in subcritical, critical, and supercritical flow are studied in three-dimensional simulation considering variations of flow rate and open channel length. The numerical techniques for three-dimensional simulation is validated for a wide range of configurations and is hopeful to provide valuable guidance for capillary channel flow experiment and efficient liquid management in space.

  5. Simulation of arrested salt wedges with a multi-layer Shallow Water Lattice Boltzmann model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestininzi, P.; Montessori, A.; La Rocca, M.; Sciortino, G.

    2016-10-01

    The ability to accurately and efficiently model the intrusion of salt wedges into river beds is crucial to assay its interaction with human activities and the natural environment. We present a 2D multi-layer Shallow Water Lattice Boltzmann (SWLB) model able to predict the salt wedge intrusion in river estuaries. The formulation usually employed for the simulation of gravity currents is here equipped with proper boundary conditions to handle both the downstream seaside outlet and the upstream river inlet. Firstly, the model is validated against highly accurate semi-analytical solutions of the steady state 1D two-layer Shallow Water model. Secondly, the model is applied to a more complex, fully 3D geometry, to assess its capability to handle realistic cases. The simple formulation proposed for the shear interlayer stress is proven to be consistent with the general 3D viscous solution. In addition to the accuracy, the model inherits the efficiency of the Lattice Boltzmann approach to fluid dynamics problems.

  6. Composite wedge failure using photogrammetric measurements and DFN-DEM modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Bonilla-Sierra

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Analysis and prediction of structural instabilities in open pit mines are an important design and operational consideration for ensuring safety and productivity of the operation. Unstable wedges and blocks occurring at the surface of the pit walls may be identified through three-dimensional (3D image analysis combined with the discrete fracture network (DFN approach. Kinematic analysis based on polyhedral modelling can be used for first pass analysis but cannot capture composite failure mechanisms involving both structurally controlled and rock mass progressive failures. A methodology is proposed in this paper to overcome such limitations by coupling DFN models with geomechanical simulations based on the discrete element method (DEM. Further, high resolution photogrammetric data are used to identify valid model scenarios. An identified wedge failure that occurred in an Australian coal mine is used to validate the methodology. In this particular case, the failure surface was induced as a result of the rock mass progressive failure that developed from the toe of the structure inside the intact rock matrix. Analysis has been undertaken to determine in what scenarios the measured and predicted failure surfaces can be used to calibrate strength parameters in the model.

  7. Stem thrust prediction model for W-K-M double wedge parallel expanding gate valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldiwany, B.; Alvarez, P.D. [Kalsi Engineering Inc., Sugar Land, TX (United States); Wolfe, K. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1996-12-01

    An analytical model for determining the required valve stem thrust during opening and closing strokes of W-K-M parallel expanding gate valves was developed as part of the EPRI Motor-Operated Valve Performance Prediction Methodology (EPRI MOV PPM) Program. The model was validated against measured stem thrust data obtained from in-situ testing of three W-K-M valves. Model predictions show favorable, bounding agreement with the measured data for valves with Stellite 6 hardfacing on the disks and seat rings for water flow in the preferred flow direction (gate downstream). The maximum required thrust to open and to close the valve (excluding wedging and unwedging forces) occurs at a slightly open position and not at the fully closed position. In the nonpreferred flow direction, the model shows that premature wedging can occur during {Delta}P closure strokes even when the coefficients of friction at different sliding surfaces are within the typical range. This paper summarizes the model description and comparison against test data.

  8. Compact multi-projection 3D display using a wedge prism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soon-gi; Lee, Chang-Kun; Lee, Byoungho

    2015-03-01

    We propose a compact multi-projection system based on integral floating method with waveguide projection. Waveguide projection can reduce the projection distance by multiple folding of optical path inside the waveguide. The proposed system is composed of a wedge prism, which is used as a waveguide, multiple projection-units, and an anisotropic screen made of floating lens combined with a vertical diffuser. As the projected image propagates through the wedge prism, it is reflected at the surfaces of prism by total internal reflections, and the final view image is created by the floating lens at the viewpoints. The position of view point is decided by the lens equation, and the interval of view point is calculated by the magnification of collimating lens and interval of projection-units. We believe that the proposed method can be useful for implementing a large-scale autostereoscopic 3D system with high quality of 3D images using projection optics. In addition, the reduced volume of the system will alleviate the restriction of installment condition, and will widen the applications of a multi-projection 3D display.

  9. Effect of Ferrite Magnetic Wedge on Capacitor Motor Characteristics in Triac Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaga, Akio; Anazawa, Yoshihisa; Tajima, Katsubumi

    1991-07-01

    Split-phase capacitor motors are commonly used to drive household electric appliances. The motor has some slots and teeth to embed electric conductors or coils. The presence of the slots and teeth induces the variation of magnetic reluctance through the magnetic circuit to introduce heavy pulsation of the air gap flux. Thus, the voltage, current and torque of the motor become oscillative to increase the electric power loss and finally to reduce the motor efficiency. First, the authors discuss the characteristics of a 3-phase cage-type induction motor in which the ferrite magnetic wedges have been installed into the stator slot openings of the motor to smooth the air gap flux pulsation and to decrease the electric power loss, resulting in improved motor efficiency. If the motor is driven by the voltage source in accordance with the loading condition, more economical operation will be achieved. In this study, a nonsinusoidal voltage controlled by the switching element of a triac has been applied to a capacitor motor with wedges of ferrite magnetic materials. This paper reports on the interesting results obtained.

  10. Living on the wedge: female control of paternity in a cooperatively polyandrous cichlid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohda, Masanori; Heg, Dik; Makino, Yoshimi; Takeyama, Tomohiro; Shibata, Jun-ya; Watanabe, Katsutoshi; Munehara, Hiroyuki; Hori, Michio; Awata, Satoshi

    2009-12-07

    Theories suggest that, in cooperatively breeding species, female control over paternity and reproductive output may affect male reproductive skew and group stability. Female paternity control may come about through cryptic female choice or female reproductive behaviour, but experimental studies are scarce. Here, we show a new form of female paternity control in a cooperatively polyandrous cichlid fish (Julidochromis transcriptus), in which females prefer wedge-shaped nesting sites. Wedge-shaped sites allowed females to manipulate the siring success of the group member males by spawning the clutch at the spot where the large males were just able to enter and fertilize the outer part of the clutch. Small males fertilized the inner part of the clutch, protected from the large aggressive males, leading to low male reproductive skew. Small males provided more brood care than large males. Multiple paternity induced both males to provide brood care and reduced female brood care accordingly. This is, to our knowledge, the first documented case in a species with external fertilization showing female mating behaviour leading to multiple male paternity and increased male brood care as a result.

  11. Enhanced performance of fast-response 3-hole wedge probes for transonic flows in axial turbomachinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delhaye, D.; Paniagua, G. [von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Turbomachinery and Propulsion Department, Rhode-Saint-Genese (Belgium); Fernandez Oro, J.M. [Universidad de Oviedo, Area de Mecanica de Fluidos, Gijon (Spain); Denos, R. [European Commission, Directorate General for Research, Brussels (Belgium)

    2011-01-15

    The paper presents the development and application of a three-sensor wedge probe to measure unsteady aerodynamics in a transonic turbine. CFD has been used to perform a detailed uncertainty analysis related to probe-induced perturbations, in particular the separation zones appearing on the wedge apex. The effects of the Reynolds and Mach numbers are studied using both experimental data together with CFD simulations. The angular range of the probe and linearity of the calibration maps are enhanced with a novel zonal calibration technique, used for the first time in compressible flows. The data reduction methodology is explained and demonstrated with measurements performed in a single-stage high-pressure turbine mounted in the compression tube facility of the von Karman Institute. The turbine was operated at subsonic and transonic pressure ratios (2.4 and 5.1) for a Reynolds number of 10{sup 6}, representative of modern engine conditions. Complete maps of the unsteady flow angle and rotor outlet Mach number are documented. These data allow the study of secondary flows and rotor trailing edge shocks. (orig.)

  12. Measurement of tibial slope angle after medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy: case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Hideki Yanasse

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: In the past, changes in tibial slope were not considered when planning or evaluating osteotomies, and success in high tibial osteotomy was related to the alignment and amount of femorotibial angular correction. The aim here was to measure changes in tibial slope after medial opening wedge tibial osteotomy and investigate the effect of tibial slope angle on the clinical results. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective review study on a series of cases, at the Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Faculdade de Medicina de Marília (Famema, Marília, Brazil. METHODS: Twenty-eight patients were studied, and a total of thirty-one knees. Lateral roentgenograms of the tibia were used pre and postoperatively to measure the tibial slope based on the proximal tibial anatomical axis. The clinical results were measured using the Lysholm knee score. RESULTS: There was an average increase in tibial slope angle after surgery of 2.38° (95% confidence interval: ± 0.73°. There was no correlation (r = -0.28 between the postoperative Lysholm knee score and the difference in tibial slope angle from before to after surgery (P = 0.13. CONCLUSION: Medial opening wedge tibial osteotomy led to a small increase in tibial slope. No significant correlation was found between increased tibial slope and short-term clinical results after high tibial osteotomy. Other clinical studies are needed in order to establish whether extension or flexion osteotomy could benefit patients with medial compartment gonarthrosis.

  13. Secondary Subacromial Impingement after Valgus Closing-Wedge Osteotomy for Proximal Humerus Varus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotaka Sano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 31-year-old construction worker had been suffering from both the motion pain and the restriction of elevation in his right shoulder due to severe varus deformity of humeral neck, which occurred after proximal humeral fracture. The angle for shoulder flexion and abduction was restricted to 50 and 80 degrees, respectively. Valgus closing-wedge osteotomy followed by the internal fixation using a locking plate was carried out at 12 months after injury. Postoperatively, the head-shaft angle of the humerus improved from 65 to 138 degrees. Active flexion and abduction angles improved from 80 to 135 degrees and from 50 to 135 degrees, respectively. However, the patient complained from a sharp pain with a clicking sound during shoulder abduction even after removal of the locking plate. Since subacromial steroid injection temporarily relieved his shoulder pain, we assumed that the secondary subacromial impingement was provoked after osteotomy. Thus, arthroscopic subacromial decompression was carried out at 27 months after the initial operation, which finally relieved his symptoms. In the valgus closing-wedge osteotomy, surgeons should pay attention to the condition of subacromial space to avoid causing the secondary subacromial impingement.

  14. Analytical correction of an extension of the "MU Fraction Approximation" for Varian enhanced dynamic wedges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossman, Michael S; Sharma, Subhash C

    2010-04-01

    The most common method to determine enhanced dynamic wedge factors begins with the use of segmented treatment tables. These segmental dose delivery values set as a function of upper jaw position are the backbone of a calculation process coined the "MU Fraction Approximation." Analytical and theoretical attempts have been made to extend and alter the mathematics for this approximation for greater accuracy. A set of linear equations in the form of a matrix are introduced here which correct one published extension of the MU Fraction Approximation as it applies to both symmetric and asymmetric photon fields. The matrix results are compared to data collected from a commissioned Varian Eclipse Treatment Planning System and previously published research for Varian linear accelerators. A total enhanced dynamic wedge factor with excellent accuracy was achieved in comparison to the most accurate previous research found. The deviation seen here is only 0.4% and 1.0% for symmetric and asymmetric fields respectively, for both 6MV and 18MV photon beams.

  15. Enhanced performance of fast-response 3-hole wedge probes for transonic flows in axial turbomachinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhaye, D.; Paniagua, G.; Fernández Oro, J. M.; Dénos, R.

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents the development and application of a three-sensor wedge probe to measure unsteady aerodynamics in a transonic turbine. CFD has been used to perform a detailed uncertainty analysis related to probe-induced perturbations, in particular the separation zones appearing on the wedge apex. The effects of the Reynolds and Mach numbers are studied using both experimental data together with CFD simulations. The angular range of the probe and linearity of the calibration maps are enhanced with a novel zonal calibration technique, used for the first time in compressible flows. The data reduction methodology is explained and demonstrated with measurements performed in a single-stage high-pressure turbine mounted in the compression tube facility of the von Karman Institute. The turbine was operated at subsonic and transonic pressure ratios (2.4 and 5.1) for a Reynolds number of 106, representative of modern engine conditions. Complete maps of the unsteady flow angle and rotor outlet Mach number are documented. These data allow the study of secondary flows and rotor trailing edge shocks.

  16. Quantitative Verification of Dynamic Wedge Dose Distribution Using a 2D Ionization Chamber Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahnoun, Tarek; Farhat, Leila; Mtibaa, Anis; Besbes, Mounir; Daoud, Jamel

    2015-10-01

    The accuracy of two calculation algorithms of the Eclipse 8.9 treatment planning system (TPS)--the anisotropic analytic algorithm (AAA) and pencil-beam convolution (PBC)--in modeling the enhanced dynamic wedge (EDW) was investigated. Measurements were carried out for 6 and 18 MV photon beams using a 2D ionization chamber array. Accuracy of the TPS was evaluated using a gamma index analysis with the following acceptance criteria for dose differences (DD) and distance to agreement (DTA): 3%/3 mm and 2%/2 mm. The TPS models the dose distribution accurately except for 20×20 cm(2) field size, 60 (°) and 45 (°) wedge angles using PBC at 6 MV photon energy. For these latter fields, the pass rate and the mean value of gamma were less than 90% and more than 0.5, respectively at the (3%/3 mm) acceptance criteria. In addition, an accuracy level of (2%/2 mm) was achieved using AAA with better agreement for 18 MV photon energy.

  17. Template-Stripped Multifunctional Wedge and Pyramid Arrays for Magnetic Nanofocusing and Optical Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shailabh; Johnson, Timothy W; Wood, Christopher K; Qu, Tao; Wittenberg, Nathan J; Otto, Lauren M; Shaver, Jonah; Long, Nicholas J; Victora, Randall H; Edel, Joshua B; Oh, Sang-Hyun

    2016-04-13

    We present large-scale reproducible fabrication of multifunctional ultrasharp metallic structures on planar substrates with capabilities including magnetic field nanofocusing and plasmonic sensing. Objects with sharp tips such as wedges and pyramids made with noble metals have been extensively used for enhancing local electric fields via the lightning-rod effect or plasmonic nanofocusing. However, analogous nanofocusing of magnetic fields using sharp tips made with magnetic materials has not been widely realized. Reproducible fabrication of sharp tips with magnetic as well as noble metal layers on planar substrates can enable straightforward application of their material and shape-derived functionalities. We use a template-stripping method to produce plasmonic-shell-coated nickel wedge and pyramid arrays at the wafer-scale with tip radius of curvature close to 10 nm. We further explore the magnetic nanofocusing capabilities of these ultrasharp substrates, deriving analytical formulas and comparing the results with computer simulations. These structures exhibit nanoscale spatial control over the trapping of magnetic microbeads and nanoparticles in solution. Additionally, enhanced optical sensing of analytes by these plasmonic-shell-coated substrates is demonstrated using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. These methods can guide the design and fabrication of novel devices with applications including nanoparticle manipulation, biosensing, and magnetoplasmonics.

  18. A dual wedge microneedle for sampling of perilymph solution via round window membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hirobumi; Cardoso, Luis; Lalwani, Anil K; Kysar, Jeffrey W

    2016-04-01

    Precision medicine for inner-ear disease is hampered by the absence of a methodology to sample inner-ear fluid atraumatically. The round window membrane (RWM) is an attractive portal for accessing cochlear fluids as it heals spontaneously. In this study, we report on the development of a microneedle for perilymph sampling that minimizes the size of RWM perforation, facilitates quick aspiration, and provides precise volume control. Here, considering the mechanical anisotropy of the RWM and hydrodynamics through a microneedle, a 31G stainless steel pipe was machined into wedge-shaped design via electrical discharge machining. The sharpness of the needle was evaluated via a surface profilometer. Guinea pig RWM was penetrated in vitro, and 1 μL of perilymph was sampled and analyzed via UV-vis spectroscopy. The prototype wedge shaped needle was successfully fabricated with the tip curvature of 4.5 μm and the surface roughness of 3.66 μm in root mean square. The needle created oval perforation with minor and major diameter of 143 and 344 μm (n = 6). The sampling duration and standard deviation of aspirated volume were 3 s and 6.8 % respectively. The protein concentration was 1.74 mg/mL. The prototype needle facilitated precise perforation of RWMs and rapid aspiration of cochlear fluid with precise volume control. The needle design is promising and requires testing in human cadaveric temporal bone and further optimization to become clinically viable.

  19. Lightfront holography and area density of entropy associated with quantum localization on wedge-horizon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroer, Bert [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: schroer@cbpf.br

    2002-08-01

    The lightfront quantization of the 70s is reviewed in the more rigorous setting of lightfront (LF) restriction of free fields in which the lightfront is considered to be linear extension of the upper causal horizon of a wedge region. Particular attention is given to the change of localization structure in passing from the wedge to its horizon which results in the emergence of a transverse quantum mechanical substructure of the QFT on the horizon and its lightfront extension. The vacuum fluctuations of QFT on the LF are compressed into the direction of the lightray (where they become associated with a chiral QFT) and lead to the notion of area density of a 'split localization' entropy. To overcome the limitation of this restriction approach and include interacting theories with non-canonical short distance behavior, we introduce a new concept of algebraic lightfront holography which uses ideas of algebraic QFT, in particular the modular structure of its associated local operator algebras. In this way the localization properties of LF degrees of freedom including the absence of transverse vacuum fluctuations are confirmed to be stable against interactions. The important universality aspect of lightfront holography is emphasized. Only in this way one is able to extract from the 'split-localization' entropy a split-independent additive entropy-like measure of the entanglement of the vacuum upon restriction to the horizon algebra. (author)

  20. Computational Analysis of Arc-Jet Wedge Tests Including Ablation and Shape Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goekcen, Tahir; Chen, Yih-Kanq; Skokova, Kristina A.; Milos, Frank S.

    2010-01-01

    Coupled fluid-material response analyses of arc-jet wedge ablation tests conducted in a NASA Ames arc-jet facility are considered. These tests were conducted using blunt wedge models placed in a free jet downstream of the 6-inch diameter conical nozzle in the Ames 60-MW Interaction Heating Facility. The fluid analysis includes computational Navier-Stokes simulations of the nonequilibrium flowfield in the facility nozzle and test box as well as the flowfield over the models. The material response analysis includes simulation of two-dimensional surface ablation and internal heat conduction, thermal decomposition, and pyrolysis gas flow. For ablating test articles undergoing shape change, the material response and fluid analyses are coupled in order to calculate the time dependent surface heating and pressure distributions that result from shape change. The ablating material used in these arc-jet tests was Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator. Effects of the test article shape change on fluid and material response simulations are demonstrated, and computational predictions of surface recession, shape change, and in-depth temperatures are compared with the experimental measurements.