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Sample records for lv hypertrophy defined

  1. Benazepril inhibited the NF-κB and TGF-β networking on LV hypertrophy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shi-Hai; Zhao, Ning-Wei; Zhu, Xuan-Xuan; Wang, Qiong; Wang, Hai-Dan; Fu, Rui; Sun, Yuan; Li, Qi-Yi

    2013-05-01

    Benazepril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, has been used to treat hypertension, congestive heart failure, and chronic renal failure. However, its biological activity and mechanism of action in inflammation are not fully identified. The present study was designed to determine the in vivo anti-inflammatory effects of benazepril on LV hypertrophy in rats. LV hypertrophy was produced in rats by abdominal aortic coarctation. They were then divided into the following groups: sham operation; LV hypertrophy; LV hypertrophy+benazepril (1mg/kg in a gavage, once a day for 4 weeks). Both morphological assays (hemodynamic and hemorheological measurement; LV hypertrophy assessment), and molecular assays (protein levels of Collagen type I/III, TNF-α and VCAM-1; TGF-β gene expression; NF-κB or Smad activation; intracellular ROS production) were performed. The following effects were observed in rats treated with benazepril: (1) marked improvements in hemodynamic and hemorheological parameters; (2) significant reductions in LV hypertrophy, dilatation and fibrosis; (3) significantly attenuated protein levels of Collagen type I/III, TGF-β, TNF-α and VCAM-1, NF-κB or Smad activation, as well as intracellular ROS production. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory properties of benazepril may be ascribed to their down-regulation of both NF-κB and TGF-β signaling pathways by acting on the intracellular ROS production in rats with LV hypertrophy, thus supporting the use of benazepril as an anti-inflammatory agent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Low-intensity interval exercise training attenuates coronary vascular dysfunction and preserves Ca2+-sensitive K+ current in miniature swine with LV hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharp, Darla L.; Ivey, Jan R.; Ganjam, Venkataseshu K.; Bowles, Douglas K.

    2011-01-01

    Coronary vascular dysfunction has been observed in several models of heart failure (HF). Recent evidence indicates that exercise training is beneficial for patients with HF, but the precise intensity and underlying mechanisms are unknown. Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy can play a significant role in the development of HF; therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the effects of low-intensity interval exercise training on coronary vascular function in sedentary (HF) and exercise trained (HF-TR) aortic-banded miniature swine displaying LV hypertrophy. Six months postsurgery, in vivo coronary vascular responses to endothelin-1 (ET-1) and adenosine were measured in the left anterior descending coronary artery. Baseline and maximal coronary vascular conductance were similar between all groups. ET-1-induced reductions in coronary vascular conductance (P < 0.05) were greater in HF vs. sedentary control and HF-TR groups. Pretreatment with the ET type A (ETA) receptor blocker BQ-123 prevented ET-1 hypersensitivity in HF animals. Whole cell voltage clamp was used to characterize composite K+ currents (IK+) in coronary smooth muscle cells. Raising internal Ca2+ from 200 to 500 nM increased Ca2+-sensitive K+ current in HF-TR and control, but not HF animals. In conclusion, an ETA-receptor-mediated hypersensitivity to ET-1, elevated resting LV wall tension, and decreased coronary smooth muscle cell Ca2+-sensitive IK+ was found in sedentary animals with LV hypertrophy. Low-intensity interval exercise training preserved normal coronary vascular function and smooth muscle cell Ca2+-sensitive IK+, illustrating a potential mechanism underlying coronary vascular dysfunction in a large-animal model of LV hypertrophy. Our results demonstrate the potential clinical impact of exercise on coronary vascular function in HF patients displaying pathological LV hypertrophy. PMID:21841018

  3. Low-intensity interval exercise training attenuates coronary vascular dysfunction and preserves Ca²⁺-sensitive K⁺ current in miniature swine with LV hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emter, Craig A; Tharp, Darla L; Ivey, Jan R; Ganjam, Venkataseshu K; Bowles, Douglas K

    2011-10-01

    Coronary vascular dysfunction has been observed in several models of heart failure (HF). Recent evidence indicates that exercise training is beneficial for patients with HF, but the precise intensity and underlying mechanisms are unknown. Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy can play a significant role in the development of HF; therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the effects of low-intensity interval exercise training on coronary vascular function in sedentary (HF) and exercise trained (HF-TR) aortic-banded miniature swine displaying LV hypertrophy. Six months postsurgery, in vivo coronary vascular responses to endothelin-1 (ET-1) and adenosine were measured in the left anterior descending coronary artery. Baseline and maximal coronary vascular conductance were similar between all groups. ET-1-induced reductions in coronary vascular conductance (P < 0.05) were greater in HF vs. sedentary control and HF-TR groups. Pretreatment with the ET type A (ET(A)) receptor blocker BQ-123 prevented ET-1 hypersensitivity in HF animals. Whole cell voltage clamp was used to characterize composite K(+) currents (I(K(+))) in coronary smooth muscle cells. Raising internal Ca(2+) from 200 to 500 nM increased Ca(2+)-sensitive K(+) current in HF-TR and control, but not HF animals. In conclusion, an ET(A)-receptor-mediated hypersensitivity to ET-1, elevated resting LV wall tension, and decreased coronary smooth muscle cell Ca(2+)-sensitive I(K(+)) was found in sedentary animals with LV hypertrophy. Low-intensity interval exercise training preserved normal coronary vascular function and smooth muscle cell Ca(2+)-sensitive I(K(+)), illustrating a potential mechanism underlying coronary vascular dysfunction in a large-animal model of LV hypertrophy. Our results demonstrate the potential clinical impact of exercise on coronary vascular function in HF patients displaying pathological LV hypertrophy.

  4. Cytoskeletal role in the transition from compensated to decompensated hypertrophy during adult canine left ventricular pressure overloading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagawa, H.; Koide, M.; Sato, H.; Zile, M. R.; Carabello, B. A.; Cooper, G. 4th

    1998-01-01

    Increased microtubule density causes cardiocyte contractile dysfunction in right ventricular (RV) pressure-overload hypertrophy, and these linked phenotypic and contractile abnormalities persist and progress during the transition to failure. Although more severe in cells from failing than hypertrophied RVs, the mechanical defects are normalized in each case by microtubule depolymerization. To define the role of increased microtubule density in left ventricular (LV) pressure-overload hypertrophy and failure, in a given LV we examined ventricular mechanics, sarcomere mechanics, and free tubulin and microtubule levels in control dogs and in dogs with aortic stenosis both with LV hypertrophy alone and with initially compensated hypertrophy that had progressed to LV muscle failure. In comparing initial values with those at study 8 weeks later, dogs with hypertrophy alone had a very substantial increase in LV mass but preservation of a normal ejection fraction and mean systolic wall stress. Dogs with hypertrophy and associated failure had a substantial but lesser increase in LV mass and a reduction in ejection fraction, as well as a marked increase in mean systolic wall stress. Cardiocyte contractile function was equivalent, and unaffected by microtubule depolymerization, in cells from control LVs and those with compensated hypertrophy. In contrast, cardiocyte contractile function in cells from failing LVs was quite depressed but was normalized by microtubule depolymerization. Microtubules were increased only in failing LVs. These contractile and cytoskeletal changes, when assayed longitudinally in a given dog by biopsy, appeared in failing ventricles only when wall stress began to increase and function began to decrease. Thus, the microtubule-based cardiocyte contractile dysfunction characteristic of pressure-hypertrophied myocardium, originally described in the RV, obtains equally in the LV but is shown here to have a specific association with increased wall stress.

  5. Relation of maximum blood pressure during exercise and regular physical activity in normotensive men with left ventricular mass and hypertrophy. MARATHOM Investigators. Medida de la Actividad fisica y su Relación Ambiental con Todos los Lípidos en el HOMbre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, L; Elosua, R; Marrugat, J; Pons, S

    1999-10-15

    The relation between maximum systolic blood pressure (BP) during exercise and left ventricular (LV) mass is controversial. Physical activity also induces LV mass increase. The objective was to assess the relation between BP response to exercise and LV mass in normotensive men, taking into account physical activity practice. A cross-sectional study was performed. Three hundred eighteen healthy normotensive men, aged between 20 and 60 years, participated in this study. The Minnesota questionnaire was used to assess physical activity practice. An echocardiogram and a maximum exercise test were performed. LV mass was calculated and indexed to body surface area. LV hypertrophy was defined as a ventricular mass index > or =134 g/m2. BP was measured at the moment of maximum effort. Hypertensive response was considered when BP was > or =210 mm Hg. In the multiple linear regression model, maximum systolic BP was associated with LV mass index and correlation coefficient was 0.27 (SE 0.07). Physical activity practice and age were also associated with LV mass. An association between hypertensive response to exercise and LV hypertrophy was observed (odds ratio 3.16). Thus, BP response to exercise is associated with LV mass and men with systolic BP response > or =210 mm Hg present a 3-times higher risk of LV hypertrophy than those not reaching this limit. Physical activity practice is related to LV mass, but not to LV hypertrophy.

  6. Four-group classification of left ventricular hypertrophy based on ventricular concentricity and dilatation identifies a low-risk subset of eccentric hypertrophy in hypertensive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Casper N; Gerdts, Eva; Aurigemma, Gerard P

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH; high LV mass [LVM]) is traditionally classified as concentric or eccentric based on LV relative wall thickness. We evaluated the prediction of subsequent adverse events in a new 4-group LVH classification based on LV dilatation (high LV end...

  7. Association between routine and standardized blood pressure measurements and left ventricular hypertrophy among patients on hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khangura, Jaspreet; Culleton, Bruce F; Manns, Braden J; Zhang, Jianguo; Barnieh, Lianne; Walsh, Michael; Klarenbach, Scott W; Tonelli, Marcello; Sarna, Magdalena; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R

    2010-06-24

    Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy is common among patients on hemodialysis. While a relationship between blood pressure (BP) and LV hypertrophy has been established, it is unclear which BP measurement method is the strongest correlate of LV hypertrophy. We sought to determine agreement between various blood pressure measurement methods, as well as identify which method was the strongest correlate of LV hypertrophy among patients on hemodialysis. This was a post-hoc analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial. We evaluated the agreement between seven BP measurement methods: standardized measurement at baseline; single pre- and post-dialysis, as well as mean intra-dialytic measurement at baseline; and cumulative pre-, intra- and post-dialysis readings (an average of 12 monthly readings based on a single day per month). Agreement was assessed using Lin's concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) and the Bland Altman method. Association between BP measurement method and LV hypertrophy on baseline cardiac MRI was determined using receiver operating characteristic curves and area under the curve (AUC). Agreement between BP measurement methods in the 39 patients on hemodialysis varied considerably, from a CCC of 0.35 to 0.94, with overlapping 95% confidence intervals. Pre-dialysis measurements were the weakest predictors of LV hypertrophy while standardized, post- and inter-dialytic measurements had similar and strong (AUC 0.79 to 0.80) predictive power for LV hypertrophy. A single standardized BP has strong predictive power for LV hypertrophy and performs just as well as more resource intensive cumulative measurements, whereas pre-dialysis blood pressure measurements have the weakest predictive power for LV hypertrophy. Current guidelines, which recommend using pre-dialysis measurements, should be revisited to confirm these results.

  8. Association between routine and standardized blood pressure measurements and left ventricular hypertrophy among patients on hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walsh Michael

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Left ventricular (LV hypertrophy is common among patients on hemodialysis. While a relationship between blood pressure (BP and LV hypertrophy has been established, it is unclear which BP measurement method is the strongest correlate of LV hypertrophy. We sought to determine agreement between various blood pressure measurement methods, as well as identify which method was the strongest correlate of LV hypertrophy among patients on hemodialysis. Methods This was a post-hoc analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial. We evaluated the agreement between seven BP measurement methods: standardized measurement at baseline; single pre- and post-dialysis, as well as mean intra-dialytic measurement at baseline; and cumulative pre-, intra- and post-dialysis readings (an average of 12 monthly readings based on a single day per month. Agreement was assessed using Lin's concordance correlation coefficient (CCC and the Bland Altman method. Association between BP measurement method and LV hypertrophy on baseline cardiac MRI was determined using receiver operating characteristic curves and area under the curve (AUC. Results Agreement between BP measurement methods in the 39 patients on hemodialysis varied considerably, from a CCC of 0.35 to 0.94, with overlapping 95% confidence intervals. Pre-dialysis measurements were the weakest predictors of LV hypertrophy while standardized, post- and inter-dialytic measurements had similar and strong (AUC 0.79 to 0.80 predictive power for LV hypertrophy. Conclusions A single standardized BP has strong predictive power for LV hypertrophy and performs just as well as more resource intensive cumulative measurements, whereas pre-dialysis blood pressure measurements have the weakest predictive power for LV hypertrophy. Current guidelines, which recommend using pre-dialysis measurements, should be revisited to confirm these results.

  9. Regression of electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy during antihypertensive therapy and reduction in sudden cardiac death: the LIFE Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wachtell, Kristian; Okin, Peter M; Olsen, Michael H

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sudden cardiac death (SCD) occurs more often in patients with ECG left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy. However, whether LV hypertrophy regression is associated with a reduced risk of SCD remains unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Losartan Intervention for End Point Reduction in Hypertens......BACKGROUND: Sudden cardiac death (SCD) occurs more often in patients with ECG left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy. However, whether LV hypertrophy regression is associated with a reduced risk of SCD remains unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Losartan Intervention for End Point Reduction...... risk of SCD independently of treatment modality, blood pressure reduction, prevalent coronary heart disease, and other cardiovascular risk factors in hypertensive patients with LV hypertrophy. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Aug-14...

  10. Deletion of Interleukin-6 Attenuates Pressure Overload-Induced Left Ventricular Hypertrophy and Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Muhammad R.; Samanta, Anweshan; Xuan, Yu-Ting; Girgis, Magdy; Elias, Harold K; Zhu, Yanqing; Davani, Arash; Yang, Yanjuan; Chen, Xing; Ye, Sheng; Wang, Ou-Li; Chen, Lei; Hauptman, Jeryl; Vincent, Robert J.; Dawn, Buddhadeb

    2016-01-01

    Rationale The role of interleukin (IL)-6 in the pathogenesis of cardiac myocyte hypertrophy remains controversial. Objective To conclusively determine whether IL-6 signaling is essential for the development of pressure overload-induced left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, and to elucidate the underlying molecular pathways. Methods and Results Wild-type (WT) and IL-6 knockout (IL-6−/−) mice underwent sham surgery or transverse aortic constriction (TAC) to induce pressure overload. Serial echocardiograms and terminal hemodynamic studies revealed attenuated LV hypertrophy and superior preservation of LV function in IL-6−/− mice after TAC. The extents of LV remodeling, fibrosis, and apoptosis were reduced in IL-6−/− hearts after TAC. Transcriptional and protein assays of myocardial tissue identified CaMKII and STAT3 activation as important underlying mechanisms during cardiac hypertrophy induced by TAC. The involvement of these pathways in myocyte hypertrophy was verified in isolated cardiac myocytes from WT and IL-6−/− mice exposed to pro-hypertrophy agents. Furthermore, overexpression of CaMKII in H9c2 cells increased STAT3 phosphorylation, and exposure of H9c2 cells to IL-6 resulted in STAT3 activation that was attenuated by CaMKII inhibition. Together these results identify the importance of CaMKII-dependent activation of STAT3 during cardiac myocyte hypertrophy via IL-6 signaling. Conclusions Genetic deletion of IL-6 attenuates TAC-induced LV hypertrophy and dysfunction, indicating a critical role played by IL-6 in the pathogenesis of LV hypertrophy in response to pressure overload. CaMKII plays an important role in IL-6-induced STAT3 activation and consequent cardiac myocyte hypertrophy. These findings may have significant therapeutic implications for LV hypertrophy and failure in patients with hypertension. PMID:27126808

  11. Influence of left ventricular hypertrophy on infarct size and left ventricular ejection fraction in ST-elevation myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Małek, Łukasz A.; Śpiewak, Mateusz; Kłopotowski, Mariusz; Petryka, Joanna; Mazurkiewicz, Łukasz; Kruk, Mariusz; Kępka, Cezary; Miśko, Jolanta; Rużyłło, Witold; Witkowski, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Background: Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) predisposes to larger infarct size, which may be underestimated by the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) due to supranormal systolic performance often present in patients with LVH. The aim of the study was to compare infarct size and LVEF in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and increased left ventricular mass on cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). Methods: The study included unselected group of 52 patients (61 ± 11 years, 69% male) with first STEMI who had CMR after median 5 days from the onset of the event. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) was defined as left ventricular mass index exceeding 95th percentile of references values for age and gender. Infarct size was assessed with means of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). Results: LVH was found in 16 patients (31%). In comparison to the rest of the group, patients with LVH had higher absolute and relative infarct mass (p = 0.002 and p = 0.02, respectively). LVH was related to higher prevalence of microvascular obstruction and myocardial haemorrhage and higher number of LV segments with transmural necrosis (p = 0.02, p = 0.01 and p = 0.01, respectively). Despite marked difference in the infarct size between both studied subgroups there was no difference in LVEF and mean number of dysfunctional LV segments. Conclusions: Patients with LVH undergoing STEMI have larger infarct size underestimated by the LV systolic performance in comparison to patients without LVH.

  12. Nocturnal Intermittent Hypoxia Is Associated With Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Middle-Aged Men With Hypertension and Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

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    Yamaguchi, Tasuku; Takata, Yoshifumi; Usui, Yasuhiro; Asanuma, Ryoko; Nishihata, Yosuke; Kato, Kota; Shiina, Kazuki; Yamashina, Akira

    2016-03-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy are considered to be closely associated. However, the relationship has not yet been fully demonstrated and is hence still controversial. The purpose of this study was to assess in hypertensive male patients the relationship between OSA and cardiac structure using a new index, namely, integrated area of desaturation (IAD), in addition to the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) that is currently the most frequently used index of sleep-disordered breathing. In our cross-sectional study, 223 hypertensive men younger than 65 years with sleep apnea and normal cardiac function were enrolled. All subjects were evaluated by fully attended polysomnography. Cardiac structure and function were evaluated by echocardiography. LV mass index significantly correlated with IAD (r = 0.203, P intermittent hypoxia defined by IAD may be associated with LV hypertrophy in men with well-controlled hypertension and obstructive sleep apnea. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2015. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Left ventricular filling patterns in patients with systemic hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy (the LIFE study). Losartan Intervention For Endpoint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wachtell, K; Smith, G; Gerdts, E

    2000-01-01

    Abnormal left ventricular (LV) filling may exist in early stages of hypertension. Whether this finding is related to LV hypertrophy is currently controversial. This study was undertaken to assess relations between abnormal diastolic LV filling and LV geometry in a large series of hypertensive...... (sex-adjusted Cornell voltage duration criteria or Sokolow-Lyon voltage criteria) after 14 days of placebo treatment. The patients' mean age was 67+/-7 years and 44% were women. One hundred forty patients (19%) had normal LV geometric pattern, 79 (11%) had concentric remodeling, 342 (45%) had eccentric...

  14. Association of novel biomarkers of cardiovascular stress with left ventricular hypertrophy and dysfunction: implications for screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthakis, Vanessa; Larson, Martin G; Wollert, Kai C; Aragam, Jayashri; Cheng, Susan; Ho, Jennifer; Coglianese, Erin; Levy, Daniel; Colucci, Wilson S; Michael Felker, G; Benjamin, Emelia J; Januzzi, James L; Wang, Thomas J; Vasan, Ramachandran S

    2013-11-07

    Currently available screening tools for left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy (LVH) and systolic dysfunction (LVSD) are either expensive (echocardiography) or perform suboptimally (B-type natriuretic peptide [BNP]). It is unknown whether newer biomarkers are associated with LVH and LVSD and can serve as screening tools. We studied 2460 Framingham Study participants (mean age 58 years, 57% women) with measurements of biomarkers mirroring cardiac biomechanical stress (soluble ST-2 [ST2], growth differentiation factor-15 [GDF-15] and high-sensitivity troponin I [hsTnI]) and BNP. We defined LVH as LV mass/height(2) ≥the sex-specific 80th percentile and LVSD as mild/greater impairment of LV ejection fraction (LVEF) or a fractional shortening statistic for the composite outcome increased from 0.765 with risk factors to 0.770 adding BNP, to 0.774 adding novel biomarkers. The continuous Net Reclassification Improvement was 0.212 (95% CI: 0.119 to 0.305, Pstress biomarkers are associated with LVH and LVSD but may have limited clinical utility as screening tools.

  15. Recognition of regional hypertrophy in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy using thallium-201 emission-computed tomography: comparison with two-dimensional echocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Y.; Kadota, K.; Nohara, R.

    1984-01-01

    The configuration of the hypertrophied myocardium was evaluated by thallium-201 emission-computed tomography and 2-dimensional (2-D) sector scan in 10 patients with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC), 10 with nonobstructive HC with giant negative T waves and 10 with concentric left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy. Thallium-201 myocardial imaging was reconstructed into multiple 12-mm-thick slices in 3 planes. The thickness ratio of the ventricular septum and the LV posterior wall in the short-axis plane and the ratio of the ventricular septum and the apical wall in the long-axis plane were analyzed. In the patients with obstructive HC the ventricular septal wall thickness index was increased, and the ratio of septal to posterior wall thickness index (1.45 +/- 0.23) was greater than that in the patients with nonobstructive HC with giant negative T waves or in those with concentric LV hypertrophy (1.03 +/- 0.20 and 0.98 +/- 0.11, respectively; p less than 0.01 for each). In the patients with nonobstructive HC with giant negative T waves, increased apical wall thickness with apical cavity obliteration was characteristic, and the ratio of ventricular septal to apical wall thickness index (0.66 +/- 0.14) was less than that in the patients with obstructive HC or in those with concentric LV hypertrophy (1.46 +/- 0.38 and 1.04 +/- 0.09, respectively; p less than 0.001 for each). In contrast, technically satisfactory 2-D sector scanning (83%) demonstrated various configurations of the hypertrophied ventricularseptum, but could not detect apical hypertrophy in 4 of the 10 patients with nonobstructive HC with giant negative T waves whose LV cineangiograms demonstrated apical hypertrophy. Thus, thallium-201 emission-computed tomography is useful in evaluating the characteristics of LV hypertrophy and assists 2-D sector scan, especially in patients with apical hypertrophy in HC

  16. Left ventricular hypertrophy: virtuous intentions, malign consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokharel, Saraswati; Sharma, Umesh C; Pinto, Yigal M

    2003-06-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is currently the focus of intense cardiovascular research, with the resultant rapid evolution of novel concepts relating to its exceedingly complex pathophysiology. In addition to the alterations in signal transduction and disturbances in Ca(2+) homeostasis, there are structural changes in myofilaments, disorganization of the cytoskeletal framework and increased collagen synthesis. LVH is associated with progressive left ventricular remodeling that culminates to heart failure. The modern treatment of left ventricular hypertrophy is now largely based on the hypothesis that neuroendocrine activation is important in the progression of the disease and inhibition of neurohormones is likely to have long-term benefit with regard to morbidity and mortality. Drugs specifically designed to unload the left ventricle, such as diuretics and vasodilators, appears to be less effective in reducing LV mass and improving prognosis. Thus, the evolution of treatment for LVH itself has provided much enlightenment for our understanding of the fundamental biology of the disorder.

  17. Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels are associated with left ventricular hypertrophy in essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallo, F; Catena, C; Camozzi, V; Luisetto, G; Cosma, C; Plebani, M; Lupia, M; Tona, F; Sechi, L A

    2012-10-01

    Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels may have an important role in predisposing to hypertension and myocardial disease. We investigated the relationship between 25(OH)D and left ventricular (LV) structure and function, assessed by echocardiography, in a series of patients with essential hypertension (EH). Sixty-two newly diagnosed never-treated patients (32 male/30 female), aged 18-65 years, with grade 1-2 hypertension, no diabetes, no obesity, no hyperlipidemia, and no cardiopulmonary, renal, or hepatic disease, were studied. Twenty-four healthy normotensive sex-, age-, BMI-matched subjects served as controls. Hypertensive patients with 25(OH)D deficiency, defined as serum 25(OH)D levels <50 nmol/L, had higher prevalence of LV hypertrophy (LVH) than their 25(OH)D-sufficient counterparts (57.1 vs 17.6%, P = 0.02); no differences between the two groups were found in blood pressure levels as well as in other biochemical and hormone parameters. There was an inverse correlation between LV mass index and 25(OH)D levels (r = -0.366, P < 0.003) and a direct correlation between LV mass index and BMI (r = 0.333, P < 0.006) in the entire hypertensive population. The two variables remained independently associated with LVH at multivariable logistic regression analysis (OR 1.05, P < 0.005 and OR 1.25, P = 0.03, respectively). Prevalence of 25(OH)D deficiency was similar in EH patients and controls (45.1 vs 41.6%, P = 0.89), whereas no correlation between echocardiographic parameters and hormone levels was found. In the absence of major cardiovascular risk factors, 25(OH)D deficiency is a frequent finding in EH patients and is independently associated with LVH. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. L.V. switchgear - design and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armes, D.S.; Brown, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    This work describes the methods employed in the design and development of L.V. switchgear to meet the prospective conditions and operational requirements imposed on equipment at sites of PWR power stations. The work concentrates on the aspects of design, manufacture, qualification work and quality assurance particular to the range of L.V. switchgear distribution boards manufactured by Laurence, Scott and Electromotors Ltd. for Sizewell B Power Station and contrasts this equipment with other equipment for conventional (i.e. non-nuclear) power station purposes. (Author)

  19. Evaluation of left ventricular hypertrophy using thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy, echocardiography and vectorcardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukahara, Yasunori; Owada, Kenji; Suzuki, Shigebumi

    1983-01-01

    Thallium-201 ( 201 Tl) myocardial scintigraphy was performed in 40 patients with left ventricular hypertrophy(LVH). Twelve out of 40 patients had pressure overloading (Aortic stenosis: 5, Hypertension: 7), 14 patients had volume overloading (Aortic regurgitation: 9, Mitral regurgitation: 5) and 14 had idiopathic cardiomyopathy (Hypertrophic type (HCM): 8, Congestive type (CCM): 6), respectively. LV area, LV uptake index and Wall uptake ratio were calculated from left anterior oblique view of 201 Tl myocardial images. These three indices of both pressure overloading and volume overloading were significantly higher than those of controls. The degree of LVH was indicated by both LV area and LV uptake index. LV area was significantly larger in volume overloading than in pressure overloading. In idiopathic cardiomyopathy, these three indices of HCM and LV area and LV uptake index of CCM were significantly increased compared with those of controls. LV area of CCM was significantly larger than that of HCM, while Wall uptake ratio of HCM was significantly higher than that of CCM. LV uptake index and Wall uptake ratio of HCM became higher according as left ventricular cavity became smaller. LV area of CCM became larger in proportion as left ventricular cavity became larger and as left ventricular wall thickness became thinner. (author)

  20. Characteristics of Left Atrial Deformation Parameters and Their Prognostic Impact in Patients with Pathological Left Ventricular Hypertrophy: Analysis by Speckle Tracking Echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iio, Chiharuko; Inoue, Katsuji; Nishimura, Kazuhisa; Fujii, Akira; Nagai, Takayuki; Suzuki, Jun; Okura, Takafumi; Higaki, Jitsuo; Ogimoto, Akiyoshi

    2015-12-01

    The pathological process of left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy is associated with left atrial (LA) remodeling. This study was aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of LA strain parameters in patients with pathological LV hypertrophy. This study included 95 patients with hypertensive heart disease (HHD: n = 24), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM: n = 56), cardiac amyloidosis (CA: n = 15), and control subjects (n = 20). We used two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) to analyze LA global strain. LA electromechanical conduction time (EMT) at the septal (EMT-septal) and lateral wall (EMT-lateral), and their time difference (EMT-diff) were calculated. The incidence of cardiac death and heart failure hospitalization was defined as major cardiac events and that of atrial fibrillation as secondary outcome. Left atrial volume index was increased and LA booster strain was decreased in the HCM and CA groups compared with the HHD group. EMT-lateral was increased in the diseased groups compared with the control. EMT-diff was prolonged in the CA group compared with the HCM group. During the follow-up period (mean 3.4 years), major cardiac events and atrial fibrillation occurred in 17 and 13 patients, respectively. The occurrence of atrial fibrillation was associated with CA etiology, E/e', LA volume index, LAa, and EMT-lateral. The incidence of major cardiac events was independently correlated with LA volume index and EMT-diff in multivariate analysis. This study suggested that the EMT-diff could discriminate patients with a high risk of cardiac events among patients with pathological LV hypertrophy. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Periodontitis and myocardial hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Jun-Ichi; Sato, Hiroki; Kaneko, Makoto; Yoshida, Asuka; Aoyama, Norio; Akimoto, Shouta; Wakayama, Kouji; Kumagai, Hidetoshi; Ikeda, Yuichi; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Izumi, Yuichi; Isobe, Mitsuaki; Komuro, Issei

    2017-04-01

    There is a deep relationship between cardiovascular disease and periodontitis. It has been reported that myocardial hypertrophy may be affected by periodontitis in clinical settings. Although these clinical observations had some study limitations, they strongly suggest a direct association between severity of periodontitis and left ventricular hypertrophy. However, the detailed mechanisms between myocardial hypertrophy and periodontitis have not yet been elucidated. Recently, we demonstrated that periodontal bacteria infection is closely related to myocardial hypertrophy. In murine transverse aortic constriction models, a periodontal pathogen, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans markedly enhanced cardiac hypertrophy with matrix metalloproteinase-2 activation, while another pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.g.) did not accelerate these pathological changes. In the isoproterenol-induced myocardial hypertrophy model, P.g. induced myocardial hypertrophy through Toll-like receptor-2 signaling. From our results and other reports, regulation of chronic inflammation induced by periodontitis may have a key role in the treatment of myocardial hypertrophy. In this article, we review the pathophysiological mechanism between myocardial hypertrophy and periodontitis.

  2. Urine albumin/creatinine ratio and echocardiographic left ventricular structure and function in hypertensive patients with electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy: The LIFE Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wachtell, K.; Palmieri, V.; Olsen, M.H.

    2002-01-01

    in a large hypertensive population. Methods The urine albumin/creatinine ratio (UACR) and echocardiographic measures of LV structure and function were obtained in 833 patients with stage I to III hypertension and LV hypertrophy determined by electrocardiogram (ECG) (Cornell voltage-duration or Sokolow...... geometry and high LV mass are associated with high UACR independent of age, systolic blood pressure, diabetes, and race, suggesting parallel cardiac and microvascular damage....

  3. Protection of LV system against lightning

    OpenAIRE

    Yordanova Nedyalkova, Greta

    2010-01-01

    Lightning is a natural hazard and one of the greatest local mysteries. Scientists have not fully understood the mechanism of lightning. It is one of the most beautiful displays in nature and one of the nature's most dangerous phenomenon known to man. Overvoltage due to lightning is a very important problem of LV systems. Some lightning flashes damage buildings and a few kill or injure people and animals, either directly or indirectly, by causing fire and explosions. The need for protect...

  4. Left Ventricle: Fully Automated Segmentation Based on Spatiotemporal Continuity and Myocardium Information in Cine Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging (LV-FAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijia Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available CMR quantification of LV chamber volumes typically and manually defines the basal-most LV, which adds processing time and user-dependence. This study developed an LV segmentation method that is fully automated based on the spatiotemporal continuity of the LV (LV-FAST. An iteratively decreasing threshold region growing approach was used first from the midventricle to the apex, until the LV area and shape discontinued, and then from midventricle to the base, until less than 50% of the myocardium circumference was observable. Region growth was constrained by LV spatiotemporal continuity to improve robustness of apical and basal segmentations. The LV-FAST method was compared with manual tracing on cardiac cine MRI data of 45 consecutive patients. Of the 45 patients, LV-FAST and manual selection identified the same apical slices at both ED and ES and the same basal slices at both ED and ES in 38, 38, 38, and 41 cases, respectively, and their measurements agreed within -1.6±8.7 mL, -1.4±7.8 mL, and 1.0±5.8% for EDV, ESV, and EF, respectively. LV-FAST allowed LV volume-time course quantitatively measured within 3 seconds on a standard desktop computer, which is fast and accurate for processing the cine volumetric cardiac MRI data, and enables LV filling course quantification over the cardiac cycle.

  5. Tilapia lake virus (TiLV): Literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, Mona Dverdal; Mohan, Chadag Vishnumurthy

    2017-01-01

    Tilapia lake virus (TiLV) is an emerging infectious agent that has recently been identified in diseased tilapia on three continents. At the time of writing, scientific publications have reported TiLV in samples collected from Colombia, Ecuador, Egypt, Israel and Thailand. While the link between TiLV and disease outbreaks in Israel and Thailand are well documented, further investigations are being undertaken to determine the significance of TiLV in the other countries. Israel and Taiwan Provin...

  6. Impact of left ventricular geometry on prognosis in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy (the LIFE study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdts, E.; Cramariuc, D.; Simone, G. de

    2008-01-01

    , and myocardial infarction) in 937 hypertensive patients with LV hypertrophy during 4.8 years losartan- or atenolol-based treatment in the Losartan Intervention for Endpoint reduction in hypertension (LIFE) echocardiography substudy. METHODS AND RESULTS: LV geometry was determined from LV mass/body surface area......AIMS: Less is known about the relation between in-treatment left ventricular (LV) geometry and risk of cardiovascular events. We assessed LV geometric patterns on baseline and annual echocardiograms as time-varying predictors of the primary composite endpoint (cardiovascular death, stroke...... including LV geometric patterns as time-varying variables and adjusting for treatment, Framingham risk score, race, and time-varying systolic blood pressure, the patterns independently predicted higher risk of primary composite endpoints [HR 2.99 (1.16-7.71) for concentric remodelling, HR 1.79 (1...

  7. Role of HIV-2 envelope in Lv2-mediated restriction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, Sandra; Kaumanns, Patrick; Buschhorn, Sabine B.; Dittmar, Matthias T.

    2005-01-01

    We have characterized envelope protein pseudotyped HIV-2 particles derived from two HIV-2 isolates termed prCBL23 and CBL23 in order to define the role of the envelope protein for the Lv2-mediated restriction to infection. Previously, it has been described that the primary isolate prCBL23 is restricted to infection of several human cell types, whereas the T cell line adapted isolate CBL23 is not restricted in these cell types. Molecular cloning of the two isolates revealed that the env and the gag gene are responsible for the observed phenotype and that this restriction is mediated by Lv2, which is distinct from Ref1/Lv1 (Schmitz, C., Marchant, D., Neil, S.J., Aubin, K., Reuter, S., Dittmar, M.T., McKnight, A., Kizhatil, K., Albritton, L.M., 2004. Lv2, a novel postentry restriction, is mediated by both capsid and envelope. J. Virol. 78 (4), 2006-2016). We generated pseudotyped viruses consisting of HIV-2 (ROD-AΔenv-GFP, ROD-AΔenv-RFP, or ROD-AΔenv-REN) and the prCBL23 or CBL23 envelope proteins as well as chimeric proteins between these envelopes. We demonstrate that a single amino acid exchange at position 74 in the surface unit of CBL23-Env confers restriction to infection. This single point mutation causes tighter CD4 binding, resulting in a less efficient fusion into the cytosol of the restricted cell line. Prevention of endosome formation and prevention of endosome acidification enhance infectivity of the restricted particles for GHOST/X4 cells indicating a degradative lysosomal pathway as a cause for the reduced cytosolic entry. The described restriction to infection of the primary isolate prCBL23 is therefore largely caused by an entry defect. A remaining restriction to infection (19-fold) is preserved when endosomal acidification is prevented. This restriction to infection is also dependent on the presence of the point mutation at position 74 (G74E)

  8. Quercetin prevents left ventricular hypertrophy in the Apo E knockout mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Ulasova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypercholesterolemia is a risk factor for the development of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Nevertheless, there are few studies aimed at determining the effects of dietary compounds on early or mild cardiac hypertrophy associated with dyslipidemia. Here we describe left ventricular (LV hypertrophy in 12 week-old Apo E−/− hypercholesterolemic mice. The LV end diastolic posterior wall thickness and overall LV mass were significantly increased in Apo E−/− mice compared with wild type (WT controls. Fractional shortening, LV end diastolic diameter, and hemodynamic parameters were unchanged from WT mice. Oral low dose quercetin (QCN; 0.1 µmol QCN/kg body weight for 6 weeks significantly reduced total cholesterol and very low density lipoprotein in the plasma of Apo E−/− mice. QCN treatment also significantly decreased LV posterior wall thickness and LV mass in Apo E−/− mice. Myocardial geometry and function were unaffected in WT mice by QCN treatment. These data suggest that dietary polyphenolic compounds such as QCN may be effective modulators of plasma cholesterol and could prevent maladaptive myocardial remodeling.

  9. Effect of vildagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor, on cardiac hypertrophy induced by chronic beta-adrenergic stimulation in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Heart failure with left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy is often associated with insulin resistance and inflammation. Recent studies have shown that dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitors improve glucose metabolism and inflammatory status. We therefore evaluated whether vildagliptin, a DPP4 inhibitor, prevents LV hypertrophy and improves diastolic function in isoproterenol-treated rats. Methods Male Wistar rats received vehicle (n = 20), subcutaneous isoproterenol (2.4 mg/kg/day, n = 20) (ISO), subcutaneous isoproterenol (2.4 mg/kg/day + oral vildagliptin (30 mg/kg/day, n = 20) (ISO-VL), or vehicle + oral vildagliptin (30 mg/kg/day, n = 20) (vehicle-VL) for 7 days. Results Blood pressure was similar among the four groups, whereas LV hypertrophy was significantly decreased in the ISO-VL group compared with the ISO group (heart weight/body weight, vehicle: 3.2 ± 0.40, ISO: 4.43 ± 0.39, ISO-VL: 4.14 ± 0.29, vehicle-VL: 3.16 ± 0.16, p vildagliptin lowered the elevated LV end-diastolic pressure observed in the ISO group, but other parameters regarding LV diastolic function such as the decreased minimum dp/dt were not ameliorated in the ISO-VL group. Histological analysis showed that vildagliptin attenuated the increased cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and perivascular fibrosis, but it did not affect angiogenesis in cardiac tissue. In the ISO-VL group, quantitative PCR showed attenuation of increased mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, insulin-like growth factor-l, and restoration of decreased mRNA expression of glucose transporter type 4. Conclusions Vildagliptin may prevent LV hypertrophy caused by continuous exposure to isoproterenol in rats. PMID:24521405

  10. VO(2peak), myocardial hypertrophy, and myocardial blood flow in endurance-trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaksonen, Marko S; Heinonen, Ilkka; Luotolahti, Matti; Knuuti, Juhani; Kalliokoski, Kari K

    2014-08-01

    Endurance training induces cardiovascular and metabolic adaptations, leading to enhanced endurance capacity and exercise performance. Previous human studies have shown contradictory results in functional myocardial vascular adaptations to exercise training, and we hypothesized that this may be related to different degrees of hypertrophy in the trained heart. We studied the interrelationships between peak aerobic power (V˙O2peak), myocardial blood flow (MBF) at rest and during adenosine-induced vasodilation, and parameters of myocardial hypertrophy in endurance-trained (ET, n = 31) and untrained (n = 17) subjects. MBF and myocardial hypertrophy were studied using positron emission tomography and echocardiography, respectively. Both V˙O2peak (P negatively with adenosine-stimulated MBF, but when LV mass was taken into account as a partial correlate, this correlation disappeared. The present results show that increased LV mass in ET subjects explains the reduced hyperemic myocardial perfusion in this subject population and suggests that excessive LV hypertrophy has negative effect on cardiac blood flow capacity.

  11. Hypertension is a conditional factor for the development of cardiac hypertrophy in type 2 diabetic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc van Bilsen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes is frequently associated with co-morbidities, including hypertension. Here we investigated if hypertension is a critical factor in myocardial remodeling and the development of cardiac dysfunction in type 2 diabetic db/db mice. METHODS: Thereto, 14-wks-old male db/db mice and non-diabetic db/+ mice received vehicle or angiotensin II (AngII for 4 wks to induce mild hypertension (n = 9-10 per group. Left ventricular (LV function was assessed by serial echocardiography and during a dobutamine stress test. LV tissue was subjected to molecular and (immunohistochemical analysis to assess effects on hypertrophy, fibrosis and inflammation. RESULTS: Vehicle-treated diabetic mice neither displayed marked myocardial structural remodeling nor cardiac dysfunction. AngII-treatment did not affect body weight and fasting glucose levels, and induced a comparable increase in blood pressure in diabetic and control mice. Nonetheless, AngII-induced LV hypertrophy was significantly more pronounced in diabetic than in control mice as assessed by LV mass (increase +51% and +34%, respectively, p<0.01 and cardiomyocyte size (+53% and +31%, p<0.001. This was associated with enhanced LV mRNA expression of markers of hypertrophy and fibrosis and reduced activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, while accumulation of Advanced Glycation End products (AGEs and the expression levels of markers of inflammation were not altered. Moreover, AngII-treatment reduced LV fractional shortening and contractility in diabetic mice, but not in control mice. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, the present findings indicate that type 2 diabetes in its early stage is not yet associated with adverse cardiac structural changes, but already renders the heart more susceptible to hypertension-induced hypertrophic remodeling.

  12. Development of left ventricular hypertrophy in a novel porcine model of mitral regurgitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Nathja; Zois, Nora Elisabeth; Moesgaard, Sophia Gry

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We aimed to develop a porcine model for chronic nonischemic mitral regurgitation (MR) to investigate left ventricular (LV) enlargement and eccentric hypertrophy. DESIGN: Nonischemic MR was induced in 30 pigs by open-chest immobilization of the posterior mitral leaflet by transannular...... (LVIDd) from baseline to follow-up was significantly higher in the sMR group compared to that of the control group (P = 0.0017). Furthermore, LV weight was significantly increased in the mMR (P = 0.047) and the sMR (P = 0.0087) groups compared to that of the control group. CONCLUSIONS: A new model...

  13. Role of bone marrow-derived CD11c+ dendritic cells in systolic overload-induced left ventricular inflammation, fibrosis and hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huan; Kwak, Dongmin; Fassett, John; Liu, Xiaohong; Yao, Wu; Weng, Xinyu; Xu, Xin; Xu, Yawei; Bache, Robert J; Mueller, Daniel L; Chen, Yingjie

    2017-05-01

    Inflammatory responses play an important role in the development of left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and dysfunction. Recent studies demonstrated that increased T-cell infiltration and T-cell activation contribute to LV hypertrophy and dysfunction. Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells that orchestrate immune responses, especially by modulating T-cell function. In this study, we investigated the role of bone marrow-derived CD11c + DCs in transverse aortic constriction (TAC)-induced LV fibrosis and hypertrophy in mice. We observed that TAC increased the number of CD11c + cells and the percentage of CD11c + MHCII + (major histocompatibility complex class II molecule positive) DCs in the LV, spleen and peripheral blood in mice. Using bone marrow chimeras and an inducible CD11c + DC ablation model, we found that depletion of bone marrow-derived CD11c + DCs significantly attenuated LV fibrosis and hypertrophy in mice exposed to 24 weeks of moderate TAC. CD11c + DC ablation significantly reduced TAC-induced myocardial inflammation as indicated by reduced myocardial CD45 + cells, CD11b + cells, CD8 + T cells and activated effector CD8 + CD44 + T cells in LV tissues. Moreover, pulsing of autologous DCs with LV homogenates from TAC mice promoted T-cell proliferation. These data indicate that bone marrow-derived CD11c + DCs play a maladaptive role in hemodynamic overload-induced cardiac inflammation, hypertrophy and fibrosis through the presentation of cardiac self-antigens to T cells.

  14. Serum uric acid is associated with left ventricular hypertrophy independent of serum parathyroid hormone in male cardiac patients.

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    Shu-ichi Fujita

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown that serum uric acid (UA is associated with left ventricular (LV hypertrophy. Serum levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH, which has bbe shown to be correlated with UA, is also known to be associated with cardiac hypertrophy; however, whether the association between UA and cardiac hypertrophy is independent of PTH remains unknown. PURPOSE: We investigated whether the relationship between serum uric acid (UA and LV hypertrophy is independent of intact PTH and other calcium-phosphate metabolism-related factors in cardiac patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a retrospective study, the association between UA and left ventricular mass index was assessed among 116 male cardiac patients (mean age 65 ± 12 years who were not taking UA lowering drugs. The median UA value was 5.9 mg/dL. Neither age nor body mass index differed significantly among the UA quartile groups. Patients with higher UA levels were more likely to be taking loop diuretics. UA showed a significant correlation with intact PTH (R = 0.34, P<0.001 but not with other calcium-phosphate metabolism-related factors. Linear regression analysis showed that log-transformed UA showed a significant association with left ventricular mass index, and this relationship was found to be significant exclusively in patients who were not taking loop and/or thiazide diuretics. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that log-transformed UA was independently associated with LV hypertrophy with an odds ratio of 2.79 (95% confidence interval 1.48-5.28, P = 0.002 per one standard deviation increase. CONCLUSIONS: Among cardiac patients, serum UA was associated with LV hypertrophy, and this relationship was, at least in part, independent of intact PTH levels, which showed a significant correlation with UA in the same population.

  15. Tissue characteristics in left ventricular hypertrophy using magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Shigeru; Ueno, Yuji; Arita, Mikio; Nishio, Ichiro; Masuyama, Yoshiaki

    1988-01-01

    For 15 normotensive patients with asymmetric septal hypertrophy (ASH), 10 hypertensive patients with concentric hypertrophy (CH), and five normal subjects (N), we examined changes in myocardial T 1 and T 2 values related to the cardiac cycle. The usefulness of those values in differentiating diseases with left ventricular hypertrophy was evaluated. Left ventricular (LV) short-axis spin echo images and inversion recovery images were obtained at endsystolic and diastolic cardiac phases, and T 1 and T 2 images were calculated. The regional wall thickness (WT) and T 1 and T 2 values were measured in the anterior septum, anterior wall, lateral wall, posterior wall and posterior septum. Myocardial T 1 and T 2 values were significantly decreased in systole (T 1 : 185.6±37.9 msec, T 2 : 24.4±6.3 msec, mean±SD) compared to those in diastole (T 1 : 249.2±56.7 msec, T 2 : 31.7±9.4 msec). In both the ASH and CH groups, significant correlations were observed between diastolic T 1 values and WT (ASH: r = 0.80, p 2 values and WT (ASH: r = 0.58, p 1 values in the ASH group (343.4±40.5 msec) were significantly higher than those of the CH group (247.3±21.4 msec), although the mean wall thickness values were similar in both groups. The T 1 /WT and T 2 /WT were significantly lower in the CH group than those in the ASH and N groups. In conclusion, myocardial T 1 and T 2 values were related not only to the cardiac cycle, but to wall thickness and to types of hypertrophy. The T 1 and T 2 values may be useful for distinguishing hypertrophic cardiomyopathy from hypertrophy due to hypertension. (author)

  16. Idiopathic masseter muscle hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Biruktawit; Megersa, Shimalis

    2011-11-01

    Benign Masseteric Hypertrophy is a relatively uncommon condition that can occur unilaterally or bilaterally. Pain may be a symptom, but most frequently a clinician is consulted for cosmetic reasons. In some cases prominent Exostoses at the angle of the mandible are noted. Although it is tempting to point to Malocclusion, Bruxism, clenching, or Temporomandibular joint disorders, the etiology in the majority of cases is unclear. Diagnosis is based on awareness of the condition, clinical and radiographic findings, and exclusion of more serious Pathology such as Benign and Malignant Parotid Disease, Rhabdomyoma, and Lymphangioma. Treatment usually involves resection of a portion of the Masseter muscle with or without the underlying bone.

  17. Application of MV/LV Transformers with OLTC for Increasing the PV Hosting Capacity Of LV Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashemi Toghroljerdi, Seyedmostafa; Heckmann, Wolfram; Geibel, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    The increased use of grid connected photovoltaic (PV) systems in low voltage (LV) grids also raises concern regarding the effects of these new generation units on the grid operation. Overvoltage in LV grids during high PV generation periods is one of the well-known effects caused by PV systems......) and the reactive power absorption by PV inverters, are investigated using field test results and simulations performed on the mentioned LV grid. The results show that the application of OLTC can effectively increase the PV hosting capacity of the grid......., which potentially can decrease the PV hosting capacity of electric grids. This paper presents the applications of medium voltage to low voltage (MV/LV) transformers with on-load tap changers (OLTCs) to prevent overvoltage in high PV penetration conditions. Autonomous methods for controlling...

  18. Influence of the Method of Definition on the Prevalence of Left-Ventricular Hypertrophy in Children with Chronic Kidney Disease: Data from the Know-Ped CKD Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Heeyeon; Choi, Hyun Jin; Kang, Hee Gyung; Ha, Il-Soo; Cheong, Hae Il; Han, Kyung Hee; Kim, Seong Heon; Cho, Min Hyun; Shin, Jae Il; Lee, Joo Hoon; Park, Young Seo

    2017-01-01

    Children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a high risk of cardiovascular disease. Left-ventricular (LV) hypertrophy (LVH) is an early marker of cardiovascular disease in pediatric CKD, and the prevalence of LVH in pediatric CKD is approximately 20-30% in pre-dialysis CKD patients. However, there is no consensus on the ideal method of defining LVH in pediatric CKD patients. Previous studies have typically used the LV mass index (LVMI), which is calculated as LV mass in grams divided by height in meters to the 2.7th power ≥ 38 g/m2.7, to diagnose LVH in children with CKD. Recently, age-specific reference values for LVMI ≥ 95th percentile and LV wall-thickness z-score > 1.64 in children were addressed. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and contributing factors of LVH in pediatric CKD patients according to each measurement and evaluate the concordance between each measurement. We used the baseline data of the KoreaN cohort study for Outcome in patients With Pediatric Chronic Kidney Disease (KNOW-Ped CKD), which is a nationwide, 10-year, prospective, observational cohort study of pediatric CKD. A total of 469 patients were enrolled, and 458 patients were included in the final analysis. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analysis were performed to evaluate the association of the variables with LVH. Kappa statistics were used to analyze the concordance. According to an LVH diagnosis of LVMI ≥ 38 g/m2.7, 188 patients (41.0%) were diagnosed with LVH, and the prevalence of LVH was high in younger patients ( 1.64. There is poor concordance between the diagnosis of LVH using the LV wall-thickness z-score and the LVMI method. The results of this study show that there is poor concordance between the diagnosis of LVH using the wall-thickness z-score and the LVMI2.7 criteria. Further investigation is needed to estimate the correlation between LVH and cardiac dysfunction and to find a better method for defining LVH in the pediatric CKD cohort

  19. Short-Term Caloric Restriction Suppresses Cardiac Oxidative Stress and Hypertrophy Caused by Chronic Pressure Overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobara, Miyuki; Furumori-Yukiya, Akiko; Kitamura, Miho; Matsumura, Mihoko; Ohigashi, Makoto; Toba, Hiroe; Nakata, Tetsuo

    2015-08-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) prevents senescent changes, in which reactive oxygen species (ROS) have a critical role. Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. We examined whether CR alters cardiac redox state and hypertrophy from chronic pressure overload. Male c57BL6 mice were subjected to ascending aortic constriction (AAC) with ad libitum caloric intake (AL + AAC group) or 40% restricted caloric intake (CR + AAC group). CR was initiated 2 weeks before AAC and was continued for 4 weeks. Two weeks after constriction, AAC increased LV wall thickness, impaired transmitral flow velocity, and augmented myocyte hypertrophy and fibrosis, in association with enhancement of BNP and collagen III expressions in the AL + AAC group. In the AL + AAC group, oxidative stress in cardiac tissue and mitochondria were enhanced, and NADPH oxidase activity and mitochondrial ROS production were elevated. These changes were significantly attenuated in the CR + AAC group. Additionally, in antioxidant systems, myocardial glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities were enhanced in the CR + AAC group. Chronic pressure overload increased cardiac oxidative damage, in association with cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. Short-term CR suppressed oxidative stress and improved cardiac function, suggesting that short-term CR could be a useful strategy to prevent pressure overload-induced cardiac injury. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. T-wave inversions related to left ventricular basal hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis in non-apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: A cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiuyu, E-mail: cxy0202@126.com [Department of Radiology, State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100037 (China); Zhao, Shihua, E-mail: zhaoshihua0202@126.com [Department of Radiology, State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100037 (China); Zhao, Tao, E-mail: taozhao0202@126.com [Department of Radiology, State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100037 (China); Lu, Minjie, E-mail: lmjkan@126.com [Department of Radiology, State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100037 (China); Yin, Gang, E-mail: gangyin0202@126.com [Department of Radiology, State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100037 (China); Jiang, Shiliang, E-mail: jiangsl-2011@163.com [Department of Radiology, State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100037 (China); Prasad, Sanjay, E-mail: s.prasad@rbht.nhs.uk [NIHR Biomedical Research Unit, Royal Brompton Hospital Sydney Street, London, SW3 6NP (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-15

    Objectives: To investigate the relationship between T-wave inversions and left ventricular (LV) segmental hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis assessed by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in patients with non-apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Methods: 196 consecutive patients with non-apical HCM underwent late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) CMR and 12-lead electrocardiogram. The distribution and magnitude of LV segmental hypertrophy and LGE were assessed according to the AHA 17-segment model and analyzed in relation to T-wave inversions. Results: Of 196 HCM patients, 144 (73%) exhibited T-wave inversions. 144 (73%) patients had evidence of myocardial fibrosis as defined by LGE, and the prevalence of LGE was significantly higher in patients with T-wave inversions compared with those without T-wave inversions (78% vs. 59%, P = 0.008). T-wave inversions were related to basal anterior and basal anteroseptal LGE (20% vs. 10%, P = 0.04 and 68% vs. 46%, P = 0.005, respectively). In addition, T-wave inversions were associated with greater basal anteroseptal and basal inferior wall thickness (19.5 ± 4.7 mm vs. 16.7 ± 4.5 mm, P < 0.001 and 10.9 ± 3.3 mm vs. 9.6 ± 3.0 mm, P = 0.01, respectively). By logistic regression analysis, basal anteroseptal wall thickness and LGE were independent determinants of T-wave inversions (P = 0.005, P = 0.01, respectively). Conclusions: T-wave inversions in HCM are associated with LGE and wall thickness of the left ventricular basal segments. Moreover, basal anteroseptal wall thickness and LGE are independent determinants of T-wave inversions.

  1. T-wave inversions related to left ventricular basal hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis in non-apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: A cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xiuyu; Zhao, Shihua; Zhao, Tao; Lu, Minjie; Yin, Gang; Jiang, Shiliang; Prasad, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the relationship between T-wave inversions and left ventricular (LV) segmental hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis assessed by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in patients with non-apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Methods: 196 consecutive patients with non-apical HCM underwent late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) CMR and 12-lead electrocardiogram. The distribution and magnitude of LV segmental hypertrophy and LGE were assessed according to the AHA 17-segment model and analyzed in relation to T-wave inversions. Results: Of 196 HCM patients, 144 (73%) exhibited T-wave inversions. 144 (73%) patients had evidence of myocardial fibrosis as defined by LGE, and the prevalence of LGE was significantly higher in patients with T-wave inversions compared with those without T-wave inversions (78% vs. 59%, P = 0.008). T-wave inversions were related to basal anterior and basal anteroseptal LGE (20% vs. 10%, P = 0.04 and 68% vs. 46%, P = 0.005, respectively). In addition, T-wave inversions were associated with greater basal anteroseptal and basal inferior wall thickness (19.5 ± 4.7 mm vs. 16.7 ± 4.5 mm, P < 0.001 and 10.9 ± 3.3 mm vs. 9.6 ± 3.0 mm, P = 0.01, respectively). By logistic regression analysis, basal anteroseptal wall thickness and LGE were independent determinants of T-wave inversions (P = 0.005, P = 0.01, respectively). Conclusions: T-wave inversions in HCM are associated with LGE and wall thickness of the left ventricular basal segments. Moreover, basal anteroseptal wall thickness and LGE are independent determinants of T-wave inversions

  2. Differences in cardiovascular risk profile between electrocardiographic hypertrophy versus strain in asymptomatic patients with aortic stenosis (from SEAS data)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Anders M; Gerdts, Eva; Boman, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    Electrocardiograms are routinely obtained in clinical follow-up of patients with asymptomatic aortic stenosis (AS). The association with aortic valve, left ventricular (LV) response to long-term pressure load, and clinical covariates is unclear and the clinical value is thus uncertain. Data from...... clinical examination, electrocardiogram, and echocardiogram in 1,563 patients in the Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis (SEAS) study were used. Electrocardiograms were Minnesota coded for arrhythmias and atrioventricular and intraventricular blocks; LV hypertrophy was assessed by Sokolow...

  3. A New Protection System for Islanding Detection in LV Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rita Di Fazio

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The growth of penetration of Distributed Generators (DGs is increasing the risk of unwanted islanded operation in Low Voltage (LV distribution systems. In this scenario, the existing anti-islanding protection systems, installed at the DG premises and based on classical voltage and frequency relays, are no longer effective, especially in the cases of islands characterized by a close match between generation and load. In this paper, a new protection system for islanding detection in LV distribution systems is proposed. The classical voltage and frequency relays in the DG interface protections are enriched with an innovative Smart Islanding Detector, which adopts a new passive islanding detection method. The aim is to keep the advantages of the classical relays while overcoming the problem of their limited sensitivity in detecting balanced islands. In the paper, to define the requirements of the anti-islanding protection system, the events causing the islanded operation of the LV distribution systems are firstly identified and classified. Then, referring to proposed protection system, its architecture and operation are described and, eventually, its performance is analyzed and validated by experimental laboratory tests, carried out with a hardware-in-the-loop technique.

  4. Circulating levels of miR-133a predict the regression potential of left ventricular hypertrophy after valve replacement surgery in patients with aortic stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Raquel; Villar, Ana V; Cobo, Manuel; Llano, Miguel; Martín-Durán, Rafael; Hurlé, María A; Nistal, J Francisco

    2013-08-15

    Myocardial microRNA-133a (miR-133a) is directly related to reverse remodeling after pressure overload release in aortic stenosis patients. Herein, we assessed the significance of plasma miR-133a as an accessible biomarker with prognostic value in predicting the reversibility potential of LV hypertrophy after aortic valve replacement (AVR) in these patients. The expressions of miR-133a and its targets were measured in LV biopsies from 74 aortic stenosis patients. Circulating miR-133a was measured in peripheral and coronary sinus blood. LV mass reduction was determined echocardiographically. Myocardial and plasma levels of miR-133a correlated directly (r=0.46, Pregression analysis identified plasma miR-133a as a positive predictor of the hypertrophy reversibility after surgery. The discrimination of the model yielded an area under the receiver operator characteristic curve of 0.89 (Pregression analysis revealed plasma miR-133a and its myocardial target Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome candidate 2/Negative elongation factor A as opposite predictors of the LV mass loss (g) after AVR. Preoperative plasma levels of miR-133a reflect their myocardial expression and predict the regression potential of LV hypertrophy after AVR. The value of this bedside information for the surgical timing, particularly in asymptomatic aortic stenosis patients, deserves confirmation in further clinical studies.

  5. Compensative hypertrophy of the kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raynaud, C.

    1976-01-01

    Several measurement methods are available to practitioners to reveal a compensative hypertrophy. Mensuration of the kidney has the advantage of simplicity but is in fact an unreliable and inaccurate method. Separate clearances in their traditional form have never entered into routine use because of the disadvantages of ureteral catheterism. The use of radioactive tracers avoids this drawback, but clearances calculated in this way are only valid in the absence of obstructive urinary disorders. Solutions have been proposed, but the values obtained are no longer identical with the clearances. The Hg uptake test quantifies quite accurately the function of each kidney. From the results obtained a complete compensative hypertrophy developed on a healthy kidney and an incomplete compensative hypertrophy developed on the diseased kidney have been described. In each of these situations the degree to which compensative hypertrophy develops seems to be fixed at a given level peculiar to each patient [fr

  6. Formation and characterization of FeLV iscoms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Akerblom; K. Strö mstedt; S. Hö glund; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); B. Morein (Bror)

    1989-01-01

    textabstractImmunostimulating complexes (ISCOMs) have been prepared from feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) envelope proteins. The ISCOMs were characterized biochemically in SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showing the presence of proteins of estimated molecular weights of 15,000, 27,000 and

  7. Smart curtailment for congestion management in LV distribution network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haque, A. N.M.M.; Rahman, M. T.; Nguyen, P. H.; Bliek, F. W.

    2016-01-01

    The rapid proliferation of distributed energy resources (DERs) leads to capacity challenges, i.e. network congestions, in the low-voltage (LV) distribution networks. A number of strategies are being widely studied to tackle the challenges with direct switching actions such as load shedding or power

  8. Experimental and clinical study of cardiac hypertrophy by thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torii, Yukio

    1983-01-01

    I studied experimentally the myocardial uptake of 201 Tl in cardiac hypertrophy in rat, and clinically evaluated cardiac shape and dimension in the patients with various types of cardiac hypertrophy. Experimentally, both myocardial blood flow (MBF) and Tl uptake were increased with cardiac weight. There were negative correlations between the extraction fraction and MBF. Tl uptake in Hypertrophy is not always dependent on MBF and affected by the altered metabolism of hypertrophied myocardium. Clinical study was performed in 29 normal subjects and in 90 patients with heart disease. The measurements of left ventricular (LV) size by Tl scintigraphy were well correlated with them by echocardiography. Aortic stenosis and hypertensive heart disease showed thick wall and spherical shape. Both mitral (MR) and aortic (AR) regurgitation showed ventricular dilatation, spherical shape (in chronic MR) and ellipsoid shape (in acute MR and in AR). Decreased ventricular size but normal shape was observed in mitral stenosis and cor pulmonale. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy showed thick wall with asymmetric septal hypertrophy, while congestive cardiomyopathy showed thin wall with marked ventricular dilatation and spherical shape. I conclude that heart disease has characteristic figures in dimension and shape which may be reflecting cardiac performance or compensating for the load to the heart, and that 201 Tl scintigraphy is useful evaluating cardiac morphology as well as in diagnosing myocardial ischemia. (J.P.N.)

  9. The left atrium, atrial fibrillation, and the risk of stroke in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wachtell, K.; Devereux, R.B.; Lyle, P.A.

    2008-01-01

    was superior to atenolol-based treatment for reducing new-onset AF and complications, especially stroke, associated with new-onset or pre-existing AF. Potential mechanisms of AF prevention by angiotensin receptor blockade supported by LIFE results include greater reduction in left atrial size and LV......The Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension (LIFE) study provided extensive data on predisposing factors, consequences, and prevention of atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients with hypertension and left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy. Randomized losartan-based treatment...... hypertrophy. Differential effects of antihypertensive treatment on the left atrium and left ventricle may help prevent AF and reduce risk of stroke associated with hypertensive heart disease Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12...

  10. Chronic high-fat diet-induced obesity decreased survival and increased hypertrophy of rats with experimental eccentric hypertrophy from chronic aortic regurgitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhahri, Wahiba; Drolet, Marie-Claude; Roussel, Elise; Couet, Jacques; Arsenault, Marie

    2014-09-24

    The composition of a diet can influence myocardial metabolism and development of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). The impact of a high-fat diet in chronic left ventricular volume overload (VO) causing eccentric LVH is unknown. This study examined the effects of chronic ingestion of a high-fat diet in rats with chronic VO caused by severe aortic valve regurgitation (AR) on LVH, function and on myocardial energetics and survival. Male Wistar rats were divided in four groups: Shams on control or high-fat (HF) diet (15 rats/group) and AR rats fed with the same diets (ARC (n = 56) and ARHF (n = 32)). HF diet was started one week before AR induction and the protocol was stopped 30 weeks later. As expected, AR caused significant LV dilation and hypertrophy and this was exacerbated in the ARHF group. Moreover, survival in the ARHF group was significantly decreased compared the ARC group. Although the sham animals on HF also developed significant obesity compared to those on control diet, this was not associated with heart hypertrophy. The HF diet in AR rats partially countered the expected shift in myocardial energy substrate preference usually observed in heart hypertrophy (from fatty acids towards glucose). Systolic function was decreased in AR rats but HF diet had no impact on this parameter. The response to HF diet of different fatty acid oxidation markers as well as the increase in glucose transporter-4 translocation to the plasma membrane compared to ARC was blunted in AR animals compared to those on control diet. HF diet for 30 weeks decreased survival of AR rats and worsened eccentric hypertrophy without affecting systolic function. The expected adaptation of myocardial energetics to volume-overload left ventricle hypertrophy in AR animals seemed to be impaired by the high-fat diet suggesting less metabolic flexibility.

  11. Effects of protein-calorie restriction on mechanical function of hypertrophied cardiac muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Carlos Cicogna

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of food restriction (FR on hypertrophied cardiac muscle in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR. METHODS: Isolated papillary muscle preparations of the left ventricle (LV of 60-day-old SHR and of normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY rats were studied. The rats were fed either an unrestricted diet or FR diet (50% of the intake of the control diet for 30 days. The mechanical function of the muscles was evaluated through monitoring isometric and isotonic contractions. RESULTS: FR caused: 1 reduction in the body weight and LV weight of SHR and WKY rats; 2 increase in the time to peak shortening and the time to peak developed tension (DT in the hypertrophied myocardium of the SHR; 3 diverging changes in the mechanical function of the normal cardiac muscles of WKY rats with reduction in maximum velocity of isotonic shortening and of the time for DT to decrease 50% of its maximum value, and increase of the resting tension and of the rate of tension decline. CONCLUSION: Short-term FR causes prolongation of the contraction time of hypertrophied muscles and paradoxal changes in mechanical performance of normal cardiac fibers, with worsening of the shortening indices and of the resting tension, and improvement of the isometric relaxation.

  12. Avoided losses on LV networks as a result of microgeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Paulo Moises [Escola Superior Tecnologia Viseu, Instituto Politecnico Viseu, Campus Politecnico Repeses, 3504-510 Viseu (Portugal); Matos, Manuel A. [INESC Porto, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Porto (Portugal)

    2009-04-15

    In the scope of the discussions about microgeneration (and microgrids), the avoided electrical losses are often pointed out as an important value to be credited to those entities. Therefore, methods to assess the impact of microgeneration on losses must be developed in order to support the definition of a suitable regulatory framework for the economic integration of microgeneration on distribution networks. This paper presents an analytical method to quantify the value of avoided losses that microgeneration may produce on LV networks. Intervals of expected avoided losses are used to account for the variation of avoided losses due to the number, size and location of microgenerators, as well as for the kind of load distribution on LV networks. (author)

  13. Impact of fasting glucose on electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy in an elderly general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Søren Z; Pareek, Manan; Nielsen, Mette L

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate relationships between fasting plasma glucose (FPG), other cardiovascular risk markers and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) as detected by electrocardiography. METHODS: Subjects were selected randomly from groups defined by FPG. Traditional risk markers were assessed. LVH...

  14. Prolactin induces adrenal hypertrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.J. Silva

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Although adrenocorticotropic hormone is generally considered to play a major role in the regulation of adrenal glucocorticoid secretion, several reports have suggested that other pituitary hormones (e.g., prolactin also play a significant role in the regulation of adrenal function. The aim of the present study was to measure the adrenocortical cell area and to determine the effects of the transition from the prepubertal to the postpubertal period on the hyperprolactinemic state induced by domperidone (4.0 mg kg-1 day-1, sc. In hyperprolactinemic adult and young rats, the adrenals were heavier, as determined at necropsy, than in the respective controls: adults (30 days: 0.16 ± 0.008 and 0.11 ± 0.007; 46 days: 0.17 ± 0.006 and 0.12 ± 0.008, and 61 days: 0.17 ± 0.008 and 0.10 ± 0.004 mg for treated and control animals, respectively; P < 0.05, and young rats (30 days: 0.19 ± 0.003 and 0.16 ± 0.007, and 60 days: 0.16 ± 0.006 and 0.13 ± 0.009 mg; P < 0.05. We selected randomly a circular area in which we counted the nuclei of adrenocortical cells. The area of zona fasciculata cells was increased in hyperprolactinemic adult and young rats compared to controls: adults: (61 days: 524.90 ± 47.85 and 244.84 ± 9.03 µm² for treated and control animals, respectively; P < 0.05, and young rats: (15 days: 462.30 ± 16.24 and 414.28 ± 18.19; 60 days: 640.51 ± 12.91 and 480.24 ± 22.79 µm²; P < 0.05. Based on these data we conclude that the increase in adrenal weight observed in the hyperprolactinemic animals may be due to prolactin-induced adrenocortical cell hypertrophy.

  15. A Dynamic and Heuristic Phase Balancing Method for LV Feeders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Taghipour Boroujeni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the single-phase loads and their stochastic behavior, the current in the distribution feeders is not balanced. In addition, the single-phase loads are located in different positions along the LV feeders. So the amount of the unbalanced load and its location affect the feeder losses. An unbalanced load causes the feeder losses and the voltage drop. Because of time-varying behavior of the single-phase loads, phase balancing is a dynamic and combinatorial problem. In this research, a heuristic and dynamic solution for the phase balancing of the LV feeders is proposed. In this method, it is supposed that the loads’ tie could be connected to all phases through a three-phase switch. The aim of the proposed method is to make the feeder conditions as balanced as possible. The amount and the location of single-phase loads are considered in the proposed phase balancing method. Since the proposed method needs no communication interface or no remote controller, it is inexpensive, simple, practical, and robust. Applying this method provides a distributed and dynamic phase balancing control. In addition, the feasibility of reducing the used switches is investigated. The ability of the proposed method in the phase balancing of the LV feeders is approved by carrying out some simulations.

  16. Compensatory Hypertrophy of Skeletal Muscle: Contractile Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianuzzo, C. D.; Chen, V.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment using rats that demonstrates contractile characteristics of normal and hypertrophied muscle. Compensatory hypertrophy of the plantaris muscle is induced by surgical removal of the synergistic gastrocnemium muscle. Includes methods for determination of contractile properties of normal and hypertrophied muscle and…

  17. Myocardial gene expression of microRNA-133a and myosin heavy and light chains, in conjunction with clinical parameters, predict regression of left ventricular hypertrophy after valve replacement in patients with aortic stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Ana V; Merino, David; Wenner, Mareike; Llano, Miguel; Cobo, Manuel; Montalvo, Cecilia; García, Raquel; Martín-Durán, Rafael; Hurlé, Juan M; Hurlé, María A; Nistal, J Francisco

    2011-07-01

    Left ventricular (LV) reverse remodelling after valve replacement in aortic stenosis (AS) has been classically linked to the hydraulic performance of the replacement device, but myocardial status at the time of surgery has received little attention. To establish predictors of LV mass (LVM) regression 1 year after valve replacement in a surgical cohort of patients with AS based on preoperative clinical and echocardiographic parameters and the myocardial gene expression profile at surgery. Transcript levels of remodelling-related proteins and regulators were determined in LV intraoperative biopsies from 46 patients with AS by RT-PCR. Using multiple linear regression analysis, an equation was developed (adjusted R²=0.73; pregression analysis identified microRNA-133a as a significant positive predictor of LVM normalisation, whereas β-myosin heavy chain and BMI constituted negative predictors. Hypertrophy regression 1 year after pressure overload release is related to the preoperative myocardial expression of remodelling-related genes, in conjunction with the patient's clinical background. In this scenario, miR-133 emerges as a key element of the reverse remodelling process. Postoperative improvement of valve haemodynamics does not predict the degree of hypertrophy regression or LVM normalisation. These results led us to reconsider the current reverse remodelling paradigm and (1) to include criteria of hypertrophy reversibility in the decision algorithm used to decide timing for the operation; and (2) to modify other prevailing factors (overweight, diabetes, etc) known to maintain LV hypertrophy.

  18. A targeted mutation within the feline leukemia virus (FeLV) envelope protein immunosuppressive domain to improve a canarypox virus-vectored FeLV vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlecht-Louf, Géraldine; Mangeney, Marianne; El-Garch, Hanane; Lacombe, Valérie; Poulet, Hervé; Heidmann, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    We previously delineated a highly conserved immunosuppressive (IS) domain within murine and primate retroviral envelope proteins that is critical for virus propagation in vivo. The envelope-mediated immunosuppression was assessed by the ability of the proteins, when expressed by allogeneic tumor cells normally rejected by engrafted mice, to allow these cells to escape, at least transiently, immune rejection. Using this approach, we identified key residues whose mutation (i) specifically abolishes immunosuppressive activity without affecting the "mechanical" function of the envelope protein and (ii) significantly enhances humoral and cellular immune responses elicited against the virus. The objective of this work was to study the immunosuppressive activity of the envelope protein (p15E) of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and evaluate the effect of its abolition on the efficacy of a vaccine against FeLV. Here we demonstrate that the FeLV envelope protein is immunosuppressive in vivo and that this immunosuppressive activity can be "switched off" by targeted mutation of a specific amino acid. As a result of the introduction of the mutated envelope sequence into a previously well characterized canarypox virus-vectored vaccine (ALVAC-FeLV), the frequency of vaccine-induced FeLV-specific gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-producing cells was increased, whereas conversely, the frequency of vaccine-induced FeLV-specific interleukin-10 (IL-10)-producing cells was reduced. This shift in the IFN-γ/IL-10 response was associated with a higher efficacy of ALVAC-FeLV against FeLV infection. This study demonstrates that FeLV p15E is immunosuppressive in vivo, that the immunosuppressive domain of p15E can modulate the FeLV-specific immune response, and that the efficacy of FeLV vaccines can be enhanced by inhibiting the immunosuppressive activity of the IS domain through an appropriate mutation.

  19. Overexpression of the human angiotensin II type 1 receptor in the rat heart augments load induced cardiac hypertrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, S.; Krause, T.; van Geel, P. P.; Willenbrock, R.; Pagel, I.; Pinto, Y. M.; Buikema, H.; van Gilst, W. H.; Lindschau, C.; Paul, M.; Inagami, T.; Ganten, D.; Urata, H.

    2001-01-01

    Angiotensin II is known to stimulate cardiac hypertrophy and contractility. Most angiotensin II effects are mediated via membrane bound AT1 receptors. However, the role of myocardial AT1 receptors in cardiac hypertrophy and contractility is still rarely defined. To address the hypothesis that

  20. Overexpression of the human angiotensin II type 1 receptor in the rat heart augments load induced cardiac hypertrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, S; van Geel, PP; Willenbrock, R; Pagel, [No Value; Pinto, YM; Buikema, H; van Gilst, WH; Lindschau, C; Paul, M; Inagami, T; Ganten, D; Urata, H

    2001-01-01

    Angiotensin II is known to stimulate cardiac hypertrophy and contractility. Most angiotensin II effects are mediated via membrane bound AT(1) receptors. However, the role of myocardial AT(1) receptors in cardiac hypertrophy and contractility is still rarely defined. To address the hypothesis that

  1. E/e' Ratio: An Index of LV Filling Pressures Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherif F. Nagueh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a clinical need for the assessment of cardiac function in patients who present with symptoms and signs of pulmonary and systemic congestion. Echocardiography has been utilized over the years to answer this question. It is possible to study left ventricular (LV systolic and diastolic function as well as pulmonary artery pressures and right ventricular function using this technique. With respect to LV diastolic function, an ideal assessment includes evaluation of LV relaxation and LV filling pressures. There are several parameters that when properly acquired and analyzed can predict the 2 fundamental aspects noted above of LV diastolic function. The mitral annulus early diastolic recoil velocity (e’ recorded by tissue Doppler imaging (TDI was introduced as an index of LV relaxation. Further, e’ velocity is combined with mitral peak velocity E to predict LV filling pressures1. I will discuss the supporting literature for the last statement and point to the limitations in its application.

  2. Information-Quality based LV-Grid-Monitoring Framework and its Application to Power-Quality Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Findrik, Mislav; Kristensen, Thomas le Fevre; Hinterhofer, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The integration of unpredictable renewable energy sources into the low voltage (LV) power grid results in new challenges when it comes to ensuring power quality in the electrical grid. Addressing this problem requires control of not only the secondary substation but also control of flexible assets...... inside the LV grid. In this paper we investigate how the flexibility information of such assets can be accessed by the controller using heterogeneous off-the-shelf communication networks. To achieve this we develop an adaptive monitoring framework, through which the controller can subscribe to the assets......' flexibility information through an API. We define an information quality metric making the monitoring framework able to adapt information access strategies to ensure the information is made available to the controller with the highest possible information quality. To evaluate the monitoring framework...

  3. [Asymmetric hypertrophy of the masticatory muscles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzul, L; Corre, P; Khonsari, R H; Mercier, J-M; Piot, B

    2012-06-01

    Hypertrophy of the masticatory muscles most commonly affects the masseter. Less common cases of isolated or associated temporalis hypertrophy are also reported. Parafunctional habits, and more precisely bruxism, can favor the onset of the hypertrophy. This condition is generally idiopathic and can require both medical and/or surgical management. A 29-year-old patient was referred to our department for an asymmetric swelling of the masticatory muscles. Physical examination revealed a bilateral hypertrophy of the masticatory muscles, predominantly affecting the right temporalis and the left masseter. Major bruxism was assessed by premature dental wearing. The additional examinations confirmed the isolated muscle hypertrophy. Benign asymmetric hypertrophy of the masticatory muscles promoted by bruxism was diagnosed. Treatment with injections of type A botulinum toxin was conducted in association with a splint and relaxation. Its effectiveness has been observed at six months. Few cases of unilateral or bilateral temporalis hypertrophy have been reported, added to the more common isolated masseter muscles hypertrophy. The diagnosis requires to rule out secondary hypertrophies and tumors using Magnetic Resonance Imaging. The condition is thought to be favoured by parafunctional habits such as bruxism. The conservative treatment consists in reducing the volume of the masticatory muscles using intramuscular injections of type A botulinum toxin. Other potential conservative treatments are wearing splints and muscle relaxant drugs. Surgical procedures aiming to reduce the muscle volume and/or the bone volume (mandibular gonioplasty) can be proposed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparative Efficacy of Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) Inactivated Whole-Virus Vaccine and Canarypox Virus-Vectored Vaccine during Virulent FeLV Challenge and Immunosuppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, M; Carritt, K; Lane, J; Jayappa, H; Stahl, M; Bourgeois, M

    2015-07-01

    Four vaccines for feline leukemia virus (FeLV) are available in the United States. This study's purpose was to compare the efficacy of Nobivac feline 2-FeLV (an inactivated, adjuvanted whole-virus vaccine) and PureVax recombinant FeLV (a live, canarypox virus-vectored vaccine) following FeLV challenge. Cats were vaccinated at 9 and 12 weeks with Nobivac feline 2-FeLV (group A, n = 11) or PureVax recombinant FeLV (group B, n = 10). Group C (n = 11) comprised unvaccinated controls. At 3 months postvaccination, cats were immunosuppressed and challenged with FeLV-A/61E. The outcomes measured were persistent antigenemia at 12 weeks postchallenge (PC) and proviral DNA and viral RNA at 3 to 9 weeks PC. Persistent antigenemia was observed in 0 of 11 cats in group A, 5 of 10 cats in group B, and 10 of 11 cats in group C. Group A was significantly protected compared to those in groups B (P 0.063). The preventable fraction was 100% for group A and 45% for group B. At 9 weeks PC, proviral DNA and viral RNA were detected 1 of 11 cats in group A, 6 of 10 cats in group B, and 9 of 11 cats in group C. Nucleic acid loads were significantly lower in group A than in group C (P feline 2-FeLV-vaccinated cats were fully protected against persistent antigenemia and had significantly smaller amounts of proviral DNA and plasma viral RNA loads than PureVax recombinant FeLV-vaccinated cats and unvaccinated controls. Copyright © 2015, Patel et al.

  5. Microtubule depolymerization normalizes in vivo myocardial contractile function in dogs with pressure-overload left ventricular hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koide, M.; Hamawaki, M.; Narishige, T.; Sato, H.; Nemoto, S.; DeFreyte, G.; Zile, M. R.; Cooper G, I. V.; Carabello, B. A.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Because initially compensatory myocardial hypertrophy in response to pressure overloading may eventually decompensate to myocardial failure, mechanisms responsible for this transition have long been sought. One such mechanism established in vitro is densification of the cellular microtubule network, which imposes a viscous load that inhibits cardiocyte contraction. METHODS AND RESULTS: In the present study, we extended this in vitro finding to the in vivo level and tested the hypothesis that this cytoskeletal abnormality is important in the in vivo contractile dysfunction that occurs in experimental aortic stenosis in the adult dog. In 8 dogs in which gradual stenosis of the ascending aorta had caused severe left ventricular (LV) pressure overloading (gradient, 152+/-16 mm Hg) with contractile dysfunction, LV function was measured at baseline and 1 hour after the intravenous administration of colchicine. Cardiocytes obtained by biopsy before and after in vivo colchicine administration were examined in tandem. Microtubule depolymerization restored LV contractile function both in vivo and in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: These and additional corroborative data show that increased cardiocyte microtubule network density is an important mechanism for the ventricular contractile dysfunction that develops in large mammals with adult-onset pressure-overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy.

  6. Influence of hypertensive left ventricular hypertrophy on detection of ischemic area with exercise thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyama, Takuji; Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Uehara, Toshiisa

    1992-01-01

    Sixty-four patients with single left anterior descending artery disease having effort angina (group A: 40 patients with hypertrophic hypertension, group B: 10 patients with hypertrophic hypertension, group C: 14 patients with non-hypertrophic hypertension) were assessed to determine the influence of hypertensive left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy on detection of ischemic area. The criterion of hypertrophy by two-dimensional echocardiography was >12 mm in the wall thickness of interventricular septal or posterior wall. Population in Group B might show low detectability in ischemic area by 201 Tl myocardial scintigraphy (positive thallium rate 60%, defect score 2.7±3.6), and high lung thallium uptake and high frequence of ECG positive among three groups. In semiquantitative analysis, the washout rate of the posterolateral wall and %RD (delayed %uptake-initial %uptake) of the septal wall in patients with Group B were lowest among three groups. However, the washout rate in the septal wall against the posterior wall, and the initial %uptake and the delayed %uptake of the septal wall were not significantly different among three groups. We could conclude that the decreased washout rate in nonischemic area with hypertensive LV hypertrophy might make the ischemic area masked. (author)

  7. Genetics Home Reference: myostatin-related muscle hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter Home Health Conditions Myostatin-related muscle hypertrophy Myostatin-related muscle hypertrophy Printable PDF Open All Close ... Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Myostatin-related muscle hypertrophy is a rare condition characterized ...

  8. In hypertrophic cardiomyopathy reduction of relative resting myocardial blood flow is related to late enhancement, T2-signal and LV wall thickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Hueper

    Full Text Available To quantify resting myocardial blood flow (MBF in the left ventricular (LV wall of HCM patients and to determine the relationship to important parameters of disease: LV wall thickness, late gadolinium enhancement (LGE, T2-signal abnormalities (dark and bright signal, LV outflow tract obstruction and age.Seventy patients with proven HCM underwent cardiac MRI. Absolute and relative resting MBF were calculated from cardiac perfusion MRI by using the Fermi function model. The relationship between relative MBF and LV wall thickness, T2-signal abnormalities (T2 dark and T2 bright signal, LGE, age and LV outflow gradient as determined by echocardiography was determined using simple and multiple linear regression analysis. Categories of reduced and elevated perfusion in relation to non- or mildly affected reference segments were defined, and T2-signal characteristics and extent as well as pattern of LGE were examined. Statistical testing included linear and logistic regression analysis, unpaired t-test, odds ratios, and Fisher's exact test.804 segments in 70 patients were included in the analysis. In a simple linear regression model LV wall thickness (p<0.001, extent of LGE (p<0.001, presence of edema, defined as focal T2 bright signal (p<0.001, T2 dark signal (p<0.001 and age (p = 0.032 correlated inversely with relative resting MBF. The LV outflow gradient did not show any effect on resting perfusion (p = 0.901. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that LGE (p<0.001, edema (p = 0.026 and T2 dark signal (p = 0.019 were independent predictors of relative resting MBF. Segments with reduced resting perfusion demonstrated different LGE patterns compared to segments with elevated resting perfusion.In HCM resting MBF is significantly reduced depending on LV wall thickness, extent of LGE, focal T2 signal abnormalities and age. Furthermore, different patterns of perfusion in HCM patients have been defined, which may represent different stages of

  9. Mast cell stabilization decreases cardiomyocyte and LV function in dogs with isolated mitral regurgitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pat, Betty; Killingsworth, Cheryl; Chen, Yuanwen; Gladden, James D; Walcott, Greg; Powell, Pamela C; Denney, Thomas; Gupta, Himanshu; Desai, Ravi; Tillson, Michael; Dillon, A Ray; Dell'italia, Louis J

    2010-09-01

    Mast cells are increased in isolated mitral regurgitation (MR) in the dog and may mediate extracellular matrix loss and left ventricular (LV) dilatation. We tested the hypothesis that mast cell stabilization would attenuate LV remodeling and improve function in the MR dog. MR was induced in adult dogs randomized to no treatment (MR, n = 5) or to the mast cell stabilizer, ketotifen (MR + MCS, n = 4) for 4 months. LV hemodynamics were obtained at baseline and after 4 months of MR and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed at sacrifice. MRI-derived, serial, short-axis LV end-diastolic (ED) and end-systolic (ES) volumes, LVED volume/mass ratio, and LV 3-dimensional radius/wall thickness were increased in MR and MR + MCS dogs compared with normal dogs (n = 6) (P < .05). Interstitial collagen was decreased by 30% in both MR and MR + MCS versus normal dogs (P < .05). LV contractility by LV maximum time-varying elastance was significantly depressed in MR and MR + MCS dogs. Furthermore, cardiomyocyte fractional shortening was decreased in MR versus normal dogs and further depressed in MR + MCS dogs (P < .05). In vitro administration of ketotifen to normal cardiomyocytes also significantly decreased fractional shortening and calcium transients. Chronic mast cell stabilization did not attenuate eccentric LV remodeling or collagen loss in MR. However, MCS therapy had a detrimental effect on LV function because of a direct negative inotropic effect on cardiomyocyte function. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Impact of diabetes on treatment-induced changes in left ventricular structure and function in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy. The LIFE study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdts, E; Okin, P M; Omvik, P

    2009-01-01

    in diabetic and non-diabetic groups during treatment (33/18 vs. 28/16mmHg (ns)), diabetes was associated with higher prevalence of persistent LVH (47 vs. 39%, pdiabetes independently predicted less LV mass reduction and less improvement in stress-corrected LV midwall......BACKGROUND AND AIM: Diabetes is associated with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and impaired systolic function in hypertensive patients, but less is known about its impact on LVH regression and functional improvement during antihypertensive treatment. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed annual...... echocardiography in 730 non-diabetic and 93 diabetic patients (aged 55-80 years) with hypertension and electrocardiographic LVH during 4.8-year losartan- or atenolol-based treatment in the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension (LIFE) study. Baseline mean blood pressure (BP) and LV mass did...

  11. Impact of Distributed Generation Grid Code Requirements on Islanding Detection in LV Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Bignucolo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent growing diffusion of dispersed generation in low voltage (LV distribution networks is entailing new rules to make local generators participate in network stability. Consequently, national and international grid codes, which define the connection rules for stability and safety of electrical power systems, have been updated requiring distributed generators and electrical storage systems to supply stabilizing contributions. In this scenario, specific attention to the uncontrolled islanding issue has to be addressed since currently required anti-islanding protection systems, based on relays locally measuring voltage and frequency, could no longer be suitable. In this paper, the effects on the interface protection performance of different LV generators’ stabilizing functions are analysed. The study takes into account existing requirements, such as the generators’ active power regulation (according to the measured frequency and reactive power regulation (depending on the local measured voltage. In addition, the paper focuses on other stabilizing features under discussion, derived from the medium voltage (MV distribution network grid codes or proposed in the literature, such as fast voltage support (FVS and inertia emulation. Stabilizing functions have been reproduced in the DIgSILENT PowerFactory 2016 software environment, making use of its native programming language. Later, they are tested both alone and together, aiming to obtain a comprehensive analysis on their impact on the anti-islanding protection effectiveness. Through dynamic simulations in several network scenarios the paper demonstrates the detrimental impact that such stabilizing regulations may have on loss-of-main protection effectiveness, leading to an increased risk of unintentional islanding.

  12. Energy levels, lifetimes and radiative data of W LV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiao-bin; Sun, Rui; Koike, Fumihiro; Murakami, Izumi; Kato, Daiji; Sakaue, Hiroyuki A.; Nakamura, Nobuyuki; Dong, Chen-zhong

    2018-01-01

    Calculations of energy levels, radiative data and lifetimes are reported for tungsten Ca-like ion (W LV) by using multi-configuration Dirac-Fock (MCDF) method. The GRASP2K package is adopted to carry out a large-scale systematic computation with a restricted active space treatment; the Breit interaction and QED effects are included in subsequent relativistic configuration interaction calculations. The energies and lifetimes of the lowest 119 levels are listed; the main leading configuration of the levels is of the ground state configuration [Ne]3s23p63d2 and the first excited configuration [Ne]3s23p53d3. The wavelengths, radiative rates and oscillator strengths for relatively strong E1, E2, M1, and M2 transitions are listed. Comparisons with earlier experimental and theoretical values are made. The average relative deviations of energy levels from the NIST results and E1 transition wavelengths from the EBIT experimental results have turned to be only 0.20% and 0.13%, respectively. The other present results are in reasonable agreement with available data. These agreements confirm the reliability and accuracy of the current results. The present datasets may help us with the investigation of the electron-electron correlation effects in complex multi-electron highly charged heavy ions and of the diagnosis of tungsten impurity plasmas in fusion science.

  13. Assessment of the LV-S2 & LV-S3 Stack Sampling Probe Locations for Compliance with ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glissmeyer, John A.; Antonio, Ernest J.; Flaherty, Julia E.; Amidan, Brett G.

    2014-09-30

    This document reports on a series of tests conducted to assess the proposed air sampling locations for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Group 1-2A exhaust stacks with respect to the applicable criteria regarding the placement of an air sampling probe. The LV-C2, LV-S2, and LV-S3 exhaust stacks were tested together as a group (Test Group 1-2A). This report only covers the results of LV-S2 and LV-S3; LV-C2 will be reported on separately. Federal regulations1 require that a sampling probe be located in the exhaust stack according to the criteria established by the American National Standards Institute/Health Physics Society (ANSI/HPS) N13.1-1999, Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances from the Stack and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities. 2 These criteria address the capability of the sampling probe to extract a sample that represents the effluent stream.

  14. Pressure overload-induced mild cardiac hypertrophy reduces leftventricular transmural differences in mitochondrial respiratory chainactivity and increases oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel eKINDO

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Increased mechanical stress and contractility characterizes normal left ventricular subendocardium (Endo but whether Endo mitochondrial respiratory chain complex activities is reduced as compared to subepicardium (Epi and whether pressure overload-induced left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH might modulate transmural gradients through increased reactive oxygen species (ROS production is unknown. Methods: LVH was induced by 6 weeks abdominal aortic banding and cardiac structure and function were determined with echocardiography and catheterization in sham-operated and LVH rats (n=10 for each group. Mitochondrial respiration rates, coupling, content and ROS production were measured in LV Endo and Epi, using saponin-permeabilised fibres, Amplex Red fluorescence and citrate synthase activity.Results: In sham, a transmural respiratory gradient was observed with decreases in endo maximal oxidative capacity (-36.7%, P<0.01 and complex IV activity (-57.4%, P<0.05. Mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 production was similar in both LV layers.Aortic banding induced mild LVH (+31.7% LV mass, associated with normal LV fractional shortening and end diastolic pressure. LVH reduced maximal oxidative capacity (-23.6 and -33.3%, increased mitochondrial H2O2 production (+86.9 and +73.1%, free radical leak (+27.2% and +36.3% and citrate synthase activity (+27.2% and +36.3% in Endo and Epi, respectively.Transmural mitochondrial respiratory chain complex IV activity was reduced in LVH (-57.4 vs –12.2%; P=0.02. Conclusions: Endo mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes activities are reduced compared to LV Epi. Mild LVH impairs mitochondrial oxidative capacity, increases oxidative stress and reduces transmural complex IV activity. Further studies will be helpful to determine whether reduced LV transmural gradient in mitochondrial respiration might be a new marker of a transition from uncomplicated toward complicated LVH.

  15. Whole-exome sequencing and an iPSC-derived cardiomyocyte model provides a powerful platform for gene discovery in left ventricular hypertrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degui eZhi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Rationale: Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH is a heritable predictor of cardiovascular disease, particularly in blacks. Objective: Determine the feasibility of combining evidence from two distinct but complimentary experimental approaches to identify novel genetic predictors of increased LV mass . Methods: Whole exome sequencing (WES was conducted in 7 African American sibling trios ascertained on high average familial LV mass indexed to height (LVMHT. WES identified 31,426 missense or nonsense mutations (MS/NS which were examined for association with LVMHT using linear mixed models adjusted for age, sex, body weight, and family relationship. To functionally assess WES findings, human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CM were stimulated to induce hypertrophy; mRNA sequencing was used to determine expression differences associated with hypertrophy onset. Results: After correction for multiple testing, 295 MS/NS variants in 265 genes were associated with LVMHT. We identified 44 of 265 WES genes differentially expressed (P<0.05 in hypertrophied cells. To further prioritize these 44 candidates, 7 supportive statistical and annotation-based criteria were used to evaluate the relevance of these genes. Five genes, HLA-B, HTT, MTSS1, SLC5A12, THBS1, were each supported by 3 criteria. THBS1 encodes an adhesive glycoprotein that promotes matrix preservation in pressure-overload LVH and harbors conserved and predicted damaging variants. Conclusions: Combining evidence from cutting-edge genetic and cellular experiments can enable identification of novel LVH risk loci.

  16. Ischemic preconditioning effect of prodromal angina is attenuated in acute myocardial infarction patients with hypertensive left ventricular hypertrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Toshiharu; Kikuchi, Kenjiro; Hasebe, Naoyuki; Ishii, Yoshinao

    2011-01-01

    Several animal experiments on acute myocardial infarction (AMI) have shown that the cardioprotective effects of ischemic preconditioning are more significant in hypertensive subjects. However, because there are no clinical data on the impact of hypertension on ischemic preconditioning in patients with AMI, whether clinical ischemic preconditioning of prodromal angina was beneficial in AMI patients with hypertension was investigated in the present study. 125 patients with a first anterior AMI who had undergone successful reperfusion therapy were divided into 2 groups, with or without hypertension, and into 2 further subgroups based on the presence or absence of prodromal angina. Dual-isotope (thallium-201(TL)/Tc-99m pyrophosphate) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was performed within 1 week of reperfusion therapy. Left ventricular (LV) function and LV mass index (LVMI) were measured by left ventriculography and echocardiography, respectively. In patients without hypertension, prodromal angina resulted in significantly less myocardial damage on TL-SPECT, better LV ejection fraction and a greater myocardial blush grade compared to patients without prodromal angina. However, these cardioprotective effects of prodromal angina were significantly diminished in hypertensive patients. Importantly, the myocardial salvage effects of prodromal angina showed a significant negative correlation with LVMI, which was significantly greater in hypertensive patients. The cardioprotective effects of prodromal angina were attenuated in patients with hypertension. Hypertensive LV hypertrophy may crucially limit the effects of ischemic preconditioning in AMI. (author)

  17. Dyrk1A-ASF-CaMKIIδ Signaling Is Involved in Valsartan Inhibition of Cardiac Hypertrophy in Renovascular Hypertensive Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jian; Qin, Xiaotong; Zhu, Jianhua; Sheng, Hongzhuan

    2016-01-01

    It is known that the expression, activity and alternative splicing of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIδ (CaMKIIδ) are dysregulated in the cardiac remodeling process. Recently, we found a further signaling pathway, by which dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (Dyrk1A) regulates the alternative splicing of CaMKIIδ via the alternative splicing factor (ASF), i.e., Dyrk1A-ASF-CaMKIIδ. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether Dyrk1A-ASF-CaMKIIδ signaling was involved in valsartan inhibition of cardiac hypertrophy in renovascular hypertensive rats. Rats were subjected to two kidney-one clip (2K1C) surgery and then treated with valsartan (30 mg/kg/day) for 8 weeks. Hypertrophic parameter analysis was then performed. Western blot analysis was used to determine the protein expression of Dyrk1A and ASF and RT-PCR was used to analyze the alternative splicing of CaMKIIδ in the left ventricular (LV) sample. Valsartan attenuated cardiac hypertrophy in 2K1C rats but without impairment of cardiac systolic function. Increased protein expression of Dyrk1A and decreased protein expression of ASF were observed in the LV sample of 2K1C rats. Treatment of 2K1C rats with valsartan reversed the changes in Dyrk1A and ASF expression in the LV sample. Valsartan adjusted the 2K1C-induced imbalance in alternative splicing of CaMKIIδ by upregulating the mRNA expression of CaMKIIδC and downregulating the mRNA expression of CaMKIIδA and CaMKIIδB. Valsartan inhibition of cardiac hypertrophy in renovascular hypertensive rats was mediated, at least partly, by Dyrk1A-ASF-CaMKIIδ signaling. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Application of SPCALC for chemical and thermodynamic speciation of fluids -example for wells LV-4A, LV-11 and LV-13, Las Tres Virgenes geothermal field, BCS; Aplicacion del SPCALC en la especiacion quimica y termodinamica de fluidos: ejemplo del caso de los pozos LV-4A, LV-11 y LV-13, del campo geotermico de Las Tres Virgenes, BCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viggiano Guerra, J.C.; Sandoval Medina, F.; Flores Armenta, M.C. [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: fernando.sandoval@cfe.gob.mx, E-mail: magaly.flores@cfe.gob.mx; Perez, R.J. [Universidad de Calgary (Canada); Gonzalez Partida, E. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Centro de Geociencias, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-01-15

    SPCALC is an excellent software application providing chemical and multi-phase speciation for geothermal fluids. Recently it was acquired by the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) through a contract with the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) and the University of Calgary, Canada. Software methodology consists of calculating thermodynamic variables, such as activity (a) and fugacity (f) of chemical species, as well as the saturation indices (log Q/K) of mineral phases of the reservoir. In other words, it models the thermodynamic conditions of the reservoir (pH among other) and simulates the fluid-corrosion rate. This allows the software to foresee scaling and corrosion. In this paper, pervasive fluids in Cretaceous granitic rocks penetrated by wells LV-4A, LV-11 and LV-13 in Las Tres Virgenes geothermal field, BCS, are modeled, starting with chemical analyses. The more important ratios among activities [those which influence the fluid-rock interaction (i.e. {sup a}K{sup +}/{sup a}H{sup +}, {sup a}Ca{sup ++}/{sup a}H{sup +}, {sup a}Na{sup +}/{sup a}H{sup +}, {sup a}Mg{sup ++}/{sup a}H{sup +}) and whose results are the minerals visible under a microscope] are graphed in balance diagrams compatible with the pressure (P) and temperature (T) conditions in the reservoir. Epidote (zoisite) is the mineral found in congruent equilibrium with the system. The main mineral association at those conditions (200-250 degrees Celsius and {approx}18 bar), as observed in the well cuttings, is calcite+illite-quartz{+-}epidote, which is explained by the hydrolithic reactions that form replacement calcite in the presence of CO{sub 2}, thus restricting the formation of epidote and eventually eliminating it. The process enhances the CO{sub 2} molarity in the residual fluid, even up to {sup m}CO{sub 2} 1, which means the CO{sub 2} can be diluted back into fluid and intervene again in the process of calcite formation (2HCO{sub 3}{sup -} + Ca{sup ++} = calcite + H{sub 2}O

  19. Studies on the synthesis of isotopes of superheavy element Lv (Z = 116)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santhosh, K.P.; Safoora, V. [Kannur University, School of Pure and Applied Physics, Payyanur (India)

    2017-11-15

    The probable projectile-target combinations for the synthesis of superheavy nucleus {sup 296}Lv found in the cold valley of {sup 296}Lv have been identified by studying the interaction barrier of the colliding nuclei, probability of compound nucleus formation, P{sub CN}, and survival probability W{sub sur}. At energies near and above the Coulomb barrier, the capture, fusion and evaporation residue (ER) cross sections for the probable combinations for the hot and cold fusion reactions are systematically investigated. By considering intensities of the projectile beams, availabilities of the targets and half lives of the colliding nuclei, the combination {sup 48}Ca + {sup 248}Cm is found to be the most probable projectile-target pair for the synthesis of {sup 296}Lv. The calculated maximum value of 2n, 3n, 4n and 5n channel cross section for the reaction {sup 48}Ca + {sup 248}Cm are 0.599 pb, 5.957 pb, 4.805 pb, and 0.065 pb, respectively. Moreover, the production cross sections for the synthesis of isotopes {sup 291-295,298}Lv using {sup 48}Ca projectile on {sup 243-247,250}Cm targets are calculated. Among these reactions, the reactions {sup 48}Ca + {sup 247}Cm → {sup 295}Lv and {sup 48}Ca + {sup 250}Cm → {sup 298}Lv have maximum production cross section in 3n (10.697 pb) and 4n (12.006 pb) channel, respectively. Our studies on the SHE Lv using the combinations {sup 48}Ca + {sup 245}Cm → {sup 293}Lv and {sup 48}Ca + {sup 248}Cm → {sup 296}Lv are compared with available experimental data and with other theoretical studies. Our studies are in agreement with experimental data and we hope that these studies will be a guide for the future experiments to synthesize the isotopes of Lv. (orig.)

  20. Association of Post-Saline Load Plasma Aldosterone Levels With Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Primary Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catena, Cristiana; Verheyen, Nicolas D; Url-Michitsch, Marion; Kraigher-Krainer, Elisabeth; Colussi, GianLuca; Pilz, Stefan; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Pieske, Burkert; Sechi, Leonardo A

    2016-03-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity in hypertension. Current evidence suggests a contribution to LVH of plasma aldosterone levels that are inappropriately elevated for the salt status. The aim of this study was to investigate whether inappropriate modulation of aldosterone production by a saline load is associated with left ventricular (LV) mass in hypertensive patients. In 90 hypertensive patients free of clinically relevant cardiovascular complications in whom secondary forms of hypertension were ruled out, we performed a standard intravenous saline load (0.9% NaCl, 2 l in 4 hours) with measurement of plasma aldosterone and active renin at baseline and end of infusion. Bi-dimensional echocardiography was performed for the assessment of cardiac morphology and function. LVH was present in 19% of patients who had significantly worse renal function and higher body mass, blood pressure, and plasma aldosterone levels measured both at baseline and after the saline load than patients without LVH. LV mass was directly related to age, body mass, systolic blood pressure, duration of hypertension, baseline, and post-saline load plasma aldosterone levels and inversely to glomerular filtration. Multivariate regression analysis showed independent correlation of LV mass with body mass, systolic blood pressure, and plasma aldosterone levels measured after intravenous saline load, but not at baseline. In patients with hypertension, aldosterone levels measured after intravenous saline load are related to LV mass independent of age, body mass, and blood pressure, suggesting that limited ability of salt to modulate aldosterone production could contribute to LVH. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2015. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Left ventricular hypertrophy: The relationship between the electrocardiogram and cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacharova, Ljuba; Ugander, Martin

    2014-11-01

    Conventional assessment of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) using the electrocardiogram (ECG), for example, by the Sokolow-Lyon, Romhilt-Estes or Cornell criteria, have relied on assessing changes in the amplitude and/or duration of the QRS complex of the ECG to quantify LV mass. ECG measures of LV mass have typically been validated by imaging with echocardiography or cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR). However, LVH can be the result of diverse etiologies, and LVH is also characterized by pathological changes in myocardial tissue characteristics on the genetic, molecular, cellular, and tissue level beyond a pure increase in the number of otherwise normal cardiomyocytes. For example, slowed conduction velocity through the myocardium, which can be due to diffuse myocardial fibrosis, has been shown to be an important determinant of conventional ECG LVH criteria regardless of LV mass. Myocardial tissue characterization by CMR has emerged to not only quantify LV mass, but also detect and quantify the extent and severity of focal or diffuse myocardial fibrosis, edema, inflammation, myocarditis, fatty replacement, myocardial disarray, and myocardial deposition of amyloid proteins (amyloidosis), glycolipids (Fabry disease), or iron (siderosis). This can be undertaken using CMR techniques including late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), T1 mapping, T2 mapping, T2* mapping, extracellular volume fraction (ECV) mapping, fat/water-weighted imaging, and diffusion tensor CMR. This review presents an overview of current and emerging concepts regarding the diagnostic possibilities of both ECG and CMR for LVH in an attempt to narrow gaps in our knowledge regarding the ECG diagnosis of LVH. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Comparison of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy by Electrocardiography and Echocardiography in Children Using Analytics Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tague, Lauren; Wiggs, Justin; Li, Qianxi; McCarter, Robert; Sherwin, Elizabeth; Weinberg, Jacqueline; Sable, Craig

    2018-05-17

    Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is a common finding on pediatric electrocardiography (ECG) leading to many referrals for echocardiography (echo). This study utilizes a novel analytics tool that combines ECG and echo databases to evaluate ECG as a screening tool for LVH. SQL Server 2012 data warehouse incorporated ECG and echo databases for all patients from a single institution from 2006 to 2016. Customized queries identified patients 0-18 years old with LVH on ECG and an echo performed within 24 h. Using data visualization (Tableau) and analytic (Stata 14) software, ECG and echo findings were compared. Of 437,699 encounters, 4637 met inclusion criteria. ECG had high sensitivity (≥ 90%) but poor specificity (43%), and low positive predictive value (< 20%) for echo abnormalities. ECG performed only 11-22% better than chance (AROC = 0.50). 83% of subjects with LVH on ECG had normal left ventricle (LV) structure and size on echo. African-Americans with LVH were least likely to have an abnormal echo. There was a low correlation between V 6 R on ECG and echo-derived Z score of left ventricle diastolic diameter (r = 0.14) and LV mass index (r = 0.24). The data analytics client was able to mine a database of ECG and echo reports, comparing LVH by ECG and LV measurements and qualitative findings by echo, identifying an abnormal LV by echo in only 17% of cases with LVH on ECG. This novel tool is useful for rapid data mining for both clinical and research endeavors.

  3. Biodegradation of di-n-butyl phthalate by bacterial consortium LV-1 enriched from river sludge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangyang Wang

    Full Text Available A stable bacterial consortium (LV-1 capable of degrading di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP was enriched from river sludge. Community analysis revealed that the main families of LV-1 are Brucellaceae (62.78% and Sinobacteraceae (14.83%, and the main genera of LV-1 are Brucella spp. (62.78% and Sinobacter spp. (14.83%. The optimal pH and temperature for LV-1 to degrade DBP were pH 6.0 and 30°C, respectively. Inoculum size influenced the degradation ratio when the incubation time was < 24 h. The initial concentration of DBP also influenced the degradation rates of DBP by LV-1, and the degradation rates ranged from 69.0-775.0 mg/l/d in the first 24 h. Degradation of DBP was best fitted by first-order kinetics when the initial concentration was < 300 mg/l. In addition, Cd2+, Cr6+, and Zn2+ inhibited DBP degradation by LV-1 at all considered concentrations, but low concentrations of Pb2+, Cu2+, and Mn2+ enhanced DBP degradation. The main intermediates (mono-ethyl phthalate [MEP], mono-butyl phthalate [MBP], and phthalic acid [PA] were identified in the DBP degradation process, thus a new biochemical pathway of DBP degradation is proposed. Furthermore, LV-1 also degraded other phthalates with shorter ester chains (DMP, DEP, and PA.

  4. Removal of the liquid waste storage tank LV-2 in JRTF. Part 2. Removal works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanayama, Fumihiko; Hagiya, Kazuaki; Sunaoshi, Mizuho; Muraguchi, Yoshinori; Satomi, Shinichi; Nemoto, Kouichi; Terunuma, Akihiro; Shiraishi, Kunio; Ito, Shinichi

    2011-06-01

    Dismantling activities of components in JAERI's Reprocessing Test Facility (JRTF) started from 1996 as a part of decommissioning of this facility. Removing out of a large liquid waste storage tank LV-2 as a whole tank from the annex building B without cutting in pieces to confirm safety and efficiency of this method started from 2006. After preparatory works, ceiling of LV-2 room was opened, and LV-2 was transferred. Useful data such as manpower, radiation control and waste amount through these works were collected, and work efficiency was analyzed by using of these data. (author)

  5. La piattaforma POS/LV di Applanix nelle applicazioni di laser scanner cinematico

    OpenAIRE

    Domenico Santarsiero

    2008-01-01

    The Applanix POS/LV platform in cinematic laser scanner applicationsOn the 11th of march the GEOmedia editorial unit had the pleasure of hosting a technical meeting dedicated to the Applanix LANDMark new Position and Orientation System for Land Vehicles (POS/LV)field test. The meeting, which is part of an italian tour organized by Louis Nastro (Applanix Director of Land Products) and Terenzio Mariani (Sales manager for Italy), helped to test the functionalities of a complete POS/LV system equ...

  6. Impact Study of Electric Vehicle (EV) Integration on Low Voltage (LV) Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiuwei; Cha, Seung-Tae; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2012-01-01

    the single line diagram (SLD) of the LV grid. The demand profiles of end-users are determined by the end-user yearly consumption and avreaged demand profiles of different customer types in Denmark. Five charging scenarios have been tested using the developed LV grid. The first two charging scenarios are dumb....... The two charging power levels are 1 phase 16 A and 3 phase 16 A. The loading of the power components and voltage profile are analyzed to quantify the impact of the charging scenarios and charging power levels on LV grids....

  7. Estudio de las cualidades inmunoestimulantes de nuevas bacterias probióticas asociadas al cultivo de lv

    OpenAIRE

    Gullian, Mariel; Rodríguez, Jenny

    2002-01-01

    Estudio de las cualidades inmunoestimulantes de nuevas bacterias probióticas asociadas al cultivo de LV Estudio de las cualidades inmunoestimulantes de nuevas bacterias probióticas asociadas al cultivo de LV

  8. Egr-1 mediated cardiac miR-99 family expression diverges physiological hypertrophy from pathological hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Subbiah; Velmurugan, Ganesan; Rekha, Balakrishnan; Anusha, Sivakumar; Shanmugha Rajan, K; Shanmugarajan, Suresh; Ramprasath, Tharmarajan; Gopal, Pandi; Tomar, Dhanendra; Karthik, Karuppusamy V; Verma, Suresh Kumar; Garikipati, Venkata Naga Srikanth; Sudarsan, Rajan

    2018-04-01

    The physiological cardiac hypertrophy is an adaptive condition without myocyte cell death, while pathological hypertrophy is a maladaptive condition associated with myocyte cell death. This study explores the miRNome of α-2M-induced physiologically hypertrophied cardiomyocytes and the role of miRNA-99 family during cardiac hypertrophy. Physiological and pathological cardiac hypertrophy was induced in H9c2 cardiomyoblast cell lines using α-2M and isoproterenol respectively. Total RNA isolation and small RNA sequencing were executed for physiological hypertrophy model. The differentially expressed miRNAs and its target mRNAs were validated in animal models. Transcription factor binding sites were predicted in the promoter of specific miRNAs and validated by ChIP-PCR. Subsequently, the selected miRNA was functionally characterized by overexpression and silencing. The effects of silencing of upstream regulator and downstream target gene were studied. Analysis of small RNA reads revealed the differential expression of a large set of miRNAs during hypertrophy, of which miR-99 family was highly downregulated upon α-2M treatment. However, this miR-99 family expression was upregulated during pathological hypertrophy and confirmed in animal models. ChIP-PCR confirms the binding of Egr-1 transcription factor to the miR-99 promoter. Further, silencing of Egr-1 decreased the expression of miR-99. The overexpression or silencing of miR-99 diverges the physiological hypertrophy to pathological hypertrophy and vice versa by regulating Akt-1 pathway. Silencing of Akt-1 replicates the effect of overexpression of miR-99. The results proved Egr-1 mediated regulation of miR-99 family that plays a key role in determining the fate of cardiac hypertrophy by regulating Akt-1 signaling. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Apelin and APJ orchestrate complex tissue-specific control of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and contractility in the hypertrophy-heart failure transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Victoria Nicole; Liu, Jing; Shang, Ching; Woods, Christopher; Chang, Alex Chia Yu; Zhao, Mingming; Charo, David N; Grunwald, Zachary; Huang, Yong; Seo, Kinya; Tsao, Philip S; Bernstein, Daniel; Ruiz-Lozano, Pilar; Quertermous, Thomas; Ashley, Euan A

    2018-05-18

    The G protein coupled receptor APJ is a promising therapeutic target for heart failure. Constitutive deletion of APJ in the mouse is protective against the hypertrophy-heart failure transition via elimination of ligand-independent, β-arrestin dependent stretch transduction. However, the cellular origin of this stretch transduction and the details of its interaction with apelin signaling remain unknown. We generated mice with conditional elimination of APJ in the endothelium (APJ endo-/- ) and myocardium (APJ myo-/- ). No baseline difference was observed in LV function in APJ endo-/- , APJ myo-/- or controls (APJ endo+/+ , APJ myo+/+ ). After exposure to transaortic constriction (TAC), APJ endo-/- animals developed left ventricular failure while APJ myo-/- were protected. At the cellular level, carbon fiber stretch of freshly isolated single cardiomyocytes demonstrated decreased contractile response to stretch in APJ -/- cardiomyocytes compared to APJ +/+ cardiomyocytes. Calcium transient did not change with stretch in either APJ -/- or APJ +/+ cardiomyocytes. Application of apelin to APJ +/+ cardiomyocytes resulted in decreased calcium transient. Further, hearts of mice treated with apelin exhibited decreased phosphorylation at Troponin I (cTnI) N-terminal residues (Ser 22,23), consistent with increased calcium sensitivity. These data establish that APJ stretch transduction is mediated specifically by myocardial APJ, that APJ is necessary for stretch-induced increases in contractility, and that apelin opposes APJ's stretch-mediated hypertrophy signaling by lowering calcium transient while maintaining contractility through myofilament calcium sensitization. These findings underscore apelin's unique potential as a therapeutic agent that can simultaneously support cardiac function and protect against the hypertrophy-heart failure transition.

  10. LV function monitoring to discard functional abnormalities in athletes with altered ventricular re-polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flotats, A.; Camacho, V.; Mena, E.; Tembl, A.; Estorch, M.; Carrio, I.; Serra-Grima, R.; Borras, X.; Cinca, J.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Marked ventricular re-polarization abnormalities (MRA) in athletes may suggest the presence of associated heart disease. Assessment of LV function during exercise may contribute to rule out heart disease and help to decide continuation of physical training. The aim of the study was to assess whether athletes with MRA show a particular response of LV function to exhausting exercise. Material and Methods: Thirty-nine male athletes underwent monitoring of LV function with a miniaturised radionuclide detector (VEST, Capintec, Inc.) during bicycle exhausting exercise. There were 22 athletes with MRA in the ECG at rest (negative T waves equal or more than 2mm in up to 3 ECG leads) and 17 with normal ECG. All were symptom free. Age and physical fitness were comparable in both groups. Clinical examination, ECG, exercise test and echocardiography were performed in all athletes. Results: In all cases LV wall thickness was that expected for highly conditioned sportsmen. Both groups of athletes attained a similar energy expenditure. During exercise, athletes with MRA showed a tendency to normalise re-polarization. There were no differences in heart rate, LV end-systolic volume, LVEF, cardiac output , and peak ejection and filling rates at rest, 50%, 75%, 85% and 100% of peak HR, nor at 2, 5 and 10 min of recovery between both groups of athletes. At rest stroke volume was lower in athletes with MRA (60% vs. 64%, p=0.044). There were also no differences in LV end-diastolic volume (EDV), except at peak HR, when EDV increased in athletes with normal ECG while it decreased in athletes with MRA (p=0.047). Conclusions: The presence of marked ventricular re-polarization abnormalities in athletes does not substantially affect exercise performance nor LV function and should not preclude physical training. The VEST is a useful means to assess LV function during exhausting upright bicycle exercise

  11. [Coronary circulation in asymmetrical hypertrophy of the interventricular septum. On a new pathogenic hypothesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, G; Orea, A; Trevethan, S; Martínez Ríos, M A

    1984-01-01

    Thirty-four patients with left ventricular hypertrophy were studied. In all cases the following parameters were analyzed: 1) Echocardiography:left ventricular diastolic and systolic diameters, ejection fraction, thickness and movement of interventricular septum and posterior wall of the left ventricle (LV) 2) Electrocardiography: R wave voltaje in precordial leads V2, V3 and V5 and electrical axis in frontal plane 3) Catheterization: intracavitary pressures in LV and aortic pressures 4) Left ventriculography: areas of altered contractility 5) Coronariography: distribution pattern of coronary arteries and number of first order branches of circumflex (CA) and anterior descending coronary arteries (ADCA). The population was divided into 2 groups. Group A (GA) was made up of 22 patients with concentric hypertrophy (CH) of the LV (15 with systemic hypertensive heart disease, 6 with aortic valvular stenosis and 1 idiopathic). Echocardiographic findings included posterior wall thickness (PWT) or septal thickness of 1.1. cm or more and interventricular septum-posterior wall thickness ratio (S/PW) of less than 1.3. Group B (GB) included 12 patients with asymmetric septal hypertrophy (ASH), idiopathic in 5, systemic hypertensive heart disease in 4 and aortic valvular stenosis in 3. In these patients the S/PW thickness ratio was greater than 1.3 and the thickness of either wall greater than 1.1. cm. When the data of the two groups were compared there were significant differences in relation to the presence of septal hypertrophy. The R wave voltage in V2, interventricular thickness and S/PW were greater in GB. In addition, septal movement was less in GB than in Group A (0.47 +/- 0.26 cm vs. 0.74 +/- 0.37 cm; P less than 0.05). PWT was also less in Group B than in A (B: 1.01 +/- 0.1 cm, A: 1.2 +/- 0.2 cm; P less than 0.001). The CA in Group B divided into fewer than 4 first order branches to the upper two thirds of the posterior and lateral walls of the LV in 91.6%. This

  12. Postural control in women with breast hypertrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Ferreira Barbosa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The consequences of breast hypertrophy have been described based on the alteration of body mass distribution, leading to an impact on psychological and physical aspects. The principles of motor control suggest that breast hypertrophy can lead to sensorimotor alterations and the impairment of body balance due to postural misalignment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the postural control of women with breast hypertrophy under different sensory information conditions. METHOD: This cross-sectional study included 14 women with breast hypertrophy and 14 without breast hypertrophy, and the mean ages of the groups were 39 ±15 years and 39±16 years, respectively. A force platform was used to assess the sensory systems that contribute to postural control: somatosensory, visual and vestibular. Four postural conditions were sequentially tested: eyes open and fixed platform, eyes closed and fixed platform, eyes open and mobile platform, and eyes closed and mobile platform. The data were processed, and variables related to the center of pressure were analyzed for each condition. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the conditions between the groups for the area of center of pressure displacement and the velocity of center of pressure displacement in the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions. The alpha level error was set at 0.05. RESULTS: Women with breast hypertrophy presented an area that was significantly higher for three out of four conditions and a higher velocity of center of pressure displacement in the anterior-posterior direction under two conditions: eyes open and mobile platform and eyes closed and mobile platform. CONCLUSIONS: Women with breast hypertrophy have altered postural control, which was demonstrated by the higher area and velocity of center of pressure displacement.

  13. Quantitative Differentiation of LV Myocardium with and without Layer-Specific Fibrosis Using MRI in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy and Layer-Specific Strain TTE Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funabashi, Nobusada; Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Ozawa, Koya; Kamata, Tomoko; Uehara, Masae; Komuro, Issei; Kobayashi, Yoshio

    2018-05-30

    To achieve further risk stratification in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) patients, we localized and quantified layer-specific LVM fibrosis on MRI in HCM patients using regional layer-specific peak longitudinal strain (PLS) and peak circumferential strain (PCS) in LV myocardium (LVM) on speckle tracking transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). A total of 18 HCM patients (14 males; 58 ± 17 years) underwent 1.5T-MRI and TTE. PLS and PCS in each layer of the LVM (endocardium, epicardium, and whole-layer myocardium) were calculated for 17 AHA-defined lesions. MRI assessment showed that fibrosis was classified as endocardial, epicardial, or whole-layer (= either or both of these). Regional PLS was smaller in fibrotic endocardial lesions than in non-fibrotic endocardial lesions (P = 0.004). To detect LV endocardial lesions with fibrosis, ROC curves of regional PLS revealed an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.609 and a best cut-off point of 13.5%, with sensitivity of 65.3% and specificity of 54.3%. Regional PLS was also smaller in fibrotic epicardial lesions than in non-fibrotic epicardial lesions (P layer myocardium analysis, PLS was smaller in fibrotic lesions than in non-fibrotic lesions (P layer LV lesions with fibrosis, ROC curves of regional PLS revealed an AUC of 0.674 and a best cut-off point of 12.5%, with sensitivity of 79.0% and specificity of 50.7%. There were no significant differences in PCS of LV myocardium (endocardium, epicardium, and whole-layer) between fibrotic and non-fibrotic lesions. Quantitative regional PLS but not PCS in LV endocardium, epicardium, and whole-layer myocardium provides useful non-invasive information for layer-specific localization of fibrosis in HCM patients.

  14. Focalized contractile impairment at hypertrophied myocardium proven in consideration of wall stress in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Tadashi; Suzuki, Jun-ichi; Shimamoto, Ryoichi; Tsuji, Taeko; Ohmoto, Yuki; Toyo-oka, Teruhiko; Omata, Masao; Ohtomo, Kuni; Nagai, Ryozo

    2006-01-01

    In hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) a hyperkinetic state is sometimes observed in spite of impaired systolic function in the hypertrophied myocardium. The aim of the present study was to determine the mechanism of this paradox. Seventeen patients with HCM and 10 normal subjects underwent cine magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to measure percent systolic wall thickening and percent fractional shortening. The ratio of systolic radial wall stress of the LV at the hypertrophied myocardium over that at the nonhypertrophied myocardium was evaluated to describe the focal advantageous condition for wall thickening. The ratio was 0.66±0.36 at the start of contraction and 0.78±0.31 at early-systole, indicating consistently smaller radial wall stress at the hypertrophied myocardium. Although the condition for contraction was favorable (a ratio less than 1.00), percent systolic wall thickening at the hypertrophied myocardium (23.0±11.8%) was smaller than that at the nonhypertrophied myocardium (70.5±32.3%). Smaller end-diastolic dimension (HCM group; 45.2±4.2 mm, reference group; 48.9±4.1 mm, P=0.04) with a statistically identical value of systolic decrease in intraventricular dimension (HCM group; 19.7±3.9 mm, reference group; 18.9±3.2 mm, P=0.60) yielded high percent fractional shortening in patients with HCM (43.5±7.6%). Although contractile impairment was proven at the hypertrophied region with low radial wall stress in the HCM group, the smaller end-diastolic dimension in this group resulted in high percent fractional shortening. (author)

  15. Procollagen type III amino terminal peptide and myocardial fibrosis: A study in hypertensive patients with and without left ventricular hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos Moreira, Carlos; Serejo, Fátima; Alcântara, Paula; Ramalhinho, Vítor; Braz Nogueira, J

    2015-05-01

    An exaggerated accumulation of type I and type III fibrillar collagens occurs throughout the free wall and interventricular septum of patients with primary hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). In the present study the serum concentration of procollagen type III amino terminal peptide (PIIIP) was measured to determine the value of this peptide as a potential marker of ventricular fibrosis in hypertensive patients, particularly those with LVH. The study population consisted of patients with never-treated mild to moderate essential hypertension and 30 normotensive control subjects. Clinical, echocardiographic, electrocardiographic and biochemical parameters were assessed in all patients. Heart rate, body mass index and levels of blood pressure were increased in hypertensives, particularly those with LVH, compared to normotensive controls. Posterior wall thickness, left ventricular (LV) mass and LV mass index, and serum PIIIP concentration were also increased in hypertensives, with significant differences between the two hypertensive groups. The ratio between maximal early and late transmitral flow velocity measured during diastole was lower in hypertensives, particularly those with LVH, than in normotensive controls. The increase in PIIIP indicates that type III collagen synthesis increases in hypertensives, particularly those with LVH, implying that alterations in the heart in hypertension are the result not solely of hypertrophied LV muscle, but also of increased collagen deposition within the ventricular wall and around the coronary vessels. Thus, measurement of serum PIIIP could be a practical and useful tool in the non-invasive assessment of myocardial remodeling in hypertension. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  16. Reliability of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy by ECG Criteria in Children with Syncope: Do the Criteria Need to be Revised?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Maalika M; Ramesh Iyer, V; Nandi, Deipanjan; Vetter, Victoria L; Banerjee, Anirban

    2016-04-01

    In the outpatient setting, children who present with syncope routinely undergo electrocardiograms (ECG). Because of concerns for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, children with syncope meeting ECG criteria for left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) will frequently undergo an echocardiogram. Our objectives were to determine whether Davignon criteria for ECG waves overestimate LVH in children presenting with syncope, and to study the usefulness of echocardiography in these children. We hypothesize that the Davignon criteria presently used for interpretation of ECGs overestimate LVH, resulting in unnecessary echocardiography in this clinical setting. The clinical database of The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia was evaluated from 2002 to 2012 to identify children between 9 and 16 years of age, who presented with non-exercise-induced, isolated syncope. From this group of patients, only those with clear-cut evidence of LVH (by Davignon criteria), who also underwent an echocardiogram, were selected. A total of 136 children with syncope were identified as having LVH by Davignon ECG criteria. None of these patients manifested any evidence of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, with normal ventricular septum (average Z-score -0.68 ± 0.84), LV posterior wall (average Z-score -0.66 ± 1.18) and LV mass (average Z-score 0.52 ± 1.29). No significant correlation was found between summed RV6 plus SV1 and LV mass. Correlations between additional ECG parameters and measures of LVH by echocardiography were similarly poor. In children presenting with syncope and LVH by ECG, there was no evidence of true LVH by echocardiography. We propose that the Davignon ECG criteria for interpreting LVH in children overestimate the degree of hypertrophy in these children and the yield of echocardiography is extremely low.

  17. Crucial role of rho-kinase in pressure overload-induced right ventricular hypertrophy and dysfunction in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Shohei; Satoh, Kimio; Kikuchi, Nobuhiro; Miyata, Satoshi; Suzuki, Kota; Omura, Junichi; Shimizu, Toru; Kobayashi, Kenta; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Fukumoto, Yoshihiro; Sakata, Yasuhiko; Shimokawa, Hiroaki

    2014-06-01

    Right ventricular (RV) failure is the leading cause of death in various cardiopulmonary diseases, including pulmonary hypertension. It is generally considered that the RV is vulnerable to pressure overload as compared with the left ventricle (LV). However, as compared with LV failure, the molecular mechanisms of RV failure are poorly understood, and hence therapeutic targets of the disorder remain to be elucidated. Thus, we aimed to identify molecular therapeutic targets for RV failure in a mouse model of pressure overload. To induce pressure overload to respective ventricles, we performed pulmonary artery constriction or transverse aortic constriction in mice. We first performed microarray analysis and found that the molecules related to RhoA/Rho-kinase and integrin pathways were significantly upregulated in the RV with pulmonary artery constriction compared with the LV with transverse aortic constriction. Then, we examined the responses of both ventricles to chronic pressure overload in vivo. We demonstrated that compared with transverse aortic constriction, pulmonary artery constriction caused greater extents of mortality, Rho-kinase expression (especially ROCK2 isoform), and oxidative stress in pressure-overloaded RV, reflecting the weakness of the RV in response to pressure overload. Furthermore, mice with myocardial-specific overexpression of dominant-negative Rho-kinase showed resistance to pressure overload-induced hypertrophy and dysfunction associated with reduced oxidative stress. Finally, dominant-negative Rho-kinase mice showed a significantly improved long-term survival in both pulmonary artery constriction and transverse aortic constriction as compared with littermate controls. These results indicate that the Rho-kinase pathway plays a crucial role in RV hypertrophy and dysfunction, suggesting that the pathway is a novel therapeutic target of RV failure in humans. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Isolated unilateral temporalis muscle hypertrophy in a child: a case report with literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Ranasinghe, Jagath C.; Wickramasinghe, Chandani; Rodrigo, Ganganath

    2018-01-01

    Background Temporalis muscle hypertrophy is a rare entity of masticatory muscle hypertrophy. All types of masticatory muscle hypertrophies have been documented of which temporalis muscle hypertrophy is one. Temporalis muscle hypertrophy is most commonly bilateral and usually associated with other types of masticatory muscles hypertrophy such as masseter or pterygoid hypertrophy. However, isolated unilateral temporalis muscle hypertrophy is extremely rare and only 9 cases have been reported to...

  19. Inferring microbial interaction networks from metagenomic data using SgLV-EKF algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshawaqfeh, Mustafa; Serpedin, Erchin; Younes, Ahmad Bani

    2017-03-27

    Inferring the microbial interaction networks (MINs) and modeling their dynamics are critical in understanding the mechanisms of the bacterial ecosystem and designing antibiotic and/or probiotic therapies. Recently, several approaches were proposed to infer MINs using the generalized Lotka-Volterra (gLV) model. Main drawbacks of these models include the fact that these models only consider the measurement noise without taking into consideration the uncertainties in the underlying dynamics. Furthermore, inferring the MIN is characterized by the limited number of observations and nonlinearity in the regulatory mechanisms. Therefore, novel estimation techniques are needed to address these challenges. This work proposes SgLV-EKF: a stochastic gLV model that adopts the extended Kalman filter (EKF) algorithm to model the MIN dynamics. In particular, SgLV-EKF employs a stochastic modeling of the MIN by adding a noise term to the dynamical model to compensate for modeling uncertainties. This stochastic modeling is more realistic than the conventional gLV model which assumes that the MIN dynamics are perfectly governed by the gLV equations. After specifying the stochastic model structure, we propose the EKF to estimate the MIN. SgLV-EKF was compared with two similarity-based algorithms, one algorithm from the integral-based family and two regression-based algorithms, in terms of the achieved performance on two synthetic data-sets and two real data-sets. The first data-set models the randomness in measurement data, whereas, the second data-set incorporates uncertainties in the underlying dynamics. The real data-sets are provided by a recent study pertaining to an antibiotic-mediated Clostridium difficile infection. The experimental results demonstrate that SgLV-EKF outperforms the alternative methods in terms of robustness to measurement noise, modeling errors, and tracking the dynamics of the MIN. Performance analysis demonstrates that the proposed SgLV-EKF algorithm

  20. [A girl with congenital hemifacial hypertrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeke, S.M. van den; Wolvius, E.B.; Adrichem, L.N. van; Baat, C. de

    2006-01-01

    A girl with congenital hemifacial hypertrophy had been observed and treated by a multidisciplinary team for craniofacial disorders in an academic medical centre since birth. At the age of 8 she was treated on account of considerable facial asymmetry and multiple intraoral problems. The two-step

  1. Left ventricular hypertrophy : virtuous intentions, malign consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pokharel, S; Sharma, UC; Pinto, YM

    Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is currently the focus of intense cardiovascular research, with the resultant rapid evolution of novel concepts relating to its exceedingly complex pathophysiology. In addition to the alterations in signal transduction and disturbances in Ca2+ homeostasis, there

  2. Left ventricular hypertrophy: virtuous intentions, malign consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pokharel, Saraswati; Sharma, Umesh C.; Pinto, Yigal M.

    2003-01-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is currently the focus of intense cardiovascular research, with the resultant rapid evolution of novel concepts relating to its exceedingly complex pathophysiology. In addition to the alterations in signal transduction and disturbances in Ca(2+) homeostasis, there

  3. Efficient Control of Energy Storage for Increasing the PV Hosting Capacity of LV Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashemi Toghroljerdi, Seyedmostafa; Østergaard, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    grid is usually limited by overvoltage, and the efficient control of distributed electrical energy storage systems (EESSs) can considerably increase this capacity. In this paper, a new control approach based on the voltage sensitivity analysis is proposed to prevent overvoltage and increase the PV......Photovoltaic (PV) systems are among the renewable sources that electrical energy systems are adopting with increasing frequency. The majority of already-installed PV systems are decentralized units that are usually connected to lowvoltage (LV) distribution grids. The PV hosting capacity of an LV...... hosting capacity of LV grids by determining dynamic set points for EESS management. The method has the effectiveness of central control methods and can effectively decrease the energy storage required for overvoltage prevention, yet it eliminates the need for a broadband and fast communication. The net...

  4. EV Charging Facilities and Their Application in LV Feeders with Photovoltaics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marra, Francesco; Yang, Guangya; Træholt, Chresten

    2013-01-01

    Low-voltage (LV) grid feeders with high penetration of photovoltaics (PVs) are often affected by voltage magnitude problems. To solve such issues, previous research has shown that reactive power methods, active power curtailment and grid reinforcement can be used for voltage support, yet showing...... several limits. We introduce the use of electric vehicle (EV) public charging stations with energy storage system (ESS) as a solution for voltage regulation in LV feeders with PV. A novel method is proposed to determine the ESS charging load required for voltage regulation and compare the results...... for the different locations in the feeder. With time-series simulations, we quantify the energy size required for a station ESS. A Belgian LV residential grid, modeled using real PV generation and load profiles, is used as case study. The method and simulation results show the effectiveness of using public EV...

  5. La piattaforma POS/LV di Applanix nelle applicazioni di laser scanner cinematico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Santarsiero

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The Applanix POS/LV platform in cinematic laser scanner applicationsOn the 11th of march the GEOmedia editorial unit had the pleasure of hosting a technical meeting dedicated to the Applanix LANDMark new Position and Orientation System for Land Vehicles (POS/LVfield test. The meeting, which is part of an italian tour organized by Louis Nastro (Applanix Director of Land Products and Terenzio Mariani (Sales manager for Italy, helped to test the functionalities of a complete POS/LV system equipped with a laser and an imaging acquisition software installed on board of a SUV.

  6. Sparing of the dystrophin-deficient cranial sartorius muscle is associated with classical and novel hypertrophy pathways in GRMD dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Peter P; Hoffman, Eric P; Mittal, Priya; Brown, Kristy J; Schatzberg, Scott J; Ghimbovschi, Svetlana; Wang, Zuyi; Kornegay, Joe N

    2013-11-01

    Both Duchenne and golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) are caused by dystrophin deficiency. The Duchenne muscular dystrophy sartorius muscle and orthologous GRMD cranial sartorius (CS) are relatively spared/hypertrophied. We completed hierarchical clustering studies to define molecular mechanisms contributing to this differential involvement and their role in the GRMD phenotype. GRMD dogs with larger CS muscles had more severe deficits, suggesting that selective hypertrophy could be detrimental. Serial biopsies from the hypertrophied CS and other atrophied muscles were studied in a subset of these dogs. Myostatin showed an age-dependent decrease and an inverse correlation with the degree of GRMD CS hypertrophy. Regulators of myostatin at the protein (AKT1) and miRNA (miR-539 and miR-208b targeting myostatin mRNA) levels were altered in GRMD CS, consistent with down-regulation of myostatin signaling, CS hypertrophy, and functional rescue of this muscle. mRNA and proteomic profiling was used to identify additional candidate genes associated with CS hypertrophy. The top-ranked network included α-dystroglycan and like-acetylglucosaminyltransferase. Proteomics demonstrated increases in myotrophin and spectrin that could promote hypertrophy and cytoskeletal stability, respectively. Our results suggest that multiple pathways, including decreased myostatin and up-regulated miRNAs, α-dystroglycan/like-acetylglucosaminyltransferase, spectrin, and myotrophin, contribute to hypertrophy and functional sparing of the CS. These data also underscore the muscle-specific responses to dystrophin deficiency and the potential deleterious effects of differential muscle involvement. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Integration of SPICE with TEK LV500 ASIC Design Verification System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Srivastava

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work involves integration of the simulation stage of design of a VLSI circuit and its testing stage. The SPICE simulator, TEK LV500 ASIC Design Verification System, and TekWaves, a test program generator for LV500, were integrated. A software interface in ‘C’ language in UNIX ‘solaris 1.x’ environment has been developed between SPICE and the testing tools (TekWAVES and LV500. The function of the software interface developed is multifold. It takes input from either SPICE2G.6 or SPICE 3e.1. The output generated by the interface software can be given as an input to either TekWAVES or LV500. A graphical user interface has also been developed with OPENWlNDOWS using Xview tool kit on SUN workstation. As an example, a two phase clock generator circuit has been considered and usefulness of the software demonstrated. The interface software could be easily linked with VLSI design such as MAGIC layout editor.

  8. 77 FR 21620 - Notice of the Buy America Waiver Request for Vossloh 101-LV Concrete Ties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... the Buy America Waiver Request for Vossloh 101-LV Concrete Ties AGENCY: Federal Railroad... concrete ties, which contain certain components not manufactured in the United States. In furtherance of... concrete ties. FRA has received this request from the four States for the following projects: (a) The...

  9. Extinction in the Galaxy from surface brightnesses of ESO-LV galaxies : Testing "standard" extinction maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choloniewski, J.; Valentijn, E. A.

    A new method for the determination of the extinction in the Galaxy is proposed. The method uses surface brightnesses of external galaxies in the B and R-bands. The observational data have been taken from the ESO-LV galaxy catalog. As a first application of our model we derive the ratio of R-band to

  10. Current distribution in LV networks during 1-phase MV short-circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waes, van J.B.M.; Provoost, F.; Merwe, van der J.; Cobben, J.F.G.; Deursen, van A.P.J.; van Riet, M.J.M.; Laan, van der P.C.T.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the consequences of a fault in a medium voltage network on the grounding systems at the LV-side. To study the current distribution and to verify the models, we deliberately introduced one phase to ground faults in the 10 kV floating MV network. The selected site was the end of a

  11. La piattaforma POS/LV di Applanix nelle applicazioni di laser scanner cinematico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Santarsiero

    2008-03-01

    field test. The meeting, which is part of an italian tour organized by Louis Nastro (Applanix Director of Land Products and Terenzio Mariani (Sales manager for Italy, helped to test the functionalities of a complete POS/LV system equipped with a laser and an imaging acquisition software installed on board of a SUV.

  12. Distributed generation in the Dutch LV network - self-supporting residential area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mes, M.; Vanalme, G.M.A.; Myrzik, J.M.A.; Bongaerts, M.; Verbong, G.P.J.; Kling, W.L.

    2008-01-01

    A self-supporting residential area is seen as an alternative operational approach of power supply in low voltage (LV) networks. The intention of the new approach is to exploit the advantages of distributed generation (DG) and avoid the difficulties, that come with DG when implemented in the

  13. Agent-based unified approach for thermal and voltage constraint management in LV distribution network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haque, A.N.M.M.; Nguyen, H.P.; Vo, T.; Bliek, F.W.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid proliferation of the distributed energy resources (DERs) poses operational challenges for the low-voltage (LV) distribution networks in terms of thermal overloading of the network assets along with voltage limit violations at the connection points. A number of market-based and direct control

  14. Coordinated control to mitigate over voltage and under voltage in LV networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viyathukattuva Mohamed Ali, M.M.; Nguyen, H.P.; Cobben, J.F.G.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing penetration of distributed renewable energy resources (DRES) and smart loads into the LV network lead to new power quality challenges. Important power quality challenges are overvoltage and undervoltage. A number of solutions are already developed to mitigate these voltage variations. In

  15. Extracellular high-mobility group box 1 mediates pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Liu, Ming; Jiang, Hong; Yu, Ying; Yu, Peng; Tong, Rui; Wu, Jian; Zhang, Shuning; Yao, Kang; Zou, Yunzeng; Ge, Junbo

    2016-03-01

    Inflammation plays a key role in pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure, but the mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), which is increased in myocardium under pressure overload, may be involved in pressure overload-induced cardiac injury. The objectives of this study are to determine the role of HMGB1 in cardiac hypertrophy and cardiac dysfunction under pressure overload. Pressure overload was imposed on the heart of male wild-type mice by transverse aortic constriction (TAC), while recombinant HMGB1, HMGB1 box A (a competitive antagonist of HMGB1) or PBS was injected into the LV wall. Moreover, cardiac myocytes were cultured and given sustained mechanical stress. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed after the operation and sections for histological analyses were generated from paraffin-embedded hearts. Relevant proteins and genes were detected. Cardiac HMGB1 expression was increased after TAC, which was accompanied by its translocation from nucleus to both cytoplasm and intercellular space. Exogenous HMGB1 aggravated TAC-induced cardiac hypertrophy and cardiac dysfunction, as demonstrated by echocardiographic analyses, histological analyses and foetal cardiac genes detection. Nevertheless, the aforementioned pathological change induced by TAC could partially be reversed by HMGB1 inhibition. Consistent with the in vivo observations, mechanical stress evoked the release and synthesis of HMGB1 in cultured cardiac myocytes. This study indicates that the activated and up-regulated HMGB1 in myocardium, which might partially be derived from cardiac myocytes under pressure overload, may be of crucial importance in pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy and cardiac dysfunction. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  16. Additional electrodes on the Quartet™ LV lead provide more programmable pacing options than bipolar and tripolar equivalents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, David; Sperzel, Johannes; Thibault, Bernard; Rinaldi, Christopher A; Pappone, Carlo; Gutleben, Klaus-Jürgen; Leclercq, Christopher; Razavi, Hedi; Ryu, Kyungmoo; Mcspadden, Luke C; Fischer, Avi; Tomassoni, Gery

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate any benefits to the number of viable pacing vectors and maximal spatial coverage with quadripolar left ventricular (LV) leads when compared with tripolar and bipolar equivalents in patients receiving cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). A meta-analysis of five previously published clinical trials involving the Quartet™ LV lead (St Jude Medical, St Paul, MN, USA) was performed to evaluate the number of viable pacing vectors defined as capture thresholds ≤2.5 V and no phrenic nerve stimulation and maximal spatial coverage of viable vectors in CRT patients at pre-discharge (n = 370) and first follow-up (n = 355). Bipolar and tripolar lead configurations were modelled by systematic elimination of two and one electrode(s), respectively, from the Quartet lead. The Quartet lead with its four pacing electrodes exhibited the greatest number of pacing vectors per patient when compared with the best bipolar and the best tripolar modelled equivalents. Similarly, the Quartet lead provided the highest spatial coverage in terms of the distance between two furthest viable pacing cathodes when compared with the best bipolar and the best tripolar configurations (P tripolar configurations, elimination of the second proximal electrode (M3) resulted in the highest number of viable pacing options per patient. There were no significant differences observed between pre-discharge and first follow-up analyses. The Quartet lead with its four electrodes and the capability to pace from four anatomical locations provided the highest number of viable pacing vectors at pre-discharge and first follow-up visits, providing more flexibility in device programming and enabling continuation of CRT in more patients when compared with bipolar and tripolar equivalents. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Accessory papillary muscles and papillary muscle hypertrophy are associated with sudden cardiac arrest of unknown cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhm, Jae-Sun; Youn, Jong-Chan; Lee, Hye-Jeong; Park, Junbeom; Park, Jin-Kyu; Shim, Chi Young; Hong, Geu-Ru; Joung, Boyoung; Pak, Hui-Nam; Lee, Moon-Hyoung

    2015-10-15

    The present study was performed for elucidating the associations between the morphology of the papillary muscles (PMs) and sudden cardiac arrest (SCA). We retrospectively reviewed history, laboratory data, electrocardiography, echocardiography, coronary angiography, and cardiac CT/MRI for 190 patients with SCA. The prevalence of accessory PMs and PM hypertrophy in patients with SCA of unknown cause was compared with that in patients with SCA of known causes and 98 age- and sex-matched patients without SCA. An accessory PM was defined as a PM with origins separated from the anterolateral and posteromedial PMs, or a PM that branched into two or three bellies at the base of the anterolateral or posteromedial PM. PM hypertrophy was defined as at least one of the two PMs having a diameter of ≥1.1cm. In 49 patients (age 49.9±15.9years; 38 men) the cause of SCA was unknown, whereas 141 (age 54.2±16.6years; 121 men) had a known cause. The prevalence of accessory PMs was significantly higher in the unknown-cause group than in the known-cause group (24.5% and 7.8%, respectively; p=0.002) or the no-SCA group (7.1%, p=0.003). The same was true for PM hypertrophy (unknown-cause 12.2%, known-cause 2.1%, p=0.010; no SCA group 1.0%, p=0.006). By logistic regression, accessory PM and PM hypertrophy were independently associated with sudden cardiac arrest of unknown cause. An accessory PM and PM hypertrophy are associated with SCA of unknown cause. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Screening for Fabry Disease in Left Ventricular Hypertrophy: Documentation of a Novel Mutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Ana, E-mail: baptista-ana@hotmail.com; Magalhães, Pedro; Leão, Sílvia; Carvalho, Sofia; Mateus, Pedro; Moreira, Ilídio [Centro Hospitalar de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Unidade de Vila Real (Portugal)

    2015-08-15

    Fabry disease is a lysosomal storage disease caused by enzyme α-galactosidase A deficiency as a result of mutations in the GLA gene. Cardiac involvement is characterized by progressive left ventricular hypertrophy. To estimate the prevalence of Fabry disease in a population with left ventricular hypertrophy. The patients were assessed for the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy defined as a left ventricular mass index ≥ 96 g/m{sup 2} for women or ≥ 116 g/m{sup 2} for men. Severe aortic stenosis and arterial hypertension with mild left ventricular hypertrophy were exclusion criteria. All patients included were assessed for enzyme α-galactosidase A activity using dry spot testing. Genetic study was performed whenever the enzyme activity was decreased. A total of 47 patients with a mean left ventricular mass index of 141.1 g/m{sup 2} (± 28.5; 99.2 to 228.5 g/m{sup 2}] were included. Most of the patients were females (51.1%). Nine (19.1%) showed decreased α-galactosidase A activity, but only one positive genetic test − [GLA] c.785G>T; p.W262L (exon 5), a mutation not previously described in the literature. This clinical investigation was able to establish the association between the mutation and the clinical presentation. In a population of patients with left ventricular hypertrophy, we documented a Fabry disease prevalence of 2.1%. This novel case was defined in the sequence of a mutation of unknown meaning in the GLA gene with further pathogenicity study. Thus, this study permitted the definition of a novel causal mutation for Fabry disease - [GLA] c.785G>T; p.W262L (exon 5)

  19. Screening for Fabry Disease in Left Ventricular Hypertrophy: Documentation of a Novel Mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baptista, Ana; Magalhães, Pedro; Leão, Sílvia; Carvalho, Sofia; Mateus, Pedro; Moreira, Ilídio

    2015-01-01

    Fabry disease is a lysosomal storage disease caused by enzyme α-galactosidase A deficiency as a result of mutations in the GLA gene. Cardiac involvement is characterized by progressive left ventricular hypertrophy. To estimate the prevalence of Fabry disease in a population with left ventricular hypertrophy. The patients were assessed for the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy defined as a left ventricular mass index ≥ 96 g/m 2 for women or ≥ 116 g/m 2 for men. Severe aortic stenosis and arterial hypertension with mild left ventricular hypertrophy were exclusion criteria. All patients included were assessed for enzyme α-galactosidase A activity using dry spot testing. Genetic study was performed whenever the enzyme activity was decreased. A total of 47 patients with a mean left ventricular mass index of 141.1 g/m 2 (± 28.5; 99.2 to 228.5 g/m 2 ] were included. Most of the patients were females (51.1%). Nine (19.1%) showed decreased α-galactosidase A activity, but only one positive genetic test − [GLA] c.785G>T; p.W262L (exon 5), a mutation not previously described in the literature. This clinical investigation was able to establish the association between the mutation and the clinical presentation. In a population of patients with left ventricular hypertrophy, we documented a Fabry disease prevalence of 2.1%. This novel case was defined in the sequence of a mutation of unknown meaning in the GLA gene with further pathogenicity study. Thus, this study permitted the definition of a novel causal mutation for Fabry disease - [GLA] c.785G>T; p.W262L (exon 5)

  20. Screening for Fabry Disease in Left Ventricular Hypertrophy: Documentation of a Novel Mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Baptista

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Fabry disease is a lysosomal storage disease caused by enzyme α-galactosidase A deficiency as a result of mutations in the GLA gene. Cardiac involvement is characterized by progressive left ventricular hypertrophy. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of Fabry disease in a population with left ventricular hypertrophy. Methods: The patients were assessed for the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy defined as a left ventricular mass index ≥ 96 g/m2 for women or ≥ 116 g/m2 for men. Severe aortic stenosis and arterial hypertension with mild left ventricular hypertrophy were exclusion criteria. All patients included were assessed for enzyme α-galactosidase A activity using dry spot testing. Genetic study was performed whenever the enzyme activity was decreased. Results: A total of 47 patients with a mean left ventricular mass index of 141.1 g/m2 (± 28.5; 99.2 to 228.5 g/m2] were included. Most of the patients were females (51.1%. Nine (19.1% showed decreased α-galactosidase A activity, but only one positive genetic test − [GLA] c.785G>T; p.W262L (exon 5, a mutation not previously described in the literature. This clinical investigation was able to establish the association between the mutation and the clinical presentation. Conclusion: In a population of patients with left ventricular hypertrophy, we documented a Fabry disease prevalence of 2.1%. This novel case was defined in the sequence of a mutation of unknown meaning in the GLA gene with further pathogenicity study. Thus, this study permitted the definition of a novel causal mutation for Fabry disease - [GLA] c.785G>T; p.W262L (exon 5.

  1. Breast Hypertrophy, Reduction Mammaplasty, and Body Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Cristiane Costa; Veiga, Daniela Francescato; Garcia, Edgard da Silva; Cabral, Isaías Vieira; de Carvalho, Monique Maçais; de Brito, Maria José Azevedo; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2018-02-07

    Body image dissatisfaction is one of the major factors that motivate patients to undergo plastic surgery. However, few studies have associated body satisfaction with reduction mammaplasty. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of breast hypertrophy and reduction mammaplasty on body image. Breast hypertrophy patients, with reduction mammaplasty already scheduled between June 2013 and December 2015 (mammaplasty group, MG), were prospectively evaluated through the body dysmorphic disorder examination (BDDE), body investment scale (BIS), and breast evaluation questionnaire (BEQ55) tools. Women with normal-sized breasts were also evaluated as study controls (normal-sized breast group, NSBG). All the participants were interviewed at the initial assessment and after six months. Data were analyzed before and after six months. Each group consisted of 103 women. The MG group had a significant improvement in BDDE, BIS, and BEQ55 scores six months postoperatively (P ≤ 0.001 for the three instruments), whereas the NSBG group showed no alteration in results over time (P = 0.876; P = 0.442; and P = 0.184, respectively). In the intergroup comparison it was observed that the MG group began to invest more in the body, similarly to the NSBG group, and surpassed the level of satisfaction and body image that the women of the NSBG group had after the surgery. Reduction mammaplasty promoted improvement in body image of women with breast hypertrophy. © 2018 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com

  2. Define Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Madsen, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    "Project" is a key concept in IS management. The word is frequently used in textbooks and standards. Yet we seldom find a precise definition of the concept. This paper discusses how to define the concept of a project. The proposed definition covers both heavily formalized projects and informally...... organized, agile projects. Based on the proposed definition popular existing definitions are discussed....

  3. "Dermatitis" defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Suzanne M; Nedorost, Susan T

    2010-01-01

    The term "dermatitis" can be defined narrowly or broadly, clinically or histologically. A common and costly condition, dermatitis is underresourced compared to other chronic skin conditions. The lack of a collectively understood definition of dermatitis and its subcategories could be the primary barrier. To investigate how dermatologists define the term "dermatitis" and determine if a consensus on the definition of this term and other related terms exists. A seven-question survey of dermatologists nationwide was conducted. Of respondents (n  =  122), half consider dermatitis to be any inflammation of the skin. Nearly half (47.5%) use the term interchangeably with "eczema." Virtually all (> 96%) endorse the subcategory "atopic" under the terms "dermatitis" and "eczema," but the subcategories "contact," "drug hypersensitivity," and "occupational" are more highly endorsed under the term "dermatitis" than under the term "eczema." Over half (55.7%) personally consider "dermatitis" to have a broad meaning, and even more (62.3%) believe that dermatologists as a whole define the term broadly. There is a lack of consensus among experts in defining dermatitis, eczema, and their related subcategories.

  4. Gender and post-ischemic recovery of hypertrophied rat hearts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Kirill M

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gender influences the cardiac response to prolonged increases in workload, with differences at structural, functional, and molecular levels. However, it is unknown if post-ischemic function or metabolism of female hypertrophied hearts differ from male hypertrophied hearts. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that gender influences post-ischemic function of pressure-overload hypertrophied hearts and determined if the effect of gender on post-ischemic outcome could be explained by differences in metabolism, especially the catabolic fate of glucose. Methods Function and metabolism of isolated working hearts from sham-operated and aortic-constricted male and female Sprague-Dawley rats before and after 20 min of no-flow ischemia (N = 17 to 27 per group were compared. Parallel series of hearts were perfused with Krebs-Henseleit solution containing 5.5 mM [5-3H/U-14C]-glucose, 1.2 mM [1-14C]-palmitate, 0.5 mM [U-14C]-lactate, and 100 mU/L insulin to measure glycolysis and glucose oxidation in one series and oxidation of palmitate and lactate in the second. Statistical analysis was performed using two-way analysis of variance. The sequential rejective Bonferroni procedure was used to correct for multiple comparisons and tests. Results Female gender negatively influenced post-ischemic function of non-hypertrophied hearts, but did not significantly influence function of hypertrophied hearts after ischemia such that mass-corrected hypertrophied heart function did not differ between genders. Before ischemia, glycolysis was accelerated in hypertrophied hearts, but to a greater extent in males, and did not differ between male and female non-hypertrophied hearts. Glycolysis fell in all groups after ischemia, except in non-hypertrophied female hearts, with the reduction in glycolysis after ischemia being greatest in males. Post-ischemic glycolytic rates were, therefore, similarly accelerated in hypertrophied male and female hearts and higher in

  5. Resistance to RadLV-induced leukemia: non-participation of splenic natural killer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St-Pierre, Y.; Hugo, P.; Lemieux, S.; Lussier, G.; Potworowski, E.F.

    1988-01-01

    The phenotypic expression of genetically determined resistance to radiation leukemia virus (RadLV)-induced leukemia in mice has been shown to reside in the bone marrow. Because the bone marrow contains precursors of natural killer (NK) cells, known to play a role in retrovirally induced infections, and because these cells have been suggested as participating in resistance to radiation-induced leukemia, it was pertinent to establish whether their levels differed in strains of mice susceptible and resistant to leukemia. We therefore tested splenic NK cell levels in C57BL/Ka (susceptible) and B10.A(5R) (resistant) mice before viral inoculation, immediately after viral inoculation, and throughout the preleukemic period and showed that they were not different. This indicates that splenic NK cell levels have no bearing on the resistance to RadLV-induced leukemia and that other immune or non-immune mechanisms must be sought

  6. Seismic monitoring during acid stimulation of wells LV-4 and LV-13 at the Las Tres Virgenes geothermal field, BCS, Mexico; Monitoreo sismico durante la estimulacion acida de los pozos LV-4 y LV-13 del campo geotermico de Las Tres Virgenes, BCS, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venegas Salgado, Saul; Arredondo Fragoso, Jesus; Ramirez Silva, German; Flores Armenta, Magaly; Ramirez Montes, Miguel [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: magaly.flores@cfe.gob.mx

    2006-07-15

    From September through December 2004 a seismic monitoring in the Las Tres Virgenes, BCS, geothermal field was carried out simultaneously with the acid stimulation of wells LV-4 and LV-13. The seismic network had four digital seismographs and recorded 174 local seismic events, 131 regional ones and many more volcanic signals at seismic station TV20 during the acid stimulation. Additionally, 37 seismic events were located, 22 of them inside the most important geothermal zone at depths between 0.4 and 4 km with typically low magnitudes (0.7 to 2.2 Md). Two relevant zones were determined: Zone A related to the El Volcan fault system and Zone B related to injection well LV-8. In Zone A the well-induction stage and the operation start of the wells LV-4 and LV-13 after acidification on October 30 and November 17, 2004, increased seismic activity to a maximum of 12 daily events in early December. When the two wells in Zone B were cooled before the acidification, the seismic events recorded there increased to a maximum of 6 daily events on October 2, and then decreased. Also in Zone B the seismic activity increased after well-induction and the start of well production once they were acidified, recording up to 11 daily events in late November. According to the seismic distribution, we may conclude that the most active fault systems are El Volcan and El Viejo. New proposals for well locations in the field are supported by these results. [Spanish] De septiembre a diciembre de 2004 se realizo un estudio de monitoreo sismico en el campo geotermico de Las Tres Virgenes, BCS, simultaneamente con las estimulaciones acidas de los pozos LV-4 y LV-13. Se utilizo una red sismica conformada por cuatro sismografos digitales, logrando registrar en la estacion sismica TV20 un total de 174 sismos locales, 131 sismos regionales y muchas mas senales de tipo volcanico, durante el periodo del monitoreo de la estimulacion acida. Ademas, se localizaron un total de 37 sismos, de los cuales 22 se

  7. Study on the overcurrent character analysis and its protective system of underground LV distribution networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, J.; Shi, Z.; Yang, Y.; Shi, W.; Wei, H.; Zhai, S.; Xie, H. [Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan (China)

    2001-02-01

    The overcurrent fault characteristics in underground LV cable distribution networks is analysed and the fundamental principle of overcurrent protective system is described in this paper. The emphasis is paid to the determination of the characteristic curves of phase-sensitive symmetrical short-circuit protection, the design of negative-sequence current filter and the definition of the mathematical model of overload. Besides, the hardware block diagram and the software flowchart of the protective system, which is controlled by a single chip microcomputer, is also introduced in the paper. The protective system was tested before being applied to the underground LV distribution networks. The results obtained are in conformity with the design specification. It has been verified that the protective distance is extended and the protective sensitivity is improved with the protective system. The field experience has shown that the protective system is stable and reliable, and will be of great application value in the mining industry. 7 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Drift of IBL LV current and its consequence in IBL distortion

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The low voltage (LV) current of the IBL modules had been stable since the beginning of the Run2 until the middle of September 2015, but it has been unstable since then (Figure 1). A clear relation is observed between the current rise-up and the total radiation doze (TID) increase, which is considered to be the TID effect reported in . A shutdown of more than 29 hour on October 6 recovered the current largely (Figure 2). With the change of the LV current, the temperature of IBL modules also changes (Figure 3). The change of the thermo-mechanical condition of the IBL resulted in the change of the IBL distortion magnitude, and a clear relation between the module temperature and the distortion magnitude is observed (Figure 4). Through the duration presented in this series of plots, the cooling set temperature of the IBL was kept at -10℃.

  9. Development of conductor feedthrough module of LV electrical penetration assembly for research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Zhiyuan; Wang Guangjin; Zhou Bin

    2007-01-01

    A LV electrical penetration assembly with perfusion sealing conductor feedthrough module was developed, which can be used for the connection of internal and external cables through the wall of the research reactor workshop. The LV electrical penetration assembly was combined with several independent modules. The maintenance and replacement of the assembly can be easily done in service. The sealing of conductor feedthrough module was achieved with the perfusion of self-extinguishing epoxy. The leakage between the conductor feedthrough module and the end plate module was blocked with rubber rings. The result of the leakage test and the electrical performance test for the samples of conductor feedthrough module satisfied the requirement of research reactor. The structure of the new electrical penetration assembly is simple and compact. It can be manufactured with mature technology and cost low price. The performance of the assembly is steady. It can be used widely in research reactors. (authors)

  10. Analysis of critical operating conditions for LV distribution networks with microgrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehir, M. A.; Batman, A.; Sonmez, M. A.; Font, A.; Tsiamitros, D.; Stimoniaris, D.; Kollatou, T.; Bagriyanik, M.; Ozdemir, A.; Dialynas, E.

    2016-11-01

    Increase in the penetration of Distributed Generation (DG) in distribution networks, raises the risk of voltage limit violations while contributing to line losses. Especially in low voltage (LV) distribution networks (secondary distribution networks), impacts of active power flows on the bus voltages and on the network losses are more dominant. As network operators must meet regulatory limitations, they have to take into account the most critical operating conditions in their systems. In this study, it is aimed to present the impact of the worst operation cases of LV distribution networks comprising microgrids. Simulation studies are performed on a field data-based virtual test-bed. The simulations are repeated for several cases consisting different microgrid points of connection with different network loading and microgrid supply/demand conditions.

  11. Lv Peng and his Chinese Art History in Operation, since 1986’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Gong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Lv Peng is one of the most influential contemporary Chinese art historians, who began publishing his work in 1986 and introduced various innovative approaches and methods to the field. Even though his work gained momentum in the field, his totalising and continually-revised publication scheme have come under incessant criticism from friends and rivals alike. This article is an attempt at surveying Lv Peng’s oeuvre, while testifying to the value of his art history writings by making his various approaches more legible and systematic. His most popular publications as well as a few projects that are still in progress will be analysed for a more comprehensive understanding of his operational art history.

  12. Voltage unbalance mitigation in LV networks using three-phase PV systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia Bajo, Cristina; Hashemi Toghroljerdi, Seyedmostafa; Bækhøj Kjær, Søren

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a new method is proposed to mitigate voltage unbalance caused by single-phase solar inverters in low voltage (LV) networks. The method is based on uneven reactive power absorption and injection by three-phase solar inverters. Independent control of each phase is performed to achieve...... this uneven injection. The average values of phase voltages at the connection points of the photovoltaic (PV) inverters are used as the references for the balancing algorithm. Voltage unbalance mitigation is achieved by use of this method in different scenarios with variable three-phase and single......-phase inverters penetration in a realistic LV grid. In addition, the overvoltage is reduced by using this method....

  13. ECONOMIC BENEFITS OF LEFT VENTRICULAR HYPERTROPHY REGRESSION IN PATIENTS WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Tarlovskaya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate by modelling the economic benefits of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH regression in patients with arterial hypertension (HT due to therapy with fixed combination of valsartan/amlodipine.  Material and methods. 20 patients (15 females and 5 males, aged 18 to 70 years with essential HT accompanied by metabolic syndrome with a history of previous ineffective antihypertensive therapy were included into the study. All patients were treated with fixed combination of amlodipine/valsartan in doses of 5/160 and 10/160 mg depending on blood pressure (BP level. Treatment duration was 24 weeks. Changes in BP level, LVH regression were assessed. Economic evaluation was performed on the basis of modelling with the specialized software Decision Tree 4.xla. Results. Effect of fixed amlodipine/valsartan combination therapy on LVH was used to estimate treatment effectiveness and to build the model. Patients were distributed according to left ventricular (LV mass (at baseline and after 24 weeks of therapy. Significant decrease in LV mass from 205.8±50.4 to 181.9±45.1 g (p<0.05 was revealed. The model took into account economic and frequency factors for 10 year prognosis: this therapy prevents 36 deaths, 6 strokes, 24 myocardial infarction per 1000 patients. Absence of need in treatment of these prevented events can save 2 516 772.42 RUR for every 1 000 patients. It would reduce the total costs per patient during 10 years. Conclusion. Treatment with amlodipine/valsartan single pill combination has not only clinical advantages, but also pharmacoeconomic benefits. This combination reduces risk of acute myocardial infarction and death more effectively. Treatment with fixed valsartan/amlodipine combination saves maximum years of life with less cost during 10 years. Despite of higher pharmacotherapy costs, fixed valsartan/amlodipine combination reduces total costs due to prevention of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events.

  14. Defining chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Brian R; Ott, Edward

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we propose, discuss, and illustrate a computationally feasible definition of chaos which can be applied very generally to situations that are commonly encountered, including attractors, repellers, and non-periodically forced systems. This definition is based on an entropy-like quantity, which we call "expansion entropy," and we define chaos as occurring when this quantity is positive. We relate and compare expansion entropy to the well-known concept of topological entropy to which it is equivalent under appropriate conditions. We also present example illustrations, discuss computational implementations, and point out issues arising from attempts at giving definitions of chaos that are not entropy-based.

  15. Quantifying grain shape with MorpheoLV: A case study using Holocene glacial marine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Isabelle; Staszyc, Alicia B.; Wellner, Julia S.; Alejandro, Vanessa

    2017-06-01

    As demonstrated in earlier works, quantitative grain shape analysis has revealed to be a strong proxy for determining sediment transport history and depositional environments. MorpheoLV, devoted to the calculation of roughness coefficients from pictures of unique clastic sediment grains using Fourier analysis, drives computations for a collection of samples of grain images. This process may be applied to sedimentary deposits assuming core/interval/image archives for the storage of samples collected along depth. This study uses a 25.8 m jumbo piston core, NBP1203 JPC36, taken from a 100 m thick sedimentary drift deposit from Perseverance Drift on the northern Antarctic Peninsula continental shelf. Changes in ocean and ice conditions throughout the Holocene recorded in this sedimentary archive can be assessed by studying grain shape, grain texture, and other proxies. Ninety six intervals were sampled and a total of 2319 individual particle images were used. Microtextures of individual grains observed by SEM show a very high abundance of authigenically precipitated silica that obscures the original grain shape. Grain roughness, computed along depth with MorpheoLV, only shows small variation confirming the qualitative observation deduced from the SEM. Despite this, trends can be seen confirming the reliability of MorpheoLV as a tool for quantitative grain shape analysis.

  16. Quantifying grain shape with MorpheoLV: A case study using Holocene glacial marine sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charpentier Isabelle

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As demonstrated in earlier works, quantitative grain shape analysis has revealed to be a strong proxy for determining sediment transport history and depositional environments. MorpheoLV, devoted to the calculation of roughness coefficients from pictures of unique clastic sediment grains using Fourier analysis, drives computations for a collection of samples of grain images. This process may be applied to sedimentary deposits assuming core/interval/image archives for the storage of samples collected along depth. This study uses a 25.8 m jumbo piston core, NBP1203 JPC36, taken from a ~100 m thick sedimentary drift deposit from Perseverance Drift on the northern Antarctic Peninsula continental shelf. Changes in ocean and ice conditions throughout the Holocene recorded in this sedimentary archive can be assessed by studying grain shape, grain texture, and other proxies. Ninety six intervals were sampled and a total of 2319 individual particle images were used. Microtextures of individual grains observed by SEM show a very high abundance of authigenically precipitated silica that obscures the original grain shape. Grain roughness, computed along depth with MorpheoLV, only shows small variation confirming the qualitative observation deduced from the SEM. Despite this, trends can be seen confirming the reliability of MorpheoLV as a tool for quantitative grain shape analysis.

  17. Defining Cyberbullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englander, Elizabeth; Donnerstein, Edward; Kowalski, Robin; Lin, Carolyn A; Parti, Katalin

    2017-11-01

    Is cyberbullying essentially the same as bullying, or is it a qualitatively different activity? The lack of a consensual, nuanced definition has limited the field's ability to examine these issues. Evidence suggests that being a perpetrator of one is related to being a perpetrator of the other; furthermore, strong relationships can also be noted between being a victim of either type of attack. It also seems that both types of social cruelty have a psychological impact, although the effects of being cyberbullied may be worse than those of being bullied in a traditional sense (evidence here is by no means definitive). A complicating factor is that the 3 characteristics that define bullying (intent, repetition, and power imbalance) do not always translate well into digital behaviors. Qualities specific to digital environments often render cyberbullying and bullying different in circumstances, motivations, and outcomes. To make significant progress in addressing cyberbullying, certain key research questions need to be addressed. These are as follows: How can we define, distinguish between, and understand the nature of cyberbullying and other forms of digital conflict and cruelty, including online harassment and sexual harassment? Once we have a functional taxonomy of the different types of digital cruelty, what are the short- and long-term effects of exposure to or participation in these social behaviors? What are the idiosyncratic characteristics of digital communication that users can be taught? Finally, how can we apply this information to develop and evaluate effective prevention programs? Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  18. A novel hydrodynamic approach of drag-reducing polymers to improve left ventricular hypertrophy and aortic remodeling in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang X

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Xinlu Zhang,1,* Xu Wang,2,* Feng Hu,1 Boda Zhou,3 Hai-Bin Chen,1 Daogang Zha,1 Yili Liu,1 Yansong Guo,4 Lemin Zheng,2 Jiancheng Xiu1 1Department of Cardiology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 2The Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences and Institute of Systems Biomedicine, School of Basic Medical Sciences, and Key Laboratory of Molecular Cardiovascular Sciences of Ministry of Education, Peking University Health Science Center, 3Department of Cardiology, Key Laboratory of Molecular Cardiovascular Sciences of Ministry of Education, and Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Molecular Biology and Regulatory Peptides of Ministry of Health, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, 4Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Fujian Provincial Hospital, Fuzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Drag-reducing polymers (DRPs, when added in minute concentrations, have been shown to decrease peripheral vascular resistance. In this study, the effect of DRPs on the hypertension-induced left ventricular hypertrophy and aortic remodeling was evaluated in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR. Male SHR and age-matched Wistar rats were divided into four groups and received intravenous injection of normal saline (NS or DRPs. Body weight (BW, heart rate (HR and systolic blood pressure (SBP were measured. Echocardiography was used to evaluate the changes in left ventricle (LV function and global wall motion. The LV and aorta were stained by hematoxylin and eosin. Cell size of cardiomyocytes and aortic medial thickness were evaluated for each section. The expression of endothelin-1 (ET-1 of LV and aorta was examined by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. There was no significant difference in the increase of SBP among SHR + NS, SHR + 10DRP and SHR + 20DRP groups. SHR + NS group had markedly smaller left ventricular end

  19. Trpm4 gene invalidation leads to cardiac hypertrophy and electrophysiological alterations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Demion

    Full Text Available RATIONALE: TRPM4 is a non-selective Ca2+-activated cation channel expressed in the heart, particularly in the atria or conduction tissue. Mutations in the Trpm4 gene were recently associated with several human conduction disorders such as Brugada syndrome. TRPM4 channel has also been implicated at the ventricular level, in inotropism or in arrhythmia genesis due to stresses such as ß-adrenergic stimulation, ischemia-reperfusion, and hypoxia re-oxygenation. However, the physiological role of the TRPM4 channel in the healthy heart remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the role of the TRPM4 channel on whole cardiac function with a Trpm4 gene knock-out mouse (Trpm4-/- model. METHODS AND RESULTS: Morpho-functional analysis revealed left ventricular (LV eccentric hypertrophy in Trpm4-/- mice, with an increase in both wall thickness and chamber size in the adult mouse (aged 32 weeks when compared to Trpm4+/+ littermate controls. Immunofluorescence on frozen heart cryosections and qPCR analysis showed no fibrosis or cellular hypertrophy. Instead, cardiomyocytes in Trpm4-/- mice were smaller than Trpm4+/+with a higher density. Immunofluorescent labeling for phospho-histone H3, a mitosis marker, showed that the number of mitotic myocytes was increased 3-fold in the Trpm4-/-neonatal stage, suggesting hyperplasia. Adult Trpm4-/- mice presented multilevel conduction blocks, as attested by PR and QRS lengthening in surface ECGs and confirmed by intracardiac exploration. Trpm4-/-mice also exhibited Luciani-Wenckebach atrioventricular blocks, which were reduced following atropine infusion, suggesting paroxysmal parasympathetic overdrive. In addition, Trpm4-/- mice exhibited shorter action potentials in atrial cells. This shortening was unrelated to modifications of the voltage-gated Ca2+ or K+ currents involved in the repolarizing phase. CONCLUSIONS: TRPM4 has pleiotropic roles in the heart, including the regulation of conduction and cellular

  20. Envelope Proteins of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV Interact with Litopenaeus vannamei Peritrophin-Like Protein (LvPT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijun Xie

    Full Text Available White spot syndrome virus (WSSV is a major pathogen in shrimp cultures. The interactions between viral proteins and their receptors on the surface of cells in a frontier target tissue are crucial for triggering an infection. In this study, a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H library was constructed using cDNA obtained from the stomach and gut of Litopenaeus vannamei, to ascertain the role of envelope proteins in WSSV infection. For this purpose, VP37 was used as the bait in the Y2H library screening. Forty positive clones were detected after screening. The positive clones were analyzed and discriminated, and two clones belonging to the peritrophin family were subsequently confirmed as genuine positive clones. Sequence analysis revealed that both clones could be considered as the same gene, LV-peritrophin (LvPT. Co-immunoprecipitation confirmed the interaction between LvPT and VP37. Further studies in the Y2H system revealed that LvPT could also interact with other WSSV envelope proteins such as VP32, VP38A, VP39B, and VP41A. The distribution of LvPT in tissues revealed that LvPT was mainly expressed in the stomach than in other tissues. In addition, LvPT was found to be a secretory protein, and its chitin-binding ability was also confirmed.

  1. Increased rho kinase activity in mononuclear cells of dialysis and stage 3-4 chronic kidney disease patients with left ventricular hypertrophy: Cardiovascular risk implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calò, Lorenzo A; Vertolli, Ugo; Pagnin, Elisa; Ravarotto, Verdiana; Davis, Paul A; Lupia, Mario; Naso, Elena; Maiolino, Giuseppe; Naso, Agostino

    2016-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of excess mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and dialysis patients (DP) who have higher prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), the strongest predictor of CV events. Rho kinase (ROCK) activation is linked in hypertensive patients to cardiac remodeling while ROCK inhibition suppresses cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and, in a human clinical condition opposite to hypertension, its downregulation associates with lack of CV remodeling. Information on ROCK activation-LVH link in CKD and DP is lacking. Mononuclear cells (PBMCs) MYPT-1 phosphorylation, a marker of ROCK activity, and the effect of fasudil, a ROCK inhibitor, on MYPT-1 phosphorylation were assessed in 23 DPs, 13 stage 3-4 CKD and 36 healthy subjects (HS) by Western blot. LV mass was assessed by M-mode echocardiography. DP and CKD had higher MYPT-1 phosphorylation compared to HS (p<0.001 and p=0.003). Fasudil (500 and 1000μM) dose dependently reduced MYPT-1 phosphorylation in DP (p<0.01). DP had higher LV mass than CKD (p<0.001). MYPT-1 phosphorylation was higher in patients with LVH (p=0.009) and correlated with LV mass both in DP and CKD with LVH (p<0.001 and p=0.006). In DP and CKD, ROCK activity tracks with LVH. This ROCK activation-LVH link provided in these CVD high-risk patients along with similar findings in hypertensive patients and added to opposite findings in a human model opposite to hypertension and in type 2 diabetic patients, identify ROCK activation as a potential LVH marker and provide further rationale for ROCK activation inhibition as target of therapy in CVD high-risk patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Viral Determinants of FeLV Infection and Pathogenesis: Lessons Learned from Analysis of a Natural Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura S. Levy

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Detailed analysis has been performed over many years of a geographic and temporal cohort of cats naturally infected with feline leukemia virus (FeLV. Molecular analysis of FeLV present in the diseased tissues and application of those viruses to experimental systems has revealed unique isolates with distinctive disease potential, previously uncharacterized virus-receptor interactions, information about the role of recombinant viruses in disease induction, and novel viral and cellular oncogenes implicated in pathogenesis, among other findings. The studies have contributed to an understanding of the selective forces that lead to predominance of distinctive FeLV isolates and disease outcomes in a natural population.

  3. Experimental and Human Evidence for Lipocalin-2 (Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin [NGAL]) in the Development of Cardiac Hypertrophy and heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Francine Z; Prestes, Priscilla R; Byars, Sean G; Ritchie, Scott C; Würtz, Peter; Patel, Sheila K; Booth, Scott A; Rana, Indrajeetsinh; Minoda, Yosuke; Berzins, Stuart P; Curl, Claire L; Bell, James R; Wai, Bryan; Srivastava, Piyush M; Kangas, Antti J; Soininen, Pasi; Ruohonen, Saku; Kähönen, Mika; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitoharju, Emma; Havulinna, Aki; Perola, Markus; Raitakari, Olli; Salomaa, Veikko; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Kettunen, Johannes; McGlynn, Maree; Kelly, Jason; Wlodek, Mary E; Lewandowski, Paul A; Delbridge, Lea M; Burrell, Louise M; Inouye, Michael; Harrap, Stephen B; Charchar, Fadi J

    2017-06-14

    Cardiac hypertrophy increases the risk of developing heart failure and cardiovascular death. The neutrophil inflammatory protein, lipocalin-2 (LCN2/NGAL), is elevated in certain forms of cardiac hypertrophy and acute heart failure. However, a specific role for LCN2 in predisposition and etiology of hypertrophy and the relevant genetic determinants are unclear. Here, we defined the role of LCN2 in concentric cardiac hypertrophy in terms of pathophysiology, inflammatory expression networks, and genomic determinants. We used 3 experimental models: a polygenic model of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure, a model of intrauterine growth restriction and Lcn2 -knockout mouse; cultured cardiomyocytes; and 2 human cohorts: 114 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and 2064 healthy subjects of the YFS (Young Finns Study). In hypertrophic heart rats, cardiac and circulating Lcn2 was significantly overexpressed before, during, and after development of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. Lcn2 expression was increased in hypertrophic hearts in a model of intrauterine growth restriction, whereas Lcn2 -knockout mice had smaller hearts. In cultured cardiomyocytes, Lcn2 activated molecular hypertrophic pathways and increased cell size, but reduced proliferation and cell numbers. Increased LCN2 was associated with cardiac hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction in diabetes mellitus. In the YFS, LCN2 expression was associated with body mass index and cardiac mass and with levels of inflammatory markers. The single-nucleotide polymorphism, rs13297295, located near LCN2 defined a significant cis -eQTL for LCN2 expression. Direct effects of LCN2 on cardiomyocyte size and number and the consistent associations in experimental and human analyses reveal a central role for LCN2 in the ontogeny of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  4. Wolbachia-induced loss of male fertility is likely related to branch chain amino acid biosynthesis and iLvE in Laodelphax striatellus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Jia-Fei; Hoffmann, Ary A; Zhang, Yan-Kai; Duan, Xing-Zhi; Guo, Yan; Gong, Jun-Tao; Zhu, Wen-Chao; Hong, Xiao-Yue

    2017-06-01

    Wolbachia are endosymbionts that infect many species of arthropods and nematodes. Wolbachia-induced cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) is the most common phenotype in affected hosts, involving embryonic lethality in crosses between Wolbachia-infected males and uninfected females. The molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are currently unclear. Here we examine the molecular correlates of the Wolbachia infection in Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén), an important rice pest, where embryonic lethality is strong and almost complete. We compared the gene expression of 4-day-old Wolbachia-infected and uninfected L. striatellus testes to identify candidate genes for paternal-effect embryonic lethality induction. Based on microarray analysis, iLvE was the most down-regulated gene; this gene mediates branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) biosynthesis and participates in many processes related to reproductive performance. After knocking down iLvE by RNAi in uninfected male L. striatellus, male fertility was reduced, leading to a decrease in embryo hatching rates, but fertility was rescued in crosses between these males and Wolbachia-infected females. Removal of BCAA in chemically-defined diets of uninfected males also led to a loss of male fertility. Low amino acid nutrition may enhance exposure time of sperm to Wolbachia in the testes to affect adult reproduction in L. striatellus by reducing the number of sperm transferred per mating by males. These results indicate that Wolbachia may decrease male fertility in L. striatellus by acting on iLvE, a key factor of BCAA biosynthesis, and delaying sperm maturation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Early regression of severe left ventricular hypertrophy after transcatheter aortic valve replacement is associated with decreased hospitalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindman, Brian R; Stewart, William J; Pibarot, Philippe; Hahn, Rebecca T; Otto, Catherine M; Xu, Ke; Devereux, Richard B; Weissman, Neil J; Enriquez-Sarano, Maurice; Szeto, Wilson Y; Makkar, Raj; Miller, D Craig; Lerakis, Stamatios; Kapadia, Samir; Bowers, Bruce; Greason, Kevin L; McAndrew, Thomas C; Lei, Yang; Leon, Martin B; Douglas, Pamela S

    2014-06-01

    This study sought to examine the relationship between left ventricular mass (LVM) regression and clinical outcomes after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). LVM regression after valve replacement for aortic stenosis is assumed to be a favorable effect of LV unloading, but its relationship to improved clinical outcomes is unclear. Of 2,115 patients with symptomatic aortic stenosis at high surgical risk receiving TAVR in the PARTNER (Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valves) randomized trial or continued access registry, 690 had both severe LV hypertrophy (left ventricular mass index [LVMi] ≥ 149 g/m(2) men, ≥ 122 g/m(2) women) at baseline and an LVMi measurement at 30-day post-TAVR follow-up. Clinical outcomes were compared for patients with greater than versus lesser than median percentage change in LVMi between baseline and 30 days using Cox proportional hazard models to evaluate event rates from 30 to 365 days. Compared with patients with lesser regression, patients with greater LVMi regression had a similar rate of all-cause mortality (14.1% vs. 14.3%, p = 0.99), but a lower rate of rehospitalization (9.5% vs. 18.5%, hazard ratio [HR]: 0.50, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.32 to 0.78; p = 0.002) and a lower rate of rehospitalization specifically for heart failure (7.3% vs. 13.6%, p = 0.01). The association with a lower rate of rehospitalization was consistent across subgroups and remained significant after multivariable adjustment (HR: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.34 to 0.84; p = 0.007). Patients with greater LVMi regression had lower B-type natriuretic peptide (p = 0.002) and a trend toward better quality of life (p = 0.06) at 1-year follow-up than did those with lesser regression. In high-risk patients with severe aortic stenosis and severe LV hypertrophy undergoing TAVR, those with greater early LVM regression had one-half the rate of rehospitalization over the subsequent year compared to those with lesser regression. Copyright © 2014 American College of

  6. Chronic activation of hypothalamic oxytocin neurons improves cardiac function during left ventricular hypertrophy-induced heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrott, Kara; Dyavanapalli, Jhansi; Cauley, Edmund; Dwyer, Mary Kate; Kuzmiak-Glancy, Sarah; Wang, Xin; Mendelowitz, David; Kay, Matthew W

    2017-09-01

    A distinctive hallmark of heart failure (HF) is autonomic imbalance, consisting of increased sympathetic activity, and decreased parasympathetic tone. Recent work suggests that activation of hypothalamic oxytocin (OXT) neurons could improve autonomic balance during HF. We hypothesized that a novel method of chronic selective activation of hypothalamic OXT neurons will improve cardiac function and reduce inflammation and fibrosis in a rat model of HF. Two groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent trans-ascending aortic constriction (TAC) to induce left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy that progresses to HF. In one TAC group, OXT neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus were chronically activated by selective expression and activation of excitatory DREADDs receptors with daily injections of clozapine N-oxide (CNO) (TAC + OXT). Two additional age-matched groups received either saline injections (Control) or CNO injections for excitatory DREADDs activation (OXT NORM). Heart rate (HR), LV developed pressure (LVDP), and coronary flow rate were measured in isolated heart experiments. Isoproterenol (0.01 nM-1.0 µM) was administered to evaluate β-adrenergic sensitivity. We found that increases in cellular hypertrophy and myocardial collagen density in TAC were blunted in TAC + OXT animals. Inflammatory cytokine IL-1β expression was more than twice higher in TAC than all other hearts. LVDP, rate pressure product (RPP), contractility, and relaxation were depressed in TAC compared with all other groups. The response of TAC and TAC + OXT hearts to isoproterenol was blunted, with no significant increase in RPP, contractility, or relaxation. However, HR in TAC + OXT animals increased to match Control at higher doses of isoproterenol. Activation of hypothalamic OXT neurons to elevate parasympathetic tone reduced cellular hypertrophy, levels of IL-1β, and fibrosis during TAC-induced HF in rats. Cardiac contractility parameters were

  7. Partial LVAD restores ventricular outputs and normalizes LV but not RV stress distributions in the acutely failing heart in silico

    OpenAIRE

    Sack, Kevin L.; Baillargeon, Brian; Acevedo-Bolton, Gabriel; Genet, Martin; Rebelo, Nuno; Kuhl, Ellen; Klein, Liviu; Weiselthaler, Georg M.; Burkhoff, Daniel; Franz, Thomas; Guccione, Julius M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Heart failure is a worldwide epidemic that is unlikely to change as the population ages and life expectancy increases. We sought to detail significant recent improvements to the Dassault Systèmes Living Heart Model (LHM) and use the LHM to compute left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) myofiber stress distributions under the following 4 conditions: (1) normal cardiac function; (2) acute left heart failure (ALHF); (3) ALHF treated using an LV assist device (LVAD) flow rate o...

  8. Estimation of Maximum Allowable PV Connection to LV Residential Power Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demirok, Erhan; Sera, Dezso; Teodorescu, Remus

    2011-01-01

    Maximum photovoltaic (PV) hosting capacity of low voltage (LV) power networks is mainly restricted by either thermal limits of network components or grid voltage quality resulted from high penetration of distributed PV systems. This maximum hosting capacity may be lower than the available solar...... potential of geographic area due to power network limitations even though all rooftops are fully occupied with PV modules. Therefore, it becomes more of an issue to know what exactly limits higher PV penetration level and which solutions should be engaged efficiently such as over sizing distribution...

  9. The B → D*lv form factor at zero recoil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simone, J.N.; Hashimoto, S.; El-Khadra, A.X.; Kronfeld, A.S.; Mackenzie, P.B.; Ryan, S.M.

    2000-01-01

    We describe a model independent lattice QCD method for determining the deviation from unity for h A1 (1), the B → D*lv form factor at zero recoil. We extend the double ratio method previously used to determine the B → Dlv form factor. The bulk of statistical and systematic errors cancel in the double ratios we consider, yielding form factors which promise to reduce present theoretical uncertainties in the determination of parallel V cb parallel. We present results from a prototype calculation at a single lattice spacing corresponding to β = 5.7

  10. Voltage regulation in LV grids by coordinated volt-var control strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juamperez Goñi, Miguel Angel; Yang, Guangya; Kjær, Søren Bækhøj

    2014-01-01

    in a representative LV network in Bornholm Island using a multi-objective genetic algorithm. The approach is to increase the reactive power contribution of the inverters closest to the transformer during overvoltage conditions. Two standard reactive power control concepts, cosΦ(P) and Q(U), are simulated and compared...... in terms of network power losses and voltage level along the feeder. As a practical implementation, a reconfigurable hardware is used for developing a testing platform based on real-time measurements to regulate the reactive power level. The proposed testing platform has been developed within PVNET...

  11. [Molecular mechanisms of skeletal muscle hypertrophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astratenkova, I V; Rogozkin, V A

    2014-06-01

    Enzymes Akt, AMPK, mTOR, S6K and PGC-1a coactivator take part in skeletal muscles in the regulation of synthesis of proteins. The expression of these proteins is regulated by growth factors, hormones, nutrients, mechanical loading and leads to an increase in muscle mass and skeletal muscle hypertrophy. The review presents the results of studies published in the past four years, which expand knowledge on the effects of various factors on protein synthesis in skeletal muscle. The attention is focused on the achievements that reveal and clarify the signaling pathways involved in the regulation of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle. The central place is taken by mTOR enzyme which controls and regulates the main stages of the cascade of reactions of muscle proteins providing synthesis in the conditions of human life. coactivator PGC-1a.

  12. Hypertrophied hearts: what of sevoflurane cardioprotection?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jens Kjærgaard Rolighed; Smerup, Morten Holdgaard; Hasenkam, John Michael

    2009-01-01

    pigs (n=7-12/group) were subjected to 45 min distal coronary artery balloon occlusion, followed by 120 min of reperfusion. Controls were given pentobarbital, while sevoflurane cardioprotection was achieved by 3.2% inhalation throughout the experiment. Chronic banding of the ascending aorta resulted......-at-risk) was reduced from mean 55.0 (13.6%) (+/-SD) in controls to 17.5 (13.2%) by sevoflurane (P=0.001). Sevoflurane reduced the infarct size in hypertrophied hearts to 14.6 (10.4%) (P=0.001); however, in hypertrophic controls, infarcts were reduced to 34.2 (10.2%) (P=0.001). CONCLUSION: Sevoflurane abrogated...

  13. The role of satellite cells in muscle hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaauw, Bert; Reggiani, Carlo

    2014-02-01

    The role of satellite cells in muscle hypertrophy has long been a debated issue. In the late 1980s it was shown that proteins remain close to the myonucleus responsible for its synthesis, giving rise to the idea of a nuclear domain. This, together with the observation that during various models of muscle hypertrophy there is an activation of the muscle stem cells, i.e. satellite cells, lead to the idea that satellite cell activation is required for muscle hypertrophy. Thus, satellite cells are not only responsible for muscle repair and regeneration, but also for hypertrophic growth. Further support for this line of thinking was obtained after studies showing that irradiation of skeletal muscle, and therefore elimination of all satellite cells, completely prevented overload-induced hypertrophy. Recently however, using different transgenic approaches, it has become clear that muscle hypertrophy can occur without a contribution of satellite cells, even though in most situations of muscle hypertrophy satellite cells are activated. In this review we will discuss the contribution of satellite cells, and other muscle-resident stem cells, to muscle hypertrophy both in mice as well as in humans.

  14. Diagnostic electrocardiographic dyad criteria of emphysema in left ventricular hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanjewar, Swapnil S; Chhabra, Lovely; Chaubey, Vinod K; Joshi, Saurabh; Kulkarni, Ganesh; Kothagundla, Chandrasekhar; Kaul, Sudesh; Spodick, David H

    2013-01-01

    The electrocardiographic diagnostic dyad of emphysema, namely a combination of the frontal vertical P-vector and a narrow QRS duration, can serve as a quasidiagnostic marker for emphysema, with specificity close to 100%. We postulated that the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy in emphysema may affect the sensitivity of this electrocardiographic criterion given that left ventricular hypertrophy generates prominent left ventricular forces and may increase the QRS duration. We reviewed the electrocardiograms and echocardiograms for 73 patients with emphysema. The patients were divided into two groups based on the presence or absence of echocardiographic evidence of left ventricular hypertrophy. The P-vector, QRS duration, and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were computed and compared between the two subgroups. There was no statistically significant difference in qualitative lung function (FEV1) between the subgroups. There was no statistically significant difference in mean P-vector between the subgroups. The mean QRS duration was significantly longer in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy as compared with those without left ventricular hypertrophy. The presence of left ventricular hypertrophy may not affect the sensitivity of the P-vector verticalization when used as a lone criterion for diagnosing emphysema. However, the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy may significantly reduce the sensitivity of the electrocardiographic diagnostic dyad in emphysema, as it causes a widening of the QRS duration.

  15. Altered carnitine transport in pressure-overload hypertrophied rat hearts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Rourke, B.; Foster, K.; Reibel, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have previously observed reduced carnitine levels in hypertrophied hearts of rats subjected to aortic constriction. In an attempt to determine the mechanism for reduced myocardial carnitine content, carnitine transport was examined in isolated perfused hearts. Hearts were excised from sham-operated and aortic-constricted rats 3 weeks following surgery and perfused at 60 mm Hg aortic pressure with buffer containing various concentrations of L- 14 C-carnitine. Carnitine uptake by control and hypertrophied hearts was linear throughout 30 minutes of perfusion with 40 μM carnitine. Total carnitine uptake was significantly reduced by 25% in hypertrophied hearts at each time point examined. The reduction in uptake by hypertrophied hearts was also evident when hearts were perfused with 100 or 200 μM carnitine. When 0.05 mM mersalyl acid was included in the buffer to inhibit the carrier-mediated component of transport, no difference in carnitine uptake was observed indicating that the transport of carnitine by diffusion was unaltered in the hypertrophied myocardium. Carrier-mediated carnitine uptake (total uptake - uptake by diffusion) was significantly reduced by approximately 40% in hypertrophied hearts at all concentrations examined. Thus, the reduction in carnitine content in the pressure-overload hypertrophied rat heart appears to be due to a reduction in carrier-mediated carnitine uptake by the heart

  16. Surface glycosaminoglycans mediate adherence between HeLa cells and Lactobacillus salivarius Lv72.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Rebeca; Martín, Carla; Escobedo, Susana; Suárez, Juan E; Quirós, Luis M

    2013-09-17

    The adhesion of lactobacilli to the vaginal surface is of paramount importance to develop their probiotic functions. For this reason, the role of HeLa cell surface proteoglycans in the attachment of Lactobacillus salivarius Lv72, a mutualistic strain of vaginal origin, was investigated. Incubation of cultures with a variety of glycosaminoglycans (chondroitin sulfate A and C, heparin and heparan sulfate) resulted in marked binding interference. However, no single glycosaminoglycan was able to completely abolish cell binding, the sum of all having an additive effect that suggests cooperation between them and recognition of specific adhesins on the bacterial surface. In contrast, chondroitin sulfate B enhanced cell to cell attachment, showing the relevance of the stereochemistry of the uronic acid and the sulfation pattern on binding. Elimination of the HeLa surface glycosaminoglycans with lyases also resulted in severe adherence impairment. Advantage was taken of the Lactobacillus-glycosaminoglycans interaction to identify an adhesin from the bacterial surface. This protein, identify as a soluble binding protein of an ABC transporter system (OppA) by MALDI-TOF/(MS), was overproduced in Escherichia coli, purified and shown to interfere with L. salivarius Lv72 adhesion to HeLa cells. These data suggest that glycosaminoglycans play a fundamental role in attachment of mutualistic bacteria to the epithelium that lines the cavities where the normal microbiota thrives, OppA being a bacterial adhesin involved in the process.

  17. Biocorrosion of 316LV steel used in oral cavity due to Desulfotomaculum nigrificans bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mystkowska, Joanna; Ferreira, Jose A; Leszczyńska, Katarzyna; Chmielewska, Sylwia; Dąbrowski, Jan Ryszard; Wieciński, Piotr; Kurzydłowski, Krzysztof Jan

    2017-01-01

    Corrosion processes of metallic biomaterials in the oral cavity pose a significant limitation to the life and reliable functioning of dental materials. In this article, the influence of environment bacteria Desulfotomaculum nigrificans sulfate reducing bacteria on the corrosion processes of 316LV steel was assessed. After 14 and 28 days of contact of the material with the bacterial environment, the surfaces of the tested biomaterial were observed by means of confocal scanning laser microscopy, and their chemical composition was studied using X-Ray Photoelectron Spectrometry and a scanning transmission electron microscopy. Corrosive changes, the presence of sulfur (with atomic concentration of 0.5%) on the surface of the biomaterial and the presence of a thin oxide layer (thickness of ∼20 nm) under the surface of the steel were observed. This corrosion layer with significant size reduction of grains was characterized by an increased amount of oxygen (18% mas., p < 0.001) in comparison to untreated 316LV steel (where oxygen concentration - 10% mas.). Image analysis conducted using APHELION software indicated that corrosion pits took up ∼2.8% of the total tested surface. The greatest number of corrosion pits had a surface area within the range of 100-200 μm 2 . © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 222-229, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Painful unilateral temporalis muscle enlargement: reactive masticatory muscle hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsetos, Christos D; Bianchi, Michael A; Jaffery, Fizza; Koutzaki, Sirma; Zarella, Mark; Slater, Robert

    2014-06-01

    An instance of isolated unilateral temporalis muscle hypertrophy (reactive masticatory muscle hypertrophy with fiber type 1 predominance) confirmed by muscle biopsy with histochemical fiber typing and image analysis in a 62 year-old man is reported. The patient presented with bruxism and a painful swelling of the temple. Absence of asymmetry or other abnormalities of the craniofacial skeleton was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging and cephalometric analyses. The patient achieved symptomatic improvement only after undergoing botulinum toxin injections. Muscle biopsy is key in the diagnosis of reactive masticatory muscle hypertrophy and its distinction from masticatory muscle myopathy (hypertrophic branchial myopathy) and other non-reactive causes of painful asymmetric temporalis muscle enlargement.

  19. Possibility of leg muscle hypertrophy by ambulation in older adults: a brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozaki H

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Hayao Ozaki,1 Jeremy P Loenneke,2 Robert S Thiebaud,2 Joel M Stager,3 Takashi Abe31Juntendo University, Inzai, Chiba, Japan; 2Department of Health and Exercise Science, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, USA; 3Department of Kinesiology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USAAbstract: It is known that ambulatory exercises such as brisk walking and jogging are potent stimuli for improving aerobic capacity, but it is less understood whether ambulatory exercise can increase leg muscle size and function. The purpose of this brief review is to discuss whether or not ambulatory exercise elicits leg muscle hypertrophy in older adults. Daily ambulatory activity with moderate (>3 metabolic equivalents [METs], which is defined as the ratio of the work metabolic rate to the resting metabolic rate intensity estimated by accelerometer is positively correlated with lower body muscle size and function in older adults. Although there is conflicting data on the effects of short-term training, it is possible that relatively long periods of walking, jogging, or intermittent running for over half a year can increase leg muscle size among older adults. In addition, slow-walk training with a combination of leg muscle blood flow restriction elicits muscle hypertrophy only in the blood flow restricted leg muscles. Competitive marathon running and regular high intensity distance running in young and middle-aged adults may not produce leg muscle hypertrophy due to insufficient recovery from the damaging running bout, although there have been no studies that have investigated the effects of running on leg muscle morphology in older subjects. It is clear that skeletal muscle hypertrophy can occur independently of exercise mode and load.Keywords: aerobic exercise, muscle mass, aging, strength, sarcopenia

  20. Macrophage microRNA-155 promotes cardiac hypertrophy and failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heymans, Stephane; Corsten, Maarten F.; Verhesen, Wouter; Carai, Paolo; van Leeuwen, Rick E. W.; Custers, Kevin; Peters, Tim; Hazebroek, Mark; Stöger, Lauran; Wijnands, Erwin; Janssen, Ben J.; Creemers, Esther E.; Pinto, Yigal M.; Grimm, Dirk; Schürmann, Nina; Vigorito, Elena; Thum, Thomas; Stassen, Frank; Yin, Xiaoke; Mayr, Manuel; de Windt, Leon J.; Lutgens, Esther; Wouters, Kristiaan; de Winther, Menno P. J.; Zacchigna, Serena; Giacca, Mauro; van Bilsen, Marc; Papageorgiou, Anna-Pia; Schroen, Blanche

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy and subsequent heart failure triggered by chronic hypertension represent major challenges for cardiovascular research. Beyond neurohormonal and myocyte signaling pathways, growing evidence suggests inflammatory signaling pathways as therapeutically targetable contributors to this

  1. Time course of gene expression during mouse skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaillou, Thomas; Lee, Jonah D; England, Jonathan H; Esser, Karyn A; McCarthy, John J

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform a comprehensive transcriptome analysis during skeletal muscle hypertrophy to identify signaling pathways that are operative throughout the hypertrophic response. Global gene expression patterns were determined from microarray results on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14 during plantaris muscle hypertrophy induced by synergist ablation in adult mice. Principal component analysis and the number of differentially expressed genes (cutoffs ≥2-fold increase or ≥50% decrease compared with control muscle) revealed three gene expression patterns during overload-induced hypertrophy: early (1 day), intermediate (3, 5, and 7 days), and late (10 and 14 days) patterns. Based on the robust changes in total RNA content and in the number of differentially expressed genes, we focused our attention on the intermediate gene expression pattern. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed a downregulation of genes encoding components of the branched-chain amino acid degradation pathway during hypertrophy. Among these genes, five were predicted by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis or previously shown to be regulated by the transcription factor Kruppel-like factor-15, which was also downregulated during hypertrophy. Moreover, the integrin-linked kinase signaling pathway was activated during hypertrophy, and the downregulation of muscle-specific micro-RNA-1 correlated with the upregulation of five predicted targets associated with the integrin-linked kinase pathway. In conclusion, we identified two novel pathways that may be involved in muscle hypertrophy, as well as two upstream regulators (Kruppel-like factor-15 and micro-RNA-1) that provide targets for future studies investigating the importance of these pathways in muscle hypertrophy.

  2. Diagnostic electrocardiographic dyad criteria of emphysema in left ventricular hypertrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanjewar SS

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Swapnil S Lanjewar,1 Lovely Chhabra,1 Vinod K Chaubey,1 Saurabh Joshi,1 Ganesh Kulkarni,1 Chandrasekhar Kothagundla,1 Sudesh Kaul,1 David H Spodick21Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Saint Vincent Hospital, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USABackground: The electrocardiographic diagnostic dyad of emphysema, namely a combination of the frontal vertical P-vector and a narrow QRS duration, can serve as a quasidiagnostic marker for emphysema, with specificity close to 100%. We postulated that the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy in emphysema may affect the sensitivity of this electrocardiographic criterion given that left ventricular hypertrophy generates prominent left ventricular forces and may increase the QRS duration.Methods: We reviewed the electrocardiograms and echocardiograms for 73 patients with emphysema. The patients were divided into two groups based on the presence or absence of echocardiographic evidence of left ventricular hypertrophy. The P-vector, QRS duration, and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 were computed and compared between the two subgroups.Results: There was no statistically significant difference in qualitative lung function (FEV1 between the subgroups. There was no statistically significant difference in mean P-vector between the subgroups. The mean QRS duration was significantly longer in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy as compared with those without left ventricular hypertrophy.Conclusion: The presence of left ventricular hypertrophy may not affect the sensitivity of the P-vector verticalization when used as a lone criterion for diagnosing emphysema. However, the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy may significantly reduce the sensitivity of the electrocardiographic diagnostic dyad in emphysema, as it causes a widening of the QRS duration.Keywords: emphysema, electrocardiogram, left ventricular hypertrophy, chronic

  3. Raf-mediated cardiac hypertrophy in adult Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Yu

    2013-07-01

    In response to stress and extracellular signals, the heart undergoes a process called cardiac hypertrophy during which cardiomyocytes increase in size. If untreated, cardiac hypertrophy can progress to overt heart failure that causes significant morbidity and mortality. The identification of molecular signals that cause or modify cardiomyopathies is necessary to understand how the normal heart progresses to cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. Receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK signaling is essential for normal human cardiac function, and the inhibition of RTKs can cause dilated cardiomyopathies. However, neither investigations of activated RTK signaling pathways nor the characterization of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in the adult fly heart has been previously described. Therefore, we developed strategies using Drosophila as a model to circumvent some of the complexities associated with mammalian models of cardiovascular disease. Transgenes encoding activated EGFRA887T, Ras85DV12 and Ras85DV12S35, which preferentially signal to Raf, or constitutively active human or fly Raf caused hypertrophic cardiomyopathy as determined by decreased end diastolic lumen dimensions, abnormal cardiomyocyte fiber morphology and increased heart wall thicknesses. There were no changes in cardiomyocyte cell numbers. Additionally, activated Raf also induced an increase in cardiomyocyte ploidy compared with control hearts. However, preventing increases in cardiomyocyte ploidy using fizzy-related (Fzr RNAi did not rescue Raf-mediated cardiac hypertrophy, suggesting that Raf-mediated polyploidization is not required for cardiac hypertrophy. Similar to mammals, the cardiac-specific expression of RNAi directed against MEK or ERK rescued Raf-mediated cardiac hypertrophy. However, the cardiac-specific expression of activated ERKD334N, which promotes hyperplasia in non-cardiac tissues, did not cause myocyte hypertrophy. These results suggest that ERK is necessary, but not sufficient, for Raf

  4. Transcription Factors in Heart: Promising Therapeutic Targets in Cardiac Hypertrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Kohli, Shrey; Ahuja, Suchit; Rani, Vibha

    2011-01-01

    Regulation of gene expression is central to cell growth, differentiation and diseases. Context specific and signal dependent regulation of gene expression is achieved to a large part by transcription factors. Cardiac transcription factors regulate heart development and are also involved in stress regulation of the adult heart, which may lead to cardiac hypertrophy. Hypertrophy of cardiac myocytes is an outcome of the imbalance between prohypertrophic factors and anti-hypertrophic factors. Thi...

  5. Current status of the Citrus leprosis virus (CiLV -C and its vector Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo León M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Citrus leprosis virus CiLV-C is a quarantine disease of economic importance. Over the past 15 years, this disease has spread to several countries of Central and South America. Colombia has about 45,000 hectares of citrus planted with an annual production of 750,000 tonnes. The CiLV-C has only been detected in the departments of Meta, Casanare and recently Tolima. Meta has 4,300 hectares representing 10% of the national cultivated area, and Casanare, where CiLV-C appeared in 2004, has no more than 500 ha planted with citrus. The presence of the Citrus leprosis virus in Colombia could affect the international market for citrus, other crops and ornamental plants with the United States and other countries without the disease. The false spider mite Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes (Acari: Tenuipalpidae is the main vector of the CiLV-C. Disease management is based on control programs of the vector and diminishing host plants. Chemical mite control is expensive, wasteful and generates resistance to different acaricides. This paper provides basic information on CiLV-C and its vector, advances in diagnosis and methods to control the disease and prevention of its spread

  6. Fatty acid utilization in pressure-overload hypertrophied rat hearts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reibel, D.K.; O'Rourke, B.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have previously shown that the levels of total tissue coenzyme A and carnitine are reduced in hypertrophied hearts of rats subjected to aortic constriction. It was therefore of interest to determine if these changes were associated with alterations in fatty acid oxidation by the hypertrophied myocardium. Hearts were excised from sham-operated and aortic-constricted rats and perfused at 10 cm H 2 O left atrial filling pressure with a ventricular afterload of 80 cm of H 2 O with buffer containing 1.2 mM 14 C-linoleate. Heart rate and peak systolic pressure were not different in control and hypertrophied hearts. 14 CO 2 production was linear in both groups of hearts between 10 and 30 minutes of perfusion. The rate of fatty acid oxidation determined by 14 CO 2 production during this time was 0.728 +/- 0.06 μmoles/min/g dry in control hearts and 0.710 +/- 0.02 μmoles/min/g dry in hypertrophied hearts. Comparable rates of fatty acid oxidation were associated with comparable rates of O 2 consumption in the two groups of hearts (39.06 +/- 3.50 and 36.78 +/- 2.39 μmoles/g dry/min for control and hypertrophied hearts, respectively). The data indicate that the ability of the hypertrophied heart to oxidize fatty acids under these perfusion conditions is not impaired in spite of significant reductions in tissue levels of coenzyme A and carnitine

  7. Mechanisms for altered carnitine content in hypertrophied rat hearts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reibel, D.K.; O'Rourke, B.; Foster, K.A.

    1987-01-01

    Carnitine levels are reduced in hypertrophied hearts of rats subjected to aortic constriction (banding) and evaluated in hypertrophied hearts of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). In an attempt to determine the mechanisms for these alterations, L-[ 14 C]carnitine transport was examined in isolated perfused hearts. Total carnitine uptake was significantly reduced by ∼20% in hypertrophied hearts of banded rats at all perfusate carnitine concentrations employed. The reduction in total uptake was due to a 40% reduction in carrier-mediated carnitine uptake with no difference in uptake by diffusion. In contrast, carnitine uptake was not altered in isolated hypertrophied hearts of SHR. However, serum carnitine levels were elevated in SHR, which could result in increased myocardial carnitine uptake in vivo. The data suggest that altered carnitine content in hypertrophied hearts of aortic-banded rats is due to an alteration in the carrier-mediated carnitine transport system in the myocardium. However, altered carnitine content in hypertrophied hearts of SHR is not due to a change in the carnitine transport system per se but may rather be due to a change in serum carnitine levels

  8. BezRindas.lv biļešu tirdzniecības Android lietotne

    OpenAIRE

    Upītis, Reinis

    2014-01-01

    Kvalifikācijas darbā tiek aprakstīta autobusu biļešu tirdzniecības lietotne, kas ir paredzēta viedtālruņiem ar Android operētājsistēmu. Mobilā lietotne paredzēta kā papildinājums jau esošam servisam – Bezrindas.lv. Aprakstītās sistēmas izveide atvieglotu biļešu iegādi lietotājiem, kas to vēlētos darīt ar saviem viedtālruņiem.

  9. Efficient Control of Active Transformers for Increasing the PV Hosting Capacity of LV Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashemi Toghroljerdi, Seyedmostafa; Østergaard, Jacob; Degner, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    . The potential interferences between the operation of active transformers and the reactive power absorption by PV inverters are investigated, and a voltage droop control approach is proposed for the efficient control of these transformers during high PV generation periods. The proposed method can potentially...... increase the PV hosting capacity of the grid, while eliminating the need for a complex and centralized controller. The voltages of specific locations or the grid state estimations provide adequate data for adjustments of the droop parameters. The simulations and field test results associated...... with the implementation of the proposed method to a newly developed active LV grid with high PV penetration in Felsberg, Germany, confirm the efficiency of the proposed method....

  10. Evolution of the Nova Vulpeculae no.1 1968 (LV Vul) spectrum after the maximum brightness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrijya, I.; Antipova, L.I.; Babaev, M.B.; AN Azerbajdzhanskoj SSR, Baku. Shemakhinskaya Astrofizicheskaya Observatoriya)

    1986-01-01

    The analysis of the spectral evolution of LV Vulpeculae 1968 after the maximum brightness was carried out. It is shown that the pre-maximum spectrum was replaced by the principal one in less than 24sup(h). The diffuse enhanced scectrum and the Orion one existed already when the Nova brightness has decreased only by 0.4sup(m) and 0.5sup(m) respectively. The radial velocities of the Orion spectrum coincided with those of the diffuse enhanced one during the total observational period. The Orion spectrum consists of the lines of He I, N2, O 2 and may be H 1. The appearance of two additional components is probably due to splitting of the principal and diffuse enhanced spectrum

  11. Development of tools to manage the operational monitoring and pre-design of the NPP-LV cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perusquia, R.; Arredondo S, C.; Hernandez M, J. L.; Montes T, J. L.; Castillo M, A.; Ortiz S, J. J.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents the development of tools to facilitate the management so much, the operational monitoring of boiling water reactors (BWR) of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde (NPP-LV) through independent codes, and how to carry out the static calculations corresponding to process of optimized pre-design of the reference cycle next to current cycle. The progress and preliminary results obtained with the program SACal, developed at Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ), central tool to achieve provide a management platform of the operational monitoring and pre-design of NPP-LV cycle are also described. The reached preliminary advances directed to get an Analysis center and automated design of fuel assembly cells are also presented, which together with centers or similar modules related with the fuel reloads form the key part to meet the targets set for the realization of a Management Platform of Nuclear Fuel of the NPP-LV. (Author)

  12. Relationship between echocardiographic LV mass and ECG based left ventricular voltages in an adolescent population: related or random?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czosek, Richard J; Cnota, James F; Knilans, Timothy K; Pratt, Jesse; Guerrier, Karine; Anderson, Jeffrey B

    2014-09-01

    In attempts to detect diseases that may place adolescents at risk for sudden death, some have advocated for population-based screening. Controversy exists over electrocardiography (ECG) screening due to the lack of specificity, cost, and detrimental effects of false positive or extraneous outcomes. Analyze the relationship between precordial lead voltage on ECG and left ventricle (LV) mass by echocardiogram in adolescent athletes. Retrospective cohort analysis of a prospectively obtained population of self-identified adolescent athletes during sports screening with ECG and echocardiogram. Correlation between ECG LV voltages (R wave in V6 [RV6] and S wave in lead V1 [SV1]) was compared to echocardiogram-based measurements of left ventricular mass. Potential effects on ECG voltages by body anthropometrics, including weight, body mass index (BMI), and body surface area were analyzed, and ECG voltages indexed to BMI were compared to LV mass indices to analyze for improved correlation. A total of 659 adolescents enrolled in this study (64% male). The mean age was 15.4 years (14-18). The correlations between LV mass and RV6, SV1, and RV6 + SV1 were all less than 0.20. The false positive rate for abnormal voltages was relatively high (5.5%) but improved if abnormal voltages in both RV6 and SV1 were mandated simultaneously (0%). Indexing ECG voltages to BMI significantly improved correlation to LV mass, though false positive findings were increased (12.9%). There is poor correlation between ECG precordial voltages and echocardiographic LV mass. This relationship is modified by BMI. This finding may contribute to the poor ECG screening characteristics. ©2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. A STUDY OF CHANGES IN DEFORMATION AND METABOLISM IN LEFT VENTRICLE AS A FUNCTION OF HYPERTROPHY IN SPONTANEOUS HYPERTENSIVE RATS USING MICROPET TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gullberg, Grant, T; Huesman, Ronald, H; Reutter, Bryan, W; Sitek, Arkadiusz; Veress, Alexander, I; Weiss, Jeffrey, A; Yang, Yongfeng

    2017-06-13

    reconstruct the dynamic sequence. The in-plane image dimensions were doubled to 256x256x83 in order to increase the resolution for the Warping analyses. These image data sets were then cropped to 128x128x83. The end-systolic image data sets were designated as the template images and the end-diastole image data sets were designated as the target images, thus providing an analysis of the diastolic relaxation and filling phases of the cardiac cycle. The template images were manually segmented to create surface definitions representing the epi- and endocardial surfaces. Finite element models of the left ventricles were created using the segmented surfaces and defining a transversely isotropic material with fiber angles varying from the epicardial surface to the endocardial surface. A Warping analyses was performed to obtain the LV strain tensor and fiber stretch distributions. Results: In one study, the average first principal Green-Lagrange strain, fiber stretch, ejection fraction, and metabolic rate of F-18-FDG was 0.22, 1.08, 80%, 0.1 for the WKY rat and 0.16, 1.06, 50%, 0.25 for the SHR rat, respectively. These same rats studied a year later presented with a metabolic rate of F-18-FDG of 0.11 and 0.25 for the WKY and SHR, respectively. A follow-up study the average strain (n=10) and ejection fraction (n=18) was 0.21, 72.7% for WKY and 0.17, 69.8% for the SHR, respectively. Conclusion: In the case of pressure overload there is an increased reliance on carbohydrate oxidation in an attempt to maintain contractile function.

  14. The Influence of Protein Supplementation on Muscle Hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardi, A.; Welis, W.

    2018-04-01

    The problem of this study was the lack of knowledge about nutrition, so the use of protein supplements to support the occurrence of muscle hypertrophy is not optimal. The use of natural supplements is a substitute of the manufacturer's supplements. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of natural protein supplementation to muscle hypertrophy.The method of the research was a quasi experiment. There are 26 subject and were divided two group. Instrument of this research is to use tape measure and skinfold to measure muscle rim and thickness of fat in arm and thigh muscle. Then to calculate the circumference of the arm and thigh muscles used the formula MTC - (3.14 x TSF). MTC is the arm muscle or thigh muscle and TSF is the thickness of the muscles of the arm or thigh muscles. Data analysis technique used was t test at 5% significant level. The result of the research showed that average score of arm muscle hypertrophy at pretest control group was 255.61 + 17.69 mm and posttest average score was 263.48.58 + 17.21 mm and average score of thigh muscle hypertrophy at pretest control group was 458.32 + 8.72 mm and posttest average score was 468.78 + 11.54 mm. Average score of arm muscle hypertrophy at pretest experiment group was 252.67 + 16.05 mm and posttest average score was 274.58 ± 16.89 mm and average score of thigh muscle hypertrophy at pretest experiment group was 459.49 ± 6.99 mm and posttest average score was 478.70 + 9.05 mm. It can be concluded that there was a significant effect of natural protein supplementation on muscle hypertrophy.

  15. Targeted electroporation of defined lateral ventricular walls: a novel and rapid method to study fate specification during postnatal forebrain neurogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cremer Harold

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postnatal olfactory bulb (OB neurogenesis involves the generation of granule and periglomerular cells by neural stem cells (NSCs located in the walls of the lateral ventricle (LV. Recent studies show that NSCs located in different regions of the LV give rise to different types of OB neurons. However, the molecular mechanisms governing neuronal specification remain largely unknown and new methods to approach these questions are needed. Results In this study, we refine electroporation of the postnatal forebrain as a technique to perform precise and accurate delivery of transgenes to NSCs located in distinct walls of the LV in the mouse. Using this method, we confirm and expand previous studies showing that NSCs in distinct walls of the LV produce neurons that invade different layers of the OB. Fate mapping of the progeny of radial glial cells located in these distinct LV walls reveals their specification into defined subtypes of granule and periglomerular neurons. Conclusions Our results provide a baseline with which future studies aiming at investigating the role of factors in postnatal forebrain neuronal specification can be compared. Targeted electroporation of defined LV NSC populations will prove valuable to study the genetic factors involved in forebrain neuronal specification.

  16. Elevated Levels of Asymmetric Dimethylarginine (ADMA in the Pericardial Fluid of Cardiac Patients Correlate with Cardiac Hypertrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan Nemeth

    Full Text Available Pericardial fluid (PF contains several biologically active substances, which may provide information regarding the cardiac conditions. Nitric oxide (NO has been implicated in cardiac remodeling. We hypothesized that L-arginine (L-Arg precursor of NO-synthase (NOS and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA, an inhibitor of NOS, are present in PF of cardiac patients and their altered levels may contribute to altered cardiac morphology.L-Arg and ADMA concentrations in plasma and PF, and echocardiographic parameters of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG, n = 28 or valve replacement (VR, n = 25 were determined.We have found LV hypertrophy in 35.7% of CABG, and 80% of VR patients. In all groups, plasma and PF L-Arg levels were higher than that of ADMA. Plasma L-Arg level was higher in CABG than VR (75.7 ± 4.6 μmol/L vs. 58.1 ± 4.9 μmol/L, p = 0.011, whereas PF ADMA level was higher in VR than CABG (0.9 ± 0.0 μmol/L vs. 0.7 ± 0.0 μmol/L, p = 0.009. L-Arg/ADMA ratio was lower in the VR than CABG (VRplasma: 76.1 ± 6.6 vs. CABGplasma: 125.4 ± 10.7, p = 0.004; VRPF: 81.7 ± 4.8 vs. CABGPF: 110.4 ± 7.2, p = 0.009. There was a positive correlation between plasma L-Arg and ADMA in CABG (r = 0.539, p = 0.015; and plasma and PF L-Arg in CABG (r = 0.357, p = 0.031; and plasma and PF ADMA in VR (r = 0.529, p = 0.003; and PF L-Arg and ADMA in both CABG and VR (CABG: r = 0.468, p = 0.006; VR: r = 0.371, p = 0.034. The following echocardiographic parameters were higher in VR compared to CABG: interventricular septum (14.7 ± 0.5 mm vs. 11.9 ± 0.4 mm, p = 0.000; posterior wall thickness (12.6 ± 0.3 mm vs. 11.5 ± 0.2 mm, p = 0.000; left ventricular (LV mass (318.6 ± 23.5 g vs. 234.6 ± 12.3 g, p = 0.007; right ventricular (RV (33.9 ± 0.9 cm2 vs. 29.7 ± 0.7 cm2, p = 0.004; right atrial (18.6 ± 1.0 cm2 vs. 15.4 ± 0.6 cm2, p = 0.020; left atrial (19.8 ± 1.0 cm2 vs. 16.9 ± 0.6 cm2, p = 0.033 areas. There was a positive correlation

  17. Specification of requirements to get a license for an Independent Spent Fuel Dry Storage Installation (ISFSI) at the site of the NPP-LV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano R, M. L.

    2015-09-01

    This article describes some of the work done in the Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias (CNSNS) to define specifically the requirements that the Federal Electricity Commission (CFE) shall meet to submit for consideration of CNSNS an operation request of an Independent Spent Fuel Dry Storage Installation (ISFSI). The project of a facility of this type arose from the need to provide storage capacity for spent nuclear fuel in the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde (NPP-LV) and to continue the operation at the same facility in a safe manner. The licensing of these facilities in the United States of America has two modes: specific license or general license. The characteristics of these licenses are described in this article. However, in Mexico the existing national legislation is not designed for such license types, in fact there is a lack of standards or regulations in this regard. The regulatory law of Article 27 of the Constitution in the nuclear matter, only generally establishes that this type of facility requires an authorization from the Ministry of Energy. For this reason and because there is not a national legislation, was necessary to use the legislation that provides the Nuclear Regulatory Commission of USA, the US NRC. However, it cannot be applied as is established, so was necessary that the CNSNS analyze one by one the requirements of both types of license and determine what would be required to NPP-LV to submit its operating license of ISFSI. The American regulatory applicable to an ISFSI, the 10-Cfr-72 of the US NRC, establishes the requirements for both types of licenses. Chapter 10-Cfr was analyzed in all its clauses and coupled to the laws, regulations and standards as well as to the requirements established by CNSNS, all associated with a store spent fuel on site; the respective certification of containers for spent fuel dry storage was not included in this article, even though the CNSNS also performed that activity under the

  18. R Wave in aVL Lead is a Robust Index of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy: A Cardiac MRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courand, Pierre-Yves; Grandjean, Adrien; Charles, Paul; Paget, Vinciane; Khettab, Fouad; Bricca, Giampiero; Boussel, Loïc; Lantelme, Pierre; Harbaoui, Brahim

    2015-08-01

    In patients free from overt cardiac disease, R wave in aVL lead (RaVL) is strongly correlated with left ventricular mass index (LVMI) assessed by transthoracic echocardiography. The aim of the present study was to extend this finding to other settings (cardiomyopathy or conduction disorders), by comparing ECG criteria of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) to cardiac MRI (CMR). In 501 patients, CMR and ECG were performed within a median-period of 5 days. CMR LVH cut-offs used were 83 g/m2 in men and 67 g/m2 in women. RaVL was independently correlated with LVMI in patients with or without myocardial infarction (MI) (N = 300 and N = 201, respectively). SV3 was independently correlated with LVMI and LV enlargement only in patients without MI. In the whole cohort, RaVL had area under receiver-operating characteristic curve of 0.729 (specificity 98.3%, sensitivity 19.6%, optimal cut-off 1.1 mV). The performance of RaVL was remarkable in women, in Caucasians, and in the presence of right bundle branch block. It decreased in case of MI. Overall, it is proposed that below 0.5 mV and above 1.0 mV, RaVL is sufficient to exclude or establish LVH. Between 0.5 and 1 mV, composite indices (Cornell voltage or product) should be used. Using this algorithm allowed classifying appropriately 85% of the patients. Our results showed that RaVL is a good index of LVH with a univocal threshold of 1.0 mV in various clinical conditions. SV3 may be combined to RaVL in some conditions, namely LV enlargement to increase its performance. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2015. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Peritrophin-like protein from Litopenaeus vannamei (LvPT) involved in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection in digestive tract challenged with reverse gavage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shijun; Li, Fuhua; Zhang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Jiquan; Xiang, Jianhai

    2017-11-01

    The peritrophic membrane plays an important role in the defense system of the arthropod gut. The digestive tract is considered one of the major tissues targeted by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in shrimp. In this study, the nucleotide sequence encoding peritrophin-like protein of Litopenaeus vannamei (LvPT) was amplified from a yeast two-hybrid library of L. vannamei. The epitope peptide of LvPT was predicted with the GenScript OptimumAntigen™ design tool. An anti-LvPT polyclonal antibody was produced and shown to specifically bind a band at 27 kDa, identified as LvPT. The LvPT protein was expressed and its concentration determined. LvPT dsRNA (4 μg per shrimp) was used to inhibit LvPT expression in shrimp, and a WSSV challenge experiment was then performed with reverse gavage. The pleopods, stomachs, and guts were collected from the shrimp at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h post-infection (hpi). Viral load quantification showed that the levels of WSSV were significantly lower in the pleopods, stomachs, and guts of shrimp after LvPT dsRNA interference than in those of the controls at 48 and 72 hpi. Our results imply that LvPT plays an important role during WSSV infection of the digestive tract.

  20. Seroprevalence of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) in shelter cats on the island of Newfoundland, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Hannah J; Berghuis, Lesley; Lang, Andrew S; Rogers, Laura; Whitney, Hugh

    2014-04-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) are retroviruses found within domestic and wild cat populations. These viruses cause severe illnesses that eventually lead to death. Housing cats communally for long periods of time makes shelters at high risk for virus transmission among cats. We tested 548 cats from 5 different sites across the island of Newfoundland for FIV and FeLV. The overall seroprevalence was 2.2% and 6.2% for FIV and FeLV, respectively. Two sites had significantly higher seroprevalence of FeLV infection than the other 3 sites. Analysis of sequences from the FeLV env gene (envelope gene) from 6 positive cats showed that 4 fell within the FeLV subtype-A, while 2 sequences were most closely related to FeLV subtype-B and endogenous feline leukemia virus (en FeLV). Varying seroprevalence and the variation in sequences at different sites demonstrate that some shelters are at greater risk of FeLV infections and recombination can occur at sites of high seroprevalence.

  1. The surface glycoprotein of a natural feline leukemia virus subgroup A variant, FeLV-945, as a determinant of disease outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolin, Lisa L; Ahmad, Shamim; Levy, Laura S

    2011-10-15

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is a natural retrovirus of domestic cats associated with degenerative, proliferative and malignant diseases. Studies of FeLV infection in a cohort of naturally infected cats were undertaken to examine FeLV variation, the selective pressures operative in FeLV infection that lead to predominance of natural variants, and the consequences for infection and disease progression. A unique variant, designated FeLV-945, was identified as the predominant isolate in the cohort and was associated with non-T-cell diseases including multicentric lymphoma. FeLV-945 was assigned to the FeLV-A subgroup based on sequence analysis and receptor utilization, but was shown to differ in sequence from a prototype member of FeLV-A, designated FeLV-A/61E, in the long terminal repeat (LTR) and the surface glycoprotein gene (SU). A unique sequence motif in the FeLV-945 LTR was shown to function as a transcriptional enhancer and to confer a replicative advantage. The FeLV-945 SU protein was observed to differ in sequence as compared to FeLV-A/61E within functional domains known to determine receptor selection and binding. Experimental infection of newborn cats was performed using wild type FeLV-A/61E or recombinant FeLV-A/61E in which the LTR (61E/945L) or LTR and SU (61E/945SL) were exchanged for that of FeLV-945. Infection with either FeLV-A/61E or 61E/945L resulted in T-cell lymphoma of the thymus, although 61E/945L caused disease significantly more rapidly. In contrast, infection with 61E/945SL resulted in the rapid induction of a multicentric lymphoma of B-cell origin, thus recapitulating the outcome of natural infection and implicating FeLV-945 SU as a determinant of disease outcome. Recombinant FeLV-B was detected infrequently and at low levels in multicentric lymphomas, and was thereby not implicated in disease induction. Preliminary studies of receptor interaction indicated that virus particles bearing FeLV-945 SU bind to the FeLV-A receptor more

  2. Modelling wetland-groundwater interactions in the boreal Kälväsvaara esker, Northern Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaros, Anna; Rossi, Pekka; Ronkanen, Anna-Kaisa; Kløve, Bjørn

    2016-04-01

    Many types of boreal peatland ecosystems such as alkaline fens, aapa mires and Fennoscandia spring fens rely on the presence of groundwater. In these ecosystems groundwater creates unique conditions for flora and fauna by providing water, nutrients and constant water temperature enriching local biodiversity. The groundwater-peatland interactions and their dynamics are not, however, in many cases fully understood and their measurement and quantification is difficult due to highly heterogeneous structure of peatlands and large spatial extend of these ecosystems. Understanding of these interactions and their changes due to anthropogenic impact on groundwater resources would benefit the protection of the groundwater dependent peatlands. The groundwater-peatland interactions were investigated using the fully-integrated physically-based groundwater-surface water code HydroGeoSphere in a case study of the Kälväsvaara esker aquifer, Northern Finland. The Kälväsvaara is a geologically complex esker and it is surrounded by vast aapa mire system including alkaline and springs fens. In addition, numerous small springs occur in the discharge zone of the esker. In order to quantify groundwater-peatland interactions a simple steady-state model was built and results were evaluated using expected trends and field measurements. The employed model reproduced relatively well spatially distributed hydrological variables such as soil water content, water depths and groundwater-surface water exchange fluxes within the wetland and esker areas. The wetlands emerged in simulations as a result of geological and topographical conditions. They could be identified by high saturation levels at ground surface and by presence of shallow ponded water over some areas. The model outputs exhibited also strong surface water-groundwater interactions in some parts of the aapa system. These areas were noted to be regions of substantial diffusive groundwater discharge by the earlier studies. In

  3. Phlorizin Prevents Glomerular Hyperfiltration but not Hypertrophy in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slava Malatiali

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationships of renal and glomerular hypertrophies to development of hyperfiltration and proteinuria early in streptozotocin-induced diabetes were explored. Control, diabetic, phlorizin-treated controls, and diabetic male Fischer rats were used. Phlorizin (an Na+-glucose cotransport inhibitor was given at a dose sufficient to normalize blood glucose. Inulin clearance (Cinulin and protein excretion rate (PER were measured. For morphometry, kidney sections were stained with periodic acid Schiff. At one week, diabetes PER increased 2.8-folds (P<.001, Cinulin increased 80% (P<.01. Kidney wet and dry weights increased 10%–12% (P<.05, and glomerular tuft area increased 9.3% (P<.001. Phlorizin prevented proteinuria, hyperfiltration, and kidney hypertrophy, but not glomerular hypertrophy. Thus, hyperfiltration, proteinuria, and whole kidney hypertrophy were related to hyperglycemia but not to glomerular growth. Diabetic glomerular hypertrophy constitutes an early event in the progression of glomerular pathology which occurs in the absence of mesangial expansion and persists even after changes in protein excretion and GFR are reversed through glycemic control.

  4. Neurogenic muscle hypertrophy in a 12-year-old girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zutelija Fattorini, Matija; Gagro, Alenka; Dapic, Tomislav; Krakar, Goran; Marjanovic, Josip

    2017-01-01

    Muscular hypertrophy secondary to denervation is very rare, but well-documented phenomena in adults. This is the first report of a child with neurogenic unilateral hypertrophy due to S1 radiculopathy. A 12-year-old girl presented with left calf hypertrophy and negative history of low back pain or trauma. The serum creatinine kinase level and inflammatory markers were normal. Magnetic resonance imaging showed muscle hypertrophy of the left gastrocnemius and revealed a protruded lumbar disc at the L5-S1 level. The protruded disc abuts the S1 root on the left side. Electromyography showed mild left S1 radiculopathy. Passive stretching and work load might clarify the origin of neurogenic hypertrophy but there is still a need for further evidence. Clinical, laboratory, magnetic resonance imaging and electromyography findings showed that S1 radiculopathy could be a cause of unilateral calf swelling in youth even in the absence of a history of back or leg pain. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Experimental infection of Tilapia Lake Virus (TiLV) in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and red tilapia (Oreochromis spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattiyapong, Puntanat; Dachavichitlead, Worawan; Surachetpong, Win

    2017-08-01

    Since 2015, a novel orthomyxo-like virus, tilapia lake virus (TiLV) has been associated with outbreaks of disease and massive mortality of cultured Nile and red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and Oreochromis spp., respectively) in Thailand. In this study, TiLV was isolated from field samples and propagated in the permissive E-11 cell line, with cytopathic effect (CPE) development within 3-5days post-inoculation. Electron micrographs of infected E-11 cells and fish tissues confirmed the rounded, enveloped virions of 60 to 80nm with characteristics very similar to those of Orthomyxoviridae. In vivo challenge studies showed that high mortality in Nile (86%) and red tilapia (66%) occurred within 4-12days post-infection. The virus was re-isolated from challenged fish tissues in the permissive cell line, and PCR analysis confirmed TiLV as a causative pathogen. The distinct histopathology of challenged fish included massive degeneration and inflammatory cell infiltration in the liver and brain as well as the presence of eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusions in hepatocytes and splenic cells. Our results fulfilled Koch's postulates and confirmed that TiLV is an etiologic agent of mass mortality of tilapia in Thailand. The emergence of this virus in many countries has helped increase awareness that it is a potential threat to tilapia aquacultured in Thailand, Asia, and worldwide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Intermittent cardiac overload results in adaptive hypertrophy and provides protection against left ventricular acute pressure overload insult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-Gonçalves, Daniel; Henriques-Coelho, Tiago; Fonseca, Hélder; Ferreira, Rita; Padrão, Ana Isabel; Santa, Cátia; Vieira, Sara; Silva, Ana Filipa; Amado, Francisco; Leite-Moreira, Adelino; Duarte, José Alberto

    2015-09-01

    The present study aimed to test whether a chronic intermittent workload could induce an adaptive cardiac phenotype Chronic intermittent workload induced features of adaptive hypertrophy This was paralleled by protection against acute pressure overload insult The heart may adapt favourably to balanced demands, regardless of the nature of the stimuli. The present study aimed to test whether submitting the healthy heart to intermittent and tolerable amounts of workload, independently of its nature, could result in an adaptive cardiac phenotype. Male Wistar rats were subjected to treadmill running (Ex) (n = 20), intermittent cardiac overload with dobutamine (ITO) (2 mg kg(-1) , s.c.; n = 20) or placebo administration (Cont) (n = 20) for 5 days week(-1) for 8 weeks. Animals were then killed for histological and biochemical analysis or subjected to left ventricular haemodynamic evaluation under baseline conditions, in response to isovolumetric contractions and to sustained LV acute pressure overload (35% increase in peak systolic pressure maintained for 2 h). Baseline cardiac function was enhanced only in Ex, whereas the response to isovolumetric heartbeats was improved in both ITO and Ex. By contrast to the Cont group, in which rats developed diastolic dysfunction with sustained acute pressure overload, ITO and Ex showed increased tolerance to this stress test. Both ITO and Ex developed cardiomyocyte hypertrophy without fibrosis, no overexpression of osteopontin-1 or β-myosin heavy chain, and increased expression of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) protein. Regarding hypertrophic pathways, ITO and Ex showed activation of the protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin pathway but not calcineurin. Mitochondrial complex IV and V activities were also increased in ITO and Ex. Chronic submission to controlled intermittent cardiac overload, independently of its nature, results in an adaptive cardiac phenotype. Features of the cardiac overload, such as the duration and

  7. Impact of biogenic nanoscale metals Fe, Cu, Zn and Se on reproductive LV chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Quy Khiem; Nguyen, Van Kien; Nguyen, Khac Thinh; Nguyen, Duy Dieu; Nguyen, Hoai Chau; Tran, Xuan Tin; Nguyen, Huu Cuong; Phung, Duc Tien

    2015-01-01

    Using biogenic nanoscale metals (Fe, Cu, ZnO, Se) to supplement into diet premix of reproductive LV (a Vietnamese Luong Phuong chicken breed) chickens resulted in certain improvement of poultry farming. The experimental data obtained showed that the farming indices depend mainly on the quantity of nanocrystalline metals which replaced the inorganic mineral component in the feed premix. All four experimental groups with different quantities of the replacement nano component grew and developed normally with livability reaching 91 to 94%, hen’s bodyweight at 38 weeks of age and egg weight ranged from 2.53–2.60 kg/hen and 50.86–51.55 g/egg, respectively. All these farming indices together with laying rate, egg productivity and chick hatchability peaked at group 5 with 25% of nanoscale metals compared to the standard inorganic mineral supplement, while feed consumption was lowest. The results also confirmed that nanocrystalline metals Fe, Cu, ZnO and Se supplemented to chicken feed were able to decrease inorganic minerals in the diet premixes at least four times, allowing animals to more effectively absorb feed minerals, consequently decreasing environmental pollution risks. (paper)

  8. Podocyte hypertrophy precedes apoptosis under experimental diabetic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun Ha; Moon, Sung Jin; Paeng, Jisun; Kang, Hye-Young; Nam, Bo Young; Kim, Seonghun; Kim, Chan Ho; Lee, Mi Jung; Oh, Hyung Jung; Park, Jung Tak; Han, Seung Hyeok; Yoo, Tae-Hyun; Kang, Shin-Wook

    2015-08-01

    Podocyte hypertrophy and apoptosis are two hallmarks of diabetic glomeruli, but the sequence in which these processes occur remains a matter of debate. Here we investigated the effects of inhibiting hypertrophy on apoptosis, and vice versa, in both podocytes and glomeruli, under diabetic conditions. Hypertrophy and apoptosis were inhibited using an epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor (PKI 166) and a pan-caspase inhibitor (zAsp-DCB), respectively. We observed significant increases in the protein expression of p27, p21, phospho-eukaryotic elongation factor 4E-binding protein 1, and phospho-p70 S6 ribosomal protein kinase, in both cultured podocytes exposed to high-glucose (HG) medium, and streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus (DM) rat glomeruli. These increases were significantly inhibited by PKI 166, but not by zAsp-DCB. In addition, the amount of protein per cell, the relative cell size, and the glomerular volume were all significantly increased under diabetic conditions, and these changes were also blocked by treatment with PKI 166, but not zAsp-DCB. Increased protein expression of cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, together with increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratios, were also observed in HG-stimulated podocytes and DM glomeruli. Treatment with either zAsp-DCB or PKI 166 resulted in a significant attenuation of these effects. Both PKI 166 and zAsp-DCB also inhibited the increase in number of apoptotic cells, as assessed by Hoechst 33342 staining and TUNEL assay. Under diabetic conditions, inhibition of podocyte hypertrophy results in attenuated apoptosis, whereas blocking apoptosis has no effect on podocyte hypertrophy, suggesting that podocyte hypertrophy precedes apoptosis.

  9. Extra-Esophageal Pepsin from Stomach Refluxate Promoted Tonsil Hypertrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Hyun Kim

    Full Text Available Gastroesophageal reflux is associated with numerous pathologic conditions of the upper aerodigestive tract. Gastric pepsin within reflux contributes to immunologic reactions in the tonsil. In this study, we aimed to find the relationships between pepsin and tonsillar hypertrophy.We explored the notion whether tonsillar hypertrophy was due to pepsin-mediated gastric reflux in tonsil hypertrophy. Fifty-four children with tonsil hypertrophy and 30 adults with tonsillitis were recruited before surgical treatment. Blood and tonsil tissues from each patient were harvested for analysis of changes in lymphocyte and macrophage numbers coupled with histological and biochemical analysis. Pepsin was expressed at different levels in tonsil tissues from each tonsillar hypertrophy. Pepsin-positive cells were found in the crypt epithelium, surrounding the lymphoid follicle with developing fibrosis, and also surrounding the lymphoid follicle that faced the crypt. And also, pepsin staining was well correlated with damaged tonsillar squamous epithelium and TGF-β1 and iNOS expression in the tonsil section. In addition, pepsin and TGF-β1-positive cells were co-localized with CD68-positive cells in the crypt and surrounding germinal centers. In comparison of macrophage responsiveness to pepsin, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs were noticeably larger in the presence of activated pepsin in the child group. Furthermore, CD11c and CD163-positive cells were significantly increased by activated pepsin. However, this was not seen for the culture of PBMNCs from the adult group.The lymphocytes and monocytes are in a highly proliferative state in the tonsillar hypertrophy and associated with increased expression of pro-inflammatory factors as a result of exposure to stomach reflux pepsin.

  10. Congenital hypertrophy of multiple intrinsic muscles of the foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Tomohiro; Park, Susam; Niu, Atushi; Hasegawa, Hiromi

    2014-12-01

    Congenital hypertrophy of a single intrinsic muscle of the foot is rare, and as far as we know, only six cases have been reported. We describe a case of congenital anomaly that showed hypertrophy of multiple intrinsic muscles of the foot; the affected muscles were all the intrinsic muscles of the foot except the extensor digitorum brevis or extensor hallucis. Other tissues such as adipose tissue, nervous tissue, or osseous tissue showed no abnormalities. To reduce the volume of the foot we removed parts of the enlarged muscles.

  11. Association of heart failure hospitalizations with combined electrocardiography and echocardiography criteria for left ventricular hypertrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdts, Eva; Okin, Peter M; Boman, Kurt

    2012-01-01

    The value of performing echocardiography in hypertensive patients with electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is uncertain.......The value of performing echocardiography in hypertensive patients with electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is uncertain....

  12. Myocardial hypertrophy in the recipient with twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, D.L.; Jorgensen, F.S.; Pryds, O.A.

    2008-01-01

    pressure measurements revealed persistent systemic hypertension. Biventricular hypertrophy was demonstrated by echocardiography. Blood pressure normalised after treatment with Nifedipine and the cardiac hypertrophy subsided over the following weeks. A potential contributing mechanism is intrauterine...

  13. Importance of leptin signaling and signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 activation in mediating the cardiac hypertrophy associated with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifheit-Nestler, Maren; Wagner, Nana-Maria; Gogiraju, Rajinikanth; Didié, Michael; Konstantinides, Stavros; Hasenfuss, Gerd; Schäfer, Katrin

    2013-07-11

    The adipokine leptin and its receptor are expressed in the heart, and leptin has been shown to promote cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in vitro. Obesity is associated with hyperleptinemia and hypothalamic leptin resistance as well as an increased risk to develop cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. However, the role of cardiac leptin signaling in mediating the cardiomyopathy associated with increased body weight is unclear, in particular, whether it develops subsequently to cardiac leptin resistance or overactivation of hypertrophic signaling pathways via elevated leptin levels. The cardiac phenotype of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese wildtype (WT) mice was examined and compared to age-matched genetically obese leptin receptor (LepR)-deficient (LepRdb/db) or lean WT mice. To study the role of leptin-mediated STAT3 activation during obesity-induced cardiac remodeling, mice in which tyrosine residue 1138 within LepR had been replaced with a serine (LepRS1138) were also analyzed. Obesity was associated with hyperleptinemia and elevated cardiac leptin expression in both diet-induced and genetically obese mice. Enhanced LepR and STAT3 phosphorylation levels were detected in hearts of obese WT mice, but not in those with LepR mutations. Moreover, exogenous leptin continued to induce cardiac STAT3 activation in diet-induced obese mice. Although echocardiography revealed signs of cardiac hypertrophy in all obese mice, the increase in left ventricular (LV) mass and diameter was significantly more pronounced in LepRS1138 animals. LepRS1138 mice also exhibited an increased activation of signaling proteins downstream of LepR, including Jak2 (1.8-fold), Src kinase (1.7-fold), protein kinase B (1.3-fold) or C (1.6-fold). Histological analysis of hearts revealed that the inability of leptin to activate STAT3 in LepRdb/db and LepRS1138 mice was associated with reduced cardiac angiogenesis as well as increased apoptosis and fibrosis. Our findings suggest that hearts from obese mice

  14. The proviral genome of radiation leukemia virus (RadLV): molecular cloning, restriction analysis and integration sites in tumor cell DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janowski, M.; Merregaert, J.; Nuyten, J.M.; Maisin, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    An infectious clone of the linear, unintegrated RadLV provirus was obtained by insertion in the plasmid pBR322. Its restriction map was indistinguishable from that of the majority of the multiple proviral copies, which are found apparently at random sites in the DNA of RadLV-induced rat thymic lymphomas [fr

  15. Correlation of trabeculae and papillary muscles with clinical and cardiac characteristics and impact on CMR measures of LV anatomy and function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chuang, Michael L.; Gona, Philimon; Hautvast, Gilion L T F; Salton, Carol J.; Blease, Susan J.; Yeon, Susan B.; Breeuwer, Marcel; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Manning, Warren J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The goal of this study was to assess the relationship of left ventricular (LV) trabeculae and papillary muscles (TPM) with clinical characteristics in a community-based, free-living adult cohort and to determine the effect of TPM on quantitative measures of LV volume, mass, and ejection

  16. Acumulación/eliminación de oxitetraciclina en el camarón blanco, lv y su residualidad en dietas artificiales

    OpenAIRE

    Montoya, Nelson; Reyes, Eduardo

    2002-01-01

    Acumulación/eliminación de oxitetraciclina en el camarón blanco, LV y su residualidad en dietas artificiales Acumulación/eliminación de oxitetraciclina en el camarón blanco, LV y su residualidad en dietas artificiales

  17. Quantitative gated SPECT- a comparative study of two algorithms for parameters of perfusion and LV function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.Z.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Aim: To compare the perfusion and LV function parameters as quantified by 4D-MSPECT and ECT in the same patient group and a qualitative comparison of the reconstructed slices by two different experts. Materials and methods: Thirty-one consecutive patients underwent gated myocardial perfusion SPECT using a two-day protocol. The gated and ungated data were reconstructed by back projection method. Quantitative analysis was performed on the same set of reconstructed slices by 4D-MSPECT and Emory Cardiac Tool Box. The reconstructed slices were read qualitatively by two different experts on their respective systems. Polar map and functional analysis was performed in both softwares and the results were compared. Results: The concordance between the two experts qualitatively was seen in 78/93(84%) coronary territories. The polar map defects were comparable in LAD (r-value of 0.87) and LCX (r-value of 0.76) territories whereas RCA defects (r-value of 0.04) were not at all correlating. The defect severity showed concordance in 68/93 (73%) coronary territories. There was concordance between 4DMSPECT and the qualitative interpretation in 84/93 (90%) coronary territories whereas ECT showed concordance in only 70/93(75%) coronary territories. The overall sensitivity is marginally higher for ECT (100% vs. 96%) but the overall specificity is much higher with 4 DMSPECT (88% vs. 65%). ESV showed good correlation(r=0.94) of the two softwares with no significant difference in means. EDV and LVEF although had good correlation(r = 0.96 and 0.89) showed high difference in means (p<0.01). Conclusion: Between 4D-MSPECT and ECT, 4D-MSPECT is marginally superior to ECT with reference to qualitative interpretation in view of better specificity. The LVEF values between the two softwares should also not be used interchangeably. (author)

  18. A Systems Biology Approach to Investigating Sex Differences in Cardiac Hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Josephine; Fillmore, Natasha; Gao, Shouguo; Yang, Yanqin; Zhang, Xue; Liu, Poching; Stoehr, Andrea; Chen, Ye; Springer, Danielle; Zhu, Jun; Wang, Xujing; Murphy, Elizabeth

    2017-08-19

    Heart failure preceded by hypertrophy is a leading cause of death, and sex differences in hypertrophy are well known, although the basis for these sex differences is poorly understood. This study used a systems biology approach to investigate mechanisms underlying sex differences in cardiac hypertrophy. Male and female mice were treated for 2 and 3 weeks with angiotensin II to induce hypertrophy. Sex differences in cardiac hypertrophy were apparent after 3 weeks of treatment. RNA sequencing was performed on hearts, and sex differences in mRNA expression at baseline and following hypertrophy were observed, as well as within-sex differences between baseline and hypertrophy. Sex differences in mRNA were substantial at baseline and reduced somewhat with hypertrophy, as the mRNA differences induced by hypertrophy tended to overwhelm the sex differences. We performed an integrative analysis to identify mRNA networks that were differentially regulated in the 2 sexes by hypertrophy and obtained a network centered on PPARα (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α). Mouse experiments further showed that acute inhibition of PPARα blocked sex differences in the development of hypertrophy. The data in this study suggest that PPARα is involved in the sex-dimorphic regulation of cardiac hypertrophy. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  19. Regulation of FeLV-945 by c-Myb binding and CBP recruitment to the LTR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finstad Samantha L

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feline leukemia virus (FeLV induces degenerative, proliferative and malignant hematologic disorders in its natural host, the domestic cat. FeLV-945 is a viral variant identified as predominant in a cohort of naturally infected animals. FeLV-945 contains a unique sequence motif in the long terminal repeat (LTR comprised of a single copy of transcriptional enhancer followed by a 21-bp sequence triplicated in tandem. The LTR is precisely conserved among independent cases of multicentric lymphoma, myeloproliferative disease and anemia in animals from the cohort. The 21-bp triplication was previously shown to act as a transcriptional enhancer preferentially in hematopoietic cells and to confer a replicative advantage. The objective of the present study was to examine the molecular mechanism by which the 21-bp triplication exerts its influence and the selective advantage responsible for its precise conservation. Results Potential binding sites for the transcription factor, c-Myb, were identified across the repeat junctions of the 21-bp triplication. Such sites would not occur in the absence of the repeat; thus, a requirement for c-Myb binding to the repeat junctions of the triplication would exert a selective pressure to conserve its sequence precisely. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated specific binding of c-Myb to the 21-bp triplication. Reporter gene assays showed that the triplication-containing LTR is responsive to c-Myb, and that responsiveness requires the presence of both c-Myb binding sites. Results further indicated that c-Myb in complex with the 21-bp triplication recruits the transcriptional co-activator, CBP, a regulator of normal hematopoiesis. FeLV-945 replication was shown to be positively regulated by CBP in a manner dependent on the presence of the 21-bp triplication. Conclusion Binding sites for c-Myb across the repeat junctions of the 21-bp triplication may account for its precise conservation in

  20. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV, feline leukaemia virus (FeLV and Leishmania sp. in domestic cats in the Midwest of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella Poffo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This search aimed to investigate FIV and FeLV infections in domestic cats, analysing the epidemiological profile of the disease as well as additional infection with Leishmania sp. We evaluated 88 domestic cats for the presence of FIV, FeLV and Leishmania sp. infection. Eleven (12.5% cats were positive for FIV infection, four (4.5% were positive for FeLV, and two were co-infected. However, none was infected with Leishmania sp. The prevalence for FIV infection was higher than FeLV, and those observed in other regions, but no factor was associated with the infection by FIV and FeLV in this study.

  1. Tests of a High Temperature Sample Conditioner for the Waste Treatment Plant LV-S2, LV-S3, HV-S3A and HV-S3B Exhaust Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaherty, Julia E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Glissmeyer, John A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-03-18

    Tests were performed to evaluate a sample conditioning unit for stack monitoring at Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) exhaust stacks with elevated air temperatures. The LV-S2, LV-S3, HV-S3A and HV-S3B exhaust stacks are expected to have elevated air temperature and dew point. At these emission points, exhaust temperatures are too high to deliver the air sample directly to the required stack monitoring equipment. As a result, a sample conditioning system is considered to cool and dry the air prior to its delivery to the stack monitoring system. The method proposed for the sample conditioning is a dilution system that will introduce cooler, dry air to the air sample stream. This method of sample conditioning is meant to reduce the sample temperature while avoiding condensation of moisture in the sample stream. An additional constraint is that the ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999 standard states that at least 50% of the 10 μm aerodynamic diameter (AD) particles present in the stack free stream must be delivered to the sample collector. In other words, depositional loss of particles should be limited to 50% in the sampling, transport, and conditioning systems. Based on estimates of particle penetration through the LV-S3 sampling system, the diluter should perform with about 80% penetration or better to ensure that the total sampling system passes the 50% or greater penetration criterion.

  2. Left ventricular hypertrophy among chronic kidney disease patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The presence of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in patients with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is associated with worsening cardiovascular outcomes. There is a dearth of data on LVH in Ghanaian CKD patients. Methods: This was a cross sectional study carried out at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital ...

  3. Pharmacological targeting of CDK9 in cardiac hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krystof, Vladimír; Chamrád, Ivo; Jorda, Radek; Kohoutek, Jirí

    2010-07-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy allows the heart to adapt to workload, but persistent or unphysiological stimulus can result in pump failure. Cardiac hypertrophy is characterized by an increase in the size of differentiated cardiac myocytes. At the molecular level, growth of cells is linked to intensive transcription and translation. Several cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) have been identified as principal regulators of transcription, and among these CDK9 is directly associated with cardiac hypertrophy. CDK9 phosphorylates the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II and thus stimulates the elongation phase of transcription. Chronic activation of CDK9 causes not only cardiac myocyte enlargement but also confers predisposition to heart failure. Due to the long interest of molecular oncologists and medicinal chemists in CDKs as potential targets of anticancer drugs, a portfolio of small-molecule inhibitors of CDK9 is available. Recent determination of CDK9's crystal structure now allows the development of selective inhibitors and their further optimization in terms of biochemical potency and selectivity. CDK9 may therefore constitute a novel target for drugs against cardiac hypertrophy.

  4. Satellite cell depletion prevents fiber hypertrophy in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egner, Ingrid M; Bruusgaard, Jo C; Gundersen, Kristian

    2016-08-15

    The largest mammalian cells are the muscle fibers, and they have multiple nuclei to support their large cytoplasmic volumes. During hypertrophic growth, new myonuclei are recruited from satellite stem cells into the fiber syncytia, but it was recently suggested that such recruitment is not obligatory: overload hypertrophy after synergist ablation of the plantaris muscle appeared normal in transgenic mice in which most of the satellite cells were abolished. When we essentially repeated these experiments analyzing the muscles by immunohistochemistry and in vivo and ex vivo imaging, we found that overload hypertrophy was prevented in the satellite cell-deficient mice, in both the plantaris and the extensor digitorum longus muscles. We attribute the previous findings to a reliance on muscle mass as a proxy for fiber hypertrophy, and to the inclusion of a significant number of regenerating fibers in the analysis. We discuss that there is currently no model in which functional, sustainable hypertrophy has been unequivocally demonstrated in the absence of satellite cells; an exception is re-growth, which can occur using previously recruited myonuclei without addition of new myonuclei. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Skeletal muscle function and hypertrophy are diminished in old age.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degens, H.; Alway, S.E.

    2003-01-01

    Muscle loss occurs during aging. To investigate whether the hypertrophic response is attenuated at old age, we used male Fischer 344 (26 months old; n = 5) and Fischer 344 x Brown Norway rats (6, 9, and 33 months old; n = 8, 10, and 6, respectively). Hypertrophy of the left plantaris muscle was

  6. Myocardial uptake of thallium-201 in rat with cardiac hypertrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torii, Yukio; Adachi, Haruhiko; Kizu, Akira; Nakagawa, Masao; Ijichi, Hamao

    1985-01-01

    The thallium-201 (TL) has been used in order to diagnose myocardial infarction and ischemia. Although it is well known that TL distributes in the myocardium in proportion to the distribution of coronary blood flow, the biological property of TL in the loaded myocardium remains unclear. We studied the myocardial uptake of TL in rat with cardiac hypertrophy. Experiments were performed in 30 anesthetized rats devided into 3 groups; control group (C,N=14), hypertrophy group (H,N=6) and diltiazem group (D, 0.3 mg/kg/min. IV. N=10). Cardiac hypertrophy was produced with the banding of the ascending aorta. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was measured by microspheres labeled with Strontium-85. Cardiac weight was increased in H, and both MBF and TL uptake were proportionally increased. MBF was negatively correlated with the extraction fraction in C (r=-0.71), in H (r=-0.66) and in D (r=-0.85), and this relationship in H was significantly different from it in C (p<0.05), but not in D. From these results, we concluded that TL uptake in H is not always dependant on MBF and affected by the altered metabolism of hypertrophied myocardium. (author)

  7. Dance band on the Titanic: biomechanical signaling in cardiac hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Mark A; McCulloch, Andrew; Borg, Thomas K

    2002-11-15

    Biomechanical signaling is a complex interaction of both intracellular and extracellular components. Both passive and active components are involved in the extracellular environment to signal through specific receptors to multiple signaling pathways. This review provides an overview of extracellular matrix, specific receptors, and signaling pathways for biomechanical stimulation in cardiac hypertrophy.

  8. Role of hypoxia-inducible factor in diabetic myocardial hypertrophy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: This study was carried out to investigate the role of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) in diabetic cardiomyopathy in vitro. Methods: Hypoxia was induced chemically in H9C2 cells (cardiac hypertrophy model), and the cells were treated with phenylephrine (PE), deferoxamine (DFO), PE + DFO, and HIF-1α siRNA under ...

  9. Role of hypoxia-inducible factor in diabetic myocardial hypertrophy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diabetes or hyperglycemia disrupts HIF-mediated cardiac hypertrophy adaptive regulatory mechanism [14]. In diabetic retinopathy, abnormal increase of ... detection system. Flow cytometry. After digesting with EDTA-free trypsin, the H9C2 cells were centrifuged at 1000 rpm for 5 min. After discarding the medium, the cells ...

  10. Increased mean aliphatic lipid chain length in left ventricular hypertrophy secondary to arterial hypertension: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaristi, Maria Francesca; Caubère, Céline; Harmancey, Romain; Desmoulin, Franck; Peacock, William Frank; Berry, Matthieu; Turkieh, Annie; Barutaut, Manon; Galinier, Michel; Dambrin, Camille; Polidori, Carlo; Miceli, Cristina; Chamontin, Bernard; Koukoui, François; Roncalli, Jerôme; Massabuau, Pierre; Smih, Fatima; Rouet, Philippe

    2016-11-01

    About 77.9 million (1 in 4) American adults have high blood pressure. High blood pressure is the primary cause of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), which represents a strong predictor of future heart failure and cardiovascular mortality. Previous studies have shown an altered metabolic profile in hypertensive patients with LVH. The goal of this study was to identify blood metabolomic LVH biomarkers by H NMR to provide novel diagnostic tools for rapid LVH detection in populations of hypertensive individuals. This cross-sectional study included 48 hypertensive patients with LVH matched with 48 hypertensive patients with normal LV size, and 24 healthy controls. Two-dimensional targeted M-mode echocardiography was performed to measure left ventricular mass index. Partial least squares discriminant analysis was used for the multivariate analysis of the H NMR spectral data. From the H NMR-based metabolomic profiling, signals coming from methylene (-CH2-) and methyl (-CH3) moieties of aliphatic chains from plasma lipids were identified as discriminant variables. The -CH2-/-CH3 ratio, an indicator of the mean length of the aliphatic lipid chains, was significantly higher (P hypertensive group without LVH and controls. Receiver operating characteristic curve showed that a cutoff of 2.34 provided a 52.08% sensitivity and 85.42% specificity for discriminating LVH (AUC = 0.703, P-value hypertension.

  11. Deficiency of superoxide dismutase promotes cerebral vascular hypertrophy and vascular dysfunction in hyperhomocysteinemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjana Dayal

    Full Text Available There is an emerging consensus that hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for cerebral vascular disease and that homocysteine-lowering therapy protects from ischemic stroke. However, the mechanisms by which hyperhomocysteinemia produces abnormalities of cerebral vascular structure and function remain largely undefined. Our objective in this study was to define the mechanistic role of superoxide in hyperhomocysteinemia-induced cerebral vascular dysfunction and hypertrophy. Unlike previous studies, our experimental design included a genetic approach to alter superoxide levels by using superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1-deficient mice fed a high methionine/low folate diet to produce hyperhomocysteinemia. In wild-type mice, the hyperhomocysteinemic diet caused elevated superoxide levels and impaired responses to endothelium-dependent vasodilators in cerebral arterioles, and SOD1 deficiency compounded the severity of these effects. The cross-sectional area of the pial arteriolar wall was markedly increased in mice with SOD1 deficiency, and the hyperhomocysteinemic diet sensitized SOD1-deficient mice to this hypertrophic effect. Analysis of individual components of the vascular wall demonstrated a significant increase in the content of smooth muscle and elastin. We conclude that superoxide is a key driver of both cerebral vascular hypertrophy and vasomotor dysfunction in this model of dietary hyperhomocysteinemia. These findings provide insight into the mechanisms by which hyperhomocysteinemia promotes cerebral vascular disease and ischemic stroke.

  12. Melatonin protects against myocardial hypertrophy induced by lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qi; Yi, Xin; Cheng, Xiang; Sun, Xiaohui; Yang, Xiangjun

    2015-04-01

    Melatonin is thought to have the ability of antiatherogenic, antioxidant, and vasodilatory. It is not only a promising protective in acute myocardial infarction but is also a useful tool in the treatment of pathological remodeling. However, its role in myocardial hypertrophy remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of melatonin on myocardial hypertrophy induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and to identify their precise mechanisms. The cultured myocardial cell was divided into six groups: control group, LPS group, LPS + ethanol (4%), LPS + melatonin (1.5 mg/ml) group, LPS + melatonin (3 mg/ml) group, and LPS + melatonin (6 mg/ml) group. The morphologic change of myocardial cell was observed by inverted phase contrast microscope. The protein level of myocardial cell was measured by Coomassie brilliant blue protein kit. The secretion level of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Ca(2+) transient in Fura-2/AM-loaded cells was measured by Till image system. The expression of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) and calcineurin (CaN) was measured by Western blot analysis. Our data demonstrated that LPS induced myocardial hypertrophy, promoted the secretion levels of TNF-α, and increased Ca(2+) transient level and the expression of CaMKII and CaN. Administration of melatonin 30 min prior to LPS stimulation dose-dependently attenuated myocardial hypertrophy. In conclusion, the results revealed that melatonin had the potential to protect against myocardial hypertrophy induced by LPS in vitro through downregulation of the TNF-α expression and retains the intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis.

  13. Effective fiber hypertrophy in satellite cell-depleted skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, John J.; Mula, Jyothi; Miyazaki, Mitsunori; Erfani, Rod; Garrison, Kelcye; Farooqui, Amreen B.; Srikuea, Ratchakrit; Lawson, Benjamin A.; Grimes, Barry; Keller, Charles; Van Zant, Gary; Campbell, Kenneth S.; Esser, Karyn A.; Dupont-Versteegden, Esther E.; Peterson, Charlotte A.

    2011-01-01

    An important unresolved question in skeletal muscle plasticity is whether satellite cells are necessary for muscle fiber hypertrophy. To address this issue, a novel mouse strain (Pax7-DTA) was created which enabled the conditional ablation of >90% of satellite cells in mature skeletal muscle following tamoxifen administration. To test the hypothesis that satellite cells are necessary for skeletal muscle hypertrophy, the plantaris muscle of adult Pax7-DTA mice was subjected to mechanical overload by surgical removal of the synergist muscle. Following two weeks of overload, satellite cell-depleted muscle showed the same increases in muscle mass (approximately twofold) and fiber cross-sectional area with hypertrophy as observed in the vehicle-treated group. The typical increase in myonuclei with hypertrophy was absent in satellite cell-depleted fibers, resulting in expansion of the myonuclear domain. Consistent with lack of nuclear addition to enlarged fibers, long-term BrdU labeling showed a significant reduction in the number of BrdU-positive myonuclei in satellite cell-depleted muscle compared with vehicle-treated muscle. Single fiber functional analyses showed no difference in specific force, Ca2+ sensitivity, rate of cross-bridge cycling and cooperativity between hypertrophied fibers from vehicle and tamoxifen-treated groups. Although a small component of the hypertrophic response, both fiber hyperplasia and regeneration were significantly blunted following satellite cell depletion, indicating a distinct requirement for satellite cells during these processes. These results provide convincing evidence that skeletal muscle fibers are capable of mounting a robust hypertrophic response to mechanical overload that is not dependent on satellite cells. PMID:21828094

  14. PPARalpha siRNA-treated expression profiles uncover the causal sufficiency network for compound-induced liver hypertrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xudong Dai

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Uncovering pathways underlying drug-induced toxicity is a fundamental objective in the field of toxicogenomics. Developing mechanism-based toxicity biomarkers requires the identification of such novel pathways and the order of their sufficiency in causing a phenotypic response. Genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi phenotypic screening has emerged as an effective tool in unveiling the genes essential for specific cellular functions and biological activities. However, eliciting the relative contribution of and sufficiency relationships among the genes identified remains challenging. In the rodent, the most widely used animal model in preclinical studies, it is unrealistic to exhaustively examine all potential interactions by RNAi screening. Application of existing computational approaches to infer regulatory networks with biological outcomes in the rodent is limited by the requirements for a large number of targeted permutations. Therefore, we developed a two-step relay method that requires only one targeted perturbation for genome-wide de novo pathway discovery. Using expression profiles in response to small interfering RNAs (siRNAs against the gene for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (Ppara, our method unveiled the potential causal sufficiency order network for liver hypertrophy in the rodent. The validity of the inferred 16 causal transcripts or 15 known genes for PPARalpha-induced liver hypertrophy is supported by their ability to predict non-PPARalpha-induced liver hypertrophy with 84% sensitivity and 76% specificity. Simulation shows that the probability of achieving such predictive accuracy without the inferred causal relationship is exceedingly small (p < 0.005. Five of the most sufficient causal genes have been previously disrupted in mouse models; the resulting phenotypic changes in the liver support the inferred causal roles in liver hypertrophy. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of defining pathways mediating drug

  15. LV dyssynchrony as assessed by phase analysis of gated SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging in patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chun; Li, Dianfu; Miao, Changqing; Zhou, Yanli; Cao, Kejiang; Feng, Jianlin; Lloyd, Michael S.; Chen, Ji

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate left ventricular (LV) mechanical dyssynchrony in patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome pre- and post-radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFA) using phase analysis of gated single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). Forty-five WPW patients were enrolled and had gated SPECT MPI pre- and 2-3 days post-RFA. Electrophysiological study (EPS) was used to locate accessory pathways (APs) and categorize the patients according to the AP locations (septal, left and right free wall). Electrocardiography (ECG) was performed pre- and post-RFA to confirm successful elimination of the APs. Phase analysis of gated SPECT MPI was used to assess LV dyssynchrony pre- and post-RFA. Among the 45 patients, 3 had gating errors, and thus 42 had SPECT phase analysis. Twenty-two patients (52.4 %) had baseline LV dyssynchrony. Baseline LV dyssynchrony was more prominent in the patients with septal APs than in the patients with left or right APs (p < 0.05). RFA improved LV synchrony in the entire cohort and in the patients with septal APs (p < 0.01). Phase analysis of gated SPECT MPI demonstrated that LV mechanical dyssynchrony can be present in patients with WPW syndrome. Septal APs result in the greatest degree of LV mechanical dyssynchrony and afford the most benefit after RFA. This study supports further investigation in the relationship between electrical and mechanical activation using EPS and phase analysis of gated SPECT MPI. (orig.)

  16. LV dyssynchrony as assessed by phase analysis of gated SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging in patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chun; Li, Dianfu; Miao, Changqing; Zhou, Yanli; Cao, Kejiang [First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Department of Cardiology, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Feng, Jianlin [First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Lloyd, Michael S. [Emory University School of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Chen, Ji [Emory University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2012-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate left ventricular (LV) mechanical dyssynchrony in patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome pre- and post-radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFA) using phase analysis of gated single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). Forty-five WPW patients were enrolled and had gated SPECT MPI pre- and 2-3 days post-RFA. Electrophysiological study (EPS) was used to locate accessory pathways (APs) and categorize the patients according to the AP locations (septal, left and right free wall). Electrocardiography (ECG) was performed pre- and post-RFA to confirm successful elimination of the APs. Phase analysis of gated SPECT MPI was used to assess LV dyssynchrony pre- and post-RFA. Among the 45 patients, 3 had gating errors, and thus 42 had SPECT phase analysis. Twenty-two patients (52.4 %) had baseline LV dyssynchrony. Baseline LV dyssynchrony was more prominent in the patients with septal APs than in the patients with left or right APs (p < 0.05). RFA improved LV synchrony in the entire cohort and in the patients with septal APs (p < 0.01). Phase analysis of gated SPECT MPI demonstrated that LV mechanical dyssynchrony can be present in patients with WPW syndrome. Septal APs result in the greatest degree of LV mechanical dyssynchrony and afford the most benefit after RFA. This study supports further investigation in the relationship between electrical and mechanical activation using EPS and phase analysis of gated SPECT MPI. (orig.)

  17. Myocardial hypertrophy after pulmonary regurgitation and valve implantation in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Julie; Goetze, Jens Peter; Søndergaard, Lars

    2012-01-01

    : The results were compared with age-matched sham-operated animals. RESULTS: At euthanasia, RV weight was increased compared to sham-animals, median 127g (115-137) vs. 71g (69.5-76.5), p=0.0007. RV myocyte diameters corrected for individual variation with the RV/LV ratio were enlarged, 1.06 (1.02-1.13) vs. 0...

  18. Effective RNA-silencing strategy of Lv-MSTN/GDF11 gene and its effects on the growth in shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Hyun; Momani, Jalal; Kim, Young Mog; Kang, Chang-Keun; Choi, Jung-Hwa; Baek, Hae-Ja; Kim, Hyun-Woo

    2015-01-01

    Myostatin (MSTN), also known as GDF8, is a member of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily and plays an important role in muscle growth, development, and differentiation. Recently, Lv-MSTN/GDF11, the primitive isoform of MSTN and GDF11, was identified from the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. The major production site for Lv-MSTN/GDF11 is in the heart, not the tail muscle, which differs from MSTNs in mammals. Among the three injected RNAs, long dsRNA was the most effective for Lv-MSTN/GDF11 knockdown and transcripts of Lv-MSTN/GDF11 decreased in both the heart (88.85%) and skeletal muscles (43.36%) 72h after injection of 10pmol of long dsRNA. We also found that higher doses of dsRNA did not lead to greater decreases in Lv-MSTN/GDF11 transcripts for amounts between 1pmol and 100pmol. Injection of Lv-MSTN/GDF11 dsRNA did not affect the upregulation of the skeletal actin gene (Lv-ACTINSK) in the tail muscle, but the expression of cytoplasmic and cardiac actins were upregulated in both the heart and tail muscle. Over the course of 8weeks of dsRNA injection, considerably higher mortality (~71%) was seen in the dsRNA-injected group compared to the control group (40%). Surviving shrimp in the dsRNA injected group had a lower growth rate due to the adverse effects of Lv-MSTN/GDF11 knockdown. Lv-MSTN/GDF11 appears to be involved in muscular or neuronal development, but not in doubling muscle fibers, as is the case with mammalian MSTN. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Children with Hypertension: in Search of a Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethna, Christine B; Leisman, Daniel E

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide background on the importance of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in children with hypertension, to highlight various diagnostic modalities and measures for defining LVH, and to demonstrate the need for standardization and a consensus definition for LVH in the pediatric population. There is no clear consensus among specialists performing echocardiograms and treating clinicians on the definition of LVH in children with hypertension. In fact, there is considerable variation in every step of the evaluation of pediatric LVH. There is variation in every step of the assessment of LVH in the pediatric population. This variation exists in imaging modality, the type of measurement used, the method of calculating left ventricular mass (LVM), the method of indexing LVM to body size, the normalization method for the index used, the reference data used, the inclusion of confounders, the implementation in clinical practice, and the format for echocardiography reporting.

  20. Region specific patella tendon hypertrophy in humans following resistance training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsgaard, M.; Reitelseder, S; Pedersen, T.G.

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To examine if cross-sectional area (CSA) differs along the length of the human patellar tendon (PT), and if there is PT hypertrophy in response to resistance training. METHODS: Twelve healthy young men underwent baseline and post-training assessments. Maximal isometric knee extension strength...... (MVC) was determined unilaterally in both legs. PT CSA was measured at the proximal-, mid- and distal PT level and quadriceps muscle CSA was measured at mid-thigh level using magnetic resonance imaging. Mechanical properties of the patellar tendons were determined using ultrasonography. Subsequently....... CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this study is the first to report tendon hypertrophy following resistance training. Further, the data show that the human PT CSA varies along the length of the tendon....

  1. Repeated blood flow restriction induces muscle fiber hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudo, Mizuki; Ando, Soichi; Kano, Yutaka

    2017-02-01

    We recently developed an animal model to investigate the effects of eccentric contraction (ECC) and blood flow restriction (BFR) on muscle tissue at the cellular level. This study clarified the effects of repeated BFR, ECC, and BFR combined with ECC (BFR+ECC) on muscle fiber hypertrophy. Male Wistar rats were assigned to 3 groups: BFR, ECC, and BFR+ECC. The contralateral leg in the BFR group served as a control (CONT). Muscle fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) of the tibialis anterior was determined after the respective treatments for 6 weeks. CSA was greater in the BFR+ECC group than in the CONT (P muscle fiber hypertrophy at the cellular level. Muscle Nerve 55: 274-276, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Malondialdehyde in benign prostate hypertrophy: a useful marker?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosaria Alba Merendino

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Benign prostate hypertrophy (BPH is the most common benign tumor in men due to obstruction of the urethra and, finally, uremia. Malondialdehyde (MDA is a product derived from peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids and related esters. Evaluation of MDA in serum represents a non-invasive biomarker of oxidative stress. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA is a sensitive marker for prostatic hypertrophy and cancer. We analyzed MDA serum levels to evaluate the oxidative stress in BPH. To this end, 22 BPH patients and 22 healthy donors were enrolled. Data show an increase of MDA level in BPH patients and a positive correlation between PSA and MDA levels. In conclusion, we describe a previously unknown relationship between PSA and MDA as an index of inflammation and oxidative stress in BPH.

  3. Pharmacological targeting of CDK9 in cardiac hypertrophy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kryštof, Vladimír; Chamrád, Ivo; Jorda, Radek; Kohoutek, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 4 (2010), s. 646-666 ISSN 0198-6325 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/08/0511; GA ČR GA301/09/1832; GA ČR GA301/08/1649 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : P-TEFb * cardiac myocyte * cardiac hypertrophy Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 10.228, year: 2010

  4. Effect of prophylactic digitalization on the development of myocardial hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutilletta, A F; Rudnik, M; Arcilla, R A; Straube, R

    1977-11-01

    The effect of prophylactic digitalization on the development of left ventricular hypertrophy was studied in adult rats. Digitoxin, 0.1 mg/100 g body wt or solvent was given daily for 1 wk prior to either aortic constriction or sham operation and was continued until the animals were killed, either 1 or 4 wk after surgery. A hemodynamic study was done in those animals killed 1 wk after surgery; hearts of all animals were examined for evidence of myocardial hypertrophy. Constriction of the ascending aorta had no significant effect on cardiac output but did reduce peak flow velocity and flow acceleration. An increase in left ventricular mass, RNA, and hydroxyproline was found in the animals with aortic constriction. Digitoxin treatment did not alter peak flow velocity or flow acceleration, but did significantly increase isovolumic (dP/dt)P-1. Digitoxin had no effect on body weight, heart weight, RNA, or hydroxyproline in either the sham-operated animals or in the animals with aortic constriction. Therefore, despite plasma digitoxin levels sufficient to affect myocardial contractility, left ventricular hypertrophy still developed after aortic constriction.

  5. Association of myocardial cell necrosis with experimental cardiac hypertrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revis, N W; Cameron, A J.V.

    1979-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy was induced in rabbits by injecting thyroxime or isoprenaline, or by surgically constricting the abdominal aorta. An increase in heart weight was associated with a change in the ratios of bound to free forms of five lysosomal enzymes, a change in serum creatine phosphokinase and lactate dehydrogenase, and a change in the morphology of the myocardial cells. Isoprenaline treatment for 5 days induced a maximal change in heart weight, in the ratio of lysosomal enzymes, and in the serum enzymes. Thyroxine treatment was required for 15 days before maximal changes in heart weight, ratio, and serum enzymes were observed. In contrast, coarctation of the aorta caused a progressive change in heart weight, in the ratio of lysosomal enzymes, and in serum enzymes. These results suggest that necrosis of the myocardial cells does indeed accompany cardiac hypertrophy. It was further observed that autophagosomes, degenerating mitochondria in the myocardial cells during the induction of cardiac hypertrophy, and myofibril lysis were found, all of which confirms the suggestion of myocardial cell necrosis in the experimentally enlarged heart.

  6. Hypertrophy of cultured bovine aortic endothelium following irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, E.M.; Vinter, D.W.; Goldberg, I.D.

    1989-01-01

    The vascular endothelium is a vital multifunctional tissue which covers the entire luminal surface of the circulatory system. Loss of continuity of the endothelial lining normally results in cell migration and proliferation to make up for cell loss and to ensure that exposure of the thrombogenic subendothelium to platelets and clotting factors is minimized. We showed that ionizing radiation (400-3000 cGy) causes dose-dependent cell loss from confluent monolayer cultures of bovine aortic endothelium, which cannot immediately be compensated by cell proliferation. Within 24 h, the remaining attached cells undergo substantial somatic hypertrophy (evidenced by increased protein content, cell volume, and attachment area) but remain diploid. If cell loss is not excessive, monolayer continuity is restored within several days. Although reduced protein degradation may contribute, most of the protein accumulation is due to synthesis of new protein. Unlike endothelium, irradiation of smooth muscle cultures causes neither cell loss nor increased protein synthesis. Hypertrophy of irradiated endothelial cells appears to be a consequence of a proliferative stimulus (cell loss) in a population of cells which is unable to divide. It can be modulated by replating irradiated cells at different densities. We suggest that endothelial hypertrophy is an early vascular homeostatic response before clonal proliferation of surviving cells or repopulation by cells from outside of the irradiated field can compensate for cell loss

  7. Mouse models for the study of postnatal cardiac hypertrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Del Olmo-Turrubiarte

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to create a postnatal model for cardiac hypertrophy (CH, in order to explain the mechanisms that are present in childhood cardiac hypertrophy. Five days after implantation, intraperitoneal (IP isoproterenol (ISO was injected for 7 days to pregnant female mice. The fetuses were obtained at 15, 17 and 19 dpc from both groups, also newborns (NB, neonates (7–15 days and young adults (6 weeks of age. Histopathological exams were done on the hearts. Immunohistochemistry and western blot demonstrated GATA4 and PCNA protein expression, qPCR real time the mRNA of adrenergic receptors (α-AR and β-AR, alpha and beta myosins (α-MHC, β-MHC and GATA4. After the administration of ISO, there was no change in the number of offsprings. We observed significant structural changes in the size of the offspring hearts. Morphometric analysis revealed an increase in the size of the left ventricular wall and interventricular septum (IVS. Histopathological analysis demonstrated loss of cellular compaction and presence of left ventricular small fibrous foci after birth. Adrenergic receptors might be responsible for changing a physiological into a pathological hypertrophy. However GATA4 seemed to be the determining factor in the pathology. A new animal model was established for the study of pathologic CH in early postnatal stages.

  8. LV reverse remodeling imparted by aortic valve replacement for severe aortic stenosis; is it durable? A cardiovascular MRI study sponsored by the American Heart Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caruppannan Ketheswaram

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS, long-term data tracking surgically induced effects of afterload reduction on reverse LV remodeling are not available. Echocardiographic data is available short term, but in limited fashion beyond one year. Cardiovascular MRI (CMR offers the ability to serially track changes in LV metrics with small numbers due to its inherent high spatial resolution and low variability. Hypothesis We hypothesize that changes in LV structure and function following aortic valve replacement (AVR are detectable by CMR and once triggered by AVR, continue for an extended period. Methods Tweny-four patients of which ten (67 ± 12 years, 6 female with severe, but compensated AS underwent CMR pre-AVR, 6 months, 1 year and up to 4 years post-AVR. 3D LV mass index, volumetrics, LV geometry, and EF were measured. Results All patients survived AVR and underwent CMR 4 serial CMR's. LVMI markedly decreased by 6 months (157 ± 42 to 134 ± 32 g/m2, p 2. Similarly, EF increased pre to post-AVR (55 ± 22 to 65 ± 11%,(p 2. LV stroke volume increased rapidly from pre to post-AVR (40 ± 11 to 44 ± 7 ml, p Conclusion After initial beneficial effects imparted by AVR in severe AS patients, there are, as expected, marked improvements in LV reverse remodeling. Via CMR, surgically induced benefits to LV structure and function are durable and, unexpectedly express continued, albeit markedly incomplete improvement through 4 years post-AVR concordant with sustained improved clinical status. This supports down-regulation of both mRNA and MMP activity acutely with robust suppression long term.

  9. A Scenario-Based Approach for Energy Storage Capacity Determination in LV Grids with High PV Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashemi Toghroljerdi, Seyedmostafa; Østergaard, Jacob; Yang, Guangya

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a new method is proposed to determine the minimum energy storage required to be installed at different locations of a low voltage (LV) grid in order to prevent the overvoltage due to high residential photovoltaic (PV) penetration. The method is based on the voltage sensitivity...... with different occurrence probabilities without involving the time-series studies problems. The proposed method is capable of modeling output power of PV panels with different orientations as well as different electric vehicle (EV) charging patterns....

  10. Hematological findings and factors associated with feline leukemia virus (FeLV and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV positivity in cats from southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda V.A. da Costa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Using a retrospective study, 493 cats tested for FeLV and FIV were selected for analysis of the association between hematologic findings and positivity at immunoassay test. Individual and hematologic variables were assessed considering the influence of results using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Out 153 of the 493 cats were positive for FeLV (31%, 50 were positive for FIV (10.1% and 22 were positive for both FIV and FeLV (4.4%. Multivariate analysis detected significant associations between FeLV infection and age below 1 year (p=0.01, age from 1 to 10 years (p=0.03, and crossbreed (p=0.04. Male cats were more likely to be FIV-positive (p=0.002. Regarding hematological changes, FeLV-positive cats have higher odds to anemia, leukopenia and lymphopenia than FeLV-negative cats. FIV-positive cats are more likely to have anemia than negative. Identification of associated factors related to animal status and correlation of hematological disorders with infection by retroviruses in cats could be useful for detecting these retroviral diseases in cats.

  11. Litopenaeus vannamei sterile-alpha and armadillo motif containing protein (LvSARM is involved in regulation of Penaeidins and antilipopolysaccharide factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Hui Wang

    Full Text Available The Toll-like receptor (TLR-mediated NF-κB pathway is tightly controlled because overactivation may result in severe damage to the host, such as in the case of chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer. In mammals, sterile-alpha and armadillo motif-containing protein (SARM plays an important role in negatively regulating this pathway. While Caenorhabditis elegans SARM is crucial for an efficient immune response against bacterial and fungal infections, it is still unknown whether Drosophila SARM participates in immune responses. Here, Litopenaeus vannamei SARM (LvSARM was cloned and functionally characterized. LvSARM shared signature domains with and exhibited significant similarities to mammalian SARM. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis indicated that the expression of LvSARM was responsive to Vibrio alginolyticus and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV infections in the hemocyte, gill, hepatopancreas and intestine. In Drosophila S2 cells, LvSARM was widely distributed in the cytoplasm and could significantly inhibit the promoters of the NF-κB pathway-controlled antimicrobial peptide genes (AMPs. Silencing of LvSARM using dsRNA-mediated RNA interference increased the expression levels of Penaeidins and antilipopolysaccharide factors, which are L.vannamei AMPs, and increased the mortality rate after V. alginolyticus infection. Taken together, our results reveal that LvSARM may be a novel component of the shrimp Toll pathway that negatively regulates shrimp AMPs, particularly Penaeidins and antilipopolysaccharide factors.

  12. Interneta sociālie tīkli draugiem.lv, mammam/tetiem.lv un twitter.com kā reklāmas nesēji Latvijā (2009.gads)

    OpenAIRE

    Vismane, Inese

    2010-01-01

    Maģistra darba tēma ir „Interneta sociālie tīkli draugiem.lv, mammam/tetiem.lv un twitter.com kā reklāmas nesēji Latvijā (2009.gads)”. Darba mērķis ir izpētīt Latvijas interneta sociālo tīklu vidi kā potenciāli augošu un reklāmai piemērotu, kā arī izpētīt pamanāmākos reklāmas gadījumus šajos portālos. Teorijas daļā tiek apskatīta Web 2.0 ēra, interneta reklāmas un sociālo mediju mārketinga īpatnības, sociālo tīklu fenomens un teorijas, Latvijas reklāmas tirgus un auditorija, kā arī sociāl...

  13. Laboratorios virtuales (LV como apoyo a las prácticas a distancia y presenciales en ingeniería

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Castellanos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo tiene como propósito mostrar los procesos inherentes a cada una de las etapas de diseño y desarrollo en un Laboratorio Virtual, LV, y más específicamente para el laboratorio redes convergentes de la Institución. Durante la investigación, se desarrolló una metodología basada en los lineamientos del PMI (Project Management Institute que servirá como base para la creación de futuros laboratorios virtuales en cualquier área del conocimiento. Para el acceso de los laboratorios se desarrolló la herramienta de Software Vlab, como una plataforma integradora de laboratorios virtuales para la Institución. Los LV son simulaciones consideradas como una alternativa pedagógica para el desarrollo de prácticas a distancia o como apoyo a las prácticas en la presencialidad, que ofrecen a los estudiantes la oportunidad de adquirir destrezas y habilidades en el manejo de materiales y equipos relacionados con las áreas de su campo de formación, sin restricción de tiempo o espacio.

  14. Project of Ariane 5 LV family advancement by use of reusable fly-back boosters (named “Bargouzine”)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumin, Yu.; Bonnal, Ch.; Kostromin, S.; Panichkin, N.

    2007-12-01

    The paper concerns possible concept variants of a partially reusable Heavy-Lift Launch Vehicle derived from the advanced basic launcher (Ariane-2010) by means of substitution of the EAP Solid Rocket Boosters for a Reusable Starting Stage consisting two Liquid-propellant Reusable Fly-Back Boosters called "Bargouzin". This paper describes the status of the presently studied RFBB concepts during its three phases. The first project phase was dedicated to feasibility expertise of liquid-rocket reusable fly-back boosters ("Baikal" type) utilization for heavy-lift space launch vehicle. The design features and main conclusions are presented. The second phase has been performed with the purpose of selection of preferable concept among the alternative ones for the future Ariane LV modernization by using RFBB instead of EAP Boosters. The main requirements, logic of work, possible configuration and conclusion are presented. Initial aerodynamic, ballistic, thermoloading, dynamic loading, trade-off and comparison analysis have been performed on these concepts. The third phase consists in performing a more detailed expertise of the chosen LV concept. This part summarizes some of the more detailed results related to flight performance, system mass, thermoprotection system, aspects of technologies, ground complex modification, comparison analyses and conclusion.

  15. Zygotic LvBMP5-8 is required for skeletal patterning and for left-right but not dorsal-ventral specification in the sea urchin embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacentino, Michael L; Chung, Oliver; Ramachandran, Janani; Zuch, Daniel T; Yu, Jia; Conaway, Evan A; Reyna, Arlene E; Bradham, Cynthia A

    2016-04-01

    Skeletal patterning in the sea urchin embryo requires coordinated signaling between the pattern-dictating ectoderm and the skeletogenic primary mesenchyme cells (PMCs); recent studies have begun to uncover the molecular basis for this process. Using an unbiased RNA-Seq-based screen, we have previously identified the TGF-ß superfamily ligand, LvBMP5-8, as a skeletal patterning gene in Lytechinus variegatus embryos. This result is surprising, since both BMP5-8 and BMP2/4 ligands have been implicated in sea urchin dorsal-ventral (DV) and left-right (LR) axis specification. Here, we demonstrate that zygotic LvBMP5-8 is required for normal skeletal patterning on the left side, as well as for normal PMC positioning during gastrulation. Zygotic LvBMP5-8 is required for expression of the left-side marker soxE, suggesting that LvBMP5-8 is required for left-side specification. Interestingly, we also find that LvBMP5-8 knockdown suppresses serotonergic neurogenesis on the left side. While LvBMP5-8 overexpression is sufficient to dorsalize embryos, we find that zygotic LvBMP5-8 is not required for normal DV specification or development. In addition, ectopic LvBMP5-8 does not dorsalize LvBMP2/4 morphant embryos, indicating that, in the absence of BMP2/4, BMP5-8 is insufficient to specify dorsal. Taken together, our data demonstrate that zygotic LvBMP5-8 signaling is essential for left-side specification, and for normal left-side skeletal and neural patterning, but not for DV specification. Thus, while both BMP2/4 and BMP5-8 regulate LR axis specification, BMP2/4 but not zygotic BMP5-8 regulates DV axis specification in sea urchin embryos. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Exogenous cathepsin V protein protects human cardiomyocytes HCM from angiotensin Ⅱ-Induced hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kun; Gao, Lu; Yang, Ming; Wang, Jiliang; Wang, Zheng; Wang, Lin; Wang, Guobin; Li, Huili

    2017-08-01

    Angiotensin (Ang) Ⅱ-induced cardiac hypertrophy can deteriorate to heart failure, a leading cause of mortality. Endogenous Cathepsin V (CTSV) has been reported to be cardioprotective against hypertrophy. However, little is known about the effect of exogenous CTSV on cardiac hypertrophy. We used the human cardiomyocytes HCM as a cell model to investigate the effects of exogenous CTSV on Ang Ⅱ-induced cardiac cell hypertrophy. Cell surface area and expression of classical markers of hypertrophy were analyzed. We further explored the mechanism of CTSV cardioprotective by assessing the levels and activities of PI3K/Akt/mTOR and MAPK signaling pathway proteins. We found that pre-treating cardiomyocytes with CTSV could significantly inhibit Ang Ⅱ-induced hypertrophy. The mRNA expression of hypertrophy markers ANP, BNP and β-MHC was obviously elevated in Ang Ⅱ-treated cardiac cells. Whereas, exogenous CTSV effectively halted this elevation. Further study revealed that the protective effects of exogenous CTSV might be mediated by repressing the phosphorylation of proteins in the PI3K/Akt/mTOR and MAPK pathways. Based on our results, we concluded that exogenous CTSV inhibited Ang Ⅱ-induced hypertrophy in HCM cells by inhibiting PI3K/Akt/mTOR. This study provides experimental evidence for the application of CTSV protein for the treatment of cardiac hypertrophy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Glomerular hypertrophy in subjects with low nephron number: contributions of sex, body size and race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puelles, Victor G; Douglas-Denton, Rebecca N; Zimanyi, Monika A; Armitage, James A; Hughson, Michael D; Kerr, Peter G; Bertram, John F

    2014-09-01

    We have shown that low nephron number (Nglom) is a strong determinant of individual glomerular volume (IGV) in male Americans. However, whether the same pattern is present in female Americans remains unclear. The contributions of body surface area (BSA) and race to IGV in the context of Nglom also require further evaluation. Kidneys without overt renal disease were collected at autopsy in Mississippi, USA. The extremes of female Nglom were used to define high and low Nglom for both sexes. Nglom and IGV were estimated by design-based stereology. A total of 24 African and Caucasian American females (n = 12 per race; 6 per Nglom extreme) were included. These subjects were subsequently matched to 24 comparable males by age and Nglom and to 18 additional males by age, Nglom and BSA. IGV average and variance were very similar in female African and Caucasian Americans with high and low Nglom. Males with low Nglom from both races showed greater IGV average and variance than comparable females matched by age and Nglom. These differences in IGV between sexes were not observed in Caucasian Americans with low Nglom that were matched by age, Nglom and BSA. In contrast, glomeruli from African Americans were larger than those from Caucasian Americans, especially in subjects with high Nglom. While female Americans with low Nglom did not show glomerular hypertrophy, comparable males with low Nglom showed marked glomerular hypertrophy that was closely associated with high BSA. Glomerular size in African Americans may be confounded by multiple additional factors. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  18. The Role of Tonsillectomy in Adults with Tonsillar Hypertrophy and Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew M; Peterson, Ed; Yaremchuk, Kathleen L

    2017-08-01

    Objective To determine if tonsillectomy alone is an effective treatment in improving obstructive sleep apnea in adult subjects with tonsillar hypertrophy and to evaluate the effect of tonsillectomy on patient-reported quality-of-life indices. Study Design Case series with planned data collection. Setting Academic hospital. Subjects and Methods Thirty-four subjects completed enrollment and intervention from January 2011 to January 2016. Subjects completed pre- and postoperative quality-of-life questionnaires, including the Insomnia Severity Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and the Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire-10. Surgical response to treatment was defined by a >50% decrease in the Apnea-Hypopnea Index and a decrease in the overall Apnea-Hypopnea Index to Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank tests were used to test each variable to assess for a change from pre- to postintervention. Subjects were then split into 3 BMI subgroups, with results also evaluated by Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank tests. Results There was a significant difference discovered between the mean preoperative Apnea-Hypopnea Index of 31.57 and the mean postoperative value of 8.12 ( P < .001). All patient-reported outcomes improved significantly following tonsillectomy. After stratifying all outcome variables (Apnea-Hypopnea Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Insomnia Severity Index, and Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire-10) by sex, race, and tonsil size, no statistically significant difference was noted among any of these subgroups. There was a 78% surgical response to treatment. Conclusion Tonsillectomy appears to be an effective treatment for obstructive sleep apnea in a select population of adults with tonsillar hypertrophy.

  19. Serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii, Dirofilaria immitis, Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) infections in pet cats in Bangkok and vicinities, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhumavasi, Woraporn; Bellosa, Mary L; Lucio-Forster, Araceli; Liotta, Janice L; Lee, Alice C Y; Pornmingmas, Pitcha; Chungpivat, Sudchit; Mohammed, Hussni O; Lorentzen, Leif; Dubey, J P; Bowman, Dwight D

    2012-08-13

    The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, Dirofilaria immitis (heartworm), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infections was examined using serum or plasma samples from 746 pet cats collected between May and July 2009 from clinics and hospitals located in and around Bangkok, Thailand. The samples were tested for heartworm, FIV, and FeLV using a commercial ELISA. Of the 746 samples, 4.6% (34/746) were positive for heartworm antigen, 24.5% (183/746) had circulating FeLV antigen, and 20.1% (150/746) had antibodies against FIV. In addition, the first 348 submitted samples were tested for T. gondii antibodies using a modified agglutination test (MAT, cut off 1:25); 10.1% (35/348) were seropositive. Of the 348 cats sampled for all four pathogens, 11, 10, and 1 were positive for T. gondii antibodies and FIV antibodies, FeLV antigen, or D. immitis antigen, respectively. Of the 35 T. gondii-seropositive cats, 42.9% (15/35) were co-infected with at least one of the other three pathogens. The presence of antibodies to FIV was significantly associated with both age and gender, while FeLV antigen presence was only associated with age. In the case of FIV, males were twice as likely to be infected as females, and cats over 10 years of age were 13.5 times more likely to be infected than cats less than 1 year of age. FeLV antigen was more common in younger cats, with cats over 10 years of age being 10 times less likely to be FeLV positive than cats under 1 year of age. This is the first survey for these four pathogens affecting feline health in Thailand. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The Molecular Basis for Load-Induced Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotte, George R.; West, Daniel W.D.; Baar, Keith

    2016-01-01

    In a mature (weight neutral) animal, an increase in muscle mass only occurs when the muscle is loaded sufficiently to cause an increase in myofibrillar protein balance. A tight relationship between muscle hypertrophy, acute increases in protein balance, and the activity of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) was demonstrated 15 years ago. Since then, our understanding of the signals that regulate load-induced hypertrophy has evolved considerably. For example, we now know that mechanical load activates mTORC1 in the same way as growth factors, by moving TSC2 (a primary inhibitor of mTORC1) away from its target (the mTORC activator) Rheb. However, the kinase that phosphorylates and moves TSC2 is different in the two processes. Similarly, we have learned that a distinct pathway exists whereby amino acids activate mTORC1 by moving it to Rheb. While mTORC1 remains at the forefront of load-induced hypertrophy, the importance of other pathways that regulate muscle mass are becoming clearer. Myostatin, is best known for its control of developmental muscle size. However, new mechanisms to explain how loading regulates this process are suggesting that it could play an important role in hypertrophic muscle growth as well. Lastly, new mechanisms are highlighted for how β2 receptor agonists could be involved in load-induced muscle growth and why these agents are being developed as non-exercise-based therapies for muscle atrophy. Overall, the results highlight how studying the mechanism of load-induced skeletal muscle mass is leading the development of pharmaceutical interventions to promote muscle growth in those unwilling or unable to perform resistance exercise. PMID:25359125

  1. Muscle hypertrophy induced by myostatin inhibition accelerates degeneration in dysferlinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun-Sil; Lehar, Adam; Sebald, Suzanne; Liu, Min; Swaggart, Kayleigh A; Talbot, C Conover; Pytel, Peter; Barton, Elisabeth R; McNally, Elizabeth M; Lee, Se-Jin

    2015-10-15

    Myostatin is a secreted signaling molecule that normally acts to limit muscle growth. As a result, there is extensive effort directed at developing drugs capable of targeting myostatin to treat patients with muscle loss. One potential concern with this therapeutic approach in patients with muscle degenerative diseases like muscular dystrophy is that inducing hypertrophy may increase stress on dystrophic fibers, thereby accelerating disease progression. To investigate this possibility, we examined the effect of blocking the myostatin pathway in dysferlin-deficient (Dysf(-/-)) mice, in which membrane repair is compromised, either by transgenic expression of follistatin in skeletal muscle or by systemic administration of the soluble form of the activin type IIB receptor (ACVR2B/Fc). Here, we show that myostatin inhibition by follistatin transgene expression in Dysf(-/-) mice results in early improvement in histopathology but ultimately exacerbates muscle degeneration; this effect was not observed in dystrophin-deficient (mdx) mice, suggesting that accelerated degeneration induced by follistatin transgene expression is specific to mice lacking dysferlin. Dysf(-/-) mice injected with ACVR2B/Fc showed significant increases in muscle mass and amelioration of fibrotic changes normally seen in 8-month-old Dysf(-/-) mice. Despite these potentially beneficial effects, ACVR2B/Fc treatment caused increases in serum CK levels in some Dysf(-/-) mice, indicating possible muscle damage induced by hypertrophy. These findings suggest that depending on the disease context, inducing muscle hypertrophy by myostatin blockade may have detrimental effects, which need to be weighed against the potential gains in muscle growth and decreased fibrosis. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  2. Incipient speciation driven by hypertrophied lips in Midas cichlid fishes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado-Schiaffino, Gonzalo; Kautt, Andreas F; Torres-Dowdall, Julian; Baumgarten, Lukas; Henning, Frederico; Meyer, Axel

    2017-04-01

    Sympatric speciation has been debated in evolutionary biology for decades. Although it has gained in acceptance recently, still only a handful of empirical examples are seen as valid (e.g. crater lake cichlids). In this study, we disentangle the role of hypertrophied lips in the repeated adaptive radiations of Nicaraguan crater lake cichlid fish. We assessed the role of disruptive selection and assortative mating during the early stages of divergence and found a functional trade-off in feeding behaviour between thick- and thin-lipped ecotypes, suggesting that this trait is a target of disruptive selection. Thick-lipped fish perform better on nonevasive prey at the cost of a poorer performance on evasive prey. Using enclosures in the wild, we found that thick-lipped fish perform significantly better in rocky than in sandy habitats. We found almost no mixed pairs during two breeding seasons and hence significant assortative mating. Genetic differentiation between ecotypes seems to be related to the time since colonization, being subtle in L. Masaya (1600 generations ago) and absent in the younger L. Apoyeque (<600 generations ago). Genome-wide differentiation between ecotypes was higher in the old source lakes than in the young crater lakes. Our results suggest that hypertrophied lips might be promoting incipient sympatric speciation through divergent selection (ecological divergence in feeding performance) and nonrandom mating (assortative mating) in the young Nicaraguan crater lakes. Nonetheless, further manipulative experiments are needed in order to confirm the role of hypertrophied lips as the main cue for assortative mating. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Acute colonic obstruction due to benign prostatic hypertrophy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mac Giobuin, S

    2012-02-01

    A seventy two year old man presented to the Emergency Department with clinical features of colonic obstruction. Subsequent radiological investigations confirmed this impression and revealed the aetiology to be compression of the sigmoid colon against the sacrum by a massively distended urinary bladder. Chronic urinary retention due to benign prostatic hypertrophy is an extremely unusual cause of large bowel obstruction. Little in this patient\\'s clinical findings suggested this aetiology. We reviewed the literature in this area and highlight the benefits of CT scanning over contrast studies.

  4. "Heart rate-dependent" electrocardiographic diagnosis of left ventricular hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madias, John E

    2013-05-01

    A case is presented revealing the common phenomenon of heart rate-dependent diagnosis of electrocardiographic (ECG) diagnosis of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), which consists of satisfaction of LVH criteria only at faster rates whereas ECGs with a slow heart rate do not satisfy such criteria. The mechanism of the phenomenon has been attributed to the tachycardia-mediated underfilling of the left ventricle bringing the electrical "centroid" of the heart closer to the recording electrodes, which results in augmentation of the amplitude of QRS complexes, particularly in leads V2-V4. ©2012, The Author. Journal compilation ©2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Isolated unilateral temporalis muscle hypertrophy in a child: a case report with literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranasinghe, Jagath C; Wickramasinghe, Chandani; Rodrigo, Ganganath

    2018-02-19

    Temporalis muscle hypertrophy is a rare entity of masticatory muscle hypertrophy. All types of masticatory muscle hypertrophies have been documented of which temporalis muscle hypertrophy is one. Temporalis muscle hypertrophy is most commonly bilateral and usually associated with other types of masticatory muscles hypertrophy such as masseter or pterygoid hypertrophy. However, isolated unilateral temporalis muscle hypertrophy is extremely rare and only 9 cases have been reported to date in English literature since 1990 with only two patients less than 18 years. There is no exact etiology identified and the diagnosis is made by muscle biopsy combined with imaging study to exclude other possibilities. Age at presentation is ranges from 15 to 65 years with involvement of both sexes. We report the youngest child who is a seven year old girl with right side isolated unilateral temporalis muscle hypertrophy. In this patient, we discuss the youngest child with isolated unilateral temporalis muscle hypertrophy and literature review to date. The patient is a seven year old female presenting with painless swelling of the right temporalis muscle. There had no features of inflammation, trauma, neoplasm or history of parafunctions such as bruxism. The child was not complaining significantly headache or visual disturbances as well. She had undergone radiological assessment with ultrasound scan and contrast MRI. The diagnosis was confirmed by muscle biopsy which shows normal muscle architecture. She was managed conservatively with regular follow up. Isolated unilateral temporalis muscle hypertrophy is extremely rare in children. However this case raises the importance of considering alternative diagnoses despite the condition being rare in the pediatric population.

  6. Identification of control and management strategies for LV unbalanced microgrids with plugged-in electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pecas Lopes, J.A.; Moreira, C.L. [INESC Porto, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Campus da FEUP, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias 378, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Polenz, Silvan A.; Cherkaoui, Rachid [EPFL - Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Laboratoire des Reseaux Electriques, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2010-08-15

    This paper addresses issues concerning the integration of single-phase charging devices for electric vehicles (EV) in low-voltage microgrids. Fast release energy storage is a key issue for microgrid islanding operation. EV batteries provide an additional storage capacity, which can now be exploited in order to improve MG islanding. Aiming to do so, different control strategies were developed and tested: (1) a local control approach where no communication link is required and (2) a centralized charging control solution. The local control approach is based on the measuring of EV terminal voltage and frequency in order to define the charging or discharging rates of the batteries. The centralized control strategy allows balancing single-phase loads connected to the microgrid by adapting the charging rates of the EV storage devices. Simulation results show that EV batteries can actively contribute for voltage balancing and frequency control during islanding operating conditions. (author)

  7. Defining Quantum Control Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Ying, Mingsheng; Yu, Nengkun; Feng, Yuan

    2012-01-01

    A remarkable difference between quantum and classical programs is that the control flow of the former can be either classical or quantum. One of the key issues in the theory of quantum programming languages is defining and understanding quantum control flow. A functional language with quantum control flow was defined by Altenkirch and Grattage [\\textit{Proc. LICS'05}, pp. 249-258]. This paper extends their work, and we introduce a general quantum control structure by defining three new quantu...

  8. Can play be defined?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichberg, Henning

    2015-01-01

    Can play be defined? There is reason to raise critical questions about the established academic demand that at phenomenon – also in humanist studies – should first of all be defined, i.e. de-lineated and by neat lines limited to a “little box” that can be handled. The following chapter develops....... Human beings can very well understand play – or whatever phenomenon in human life – without defining it....

  9. Diabetic kidney lesions of GIPRdn transgenic mice: podocyte hypertrophy and thickening of the GBM precede glomerular hypertrophy and glomerulosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbach, Nadja; Schairer, Irene; Blutke, Andreas; Kautz, Sabine; Siebert, Angela; Göke, Burkhard; Wolf, Eckhard; Wanke, Ruediger

    2009-04-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease and the largest contributor to the total cost of diabetes care. Rodent models are excellent tools to gain more insight into the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. In the present study, we characterize the age-related sequence of diabetes-associated kidney lesions in GIPR(dn) transgenic mice, a novel mouse model of early-onset diabetes mellitus. Clinical-chemical analyses as well as qualitative and quantitative morphological analyses of the kidneys of GIPR(dn) transgenic animals and nontransgenic littermate controls were performed at 3, 8, 20, and 28 wk of age. Early renal changes of transgenic mice consisted of podocyte hypertrophy, reduced numerical volume density of podocytes in glomeruli, and homogenous thickening of the glomerular basement membrane, followed by renal and glomerular hypertrophy as well as mesangial expansion and matrix accumulation. At 28 wk of age, glomerular damage was most prominent, including advanced glomerulosclerosis, tubulointerstitial lesions, and proteinuria. Real-time PCR demonstrated increased glomerular expression of Col4a1, Fn1, and Tgfb1. Immunohistochemistry revealed increased mesangial deposition of collagen type IV, fibronectin, and laminin. The present study shows that GIPR(dn) transgenic mice exhibit renal changes that closely resemble diabetes-associated kidney alterations in humans. Data particularly from male transgenic mice indicate that podocyte hypertrophy is directly linked to hyperglycemia, without the influence of mechanical stress. GIPR(dn) transgenic mice are considered an excellent new tool to study the mechanisms involved in onset and progression of diabetic nephropathy.

  10. LV dyssynchrony as assessed by phase analysis of gated SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging in patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun; Li, Dianfu; Miao, Changqing; Feng, Jianlin; Zhou, Yanli; Cao, Kejiang; Lloyd, Michael S; Chen, Ji

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate left ventricular (LV) mechanical dyssynchrony in patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome pre- and post-radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFA) using phase analysis of gated single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). Forty-five WPW patients were enrolled and had gated SPECT MPI pre- and 2-3 days post-RFA. Electrophysiological study (EPS) was used to locate accessory pathways (APs) and categorize the patients according to the AP locations (septal, left and right free wall). Electrocardiography (ECG) was performed pre- and post-RFA to confirm successful elimination of the APs. Phase analysis of gated SPECT MPI was used to assess LV dyssynchrony pre- and post-RFA. Among the 45 patients, 3 had gating errors, and thus 42 had SPECT phase analysis. Twenty-two patients (52.4%) had baseline LV dyssynchrony. Baseline LV dyssynchrony was more prominent in the patients with septal APs than in the patients with left or right APs (p syndrome. Septal APs result in the greatest degree of LV mechanical dyssynchrony and afford the most benefit after RFA. This study supports further investigation in the relationship between electrical and mechanical activation using EPS and phase analysis of gated SPECT MPI.

  11. No Evidence of XMRV or MuLV Sequences in Prostate Cancer, Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma, or the UK Blood Donor Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark James Robinson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Xenotropic murine leukaemia virus-related virus (XMRV is a recently described retrovirus which has been claimed to infect humans and cause associated pathology. Initially identified in the US in patients with prostate cancer and subsequently in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome, doubt now exists that XMRV is a human pathogen. We studied the prevalence of genetic sequences of XMRV and related MuLV sequences in human prostate cancer, from B cell lymphoma patients and from UK blood donors. Nucleic acid was extracted from fresh prostate tissue biopsies, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE prostate tissue and FFPE B-cell lymphoma. The presence of XMRV-specific LTR or MuLV generic gag-like sequences was investigated by nested PCR. To control for mouse DNA contamination, a PCR that detected intracisternal A-type particle (IAP sequences was included. In addition, DNA and RNA were extracted from whole blood taken from UK blood donors and screened for XMRV sequences by real-time PCR. XMRV or MuLV-like sequences were not amplified from tissue samples. Occasionally MuLV gag and XMRV-LTR sequences were amplified from Indian prostate cancer samples, but were always detected in conjunction with contaminating murine genomic DNA. We found no evidence of XMRV or MuLV infection in the UK blood donors.

  12. Assessment of global and regional LV function obtained by quantitative gated SPECT using {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin. Comparison with left ventricular cineangiography and echocardiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ban, Kazunobu; Nakajima, Toru; Aoki, Naoto; Abe, Sumihisa; Handa, Shunnosuke; Suzuki, Yutaka [Tokai Univ., Isehara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Medicine

    1998-11-01

    The quantitative gated SPECT (QGS) software that has automatic edge detection algorithm of the left ventricle, is able to calculate LV volumes and visualize LV wall motion with perfusion throughout the cardiac cycle. We evaluated the reliability of global and regional LV function derived from QGS using {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin by comparing with left ventricular cineangiography (LVG) and echocardiography (ECHO). In 22 cardiac patients, end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV) and ejection fraction (LVEF) were calculated. Using cinematic display, regional LV wall motion were scored on a 3-point scale (1=normal, 2=hypokinesis, 3=akinesis; WMS). EDV, ESV and LVEF correlated well with those by LVG (p<0.001 for each). Correlation between WMS derived from QGS and ECHO was high (r=0.85, p<0.001). There was an inverse correlation between WMS and LVEF (r=0.77, p<0.001). In conclusion, QGS is useful to evaluate global LV function. Regional wall motion evaluated by QGS is good enough for clinical application. (author)

  13. Effect of the timing of dialysis initiation on left ventricular hypertrophy and ınflammation in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakkaloğlu, Sevcan A; Kandur, Yaşar; Serdaroğlu, Erkin; Noyan, Aytül; Bayazıt, Aysun Karabay; Sever, Lale; Özlü, Sare Gülfem; Özçelik, Gül; Dursun, İsmail; Alparslan, Caner

    2017-09-01

    The optimal time for dialysis initiation in adults and children with chronic kidney disease remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of dialysis timing on different outcome parameters, in particular left ventricular (LV) morphology and inflammation, in pediatric patients receiving peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis. The medical records of pediatric dialysis patients who were followed-up in nine pediatric nephrology centers in Turkey between 2008 and 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. In addition to demographic data, we retrieved anthropometric measurements, data on dialysis treatment modalities, routine biochemical parameters, complete blood count, serum ferritin, parathormone, C-reactive protein (CRP), and albumin levels, as well as echocardiographic data and hospitalization records. The patients were divided into two groups based on their estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) levels at dialysis initiation, namely, an early-start group, characterized by an eGFR of >10 ml/min/1.73 m 2 , and a late-start group, with an eGFR of standard deviation 12.3 ± 5.1 years, range 0.5-21 years) were enrolled in this study. Echocardiographic data were available for 137 patients, and the mean LV mass index (LVMI) was 58 ± 31 (range 21-215) g/m 2.7 . The LVMI was 75 ± 30 g/m 2.7 (n = 81) and 34 ± 6 g/m 2.7 (n = 56) in patients with or without LV hypertrophy (LVH) (p 10 ml/min/1.73 m 2 ) versus late-start dialysis (eGFR  0.05) nor in number of hospitalizations. Serum albumin levels were significantly higher in the early-dialysis group compared with the late-dialysis group (3.3 ± 0.7 vs. 3.1 ± 0.7 g/dl, respectively; p 0.5 vs. 3.1 ± 0.5 g/dl; p = > 0.05) and relatively lower CRP levels (3.64 ± 2.00 vs. 4.37 ± 3.28 mg/L, p > 0.05) than the late-start group, but these differences did not reach statistical significance. Although early dialysis initiation did not have a significant effect on important

  14. MoMuLV-ts-1: A Unique Mouse Model of Retrovirus-Induced Lymphoma Transmitted by Breast Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Chakraborty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Our laboratory has developed a murine model of lymphoma via breast milk transmission of MoMuLV-ts-1 (Moloney murine leukemia virus-temperature sensitive mutant-1. Uninfected offspring suckled from infected surrogate mothers become infected and develop lymphoma. Multiple gene integration sites of ts-1 into the infected mouse genome including tacc3, aurka, ndel1, tpx2, p53, and rhamm were identified, and mRNA expressions were quantitated. These genes produce centrosomal proteins, which may be involved in abnormal chromosomal segregation leading to aneuploidy or multiploidy, thus causing lymphoma. Since there is no report to date on this retroviral model leading to centrosomal abnormality, and causing lymphoma development, this is a valuable and unique model to study the centrosomal involvement in lymphomagenesis.

  15. Skin Sodium Concentration Correlates with Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Markus P; Raff, Ulrike; Kopp, Christoph; Scheppach, Johannes B; Toncar, Sebastian; Wanner, Christoph; Schlieper, Georg; Saritas, Turgay; Floege, Jürgen; Schmid, Matthias; Birukov, Anna; Dahlmann, Anke; Linz, Peter; Janka, Rolf; Uder, Michael; Schmieder, Roland E; Titze, Jens M; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe

    2017-06-01

    The pathogenesis of left ventricular hypertrophy in patients with CKD is incompletely understood. Sodium intake, which is usually assessed by measuring urinary sodium excretion, has been inconsistently linked with left ventricular hypertrophy. However, tissues such as skin and muscle may store sodium. Using 23 sodium-magnetic resonance imaging, a technique recently developed for the assessment of tissue sodium content in humans, we determined skin sodium content at the level of the calf in 99 patients with mild to moderate CKD (42 women; median [range] age, 65 [23-78] years). We also assessed total body overhydration (bioimpedance spectroscopy), 24-hour BP, and left ventricular mass (cardiac magnetic resonance imaging). Skin sodium content, but not total body overhydration, correlated with systolic BP ( r =0.33, P =0.002). Moreover, skin sodium content correlated more strongly than total body overhydration did with left ventricular mass ( r =0.56, P skin sodium content is a strong explanatory variable for left ventricular mass, unaffected by BP and total body overhydration. In conclusion, we found skin sodium content to be closely linked to left ventricular mass in patients with CKD. Interventions that reduce skin sodium content might improve cardiovascular outcomes in these patients. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  16. Trichostatin A accentuates doxorubicin-induced hypertrophy in cardiac myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiannis, Tom C; Lin, Ann J E; Ververis, Katherine; Chang, Lisa; Tang, Michelle M; Okabe, Jun; El-Osta, Assam

    2010-10-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors represent a new class of anticancer therapeutics and the expectation is that they will be most effective when used in combination with conventional cancer therapies, such as the anthracycline, doxorubicin. The dose-limiting side effect of doxorubicin is severe cardiotoxicity and evaluation of the effects of combinations of the anthracycline with histone deacetylase inhibitors in relevant models is important. We used a well-established in vitro model of doxorubicin-induced hypertrophy to examine the effects of the prototypical histone deacetylase inhibitor, Trichostatin A. Our findings indicate that doxorubicin modulates the expression of the hypertrophy-associated genes, ventricular myosin light chain-2, the alpha isoform of myosin heavy chain and atrial natriuretic peptide, an effect which is augmented by Trichostatin A. Furthermore, we show that Trichostatin A amplifies doxorubicin-induced DNA double strand breaks, as assessed by γH2AX formation. More generally, our findings highlight the importance of investigating potential side effects that may be associated with emerging combination therapies for cancer.

  17. Trehalose prevents adipocyte hypertrophy and mitigates insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Chikako; Arai, Norie; Mizote, Akiko; Kohno, Keizo; Iwaki, Kanso; Hanaya, Toshiharu; Arai, Shigeyuki; Ushio, Simpei; Fukuda, Shigeharu

    2010-12-01

    Trehalose has been shown to evoke lower insulin secretion than glucose in oral saccharide tolerance tests in humans. Given this hypoinsulinemic effect of trehalose, we hypothesized that trehalose suppresses adipocyte hypertrophy by reducing storage of triglyceride and mitigates insulin resistance in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Mice were fed an HFD and given drinking water containing 2.5% saccharide (glucose [Glc], trehalose [Tre], maltose [Mal], high-fructose corn syrup, or fructose [Fru]) ad libitum. After 7 weeks of HFD and saccharide intake, fasting serum insulin levels in the Tre/HFD group were significantly lower than in the Mal/HFD and Glc/HFD groups (P fructose corn syrup/HFD, or Fru/HFD group. Analysis of gene expression in mesenteric adipocytes showed that no statistically significant difference in the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) messenger RNA (mRNA) was observed between the Tre/HFD group and the distilled water/standard diet group, whereas a significant increase in the MCP-1 mRNA expression was observed in the Glc/HFD, Mal/HFD, Fru/HFD, and distilled water/HFD groups. Thus, our data indicate that trehalose prevents adipocyte hypertrophy and mitigates insulin resistance in HFD-fed mice by reducing insulin secretion and down-regulating mRNA expression of MCP-1. These findings further suggest that trehalose is a functional saccharide that mitigates insulin resistance. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Brain renin angiotensin system in cardiac hypertrophy and failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana eCampos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS is significantly involved in the roles of the endocrine RAS in cardiovascular regulation. Our studies indicate that the brain RAS participates in the development of cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis through sympathetic activation. Inhibition of sympathetic hyperactivity after myocardial infarction through suppression of the brain RAS appears beneficial. The brain RAS is involved in the modulation of circadian rhythms of arterial pressure, contributing to nondipping hypertension. We conclude that the brain RAS in pathophysiological states interacts synergistically with the chronically overactive RAS through a positive biofeedback in order to maintain a state of alert diseased conditions, such as cardiac hypertrophy and failure. Therefore, targeting brain RAS with drugs such as angiotensin converting inhibitors or receptor blockers having increased brain penetrability could be of advantage. These RAS-targeting drugs are first-line therapy for all heart failure patients. Since the RAS has both endocrine and local tissue components, RAS drugs are being developed to attain increased tissue penetrability and volume of distribution and consequently an efficient inhibition of both RAS components.

  19. Gastrodin Inhibits Store-Operated Ca2+ Entry and Alleviates Cardiac Hypertrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqiang Yao

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac hypertrophy is a major risk factor for heart failure, which are among the leading causes of human death. Gastrodin is a small molecule that has been used clinically to treat neurological and vascular diseases for many years without safety issues. In the present study, we examined protective effect of gastrodin against cardiac hypertrophy and explored the underlying mechanism. Phenylephrine and angiotensin II were used to induce cardiac hypertrophy in a mouse model and a cultured cardiomyocyte model. Gastrodin was found to alleviate the cardiac hypertrophy in both models. Mechanistically, gastrodin attenuated the store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE by reducing the expression of STIM1 and Orai1, two key proteins in SOCE, in animal models as well as in cultured cardiomyocyte model. Furthermore, suppressing SOCE by RO2959, Orai1-siRNAs or STIM1-siRNAs markedly attenuated the phenylephrine-induced hypertrophy in cultured cardiomyocyte model. Together, these results showed that gastrodin inhibited cardiac hypertrophy and it also reduced the SOCE via its action on the expression of STIM1 and Orai1. Furthermore, suppression of SOCE could reduce the phenylephrine-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, suggesting that SOCE-STIM1-Orai1 is located upstream of hypertrophy.

  20. Increased sarcolemmal Na+/H+ exchange activity in hypertrophied myocytes from dogs with chronic atrioventricular block

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Borren, Marcel M. G. J.; Vos, Marc A.; Houtman, Marien J. C.; Antoons, Gudrun; Ravesloot, Jan H.

    2013-01-01

    Dogs with compensated biventricular hypertrophy due to chronic atrioventricular block (cAVB), are more susceptible to develop drug-induced Torsade-de-Pointes arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. It has been suggested that the increased Na+ influx in hypertrophied cAVB ventricular myocytes

  1. Thin-plate spline analysis of craniofacial morphology in subjects with adenoid or tonsillar hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroni, Michela; Ballanti, Fabiana; Polimeni, Antonella; Franchi, Lorenzo; Cozza, Paola

    2011-04-01

    To compare the skeletal features of subjects with adenoid hypertrophy with those of children with tonsillar hypertrophy using thin-plate spline (TPS) analysis. A group of 20 subjects (9 girls and 11 boys; mean age 8.4 ± 0.9 years) with adenoid hypertrophy (AG) was compared with a group of 20 subjects (10 girls and 10 boys; mean age 8.2 ± 1.1 years) with tonsillar hypertrophy (TG). Craniofacial morphology was analyzed on the lateral cephalograms of the subjects in both groups by means of TPS analysis. A cross-sectional comparison was performed on both size and shape differences between the two groups. AG exhibited statistically significant shape and size differences in craniofacial configuration with respect to TG. Subjects with adenoid hypertrophy showed an upward dislocation of the anterior region of the maxilla, a more downward/backward position of the anterior region of the mandibular body and an upward/backward displacement of the condylar region. Conversely, subjects with tonsillar hypertrophy showed a downward dislocation of the anterior region of the maxilla, a more upward/forward position of the anterior region of the mandibular body and a downward/forward displacement of the condylar region. Subjects with adenoid hypertrophy exhibited features suggesting a more retrognathic mandible while subjects with tonsillar hypertrophy showed features suggesting a more prognathic mandible. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Body-building without power training : Endogenously regulated pectoral muscle hypertrophy in confined shorebirds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, MW; Piersma, T; Dekinga, A

    1999-01-01

    Shorebirds such as red knots Calidris canutus routinely make migratory flights of 3000 km or more. Previous studies on this species, based on compositional analyses, suggest extensive pectoral muscle hypertrophy in addition to fat storage before take-off. Such hypertrophy could be due to power

  3. Second statement of the working group on electrocardiographic diagnosis of left ventricular hypertrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacharova, Ljuba; Estes, E Harvey; Bang, Lia E

    2011-01-01

    The Working Group on Electrocardiographic Diagnosis of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy, appointed by the Editor of the Journal of Electrocardiology, presents the alternative conceptual model for the ECG diagnosis of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). It is stressed that ECG is a record of electrica...

  4. Vascular endothelial growth factor, capillarization, and function of the rat plantaris muscle at the onset of hypertrophy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degens, H.; Moore, J.A.; Alway, S.E.

    2003-01-01

    Capillary proliferation occurs during compensatory hypertrophy. We investigated whether the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is elevated at the onset of hypertrophy when capillary proliferation is minimal, and whether muscle damage as assessed by muscle force deficits, may

  5. A case report of cardia cancer complicated with idiopathic muscular hypertrophy of the oesophagus treated with thoracoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jun; Hao, Yingtao; Peng, Chuanliang

    2018-01-01

    The incidence of idiopathic muscular hypertrophy of oesophagus (IMHE) is low, and cancer with IMHE, showing significant hypertrophy of muscular layer of middle part of the oesophagus and successfully treated with minimally invasive thoracoscopic surgery.

  6. Effect of strength training on regional hypertrophy of the elbow flexor muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Marcos D M; Szmuchrowski, Leszek A; Goulart, Karine N O; Couto, Bruno P

    2016-10-01

    Muscle hypertrophy is the main structural adaptation to strength training. We investigated the chronic effects of strength training on muscle hypertrophy in different regions of the elbow flexor muscles. Eleven untrained men (21.8 ± 1.62 years) underwent magnetic resonance imaging to determine the proximal, medial, distal, and mean cross-sectional areas (CSA) of the elbow flexors. The volunteers completed 12 weeks of strength training. The training protocol consisted of 4 sets of 8-10 maximum repetitions of unilateral elbow flexion. The interval between sets was 120 s. The training frequency was 3 sessions per week. The magnetic resonance images verified the presence of significant and similar hypertrophy in the distal, medial, and proximal portions of the elbow flexor muscles. Muscle hypertrophy may be assessed using only the medial CSA. We should not expect different degrees of hypertrophy among the regions of the elbow flexor muscles. Muscle Nerve 54: 750-755, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Aerobic exercise protects against pressure overload-induced cardiac dysfunction and hypertrophy via β3-AR-nNOS-NO activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenju; Li, Xiaoli; Zheng, Qiangsun; Niu, Xiaolin

    2017-01-01

    59230A. Our study suggested that aerobic exercise training could improve cardiac systolic function and alleviate LV chamber dilation, cardiac fibrosis and hypertrophy in HF mice. The mechanism responsible for the protective effects of aerobic exercise is associated with the activation of the β3-AR-nNOS-NO pathway. PMID:28622359

  8. Aerobic exercise protects against pressure overload-induced cardiac dysfunction and hypertrophy via β3-AR-nNOS-NO activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Xu, Ming; Li, Wenju; Li, Xiaoli; Zheng, Qiangsun; Niu, Xiaolin

    2017-01-01

    A. Our study suggested that aerobic exercise training could improve cardiac systolic function and alleviate LV chamber dilation, cardiac fibrosis and hypertrophy in HF mice. The mechanism responsible for the protective effects of aerobic exercise is associated with the activation of the β3-AR-nNOS-NO pathway.

  9. Global microRNA profiles and signaling pathways in the development of cardiac hypertrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, H.J.; Ouyang, W.; Liu, J.H.; Sun, Y.G.; Hu, R.; Huang, L.H.; Xian, J.L. [Southern Medical University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Zhujiang Hospital, Guangzhou, China, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Jing, C.F.; Zhou, M.J. [Sun Yat-Sen University, South China Sea Marine Biotechnology, National Engineering Research Center, Guangzhou, China, National Engineering Research Center, South China Sea Marine Biotechnology, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China)

    2014-04-11

    Hypertrophy is a major predictor of progressive heart disease and has an adverse prognosis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) that accumulate during the course of cardiac hypertrophy may participate in the process. However, the nature of any interaction between a hypertrophy-specific signaling pathway and aberrant expression of miRNAs remains unclear. In this study, Spague Dawley male rats were treated with transverse aortic constriction (TAC) surgery to mimic pathological hypertrophy. Hearts were isolated from TAC and sham operated rats (n=5 for each group at 5, 10, 15, and 20 days after surgery) for miRNA microarray assay. The miRNAs dysexpressed during hypertrophy were further analyzed using a combination of bioinformatics algorithms in order to predict possible targets. Increased expression of the target genes identified in diverse signaling pathways was also analyzed. Two sets of miRNAs were identified, showing different expression patterns during hypertrophy. Bioinformatics analysis suggested the miRNAs may regulate multiple hypertrophy-specific signaling pathways by targeting the member genes and the interaction of miRNA and mRNA might form a network that leads to cardiac hypertrophy. In addition, the multifold changes in several miRNAs suggested that upregulation of rno-miR-331*, rno-miR-3596b, rno-miR-3557-5p and downregulation of rno-miR-10a, miR-221, miR-190, miR-451 could be seen as biomarkers of prognosis in clinical therapy of heart failure. This study described, for the first time, a potential mechanism of cardiac hypertrophy involving multiple signaling pathways that control up- and downregulation of miRNAs. It represents a first step in the systematic discovery of miRNA function in cardiovascular hypertrophy.

  10. Health-related quality of life among children with adenoid hypertrophy in Xi'an, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xun; Ren, Xiaoyong; Liu, Haiqin; Tian, Jiao; Du, Chunyan; Luo, Huanan; Cheng, Ying; Shang, Lei

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in 5-7-year-old children diagnosed with adenoid hypertrophy and the impact of adenoid hypertrophy on affected families. This is a cross-sectional case-control study evaluating 5-7-year-old children with adenoid hypertrophy (n=195), 5-7-year-old healthy children (n=156), and associated caregivers (parents and/or grandparents). A Chinese version of the PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scale was used to assess childhood HRQOL, and a Chinese version of the Family Impact Module (FIM) was used to assess the impact of adenoid hypertrophy on family members. HRQOL scores were compared between the children with adenoid hypertrophy and healthy children. In addition, a multiple step-wise regression with demographic variables of children and their caregivers, family economic status, and caregiver's HRQOL as independent variables were referenced to determine the factors that may influence HRQOL in children with adenoid hypertrophy. Children with adenoid hypertrophy showed significantly lower physical, emotional, social, and school functioning scores than healthy children (pchildren with adenoid hypertrophy also scored significantly lower than caregivers for healthy children on physical, emotional, social, cognitive, and communication functioning (pchildren also exhibited significantly higher levels of worry than healthy children (pchildren's age, children's relation with caregivers, caregiver's educational level, caregiver's own HRQOL, and the size of adenoid may all influence the HRQOL in children with adenoid hypertrophy (pchildren and their caregivers, and may negatively influence family functioning. In addition, caregivers' social characteristics may also significantly affect the HRQOL in children with adenoid hypertrophy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Chymase inhibition prevents fibronectin and myofibrillar loss and improves cardiomyocyte function and LV torsion angle in dogs with isolated mitral regurgitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pat, Betty; Chen, Yuanwen; Killingsworth, Cheryl; Gladden, James D; Shi, Ke; Zheng, Junying; Powell, Pamela C; Walcott, Greg; Ahmed, Mustafa I; Gupta, Himanshu; Desai, Ravi; Wei, Chih-Chang; Hase, Naoki; Kobayashi, Tsunefumi; Sabri, Abdelkarim; Granzier, Henk; Denney, Thomas; Tillson, Michael; Dillon, A Ray; Husain, Ahsan; Dell'italia, Louis J

    2010-10-12

    The left ventricular (LV) dilatation of isolated mitral regurgitation (MR) is associated with an increase in chymase and a decrease in interstitial collagen and extracellular matrix. In addition to profibrotic effects, chymase has significant antifibrotic actions because it activates matrix metalloproteinases and kallikrein and degrades fibronectin. Thus, we hypothesize that chymase inhibitor (CI) will attenuate extracellular matrix loss and LV remodeling in MR. We studied dogs with 4 months of untreated MR (MR; n=9) or MR treated with CI (MR+CI; n=8). Cine MRI demonstrated a >40% increase in LV end-diastolic volume in both groups, consistent with a failure of CI to improve a 25% decrease in interstitial collagen in MR. However, LV cardiomyocyte fractional shortening was decreased in MR versus normal dogs (3.71±0.24% versus 4.81±0.31%; P<0.05) and normalized in MR+CI dogs (4.85±0.44%). MRI with tissue tagging demonstrated an increase in LV torsion angle in MR+CI versus MR dogs. CI normalized the significant decrease in fibronectin and FAK phosphorylation and prevented cardiomyocyte myofibrillar degeneration in MR dogs. In addition, total titin and its stiffer isoform were increased in the LV epicardium and paralleled the changes in fibronectin and FAK phosphorylation in MR+CI dogs. These results suggest that chymase disrupts cell surface-fibronectin connections and FAK phosphorylation that can adversely affect cardiomyocyte myofibrillar structure and function. The greater effect of CI on epicardial versus endocardial titin and noncollagen cell surface proteins may be responsible for the increase in torsion angle in chronic MR.

  12. Capillarization and vascular endothelial growth factor expression in hypertrophying anterior latissimus dorsi muscle of the Japanese quail.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degens, H.; Anderson, R.K.; Alway, S.E.

    2003-01-01

    Hypertrophy may increase the diffusion distances from capillaries to the interior of the muscle fibers. We hypothesized that capillary proliferation occurs during hypertrophy, which is accompanied by an up-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Hypertrophy of the left anterior

  13. Defining Overweight and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Defining Adult Overweight and Obesity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... weight for a given height is described as overweight or obese. Body Mass Index, or BMI, is ...

  14. Drinking Levels Defined

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special ... Definition of Drinking at Low Risk for Developing Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD): For women, low-risk drinking is defined ...

  15. Defining Documentary Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    A discussion of various attemts at defining documentary film regarding form, content, truth, stile, genre or reception - and a propoposal of a positive list of essential, but non-exclusive characteristica of documentary film......A discussion of various attemts at defining documentary film regarding form, content, truth, stile, genre or reception - and a propoposal of a positive list of essential, but non-exclusive characteristica of documentary film...

  16. Association of Ugrp2 gene polymorphisms with adenoid hypertrophy in the pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atilla, Mahmut Huntürk; Özdaş, Sibel; Özdaş, Talih; Baştimur, Sibel; Muz, Sami Engin; Öz, Işılay; Kurt, Kenan; İzbirak, Afife; Babademez, Mehmet Ali; Vatandaş, Nilgün

    2017-08-01

    Adenoid hypertrophy is a condition that presents itself as the chronic enlargement of adenoid tissues; it is frequently observed in the pediatric population. The Ugrp2 gene, a member of the secretoglobin superfamily, encodes a low-molecular weight protein that functions in the differentiation of upper airway epithelial cells. However, little is known about the association of Ugrp2 genetic variations with adenoid hypertrophy. The aim of this study is to investigate the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the Ugrp2 gene with adenoid hypertrophy and its related phenotypes. A total of 219 children, comprising 114 patients suffering from adenoid hypertrophy and 105 healthy patients without adenoid hypertrophy, were enrolled in this study. Genotypes of the Ugrp2 gene were determined by DNA sequencing. We identified four single nucleotide polymorphisms (IVS1-189G>A, IVS1-89T>G, c.201delC, and IVS2-15G>A) in the Ugrp2 gene. Our genotype analysis showed that the Ugrp2 (IVS1-89T>G) TG and (c.201delC) CdelC genotypes and their minor alleles were associated with a considerable increase in the risk of adenoid hypertrophy compared with the controls (p=0.012, p=0.009, p=0.013, and p=0.037, respectively). Furthermore, Ugrp2 (GTdelCG, GTdelCA) haplotypes were significantly associated with adenoid hypertrophy (four single nucleotide polymorphisms ordered from 5' to 3'; p=0.0001). Polymorfism-Polymorfism interaction analysis indicated a strong interaction between combined genotypes of the Ugrp2 gene contributing to adenoid hypertrophy, as well as an increased chance of its diagnosis (p<0.0001). In addition, diplotypes carrying the mutant Ugrp2 (c.201delC) allele were strongly associated with an increased risk of adenoid hypertrophy with asthma and adenoid hypertrophy with allergies (p=0.003 and p=0.0007, respectively). Some single nucleotide polymorphisms and their combinations in the Ugrp2 gene are associated with an increased risk of developing adenoid hypertrophy

  17. Myocardial perfusion in type 2 diabetes with left ventricular hypertrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesse, Birger; Meyer, Christian; Nielsen, Flemming S

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether acute angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition would improve myocardial perfusion and perfusion reserve in a subpopulation of normotensive patients with diabetes and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), both independent risk factors of coronary...... disease. Using positron emission tomography (PET), we investigated the response of regional myocardial perfusion to acute ACE inhibition with i.v. infusion of perindoprilat (vs saline infusion as control, minimum interval 3 days) in 12 diabetic patients with LVH. Myocardial perfusion was quantified...... with controls, maximal perfusion was reduced in patients (1.8+/-0.6 vs 2.5+/-1.0 ml min(-1) g(-1); P2.7+/-1.0 vs 3.6+/-1.3; P=0.059). During perindoprilat infusion, myocardial perfusion reserve in patients increased to 3.9+/-0.9 ( P

  18. Transcriptional activation of ribosomal RNA genes during compensatory renal hypertrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouellette, A.J.; Moonka, R.; Zelenetz, A.; Malt, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The overall rate of rDNA transcription increases by 50% during the first 24 hours of compensatory renal hypertrophy in the mouse. To study mechanisms of ribosome accumulation after uninephrectomy, transcription rates were measured in isolated kidneys by transcriptional runoff. 32 P-labeled nascent transcripts were hybridized to blots containing linearized, denatured cloned rDNA, and hybridization was quantitated autoradiographically and by direct counting. Overall transcriptional activity of rDNA was increased by 30% above control levels at 6 hrs after nephrectomy and by 50% at 12, 18, and 24 hrs after operation. Hybridizing RNA was insensitive to inhibiby alpha-amanitin, and no hybridization was detected to vector DNA. Thus, accelerated rDNA transcription is one regulatory element in the accretion of ribosomes in renal growth, and the regulatory event is an early event. Mechanisms of activation may include enhanced transcription of active genes or induction of inactive DNA

  19. The relationship of enuresis nocturna and adenoid hypertrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhsin Balaban

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was organized to assess the relationship of enuresis nocturna (EN and upper airway obstruction (UAO in children. Material and Methods: This study was multi-centrically and prospectively designed including 79 children who presented to a urology clinic with symptoms of EN between January 2013 and February 2014. Sixty-four age-matched children with no history of urological complaints were randomly recruited from children admitted to a pediatric clinic as a control group. All children and parents were asked to fill out a dysfunctional elimination syndrome (DES questionnaire and children were examined by an ear, nose and throat (ENT specialist to evaluate the UAO. Descriptive statistics, chisquare and Mann-Whitney-U tests were used to compare variables. Results: The mean ages of the 79 children (48 male, 31 female in the study group and the 64 children (41 male, 23 female in the control group were 10.14+/-3.38 and 9.17+/- 2.85, respectively. Family history of the study showed that 19% of the children’s mothers, 10% of the children’s fathers and 37% of the children’s siblings had experienced EN. There was a significant difference between the study and the control groups in terms of urge to urinate, bladder emptying, bowel symptoms and psychological stress. There was also a significant difference between rates of tonsillar hypertrophy and nasopharynx obstruction in the EN group (p = 0.009. Conclusion: In this study we found that half of the children with EN had tonsillar hypertrophy, which was significantly higher than in the control group. Further studies are needed to clarify the exact relationship between UAO and EN.

  20. Enalaprilato na prevenção da hipertrofia ventricular esquerda induzida pelo isoproterenol Enalaprilat prevents the left ventricular hypertrophy induced by isoproterenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A. S. Costa

    1997-07-01

    groups: CON, control; ENA, treated with enalaprilat (1mg/kg via subcutaneous (sc for 8 days; ISO, treated with isoproterenol (0.3mg via sc for 8 days e ENA+ISO, treated with both drugs simultaneously. Each group had the arterial blood pressure, cardiac rate and the left ventricle (LV weight determined in 10 animals. In 8 animals from each group a small sample was taken from the LV and stained with hematoxyline-eosine and picrosirius for morphometric and ultra-structural studies with optic and transmission electronic microscopy. RESULTS: The ISO group showed that the LV weight increased 47% in comparison with control. On the other hand the ENA+ISO group showed only 22.1% increase (p<0.05. The morphometric and ultra-structural analyses revealed that isoproterenol induced cardiomyocite hypertrophy and augmented the content of the type I collagen in the cardiac interstitium. CONCLUSION: Enalaprilat inhibited the isoproterenol action on the cardiomyocite, avoiding partially the LVH and decreasing the content of collagen fibers.

  1. Definably compact groups definable in real closed fields. I

    OpenAIRE

    Barriga, Eliana

    2017-01-01

    We study definably compact definably connected groups definable in a sufficiently saturated real closed field $R$. We introduce the notion of group-generic point for $\\bigvee$-definable groups and show the existence of group-generic points for definably compact groups definable in a sufficiently saturated o-minimal expansion of a real closed field. We use this notion along with some properties of generic sets to prove that for every definably compact definably connected group $G$ definable in...

  2. Herbal Supplement Ameliorates Cardiac Hypertrophy in Rats with CCl4-Induced Liver Cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Chun Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We used the carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 induced liver cirrhosis model to test the molecular mechanism of action involved in cirrhosis-associated cardiac hypertrophy and the effectiveness of Ocimum gratissimum extract (OGE and silymarin against cardiac hypertrophy. We treated male wistar rats with CCl4 and either OGE (0.02 g/kg B.W. or 0.04 g/kg B.W. or silymarin (0.2 g/kg B.W.. Cardiac eccentric hypertrophy was induced by CCl4 along with cirrhosis and increased expression of cardiac hypertrophy related genes NFAT, TAGA4, and NBP, and the interleukin-6 (IL-6 signaling pathway related genes MEK5, ERK5, JAK, and STAT3. OGE or silymarin co-treatment attenuated CCl4-induced cardiac abnormalities, and lowered expression of genes which were elevated by this hepatotoxin. Our results suggest that the IL-6 signaling pathway may be related to CCl4-induced cardiac hypertrophy. OGE and silymarin were able to lower liver fibrosis, which reduces the chance of cardiac hypertrophy perhaps by lowering the expressions of IL-6 signaling pathway related genes. We conclude that treatment of cirrhosis using herbal supplements is a viable option for protecting cardiac tissues against cirrhosis-related cardiac hypertrophy.

  3. Effect of hepatocyte growth factor and angiotensin II on rat cardiomyocyte hypertrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ai-Lan [Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Ou, Cai-Wen [The Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou (China); He, Zhao-Chu [Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Liu, Qi-Cai [Experimental Medical Research Center, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Dong, Qi [Department of Physiology, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Chen, Min-Sheng [Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Guangzhou Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou (China)

    2012-10-15

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) plays an important role in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. The combined effect of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and Ang II on cardiomyocytes is unknown. The present study was designed to determine the effect of HGF on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and to explore the combined effect of HGF and Ang II on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Primary cardiomyocytes were isolated from neonatal rat hearts and cultured in vitro. Cells were treated with Ang II (1 µM) alone, HGF (10 ng/mL) alone, and Ang II (1 µM) plus HGF (10 ng/mL) for 24, 48, and 72 h. The amount of [{sup 3}H]-leucine incorporation was then measured to evaluate protein synthesis. The mRNA levels of β-myosin heavy chain and atrial natriuretic factor were determined by real-time PCR to evaluate the presence of fetal phenotypes of gene expression. The cell size of cardiomyocytes was also studied. Ang II (1 µM) increased cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Similar to Ang II, treatment with 1 µM HGF promoted cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Moreover, the combination of 1 µM Ang II and 10 ng/mL HGF clearly induced a combined pro-hypertrophy effect on cardiomyocytes. The present study demonstrates for the first time a novel, combined effect of HGF and Ang II in promoting cardiomyocyte hypertrophy.

  4. 19-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and isoniazid protect against angiotensin II-induced cardiac hypertrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elkhatali, Samya; El-Sherbeni, Ahmed A.; Elshenawy, Osama H. [Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E1 (Canada); Abdelhamid, Ghada [Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E1 (Canada); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Helwan University, Helwan (Egypt); El-Kadi, Ayman O.S., E-mail: aelkadi@ualberta.ca [Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E1 (Canada)

    2015-12-15

    We have recently demonstrated that 19-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (19-HETE) is the major subterminal-HETE formed in the heart tissue, and its formation was decreased during cardiac hypertrophy. In the current study, we examined whether 19-HETE confers cardioprotection against angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced cardiac hypertrophy. The effect of Ang II, with and without 19-HETE (20 μM), on the development of cellular hypertrophy in cardiomyocyte RL-14 cells was assessed by real-time PCR. Also, cardiac hypertrophy was induced in Sprague–Dawley rats by Ang II, and the effect of increasing 19-HETE by isoniazid (INH; 200 mg/kg/day) was assessed by heart weight and echocardiography. Also, alterations in cardiac cytochrome P450 (CYP) and their associated arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites were determined by real-time PCR, Western blotting and liquid-chromatography–mass-spectrometry. Our results demonstrated that 19-HETE conferred a cardioprotective effect against Ang II-induced cellular hypertrophy in vitro, as indicated by the significant reduction in β/α-myosin heavy chain ratio. In vivo, INH improved heart dimensions, and reversed the increase in heart weight to tibia length ratio caused by Ang II. We found a significant increase in cardiac 19-HETE, as well as a significant reduction in AA and its metabolite, 20-HETE. In conclusion, 19-HETE, incubated with cardiomyocytes in vitro or induced in the heart by INH in vivo, provides cardioprotection against Ang II-induced hypertrophy. This further confirms the role of CYP, and their associated AA metabolites in the development of cardiac hypertrophy. - Highlights: • We found 19-hydroxy arachidonic acid to protect cardiomyocytes from hypertrophy. • We validated the use of isoniazid as a cardiac 19-hydroxy arachidonic acid inducer. • We found isoniazid to increase protective and inhibit toxic eicosanoides. • We found isoniazid to protect against angiotensin-induced cardiac hypertrophy. • This will help to

  5. Eccentric and concentric cardiac hypertrophy induced by exercise training: microRNAs and molecular determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, T; Soci, U P R; Oliveira, E M

    2011-09-01

    Among the molecular, biochemical and cellular processes that orchestrate the development of the different phenotypes of cardiac hypertrophy in response to physiological stimuli or pathological insults, the specific contribution of exercise training has recently become appreciated. Physiological cardiac hypertrophy involves complex cardiac remodeling that occurs as an adaptive response to static or dynamic chronic exercise, but the stimuli and molecular mechanisms underlying transduction of the hemodynamic overload into myocardial growth are poorly understood. This review summarizes the physiological stimuli that induce concentric and eccentric physiological hypertrophy, and discusses the molecular mechanisms, sarcomeric organization, and signaling pathway involved, also showing that the cardiac markers of pathological hypertrophy (atrial natriuretic factor, β-myosin heavy chain and α-skeletal actin) are not increased. There is no fibrosis and no cardiac dysfunction in eccentric or concentric hypertrophy induced by exercise training. Therefore, the renin-angiotensin system has been implicated as one of the regulatory mechanisms for the control of cardiac function and structure. Here, we show that the angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor is locally activated in pathological and physiological cardiac hypertrophy, although with exercise training it can be stimulated independently of the involvement of angiotensin II. Recently, microRNAs (miRs) have been investigated as a possible therapeutic approach since they regulate the translation of the target mRNAs involved in cardiac hypertrophy; however, miRs in relation to physiological hypertrophy have not been extensively investigated. We summarize here profiling studies that have examined miRs in pathological and physiological cardiac hypertrophy. An understanding of physiological cardiac remodeling may provide a strategy to improve ventricular function in cardiac dysfunction.

  6. Eccentric and concentric cardiac hypertrophy induced by exercise training: microRNAs and molecular determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Fernandes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Among the molecular, biochemical and cellular processes that orchestrate the development of the different phenotypes of cardiac hypertrophy in response to physiological stimuli or pathological insults, the specific contribution of exercise training has recently become appreciated. Physiological cardiac hypertrophy involves complex cardiac remodeling that occurs as an adaptive response to static or dynamic chronic exercise, but the stimuli and molecular mechanisms underlying transduction of the hemodynamic overload into myocardial growth are poorly understood. This review summarizes the physiological stimuli that induce concentric and eccentric physiological hypertrophy, and discusses the molecular mechanisms, sarcomeric organization, and signaling pathway involved, also showing that the cardiac markers of pathological hypertrophy (atrial natriuretic factor, β-myosin heavy chain and α-skeletal actin are not increased. There is no fibrosis and no cardiac dysfunction in eccentric or concentric hypertrophy induced by exercise training. Therefore, the renin-angiotensin system has been implicated as one of the regulatory mechanisms for the control of cardiac function and structure. Here, we show that the angiotensin II type 1 (AT1 receptor is locally activated in pathological and physiological cardiac hypertrophy, although with exercise training it can be stimulated independently of the involvement of angiotensin II. Recently, microRNAs (miRs have been investigated as a possible therapeutic approach since they regulate the translation of the target mRNAs involved in cardiac hypertrophy; however, miRs in relation to physiological hypertrophy have not been extensively investigated. We summarize here profiling studies that have examined miRs in pathological and physiological cardiac hypertrophy. An understanding of physiological cardiac remodeling may provide a strategy to improve ventricular function in cardiac dysfunction.

  7. Defining Game Mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sicart (Vila), Miguel Angel

    2008-01-01

    This article defins game mechanics in relation to rules and challenges. Game mechanics are methods invoked by agents for interacting with the game world. I apply this definition to a comparative analysis of the games Rez, Every Extend Extra and Shadow of the Colossus that will show the relevance...... of a formal definition of game mechanics. Udgivelsesdato: Dec 2008...

  8. Modal Logics and Definability

    OpenAIRE

    Kuusisto, Antti

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, research into the mathematical foundations of modal logic has become increasingly popular. One of the main reasons for this is the fact that modal logic seems to adapt well to the requirements of a wide range of different fields of application. This paper is a summary of some of the author’s contributions to the understanding of modal definability theory.

  9. Software Defined Cyberinfrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, Ian; Blaiszik, Ben; Chard, Kyle; Chard, Ryan

    2017-07-17

    Within and across thousands of science labs, researchers and students struggle to manage data produced in experiments, simulations, and analyses. Largely manual research data lifecycle management processes mean that much time is wasted, research results are often irreproducible, and data sharing and reuse remain rare. In response, we propose a new approach to data lifecycle management in which researchers are empowered to define the actions to be performed at individual storage systems when data are created or modified: actions such as analysis, transformation, copying, and publication. We term this approach software-defined cyberinfrastructure because users can implement powerful data management policies by deploying rules to local storage systems, much as software-defined networking allows users to configure networks by deploying rules to switches.We argue that this approach can enable a new class of responsive distributed storage infrastructure that will accelerate research innovation by allowing any researcher to associate data workflows with data sources, whether local or remote, for such purposes as data ingest, characterization, indexing, and sharing. We report on early experiments with this approach in the context of experimental science, in which a simple if-trigger-then-action (IFTA) notation is used to define rules.

  10. Defining Abnormally Low Tenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard; Nyström, Johan

    2017-01-01

    The concept of an abnormally low tender is not defined in EU public procurement law. This article takes an interdisciplinary law and economics approach to examine a dataset consisting of Swedish and Danish judgments and verdicts concerning the concept of an abnormally low tender. The purpose...

  11. Software Defined Coded Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Paola, Carla; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Palazzo, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    the quality of each link and even across neighbouring links and using simulations to show that an additional reduction of packet transmission in the order of 40% is possible. Second, to advocate for the use of network coding (NC) jointly with software defined networking (SDN) providing an implementation...

  12. Defining depth of anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, S L; Stanski, D R

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter, drawn largely from the synthesis of material that we first presented in the sixth edition of Miller's Anesthesia, Chap 31 (Stanski and Shafer 2005; used by permission of the publisher), we have defined anesthetic depth as the probability of non-response to stimulation, calibrated against the strength of the stimulus, the difficulty of suppressing the response, and the drug-induced probability of non-responsiveness at defined effect site concentrations. This definition requires measurement of multiple different stimuli and responses at well-defined drug concentrations. There is no one stimulus and response measurement that will capture depth of anesthesia in a clinically or scientifically meaningful manner. The "clinical art" of anesthesia requires calibration of these observations of stimuli and responses (verbal responses, movement, tachycardia) against the dose and concentration of anesthetic drugs used to reduce the probability of response, constantly adjusting the administered dose to achieve the desired anesthetic depth. In our definition of "depth of anesthesia" we define the need for two components to create the anesthetic state: hypnosis created with drugs such as propofol or the inhalational anesthetics and analgesia created with the opioids or nitrous oxide. We demonstrate the scientific evidence that profound degrees of hypnosis in the absence of analgesia will not prevent the hemodynamic responses to profoundly noxious stimuli. Also, profound degrees of analgesia do not guarantee unconsciousness. However, the combination of hypnosis and analgesia suppresses hemodynamic response to noxious stimuli and guarantees unconsciousness.

  13. Defining and classifying syncope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijs, Roland D.; Wieling, Wouter; Kaufmann, Horacio; van Dijk, Gert

    2004-01-01

    There is no widely adopted definition or classification of syncope and related disorders. This lack of uniformity harms patient care, research, and medical education. In this article, syncope is defined as a form of transient loss of consciousness (TLOC) due to cerebral hypoperfusion. Differences

  14. Becker muscular dystrophy with widespread muscle hypertrophy and a non-sense mutation of exon 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witting, Nanna; Duno, M; Vissing, J

    2013-01-01

    Becker muscular dystrophy features progressive proximal weakness, wasting and often focal hypertrophy. We present a patient with pain and cramps from adolescence. Widespread muscle hypertrophy, preserved muscle strength and a 10-20-fold raised CPK were noted. Muscle biopsy was dystrophic......, and Western blot showed a 95% reduction of dystrophin levels. Genetic analyses revealed a non-sense mutation in exon 2 of the dystrophin gene. This mutation is predicted to result in a Duchenne phenotype, but resulted in a mild Becker muscular dystrophy with widespread muscle hypertrophy. We suggest...

  15. [Impacts of physical exercise on remodeling and hypertrophy of skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakashita, Yoshihiro; Uchida, Takayuki; Nikawa, Takeshi

    The skeletal muscle has high sensitivity for the mechanical stress. Because it is enlarged by training, whereas it is easily withered by lack of exercise. When we exercise, skeletal muscle cells per se sense mechanical loading, and muscular remodeling and the muscular hypertrophy occur. It has been revealed that the intracellular signaling through PGC-1α participates in the remodeling of the skeletal muscle, while PGC-1α4, an isoform of PGC-1α, and the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex play important roles in muscular hypertrophy. This review describes the impact of physical exercise gives on the remodeling and hypertrophy of muscle through the signaling.

  16. Overload-mediated skeletal muscle hypertrophy is not impaired by loss of myofiber STAT3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Schindler, Joaquín; Esparza, Mary C; McKendry, James; Breen, Leigh; Philp, Andrew; Schenk, Simon

    2017-09-01

    Although the signal pathways mediating muscle protein synthesis and degradation are well characterized, the transcriptional processes modulating skeletal muscle mass and adaptive growth are poorly understood. Recently, studies in mouse models of muscle wasting or acutely exercised human muscle have suggested a potential role for the transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), in adaptive growth. Hence, in the present study we sought to define the contribution of STAT3 to skeletal muscle adaptive growth. In contrast to previous work, two different resistance exercise protocols did not change STAT3 phosphorylation in human skeletal muscle. To directly address the role of STAT3 in load-induced (i.e., adaptive) growth, we studied the anabolic effects of 14 days of synergist ablation (SA) in skeletal muscle-specific STAT3 knockout (mKO) mice and their floxed, wild-type (WT) littermates. Plantaris muscle weight and fiber area in the nonoperated leg (control; CON) was comparable between genotypes. As expected, SA significantly increased plantaris weight, muscle fiber cross-sectional area, and anabolic signaling in WT mice, although interestingly, this induction was not impaired in STAT3 mKO mice. Collectively, these data demonstrate that STAT3 is not required for overload-mediated hypertrophy in mouse skeletal muscle. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  17. The Effect of Phenazine-1-Carboxylic Acid on Mycelial Growth of Botrytis cinerea Produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa LV Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ane S. Simionato

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important postharvest plant pathogens that affect strawberries, grapes and tomatoes is Botrytis cinerea, known as gray mold. The fungus remains in latent form until spore germination conditions are good, making infection control difficult, causing great losses in the whole production chain. This study aimed to purify and identify phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA produced by the Pseudomonas aeruginosa LV strain and to determine its antifungal activity against B. cinerea. The compounds produced were extracted with dichloromethane and passed through a chromatographic process. The purity level of PCA was determined by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography semi-preparative. The structure of PCA was confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Antifungal activity was determined by the dry paper disk and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC methods and identified by scanning electron microscopy and confocal microscopy. The results showed that PCA inhibited mycelial growth, where MIC was 25 μg mL-1. Microscopic analysis revealed a reduction in exopolysaccharide (EPS formation, showing distorted and damaged hyphae of B. cinerea. The results suggested that PCA has a high potential in the control of B. cinerea and inhibition of EPS (important virulence factor. This natural compound is a potential alternative to postharvest control of gray mold disease.

  18. Binding of Dumbbell Oligonucleotides to MoMuLV Reverse Transcriptase: Inhibitory Properties of RNase H Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dumbbell oligonucleotides with loops of various chemistry were synthesized. Incubation of dumbbell oligonucleotides containing phosphorothioate bonds or trimethylene phosphate linkages in loops with S1 nuclease did not result in significant cleavage under conditions which led to the degradation of dumbbell oligonucleotide containing phophodiester bonds in the loops. The binding of reverse transcriptase of Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus (MoMuLV was evaluated with all the five oligonucleotides. The protein binds to all the dumbbell oligonucleotides with similar affinity. The dissociation constants evaluated using PAGE band mobility shift assays were of the order of 10-7. The inhibitory properties of the retroviral RNase H activity was evaluated using 3H –UTP-labeled RNA:RNA-DNA hybrid. It was found that the best dumbbell oligonucleotide, inhibitor contained phosphorothioate residues in both the loops. Our value studies demonstrated that this particularly designed oligonucleotide displays an IC50 of 18 nM in its inhibition on the reverse transcriptase RNase H activity, a magnitude lower than that of first nucleotide reverse transcriptase of HIV-1, tenofovir, introduced by Gilead Science in the market.

  19. A patient with severely reduced LV function and electrical storm saved by wearable cardioverter-defibrillator: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Margit; Kouraki, Kleopatra; Skarlos, Alexandros; Zahn, Ralf; Kleemann, Thomas

    2013-06-01

    The wearable cardioverter-defibrillator (WCD) is indicated in patients who are considered to be at temporarily high risk for sudden cardiac death (SCD), when an implantable defibrillator is not yet clearly indicated. We report the case of a 41-year-old patient with a newly diagnosed severely reduced left ventricular (LV) function for suspected myocarditis and repeated nonsustained ventricular tachycardia (VT). This patient was supplied with a WCD who came back to the hospital 4 weeks after discharge with an electrical storm and adequate discharge of the WCD. After application of amiodarone, no further arrhythmias were detected during intrahospital course. For further risk stratification, we performed a magnetic field imaging (MFI), that was reported to be useful in risk assessment of SCD in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. This measurement showed a normal result, but we decided to give an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) to the patient. During a follow-up of 1 year, no further arrhythmias occurred. With this case, we report the efficacy of a WCD, which is a novel tool in patients at temporarily high risk of SCD and we report a novel method of risk stratification in patients with a high risk of SCD.

  20. Analysis of Maneuvering Targets with Complex Motions by Two-Dimensional Product Modified Lv's Distribution for Quadratic Frequency Modulation Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Fulong; Jiao, Shuhong; Hou, Changbo; Si, Weijian; Wang, Yu

    2017-06-21

    For targets with complex motion, such as ships fluctuating with oceanic waves and high maneuvering airplanes, azimuth echo signals can be modeled as multicomponent quadratic frequency modulation (QFM) signals after migration compensation and phase adjustment. For the QFM signal model, the chirp rate (CR) and the quadratic chirp rate (QCR) are two important physical quantities, which need to be estimated. For multicomponent QFM signals, the cross terms create a challenge for detection, which needs to be addressed. In this paper, by employing a novel multi-scale parametric symmetric self-correlation function (PSSF) and modified scaled Fourier transform (mSFT), an effective parameter estimation algorithm is proposed-referred to as the Two-Dimensional product modified Lv's distribution (2D-PMLVD)-for QFM signals. The 2D-PMLVD is simple and can be easily implemented by using fast Fourier transform (FFT) and complex multiplication. These measures are analyzed in the paper, including the principle, the cross term, anti-noise performance, and computational complexity. Compared to the other three representative methods, the 2D-PMLVD can achieve better anti-noise performance. The 2D-PMLVD, which is free of searching and has no identifiability problems, is more suitable for multicomponent situations. Through several simulations and analyses, the effectiveness of the proposed estimation algorithm is verified.

  1. Cell surface antigens of radiation leukemia virus-induced BALB/c leukemias defined by syngeneic cytotoxic T lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Yukio; Oettgen, H.F.; Obata, Yuichi; Nakayama, Eiichi.

    1989-01-01

    Two cell surface antigens of mouse leukemias were defined by BALB/c cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) generated against syngeneic radiation leukemia virus (RadLV)-induced leukemia, BALBRV1 or BALBRVD. Hyperimmunization of BALB/c mice with irradiated leukemias followed by in vitro sensitization of primed spleen cells resulted in the generation of CTL with high killing activity. The specificity of CTL was examined by direct cytotoxicity assays and competitive inhibition assays. A shared cell surface antigen, designated as BALBRV1 antigen, was detected by BALB/c anti-BALBRV1 CTL. BALBRV1 antigen was expressed not only on RadLV-induced BALB/c leukemias except for BALBRVD, but also on spontaneous or X-ray-induced BALB/c leukemias, chemically-induced leukemias with the H-2 d haplotype and some chemically-induced BALB/c sarcomas. In contrast, a unique cell surface antigen, designated as BALBRVD antigen, was detected by BALB/c anti-BALBRVD CTL. BALBRVD antigen was expressed only on BALBRVD, but not on thirty-nine normal lymphoid or tumor cells. These two antigens could be distinguished from those previously defined on Friend, Moloney, Rauscher or Gross murine leukemia virus (MuLV) leukemias, or MuLV-related antigens. Both cytotoxic responses were blocked by antisera against H-2K d , but not H-2D d . The relationship of BALBRV1 antigen and BALBRVD antigen to endogenous MuLV is discussed with regard to the antigenic distribution on tumor cell lines. (author)

  2. Testicular hypertrophy as a predictor for contralateral monorchism: Retrospective review of prospectively recorded data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodhod, A; Capolicchio, J P; Jednak, R; El-Sherbiny, M

    2016-02-01

    Testicular hypertrophy has previously been evaluated as a predictor of monorchism. However, its implication in clinical practice is not well evaluated. The aim of the present study was to examine its value in planning the operative time. Medical charts of prospectively recorded data of 76 consecutive patients with unilateral impalpable testis from 2011 to 2014 were reviewed at the present institute. Inclusion criteria included prepubertal patients with non-palpable testes by examination under anesthesia. Contralateral testes were prospectively measured using a Takihara orchidometer. Orchiectomy or orchiopexy was performed according to the viability of the undescended testis (UDT). Collected data included age of surgery, contralateral testicular size, surgical time and laparoscopic findings. A ROC curve was used to define the best cut-off volume of the contralateral testis that can predict ipsilateral testicular viability. The Student's t-test was used to examine if this cut-off volume would be useful in allocating the operative time. Of 76 patients, four palpable testes by examination under anesthesia were excluded. The remaining 72 patients were included in the study. Ipsilateral normal viable testes were found in 26 (36.1%) patients, while 46 (63.9%) had non-viable testes (testicular nubbins or vanishing testes) (Figure). A contralateral testicular volume > 2 ml was significantly predictive for monorchism with 71.7% sensitivity and 100% specificity (P 2 ml was 50 min, which was significantly shorter than that for UDT with a contralateral size ≤ 2 ml, which was 88 min (P value for testicular hypertrophy that predicts monorchism greatly varied. This is likely due to the different methods used for testicular measurements that make it impractical to make a direct comparison. The usefulness of predicting monorchism before surgery has not previously been used as a guide for allocating operative time in the management of a unilateral non-palpable testicle. This study

  3. Defining Legal Moralism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jens Damgaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses how legal moralism should be defined. It is argued that legal moralism should be defined as the position that “For any X, it is always a pro tanto reason for justifiably imposing legal regulation on X that X is morally wrong (where “morally wrong” is not conceptually equivalent...... to “harmful”)”. Furthermore, a distinction between six types of legal moralism is made. The six types are grouped according to whether they are concerned with the enforcement of positive or critical morality, and whether they are concerned with criminalising, legally restricting, or refraining from legally...... protecting morally wrong behaviour. This is interesting because not all types of legal moralism are equally vulnerable to the different critiques of legal moralism that have been put forth. Indeed, I show that some interesting types of legal moralism have not been criticised at all....

  4. Defining local food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Safania Normann

    2013-01-01

    Despite evolving local food research, there is no consistent definition of “local food.” Various understandings are utilized, which have resulted in a diverse landscape of meaning. The main purpose of this paper is to examine how researchers within the local food systems literature define local...... food, and how these definitions can be used as a starting point to identify a new taxonomy of local food based on three domains of proximity....

  5. The Regulatory Role of Signaling Crosstalk in Hypertrophy of MSCs and Human Articular Chondrocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhong, Leilei; Huang, X; Karperien, Hermanus Bernardus Johannes; Post, Janine Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Hypertrophic differentiation of chondrocytes is a main barrier in application of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for cartilage repair. In addition, hypertrophy occurs occasionally in osteoarthritis (OA). Here we provide a comprehensive review on recent literature describing signal pathways in the

  6. Isolated papillary muscle hypertrophy: A gap in our knowledge of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Catarina; Delgado, Carlos; Vázquez, María; Trinidad, Carmen; Vilar, Manuel

    2014-06-01

    Increased thickness of left ventricular walls is the predominant characteristic and one of the diagnostic criteria of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). This case illustrates an uncommon but important finding of isolated hypertrophy of the papillary muscles (PMs), observed in a young woman in whom an abnormal electrocardiogram was initially detected. During the investigation isolated PM hypertrophy was identified. The structural characteristics of the PMs have received scant attention in this setting and there is little information in the literature on this entity, whose real prevalence and clinical significance remain to be determined. The available information relates solitary PM hypertrophy with an early form or a different pattern of HCM. In this case PM hypertrophy was only detected due to the finding of an abnormal electrocardiogram, which prompted further diagnostic tests and a search for possible etiologies. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  7. Molecular and cellular characterization of cardiac overload-induced hypertrophy and failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Umar, Soban

    2009-01-01

    In neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes (NRVCs), we activated integrins by RGD to test whether integrin stimulation produced hypertrophy. Effect of RGD was compared with pro-hypertrophic effects of phenylephrine (chapter 2). Ventricular failure is associated with disturbed collagen turnover.

  8. Solving the cardiac hypertrophy riddle: The angiotensin II-mechanical stress connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zablocki, Daniela; Sadoshima, Junichi

    2013-11-08

    A series of studies conducted 20 years ago, documenting the cardiac hypertrophy phenotype and its underlying signaling mechanism induced by angiotensin II (Ang II) and mechanical stress, showed a remarkable similarity between the effect of the Gαq agonist and that of mechanical forces on cardiac hypertrophy. Subsequent studies confirmed the involvement of autocrine/paracrine mechanisms, including stretch-induced release of Ang II in load-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Recent studies showed that the Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptor is also directly activated by mechanical forces, suggesting that AT1 receptors play an important role in mediating load-induced cardiac hypertrophy through both ligand- and mechanical stress-dependent mechanisms.

  9. Angiotensin II type 2 receptors and cardiac hypertrophy in women with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Deinum (Jacob); J.M. van Gool (Jeanette); M.J.M. Kofflard (Marcel); A.H.J. Danser (Jan); F.J. ten Cate (Folkert)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThe development of left ventricular hypertrophy in subjects with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is variable, suggesting a role for modifying factors such as angiotensin II. Angiotensin II mediates both trophic and antitrophic effects, via angiotensin II type 1

  10. Heterogeneity of capillary spacing in the hypertrophied plantaris muscle from young-adult and old rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degens, H.; Morse, C.I.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2009-01-01

    Heterogeneity of capillary spacing may affect tissue oxygenation. The determinants of heterogeneity of capillary spacing are, however, unknown. To investigate whether 1) impaired angiogenesis and increased heterogeneity of capillary spacing delays development of hypertrophy during aging and 2)

  11. Premature osteoarthritis of the knee associated with cartilage hypertrophy and phalangeal dysgenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vital, E.M.J.; Hutton, C.W.; Hughes, P.M.

    2005-01-01

    A woman presented with premature knee osteoarthritis associated with marked femoral cartilage hypertrophy. She also exhibited phalangeal dysgenesis, suggesting this may be an unrecognised syndrome that may predispose to knee osteoarthritis. (orig.)

  12. Negative feedback regulation of Homer 1a on norepinephrine-dependent cardiac hypertrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiarello, Carmelina; Bortoloso, Elena; Carpi, Andrea; Furlan, Sandra; Volpe, Pompeo, E-mail: pompeo.volpe@unipd.it

    2013-07-15

    Homers are scaffolding proteins that modulate diverse cell functions being able to assemble signalling complexes. In this study, the presence, sub-cellular distribution and function of Homer 1 was investigated. Homer 1a and Homer 1b/c are constitutively expressed in cardiac muscle of both mouse and rat and in HL-1 cells, a cardiac cell line. As judged by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy, Homer 1a displays sarcomeric and peri-nuclear localization. In cardiomyocytes and cultured HL-1 cells, the hypertrophic agonist norepinephrine (NE) induces α{sub 1}-adrenergic specific Homer 1a over-expression, with a two-to-three-fold increase within 1 h, and no up-regulation of Homer 1b/c, as judged by Western blot and qPCR. In HL-1 cells, plasmid-driven over-expression of Homer 1a partially antagonizes activation of ERK phosphorylation and ANF up-regulation, two well-established, early markers of hypertrophy. At the morphometric level, NE-induced increase of cell size is likewise and partially counteracted by exogenous Homer 1a. Under the same experimental conditions, Homer 1b/c does not have any effect on ANF up-regulation nor on cell hypertrophy. Thus, Homer 1a up-regulation is associated to early stages of cardiac hypertrophy and appears to play a negative feedback regulation on molecular transducers of hypertrophy. -- Highlights: • Homer 1a is constitutively expressed in cardiac tissue. • In HL-1 cells, norepinephrine activates signaling pathways leading to hypertrophy. • Homer 1a up-regulation is an early event of norepinephrine-induced hypertrophy. • Homer 1a plays a negative feedback regulation modulating pathological hypertrophy. • Over-expression of Homer 1a per se does not induce hypertrophy.

  13. Muscular and systemic correlates of resistance training-induced muscle hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Cameron J; Churchward-Venne, Tyler A; Bellamy, Leeann; Parise, Gianni; Baker, Steven K; Phillips, Stuart M

    2013-01-01

    To determine relationships between post-exercise changes in systemic [testosterone, growth hormone (GH), insulin like grow factor 1 (IGF-1) and interleukin 6 (IL-6)], or intramuscular [skeletal muscle androgen receptor (AR) protein content and p70S6K phosphorylation status] factors in a moderately-sized cohort of young men exhibiting divergent resistance training-mediated muscle hypertrophy. Twenty three adult males completed 4 sessions•wk⁻¹ of resistance training for 16 wk. Muscle biopsies were obtained before and after the training period and acutely 1 and 5 h after the first training session. Serum hormones and cytokines were measured immediately, 15, 30 and 60 minutes following the first and last training sessions of the study. Mean fiber area increased by 20% (range: -7 to 80%; P<0.001). Protein content of the AR was unchanged with training (fold change = 1.17 ± 0.61; P=0.19); however, there was a significant correlation between the changes in AR content and fiber area (r=0.60, P=0.023). Phosphorylation of p70S6K was elevated 5 hours following exercise, which was correlated with gains in mean fiber area (r=0.54, P=0.007). There was no relationship between the magnitude of the pre- or post-training exercise-induced changes in free testosterone, GH, or IGF-1 concentration and muscle fiber hypertrophy; however, the magnitude of the post exercise IL-6 response was correlated with muscle hypertrophy (r=0.48, P=0.019). Post-exercise increases in circulating hormones are not related to hypertrophy following training. Exercise-induced changes in IL-6 correlated with hypertrophy, but the mechanism for the role of IL-6 in hypertrophy is not known. Acute increases, in p70S6K phosphorylation and changes in muscle AR protein content correlated with muscle hypertrophy implicating intramuscular rather than systemic processes in mediating hypertrophy.

  14. Left ventricular hypertrophy in children, adolescents and young adults with sickle cell anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Baptista de Almeida Faro

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to estimate the frequency of left ventricular hypertrophy and to identify variables associated with this condition in under 25-year-old patients with sickle cell anemia.METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed of children, adolescents and young adults with sickle cell anemia submitted to a transthoracic Doppler echocardiography. The mass of the left ventricle was determined by the formula of Devereux et al. with correction for height, and the percentile curves of gender and age were applied. Individuals with rheumatic and congenital heart disease were excluded. The patients were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of left ventricular hypertrophy and compared according to clinical, echocardiographic and laboratory variables.RESULTS: A total of 37.6% of the patients had left ventricular hypertrophy in this sample. There was no difference between the groups of patients with and without hypertrophy according to pathological history or clinical characteristics, except possibly for the use of hydroxyurea, more often used in the group without left ventricular hypertrophy. Patients with left ventricular hypertrophy presented larger left atria and lower hemoglobin and hematocrit levels, reticulocyte index and a higher albumin:creatinine ratio in urine.CONCLUSION: Left ventricular hypertrophy was observed in more than one-third of the young patients with sickle cell anemia with this finding being inversely correlated to the hemoglobin and hematocrit levels, and reticulocyte index and directly associated to a higher albumin/creatinine ratio. It is possible that hydroxyurea had had a protective effect on the development of left ventricular hypertrophy.

  15. The metabolic and temporal basis of muscle hypertrophy in response to resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Matthew S; Wilkinson, Daniel J; Smith, Kenneth; Atherton, Philip J

    2016-09-01

    Constituting ∼40% of body mass, skeletal muscle has essential locomotory and metabolic functions. As such, an insight into the control of muscle mass is of great importance for maintaining health and quality-of-life into older age, under conditions of cachectic disease and with rehabilitation. In healthy weight-bearing individuals, muscle mass is maintained by the equilibrium between muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and muscle protein breakdown; when this balance tips in favour of MPS hypertrophy occurs. Despite considerable research into pharmacological/nutraceutical interventions, resistance exercise training (RE-T) remains the most potent stimulator of MPS and hypertrophy (in the majority of individuals). However, the mechanism(s) and time course of hypertrophic responses to RE-T remain poorly understood. We would suggest that available data are very much in favour of the notion that the majority of hypertrophy occurs in the early phases of RE-T (though still controversial to some) and that, for the most part, continued gains are hard to come by. Whilst the mechanisms of muscle hypertrophy represent the culmination of mechanical, auto/paracrine and endocrine events, the measurement of MPS remains a cornerstone for understanding the control of hypertrophy - mainly because it is the underlying driving force behind skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Development of sophisticated isotopic techniques (i.e. deuterium oxide) that lend to longer term insight into the control of hypertrophy by sustained RE-T will be paramount in providing insights into the metabolic and temporal regulation of hypertrophy. Such technologies will have broad application in muscle mass intervention for both athletes and for mitigating disease/age-related cachexia and sarcopenia, alike.

  16. Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage and Hypertrophy: A Closer Look Reveals the Jury is Still Out

    OpenAIRE

    Schoenfeld, Brad; Contreras, Bret

    2018-01-01

    This letter is a response to the paper by Damas et al (2017) titled, “The development of skeletal muscle hypertrophy through resistance training: the role of muscle damage and muscle protein synthesis,” which, in part, endeavored to review the role of exercise-induced muscle damage on muscle hypertrophy. We feel there are a number of issues in interpretation of research and extrapolation that preclude drawing the inference expressed in the paper that muscle damage neither explains nor potenti...

  17. Negative feedback regulation of Homer 1a on norepinephrine-dependent cardiac hypertrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiarello, Carmelina; Bortoloso, Elena; Carpi, Andrea; Furlan, Sandra; Volpe, Pompeo

    2013-01-01

    Homers are scaffolding proteins that modulate diverse cell functions being able to assemble signalling complexes. In this study, the presence, sub-cellular distribution and function of Homer 1 was investigated. Homer 1a and Homer 1b/c are constitutively expressed in cardiac muscle of both mouse and rat and in HL-1 cells, a cardiac cell line. As judged by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy, Homer 1a displays sarcomeric and peri-nuclear localization. In cardiomyocytes and cultured HL-1 cells, the hypertrophic agonist norepinephrine (NE) induces α 1 -adrenergic specific Homer 1a over-expression, with a two-to-three-fold increase within 1 h, and no up-regulation of Homer 1b/c, as judged by Western blot and qPCR. In HL-1 cells, plasmid-driven over-expression of Homer 1a partially antagonizes activation of ERK phosphorylation and ANF up-regulation, two well-established, early markers of hypertrophy. At the morphometric level, NE-induced increase of cell size is likewise and partially counteracted by exogenous Homer 1a. Under the same experimental conditions, Homer 1b/c does not have any effect on ANF up-regulation nor on cell hypertrophy. Thus, Homer 1a up-regulation is associated to early stages of cardiac hypertrophy and appears to play a negative feedback regulation on molecular transducers of hypertrophy. -- Highlights: • Homer 1a is constitutively expressed in cardiac tissue. • In HL-1 cells, norepinephrine activates signaling pathways leading to hypertrophy. • Homer 1a up-regulation is an early event of norepinephrine-induced hypertrophy. • Homer 1a plays a negative feedback regulation modulating pathological hypertrophy. • Over-expression of Homer 1a per se does not induce hypertrophy

  18. Local renin–angiotensin system contributes to hyperthyroidism-induced cardiac hypertrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Kobori, H; Ichihara, A; Miyashita, Y; Hayashi, M; Saruta, T

    1999-01-01

    We have reported previously that thyroid hormone activates the circulating and tissue renin–angiotensin systems without involving the sympathetic nervous system, which contributes to cardiac hypertrophy in hyperthyroidism. This study examined whether the circulating or tissue renin–angiotensin system plays the principal role in hyperthyroidism-induced cardiac hypertrophy. The circulating renin–angiotensin system in Sprague–Dawley rats was fixed by chronic angiotensin II infusion (40 ng/ min, ...

  19. Treating a 20 mm Hg gradient alleviates myocardial hypertrophy in experimental aortic coarctation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendell, David C; Friehs, Ingeborg; Samyn, Margaret M; Harmann, Leanne M; LaDisa, John F

    2017-10-01

    Children with coarctation of the aorta (CoA) can have a hyperdynamic and remodeled left ventricle (LV) from increased afterload. Literature from an experimental model suggests the putative 20 mm Hg blood pressure gradient (BPG) treatment guideline frequently implemented in CoA studies may permit irreversible vascular changes. LV remodeling from pressure overload has been studied, but data are limited following correction and using a clinically representative BPG. Rabbits underwent CoA at 10 weeks to induce a 20 mm Hg BPG using permanent or dissolvable suture thereby replicating untreated and corrected CoA, respectively. Cardiac function was evaluated at 32 weeks by magnetic resonance imaging using a spoiled cine GRE sequence (TR/TE/FA 8/2.9/20), 14 × 14-cm FOV, and 3-mm slice thickness. Images (20 frames/cycle) were acquired in 6-8 short axis views from the apex to the mitral valve annulus. LV volume, ejection fraction (EF), and mass were quantified. LV mass was elevated for CoA (5.2 ± 0.55 g) versus control (3.6 ± 0.16 g) and corrected (4.0 ± 0.44 g) rabbits, resulting in increased LV mass/volume ratio for CoA rabbits. A trend toward increased EF and stroke volume was observed but did not reach significance. Elevated EF by volumetric analysis in CoA rabbits was supported by concomitant increases in total aortic flow by phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging. The indices quantified trended toward a persistent hyperdynamic LV despite correction, but differences were not statistically significant versus control rabbits. These findings suggest the current putative 20 mm Hg BPG for treatment may be reasonable from the LV's perspective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Astakine LvAST binds to the β subunit of F1-ATP synthase and likely plays a role in white shrimp Litopeneaus vannamei defense against white spot syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Gao-Feng; Liang, Yan; Xue, Qinggang; Lu, Jin-Feng; Cheng, Jun-Jun; Huang, Jie

    2015-03-01

    Cytokines play a critical role in innate and adaptive immunity. Astakines represent a group of invertebrate cytokines that are related to vertebrate prokineticin and function in promoting hematopoiesis in crustaceans. We have identified an astakine from the white shrimp Litopeneaus vannamei and named it LvAST in a previous research. In the present research, we investigated the interactions among LvAST, the envelope protein VP37 of white spot syndrome virus (i.e., WSSV), and the β subunit of F1-ATP synthase (ATPsyn-β) of the white shrimp (i.e., BP53) using binding assays and co-precipitations. We also examined the effects of LvAST on shrimp susceptibility to WSSV. We found that LvAST and VP37 competitively bound to BP53, but did not bind to each other. Shrimps that had been injected with recombinant LvAST exhibited significantly lower mortality and longer survival time in experimental infections by WSSV. In contrast, shrimps whose LvAST gene expression had been inhibited by RNA interference showed significantly higher WSSV infection intensity and shorter survival time following viral challenges. These results suggested that LvAST and WSSV both likely use ATPsyn-β as a receptor and LvAST plays a role in shrimp defense against WSSV infection. This represented the first research showing the involvement of astakines in host antiviral immunity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. G protein-coupled receptor 56 regulates mechanical overload-induced muscle hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, James P; Wrann, Christiane D; Rao, Rajesh R; Nair, Sreekumaran K; Jedrychowski, Mark P; You, Jae-Sung; Martínez-Redondo, Vicente; Gygi, Steven P; Ruas, Jorge L; Hornberger, Troy A; Wu, Zhidan; Glass, David J; Piao, Xianhua; Spiegelman, Bruce M

    2014-11-04

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha 4 (PGC-1α4) is a protein isoform derived by alternative splicing of the PGC1α mRNA and has been shown to promote muscle hypertrophy. We show here that G protein-coupled receptor 56 (GPR56) is a transcriptional target of PGC-1α4 and is induced in humans by resistance exercise. Furthermore, the anabolic effects of PGC-1α4 in cultured murine muscle cells are dependent on GPR56 signaling, because knockdown of GPR56 attenuates PGC-1α4-induced muscle hypertrophy in vitro. Forced expression of GPR56 results in myotube hypertrophy through the expression of insulin-like growth factor 1, which is dependent on Gα12/13 signaling. A murine model of overload-induced muscle hypertrophy is associated with increased expression of both GPR56 and its ligand collagen type III, whereas genetic ablation of GPR56 expression attenuates overload-induced muscle hypertrophy and associated anabolic signaling. These data illustrate a signaling pathway through GPR56 which regulates muscle hypertrophy associated with resistance/loading-type exercise.

  2. The effect of inter-set rest intervals on resistance exercise-induced muscle hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henselmans, Menno; Schoenfeld, Brad J

    2014-12-01

    Due to a scarcity of longitudinal trials directly measuring changes in muscle girth, previous recommendations for inter-set rest intervals in resistance training programs designed to stimulate muscular hypertrophy were primarily based on the post-exercise endocrinological response and other mechanisms theoretically related to muscle growth. New research regarding the effects of inter-set rest interval manipulation on resistance training-induced muscular hypertrophy is reviewed here to evaluate current practices and provide directions for future research. Of the studies measuring long-term muscle hypertrophy in groups employing different rest intervals, none have found superior muscle growth in the shorter compared with the longer rest interval group and one study has found the opposite. Rest intervals less than 1 minute can result in acute increases in serum growth hormone levels and these rest intervals also decrease the serum testosterone to cortisol ratio. Long-term adaptations may abate the post-exercise endocrinological response and the relationship between the transient change in hormonal production and chronic muscular hypertrophy is highly contentious and appears to be weak. The relationship between the rest interval-mediated effect on immune system response, muscle damage, metabolic stress, or energy production capacity and muscle hypertrophy is still ambiguous and largely theoretical. In conclusion, the literature does not support the hypothesis that training for muscle hypertrophy requires shorter rest intervals than training for strength development or that predetermined rest intervals are preferable to auto-regulated rest periods in this regard.

  3. Systematic review of the synergist muscle ablation model for compensatory hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terena, Stella Maris Lins; Fernandes, Kristianne Porta Santos; Bussadori, Sandra Kalill; Deana, Alessandro Melo; Mesquita-Ferrari, Raquel Agnelli

    2017-02-01

    The aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of the experimental synergists muscle ablation model to promote muscle hypertrophy, determine the period of greatest hypertrophy and its influence on muscle fiber types and determine differences in bilateral and unilateral removal to reduce the number of animals used in this model. Following the application of the eligibility criteria for the mechanical overload of the plantar muscle in rats, nineteen papers were included in the review. The results reveal a greatest hypertrophy occurring between days 12 and 15, and based on the findings, synergist muscle ablation is an efficient model for achieving rapid hypertrophy and the contralateral limb can be used as there was no difference between unilateral and bilateral surgery, which reduces the number of animals used in this model. This model differs from other overload models (exercise and training) regarding the characteristics involved in the hypertrophy process (acute) and result in a chronic muscle adaptation with selective regulation and modification of fast-twitch fibers in skeletal muscle. This is an efficient and rapid model for compensatory hypertrophy.

  4. Limited Relationship of Voltage Criteria for Electrocardiogram Left Ventricular Hypertrophy to Cardiovascular Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Le Dung; Elbadawi, Ayman; Froelicher, Victor F

    2018-01-01

    Numerous methods have been proposed for diagnosing left ventricular hypertrophy using the electrocardiogram. They have limited sensitivity for recognizing pathological hypertrophy, at least in part due to their inability to distinguish pathological from physiological hypertrophy. Our objective is to compare the major electrocardiogram-left ventricular hypertrophy criteria using cardiovascular mortality as a surrogate for pathological hypertrophy. This study was a retrospective analysis of 16,253 veterans electrocardiogram-left ventricular hypertrophy, and there were 744 cardiovascular deaths (annual cardiovascular mortality 0.25%). Receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated that the greatest area under the curve (AUC) for classification of cardiovascular death was obtained using the Romhilt-Estes score (0.63; 95% confidence interval, 0.61-0.65). Most of the voltage-only criteria had nondiagnostic area under the curves, with the Cornell being the best at 0.59 (95% confidence interval, 0.57-0.62). When the components of the Romhilt-Estes score were examined using step-wise Wald analysis, the voltage criteria dropped from the model. The Romhilt-Estes score ≥ 4, the Cornell, and the Peguero had the highest association with cardiovascular mortality (adjusted hazard ratios 2.2, 2.0, and 2.1, consecutively). None of the electrocardiogram leads with voltage criteria exhibited sufficient classification power for clinical use. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Systematic review of the synergist muscle ablation model for compensatory hypertrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Maris Lins Terena

    Full Text Available Summary Objective: The aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of the experimental synergists muscle ablation model to promote muscle hypertrophy, determine the period of greatest hypertrophy and its influence on muscle fiber types and determine differences in bilateral and unilateral removal to reduce the number of animals used in this model. Method: Following the application of the eligibility criteria for the mechanical overload of the plantar muscle in rats, nineteen papers were included in the review. Results: The results reveal a greatest hypertrophy occurring between days 12 and 15, and based on the findings, synergist muscle ablation is an efficient model for achieving rapid hypertrophy and the contralateral limb can be used as there was no difference between unilateral and bilateral surgery, which reduces the number of animals used in this model. Conclusion: This model differs from other overload models (exercise and training regarding the characteristics involved in the hypertrophy process (acute and result in a chronic muscle adaptation with selective regulation and modification of fast-twitch fibers in skeletal muscle. This is an efficient and rapid model for compensatory hypertrophy.

  6. SIRT1 may play a crucial role in overload-induced hypertrophy of skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koltai, Erika; Bori, Zoltán; Chabert, Clovis; Dubouchaud, Hervé; Naito, Hisashi; Machida, Shuichi; Davies, Kelvin Ja; Murlasits, Zsolt; Fry, Andrew C; Boldogh, Istvan; Radak, Zsolt

    2017-06-01

    Silent mating type information regulation 2 homologue 1 (SIRT1) activity and content increased significantly in overload-induced hypertrophy. SIRT1-mediated signalling through Akt, the endothelial nitric oxide synthase mediated pathway, regulates anabolic process in the hypertrophy of skeletal muscle. The regulation of catabolic signalling via forkhead box O 1 and protein ubiquitination is SIRT1 dependent. Overload-induced changes in microRNA levels regulate SIRT1 and insulin-like growth factor 1 signalling. Significant skeletal muscle mass guarantees functional wellbeing and is important for high level performance in many sports. Although the molecular mechanism for skeletal muscle hypertrophy has been well studied, it still is not completely understood. In the present study, we used a functional overload model to induce plantaris muscle hypertrophy by surgically removing the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles in rats. Two weeks of muscle ablation resulted in a 40% increase in muscle mass, which was associated with a significant increase in silent mating type information regulation 2 homologue 1 (SIRT1) content and activity (P overload-induced hypertrophy. These findings, along with the well-known regulatory roles that SIRT1 plays in modulating both anabolic and catabolic pathways, allow us to propose the hypothesis that SIRT1 may actually play a crucial causal role in overload-induced hypertrophy of skeletal muscle. This hypothesis will now require rigorous direct and functional testing. © 2017 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2017 The Physiological Society.

  7. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 plays a critical role in overload induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qia; Joshi, Sunil K; Lovett, David H; Zhang, Bryon; Bodine, Sue; Kim, Hubert T; Liu, Xuhui

    2014-01-01

    extracellular matrix (ECM) components are instrumental in maintaining homeostasis and muscle fiber functional integrity. Skeletal muscle hypertrophy is associated with ECM remodeling. Specifically, recent studies have reported the involvement of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in muscle ECM remodeling. However, the functional role of MMPs in muscle hypertrophy remains largely unknown. in this study, we examined the role of MMP-2 in skeletal muscle hypertrophy using a previously validated method where the plantaris muscle of mice were subjected to mechanical overload due to the surgical removal of synergist muscles (gastrocnemius and soleus). following two weeks of overload, we observed a significant increase in MMP-2 activity and up-regulation of ECM components and remodeling enzymes in the plantaris muscles of wild-type mice. However, MMP-2 knockout mice developed significantly less hypertrophy and ECM remodeling in response to overload compared to their wild-type littermates. Investigation of protein synthesis rate and Akt/mTOR signaling revealed no difference between wild-type and MMP-2 knockout mice, suggesting that a difference in hypertrophy was independent of protein synthesis. taken together, our results suggest that MMP-2 is a key mediator of ECM remodeling in the setting of skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

  8. Inhibition of Uncoupling Protein 2 Attenuates Cardiac Hypertrophy Induced by Transverse Aortic Constriction in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Bing Ji

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2 is critical in regulating energy metabolism. Due to the significant change in energy metabolism of myocardium upon pressure overload, we hypothesize that UCP2 could contribute to the etiology of cardiac hypertrophy. Methods: Adult male C57BL/6J mice were subjected to pressure overload by using transverse aortic constriction (TAC, and then received genipin (a UCP2 selective inhibitor; 25 mg/kg/d, ip or vehicle for three weeks prior to histologic assessment of myocardial hypertrophy. ATP concentration, ROS level, and myocardial apoptosis were also examined. A parallel set of experiments was also conducted in UCP2-/- mice. Results: TAC induced left ventricular hypertrophy, as reflected by increased ventricular weight/thickness and increased size of myocardial cell (vs. sham controls. ATP concentration was decreased; ROS level was increased. Apoptosis and fibrosis markers were increased. TAC increased mitochondrial UCP2 expression in the myocardium at both mRNA and protein levels. Genipin treatment attenuated cardiac hypertrophy and the histologic/biochemical changes described above. Hypertrophy and associated changes induced by TAC in UCP2-/- mice were much less pronounced than in WT mice. Conclusions: Blocking UCP2 expression attenuates cardiac hypertrophy induced by pressure overload.

  9. Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Pediatric Hypertension: A Mini Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert P. Woroniecki

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Adults with arterial hypertension (HTN have stroke, myocardial infarction, end-stage renal disease (ESRD, or die at higher rates than those without. In children, HTN leads to target organ damage, which includes kidney, brain, eye, blood vessels, and heart, which precedes “hard outcomes” observed in adults. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH or an anatomic and pathologic increase in left ventricular mass (LVM in response to the HTN is a pediatric surrogate marker for HTN-induced morbidity and mortality in adults. This mini review discusses current definitions, clinically relevant methods of LVM measurements and normalization methods, its epidemiology, management, and issue of reversibility in children with HTN. Pediatric definition of LVH and abnormal LVM is not uniformed. With multiple definitions, prevalence of pediatric HTN-induced LVH is difficult to ascertain. In addition while in adults cardiac magnetic resonance imaging is considered “the gold standard” for LVM and LVH determination, pediatric data are limited to “special populations”: ESRD, transplant, and obese children. We summarize available data on pediatric LVH treatment and reversibility and offer future directions in addressing LVH in children with HTN.

  10. Non-gated computed tomography of left ventricular hypertrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Junta

    1983-01-01

    Non-ECG gated computed tomography (CT) of the heart was carried out in 19 cases with cardiovascular diseases; 4 with mitral stenosis, 3 with aortic valve disease, 2 with combined valve disease, 8 with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and one myocardial infarction and one aortic aneurysm. All cardiac diseases were studied by echocardiography and 13 of them further investigated by intracadiac catheterization. The interventricular septum and the apical and posterolateral wall of the left ventricle were segmentally evaluated as to relative wall thickness of myocardium on CT. The wall thickness was directly measured on left ventricular cine angiograms in 13 cases. O-G vector calculated by CT was compatible with the palne of vectorcardiography in evaluating left ventricular hypertorphy. Conclusion were as follows: 1) The degree and site of myocardial hypertrophy were detected by CT with satisfaction. 2) The area of ventricular myocardium increased in aortic valve disease and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. 3) The direction and magnitude of O-G vector calculated by CT were well correlated to the half area of QRS loop in horizontal plane of vectorcardiography. (author)

  11. Ghrelin and its promoter variant associated with cardiac hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukkola, O; Pääkkö, T; Kesäniemi, Y A

    2012-07-01

    The roles of ghrelin, a peptide hormone that has a role in regulating food intake and energy homeostasis, in the cardiovascular system have not yet been unambiguously established. We evaluated the association between plasma ghrelin concentrations and -501A>C single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the ghrelin gene 5' flanking area and echocardiographic measurements in 1037 middle-aged subjects. Left ventricular mass index (LVMI) was calculated according to Devereux's method. The ambulatory blood pressure (BP) was recorded using the fully automatic SpaceLabs 90207 oscillometric unit. Results suggested that plasma ghrelin was not related to mean ambulatory BP values. However, the highest plasma ghrelin tertile was associated with increased intraventricular septum (P=0.043) and posterior ventricular wall (P=0.002) thicknesses as well as left ventricular mass (P=0.05). After adjustment for age, sex, body mass index and systolic BP, the association persisted between ghrelin tertiles and intraventricular septum (P=0.05) and posterior ventricular wall (P=0.001) thicknesses. The SNP -501A>C polymorphism was associated with LVMI after adjustments for age, sex and systolic BP. In conclusion, ghrelin and its promoter variant are associated with cardiac hypertrophy indexes independent of BP. Positive correlation between ghrelin levels and increased wall thickness parameters may reflect compensatory up-regulation of ghrelin concentrations or direct effects of ghrelin on myocardium. The effects of the SNP seem not to be mediated through its effects on ghrelin plasma levels.

  12. Cardiac hypertrophy in chick embryos induced by hypothermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, C.; Johnson, T.R.; Caston, J.D.; Przybylski, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    A decrease in incubation temperature from 38 to 32 0 C elicits a decrease in chicken embryo size and weight with concomitant heart enlargement if done after day 10 of incubation. When assayed at day 18 of incubation with the hypothermia started on day 11 or 14, evidence is presented that the heart enlargement is an hypertrophy with no detectable hyperplasia. Supporting data are presented for various physical parameters showing increases in heart wet and dry weight, volume, area, wall thickness, and cell size. There was little difference in DNA content and nuclear [ 3 H]thymidine labeling index between hearts of control and hypothermic embryos. Hearts of hypothermic embryos showed a slight increase in water content and considerable increases in RNA, protein, and glycogen content per unit DNA. The average size of polysomes isolated from hypothermic hearts was larger than that of polysomes isolated from controls. Microscopic studies showed no obvious increase in amount of capillary beds, connective tissue, and myocardial cells. Annulate lamellae were found only in myocardial cells of hypothermic embryos in sparse amounts and low frequency but always associated with large deposits of glycogen

  13. Relationship between obesity and left ventricular hypertrophy in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny Rompis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Obesity is a chronic metabolic disorder associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD increasing morbidity-mortality rates. It is apparent that a variety of adaptations/alterations in cardiac structure and function occurs as excessive adipose tissue accumulates. This leads to a decrease in diastolic compliance, eventually resulting in an increase in left ventricular filling pressure and left ventricular enlargement. Objective To evaluate left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH among  obese using electrocardiographic (ECG criteria. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 74 children aged 10-15 years from February 2009 to October 2009. The subjects were divided into obese and control groups. Physical examination and standard 12 lead electrocardiography (ECG were done in both groups. Results Of 37 obese children, LVH were featured in 3 subjects, while in control group, only 1 child had LVH (P= 0.304. We found that mean RV6 in obese and control group were 9.8446 (SD 3.5854 and 11.9662 (SD 3.2857, respectively (P=0.005. As an additional findings, we found that birth weight was related to obesity in children. Conclusion There is no relation between obesity and left ventricular using ECG criteria in obese children aged 10-15 years.

  14. PERIOPERATIVE PERIOD FOLLOWING HEART TRANSPLANTATION WITH SEVERE LEFT VENTRICULAR HYPERTROPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Poptsov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Use donor hearts with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH is controversial. This category of heart recipients has increasing risk of early graft failure. We proposed that heart transplantation (HT with LVH ≥1.5 cm may be successful if performed in selective category patients from alternate transplant list. This study included 10 pati- ents (2 female and 8 male at the age 26–62 (44 ± 3, who needed urgent HT. This study showed that recipients with LVH ≥1.5 cm demanded more high and long inotropic support with adrenalin and dopamine, more fre- quent use of levosimendan infusion (in 40% of cases and intraaortic balloon conterpulsation (in 50% of cases. However we didn’t observed any difference in survival rate (90.0% vs 89.0% and ICU time (4.8 ± 0.6 days vs 4.1 ± 0.4 days between HT recipients with and without LVH. Our study showed that HT from donor with LVH ≥1.5 cm may be performed in patients, demanding urgent HT, with acceptable early posttransplant results. 

  15. Defined contribution health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronstin, P

    2001-03-01

    This Issue Brief discusses the emerging issue of "defined contribution" (DC) health benefits. The term "defined contribution" is used to describe a wide variety of approaches to the provision of health benefits, all of which have in common a shift in the responsibility for payment and selection of health care services from employers to employees. DC health benefits often are mentioned in the context of enabling employers to control their outlay for health benefits by avoiding increases in health care costs. DC health benefits may also shift responsibility for choosing a health plan and the associated risks of choosing a plan from employers to employees. There are three primary reasons why some employers currently are considering some sort of DC approach. First, they are once again looking for ways to keep their health care cost increases in line with overall inflation. Second, some employers are concerned that the public "backlash" against managed care will result in new legislation, regulations, and litigation that will further increase their health care costs if they do not distance themselves from health care decisions. Third, employers have modified not only most employee benefit plans, but labor market practices in general, by giving workers more choice, control, and flexibility. DC-type health benefits have existed as cafeteria plans since the 1980s. A cafeteria plan gives each employee the opportunity to determine the allocation of his or her total compensation (within employer-defined limits) among various employee benefits (primarily retirement or health). Most types of DC health benefits currently being discussed could be provided within the existing employment-based health insurance system, with or without the use of cafeteria plans. They could also allow employees to purchase health insurance directly from insurers, or they could drive new technologies and new forms of risk pooling through which health care services are provided and financed. DC health

  16. On Defining Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    Though central to any pedagogical development of physics, the concept of mass is still not well understood. Properly defining mass has proven to be far more daunting than contemporary textbooks would have us believe. And yet today the origin of mass is one of the most aggressively pursued areas of research in all of physics. Much of the excitement surrounding the Large Hadron Collider at CERN is associated with discovering the mechanism responsible for the masses of the elementary particles. This paper will first briefly examine the leading definitions, pointing out their shortcomings. Then, utilizing relativity theory, it will propose—for consideration by the community of physicists—a conceptual definition of mass predicated on the more fundamental concept of energy, more fundamental in that everything that has mass has energy, yet not everything that has energy has mass.

  17. Implementing Software Defined Radio

    CERN Document Server

    Grayver, Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Software Defined Radio makes wireless communications easier, more efficient, and more reliable. This book bridges the gap between academic research and practical implementation. When beginning a project, practicing engineers, technical managers, and graduate students can save countless hours by considering the concepts presented in these pages. The author covers the myriad options and trade-offs available when selecting an appropriate hardware architecture. As demonstrated here, the choice between hardware- and software-centric architecture can mean the difference between meeting an aggressive schedule and bogging down in endless design iterations. Because of the author’s experience overseeing dozens of failed and successful developments, he is able to present many real-life examples. Some of the key concepts covered are: Choosing the right architecture for the market – laboratory, military, or commercial Hardware platforms – FPGAs, GPPs, specialized and hybrid devices Standardization efforts to ens...

  18. Defining cyber warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan D. Mladenović

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Cyber conflicts represent a new kind of warfare that is technologically developing very rapidly. Such development results in more frequent and more intensive cyber attacks undertaken by states against adversary targets, with a wide range of diverse operations, from information operations to physical destruction of targets. Nevertheless, cyber warfare is waged through the application of the same means, techniques and methods as those used in cyber criminal, terrorism and intelligence activities. Moreover, it has a very specific nature that enables states to covertly initiate attacks against their adversaries. The starting point in defining doctrines, procedures and standards in the area of cyber warfare is determining its true nature. In this paper, a contribution to this effort was made through the analysis of the existing state doctrines and international practice in the area of cyber warfare towards the determination of its nationally acceptable definition.

  19. Defining the mobilome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siefert, Janet L

    2009-01-01

    This chapter defines the agents that provide for the movement of genetic material which fuels the adaptive potential of life on our planet. The chapter has been structured to be broadly comprehensive, arbitrarily categorizing the mobilome into four classes: (1) transposons, (2) plasmids, (3) bacteriophage, and (4) self-splicing molecular parasites.Our increasing understanding of the mobilome is as dynamic as the mobilome itself. With continuing discovery, it is clear that nature has not confined these genomic agents of change to neat categories, but rather the classification categories overlap and intertwine. Massive sequencing efforts and their published analyses are continuing to refine our understanding of the extent of the mobilome. This chapter provides a framework to describe our current understanding of the mobilome and a foundation on which appreciation of its impact on genome evolution can be understood.

  20. Software Defined Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caba, Cosmin Marius

    Network Service Providers (NSP) often choose to overprovision their networks instead of deploying proper Quality of Services (QoS) mechanisms that allow for traffic differentiation and predictable quality. This tendency of overprovisioning is not sustainable for the simple reason that network...... resources are limited. Hence, to counteract this trend, current QoS mechanisms must become simpler to deploy and operate, in order to motivate NSPs to employ QoS techniques instead of overprovisioning. Software Defined Networking (SDN) represents a paradigm shift in the way telecommunication and data...... generic perspective (e.g. service provisioning speed, resources availability). As a result, new mechanisms for providing QoS are proposed, solutions for SDN-specific QoS challenges are designed and tested, and new network management concepts are prototyped, all aiming to improve QoS for network services...

  1. Association of ACE gene D polymorphism with left ventricular hypertrophy in patients with diastolic heart failure: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahramali, Ehsan; Rajabi, Mona; Jamshidi, Javad; Mousavi, Seyyed Mohammad; Zarghami, Mehrdad; Manafi, Alireza; Firouzabadi, Negar

    2016-02-09

    To explore the association between ACE gene insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in patients with hypertension who have developed heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Being a major contributor to the development of diastolic heart dysfunction, the renin angiotensin aldosterone system and its genetic variations are thought to induce LVH in hypertensive hearts apart from haemodynamic factors. Case control study. An Iranian referral university hospital. 176 patients with hypertension and a diagnosis of HFpEF on presence of symptoms of heart failure plus Doppler echocardiographic documentation of left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction and/or elevated NT-proBNP levels. Those with significant coronary, valvular, pericardial and structural heart diseases were excluded as well as patients with atrial fibrillation, renal failure and pulmonary causes of dyspnoea. They were divided into two cohorts of 88 cases with and 88 controls without LVH, after determination of LV mass index, using two-dimensional and M-mode echocardiography. The I/D polymorphism of the ACE gene was determined using the PCR method. The D allele was significantly more prevalent among cases with compared with controls without LVH (p=0.0007). Genotype distributions also differed significantly under additive (p=0.005, OR=0.53, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.84) and recessive (p=0.001, OR=0.29, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.66) models. In patients with hypertension who develop HFpEF, the D allele of the ACE gene is probably associated with the development of LVH. With the detrimental effects of LVH on the heart's diastolic properties, this can signify the role of genetic contributors to the development of HFpEF in patients with hypertension and may serve as a future risk predictor for the disease. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Defining the Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Simon; Maslin, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Time is divided by geologists according to marked shifts in Earth's state. Recent global environmental changes suggest that Earth may have entered a new human-dominated geological epoch, the Anthropocene. Should the Anthropocene - the idea that human activity is a force acting upon the Earth system in ways that mean that Earth will be altered for millions of years - be defined as a geological time-unit at the level of an Epoch? Here we appraise the data to assess such claims, first in terms of changes to the Earth system, with particular focus on very long-lived impacts, as Epochs typically last millions of years. Can Earth really be said to be in transition from one state to another? Secondly, we then consider the formal criteria used to define geological time-units and move forward through time examining whether currently available evidence passes typical geological time-unit evidence thresholds. We suggest two time periods likely fit the criteria (1) the aftermath of the interlinking of the Old and New Worlds, which moved species across continents and ocean basins worldwide, a geologically unprecedented and permanent change, which is also the globally synchronous coolest part of the Little Ice Age (in Earth system terms), and the beginning of global trade and a new socio-economic "world system" (in historical terms), marked as a golden spike by a temporary drop in atmospheric CO2, centred on 1610 CE; and (2) the aftermath of the Second World War, when many global environmental changes accelerated and novel long-lived materials were increasingly manufactured, known as the Great Acceleration (in Earth system terms) and the beginning of the Cold War (in historical terms), marked as a golden spike by the peak in radionuclide fallout in 1964. We finish by noting that the Anthropocene debate is politically loaded, thus transparency in the presentation of evidence is essential if a formal definition of the Anthropocene is to avoid becoming a debate about bias. The

  3. Establishment of a novel feline leukemia virus (FeLV)-negative B-cell cell line from a cat with B-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Masashi; Nishigaki, Kazuo; Ide, Tetsuya; Goto-Koshino, Yuko; Watanabe, Shinya; Sato, Hirofumi; Sato, Masahiko; Kotera, Yukiko; Fujino, Yasuhito; Ohno, Koichi; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Tsujimoto, Hajime

    2011-04-15

    We established a novel feline B-cell line, MS4, from the neoplastic pleural effusion of a cat with cutaneous B-cell lymphoma. Immunophenotype staining of the MS4 cells was positive for CD20, CD79α, and IgA and negative for CD3, CD4, CD5, CD8α, CD18, CD21, CD22, IgM, IgG, Ig light chain, and MHC class II. PCR analysis for immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangements revealed a monoclonal rearrangement, whereas no clonal rearrangement of the T-cell receptor γ gene was detected. Southern blotting with an exogenous feline leukemia virus (FeLV) U3 probe revealed no integration of exogenous FeLV provirus. The MS4 cell line is the first FeLV-negative feline B-cell lymphoma cell line, and may be used to investigate the pathogenesis of spontaneously occurring feline lymphoma and the development of new therapies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Factors influencing left ventricular hypertrophy in children and adolescents with or without family history of premature myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Mohsen Hosseini

    2014-01-01

    Result : The results showed that among the studied variables, gender, age, body mass index, and blood pressure were associated with the left ventricular hypertrophy. Conclusion: Considering the results and previous studies in this field, it was observed that left ventricular hypertrophy exists at early ages, which is very dangerous and can lead to heart diseases at early ages. Factors such as being overweight, having high blood pressure, and being male cause left ventricular hypertrophy and lead to undiagnosable heart diseases.

  5. Changes in muscle fiber contractility and extracellular matrix production during skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendias, Christopher L; Schwartz, Andrew J; Grekin, Jeremy A; Gumucio, Jonathan P; Sugg, Kristoffer B

    2017-03-01

    Skeletal muscle can adapt to increased mechanical loads by undergoing hypertrophy. Transient reductions in whole muscle force production have been reported during the onset of hypertrophy, but contractile changes in individual muscle fibers have not been previously studied. Additionally, the extracellular matrix (ECM) stores and transmits forces from muscle fibers to tendons and bones, and determining how the ECM changes during hypertrophy is important in understanding the adaptation of muscle tissue to mechanical loading. Using the synergist ablation model, we sought to measure changes in muscle fiber contractility, collagen content, and cross-linking, and in the expression of several genes and activation of signaling proteins that regulate critical components of myogenesis and ECM synthesis and remodeling during muscle hypertrophy. Tissues were harvested 3, 7, and 28 days after induction of hypertrophy, and nonoverloaded rats served as controls. Muscle fiber specific force (sF o ), which is the maximum isometric force normalized to cross-sectional area, was reduced 3 and 7 days after the onset of mechanical overload, but returned to control levels by 28 days. Collagen abundance displayed a similar pattern of change. Nearly a quarter of the transcriptome changed over the course of overload, as well as the activation of signaling pathways related to hypertrophy and atrophy. Overall, this study provides insight into fundamental mechanisms of muscle and ECM growth, and indicates that although muscle fibers appear to have completed remodeling and regeneration 1 mo after synergist ablation, the ECM continues to be actively remodeling at this time point. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study utilized a rat synergist ablation model to integrate changes in single muscle fiber contractility, extracellular matrix composition, activation of important signaling pathways in muscle adaption, and corresponding changes in the muscle transcriptome to provide novel insight into the basic

  6. MicroRNA-1 overexpression blunts cardiomyocyte hypertrophy elicited by thyroid hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Gabriela Placoná; Lino, Caroline Antunes; Moreno, Camila Rodrigues; Senger, Nathalia; Barreto-Chaves, Maria Luiza Morais

    2017-12-01

    It is well-known that increased thyroid hormone (TH) levels induce cardiomyocyte growth. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified as key players in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, which is associated with increased risk of heart failure. In this study, we evaluated the miR-1 expression in TH-induced cardiac hypertrophy, as well as the potential involvement of miR-1 in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy elicited by TH in vitro. The possible role of type 1 angiotensin II receptor (AT1R) in the effect promoted by TH in miR-1 expression was also evaluated. Neonatal rat cardiac myocytes (NRCMs) were treated with T 3 for 24 hr and Wistar rats were subjected to hyperthyroidism for 14 days combined or not with AT1R blocker. Real Time RT-PCR analysis indicated that miR-1 expression was decreased in cardiac hypertrophy in response to TH in vitro and in vivo, and this effect was unchanged by AT1R blocker. In addition, HDAC4, which is target of miR-1, was increased in NRCMs after T 3 treatment. A gain-of-function study revealed that overexpression of miR-1 prevented T 3 -induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and reduced HADC4 mRNA levels in NRCMs. In vivo experiments confirmed the downregulation of miR-1 in cardiac tissue from hyperthyroid animals, which was accompanied by increased HDAC4 mRNA levels. In addition, HDAC inhibitor prevented T 3 -induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Our data reveal a new mechanistic insight into cardiomyocyte growth in response to TH, suggesting that miR-1 plays a role in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by TH potentially via targeting HADC4. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Aberrant Glycosylation in the Left Ventricle and Plasma of Rats with Cardiac Hypertrophy and Heart Failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiaki Nagai-Okatani

    Full Text Available Targeted proteomics focusing on post-translational modifications, including glycosylation, is a useful strategy for discovering novel biomarkers. To apply this strategy effectively to cardiac hypertrophy and resultant heart failure, we aimed to characterize glycosylation profiles in the left ventricle and plasma of rats with cardiac hypertrophy. Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive rats, a model of hypertension-induced cardiac hypertrophy, were fed a high-salt (8% NaCl diet starting at 6 weeks. As a result, they exhibited cardiac hypertrophy at 12 weeks and partially impaired cardiac function at 16 weeks compared with control rats fed a low-salt (0.3% NaCl diet. Gene expression analysis revealed significant changes in the expression of genes encoding glycosyltransferases and glycosidases. Glycoproteome profiling using lectin microarrays indicated upregulation of mucin-type O-glycosylation, especially disialyl-T, and downregulation of core fucosylation on N-glycans, detected by specific interactions with Amaranthus caudatus and Aspergillus oryzae lectins, respectively. Upregulation of plasma α-l-fucosidase activity was identified as a biomarker candidate for cardiac hypertrophy, which is expected to support the existing marker, atrial natriuretic peptide and its related peptides. Proteomic analysis identified cysteine and glycine-rich protein 3, a master regulator of cardiac muscle function, as an O-glycosylated protein with altered glycosylation in the rats with cardiac hypertrophy, suggesting that alternations in O-glycosylation affect its oligomerization and function. In conclusion, our data provide evidence of significant changes in glycosylation pattern, specifically mucin-type O-glycosylation and core defucosylation, in the pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure, suggesting that they are potential biomarkers for these diseases.

  8. Teleology and Defining Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Nathan K; Pruski, Michal

    2018-07-01

    Disorders of sexual differentiation lead to what is often referred to as an intersex state. This state has medical, as well as some legal, recognition. Nevertheless, the question remains whether intersex persons occupy a state in between maleness and femaleness or whether they are truly men or women. To answer this question, another important conundrum needs to be first solved: what defines sex? The answer seems rather simple to most people, yet when morphology does not coincide with haplotypes, and genetics might not correlate with physiology the issue becomes more complex. This paper tackles both issues by establishing where the essence of sex is located and by superimposing that framework onto the issue of the intersex. This is achieved through giving due consideration to the biology of sexual development, as well as through the use of a teleological framework of the meaning of sex. Using a range of examples, the paper establishes that sex cannot be pinpointed to one biological variable but is rather determined by how the totality of one's biology is oriented towards biological reproduction. A brief consideration is also given to the way this situation could be comprehended from a Christian understanding of sex and suffering.

  9. Cardiac arrhythmias and left ventricular hypertrophy in systemic hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultana, R.; Sultana, N.; Rashid, A.; Rasheed, S.Z.; Ahmed, M.; Ishaq, M.; Samad, A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Hypertensive left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is associated with increased risk of arrhythmias and mortality. Objective was to investigate the prevalence of cardiac arrhythmias and LVH in systemic hypertension. Methods: In all subjects blood pressure was measured, electrocardiography and echocardiography was done. Holter monitoring and exercise test perform in certain cases. There were 500 hypertensive patients, 156 (31.2%) men and 344 (69%) women >30 years of age in the study. Among them 177 (35.4%) were diabetic, 224 (45%) were dyslipidemia, 188 (37.6%) were smokers, and 14 (3%) had homocysteinemia. Mean systolic BP (SBP) was 180 +- 20 mm Hg and diastolic BP (DBP) was 95 +- 12 in male and female patients. Left ventricular mass index (LVMI) was 119.2 +- 30 2 2gm/m in male while 103 +- 22 gm/m in female patients. Palpitation was seen in 126 (25%) male and 299 (59.8%) female patients. Atrial fibrillation was noted in 108 (21.6%) male and 125 (25%) female patients, 30 (6%) male and 82 (16.4%) female patients had atrial flutter. Ventricular tachycardia was noted in 37 (7.4%) male and 59 (11.8%) female patients. Holter monitoring showed significant premature ventricular contractions (PVC'S) in 109 (21.8%) male and 128 (25.69%) female patients while Holter showed atrial arrhythmias (APC'S) in 89 (17.8%) males and 119 (23.8%) females. Angiography findings diagnosed coronary artery disease in 119 (23.8%) with CAD male and 225 (45%) without CAD while 47 (9.4%) females presented with CAD and 109 (21.8%) without CAD. Conclusion: A significant association has been demonstrated between hypertension and arrhythmias. Diastolic dysfunction of the left ventricle, left atrial size and function, as well as LVH have been suggested as the underlying risk factors for supraventricular, ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death in hypertensives with LVH. (author)

  10. Cardiac arrhythmias and left ventricular hypertrophy in systemic hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sultana, R; Sultana, N; Rashid, A; Rasheed, S Z; Ahmed, M; Ishaq, M; Samad, A [Karachi Institute of Heart Diseases, Karachi (Pakistan)

    2010-10-15

    Background: Hypertensive left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is associated with increased risk of arrhythmias and mortality. Objective was to investigate the prevalence of cardiac arrhythmias and LVH in systemic hypertension. Methods: In all subjects blood pressure was measured, electrocardiography and echocardiography was done. Holter monitoring and exercise test perform in certain cases. There were 500 hypertensive patients, 156 (31.2%) men and 344 (69%) women >30 years of age in the study. Among them 177 (35.4%) were diabetic, 224 (45%) were dyslipidemia, 188 (37.6%) were smokers, and 14 (3%) had homocysteinemia. Mean systolic BP (SBP) was 180 +- 20 mm Hg and diastolic BP (DBP) was 95 +- 12 in male and female patients. Left ventricular mass index (LVMI) was 119.2 +- 30 2 2gm/m in male while 103 +- 22 gm/m in female patients. Palpitation was seen in 126 (25%) male and 299 (59.8%) female patients. Atrial fibrillation was noted in 108 (21.6%) male and 125 (25%) female patients, 30 (6%) male and 82 (16.4%) female patients had atrial flutter. Ventricular tachycardia was noted in 37 (7.4%) male and 59 (11.8%) female patients. Holter monitoring showed significant premature ventricular contractions (PVC'S) in 109 (21.8%) male and 128 (25.69%) female patients while Holter showed atrial arrhythmias (APC'S) in 89 (17.8%) males and 119 (23.8%) females. Angiography findings diagnosed coronary artery disease in 119 (23.8%) with CAD male and 225 (45%) without CAD while 47 (9.4%) females presented with CAD and 109 (21.8%) without CAD. Conclusion: A significant association has been demonstrated between hypertension and arrhythmias. Diastolic dysfunction of the left ventricle, left atrial size and function, as well as LVH have been suggested as the underlying risk factors for supraventricular, ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death in hypertensives with LVH. (author)

  11. Alterations in NO/ROS ratio and expression of Trx1 and Prdx2 in isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Su; Marco Pistolozzi; Xingjuan Shi; Xiaoou Sun; Wen Tan

    2017-01-01

    The development of cardiac hypertrophy is a complicated process,which undergoes a transition from compensatory hypertrophy to heart failure,and the identification of new biomarkers and targets for this disease is greatly needed.Here we investigated the development of isoproterenol (ISO)-induced cardiac hypertrophy in an in vitro experimental model.After the induction of hypertrophy with ISO treatment in H9c2 cells,cell surface area,cell viability,cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS),and nitric oxide (NO) levels were tested.Our data showed that the cell viability,mitochondrial membrane potential,and NO/ROS balance varied during the development of cardiac hypertrophy in H9c2 cells.It was also found that the expression of thioredoxin1 (Trx1) and peroxiredoxin2 (Prdx2) was decreased during the cardiac hypertrophy of H9c2 cells.These results suggest a critical role for Trx1 and Prdx2 in the cardiac hypertrophy of H9c2 cells and in the transition from compensated hypertrophy to de-compensated hypertrophy in H9c2 cells,and our findings may have important implications for the management of this disease.

  12. The effect of raloxifene on left ventricular hypertrophy in postmenopausal women: A prospective, randomized, and controlled study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Uğur Abbas; Atar, İlyas; Öktem, Mesut; B. Zeyneloğlu, Hulusi; Yıldırır, Aylin; Kuşcu, Esra; Müderrisoğlu, Haldun

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In healthy women, there is a progressive age-related increase in myocardial mass that is not seen in their male counterparts and occurs primarily in postmenopausal women. Raloxifene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator that has estrogenic actions on bone and the cardiovascular system. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of raloxifene on myocardial hypertrophy in postmenopausal patients. Methods: A total of 22 postmenopausal osteoporotic women were included in this open-label, randomized, prospective, controlled study. Patients were randomized into two groups: 11 of the patients (group 1) were treated with raloxifene 60 mg/day, and the other 11 patients (group 2) were defined as the control group. Quantitative 2-dimensional and M-mode echocardiographic examination was performed in all patients at the beginning and repeated at the end of the 6-month follow-up period. Left ventricle mass (LVM) and left ventricle mass index (LVMI) were calculated for all patients. Results: The mean age of the patients was 57.2±3.9 years, and baseline clinical characteristics and echocardiographic parameters were similar between the two groups. After 6 months of raloxifene treatment, there was no difference in echocardiographic parameters of LVM and LVMI compared with the control group (201.2±25.9 gr vs. 169.7±46.2 gr, p=0.14 and 120.4±25.9 gr/m2 vs. 105.5±26.3 gr/m2, p=0.195, respectively). There was also no significant difference in LVM and LVMI in the within-group analysis of both groups. Conclusion: Raloxifene therapy does not affect myocardial hypertrophy in postmenopausal women after 6 months of treatment. PMID:25430415

  13. Prevalencia de hipertrofia ventricular izquierda en pacientes diabéticos Prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy in diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Valarezo-Sevilla

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de establecer la prevalencia de hipertrofia ventricular izquierda (HVI en pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM, se realizó un estudio transversal en estos pacientes, estableciendo sus características antropométricas, presión arterial y control metabólico. Para evaluar la presencia de HVI se empleó ecocardiografía transtorácica. El estudio incluyó 91 pacientes, en los cuales la prevalencia de HVI fue de 63,7%, siendo más frecuente en mujeres que en varones (p=0,001. Adicionalmente, se encontró un 46,2% de pacientes con disfunción diastólica del ventrículo izquierdo. Se concluye que existe una importante prevalencia de HVI en pacientes diabéticos sin antecedentes de causas definidas de hipertrofia. No se encontró relación con sexo, control metabólico, IMC y tiempo de diagnósticoIn order to establish the prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, (DM a cross-sectional study was conducted in these patients studying their anthropometric characteristics, blood pressure and metabolic control. To evaluate the presence of LVH, a trans-thoracic echocardiogram was used. The study included 91 patients, finding a 63.7% prevalence of HVI, with women being more affected than men (p=0.001. Additionally, 46.2% of patients were found to have diastolic dysfunction of the left ventricle. We conclude that there is an important prevalence of LVH in diabetic patients without defined causes of hypertrophy. There was no association with sex, metabolic control, BMI and time of diagnosis

  14. Defining an emerging disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutou, F; Pastoret, P-P

    2015-04-01

    Defining an emerging disease is not straightforward, as there are several different types of disease emergence. For example, there can be a 'real' emergence of a brand new disease, such as the emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in the 1980s, or a geographic emergence in an area not previously affected, such as the emergence of bluetongue in northern Europe in 2006. In addition, disease can emerge in species formerly not considered affected, e.g. the emergence of bovine tuberculosis in wildlife species since 2000 in France. There can also be an unexpected increase of disease incidence in a known area and a known species, or there may simply be an increase in our knowledge or awareness of a particular disease. What all these emerging diseases have in common is that human activity frequently has a role to play in their emergence. For example, bovine spongiform encephalopathy very probably emerged as a result of changes in the manufacturing of meat-and-bone meal, bluetongue was able to spread to cooler climes as a result of uncontrolled trade in animals, and a relaxation of screening and surveillance for bovine tuberculosis enabled the disease to re-emerge in areas that had been able to drastically reduce the number of cases. Globalisation and population growth will continue to affect the epidemiology of diseases in years to come and ecosystems will continue to evolve. Furthermore, new technologies such as metagenomics and high-throughput sequencing are identifying new microorganisms all the time. Change is the one constant, and diseases will continue to emerge, and we must consider the causes and different types of emergence as we deal with these diseases in the future.

  15. Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome with Ventricular Hypertrophy in a Brazilian Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Steld, Lenises de Paula; Campuzano, Oscar; Pérez-Serra, Alexandra; Moura de Barros Zamorano, Mabel; Sousa Matos, Selma; Brugada, Ramon

    2017-07-10

    BACKGROUND PRKAG2 syndrome diagnosis is already well-defined as Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW), ventricular hypertrophy (VH) due to glycogen accumulation, and conduction system disease (CSD). Because of its rarity, there is a lack of literature focused on the treatment. The present study aimed to describe appropriate strategies for the treatment of affected family members with PRKAG2 syndrome with a long follow-up period. CASE REPORT We studied 60 selected individuals from 84 family members (32 males, 53.3%) (mean age 27±16 years). Patients with WPW and/or VH were placed in a group of 18 individuals, in which 11 (61.1%) had VH and WPW, 6 (33.3%) had isolated WPW, and 1 (5.6%) had isolated VH. Palpitations occurred in 16 patients (88.9%), chest pain in 11 (61.1%), dizziness in 13 (72.2%), syncope in 15 (83.3%), and dyspnea in 13 (72%). Sudden cardiac death (SCD) occurred in 2 (11.1%), and 2 patients with cardiac arrest (CA) had asystole and pre-excited atrial flutter-fibrillation (AFL and AF) as the documented mechanism. Transient ischemic attack (TIA) and learning/language disabilities with delayed development were observed. Genetic analysis identified a new missense pathogenic variant (p.K290I) in the PRKAG2 gene. Cardiac histopathology demonstrated the predominance of vacuoles containing glycogen derivative and fibrosis. The treatment was based on hypertension and diabetes mellitus (DM) control, antiarrhythmic drugs (AD), anticoagulation, and radiofrequency catheter ablation (RCA). Six patients (33.3%) underwent pacemaker implantation (PM). CONCLUSIONS The present study describes the clinical treatment for a rare cardiac syndrome caused by a PRKAG2 mutation.

  16. Taxifolin protects against cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis during biomechanical stress of pressure overload

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Haipeng; Zhang, Xin; Cui, Yuqian; Zhou, Heng; Xu, Dachun; Shan, Tichao; Zhang, Fan; Guo, Yuan; Chen, Yuguo; Wu, Dawei

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is a key pathophysiological component to biomechanical stress, which has been considered to be an independent and predictive risk factor for adverse cardiovascular events. Taxifolin (TAX) is a typical plant flavonoid, which has long been used clinically for treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. However, very little is known about whether TAX can influence the development of cardiac hypertrophy. In vitro studies, we found that TAX concentration-dependently inhibited angiotensin II (Ang II) induced hypertrophy and protein synthesis in cardiac myocytes. Then we established a mouse model by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) to further confirm our findings. It was demonstrated that TAX prevented pressure overload induced cardiac hypertrophy in mice, as assessed by ventricular mass/body weight, echocardiographic parameters, myocyte cross-sectional area, and the expression of ANP, BNP and β-MHC. The excess production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) played critical role in the development of cardiac hypertrophy. TAX arrested oxidative stress and decreased the expression of 4-HNE induced by pressure overload. Moreover, TAX negatively modulated TAC-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK1/2. Further studies showed that TAX significantly attenuated left ventricular fibrosis and collagen synthesis through abrogating the phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad2/3 nuclear translocation. These results demonstrated that TAX could inhibit cardiac hypertrophy and attenuate ventricular fibrosis after pressure overload. These beneficial effects were at least through the inhibition of the excess production of ROS, ERK1/2, JNK1/2 and Smad signaling pathways. Therefore, TAX might be a potential candidate for the treatment of cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. - Highlights: • We focus on the protective effect of taxifolin on cardiac remodeling. • Taxifolin inhibited cardiac hypertrophy and attenuated ventricular fibrosis. • Taxifolin

  17. Taxifolin protects against cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis during biomechanical stress of pressure overload

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Haipeng; Zhang, Xin [Department of Critical Care Medicine, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan (China); Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Chinese Ministry of Education and Chinese Ministry of Health, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan (China); Cui, Yuqian [Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Chinese Ministry of Education and Chinese Ministry of Health, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan (China); Zhou, Heng [Department of Cardiology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Xu, Dachun [Department of Cardiology, Shanghai Tenth People' s Hospital of Tongji University, Shanghai (China); Shan, Tichao; Zhang, Fan [Department of Critical Care Medicine, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan (China); Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Chinese Ministry of Education and Chinese Ministry of Health, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan (China); Guo, Yuan [Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Chinese Ministry of Education and Chinese Ministry of Health, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan (China); Chen, Yuguo, E-mail: chen919085@163.com [Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Chinese Ministry of Education and Chinese Ministry of Health, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan (China); Department of Emergency, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan (China); Wu, Dawei, E-mail: wdwu55@163.com [Department of Critical Care Medicine, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan (China); Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Chinese Ministry of Education and Chinese Ministry of Health, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan (China)

    2015-09-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is a key pathophysiological component to biomechanical stress, which has been considered to be an independent and predictive risk factor for adverse cardiovascular events. Taxifolin (TAX) is a typical plant flavonoid, which has long been used clinically for treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. However, very little is known about whether TAX can influence the development of cardiac hypertrophy. In vitro studies, we found that TAX concentration-dependently inhibited angiotensin II (Ang II) induced hypertrophy and protein synthesis in cardiac myocytes. Then we established a mouse model by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) to further confirm our findings. It was demonstrated that TAX prevented pressure overload induced cardiac hypertrophy in mice, as assessed by ventricular mass/body weight, echocardiographic parameters, myocyte cross-sectional area, and the expression of ANP, BNP and β-MHC. The excess production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) played critical role in the development of cardiac hypertrophy. TAX arrested oxidative stress and decreased the expression of 4-HNE induced by pressure overload. Moreover, TAX negatively modulated TAC-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK1/2. Further studies showed that TAX significantly attenuated left ventricular fibrosis and collagen synthesis through abrogating the phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad2/3 nuclear translocation. These results demonstrated that TAX could inhibit cardiac hypertrophy and attenuate ventricular fibrosis after pressure overload. These beneficial effects were at least through the inhibition of the excess production of ROS, ERK1/2, JNK1/2 and Smad signaling pathways. Therefore, TAX might be a potential candidate for the treatment of cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. - Highlights: • We focus on the protective effect of taxifolin on cardiac remodeling. • Taxifolin inhibited cardiac hypertrophy and attenuated ventricular fibrosis. • Taxifolin

  18. The Regulatory Role of Signaling Crosstalk in Hypertrophy of MSCs and Human Articular Chondrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilei Zhong

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hypertrophic differentiation of chondrocytes is a main barrier in application of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs for cartilage repair. In addition, hypertrophy occurs occasionally in osteoarthritis (OA. Here we provide a comprehensive review on recent literature describing signal pathways in the hypertrophy of MSCs-derived in vitro differentiated chondrocytes and chondrocytes, with an emphasis on the crosstalk between these pathways. Insight into the exact regulation of hypertrophy by the signaling network is necessary for the efficient application of MSCs for articular cartilage repair and for developing novel strategies for curing OA. We focus on articles describing the role of the main signaling pathways in regulating chondrocyte hypertrophy-like changes. Most studies report hypertrophic differentiation in chondrogenesis of MSCs, in both human OA and experimental OA. Chondrocyte hypertrophy is not under the strict control of a single pathway but appears to be regulated by an intricately regulated network of multiple signaling pathways, such as WNT, Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP/Transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ, Parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP, Indian hedgehog (IHH, Fibroblast growth factor (FGF, Insulin like growth factor (IGF and Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF. This comprehensive review describes how this intricate signaling network influences tissue-engineering applications of MSCs in articular cartilage (AC repair, and improves understanding of the disease stages and cellular responses within an OA articular joint.

  19. Curcumin Inhibits Chondrocyte Hypertrophy of Mesenchymal Stem Cells through IHH and Notch Signaling Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhen; Dou, Ce; Dong, Shiwu

    2017-01-01

    Using tissue engineering technique to repair cartilage damage caused by osteoarthritis is a promising strategy. However, the regenerated tissue usually is fibrous cartilage, which has poor mechanical characteristics compared to hyaline cartilage. Chondrocyte hypertrophy plays an important role in this process. Thus, it is very important to find out a suitable way to maintain the phenotype of chondrocytes and inhibit chondrocyte hypertrophy. Curcumin deriving from turmeric was reported with anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor pharmacological effects. However, the role of curcumin in metabolism of chondrocytes, especially in the chondrocyte hypertrophy remains unclear. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are widely used in cartilage tissue engineering as seed cells. So we investigated the effect of curcumin on chondrogenesis and chondrocyte hypertrophy in MSCs through examination of cell viability, glycosaminoglycan synthesis and specific gene expression. We found curcumin had no effect on expression of chondrogenic markers including Sox9 and Col2a1 while hypertrophic markers including Runx2 and Col10a1 were down-regulated. Further exploration showed that curcumin inhibited chondrocyte hypertrophy through Indian hedgehog homolog (IHH) and Notch signalings. Our results indicated curcumin was a potential agent in modulating cartilage homeostasis and maintaining chondrocyte phenotype.

  20. Population-specific left ventricular hypertrophy in three groups from the northeastern region of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, P K; Hazarika, N C; Biswas, D; Kalita, H C; Mahanta, J

    2010-01-01

    People living in the hills are continuously exposed to strenuous physical activity for their day-to-day work. Besides hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy in different populations may be related to continuous physical activity. Electrocardiogram, blood pressure and sociodemographic information of 12 252 subjects > or = 30 years of age from three different population groups living in Mizoram (hilly) and Assam (plain) were recorded. Of them, 8058 were from Mizoram and 3180 and 1014 were Indigenous Assamese and tea garden workers of Assam. Among the subjects from Mizoram the percentage of smokers (41.9%), mean (SD) BMI (21.9 [3.8]) and waist-hip ratio (0.87 [0.02]) were significantly higher than in those from other groups. Tea garden workers had a higher mean systolic blood pressure (145.2 [25.7]) and diastolic blood pressure (87.6 [13.6]). The prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy was highest among tea garden workers (16.5%) followed by people from Mizoram (3.7%) and the indigenous Assamese (2%) people. In spite of a significantly higher prevalence of hypertension among the indigenous Assamese community than among those from Mizoram, left ventricular hypertrophy was found to be lower in the former. High prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy among tea garden workers was possibly related to a higher prevalence of hypertension but the higher prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy among people from Mizoram might be related to more physical activity.

  1. AMPKγ3 is dispensable for skeletal muscle hypertrophy induced by functional overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedl, Isabelle; Osler, Megan E; Björnholm, Marie; Egan, Brendan; Nader, Gustavo A; Chibalin, Alexander V; Zierath, Juleen R

    2016-03-15

    Mechanisms regulating skeletal muscle growth involve a balance between the activity of serine/threonine protein kinases, including the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). The contribution of different AMPK subunits to the regulation of cell growth size remains inadequately characterized. Using AMPKγ3 mutant-overexpressing transgenic Tg-Prkag3(225Q) and AMPKγ3-knockout (Prkag3(-/-)) mice, we investigated the requirement for the AMPKγ3 isoform in functional overload-induced muscle hypertrophy. Although the genetic disruption of the γ3 isoform did not impair muscle growth, control sham-operated AMPKγ3-transgenic mice displayed heavier plantaris muscles in response to overload hypertrophy and underwent smaller mass gain and lower Igf1 expression compared with wild-type littermates. The mTOR signaling pathway was upregulated with functional overload but unchanged between genetically modified animals and wild-type littermates. Differences in AMPK-related signaling pathways between transgenic, knockout, and wild-type mice did not impact muscle hypertrophy. Glycogen content was increased following overload in wild-type mice. In conclusion, our functional, transcriptional, and signaling data provide evidence against the involvement of the AMPKγ3 isoform in the regulation of skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Thus, the AMPKγ3 isoform is dispensable for functional overload-induced muscle growth. Mechanical loading can override signaling pathways that act as negative effectors of mTOR signaling and consequently promote skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Transcriptional profiling of rat skeletal muscle hypertrophy under restriction of blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shouyu; Liu, Xueyun; Chen, Zhenhuang; Li, Gaoquan; Chen, Qin; Zhou, Guoqing; Ma, Ruijie; Yao, Xinmiao; Huang, Xiao

    2016-12-15

    Blood flow restriction (BFR) under low-intensity resistance training (LIRT) can produce similar effects upon muscles to that of high-intensity resistance training (HIRT) while overcoming many of the restrictions to HIRT that occurs in a clinical setting. However, the potential molecular mechanisms of BFR induced muscle hypertrophy remain largely unknown. Here, using a BFR rat model, we aim to better elucidate the mechanisms regulating muscle hypertrophy as induced by BFR and reveal possible clinical therapeutic targets for atrophy cases. We performed genome wide screening with microarray analysis to identify unique differentially expressed genes during rat muscle hypertrophy. We then successfully separated the differentially expressed genes from BRF treated soleus samples by comparing the Affymetrix rat Genome U34 2.0 array with the control. Using qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC) we also analyzed other related differentially expressed genes. Results suggested that muscle hypertrophy induced by BFR is essentially regulated by the rate of protein turnover. Specifically, PI3K/AKT and MAPK pathways act as positive regulators in controlling protein synthesis where ubiquitin-proteasome acts as a negative regulator. This represents the first general genome wide level investigation of the gene expression profile in the rat soleus after BFR treatment. This may aid our understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating and controlling muscle hypertrophy and provide support to the BFR strategies aiming to prevent muscle atrophy in a clinical setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Heat shock transcription factor 1-deficiency attenuates overloading-associated hypertrophy of mouse soleus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koya, Tomoyuki; Nishizawa, Sono; Ohno, Yoshitaka; Goto, Ayumi; Ikuta, Akihiro; Suzuki, Miho; Ohira, Tomotaka; Egawa, Tatsuro; Nakai, Akira; Sugiura, Takao; Ohira, Yoshinobu; Yoshioka, Toshitada; Beppu, Moroe; Goto, Katsumasa

    2013-01-01

    Hypertrophic stimuli, such as mechanical stress and overloading, induce stress response, which is mediated by heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1), and up-regulate heat shock proteins (HSPs) in mammalian skeletal muscles. Therefore, HSF1-associated stress response may play a key role in loading-associated skeletal muscle hypertrophy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of HSF1-deficiency on skeletal muscle hypertrophy caused by overloading. Functional overloading on the left soleus was performed by cutting the distal tendons of gastrocnemius and plantaris muscles for 4 weeks. The right muscle served as the control. Soleus muscles from both hindlimbs were dissected 2 and 4 weeks after the operation. Hypertrophy of soleus muscle in HSF1-null mice was partially inhibited, compared with that in wild-type (C57BL/6J) mice. Absence of HSF1 partially attenuated the increase of muscle wet weight and fiber cross-sectional area of overloaded soleus muscle. Population of Pax7-positive muscle satellite cells in HSF1-null mice was significantly less than that in wild-type mice following 2 weeks of overloading (pmuscle hypertrophy might be attributed to the greater and prolonged enhancement of IL-6 expression. HSF1 and/or HSF1-mediated stress response may, in part, play a key role in loading-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

  4. The characteristics of myocardial fatty acid metabolism in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isobe, Naoki; Toyama, Takuji; Hoshizaki, Hiroshi

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the characteristics of myocardial fatty acid metabolism in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Myocardial imaging with 123 I-beta-methyl iodophenyl pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) was performed in 28 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), 15 patients with hypertensive heart disease (HHD), 13 patients with aortic stenosis (AS) and 8 normal controls (NC). The patients with HCM consisted of 13 patients of asymmetric septal hypertrophy (ASH), 7 patients of diffuse hypertrophy (Diffuse-HCM) and 8 patients of apical hypertrophy (APH). Planar and SPECT images of BMIPP were acquired 15 minutes and 4 hours after tracer injection. Resting 201 Tl SPECT images and echocardiography were also performed on other days. We calculated heart/mediastinum count ratio and washout rate of BMIPP by using planar image. In patients with LVH, the incidence of reduced BMIPP uptake was more frequent than that of reduced 201 Tl uptake. In delayed images, more than 60% of patients with LVH reduced BMIPP uptake, especially remarkable for patients with ASH and APH. The washout rate of all cardiac hypertrophic disorders was tended to be higher than that of normal subjects. Reduced BMIPP uptake was frequently found in septal portion of anterior and inferior wall in patients with ASH, in inferior wall in patients with Diffuse-HCM and HHD, in apex in patients with APH and AS. These results suggest that BMIPP scintigraphy can differentiate three types of cardiac hypertrophy. (author)

  5. Lumbar radiculopathy due to unilateral facet hypertrophy following lumbar disc hernia operation: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kökeş, Fatih; Günaydin, Ahmet; Aciduman, Ahmet; Kalan, Mehmet; Koçak, Halit

    2007-10-01

    To present a radiculopathy case due to unilateral facet hypertrophy developing three years after a lumbar disc hernia operation. A fifty two-year-old female patient, who had been operated on for a left L5-S1 herniated lumbar disc three years ago, was hospitalized and re-operated with a diagnosis of unilateral facet hypertrophy. She had complaints of left leg pain and walking restrictions for the last six months. Left Straight Leg Raising test was positive at 40 degrees , left ankle dorsiflexion muscle strength was 4/5, left Extensor Hallucis Longus muscle strength was 3/5, and left Achilles reflex was hypoactive. Lumbar spinal Magnetic Resonance Imaging revealed left L5-S1 facet hypertrophy. Lumbar radiculopathy due to lumbar facet hypertrophy is a well-known neurological condition. Radicular pain develops during the late postoperative period following lumbar disc hernia operations that are often related to recurrent disc herniation or to formation of post-operative scar tissue. In addition, it can be speculated that unilateral facet hypertrophy, which may develop after a disc hernia operation, might also be one of the causes of radiculopathy.

  6. Reduction of blood oxygen levels enhances postprandial cardiac hypertrophy in Burmese python (Python bivittatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slay, Christopher E; Enok, Sanne; Hicks, James W; Wang, Tobias

    2014-05-15

    Physiological cardiac hypertrophy is characterized by reversible enlargement of cardiomyocytes and changes in chamber architecture, which increase stroke volume and via augmented convective oxygen transport. Cardiac hypertrophy is known to occur in response to repeated elevations of O2 demand and/or reduced O2 supply in several species of vertebrate ectotherms, including postprandial Burmese pythons (Python bivittatus). Recent data suggest postprandial cardiac hypertrophy in P. bivittatus is a facultative rather than obligatory response to digestion, though the triggers of this response are unknown. Here, we hypothesized that an O2 supply-demand mismatch stimulates postprandial cardiac enlargement in Burmese pythons. To test this hypothesis, we rendered animals anemic prior to feeding, essentially halving blood oxygen content during the postprandial period. Fed anemic animals had heart rates 126% higher than those of fasted controls, which, coupled with a 71% increase in mean arterial pressure, suggests fed anemic animals were experiencing significantly elevated cardiac work. We found significant cardiac hypertrophy in fed anemic animals, which exhibited ventricles 39% larger than those of fasted controls and 28% larger than in fed controls. These findings support our hypothesis that those animals with a greater magnitude of O2 supply-demand mismatch exhibit the largest hearts. The 'low O2 signal' stimulating postprandial cardiac hypertrophy is likely mediated by elevated ventricular wall stress associated with postprandial hemodynamics. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Whole-genome sequence of Erysipelothrix larvae LV19(T) (=KCTC 33523(T)), a useful strain for arsenic detoxification, from the larval gut of the rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sooyeon; Rhee, Moon-Soo; Chang, Dong-Ho; Kim, Byoung-Chan

    2016-04-10

    Erysipelothrix larvae LV19(T) was preliminary isolated from the larval gut of a rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus in Korea. Here, we present the whole genome sequence of E. larvae LV19(T) strain, which consisted of 2,511,486 base pairs with a GC content of 37.4% and one plasmid. Unlike other Erysipelothrix strains (SY 1027, Fujisawa and ATCC 19414), the arsenic-resistance genes were identified in LV19(T) strain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Definably compact groups definable in real closed fields.II

    OpenAIRE

    Barriga, Eliana

    2017-01-01

    We continue the analysis of definably compact groups definable in a real closed field $\\mathcal{R}$. In [3], we proved that for every definably compact definably connected semialgebraic group $G$ over $\\mathcal{R}$ there are a connected $R$-algebraic group $H$, a definable injective map $\\phi$ from a generic definable neighborhood of the identity of $G$ into the group $H\\left(R\\right)$ of $R$-points of $H$ such that $\\phi$ acts as a group homomorphism inside its domain. The above result and o...

  9. Sodium bicarbonate supplementation improves hypertrophy-type resistance exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Benjamin M; Webster, Michael J; Boyd, Joseph C; Hudson, Geoffrey M; Scheett, Timothy P

    2013-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO(3)) administration on lower-body, hypertrophy-type resistance exercise (HRE). Using a double-blind randomized counterbalanced design, 12 resistance-trained male participants (mean ± SD; age = 20.3 ± 2 years, mass = 88.3 ± 13.2 kg, height = 1.80 ± 0.07 m) ingested 0.3 g kg(-1) of NaHCO(3) or placebo 60 min before initiation of an HRE regimen. The protocol employed multiple exercises: squat, leg press, and knee extension, utilizing four sets each, with 10-12 repetition-maximum loads and short rest periods between sets. Exercise performance was determined by total repetitions generated during each exercise, total accumulated repetitions, and a performance test involving a fifth set of knee extensions to failure. Arterialized capillary blood was collected via fingertip puncture at four time points and analyzed for pH, [HCO(3)(-)], base excess (BE), and lactate [Lac(-)]. NaHCO(3) supplementation induced a significant alkaline state (pH: NaHCO(3): 7.49 ± 0.02, placebo: 7.42 ± 0.02, P < 0.05; [HCO(3)(-)]: NaHCO(3): 31.50 ± 2.59, placebo: 25.38 ± 1.78 mEq L(-1), P < 0.05; BE: NaHCO(3): 7.92 ± 2.57, placebo: 1.08 ± 2.11 mEq L(-1), P < 0.05). NaHCO(3) administration resulted in significantly more total repetitions than placebo (NaHCO(3): 139.8 ± 13.2, placebo: 134.4 ± 13.5), as well as significantly greater blood [Lac(-)] after the exercise protocol (NaHCO(3): 17.92 ± 2.08, placebo: 15.55 ± 2.50 mM, P < 0.05). These findings demonstrate ergogenic efficacy for NaHCO(3) during HRE and warrant further investigation into chronic training applications.

  10. Whey protein hydrolysate augments tendon and muscle hypertrophy independent of resistance exercise contraction mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farup, Jean; Rahbek, S K; Vendelbo, M H

    2014-01-01

    In a comparative study, we investigated the effects of maximal eccentric or concentric resistance training combined with whey protein or placebo on muscle and tendon hypertrophy. 22 subjects were allocated into either a high-leucine whey protein hydrolysate + carbohydrate group (WHD) or a carbohy......In a comparative study, we investigated the effects of maximal eccentric or concentric resistance training combined with whey protein or placebo on muscle and tendon hypertrophy. 22 subjects were allocated into either a high-leucine whey protein hydrolysate + carbohydrate group (WHD...... or contraction mode effects. In conclusion, high-leucine whey protein hydrolysate augments muscle and tendon hypertrophy following 12 weeks of resistance training – irrespective of contraction mode....

  11. Unilateral hypertrophy of tensor fascia lata: a soft tissue tumor simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilaslan, H. [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street, 55905, SW Rochester, MN (United States); Department of Radiology A21, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Wenger, D.E. [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street, 55905, SW Rochester, MN (United States); Shives, T.C. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Unni, K.K. [Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2003-11-01

    To describe the imaging findings in eight cases of unilateral tensor fascia lata (TFL) hypertrophy presenting as soft tissue masses. Imaging studies and medical charts of eight patients were reviewed retrospectively. The imaging studies included five radiographs, five computed tomography (CT) and six magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations. The majority of patients (seven of eight) presented with a palpable proximal anterior thigh mass. One patient was asymptomatic and incidentally diagnosed. There were six females and two males. Ages ranged from 27 to 86 years old (mean 61). MRI and CT showed unilateral enlargement of the TFL muscle in all cases. TFL muscle hypertrophy is an uncommon clinical entity, which can simulate a soft tissue tumor. The characteristic appearance on CT or MRI allows a confident diagnosis of muscle hypertrophy to be made, avoiding unnecessary biopsy or surgical intervention. (orig.)

  12. Unilateral hypoplasia with contralateral hypertrophy of anterior belly of digastric muscle: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Escudero, Martin; Juliano, Amy F

    2016-10-01

    Anomalies of the anterior belly of the digastric muscle (DM) are uncommon. We present a case of hypoplasia of the anterior belly of the left DM with hypertrophy of the anterior belly of the contralateral DM. The importance of recognizing this finding is to differentiate hypoplasia of the anterior belly of the DM from denervation atrophy, and not to confuse contralateral hypertrophy with a submental mass or lymphadenopathy. In denervation atrophy of the anterior belly of the DM, associated atrophy of the ipsilateral mylohyoid muscle is present. Hypertrophy of the anterior belly of the contralateral DM can be differentiated from a submental mass or lymphadenopathy by recognizing its isodensity on computed tomography and isointensity on magnetic resonance imaging to other muscles, without abnormal contrast enhancement.

  13. Inhibition of platelet-derived growth factor signaling prevents muscle fiber growth during skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugg, Kristoffer B; Korn, Michael A; Sarver, Dylan C; Markworth, James F; Mendias, Christopher L

    2017-03-01

    The platelet-derived growth factor receptors alpha and beta (PDGFRα and PDGFRβ) mark fibroadipogenic progenitor cells/fibroblasts and pericytes in skeletal muscle, respectively. While the role that these cells play in muscle growth and development has been evaluated, it was not known whether the PDGF receptors activate signaling pathways that control transcriptional and functional changes during skeletal muscle hypertrophy. To evaluate this, we inhibited PDGFR signaling in mice subjected to a synergist ablation muscle growth procedure, and performed analyses 3 and 10 days after induction of hypertrophy. The results from this study indicate that PDGF signaling is required for fiber hypertrophy, extracellular matrix production, and angiogenesis that occur during muscle growth. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  14. Becker muscular dystrophy with widespread muscle hypertrophy and a non-sense mutation of exon 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witting, N; Duno, M; Vissing, J

    2013-01-01

    Becker muscular dystrophy features progressive proximal weakness, wasting and often focal hypertrophy. We present a patient with pain and cramps from adolescence. Widespread muscle hypertrophy, preserved muscle strength and a 10-20-fold raised CPK were noted. Muscle biopsy was dystrophic, and Western blot showed a 95% reduction of dystrophin levels. Genetic analyses revealed a non-sense mutation in exon 2 of the dystrophin gene. This mutation is predicted to result in a Duchenne phenotype, but resulted in a mild Becker muscular dystrophy with widespread muscle hypertrophy. We suggest that this unusual phenotype is caused by translation re-initiation downstream from the mutation site. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Unilateral hypertrophy of tensor fascia lata: a soft tissue tumor simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilaslan, H.; Wenger, D.E.; Shives, T.C.; Unni, K.K.

    2003-01-01

    To describe the imaging findings in eight cases of unilateral tensor fascia lata (TFL) hypertrophy presenting as soft tissue masses. Imaging studies and medical charts of eight patients were reviewed retrospectively. The imaging studies included five radiographs, five computed tomography (CT) and six magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations. The majority of patients (seven of eight) presented with a palpable proximal anterior thigh mass. One patient was asymptomatic and incidentally diagnosed. There were six females and two males. Ages ranged from 27 to 86 years old (mean 61). MRI and CT showed unilateral enlargement of the TFL muscle in all cases. TFL muscle hypertrophy is an uncommon clinical entity, which can simulate a soft tissue tumor. The characteristic appearance on CT or MRI allows a confident diagnosis of muscle hypertrophy to be made, avoiding unnecessary biopsy or surgical intervention. (orig.)

  16. Longitudinal strain bull's eye plot patterns in patients with cardiomyopathy and concentric left ventricular hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dan; Hu, Kai; Nordbeck, Peter; Ertl, Georg; Störk, Stefan; Weidemann, Frank

    2016-05-10

    Despite substantial advances in the imaging techniques and pathophysiological understanding over the last decades, identification of the underlying causes of left ventricular hypertrophy by means of echocardiographic examination remains a challenge in current clinical practice. The longitudinal strain bull's eye plot derived from 2D speckle tracking imaging offers an intuitive visual overview of the global and regional left ventricular myocardial function in a single diagram. The bull's eye mapping is clinically feasible and the plot patterns could provide clues to the etiology of cardiomyopathies. The present review summarizes the longitudinal strain, bull's eye plot features in patients with various cardiomyopathies and concentric left ventricular hypertrophy and the bull's eye plot features might serve as one of the cardiac workup steps on evaluating patients with left ventricular hypertrophy.

  17. Akt1/PKB upregulation leads to vascular smooth muscle cell hypertrophy and polyploidization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hixon, Mary L.; Muro-Cacho, Carlos; Wagner, Mark W.; Obejero-Paz, Carlos; Millie, Elise; Fujio, Yasushi; Kureishi, Yasuko; Hassold, Terry; Walsh, Kenneth; Gualberto, Antonio

    2000-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) at capacitance arteries of hypertensive individuals and animals undergo marked age- and blood pressure–dependent polyploidization and hypertrophy. We show here that VSMCs at capacitance arteries of rat models of hypertension display high levels of Akt1/PKB protein and activity. Gene transfer of Akt1 to VSMCs isolated from a normotensive rat strain was sufficient to abrogate the activity of the mitotic spindle cell–cycle checkpoint, promoting polyploidization and hypertrophy. Furthermore, the hypertrophic agent angiotensin II induced VSMC polyploidization in an Akt1-dependent manner. These results demonstrate that Akt1 regulates ploidy levels in VSMCs and contributes to vascular smooth muscle polyploidization and hypertrophy during hypertension. PMID:11032861

  18. A clinical study of thallium-201 scintigraphy in hypertensive patients with and without left ventricular hypertrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang Wei; He Guorong; Liu Jinhua; Huang Yuying; Qian Xuexian

    2001-01-01

    Objective: Based on coronary angiography, thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy was evaluated in hypertensive patients with and without left ventricular hypertrophy, and the causes of its perfusion abnormalities were discussed. Methods: Thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy was performed on 85 patients with clinically suspected coronary artery disease. Coronary angiography was performed on patients with perfusion abnormalities in one month after scintigraphy. Results: The rate of 201 Tl perfusion abnormalities in hypertensive patients with hypertrophy (85.7%) was higher than normal blood pressure (39.3%, P 201 Tl perfusion abnormalities occur in hypertensive patients with hypertrophy. The perfusion abnormalities may be caused not only by coronary large vessel disease, but also by coronary microvascular disease

  19. Investigating β-adrenergic-induced cardiac hypertrophy through computational approach: classical and non-classical pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalilimeybodi, Ali; Daneshmehr, Alireza; Sharif-Kashani, Babak

    2018-07-01

    The chronic stimulation of β-adrenergic receptors plays a crucial role in cardiac hypertrophy and its progression to heart failure. In β-adrenergic signaling, in addition to the well-established classical pathway, Gs/AC/cAMP/PKA, activation of non-classical pathways such as Gi/PI3K/Akt/GSK3β and Gi/Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK contribute in cardiac hypertrophy. The signaling network of β-adrenergic-induced hypertrophy is very complex and not fully understood. So, we use a computational approach to investigate the dynamic response and contribution of β-adrenergic mediators in cardiac hypertrophy. The proposed computational model provides insights into the effects of β-adrenergic classical and non-classical pathways on the activity of hypertrophic transcription factors CREB and GATA4. The results illustrate that the model captures the dynamics of the main signaling mediators and reproduces the experimental observations well. The results also show that despite the low portion of β2 receptors out of total cardiac β-adrenergic receptors, their contribution in the activation of hypertrophic mediators and regulation of β-adrenergic-induced hypertrophy is noticeable and variations in β1/β2 receptors ratio greatly affect the ISO-induced hypertrophic response. The model results illustrate that GSK3β deactivation after β-adrenergic receptor stimulation has a major influence on CREB and GATA4 activation and consequent cardiac hypertrophy. Also, it is found through sensitivity analysis that PKB (Akt) activation has both pro-hypertrophic and anti-hypertrophic effects in β-adrenergic signaling.

  20. The 4th Report of the Working Group on ECG diagnosis of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacharova, Ljuba; Estes, Harvey E; Schocken, Douglas D

    2016-01-01

    The 4th Report provides a brief review of publications focused on the electrocardiographic diagnosis of left ventricular hypertrophy published during the period of 2010 to 2016 by the members of the Working Group on ECG diagnosis of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy. The Working Group recommended...... that ECG research and clinical attention be redirected from the estimation of LVM to the identification of electrical remodeling, to better understanding the sequence of events connecting electrical remodeling to outcomes. The need for a re-definition of terms and for a new paradigm is also stressed....

  1. Muscular and systemic correlates of resistance training-induced muscle hypertrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron J Mitchell

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine relationships between post-exercise changes in systemic [testosterone, growth hormone (GH, insulin like grow factor 1 (IGF-1 and interleukin 6 (IL-6], or intramuscular [skeletal muscle androgen receptor (AR protein content and p70S6K phosphorylation status] factors in a moderately-sized cohort of young men exhibiting divergent resistance training-mediated muscle hypertrophy. METHODS: Twenty three adult males completed 4 sessions•wk⁻¹ of resistance training for 16 wk. Muscle biopsies were obtained before and after the training period and acutely 1 and 5 h after the first training session. Serum hormones and cytokines were measured immediately, 15, 30 and 60 minutes following the first and last training sessions of the study. RESULTS: Mean fiber area increased by 20% (range: -7 to 80%; P<0.001. Protein content of the AR was unchanged with training (fold change = 1.17 ± 0.61; P=0.19; however, there was a significant correlation between the changes in AR content and fiber area (r=0.60, P=0.023. Phosphorylation of p70S6K was elevated 5 hours following exercise, which was correlated with gains in mean fiber area (r=0.54, P=0.007. There was no relationship between the magnitude of the pre- or post-training exercise-induced changes in free testosterone, GH, or IGF-1 concentration and muscle fiber hypertrophy; however, the magnitude of the post exercise IL-6 response was correlated with muscle hypertrophy (r=0.48, P=0.019. CONCLUSION: Post-exercise increases in circulating hormones are not related to hypertrophy following training. Exercise-induced changes in IL-6 correlated with hypertrophy, but the mechanism for the role of IL-6 in hypertrophy is not known. Acute increases, in p70S6K phosphorylation and changes in muscle AR protein content correlated with muscle hypertrophy implicating intramuscular rather than systemic processes in mediating hypertrophy.

  2. Bilateral idiopathic calf muscle hypertrophy: an exceptional cause of unsightly leg curvature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlin, C; Chaput, B; Rivier, F; Doucet, J C; Bigorre, M; Captier, G

    2015-04-01

    The authors present the management of a young female patient who presented with longstanding bilateral calf muscle hypertrophy, with no known cause. Taking into account the patient's wishes and the fact that the hypertrophy was mainly located in the posteromedial compartment, we chose to carry out a subtotal bilateral resection of medial gastrocnemius muscles. This procedure was performed with an harmonic scalpel, permitting a excellent cosmetic result while avoiding complications or functional impairment. After a reviewing of the commonly used techniques, the authors discuss the chosen surgical approach taking into account its clinical particularity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy in liquidators of consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shal'nova, S.A.; Smolenskij, A.V.; Shamarin, V.M.; Ehktova, T.V.; Berzak, N.V.; Zemtsova, N.A.; Timofeeva, S.G.; Zhavoronkova, E.A.; Muromtseva, G.A.; Arkad'eva, M.A.; Deev, A.D.

    1998-01-01

    Echocardiography was used for the study of prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy in 839 liquidators of consequences of the Chernobyl accident. Prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy (left ventricular myocardial mass 134 g/m 2 ) was 10.3, 13.4 and 22.5 % in liquidators with normal blood pressure, borderline hypertension and hypertension, respectively. Liquidators with normal blood pressure had significantly greater left ventricular myocardial mass than normotensive men from general population while liquidators and non liquidators with hypertension had equal values of this parameter [ru

  4. Apical hypertrophy associated with rapid T wave inversion on the electrocardiogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanari, H; Saito, D; Mikio, K; Nakamura, K; Nanba, T; Morita, H; Mizuo, K; Sato, T; Ohe, T

    1995-01-01

    A 53-year-old man who had no chest pain and no family history of heart disease demonstrated a rapid T wave change on an electrocardiogram, from a positive T wave to a giant negative T wave, within 1 year. Echocardiography showed no left ventricular hypertrophy before or after the T wave change. Cine-magnetic resonance imaging revealed focal apical hypertrophy after the appearance of the giant negative T wave. Although T wave inversions sometimes develop within a short period in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, they are rare in a patient without hypertension or chest pain.

  5. Relations among impaired coronary flow reserve, left ventricular hypertrophy and thallium perfusion defects in hypertensive patients without obstructive coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houghton, J.L.; Frank, M.J.; Carr, A.A.; von Dohlen, T.W.; Prisant, L.M.

    1990-01-01

    Invasive Doppler catheter-derived coronary flow reserve, echocardiographic measurements of left ventricular hypertrophy and intravenous dipyridamole-limited stress thallium-201 scintigraphy were compared in 48 patients (40 were hypertensive or diabetic) with clinical ischemic heart disease and no or minor coronary artery disease. Abnormal vasodilator reserve (ratio less than 3:1) occurred in 50% of the study group and markedly abnormal reserve (less than or equal to 2:1) occurred in 27%. Coronary vasodilator reserve was significantly lower (2.2 +/- 0.8 versus 3.5 +/- 1.3, p = 0.003) and indexed left ventricular mass significantly higher (152.6 +/- 42.2 versus 113.6 +/- 24.0 g, p = 0.0007) in patients with a positive (n = 11) versus a negative (n = 32) thallium perfusion scan. Coronary flow reserve was linearly related in coronary basal flow velocity as follows: y = -0.17x + 4.59; r = -0.57; p = 0.00002. The decrement in flow reserve was not linearly related to the degree of left ventricular hypertrophy. Abnormal vasodilator reserve subsets found in hypertensive patients were defined on the basis of basal flow velocity, indexed left ventricular mass and clinical factors. In this series, diabetes did not cause a detectable additional decrement in flow reserve above that found with hypertension alone. These findings demonstrate that thallium perfusion defects are associated with depressed coronary vasodilator reserve in hypertensive patients without obstructive coronary artery disease. Left ventricular hypertrophy by indexed mass criteria is predictive of which hypertensive patients are likely to have thallium defects

  6. Exploring Regulatory Mechanisms of Atrial Myocyte Hypertrophy of Mitral Regurgitation through Gene Expression Profiling Analysis: Role of NFAT in Cardiac Hypertrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Hao Chang

    Full Text Available Left atrial enlargement in mitral regurgitation (MR predicts a poor prognosis. The regulatory mechanisms of atrial myocyte hypertrophy of MR patients remain unknown.This study comprised 14 patients with MR, 7 patients with aortic valve disease (AVD, and 6 purchased samples from normal subjects (NC. We used microarrays, enrichment analysis and quantitative RT-PCR to study the gene expression profiles in the left atria. Microarray results showed that 112 genes were differentially up-regulated and 132 genes were differentially down-regulated in the left atria between MR patients and NC. Enrichment analysis of differentially expressed genes demonstrated that "NFAT in cardiac hypertrophy" pathway was not only one of the significant associated canonical pathways, but also the only one predicted with a non-zero score of 1.34 (i.e. activated through Ingenuity Pathway Analysis molecule activity predictor. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis Global Molecular Network analysis exhibited that the highest score network also showed high association with cardiac related pathways and functions. Therefore, 5 NFAT associated genes (PPP3R1, PPP3CB, CAMK1, MEF2C, PLCE1 were studies for validation. The mRNA expressions of PPP3CB and MEF2C were significantly up-regulated, and CAMK1 and PPP3R1 were significantly down-regulated in MR patients compared to NC. Moreover, MR patients had significantly increased mRNA levels of PPP3CB, MEF2C and PLCE1 compared to AVD patients. The atrial myocyte size of MR patients significantly exceeded that of the AVD patients and NC.Differentially expressed genes in the "NFAT in cardiac hypertrophy" pathway may play a critical role in the atrial myocyte hypertrophy of MR patients.

  7. Variation in turbidity with precipitation and flow in a regulated river system – River Göta Älv, SW Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    M. Larson; D. Bendz; G. Göransson

    2013-01-01

    The turbidity variation in time and space is investigated in the downstream stretch of the river Göta Älv in Sweden. The river is heavily regulated and carries the discharge from the largest fresh water lake in Sweden, Lake Vänern, to the outflow point in Göteborg Harbour on the Swedish west coast. The river is an important waterway and serves as a fresh-water supply for 700 000 users. Turbidity is utilised as a water quality indicator to ensure sufficient quality of the intake water to the t...

  8. DC-link Voltage Control to Compensate Voltage Deviation for PV–BESSs Integrated System in Low-Voltage (LV Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Gyu-sub

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The exhaustion of fossil fuel and the greenhouse gas emission are one of the most significant energy and environmental issues, respectively. Photovoltaic (PV generators and battery energy storage systems (BESSs have been significantly increased for recent years. The BESSs are mainly used for smoothing active power fluctuation of the PV. In this paper, PV–BESSs integration of two DC/DC converters and one AC/DC converter is investigated and DC-link voltage control to compensate the AC voltage deviation is proposed for the PV‒BESS system in low-voltage (LV networks.

  9. Cardiac hypertrophy and IGF-1 response to testosterone propionate treatment in trained male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żebrowska Aleksandra

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have suggested that testosterone exerts a growth-promoting effect in the heart. Limited data are available regarding interactions between possible endocrine/paracrine effects in response to exercise training. Therefore, we examined supraphysiological testosterone-induced heart hypertrophy and cardiac insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1 content in sedentary and exercise-trained rats.

  10. Airway evaluation by indirect laryngoscopy in patients with lingual tonsillar hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Morillo, Jorge; Gómez-Diago, Lorena; Rodríguez-Gimillo, Pablo; Herrera-Collado, Raúl; Puchol-Castillo, Jorge; Mompó-Romero, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Prevalence of the lingual tonsillar hypertrophy is unknown but it is believed that its presence is associated with the difficult airway. To investigate this, indirect laryngoscopy was performed on patients in the preoperative evaluation and this pathology was diagnosed. The relationship with difficulty of viewing the larynx, intubation and ventilation, under general anaesthesia and using direct laryngoscopy, was then studied. We performed the demographic variable checks and tests for predicting difficult intubation (mouth opening, thyromental distance, cervical flexion-extension, neck thickness and Mallampati test), in the preoperative step on 300 patients who were going to be submitted to general anaesthesia. We then performed indirect laryngoscopy on them using a 70° rigid laryngoscope to ascertain the frequency of appearance of lingual tonsillar hypertrophy. Next, under general anaesthesia, we carried out direct laryngoscopy to verify whether there was difficulty in viewing the larynx and intubation and ventilation. We then investigated the association of demographic predictors of difficult intubation, including indirect laryngoscopy, with the presence of this condition. Prevalence of lingual tonsillar hypertrophy was 2%. No relationship between the appearance of this entity and the difficulty of viewing the larynx, intubation and ventilation was found. Only indirect laryngoscopy was linked to the appearance of this pathology. Lingual tonsillar hypertrophy is a relatively frequent disorder, whose presence is not usually associated with difficult airway. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  11. Intermolecular failure of L-type Ca2+ channel and ryanodine receptor signaling in hypertrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Xu

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Pressure overload-induced hypertrophy is a key step leading to heart failure. The Ca(2+-induced Ca(2+ release (CICR process that governs cardiac contractility is defective in hypertrophy/heart failure, but the molecular mechanisms remain elusive. To examine the intermolecular aspects of CICR during hypertrophy, we utilized loose-patch confocal imaging to visualize the signaling between a single L-type Ca(2+ channel (LCC and ryanodine receptors (RyRs in aortic stenosis rat models of compensated (CHT and decompensated (DHT hypertrophy. We found that the LCC-RyR intermolecular coupling showed a 49% prolongation in coupling latency, a 47% decrease in chance of hit, and a 72% increase in chance of miss in DHT, demonstrating a state of "intermolecular failure." Unexpectedly, these modifications also occurred robustly in CHT due at least partially to decreased expression of junctophilin, indicating that intermolecular failure occurs prior to cellular manifestations. As a result, cell-wide Ca(2+ release, visualized as "Ca(2+ spikes," became desynchronized, which contrasted sharply with unaltered spike integrals and whole-cell Ca(2+ transients in CHT. These data suggested that, within a certain limit, termed the "stability margin," mild intermolecular failure does not damage the cellular integrity of excitation-contraction coupling. Only when the modification steps beyond the stability margin does global failure occur. The discovery of "hidden" intermolecular failure in CHT has important clinical implications.

  12. Exobasidium ferrugineae sp. nov., associated with hypertrophied flowers of Lyonia ferruginea in the southeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron H. Kennedy; Nisse A. Goldberg; Anderw M. Minnis

    2012-01-01

    Exobasidium ferrugineae, associated with hypertrophied flowers and less commonly leaves of Lyonia ferruginea (rusty staggerbush), is formally described here as a new species. Morphological and DNA sequence (ITS, nLSU) data are provided. Phylogenetic analyses confirm that it is not conspecific with any species of ...

  13. Ventricular premature contraction in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and essential hypertension with left ventricular hypertrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobiki, Naoki

    1989-01-01

    In order to investigate the relationship of different morbid states of the hypertrophied myocardium to the appearance of ventricular premature contraction (VPC), we compared the VPC findings from Holter ECG with those of UCG and stress thallium-201 myocardial SPECT scintigraphy (stress scinti) in 31 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and 20 with essential hypertension (HT). The HCM patients consisted of 21 with asymmetric hypertrophy (ASH), 3 with symmetric hypertrophy (SH), and 7 with apical hypertrophy (APH). We recognized positive findings on the stress scinti such as fixed perfusion defect (FD) or reversible perfusion defect (RD) in 11 patients (ASH 10, APH 1) out of 31 patients with HCM (35%). Positive findings were observed in only one patient out of 20 with HT (5%). We recognized a high grade VPC (grade 4a and 4b of Lown's criteria) in 8 of 11 scinti positive patients with HCM (ASH 7, APH 1)(73%), while high grade VPC appeared in 5 (all of them are ASH) out of 20 scinti negative patients with HCM (25%). Therefore, these findings suggest that high grade VPCs in HCM occur in relation to a myocardial perfusion defect. (author)

  14. Cinnamaldehyde impairs high glucose-induced hypertrophy in renal interstitial fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, Louis Kuoping; Chang, W.-T.; Shih, Y.-W.; Huang, J.-S.

    2010-01-01

    Cinnamaldehyde is a major and a bioactive compound isolated from the leaves of Cinnamomum osmophloeum kaneh. To explore whether cinnamaldehyde was linked to altered high glucose (HG)-mediated renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis in diabetic nephropathy (DN), the molecular mechanisms of cinnamaldehyde responsible for inhibition of HG-induced hypertrophy in renal interstitial fibroblasts were examined. We found that cinnamaldehyde caused inhibition of HG-induced cellular mitogenesis rather than cell death by either necrosis or apoptosis. There were no changes in caspase 3 activity, cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) protein expression, and mitochondrial cytochrome c release in HG or cinnamaldehyde treatments in these cells. HG-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) (but not the Janus kinase 2/signal transducers and activators of transcription) activation was markedly blocked by cinnamaldehyde. The ability of cinnamaldehyde to inhibit HG-induced hypertrophy was verified by the observation that it significantly decreased cell size, cellular hypertrophy index, and protein levels of collagen IV, fibronectin, and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). The results obtained in this study suggest that cinnamaldehyde treatment of renal interstitial fibroblasts that have been stimulated by HG reduces their ability to proliferate and hypertrophy through mechanisms that may be dependent on inactivation of the ERK/JNK/p38 MAPK pathway.

  15. Requirement of myomaker-mediated stem cell fusion for skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Qingnian; Millay, Douglas P

    2017-02-10

    Fusion of skeletal muscle stem/progenitor cells is required for proper development and regeneration, however the significance of this process during adult muscle hypertrophy has not been explored. In response to muscle overload after synergist ablation in mice, we show that myomaker, a muscle specific membrane protein essential for myoblast fusion, is activated mainly in muscle progenitors and not myofibers. We rendered muscle progenitors fusion-incompetent through genetic deletion of myomaker in muscle stem cells and observed a complete reduction of overload-induced hypertrophy. This blunted hypertrophic response was associated with a reduction in Akt and p70s6k signaling and protein synthesis, suggesting a link between myonuclear accretion and activation of pro-hypertrophic pathways. Furthermore, fusion-incompetent muscle exhibited increased fibrosis after muscle overload, indicating a protective role for normal stem cell activity in reducing myofiber strain associated with hypertrophy. These findings reveal an essential contribution of myomaker-mediated stem cell fusion during physiological adult muscle hypertrophy.

  16. On the origin of pain in patients with stable essential hypertension and asymmetrical myocardial hypertrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shkhvatsabaya, I.K.; Yurenev, A.P.; Dubov, P.B.; Ostroumov, E.N.

    1987-01-01

    A study of 230 patients with essential hypertension, stage 2B, asymmetrical myocardial hypertrophy and chest pains has suggested that the pain syndrome, presenting as ''possible angina'', positive functional tests and reduced label accumulation around the ventricular septum may be indicative of coronary insufficiency

  17. Estrogen receptor beta is involved in skeletal muscle hypertrophy induced by the phytoecdysteroid ecdysterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Maria Kristina; Zhao, Piwen; Haupt, Oliver; Ngueu, Sandrine Tchoukouegno; Hengevoss, Jonas; Fritzemeier, Karl Heinrich; Piechotta, Marion; Schlörer, Nils; Muhn, Peter; Zheng, Wen-Ya; Xie, Ming-Yong; Diel, Patrick

    2014-09-01

    The phytoectysteroid ecdysterone (Ecdy) was reported to stimulate protein synthesis and enhance physical performance. The aim of this study was to investigate underlying molecular mechanisms particularly the role of ER beta (ERβ). In male rats, Ecdy treatment increased muscle fiber size, serum IGF-1 increased, and corticosteron and 17β-estradiol (E2) decreased. In differentiated C2C12 myoblastoma cells, treatment with Ecdy, dihydrotestosterone, IGF-1 but also E2 results in hypertrophy. Hypertrophy induced by E2 and Ecdy could be antagonized with an antiestrogen but not by an antiandrogen. In HEK293 cells transfected with ER alpha (ERα) or ERβ, Ecdy treatment transactivated a reporter gene. To elucidate the role of ERβ in Ecdy-mediated muscle hypertrophy, C2C12 myotubes were treated with ERα (ALPHA) and ERβ (BETA) selective ligands. Ecdy and BETA treatment but not ALPHA induced hypertrophy. The effect of Ecdy, E2, and BETA could be antagonized by an ERβ-selective antagonist (ANTIBETA). In summary, our results indicate that ERβ is involved in the mediation of the anabolic activity of the Ecdy. These findings provide new therapeutic perspectives for the treatment of muscle injuries, sarcopenia, and cachectic disease, but also imply that such a substance could be abused for doping purposes. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. [A swollen, painless calf caused by neurogenic muscle (pseudo)-hypertrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warrenburg, B.P.C. van de; Zwarts, M.J.; Engelen, B.G.M. van

    2003-01-01

    Neurogenic muscle (pseudo) hypertrophy of the calf was diagnosed in a 60-year-old man, who presented with chronic, painless and unilateral calf enlargement caused by a chronic S1 radiculopathy due to a lumbar disc hernia in the L5-S1 interspace. The differential diagnosis of a swelling of the calf

  19. 123I-MIBG myocardial imaging in hypertensive patients. Abnormality progresses with left ventricular hypertrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitani, Isao; Sumita, Shinichi; Takahashi, Nobukazu; Ochiai, Hisao; Ishii, Masao

    1996-01-01

    Twenty-seven patients with essential hypertension were prospectively studied with 123 I-labeled metaiodobenzyl-guanidine ( 123 I-MIBG) to assess the presence and location of impaired sympathetic innervation in hypertrophied myocardium. Thirteen patients had left ventricular hypertrophy on echocardiography, and 14 had normal echocardiograms. The wash-out ratio of 123 I-MIBG in these two groups did not differ significantly (35.3±6.1 and 35.4±5.1) but was higher than in control subjects (29.4±6.7). The delayed heart-to-mediastinum count ratio was lower in the patients with hypertrophy than in the patients without hypertrophy (1.93±0.28 and 2.22±0.21; p<0.05) and the control subjects (1.93±0.28 and 2.33±0.25; p<0.05). On SPECT imaging, abnormalities in segmental uptake were frequent at the posterior and postero-lateral wall in both groups, although the hypertrophic group had more significant impairment. Our results lead to the hypothesis that hypertension in more advanced stages may be associated not only with hypertrophic changes but also with more advanced regional impairment of cardiac sympathetic innervation. (author)

  20. Over-expression of angiotensin converting enzyme-1 augments cardiac hypertrophy in transgenic rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tian, Xiao-Li; Pinto, Yigal Martin; Costerousse, Olivier; Franz, Wolfgang M.; Lippoldt, Andrea; Hoffmann, Sigrid; Unger, Thomas; Paul, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Increased cardiac angiotensin converting enzyme-1 (ACE1) is found in individuals who carry a deletion in intron 16 of ACE1 gene or in individuals who suffer from cardiac disorders, such as hypertrophy. However, whether a single increase in ACE1 expression leads to spontaneous cardiac defects remains

  1. Masseter Muscle Hypertrophy and Pericardial Effusion in Kocher-Debre-Semelaigne Syndrome Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taksande AM

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Muscular pseudohypertrophy associated with severe congenital hypothyroidism has been described as Kocher Debre Semelaigne syndrome, which is a rare disorder. We report a case of 9year old female child with hypothyroidism, limb muscular pseudo-hypertrophy with involvement of masseter muscle along with pericardial effusion in Kocher-Debré-Semelaigne syndrome.

  2. Classification of Hypertrophy of Labia Minora: Consideration of a Multiple Component Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Pablo I

    2015-11-01

    Labia minora hypertrophy of unknown and under-reported incidence in the general population is considered a variant of normal anatomy. Its origin is multi-factorial including genetic, hormonal, and infectious factors, and voluntary elongation of the labiae minorae in some cultures. Consults with patients bothered by this condition have been increasing with patients complaining of poor aesthetics and symptoms such as difficulty with vaginal secretions, vulvovaginitis, chronic irritation, and superficial dyspareunia, all of which can have a negative effect on these patients' sexuality and self esteem. Surgical management of labial hypertrophy is an option for women with these physical complaints or aesthetic issues. Labia minora hypertrophy can consist of multiple components, including the clitoral hood, lateral prepuce, frenulum, and the body of the labia minora. To date, there is not a consensus in the literature with respect to the classification and definition of varying grades of hypertrophy, aside from measurement of the length in centimeters. In order to offer patients the most appropriate surgical technique, an objective and understandable classification that can be used as part of the preoperative evaluation is necessary. Such a classification should have the aim of offering patients the best cosmetic and functional results with the fewest complications.

  3. Importance of Thrombocytes for the Hypertrophy Response after Portal Vein Embolization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturesson, Christian; Hoekstra, Lisette; Andersson, Roland; van Gulik, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims: Thrombocytes have proved to be important for liver regeneration after liver resection in the experimental setting. The aim of our study is to examine the effects of thrombocytes on liver hypertrophy after portal vein embolization (PVE). Methodology: This retrospective cohort study

  4. Phosphorylation of pRb by cyclin D kinase is necessary for development of cardiac hypertrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinrichsen, Rebecca; Hansen, A.H.; Haunsø, S.

    2008-01-01

    /6-phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein (pRb) during hypertrophy and expression of an unphosphorylatable pRb mutant impaired hypertrophic growth in cardiomyocytes. Transcription factor E2F was activated by hypertrophic elicitors but activation was impaired by pharmacological inhibition of cyclin D-cdk4...

  5. Biomechanical implications of skeletal muscle hypertrophy and atrophy: a musculoskeletal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D. Vigotsky

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Muscle hypertrophy and atrophy occur frequently as a result of mechanical loading or unloading, with implications for clinical, general, and athletic populations. The effects of muscle hypertrophy and atrophy on force production and joint moments have been previously described. However, there is a paucity of research showing how hypertrophy and atrophy may affect moment arm (MA lengths. The purpose of this model was to describe the mathematical relationship between the anatomical cross-sectional area (ACSA of a muscle and its MA length. In the model, the ACSAs of the biceps brachii and brachialis were altered to hypertrophy up to twice their original size and to atrophy to one-half of their original size. The change in MA length was found to be proportional to the arcsine of the square root of the change in ACSA. This change in MA length may be a small but important contributor to strength, especially in sports that require large joint moments at slow joint angular velocities, such as powerlifting. The paradoxical implications of the increase in MA are discussed, as physiological factors influencing muscle contraction velocity appear to favor a smaller MA length for high velocity movements but a larger muscle MA length for low velocity, high force movements.

  6. Hypertrophy in port-wine stains: Prevalence and patient characteristics in a large patient cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Drooge, Anne Margreet; Beek, Johan F.; van der Veen, J. P. Wietze; van der Horst, Chantal M. A. M.; Wolkerstorfer, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Background: Port-wine stains (PWS) may thicken and darken with age. Little is known about the pathogenesis and epidemiology of PWS hypertrophy because of the lack of large studies. Objective: We sought to assess the prevalence and characteristics of patients with hypertrophic PWS. Methods: Medical

  7. Effect of taurine on advanced glycation end products-induced hypertrophy in renal tubular epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, J.-S.; Chuang, L.-Y.; Guh, J.-Y.; Yang, Y.-L.; Hsu, M.-S.

    2008-01-01

    Mounting evidence indicates that advanced glycation end products (AGE) play a major role in the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Taurine is a well documented antioxidant agent. To explore whether taurine was linked to altered AGE-mediated renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis in DN, we examined the molecular mechanisms of taurine responsible for inhibition of AGE-induced hypertrophy in renal tubular epithelial cells. We found that AGE (but not non-glycated BSA) caused inhibition of cellular mitogenesis rather than cell death by either necrosis or apoptosis. There were no changes in caspase 3 activity, bcl-2 protein expression, and mitochondrial cytochrome c release in BSA, AGE, or the antioxidant taurine treatments in these cells. AGE-induced the Raf-1/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation was markedly blocked by taurine. Furthermore, taurine, the Raf-1 kinase inhibitor GW5074, and the ERK kinase inhibitor PD98059 may have the ability to induce cellular proliferation and cell cycle progression from AGE-treated cells. The ability of taurine, GW5074, or PD98059 to inhibit AGE-induced hypertrophy was verified by the observation that it significantly decreased cell size, cellular hypertrophy index, and protein levels of RAGE, p27 Kip1 , collagen IV, and fibronectin. The results obtained in this study suggest that taurine may serve as the potential anti-fibrotic activity in DN through mechanism dependent of its Raf-1/ERK inactivation in AGE-induced hypertrophy in renal tubular epithelial cells

  8. TISSUE POLYPEPTIDE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN - A DISCRIMINATIVE PARAMETER BETWEEN PROSTATE-CANCER AND BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERTROPHY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MARRINK, J; OOSTEROM, R; BONFRER, HMG; SCHRODER, FH; MENSINK, HJA

    1993-01-01

    The serum concentration of the cell proliferation marker TPS (tissue polypeptide-specific antigen) was compared with the tumour marker PSA (prostate specific antigen). PSA was found elevated in 50% of the benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) patients, in 88% of the patients with active prostate cancer

  9. [Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome in children: beyond adenotonsillar hypertrophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteller, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome in the general childhood population is 1-2% and the most common cause is adenotonsillar hypertrophy. However, beyond adenotonsillar hypertrophy, there are other highly prevalent causes of this syndrome in children. The causes are often multifactorial and include muscular hypotonia, dentofacial abnormalities, soft tissue hypertrophy of the airway, and neurological disorders). Collaboration between different specialties involved in the care of these children is essential, given the wide variability of conditions and how frequently different factors are involved in their genesis, as well as the different treatments to be applied. We carried out a wide literature review of other causes of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome in children, beyond adenotonsillar hypertrophy. We organised the prevalence of this syndrome in each pathology and the reasons that cause it, as well as their interactions and management, in a consistent manner. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Patología Cérvico-Facial. All rights reserved.

  10. Pathophysiology of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure: signaling pathways and novel therapeutic targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tham, Yow Keat; Bernardo, Bianca C; Ooi, Jenny Y Y; Weeks, Kate L; McMullen, Julie R

    2015-09-01

    The onset of heart failure is typically preceded by cardiac hypertrophy, a response of the heart to increased workload, a cardiac insult such as a heart attack or genetic mutation. Cardiac hypertrophy is usually characterized by an increase in cardiomyocyte size and thickening of ventricular walls. Initially, such growth is an adaptive response to maintain cardiac function; however, in settings of sustained stress and as time progresses, these changes become maladaptive and the heart ultimately fails. In this review, we discuss the key features of pathological cardiac hypertrophy and the numerous mediators that have been found to be involved in the pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy affecting gene transcription, calcium handling, protein synthesis, metabolism, autophagy, oxidative stress and inflammation. We also discuss new mediators including signaling proteins, microRNAs, long noncoding RNAs and new findings related to the role of calcineurin and calcium-/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases. We also highlight mediators and processes which contribute to the transition from adaptive cardiac remodeling to maladaptive remodeling and heart failure. Treatment strategies for heart failure commonly include diuretics, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers and β-blockers; however, mortality rates remain high. Here, we discuss new therapeutic approaches (e.g., RNA-based therapies, dietary supplementation, small molecules) either entering clinical trials or in preclinical development. Finally, we address the challenges that remain in translating these discoveries to new and approved therapies for heart failure.

  11. TRANSURETHRAL RADIOFREQUENCY HEATING OR THERMOTHERAPY FOR BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERTROPHY - A PROSPECTIVE TRIAL ON 65 CONSECUTIVE CASES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MEIER, AHP; WEIL, EHJ; VANDOORN, ESCV; VERHAEGH, GTCM; JANKNEGT, RA

    1992-01-01

    65 consecutive cases with symptomatic benign prostate hypertrophy were treated with transurethral radiowave thermotherapy (TURF) using the Thermex-II at a temperature of 44.5-degrees-C. We report uroflowmetry and symptom scores after a follow-up of 6 months. The mean age was 63 years, the mean

  12. Electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy in GUSTO IV ACS: an important risk marker of mortality in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerhout, Cynthia M; Lauer, Michael S; Fu, Yuling

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To examine the association of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) on admission electrocardiography with adverse outcomes in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 7443 non-ST-elevation ACS patients in Global Utilization of STrategies to Open occluded arteries ...

  13. Akt1 deficiency diminishes skeletal muscle hypertrophy by reducing satellite cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Nobuki; Miyazaki, Mitsunori

    2018-02-14

    Skeletal muscle mass is determined by the net dynamic balance between protein synthesis and degradation. Although the Akt/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR)-dependent pathway plays an important role in promoting protein synthesis and subsequent skeletal muscle hypertrophy, the precise molecular regulation of mTOR activity by the upstream protein kinase Akt is largely unknown. In addition, the activation of satellite cells has been indicated as a key regulator of muscle mass. However, the requirement of satellite cells for load-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy is still under intense debate. In this study, female germline Akt1 knockout (KO) mice were used to examine whether Akt1 deficiency attenuates load-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy through suppressing mTOR-dependent signaling and satellite cell proliferation. Akt1 KO mice showed a blunted hypertrophic response of skeletal muscle, with a diminished rate of satellite cell proliferation following mechanical overload. In contrast, Akt1 deficiency did not affect the load-induced activation of mTOR signaling and the subsequent enhanced rate of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle. These observations suggest that the load-induced activation of mTOR signaling occurs independently of Akt1 regulation and that Akt1 plays a critical role in regulating satellite cell proliferation during load-induced muscle hypertrophy.

  14. Assessment of the LV-C2 Stack Sampling Probe Location for Compliance with ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glissmeyer, John A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Antonio, Ernest J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Flaherty, Julia E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This document reports on a series of tests conducted to assess the proposed air sampling location for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low-Activity Waste (LAW) C2V (LV-C2) exhaust stack with respect to the applicable criteria regarding the placement of an air sampling probe. Federal regulations require that a sampling probe be located in the exhaust stack according to the criteria established by the American National Standards Institute/Health Physics Society (ANSI/HPS) N13.1-1999, Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances from the Stack and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities. These criteria address the capability of the sampling probe to extract a sample that represents the effluent stream. The tests were conducted on the LV-C2 scale model system. Based on the scale model tests, the location proposed for the air sampling probe in the scale model stack meets the requirements of the ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999 standard for velocity uniformity, flow angle, gas tracer and particle tracer uniformity. Additional velocity uniformity and flow angle tests on the actual stack will be necessary during cold startup to confirm the validity of the scale model results in representing the actual stack.

  15. Effects of Benzalkonium Chloride, Proxel LV, P3 Hypochloran, Triton X-100 and DOWFAX 63N10 on anaerobic digestion processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores, German Antonio Enriquez; Fotidis, Ioannis; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the individual and synergistic toxicity of the following xenobiotics: Benzalkonium Chloride (BKC), Proxel LV (PRX), P3 Hypochloran (HPC), Triton X-100 (TRX), and DOWFAX 63N10 (DWF), on anaerobic digestion (AD) process, was assessed. The experiments were performed in batch and conti......In this study, the individual and synergistic toxicity of the following xenobiotics: Benzalkonium Chloride (BKC), Proxel LV (PRX), P3 Hypochloran (HPC), Triton X-100 (TRX), and DOWFAX 63N10 (DWF), on anaerobic digestion (AD) process, was assessed. The experiments were performed in batch...... and continuous (up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket, UASB) reactors with biochemical-industrial wastewater, as substrate. In batch experiments, half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) for the tested xenobiotics were found to be 13.1, 1003, 311.5 and 24.3 mg L1 for BKC, PRX, DWF and TRX, respectively while HPC...... observed from the batch reactors. Oppositely, TRX showed no inhibition in continuous mode, while inhibition was detected at batch mode....

  16. Coinfection of Leishmania chagasi with Toxoplasma gondii, Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) in cats from an endemic area of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrinho, Ludmila Silva Vicente; Rossi, Cláudio Nazaretian; Vides, Juliana Peloi; Braga, Eveline Tozzi; Gomes, Ana Amélia Domingues; de Lima, Valéria Marçal Félix; Perri, Sílvia Helena Venturoli; Generoso, Diego; Langoni, Hélio; Leutenegger, Christian; Biondo, Alexander Welker; Laurenti, Márcia Dalastra; Marcondes, Mary

    2012-06-08

    The aim of the present study was to determine the coinfection of Leishmania sp. with Toxoplasma gondii, Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) in a population of cats from an endemic area for zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis. An overall 66/302 (21.85%) cats were found positive for Leishmania sp., with infection determined by direct parasitological examination in 30/302 (9.93%), by serology in 46/302 (15.23%) and by both in 10/302 (3.31%) cats. Real time PCR followed by amplicon sequencing successfully confirmed Leishmania infantum (syn Leishmania chagasi) infection. Out of the Leishmania infected cats, coinfection with FIV was observed in 12/66 (18.18%), with T. gondii in 17/66 (25.75%) and with both agents in 5/66 (7.58%) cats. FeLV was found only in a single adult cat with no Leishmania infection. A positive association was observed in coinfection of Leishmania and FIV (p0.05). In conclusion, cats living in endemic areas of visceral leishmaniasis are significantly more likely to be coinfected with FIV, which may present confounding clinical signs and therefore cats in such areas should be always carefully screened for coinfections. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. GSK-3β/NFAT Signaling Is Involved in Testosterone-Induced Cardiac Myocyte Hypertrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Duran

    Full Text Available Testosterone induces cardiac hypertrophy through a mechanism that involves a concerted crosstalk between cytosolic and nuclear signaling pathways. Nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT is associated with the promotion of cardiac hypertrophy, glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β is considered to function as a negative regulator, mainly by modulating NFAT activity. However, the role played by calcineurin-NFAT and GSK-3β signaling in testosterone-induced cardiac hypertrophy has remained unknown. Here, we determined that testosterone stimulates cardiac myocyte hypertrophy through NFAT activation and GSK-3β inhibition. Testosterone increased the activity of NFAT-luciferase (NFAT-Luc in a time- and dose-dependent manner, with the activity peaking after 24 h of stimulation with 100 nM testosterone. NFAT-Luc activity induced by testosterone was blocked by the calcineurin inhibitors FK506 and cyclosporine A and by 11R-VIVIT, a specific peptide inhibitor of NFAT. Conversely, testosterone inhibited GSK-3β activity as determined by increased GSK-3β phosphorylation at Ser9 and β-catenin protein accumulation, and also by reduction in β-catenin phosphorylation at residues Ser33, Ser37, and Thr41. GSK-3β inhibition with 1-azakenpaullone or a GSK-3β-targeting siRNA increased NFAT-Luc activity, whereas overexpression of a constitutively active GSK-3β mutant (GSK-3βS9A inhibited NFAT-Luc activation mediated by testosterone. Testosterone-induced cardiac myocyte hypertrophy was established by increased cardiac myocyte size and [3H]-leucine incorporation (as a measurement of cellular protein synthesis. Calcineurin-NFAT inhibition abolished and GSK-3β inhibition promoted the hypertrophy stimulated by testosterone. GSK-3β activation by GSK-3βS9A blocked the increase of hypertrophic markers induced by testosterone. Moreover, inhibition of intracellular androgen receptor prevented testosterone-induced NFAT-Luc activation. Collectively, these results

  18. Cyclin D2 is a critical mediator of exercise-induced cardiac hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckey, Stephen W; Haines, Chris D; Konhilas, John P; Luczak, Elizabeth D; Messmer-Kratzsch, Antke; Leinwand, Leslie A

    2017-12-01

    A number of signaling pathways underlying pathological cardiac hypertrophy have been identified. However, few studies have probed the functional significance of these signaling pathways in the context of exercise or physiological pathways. Exercise studies were performed on females from six different genetic mouse models that have been shown to exhibit alterations in pathological cardiac adaptation and hypertrophy. These include mice expressing constitutively active glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3βS9A), an inhibitor of CaMK II (AC3-I), both GSK-3βS9A and AC3-I (GSK-3βS9A/AC3-I), constitutively active Akt (myrAkt), mice deficient in MAPK/ERK kinase kinase-1 (MEKK1 -/- ), and mice deficient in cyclin D2 (cyclin D2 -/- ). Voluntary wheel running performance was similar to NTG littermates for five of the mouse lines. Exercise induced significant cardiac growth in all mouse models except the cyclin D2 -/- mice. Cardiac function was not impacted in the cyclin D2 -/- mice and studies using a phospho-antibody array identified six proteins with increased phosphorylation (greater than 150%) and nine proteins with decreased phosphorylation (greater than 33% decrease) in the hearts of exercised cyclin D2 -/- mice compared to exercised NTG littermate controls. Our results demonstrate that unlike the other hypertrophic signaling molecules tested here, cyclin D2 is an important regulator of both pathologic and physiological hypertrophy. Impact statement This research is relevant as the hypertrophic signaling pathways tested here have only been characterized for their role in pathological hypertrophy, and not in the context of exercise or physiological hypertrophy. By using the same transgenic mouse lines utilized in previous studies, our findings provide a novel and important understanding for the role of these signaling pathways in physiological hypertrophy. We found that alterations in the signaling pathways tested here had no impact on exercise performance. Exercise

  19. Preliminary results of pre-operative 5-FU, low dose leucovorin (LV), and concurrent radiation therapy (RT) for resectable T3 rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grann, Alison; Minsky, Bruce D.; Cohen, Alfred M.; Saltz, Leonard; Kelsen, David P.; Kemeny, Nancy; Ilson, David; Guillem, Jose G.; Paty, Philip B.; Bass, Joanne

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: We report the downstaging, acute toxicity, and preliminary local control and survival of pre-op 5-FU, low dose LV, and concurrent RT followed by post-op LV/5-FU for pts with clinically resectable, T3 rectal cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 32 pts (M:26, F:6) were prospectively treated from 12/91-8/95. Eligibility criteria included adequate hematologic indicies, primary adenocarcinoma limited to the pelvis, and T3 disease confirmed by transrectal ultrasound. Twenty five pts were considered clinically to require an APR on initial (pre-treatment) assessment by their operating surgeon. The median age was 56 (range: 24-80), and the median distance from the anal verge was 5.0cm (range: 3-9cm). Pts received 2 monthly cycles (bolus daily X 5) of LV (20mg/m2) and 5-FU (325mg/m2), beginning concurrently with day 1 of RT, followed by surgery 4-5 weeks later. RT included 4680 cGy to the pelvis followed by a boost to 5040 cGy. Post-operatively, pts received a median of 2 monthly cycles (range: 0-10 cycles) of LV (20 mg/m2) and 5-FU (425mg/m2). A toxicity assessment was performed at each visit using the NCI toxicity criteria modified for gastrointestinal toxicity. The median follow-up was 12 months (range: 3-48 months). All 32 patients were included in the analysis of toxicity, sphincter preservation, and downstaging. Analysis of patterns of failure and survival was limited to the 15 pts who had a minimum follow-up of 1yr or developed failure prior to 1 yr. For this subset the median follow-up was 24 months (range: 3-48 months). RESULTS: During the pre-op segment, individual grade 3+ acute toxicities were; diarrhea: 16%, bowel movements: 16%, leukopenia: 12%. The incidence of total toxicity was 25% ((8(32))). The median nadir counts were; WBC: 2.9 (range: 1.7-5.6), HGB: 12.4 (range: 7.1-15.0), and PLT (X1000): 161 (range: 113-237). The pathologic complete response rate was 9% ((3(32))). An additional 13% ((4(32))) had negative lymph nodes and 1-2 microscopic

  20. Effect of Thymol on Serum Antioxidant Capacity of Rats Following Myocardial Hypertrophy

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    Mohabbat Jamhiri

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of hypertension- induced cardiac hypertrophy. Plants are a rich source of antioxidant compounds. Thymol is a natural monoterpen phenol which is plentiful in some plants and shows many biological effects. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of thymol on activity of antioxidant enzyme catalase, malondialdehyde (MDA level and the activity of the inhibition of free radical DPPH (2,2-Diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl, following left ventricular hypertrophy in rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, rats were divided into hypertrophied group without any treatment (H group and rats pretreated with 25 and 50 mg/kg/day of thymol (Thy25+H and Thy50+H groups, respectively. Intact animals were served as control (Ctl. Animal model of left ventricular hypertrophy was induced by abdominal aortic banding. Serum catalase (CAT activity, malondialdehyde (MDA level and the activity of inhibition of free radicals DPPH were determined by the biochemical methods. Results: In Thy25+H and Thy50+H groups, the CAT activity was increased significantly in serum (p<0.01, vs. Ctl. Also, serum level of MDA was decreased significantly compared to the group H in Thy25+H and Thy50+H groups (p<0.05 and p<0.001, respectively. The effect of inhibiting DPPH free radicals was increased significantly in Thy25+H and Thy50+H groups compared to the group H (p<0.001 and p<0.05, respectively. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that thymol as an antioxidant causes cardioprotective effects and as well as prevents left ventricular hypertrophy via augmentation of serum antioxidant capacity.

  1. Zinc-finger protein 418 overexpression protects against cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis.

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    Liming Pan

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigated the effect and mechanism of zinc-finger protein 418 (ZNF418 on cardiac hypertrophy caused by aortic banding (AB, phenylephrine (PE or angiotensin II (Ang II in vivo and in vitro.The expression of ZNF418 in hearts of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM and AB-induced cardiac hypertrophy mice, as well as in Ang II- or PE-induced hypertrophic primary cardiomyocytes was detected by western blotting. Then, the expression of ZNF418 was up-regulated or down-regulated in AB-induced cardiac hypertrophy mice and Ang II -induced hypertrophic primary cardiomyocytes. The hypertrophic responses and fibrosis were evaluated by echocardiography and histological analysis. The mRNA levels of hypertrophy markers and fibrotic markers were detected by RT-qPCR. Furthermore, the phosphorylation and total levels of c-Jun were measured by western blotting.ZNF418 was markedly down-regulated in hearts of cardiac hypertrophy and hypertrophic primary cardiomyocytes. Down-regulated ZNF418 exacerbated the myocyte size and fibrosis, moreover increased the mRNA levels of ANP, BNP, β-MHC, MCIP1.4, collagen 1a, collagen III, MMP-2 and fibronection in hearts of AB-treated ZNF418 knockout mice or Ang II-treated cardiomyocytes with AdshZNF418. Conversely, these hypertrophic responses were reduced in the ZNF418 transgenic (TG mice treated by AB and the AdZNF418-transfected primary cardiomyocytes treated by Ang II. Additionally, the deficiency of ZNF418 enhanced the phosphorylation level of c-jun, and overexpression of ZNF418 suppressed the phosphorylation level of c-jun in vivo and in vitro.ZNF418 maybe attenuate hypertrophic responses by inhibiting the activity of c-jun/AP-1.

  2. Extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 as regulators of cardiac hypertrophy

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    Michael eMutlak

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac hypertrophy results from increased mechanical load on the heart and through the actions of local and systemic neuro-humoral factors, cytokines and growth factors. These mechanical and neuroendocrine effectors act through stretch, G protein-coupled receptors and tyrosine kinases to induce the activation of a myriad of intracellular signaling pathways including the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2. Since most stimuli that provoke myocardial hypertrophy also elicit an acute phosphorylation of the threonine-glutamate-tyrosine (TEY motif within the activation loops of ERK1 and ERK2 kinases, resulting in their activation, ERKs have long been considered promotors of cardiac hypertrophy. Several mouse models were generated in order to directly understand the causal role of ERK1/2 activation in the heart. These models include direct manipulation of ERK1/2 such as overexpression, mutagenesis or knockout models, manipulations of upstream kinases such as MEK1 and manipulations of the phosphatases that depohosphorylate ERK1/2 such as DUSP6. The emerging understanding from these studies, as will be discussed here, is more complex than originally considered. While there is little doubt that ERK1/2 activation or the lack of it modulates the hypertrophic process or the type of hypertrophy that develops, it appears that not all ERK1/2 activation events are the same. While much has been learned, some questions remain regarding the exact role of ERK1/2 in the heart, the upstream events that result in ERK1/2 activation and the downstream effector in hypertrophy.

  3. Early dystrophin loss is coincident with the transition of compensated cardiac hypertrophy to heart failure.

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    Fernanda P Prado

    Full Text Available Hypertension causes cardiac hypertrophy, one of the most important risk factors for heart failure (HF. Despite the importance of cardiac hypertrophy as a risk factor for the development of HF, not all hypertrophied hearts will ultimately fail. Alterations of cytoskeletal and sarcolemma-associated proteins are considered markers cardiac remodeling during HF. Dystrophin provides mechanical stability to the plasma membrane through its interactions with the actin cytoskeleton and, indirectly, to extracellular matrix proteins. This study was undertaken to evaluate dystrophin and calpain-1 in the transition from compensated cardiac hypertrophy to HF. Wistar rats were subjected to abdominal aorta constriction and killed at 30, 60 and 90 days post surgery (dps. Cardiac function and blood pressure were evaluated. The hearts were collected and Western blotting and immunofluorescence performed for dystrophin, calpain-1, alpha-fodrin and calpastatin. Statistical analyses were performed and considered significant when p<0.05. After 90 dps, 70% of the animals showed hypertrophic hearts (HH and 30% hypertrophic+dilated hearts (HD. Systolic and diastolic functions were preserved at 30 and 60 dps, however, decreased in the HD group. Blood pressure, cardiomyocyte diameter and collagen content were increased at all time points. Dystrophin expression was lightly increased at 30 and 60 dps and HH group. HD group showed decreased expression of dystrophin and calpastatin and increased expression of calpain-1 and alpha-fodrin fragments. The first signals of dystrophin reduction were observed as early as 60 dps. In conclusion, some hearts present a distinct molecular pattern at an early stage of the disease; this pattern could provide an opportunity to identify these failure-prone hearts during the development of the cardiac disease. We showed that decreased expression of dystrophin and increased expression of calpains are coincident and could work as possible

  4. Amlodipine decreases fibrosis and cardiac hypertrophy in spontaneously hypertensive rats: persistent effects after withdrawal.

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    Sevilla, María A; Voces, Felipe; Carrón, Rosalía; Guerrero, Estela I; Ardanaz, Noelia; San Román, Luis; Arévalo, Miguel A; Montero, María J

    2004-07-02

    Our objective was to examine the effect of chronic treatment with amlodipine on blood pressure, left ventricular hypertrophy, and fibrosis in spontaneously hypertensive rats and the persistence of such an effect after drug withdrawal. We investigated the effects of treatment with 2, 8 and 20 mg/kg/day of amlodipine given orally for six months and at three months after drug withdrawal. Systolic blood pressure was measured using the tail-cuff method. At the end of the study period, the heart was excised, the left ventricle was isolated, and the left ventricle weight/body weight ratio was calculated as a left ventricular hypertrophy index. Fibrosis, expressed as collagen volume fraction, was evaluated using an automated image-analysis system on sections stained with Sirius red. Age-matched untreated Wistar-Kyoto and SHR were used as normotensive and hypertensive controls, respectively. Systolic blood pressure was reduced in the treated SHR in a dose-dependent way and after amlodipine withdrawal it increased progressively, without reaching the values of the hypertensive controls. Cardiac hypertrophy was reduced by 8 and 20 mg/kg/day amlodipine, but when treatment was withdrawn only the group treated with 8 mg/kg/day maintained significant differences versus the hypertensive controls. All three doses of amlodipine reduced cardiac fibrosis and this regression persisted with the two highest doses after three months without treatment. We concluded that antihypertensive treatment with amlodipine is accompanied by a reduction in left ventricular hypertrophy and regression in collagen deposition. Treatment was more effective in preventing fibrosis than in preventing ventricular hypertrophy after drug withdrawal. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Inc.

  5. Ameliorative role of gemfibrozil against partial abdominal aortic constriction-induced cardiac hypertrophy in rats.

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    Singh, Amrit Pal; Singh, Randhir; Krishan, Pawan

    2015-04-01

    Fibrates are peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α agonists and are clinically used for treatment of dyslipidemia and hypertriglyceridemia. Fenofibrate is reported as a cardioprotective agent in various models of cardiac dysfunction; however, limited literature is available regarding the role of gemfibrozil as a possible cardioprotective agent, especially in a non-obese model of cardiac remodelling. The present study investigated the role of gemfibrozil against partial abdominal aortic constriction-induced cardiac hypertrophy in rats. Cardiac hypertrophy was induced by partial abdominal aortic constriction in rats and they survived for 4 weeks. The cardiac hypertrophy was assessed by measuring left ventricular weight to body weight ratio, left ventricular wall thickness, and protein and collagen content. The oxidative stress in the cardiac tissues was assessed by measuring thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, superoxide anion generation, and reduced glutathione level. The haematoxylin-eosin and picrosirius red staining was used to observe cardiomyocyte diameter and collagen deposition, respectively. Moreover, serum levels of cholesterol, high-density lipoproteins, triglycerides, and glucose were also measured. Gemfibrozil (30 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered since the first day of partial abdominal aortic constriction and continued for 4 weeks. The partial abdominal aortic constriction-induced cardiac oxidative stress and hypertrophy are indicated by significant change in various parameters used in the present study that were ameliorated with gemfibrozil treatment in rats. No significant change in serum parameters was observed between various groups used in the present study. It is concluded that gemfibrozil ameliorates partial abdominal aortic constriction-induced cardiac oxidative stress and hypertrophy and in rats.

  6. Myocardial hypertrophy and intracardial hemodynamics in children with bicuspid aortic valve

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    А. V. Kamenshchyk

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Bicuspid aortic valve is one of the most common congenital heart diseases with low manifestation in childhood and severe consequences in adults that determines the importance in early diagnostics of myocardial changes in this anomaly. According to the literature the polymorphisms in the genes of NFATC family could result both in impaired embriogenetic valves formation and development of postnatal myocardial hypertrophy. The aim of the study was to detect the early changes of intracardial hemodynamics at aortic valve in children with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV and establish their interrelations to the signs of myocardial hypertrophy in these children. Materials and methods: Dopplerograhphic study of basic intracardiac hemodynamics parameters in 38 children with BAV and in 28 children of control group was conducted. The results were processed statistically by Student’s t-test, correlation analysis and multiple regression. Results: In the result of study the moderate concentric left ventricle myocardial hypertrophy development was detected in 62 % of children with BAV which is accompanying to significant increasing of blood flow velocity and pressure gradient at aortic valve. There were not established significant correlations between the parameters of hemodynamics at valve and left ventricle’s posterior wall depth and septum depth whereas the highest inputs of these values were obtained in the left ventricle systolic dimension and volume and less in the hypertrophic signs. Conclusions: In children with BAV the moderate concentric myocardial hypertrophy with significant changes of intracardial hemodynamics at aortic valve takes place with the highest inputs in left ventricle volumetric values The obtained data serves as a substantiation for the treatment and prevention of it further development. bicuspid aortic valve; children; heart hypertrophy; dopplerechocardiography; hemodynamics; regression analysis

  7. Clinical value of regression of electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy after aortic valve replacement.

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    Yamabe, Sayuri; Dohi, Yoshihiro; Higashi, Akifumi; Kinoshita, Hiroki; Sada, Yoshiharu; Hidaka, Takayuki; Kurisu, Satoshi; Shiode, Nobuo; Kihara, Yasuki

    2016-09-01

    Electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy (ECG-LVH) gradually regressed after aortic valve replacement (AVR) in patients with severe aortic stenosis. Sokolow-Lyon voltage (SV1 + RV5/6) is possibly the most widely used criterion for ECG-LVH. The aim of this study was to determine whether decrease in Sokolow-Lyon voltage reflects left ventricular reverse remodeling detected by echocardiography after AVR. Of 129 consecutive patients who underwent AVR for severe aortic stenosis, 38 patients with preoperative ECG-LVH, defined by SV1 + RV5/6 of ≥3.5 mV, were enrolled in this study. Electrocardiography and echocardiography were performed preoperatively and 1 year postoperatively. The patients were divided into ECG-LVH regression group (n = 19) and non-regression group (n = 19) according to the median value of the absolute regression in SV1 + RV5/6. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess determinants of ECG-LVH regression among echocardiographic indices. ECG-LVH regression group showed significantly greater decrease in left ventricular mass index and left ventricular dimensions than Non-regression group. ECG-LVH regression was independently determined by decrease in the left ventricular mass index [odds ratio (OR) 1.28, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.69, p = 0.048], left ventricular end-diastolic dimension (OR 1.18, 95 % CI 1.03-1.41, p = 0.014), and left ventricular end-systolic dimension (OR 1.24, 95 % CI 1.06-1.52, p = 0.0047). ECG-LVH regression could be a marker of the effect of AVR on both reducing the left ventricular mass index and left ventricular dimensions. The effect of AVR on reverse remodeling can be estimated, at least in part, by regression of ECG-LVH.

  8. Determinants and improvement of electrocardiographic diagnosis of left ventricular hypertrophy in a black African population.

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    Ahmadou M Jingi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH is a major cardiovascular risk factor. The electrocardiogram (ECG has been shown to be a poor tool in detecting LVH due to cardiac and extracardiac factors. We studied the determinants and possibility of improving the test performance of the ECG in a group of Black Africans. METHODS: We studied echocardiograms and electrocardiograms of 182 Cameroonian patients among whom 113 (62.1% were having an echocardiographic LVH. Echocardiographic LVH was defined as Left Ventricular Mass Indexed to height 2.7(LVMI>48 g/m2.7 in men, and >44 g/m 2.7 in women or Body Surface Area ≥116 g/m2 in men, and ≥96 g/m2 in women. Test performances were calculated for 6 classic ECG criteria Sokolow-Lyon, Cornell, Cornell product, Gubner-Ungerleiger, amplitudes of R in aVL, V5 and V6. RESULTS: The most sensitive criteria were Cornell (37.2% and Sokolow-Lyon index (26.5%. The most specific criteria were Gubner (98.6%, RaVL (97.1%, RV5/V6 (95.7% and Cornell product (94.2%. The performance of the ECG in diagnosing LVH significantly increased with the severity of LVH for Cornell index (r = 0.420, p<0.0001 and Sokolow index (r = 0.212, p = 0.002. It decreased with body habitus (r = -0.248, p = 0.001 for Sokolow-Lyon index. Cornell index was less affected (age p = 0.766; body habitus: p = 0.209. After sex-specific adjustment for BMI, Cornell BMI sensitivity increased from 37.2% to 69% (r = 0.472, p<0.0001, and Sokolow-Lyon BMI sensitivity increased from 26.5% to 58.4% (r = 0.270, p<0.001. CONCLUSION: The test performance of the ECG in diagnosing LVH is low in this Black African population, due to extracardiac factors such as age, sex, body habitus, and cardiac factors such as LVH severity and geometry. However, this performance is improved after adjustment for extracardiac factors.

  9. Cardiac ankyrin repeat protein attenuates cardiac hypertrophy by inhibition of ERK1/2 and TGF-β signaling pathways.

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    Yao Song

    Full Text Available AIMS: It has been reported that cardiac ankyrin repeat protein is associated with heart development and diseases. This study is aimed to investigate the role of CARP in heart hypertrophy in vivo. METHODS AND RESULTS: We generated a cardiac-specific CARP-overexpressing transgenic mouse. Although such animals did not display any overt physiological abnormality, they developed less cardiac hypertrophy in response to pressure overload than did wildtype mice, as indicated by heart weight/body weight ratios, echocardiographic and histological analyses, and expression of hypertrophic markers. These mice also exhibited less cardiac hypertrophy after infusion of isoproterenol. To gain a molecular insight into how CARP attenuated heart hypertrophy, we examined expression of the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade and found that the concentrations of phosphorylated ERK1/2 and MEK were markedly reduced in the hearts of transgenic mice subjected to pressure overload. In addition, the expressions of TGF-β and phosphorylated Smad3 were significantly downregulated in the hearts of CARP Tg mice in response to pressure overload. Furthermore, addition of human TGF-β1 could reverse the inhibitory effect of CARP on the hypertrophic response induced by phenylephrine in cardiomyocytes. It was also evidenced that the inhibitory effect of CARP on cardiac hypertrophy was not attributed to apoptosis. CONCLUSION: CARP attenuates cardiac hypertrophy, in which the ERK and TGF-β pathways may be involved. Our findings highlight the significance of CARP as an anti-hypertrophic factor in therapy of cardiac hypertrophy.

  10. Inhibition of Chondrocyte Hypertrophy of Osteoarthritis by Disruptor Peptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    with PTHR and inhibits the pathogenic beta-catenin- mediated PTHR signaling switch. In Aim 2, we will define the role of disruptor peptide in...confirmed that disruptor peptide conjugated to penetratin can enter cells. Importantly, disruptor peptide can reverse the beta-catenin- mediated PTH... mediated PTHR signaling switch in chondrocytes. Mouse primary chondrocytes express both β-catenin and PTHR. Our data showed that Pen-dis- pep

  11. Improved bioavailability of targeted Curcumin delivery efficiently regressed cardiac hypertrophy by modulating apoptotic load within cardiac microenvironment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, Aramita; Rana, Santanu; Banerjee, Durba; Mitra, Arkadeep; Datta, Ritwik; Naskar, Shaon; Sarkar, Sagartirtha

    2016-01-01

    Cardiomyocyte apoptosis acts as a prime modulator of cardiac hypertrophy leading to heart failure, a major cause of human mortality worldwide. Recent therapeutic interventions have focussed on translational applications of diverse pharmaceutical regimes among which, Curcumin (from Curcuma longa) is known to have an anti-hypertrophic potential but with limited pharmacological efficacies due to low aqueous solubility and poor bioavailability. In this study, Curcumin encapsulated by carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC) nanoparticle conjugated to a myocyte specific homing peptide was successfully delivered in bioactive form to pathological myocardium for effective regression of cardiac hypertrophy in a rat (Rattus norvegicus) model. Targeted nanotization showed higher cardiac bioavailability of Curcumin at a low dose of 5 mg/kg body weight compared to free Curcumin at 35 mg/kg body weight. Moreover, Curcumin/CMC-peptide treatment during hypertrophy significantly improved cardiac function by downregulating expression of hypertrophy marker genes (ANF, β-MHC), apoptotic mediators (Bax, Cytochrome-c) and activity of apoptotic markers (Caspase 3 and PARP); whereas free Curcumin in much higher dose showed minimal improvement during compromised cardiac function. Targeted Curcumin treatment significantly lowered p53 expression and activation in diseased myocardium via inhibited interaction of p53 with p300-HAT. Thus attenuated acetylation of p53 facilitated p53 ubiquitination and reduced the apoptotic load in hypertrophied cardiomyocytes; thereby limiting cardiomyocytes' need to enter the regeneration cycle during hypertrophy. This study elucidates for the first time an efficient targeted delivery regimen for Curcumin and also attributes towards probable mechanistic insight into its therapeutic potential as a cardio-protective agent for regression of cardiac hypertrophy. - Highlights: • Cardiomyocyte targeted Curcumin/CMC-peptide increases bioavailability of the drug.

  12. Do stress fractures induce hypertrophy of the grafted fibula? A report of three cases received free vascularized fibular graft treatment for tibial defects.

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    Qi, Yong; Sun, Hong-Tao; Fan, Yue-Guang; Li, Fei-Meng; Lin, Zhou-Sheng

    2016-06-01

    The presence of large segmental defects of the diaphyseal bone is challenging for orthopedic surgeons. Free vascularized fibular grafting (FVFG) is considered to be a reliable reconstructive procedure. Stress fractures are a common complication following this surgery, and hypertrophy is the main physiological change of the grafted fibula. The exact mechanism of hypertrophy is not completely known. To the best of our knowledge, no studies have examined the possible relationship between stress fractures and hypertrophy. We herein report three cases of patients underwent FVFG. Two of them developed stress fractures and significant hypertrophy, while the remaining patient developed neither stress fractures nor significant hypertrophy. This phenomenon indicates that a relationship may exist between stress fractures and hypertrophy of the grafted fibula, specifically, that the presence of a stress fracture may initiate the process of hypertrophy.

  13. Defining asthma in genetic studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppelman, GH; Postma, DS; Meijer, G.

    1999-01-01

    Genetic studies have been hampered by the lack of a gold standard to diagnose asthma. The complex nature of asthma makes it more difficult to identify asthma genes. Therefore, approaches to define phenotypes, which have been successful in other genetically complex diseases, may be applied to define

  14. MRI and Neuropsychological Correlates in African Americans with Hypertension and left vEntricular Hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron-Perrine, B; Kisser, J E; Brody, A; Haacke, E M; Dawood, R; Millis, S; Levy, P

    2018-04-17

    African Americans (AA) are at high risk for hypertension (HTN) and poor blood pressure (BP) control. Persistently elevated BP contributes to cardiovascular morbidity. White matter hyperintensities (WMH) are a definable magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) marker of cerebrovascular injury linked to impairments in higher level thinking (i.e., executive functions), memory formation and speed of perceptual-motor processing. This sub-investigation evaluated neuropsychological functioning in association with WMH on brain MRIs in 23 otherwise healthy hypertensive AAs participating in an NIH-funded study of the effects of Vitamin D on BP and cardiac remodeling in AA patients 30-74 years of age with HTN and left ventricular hypertrophy. Neuropsychological assessment included psychomotor processing speed [(Symbol Digit Modality Test (SDMT) and Trail Making Test], executive functioning (Controlled Oral Word Association Test and Trail Making Test Part B), memory (Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test), and fine motor functioning (Finger Tapping). Significant correlations (p< .05) were found between volume of periventricular lesions and Trails A (r = .51) and dominant hand finger tapping speed (r = -.69) and between subcortical lesion volume and Trails A (r = .60), both dominant (r = -.62) and non-dominant hand finger tapping speed (r = -.76) and oral SDMT (r = -.60); higher lesion volumes correlated to worse neuropsychological performance. Psychomotor tests including the Trail Making Test and finger tapping speed are sensitive indicators of subclinical deficits in mental processing speed and could serve as early markers of deep subcortical cerebrovascular injury in otherwise-healthy individuals with uncontrolled chronic HTN.

  15. Adipocyte dysfunction in a mouse model of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS: evidence of adipocyte hypertrophy and tissue-specific inflammation.

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    Joseph S Marino

    Full Text Available Clinical research shows an association between polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS and chronic inflammation, a pathological state thought to contribute to insulin resistance. The underlying pathways, however, have not been defined. The purpose of this study was to characterize the inflammatory state of a novel mouse model of PCOS. Female mice lacking leptin and insulin receptors in pro-opiomelanocortin neurons (IR/LepR(POMC mice and littermate controls were evaluated for estrous cyclicity, ovarian and adipose tissue morphology, and body composition by QMR and CT scan. Tissue-specific macrophage infiltration and cytokine mRNA expression were measured, as well as circulating cytokine levels. Finally, glucose regulation during pregnancy was evaluated as a measure of risk for diabetes development. Forty-five percent of IR/LepR(POMC mice showed reduced or absent ovulation. IR/LepR(POMC mice also had increased fat mass and adipocyte hypertrophy. These traits accompanied elevations in macrophage accumulation and inflammatory cytokine production in perigonadal adipose tissue, liver, and ovary. These mice also exhibited gestational hyperglycemia as predicted. This report is the first to show the presence of inflammation in IR/LepR(POMC mice, which develop a PCOS-like phenotype. Thus, IR/LepR(POMC mice may serve as a new mouse model to clarify the involvement of adipose and liver tissue in the pathogenesis and etiology of PCOS, allowing more targeted research on the development of PCOS and potential therapeutic interventions.

  16. The Association of Long-Functioning Hemodialysis Vascular Access with Prevalence of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Kidney Transplant Recipients

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    Aureliusz Kolonko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH is frequently observed in chronic dialysis patients and is also highly prevalent in kidney transplant recipients. This study evaluates the impact of long-functioning hemodialysis vascular access on LVH in single center cohort of kidney transplant recipients. 162 patients at 8.7 ± 1.8 years after kidney transplantation were enrolled. Echocardiography, carotid ultrasound, and assessment of pulse wave velocity were performed. LVH was defined based on left ventricular mass (LVM indexed for body surface area (BSA and height2.7. There were 67 patients with and 95 without patent vascular access. Both study groups were comparable with respect to gender, age, duration of dialysis therapy, and time after transplantation, kidney graft function, and cardiovascular comorbidities. Patients with patent vascular access were characterized by significantly elevated LVM and significantly greater percentage of LVH, based on LVMI/BSA (66.7 versus 48.4%, P=0.02. OR for LVH in patients with patent vascular access was 2.39 (1.19–4.76, P=0.01. Regression analyses confirmed an independent contribution of patent vascular access to higher LVM and increased prevalence of LVH. We concluded that long-lasting patent hemodialysis vascular access after kidney transplantation is associated with the increased prevalence of LVH in kidney transplant recipients.

  17. Paleoceanographic Changes Since the Last Glacial as Revealed by Analysis of Alkenone Organic Biomarkers from the Northwest Pacific (Core LV 63-41-2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, P. S.; Liao, C. J.; Chen, M. T.; Zou, J. J.; Shi, X.; Bosin, A. A.; Gorbarenko, S. A.

    2017-12-01

    Sea surface temperature (SST) records from the subarctic Northwestern (NW) Pacific are ideal for reconstructing regional paleoceanographic changes sensitive to global climate change. Core LV 63-41-2 (52.56°N, 160.00° E; water depth 1924 m) retrieved from a high sedimentation site, in which the interactions of the Bering Sea and the warm water mass from the NW Pacific are highly dynamic. Here we reported high-resolution last glacial alkenone-based records from Core LV 63-41-2. Prior to 27-16 ka BP high glacial C37:4 alkenone concentrations indicate large amount of fresh water influencing the surface water of the NW Pacific with a reaching to the Site LV 63-41-2. We further inferred that during the last glacial the low salinity water may be formed from the ice-melting water on site and/or brought by the surface current from the Bering Sea, and are efficient in producing strong water stratification condition. The stratification weakens vertical mixing of the upper water column, that in turn decreases the nutrients upwelled from deep to the surface therefore causes low productivity of coccolithophorids. During the early Bølling-Allerød (B/A) period, a gradual increasing alkenone-SST and associated with high C37:4 alkenone concentrations, implying that a weakened stratification and much stronger nutrient upwelling of the early B/A period than that of the glacial. The late B/A period is characterized by an abrupt warming with possibly more melting sea ices in the Bering Sea and the coast near the Kamchatka Peninsula. The large amount of fresh water lens formed during the ice melting might have ceased vertical mixing and upwelling in the upper water column as evidenced by a decline of biological productivity of both calcerous and soliceous organism during late B/A. We suggest an early warming and low productivity in the NW Pacific that is coincident with a rapid cooling in most of the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes during the Younger Dryas.

  18. Discriminating between adaptive and carcinogenic liver hypertrophy in rat studies using logistic ridge regression analysis of toxicogenomic data: The mode of action and predictive models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shujie; Kawamoto, Taisuke; Morita, Osamu; Yoshinari, Kouichi; Honda, Hiroshi

    2017-03-01

    Chemical exposure often results in liver hypertrophy in animal tests, characterized by increased liver weight, hepatocellular hypertrophy, and/or cell proliferation. While most of these changes are considered adaptive responses, there is concern that they may be associated with carcinogenesis. In this study, we have employed a toxicogenomic approach using a logistic ridge regression model to identify genes responsible for liver hypertrophy and hypertrophic hepatocarcinogenesis and to develop a predictive model for assessing hypertrophy-inducing compounds. Logistic regression models have previously been used in the quantification of epidemiological risk factors. DNA microarray data from the Toxicogenomics Project-Genomics Assisted Toxicity Evaluation System were used to identify hypertrophy-related genes that are expressed differently in hypertrophy induced by carcinogens and non-carcinogens. Data were collected for 134 chemicals (72 non-hypertrophy-inducing chemicals, 27 hypertrophy-inducing non-carcinogenic chemicals, and 15 hypertrophy-inducing carcinogenic compounds). After applying logistic ridge regression analysis, 35 genes for liver hypertrophy (e.g., Acot1 and Abcc3) and 13 genes for hypertrophic hepatocarcinogenesis (e.g., Asns and Gpx2) were selected. The predictive models built using these genes were 94.8% and 82.7% accurate, respectively. Pathway analysis of the genes indicates that, aside from a xenobiotic metabolism-related pathway as an adaptive response for liver hypertrophy, amino acid biosynthesis and oxidative responses appear to be involved in hypertrophic hepatocarcinogenesis. Early detection and toxicogenomic characterization of liver hypertrophy using our models may be useful for predicting carcinogenesis. In addition, the identified genes provide novel insight into discrimination between adverse hypertrophy associated with carcinogenesis and adaptive hypertrophy in risk assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Toxoplasma gondii, Dirofilaria immitis, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infections in stray and pet cats (Felis catus) in northwest China: co-infections and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Wei; Meng, Qing-Feng; Blaga, Radu; Villena, Isabelle; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Qian, Ai-Dong

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, Dirofilaria immitis, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infections among stray and pet cats in Lanzhou, northwest China, and to identify the influence of age, gender, and regions on seropositivity. T. gondii antibodies were examined in cat sera by the modified agglutination test (MAT). The circulating antigens of D. immitis and FeLV and specific antibodies to FIV were examined using kits commercially available. The overall prevalence of T. gondii, FIV, FeLV, and D. immitis was 19.34, 9.12, 11.33, and 3.04 %, respectively. For the genetic characterization of T. gondii genotypes in cats, genomic DNA was extracted from the seropositive cats and the T. gondii B1 gene was amplified using a semi-nested PCR. DNA samples giving positive B1 amplification were then genotyped using multilocus PCR-RFLP. Two T. gondii genotypes (ToxoDB#9 and ToxoDB#1) were identified. Results of the multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that older cats are more likely to be seropositive than juveniles for T. gondii, FIV, FeLV, and D. immitis. This is the first report of T. gondii genotypes in cats in northwest China. Moreover, the present study is the first study of retrovirus and D. immitis seroprevalence in cats in China. The results revealed that T. gondii, FIV, and FeLV infections are common in stray and pet cats in northwest China.

  20. Evaluation of ECG criteria for left ventricular hypertrophy before and after aortic valve replacement using magnetic resonance Imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beyerbacht, Hugo P.; Bax, Jeroen J.; Lamb, Hildo J.; van der Laarse, Arnoud; Vliegen, Hubert W.; de Roos, Albert; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; van der Wall, Ernst E.

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE: Evaluation of different electrocardiographic criteria for left ventricular hypertrophy (ECG-LVH criteria) using left ventricular mass index (LVMI) determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In addition, the relation between LVMI regression after aortic valve replacement and

  1. Clinical impact of ' in-treatment' wall motion abnormalities in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy: the LIFE study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cicala, S.; Simone, G. de; Wachtell, K.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives Left ventricular systolic wall motion abnormalities have prognostic value. Whether wall motion detected by serial echocardiographic examinations predicts prognosis in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy ( LVH) without clinically recognized atherosclerotic disease ha...

  2. Differential diagnosis of left ventricular hypertrophy: usefulness of multimodality imaging and tissue characterization with cardiac magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izgi, Cemil; Vassiliou, Vassilis; Baksi, A John; Prasad, Sanjay K

    2016-11-01

    Differential diagnosis of asymmetrical left ventricular hypertrophy may be challenging, particularly in patients with history of hypertension. A middle-aged man underwent an echocardiographic examination during workup for hypertension, which unexpectedly showed significant asymmetrical septal hypertrophy and raised suspicion for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance confirmed the asymmetrical hypertrophy. No myocardial late gadolinium contrast enhancement was seen. However, precontrast T1 mapping revealed a low native myocardial T1 value. This was highly suggestive of Anderson-Fabry disease, which was subsequently proved with very low alpha galactosidase enzyme levels and mutation analysis. The case illustrates clinical usefulness of multimodality imaging and the novel tissue characterization techniques for assessment of left ventricular hypertrophy. © 2016, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Role of Oxidative Stress in Thyroid Hormone-Induced Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy and Associated Cardiac Dysfunction: An Undisclosed Story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad T. Elnakish

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac hypertrophy is the most documented cardiomyopathy following hyperthyroidism in experimental animals. Thyroid hormone-induced cardiac hypertrophy is described as a relative ventricular hypertrophy that encompasses the whole heart and is linked with contractile abnormalities in both right and left ventricles. The increase in oxidative stress that takes place in experimental hyperthyroidism proposes that reactive oxygen species are key players in the cardiomyopathy frequently reported in this endocrine disorder. The goal of this review is to shed light on the effects of thyroid hormones on the development of oxidative stress in the heart along with the subsequent cellular and molecular changes. In particular, we will review the role of thyroid hormone-induced oxidative stress in the development of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and associated cardiac dysfunction, as well as the potential effectiveness of antioxidant treatments in attenuating these hyperthyroidism-induced abnormalities in experimental animal models.

  4. Theoretical approaches to elections defining

    OpenAIRE

    Natalya V. Lebedeva

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical approaches to elections defining develop the nature, essence and content of elections, help to determine their place and a role as one of the major national law institutions in democratic system.

  5. Theoretical approaches to elections defining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya V. Lebedeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical approaches to elections defining develop the nature, essence and content of elections, help to determine their place and a role as one of the major national law institutions in democratic system.

  6. Defining Modules, Modularity and Modularization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Thomas Dedenroth; Pedersen, Per Erik Elgård

    The paper describes the evolution of the concept of modularity in a historical perspective. The main reasons for modularity are: create variety, utilize similarities, and reduce complexity. The paper defines the terms: Module, modularity, and modularization.......The paper describes the evolution of the concept of modularity in a historical perspective. The main reasons for modularity are: create variety, utilize similarities, and reduce complexity. The paper defines the terms: Module, modularity, and modularization....

  7. Psoriasis is associated with subsequent atrial fibrillation in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Casper N; Okin, Peter M; Køber, Lars

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Inflammation contributes to the pathogenesis of psoriasis as well as atrial fibrillation. The impact of psoriasis and its association with new-onset atrial fibrillation was assessed in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). METHODS: The predictive value...... or developed psoriasis and new-onset atrial fibrillation occurred in 506 patients (7.1%) during a mean follow-up of 4.7 ± 1.1 years. At baseline, the psoriasis patients were younger (65 ± 7 vs. 67 ± 7 years) and had less left ventricle hypertrophy by ECG Sokolow-Lyon voltage (27.6 ± 9.7 vs. 30.1 ± 10.4 mm...... of baseline or incident psoriasis for new-onset atrial fibrillation was evaluated in 7099 hypertensive patients with electrocardiographic LVH with no history of atrial fibrillation or other cardiovascular disease, in sinus rhythm on their baseline electrocardiogram. RESULTS: A total of 154 patients (2.2%) had...

  8. [Acute pulmonary edema in adult caused by tonsillar hypertrophy following removal of laryngeal mask airway].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizuka, Toru; Shimoyama, Naohito; Notoya, Atsuko

    2010-12-01

    Negative pressure pulmonary edema (NPPE) has been described after acute airway obstruction. In the following case, we observed a rare occurrence of pulmonary edema caused by chronic tonsillar hypertrophy in a woman following removal of laryngeal mask airway (LMA). A 38-year-old woman with breast cancer underwent mastectomy under general anesthesia using the LMA. With the patient fully awake, the LMA was removed. Abruptly 7 minutes afterward, she showed signs of intense dyspnea, generalized rhonchus and progressive desaturation, and obstructive tonsillar hypertrophy was noticed. Acute lung edema was suspected and treatment started with oxygen therapy, bronchodilators, intravenous corticoids and loop diuretics. She was then intubated to secure airway and provide adequate ventilation with PEEP. Fortunately, the symptoms progressively remitted satisfactorily, and she was subsequently extubated 18 hours later with no complications. NPPE is an infrequent medical emergency and its early diagnosis and recognition are likely to lead to successful management of this potentially serious complication.

  9. The callipyge mutation and other genes that affect muscle hypertrophy in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cockett Noelle E

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Genetic strategies to improve the profitability of sheep operations have generally focused on traits for reproduction. However, natural mutations exist in sheep that affect muscle growth and development, and the exploitation of these mutations in breeding strategies has the potential to significantly improve lamb-meat quality. The best-documented mutation for muscle development in sheep is callipyge (CLPG, which causes a postnatal muscle hypertrophy that is localized to the pelvic limbs and loin. Enhanced skeletal muscle growth is also observed in animals with the Carwell (or rib-eye muscling mutation, and a double-muscling phenotype has been documented for animals of the Texel sheep breed. However, the actual mutations responsible for these muscular hypertrophy phenotypes in sheep have yet to be identified, and further characterization of the genetic basis for these phenotypes will provide insight into the biological control of muscle growth and body composition.

  10. Temporalis muscle hypertrophy and reduced skull eccentricity in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straathof, C S M; Doorenweerd, N; Wokke, B H A; Dumas, E M; van den Bergen, J C; van Buchem, M A; Hendriksen, J G M; Verschuuren, J J G M; Kan, H E

    2014-10-01

    Muscle hypertrophy and muscle weakness are well known in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Decreased muscle force can have secondary effects on skeletal growth and development such as facial and dental morphology changes. In this study, we quantified temporal muscle thickness, circumference, and eccentricity of the skull and the head on T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of the head of 15 Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients and 15 controls. Average temporal muscle thickness was significantly increased in patients (12.9 ± 5.2 mm) compared to controls (6.8 ± 1.4 mm) (P muscle thickness and skull eccentricity were significantly negatively correlated in patients, and positively in controls. Hypertrophy of the temporal muscles and changes in skull eccentricity appear to occur early in the course of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Further studies in younger patients are needed to confirm a causal relationship. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Histologically Measured Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy Correlates with Body Height as Strongly as with Body Mass Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard E. Tracy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac myocytes are presumed to enlarge with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH. This study correlates histologically measured myocytes with lean and fat body mass. Cases of LVH without coronary heart disease and normal controls came from forensic autopsies. The cross-sectional widths of myocytes in H&E-stained paraffin sections followed log normal distributions almost to perfection in all 104 specimens, with constant coefficient of variation across the full range of ventricular weight, as expected if myocytes of all sizes contribute proportionately to hypertrophy. Myocyte sizes increased with height. By regression analysis, height2.7 as a proxy for lean body mass and body mass index (BMI as a proxy for fat body mass, exerted equal effects in the multiple correlation with myocyte volume, and the equation rejected race and sex. In summary, myocyte sizes, as indexes of LVH, suggest that lean and fat body mass may contribute equally.

  12. The Functional Role of Calcineurin in Hypertrophy, Regeneration, and Disorders of Skeletal Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunihiro Sakuma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle uses calcium as a second messenger to respond and adapt to environmental stimuli. Elevations in intracellular calcium levels activate calcineurin, a serine/threonine phosphatase, resulting in the expression of a set of genes involved in the maintenance, growth, and remodeling of skeletal muscle. In this review, we discuss the effects of calcineurin activity on hypertrophy, regeneration, and disorders of skeletal muscle. Calcineurin is a potent regulator of muscle remodeling, enhancing the differentiation through upregulation of myogenin or MEF2A and downregulation of the Id1 family and myostatin. Foxo may also be a downstream candidate for a calcineurin signaling molecule during muscle regeneration. The strategy of controlling the amount of calcineurin may be effective for the treatment of muscular disorders such as DMD, UCMD, and LGMD. Activation of calcineurin produces muscular hypertrophy of the slow-twitch soleus muscle but not fast-twitch muscles.

  13. Deep intronic mutation and pseudo exon activation as a novel muscular hypertrophy modifier in cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Bouyer

    Full Text Available Myostatin is essential for proper regulation of myogenesis, and inactivation of Myostatin results in muscle hypertrophy. Here, we identified an unexpected mutation in the myostatin gene which is almost fixed in Blonde d'Aquitaine cattle. In skeletal muscle, the mutant allele was highly expressed leading to an abnormal transcript consisting of a 41-bp inclusion and premature termination codons and to residual levels of a correctly spliced transcript. This expression pattern, caused by a leaky intronic mutation with regard to spliceosome activity and its apparent stability with regard to surveillance mechanisms, could contribute to the moderate muscle hypertrophy in this cattle breed. This finding is of importance for genetic counseling for meat quantity and quality in livestock production and possibly to manipulate myostatin pre-mRNA in human muscle diseases.

  14. Factors Influencing the Increase in Na-K-ATPase in Compensatory Renal Hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Franklin H.; Charney, Alan N.; Silva, Patricio

    1978-01-01

    An increase in Na-K-ATPase in kidney homogenates usually accompanies compensatory renal hypertrophy. While it may be evident in both the cortex and medulla of the kidney, it is most marked in the outer medulla and may be present only in that region. The increase in enzyme activity does not depend on an intact adrenal cortex and can be elicited in the absence of adrenal glucocorticoids. It is not seen in the form of renal hypertrophy produced by potassium depletion, in which the transport of sodium and potassium by the kidney is not increased. When present in compensatory renal growth, the enzyme change is correlated with an increase in the reabsorption of sodium, or the excretion of potassium, or both, per unit of renal tissue. It proceeds in the presence of either, but not in the absence of both. PMID:216164

  15. PANCREATIC HYPERTROPHY IN RATS CAUSED BY CHICKPEA (Cicer arietinum L. PROTEIN INTAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. L. TAVANO

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The objectives of this work were demonstrate the occurrence of pancreatic hypertrophy in rats, caused by chickpea protein intake, and the possible relation to the presence of trypsin inhibitors in the protein samples. The principal protein fractions of chickpea were isolated, the effect of heating was also tested (121°C/15 min. The heated chickpea diets did not cause significant pancreatic hypertrophy in rats, in relation to the casein control group. Only unheated chickpea flour and albumin diets caused pancreatic weight increases correlating to the presence of trypsin inhibitors in these samples. Apart from the trypsin inhibitor activity the other chickpea protein components appear not to exert any alteration in pancreatic weight.

  16. Thyroid hormone-induced hypertrophy in mesenchymal stem cell chondrogenesis is mediated by bone morphogenetic protein-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Alexandra; Olbrich, Norman; Pfeifer, Christian; Berner, Arne; Zellner, Johannes; Kujat, Richard; Angele, Peter; Nerlich, Michael; Mueller, Michael B

    2014-01-01

    Chondrogenic differentiating mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) express markers of hypertrophic growth plate chondrocytes. As hypertrophic cartilage undergoes ossification, this is a concern for the application of MSCs in articular cartilage tissue engineering. To identify mechanisms that elicit this phenomenon, we used an in vitro hypertrophy model of chondrifying MSCs for differential gene expression analysis and functional experiments with the focus on bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling. Hypertrophy was induced in chondrogenic MSC pellet cultures by transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) and dexamethasone withdrawal and addition of triiodothyronine. Differential gene expression analysis of BMPs and their receptors was performed. Based on these results, the in vitro hypertrophy model was used to investigate the effect of recombinant BMP4 and the BMP inhibitor Noggin. The enhancement of hypertrophy could be shown clearly by an increased cell size, alkaline phosphatase activity, and collagen type X deposition. Upon induction of hypertrophy, BMP4 and the BMP receptor 1B were upregulated. Addition of BMP4 further enhanced hypertrophy in the absence, but not in the presence of TGFβ and dexamethasone. Thyroid hormone induced hypertrophy by upregulation of BMP4 and this induced enhancement of hypertrophy could be blocked by the BMP antagonist Noggin. BMP signaling is an important modulator of the late differentiation stages in MSC chondrogenesis and the thyroid hormone induces this pathway. As cartilage tissue engineering constructs will be exposed to this factor in vivo, this study provides important insight into the biology of MSC-based cartilage. Furthermore, the possibility to engineer hypertrophic cartilage may be helpful for critical bone defect repair.

  17. Effect of parathyroid hormone-related protein in an in vitro hypertrophy model for mesenchymal stem cell chondrogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Michael B; Fischer, Maria; Zellner, Johannes; Berner, Arne; Dienstknecht, Thomas; Kujat, Richard; Prantl, Lukas; Nerlich, Michael; Tuan, Rocky S; Angele, Peter

    2013-05-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) express markers of hypertrophic chondrocytes during chondrogenic differentiation. We tested the suitability of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), a regulator of chondrocyte hypertrophy in embryonic cartilage development, for the suppression of hypertrophy in an in vitro hypertrophy model of chondrifying MSCs. Chondrogenesis was induced in human MSCs in pellet culture for two weeks and for an additional two weeks cultures were either maintained in standard chondrogenic medium or transferred to a hypertrophy-enhancing medium. PTHrP(1-40) was added to the medium throughout the culture period at concentrations from 1 to 1,000 pM. Pellets were harvested on days one, 14 and 28 for biochemical and histological analysis. Hypertrophic medium clearly enhanced the hypertrophic phenotype, with increased cell size, and strong alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and type X collagen staining. In chondrogenic medium, 1-100 pM PTHrP(1-40) did not inhibit chondrogenic differentiation, whereas 1,000 pM PTHrP(1-40) significantly reduced chondrogenesis. ALP activity was dose-dependently reduced by PTHrP(1-40) at 10-1,000 pM in chondrogenic conditions. Under hypertrophy-enhancing conditions, PTHrP(1-40) did not inhibit the induction of the hypertrophy. At the highest concentration (1,000 pM) in the hypertrophic group, aggregates were partially dedifferentiated and differentiated areas of these aggregates maintained their hypertrophic appearance. PTHrP(1-40) treatment dose-dependently reduced ALP expression in MSC pellets cultured under standard chondrogenic conditions and is thus beneficial for the maintenance of the chondrogenic phenotype in this medium condition. When cultured under hypertrophy-enhancing conditions, PTHrP(1-40) could not diminish the induced enhancement of hypertrophy in the MSC pellets.

  18. Novel Sulfur Metabolites of Garlic Attenuate Cardiac Hypertrophy and Remodeling through Induction of Na+/K+-ATPase Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatua, Tarak N; Borkar, Roshan M; Mohammed, Soheb A; Dinda, Amit K; Srinivas, R; Banerjee, Sanjay K

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies show an inverse correlation between garlic consumption and progression of cardiovascular disease. However, the molecular basis for the beneficial effect of garlic on the heart is not known. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to (1) investigate the effect of raw garlic on isoproterenol (Iso) induced cardiac hypertrophy (2) find the active metabolites of garlic responsible for the beneficial effect. Cardiac hypertrophy was induced in rats by subcutaneous single injection of Iso 5 mg kg -1 day -1 for 15 days and the effect of garlic (250 mg/kg/day orally) was evaluated. Garlic metabolites in in vivo were identified by LC/MS study. The effect of garlic and its metabolites were evaluated against hypertrophy in H9C2 cells. Garlic normalized cardiac oxidative stress after Iso administration. Cardiac pathology and mitochondrial enzyme activities were improved in hypertrophy heart after garlic administration. Decreased Na + /K + -ATPase protein level that observed in hypertrophy heart was increased after garlic administration. We identified three garlic metabolites in rat serum. To confirm the role of garlic metabolites on cardiac hypertrophy, Na + /K + -ATPase expression and intracellular calcium levels were measured after treating H9C2 cells with raw garlic and two of its active metabolites, allyl methyl sulfide and allyl methyl sulfoxide. Raw garlic and both metabolites increased Na + /K + -ATPase protein level and decreased intracellular calcium levels and cell size in Iso treated H9C2 cells. This antihypertrophic effect of garlic and its sulfur metabolites were lost in H9C2 cells in presence of Na + /K + -ATPase inhibitor. In conclusion, garlic and its active metabolites increased Na + /K + -ATPase in rat heart, and attenuated cardiac hypertrophy and associated remodeling. Our data suggest that identified new garlic metabolites may be useful for therapeutic intervention against cardiac hypertrophy.

  19. Angiokeratoma circumscriptum naeviforme with soft tissue hypertrophy and deep venous malformation: A variant of Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome?

    OpenAIRE

    Wankhade, Vaishali; Singh, Rajesh; Sadhwani, Venus; Kodate, Purnima; Disawal, Amit

    2014-01-01

    Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome (KTS) is a cutaneous capillary malformation on a limb in association with soft tissue swelling with or without bony hypertrophy and atypical varicosity. The capillary malformation associated with KTS is port wine stain. Angiokeratoma circumscriptum naeviforme (ACN) is a congenital variant of angiokeratoma commonly present on the lower limb as a hyperkeratotic plaque. ACN is rarely associated with KTS. We report a case of ACN with soft tissue hypertrophy and deep ven...

  20. Associated factors and impact of myocarditis in patients with SLE from LUMINA, a multiethnic US cohort (LV). [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apte, M; McGwin, G; Vilá, L M; Kaslow, R A; Alarcón, G S; Reveille, J D

    2008-03-01

    To examine the factors associated with myocarditis and its impact on disease outcomes in SLE patients. SLE patients aged > or = 16 yrs, disease duration NAture vs nurture), a multiethnic US cohort, were studied. Myocarditis was defined as per the category 3 of the pericarditis/myocarditis item of the SLAM-Revised (SLAM-R). Patients with concurrent pericardial involvement were excluded. Patients with myocarditis were compared with those without myocarditis or its sequelae in the preceding year. The association between myocarditis and baseline variables (T(0)) was first examined. The impact of myocarditis on disease activity over time (SLAM-R), damage accrual [SLICC Damage Index (SDI)] at last visit (T(L)) and mortality was evaluated. Fifty-three of the 496 patients studied had myocarditis. African American ethnicity [Odds ratio (OR) = 12.6; 95% CI 1.6, 97.8] and SLAM-R at diagnosis (OR = 1.1, 95% CI 1.0, 1.1) were significantly and independently associated with myocarditis. Myocarditis did not predict disease activity over time, but approached significance as a predictor of SDI at T(L) in multivariable analyses P = 0.051. Kaplan-Meier curves indicated that myocarditis was associated with shorter survival (log-rank = 4.87, P = 0.02), particularly in patients with > or = 5 yrs disease; however, myocarditis was not retained in the Cox proportional hazards regression model. Ethnicity and disease activity at diagnosis were associated with the occurrence of myocarditis in SLE. Myocarditis did not significantly impact on disease activity over time, but impacts some on damage accrual and survival, reflecting overall the more severe disease those patients experience.

  1. Development of tools to manage the operational monitoring and pre-design of the NPP-LV cycle; Desarrollo de herramientas para administrar el seguimiento operativo y el pre-diseno del ciclo de la CLV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perusquia, R.; Arredondo S, C.; Hernandez M, J. L.; Montes T, J. L.; Castillo M, A.; Ortiz S, J. J., E-mail: raul.perusquia@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    This paper presents the development of tools to facilitate the management so much, the operational monitoring of boiling water reactors (BWR) of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde (NPP-LV) through independent codes, and how to carry out the static calculations corresponding to process of optimized pre-design of the reference cycle next to current cycle. The progress and preliminary results obtained with the program SACal, developed at Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ), central tool to achieve provide a management platform of the operational monitoring and pre-design of NPP-LV cycle are also described. The reached preliminary advances directed to get an Analysis center and automated design of fuel assembly cells are also presented, which together with centers or similar modules related with the fuel reloads form the key part to meet the targets set for the realization of a Management Platform of Nuclear Fuel of the NPP-LV. (Author)

  2. The effect of protein timing on muscle strength and hypertrophy: a meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Schoenfeld, Brad Jon; Aragon, Alan Albert; Krieger, James W

    2013-01-01

    Protein timing is a popular dietary strategy designed to optimize the adaptive response to exercise. The strategy involves consuming protein in and around a training session in an effort to facilitate muscular repair and remodeling, and thereby enhance post-exercise strength- and hypertrophy-related adaptations. Despite the apparent biological plausibility of the strategy, however, the effectiveness of protein timing in chronic training studies has been decidedly mixed. The purpose of this pa...

  3. Muscular and Systemic Correlates of Resistance Training-Induced Muscle Hypertrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Cameron J.; Churchward-Venne, Tyler A.; Bellamy, Leeann; Parise, Gianni; Baker, Steven K.; Phillips, Stuart M.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine relationships between post-exercise changes in systemic [testosterone, growth hormone (GH), insulin like grow factor 1 (IGF-1) and interleukin 6 (IL-6)], or intramuscular [skeletal muscle androgen receptor (AR) protein content and p70S6K phosphorylation status] factors in a moderately-sized cohort of young men exhibiting divergent resistance training-mediated muscle hypertrophy. METHODS: Twenty three adult males completed 4 sessions•wk⁻¹ of resistance training for 16 wk....

  4. Resistance Training Using Different Hypoxic Training Strategies: a Basis for Hypertrophy and Muscle Power Development

    OpenAIRE

    Feriche, Bel?n; Garc?a-Ramos, Amador; Morales-Artacho, Antonio J.; Padial, Paulino

    2017-01-01

    The possible muscular strength, hypertrophy, and muscle power benefits of resistance training under environmental conditions of hypoxia are currently being investigated. Nowadays, resistance training in hypoxia constitutes a promising new training strategy for strength and muscle gains. The main mechanisms responsible for these effects seem to be related to increased metabolite accumulation due to hypoxia. However, no data are reported in the literature to describe and compare the efficacy of...

  5. Low morning serum cortisol levels in children with tonsillar hypertrophy and moderate-to-severe OSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakasioti, Georgia; Alexopoulos, Emmanouel I; Varlami, Vasiliki; Chaidas, Konstantinos; Liakos, Nikolaos; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos; Kaditis, Athanasios G

    2013-09-01

    Hypertrophic tonsillar tissue in children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has enhanced expression of glucocorticoid receptors, which may reflect low endogenous cortisol levels. We have evaluated the effect of the interaction between tonsillar hypertrophy and OSA severity on morning serum cortisol levels. Children with and without snoring underwent polysomnography, tonsillar size grading, and measurement of morning serum cortisol. Seventy children (2-13 years old) were recruited: 30 with moderate-to-severe OSA (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] > 5 episodes/h), 26 with mild OSA (AHI > 1 and ≤ 5), and 14 controls (no snoring; AHI ≤ 1). Tonsillar hypertrophy was present in 56.7%, 53.8%, and 42.9% of participants in each group, respectively. Application of a general linear model demonstrated a significant effect of the interaction between severity of OSA and tonsillar hypertrophy on cortisol levels (P = 0.04), after adjustment for obesity, gender, and age. Among children with tonsillar hypertrophy, subjects with moderate-to-severe OSA (n = 17; AHI 14.7 ± 10.6), mild OSA (n = 14; AHI 2.3 ± 1.2), and control participants (n = 6; AHI 0.7 ± 0.2) were significantly different regarding cortisol levels (P = 0.02). Subjects with moderate-to-severe OSA had lower cortisol (16.9 ± 8.7 mcg/dL) than those with mild OSA (23.3 ± 4.2; P = 0.01) and those without OSA (controls) (23.6 ± 5.3 mcg/dL; P = 0.04). In contrast, children with normal-size tonsils and moderate-to-severe OSA, mild OSA, and controls did not differ in cortisol levels. Children with moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea and the phenotype of hypertrophic tonsils have reduced morning serum cortisol levels and potentially decreased glucocorticoid inhibitory effects on tonsillar growth.

  6. Bilateral hypertrophy of masseteric and temporalis muscles, our fifteen patients and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, P; Dell'Aversana Orabona, G; Astarita, F; Ponzo, L M; Nunziata, R; Salzano, G; Maglitto, F; Solari, D; Santella, A; Cappabianca, M; Iaconetta, G; Califano, L

    2016-01-01

    The association of bilateral hypertrophy of temporalis and masseteric muscles is a rare clinical entity. The origin of the condition is unclear, causing cosmetic problems, pain, and functional impairment. In this paper we analyzed 15 patients treated at the Department of Maxillo-Facial Surgery of the University of Naples Federico II, from 2000 to 2013, for temporalis and/or masseteric muscle hypertrophy, and in particular, a rare case of a patient with a marked bilateral swelling of the temporalis and masseteric region, in conjunction with a review of the literature. Fourteen patients have not any kind of postoperatively problems. The last patient had been aware of the swelling for many years and complained of recurrent headaches. We adopted a new protocol fort this patients and the patient was very pleased with the treatment results, and reported a reduction in headaches and a continuation of his well-being, in addition to greater self-confidence. The last follow-up was performed three years after the first treatment, and the patient showed a complete resolution of his symptoms, and just a small increase of the swelling. The treatment of temporalis and masseteric hypertrophy with Botulin toxin could be an effective option compared to conservative treatment or surgical intervention, although the review of the literature shows that this is only a temporary treatment. In fact, surgery still remains the best option. The treatment must be repeated every 4/6 months for 2-3 consecutive years before having stable benefits. To overcome this problem, an association with a bite treatment allowed us to achieve more lasting and more stable results over time without a recurrence of symptoms between the treatments. Furthermore, this association has enabled us to obtain a more rapid reduction of the hypertrophy.

  7. Muscle hypertrophy: a narrative review on training principles for increasing muscle mass

    OpenAIRE

    Howe, Louis; Read, Paul; Waldron, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Developing muscle cross-sectional area has the potential to enhance performance for many athletes. Because emerging evidence challenges traditional beliefs regarding the prescription of hypertrophy-focused training programs, this review provides an overview of the current literature relating, specifically, to programming variables. Evidence-based recommendations are provided for the design of effective resistance-training programs, with the goal of increasing an athlete's skeletal muscle mass.

  8. Correlation between Ribosome Biogenesis and the Magnitude of Hypertrophy in Overloaded Skeletal Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakada, Satoshi; Ogasawara, Riki; Kawada, Shigeo; Maekawa, Takahiro; Ishii, Naokata

    2016-01-01

    External loads applied to skeletal muscle cause increases in the protein translation rate, which leads to muscle hypertrophy. Although some studies have demonstrated that increases in the capacity and efficiency of translation are involved in this process, it remains unclear how these two factors are related to the magnitude of muscle hypertrophy. The present study aimed to clarify the roles played by the capacity and efficiency of translation in muscle hypertrophy. We used an improved synergist ablation in which the magnitude of compensatory hypertrophy could be controlled by partial removal of synergist muscles. Male rats were assigned to four groups in which the plantaris muscle was unilaterally subjected to weak (WK), moderate (MO), middle (MI), and strong (ST) overloading by four types of synergist ablation. Fourteen days after surgery, the weight of the plantaris muscle per body weight increased by 8%, 22%, 32% and 45%, in the WK, MO, MI and ST groups, respectively. Five days after surgery, 18+28S rRNA content (an indicator of translational capacity) increased with increasing overload, with increases of 1.8-fold (MO), 2.2-fold (MI), and 2.5-fold (ST), respectively, relative to non-overloaded muscle (NL) in the WK group. rRNA content showed a strong correlation with relative muscle weight measured 14 days after surgery (r = 0.98). The phosphorylated form of p70S6K (a positive regulator of translational efficiency) showed a marked increase in the MO group, but no further increase was observed with further increase in overload (increases of 22.6-fold (MO), 17.4-fold (MI), and 18.2-fold (ST), respectively, relative to NL in the WK group). These results indicate that increases in ribosome biogenesis at the early phase of overloading are strongly dependent on the amount of overloading, and may play an important role in increasing the translational capacity for further gain of muscular size.

  9. Asymmetric septal hypertrophy of sporadic form with abnormal thallium perfusion and myocardial enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Seiki; Minamikawa, Tetsuhiro; Park, Yung-Dae; Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Yutani, Chikao; Ohmori, Fumio; Sakakibara, Hiroshi; Nimura, Yasuharu

    1986-01-01

    Asymmetric septal hypertrophy with abnormal thallium scintigram and elevated cardiac enzymes were observed in five patients and were studied with special reference to the clinical significance of their clinicopathological features. They were not familial cardiomyopathy patients. Two of the five patients (Cases 1 and 2) exhibited the clinical features characteristic of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy without abnormal thallium perfusion and serum cardiac enzyme levels. A right endomyocardial biopsy for Case 1 disclosed myocardial fibrosis in addition to hypertrophy and disarray of myocardial fibers. The left ventricular cavities of two other patients (Cases 4 and 5) tended to be dilated with signs of impaired systolic function and asymmetric septal hypertrophy. A regional area of reduced thickness was observed in the medial portion of the left ventricular posterior wall of Case 4. The remaining case (Case 3) exhibited left ventricular dilatation and reduced left ventricular systolic function, disproportionate hypertrophy, and had clinical signs of congestive heart failure. Necropsy disclosed massive fibrosis and diffuse disarray of myocardial fibers. Some patients with familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy progress to exhibit clinical features of dilated cardiomyopathy in the termimal stages, and have massive fibrosis of the myocardium histologically. Thallium scintigraphic abnormalities and elevated serum levels of cardiac enzymes, especially the LDH 1 isoenzyme, in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy may be a meaningful indicator of such progression in its early stages. The five patients in the present study exhibited a variety of clinical and histological features which may comprise a spectrum of clinical conditions during the progression from hypertrophic cardiomyopathy to a condition like dilated cardiomyopathy, similar to that in familial patients. This progression and the factors promoting it should be studied further in the near future. (author)

  10. Role of heterotrimeric G protein and calcium in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by IGF-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Loreto; Cea, Paola; Rocco, Paola; Peña-Oyarzún, Daniel; Rivera-Mejias, Pablo; Sotomayor-Flores, Cristian; Quiroga, Clara; Criollo, Alfredo; Ibarra, Cristian; Chiong, Mario; Lavandero, Sergio

    2014-04-01

    In the heart, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is a peptide with pro-hypertrophic and anti-apoptotic actions. The pro-hypertrophic properties of IGF-1 have been attributed to the extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. Recently, we reported that IGF-1 also increases intracellular Ca(2+) levels through a pertussis toxin (PTX)-sensitive G protein. Here we investigate whether this Ca(2+) signal is involved in IGF-1-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Our results show that the IGF-1-induced increase in Ca(2+) level is abolished by the IGF-1 receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor AG538, PTX and the peptide inhibitor of Gβγ signaling, βARKct. Increases in the activities of Ca(2+) -dependent enzymes calcineurin, calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII), and protein kinase Cα (PKCα) were observed at 5 min after IGF-1 exposure. AG538, PTX, βARKct, and the dominant negative PKCα prevented the IGF-1-dependent phosphorylation of ERK1/2. Participation of calcineurin and CaMKII in ERK phosphorylation was discounted. IGF-1-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, determined by cell size and β-myosin heavy chain (β-MHC), was prevented by AG538, PTX, βARKct, dominant negative PKCα, and the MEK1/2 inhibitor PD98059. Inhibition of calcineurin with CAIN did not abolish IGF-1-induced cardiac hypertrophy. We conclude that IGF-1 induces hypertrophy in cultured cardiomyocytes by activation of the receptor tyrosine kinase activity/βγ-subunits of a PTX-sensitive G protein/Ca(2+) /PKCα/ERK pathway without the participation of calcineurin. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Lysyl oxidase overexpression accelerates cardiac remodeling and aggravates angiotensin II-induced hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán, María; Varona, Saray; Guadall, Anna; Orriols, Mar; Navas, Miquel; Aguiló, Silvia; de Diego, Alicia; Navarro, María A; García-Dorado, David; Rodríguez-Sinovas, Antonio; Martínez-González, José; Rodriguez, Cristina

    2017-09-01

    Lysyl oxidase (LOX) controls matrix remodeling, a key process that underlies cardiovascular diseases and heart failure; however, a lack of suitable animal models has limited our knowledge with regard to the contribution of LOX to cardiac dysfunction. Here, we assessed the impact of LOX overexpression on ventricular function and cardiac hypertrophy in a transgenic LOX (TgLOX) mouse model with a strong cardiac expression of human LOX. TgLOX mice exhibited high expression of the transgene in cardiomyocytes and cardiofibroblasts, which are associated with enhanced LOX activity and H 2 O 2 production and with cardiofibroblast reprogramming. LOX overexpression promoted an age-associated concentric remodeling of the left ventricle and impaired diastolic function. Furthermore, LOX transgenesis aggravated angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction, which triggered a greater fibrotic response that was characterized by stronger collagen deposition and cross-linking and high expression of fibrotic markers. In addition, LOX transgenesis increased the Ang II-induced myocardial inflammatory infiltrate, exacerbated expression of proinflammatory markers, and decreased that of cardioprotective factors. Mechanistically, LOX overexpression enhanced oxidative stress and potentiated the Ang II-mediated cardiac activation of p38 MAPK while reducing AMPK activation. Our findings suggest that LOX induces an age-dependent disturbance of diastolic function and aggravates Ang II-induced hypertrophy, which provides novel insights into the role of LOX in cardiac performance.-Galán, M., Varona, S., Guadall, A., Orriols, M., Navas, M., Aguiló, S., de Diego, A., Navarro, M. A., García-Dorado, D., Rodríguez-Sinovas, A., Martínez-González, J., Rodriguez, C. Lysyl oxidase overexpression accelerates cardiac remodeling and aggravates angiotensin II-induced hypertrophy. © FASEB.

  12. Akt1/PKB upregulation leads to vascular smooth muscle cell hypertrophy and polyploidization

    OpenAIRE

    Hixon, Mary L.; Muro-Cacho, Carlos; Wagner, Mark W.; Obejero-Paz, Carlos; Millie, Elise; Fujio, Yasushi; Kureishi, Yasuko; Hassold, Terry; Walsh, Kenneth; Gualberto, Antonio

    2000-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) at capacitance arteries of hypertensive individuals and animals undergo marked age- and blood pressure–dependent polyploidization and hypertrophy. We show here that VSMCs at capacitance arteries of rat models of hypertension display high levels of Akt1/PKB protein and activity. Gene transfer of Akt1 to VSMCs isolated from a normotensive rat strain was sufficient to abrogate the activity of the mitotic spindle cell–cycle checkpoint, promoting polyploidizati...

  13. Protection of MICU1 against myocardial hypertrophy induced by angiotensin Ⅱ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi YANG

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the role of mitochondrial calcium uptake 1 (MICU1 in myocardial hypertrophy of mice and underlying mechanism. Methods The model of myocardial hypertrophy was established via incubation of mouse cardiac myocytes (MCM with 300nmol/L angiotensin Ⅱ (Ang Ⅱ for 48 hours in vitro. After that, MICU1 specific small interfering RNA (siRNA was delivered to knockdown MICU1 levels in MCM. On the other hand, adenovirus-mediated over-expression of MICU1 was transfected into MCM. Accordingly, the expressions of ANP and BNP in myocardial cells were measured by qRT- PCR. Mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP contents were detected by JC-1 assay kit and ATP assay kit, respectively. Then, Western blotting and qRT-PCR were used to detect the levels of MICU1 in myocardial cells. The mitochondrial Ca2+ contents were measured via atomic absorption flame spectroscopy. The size of myocardial cells was determined by α-actinin staining. Results Mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP contents in hypertrophic cardiomyocytes induced by AngⅡ were both decreased. Meanwhile, myocardial hypertrophy significantly increased mitochondrial Ca2+ contents but decreased MICU1 levels. With the method of genetic intervention, we found that MICU1 deficiency exacerbated mitochondrial Ca2+ overload, increased cell surface and elevated the expression of BNP. Conversely, the overexpression of MICU1 obviously decreased mitochondrial Ca2+ overload, cell surface of MCM and expressions of ANP and BNP. Conclusion MICU1 alleviates AngⅡ-induced myocardial hypertrophy via inhibiting mitochondrial Ca2+ overload. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.12.05

  14. Skeletal myocyte hypertrophy requires mTOR kinase activity and S6K1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, In-Hyun; Erbay, Ebru; Nuzzi, Paul; Chen Jie

    2005-01-01

    The protein kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a central regulator of cell proliferation and growth, with the ribosomal subunit S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) as one of the key downstream signaling effectors. A critical role of mTOR signaling in skeletal muscle differentiation has been identified recently, and an unusual regulatory mechanism independent of mTOR kinase activity and S6K1 is revealed. An mTOR pathway has also been reported to regulate skeletal muscle hypertrophy, but the regulatory mechanism is not completely understood. Here, we report the investigation of mTOR's function in insulin growth factor I (IGF-I)-induced C2C12 myotube hypertrophy. Added at a later stage when rapamycin no longer had any effect on normal myocyte differentiation, rapamycin completely blocked myocyte hypertrophy as measured by myotube diameter. Importantly, a concerted increase of average myonuclei per myotube was observed in IGF-I-stimulated myotubes, which was also inhibited by rapamycin added at a time when it no longer affected normal differentiation. The mTOR protein level, its catalytic activity, its phosphorylation on Ser2448, and the activity of S6K1 were all found increased in IGF-I-stimulated myotubes compared to unstimulated myotubes. Using C2C12 cells stably expressing rapamycin-resistant forms of mTOR and S6K1, we provide genetic evidence for the requirement of mTOR and its downstream effector S6K1 in the regulation of myotube hypertrophy. Our results suggest distinct mTOR signaling mechanisms in different stages of skeletal muscle development: While mTOR regulates the initial myoblast differentiation in a kinase-independent and S6K1-independent manner, the hypertrophic function of mTOR requires its kinase activity and employs S6K1 as a downstream effector

  15. Kaempferol Attenuates Cardiac Hypertrophy via Regulation of ASK1/MAPK Signaling Pathway and Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hong; Cao, Jianlei; Zhang, Guangyu; Wang, Yanggan

    2017-07-01

    Kaempferol has been demonstrated to provide benefits for the treatment of atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, its role in cardiac hypertrophy remains to be elucidated. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of kaempferol on cardiac hypertrophy and the underlying mechanism. Mice subjected to aorta banding were treated with or without kaempferol (100 mg/kg/d, p. o.) for 6 weeks. Echocardiography was performed to evaluate cardiac function. Mice hearts were collected for pathological observation and molecular mechanism investigation. H9c2 cardiomyocytes were stimulated with or without phenylephrine for in vitro study. Kaempferol significantly attenuated cardiac hypertrophy induced by aorta banding as evidenced by decreased cardiomyocyte areas and interstitial fibrosis, accompanied with improved cardiac functions and decreased apoptosis. The ASK1/MAPK signaling pathways (JNK1/2 and p38) were markedly activated in the aorta banding mouse heart but inhibited by kaempferol treatment. In in vitro experiments, kaempferol also inhibited the activity of ASK1/JNK1/2/p38 signaling pathway and the enlargement of H9c2 cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, our study revealed that kaempferol could protect the mouse heart and H9c2 cells from pathological oxidative stress. Our investigation indicated that treatment with kaempferol protects against cardiac hypertrophy, and its cardioprotection may be partially explained by the inhibition of the ASK1/MAPK signaling pathway and the regulation of oxidative stress. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside attenuates cardiac hypertrophy and oxidative stress in monocrotaline-induced right heart dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puukila, Stephanie; Fernandes, Rafael Oliveira; Türck, Patrick; Carraro, Cristina Campos; Bonetto, Jéssica Hellen Poletto; de Lima-Seolin, Bruna Gazzi; da Rosa Araujo, Alex Sander; Belló-Klein, Adriane; Boreham, Douglas; Khaper, Neelam

    2017-08-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) occurs when remodeling of pulmonary vessels leads to increased pulmonary vascular resistance resulting in increased pulmonary arterial pressure. Increased pulmonary arterial pressure results in right ventricle hypertrophy and eventually heart failure. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of PAH and may play a role in the regulation of cellular signaling involved in cardiac response to pressure overload. Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), a component from flaxseed, has been shown to reduce cardiac oxidative stress in various pathophysiological conditions. We investigated the potential protective effects of SDG in a monocrotaline-induced model of PAH. Five- to six-week-old male Wistar rats were given a single intraperitoneal injection of monocrotaline (60 mg/kg) and sacrificed 21 days later where heart, lung, and plasma were collected. SDG (25 mg/kg) was given via gavage as either a 21-day co-treatment or pre-treatment of 14 days before monocrotaline administration and continued for 21 days. Monocrotaline led to right ventricle hypertrophy, increased lipid peroxidation, and elevated plasma levels of alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST). Co-treatment with SDG did not attenuate hypertrophy or ALT and AST levels but decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and catalase and superoxide dismutase activity compared to the monocrotaline-treated group. Pre-treatment with SDG decreased right ventricle hypertrophy, ROS levels, lipid peroxidation, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase activity and plasma levels of ALT and AST when compared to the monocrotaline group. These findings indicate that pre-treatment with SDG provided better protection than co-treatment in this model of right heart dysfunction, suggesting an important role for SDG in PAH and right ventricular remodeling.

  17. Correlation between Ribosome Biogenesis and the Magnitude of Hypertrophy in Overloaded Skeletal Muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Nakada

    Full Text Available External loads applied to skeletal muscle cause increases in the protein translation rate, which leads to muscle hypertrophy. Although some studies have demonstrated that increases in the capacity and efficiency of translation are involved in this process, it remains unclear how these two factors are related to the magnitude of muscle hypertrophy. The present study aimed to clarify the roles played by the capacity and efficiency of translation in muscle hypertrophy. We used an improved synergist ablation in which the magnitude of compensatory hypertrophy could be controlled by partial removal of synergist muscles. Male rats were assigned to four groups in which the plantaris muscle was unilaterally subjected to weak (WK, moderate (MO, middle (MI, and strong (ST overloading by four types of synergist ablation. Fourteen days after surgery, the weight of the plantaris muscle per body weight increased by 8%, 22%, 32% and 45%, in the WK, MO, MI and ST groups, respectively. Five days after surgery, 18+28S rRNA content (an indicator of translational capacity increased with increasing overload, with increases of 1.8-fold (MO, 2.2-fold (MI, and 2.5-fold (ST, respectively, relative to non-overloaded muscle (NL in the WK group. rRNA content showed a strong correlation with relative muscle weight measured 14 days after surgery (r = 0.98. The phosphorylated form of p70S6K (a positive regulator of translational efficiency showed a marked increase in the MO group, but no further increase was observed with further increase in overload (increases of 22.6-fold (MO, 17.4-fold (MI, and 18.2-fold (ST, respectively, relative to NL in the WK group. These results indicate that increases in ribosome biogenesis at the early phase of overloading are strongly dependent on the amount of overloading, and may play an important role in increasing the translational capacity for further gain of muscular size.

  18. Local renin–angiotensin system contributes to hyperthyroidism-induced cardiac hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobori, H; Ichihara, A; Miyashita, Y; Hayashi, M; Saruta, T

    2008-01-01

    We have reported previously that thyroid hormone activates the circulating and tissue renin–angiotensin systems without involving the sympathetic nervous system, which contributes to cardiac hypertrophy in hyperthyroidism. This study examined whether the circulating or tissue renin–angiotensin system plays the principal role in hyperthyroidism-induced cardiac hypertrophy. The circulating renin–angiotensin system in Sprague–Dawley rats was fixed by chronic angiotensin II infusion (40 ng/ min, 28 days) via mini-osmotic pumps. Daily i.p. injection of thyroxine (0·1 mg/kg per day, 28 days) was used to mimic hyperthyroidism. Serum free tri-iodothyronine, plasma renin activity, plasma angiotensin II, cardiac renin and cardiac angiotensin II were measured with RIAs. The cardiac expression of renin mRNA was evaluated by semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Plasma renin activity and plasma angiotensin II were kept constant in the angiotensin II and angiotensin II+thyroxine groups (0·12 ± 0·03 and 0·15 ± 0·03 μg/h per liter, 126 ± 5 and 130 ± 5 ng/l respectively) (means ± s.e.m.). Despite stabilization of the circulating renin–angiotensin system, thyroid hormone induced cardiac hypertrophy (5·0 ± 0·5 vs 3·5 ± 0·1 mg/g) in conjunction with the increases in cardiac expression of renin mRNA, cardiac renin and cardiac angiotensin II (74 ± 2 vs 48 ± 2%, 6·5 ± 0·8 vs 3·8 ± 0·4 ng/h per g, 231 ± 30 vs 149 ± 2 pg/g respectively). These results indicate that the local renin–angiotensin system plays the primary role in the development of hyperthyroidism-induced cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:9854175

  19. Role of the renin-angiotensin system in cardiac hypertrophy induced in rats by hyperthyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    KOBORI, HIROYUKI; ICHIHARA, ATSUHIRO; SUZUKI, HIROMICHI; TAKENAKA, TSUNEO; MIYASHITA, YUTAKA; HAYASHI, MATSUHIKO; SARUTA, TAKAO

    1997-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine whether the renin-angiotensin system contributes to hyperthyroidism-induced cardiac hypertrophy without involving the sympathetic nervous system. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into control-innervated, control-denervated, hyperthyroid-innervated, and hyperthyroid-denervated groups using intraperitoneal injections of thyroxine and 6-hydroxydopamine. After 8 wk, the heart-to-body weight ratio increased in hyperthyroid groups (63%), and this increase was onl...

  20. Local renin-angiotensin system contributes to hyperthyroidism-induced cardiac hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobori, H; Ichihara, A; Miyashita, Y; Hayashi, M; Saruta, T

    1999-01-01

    We have reported previously that thyroid hormone activates the circulating and tissue renin-angiotensin systems without involving the sympathetic nervous system, which contributes to cardiac hypertrophy in hyperthyroidism. This study examined whether the circulating or tissue renin-angiotensin system plays the principal role in hyperthyroidism-induced cardiac hypertrophy. The circulating renin-angiotensin system in Sprague-Dawley rats was fixed by chronic angiotensin II infusion (40 ng/min, 28 days) via mini-osmotic pumps. Daily i.p. injection of thyroxine (0.1 mg/kg per day, 28 days) was used to mimic hyperthyroidism. Serum free tri-iodothyronine, plasma renin activity, plasma angiotensin II, cardiac renin and cardiac angiotensin II were measured with RIAs. The cardiac expression of renin mRNA was evaluated by semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Plasma renin activity and plasma angiotensin II were kept constant in the angiotensin II and angiotensin II+thyroxine groups (0.12+/-0.03 and 0.15+/-0.03 microgram/h per liter, 126+/-5 and 130+/-5 ng/l respectively) (means+/-s.e.m.). Despite stabilization of the circulating renin-angiotensin system, thyroid hormone induced cardiac hypertrophy (5.0+/-0.5 vs 3.5+/-0.1 mg/g) in conjunction with the increases in cardiac expression of renin mRNA, cardiac renin and cardiac angiotensin II (74+/-2 vs 48+/-2%, 6.5+/-0.8 vs 3.8+/-0.4 ng/h per g, 231+/-30 vs 149+/-2 pg/g respectively). These results indicate that the local renin-angiotensin system plays the primary role in the development of hyperthyroidism-induced cardiac hypertrophy.

  1. Effects of Resistance Training on Ventricular Function and Hypertrophy in a Rat Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barauna, Valério Garrone; Rosa, Kaleizu Teodoro; Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia; de Oliveira, Edilamar Menezes

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to follow the ventricular function and cardiac hypertrophy in rats undergoing a resistance-training program for a period of 3 months. Design: Forty animals were divided into two major groups: control (n=16) and resistance trained (n=24). From the resistance-trained group, 12 animals were resistance trained for 1 month and another 12 for 3 months. The resistance-training protocol was performed with 4 sets of 12 repetitions using 65% to 75% of one repetition maximum (maximum lifted weight with the exercise apparatus). Methods: Echocardiographic analysis was performed at the beginning of the resistance-training period and at the end of each month. The repetition maximum was measured every 2 weeks. Cardiac hypertrophy was determined by echocardiography, by the absolute weight of the cardiac chambers and by histology of the left ventricle. Results: Before resistance training, both groups had similar repetition maximums, ranging from 1.8-fold to 2-fold the body weight; however, at the end of the resistance-training period, the repetition maximum of the resistance-trained group was 6-fold greater than the body weight. The left ventricular mass as assessed by echocardiography was 8%, 12% and 16% larger in the resistance-trained group than in the control group in the first, second and third months, respectively. This hypertrophy showed a similar increase in the interventricular septum and in the free posterior wall mass. There was no reduction in the end-diastolic left ventricular internal diameter during the 3-month resistance-training period. Systolic function did not differ between the groups throughout the resistance-training period. Conclusion: Resistance training induces the development of concentric cardiac hypertrophy without ventricular dysfunction or cavity reduction. Although diastolic function was not completely investigated, we cannot exclude the possibility that resistance training results in diastolic dysfunction. PMID

  2. Electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy without echocardiographic abnormalities evaluated by myocardial perfusion and fatty acid metabolic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narita, Michihiro; Kurihara, Tadashi

    2000-01-01

    The pathophysiologic process in patients with electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy with ST, T changes but without echocardiographic abnormalities was investigated by myocardial perfusion imaging and fatty acid metabolic imaging. Exercise stress 99m Tc-methoxy-isobutyl isonitrile (MIBI) imaging and rest 123 I-beta-methyl-p-iodophenyl pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) imaging were performed in 59 patients with electrocardiographic hypertrophy including 29 without apparent cause including hypertension and echocardiographic hypertrophy, and 30 with essential hypertension. Coronary angiography was performed in 6 patients without hypertension and 4 with hypertension and biopsy specimens were obtained from the left ventricular apex from 6 patients without hypertension. Myocardial perfusion and 123 I-BMIPP images were classified into 3 types: normal, increased accumulation of the isotope at the left ventricular apex (high uptake) and defect. Transient perfusion abnormality and apical defect observed by 123 I-BMIPP imaging were more frequent in patients without hypertension than in patients with hypertension (32% vs. 17%, p=0.04671 in perfusion; 62% vs. 30%, p=0.0236 in 123 I-BMIPP). Eighteen normotensive patients with apical defect by 123 I-BMIPP imaging included 3 of 10 patients with normal perfusion at exercise, 6 of 10 patients with high uptake and 9 of 9 patients with perfusion defect. The defect size revealed by 123 I-BMIPP imaging was greater than that of the perfusion abnormality. Coronary stenoses were not observed and myocardial specimens showed myocardial disarray with hypertrophy. Moreover, 9 patients with hypertension and apical defects by 123 I-BMIPP showed 3 different types of perfusion. Many patients without hypertension show a pathologic process similar to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Perfusion and 123 I-BMIPP imaging are useful for the identification of these patients. (author)

  3. Histone deacetylase inhibitor, CG200745, attenuates cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis in DOCA-induced hypertensive rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Eunjo; Song, Min-ji; Lee, Hae-Ahm; Kang, Seol-Hee; Kim, Mina; Yang, Eun Kyoung; Lee, Do Young; Ro, Seonggu; Cho, Joong Myung; Kim, Inkyeom

    2016-01-01

    CG200745 is a novel inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs), initially developed for treatment of various hematological and solid cancers. Because it is water-soluble, it can be administered orally. We hypothesized that the HDAC inhibitor, CG200745, attenuates cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis in deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-induced hypertensive rats. For establishment of hypertension, 40 mg/kg of DOCA was subcutaneously injected four times weekly into Sprague-Dawley rats. All the rats...

  4. Endonuclease G is a novel determinant of cardiac hypertrophy and mitochondrial function

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    McDermott-Roe, Ch.; Ye, J.; Ahmed, R.; Sun, X. M.; Serafín, A.; Ware, J.; Bottolo, L.; Muckett, P.; Caňas, X.; Zhang, J.; Rowe, G. C.; Buchan, R.; Lu, H.; Braithwaite, A.; Mancini, M.; Hauton, D.; Martí, R.; García-Arumí, E.; Hubner, N.; Jacob, H.; Serikawa, T.; Zídek, Václav; Papoušek, František; Kolář, František; Cardona, M.; Ruiz-Meana, M.; García-Dorado, D.; Comella, J. X.; Felkin, L. E.; Barton, P. J. R.; Arany, Z.; Pravenec, Michal; Petretto, E.; Sanchis, D.; Cook, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 478, č. 7367 (2011), s. 114-118 ISSN 0028-0836 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520; GA ČR(CZ) GA301/08/0166 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : left ventricular hypertrophy * endonuclease G * mitochondrial dysfunction Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 36.280, year: 2011

  5. Transcriptional profile of isoproterenol-induced cardiomyopathy and comparison to exercise-induced cardiac hypertrophy and human cardiac failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McIver Lauren J

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophy in mice has been used in a number of studies to model human cardiac disease. In this study, we compared the transcriptional response of the heart in this model to other animal models of heart failure, as well as to the transcriptional response of human hearts suffering heart failure. Results We performed microarray analyses on RNA from mice with isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophy and mice with exercise-induced physiological hypertrophy and identified 865 and 2,534 genes that were significantly altered in pathological and physiological cardiac hypertrophy models, respectively. We compared our results to 18 different microarray data sets (318 individual arrays representing various other animal models and four human cardiac diseases and identified a canonical set of 64 genes that are generally altered in failing hearts. We also produced a pairwise similarity matrix to illustrate relatedness of animal models with human heart disease and identified ischemia as the human condition that most resembles isoproterenol treatment. Conclusion The overall patterns of gene expression are consistent with observed structural and molecular differences between normal and maladaptive cardiac hypertrophy and support a role for the immune system (or immune cell infiltration in the pathology of stress-induced hypertrophy. Cross-study comparisons such as the results presented here provide targets for further research of cardiac disease that might generally apply to maladaptive cardiac stresses and are also a means of identifying which animal models best recapitulate human disease at the transcriptional level.

  6. Acute post-exercise myofibrillar protein synthesis is not correlated with resistance training-induced muscle hypertrophy in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Cameron J; Churchward-Venne, Tyler A; Parise, Gianni; Bellamy, Leeann; Baker, Steven K; Smith, Kenneth; Atherton, Philip J; Phillips, Stuart M

    2014-01-01

    Muscle hypertrophy following resistance training (RT) involves activation of myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS) to expand the myofibrillar protein pool. The degree of hypertrophy following RT is, however, highly variable and thus we sought to determine the relationship between the acute activation of MPS and RT-induced hypertrophy. We measured MPS and signalling protein activation after the first session of resistance exercise (RE) in untrained men (n = 23) and then examined the relation between MPS with magnetic resonance image determined hypertrophy. To measure MPS, young men (24±1 yr; body mass index  = 26.4±0.9 kg•m²) underwent a primed constant infusion of L-[ring-¹³C₆] phenylalanine to measure MPS at rest, and acutely following their first bout of RE prior to 16 wk of RT. Rates of MPS were increased 235±38% (Pmuscle volume and acute rates of MPS measured over 1-3 h (r = 0.02), 3-6 h (r = 0.16) or the aggregate 1-6 h post-exercise period (r = 0.10). Hypertrophy after chronic RT was correlated (r = 0.42, P = 0.05) with phosphorylation of 4E-BP1(Thr37/46) at 1 hour post RE. We conclude that acute measures of MPS following an initial exposure to RE in novices are not correlated with muscle hypertrophy following chronic RT.

  7. SIRT1 Functions as an Important Regulator of Estrogen-Mediated Cardiomyocyte Protection in Angiotensin II-Induced Heart Hypertrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Shen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1 is a member of the sirtuin family, which could activate cell survival machinery and has been shown to be protective in regulation of heart function. Here, we determined the mechanism by which SIRT1 regulates Angiotensin II- (AngII- induced cardiac hypertrophy and injury in vivo and in vitro. Methods. We analyzed SIRT1 expression in the hearts of control and AngII-induced mouse hypertrophy. Female C57BL/6 mice were ovariectomized and pretreated with 17β-estradiol to measure SIRT1 expression. Protein synthesis, cardiomyocyte surface area analysis, qRT-PCR, TUNEL staining, and Western blot were performed on AngII-induced mouse heart hypertrophy samples and cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs to investigate the function of SIRT1. Results. SIRT1 expression was slightly upregulated in AngII-induced mouse heart hypertrophy in vivo and in vitro, accompanied by elevated cardiomyocyte apoptosis. SIRT1 overexpression relieves AngII-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and apoptosis. 17β-Estradiol was able to protect cardiomyocytes from AngII-induced injury with a profound upregulation of SIRT1 and activation of AMPK. Moreover, estrogen receptor inhibitor ICI 182,780 and SIRT1 inhibitor niacinamide could block SIRT1’s protective effect. Conclusions. These results indicate that SIRT1 functions as an important regulator of estrogen-mediated cardiomyocyte protection during AngII-induced heart hypertrophy and injury.

  8. Gadolinium Contrast Agent is of Limited Value for Magnetic Resonance Imaging Assessment of Synovial Hypertrophy in Hemophiliacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundin, B.; Berntorp, E.; Pettersson, H.; Wirestam, R.; Jonsson, K.; Staahlberg, F.; Ljung, R. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ Hospital of Lund, Lund (Sweden)

    2007-07-15

    Purpose: To examine the influence of different doses of gadolinium contrast agent on synovial enhancement, to compare magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of synovial hypertrophy and radiographic joint changes in hemophiliacs, and to investigate the value of gadolinium in MRI assessment of synovial hypertrophy in hemophiliacs using dynamic MRI and MRI scoring. Material and Methods: Twenty-one hemophiliacs on prophylactic factor treatment without recent bleeds were subjected to radiography and gadolinium contrast-enhanced dynamic and static MRI of the knee using a standard dose of 0.1 mmol/kg b.w. gadoteridol. In 17 of the patients, the MRI procedure was repeated after a triple dose of gadoteridol. Results: MRI findings of synovial hypertrophy were significantly correlated with Pettersson radiographic scores. In 19 of the 21 MRI investigated joints, administration of contrast agent did not alter the result of the evaluation of synovial hypertrophy. Conclusion: The optimal time interval for volume assessment of synovial hypertrophy after injection of gadolinium contrast agent is dose dependent. Hemophiliacs without recent bleeds have minor to abundant synovial hypertrophy in joints with pronounced radiographic changes. Dynamic MRI is not useful for evaluating hemophilic arthropathy, and gadolinium contrast agent is not routinely indicated for MRI scoring of joints in hemophiliacs.

  9. Gadolinium Contrast Agent is of Limited Value for Magnetic Resonance Imaging Assessment of Synovial Hypertrophy in Hemophiliacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundin, B.; Berntorp, E.; Pettersson, H.; Wirestam, R.; Jonsson, K.; Staahlberg, F.; Ljung, R.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the influence of different doses of gadolinium contrast agent on synovial enhancement, to compare magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of synovial hypertrophy and radiographic joint changes in hemophiliacs, and to investigate the value of gadolinium in MRI assessment of synovial hypertrophy in hemophiliacs using dynamic MRI and MRI scoring. Material and Methods: Twenty-one hemophiliacs on prophylactic factor treatment without recent bleeds were subjected to radiography and gadolinium contrast-enhanced dynamic and static MRI of the knee using a standard dose of 0.1 mmol/kg b.w. gadoteridol. In 17 of the patients, the MRI procedure was repeated after a triple dose of gadoteridol. Results: MRI findings of synovial hypertrophy were significantly correlated with Pettersson radiographic scores. In 19 of the 21 MRI investigated joints, administration of contrast agent did not alter the result of the evaluation of synovial hypertrophy. Conclusion: The optimal time interval for volume assessment of synovial hypertrophy after injection of gadolinium contrast agent is dose dependent. Hemophiliacs without recent bleeds have minor to abundant synovial hypertrophy in joints with pronounced radiographic changes. Dynamic MRI is not useful for evaluating hemophilic arthropathy, and gadolinium contrast agent is not routinely indicated for MRI scoring of joints in hemophiliacs

  10. Left ventricular hypertrophy in valvular aortic stenosis: mechanisms and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, Florian; Sachdev, Esha; Arsanjani, Reza; Siegel, Robert J

    2015-04-01

    Valvular aortic stenosis is the second most prevalent adult valve disease in the United States and causes progressive pressure overload, invariably leading to life-threatening complications. Surgical aortic valve replacement and, more recently, transcatheter aortic valve replacement effectively relieve the hemodynamic burden and improve the symptoms and survival of affected individuals. However, according to current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines on the management of valvular heart disease, the indications for aortic valve replacement, including transcatheter aortic valve replacement, are based primarily on the development of clinical symptoms, because their presence indicates a dismal prognosis. Left ventricular hypertrophy develops in a sizeable proportion of patients before the onset of symptoms, and a growing body of literature demonstrates that regression of left ventricular hypertrophy resulting from aortic stenosis is incomplete af