Sample records for lv fractional shortening

  1. Semi-automated detection of fractional shortening in zebrafish embryo heart videos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrat Sara


    Full Text Available Quantifying cardiac functions in model organisms like embryonic zebrafish is of high importance in small molecule screens for new therapeutic compounds. One relevant cardiac parameter is the fractional shortening (FS. A method for semi-automatic quantification of FS in video recordings of zebrafish embryo hearts is presented. The software provides automated visual information about the end-systolic and end-diastolic stages of the heart by displaying corresponding colored lines into a Motion-mode display. After manually marking the ventricle diameters in frames of end-systolic and end-diastolic stages, the FS is calculated. The software was evaluated by comparing the results of the determination of FS with results obtained from another established method. Correlations of 0.96 < r < 0.99 between the two methods were found indicating that the new software provides comparable results for the determination of the FS.

  2. In-treatment midwall and endocardial fractional shortening predict cardiovascular outcome in hypertensive patients with preserved baseline systolic ventricular function: the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wachtell, Kristian; Gerdts, Eva; Palmieri, Vittorio;


    Endocardial fractional shortening (EFS) and midwall shortening (MWS) are impaired in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy. However, it remains unknown whether improvement of left ventricular systolic function during treatment reduces cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hypertensive pa...

  3. Diffusion tensor imaging of the human calf muscle: distinct changes in fractional anisotropy and mean diffusion due to passive muscle shortening and stretching. (United States)

    Schwenzer, Nina F; Steidle, Günter; Martirosian, Petros; Schraml, Christina; Springer, Fabian; Claussen, Claus D; Schick, Fritz


    The influence of passive shortening and stretching of the calf muscles on diffusion characteristics was investigated. The diffusion tensor was measured in transverse slices through the lower leg of eight healthy volunteers (29 +/- 7 years) on a 3 T whole-body MR unit in three different positions of the foot (40 degrees plantarflexion, neutral ankle position (0 degrees ), and -10 degrees dorsiflexion in the ankle). Maps of the mean diffusivity, the three eigenvalues of the tensor and fractional anisotropy (FA) were calculated. Results revealed a distinct dependence of the mean diffusivity and FA on the foot position and the related shortening and stretching of the muscle groups. The tibialis anterior muscle showed a significant increase of 19% in FA with increasing dorsiflexion, while the FA of the antagonists significantly decreased ( approximately 20%). Regarding the mean diffusivity of the diffusion tensor, the muscle groups showed an opposed response to muscle elongation and shortening. Regarding the eigenvalues of the diffusion tensor, lambda(2) and lambda(3) showed significant changes in relation to muscle length. In contrast, no change in lambda(1) could be found. This work reveals significant changes in diffusional characteristics induced by passive muscle shortening and stretching.

  4. Renal denervation in heart failure with normal left ventricular ejection fraction. Rationale and design of the DIASTOLE (DenervatIon of the renAl Sympathetic nerves in hearT failure with nOrmal Lv Ejection fraction) trial. (United States)

    Verloop, Willemien L; Beeftink, Martine M A; Nap, Alex; Bots, Michiel L; Velthuis, Birgitta K; Appelman, Yolande E; Cramer, Maarten-Jan; Agema, Willem R P; Scholtens, Asbjorn M; Doevendans, Pieter A; Allaart, Cor P; Voskuil, Michiel


    Aim Increasing evidence suggests an important role for hyperactivation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) in the clinical phenomena of heart failure with normal LVEF (HFNEF) and hypertension. Moreover, the level of renal sympathetic activation is directly related to the severity of heart failure. Since percutaneous renal denervation (pRDN) has been shown to be effective in modulating elevated SNS activity in patients with hypertension, it can be hypothesized that pRDN has a positive effect on HFNEF. The DIASTOLE trial will investigate whether renal sympathetic denervation influences parameters of HFNEF. Methods DIASTOLE is a multicentre, randomized controlled trial. Sixty patients, diagnosed with HFNEF and treated for hypertension, will be randomly allocated in a 1:1 ratio to undergo renal denervation on top of medical treatment (n = 30) or to maintain medical treatment alone (n = 30). The primary objective is to investigate the efficacy of pRDN by means of pulsed wave Doppler echocardiographic parameters. Secondary objectives include safety of pRDN and a comparison of changes in the following parameters after pRDN: LV mass, LV volume, LVEF, and left atrial volume as determined by magnetic resonance imaging. Also, MIBG (metaiodobenzylguanidine) uptake and washout, BNP levels, blood pressure, heart rate variability, exercise capacity, and quality of life will be assessed. Perspective DIASTOLE is a randomized controlled trial evaluating renal denervation as a treatment option for HFNEF. The results of the current trial will provide important information regarding the treatment of HFNEF, and therefore may have major impact on future therapeutic strategies. Trail registration NCT01583881.

  5. Quantitative analysis of cardiac function: Comparison of electrocardiogram dual gated single photon emission tomography, planar radionuclide ventriculogram and contrast ventriculography in the determination of LV volume and ejection fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziada, G.; Abdel-Dayem, H.M.; Higazy, E.; Mohamed, M.M.; Bahar, R.; Hayat, N.; Yousof, A.M.


    A dual gated tomography (DGT) program for end systolic and end diastolic acquisition and subsequent processing for calculation of LVEF, end diastolic and end systolic volumes (EDV, ESV) has been evaluated in 20 healthy volunteers (25 years-40 years) and 45 patients (25 years-60 years): 20 with ischaemic heart disease and 25 with valvular heart disease (VHD). All had biplane multigated blood pool (MUGA) studies in the 40/sup 0/ LAO projection using in vivo /sup 99m/Tc-R BCs, immediately followed by DG. The results in the patients group were correlated with contrast ventriculography (CV). In the volunteer group, the normal values for LVEF, EDV and ESV measured with DGT were found to be 63%+10%, 91 ml + 6 ml and 30 ml + 6ml and r value for the LVEF=0.91 compared with MUGA. In the IHD group, r values compared with CV were 0.915 and 0.97 for the EDV and ESV and 0.934 for the LVEF. Compared with the MUGA, the r value for LVEF was 0.883. In the VHD group, r values were 0.98 for both the EDV and ESV and 0.948 for the LVEF (P<0.002) compared with CV and 0.789 for the LVEF compared with the MUGA. We feel that DGT is an accurate and reproducible technique for LV function measurements.

  6. 斑点追踪技术评价缺血心肌短轴缩短率和圆周应变%Evaluation of Regional Shortening Fraction and Circumferential Strain in Patients with Myocardial Ischemia by Speckle Tracking Imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何艳; 王东平; 陈金国; 张娜; 杨体霞; 张军; 周利民


    目的 运用斑点追踪技术(STI)测量缺血心肌的短轴缩短率和圆周应变值,探讨其在诊断心肌缺血,评价心肌功能中的应用价值.方法 对29例心肌缺血患者(冠状动脉狭窄≥75%)和28例正常对照组(冠状动脉没有狭窄)分别行超声心动图检查,采集并记录左室短轴观(二尖瓣水平)的高帧频动态二维灰阶图像,应用二维应变分析软件进行脱机分析,系统自动将左室短轴分为前间隔、前壁、侧壁、后壁、下壁、后间隔6个节段,并给出应变曲线,分别测量各节段心肌的短轴缩短率和圆周应变值.结果 正常对照组的圆周应变曲线是负向峰值曲线,短轴缩短率曲线是正向峰值曲线,整组曲线排列较整齐;而心肌缺血组的应变曲线形态不规则.心肌缺血组圆周应变和短轴缩短率均低于正常对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 斑点追踪技术能对心肌的二维应变进行定量分析,为临床诊断心肌缺血,评价心肌功能提供了无创性新方法.%Objective To evaluate the clinical value of speckle tracking imaging in the measurement of regional shortening fraction and circumferential strain in patients with myocardial ischemia. Methods Twenty-nine patients with myocardial ischemia and twenty-eight healthy subjects underwent echocardiography,high frame rate two-dimensional images were recorded from the left ventricular short-axis views at the levels of mitral annulus, regional shortening fraction and circumferential strain were measured in the left ventricular short-axis views using two-dimensional strain software. Results Circumferential strain curve, regional shortening fraction curve in healthy group changed regularly, while in myocardial ischemia patients, the curve changed irregularly. Regional shortening fraction and circumferential strain in myocardial ischemia patients showed significant reduction compared with normal myocardium(P<0.05). Conclusion Speckle

  7. The curve shortening problem

    CERN Document Server

    Chou, Kai-Seng


    Although research in curve shortening flow has been very active for nearly 20 years, the results of those efforts have remained scattered throughout the literature. For the first time, The Curve Shortening Problem collects and illuminates those results in a comprehensive, rigorous, and self-contained account of the fundamental results.The authors present a complete treatment of the Gage-Hamilton theorem, a clear, detailed exposition of Grayson''s convexity theorem, a systematic discussion of invariant solutions, applications to the existence of simple closed geodesics on a surface, and a new, almost convexity theorem for the generalized curve shortening problem.Many questions regarding curve shortening remain outstanding. With its careful exposition and complete guide to the literature, The Curve Shortening Problem provides not only an outstanding starting point for graduate students and new investigations, but a superb reference that presents intriguing new results for those already active in the field.

  8. Evaluación ecocardiográfica de la función sistólica en el caballo: Parte 1. Valores de referencia para el porcentaje de acortamiento fraccional y fracción de eyección Echocardiographic evaluation of the systolic function in the horse: Referene values for fractional shortening and ejection fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Los autores presentan los valores del P.A.F. y la F.E. del ventrículo izquierdo obtenidos de 48 caballos mestizos, no entrenados, con pesos entre 330 y 550 kilos y edades que oscilaron entre 2 y 17 años. Para el P.A.F. el valor medio obtenido fue de 39,4% ± 5,5 y el c.v. de 13,9%, con valores extremos entre 48 y 27. Respecto de la F.E. el valor medio fue de 67,2% ± 7,3 y un c. v. de 10,9% con extremos entre 80,2 y 50,4. Se realizó la comparación de los valores medios obtenidos con los publicados por otros investigadores, no observándose diferencias significativas para el P.A.F. y la F.E con ninguno de los valores investigados, salvo con los publicados por Lescure y Tamsali, (1984The authors present the values of the percentage of fractional shortening and ejection fraction of the left ventricle in horses obtained by echocardiographic evaluation. Forty eight untrained crossbred horses were evaluated, weighing between 330 and 550 kg and ages ranging between 2 and 17 years old. The mean value for the percentage of fractional shortening was 39.38% ± 5.47 with a variation coefficient of 13. 88%, with limit values between 48 and 27. Regarding the ejection fraction, the mean value was 67.2%± 7.33 and a variation coefficient of 10.9% with limits between 80.2 and 50.4. No differences between our indexes mean values and those reported by other investigators were observed, except with those published by Lescure and Tamsali, 1984

  9. Efficacy of an inactivated FeLV vaccine compared to a recombinant FeLV vaccine in minimum age cats following virulent FeLV challenge. (United States)

    Stuke, Kristin; King, Vickie; Southwick, Kendra; Stoeva, Mira I; Thomas, Anne; Winkler, M Teresa C


    The aim of the study was to determine the efficacy of an inactivated feline leukemia virus (FeLV) vaccine (Versifel(®) FeLV, Zoetis.) compared to a recombinant FeLV vaccine (Purevax(®) FeLV, Merial Animal Health) in young cats, exposed under laboratory conditions to a highly virulent challenge model. The study was designed to be consistent with the general immunogenicity requirements of the European Pharmacopoeia 6.0 Monograph 01/2008:1321-Feline Leukaemia Vaccine (Inactivated) with the exception that commercial-strength vaccines were assessed. Fifty seronegative cats (8-9 weeks old) were vaccinated subcutaneously on two occasions, three weeks apart, with either placebo (treatment group T01), Versifel FeLV Vaccine (treatment group T02), or Purevax FeLV Vaccine (treatment group T03) according to the manufacturer's directions. Cats were challenged three weeks after the second vaccination with a virulent FeLV isolate (61E strain). Persistent FeLV antigenemia was determined from 3 to 15 weeks postchallenge. Bone marrow samples were tested for the presence of FeLV proviral DNA to determine FeLV latent infection. At week 15 after challenge with the virulent FeLV 61E strain, the Versifel FeLV Vaccine conferred 89.5% protection against FeLV persistent antigenemia and 94.7% protection against FeLV proviral DNA integration in bone marrow cells. In comparison, the Purevax FeLV Vaccine conferred 20% protection against FeLV persistent antigenemia and 35% protection against FeLV proviral DNA integration in bone marrow cells following challenge. The data from this study show that the Versifel FeLV Vaccine was efficacious in preventing both FeLV persistent p27 antigenemia and FeLV proviral DNA integration in bone marrow cells of cats challenged with this particular challenge model under laboratory conditions and provided better protection than Purevax FeLV in this experimental challenge model with highly virulent FeLV.

  10. Protection of LV system against lightning


    Yordanova Nedyalkova, Greta


    Lightning is a natural hazard and one of the greatest local mysteries. Scientists have not fully understood the mechanism of lightning. It is one of the most beautiful displays in nature and one of the nature's most dangerous phenomenon known to man. Overvoltage due to lightning is a very important problem of LV systems. Some lightning flashes damage buildings and a few kill or injure people and animals, either directly or indirectly, by causing fire and explosions. The need for protect...

  11. Measurement of the partial branching fraction for inclusive semileptonic B meson decays to light hadrons B {yields} X{sub u}lv and an improved determination of the quark-mixing matrix element vertical stroke V{sub ub} vertical stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volk, Alexei


    This thesis presents an analysis of inclusive semileptonic B{yields} X{sub u}e anti {nu}{sub e} decays using approximately 454 million {upsilon}(4S){yields}B anti B decays collected during the years 1999 to 2008 with the BABAR detector. The electron energy, E{sub e}, and the invariant mass squared of the electron-neutrino pair, q{sup 2}, are reconstructed, where the neutrino kinematics is deduced from the decay products of both B mesons. The final hadronic state, X{sub u}, consists of a sum of many hadronic channels, each of which contains at least one u quark. The variables q{sup 2} and E{sub e} are then combined to compute the maximum kinematically allowed invariant mass squared of the hadronic system, s{sub h}{sup max}. Using these kinematic quantities, the partial branching fraction, {delta}B(B {yields} X{sub u}lv), unfolded for detector effects, is measured to be {delta}B(E{sub e}>2.0 GeV, s{sub h}{sup max}<3.52 GeV{sup 2}) (3.33{+-}0.18{+-}0.21) x 10{sup -4} in the {upsilon}(4S) and {delta}B(E{sub e}>1.9 GeV, s{sub h}{sup max}<3.5 GeV{sup 2})= (4.57{+-}0.24{+-}0.32) x 10{sup -4} in the B meson rest frames. The quoted errors are statistical and systematic, respectively. The CKM matrix element vertical stroke V{sub ub} vertical stroke is determined from the measured {delta}B using theoretical calculation based on Heavy Quark Expansion. The result is vertical stroke V{sub ub} vertical stroke =(4.19{+-}0.18{sub -0.20-0.25}{sup +0.26+0.26}) x 10{sup -3}, where the errors represent experimental uncertainties, uncertainties from HQE parameters and theoretical uncertainties, respectively. (orig.)

  12. Association Between Myocardial Mechanics and Ischemic LV Remodeling. (United States)

    D'Elia, Nicholas; D'hooge, Jan; Marwick, Thomas H


    The outcomes associated with heart failure after myocardial infarction are still poor. Both global and regional left ventricular (LV) remodeling are associated with the progression of the post-infarct patient to heart failure, but although global remodeling can be accurately measured, regional LV remodeling has been more difficult to investigate. Preliminary evidence suggests that post-MI assessment of LV mechanics using stress and strain may predict global (and possibly regional) LV remodeling. A method of predicting both global and regional LV remodeling might facilitate earlier, targeted, and more extensive clinical intervention in those most likely to benefit from novel interventions such as cell therapy.

  13. Changes in left ventricular systolic function in patients with chronic heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and cardiorenal anemic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasylenko V.A.


    Full Text Available The feature of chronic heart failure (CHF in elderly people is increasing incidence of heart failure with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF which is associated with age. Such patients account for almost half of the total number of patients with heart failure. Cardiorenal syndrome (CRS is associated with an increased risk of mortality in patients with CHF. The impact of CRS on the structural and functional condition of the heart in these patients is studied insufficiently. The study involved 103 patients with CHF II-IV NYHA with preserved LVEF (>45% and CRS (hemoglobin <120 g/l and LV systolic function, namely by the increase of end-systolic volume and decrease in the degree of LV fractional shortening size.

  14. Application of MV/LV Transformers with OLTC for Increasing the PV Hosting Capacity Of LV Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashemi Toghroljerdi, Seyedmostafa; Heckmann, Wolfram; Geibel, Dominik


    the operation of OLTC during high PV generation periods are investigated and the methods are applied to an LV feeder with an MV/LV transformer equipped by OLTC located in Felsberg, Germany. The potential interferences between OLTCs and two other overvoltage prevention methods, the demand side management (DSM...

  15. Generalized fractional integral transform with Whittaker's kernel (United States)

    Rodrigues, M. Manuela


    In this work we present two generalizations (see the operators I0+α,ρ,σ and I-α,ρ,σ defined below) of the classical Liouville fractional integrals. We study their boundedness as operators mapping the space Lv,r into the spaces Lv+2+Re(α)/2-2Re(ρ),r and Lv+1+-Re(ρ),r. In the end, we will apply our generalization to some particular functions.

  16. Value of dobutamine stress tissue Doppler in evaluation of LV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shaimaa Ahmed Mostafa


    Dec 12, 2014 ... Prosthetic valve disease. Complicated PCI. LVEF less .... annulus moved toward the cardiac apex due to longitudinal contraction of the LV. ..... to fibrotic tissue is too high and also, improved the integrity of cardiac myocyte cell ...

  17. Noninvasive LV pressure estimation using subharmonic emissions from microbubbles. (United States)

    Dave, Jaydev K; Halldorsdottir, Valgerdur G; Eisenbrey, John R; Raichlen, Joel S; Liu, Ji-Bin; McDonald, Maureen E; Dickie, Kris; Wang, Shumin; Leung, Corina; Forsberg, Flemming


    To develop a new noninvasive approach to quantify left ventricular (LV) pressures using subharmonic emissions from microbubbles, an ultrasound scanner was used in pulse inversion grayscale mode; unprocessed radiofrequency data were obtained with pulsed wave Doppler from the aorta and/or LV during Sonazoid infusion. Subharmonic data (in dB) were extracted and processed. Calibration factor (mm Hg/dB) from the aortic pressure was used to estimate LV pressures. Errors ranged from 0.19 to 2.50 mm Hg when estimating pressures using the aortic calibration factor, and were higher (0.64 to 8.98 mm Hg) using a mean aortic calibration factor. Subharmonic emissions from ultrasound contrast agents have the potential to noninvasively monitor LV pressures.

  18. Biochemical response to chronic shortening in unloaded soleus muscles (United States)

    Jaspers, S. R.; Fagan, J. M.; Tischler, M. E.


    One leg of tail-casted suspended rats was immobilized in a plantar-flexed position to test whether chronic shortening of posterior leg muscles affected the metabolic response to unloading. The immobilized plantaris and gastrocnemius muscles of these animals showed approximately 20 percent loss of muscle mass in contrast to simply a slower growth rate with unloading. Loss of mass of the soleus muscle during suspension was not accentuated by chronic shortening. Although protein degradation in the isolated soleus muscle of the plantar-flexed limb was slightly faster than in the contralateral free limb, this difference was offset by faster synthesis of the myofibrillar protein fraction of the chronically shortened muscle. Total adenine nucleotides were 17 percent lower (P less than 0.005) in the chronically shortened soleus muscle following incubation. Glutamate, glutamine, and alanine metabolism showed little response to chronic shortening. These results suggest that, in the soleus muscle, chronic shortening did not alter significantly the metabolic responses to unloading and reduced activity.

  19. Pycnogenol® and its fractions influence the function of isolated heart in rats with experimental diabetes mellitus. (United States)

    Kralova, Eva; Jankyova, Stanislava; Mucaji, Pavel; Gresakova, Eva; Stankovicova, Tatiana


    The aim of this study was to test the effect of Pycnogenol(®) (PYC) mixture and its three fractions (buthanolic, water, ethyl acetate) on heart function in rats with experimental diabetes mellitus (DM) and compare their effects to the diabetic group. Their antioxidant activity "in vitro" was also determined. DM rats (streptozotocin over 3 consecutive days at a dose of 25 mg/kg of body weight) had increased systolic blood pressure, thicker left ventriculi wall (LV) and weaker myocardial contraction, prolonged QT interval in comparison to controls rats. In comparison to the diabetic group, PYC (20 mg/kg b.w./day) suppressed the influence of DM on the LV, improved contraction, increased coronary flow and displayed negative effect on electrical activity of hearts. The most effective of PYC's fractions was the water fraction. It improved biometric parameters and hemodynamic function of the DM hearts, enhanced shortening the QT interval, reduced the amount of dysrhythmias of the DM hearts and had the strongest antioxidant activity. In conclusion, DM damaged isolated rat heart function. Only the water fraction improved the function of the diabetic heart. The different results of three fractions and PYC on myocardial function may be caused by a various lipo- and hydro-philic action of the PYC components.

  20. Formation and characterization of FeLV iscoms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Akerblom; K. Strö mstedt; S. Hö glund; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); B. Morein (Bror)


    textabstractImmunostimulating complexes (ISCOMs) have been prepared from feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) envelope proteins. The ISCOMs were characterized biochemically in SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showing the presence of proteins of estimated molecular weights of 15,000, 27,000 and 70,000

  1. The mechanics of mouse skeletal muscle when shortening during relaxation. (United States)

    Barclay, C J; Lichtwark, G A


    The dynamic properties of relaxing skeletal muscle have not been well characterised but are important for understanding muscle function during terrestrial locomotion, during which a considerable fraction of muscle work output can be produced during relaxation. The purpose of this study was to characterise the force-velocity properties of mouse skeletal muscle during relaxation. Experiments were performed in vitro (21 degrees C) using bundles of fibres from mouse soleus and EDL muscles. Isovelocity shortening was applied to muscles during relaxation following short tetanic contractions. Using data from different contractions with different shortening velocities, curves relating force output to shortening velocity were constructed at intervals during relaxation. The velocity component included contributions from shortening of both series elastic component (SEC) and contractile component (CC) because force output was not constant. Early in relaxation force-velocity relationships were linear but became progressively more curved as relaxation progressed. Force-velocity curves late in relaxation had the same curvature as those for the CC in fully activated muscles but V(max) was reduced to approximately 50% of the value in fully activated muscles. These results were the same for slow- and fast-twitch muscles and for relaxation following maximal tetani and brief, sub-maximal tetani. The measured series elastic compliance was used to partition shortening velocity between SEC and CC. The curvature of the CC force-velocity relationship was constant during relaxation. The SEC accounted for most of the shortening and work output during relaxation and its power output during relaxation exceeded the maximum CC power output. It is proposed that unloading the CC, without any change in its overall length, accelerated cross-bridge detachment when shortening was applied during relaxation.

  2. Shortening Anomalies in Supersymmetric Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Gomis, Jaume; Ooguri, Hirosi; Seiberg, Nathan; Wang, Yifan


    We present new anomalies in two-dimensional ${\\mathcal N} =(2, 2)$ superconformal theories. They obstruct the shortening conditions of chiral and twisted chiral multiplets at coincident points. This implies that marginal couplings cannot be promoted to background super-fields in short representations. Therefore, standard results that follow from ${\\mathcal N} =(2, 2)$ spurion analysis are invalidated. These anomalies appear only if supersymmetry is enhanced beyond ${\\mathcal N} =(2, 2)$. These anomalies explain why the conformal manifolds of the K3 and $T^4$ sigma models are not K\\"ahler and do not factorize into chiral and twisted chiral moduli spaces and why there are no ${\\mathcal N} =(2, 2)$ gauged linear sigma models that cover these conformal manifolds. We also present these results from the point of view of the Riemann curvature of conformal manifolds.

  3. T2 shortening in childhood moyamoya disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takanashi, J. [Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-shi 260 (Japan); Sugita, K. [Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-shi 260 (Japan); Tanabe, Y. [Division of Neurology, Chiba Children`s Hospital, 579-1 Heta, Midori-ku, Chiba-shi 266 (Japan); Ito, C. [Division of Neurosurgery, Chiba Children`s Hospital, 579-1 Heta, Midori-ku, Chiba-shi 266 (Japan); Date, H. [Division of Neurosurgery, Chiba Children`s Hospital, 579-1 Heta, Midori-ku, Chiba-shi 266 (Japan); Niimi, H. [Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-shi 260 (Japan)


    We examined T2 shortening in six children with infarcts due to moyamoya disease to clarify whether there are characteristic patterns of T2 shortening in the deep grey and white matter. Profound T2 shortening in the deep grey and white matter was observed in the acute stage of infarct in two cases, which changed to high intensity in the chronic stage; in this stage no T2 shortening was demonstrated in any case. Neither haemorrhagic infarction nor calcification was seen on CT or MRI. There could be longitudinally different T2 shortening patterns between infarcts due to moyamoya disease and other disorders. (orig.). With 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Avoided losses on LV networks as a result of microgeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Paulo Moises [Escola Superior Tecnologia Viseu, Instituto Politecnico Viseu, Campus Politecnico Repeses, 3504-510 Viseu (Portugal); Matos, Manuel A. [INESC Porto, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Porto (Portugal)


    In the scope of the discussions about microgeneration (and microgrids), the avoided electrical losses are often pointed out as an important value to be credited to those entities. Therefore, methods to assess the impact of microgeneration on losses must be developed in order to support the definition of a suitable regulatory framework for the economic integration of microgeneration on distribution networks. This paper presents an analytical method to quantify the value of avoided losses that microgeneration may produce on LV networks. Intervals of expected avoided losses are used to account for the variation of avoided losses due to the number, size and location of microgenerators, as well as for the kind of load distribution on LV networks. (author)

  5. Novel approach for automatic segmentation of LV endocardium via SPCNN (United States)

    Ma, Yurun; Wang, Deyuan; Ma, Yide; Lei, Ruoming; Wang, Kemin


    Automatic segmentation of Left Ventricle (LV) is an essential task in the field of computer-aided analysis of cardiac function. In this paper, a simplified pulse coupled neural network (SPCNN) based approach is proposed to segment LV endocardium automatically. Different from the traditional image-driven methods, the SPCNN based approach is independent of the image gray distribution models, which makes it more stable. Firstly, the temporal and spatial characteristics of the cardiac magnetic resonance image are used to extract a region of interest and to locate LV cavity. Then, SPCNN model is iteratively applied with an increasing parameter to segment an optimal cavity. Finally, the endocardium is delineated via several post-processing operations. Quantitative evaluation is performed on the public database provided by MICCAI 2009. Over all studies, all slices, and two phases (end-diastole and end-systole), the average percentage of good contours is 91.02%, the average perpendicular distance is 2.24 mm and the overlapping dice metric is 0.86.These results indicate that the proposed approach possesses high precision and good competitiveness.

  6. A Dynamic and Heuristic Phase Balancing Method for LV Feeders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Taghipour Boroujeni


    Full Text Available Due to the single-phase loads and their stochastic behavior, the current in the distribution feeders is not balanced. In addition, the single-phase loads are located in different positions along the LV feeders. So the amount of the unbalanced load and its location affect the feeder losses. An unbalanced load causes the feeder losses and the voltage drop. Because of time-varying behavior of the single-phase loads, phase balancing is a dynamic and combinatorial problem. In this research, a heuristic and dynamic solution for the phase balancing of the LV feeders is proposed. In this method, it is supposed that the loads’ tie could be connected to all phases through a three-phase switch. The aim of the proposed method is to make the feeder conditions as balanced as possible. The amount and the location of single-phase loads are considered in the proposed phase balancing method. Since the proposed method needs no communication interface or no remote controller, it is inexpensive, simple, practical, and robust. Applying this method provides a distributed and dynamic phase balancing control. In addition, the feasibility of reducing the used switches is investigated. The ability of the proposed method in the phase balancing of the LV feeders is approved by carrying out some simulations.

  7. 77 FR 21620 - Notice of the Buy America Waiver Request for Vossloh 101-LV Concrete Ties (United States)


    ... Federal Railroad Administration Notice of the Buy America Waiver Request for Vossloh 101-LV Concrete Ties... requirements for the purchase of Vossloh 101-LV concrete ties, which contain certain components not... consist of the installation of Vossloh 101-LV concrete ties. FRA has received this request from the four...

  8. Voltage rise mitigation for solar PV integration at LV grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Guangya; Marra, Francesco; Juamperez Goñi, Miguel Angel


    Solar energy from photovoltaic (PV) is among the fastest developing renewable energy systems worldwide. Driven by governmental subsidies and technological development, Europe has seen a fast expansion of solar PV in the last few years. Among the installed PV plants, most of them are situated...... at the distribution systems and bring various operational challenges such as power quality and power flow management. The paper discusses the modelling requirements for PV system integration studies, as well as the possible techniques for voltage rise mitigation at low voltage (LV) grids for increasing PV penetration...

  9. 10 CFR 590.316 - Shortened proceedings. (United States)


    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shortened proceedings. 590.316 Section 590.316 Energy... WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Procedures § 590.316 Shortened proceedings. In any proceeding where, in response to a notice of application or notice of procedures, if applicable, no...

  10. Stromal Vascular Fraction Transplantation as an Alternative Therapy for Ischemic Heart Failure: Anti-inflammatory Role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Xue


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of this study were: (1 to show the feasibility of using adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction (SVF as an alternative to bone marrow mono nuclear cell (BM-MNC for cell transplantation into chronic ischemic myocardium; and (2 to explore underlying mechanisms with focus on anti-inflammation role of engrafted SVF and BM-MNC post chronic myocardial infarction (MI against left ventricular (LV remodelling and cardiac dysfunction. Methods Four weeks after left anterior descending coronary artery ligation, 32 Male Lewis rats with moderate MI were divided into 3 groups. SVF group (n = 12 had SVF cell transplantation (6 × 106 cells. BM-MNC group (n = 12 received BM-MNCs (6 × 106 and the control (n = 10 had culture medium. At 4 weeks, after the final echocardiography, histological sections were stained with Styrus red and immunohistochemical staining was performed for α-smooth muscle actin, von Willebrand factor, CD3, CD8 and CD20. Results At 4 weeks, in SVF and BM-MNC groups, LV diastolic dimension and LV systolic dimension were smaller and fractional shortening was increased in echocardiography, compared to control group. Histology revealed highest vascular density, CD3+ and CD20+ cells in SVF transplanted group. SVF transplantation decreased myocardial mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, MMP-1, TIMP-1 and inhibited collagen deposition. Conclusions Transplantation of adipose derived SVF cells might be a useful therapeutic option for angiogenesis in chronic ischemic heart disease. Anti-inflammation role for SVF and BM transplantation might partly benefit for the cardioprotective effect for chronic ischemic myocardium.

  11. Child Abuse May Shorten Some Women's Lives (United States)

    ... page: Child Abuse May Shorten Some Women's Lives Extreme stress may ... 300 middle-aged U.S. adults, female survivors of child abuse were more likely to die over the next ...

  12. Can Your Heartburn Meds Shorten Your Life? (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_167005.html Can Your Heartburn Meds Shorten Your Life? Study found association between prolonged ... of Medicine, in St. Louis. "There was a relationship between duration of use and risk of death," ...

  13. Cloning and characterization of a novel hemocyanin variant LvHMCV4 from shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. (United States)

    Lu, Xin; Lu, Hui; Guo, Lingling; Zhang, Zehui; Zhao, Xianliang; Zhong, Mingqi; Li, Shengkang; Zhang, Yueling


    Recently, we found 3 variants of hemocyanin subunit with higher molecular weight in shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Named as LvHMCV1-3). In this study, a novel L. vannamei hemocyanin variant (Named as LvHMCV4) was further cloned and characterized. Bioinformatic analysis predicted that LvHMCV4 contains one open reading frame of 2137 bp and encodes a polypeptide of 678 amino acids. It shares 84-99% cDNA sequences identity to that of the classical form of L. vannamei hemocyanin (LvHMC, AJ250830.1) and LvHMCV1-3. LvHMCV4 possesses a conserved structure characteristic of the hemocyanin family and can be clustered into one branch along with other arthropod hemocyanins in a phylogenetic tree. Further, the full-length DNA of LvHMCV4 contains 2660 bp and two introns, which are located at the 80-538 bp and 2063-2227 bp regions, respectively. In addition, the mRNA transcript of LvHMCV4 was expressed highly in the hepatopancreas, lymphoid, brain and hemocytes, and weakly in the heart, intestine and gill, while no expression was found in the muscle, stomach and gut. Infection by Escherichia coli K12, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio fluvialis, Streptococcus pyogenes or Staphylococcus aureus up-regulated significantly LvHMCV4 mRNA expression in the hepatopancreas. Furthermore, the recombinant protein of LvHMCV4 (rLvHMCV4) was prepared, which showed agglutination activities against six pathogenic bacteria at concentrations ranging from 15.6 to 125 μg/ml. When co-injected with V. parahaemolyticus in L.vannamei, rLvHMCV4 significantly increased the survival rate after 48 h injection. Together, these studies suggested that hemocyanin variant, LvHMCV4, might be involved in shrimp resistance to pathogenic infection.

  14. Occlusal stability in shortened dental arches. (United States)

    Witter, D J; Creugers, N H; Kreulen, C M; de Haan, A F


    Shortened dental arches consisting of anterior and premolar teeth have been shown to meet oral functional demands. However, the occlusal stability may be at risk as a result of tooth migration. The aim of this nine-year study was to investigate occlusal stability in shortened dental arches as a function over time. Occlusal stability indicators were: 'interdental spacing', 'occlusal contacts of anterior teeth in Intercuspal Position', 'overbite', 'occlusal tooth wear', and 'alveolar bone support'. Subjects with shortened dental arches (n = 74) were compared with subjects with complete dental arches (controls, n = 72). Repeated-measurement regression analyses were applied to assess age-dependent variables in the controls and to relate the occlusal changes to the period of time since the treatment that led to the shortened dental arches. Compared with complete dental arches, shortened dental arches had similar overbite and occlusal tooth wear. They showed more interdental spacing in the premolar regions, more anterior teeth in occlusal contact, and lower alveolar bone scores. Since the differences remained constant over time, we conclude that shortened dental arches can provide long-term occlusal stability. Occlusal changes were self-limiting, indicating a new occlusal equilibrium.

  15. Efficient Control of Active Transformers for Increasing the PV Hosting Capacity of LV Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashemi Toghroljerdi, Seyedmostafa; Østergaard, Jacob; Degner, Thomas


    on decreasing the voltage rise along LV feeders, and the potential of active medium voltage to low voltage (MV/LV) transformers for overvoltage prevention has not been thoroughly investigated. This paper presents the application of active MV/LV transformers for increasing the PV hosting capacity of LV grids...... increase the PV hosting capacity of the grid, while eliminating the need for a complex and centralized controller. The voltages of specific locations or the grid state estimations provide adequate data for adjustments of the droop parameters. The simulations and field test results associated...

  16. Assessment of the LV-S2 & LV-S3 Stack Sampling Probe Locations for Compliance with ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glissmeyer, John A.; Antonio, Ernest J.; Flaherty, Julia E.; Amidan, Brett G.


    This document reports on a series of tests conducted to assess the proposed air sampling locations for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Group 1-2A exhaust stacks with respect to the applicable criteria regarding the placement of an air sampling probe. The LV-C2, LV-S2, and LV-S3 exhaust stacks were tested together as a group (Test Group 1-2A). This report only covers the results of LV-S2 and LV-S3; LV-C2 will be reported on separately. Federal regulations1 require that a sampling probe be located in the exhaust stack according to the criteria established by the American National Standards Institute/Health Physics Society (ANSI/HPS) N13.1-1999, Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances from the Stack and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities. 2 These criteria address the capability of the sampling probe to extract a sample that represents the effluent stream.

  17. LvDJ-1 plays an important role in resistance against Vibrio alginolyticus in Litopenaeus vannamei. (United States)

    Huang, Mingzhu; Liu, Yuan; Xie, Chenying; Wang, Wei-Na


    DJ-1 was first identified as an oncogene that transformed mouse NIH3T3 cells in cooperation with activated Ras. It has since exhibited a variety of functions in a range of organisms. In this study, the DJ-1 gene in Litopenaeus vannamei (LvDJ-1) was identified and characterized. A recombinant protein LvDJ-1 was produced in Pichia pastoris. LvDJ-1 expression in vivo was knocked down by dsRNA-mediated RNA interference (RNAi), which led to significantly decreased levels of LvDJ-1 mRNA and protein. When the L. vannamei were challenged with RNAi and Vibrio alginolyticus, the transcription and expression of copper zinc superoxide dismutase (LvCZSOD) in the hepatopancreas were dramatically lower in shrimp with knocked down LvDJ-1 than in controls. Transcription and expression of P53 (LvP53) were significantly higher in shrimp lacking LvDJ-1 than in controls. Hepatopancreas samples were analyzed using real time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Moreover, blood samples from the shrimp, assessed with flow cytometry, showed significant increases in respiratory burst and apoptosis in those lacking LvDJ-1 compared to the controls. Cumulative mortality in the shrimp lacking LvDJ-1 was significantly different from that in the control group after challenge with V. alginolyticus. Altogether, the results prove that LvDJ-1 regulates apoptosis and antioxidant activity, and that these functions play an important role in L. vannamei resistance against V. alginolyticus.

  18. Shortening Scarf osteotomy for correction of severe hallux valgus. Does shortening affect the outcome? (United States)

    Karpe, Prasad; Killen, Marie C; Pollock, Raymond D; Limaye, Rajiv


    Translation and shortening of Scarf osteotomy allows correction of severe hallux valgus deformity. Shortening may result in transfer metatarsalgia. To evaluate outcome of patients undergoing shortening Scarf osteotomy for severe hallux valgus deformities. Fifteen patients (20feet, mean age 58 years) underwent shortening Scarf osteotomy for severe hallux valgus deformities. Outcomes were pre and postoperative AOFAS scores, IM and HV angles, patient satisfaction. Mean follow-up was 25 months (range 22-30). The IM angle improved from a median of 18.60 (range 13.4-26.20) preoperatively to 9.70 (range 8.0-13.70) postoperatively (8.9; 95% CI=7.6-10.3; posteotomies united. Shortening Scarf osteotomy is a viable option for treating severe hallux valgus deformities with no transfer metatarsalgia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Application of SPCALC for chemical and thermodynamic speciation of fluids -example for wells LV-4A, LV-11 and LV-13, Las Tres Virgenes geothermal field, BCS; Aplicacion del SPCALC en la especiacion quimica y termodinamica de fluidos: ejemplo del caso de los pozos LV-4A, LV-11 y LV-13, del campo geotermico de Las Tres Virgenes, BCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viggiano Guerra, J.C.; Sandoval Medina, F.; Flores Armenta, M.C. [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail:, E-mail:; Perez, R.J. [Universidad de Calgary (Canada); Gonzalez Partida, E. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Centro de Geociencias, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)


    SPCALC is an excellent software application providing chemical and multi-phase speciation for geothermal fluids. Recently it was acquired by the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) through a contract with the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) and the University of Calgary, Canada. Software methodology consists of calculating thermodynamic variables, such as activity (a) and fugacity (f) of chemical species, as well as the saturation indices (log Q/K) of mineral phases of the reservoir. In other words, it models the thermodynamic conditions of the reservoir (pH among other) and simulates the fluid-corrosion rate. This allows the software to foresee scaling and corrosion. In this paper, pervasive fluids in Cretaceous granitic rocks penetrated by wells LV-4A, LV-11 and LV-13 in Las Tres Virgenes geothermal field, BCS, are modeled, starting with chemical analyses. The more important ratios among activities [those which influence the fluid-rock interaction (i.e. {sup a}K{sup +}/{sup a}H{sup +}, {sup a}Ca{sup ++}/{sup a}H{sup +}, {sup a}Na{sup +}/{sup a}H{sup +}, {sup a}Mg{sup ++}/{sup a}H{sup +}) and whose results are the minerals visible under a microscope] are graphed in balance diagrams compatible with the pressure (P) and temperature (T) conditions in the reservoir. Epidote (zoisite) is the mineral found in congruent equilibrium with the system. The main mineral association at those conditions (200-250 degrees Celsius and {approx}18 bar), as observed in the well cuttings, is calcite+illite-quartz{+-}epidote, which is explained by the hydrolithic reactions that form replacement calcite in the presence of CO{sub 2}, thus restricting the formation of epidote and eventually eliminating it. The process enhances the CO{sub 2} molarity in the residual fluid, even up to {sup m}CO{sub 2} 1, which means the CO{sub 2} can be diluted back into fluid and intervene again in the process of calcite formation (2HCO{sub 3}{sup -} + Ca{sup ++} = calcite + H{sub 2}O

  20. Numerical Simulation of Pulse Shortening in RBWOs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Yu-bin; ZHANG Zhang; WANG Wen-xiang; MENG Fan-bao; FAN Zhi-kai; HUANG Min-zhi


    Pulse shortening hinders improvement of microwave output energy for high power microwave tubes. So far, it is also an unresolved problem in the field of high power microwave devices. In this paper, relativistic backward wave tube (RBWO) is treated as an example to study the pulse shortening phenomena. The influences of gas existing in the tube and explosive emission in inner surface of RBWO are all investigated by means of the particle-in-cell method. Through the simulation results, it can be predicted that the background gas in the tube is one but not the most important factor resulting in pulse shortening, in order to broaden the pulse width of gas-filled RBWO, the pressure of the filled gas must be controlled in a proper value. The explosive emission in the surface of slow wave structure due to intense electric field is one of the most important factors causing pulse shortening in high power microwave tube.Some methods to overcome this find of explosive emission are also given.

  1. Relationship of basal-septal fibrosis with LV outflow tract obstruction in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: insights from cardiac magnetic resonance analysis. (United States)

    Nakamura, Takashi; Iwanaga, Yoshitaka; Yasuda, Masakazu; Kawamura, Takayuki; Miyaji, Yuki; Morooka, Hanako; Miyazaki, Shunichi


    Myocardial fibrosis is frequently observed and may be associated with the prognosis in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM); however, the clinical pathophysiological features, particularly in terms of fibrosis, of hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) remain unclear. This study aimed to determine a role of local fibrosis in HOCM using cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). 108 consecutive HCM patients underwent CMR. HOCM was defined as a left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) pressure gradient ≥30 mmHg at rest. Myocardial mass and fibrosis mass by late gadolinium-enhancement CMR (LGE-CMR) were calculated and the distribution/pattern was analyzed using the AHA 17-segment model. LV ejection fraction (LVEF) was significantly higher in patients with HOCM (n = 19) than in those with nonobstructive HCM (n = 89) (P < 0.05). Both total myocardial and fibrosis masses in LV were similar in the two groups (P = 0.385 and P = 0.859, respectively). However, fibrosis in the basal septum was significantly less frequent in the HOCM group than in the nonobstructive HCM group (P < 0.01). The LVOT pressure gradient was significantly higher in the basal-septal non-fibrosis group than in the fibrosis group (23.6 ± 37.3 vs. 4.8 ± 11.4 mmHg, P < 0.01). Multivariate analysis revealed that basal-septal fibrosis was an independent negative predictor of LVOT obstruction in addition to the local wall thickness and LVEF as positive predictors in HCM patients. In conclusion, a significant association was observed between LVOT obstruction and basal septal fibrosis by LGE-CMR in HCM patients. In addition to negative impact of basal-septal fibrosis, basal-septal hypertrophy and preserved global LV contractility may be associated with the pathophysiological features of LVOT obstruction.

  2. 9 CFR 319.701 - Mixed fat shortening. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mixed fat shortening. 319.701 Section... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Fats, Oils, Shortenings § 319.701 Mixed fat shortening. Shortening prepared with a mixture of meat fats and vegetable oils...

  3. Shortening amplitude affects the incomplete force recovery after active shortening in mouse soleus muscle. (United States)

    Van Noten, Pieter; Van Leemputte, Marc


    Compared to isometric contraction, the force producing capacity of muscle is reduced (force depression, FD) after a work producing shortening phase. It has been suggested that FD results from an inhibition of cross-bridge binding. Because the rate constants of the exponential force (re)development are thought to be primarily determined by cross-bridge attachment/detachment rate, we aimed to investigate the components of force redevelopment (REDEV) after 0.6, 1.2 and 2.4mm shortening, resulting in varying amounts of FD (from about 5% to about 16%), in mouse soleus muscle (n=11). Compared to isometric force development (DEV), the time to reach steady-state during REDEV was about 3 times longer (370 versus 1261ms) increasing with increasing amplitude. Contrary to a single, a double exponential function with one component set equal to the rate constant of DEV (14.3s(-1)), accurately described REDEV (RMSshortening amplitude and was associated with work delivered during shortening (R(2)=0.75) and FD (R(2)=0.77). We concluded that a work related slow exponential component is induced to the trajectory of incomplete force recovery after shortening, causing FD. These results suggest that after shortening, aside from cross-bridges with normal attachment/detachment rate, cross-bridges with reduced cycling rate are active.

  4. Renal failure induces telomere shortening in the rat heart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wong, L. S.; Windt, W. A.; Roks, A. J.; van Dokkum, R. P.; Schoemaker, R. G.; de Zeeuw, D.; Henning, R. H.


    Background. Renal failure aggravates pathological cardiac remodelling induced by myocardial infarction (MI). Cardiac remodelling is associated with telomere shortening, a marker for biological ageing. We investigated whether mild and severe renal failure shorten cardiac telomeres and excessively sho

  5. [Shortening arthrodesis of three wrist bones]. (United States)

    Delattre, O; Dupont, P; Reau, A F; Rouvillain, J L; Mousselard, H; Catonné, Y


    In advanced cases of wrist osteoarthritis with lesions of the radio-scaphoid and mediocarpal joints, and when a proximal row carpectomy is not possible because of lesions of the head of the capitate, we suggest a new technique: The hamate-capitate-lunate shortening arthrodesis with a scaphoid-triquetral resection. The good results observed with proximal row carpectomies, and particularly their long-term reliability, have encouraged us on this new path. Effectively, this operation takes the concept of proximal row carpectomy one step further by reconstructing the head of the capitate with the lunate whose proximal articular surface is often not deteriorated even in very advanced cases of radio and mediocarpal osteoarthritis. The two theoretical concepts of this operation are the shortening of the carpus and respect of the physiological congruence of the radio-lunate joint, the goal being obtain similar results those with proximal row carpectomy, particularly concerning mobility. We present our first two cases with this technique. This new procedure is an alternative to the four bone arthrodesis, particularly in SLAC wrist sequellae when they have evolved to the stage of radio and mediocarpal osteoarthritis.

  6. Enhanced muscle shortening and impaired Ca2+ channel function in an acute septic myopathy model. (United States)

    Friedrich, Oliver; Hund, Ernst; von Wegner, Frederic


    Myopathies in critically ill patients are increasingly documented. Various animal models of chronic sepsis have been employed to investigate reduced membrane excitability or altered isometric contractility of skeletal muscle. In contrast, immediate changes occurring during acute sepsis are significantly under-characterised; L-type Ca(2+) channel function or isotonic shortening are examples. We recorded slowly activating L-type Ca(2+) currents (I (Ca)) in voltage-clamped single intact mouse skeletal muscle fibres and tested the effects of acute challenge with serum fractions from critical illness myopathy patients (CIM). Using a high-speed camera system, we simultaneously recorded unloaded fibre shortening during isotonic contractions with unprecedented temporal resolution (approximately 1,600 frames/s). Time courses of fibre lengths and shortening velocity were determined from automated imaging algorithms. CIM fractions acutely induced depression of I (Ca) amplitudes with no shifts in I (Ca)-V-relations. Voltage-dependent inactivation was unaltered and I (Ca) activation and inactivation kinetics were prolonged compared to controls. Unexpectedly, maximum unloaded speed of shortening was slightly faster following CIM serum applications, suggesting a direct action of CIM serum on weak-binding-state cross-bridges. Our results are compatible with a model where CIM serum might acutely reduce a fraction of functional L-type Ca(2+) channels and could account for reduced SR Ca(2+) release and force production in CIM patients. Acute increase in isotonic shortening velocity might be an early diagnostic feature suitable for testing in clinical studies. The acute challenge model is also robust against atrophy or fibre type changes that ordinarily would have to be considered in chronic sepsis models.

  7. Assessment of Longitudinal Reproducibility of Mice LV Function Parameters at 11.7 T Derived from Self-Gated CINE MRI (United States)

    Zuo, Zhi; Subgang, Anne; Abaei, Alireza; Rottbauer, Wolfgang; Stiller, Detlef; Ma, Genshan


    The objective of this work was the assessment of the reproducibility of self-gated cardiac MRI in mice at ultra-high-field strength. A group of adult mice (n = 5) was followed over 360 days with a standardized MR protocol including reproducible animal position and standardized planning of the scan planes. From the resulting CINE MRI data, global left ventricular (LV) function parameters including end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), stroke volume (SV), ejection fraction (EF), and left ventricular mass (LVM) were quantified. The reproducibility of the self-gated technique as well as the intragroup variability and longitudinal changes of the investigated parameters was assessed. Self-gated cardiac MRI proved excellent reproducibility of the global LV function parameters, which was in the order of the intragroup variability. Longitudinal assessment did not reveal any significant variations for EDV, ESV, SV, and EF but an expected increase of the LVM with increasing age. In summary, self-gated MRI in combination with a standardized protocol for animal positioning and scan plane planning ensures reproducible assessment of global LV function parameters. PMID:28321415

  8. Assessment of Longitudinal Reproducibility of Mice LV Function Parameters at 11.7 T Derived from Self-Gated CINE MRI. (United States)

    Zuo, Zhi; Subgang, Anne; Abaei, Alireza; Rottbauer, Wolfgang; Stiller, Detlef; Ma, Genshan; Rasche, Volker


    The objective of this work was the assessment of the reproducibility of self-gated cardiac MRI in mice at ultra-high-field strength. A group of adult mice (n = 5) was followed over 360 days with a standardized MR protocol including reproducible animal position and standardized planning of the scan planes. From the resulting CINE MRI data, global left ventricular (LV) function parameters including end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), stroke volume (SV), ejection fraction (EF), and left ventricular mass (LVM) were quantified. The reproducibility of the self-gated technique as well as the intragroup variability and longitudinal changes of the investigated parameters was assessed. Self-gated cardiac MRI proved excellent reproducibility of the global LV function parameters, which was in the order of the intragroup variability. Longitudinal assessment did not reveal any significant variations for EDV, ESV, SV, and EF but an expected increase of the LVM with increasing age. In summary, self-gated MRI in combination with a standardized protocol for animal positioning and scan plane planning ensures reproducible assessment of global LV function parameters.

  9. Inferring microbial interaction networks from metagenomic data using SgLV-EKF algorithm. (United States)

    Alshawaqfeh, Mustafa; Serpedin, Erchin; Younes, Ahmad Bani


    Inferring the microbial interaction networks (MINs) and modeling their dynamics are critical in understanding the mechanisms of the bacterial ecosystem and designing antibiotic and/or probiotic therapies. Recently, several approaches were proposed to infer MINs using the generalized Lotka-Volterra (gLV) model. Main drawbacks of these models include the fact that these models only consider the measurement noise without taking into consideration the uncertainties in the underlying dynamics. Furthermore, inferring the MIN is characterized by the limited number of observations and nonlinearity in the regulatory mechanisms. Therefore, novel estimation techniques are needed to address these challenges. This work proposes SgLV-EKF: a stochastic gLV model that adopts the extended Kalman filter (EKF) algorithm to model the MIN dynamics. In particular, SgLV-EKF employs a stochastic modeling of the MIN by adding a noise term to the dynamical model to compensate for modeling uncertainties. This stochastic modeling is more realistic than the conventional gLV model which assumes that the MIN dynamics are perfectly governed by the gLV equations. After specifying the stochastic model structure, we propose the EKF to estimate the MIN. SgLV-EKF was compared with two similarity-based algorithms, one algorithm from the integral-based family and two regression-based algorithms, in terms of the achieved performance on two synthetic data-sets and two real data-sets. The first data-set models the randomness in measurement data, whereas, the second data-set incorporates uncertainties in the underlying dynamics. The real data-sets are provided by a recent study pertaining to an antibiotic-mediated Clostridium difficile infection. The experimental results demonstrate that SgLV-EKF outperforms the alternative methods in terms of robustness to measurement noise, modeling errors, and tracking the dynamics of the MIN. Performance analysis demonstrates that the proposed SgLV-EKF algorithm

  10. 39. Speckle tracking echocardiography in patients with severe aortic stenosis and preserved ejection fraction undergoing aortic valve replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Abdelshafy


    Conclusions: following AVR a significant improvement in LV myocardial strain both longitudinal and circumferential occurred. Strain analysis by 2D-STE can detect early and subtle changes in LV systolic function and might play a role in early intervention for severe AS with preserved ejection fraction.

  11. Prognostic value of ejection fraction in patients admitted with acute coronary syndrome: A real world study. (United States)

    Perelshtein Brezinov, Olga; Klempfner, Robert; Zekry, Sagit Ben; Goldenberg, Ilan; Kuperstein, Rafael


    There are limited data regarding factors affecting outcomes among acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients presenting with varying degrees of left ventricle (LV) dysfunction. We aimed to identify factors associated with mortality according to LV ejection fraction (LVEF) at 1st admission in ACS patients.A total of 8983 ACS patients prospectively enrolled in the Acute Coronary Syndrome Israeli Survey (2000-2010) were categorized according to their LVEF at admission: severe LV dysfunction (LVEF < 30% [n = 845]), mild-moderate LV dysfunction (LVEF 30%-49% [n = 4470]); preserved LV function (LVEF ≥ 50% [n = 3659]). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression modeling was used to assess the risk factors for 1-year mortality according to LVEF on admission.Over the past decade there was a gradual decline in the proportion of patients admitted with low LVEF. Mortality rates were highest among patients with severe LV dysfunction (36%), intermediate among those with mild-moderate LV dysfunction (10%), and lowest among those with preserved LV function (4%, P < 0.001). We recognized different risk factors for mortality according to LVEF at admission. Admission clinical features (syncope, anterior myocardial infarction, and ST elevation myocardial infarction [STEMI]) predicted mortality risk in patients with severe LV dysfunction (all P < 0.05), whereas the presence of comorbidities (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, chronic renal failure, and peripheral arterial disease) predicted mortality risk in patients with more preserved LV function. Age and admission Killip class ≥II were consistent predictors in all LVEF subsets.LVEF at admission is a strong predictor of mortality in ACS, and prognostic factors differ according to LVEF during admission. In patients with severe LV dysfunction signs of clinical instability are related to 1-year mortality; in patients with a more preserved LV function the prognosis is related to the presence of co-morbidities.

  12. 三洋推出Easy Radio IC系列LV24000PL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    三洋(Sanyo)公司日前推出Easy Radio IC系列LV24000PL。LV24000PL是一款不需要使用外部元器件的便携式Device用FM调谐器芯片,尺寸仅约5mm×5mm×0.8mm,尺寸缩减为原来的六分之一,适用于手机、PDA等便携式产品。

  13. La piattaforma POS/LV di Applanix nelle applicazioni di laser scanner cinematico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Santarsiero


    Full Text Available The Applanix POS/LV platform in cinematic laser scanner applicationsOn the 11th of march the GEOmedia editorial unit had the pleasure of hosting a technical meeting dedicated to the Applanix LANDMark new Position and Orientation System for Land Vehicles (POS/LVfield test. The meeting, which is part of an italian tour organized by Louis Nastro (Applanix Director of Land Products and Terenzio Mariani (Sales manager for Italy, helped to test the functionalities of a complete POS/LV system equipped with a laser and an imaging acquisition software installed on board of a SUV.

  14. Active shortening protects against stretch-induced force deficits in human skeletal muscle. (United States)

    Saripalli, Anjali L; Sugg, Kristoffer B; Mendias, Christopher L; Brooks, Susan V; Claflin, Dennis R


    Skeletal muscle contraction results from molecular interactions of myosin "crossbridges" with adjacent actin filament binding sites. The binding of myosin to actin can be "weak" or "strong", and only strong binding states contribute to force production. During active shortening, the number of strongly-bound crossbridges declines with increasing shortening velocity. Forcibly stretching a muscle that is actively shortening at high velocity results in no apparent negative consequences whereas stretch of an isometrically (fixed-length) contracting muscle causes ultrastructural damage and a decline in force-generating capability. Our working hypothesis is that stretch-induced damage is uniquely attributable to the population of crossbridges that are strongly-bound. We tested the hypothesis that stretch-induced force deficits decline as the prevailing shortening velocity is increased. Experiments were performed on permeabilized segments of individual skeletal muscle fibers obtained from human subjects. Fibers were maximally activated and either allowed to generate maximum isometric force (Fo), or to shorten at velocities that resulted in force maintenance of ≈50% Fo or ≈2% Fo. For each test condition, a rapid stretch equivalent to 0.1 x optimal fiber length was applied. Relative to pre-stretch Fo, force deficits resulting from stretches applied during force maintenance of 100%, ≈50%, and ≈2% Fo were 23.2 ± 8.6%, 7.8 ± 4.2% and 0.3 ± 3.3%, respectively (mean ± SD, n=20). We conclude that stretch-induced damage declines with increasing shortening velocity, consistent with the working hypothesis that the fraction of strongly-bound crossbridges is a causative factor in the susceptibility of skeletal muscle to stretch-induced damage.

  15. Characterization and DNA sequence of the mobilization region of pLV22a from Bacteroides fragilis.


    Novicki, T. J.; Hecht, D. W.


    A 4.2-kb plasmid (pLV22a) native to Bacteroides fragilis LV22 became fused to a transfer-deficient Bacteroides spp.-Escherichia coli shuttle vector by an inverse transposition event, resulting in a transferrable phenotype. The transfer phenotype was attributable to pLV22a, which was also capable of mobilization within E. coli when coresident with the IncP beta R751 plasmid. Transposon mutagenesis with Tn1000 localized the mobilization region to a 1.5-kb DNA segment in pLV22a. The mobilization...

  16. Prognostic value of ejection fraction in patients admitted with acute coronary syndrome (United States)

    Perelshtein Brezinov, Olga; Klempfner, Robert; Zekry, Sagit Ben; Goldenberg, Ilan; Kuperstein, Rafael


    Abstract There are limited data regarding factors affecting outcomes among acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients presenting with varying degrees of left ventricle (LV) dysfunction. We aimed to identify factors associated with mortality according to LV ejection fraction (LVEF) at 1st admission in ACS patients. A total of 8983 ACS patients prospectively enrolled in the Acute Coronary Syndrome Israeli Survey (2000–2010) were categorized according to their LVEF at admission: severe LV dysfunction (LVEF ACS, and prognostic factors differ according to LVEF during admission. In patients with severe LV dysfunction signs of clinical instability are related to 1-year mortality; in patients with a more preserved LV function the prognosis is related to the presence of co-morbidities. PMID:28248882

  17. Ulnar or radial shortening osteotomy with a single saw cut. (United States)

    Sraj, Shafic A; Budoff, Jeffrey E


    To determine which currently commercially available saw blades could be held at 45 degrees to the bone to reproducibly provide 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 mm of ulna or radius shortening. Commercially available saw blades were tested for their ability to achieve the osseous shortening at a 45 degrees angle cut. When held at a 45 degrees angle to the bone, 2 Stryker 0.64-mm-thick blades achieved a mean shortening of 2.0 mm. A single Linvatec 1.2-mm-thick blade achieved a mean osseous shortening of 2.1 mm. Two Dyonics 0.65-mm-thick blades achieved a mean osseous shortening of 2.7 mm. Two Dyonics 0.89-mm-thick saw blades achieved a mean osseous shortening of 3.1 mm. Three Stryker 0.38-mm-thick saw blades mounted with the middle blade "upside down" with regard to the 2 outer blades achieved a mean osseous shortening of 3.2 mm. Two Linvatec 0.8-mm-thick saw blades achieved a mean osseous shortening of 3.1 mm. The findings of this study can help guide surgeons who desire to reproducibly shorten the ulna or radius by 2.0, 2.7, or 3.2 mm using a single saw cut to ensure a parallel osteotomy gap.

  18. 3D quantitative visualization of altered LV wall thickening dynamics caused by coronary microembolization (United States)

    Eusemann, Christian D.; Mohlenkamp, Stefan; Ritman, Erik L.; Robb, Richard A.


    Regional heart wall dynamics has been shown to be a sensitive indicator of LV wall ischemia. Rates of local LV wall thickening during a cardiac cycle can be measured and illustrated using functional parametric mappings. This display conveys the spatial distribution of dynamic strain in the myocardium and thereby provides a rapid qualitative appreciation of the severity and extent of the ischemic region. 3D reconstructions were obtained in an anesthetized pig from 8 adjacent, shortaxis, slices of the left ventricle imaged with an Electron Beam Computer Tomograph at 11 time points through one complete cardiac cycle. The 3D reconstructions were obtained before and after injection of 100 micrometer microspheres into the Left Anterior Descending (LAD) coronary artery. This injection causes microembolization of LAD artery branches within the heart wall. The image processing involved radially dividing the tomographic images of the myocardium into small subdivisions with color encoding of the local magnitude of regional thickness or regional velocities of LV wall thickening throughout the cardiac cycle. We compared the effectiveness of animation of wall thickness encoded in color versus a static image of computed rate of wall thickness change in color. The location, extent and severity of regional wall akinesis or dyskinesis, as determined from these displays, can then be compared to the region of embolization as indicated by the distribution of altered LV wall perfusion.

  19. Extinction in the Galaxy from surface brightnesses of ESO-LV galaxies : Testing "standard" extinction maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choloniewski, J.; Valentijn, E. A.


    A new method for the determination of the extinction in the Galaxy is proposed. The method uses surface brightnesses of external galaxies in the B and R-bands. The observational data have been taken from the ESO-LV galaxy catalog. As a first application of our model we derive the ratio of R-band to

  20. Revisión diagramas de equilibrio Txy (LV y LLV)


    Reyes Labarta, Juan Antonio


    Este tema se encarca en el contexto del estudio del equilibrio entre fases líquido-vapor. Se muestra de forma cualitativa diferentes ejemplos de diagramas de equilibrio LV, temperatura-composición (a presión constante), así como bibliografía relacionada. Universidad de Alicante. Dpto. Ingeniería Química

  1. Voltage unbalance mitigation in LV networks using three-phase PV systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia Bajo, Cristina; Hashemi Toghroljerdi, Seyedmostafa; Bækhøj Kjær, Søren;


    In this paper a new method is proposed to mitigate voltage unbalance caused by single-phase solar inverters in low voltage (LV) networks. The method is based on uneven reactive power absorption and injection by three-phase solar inverters. Independent control of each phase is performed to achieve...

  2. Systolic Longitudinal Function of the Left Ventricle Assessed by Speckle Tracking in Heart Failure Patients with Preserved Ejection Fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoush Toufan


    Full Text Available Background: Echocardiographic evaluations of the longitudinal axis of the left ventricular (LV function have been used in the diagnosis and assessment of heart failure with normal ejection fraction (HFNEF. The evaluation of the global and segmental peak systolic longitudinal strains (PSLSs by two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (STE may correlate with conventional echocardiography findings. We aimed to use STE to evaluate the longitudinal function of the LV in patients with HFNEF.Methods: In this study, 126 patients with HFNEF and diastolic dysfunction and 60 normal subjects on conventional echocardiography underwent STE evaluations, including LV end-diastolic and end-systolic dimensions; interventricular septal thickness; posterior wall thickness;  LV volume; LV ejection fraction; left atrial volume index; early diastolic peak flow velocity (

  3. Identification and function analysis of a novel vascular endothelial growth factor, LvVEGF3, in the Pacific whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. (United States)

    Wang, Zhiwei; Li, Shihao; Li, Fuhua; Xie, Shijun; Xiang, Jianhai


    VEGF signaling pathway is first discovered in mammals and proved to play important roles in the biological processes of angiogenesis, tumor migration, cell differentiation, apoptosis, host-virus interaction etc. Three members in the VEGF signaling pathway, including LvVEGFR, LvVEGF1 and LvVEGF2 in shrimp have been proved to be related with WSSV infection in our previous studies. Currently, another member of VEGF family, LvVEGF3, was isolated and its function during the WSSV infection of shrimp was studied. The deduced amino acid sequence of LvVEGF3 contained a signal peptide, a typical PDGF/VEGF domain and a cysteine-knot motif (CXCXC). Tissue distribution analysis showed that LvVEGF3 was predominantly expressed in hemocytes. The transcriptional level of LvVEGF3 in hemocytes was apparently up-regulated during WSSV infection. Silencing of LvVEGF3 with double-stranded RNA caused a reduction of the cumulative mortality rate of shrimp during WSSV infection. The expression of LvVEGFR was apparently down-regulated after LvVEGF3 silencing and up-regulated after injection of recombinant LvVEGF3 protein, suggesting an interaction between LvVEGF3 and LvVEGFR. Furthermore, the interaction between LvVEGFR and LvVEGF3 was confirmed using the yeast two-hybrid system. The results provided new insights into understanding the role of VEGF signaling pathway during virus infection.

  4. Accelerated Telomere Shortening in Acromegaly; IGF-I Induces Telomere Shortening and Cellular Senescence (United States)

    Matsumoto, Ryusaku; Fukuoka, Hidenori; Iguchi, Genzo; Odake, Yukiko; Yoshida, Kenichi; Bando, Hironori; Suda, Kentaro; Nishizawa, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Michiko; Yamada, Shozo; Ogawa, Wataru; Takahashi, Yutaka


    Objective Patients with acromegaly exhibit reduced life expectancy and increased prevalence of age-related diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. However, the underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated. Telomere shortening is reportedly associated with reduced life expectancy and increased prevalence of these age-related diseases. Methods We measured telomere length in patients with acromegaly using quantitative PCR method. The effect of GH and IGF-I on telomere length and cellular senescence was examined in human skin fibroblasts. Results Patients with acromegaly exhibited shorter telomere length than age-, sex-, smoking-, and diabetes-matched control patients with non-functioning pituitary adenoma (0.62 ± 0.23 vs. 0.75 ± 0.35, respectively, P = 0.047). In addition, telomere length in acromegaly was negatively correlated with the disease duration (R2 = 0.210, P = 0.003). In vitro analysis revealed that not GH but IGF-I induced telomere shortening in human skin fibroblasts. Furthermore, IGF-I-treated cells showed increased senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity and expression of p53 and p21 protein. IGF-I-treated cells reached the Hayflick limit earlier than GH- or vehicle-treated cells, indicating that IGF-I induces cellular senescence. Conclusion Shortened telomeres in acromegaly and cellular senescence induced by IGF-I can explain, in part, the underlying mechanisms by which acromegaly exhibits an increased morbidity and mortality in association with the excess secretion of IGF-I. PMID:26448623

  5. Does a detection team shorten duration of untreated psychosis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Thorup, Anne; Petersen, Lone;


    Duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) is shown to be associated with poor outcome in many domains. It has been shown that it is possible to shorten DUP when combining a detection team and an information campaign. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether DUP was shortened during the first 3 y...

  6. Instability during bunch shortening of an electron-cooled beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Takanaka


    Full Text Available Bunch shortening causes an electron-cooled beam to be space charge dominated at low energies. Instability during the bunch shortening has been studied using a particle-tracking program where the 3D space-charge field due to the beam is calculated with a simplifying model.

  7. The immune responses triggered by CpG ODNs in shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei are associated with LvTolls. (United States)

    Sun, Rui; Wang, Mengqiang; Wang, Lingling; Yue, Feng; Yi, Qilin; Huang, Mengmeng; Liu, Rui; Qiu, Limei; Song, Linsheng


    CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) represent a kind of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) as well as a novel adjuvant that activate the innate immune system through interaction with Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) in mammals. In the present study, the synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides, CpG ODN 2395, was employed to investigate the interactive mode of CpG ODNs with three known Tolls (LvToll1-3) from shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. The mature peptides of extracellular domains of LvTolls (LvToll-ECDs) were recombinant expressed and their binding activities to CpG ODN 2395 were further examined by ELISA. rLvToll1-ECD and rLvToll3-ECD exhibited affinity to CpG ODN 2395 in a dose-dependent manner when their concentrations ranged from 0.25 to 2.00 μmol/L, while rLvToll2-ECD did not show any binding activities to CpG ODN 2395 in tested concentrations. Additionally, after the stimulation of CpG ODN 2395, the luciferase activities of HEK293T cells transfected with LvToll1-mosaic or LvToll3-mosaic were significantly increased to 2.38-fold (pvannamei were indispensable for the triggering of immune responses by CpG ODNs, and the results provided a foundation for the application of CpG ODNs as the novel immunostimulants in aquaculture.

  8. Shortening of subjective visual intervals followed by repetitive stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuminori Ono

    Full Text Available Our previous research demonstrated that repetitive tone stimulation shortened the perceived duration of the preceding auditory time interval. In this study, we examined whether repetitive visual stimulation influences the perception of preceding visual time intervals. Results showed that a time interval followed by a high-frequency visual flicker was perceived as shorter than that followed by a low-frequency visual flicker. The perceived duration decreased as the frequency of the visual flicker increased. The visual flicker presented in one hemifield shortened the apparent time interval in the other hemifield. A final experiment showed that repetitive tone stimulation also shortened the perceived duration of preceding visual time intervals. We concluded that visual flicker shortened the perceived duration of preceding visual time intervals in the same way as repetitive auditory stimulation shortened the subjective duration of preceding tones.

  9. Comparison of three feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) point-of-care antigen test kits using blood and saliva. (United States)

    Westman, Mark E; Malik, Richard; Hall, Evelyn; Sheehy, Paul A; Norris, Jacqueline M


    Feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) can be a challenging infection to diagnose due to a complex feline host-pathogen relationship and occasionally unreliable test results. This study compared the accuracy of three point-of-care (PoC) FeLV p27 antigen test kits commonly used in Australia and available commercially worldwide (SNAP FIV/FeLV Combo, Witness FeLV/FIV and Anigen Rapid FIV/FeLV), using detection of FeLV provirus by an in-house real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay as the diagnostic gold standard. Blood (n=563) and saliva (n=419) specimens were collected from a population of cats determined to include 491 FeLV-uninfected and 72 FeLV-infected individuals (45 progressive infections [p27 and qPCR positive], 27 regressive infections [p27 negative, qPCR positive]). Sensitivity and specificity using whole blood was 63% and 94% for SNAP Combo, 57% and 98% for Witness, and 57% and 98% for Anigen Rapid, respectively. SNAP Combo had a significantly lower specificity using blood compared to the other two kits (P=0.004 compared to Witness, P=0.007 compared to Anigen Rapid). False-positive test results occurred with all three kits using blood, and although using any two kits in parallel increased specificity, no combination of kits completely eliminated the occurrence of false-positive results. We therefore recommend FeLV proviral PCR testing for any cat that tests positive with a PoC FeLV antigen kit, as well as for any cat that has been potentially exposed to FeLV but tests negative with a FeLV antigen kit, before final assignment of FeLV status can be made with confidence. For saliva testing, sensitivity and specificity was 54% and 100%, respectively, for all three test kits. The reduced sensitivity of saliva testing compared to blood testing, although not statistically significant, suggests saliva testing with the current generation of PoC FeLV antigen kits is unsuitable for screening large populations of cats, such as in shelters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  10. Analysis of critical operating conditions for LV distribution networks with microgrids (United States)

    Zehir, M. A.; Batman, A.; Sonmez, M. A.; Font, A.; Tsiamitros, D.; Stimoniaris, D.; Kollatou, T.; Bagriyanik, M.; Ozdemir, A.; Dialynas, E.


    Increase in the penetration of Distributed Generation (DG) in distribution networks, raises the risk of voltage limit violations while contributing to line losses. Especially in low voltage (LV) distribution networks (secondary distribution networks), impacts of active power flows on the bus voltages and on the network losses are more dominant. As network operators must meet regulatory limitations, they have to take into account the most critical operating conditions in their systems. In this study, it is aimed to present the impact of the worst operation cases of LV distribution networks comprising microgrids. Simulation studies are performed on a field data-based virtual test-bed. The simulations are repeated for several cases consisting different microgrid points of connection with different network loading and microgrid supply/demand conditions.

  11. Capability to provide reactive power in PV farms. Implementation of LV capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gal, Isabelle; NGuyen, Minh Quang [Schneider Electric (France)


    The latest French grid code assigns a new role to generators connected to the distribution system: they have to contribute to the grid operation by ancillary services, even though they may use renewable energies. Among others, the likely incapacity of such a generator to provide the requested reactive power during steady state operation or during a fault may impose the use of capacitors. For economical reasons, it could be worth installing LV- instead of HV-capacitors. This paper analyses an example photovoltaic fram to evaluate the risks encountered. Results obtained show that the installation of LV capacitors may be possible if very carefully. Indeed, steady state harmonics generated by the inverter can be amplified, and there may be high overvoltages in the installation after upstream switching off. Further analysis should be done to extend the validity of conclusions, but at this stage, installing HV capacitors should be preferred. (orig.)

  12. Seismic monitoring during acid stimulation of wells LV-4 and LV-13 at the Las Tres Virgenes geothermal field, BCS, Mexico; Monitoreo sismico durante la estimulacion acida de los pozos LV-4 y LV-13 del campo geotermico de Las Tres Virgenes, BCS, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venegas Salgado, Saul; Arredondo Fragoso, Jesus; Ramirez Silva, German; Flores Armenta, Magaly; Ramirez Montes, Miguel [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail:


    From September through December 2004 a seismic monitoring in the Las Tres Virgenes, BCS, geothermal field was carried out simultaneously with the acid stimulation of wells LV-4 and LV-13. The seismic network had four digital seismographs and recorded 174 local seismic events, 131 regional ones and many more volcanic signals at seismic station TV20 during the acid stimulation. Additionally, 37 seismic events were located, 22 of them inside the most important geothermal zone at depths between 0.4 and 4 km with typically low magnitudes (0.7 to 2.2 Md). Two relevant zones were determined: Zone A related to the El Volcan fault system and Zone B related to injection well LV-8. In Zone A the well-induction stage and the operation start of the wells LV-4 and LV-13 after acidification on October 30 and November 17, 2004, increased seismic activity to a maximum of 12 daily events in early December. When the two wells in Zone B were cooled before the acidification, the seismic events recorded there increased to a maximum of 6 daily events on October 2, and then decreased. Also in Zone B the seismic activity increased after well-induction and the start of well production once they were acidified, recording up to 11 daily events in late November. According to the seismic distribution, we may conclude that the most active fault systems are El Volcan and El Viejo. New proposals for well locations in the field are supported by these results. [Spanish] De septiembre a diciembre de 2004 se realizo un estudio de monitoreo sismico en el campo geotermico de Las Tres Virgenes, BCS, simultaneamente con las estimulaciones acidas de los pozos LV-4 y LV-13. Se utilizo una red sismica conformada por cuatro sismografos digitales, logrando registrar en la estacion sismica TV20 un total de 174 sismos locales, 131 sismos regionales y muchas mas senales de tipo volcanico, durante el periodo del monitoreo de la estimulacion acida. Ademas, se localizaron un total de 37 sismos, de los cuales 22 se

  13. Short-time Lv transform and its application for non-linear FM signal detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan Luo; Xiumei Li; Guoan Bi


    A new time-frequency transform, known as short-time Lv transform (STLVT), is proposed by applying the inverse Lv dis-tribution to process consecutive segments of long data sequence. Compared with other time-frequency representations, the STLVT is able to achieve better energy concentration in the time-frequency domain for signals containing multiple linear and/or non-linear frequency modulated components. The merits of the STLVT are demonstrated in terms of the effects of window length and overlap length between adjacent segments on signal energy concentra-tion in the time-frequency domain, and the required computational complexity. An application on the spectrum sensing for cognitive ratio (CR) by using a joint use of the STLVT and Hough transform (HT) is proposed and simulated.

  14. Voltage regulation in LV grids by coordinated volt-var control strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juamperez Goñi, Miguel Angel; Yang, Guangya; Kjær, Søren Bækhøj


    in terms of network power losses and voltage level along the feeder. As a practical implementation, a reconfigurable hardware is used for developing a testing platform based on real-time measurements to regulate the reactive power level. The proposed testing platform has been developed within PVNET......The increasing penetration level of photovoltaic (PV) power generation in low voltage (LV) networks results in voltage rise issues, particularly at the end of the feeders. In order to mitigate this problem, several strategies, such as grid reinforcement, transformer tap change, demand......-side management, active power curtailment, and reactive power optimization methods, show their contribution to voltage support, yet still limited. This paper proposes a coordinated volt-var control architecture between the LV distribution transformer and solar inverters to optimize the PV power penetration level...

  15. EV Charging Facilities and Their Application in LV Feeders with Photovoltaics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marra, Francesco; Yang, Guangya; Træholt, Chresten


    for the different locations in the feeder. With time-series simulations, we quantify the energy size required for a station ESS. A Belgian LV residential grid, modeled using real PV generation and load profiles, is used as case study. The method and simulation results show the effectiveness of using public EV...... charging facilities with the additional function of voltage regulation in feeders with PV....

  16. Cooling Performance Test of the SCT LV&HV Power Supply Rack

    CERN Document Server

    Böhm, J; Vacek, V


    The cooling performance test of the 52U rack, housing SCT LV&HV power supplies for 192 detector modules, being located in USA15 cavern, has been curried out. The rack was equipped with two air-water heat exchangers, air turbine, four vertical fan tray units under crates and horizontal fans in four Artesyn AC/DC power supply units. The resistive dummy loads for 192 power supply channels have been placed in four crates and housed in the adjacent rack.

  17. 重组Lv-SWD蛋白的表达、纯化与细菌结合试验%Expression, Purification and Bacteria Binding Test of a Recombinant Lv-SWD Protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜志强; 林涛


    The recombinant Lv-SWD protein of Litopenaeus vannamei function in innate immunity system was researched through protein recombinant expression, polyclonal antibody preparation, and bacteria binding assay. The results showed that the predicted molecular weight of Lv-SWD was 12.9 ku, and the virtual molecular weight was consistent with the predicted value. The polyclonal antibody was prepared by recombinant Lv-SWD protein and could identify the protein antigen. The re-combinant Lv-SWD protein could directly bind to Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Vibrio.%通过重组Lv-SWD蛋白的表达与纯化,进行多克隆抗体的制备与细菌结合试验,研究凡纳对虾(Litopenaeus vannamei)重组SWD蛋白在先天免疫系统中的功能。结果表明,Lv-SWD的预测分子质量为12.9 ku,实际大小与理论值相符合。重组Lv-SWD蛋白作为抗原制备的多克隆抗体,可以较好地识别蛋白质本身,且可以直接结合巨大芽孢杆菌(Bacillus subtilis)、金黄色葡萄球菌(Staphylococcus aureus)、绿脓杆菌(Pseudomonas aeruginosa)以及弧菌(Vibrio)4种细菌。

  18. A New Protection System for Islanding Detection in LV Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rita Di Fazio


    Full Text Available The growth of penetration of Distributed Generators (DGs is increasing the risk of unwanted islanded operation in Low Voltage (LV distribution systems. In this scenario, the existing anti-islanding protection systems, installed at the DG premises and based on classical voltage and frequency relays, are no longer effective, especially in the cases of islands characterized by a close match between generation and load. In this paper, a new protection system for islanding detection in LV distribution systems is proposed. The classical voltage and frequency relays in the DG interface protections are enriched with an innovative Smart Islanding Detector, which adopts a new passive islanding detection method. The aim is to keep the advantages of the classical relays while overcoming the problem of their limited sensitivity in detecting balanced islands. In the paper, to define the requirements of the anti-islanding protection system, the events causing the islanded operation of the LV distribution systems are firstly identified and classified. Then, referring to proposed protection system, its architecture and operation are described and, eventually, its performance is analyzed and validated by experimental laboratory tests, carried out with a hardware-in-the-loop technique.

  19. On the Interpretation of the l-v Features in the Milky Way Galaxy (United States)

    Baba, Junichi; Saitoh, Takayuki R.; Wada, Keiichi


    We modeled the gas dynamics of barred galaxies using a three-dimensional, high-resolution, N-body + hydrodynamical simulation, and applied it to the Milky Way in an attempt to reproduce both the large-scale structure and the clumpy morphology observed in galactic H I and CO l-v diagrams. Owing to including of the multi-phase interstellar medium, self-gravity, star-formation, and supernovae feedback, the clumpy morphology, as well as the large-scale features, in observed l-v diagrams were naturally reproduced. We identified in our l-v diagrams with a number of not only large-scale peculiar features, such as the `3-kpc arm', `135-km s-1 arm', and `Connecting arm', but also clumpy features, such as `Bania clumps', and then linked these features in a face-on view of our model. We give suggestions on the real structure of the Milky Way and on the fate of gas clumps in the central region.

  20. Quantifying grain shape with MorpheoLV: A case study using Holocene glacial marine sediments (United States)

    Charpentier, Isabelle; Staszyc, Alicia B.; Wellner, Julia S.; Alejandro, Vanessa


    As demonstrated in earlier works, quantitative grain shape analysis has revealed to be a strong proxy for determining sediment transport history and depositional environments. MorpheoLV, devoted to the calculation of roughness coefficients from pictures of unique clastic sediment grains using Fourier analysis, drives computations for a collection of samples of grain images. This process may be applied to sedimentary deposits assuming core/interval/image archives for the storage of samples collected along depth. This study uses a 25.8 m jumbo piston core, NBP1203 JPC36, taken from a 100 m thick sedimentary drift deposit from Perseverance Drift on the northern Antarctic Peninsula continental shelf. Changes in ocean and ice conditions throughout the Holocene recorded in this sedimentary archive can be assessed by studying grain shape, grain texture, and other proxies. Ninety six intervals were sampled and a total of 2319 individual particle images were used. Microtextures of individual grains observed by SEM show a very high abundance of authigenically precipitated silica that obscures the original grain shape. Grain roughness, computed along depth with MorpheoLV, only shows small variation confirming the qualitative observation deduced from the SEM. Despite this, trends can be seen confirming the reliability of MorpheoLV as a tool for quantitative grain shape analysis.

  1. Envelope Proteins of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV Interact with Litopenaeus vannamei Peritrophin-Like Protein (LvPT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijun Xie

    Full Text Available White spot syndrome virus (WSSV is a major pathogen in shrimp cultures. The interactions between viral proteins and their receptors on the surface of cells in a frontier target tissue are crucial for triggering an infection. In this study, a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H library was constructed using cDNA obtained from the stomach and gut of Litopenaeus vannamei, to ascertain the role of envelope proteins in WSSV infection. For this purpose, VP37 was used as the bait in the Y2H library screening. Forty positive clones were detected after screening. The positive clones were analyzed and discriminated, and two clones belonging to the peritrophin family were subsequently confirmed as genuine positive clones. Sequence analysis revealed that both clones could be considered as the same gene, LV-peritrophin (LvPT. Co-immunoprecipitation confirmed the interaction between LvPT and VP37. Further studies in the Y2H system revealed that LvPT could also interact with other WSSV envelope proteins such as VP32, VP38A, VP39B, and VP41A. The distribution of LvPT in tissues revealed that LvPT was mainly expressed in the stomach than in other tissues. In addition, LvPT was found to be a secretory protein, and its chitin-binding ability was also confirmed.

  2. Envelope Proteins of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) Interact with Litopenaeus vannamei Peritrophin-Like Protein (LvPT). (United States)

    Xie, Shijun; Zhang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Jiquan; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai


    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major pathogen in shrimp cultures. The interactions between viral proteins and their receptors on the surface of cells in a frontier target tissue are crucial for triggering an infection. In this study, a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) library was constructed using cDNA obtained from the stomach and gut of Litopenaeus vannamei, to ascertain the role of envelope proteins in WSSV infection. For this purpose, VP37 was used as the bait in the Y2H library screening. Forty positive clones were detected after screening. The positive clones were analyzed and discriminated, and two clones belonging to the peritrophin family were subsequently confirmed as genuine positive clones. Sequence analysis revealed that both clones could be considered as the same gene, LV-peritrophin (LvPT). Co-immunoprecipitation confirmed the interaction between LvPT and VP37. Further studies in the Y2H system revealed that LvPT could also interact with other WSSV envelope proteins such as VP32, VP38A, VP39B, and VP41A. The distribution of LvPT in tissues revealed that LvPT was mainly expressed in the stomach than in other tissues. In addition, LvPT was found to be a secretory protein, and its chitin-binding ability was also confirmed.

  3. A linear description of shortening induced changes in isometric length-force characteristics of rat muscle


    Meijer, K; Grootenboer, H.J.; Koopman, H.F.J.M.; Huijing, P.A.


    Active muscle shortening reduces the isometric force potential of muscle. This observation indicates that the isometric length-force characteristics are altered during muscle shortening. Post-shortening decrease in isometric force depends on starting length, shortening amplitude and shortening velocity. In the present study, post-shortening decrease in isometric force was determined after isokinetic contractions with various shortening amplitudes initiated from different lengths of rat medial...

  4. Fractional Echoes

    CERN Document Server

    Karras, G; Billard, F; Lavorel, B; Siour, G; Hartmann, J -M; Faucher, O; Gershnabel, Erez; Prior, Yehiam; Averbukh, Ilya Sh


    We report the observation of fractional echoes in a double-pulse excited nonlinear system. Unlike standard echoes which appear periodically at delays which are integer multiple of the delay between the two exciting pulses, the fractional echoes appear at rational fractions of this delay. We discuss the mechanism leading to this phenomenon, and provide the first experimental demonstration of fractional echoes by measuring third harmonic generation in a thermal gas of CO2 molecules excited by a pair of femtosecond laser pulses.

  5. Knowledge and attitudes of dentists toward shortened dental arch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Aug 3, 2015 ... Key words: Attitude, dentist, knowledge, shortened dental arch. Date of Acceptance: ... practice of SDA therapy among dentists in Saudi Arabia, no studies are available in ..... partial denture was similar. Therefore, the attitude ...

  6. Phenomenological models of the dynamics of muscle during isotonic shortening. (United States)

    Yeo, Sang Hoon; Monroy, Jenna A; Lappin, A Kristopher; Nishikawa, Kiisa C; Pai, Dinesh K


    We investigated the effectiveness of simple, Hill-type, phenomenological models of the force-length-velocity relationship for simulating measured length trajectories during muscle shortening, and, if so, what forms of the model are most useful. Using isotonic shortening data from mouse soleus and toad depressor mandibulae muscles, we showed that Hill-type models can indeed simulate the shortening trajectories with sufficiently good accuracy. However, we found that the standard form of the Hill-type muscle model, called the force-scaling model, is not a satisfactory choice. Instead, the results support the use of less frequently used models, the f-max scaling model and force-scaling with parallel spring, to simulate the shortening dynamics of muscle.



    Maria Klimikova


    Understanding the reasons of the present financial problems lies In understanding the substance of fractional reserve banking. The substance of fractional banking is in lending more money than the bankers have. Banking of partial reserves is an alternative form which links deposit banking and credit banking. Fractional banking is causing many unfavorable economic impacts in the worldwide system, specifically an inflation.



    Maria Klimikova


    Understanding the reasons of the present financial problems lies In understanding the substance of fractional reserve banking. The substance of fractional banking is in lending more money than the bankers have. Banking of partial reserves is an alternative form which links deposit banking and credit banking. Fractional banking is causing many unfavorable economic impacts in the worldwide system, specifically an inflation.

  9. Fractional randomness (United States)

    Tapiero, Charles S.; Vallois, Pierre


    The premise of this paper is that a fractional probability distribution is based on fractional operators and the fractional (Hurst) index used that alters the classical setting of random variables. For example, a random variable defined by its density function might not have a fractional density function defined in its conventional sense. Practically, it implies that a distribution's granularity defined by a fractional kernel may have properties that differ due to the fractional index used and the fractional calculus applied to define it. The purpose of this paper is to consider an application of fractional calculus to define the fractional density function of a random variable. In addition, we provide and prove a number of results, defining the functional forms of these distributions as well as their existence. In particular, we define fractional probability distributions for increasing and decreasing functions that are right continuous. Examples are used to motivate the usefulness of a statistical approach to fractional calculus and its application to economic and financial problems. In conclusion, this paper is a preliminary attempt to construct statistical fractional models. Due to the breadth and the extent of such problems, this paper may be considered as an initial attempt to do so.

  10. Left ventricular dyssynchrony in patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, Angela B. S.; Kraigher-Krainer, Elisabeth; Bello, Natalie; Claggett, Brian; Zile, Michael R.; Pieske, Burkert; Voors, Adriaan A.; McMurray, John J. V.; Packer, Milton; Bransford, Toni; Lefkowitz, Marty; Shah, Amil M.; Solomon, Scott D.


    Aims Mechanical dyssynchrony has been postulated to play a pathophysiologic role in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Methods and results We quantified left ventricular (LV) systolic dyssynchrony in 130 HFpEF patients with NYHA class II-IV symptoms, ejection fraction (EF) 45, a

  11. Augmentation of deglutitive thyrohyoid muscle shortening by the Shaker Exercise. (United States)

    Mepani, Rachel; Antonik, Stephen; Massey, Benson; Kern, Mark; Logemann, Jerilyn; Pauloski, Barbara; Rademaker, Alfred; Easterling, Caryn; Shaker, Reza


    Earlier studies of the effect of 6 weeks of the Shaker Exercise have shown significant increase in UES opening and anterior excursion of larynx and hyoid during swallowing in patients with upper esophageal sphincter (UES) dysfunction, resulting in elimination of aspiration and resumption of oral intake. This effect is attributed to strengthening of the suprahyoid muscles, as evidenced by comparison of electromyographic changes in muscle fatigue before and after completion of the exercise regime. The effect of this exercise on thyrohyoid muscle shortening is unknown. Therefore the aim of this study was to determine the effect of the exercise on thyrohyoid muscle shortening. We studied 11 dysphagic patients with UES dysfunction. Six were randomized to traditional swallowing therapy and five to the Shaker Exercise. Videofluoroscopy was used to measure deglutitive thyrohyoid shortening before and after completion of assigned therapy regimen. Maximum thyrohyoid muscle shortening occurred at close temporal proximity to the time of maximal thyroid cartilage excursion. The percent change in thyrohyoid distance from initiation of deglutition to maximal anterior/superior hyoid excursion showed no statistically significant difference between the two groups prior to either therapy (p = 0.54). In contrast, after completion of therapy, the percent change in thyrohyoid distance in the Shaker Exercise group was significantly greater compared to the traditional therapy (p = 0.034). The Shaker Exercise augments the thyrohyoid muscle shortening in addition to strengthening the suprahyoid muscles. The combination of increased thyrohyoid shortening and suprahyoid strengthening contributes to the Shaker Exercise outcome of deglutitive UES opening augmentation.

  12. Consequences of crown shortening canine teeth in Greenland sled dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kortegaard, H E; Anthony Knudsen, T; Dahl, S


    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the consequences of crown shortening, focusing on the prevalence of pulp exposure and periapical pathology in Greenland sled dogs that had had their canine crowns shortened at an early age. METHODS: Five cadaver heads and 54 sled dogs underwent an oral examination for dental...... fractures and pulp exposure of canines. All canines were radiographed and evaluated for periapical pathology. RESULTS: The prevalence of canine pulp exposure in 12 (5 heads and 7 dogs) crown shortened dogs was 91 · 7%, and 21 · 3% in 47 not-crown shortened dogs. A significant (P ... exposure of the canines in the crown shortened group compared to the not-crown shortened group was seen with a relative risk of 4 · 3 on a dog basis and a relative risk of 12 · 2 on a tooth basis. In dogs with pulp exposure of canines (n = 51) the prevalence of periapical pathology was 82 · 4%, but only 0...

  13. Parámetros inmunitaríos en camarones juveniles lv en piscinas camaroneras infectadas con white spot syndrom virus


    Montesdeoca, Bélgica Mercedes; Ibarra, Eulalia; Rodríguez, Jenny


    Parámetros inmunitarios en camarones juveniles LV en piscinas camaroneras infectadas con White Spot Syndrom Virus Parámetros inmunitarios en camarones juveniles LV en piscinas camaroneras infectadas con White Spot Syndrom Virus

  14. Fractional thermoelasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Povstenko, Yuriy


    This book is devoted to fractional thermoelasticity, i.e. thermoelasticity based on the heat conduction equation with differential operators of fractional order. Readers will discover how time-fractional differential operators describe memory effects and space-fractional differential operators deal with the long-range interaction. Fractional calculus, generalized Fourier law, axisymmetric and central symmetric problems and many relevant equations are featured in the book. The latest developments in the field are included and the reader is brought up to date with current research.  The book contains a large number of figures, to show the characteristic features of temperature and stress distributions and to represent the whole spectrum of order of fractional operators.  This work presents a picture of the state-of-the-art of fractional thermoelasticity and is suitable for specialists in applied mathematics, physics, geophysics, elasticity, thermoelasticity and engineering sciences. Corresponding sections of ...

  15. A linear description of shortening induced changes in isometric length-force characteristics of rat muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, K.; Grootenboer, H.J.; Koopman, H.F.J.M.; Huijing, P.A.


    Active muscle shortening reduces the isometric force potential of muscle. This observation indicates that the isometric length-force characteristics are altered during muscle shortening. Post-shortening decrease in isometric force depends on starting length, shortening amplitude and shortening veloc

  16. Left Ventricle: Fully Automated Segmentation Based on Spatiotemporal Continuity and Myocardium Information in Cine Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging (LV-FAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijia Wang


    Full Text Available CMR quantification of LV chamber volumes typically and manually defines the basal-most LV, which adds processing time and user-dependence. This study developed an LV segmentation method that is fully automated based on the spatiotemporal continuity of the LV (LV-FAST. An iteratively decreasing threshold region growing approach was used first from the midventricle to the apex, until the LV area and shape discontinued, and then from midventricle to the base, until less than 50% of the myocardium circumference was observable. Region growth was constrained by LV spatiotemporal continuity to improve robustness of apical and basal segmentations. The LV-FAST method was compared with manual tracing on cardiac cine MRI data of 45 consecutive patients. Of the 45 patients, LV-FAST and manual selection identified the same apical slices at both ED and ES and the same basal slices at both ED and ES in 38, 38, 38, and 41 cases, respectively, and their measurements agreed within -1.6±8.7 mL, -1.4±7.8 mL, and 1.0±5.8% for EDV, ESV, and EF, respectively. LV-FAST allowed LV volume-time course quantitatively measured within 3 seconds on a standard desktop computer, which is fast and accurate for processing the cine volumetric cardiac MRI data, and enables LV filling course quantification over the cardiac cycle.

  17. Quantifying coronary sinus flow and global LV perfusion at 3T

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bloch Karin


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the large availability of 3T MR scanners and the potential of high field imaging, this technical platform has yet to prove its usefulness in the cardiac MR setting, where 1.5T remains the established standard. Global perfusion of the left ventricle, as well as the coronary flow reserve (CFR, can provide relevant diagnostic information, and MR measurements of these parameters may benefit from increased field strength. Quantitative flow measurements in the coronary sinus (CS provide one method to investigate these parameters. However, the ability of newly developed faster MR sequences to measure coronary flow during a breath-hold at 3T has not been evaluated. Methods The aim of this work was to measure CS flow using segmented phase contrast MR (PC MR on a clinical 3T MR scanner. Parallel imaging was employed to reduce the total acquisition time. Global LV perfusion was calculated by dividing CS flow with left ventricular (LV mass. The repeatability of the method was investigated by measuring the flow three times in each of the twelve volunteers. Phantom experiments were performed to investigate potential error sources. Results The average CS flow was determined to 88 ± 33 ml/min and the deduced LV perfusion was 0.60 ± 0.22 ml/min·g, in agreement with published values. The repeatability (1-error of the three repeated measurements in each subject was on average 84%. Conclusion This work demonstrates that the combination of high field strength (3T, parallel imaging and segmented gradient echo sequences allow for quantification of the CS flow and global perfusion within a breath-hold.

  18. Reduction of low voltage power cables electromagnetic field emission in MV/LV substations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltran San Segundo, Hector [Dpt. Industrial Systems Engineering and Design, Campus del Riu Sec, Universitat Jaume I, 12071 Castello (Spain); Fuster Roig, Vicente [Instituto de Tecnologia Electrica, Avda. Juan de la Cierva 24, Parc Tecnologic de Valencia, 46980 Paterna (Spain)


    In this paper a solution to reduce magnetic field emission levels generated by MV/LV substation power cables is proposed. The reduction is obtained by the arrangement of the phases in a proper way and by shielding the cables with magnetic or conductive materials. The effects introduced by these two options have been analyzed by means of simulations, using finite elements method calculation software, and by experimental measurements. The introduced results allow selecting an optimal arrangement and the best screening material in order to reduce the magnetic fields in those directions required to protect. (author)

  19. Clustered PV Inverters in LV Networks: An Overview of Impacts and Comparison of Voltage Control Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demirok, Erhan; Sera, Dezso; Teodorescu, Remus;


    and power quality must be maintained or improved by adding cooperative control features to the grid-connected inverters. This paper first gives an overview of bilateral impacts between multiple distributed generations (DG) and grid. Regarding of these impacts, recent advances in static grid voltage support......High penetration of photovoltaic (PV) inverters in low voltage (LV) distribution network challenges the voltage stability due to interaction between multiple inverters and grid. As the main objective is to provide more power injection from VSC-based PV inverters, grid stability, reliability...

  20. Power flow analysis for droop controlled LV hybrid AC-DC microgrids with virtual impedance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chendan; Chaudhary, Sanjay; Vasquez, Juan Carlos


    The AC-DC hybrid microgrid is an effective form of utilizing different energy resources and the analysis of this system requires a proper power flow algorithm. This paper proposes a suitable power flow algorithm for LV hybrid AC-DC microgrid based on droop control and virtual impedance. Droop...... and virtual impedance concepts for AC network, DC network and interlinking converter are reviewed so as to model it in the power flow analysis. The validation of the algorithm is verified by comparing it with steady state results from detailed time domain simulation. The effectiveness of the proposed...

  1. Rapid bioassay-guided screening of toxic substances in vegetable oils that shorten the life of SHRSP rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewandowski Paul


    Full Text Available Abstract It has been consistently reported that vegetable oils including canola oil have a life shortening effect in Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHRSP and this toxic effect is not due to the fatty acid composition of the oil. Although it is possible that the phytosterol content or type of phytosterol present in vegetable oils may play some role in the life shortening effect observed in SHRSP rats this is still not completely resolved. Furthermore supercritical CO2 fractionation of canola oil with subsequent testing in SHRSP rats identified safe and toxic fractions however, the compounds responsible for life shortening effect were not characterised. The conventional approach to screen toxic substances in oils using rats takes more than six months and involves large number of animals. In this article we describe how rapid bioassay-guided screening could be used to identify toxic substances derived from vegetable oils and/or processed foods fortified with vegetable oils. The technique incorporates sequential fractionation of oils/processed foods and subsequent treatment of human cell lines that can be used in place of animal studies to determine cytotoxicity of the fractions with structural elucidation of compounds of interest determined via HPLC-MS and GC-MS. The rapid bioassay-guided screening proposed would require two weeks to test multiple fractions from oils, compared with six months if animal experiments were used to screen toxic effects. Fractionation of oil before bio-assay enhances the effectiveness of the detection of active compounds as fractionation increases the relative concentration of minor components.

  2. Rapid bioassay-guided screening of toxic substances in vegetable oils that shorten the life of SHRSP rats. (United States)

    Ratnayake, Sunil; Lewandowski, Paul


    It has been consistently reported that vegetable oils including canola oil have a life shortening effect in Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHRSP) and this toxic effect is not due to the fatty acid composition of the oil. Although it is possible that the phytosterol content or type of phytosterol present in vegetable oils may play some role in the life shortening effect observed in SHRSP rats this is still not completely resolved. Furthermore supercritical CO2 fractionation of canola oil with subsequent testing in SHRSP rats identified safe and toxic fractions however, the compounds responsible for life shortening effect were not characterised. The conventional approach to screen toxic substances in oils using rats takes more than six months and involves large number of animals. In this article we describe how rapid bioassay-guided screening could be used to identify toxic substances derived from vegetable oils and/or processed foods fortified with vegetable oils. The technique incorporates sequential fractionation of oils/processed foods and subsequent treatment of human cell lines that can be used in place of animal studies to determine cytotoxicity of the fractions with structural elucidation of compounds of interest determined via HPLC-MS and GC-MS. The rapid bioassay-guided screening proposed would require two weeks to test multiple fractions from oils, compared with six months if animal experiments were used to screen toxic effects. Fractionation of oil before bio-assay enhances the effectiveness of the detection of active compounds as fractionation increases the relative concentration of minor components.

  3. Association of left ventricular mechanical dyssynchrony with survival benefit from revascularization: a study of gated positron emission tomography in patients with ischemic LV dysfunction and narrow QRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AlJaroudi, Wael [Imaging Institute, Heart and Vascular, Cleveland, OH (United States); Sydell and Arnold Miller Family Heart and Vascular Institute, Robert and Suzanne Tomsich Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Cleveland, OH (United States); Alraies, M.C. [Cleveland Clinic, Department of Hospital Medicine, Cleveland, OH (United States); Hachamovitch, Rory; Jaber, Wael A.; Brunken, Richard; Cerqueira, Manuel D.; Marwick, Thomas [Imaging Institute, Heart and Vascular, Cleveland, OH (United States)


    LV mechanical dyssynchrony (LVMD) is a risk marker in narrow QRS cardiomyopathy, but its association with treatment outcome is not well defined. We determined the incremental prognostic value of LVMD in ischemic cardiomyopathy, and assessed its interaction with scar, myocardium in jeopardy and subsequent revascularization. Stress and rest {sup 82}Rb gated PET were performed in 486 consecutive patients (66 {+-} 11 years of age, 82 % men, LV ejection fraction 26 {+-} 6 %) with ischemic cardiomyopathy and QRS <120 ms. LVMD was determined as the standard deviation (SD) of the regional time to minimum volume on phase analysis of the gated PET scan. A propensity score was determined to adjust for nonrandomized referral after imaging to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). In a Cox proportional hazards model used to determine the association between measures of LVMD and survival time, CABG was included as a time-dependent covariate and the use of an implantable cardiac defibrillator (ICD) after imaging was modeled as a stratification factor. Over 1.9 {+-} 1.4 years, 96 patients (20 %) underwent CABG and 108 (22 %) died. LVMD was a predictor of mortality (HR 1.16. 95 % CI 1.03;1.30, per 10 increase in phase SD, p = 0.02) after adjusting for baseline covariates, prior ICD use, the use of postimaging CABG, and other imaging data. There was a significant interaction between phase SD and CABG. Nested Cox models showed that LVMD carried prognostic information incremental to clinical variables, ejection fraction and CABG. LVMD is an independent predictor of all-cause mortality in ischemic cardiomyopathy, and may identify patients with a differential survival benefit from CABG versus medical therapy. (orig.)

  4. Impaired left ventricular global longitudinal strain in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: insights from the RELAX trial. (United States)

    DeVore, Adam D; McNulty, Steven; Alenezi, Fawaz; Ersboll, Mads; Vader, Justin M; Oh, Jae K; Lin, Grace; Redfield, Margaret M; Lewis, Gregory; Semigran, Marc J; Anstrom, Kevin J; Hernandez, Adrian F; Velazquez, Eric J


    While abnormal left ventricular (LV) global longitudinal strain (GLS) has been described in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), its prevalence and clinical significance are poorly understood. Patients enrolled in the RELAX trial of sildenafil in HFpEF (LV ejection fraction ≥50%) in whom two-dimensional, speckle-tracking LV GLS was possible (n = 187) were analysed. The distribution of LV GLS and its associations with clinical characteristics, LV structure and function, biomarkers, exercise capacity and quality of life were assessed. Baseline median LV GLS was -14.6% (25th and 75th percentile, -17.0% and -11.9%, respectively) and abnormal (≥ - 16%) in 122/187 (65%) patients. Patients in the tertile with the best LV GLS had lower N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) [median 505 pg/mL (161, 1065) vs. 875 pg/mL (488, 1802), P = 0.008) and lower collagen III N-terminal propeptide (PIIINP) levels [median 6.7 µg/L (5.1, 8.1) vs. 8.1 µg/L (6.5, 10.5), P = 0.001] compared with the tertile with the worst LV GLS. There was also a modest linear relationship with LV GLS and log-transformed NT-proBNP and PIIINP (r = 0.29, P < 0.001 and r = 0.19, P = 0.009, respectively). We observed no linear association of LV GLS with Minnesota Living with Heart Failure scores, 6-min walk distance, peak oxygen consumption, or expiratory minute ventilation/carbon dioxide excretion slope. Impaired LV GLS is common among HFpEF patients, indicating the presence of covert systolic dysfunction despite normal LV ejection fraction. Impaired LV GLS was associated with biomarkers of wall stress and collagen synthesis and diastolic dysfunction but not with quality of life or exercise capacity, suggesting other processes may be more responsible for these aspects of the HFpEF syndrome. © 2017 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure © 2017 European Society of Cardiology.

  5. Frying performance of palm-based solid frying shortening. (United States)

    Omar, M N; Nor-Nazuha, M N; Nor-Dalilah, M N; Sahri, M M


    In order to evaluate the frying performance of palm-based solid frying shortening against standard olein, the fresh potato chips were fried in both frying media using an open fryer. After frying the chips for 40 h in an open batch fryer, it was found that the frying quality of palm-based solid frying shortening was better than standard palm olein in terms of Free Fatty Acid (FFA) values, Total Polar Content (TPC) and Total Polymeric Material (TPM). Solid shortening gave FFA, TPC and TPM values of 0.7, 15.3 and 2.67%, respectively, whilst standard palm olein gave values for FFA, TPC and TPM of 1.2, 19.6 and 3.10%, respectively. In terms of sensory mean scores, sensory panelists preferred the color of potato chips fried in solid shortening on the first day of frying, while on the third and fifth day of frying there were no significant differences (p palm olein when used for deep fat frying in terms of FFA values, total polar content and total polymeric material, especially for starch-based products such as potato chips. The result also shows that, in terms of sensory mean scores, after frying for 40 h, the sensory panelists gave higher scores in terms of taste, flavor and crispiness for potato chips fried in palm-based solid shortening.

  6. Diastolic relaxation and compliance reserve during dynamic exercise in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. (United States)

    Borlaug, Barry A; Jaber, Wissam A; Ommen, Steve R; Lam, Carolyn S P; Redfield, Margaret M; Nishimura, Rick A


    Recent studies have examined haemodynamic changes with stressors such as isometric handgrip and rapid atrial pacing in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), but little is known regarding left ventricular (LV) pressure-volume responses during dynamic exercise. To assess LV haemodynamic responses to dynamic exercise in patients with HFpEF. Twenty subjects with normal ejection fraction (EF) and exertional dyspnoea underwent invasive haemodynamic assessment during dynamic exercise to evaluate suspected HFpEF. LV end-diastolic pressure was elevated at rest (>15 mm Hg, n=18) and with exercise (≥20 mm Hg, n=20) in all subjects, consistent with HFpEF. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure, arterial elastance and cardiac output increased with exercise (all pincreased by 43-56% with exercise (both pincreases in HR and the proportion of diastole that elapsed prior to estimated complete relaxation increased (pincreased 50% during exercise (p=0.0003). Exercise increases in LV filling pressures correlated with changes in diastolic relaxation rates, chamber stiffness and arterial afterload but were not related to alterations in preload volume, HR or cardiac output. In patients with newly diagnosed HFpEF, LV filling pressures increase during dynamic exercise in association with inadequate enhancement of relaxation and acute increases in LV chamber stiffness. Therapies that enhance diastolic reserve function may improve symptoms of exertional intolerance in patients with hypertensive heart disease and early HFpEF.

  7. An efficient method for accurate segmentation of LV in contrast-enhanced cardiac MR images (United States)

    Suryanarayana K., Venkata; Mitra, Abhishek; Srikrishnan, V.; Jo, Hyun Hee; Bidesi, Anup


    Segmentation of left ventricle (LV) in contrast-enhanced cardiac MR images is a challenging task because of high variability in the image intensity. This is due to a) wash-in and wash-out of the contrast agent over time and b) poor contrast around the epicardium (outer wall) region. Current approaches for segmentation of the endocardium (inner wall) usually involve application of a threshold within the region of interest, followed by refinement techniques like active contours. A limitation of this method is under-segmentation of the inner wall because of gradual loss of contrast at the wall boundary. On the other hand, the challenge in outer wall segmentation is the lack of reliable boundaries because of poor contrast. There are four main contributions in this paper to address the aforementioned issues. First, a seed image is selected using variance based approach on 4D time-frame images over which initial endocardium and epicardium is segmented. Secondly, we propose a patch based feature which overcomes the problem of gradual contrast loss for LV endocardium segmentation. Third, we propose a novel Iterative-Edge-Refinement (IER) technique for epicardium segmentation. Fourth, we propose a greedy search algorithm for propagating the initial contour segmented on seed-image across other time frame images. We have experimented our technique on five contrast-enhanced cardiac MR Datasets (4D) having a total of 1097 images. The segmentation results for all 1097 images have been visually inspected by a clinical expert and have shown good accuracy.

  8. ATP synthase subunit alpha and LV mass in ischaemic human hearts. (United States)

    Roselló-Lletí, Esther; Tarazón, Estefanía; Barderas, María G; Ortega, Ana; Molina-Navarro, Maria Micaela; Martínez, Alba; Lago, Francisca; Martínez-Dolz, Luis; González-Juanatey, Jose Ramón; Salvador, Antonio; Portolés, Manuel; Rivera, Miguel


    Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a critical role in the development of ischaemic cardiomyopathy (ICM). In this study, the mitochondrial proteome in the cardiac tissue of ICM patients was analysed by quantitative differential electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and mass spectrometry (MS) for the first time to provide new insights into cardiac dysfunction in this cardiomyopathy. We isolated mitochondria from LV samples of explanted hearts of ICM patients (n = 8) and control donors (n = 8) and used a proteomic approach to investigate the variations in mitochondrial protein expression. We found that most of the altered proteins were involved in cardiac energy metabolism (82%). We focused on ATPA, which is involved in energy production, and dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase, implicated in substrate utilization, and observed that these molecules were overexpressed and that the changes detected in the processes mediated by these proteins were closely related. Notably, we found that ATPA overexpression was associated with reduction in LV mass (r = -0.74, P ATPA could serve as a molecular target suitable for new therapeutic interventions.

  9. Solution to avoid unwanted trips for PV systems connected to LV network facing voltage sags

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Thi Minh, Chau; Tran-Quoc, Tuan; Kieny, Christophe [IDEA, Saint-Martin-d' Heres (France); Bacha, Seddik [Grenoble Electric Engineering Laboratory, Saint-Martin-d' Heres (France); Cabanac, Philippe; Grenard, Sebastien [Electricite de France, Clamart (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches; Goulielmakis, David [Schneider Electric, Grenoble (France). Projects and Engineering Center


    Most of photovoltaic (PV) systems connected to low voltage (LV) distribution networks have a single-phase connection. The analysis of the behavior of these single-phase connection. The analysis of the behavior of these single-phase PV inverters facing voltage sags caused by short circuits is of major concern. These behaviors depend on fault types, fault location, types of grid architecture, grid protection systems (with or without auto-recloser system) and PV protection types. Therefore, the first investigation of this work is to study comprehensively the behaviors of PV systems connected to real LV networks facing voltage sags in different scenarios by taking into account the real network protection. Furthermore, future power systems with a large share of PV systems connected could be severely affected if several of the PV systems are tripping at the same instant. From these results of simulation, unwanted trip cases, due to the disconnection protection of PV systems are identified. Finally, a simple efficient solution by using the voltage-time characteristic for PV system is proposed. The validation by simulations shows the efficiency of the proposed solution. (orig.)

  10. Classification of LV wall motion in cardiac MRI using kernel Dictionary Learning with a parametric approach. (United States)

    Mantilla, Juan; Paredes, Jose; Bellanger, Jean-J; Donal, Erwan; Leclercq, Christophe; Medina, Ruben; Garreau, Mireille


    In this paper, we propose a parametric approach for the assessment of wall motion in Left Ventricle (LV) function in cardiac cine-Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Time-signal intensity curves (TSICs) are identified in Spatio-temporal image profiles extracted from different anatomical segments in a cardiac MRI sequence. Different parameters are constructed from specific TSICs that present a decreasing then increasing shape reflecting dynamic information of the LV contraction. The parameters extracted from these curves are related to: 1) an average curve based on a clustering process, 2) curve skewness and 3) cross correlation values between each average clustered curve and a patient-specific reference. Several tests are performed in order to construct different vectors to train a sparse classifier based on kernel Dictionary Learning (DL). Results are compared with other classifiers like Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Discriminative Dictionary Learning. The best classification performance is obtained with information of skewness and the average curve with an accuracy about 94% using the mentioned sparse based kernel DL with a radial basis function kernel.

  11. Shortening induced effects on force (re)development in pig urinary smooth muscle


    van Asselt, Els; Pel, Johan; van Mastrigt, Ron


    textabstractIntroduction: When muscle is allowed to shorten during an active contraction, the maximum force that redevelops after shortening is smaller than the isometric force at the same muscle length without prior shortening. We studied the course of force redevelopment after shortening in smooth muscle to unravel the mechanism responsible for this deactivation. Method: In a first series of measurements the shortening velocity was varied resulting in different shortening amplitudes. In a s...

  12. Trans Fatty Acid content in Danish margarines and shortenings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Torben; Bysted, Anette; Hansen, Kirsten


    in shortenings, averaging about 6-7%. Long-chain TFA from hydrogenated,fish oil, although present in 13 brands in 1995, were not found at all in the 1999 samples. Trans-linoleic acids or CLA were not found. The reduction in TFA content in margarines has not resulted in a systematic change over the years......Margarines and shortenings have been major contributors to the intake by humans of the probably atherogenic trans FA (TFA). In 1999, all 73 brands of margarines and shortenings on the Danish market were analyzed by GLC on a 50-m highly polar capillary column, and the results were compared...... in the content of saturated FA, monounsaturated FA, or PUFA. Calculated from sales figures, the intake of TFA decreased from 2.2 g per capita per year in 1992, to 1.5 g in 1995, and to 0.4 g in, 1999....

  13. Fractional motions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliazar, Iddo I., E-mail: [Holon Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 305, Holon 58102 (Israel); Shlesinger, Michael F., E-mail: [Office of Naval Research, Code 30, 875 N. Randolph St., Arlington, VA 22203 (United States)


    Brownian motion is the archetypal model for random transport processes in science and engineering. Brownian motion displays neither wild fluctuations (the “Noah effect”), nor long-range correlations (the “Joseph effect”). The quintessential model for processes displaying the Noah effect is Lévy motion, the quintessential model for processes displaying the Joseph effect is fractional Brownian motion, and the prototypical model for processes displaying both the Noah and Joseph effects is fractional Lévy motion. In this paper we review these four random-motion models–henceforth termed “fractional motions” –via a unified physical setting that is based on Langevin’s equation, the Einstein–Smoluchowski paradigm, and stochastic scaling limits. The unified setting explains the universal macroscopic emergence of fractional motions, and predicts–according to microscopic-level details–which of the four fractional motions will emerge on the macroscopic level. The statistical properties of fractional motions are classified and parametrized by two exponents—a “Noah exponent” governing their fluctuations, and a “Joseph exponent” governing their dispersions and correlations. This self-contained review provides a concise and cohesive introduction to fractional motions.

  14. Challenges in Shortening New Product Introduction in the Pharmaceutical Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Reinholdt Nyhuus; Grunow, Martin


    Drug developing companies are forced to utilize the effective protection of the patent by focusing on shortening the new product introduction [NPI] process measured as Time-to-Market [TTM]. Here the NPI process is considered and the trade-offs, which have to be address in the future are identifie...

  15. Telomere shortening reduces Alzheimer's disease amyloid pathology in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rolyan, Harshvardhan; Scheffold, Annika; Heinrich, Annette; Begus-Nahrmann, Yvonne; Langkopf, Britta Heike; Hoelter, Sabine M.; Vogt-Weisenhorn, Daniela M.; Liss, Birgit; Wurst, Wolfgang; Lie, Dieter Chichung; Thal, Dietmar Rudolf; Biber, Knut; Rudolph, Karl Lenhard

    Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder of the elderly and advancing age is the major risk factor for Alzheimer's disease development. Telomere shortening represents one of the molecular causes of ageing that limits the proliferative capacity of cells, including neural stem cells.

  16. A technique for nailing severely shortened and displaced tibia fractures. (United States)

    Krause, Peter C; Whatley, Adam N; Mautner, James F


    Previously described techniques using external fixators or large distractors can simplify the closed nailing of tibia fractures and nonunions. However, delayed intramedullary nailing can be especially challenging when significant shortening or translation has occurred. We present a modification of an old technique for external fixator-assisted closed tibial nailing in these difficult cases.

  17. Cellular Consequences of Telomere Shortening in Histologically Normal Breast Tissues (United States)


    in Figure 1, telomere shortening occurs specifically in luminal epithelial cells, but not in myoepithelial cells, in histologically normal terminal...the adjacent myoepithelial cells (panel A). In contrast, some TDLUs demonstrate dim telomere signals in the luminal cells when compared to the...adjacent myoepithelial cells (panel B). Through digital image analysis, quantitative determination of the telomere FISH signals confirms this moderated

  18. Telomere shortening reduces Alzheimer's disease amyloid pathology in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rolyan, Harshvardhan; Scheffold, Annika; Heinrich, Annette; Begus-Nahrmann, Yvonne; Langkopf, Britta Heike; Hoelter, Sabine M.; Vogt-Weisenhorn, Daniela M.; Liss, Birgit; Wurst, Wolfgang; Lie, Dieter Chichung; Thal, Dietmar Rudolf; Biber, Knut; Rudolph, Karl Lenhard


    Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder of the elderly and advancing age is the major risk factor for Alzheimer's disease development. Telomere shortening represents one of the molecular causes of ageing that limits the proliferative capacity of cells, including neural stem cells. Studie

  19. Residual force enhancement following shortening is speed-dependent (United States)

    Fortuna, Rafael; Power, Geoffrey A.; Mende, Esther; Seiberl, Wolfgang; Herzog, Walter


    The steady-state isometric force following active muscle shortening or lengthening is smaller (force depression; FD) or greater (residual force enhancement; RFE) than a purely isometric contraction at the corresponding length. The mechanisms underlying these phenomena are not explained within the context of the cross-bridge theory and are rarely studied in concert. Previous studies have shown RFE to be speed-independent. In the present study, we investigated if RFE preceded by active shortening is time-dependent by electrically evoking RFE in the human adductor pollicis muscle. The results shown that a slow stretch following FD fully re-established RFE compared to higher speeds of stretch. The mechanism(s) responsible for the recovery of RFE following a preceding shortening contraction (FD) might be associated with the recovery of cross-bridge based force and/or the re-engagement of a passive structural element (titin). Voluntary interaction with one’s environment involves highly coordinated shortening and lengthening muscle contractions. Therefore comprehending these history-dependent muscle properties in the context of movement control is paramount in understanding the behavior of in vivo motor control. PMID:26869508

  20. Current status of the Citrus leprosis virus (CiLV -C and its vector Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo León M


    Full Text Available The Citrus leprosis virus CiLV-C is a quarantine disease of economic importance. Over the past 15 years, this disease has spread to several countries of Central and South America. Colombia has about 45,000 hectares of citrus planted with an annual production of 750,000 tonnes. The CiLV-C has only been detected in the departments of Meta, Casanare and recently Tolima. Meta has 4,300 hectares representing 10% of the national cultivated area, and Casanare, where CiLV-C appeared in 2004, has no more than 500 ha planted with citrus. The presence of the Citrus leprosis virus in Colombia could affect the international market for citrus, other crops and ornamental plants with the United States and other countries without the disease. The false spider mite Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes (Acari: Tenuipalpidae is the main vector of the CiLV-C. Disease management is based on control programs of the vector and diminishing host plants. Chemical mite control is expensive, wasteful and generates resistance to different acaricides. This paper provides basic information on CiLV-C and its vector, advances in diagnosis and methods to control the disease and prevention of its spread

  1. 一种新的LV-BPL宽带通信系统仿真%Simulation of Digital Fountain Concatenated Coding Wavelet-Packet-Based Broadband System in LV-BPL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨航; 茹乐; 杜兴民; 唐红



  2. Polymer fractionation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadermann, A. F.


    Soluble polymers are fractionated according to molecular weight by cryogenically comminuting the polymer and introducing the polymer particles, while still in the active state induced by cryogenic grinding, into a liquid having a solvent power selected to produce a coacervate fraction containing high molecular weight polymer species and a dilute polymer solution containing lower molecular weight polymer species. The coacervate may be physically separated from the solution and finds use in the production of antimisting jet fuels and the like.

  3. Extinction in SC galaxies - an analysis of the ESO-LV data (United States)

    Huizinga, J. E.; van Albada, T. S.


    The surface photometry of Sc galaxies in the ESO-LV database in view of recent claims by Valentijn that spiral galaxies are opaque over their entire disks is analyzed. Using diameter-limited and magnitude-limited subsamples, it can discriminate between the opaque and transparent cases with the axis-ratio distribution test. Results support the traditional view that Sc galaxies are semitransparent, but the brightness difference between face-on and edge-on can be as large as 1.0 to 1.5 mag. Analyzing surface-brightness profiles at various radii, it is seen that the central regions are essentially opaque, and the outer regions nearly fully transparent. It is shown that conclusions differ from those of Valentijn, because of neglect to take secondary inclination effects into account.

  4. Efficient Control of Energy Storage for Increasing the PV Hosting Capacity of LV Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashemi Toghroljerdi, Seyedmostafa; Østergaard, Jacob


    hosting capacity of LV grids by determining dynamic set points for EESS management. The method has the effectiveness of central control methods and can effectively decrease the energy storage required for overvoltage prevention, yet it eliminates the need for a broadband and fast communication. The net...... power injected into the grid and the amount of reactive power absorbed by PV inverters are estimated using the PV generation forecast and load consumption forecast, and the dynamic operating points for energy storage management are determined for a specific period of time by solving a linear...... grid is usually limited by overvoltage, and the efficient control of distributed electrical energy storage systems (EESSs) can considerably increase this capacity. In this paper, a new control approach based on the voltage sensitivity analysis is proposed to prevent overvoltage and increase the PV...

  5. Estimation of Maximum Allowable PV Connection to LV Residential Power Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demirok, Erhan; Sera, Dezso; Teodorescu, Remus


    transformer or using solar inverters with new grid support features. This study presents a methodology for the estimation of maximum PV hosting capacity including IEC 60076-7 based thermal model of distribution transformer. Certain part of a real distribution network of Braedstrup suburban area in Denmark...... is used in simulation as a case study model. Furthermore, varying solutions (utilizing thermally upgraded insulation paper in transformers, reactive power services from solar inverters, etc.) are implemented on the network under investigation to examine PV penetration level and finally key results learnt......Maximum photovoltaic (PV) hosting capacity of low voltage (LV) power networks is mainly restricted by either thermal limits of network components or grid voltage quality resulted from high penetration of distributed PV systems. This maximum hosting capacity may be lower than the available solar...

  6. Telomere shortening may be associated with human keloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Robert R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Keloids are benign skin tumors that are the effect of a dysregulated wound-healing process in genetically predisposed patients. They are inherited with an autosomal dominant mode with incomplete clinical penetrance and variable expression. Keloids are characterized by formation of excess scar tissue beyond the boundaries of the wound. The exact etiology is still unknown and there is currently no appropriate treatment for keloid disease. Methods We analyzed sample tissues were obtained from 20 patients with keloid skin lesions and normal skin was obtained from 20 healthy donors. The telomeres were measured by Terminal Restriction Fragment (TRF analysis and Real-Time PCR assay. Quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR analysis of hTERT gene expression was performed and intracellular ROS generation was measured. Results In this study, we determined whether telomeric shortening and the expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT occurs in keloid patients. Using Terminal Restriction Fragment (TRF analysis and Real-Time PCR assay, we detected a significant telomere shortening of 30% in keloid specimens compared to normal skin. Using quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR, telomerase activity was found absent in the keloid tissues. Moreover, an increase in ROS generation was detected in fibroblasts cell cultures from keloid specimens as more time elapsed compared to fibroblasts from normal skin. Conclusion Telomere shortening has been reported in several metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. We found that telomere shortening can also be associated with human keloids. Chronic oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathophysiology of several chronic inflammatory diseases. Here we found increased ROS generation in fibroblasts from keloid fibroblasts cell cultures when compared to normal skin fibroblasts. Hence we conclude that oxidative stress might be an important modulator of telomere loss in keloid because of the absence of active

  7. Curva de rotação óptica de ESO-LV 5100550 (United States)

    Carvalho, D. B.; Soares, D. S. L.


    ESO-LV 5100550 é o membro mais fraco do par de galáxias austral SBG 357 (Soares et al. 1995). É classificada no catálogo RC3 como uma espiral ordinária de tipo inicial (early-type); porém, uma análise morfológica sugere que ela tenha uma grande barra. O objetivo do estudo é determinar sua cinemática de tal modo que possamos inferir mais a respeito de sua dinâmica, provavelmente perturbada, já que se espera que esteja sob forte influência da companheira ESO-LV 5100560. Apresentarei resultados parciais determinados a partir de espectros obtidos com o instrumento Double Spectrograph montado no telescópio Hale do Monte Palomar, EUA. As observações foram realizadas por D.S.L. Soares, P.M.V. Veiga e T.E. Nordgren, em 1998. Foram tomados espectros de fenda longa posicionada sobre a linha dos nodos do disco e ao longo da suposta barra. Os dados foram reduzidos com uso do pacote IRAF. Obtivemos o perfil de velocidades radiais na linha de visada ao longo das fendas e calculamos o desvio para o vermelho cosmológico do sistema, com base no espectro central. Determinamos as curvas de rotação deprojetadas, com base em cálculos para os valores teóricos esperados das componentes de velocidades puramente circulares em um disco inclinado. A inclinação do disco, dado fundamental nesta deprojeção, foi estimada através da média das elipticidades das isofotas mais externas.

  8. Impact of Distributed Generation Grid Code Requirements on Islanding Detection in LV Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Bignucolo


    Full Text Available The recent growing diffusion of dispersed generation in low voltage (LV distribution networks is entailing new rules to make local generators participate in network stability. Consequently, national and international grid codes, which define the connection rules for stability and safety of electrical power systems, have been updated requiring distributed generators and electrical storage systems to supply stabilizing contributions. In this scenario, specific attention to the uncontrolled islanding issue has to be addressed since currently required anti-islanding protection systems, based on relays locally measuring voltage and frequency, could no longer be suitable. In this paper, the effects on the interface protection performance of different LV generators’ stabilizing functions are analysed. The study takes into account existing requirements, such as the generators’ active power regulation (according to the measured frequency and reactive power regulation (depending on the local measured voltage. In addition, the paper focuses on other stabilizing features under discussion, derived from the medium voltage (MV distribution network grid codes or proposed in the literature, such as fast voltage support (FVS and inertia emulation. Stabilizing functions have been reproduced in the DIgSILENT PowerFactory 2016 software environment, making use of its native programming language. Later, they are tested both alone and together, aiming to obtain a comprehensive analysis on their impact on the anti-islanding protection effectiveness. Through dynamic simulations in several network scenarios the paper demonstrates the detrimental impact that such stabilizing regulations may have on loss-of-main protection effectiveness, leading to an increased risk of unintentional islanding.

  9. Understanding Multiplication of Fractions. (United States)

    Sweetland, Robert D.


    Discussed the use of Cuisenaire rods in teaching the multiplication of fractions. Considers whole number times proper fraction, proper fraction multiplied by proper fraction, mixed number times proper fraction, and mixed fraction multiplied by mixed fractions. (JN)

  10. Shortening induced effects on force (re)development in pig urinary smooth muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. van Asselt (Els); J.J.M. Pel (Johan); R. van Mastrigt (Ron)


    textabstractIntroduction: When muscle is allowed to shorten during an active contraction, the maximum force that redevelops after shortening is smaller than the isometric force at the same muscle length without prior shortening. We studied the course of force redevelopment after shortening in smooth

  11. Decoupled external forces in a predictor-corrector segmentation scheme for LV contours in Tagged MR images. (United States)

    Garcia-Barnes, Jaume; Andaluz, Albert; Carreras, Francesc; Gil, Debora


    Computation of functional regional scores requires proper identification of LV contours. On one hand, manual segmentation is robust, but it is time consuming and requires high expertise. On the other hand, the tag pattern in TMR sequences is a problem for automatic segmentation of LV boundaries. We propose a segmentation method based on a predictor-corrector (Active Contours - Shape Models) scheme. Special stress is put in the definition of the AC external forces. First, we introduce a semantic description of the LV that discriminates myocardial tissue by using texture and motion descriptors. Second, in order to ensure convergence regardless of the initial contour, the external energy is decoupled according to the orientation of the edges in the image potential. We have validated the model in terms of error in segmented contours and accuracy of regional clinical scores.

  12. Methods for Shortening and Extending the Carbon Chain in Carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monrad, Rune Nygaard


    Carbohydrates play a central role in a variety of physiological and pathological processes such as HIV, cancer and diabetes. The understanding of these processes and the development of specific therapeutic agents is relying on the ability to chemically synthesize unnatural sugars, glycoconjugates...... and carbohydrate mimetics. Such polyhydroxylated compounds are conveniently synthesized from carbohydrates, however, due to the scarcity of many sugars from nature, efficient methods for transformation of readily available carbohydrates into valuable chiral building blocks are required. The work presented...... in this thesis focuses on the development and application of transition metal mediated methods for shortening and extending the carbon chain in carbohydrates thereby providing access to lower and higher sugars.A new catalytic procedure for shortening unprotected sugars by one carbon atom has been developed...

  13. Fractionated Marine Invertebrate Extract Libraries for Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris M. Ireland


    Full Text Available The high-throughput screening and drug discovery paradigm has necessitated a change in preparation of natural product samples for screening programs. In an attempt to improve the quality of marine natural products samples for screening, several fractionation strategies were investigated. The final method used HP20SS as a solid support to effectively desalt extracts and fractionate the organic components. Additionally, methods to integrate an automated LCMS fractionation approach to shorten discovery time lines have been implemented.

  14. Estimation of circumferential fiber shortening velocity by echocardiography. (United States)

    Ruschhaupt, D G; Sodt, P C; Hutcheon, N A; Arcilla, R A


    The M-mode and two-dimensional echocardiograms of 40 young patients were analyzed to compare the mean circumferential fiber shortening velocity (Vcf) of the left ventricle calculated separately by two methods. The mean circumferential fiber shortening velocity was derived from the M-mode echocardiogram as minor axis shortening/ejection time and derived from the two-dimensional echocardiogram as actual circumference change/ejection time. With computer assistance, circumference was determined from the short-axis two-dimensional echocardiographic images during end-diastole and end-systole. Good correlations were obtained between the left ventricular diameter derived by M-mode echocardiography and the vertical axis during end-diastole (r = 0.79) and end-systole (r = 0.88) derived by two-dimensional echocardiography. Likewise, high correlations were noted between diameter and circumference in end-diastole (r = 0.89) and end-systole (r = 0.88). However, comparison of Vcf obtained by M-mode echocardiography with that obtained by two-dimensional echocardiography showed only fair correlation (r = 0.68). Moreover, the diameter/circumference ratio determined in end-diastole and end-systole differed significantly (p less than 0.001), possibly owing to the change in geometry of the ventricular sector image during systole. Although Vcf derived by M-mode echocardiography is a useful index of left ventricular performance, it does not truly reflect the circumference change during systole.

  15. Meat toughening does not occur when rigor shortening is prevented. (United States)

    Koohmaraie, M; Doumit, M E; Wheeler, T L


    The objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that meat toughening during the first 24 h postmortem results from sarcomere shortening during rigor mortis development. Eleven market-weight lambs were used to measure changes in shear force of clamped longissimus during rigor development. Within 15 min of exsanguination, while attached at both ends, each longissimus was separated from the vertebrae body and clamped between three sets of metal plates to prevent muscle shortening (six clamped sections per lamb). Five of the clamped sections were placed at -1.1 degrees C for 0, 3, 6, 12, or 24 h. After storage at their respective times at -1.1 degrees C, the samples were placed at -30 degrees C for 90 min and then at -5 degrees C for 8 d. The sixth section (168-h section) was stored at -1.1 degrees C for the first 24 h, at 4 degrees C for 144 h, and then treated the same as other sampling times. Sections were sampled for pH, sarcomere length, shear force, and Western blot analyses before and after storage at -5 degrees C. Shear force values were the same (P > .05) from 0 to 24 h (4.5 kg at 0 h to 4.9 kg at 24 h) then declined (P slaughter is most likely due to sarcomere shortening.

  16. Remediation of Anomia in lvPPA and svPPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Meyer


    Full Text Available Anomia treatment efficacy has been examined in cases with different subtypes of primary progressive aphasia (PPA, and it has been evaluated in groups of participants with the semantic variant (svPPA, but efficacy has not been examined in groups with different subtypes of PPA. Method Participants. Four individuals with the logopenic variant (lvPPA and four individuals with svPPA participated. Procedure. At baseline, participants attempted to name two sets of pictured nouns. One set (Exemplar 1 was utilized during treatment. The second set (Exemplar 2 was never trained and was used to assess stimulus generalization. For each participant, nouns that were consistently named incorrectly were divided among three conditions: Orthographic treatment (OTC, Phonological treatment (PTC, and Untrained (UC. The nouns were matched across conditions for frequency, semantic category, and number of syllables, phonemes, and letters. In the OTC, participants viewed a picture and the corresponding word, read the word out loud, and transcribed the word. In the PTC, participants viewed the picture and a string of symbols. The auditory word was then presented, and participants repeated it. There were two treatment sessions per week during the first month. During the subsequent five months, subjects participated in monthly treatment sessions, in addition to thrice-weekly practice sessions. A post-treatment evaluation began one month after treatment ended. Results lvPPA. From baseline to post-treatment, there was a significant or marginally significant increase in naming accuracy for both exemplars, within every condition [Exemplar 1: UC: t(3 = 2.78, p = .07; PTC: t(3 = 5.75, p = .01; OTC: t(3 = 3.62, p = .04; Exemplar 2: UC: t(3 = 7.82, p = .004; PTC: t(3 = 3.59, p = .04; OTC: t(3 = 3.78, p = .03]. Compared to UC, accuracy at post-treatment was marginally greater for Exemplar 1 in the PTC, t(3 = 3.03, p = .06. There were no other significant or marginally significant

  17. Mystery Fractions (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sonalee; Namakshi, Nama; Zunker, Christina; Warshauer, Hiroko K.; Warshauer, Max


    Making math more engaging for students is a challenge that every teacher faces on a daily basis. These authors write that they are constantly searching for rich problem-solving tasks that cover the necessary content, develop critical-thinking skills, and engage student interest. The Mystery Fraction activity provided here focuses on a key number…

  18. Mystery Fractions (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sonalee; Namakshi, Nama; Zunker, Christina; Warshauer, Hiroko K.; Warshauer, Max


    Making math more engaging for students is a challenge that every teacher faces on a daily basis. These authors write that they are constantly searching for rich problem-solving tasks that cover the necessary content, develop critical-thinking skills, and engage student interest. The Mystery Fraction activity provided here focuses on a key number…

  19. LV305, a dendritic cell-targeting integration-deficient ZVex(TM)-based lentiviral vector encoding NY-ESO-1, induces potent anti-tumor immune response. (United States)

    Albershardt, Tina Chang; Campbell, David James; Parsons, Andrea Jean; Slough, Megan Merrill; Ter Meulen, Jan; Berglund, Peter


    We have engineered an integration-deficient lentiviral vector, LV305, to deliver the tumor antigen NY-ESO-1 to human dendritic cells in vivo through pseudotyping with a modified Sindbis virus envelop protein. Mice immunized once with LV305 developed strong, dose-dependent, multifunctional, and cytotoxic NY-ESO-1-specific cluster of differentiation 8 (CD8) T cells within 14 days post-immunization and could be boosted with LV305 at least twice to recall peak-level CD8 T-cell responses. Immunization with LV305 protected mice against tumor growth in an NY-ESO-1-expressing CT26 lung metastasis model, with the protective effect abrogated upon depletion of CD8 T cells. Adoptive transfer of CD8 T cells, alone or together with CD4 T cells or natural killer cells, from LV305-immunized donor mice to tumor-bearing recipient mice conferred significant protection against metastatic tumor growth. Biodistribution of injected LV305 in mice was limited to the site of injection and the draining lymph node, and injected LV305 exhibited minimal excretion. Mice injected with LV305 developed little to no adverse effects, as evaluated by toxicology studies adherent to good laboratory practices. Taken together, these data support the development of LV305 as a clinical candidate for treatment against tumors expressing NY-ESO-1.

  20. Weltkulturerbe Konstantinbasilika Trier. Wandmalerei in freier Bewitterung als konservatorische Herausforderung (ICOMOS Hefte des Deutschen Nationalkomitees LV), hg. v. Nicole Riedl, Berlin 2013


    Wedekind, Wanja


    Weltkulturerbe Konstantinbasilika Trier. Wandmalerei in freier Bewitterung als konservatorische Herausforderung (ICOMOS Hefte des Deutschen Nationalkomitees LV, hg. v. Nicole Riedl, Berlin 2013, rezensiert von Wanja Wedekind

  1. Difficulties in demonstrating long term immunity in FeLV vaccinated cats due to increasing age-related resistance to infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Stephen


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feline leukaemia virus (FeLV is a pathogen causing fatal illness in cats worldwide, and as such there is a high demand for products to protect against disease. The duration of immunity provided by an inactivated FeLV vaccine, Versifel FeLV, when administered to cats of the target age was determined. Kittens received two vaccinations when aged 7 to 9 weeks old, and were subsequently challenged up to 36 months later with the FeLV-A Glasgow isolate. Results In all studies, all of the younger aged control kittens showed persistent FeLV p27 antigenaemia confirming that the challenge virus was severe and efficacious. In contrast, the control cats did not show the required level of persistent antigenaemia, with a maximum of 45% cats affected in the middle duration study and only 10% in the longer study. However, apart from one animal in the short duration study, all of the cats vaccinated with Versifel FeLV were negative for persistent antigenaemia and can be considered treatment successes. Conclusion In conclusion, we have shown that although age-related resistance to infection with a virulent FeLV challenge is evident from as early as 10 months of age, vaccination with Versifel FeLV may aid in the protection of cats from FeLV related disease up to three years after primary vaccination as kittens.

  2. Molecular characterization of LvAV in response to white spot syndrome virus infection in the Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). (United States)

    He, Shulin; Song, Lei; Qian, Zhaoying; Hou, Fujun; Liu, Yongjie; Wang, Xianzong; Peng, Zhangming; Sun, Chengbo; Liu, Xiaolin


    Litopenaeus vannamei is the most important farmed shrimp species globally, but its production is affected by several factors, including infectious disease. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), in particular, causes significant shrimp losses. To understand the shrimp's immune response against WSSV, we cloned LvAV from L. vannamei and analyzed its expression pattern in different tissues, in addition to its expression following infection. We employed dsRNA and recombinant (r)LvAV to explore the potential role of LvAV in shrimp immunity when infected with WSSV. We find that LvAV is a C-type Lectin composed of 176 amino acids with a signal peptide and a specific C-type Lectin-type domain (CTLD). It shares 81% amino acid similarity with PmAV, an antiviral-like C-type Lectin from Penaeus monodom, and it is highly expressed in the hepatopancreas. Its expression is affected by infection with both WSSV and V. parahaemolyticus. Significantly, injection with rLvAV slowed WSSV replication, while injection with LvAV dsRNA initially led to enhanced virus propagation. Surprisingly, LvAV dsRNA subsequently led to a dramatic decrease in viral load in the later stages of infection, suggesting that LvAV may be subverted by WSSV to enhance viral replication or immune avoidance. Our results indicate that LvAV plays an important, but potentially complex role in the Pacific white shrimp's immune defense.

  3. LV305, a dendritic cell-targeting integration-deficient ZVexTM-based lentiviral vector encoding NY-ESO-1, induces potent anti-tumor immune response (United States)

    Albershardt, Tina Chang; Campbell, David James; Parsons, Andrea Jean; Slough, Megan Merrill; ter Meulen, Jan; Berglund, Peter


    We have engineered an integration-deficient lentiviral vector, LV305, to deliver the tumor antigen NY-ESO-1 to human dendritic cells in vivo through pseudotyping with a modified Sindbis virus envelop protein. Mice immunized once with LV305 developed strong, dose-dependent, multifunctional, and cytotoxic NY-ESO-1-specific cluster of differentiation 8 (CD8) T cells within 14 days post-immunization and could be boosted with LV305 at least twice to recall peak-level CD8 T-cell responses. Immunization with LV305 protected mice against tumor growth in an NY-ESO-1-expressing CT26 lung metastasis model, with the protective effect abrogated upon depletion of CD8 T cells. Adoptive transfer of CD8 T cells, alone or together with CD4 T cells or natural killer cells, from LV305-immunized donor mice to tumor-bearing recipient mice conferred significant protection against metastatic tumor growth. Biodistribution of injected LV305 in mice was limited to the site of injection and the draining lymph node, and injected LV305 exhibited minimal excretion. Mice injected with LV305 developed little to no adverse effects, as evaluated by toxicology studies adherent to good laboratory practices. Taken together, these data support the development of LV305 as a clinical candidate for treatment against tumors expressing NY-ESO-1. PMID:27626061

  4. Peritrophin-like protein from Litopenaeus vannamei (LvPT) involved in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection in digestive tract challenged with reverse gavage (United States)

    Xie, Shijun; Li, Fuhua; Zhang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Jiquan; Xiang, Jianhai


    The peritrophic membrane plays an important role in the defense system of the arthropod gut. The digestive tract is considered one of the major tissues targeted by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in shrimp. In this study, the nucleotide sequence encoding peritrophin-like protein of Litopenaeus vannamei (LvPT) was amplified from a yeast two-hybrid library of L. vannamei. The epitope peptide of LvPT was predicted with the GenScript OptimumAntigen™ design tool. An anti-LvPT polyclonal antibody was produced and shown to specifically bind a band at 27 kDa, identified as LvPT. The LvPT protein was expressed and its concentration determined. LvPT dsRNA (4 μg per shrimp) was used to inhibit LvPT expression in shrimp, and a WSSV challenge experiment was then performed with reverse gavage. The pleopods, stomachs, and guts were collected from the shrimp at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h post-infection (hpi). Viral load quantification showed that the levels of WSSV were significantly lower in the pleopods, stomachs, and guts of shrimp after LvPT dsRNA interference than in those of the controls at 48 and 72 hpi. Our results imply that LvPT plays an important role during WSSV infection of the digestive tract.

  5. Modelling wetland-groundwater interactions in the boreal Kälväsvaara esker, Northern Finland (United States)

    Jaros, Anna; Rossi, Pekka; Ronkanen, Anna-Kaisa; Kløve, Bjørn


    Many types of boreal peatland ecosystems such as alkaline fens, aapa mires and Fennoscandia spring fens rely on the presence of groundwater. In these ecosystems groundwater creates unique conditions for flora and fauna by providing water, nutrients and constant water temperature enriching local biodiversity. The groundwater-peatland interactions and their dynamics are not, however, in many cases fully understood and their measurement and quantification is difficult due to highly heterogeneous structure of peatlands and large spatial extend of these ecosystems. Understanding of these interactions and their changes due to anthropogenic impact on groundwater resources would benefit the protection of the groundwater dependent peatlands. The groundwater-peatland interactions were investigated using the fully-integrated physically-based groundwater-surface water code HydroGeoSphere in a case study of the Kälväsvaara esker aquifer, Northern Finland. The Kälväsvaara is a geologically complex esker and it is surrounded by vast aapa mire system including alkaline and springs fens. In addition, numerous small springs occur in the discharge zone of the esker. In order to quantify groundwater-peatland interactions a simple steady-state model was built and results were evaluated using expected trends and field measurements. The employed model reproduced relatively well spatially distributed hydrological variables such as soil water content, water depths and groundwater-surface water exchange fluxes within the wetland and esker areas. The wetlands emerged in simulations as a result of geological and topographical conditions. They could be identified by high saturation levels at ground surface and by presence of shallow ponded water over some areas. The model outputs exhibited also strong surface water-groundwater interactions in some parts of the aapa system. These areas were noted to be regions of substantial diffusive groundwater discharge by the earlier studies. In

  6. Global Longitudinal Strain or Left Ventricular Twist and Torsion? Which Correlates Best with Ejection Fraction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Silva Miguel Lima

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Estimative of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF is a major indication for echocardiography. Speckle tracking echocardiography (STE allows analysis of LV contraction mechanics which includes global longitudinal strain (GLS and twist/torsion, both the most widely used. Direct comparison of correlations between these novel parameters and LVEF has never been done before. Objective: This study aims to check which one has the highest correlation with LVEF. Methods: Patients with normal LVEF (> 0,55 and systolic dysfunction (LVEF <0,55 were prospectively enrolled, and underwent echocardiogram with STE analysis. Correlation of variables was performed by linear regression analysis. In addition, correlation among levels of LV systolic impairment was also tested. Results: A total of 131 patients were included (mean age, 46 ± 14y; 43%, men. LVEF and GLS showed a strong correlation (r = 0.95; r2 = 0.89; p < 0.001, more evident in groups with LV systolic dysfunction than those with preserved LVEF. Good correlation was also found with global longitudinal strain rate (r = 0.85; r2 = 0.73; p < 0.001. Comparing to GLS, correlation of LVEF and torsional mechanics was weaker: twist (r = 0.78; r2 = 0.60; p < 0.001; torsion (r = 0.75; r2 = 0.56; p < 0.001. Conclusion: GLS of the left ventricle have highly strong positive correlation with the classical parameter of ejection fraction, especially in cases with LV systolic impairment. Longitudinal strain rate also demonstrated a good correlation. GLS increments analysis of LV systolic function. On the other hand, although being a cornerstone of LV mechanics, twist and torsion have a weaker correlation with LV ejection, comparing to GLS.

  7. Interleukin-16 promotes cardiac fibrosis and myocardial stiffening in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunsuke Tamaki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic heart failure (CHF with preserved left ventricular (LV ejection fraction (HFpEF is observed in half of all patients with CHF and carries the same poor prognosis as CHF with reduced LV ejection fraction (HFrEF. In contrast to HFrEF, there is no established therapy for HFpEF. Chronic inflammation contributes to cardiac fibrosis, a crucial factor in HFpEF; however, inflammatory mechanisms and mediators involved in the development of HFpEF remain unclear. Therefore, we sought to identify novel inflammatory mediators involved in this process. METHODS AND RESULTS: An analysis by multiplex-bead array assay revealed that serum interleukin-16 (IL-16 levels were specifically elevated in patients with HFpEF compared with HFrEF and controls. This was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in HFpEF patients and controls, and serum IL-16 levels showed a significant association with indices of LV diastolic dysfunction. Serum IL-16 levels were also elevated in a rat model of HFpEF and positively correlated with LV end-diastolic pressure, lung weight and LV myocardial stiffness constant. The cardiac expression of IL-16 was upregulated in the HFpEF rat model. Enhanced cardiac expression of IL-16 in transgenic mice induced cardiac fibrosis and LV myocardial stiffening accompanied by increased macrophage infiltration. Treatment with anti-IL-16 neutralizing antibody ameliorated cardiac fibrosis in the mouse model of angiotensin II-induced hypertension. CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that IL-16 is a mediator of LV myocardial fibrosis and stiffening in HFpEF, and that the blockade of IL-16 could be a possible therapeutic option for HFpEF.

  8. Extinction in the Galaxy from Surface Brightnesses of ESO-LV Galaxies : Determination of A_R/A_B ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choloniewski, J.; Valentijn, E. A.


    A new method for the determination of the extinction in the Galaxy is proposed. The method uses surface brightnesses of external galaxies in the B and R-bands. The observational data have been taken from the ESO-LV galaxy catalog. As a first application of our model we derive the ratio of R-band to

  9. Chemical abundances in the protoplanetary disk LV2 (Orion) - II: High dispersion VLT observations and microjet properties

    CERN Document Server

    Tsamis, Y G


    Integral field spectroscopy of the LV2 proplyd is presented taken with the VLT/FLAMES Argus array at an angular resolution of 0.31x0.31 arcsec^2 and velocity resolutions down to 2 km/s per pixel. Following subtraction of the local M42 emission, the spectrum of LV2 is isolated from the surrounding nebula. We measured the heliocentric velocities and widths of a number of lines detected in the intrinsic spectrum of the proplyd, as well as in the adjacent Orion nebula within a 6.6 x 4.2 arcsec^2 FoV. It is found that far-UV to optical collisional lines with critical densities, Ncrit, ranging from 10^3 to 10^9 /cm^3 suffer collisional de-excitation near the rest velocity of the proplyd correlating tightly with their critical densities. Lines of low Ncrit are suppressed the most. The bipolar jet arising from LV2 is spectrally and spatially well-detected in several emission lines. We compute the [O III] electron temperature profile across LV2 in velocity space and measure steep temperature variations associated with...

  10. Toxicity during l-LV/5FU adjuvant chemotherapy as a modified RPMI regimen for patients with colorectal cancer. (United States)

    Hotta, Tsukasa; Takifuji, Katsunari; Arii, Kazuo; Yokoyama, Shozo; Matsuda, Kenji; Higashiguchi, Takashi; Tominaga, Toshiji; Oku, Yoshimasa; Yamaue, Hiroki


    l-leucovorin (LV)/5-fluorouracil (5FU) may play an important role, as an adjuvant chemotherapy, in improving the survival of patients with stage III colorectal cancer. However, severe toxicity of the chemotherapeutic agent could be fatal. Adverse effects, including bone marrow suppression, liver damage, renal damage, and glucose tolerance, were evaluated daily during 3 courses of l-LV/5FU-modified RPMI regimen adjuvant chemotherapy for 22 patients with stage III colorectal cancer. Decrease in the serum levels of neutrophils and platelets occurred in the 1st course, which became more obvious after three or four administrations of l-LV/5FU in the 1st course. Furthermore, serum levels of leukocytes, neutrophils, and platelets on the re-start day of this chemotherapy after 2-week intervals were lower than those on the start day of this chemotherapy. In the evaluation of liver damage, renal damage, and glucose tolerance; serum alanine aminotransferase level in the 2nd course, serum total bilirubin (T.Bil) level in the 1st course, and serum creatinine level in the 1st course deteriorated during the course. T.Bil levels on the re-start day of this chemotherapy after 2-week intervals were especially high compared to that on the start day. The more courses of this chemotherapy we perform, the more attention we must pay to bone marrow suppression and hyperbilirubinemia. Thus, we clarified the attentive point of side effect of l-LV/5FU adjuvant chemotherapy for colorectal cancer.

  11. The Real-Time Optimisation of DNO Owned Storage Devices on the LV Network for Peak Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Rowe


    Full Text Available Energy storage is a potential alternative to conventional network reinforcement of the low voltage (LV distribution network to ensure the grid’s infrastructure remains within its operating constraints. This paper presents a study on the control of such storage devices, owned by distribution network operators. A deterministic model predictive control (MPC controller and a stochastic receding horizon controller (SRHC are presented, where the objective is to achieve the greatest peak reduction in demand, for a given storage device specification, taking into account the high level of uncertainty in the prediction of LV demand. The algorithms presented in this paper are compared to a standard set-point controller and bench marked against a control algorithm with a perfect forecast. A specific case study, using storage on the LV network, is presented, and the results of each algorithm are compared. A comprehensive analysis is then carried out simulating a large number of LV networks of varying numbers of households. The results show that the performance of each algorithm is dependent on the number of aggregated households. However, on a typical aggregation, the novel SRHC algorithm presented in this paper is shown to outperform each of the comparable storage control techniques.

  12. The effect of shortening history on isometric and dynamic muscle function. (United States)

    McDaniel, John; Elmer, Steven J; Martin, James C


    Despite numerous reports on isometric force depression, few reports have quantified force depression during active muscle shortening (dynamic force depression). The purpose of this investigation was to determine the influence of shortening history on isometric force following active shortening, force during isokinetic shortening, and velocity during isotonic shortening. The soleus muscles of four cats were subjected to a series of isokinetic contractions at three shortening velocities and isotonic contractions under three loads. Muscle excursions initiated from three different muscle lengths but terminated at a constant length. Isometric force produced subsequent to active shortening, and force or shortening velocity produced at a specific muscle length during shortening, were compared across all three conditions. Results indicated that shortening history altered isometric force by up to 5%, force during isokinetic shortening up to 30% and shortening velocity during isotonic contractions by up to 63%. Furthermore, there was a load by excursion interaction during isotonic contractions such that excursion had the most influence on shortening velocity when the loads were the greatest. There was not a velocity by excursion interaction during isokinetic contractions. Isokinetic and isotonic power-velocity relationships displayed a downward shift in power as excursions increased. Thus, to discuss force depression based on differences in isometric force subsequent to active shortening may underestimate its importance during dynamic contractions. The presence of dynamic force depression should be realized in sport performance, motor control modeling and when controlling paralyzed limbs through artificial stimulation.

  13. Impact of biogenic nanoscale metals Fe, Cu, Zn and Se on reproductive LV chickens (United States)

    Khiem Nguyen, Quy; Dieu Nguyen, Duy; Kien Nguyen, Van; Thinh Nguyen, Khac; Chau Nguyen, Hoai; Tin Tran, Xuan; Nguyen, Huu Cuong; Tien Phung, Duc


    Using biogenic nanoscale metals (Fe, Cu, ZnO, Se) to supplement into diet premix of reproductive LV (a Vietnamese Luong Phuong chicken breed) chickens resulted in certain improvement of poultry farming. The experimental data obtained showed that the farming indices depend mainly on the quantity of nanocrystalline metals which replaced the inorganic mineral component in the feed premix. All four experimental groups with different quantities of the replacement nano component grew and developed normally with livability reaching 91 to 94%, hen’s bodyweight at 38 weeks of age and egg weight ranged from 2.53-2.60 kg/hen and 50.86-51.55 g/egg, respectively. All these farming indices together with laying rate, egg productivity and chick hatchability peaked at group 5 with 25% of nanoscale metals compared to the standard inorganic mineral supplement, while feed consumption was lowest. The results also confirmed that nanocrystalline metals Fe, Cu, ZnO and Se supplemented to chicken feed were able to decrease inorganic minerals in the diet premixes at least four times, allowing animals to more effectively absorb feed minerals, consequently decreasing environmental pollution risks.

  14. Smart MV/LV distribution transformer for Smart Grid with active prosumer participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Adamowicz


    Full Text Available With the development of distribution networks and their gradual transformation into intelligent Smart Grid type networks the relevance and share of controlled power converter systems used as interfaces between energy sources and the grid, and between grid and the recipients, will grow. This paper elaborates on the concept of replacing conventional 50 Hz distribution transformers with intelligent distribution transformers. A solution of a three-stage smart distribution transformer of modular design is proposed, oriented to connecting prosumers as active recipients of electricity with enhanced requirements, and owners of small renewable energy systems (RES. Two active stages: AC-DC on the MV side and DC-AC on the LV side provide the ability to compensate reactive power and shape voltage parameters. The simulation results presented here confi rm that the smart transformer’s intermediate stage, through the use of isolated DC-DC converters with high-speed semiconductor devices, provides the ability to quickly adjust the power flow between the primary and secondary sides.

  15. MV and LV Residential Grid Impact of Combined Slow and Fast Charging of Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Leemput


    Full Text Available This article investigates the combined low voltage (LV and medium voltage (MV residential grid impact for slow and fast electric vehicle (EV charging, for an increasing local penetration rate and for different residential slow charging strategies. A realistic case study for a Flemish urban distribution grid is used, for which three residential slow charging strategies are modeled: uncoordinated charging, residential off-peak charging, and EV-based peak shaving. For each slow charging strategy, the EV hosting capacity is determined, with and without the possibility of fast charging, while keeping the grid within its operating limits. The results show that the distribution grid impact is much less sensitive to the presence of fast charging compared to the slow charging strategy. EV-based peak shaving results in the lowest grid impact, allowing for the highest EV hosting capacity. Residential off-peak charging has the highest grid impact, due the load synchronization effect that occurs, resulting in the lowest EV hosting capacity. Therefore, the EV users should be incentivized to charge their EVs in a more grid-friendly manner when the local EV penetration rate becomes significant, as this increases the EV hosting capacity much more than the presence of fast charging decreases it.

  16. Fraction Reduction through Continued Fractions (United States)

    Carley, Holly


    This article presents a method of reducing fractions without factoring. The ideas presented may be useful as a project for motivated students in an undergraduate number theory course. The discussion is related to the Euclidean Algorithm and its variations may lead to projects or early examples involving efficiency of an algorithm.

  17. Characterization and DNA sequence of the mobilization region of pLV22a from Bacteroides fragilis. (United States)

    Novicki, T J; Hecht, D W


    A 4.2-kb plasmid (pLV22a) native to Bacteroides fragilis LV22 became fused to a transfer-deficient Bacteroides spp.-Escherichia coli shuttle vector by an inverse transposition event, resulting in a transferrable phenotype. The transfer phenotype was attributable to pLV22a, which was also capable of mobilization within E. coli when coresident with the IncP beta R751 plasmid. Transposon mutagenesis with Tn1000 localized the mobilization region to a 1.5-kb DNA segment in pLV22a. The mobilization region has been sequenced, and five open reading frames have been identified. Mutants carrying disruptions in any of the three genes designated mbpA, mbpB, and mbpC and coding for deduced products of 11.3, 30.4, and 17.1 kDa, respectively, cannot be mobilized when coresident with R751. Mutations in all three genes can be complemented in the presence of the respective wild-type genes, indicating that the products of mbpA, mbpB, and mbpC have roles in the mobilization process and function in trans. The deduced 30.4-kDa MbpB protein contains a 14-amino-acid conserved motif that is also found in the DNA relaxases of a variety of conjugal and mobilizable plasmids and the conjugative transposon Tn4399. Deletion analysis and complementation experiments have localized a cis-acting region of pLV22a within mbpA.

  18. Shrimp with knockdown of LvSOCS2, a negative feedback loop regulator of JAK/STAT pathway in Litopenaeus vannamei, exhibit enhanced resistance against WSSV. (United States)

    Wang, Sheng; Song, Xuan; Zhang, Zijian; Li, Haoyang; L, Kai; Yin, Bin; He, Jianguo; Li, Chaozheng


    JAK/STAT pathway is one of cytokine signaling pathways and mediates diversity immune responses to protect host from viral infection. In this study, LvSOCS2, a member of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) families, has been cloned and identified from Litopenaeus vannamei. The full length of LvSOCS2 is 1601 bp, including an 1194 bp open reading frame (ORF) coding for a putative protein of 397 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of ∼42.3 kDa. LvSOCS2 expression was most abundant in gills and could respond to the challenge of LPS, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphhylococcus aureus, Poly (I: C) and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). There are several STAT binding motifs presented in the proximal promoter region of LvSOCS2 and its expression was induced by LvJAK or LvSTAT protein in a dose dependent manner, suggesting LvSOCS2 could be the transcriptional target gene of JAK/STAT pathway. Moreover, the transcription of DmVir-1, a read out of the activation of JAK/STAT pathway in Drosophila, was promoted by LvJAK but inhibited by LvSOCS2, indicating that LvSOCS2 could be a negative regulator in this pathway and thus can form a negative feedback loop. Our previous study indicated that shrimp JAK/STAT pathway played a positive role against WSSV. In this study, RNAi-mediated knockdown of LvSOCS2 shrimps showed lower susceptibility to WSSV infection and caused lessened virus loads, which further demonstrated that the JAK/STAT pathway could function as an anti-viral immunity in shrimp.

  19. Isolated lunotriquetral ligament tears treated with ulnar shortening osteotomy. (United States)

    Mirza, Ather; Mirza, Justin B; Shin, Alexander Y; Lorenzana, Daniel J; Lee, Brian K; Izzo, Brett


    To evaluate outcomes in a single-surgeon series of ulnar shortening osteotomy for the treatment of traumatic isolated tears to the lunotriquetral interosseous ligament (LTIL). This study includes 53 consecutive cases of posttraumatic isolated LTIL tears treated with ulnar shortening osteotomy with minimum 1-year follow-up (range, 1.0-10.6 y). We confirmed all LTIL tears via arthroscopy before performing a precision 2.5-mm oblique osteotomy using a modified Rayhack technique. We assessed outcomes using grip strength measurements and Chun and Palmer's modified Gartland Werley wrist scoring system, which includes subjective and objective outcome measures. Preoperatively, 45 cases were graded as fair (28%; n = 15) or poor (57%; n = 30) on the modified Gartland Werley score. There were insufficient data to calculate grades in 8 cases (15%). At final follow-up, most patients exhibited excellent (51%; n = 27) or good (32%; n = 17) scores, some scored fair (17%; n = 9), and none scored as poor. All subjective and objective variables significantly improved over a mean follow-up of 36 months (range, 12-127 mo). Mean grip strength increased from a value of 23 kg before surgery to 33 kg over the same period, a 41% increase. All patients achieved clinical and radiographic union by 10 months. Osteotomy plates were removed routinely in most cases (89%; n = 47) at a mean of 17 months. Ulnar shortening osteotomy reduced symptoms of posttraumatic isolated LTIL tears in this single-surgeon series. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Guidelines for reconstructing the metatarsal parabola with the shortening osteotomy. (United States)

    Valley, B A; Reese, H W


    Lesser metatarsal pathology is difficult to treat surgically. The shortening osteotomy has shown promise as a useful technique. The following objectives are addressed in this study: 1) to discuss present techniques and two new radiographic measurement systems; 2) to establish mean, standard deviation, and normal range values for these measurement systems; 3) to determine if these measurements vary with foot size; and 4) to use the results to establish general guidelines for metatarsal parabola reconstruction. Means and normal ranges for the various radiographic measurements are identified to help the surgeon with preoperative evaluation and planning. The measurements vary mildly with foot size.

  1. Structural limits on force production and shortening of smooth muscle. (United States)

    Siegman, Marion J; Davidheiser, Sandra; Mooers, Susan U; Butler, Thomas M


    This study determined the factors that limit force production and shortening in two smooth muscles having very different relationships between active and passive force as a function of muscle length. The rat anococcygeus muscle develops active force over the range of lengths 0.2-2.0× the optimum length for force production (Lo). Passive tension due to extension of the resting muscle occurs only at lengths exceeding Lo. In contrast, the rabbit taenia coli develops force in the range of lengths 0.4-1.1 Lo, and passive force which is detectable at 0.56 Lo, increases to ~0.45 maximum active force at Lo, and increases sharply with further extension. The anococcygeus muscle can shorten to 0.2 Lo and the taenia coli to 0.4 Lo. Dynamic stiffness and energy usage at short muscle lengths suggest that the limit of shortening in the taenia coli, in contrast to the anococcygeus muscle, is not due to a failure of cross bridge interaction. Phosphorylation of the regulatory myosin light chains in intact muscles decreased to a small extent at short lengths compared to the decrease in force production. The differences in force production and the extent of shortening in the two muscles was maintained even when, following permeabilization, the myosin light chains were irreversibly phosphorylated with ATPγS, indicating that differences in activation played little, if any role. Ultrastructural studies on resting and activated muscles show that the taenia coli, which is rich in connective tissue (unlike the anococcygeus muscle) undergoes marked cellular twisting and contractile filament misalignment at short lengths with compression of the extracellular matrix. As a result, force is not transmitted in the longitudinal axis of the muscle, but is dissipated against an internal load provided by the compressed extracellular matrix. These observations on two very different normal smooth muscles reveal how differences in the relative contribution of active and passive structural elements

  2. Acumulación/eliminación de oxitetraciclina en el camarón blanco, lv y su residualidad en dietas artificiales


    Montoya, Nelson; Reyes, Eduardo


    Acumulación/eliminación de oxitetraciclina en el camarón blanco, LV y su residualidad en dietas artificiales Acumulación/eliminación de oxitetraciclina en el camarón blanco, LV y su residualidad en dietas artificiales

  3. The Natural History of Left Ventricular Geometry in the Community: Clinical Correlates and Prognostic Significance of Change in LV Geometric Pattern (United States)

    Lieb, Wolfgang; Gona, Philimon; Larson, Martin G.; Aragam, Jayashri; Zile, Michael R.; Cheng, Susan; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.


    Objectives We evaluated pattern and clinical correlates of change in left ventricular (LV) geometry over a 4-year period in the community; we also assessed whether the pattern of change in LV geometry over 4 years predicts incident cardiovascular disease (CVD), including myocardial infarction, heart failure and cardiovascular death during an additional subsequent follow-up period. Background It is unclear how LV geometric patterns change over time and whether changes in LV geometry have prognostic significance. Methods We evaluated 4492 observations (2604 unique Framingham Study participants attending consecutive examinations) to categorize LV geometry at baseline and after 4 years. Four groups were defined based on the sex-specific distributions of LV mass (LVM) and relative wall thickness (RWT) (normal: LVM and RWTgeometric pattern over 4 years was associated with increased CVD risk (140 events) during a subsequent median follow-up of 12.0 years (adjusted-hazards ratio, 1.59; 95%CI, 1.04–2.43). Conclusions Our longitudinal observations in the community suggest that dynamic changes in LV geometric pattern over time are common. Higher blood pressure and greater BMI are modifiable factors associated with the development of abnormal LV geometry, and such progression portends an adverse prognosis. PMID:25129518

  4. La respuesta inmunitaria celular del camarón lv y su utilidad en el control de la enfermedad en estanques


    Motesdeoca, Mercedes; Amano, Yasuji; Echeverría, Fabrizio; Betancourt, Irma; Panchana, Fanny; Sotomayor, Mariuxi; Rodríguez, Jenny


    La respuesta inmunitaria celular del camarón LV y su utilidad en el control de la enfermedad en estanques La respuesta inmunitaria celular del camarón LV y su utilidad en el control de la enfermedad en estanques

  5. Diastolic function of the left ventricle in patients with cardiomyopathy and low ejection fraction: the role of torsion in left bundle branch block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Pavlyukova


    Full Text Available Influence of left bundle branch block (LBBB on left ventricle (LV diastolic function and mechanisms of LV torsion remains underestimated.Aim. To study the relationship of LV diastolic function and LV torsion in patients with cardiomyopathy and LBBB in comparison with patients with cardiomyopathy and normal intraventricular conduction.Material and methods. Patients with cardiomyopathy (n=74 and LV ejection fraction <40% were included into the study and divided in two groups with narrow QRS complex and LBBB (the mean QRS duration = 153 ms. Echocardiography was performed in all patients with hemodynamic indices detection, and myocardium strain and torsion estimation.Results. The patients with LBBB showed less twisting, than patients without LBBB (3.24±3.35° and 5.87±3.83°, respectively, p=0.013914, but significant diastolic function differences between groups were absent. Despite the lack of difference in heart remodeling indices, subgroup of patients with LV rigid body rotation showed significantly less LV twisting and changes in pulmonary vein flow related to LV high end diastolic pressure. In the rigid body rotation group systolic left atrial filling fraction was 32.3±8.07%, whereas in the group with a physiological counter-rotation - 53.1±10.1% (p=0.000226. Potential reason of these findings was interventricular dyssynchrony. Deviation of time interval to peak myocardial systolic velocity between opposite basal segments in group with LBBB and anomalous LV rotation was more (63.3±35.1 ms than this in group with LBBB and physiological LV rotation (8.0±17.9 mc, p=0.015922. This finding suggests that LV rigid body rotation in patients with LBBB may reflect a more pronounced mechanical dyssynchrony.Conclusion. LBBB has complex negative influence on process of LV electric activation and contraction which results in deterioration of LV twisting, mechanical dyssynchrony and deterioration of diastolic function. In disorders of intraventricular

  6. SVM-based classification of LV wall motion in cardiac MRI with the assessment of STE (United States)

    Mantilla, Juan; Garreau, Mireille; Bellanger, Jean-Jacques; Paredes, José Luis


    In this paper, we propose an automated method to classify normal/abnormal wall motion in Left Ventricle (LV) function in cardiac cine-Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), taking as reference, strain information obtained from 2D Speckle Tracking Echocardiography (STE). Without the need of pre-processing and by exploiting all the images acquired during a cardiac cycle, spatio-temporal profiles are extracted from a subset of radial lines from the ventricle centroid to points outside the epicardial border. Classical Support Vector Machines (SVM) are used to classify features extracted from gray levels of the spatio-temporal profile as well as their representations in the Wavelet domain under the assumption that the data may be sparse in that domain. Based on information obtained from radial strain curves in 2D-STE studies, we label all the spatio-temporal profiles that belong to a particular segment as normal if the peak systolic radial strain curve of this segment presents normal kinesis, or abnormal if the peak systolic radial strain curve presents hypokinesis or akinesis. For this study, short-axis cine- MR images are collected from 9 patients with cardiac dyssynchrony for which we have the radial strain tracings at the mid-papilary muscle obtained by 2D STE; and from one control group formed by 9 healthy subjects. The best classification performance is obtained with the gray level information of the spatio-temporal profiles using a RBF kernel with 91.88% of accuracy, 92.75% of sensitivity and 91.52% of specificity.

  7. The role of nonlinear viscoelasticity on the functionality of laminating shortenings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macias-Rodriguez, Braulio A.; Peyronel, Fernanda; Marangoni, Alejandro G.


    The rheology of fats is essential for the development of homogeneous and continuous layered structures of doughs. Here, we define laminating shortenings in terms of rheological behavior displayed during linear-to-nonlinear shear deformations, investigated by large amplitude oscillatory shear rheology. Likewise, we associate the rheological behavior of the shortenings with structural length scales elucidated by ultra-small angle x-ray scattering and cryo-electron microscopy. Shortenings exhibited solid-like viscoelastic and viscoelastoplastic behaviors in the linear and nonlinear regimes respectively. In the nonlinear region, laminating shortenings dissipated more viscous energy (larger normalized dynamic viscosities) than a cake bakery shortening. The fat solid-like network of laminating shortening displayed a three-hierarchy structure and layered crystal aggregates, in comparison to two-hierarchy structure and spherical-like crystal aggregates of a cake shortening. We argue that the observed rheology, correlated to the structural network, is crucial for optimal laminating performance of shortenings.

  8. Regulation of FeLV-945 by c-Myb binding and CBP recruitment to the LTR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finstad Samantha L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feline leukemia virus (FeLV induces degenerative, proliferative and malignant hematologic disorders in its natural host, the domestic cat. FeLV-945 is a viral variant identified as predominant in a cohort of naturally infected animals. FeLV-945 contains a unique sequence motif in the long terminal repeat (LTR comprised of a single copy of transcriptional enhancer followed by a 21-bp sequence triplicated in tandem. The LTR is precisely conserved among independent cases of multicentric lymphoma, myeloproliferative disease and anemia in animals from the cohort. The 21-bp triplication was previously shown to act as a transcriptional enhancer preferentially in hematopoietic cells and to confer a replicative advantage. The objective of the present study was to examine the molecular mechanism by which the 21-bp triplication exerts its influence and the selective advantage responsible for its precise conservation. Results Potential binding sites for the transcription factor, c-Myb, were identified across the repeat junctions of the 21-bp triplication. Such sites would not occur in the absence of the repeat; thus, a requirement for c-Myb binding to the repeat junctions of the triplication would exert a selective pressure to conserve its sequence precisely. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated specific binding of c-Myb to the 21-bp triplication. Reporter gene assays showed that the triplication-containing LTR is responsive to c-Myb, and that responsiveness requires the presence of both c-Myb binding sites. Results further indicated that c-Myb in complex with the 21-bp triplication recruits the transcriptional co-activator, CBP, a regulator of normal hematopoiesis. FeLV-945 replication was shown to be positively regulated by CBP in a manner dependent on the presence of the 21-bp triplication. Conclusion Binding sites for c-Myb across the repeat junctions of the 21-bp triplication may account for its precise conservation in

  9. Chemical abundances in the protoplanetary disc LV 2 (Orion) - II. High-dispersion VLT observations and microjet properties (United States)

    Tsamis, Y. G.; Walsh, J. R.


    Integral field spectroscopy of the LV 2 proplyd is presented taken with the Very Large Telescope (VLT)/FLAMES Argus array at an angular resolution of 0.31 × 0.31 arcsec2 and velocity resolutions down to 2 km s-1 pixel-1. Following subtraction of the local M42 emission, the spectrum of LV 2 is isolated from the surrounding nebula. We measured the heliocentric velocities and widths of a number of lines detected in the intrinsic spectrum of the proplyd, as well as in the adjacent Orion nebula falling within a 6.6 × 4.2 arcsec2 field of view. It is found that far-ultraviolet to optical collisional lines with critical densities, Ncr, ranging from 103 to 109 cm-3 suffer collisional de-excitation near the rest velocity of the proplyd correlating tightly with their critical densities. Lines of low Ncr are suppressed the most. The bipolar jet arising from LV 2 is spectrally and spatially well detected in several emission lines. We compute the [O III] electron temperature profile across LV 2 in velocity space and measure steep temperature variations associated with the red-shifted lobe of the jet, possibly being due to a shock discontinuity. From the velocity-resolved analysis the ionized gas near the rest frame of LV 2 has Te= 9200 ± 800 K and Ne˜ 106 cm-3, while the red-shifted jet lobe has Te≈ 9000-104 K and Ne˜ 106-107 cm-3. The jet flow is highly ionized but contains dense semineutral clumps emitting neutral oxygen lines. The abundances of N+, O2 +, Ne2 +, Fe2 +, S+and S2 +are measured for the strong red-shifted jet lobe. Iron in the core of LV 2 is depleted by 2.54 dex with respect to solar as a result of sedimentation on dust, whereas the efficient destruction of dust grains in the fast microjet raises its Fe abundance to at least 30 per cent solar. Sulphur does not show evidence of significant depletion on dust, but its abundance both in the core and the jet is only about half solar. Based on observations made with ESO telescopes at the Paranal Observatory

  10. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV, feline leukaemia virus (FeLV and Leishmania sp. in domestic cats in the Midwest of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella Poffo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This search aimed to investigate FIV and FeLV infections in domestic cats, analysing the epidemiological profile of the disease as well as additional infection with Leishmania sp. We evaluated 88 domestic cats for the presence of FIV, FeLV and Leishmania sp. infection. Eleven (12.5% cats were positive for FIV infection, four (4.5% were positive for FeLV, and two were co-infected. However, none was infected with Leishmania sp. The prevalence for FIV infection was higher than FeLV, and those observed in other regions, but no factor was associated with the infection by FIV and FeLV in this study.

  11. 10A1-MuLV but not the related amphotropic 4070A MuLV is highly neurovirulent: importance of sequences upstream of the structural Gag coding region. (United States)

    Münk, Carsten; Prassolov, Vladimir; Rodenburg, Michaela; Kalinin, Viacheslav; Löhler, Jürgen; Stocking, Carol


    Recombinants of Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMuLV) with either an amphotropic (MoAmphoV) or 10A1-tropic host range (Mo10A1V) induce a spongiform neurodegenerative disease in susceptible mice. To test whether MoMuLV -derived sequences are required for induction of neuropathology, mice were inoculated with either the original 10A1 or the amphotropic (4070A) MuLV isolate. Strikingly, wild-type 10A1 was more neurovirulent than Mo10A1V, inducing severe neurological clinical symptoms with a median latency of 99 days in 100% of infected mice. In contrast, no motor disturbances were detected in any of the 4070A-infected mice, although limited central nervous system lesions were observed. A viral determinant conferring high neurovirulence to 10A1 was mapped to a region encompassing the first 676 bases of the viral genome, including the U5 LTR and encoding the amino-terminus of glycosylated Gag (glycoGag). In contrast to studies with the highly neurovirulent CasFr(KP) virus, an inverse correlation between surface expression levels of glycoGag and neurovirulence was not observed; however, this does not rule out a common underlying mechanism regulating virus pathogenicity.

  12. Zygotic LvBMP5-8 is required for skeletal patterning and for left-right but not dorsal-ventral specification in the sea urchin embryo. (United States)

    Piacentino, Michael L; Chung, Oliver; Ramachandran, Janani; Zuch, Daniel T; Yu, Jia; Conaway, Evan A; Reyna, Arlene E; Bradham, Cynthia A


    Skeletal patterning in the sea urchin embryo requires coordinated signaling between the pattern-dictating ectoderm and the skeletogenic primary mesenchyme cells (PMCs); recent studies have begun to uncover the molecular basis for this process. Using an unbiased RNA-Seq-based screen, we have previously identified the TGF-ß superfamily ligand, LvBMP5-8, as a skeletal patterning gene in Lytechinus variegatus embryos. This result is surprising, since both BMP5-8 and BMP2/4 ligands have been implicated in sea urchin dorsal-ventral (DV) and left-right (LR) axis specification. Here, we demonstrate that zygotic LvBMP5-8 is required for normal skeletal patterning on the left side, as well as for normal PMC positioning during gastrulation. Zygotic LvBMP5-8 is required for expression of the left-side marker soxE, suggesting that LvBMP5-8 is required for left-side specification. Interestingly, we also find that LvBMP5-8 knockdown suppresses serotonergic neurogenesis on the left side. While LvBMP5-8 overexpression is sufficient to dorsalize embryos, we find that zygotic LvBMP5-8 is not required for normal DV specification or development. In addition, ectopic LvBMP5-8 does not dorsalize LvBMP2/4 morphant embryos, indicating that, in the absence of BMP2/4, BMP5-8 is insufficient to specify dorsal. Taken together, our data demonstrate that zygotic LvBMP5-8 signaling is essential for left-side specification, and for normal left-side skeletal and neural patterning, but not for DV specification. Thus, while both BMP2/4 and BMP5-8 regulate LR axis specification, BMP2/4 but not zygotic BMP5-8 regulates DV axis specification in sea urchin embryos.

  13. Simulation studies of circular muscle contraction, longitudinal muscle shortening, and their coordination in esophageal transport. (United States)

    Kou, Wenjun; Pandolfino, John E; Kahrilas, Peter J; Patankar, Neelesh A


    On the basis of a fully coupled active musculomechanical model for esophageal transport, we aimed to find the roles of circular muscle (CM) contraction and longitudinal muscle (LM) shortening in esophageal transport, and the influence of their coordination. Two groups of studies were conducted using a computational model. In the first group, bolus transport with only CM contraction, only LM shortening, or both was simulated. Overall features and detailed information on pressure and the cross-sectional area (CSA) of mucosal and the two muscle layers were analyzed. In the second group, bolus transport with varying delay in CM contraction or LM shortening was simulated. The effect of delay on esophageal transport was studied. For cases showing abnormal transport, pressure and CSA were further analyzed. CM contraction by itself was sufficient to transport bolus, but LM shortening by itself was not. CM contraction decreased the CSA and the radius of the muscle layer locally, but LM shortening increased the CSA. Synchronized CM contraction and LM shortening led to overlapping of muscle CSA and pressure peaks. Advancing LM shortening adversely influenced bolus transport, whereas lagging LM shortening was irrelevant to bolus transport. In conclusion, CM contraction generates high squeezing pressure, which plays a primary role in esophageal transport. LM shortening increases muscle CSA, which helps to strengthen CM contraction. Advancing LM shortening decreases esophageal distensibility in the bolus region. Lagging LM shortening no longer helps esophageal transport. Synchronized CM contraction and LM shortening seems to be most effective for esophageal transport.

  14. Delivery of an engineered HGF fragment in an extracellular matrix-derived hydrogel prevents negative LV remodeling post-myocardial infarction. (United States)

    Sonnenberg, Sonya B; Rane, Aboli A; Liu, Cassie J; Rao, Nikhil; Agmon, Gillie; Suarez, Sophia; Wang, Raymond; Munoz, Adam; Bajaj, Vaibhav; Zhang, Shirley; Braden, Rebecca; Schup-Magoffin, Pamela J; Kwan, Oi Ling; DeMaria, Anthony N; Cochran, Jennifer R; Christman, Karen L


    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) has been shown to have anti-fibrotic, pro-angiogenic, and cardioprotective effects; however, it is highly unstable and expensive to manufacture, hindering its clinical translation. Recently, a HGF fragment (HGF-f), an alternative c-MET agonist, was engineered to possess increased stability and recombinant expression yields. In this study, we assessed the potential of HGF-f, delivered in an extracellular matrix (ECM)-derived hydrogel, as a potential treatment for myocardial infarction (MI). HGF-f protected cardiomyocytes from serum-starvation and induced down-regulation of fibrotic markers in whole cardiac cell isolate compared to the untreated control. The ECM hydrogel prolonged release of HGF-f compared to collagen gels, and in vivo delivery of HGF-f from ECM hydrogels mitigated negative left ventricular (LV) remodeling, improved fractional area change (FAC), and increased arteriole density in a rat myocardial infarction model. These results indicate that HGF-f may be a viable alternative to using recombinant HGF, and that an ECM hydrogel can be employed to increase growth factor retention and efficacy.

  15. Optimization of cDNA amplification of Apricot Latent Virus (ApLV) from various plant tissues sources. (United States)

    Gumus, M; Sipahioğlu, H M; Paylan, I C; Erkan, S


    Although the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) procedure is basically simple operation, often it is not possible to achieve optimum results without optimizing the protocols. An RT-PCR method targeting a 200 bp sequence of the CP gene of Apricot Latent Virus (ApLV) was used as a model to improve the detection limit and to compare the behavior of three different plant tissues in a RT-PCR assay. A number of factors should be considered when selecting the optimal system for RT-PCR. Important considerations include the optimal concentrations of MgCl2, dNTP, Taq DNA polymerase enzyme, specific primer and the amount of cDNA for the downstream applications. This study therefore discusses a series of critical PCR parameters and feasible strategies for optimization of RT-PCR detection of ApLV.

  16. Recognizing the fingerprints of the Galactic bar: a quantitative approach to comparing model (l,v) distributions to observation

    CERN Document Server

    Sormani, Mattia C


    We present a new method for fitting simple hydrodynamical models to the (l,v) distribution of atomic and molecular gas observed in the Milky Way. The method works by matching features found in models and observations. It is based on the assumption that the large-scale features seen in (l,v) plots, such as ridgelines and the terminal velocity curve, are influenced primarily by the underlying large-scale Galactic potential and are only weakly dependent on local ISM heating and cooling processes. In our scheme one first identifies by hand the features in the observations: this only has to be done once. We describe a procedure for automatically extracting similar features from simple hydrodynamical models and quantifying the "distance" between each model's features and the observations. Application to models of the Galactic Bar region (|l|<30deg) shows that our feature-fitting method performs better than \\chi^2 or envelope distances at identifying the correct underlying galaxy model.

  17. MV/LV PDS transformers: Novel approach for the maximization of the preventive maintenance activities- A case study


    Mahmoudi Morad; El barkany Abdellah; El khalfi Ahmed


    In today’s energy market in Morocco, a stable and reliable electric power supply system is an inevitable prerequisite for the technological and economic growth of the kingdom. Due to this, manypublic distribution companies are increasing their competitiveness by adopting new maintenance philosophies to reduce their Operation and Maintenance (O&M) costs. Indeed, being one of the most important parts of the medium voltage network, MV/LV public distribution substations transformer (PDS) play a k...

  18. A Preliminary Analysis of LV Kun's Conception of Sage%吕坤的圣人观浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    吕坤认为,在圣人的内涵上,圣人能够把握天理,与天理合一,并且能够达到无心而无境的地位,能够超越性情之限制;在圣人的成长上,吕坤认为圣人可以通过修身",克己复礼"而达到;在圣人与众人之关系上,吕坤认为,圣人与众人并不是完全割裂的,圣人即超越于众人,又生活在众人之中。%On the connotation of sage,LV Kun esteemed that sage could grasp the natural principle and united it,got the position without the mind and the state,and went beyond the restrictions of temper.On the growth of the sage,LV Kun thought that sage could be self-cultivation,achieved with "Denying self and observing the proprieties".And on the relationships between the sage and the masses,LV Kun acknowledged that the sage and the masses were not completely separated,namely,the sage transcended the masses,and also,the sage could'nt go beyond them.

  19. Shortening Tuberculosis Treatment With Fluoroquinolones: Lost in Translation? (United States)

    Lanoix, Jean-Philippe; Chaisson, Richard E; Nuermberger, Eric L


    The disappointing recent failure of fluoroquinolone-containing regimens to shorten the duration of tuberculosis treatment in costly phase 3 trials has raised serious questions about the reliability of preclinical tuberculosis models, especially mice, and the current paradigm of regimen development. Therefore we re-examined data from murine models and early-stage clinical trials on which the pivotal trials were based, concluding that phase 3 trial results were in line with preceding studies. Finally, we offer suggestions for a more efficient and integrated preclinical and clinical regimen development program where quantitative pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic models more predictive of curative treatment durations are set forth. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In Discrete Multi-Tone (DMT) modulation systems, the well-known technique to overcome the Inter-Carrier Interference (ICI)/Inter-Symbol Interference (ISI) caused by the inadequate Cyclic Prefix (CP) length is to use a Time-Domain Equalizer (TDE) at the receiver front-end. An algorithm used to calculate the coefficients of the optimal shortening Time Domain Equalizer (TDE) was given by Melsa. However, this al gorithm requires that the length of the TDE must be smaller than or equal to the memory length of the target impulse response. This paper modifies this algorithm and makes it not only fit for calculating the coefficients of the TDE with arbitrary length, but also have a much less computational time.

  1. [A shortened scale for overall, emotional and social loneliness]. (United States)

    de Jong Gierveld, J; van Tilburg, T


    Loneliness is an indicator of social well-being and pertains to the feeling of missing an intimate relationship (emotional loneliness) or missing a wider social network (social loneliness). The 11-item De Jong Gierveld scale has proved to be a valid and reliable measuring instrument for overall, emotional and social loneliness, although its length has sometimes rendered it difficult to use the scale in large surveys. In this study, we empirically tested a shortened version of the scale on data from two surveys (N=9448). Confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the specification of two latent factors. Congruent validity and the relationship with determinants (partner status, health) proved to be optimal. The 6-item De Jong Gierveld scale is a reliable and valid measuring instrument for overall, emotional and social loneliness, which is suitable for large surveys.

  2. Force depression decays during shortening in the medial gastrocnemius of the rat. (United States)

    Till, Olaf; Siebert, Tobias; Blickhan, Reinhard


    Force depression due to shortening of activated skeletal muscles has previously been described to be long lasting during isometric contractions following the shortening. In the present study, using the medial gastrocnemius of the rat, effects of force depression have been made apparent during shortening by computationally partially compensating for the direct effect of shortening velocity due to the tension-velocity relation. Evidence was found for the decay and complete disappearance of force depression already during continuation of the shortening contraction to short muscle lengths.

  3. Fractional complex transforms for fractional differential equations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ibrahim, Rabha W


    The fractional complex transform is employed to convert fractional differential equations analytically in the sense of the Srivastava-Owa fractional operator and its generalization in the unit disk...

  4. Systemic Lidocaine Shortens Length of Hospital Stay After Colorectal Surgery (United States)

    Herroeder, Susanne; Pecher, Sabine; Schönherr, Marianne E.; Kaulitz, Grit; Hahnenkamp, Klaus; Friess, Helmut; Böttiger, Bernd W.; Bauer, Harry; Dijkgraaf, ↶oMarcel G. W.; Durieux, Marcel E.; Hollmann, Markus W.


    Objective: To characterize the beneficial effects of perioperative systemic lidocaine on length of hospital stay, gastrointestinal motility, and the inflammatory response after colorectal surgery. Summary Background Data: Surgery-induced stimulation of the inflammatory response plays a major role in the development of several postoperative disorders. Local anesthetics possess anti-inflammatory activity and are thought to positively affect patients' outcome after surgery. This double-blinded, randomized, and placebo-controlled trial aimed to evaluate beneficial effects of systemic lidocaine and to provide insights into underlying mechanisms. Methods: Sixty patients undergoing colorectal surgery, not willing or unable to receive an epidural catheter, were randomly assigned to lidocaine or placebo treatment. Before induction of general anesthesia, an intravenous lidocaine bolus (1.5 mg/kg) was administered followed by a continuous lidocaine infusion (2 mg/min) until 4 hours postoperatively. Length of hospital stay, gastrointestinal motility, and pain scores were recorded and plasma levels or expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators determined. Results: Lidocaine significantly accelerated return of bowel function and shortened length of hospital stay by one day. No difference could be observed in daily pain ratings. Elevated plasma levels of IL-6, IL-8, complement C3a, and IL-1ra as well as expression of CD11b, l- and P-selectin, and platelet-leukocyte aggregates were significantly attenuated by systemic lidocaine. Conclusions: Perioperative intravenous lidocaine not only improved gastrointestinal motility but also shortened length of hospital stay significantly. Anti-inflammatory activity modulating the surgery-induced stress response may be one potential mechanism. Systemic lidocaine may thus provide a convenient and inexpensive approach to improve outcome for patients not suitable for epidural anesthesia. PMID:17667496

  5. Cricket antennae shorten when bending (Acheta domesticus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine eLoudon


    Full Text Available Insect antennae are important mechanosensory and chemosensory organs. Insect appendages, such as antennae, are encased in a cuticular exoskeleton and are thought to bend only between segments or subsegments where the cuticle is thinner, more flexible, or bent into a fold. There is a growing appreciation of the dominating influence of folds in the mechanical behavior of a structure, and the bending of cricket antennae was considered in this context. Antennae will bend or deflect in response to forces, and the resulting bending behavior will affect the sensory input of the antennae. In some cricket antennae, such as in those of Acheta domesticus, there are a large number (>100 of subsegments (flagellomeres that vary in their length. We evaluated whether these antennae bend only at the joints between flagellomeres, which has always been assumed but not tested. In addition we questioned whether an antenna undergoes a length change as it bends, which would result from some patterns of joint deformation. Measurements using light microscopy and SEM were conducted on both male and female adult crickets (Acheta domesticus with bending in four different directions: dorsal, ventral, medial and lateral. Bending occurred only at the joints between flagellomeres, and antennae shortened a comparable amount during bending, regardless of sex or bending direction. The cuticular folds separating antennal flagellomeres are not very deep, and therefore as an antenna bends, the convex side (in tension does not have a lot of slack cuticle to unfold and does not lengthen during bending. Simultaneously on the other side of the antenna, on the concave side in compression, there is an increasing overlap in the folded cuticle of the joints during bending. Antennal shortening during bending would prevent stretching of antennal nerves and may promote hemolymph exchange between the antenna and head.

  6. Increased Left Ventricular Stiffness Impairs Exercise Capacity in Patients with Heart Failure Symptoms Despite Normal Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sinning


    Full Text Available Aims. Several mechanisms can be involved in the development of exercise intolerance in patients with heart failure despite normal left ventricular ejection fraction (HFNEF and may include impairment of left ventricular (LV stiffness. We therefore investigated the influence of LV stiffness, determined by pressure-volume loop analysis obtained by conductance catheterization, on exercise capacity in HFNEF. Methods and Results. 27 HFNEF patients who showed LV diastolic dysfunction in pressure-volume (PV loop analysis performed symptom-limited cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET and were compared with 12 patients who did not show diastolic dysfunction in PV loop analysis. HFNEF patients revealed a lower peak performance (=.046, breathing reserve (=.006, and ventilation equivalent for carbon dioxide production at rest (=.002. LV stiffness correlated with peak oxygen uptake (=−0.636, <.001, peak oxygen uptake at ventilatory threshold (=−0.500, =.009, and ventilation equivalent for carbon dioxide production at ventilatory threshold (=0.529, =.005. Conclusions. CPET parameters such as peak oxygen uptake, peak oxygen uptake at ventilatory threshold, and ventilation equivalent for carbon dioxide production at ventilatory threshold correlate with LV stiffness. Increased LV stiffness impairs exercise capacity in HFNEF.

  7. Left-ventricular geometry and risk of sudden cardiac arrest in patients with preserved or moderately reduced left-ventricular ejection fraction. (United States)

    Aro, Aapo L; Reinier, Kyndaron; Phan, Derek; Teodorescu, Carmen; Uy-Evanado, Audrey; Nichols, Gregory A; Gunson, Karen; Jui, Jonathan; Chugh, Sumeet S


    The majority of sudden cardiac arrests (SCAs) occur in patients with left-ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (LVEF) >35%, yet there are no methods for effective risk stratification in this sub-group. Since abnormalities of LV geometry can be identified even with preserved LVEF, we investigated the potential impact of LV geometry as a novel risk marker for this patient population. In the ongoing Oregon Sudden Unexpected Death Study, SCA cases with archived echocardiographic data available were prospectively identified during 2002-15, and compared with geographical controls. Analysis was restricted to subjects with LVEF >35%. Based on established measures of LV mass and relative wall thickness (ratio of wall thickness to cavity diameter), four different LV geometric patterns were identified: normal geometry, concentric remodelling, concentric hypertrophy, and eccentric hypertrophy. Sudden cardiac arrest cases (n = 307) and controls (n = 280) did not differ in age, sex, or LVEF, but increased LV mass was more common in cases. Twenty-nine percent of SCA cases presented with normal LV geometry, 35% had concentric remodelling, 25% concentric hypertrophy, and 11% eccentric hypertrophy. In multivariate model, concentric remodelling (OR 1.76; 95%CI 1.18-2.63; P = 0.005), concentric hypertrophy (OR 3.20; 95%CI 1.90-5.39; P geometry as a potential risk stratification tool in patients with preserved or moderately reduced LVEF.

  8. Regulation of the immediate-early genes of white spot syndrome virus by Litopenaeus vannamei kruppel-like factor (LvKLF). (United States)

    Huang, Ping-Han; Lu, Shao-Chia; Yang, Shu-Han; Cai, Pei-Si; Lo, Chu-Fang; Chang, Li-Kwan


    Kruppel-like factors (KLFs) belong to a subclass of Cys2/His2 zinc-finger DNA-binding proteins, and act as important regulators with diverse roles in cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and tumorigenesis. Our previous research showed that PmKLF from Penaeus monodon is crucial for white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection, yet the mechanisms by which PmKLF influences WSSV infection remain unclear. This study cloned KLF from Litopenaeus vannamei (LvKLF), which had 93% similarity with PmKLF. LvKLF formed a dimer via the C-terminal zinc-finger motif. Knockdown of LvKLF expression by dsRNA injection in WSSV-challenged shrimps was found to significantly inhibit the transcription of two important immediate-early (IE) genes, IE1 and WSSV304, and also reduced WSSV copy numbers. Moreover, reporter assays revealed that the promoter activities of these two WSSV IE genes were substantially enhanced by LvKLF. Mutations introduced in the promoter sequences of IE1 and WSSV304 were shown to abolish LvKLF activation of promoter activities; and an electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated that LvKLF binds to putative KLF-response elements (KRE) in the promoters. Taken together, these results indicate that LvKLF transcriptional regulation of key IE genes is critical to WSSV replication.

  9. Cortical T2 signal shortening in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is not due to iron deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecht, M.J.; Neundoerfer, B. [University of Erlangen-Nurenberg, Department of Neurology, Erlangen (Germany); Fellner, C.; Fellner, F.A. [University of Erlangen-Nurenberg, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Erlangen (Germany); Landes-Nervenklinik Wagner-Jauregg, Institute of Radiology, Linz (Austria); Schmid, A. [University of Erlangen-Nurenberg, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Erlangen (Germany)


    Signal shortening of the motor cortex in T2-weighted MR images is a frequent finding in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The cause of signal shortening in ALS is unknown, although iron deposits have been suggested. To test this hypothesis, we acquired T2*-weighted gradient-echo (GRE) MR images in addition to T2-weighted turbo spin-echo in 69 patients with ALS. Signal shortening in T2-weighted images was found in 31 patients. In T2*-weighted GRE images, only three patients had signal shortening. One patient with additional bifrontal haemorrhage had frontal but no motor cortex signal shortening. Iron deposits do not cause cortical signal shortening in patients with ALS predominantly. Other factors are presumably more important in the generation of cortical T2 shortening in ALS. (orig.)

  10. Fractional complex transform for fractional differential equations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lİ, Zheng Biao; HE, Ji Huan


    Fractional complex transform is proposed to convert fractional differential equations into ordinary differential equations, so that all analytical methods devoted to advanced calculus can be easily...

  11. Effective RNA-silencing strategy of Lv-MSTN/GDF11 gene and its effects on the growth in shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Hyun; Momani, Jalal; Kim, Young Mog; Kang, Chang-Keun; Choi, Jung-Hwa; Baek, Hae-Ja; Kim, Hyun-Woo


    Myostatin (MSTN), also known as GDF8, is a member of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily and plays an important role in muscle growth, development, and differentiation. Recently, Lv-MSTN/GDF11, the primitive isoform of MSTN and GDF11, was identified from the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. The major production site for Lv-MSTN/GDF11 is in the heart, not the tail muscle, which differs from MSTNs in mammals. Among the three injected RNAs, long dsRNA was the most effective for Lv-MSTN/GDF11 knockdown and transcripts of Lv-MSTN/GDF11 decreased in both the heart (88.85%) and skeletal muscles (43.36%) 72h after injection of 10pmol of long dsRNA. We also found that higher doses of dsRNA did not lead to greater decreases in Lv-MSTN/GDF11 transcripts for amounts between 1pmol and 100pmol. Injection of Lv-MSTN/GDF11 dsRNA did not affect the upregulation of the skeletal actin gene (Lv-ACTINSK) in the tail muscle, but the expression of cytoplasmic and cardiac actins were upregulated in both the heart and tail muscle. Over the course of 8weeks of dsRNA injection, considerably higher mortality (~71%) was seen in the dsRNA-injected group compared to the control group (40%). Surviving shrimp in the dsRNA injected group had a lower growth rate due to the adverse effects of Lv-MSTN/GDF11 knockdown. Lv-MSTN/GDF11 appears to be involved in muscular or neuronal development, but not in doubling muscle fibers, as is the case with mammalian MSTN. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Anti-lipopolysaccharide factor in Litopenaeus vannamei (LvALF): a broad spectrum antimicrobial peptide essential for shrimp immunity against bacterial and fungal infection. (United States)

    de la Vega, Enrique; O'Leary, Nuala A; Shockey, Jessica E; Robalino, Javier; Payne, Caroline; Browdy, Craig L; Warr, Gregory W; Gross, Paul S


    Antimicrobial peptides are an essential component of the innate immune system of most organisms. Expressed sequence tag analysis from various shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) tissues revealed transcripts corresponding to two distinct sequences (LvALF1 and LvALF2) with strong sequence similarity to anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF), an antimicrobial peptide originally isolated from the horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus. Full-length clones contained a 528bp transcript with a predicted open reading frame coding for 120 amino acids in LvALF1, and a 623bp transcript with a predicted open reading frame coding for 93 amino acids in LvALF2. A reverse genetic approach was implemented to study the in vivo role of LvALF1 in protecting shrimp from bacterial, fungal and viral infections. Injection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) corresponding to the LvALF1 message resulted in a significant reduction of LvALF1 mRNA transcript abundance as determined by qPCR. Following knockdown, shrimp were challenged with low pathogenic doses of Vibrio penaeicida, Fusarium oxysporum or white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and the resulting mortality curves were compared with controls. A significant increase of mortality in the LvALF1 knockdown shrimp was observed in the V. penaeicida and F. oxysporum infections when compared to controls, showing that this gene has a role in protecting shrimp from both bacterial and fungal infections. In contrast, LvALF1 dsRNA activated the sequence-independent innate anti-viral immune response giving increased protection from WSSV infection.

  13. Shortening treatment time in robotic radiosurgery using a novel node reduction technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Water, Steven van de; Hoogeman, Mischa S.; Breedveld, Sebastiaan; Heijmen, Ben J. M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Groene Hilledijk 301, 3075 EA Rotterdam (Netherlands)


    Purpose: The fraction duration of robotic radiosurgery treatments can be reduced by generating more time-efficient treatment plans with a reduced number of node positions, beams, and monitor units (MUs). Node positions are preprogramed locations where the robot can position the focal spot of the x-ray beam. As the time needed for the robot to travel between node positions takes up a large part of the treatment time, the aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a node reduction technique in order to reduce the treatment time per fraction for robotic radiosurgery. Methods: Node reduction was integrated into the inverse planning algorithm, developed in-house for the robotic radiosurgery modality. It involved repeated inverse optimization, each iteration excluding low-contribution node positions from the planning and resampling new candidate beams from the remaining node positions. Node reduction was performed until the exclusion of a single node position caused a constraint violation, after which the shortest treatment plan was selected retrospectively. Treatment plans were generated with and without node reduction for two lung cases of different complexity, one oropharyngeal case and one prostate case. Plan quality was assessed using the number of node positions, beams and MUs, and the estimated treatment time per fraction. All treatment plans had to fulfill all clinical dose constraints. Extra constraints were added to maintain the low-dose conformality and restrict skin doses during node reduction. Results: Node reduction resulted in 12 residual node positions, on average (reduction by 77%), at the cost of an increase in the number of beams and total MUs of 28% and 9%, respectively. Overall fraction durations (excluding patient setup) were shortened by 25% (range of 18%-40%), on average. Dose distributions changed only little and dose in low-dose regions was effectively restricted by the additional constraints. Conclusions: The fraction duration of robotic

  14. Contraction-specific differences in maximal muscle power during stretch-shortening cycle movements in elderly males and females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caserotti, Paolo; Aagaard, Per; Simonsen, Erik Bruun


    Aging, muscle power, stretch-shortening cycle, eccentric muscle actions, concentric contractions......Aging, muscle power, stretch-shortening cycle, eccentric muscle actions, concentric contractions...

  15. Variabilidade biológica de isolados do Citrus leprosis virus (CiLV oriundos de cultivares de laranjeira Biological variability of Citrus leprosis virus (CiLV isolates from sweet orange cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadier de Oliveira Cunha Junior


    Full Text Available A leprose, causada pelo Citrus leprosis virus (CiLV, é uma das principais doenças presentes em pomares cítricos fluminenses. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar o quadro sintomatológico desenvolvido por isolados de CiLV obtidos de cultivares comerciais de laranjeira (Lima, Pêra e Seleta, inoculados mecanicamente em Chenopodium amaranticolor, em três diluições. Após cinco a sete dias da inoculação foram observadas lesões necróticas, com pequeno halo clorótico quando observadas contra a luz. O maior número de lesões, nas três diluições, foi obtido do isolado de 'Seleta', seguido por 'Pêra' e 'Lima'. A melhor diluição utilizada para a observação das lesões foi de 1:10. Os resultados demonstram uma possível variabilidade biológica entre os isolados virais e/ou uma menor ou maior replicação viral, dependendo da cultivar, indicando um possível mecanismo de resistência da planta ao vírus.Citrus leprosis, caused by Citrus leprosis virus (CiLV is one of the major diseases in citrus orchards in the State of Rio de Janeiro. The objective of this study was to compare the development of symptoms on Chenopodium amaranticolor inoculated with CiLV isolates from 'Lima', 'Pera' and 'Seleta' sweet oranges using three different dilutions. Five to seven-days after inoculation, necrotic lesions exhibiting a small chlorotic halo when exposed to the light, were observed. The highest number of lesions developed using the three dilutions was obtained from 'Seleta', an intermediate value from 'Pêra' and the lowest number from 'Lima'. The best dilution for lesions development was 1:10. The results demonstrate a possible biological variability among the virus isolates and/or a lower or higher viral replication, dependent on the cultivar. This indicates a putative mechanism of Citrus resistance to the virus.

  16. Effect of Metformin on Metabolites and Relation With Myocardial Infarct Size and Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction After Myocardial Infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eppinga, Ruben N; Kofink, Daniel; Dullaart, Robin P F; Dalmeijer, Geertje W; Lipsic, Erik; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; van der Horst, Iwan C C; Asselbergs, Folkert W; van der Harst, Pim


    BACKGROUND: Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and infarct size (ISZ) are key predictors of long-term survival after myocardial infarction (MI). However, little is known about the biochemical pathways driving LV dysfunction after MI. To identify novel biomarkers predicting post-MI LVEF and IS

  17. A hemocyte-expressed fibrinogen-related protein gene (LvFrep) from the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: Expression analysis after microbial infection and during larval development. (United States)

    Coelho, Jaqueline da Rosa; Barreto, Cairé; Silveira, Amanda da Silva; Vieira, Graziela Cleusa; Rosa, Rafael Diego; Perazzolo, Luciane Maria


    Fibrinogen-related proteins (FREPs) comprise a large family of microbial recognition proteins involved in many biological functions in both vertebrate and invertebrate animals. By taking advantage of publicly accessible databases, we have identified a FREP-like homolog in the most cultivated penaeid shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (LvFrep). The obtained sequence showed a conserved fibrinogen-related domain (FReD) and displayed significant similarities to FREP-like proteins from other invertebrates and to ficolins from crustaceans. The expression of LvFrep appeared to be limited to circulating hemocytes. Interestingly, LvFrep gene expression was induced in shrimp hemocytes only in response to a Vibrio infection but not to the White spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Moreover, LvFrep transcript levels were detected early in fertilized eggs, suggesting the participation of this immune-related gene in the antimicrobial defenses during shrimp development.

  18. Chemical Sharpening, Shortening, and Unzipping of Boron Nitride Nanotubes (United States)

    Liao, Yunlong; Chen, Zhongfang; Connell, John W.; Fay, Catharine C.; Park, Cheol; Kim, Jae-Woo; Lin, Yi


    Boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs), the one-dimensional member of the boron nitride nanostructure family, are generally accepted to be highly inert to oxidative treatments and can only be covalently modifi ed by highly reactive species. Conversely, it is discovered that the BNNTs can be chemically dispersed and their morphology modifi ed by a relatively mild method: simply sonicating the nanotubes in aqueous ammonia solution. The dispersed nanotubes are significantly corroded, with end-caps removed, tips sharpened, and walls thinned. The sonication treatment in aqueous ammonia solution also removes amorphous BN impurities and shortened BNNTs, resembling various oxidative treatments of carbon nanotubes. Importantly, the majority of BNNTs are at least partially longitudinally cut, or "unzipped". Entangled and freestanding BN nanoribbons (BNNRs), resulting from the unzipping, are found to be approximately 5-20 nm in width and up to a few hundred nanometers in length. This is the fi rst chemical method to obtain BNNRs from BNNT unzipping. This method is not derived from known carbon nanotube unzipping strategies, but is unique to BNNTs because the use of aqueous ammonia solutions specifi cally targets the B-N bond network. This study may pave the way for convenient processing of BNNTs, previously thought to be highly inert, toward controlling their dispersion, purity, lengths, and electronic properties.

  19. Shortening a Patient Experiences Survey for Medical Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy H. Ng


    Full Text Available The Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems—Patient-Centered Medical Home (CAHPS PCMH Survey assesses patient experiences reflecting domains of care related to general patient experience (access to care, communication with providers, office staff interaction, provider rating and PCMH-specific aspects of patient care (comprehensiveness of care, self-management support, shared decision making. The current work compares psychometric properties of the current survey and a proposed shortened version of the survey (from 52 to 26 adult survey items, from 66 to 31 child survey items. The revisions were based on initial psychometric analysis and stakeholder input regarding survey length concerns. A total of 268 practices voluntarily submitted adult surveys and 58 submitted child survey data to the National Committee for Quality Assurance in 2013. Mean unadjusted scores, practice-level item and composite reliability, and item-to-scale correlations were calculated. Results show that the shorter adult survey has lower reliability, but still it still meets general definitions of a sound survey for the adult version, and resulted in few changes to mean scores. The impact was more problematic for the pediatric version. Further testing is needed to investigate approaches to improving survey response and the relevance of survey items in informing quality improvement.

  20. The different muscle-energetics during shortening and stretch. (United States)

    Jarosch, Robert


    The helical shape of the thin filaments causes their passive counterclockwise rotation during muscle stretch that increases tensile stress and torque at first by unwinding and then by winding up the four anchoring Z-filaments. This means storage of energy in the series elastic Z-filaments and a considerable decrease of the liberated energy of heat and work to (h-w(ap)), where h is the heat energy and w(ap) the stretch energy induced from outside by an apparatus. The steep thin filament helix with an inclination angle of 70° promotes the passive rotation during stretch, but impedes the smooth sliding of shortening by increased friction and production of frictional heat. The frictional heat may be produced by the contact with the myosin cross-bridges: (1) when they passively snap on drilling thin filaments from cleft to cleft over a distance 2 × 2.7 nm = 5.4 nm between the globular actin monomers in one groove, causing stepwise motion; or (2) when they passively cycle from one helical groove to the next (distance 36 nm). The latter causes more heat and may take place on rotating thin filaments without an effective forward drilling ("idle rotation"), e.g., when they produce "unexplained heat" at the beginning of an isometric tetanus. In an Appendix to this paper the different states of muscle are defined. The function of its most important components is described and rotation model and power-stroke model of muscular contraction is compared.

  1. Leg stiffness modulation during exhaustive stretch-shortening cycle exercise. (United States)

    Kuitunen, S; Kyröläinen, H; Avela, J; Komi, P V


    The present study examined the effects of muscle activity modulation on leg stiffness during an exhaustive stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) exercise in eight male subjects. Reaction force, electromyography (EMG) of the soleus (Sol), gastrocnemius (Ga) and vastus lateralis (VL) muscles and sledge seat position were recorded during the SSC exercise, consisting of 100 maximal intermittent drop jumps followed by a continuous submaximal jumping until exhaustion, on a sledge apparatus. Metabolic loading was determined by measuring blood lactate (La). No change was found in leg stiffness during the maximal jumps, whereas the subsequent submaximal jumping induced a significant reduction by 27+/-12% (PEMG ratio between the braking and push-off phases in Sol (r=0.81, PEMG ratio at the end of the submaximal jumping in Sol (r=-0.88, Pmodulation between the braking and push-off phases in the triceps surae muscle, particularly in Ga, plays an important role in leg stiffness adjustments during fatiguing SSC exercise. It is suggested that efficient activity modulation (i.e. high EMG ratio) of the triceps surae muscle during an intensive fatiguing SSC exercise may postpone the exhaustion and development of metabolic fatigue.

  2. Meadow based Fraction Theory


    Bergstra, Jan A.


    In the context of an involutive meadow a precise definition of fractions is formulated and on that basis formal definitions of various classes of fractions are given. The definitions follow the fractions as terms paradigm. That paradigm is compared with two competing paradigms for storytelling on fractions: fractions as values and fractions as pairs.

  3. Does the speed of shortening affect steady-state force depression in cat soleus muscle? (United States)

    Leonard, T R; Herzog, W


    It has been stated repeatedly for the past 50 years that the steady-state force depression following shortening of an activated muscle depends on the speed of shortening. However, these statements were based on results from experiments in which muscles were shortened at different speeds but identical activation levels. Therefore, the force during shortening was changed in accordance with the force-velocity relationship of muscles: that is, increasing speeds of shortening were associated with decreasing forces, and vice versa. Consequently, it is not possible at present to distinguish whether force depression is caused by the changes in speed, as frequently stated, or the associated changes in force, or both. The purpose of this study was to test if force depression depends on the speed of shortening. We hypothesized that force depression was dependent on the force but not the speed of contraction. Our prediction is that the amount of force depression after shortening contractions at different speeds could be similar if the force during contraction was controlled at a similar level. Cat soleus muscles (n=7) were shortened by 9 or 12 mm at speeds of 3, 9, and 27 mm/s, first with a constant activation during shortening (30Hz), then with activation levels that were reduced (shortening forces of the fast speed contractions (27 mm/s). If done properly, force depression could be precisely matched at the three different speeds, indicating that force depression was related to the force during the shortening contraction but not to the speed. However, in order to match force depression, the forces during shortening had to be systematically greater for the slow compared to the fast speeds of shortening, suggesting that force depression also depends on the level of activation, as force depression at constant activation levels can only be matched if the force during shortening, evaluated by the mechanical work, is identical. Therefore, we conclude that force depression depends

  4. Computer-based assessment of left ventricular regional ejection fraction in patients after myocardial infarction (United States)

    Teo, S.-K.; Su, Y.; Tan, R. S.; Zhong, L.


    After myocardial infarction (MI), the left ventricle (LV) undergoes progressive remodeling which adversely affects heart function and may lead to development of heart failure. There is an escalating need to accurately depict the LV remodeling process for disease surveillance and monitoring of therapeutic efficacy. Current practice of using ejection fraction to quantitate LV function is less than ideal as it obscures regional variation and anomaly. Therefore, we sought to (i) develop a quantitative method to assess LV regional ejection fraction (REF) using a 16-segment method, and (ii) evaluate the effectiveness of REF in discriminating 10 patients 1-3 months after MI and 9 normal control (sex- and agematched) based on cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging. Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) CMR scans were also acquired for the MI patients to assess scar extent. We observed that the REF at the basal, mid-cavity and apical regions for the patient group is significantly lower as compared to the control group (P infarction. The results suggest that REF could potentially be used as a discriminator for MI and employed to measure myocardium homogeneity with respect to degree of infarction. The computational performance per data sample took approximately 25 sec, which demonstrates its clinical potential as a real-time cardiac assessment tool.

  5. Pharmacoeconomic analysis of adjuvant oral capecitabine vs intravenous 5-FU/LV in Dukes' C colon cancer: the X-ACT trial (United States)

    Cassidy, J; Douillard, J-Y; Twelves, C; McKendrick, J J; Scheithauer, W; Bustová, I; Johnston, P G; Lesniewski-Kmak, K; Jelic, S; Fountzilas, G; Coxon, F; Díaz-Rubio, E; Maughan, T S; Malzyner, A; Bertetto, O; Beham, A; Figer, A; Dufour, P; Patel, K K; Cowell, W; Garrison, L P


    Oral capecitabine (Xeloda®) is an effective drug with favourable safety in adjuvant and metastatic colorectal cancer. Oxaliplatin-based therapy is becoming standard for Dukes' C colon cancer in patients suitable for combination therapy, but is not yet approved by the UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) in the adjuvant setting. Adjuvant capecitabine is at least as effective as 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin (5-FU/LV), with significant superiority in relapse-free survival and a trend towards improved disease-free and overall survival. We assessed the cost-effectiveness of adjuvant capecitabine from payer (UK National Health Service (NHS)) and societal perspectives. We used clinical trial data and published sources to estimate incremental direct and societal costs and gains in quality-adjusted life months (QALMs). Acquisition costs were higher for capecitabine than 5-FU/LV, but higher 5-FU/LV administration costs resulted in 57% lower chemotherapy costs for capecitabine. Capecitabine vs 5-FU/LV-associated adverse events required fewer medications and hospitalisations (cost savings £3653). Societal costs, including patient travel/time costs, were reduced by >75% with capecitabine vs 5-FU/LV (cost savings £1318), with lifetime gain in QALMs of 9 months. Medical resource utilisation is significantly decreased with capecitabine vs 5-FU/LV, with cost savings to the NHS and society. Capecitabine is also projected to increase life expectancy vs 5-FU/LV. Cost savings and better outcomes make capecitabine a preferred adjuvant therapy for Dukes' C colon cancer. This pharmacoeconomic analysis strongly supports replacing 5-FU/LV with capecitabine in the adjuvant treatment of colon cancer in the UK. PMID:16622438

  6. LV reverse remodeling imparted by aortic valve replacement for severe aortic stenosis; is it durable? A cardiovascular MRI study sponsored by the American Heart Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caruppannan Ketheswaram


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS, long-term data tracking surgically induced effects of afterload reduction on reverse LV remodeling are not available. Echocardiographic data is available short term, but in limited fashion beyond one year. Cardiovascular MRI (CMR offers the ability to serially track changes in LV metrics with small numbers due to its inherent high spatial resolution and low variability. Hypothesis We hypothesize that changes in LV structure and function following aortic valve replacement (AVR are detectable by CMR and once triggered by AVR, continue for an extended period. Methods Tweny-four patients of which ten (67 ± 12 years, 6 female with severe, but compensated AS underwent CMR pre-AVR, 6 months, 1 year and up to 4 years post-AVR. 3D LV mass index, volumetrics, LV geometry, and EF were measured. Results All patients survived AVR and underwent CMR 4 serial CMR's. LVMI markedly decreased by 6 months (157 ± 42 to 134 ± 32 g/m2, p 2. Similarly, EF increased pre to post-AVR (55 ± 22 to 65 ± 11%,(p 2. LV stroke volume increased rapidly from pre to post-AVR (40 ± 11 to 44 ± 7 ml, p Conclusion After initial beneficial effects imparted by AVR in severe AS patients, there are, as expected, marked improvements in LV reverse remodeling. Via CMR, surgically induced benefits to LV structure and function are durable and, unexpectedly express continued, albeit markedly incomplete improvement through 4 years post-AVR concordant with sustained improved clinical status. This supports down-regulation of both mRNA and MMP activity acutely with robust suppression long term.

  7. Automatic LV volume measurement in low dose multi-phase CT by shape tracking (United States)

    von Berg, Jens; Begemann, Philipp; Stahmer, Felix; Adam, Gerhard; Lorenz, Cristian


    Functional assessment of cardiac ventricular function requires time consuming manual interaction. Some automated methods have been presented that predominantly used cardiac magnet resonance images. Here, an automatic shape tracking approach is followed to estimate left ventricular blood volume from multi-slice computed tomography image series acquired with retrospective ECG-gating. A deformable surface model method was chosen that utilized both shape and local appearance priors to determine the endocardial surface and to follow its motion through the cardiac cycle. Functional parameters like the ejection fraction could be calculated from the estimated shape deformation. A clinical validation was performed in a porcine model with 60 examinations on eight subjects. The functional parameters showed a good correlation with those determined by clinical experts using a commercially available semi-automatic short axes delineation tool. The correlation coefficient for the ejection fraction (EF) was 0.89. One quarter of these acquisitions were done with a low dose protocol. All of these degraded images could be processed well. Their correlation slightly decreases when compared to the normal dose cases (EF: 0.87 versus 0.88).

  8. A Scenario-Based Approach for Energy Storage Capacity Determination in LV Grids with High PV Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashemi Toghroljerdi, Seyedmostafa; Østergaard, Jacob; Yang, Guangya


    In this paper a new method is proposed to determine the minimum energy storage required to be installed at different locations of a low voltage (LV) grid in order to prevent the overvoltage due to high residential photovoltaic (PV) penetration. The method is based on the voltage sensitivity...... with different occurrence probabilities without involving the time-series studies problems. The proposed method is capable of modeling output power of PV panels with different orientations as well as different electric vehicle (EV) charging patterns....

  9. Innovation in Cable Outgoing Pattern of LV Cabinets%低压柜电缆出线方式创新

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    老山自行车馆工程低压柜为上出线方式,低压柜的出线电缆放置在两层1 000 mm × 200 mm的桥架中, 由于出线回路复杂, 上下层桥架中的电缆存在进入同一面低压柜的情况, 特别是1AA1~1AA7, 2AA1~2AA7两列低压柜中集中了场馆近90%的用电负荷, 共需配出百余条供电电缆. 两层配电桥架的设计不可能合理安装上下交错的电缆. 通过自主创新和方案策划, 设计并实施了柜顶配线箱, 有效地解决了低压柜上出线的各种问题, 保证了安装质量和观感效果.%The LV cabinets of Laoshan Velodrome Project are characterized by upper cables outgoing, which are arranged between two layers of 1 000 mm × 200 mm bridging structure. The loop of the outgoing cables is complex, the cable in the upper layer of the bridging structure and that in the lower layer enter the same LV cabinet, and especially 90 % of the electrical loads of Laoshan Velodrome is concentrated in 1AA1~1AA7 and 2AA1~2AA7 LV cabinets, so hundreds of power supply cables are required. The design of two-layer power distribution bridging structure is unable to realize reasonable installation of the cables staggered up and down. Through independent innovation and program planning, a cable distribution box is designed to arrange on the cabinet top to effectively solve various problems caused by upper cables outgoing of LV cabinets and guarantee the installation quality and appearance effect.

  10. Inula Viscosa Extracts Induces Telomere Shortening and Apoptosis in Cancer Cells and Overcome Drug Resistance. (United States)

    Merghoub, Nawal; El Btaouri, Hassan; Benbacer, Laila; Gmouh, Saïd; Trentesaux, Chantal; Brassart, Bertrand; Terryn, Christine; Attaleb, Mohammed; Madoulet, Claudie; Benjouad, Abdelaziz; Amzazi, Saaïd; El Mzibri, Mohammed; Morjani, Hamid


    Telomerase is activated in human papillomavirus (HPV) positive cervical cancer and targeting telomeres offers a novel anticancer therapeutic strategy. In this study, the telomere targeting properties, the cytotoxic as well as the pro-apoptotic effects of hexane (IV-HE) and dichloromethane (IV-DF) fractions from Inula viscosa L. extracts were investigated on human cervical HeLa and SiHa cancer cells. Our data demonstrate that IV-HE and IV-DF extracts were able to inhibit cell growth in HeLa and SiHa cells in a dose-dependent manner and studied resistant cell lines exhibited a resistance factor less than 2 when treated with the extracts. IV-HE and IV-DF extracts were able to inhibit telomerase activity and to induce telomere shortening as shown by telomeric repeat amplification protocol and TTAGGG telomere length assay, respectively. The sensitivity of fibroblasts to the extracts was increased when telomerase was expressed. Finally, IV-HE and IV-DF were able to induce apoptosis as evidenced by an increase in annexin-V labeling and caspase-3 activity. This study provides the first evidence that the IV-HE and IV-DF extracts from Inula viscosa L. target telomeres induce apoptosis and overcome drug resistance in tumor cells. Future studies will focus on the identification of the molecules involved in the anticancer activity.

  11. Verbālās metaforas ziņu valodā Latvijas ziņās (ziņu portālos un 2010–2012)


    Puriņa, Krista


    Bakalaura darba „Verbālās metaforas ziņu valodā Latvijas ziņās (ziņu portālos un 2010–2012)” mērķis ir parādīt, ka ziņu valodā ir daudz metaforas, kuras padara interesantāku vēstījumu, ietekmē tā efektivitāti. Pētnieciskā problēma ir: 1) noskaidrot, vai ziņu valodā ir sastopamas metaforas, 2) kādas, 3) vai to vēstījums nevar tikt uztverts kļūdaini, 4) kas ir vēstījuma efektivitātes pamatā? Teorētiskajā daļā – valoda, semiotika, ziņas, preses relīzes, metaforas Leiko...

  12. Study on the Fermentation Conditions of a Mucopolysaccharide-producing Bacterium LV-1%一株粘性多糖产生菌LV-1的发酵条件研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁玉丽; 郭继强; 陈晓艺; 刘志文; 李宪臻


    [Objective] The fermentation conditions of a mucopolysaccharide-producing bacterium LV-1 which isolated from soil sample were studied.[Method] The polysaccharide-producing bacterium was isolated by serial dilution method, the effects of carbon source, nitrogen source, the initial pH and temperature on producing polysaccharide by it were discussed to confirm the optimum fermentation conditions.[Result] The physicochemical properties showed that the polysaccharide was water-soluble, but insoluble in organic solvents including ethanol, butanol, and chloroform.It was neutral polysaccharide with negative charge and without reducing terminal. The pH of its solution was pH=7.5. There were no protein, fructose, uronic acid, sulphate and starch-like structure included in polysaccharide molecules. The optimum fermentation conditions for polysaccharide production were 3% mannitol as carbon source, 0.25% yeast extract as nitrogen source, culture temperature 28 ℃ and pH=7.5. [Conclusion] The research could provie basis for development and utilization of LV-1 and industrialized production of mucopolysaccharide.

  13. Interneta sociālie tīkli, mammam/ un kā reklāmas nesēji Latvijā (2009.gads)



    Maģistra darba tēma ir „Interneta sociālie tīkli, mammam/ un kā reklāmas nesēji Latvijā (2009.gads)”. Darba mērķis ir izpētīt Latvijas interneta sociālo tīklu vidi kā potenciāli augošu un reklāmai piemērotu, kā arī izpētīt pamanāmākos reklāmas gadījumus šajos portālos. Teorijas daļā tiek apskatīta Web 2.0 ēra, interneta reklāmas un sociālo mediju mārketinga īpatnības, sociālo tīklu fenomens un teorijas, Latvijas reklāmas tirgus un auditorija, kā arī sociāl...

  14. Litopenaeus vannamei sterile-alpha and armadillo motif containing protein (LvSARM is involved in regulation of Penaeidins and antilipopolysaccharide factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Hui Wang

    Full Text Available The Toll-like receptor (TLR-mediated NF-κB pathway is tightly controlled because overactivation may result in severe damage to the host, such as in the case of chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer. In mammals, sterile-alpha and armadillo motif-containing protein (SARM plays an important role in negatively regulating this pathway. While Caenorhabditis elegans SARM is crucial for an efficient immune response against bacterial and fungal infections, it is still unknown whether Drosophila SARM participates in immune responses. Here, Litopenaeus vannamei SARM (LvSARM was cloned and functionally characterized. LvSARM shared signature domains with and exhibited significant similarities to mammalian SARM. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis indicated that the expression of LvSARM was responsive to Vibrio alginolyticus and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV infections in the hemocyte, gill, hepatopancreas and intestine. In Drosophila S2 cells, LvSARM was widely distributed in the cytoplasm and could significantly inhibit the promoters of the NF-κB pathway-controlled antimicrobial peptide genes (AMPs. Silencing of LvSARM using dsRNA-mediated RNA interference increased the expression levels of Penaeidins and antilipopolysaccharide factors, which are L.vannamei AMPs, and increased the mortality rate after V. alginolyticus infection. Taken together, our results reveal that LvSARM may be a novel component of the shrimp Toll pathway that negatively regulates shrimp AMPs, particularly Penaeidins and antilipopolysaccharide factors.

  15. Litopenaeus vannamei sterile-alpha and armadillo motif containing protein (LvSARM) is involved in regulation of Penaeidins and antilipopolysaccharide factors. (United States)

    Wang, Pei-Hui; Gu, Zhi-Hua; Wan, Ding-Hui; Zhu, Wei-Bin; Qiu, Wei; Weng, Shao-Ping; Yu, Xiao-Qiang; He, Jian-Guo


    The Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated NF-κB pathway is tightly controlled because overactivation may result in severe damage to the host, such as in the case of chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer. In mammals, sterile-alpha and armadillo motif-containing protein (SARM) plays an important role in negatively regulating this pathway. While Caenorhabditis elegans SARM is crucial for an efficient immune response against bacterial and fungal infections, it is still unknown whether Drosophila SARM participates in immune responses. Here, Litopenaeus vannamei SARM (LvSARM) was cloned and functionally characterized. LvSARM shared signature domains with and exhibited significant similarities to mammalian SARM. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis indicated that the expression of LvSARM was responsive to Vibrio alginolyticus and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infections in the hemocyte, gill, hepatopancreas and intestine. In Drosophila S2 cells, LvSARM was widely distributed in the cytoplasm and could significantly inhibit the promoters of the NF-κB pathway-controlled antimicrobial peptide genes (AMPs). Silencing of LvSARM using dsRNA-mediated RNA interference increased the expression levels of Penaeidins and antilipopolysaccharide factors, which are L.vannamei AMPs, and increased the mortality rate after V. alginolyticus infection. Taken together, our results reveal that LvSARM may be a novel component of the shrimp Toll pathway that negatively regulates shrimp AMPs, particularly Penaeidins and antilipopolysaccharide factors.

  16. Circular smooth muscle contributes to esophageal shortening during peristalsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anil K Vegesna; Keng-Yu Chuang; Ramashesai Besetty; Steven J Phillips; Alan S Braverman; Mary F Barbe; Michael R Ruggieri


    AIM:To study the angle between the circular smooth muscle (CSM) and longitudinal smooth muscle (LSM) fibers in the distal esophagus.METHODS:In order to identify possible mechanisms for greater shortening in the distal compared to proximal esophagus during peristalsis,the angles between the LSM and CSM layers were measured in 9 cadavers.The outer longitudinal layer of the muscularis propria was exposed after stripping the outer serosa.The inner circular layer of the muscularis propria was then revealed after dissection of the esophageal mucosa and the underlying muscularis mucosa.Photographs of each specimen were taken with half of the open esophagus folded back showing both the outer longitudinal and inner circular muscle layers.Angles were measured every one cm for 10 cm proximal to the squamocolumnar junction (SCJ) by two independent investigators.Two human esophagi were obtained from organ transplant donors and the angles between the circular and longitudinal smooth muscle layers were measured using micro-computed tomography (micro CT) and Image J software.RESULTS:All data are presented as mean ± SE.The CSM to LSM angle at the SCJ and 1 cm proximal to SCJ on the autopsy specimens was 69.3 ± 4.62 degrees vs 74.9 ± 3.09 degrees,P =0.32.The CSM to LSM angle at SCJ were statistically significantly lower than at 2,3,4 and 5 cm proximal to the SCJ,69.3 ± 4.62 degrees vs 82.58 ± 1.34 degrees,84.04 ± 1.64 degrees,84.87 ± 1.04 degrees and 83.72 ± 1.42 degrees,P =0.013,P =0.008,P =0.004,P =0.009 respectively.The CSM to LSM angle at SCJ was also statistically significantly lower than the angles at 6,7 and 8 cm proximal to the SCJ,69.3 ± 4.62 degrees vs 80.18 ± 2.09 degrees,81.81 ± 1.75 degrees and 80.96 ± 2.04 degrees,P =0.05,P =0.02,P =0.03 respectively.The CSM to LSM angle at 1 cm proximal to SCJ was statistically significantly lower than at 3,4 and 5 cm proximal to the SCJ,74.94 ± 3.09 degrees vs 84.04 ± 1.64 degrees,84.87± 1.04 degrees and 83.72 ± 1

  17. GPS computer navigators to shorten EMS response and transport times. (United States)

    Ota, F S; Muramatsu, R S; Yoshida, B H; Yamamoto, L G


    GPS (global positioning satellite system to determine one's position on earth) units have become inexpensive and compact. The purpose of this study is to assess the effectiveness of a GPS enhanced computer street map navigator to improve the ability of EMS drivers in an urban setting to locate their destination and shorten response times. For part I, residential addresses in the city were randomly selected from a telephone directory. Two driver/navigator teams were assigned to drive to the address adhering to speed limits. One team used a standard street map, whereas the other team used a GPS computer navigator. The travel time and distance of the runs were compared. For part II, the computer GPS navigator was placed on an ambulance to supplement their normal methods of navigation to find the address requesting EMS. After the run was completed, EMS providers were interviewed to determine their opinion of whether the GPS navigator was helpful. For part I the results showed that in the 29 initial test runs, comparing the GPS team versus the standard map team, the mean distances traveled were 8.7 versus 9.0 kilometers (not significant) and the mean travel times were 13.5 versus 14.6 minutes (P=.02), respectively. The GPS team arrived faster in 72% runs. For part II the results showed that most EMS providers surveyed noted that the GPS computer navigator enhanced their ability to find the destination and all EMS providers acknowledged that it would enhance their ability to find a destination in an area in which they were unfamiliar. These results suggest that a portable GPS computer navigator system is helpful and can enhance the ability of prehospital care providers to locate their destination. Because these units are accurate and inexpensive, GPS computer navigators may be a valuable tool in reducing pre-hospital transport times.

  18. Interaction between endoplasmic reticulum stress and caspase 8 activation in retrovirus MoMuLV-ts1-infected astrocytes. (United States)

    Liu, Na; Scofield, Virginia L; Qiang, Wenan; Yan, Mingshan; Kuang, Xianghong; Wong, Paul K Y


    The murine retrovirus, MoMuLV-ts1, induces progressive paralysis and immune deficiency in FVB/N mice. We have reported previously that ts1 infection causes apoptosis in astrocytes via endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondrial stress (Liu, N., Kuang, X., Kim, H.T., Stoica, G., Qiang, W., Scofield, V.L., Wong, P.K.Y. Wong. 2004. Possible involvement of both endoplasmic reticulum- and mitochondria-dependent pathways in MoMuLV-ts1-induced apoptosis in astrocytes. J. NeuroVirol. 10, 189-198). In the present study, we show that caspase 8 activation in these cells is mediated through ER stress-associated elevation of death receptor DR5 and the C/EBP homologous protein (GADD153/CHOP), an ER stress-initiated transcription factor, rather than through TNFalpha and TNF-R1 interactions on the cell surface. Treatment with Z-IETD-FMK, a specific inhibitor of caspase 8 enzymatic activity, reduced ER stress by two mechanisms: by inhibiting caspase 8 activation, and by preventing cleavage of the ER-associated membrane protein BAP31 into BAP20, which exacerbates the ER stress response. These findings suggest that caspase 8- and ER stress-associated apoptotic pathways are linked in ts1-infected astrocytes.

  19. Shortening-induced torque depression in old men: implications for age-related power loss. (United States)

    Power, Geoffrey A; Makrakos, Demetri P; Stevens, Daniel E; Herzog, Walter; Rice, Charles L; Vandervoort, Anthony A


    Following active muscle shortening, the steady-state isometric torque at the final muscle length is lower than the steady-state torque obtained for a purely isometric contraction at that same final muscle length. This well-documented property of skeletal muscle is termed shortening-induced torque depression (TD). Despite many investigations into the mechanisms of weakness and power loss in old age, the influence of muscle shortening on the history dependence of isometric torque production remains to be elucidated. Thus, it is unclear whether older adults are disadvantaged for torque and power production following a dynamic shortening contraction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate shortening-induced TD in older adults, and to determine whether shortening-induced TD is related to power loss. Maximal voluntary isometric dorsiflexion contractions (MVC; 10s) in 8 young (25.5±3.7years) and 9 old (76.1±5.4years) men were performed on a HUMAC NORM dynamometer as a reference, and then again following an active shortening of 40° joint excursion (40°PF-0°PF) at angular velocities of 15°/s and 120°/s. Work and instantaneous power were derived during shortening. Shortening-induced TD was calculated and expressed as a percentage by determining the mean torque value over 1s during the isometric steady state of the MVC following shortening, divided by the mean torque value for the same 1s time period during the isometric reference MVC. To assess muscle activation, electromyography (root mean square; EMGRMS) of the tibialis anterior (TA) and soleus (SOL) was calculated at identical time points used in assessing shortening-induced TD, and voluntary activation (VA) was assessed using the interpolated twitch technique. Old were 18% weaker than young for MVC, and ~40% less powerful for 15°/s and 120°/s of shortening. Old produced 37% and 21% less work for 15°/s and 120°/s than young, respectively. Furthermore, old experienced 60% and 70% greater shortening-induced TD

  20. Assessment of poststress left ventricular ejection fraction by gated SPECT: comparison with equilibrium radionuclide angiocardiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acampa, Wanda; Liuzzi, Raffaele; De Luca, Serena; Capasso, Enza; Luongo, Luca; Cuocolo, Alberto [University Federico II, Department of Biomorphological and Functional Sciences, Institute of Biostructures and Bioimages, National Council of Research, Naples (Italy); Caprio, Maria Grazia [University Federico II, Department of Biomorphological and Functional Sciences, Institute of Biostructures and Bioimages, National Council of Research, Naples (Italy); SDN Foundation, Institute of Diagnostic and Nuclear Development, Naples (Italy); Nicolai, Emanuele [SDN Foundation, Institute of Diagnostic and Nuclear Development, Naples (Italy); Petretta, Mario [University Federico II, Department of Clinical Medicine, Cardiovascular and Immunological Sciences, Naples (Italy)


    We compared left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction obtained by gated SPECT with that obtained by equilibrium radionuclide angiocardiography in a large cohort of patients. Within 1 week, 514 subjects with suspected or known coronary artery disease underwent same-day stress-rest {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi gated SPECT and radionuclide angiocardiography. For both studies, data were acquired 30 min after completion of exercise and after 3 h rest. In the overall study population, a good correlation between ejection fraction measured by gated SPECT and by radionuclide angiocardiography was observed at rest (r=0.82, p<0.0001) and after stress (r=0.83, p<0.0001). In Bland-Altman analysis, the mean differences in ejection fraction (radionuclide angiocardiography minus gated SPECT) were -0.6% at rest and 1.7% after stress. In subjects with normal perfusion (n=362), a good correlation between ejection fraction measured by gated SPECT and by radionuclide angiocardiography was observed at rest (r=0.72, p<0.0001) and after stress (r=0.70, p<0.0001) and the mean differences in ejection fraction were -0.9% at rest and 1.4% after stress. Also in patients with abnormal perfusion (n=152), a good correlation between the two techniques was observed both at rest (r=0.89, p<0.0001) and after stress (r=0.90, p<0.0001) and the mean differences in ejection fraction were 0.1% at rest and 2.5% after stress. In a large study population, a good agreement was observed in the evaluation of LV ejection fraction between gated SPECT and radionuclide angiocardiography. However, in patients with perfusion abnormalities, a slight underestimation in poststress LV ejection fraction was observed using gated SPECT as compared to equilibrium radionuclide angiocardiography. (orig.)

  1. Serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii, Dirofilaria immitis, Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) infections in pet cats in Bangkok and vicinities, Thailand. (United States)

    Sukhumavasi, Woraporn; Bellosa, Mary L; Lucio-Forster, Araceli; Liotta, Janice L; Lee, Alice C Y; Pornmingmas, Pitcha; Chungpivat, Sudchit; Mohammed, Hussni O; Lorentzen, Leif; Dubey, J P; Bowman, Dwight D


    The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, Dirofilaria immitis (heartworm), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infections was examined using serum or plasma samples from 746 pet cats collected between May and July 2009 from clinics and hospitals located in and around Bangkok, Thailand. The samples were tested for heartworm, FIV, and FeLV using a commercial ELISA. Of the 746 samples, 4.6% (34/746) were positive for heartworm antigen, 24.5% (183/746) had circulating FeLV antigen, and 20.1% (150/746) had antibodies against FIV. In addition, the first 348 submitted samples were tested for T. gondii antibodies using a modified agglutination test (MAT, cut off 1:25); 10.1% (35/348) were seropositive. Of the 348 cats sampled for all four pathogens, 11, 10, and 1 were positive for T. gondii antibodies and FIV antibodies, FeLV antigen, or D. immitis antigen, respectively. Of the 35 T. gondii-seropositive cats, 42.9% (15/35) were co-infected with at least one of the other three pathogens. The presence of antibodies to FIV was significantly associated with both age and gender, while FeLV antigen presence was only associated with age. In the case of FIV, males were twice as likely to be infected as females, and cats over 10 years of age were 13.5 times more likely to be infected than cats less than 1 year of age. FeLV antigen was more common in younger cats, with cats over 10 years of age being 10 times less likely to be FeLV positive than cats under 1 year of age. This is the first survey for these four pathogens affecting feline health in Thailand.

  2. Limb shortening in the course of solitary bone cyst treatment - a comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glowacki, Maciej [Karol Marcinkowski University of Medical Sciences, Department of Paediatric Orthopaedics, Poznan (Poland); Ignys-O' Byrne, Anna [J. Strus City Hospital, Department of Radiology, Poznan (Poland); Ignys, Iwona [Karol Marcinkowski University of Medical Sciences, Department of Paediatric Gastroenterology and Metabolic Diseases, Poznan (Poland); Wroblewska, Katarzyna [Karol Marcinkowski University of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology, Poznan (Poland)


    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the frequency of limb shortening in the course of solitary bone cyst treatment. The correlation between the mode of treatment as well as the occurrence of pathological fracture, cyst location, volume, and locularity were examined. A retrospective analysis was carried out on 135 patients where 80 underwent curettage and bone grafting and 55 were administered methylprednisolone injection with a mean time to follow-up of 12 years. Based on clinical and radiological evaluation, limb shortening was found in ten patients when the data before and after treatment was compared. Limb shortening ranging from 1 to 5 cm during the course of the treatment was observed: six in humerus, two in femur, two in tibia. Those with epiphyseal changes, magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate the degree of growth plate damage was performed. Patients with and without limb shortening did not differ statistically regarding the applied method of treatment. The cyst volume was significantly larger in the group of patients with limb shortening when compared to the group of patients with no limb shortening. In patients treated with curettage and bone grafting, the mode of treatment does not increase the frequency of occurrence of iatrogenic limb shortening. In patients with limb shortening, a statistically significant larger volume of the cyst was observed. (orig.)

  3. Shortened preoperative fasting for prevention of complications associated with laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a meta-analysis. (United States)

    Xu, Duo; Zhu, Xuejiao; Xu, Yuan; Zhang, Liqing


    Objective Routine fasting (12 h) is always applied before laparoscopic cholecystectomy, but prolonged preoperative fasting causes thirst, hunger, and irritability as well as dehydration, low blood glucose, insulin resistance and other adverse reactions. We assessed the safety and efficacy of a shortened preoperative fasting period in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods We searched PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials up to 20 November 2015 and selected controlled trials with a shortened fasting time before laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We assessed the results by performing a meta-analysis using a variety of outcome measures and investigated the heterogeneity by subgroup analysis. Results Eleven trials were included. Forest plots showed that a shortened fasting time reduced the operative risk and patient discomfort. A shortened fasting time also reduced postoperative nausea and vomiting as well as operative vomiting. With respect to glucose metabolism, a shortened fasting time significantly reduced abnormalities in the ratio of insulin sensitivity. The C-reactive protein concentration was also reduced by a shortened fasting time. Conclusions A shortened preoperative fasting time increases patients' postoperative comfort, improves insulin resistance, and reduces stress responses. This evidence supports the clinical application of a shortened fasting time before laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

  4. Effects of stretch and shortening on gene expression in intact myocardium. (United States)

    Haggart, Charles R; Ames, Elizabeth G; Lee, Jae K; Holmes, Jeffrey W


    Multiple cues have been suggested as the mechanical stimulus for the heart's hypertrophic response. Our work has previously suggested that the amount of cyclic shortening in cardiomyocytes controls myocyte shape and the amount of stretch controls myocyte size. To identify gene expression changes that occur in response to these mechanical perturbations, we used microarray analysis of papillary muscles cultured for 12 h at physiological or reduced levels of cyclic shortening and physiological or reduced mean stretch. Overall, genes related to extracellular matrix (ECM) were surprisingly prominent in our analysis. Connective tissue growth factor was among a small group of genes regulated by the amount of cyclic shortening regardless of the level of mean stretch, and many more ECM genes were regulated by shortening with reduced amounts of stretch. When we compared our results to gene expression data from an in vivo model of pressure overload (PO), which also decreases myocyte shortening, we found the genes that were commonly regulated in PO and our decreased shortening groups were most significantly enriched for ontology terms related to the ECM, followed by genes associated with mechanosensing and the cytoskeleton. The list of genes regulated in PO and our decreased shortening groups also includes genes known to change early in hypertrophy, such as myosin heavy chain 7, brain natriuretic peptide, and myosin binding protein C. We conclude that in intact myocardium, the amount of cyclic shortening may be an important regulator not only of myocyte genes classically associated with hypertrophy but also of ECM genes.

  5. Accumulating evidence for increased velocity of airway smooth muscle shortening in asthmatic airway hyperresponsiveness. (United States)

    Ijpma, Gijs; Matusovsky, Oleg; Lauzon, Anne-Marie


    It remains unclear whether airway smooth muscle (ASM) mechanics is altered in asthma. While efforts have originally focussed on contractile force, some evidence points to an increased velocity of shortening. A greater rate of airway renarrowing after a deep inspiration has been reported in asthmatics compared to controls, which could result from a shortening velocity increase. In addition, we have recently shown in rats that increased shortening velocity correlates with increased muscle shortening, without increasing muscle force. Nonetheless, establishing whether or not asthmatic ASM shortens faster than that of normal subjects remains problematic. Endobronchial biopsies provide excellent tissue samples because the patients are well characterized, but the size of the samples allows only cell level experiments. Whole human lungs from transplant programs suffer primarily from poor patient characterization, leading to high variability. ASM from several animal models of asthma has shown increased shortening velocity, but it is unclear whether this is representative of human asthma. Several candidates have been suggested as responsible for increased shortening velocity in asthma, such as alterations in contractile protein expression or changes in the contractile apparatus structure. There is no doubt that more remains to be learned about the role of shortening velocity in asthma.

  6. Compatibility of selected plant-based shortening as lard substitute: microstructure, polymorphic forms and textural properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A.M. Yanty


    Full Text Available A study was carried out to determine the compatibility of three plant-based shortening mixtures to lard shortening (LD in terms of microstructure, polymorphic forms, and textural properties. The shortenings of binary, ternary, and quaternary fat mixtures were prepared according to a standard procedure by blending mee fat (MF with palm stearin (PS in a 99:1 (w/w ratio; avocado fat (Avo with PS and cocoa butter (CB in a 84:7:9 (w/w ratio; palm oil (PO with PS, soybean oil (SBO and CB in a 38:5:52:5 (w/w ratio, respectively. The triacylglycerol composition, polymorphic forms, crystal morphology, and textural properties of the shortening were evaluated. This study found that all three plant-based shortenings and LD shortening were similar with respect to their consistency, hardness and compression and adhesiveness values. However, all plant-based shortening was found to be dissimilar to LD shortening with respect to microstructure.

  7. Assisting High School Students with Career Indecision Using a Shortened Form of the Career Construction Interview (United States)

    Rehfuss, Mark C.; Sickinger, Pamela H.


    A shortened form of the Career Construction Interview (CCI) was used to help high school students struggling with the career decision making process. The shortened instrument is described, as well as, its use with eleventh grade high school students who had low levels of career concern and career curiosity. Students who completed the exercise…

  8. Accommodation of collisional shortening along the Alpine plate boundary : plate kinematics vs rheological controls (United States)

    Rosenberg, Claudio; Bellahsen, Nicolas


    The style of collision in the Alps varies along strike, reflecting different amounts and different modes of accommodation of collisional shortening. These differences control the patterns of exhumation during collision. Whereas the western Alps largely consist of a metamorphic complex formed during subduction and largely exhumed before the initiation of collision, the subduction nappe-stack of the Central and the Eastern Alps is strongly overprinted by collisional shortening and by Barrovian metamorphism. Based on compiled and new data we estimate amounts of collisional shortening along the strike of the chain and set it in relationship to the geometry of the collisional prism. The western Alpine collisional structures form a very large (in map view), but moderately shortened wedge, terminating in front of a poorly developed Molasse basin. Shortening of this wedge was mainly localized along its external parts, resulting in accretion of basement and cover units thrusted towards the foreland. Back-folding and back-thrusting are barely developed and no shortening takes place in the upper, Adriatic plate. In the Central Alps, the amount of collisional shortening is larger and it is distributed both in the lower and in the upper plate. The collisional prism is bivergent and partitioning of the amount of shortening between the upper and lower plates varies along strike, being most probably controlled by rheological, heterogeneities. The thickened accreted lower plate is strongly affected by Barrovian metamorphism where shortening is largest and localized within a confined area. A deep Molasse basin developed in front of the prism. In the Eastern Alps collisional kinematics vary from east to west, with orogen-parallel displacements dominating in the east and orogen-perpendicular ones in the West, where they culminate in the structural and metamorphic dome of the Tauern Window. Nowhere else in the Alps collisional shortening is so strongly localized in one and the same

  9. Evaluation of canola oil oleogels with candelilla wax as an alternative to shortening in baked goods. (United States)

    Jang, Areum; Bae, Woosung; Hwang, Hong-Sik; Lee, Hyeon Gyu; Lee, Suyong


    The oleogels of canola oil with candelilla wax were prepared and utilized as a shortening replacer to produce cookies with a high level of unsaturated fatty acids. The incorporation of candelilla wax (3% and 6% by weight) to canola oil produced the oleogels with solid-like properties. The firmness of the oleogels was lower than that of the shortening at room temperature. A more rapid change in the viscosity with temperature was observed with increasing levels of candelilla wax in the steady shear measurements. The replacement of shortening with oleogels in the cookie formulation reduced both viscoelastic parameters (G' and G") of the cookie doughs. The level of unsaturated fatty acids in the oleogel cookies was distinctly increased up to around 92%, compared to the shortening cookies (47.2%). The cookies with the oleogels showed desirable spreadable property and the replacement of shortening with the oleogels produced cookies with soft eating characteristics.

  10. Analysis of regional LV function using radionuclide ventriculography in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozumi, Takakazu; Ishida, Yoshio; Sato, Hideyuki; Hori, Masatsugu; Kamada, Takenobu; Yamagami, Hidetoshi; Kozuka, Takahiro; Nishimura, Tsunehiko (Osaka Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)


    The study evaluated the clinical significance of RI ventriculography in determining left ventricular regional wall motion abnormality (WMA), i.e., asynergy or asynchrony, in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). The subjects were 22 DCM patients and 10 normal persons. RI multi-gated cardiac blood pool scans were performed; and the whole ventricular area was divided into 8 segments to determine regional WMA and coefficients of variation of regional ejection fraction (CV-rEF) and regional ejection time (CV-rET). According to Tl-201 myocardial SPECT images at rest, DCM patients were classified as having no regional myocardial fibrotic lesions (DCM-A, n=17) or as having fibrotic lesions (DCM-B, n=5). CV-rEF and CV-rET were, on the average, increased by +2 SD or more in 14 (82%) and 11 (65%) patients, respectively, in Group DCM-A and respective 4 patients (80%) in Group DCM-B. CV-rEF and CV-rET were 24.7[+-]5.7% and 7.5[+-]2.3%, respectively, in control group; and corresponding figures were 41.1[+-]14.3% and 23.2[+-]13.5% in Group DCM-A and 59.1[+-]19.8% and 19.0[+-]7.2% in Group DCM-B, respectively. Because regional contraction abnormality also existed even in Group DCM-A with no definitive evidence of myocardial fibrosis, regional contraction abnormality associated with DCM may be attributed to other causes than fibrosis. In 5 patients in whom left ventricular EF was increased by giving beta blockers, both CV-rEF and CV-rET improved. This suggested that beta blockers may homogeneously affect contractile function, resulting in the improvement of left ventricular function. (N.K.).

  11. Matrix fractional systems (United States)

    Tenreiro Machado, J. A.


    This paper addresses the matrix representation of dynamical systems in the perspective of fractional calculus. Fractional elements and fractional systems are interpreted under the light of the classical Cole-Cole, Davidson-Cole, and Havriliak-Negami heuristic models. Numerical simulations for an electrical circuit enlighten the results for matrix based models and high fractional orders. The conclusions clarify the distinction between fractional elements and fractional systems.

  12. Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction – Concept, Pathophysiology, Diagnosis and Challenges for Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Veterovska Miljkovik


    Full Text Available Heart failure (HF with preserved left ventricular (LV ejection fraction (HFpEF occurs in 40 to 60% of the patients with HF, with a prognosis which is similar to HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF. HFpEF pathophysiology is different from that of HFrEF, and has been characterized with diastolic dysfunction. Diastolic dysfunction has been defined with elevated left ventricular stiffness, prolonged iso-volumetric LV relaxation, slow LV filing and elevated LV end-diastolic pressure. Arterial hypertension occurs in majority cases with HFpEF worldwide. Patients are mostly older and obese. Diabetes mellitus and atrial fibrillation appear proportionally in a high frequency of patients with HFpEF. The HFpEF diagnosis is based on existence of symptoms and signs of heart failure, normal or approximately normal ejection and diagnosing of LV diastolic dysfunction by means of heart catheterization or Doppler echocardiography and/or elevated concentration of plasma natriuretic peptide. The present recommendations for HFpEF treatment include blood pressure control, heart chamber frequency control when atrial fibrillation exists, in some situations even coronary revascularization and an attempt for sinus rhythm reestablishment. Up to now, it is considered that no medication or a group of medications improve the survival of HFpEF patients. Due to these causes and the bad prognosis of the disorder, rigorous control is recommended of the previously mentioned precipitating factors for this disorder. This paper presents a universal review of the most important parameters which determine this disorder.

  13. BPS vortices in the Abelian Maxwell-Carroll-Field-Jackiw-Higgs model with fractional magnetic fl ux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casana, Rodolfo; Lazar, Guillermo [Universidade Federal do Maranhao, Sao Luis (Brazil)


    Full text: In the last years investigations of field theories involving the spontaneous breaking of Lorentz symmetry have been studied in framework of Standard Model Extension. In this context we study the existence of Abrikosov - Nielsen - Olesen - like BPS vortices. Specifically, we analyze Maxwell-Higgs model supplemented by Lorentz violating (LV) terms in both sectors. The LV term in the Higgs sector is CPT-even whereas the gauge sector includes the Carroll-Field-Jackiw term which is CPT-odd. An important consequence due to LV term introduced in the Higgs sector is the fractionalization of the magnetic flux. Among other effects, LV coefficients rule the amplitude and spatial extension of the topological defect. Under appropriated coordinate rescaling and field redefinition BPS equations are similar to the ones of Maxwell - Chern - Simons - Higgs (MCSH) model. The difference appears in Gauss's law which contains a parameter dependent only in Higgs's LV coefficients. The Carroll-Field-Jackiw parameter couples the magnetic and electric sectors such as happens in models containing the Chern-Simons term, hence the BPS vortices are electrically charged. We emphasize that Lorentz-violating theories are somewhat equivalent to generalized Maxwell-Higgs models -in the context of effective field theories which could describe vortex configurations in continuous dielectric media. (author)

  14. [Automatic calculation of left ventricular volume and ejection fraction from gated myocardial perfusion SPECT--basic evaluation using phantom]. (United States)

    Kinoshita, Y; Nanbu, I; Tohyama, J; Ooba, S


    We evaluated accuracy of Quantitative Gated SPECT Program that enabled calculation of the left ventricular (LV) volume and ejection fraction by automatically tracing the contour of the cardiac surface. Cardiac phantoms filled with 99mTc-solution were used. Data acquisition was made by 180-degree projection in L type and 360-degree projection in opposed type. Automatic calculation could be done in all processes, which required 3-4 minutes. Reproducibility was sufficient. The adequate cut off value of a prefilter was 0.45. At this value LV volume was 93% of the actual volume in L type acquisition and 95.9% in opposed type acquisition. The LV volume obtained in L type was smaller than that obtained in opposed type (p defects was fair, on the cardiac phantoms with all of 90-degree defects and 180-degree defects of the septal and lateral wall. The LV volume was estimated to be larger on the phantom with 180-degree defect of the anterior wall, and to be smaller on the phantom of 180-degree defect of the inferoposterior wall. Because tracing was deviated anteriorly at the defects. In the patients with similar conditions to 180-degree defect of the anterior wall or inferoposterior wall, the LV volume should be carefully evaluated.

  15. Automatic calculation of left ventricular volume and ejection fraction from gated myocardial perfusion SPECT. Basic evaluation using phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, Yoshimi; Nanbu, Ichirou [Nagoya Daini Red Cross Hospital (Japan); Tohyama, Junko; Ooba, Satoru


    We evaluated accuracy of Quantitative Gated SPECT Program that enabled calculation of the left ventricular (LV) volume and ejection fraction by automatically tracing the contour of the cardiac surface. Cardiac phantoms filled with {sup 99m}Tc-solution were used. Data acquisition was made by 180-degree projection in L type and 360-degree projection in opposed type. Automatic calculation could be done in all processes, which required 3-4 minutes. Reproducibility was sufficient. The adequate cut off value of a prefilter was 0.45. At this value LV volume was 93% of the actual volume in L type acquisition and 95.9% in opposed type acquisition. The LV volume obtained in L type was smaller than that obtained in opposed type (p<0.05). The tracing of the defects was fair, on the cardiac phantoms with all of 90-degree defects and 180-degree defects of the septal and lateral wall. The LV volume was estimated to be larger on the phantom with 180-degree defect of the anterior wall, and to be smaller on the phantom of 180-degree defect of the inferoposterior wall. Because tracing was deviated anteriorly at the defects. In the patients with similar conditions to 180-degree defect of the anterior wall or inferoposterior wall, the LV volume should be carefully evaluated. (author)

  16. No Evidence of XMRV or MuLV Sequences in Prostate Cancer, Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma, or the UK Blood Donor Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark James Robinson


    Full Text Available Xenotropic murine leukaemia virus-related virus (XMRV is a recently described retrovirus which has been claimed to infect humans and cause associated pathology. Initially identified in the US in patients with prostate cancer and subsequently in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome, doubt now exists that XMRV is a human pathogen. We studied the prevalence of genetic sequences of XMRV and related MuLV sequences in human prostate cancer, from B cell lymphoma patients and from UK blood donors. Nucleic acid was extracted from fresh prostate tissue biopsies, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE prostate tissue and FFPE B-cell lymphoma. The presence of XMRV-specific LTR or MuLV generic gag-like sequences was investigated by nested PCR. To control for mouse DNA contamination, a PCR that detected intracisternal A-type particle (IAP sequences was included. In addition, DNA and RNA were extracted from whole blood taken from UK blood donors and screened for XMRV sequences by real-time PCR. XMRV or MuLV-like sequences were not amplified from tissue samples. Occasionally MuLV gag and XMRV-LTR sequences were amplified from Indian prostate cancer samples, but were always detected in conjunction with contaminating murine genomic DNA. We found no evidence of XMRV or MuLV infection in the UK blood donors.

  17. The Mus cervicolor MuLV isolate M813 is highly fusogenic and induces a T-cell lymphoma associated with large multinucleated cells. (United States)

    Prassolov, V; Ivanov, D; Hein, S; Rutter, G; Münk, C; Löhler, J; Stocking, C


    M813 is a type-C murine leukemia virus (MuLV) isolated from the Asian rodent Mus cervicolor. We have recently demonstrated that M813 defines a distinct MuLV receptor interference group. Here we show that M813 rapidly induces fusion of MuLV-expressing fibroblasts from "without," with syncytia being observed within 1 h after exposure to virus. Infection of fibroblasts with MuLV from all tested receptor-interference groups imparts susceptibility to M813-induced fusion, provided the cells also express the M813 receptor. Syncytium induction is also observed in vivo; mice infected with M813 develop a peripheral T-cell lymphoma, which is associated with large multinucleated cells of macrophage origin. A recombinant Moloney MuLV/M813 chimeric virus demonstrated that syncytium induction is a function of the Env SU protein. We postulate that the highly fusogenic property of M813 is attributable to either its unique receptor usage or sequences in the proline-rich domain of the Env protein.

  18. Changes in conformation of myosin heads during the development of isometric contraction and rapid shortening in single frog muscle fibres. (United States)

    Piazzesi, G; Reconditi, M; Dobbie, I; Linari, M; Boesecke, P; Diat, O; Irving, M; Lombardi, V


    1. Two-dimensional X-ray diffraction patterns were recorded at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility from central segments of intact single muscle fibres of Rana temporaria with 5 ms time resolution during the development of isometric contraction. Shortening at ca 0.8 times the maximum velocity was also imposed at the isometric tetanus plateau. 2. The first myosin-based layer line (ML1) and the second myosin-based meridional reflection (M2), which are both strong in resting muscle, were completely abolished at the plateau of the isometric tetanus. The third myosin-based meridional reflection (M3), arising from the axial repeat of the myosin heads along the filaments, remained intense but its spacing changed from 14.34 to 14.56 nm. The intensity change of the M3 reflection, IM3, could be explained as the sum of two components, I14.34 and I14.56, arising from myosin head conformations characteristic of rest and isometric contraction, respectively. 3. The amplitudes (A) of the X-ray reflections, which are proportional to the fraction of myosin heads in each conformation, changed with half-times that were similar to that of isometric force development, which was 33.5 +/- 2. 0 ms (mean +/- s.d., 224 tetani from three fibres, 4 C), measured from the end of the latent period. We conclude that the myosin head conformation changes synchronously with force development, at least within the 5 ms time resolution of these measurements. 4. The changes in the X-ray reflections during rapid shortening have two temporal components. The rapid decrease in intensity of the 14.56 nm reflection at the start of shortening is likely to be due to tilting of myosin heads attached to actin. The slower changes in the other reflections were consistent with a return to the resting conformation of the myosin heads that was about 60 % complete after shortening of 70 nm per half-sarcomere.

  19. Characteristics of myocardial postsystolic shortening in patients with symptomatic hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy before and half a year after alcohol septal ablation assessed by speckle tracking echocardiography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiansong Yuan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Postsystolic shortening (PSS has been proposed as a marker of myocardial dysfunction. Percutaneous transluminal septal myocardial ablation (PTSMA is an alternative therapy for patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM that results in sustained improvements in atrial structure and function. We investigated the effects of PTSMA on PSS in HOCM patients using speckle tracking imaging. METHODS: Conventional echocardiographic and PSS parameters were obtained in 18 healthy controls and 30 HOCM patients before and half a year after PTSMA. RESULTS: Compared with the healthy controls, the number of segments having PSS and the average value of PSS were significantly increased in the HOCM patients. At 6 months after PTSMA, both the number of segments having PSS (10.5±2.8 vs. 13.2±2.6; P<0.001 and the average value of PSS (-1.24±0.57 vs. -1.55±0.56; P = 0.009 were significantly reduced. Moreover, the reductions in the average value of PSS correlated well with the reductions in the E-to-Ea ratio (r = 0.705, P<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Both the number of segments having PSS and the average value of PSS were significantly increased in the HOCM patients. PTSMA has a favourable effect on PSS, which may partly account for the persistent improvement in LV diastolic function in HOCM patients after PTSMA.

  20. Intra-myocardial injection of both growth factors and heart derived Sca-1+/CD31- cells attenuates post-MI LV remodeling more than does cell transplantation alone: neither intervention enhances functionally significant cardiomyocyte regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Wang

    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF are two potent cell survival and regenerative factors in response to myocardial injury (MI. We hypothesized that simultaneous delivery of IGF+HGF combined with Sca-1+/CD31- cells would improve the outcome of transplantation therapy in response to the altered hostile microenvironment post MI. One million adenovirus nuclear LacZ-labeled Sca-1+/CD31- cells were injected into the peri-infarction area after left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD ligation in mice. Recombinant mouse IGF-1+HGF was added to the cell suspension prior to the injection. The left ventricular (LV function was assessed by echocardiography 4 weeks after the transplantation. The cell engraftment, differentiation and cardiomyocyte regeneration were evaluated by histological analysis. Sca-1+/CD31- cells formed viable grafts and improved LV ejection fraction (EF (Control, 54.5+/-2.4; MI, 17.6+/-3.1; Cell, 28.2+/-4.2, n = 9, P<0.01. IGF+HGF significantly enhanced the benefits of cell transplantation as evidenced by increased EF (38.8+/-2.2; n = 9, P<0.01 and attenuated adverse structural remodeling. Furthermore, IGF+HGF supplementation increased the cell engraftment rate, promoted the transplanted cell survival, enhanced angiogenesis, and minimally stimulated endogenous cardiomyocyte regeneration in vivo. The in vitro experiments showed that IGF+HGF treatment stimulated Sca-1+/CD31- cell proliferation and inhibited serum free medium induced apoptosis. Supperarray profiling of Sca-1+/CD31- cells revealed that Sca-1+/CD31- cells highly expressed various trophic factor mRNAs and IGF+HGF treatment altered the mRNAs expression patterns of these cells. These data indicate that IGF-1+HGF could serve as an adjuvant to cell transplantation for myocardial repair by stimulating donor cell and endogenous cardiac stem cell survival, regeneration and promoting angiogenesis.

  1. Effects of muscle fibre shortening on the characteristics of surface motor unit potentials. (United States)

    Rodriguez-Falces, Javier; Place, Nicolas


    Traditionally, studies dealing with muscle shortening have concentrated on assessing its impact on conduction velocity, and to this end, electrodes have been located between the end-plate and tendon regions. Possible morphologic changes in surface motor unit potentials (MUPs) as a result of muscle shortening have not, as yet, been evaluated or characterized. Using a convolutional MUP model, we investigated the effects of muscle shortening on the shape, amplitude, and duration characteristics of MUPs for different electrode positions relative to the fibre-tendon junction and for different depths of the MU in the muscle (MU-to-electrode distance). It was found that the effects of muscle shortening on MUP morphology depended not only on whether the electrodes were between the end-plate and the tendon junction or beyond the tendon junction, but also on the specific distance to this junction. When the electrodes lie between the end-plate and tendon junction, it was found that (1) the muscle shortening effect is not important for superficial MUs, (2) the sensitivity of MUP amplitude to muscle shortening increases with MU-to-electrode distance, and (3) the amplitude of the MUP negative phase is not affected by muscle shortening. This study provides a basis for the interpretation of the changes in MUP characteristics in experiments where both physiological and geometrical aspects of the muscle are varied.

  2. Initialized Fractional Calculus (United States)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.; Hartley, Tom T.


    This paper demonstrates the need for a nonconstant initialization for the fractional calculus and establishes a basic definition set for the initialized fractional differintegral. This definition set allows the formalization of an initialized fractional calculus. Two basis calculi are considered; the Riemann-Liouville and the Grunwald fractional calculi. Two forms of initialization, terminal and side are developed.

  3. Multiple causes of fatigue during shortening contractions in rat slow twitch skeletal muscle. (United States)

    Hortemo, Kristin Halvorsen; Munkvik, Morten; Lunde, Per Kristian; Sejersted, Ole M


    Fatigue in muscles that shorten might have other causes than fatigue during isometric contractions, since both cross-bridge cycling and energy demand are different in the two exercise modes. While isometric contractions are extensively studied, the causes of fatigue in shortening contractions are poorly mapped. Here, we investigate fatigue mechanisms during shortening contractions in slow twitch skeletal muscle in near physiological conditions. Fatigue was induced in rat soleus muscles with maintained blood supply by in situ shortening contractions at 37°C. Muscles were stimulated repeatedly (1 s on/off at 30 Hz) for 15 min against a constant load, allowing the muscle to shorten and perform work. Fatigue and subsequent recovery was examined at 20 s, 100 s and 15 min exercise. The effects of prior exercise were investigated in a second exercise bout. Fatigue developed in three distinct phases. During the first 20 s the regulatory protein Myosin Light Chain-2 (slow isoform, MLC-2s) was rapidly dephosphorylated in parallel with reduced rate of force development and reduced shortening. In the second phase there was degradation of high-energy phosphates and accumulation of lactate, and these changes were related to slowing of muscle relengthening and relaxation, culminating at 100 s exercise. Slowing of relaxation was also associated with increased leak of calcium from the SR. During the third phase of exercise there was restoration of high-energy phosphates and elimination of lactate, and the slowing of relaxation disappeared, whereas dephosphorylation of MLC-2s and reduced shortening prevailed. Prior exercise improved relaxation parameters in a subsequent exercise bout, and we propose that this effect is a result of less accumulation of lactate due to more rapid onset of oxidative metabolism. The correlation between dephosphorylation of MLC-2s and reduced shortening was confirmed in various experimental settings, and we suggest MLC-2s as an important regulator of

  4. Multiple causes of fatigue during shortening contractions in rat slow twitch skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Halvorsen Hortemo

    Full Text Available Fatigue in muscles that shorten might have other causes than fatigue during isometric contractions, since both cross-bridge cycling and energy demand are different in the two exercise modes. While isometric contractions are extensively studied, the causes of fatigue in shortening contractions are poorly mapped. Here, we investigate fatigue mechanisms during shortening contractions in slow twitch skeletal muscle in near physiological conditions. Fatigue was induced in rat soleus muscles with maintained blood supply by in situ shortening contractions at 37°C. Muscles were stimulated repeatedly (1 s on/off at 30 Hz for 15 min against a constant load, allowing the muscle to shorten and perform work. Fatigue and subsequent recovery was examined at 20 s, 100 s and 15 min exercise. The effects of prior exercise were investigated in a second exercise bout. Fatigue developed in three distinct phases. During the first 20 s the regulatory protein Myosin Light Chain-2 (slow isoform, MLC-2s was rapidly dephosphorylated in parallel with reduced rate of force development and reduced shortening. In the second phase there was degradation of high-energy phosphates and accumulation of lactate, and these changes were related to slowing of muscle relengthening and relaxation, culminating at 100 s exercise. Slowing of relaxation was also associated with increased leak of calcium from the SR. During the third phase of exercise there was restoration of high-energy phosphates and elimination of lactate, and the slowing of relaxation disappeared, whereas dephosphorylation of MLC-2s and reduced shortening prevailed. Prior exercise improved relaxation parameters in a subsequent exercise bout, and we propose that this effect is a result of less accumulation of lactate due to more rapid onset of oxidative metabolism. The correlation between dephosphorylation of MLC-2s and reduced shortening was confirmed in various experimental settings, and we suggest MLC-2s as an

  5. Alexa Fluor 546-ArIB[V11L;V16A] is a potent ligand for selectively labeling alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. (United States)

    Hone, Arik J; Whiteaker, Paul; Mohn, Jesse L; Jacob, Michele H; McIntosh, J Michael


    The alpha7* (*denotes the possible presence of additional subunits) nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtype is widely expressed in the vertebrate nervous system and implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders that compromise thought and cognition. In this report, we demonstrate that the recently developed fluorescent ligand Cy3-ArIB[V11L;V16A] labels alpha7 nAChRs in cultured hippocampal neurons. However, photobleaching of this ligand during long image acquisition times prompted us to develop a new derivative. In photostability studies, this new ligand, Alexa Fluor 546-ArIB[V11L;V16A], was significantly more resistant to bleaching than the Cy3 derivative. The classic alpha7 ligand alpha-bungarotoxin binds to alpha1* and alpha9* nAChRs. In contrast, Alexa Fluor 546-ArIB[V11L;V16A] potently (IC(50) 1.8 nM) and selectively blocked alpha7 nAChRs but not alpha1* or alpha9* nAChRs expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Selectivity was further confirmed by competition binding studies of native nAChRs in rat brain membranes. The fluorescence properties of Alexa Fluor 546-ArIB[V11L;V16A] were assessed using human embryonic kidney-293 cells stably transfected with nAChRs; labeling was observed on cells expressing alpha7 but not cells expressing alpha3beta2, alpha3beta4, or alpha4beta2 nAChRs. Further imaging studies demonstrate that Alexa Fluor 546-ArIB[V11L;V16A] labels hippocampal neurons from wild-type mice but not from nAChR alpha7 subunit-null mice. Thus, Alexa Fluor 546-ArIB[V11L;V16A] represents a potent and selective ligand for imaging alpha7 nAChRs.

  6. Ulnar shortening after TFCC suture repair of Palmer type 1B lesions. (United States)

    Wolf, Maya B; Kroeber, Markus W; Reiter, Andreas; Thomas, Susanne B; Hahn, Peter; Horch, Raymund E; Unglaub, Frank


    The objective of this study was to determine functional and subjective outcomes of an ulnar shortening procedure elected by patients who experienced persistent ulno-carpal symptoms following arthroscopic suture repair of a Palmer type 1B lesion. All patients had a dynamic ulna positive variance. Five patients (3 males and 2 females) with arthroscopic repair of Palmer type 1B tears who subsequently underwent ulnar shortening were reviewed. At the time of the arthroscopic repair the patients' average age was 37 +/- 13 years (range 16-52 years). Average time to follow-up was 14 +/- 6 months (range 10-23 months). The average age was 38 +/- 14 years (range 17-53 years) when the ulnar shortening was performed. The second follow-up took place 7 +/- 2 months (range 5-9 months) after ulnar shortening. During the follow-ups, range of motion, grip strength, pain, Modified Mayo Wrist Score, DASH Score, and ulnar length were evaluated. Citing persistent ulno-carpal symptoms, the patients elected ulnar shortening an average of 17 +/- 7months (range 13-29 months) following the arthroscopic repair. Prior to ulnar shortening the average static ulnar variance was 0.2 +/- 1.3 mm (range -1 to 2 mm), the average dynamic ulnar variance was 1.4 +/- 0.5 mm (range 1 to 2 mm). Ulnar shortening brought about further reduction in pain after the arthroscopic repair of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) had already reduced it. As measured by a visual analogue scale, the average value after ulnar shortening was 2.2 +/- 2.1 (range 0.7-5.0). The average static ulnar variance was -3.4 +/- 2 mm (range -5 to -1 mm). Patients were very satisfied with the results of the ulnar shortening and four out of five indicated that it had significantly improved their symptoms and they would elect ulnar shortening again. Postoperative range of motion as a percentage of the contralateral side averaged 90% for the extension/flexion arc, 80% for the radial/ulnar deviation arc, and 100% for the pronation

  7. Fraction Sense: Foundational Understandings. (United States)

    Fennell, Francis Skip; Karp, Karen


    The intent of this commentary is to identify elements of fraction sense and note how the research studies provided in this special issue, in related but somewhat different ways, validate the importance of such understandings. Proficiency with fractions serves as a prerequisite for student success in higher level mathematics, as well as serving as a gateway to many occupations and varied contexts beyond the mathematics classroom. Fraction sense is developed through instructional opportunities involving fraction equivalence and magnitude, comparing and ordering fractions, using fraction benchmarks, and computational estimation. Such foundations are then extended to operations involving fractions and decimals and applications involving proportional reasoning. These components of fraction sense are all addressed in the studies provided in this issue, with particular consideration devoted to the significant importance of the use of the number line as a central representational tool for conceptually understanding fraction magnitude.

  8. Telomere shortening in diaphragm and tibialis anterior muscles of aged mdx mice. (United States)

    Lund, Troy C; Grange, Robert W; Lowe, Dawn A


    The progression of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is, in part, due to satellite cell senescence driven by high replicative pressure as these muscle stem cells repeatedly divide and fuse to damaged muscle fibers. We hypothesize that telomere shortening in satellite cells underlies their senescence. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the diaphragm and a leg muscle from dystrophic mice of various ages for telomere dynamics. We found 30% telomere shortening in tibialis anterior muscles from 600-day-old mdx mice relative to age-matched wildtype mice. We also found a more severe shortening of telomere length in diaphragm muscles of old mdx mice. In those muscles, telomeres were shortened by approximately 15% and 40% in 100- and 600-day-old mdx mice, respectively. These findings indicate that satellite cells undergo telomere erosion, which may contribute to the inability of these cells to perpetually repair DMD muscle.

  9. Attempts to Shorten the Time of Lactic Fermentation by Ultrasonic Irradiation (United States)

    Masuzawa, Nobuyoshi; Ohdaira, Etsuzo


    In recent years, applications of ultrasound to food processing have been of interest. Fermentation is a typical example of food processing which has been used, since ancient times, on milk and is utilized for processing various dairy products, e.g., yoghurt. In this study, ultrasonic irradiation to shorten the time of fermentation in yoghurt production is attempted. It is proven that shortening the fermentation time is possible by employing ultrasonic irradiation.

  10. Effects of fiber type on force depression after active shortening in skeletal muscle. (United States)

    Joumaa, V; Power, G A; Hisey, B; Caicedo, A; Stutz, J; Herzog, W


    The aim of this study was to investigate force depression in Type I and Type II muscle fibers. Experiments were performed using skinned fibers from rabbit soleus and psoas muscles. Force depression was quantified after active fiber shortening from an average sarcomere length (SL) of 3.2µ m to an average SL of 2.6 µm at an absolute speed of 0.115f iber length/s and at a relative speed corresponding to 17% of the unloaded shortening velocity (V0) in each type of fibers. Force decay and mechanical work during shortening were also compared between fiber types. After mechanical testing, each fiber was subjected to myosin heavy chain (MHC) analysis in order to confirm its type (Type I expressing MHC I, and Type II expressing MHC IId). Type II fibers showed greater steady-state force depression after active shortening at a speed of 0.115 fiber length/s than Type I fibers (14.5±1.5% versus 7.8±1.7%). Moreover, at this absolute shortening speed, Type I fibers showed a significantly greater rate of force decay during shortening and produced less mechanical work than Type II fibers. When active shortening was performed at the same relative speed (17% V0), the difference in force depression between fiber types was abolished. These results suggest that no intrinsic differences were at the origin of the disparate force depressions observed in Type I and Type II fibers when actively shortened at the same absolute speed, but rather their distinct force-velocity relationships.

  11. Compression and Combining Based on Channel Shortening and Rank Reduction Technique for Cooperative Wireless Sensor Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Qasim Zeeshan


    This paper investigates and compares the performance of wireless sensor networks where sensors operate on the principles of cooperative communications. We consider a scenario where the source transmits signals to the destination with the help of L sensors. As the destination has the capacity of processing only U out of these L signals, the strongest U signals are selected while the remaining (L?U) signals are suppressed. A preprocessing block similar to channel-shortening is proposed in this contribution. However, this preprocessing block employs a rank-reduction technique instead of channel-shortening. By employing this preprocessing, we are able to decrease the computational complexity of the system without affecting the bit error rate (BER) performance. From our simulations, it can be shown that these schemes outperform the channel-shortening schemes in terms of computational complexity. In addition, the proposed schemes have a superior BER performance as compared to channel-shortening schemes when sensors employ fixed gain amplification. However, for sensors which employ variable gain amplification, a tradeoff exists in terms of BER performance between the channel-shortening and these schemes. These schemes outperform channel-shortening scheme for lower signal-to-noise ratio.

  12. Could an increase in airway smooth muscle shortening velocity cause airway hyperresponsiveness? (United States)

    Bullimore, Sharon R; Siddiqui, Sana; Donovan, Graham M; Martin, James G; Sneyd, James; Bates, Jason H T; Lauzon, Anne-Marie


    Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) is a characteristic feature of asthma. It has been proposed that an increase in the shortening velocity of airway smooth muscle (ASM) could contribute to AHR. To address this possibility, we tested whether an increase in the isotonic shortening velocity of ASM is associated with an increase in the rate and total amount of shortening when ASM is subjected to an oscillating load, as occurs during breathing. Experiments were performed in vitro using 27 rat tracheal ASM strips supramaximally stimulated with methacholine. Isotonic velocity at 20% isometric force (Fiso) was measured, and then the load on the muscle was varied sinusoidally (0.33 ± 0.25 Fiso, 1.2 Hz) for 20 min, while muscle length was measured. A large amplitude oscillation was applied every 4 min to simulate a deep breath. We found that: 1) ASM strips with a higher isotonic velocity shortened more quickly during the force oscillations, both initially (P shortening during the force oscillation protocol (P shortening with increased isotonic velocity could be explained by a change in either the cycling rate of phosphorylated cross bridges or the rate of myosin light chain phosphorylation. We conclude that, if asthma involves an increase in ASM velocity, this could be an important factor in the associated AHR.

  13. Tetanic force potentiation of mouse fast muscle is shortening speed dependent. (United States)

    Gittings, William; Huang, Jian; Vandenboom, Rene


    The activity dependent potentiation of peak isometric force associated with phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) is generally restricted to low activation frequencies. The purpose of this study was to determine if muscle shortening speed influenced the stimulus frequency domain over which concentric force potentiation was observed. To this end, mouse extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles (in vitro, 25 °C) were activated at a range of test frequencies (10, 25, 45, 70 or 100 Hz) during shortening ramps at 0.10, 0.30 or 0.50 of the maximal velocity of shortening (V(max)). This procedure was performed before and after a standard conditioning stimulus (CS) that elevated RLC phosphorylation from 0.08 ± 0.01 (rest) to 0.55 ± 0.01 (stimulated) moles phosphate per mol RLC, respectively (n = 9-11) (P shortening speed also increased the activation frequency at which concentric force potentiation was maximal, i.e. from 10 Hz at 0.10 V(max) to 10-25 and 25-45 Hz at 0.30 and 0.50 V(max), respectively. These results indicate that both the magnitude of and activation frequency dependence for concentric force potentiation of mouse EDL muscle is shortening speed dependent. Thus, muscle shortening speed may be a critical factor determining the functional utility of the myosin RLC phosphorylation mechanism.

  14. Serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii, Dirofilaria immitis, Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) infections in pet cats in Bangkok and vicinities, Thailand (United States)

    The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, Dirofilaria immitis (heartworm), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infections was examined using serum or plasma samples from 746 pet cats collected between May and July 2009 from clinics and hospitals located in and around ...

  15. A two-component signal-transduction cascade in Carnobacterium piscicola LV17B : two signaling peptides and one sensor-transmitter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleerebezem, M; Kuipers, OP; de Vos, WM; Stiles, ME; Quadri, LEN; Vos, Willem M. de; Stiles, Michael E.; Quadri, Luis E.N.


    In the lactic acid bacterium Carnobacterium piscicola LV17B a peptide-pheromone dependent quorum-sensing mode is involved in the regulation of bacteriocin production. Bacteriocin CB2 was identified as an environmental signal that induces bacteriocin production. Here, we demonstrate that a second 24

  16. Effects of Benzalkonium Chloride, Proxel LV, P3 Hypochloran, Triton X-100 and DOWFAX 63N10 on anaerobic digestion processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores, German Antonio Enriquez; Fotidis, Ioannis; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov


    In this study, the individual and synergistic toxicity of the following xenobiotics: Benzalkonium Chloride (BKC), Proxel LV (PRX), P3 Hypochloran (HPC), Triton X-100 (TRX), and DOWFAX 63N10 (DWF), on anaerobic digestion (AD) process, was assessed. The experiments were performed in batch and conti...

  17. A two-component signal-transduction cascade in Carnobacterium piscicola LV17B : two signaling peptides and one sensor-transmitter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleerebezem, M; Kuipers, OP; de Vos, WM; Stiles, ME; Quadri, LEN; Vos, Willem M. de; Stiles, Michael E.; Quadri, Luis E.N.


    In the lactic acid bacterium Carnobacterium piscicola LV17B a peptide-pheromone dependent quorum-sensing mode is involved in the regulation of bacteriocin production. Bacteriocin CB2 was identified as an environmental signal that induces bacteriocin production. Here, we demonstrate that a second 24

  18. Transspecies Transmission of Gammaretroviruses and the Origin of the Gibbon Ape Leukaemia Virus (GaLV and the Koala Retrovirus (KoRV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Denner


    Full Text Available Transspecies transmission of retroviruses is a frequent event, and the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1 is a well-known example. The gibbon ape leukaemia virus (GaLV and koala retrovirus (KoRV, two gammaretroviruses, are also the result of a transspecies transmission, however from a still unknown host. Related retroviruses have been found in Southeast Asian mice although the sequence similarity was limited. Viruses with a higher sequence homology were isolated from Melomys burtoni, the Australian and Indonesian grassland melomys. However, only the habitats of the koalas and the grassland melomys in Australia are overlapping, indicating that the melomys virus may not be the precursor of the GaLV. Viruses closely related to GaLV/KoRV were also detected in bats. Therefore, given the fact that the habitats of the gibbons in Thailand and the koalas in Australia are far away, and that bats are able to fly over long distances, the hypothesis that retroviruses of bats are the origin of GaLV and KoRV deserves consideration. Analysis of previous transspecies transmissions of retroviruses may help to evaluate the potential of transmission of related retroviruses in the future, e.g., that of porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs during xenotransplantation using pig cells, tissues or organs.

  19. Meaning of Fractions (United States)

    Dewi, D. A. K.; Suryadi, D.; Suratno, T.; Mulyana, E.; Kurniawan, H.


    Introducing fractions is identical to divide an object. Suppose we divide the apple into two parts. One divided into two parts, the question arises whether one part can be called a half or not. Based on this activity, how can students give meaning to fractions. This study aims at designing a different fractions lesson by applying Didactical Design Research. In doing so, we undertook several research phases: 1) thinking what is fractions and why students should learn this concept; 2) designing didactical situation based on identified learning obstacles; and 3) reflecting retrospectively on the lesson design and its implementation as to redesign the fractions lesson. Our analysis revealed that most students held epistemological obstacles in giving meaning of fractions because they only know fractions as numbers that have numerator and denominator. By positioning ourselves as students, we discuss the ideal design to help students in constructing the meaning of fractions.

  20. Fractional Dynamical Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Edelman, Mark


    In this paper the author presents the results of the preliminary investigation of fractional dynamical systems based on the results of numerical simulations of fractional maps. Fractional maps are equivalent to fractional differential equations describing systems experiencing periodic kicks. Their properties depend on the value of two parameters: the non-linearity parameter, which arises from the corresponding regular dynamical systems; and the memory parameter which is the order of the fractional derivative in the corresponding non-linear fractional differential equations. The examples of the fractional Standard and Logistic maps demonstrate that phase space of non-linear fractional dynamical systems may contain periodic sinks, attracting slow diverging trajectories, attracting accelerator mode trajectories, chaotic attractors, and cascade of bifurcations type trajectories whose properties are different from properties of attractors in regular dynamical systems. The author argues that discovered properties s...

  1. Mechanical Behaviors and Elastic Parameters of Laminated Fabric URETEK3216LV Subjected to Uniaxial and Biaxial Loading (United States)

    Chen, Jianwen; Chen, Wujun; Wang, Mingyang; Ding, Yong; Zhou, Han; Zhao, Bing; Fan, Jin


    A comprehensive experimental study of the laminated fabric URETEK3216LV subjected to mono-uniaxial, uniaxial cyclic and biaxial cyclic loading was performed to expose the detailed mechanical behaviors and determine proper elastic parameters for the laminated fabrics under specific stress states. The elastic modulus-strain curves and elastic parameter response surfaces were used to reveal the mechanical behaviors, and a weighted average method of integrals was proposed to calculate the elastic parameters for different stress states. Results show that typical stress-strain curves consist of three distinct regions during loading: crimp region, nonlinear transition region and yarn extension region, which is consistent with those of the constitutive yarns. The elastic parameters and mechanical behaviors of the laminated fabric are stress-state specific, and they vary noticeably with the experimental protocols, stress ratios and stress levels. The proposed method is feasible to evaluate the elastic parameters no matter what stress states the materials are subjected to, and thus it may offer potential access to obtain accurate design and analysis of the airship structures under different loading conditions.

  2. Protective effects of Ping-Lv-Mixture (PLM), a medicinal formula on arrhythmias induced by myocardial ischemia-reperfusion. (United States)

    An, Wei; Yang, Jing


    Ping-Lv-Mixture (PLM) is a Chinese medicinal formula. The present study aimed to determine the effects of PLM on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (MI/R) induced arrhythmias in rats. Arrhythmia model was established by occlusion of the left arterial descending coronary artery and thereafter reperfusion. A lead II electrocardiogram was monitored throughout the experiment. The results showed that pretreatment of PLM to MI/R rats significantly reduced the incidence and duration of ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation. On induction of MI/R, the activities of creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase were increased in vehicle group. PLM (0.04-1.00 g/kg) administration prevented the increase of these enzymes. Moreover, a significant increase of myocardium superoxide dismutase and decrease of malondialdehyde contents were observed in rats of PLM groups. On the other hand, the expressions of platelet activating factor (PAF) receptor mRNA was down-regulated in a dose-dependent manner in the PLM-treated groups by RT-PCR. Thus, it can be concluded that pretreatment with PLM inhibited lipid peroxidation in rats through suppressing the expression of PAF receptor, which may contribute to its preventive effect on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion induced arrhythmias.

  3. Analysis of Maneuvering Targets with Complex Motions by Two-Dimensional Product Modified Lv's Distribution for Quadratic Frequency Modulation Signals. (United States)

    Jing, Fulong; Jiao, Shuhong; Hou, Changbo; Si, Weijian; Wang, Yu


    For targets with complex motion, such as ships fluctuating with oceanic waves and high maneuvering airplanes, azimuth echo signals can be modeled as multicomponent quadratic frequency modulation (QFM) signals after migration compensation and phase adjustment. For the QFM signal model, the chirp rate (CR) and the quadratic chirp rate (QCR) are two important physical quantities, which need to be estimated. For multicomponent QFM signals, the cross terms create a challenge for detection, which needs to be addressed. In this paper, by employing a novel multi-scale parametric symmetric self-correlation function (PSSF) and modified scaled Fourier transform (mSFT), an effective parameter estimation algorithm is proposed-referred to as the Two-Dimensional product modified Lv's distribution (2D-PMLVD)-for QFM signals. The 2D-PMLVD is simple and can be easily implemented by using fast Fourier transform (FFT) and complex multiplication. These measures are analyzed in the paper, including the principle, the cross term, anti-noise performance, and computational complexity. Compared to the other three representative methods, the 2D-PMLVD can achieve better anti-noise performance. The 2D-PMLVD, which is free of searching and has no identifiability problems, is more suitable for multicomponent situations. Through several simulations and analyses, the effectiveness of the proposed estimation algorithm is verified.

  4. Binding of Dumbbell Oligonucleotides to MoMuLV Reverse Transcriptase: Inhibitory Properties of RNase H Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar


    Full Text Available Dumbbell oligonucleotides with loops of various chemistry were synthesized. Incubation of dumbbell oligonucleotides containing phosphorothioate bonds or trimethylene phosphate linkages in loops with S1 nuclease did not result in significant cleavage under conditions which led to the degradation of dumbbell oligonucleotide containing phophodiester bonds in the loops. The binding of reverse transcriptase of Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus (MoMuLV was evaluated with all the five oligonucleotides. The protein binds to all the dumbbell oligonucleotides with similar affinity. The dissociation constants evaluated using PAGE band mobility shift assays were of the order of 10-7. The inhibitory properties of the retroviral RNase H activity was evaluated using 3H –UTP-labeled RNA:RNA-DNA hybrid. It was found that the best dumbbell oligonucleotide, inhibitor contained phosphorothioate residues in both the loops. Our value studies demonstrated that this particularly designed oligonucleotide displays an IC50 of 18 nM in its inhibition on the reverse transcriptase RNase H activity, a magnitude lower than that of first nucleotide reverse transcriptase of HIV-1, tenofovir, introduced by Gilead Science in the market.

  5. The Effect of Phenazine-1-Carboxylic Acid on Mycelial Growth of Botrytis cinerea Produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa LV Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ane S. Simionato


    Full Text Available One of the most important postharvest plant pathogens that affect strawberries, grapes and tomatoes is Botrytis cinerea, known as gray mold. The fungus remains in latent form until spore germination conditions are good, making infection control difficult, causing great losses in the whole production chain. This study aimed to purify and identify phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA produced by the Pseudomonas aeruginosa LV strain and to determine its antifungal activity against B. cinerea. The compounds produced were extracted with dichloromethane and passed through a chromatographic process. The purity level of PCA was determined by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography semi-preparative. The structure of PCA was confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Antifungal activity was determined by the dry paper disk and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC methods and identified by scanning electron microscopy and confocal microscopy. The results showed that PCA inhibited mycelial growth, where MIC was 25 μg mL-1. Microscopic analysis revealed a reduction in exopolysaccharide (EPS formation, showing distorted and damaged hyphae of B. cinerea. The results suggested that PCA has a high potential in the control of B. cinerea and inhibition of EPS (important virulence factor. This natural compound is a potential alternative to postharvest control of gray mold disease.

  6. Molecular characterizations of a novel putative DNA-binding protein LvDBP23 in marine shrimp L. vannamei tissues and molting stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanisa Laoong-u-thai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Litopenaeus Vannamei, well known as pacific white shrimp, is the most popular shrimp in the world shrimp market. Identification and characterization of shrimp muscle regulatory genes are not only important for shrimp genetic improvement, but also facilitate comparative genomic tools for understanding of muscle development and regeneration. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A novel mRNA encoding for a putative DNA-binding protein LvDBP23 was identified from Litopenaeus vannamei abdominal muscle cDNA library. The LvDBP23 cDNA contains 639 nucleotides of protein-coding sequence with deduced 212 amino acids of predicted molecular mass 23.32 kDa with glycine-rich domain at amino acid position 94-130. The mRNA sequence is successfully used for producing LvDBP23 recombinant protein in sf9 insect cell expression system. The expression of LvDBP23 mRNA is presented in abdominal muscle and swimming leg muscle, as well as other tissues including intestine, lymphoid and gill. The mRNA expression has the highest level in abdominal muscle in all tested tissues. LVDBP23 transcript during the molt cycle is highly expressed in the intermolt stage. In vitro nucleic acid-binding assays reveal that LvDBP23 protein can bind to both ssDNA and dsDNA, indicating its possible role of regulation of gene transcription. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We are the first to report a DNA-binding protein identified from the abdominal muscle tissue of marine shrimp L. Vannamei. Its high-level specific expression during the intermot stage suggests its role in the regulation of muscle buildup during the growth phase of shrimp molt cycle.

  7. Formulation development, optimization and study on drug release kinetics of Eudragit® L100-HPMC E15 LV mixed film-coated colon-targeted Mesalamine tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Maria John Newton


    Full Text Available The study was designed to evaluate the in vitro dissolution characteristics of pH-sensitive polymer - HPMC E 15 LV-coated tablets - in various simulated fluids (pH range 1.2, 6, 7.2. The Mesalamine tablets were fabricated by mixing the drug with microcrystalline cellulose and other ingredients. The fabricated Mesalamine tablets were coated with Eudragit L100 polymer and HPMC E 15 LV. The fluctuation in colonic pH conditions during inflammatory bowel disease and the nature of less fluid content in the colon may limit the expected drug release in the colon. Addition of HPMC E 15 LV may control this problem by hydrophilic nature and excellent film-forming characteristics like ductility and elasticity. The different batches of Mesalamine tablets (FM1-FM5 were coated with increasing concentration of Eudragit L100 and HPMC E 15 LV. The coating was given up to 8% TWG(Total weight gain of the uncoated tablet. Drug release studies were conducted in different pH conditions in the presence of rat ceaecal contents. The different buffer conditions were chosen to mimic the pH changes in the terminal part of the ileum as well as in the colon. The drug release profile was analyzed for colon-targeting performance in vitro. The release profile of the tablets indicates that the drug release was retarded in the tablet by film coating. The addition of HPMC E 15 LV ensures the channels for allowing colonic fluids to penetrate into the core and subsequent drug release at the target site. The kinetics of the drug release also evaluated the release pattern that was best fitted with Higuchian release. The results of the mechanism of release revealed that drug release was found to be a complex one with diffusion, erosion and swelling.

  8. On continued fraction algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, Ionica


    Is there a good continued fraction approximation between every two bad ones? What is the entropy of the natural extension for alpha-Rosen fractions? How do you find multi-dimensional continued fractions with a guaranteed quality in polynomial time? These, and many more, questions are answered in thi

  9. DIY Fraction Pack. (United States)

    Graham, Alan; Graham, Louise


    Describes a very successful attempt to teach fractions to year 5 pupils based on pupils making their own fraction pack. Children decided for themselves how to make the fractional slices used in the activity using colored cardboard sheets and templates of a paper circle consisting of 24 equal slices. (Author/NB)

  10. On continued fraction algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, Ionica


    Is there a good continued fraction approximation between every two bad ones? What is the entropy of the natural extension for alpha-Rosen fractions? How do you find multi-dimensional continued fractions with a guaranteed quality in polynomial time? These, and many more, questions are answered in thi

  11. Diaphragm curvature modulates the relationship between muscle shortening and volume displacement. (United States)

    Greybeck, Brad J; Wettergreen, Matthew; Hubmayr, Rolf D; Boriek, Aladin M


    During physiological spontaneous breathing maneuvers, the diaphragm displaces volume while maintaining curvature. However, with maximal diaphragm activation, curvature decreases sharply. We tested the hypotheses that the relationship between diaphragm muscle shortening and volume displacement (VD) is nonlinear and that curvature is a determinant of such a relationship. Radiopaque markers were surgically placed on three neighboring muscle fibers in the midcostal region of the diaphragm in six dogs. The three-dimensional locations were determined using biplanar fluoroscopy and diaphragm VD, curvature, and muscle shortening were computed in the prone and supine postures during spontaneous breathing (SB), spontaneous inspiration efforts after airway occlusion at lung volumes ranging from functional residual capacity (FRC) to total lung capacity, and during bilateral maximal phrenic nerve stimulation at those same lung volumes. In supine dogs, diaphragm VD was approximately two- to three-fold greater during maximal phrenic nerve stimulation than during SB. The contribution of muscle shortening to VD nonlinearly increases with level of diaphragm activation independent of posture. During submaximal diaphragm activation, the contribution is essentially linear due to constancy of diaphragm curvature in both the prone and supine posture. However, the sudden loss of curvature during maximal bilateral phrenic nerve stimulation at muscle shortening values greater than 40% (ΔL/L(FRC)) causes a nonlinear increase in the contribution of muscle shortening to diaphragm VD, which is concomitant with a nonlinear change in diaphragm curvature. We conclude that the nonlinear relationship between diaphragm muscle shortening and its VD is, in part, due to a loss of its curvature at extreme muscle shortening.

  12. Depressant effect of active shortening in the anterior byssus retractor muscle of Mytilus edulis. (United States)

    Ekelund, M C


    The effect of shortening during activity, previously characterized in vertebrate striated muscle, was investigated in the anterior byssus retractor muscle (ABRM) of the mollusc Mytilus edulis. This muscle is considered to have an essentially myosin-linked Ca2+-regulatory system. Release steps of different amplitude were performed during isometric phasic contraction, and force redevelopment was recorded at a muscle length L1, defined as 90% of the muscle length at which a slight resting tension, approximately 1 mN, appeared in the presence of 2.5 X 10(-5) M 5-HT. Active shortening caused a graded depression of the contractile force without affecting the total duration of the mechanical response. Peak redeveloped force after muscle shortening of 0.06 L1 and 0.18 L1 was reduced by approximately 1.5% and 7.0%, respectively, of the isometric tension value at L1. The shortening effect was fully reversible, and had a lifetime of approximately 8 to 9 s. The depressant effect of active shortening was augmented at a reduced degree of activation of the muscle. The presence of caffeine and dantrolene and altered tonicity of the extracellular medium (0.9 T-1.2 T) did not significantly affect the shortening induced depression obtained at maximum phasic activation of the preparation. The nature of the shortening effect is compared to that obtained in vertebrate striated muscle and is discussed on the basis of differences in Ca2+-regulation of the contractile system in these two muscles.

  13. Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: uncertainties and dilemmas. (United States)

    Ferrari, Roberto; Böhm, Michael; Cleland, John G F; Paulus, Walter J S; Pieske, Burkert; Rapezzi, Claudio; Tavazzi, Luigi


    Many uncertainties surround the syndrome of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), which was the topic reviewed in an Expert Meeting at the University of Ferrara. This concluded that the absence of clear diagnostic clinical criteria was the major barrier to progress. There was general agreement that symptoms or signs of heart failure, normal LVEF despite an elevated plasma concentration of natriuretic peptides, and signs of abnormal LV relaxation, LV filling, LV hypertrophy, or left atrial enlargement, or diastolic dysfunction supported the diagnosis. However, HFpEF, like all heart failure syndromes, is heterogeneous in aetiology and pathophysiology, rather than being a single disease. HFpEF may account for about half of all patients with heart failure. The classical risk factors for developing HFpEF include age and co-morbidities, notably hypertension, atrial fibrillation, and the metabolic syndrome. When complicated by increasing congestion requiring hospital admission, the prognosis is poor; 30% or more of patients will die within 1 year (nearly two-thirds die from cardiovascular causes). Patients with chronic stable symptoms have a much better prognosis. Despite many clinical trials, there is no solid evidence that any treatment alters the natural history of HFpEF. Several treatments have shown promising early results and are now being tested in substantial randomized clinical trials. Further basic research is required to better characterize the disease and accelerate progress. Our review highlights the many difficulties encountered in performing randomized clinical trials in HFpEF, often due to difficulties in characterizing HFpEF itself.

  14. Fractional Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Zhao


    Full Text Available An extended fractional subequation method is proposed for solving fractional differential equations by introducing a new general ansätz and Bäcklund transformation of the fractional Riccati equation with known solutions. Being concise and straightforward, this method is applied to the space-time fractional coupled Burgers’ equations and coupled MKdV equations. As a result, many exact solutions are obtained. It is shown that the considered method provides a very effective, convenient, and powerful mathematical tool for solving fractional differential equations.

  15. Fractional smith chart theory

    KAUST Repository

    Shamim, Atif


    For the first time, a generalized Smith chart is introduced here to represent fractional order circuit elements. It is shown that the standard Smith chart is a special case of the generalized fractional order Smith chart. With illustrations drawn for both the conventional integer based lumped elements and the fractional elements, a graphical technique supported by the analytical method is presented to plot impedances on the fractional Smith chart. The concept is then applied towards impedance matching networks, where the fractional approach proves to be much more versatile and results in a single element matching network for a complex load as compared to the two elements in the conventional approach. © 2010 IEEE.

  16. Fractional Dynamics and Control

    CERN Document Server

    Machado, José; Luo, Albert


    Fractional Dynamics and Control provides a comprehensive overview of recent advances in the areas of nonlinear dynamics, vibration and control with analytical, numerical, and experimental results. This book provides an overview of recent discoveries in fractional control, delves into fractional variational principles and differential equations, and applies advanced techniques in fractional calculus to solving complicated mathematical and physical problems.Finally, this book also discusses the role that fractional order modeling can play in complex systems for engineering and science. Discusses how fractional dynamics and control can be used to solve nonlinear science and complexity issues Shows how fractional differential equations and models can be used to solve turbulence and wave equations in mechanics and gravity theories and Schrodinger’s equation  Presents factional relaxation modeling of dielectric materials and wave equations for dielectrics  Develops new methods for control and synchronization of...

  17. Fractional factorial plans

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, Aloke


    A one-stop reference to fractional factorials and related orthogonal arrays.Presenting one of the most dynamic areas of statistical research, this book offers a systematic, rigorous, and up-to-date treatment of fractional factorial designs and related combinatorial mathematics. Leading statisticians Aloke Dey and Rahul Mukerjee consolidate vast amounts of material from the professional literature--expertly weaving fractional replication, orthogonal arrays, and optimality aspects. They develop the basic theory of fractional factorials using the calculus of factorial arrangements, thereby providing a unified approach to the study of fractional factorial plans. An indispensable guide for statisticians in research and industry as well as for graduate students, Fractional Factorial Plans features: * Construction procedures of symmetric and asymmetric orthogonal arrays. * Many up-to-date research results on nonexistence. * A chapter on optimal fractional factorials not based on orthogonal arrays. * Trend-free plans...

  18. Spine biomechanics associated with the shortened, modern one-plane golf swing. (United States)

    Dale, R Barry; Brumitt, Jason


    The purpose of this study was to compare kinetic, kinematic, and performance variables associated with full and shortened modern backswings in a skilled group of modern swing (one-plane) golfers. Shortening the modern golf backswing is proposed to reduce vertebral spine stress, but supporting evidence is lacking and performance implications are unknown. Thirteen male golfers performed ten swings of each swing type using their own 7-iron club. Biomechanical-dependent variables included the X-Factor kinematic data and spine kinetics. Performance-related dependent variables included club head velocity (CHV), shot distance, and accuracy (distance from the target line). Data were analysed with repeated measures ANOVA with an a priori alpha of 0.05 (SPSS 22.0, IBM, Armonk, NY, USA). We found significant reductions for the X-Factor (p < 0.05) between the full and shortened swings. The shortened swing condition ameliorated vertebral compression force from 7.6 ± 1.4 to 7.0 ± 1.7 N (normalised to body weight, p = 0.01) and significantly reduced CHV (p < 0.05) by ~2 m/s with concomitant shot distance diminution by ~10 m (p < 0.05). Further research is necessary to examine the applicability of a shortened swing for golfers with low back pain.

  19. The effect of muscle length on force depression after active shortening in soleus muscle of mice. (United States)

    Van Noten, Pieter; Van Leemputte, Marc


    Isometric muscle force after active shortening is reduced [force depression (FD)]. The mechanism is incompletely understood but work delivered during shortening has been suggested to be the main determinant of FD. However, whether muscle length affects the sensitivity of FD to work is unknown, although this information might add to the understanding of the phenomenon. The aim of this study is to investigate the length dependence of the FD/work ratio (Q). Therefore, isometric force production (ISO) of 10 incubated mouse soleus muscles was compared to isometric force after 0.6, 1.2, and 2.4 mm shortening (IAS) at different end lengths ranging from L(0) - 3 to L(0) + 1.8 mm in steps of 0.6 mm. FD was calculated as the force difference between an ISO and IAS contraction at the same activation time (6 s) and end length. We confirm the strong relation between FD and work at L(0) (R² = 0.92) and found that FD is length dependent with a maximum of 8.8 ± 0.3% at L(0) + 1.2 mm for 0.6 mm shortening amplitude. Q was only constant for short muscle lengths (muscle length. The observed length dependence of Q indicates that FD is not only determined by work produced during shortening but also by a length-dependent factor, possibly actin compliance, which should be incorporated in any mechanism explaining FD.

  20. Efectos combinados de la vitamina c y e dietéticas en la inmunorespuest del juvenil lv antes y después de la suplementación con glucanos


    Molina, César; Rodríguez, Jenny; Arango, José Ignacio; Echeverría, Fabrizio; Sotomayor, Mariuxi


    Efectos combinados de la vitamina C y E dietéticas en la inmunorespuest del juvenil LV antes y después de la suplementación con glucanos Efectos combinados de la vitamina C y E dietéticas en la inmunorespuest del juvenil LV antes y después de la suplementación con glucanos

  1. Astakine LvAST binds to the β subunit of F1-ATP synthase and likely plays a role in white shrimp Litopeneaus vannamei defense against white spot syndrome virus. (United States)

    Liang, Gao-Feng; Liang, Yan; Xue, Qinggang; Lu, Jin-Feng; Cheng, Jun-Jun; Huang, Jie


    Cytokines play a critical role in innate and adaptive immunity. Astakines represent a group of invertebrate cytokines that are related to vertebrate prokineticin and function in promoting hematopoiesis in crustaceans. We have identified an astakine from the white shrimp Litopeneaus vannamei and named it LvAST in a previous research. In the present research, we investigated the interactions among LvAST, the envelope protein VP37 of white spot syndrome virus (i.e., WSSV), and the β subunit of F1-ATP synthase (ATPsyn-β) of the white shrimp (i.e., BP53) using binding assays and co-precipitations. We also examined the effects of LvAST on shrimp susceptibility to WSSV. We found that LvAST and VP37 competitively bound to BP53, but did not bind to each other. Shrimps that had been injected with recombinant LvAST exhibited significantly lower mortality and longer survival time in experimental infections by WSSV. In contrast, shrimps whose LvAST gene expression had been inhibited by RNA interference showed significantly higher WSSV infection intensity and shorter survival time following viral challenges. These results suggested that LvAST and WSSV both likely use ATPsyn-β as a receptor and LvAST plays a role in shrimp defense against WSSV infection. This represented the first research showing the involvement of astakines in host antiviral immunity.

  2. A phase II experience with neoadjuvant irinotecan (CPT-11, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU and leucovorin (LV for colorectal liver metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bigam David


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemotherapy may improve survival in patients undergoing resection of colorectal liver metastases (CLM. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy may help identify patients with occult extrahepatic disease (averting unnecessary metastasectomy, and it provides in vivo chemosensitivity data. Methods A phase II trial was initiated in which patients with resectable CLM received CPT-11, 5-FU and LV for 12 weeks. Metastasectomy was performed unless extrahepatic disease appeared. Postoperatively, patients with stable or responsive disease received the same regimen for 12 weeks. Patients with progressive disease received either second-line chemotherapy or best supportive care. The primary endpoint was disease-free survival (DFS; secondary endpoints included overall survival (OS and safety. Results 35 patients were accrued. During preoperative chemotherapy, 16 patients (46% had grade 3/4 toxicities. Resection was not possible in 5 patients. One patient died of arrhythmia following surgery, and 1 patient had transient liver failure. During the postoperative treatment phase, 12 patients (55% had grade 3/4 toxicities. Deep venous thrombosis (DVT occurred in 11 patients (34% at various times during treatment. Of those who underwent resection, median DFS was 23.0 mo. and median OS has not been reached. The overall survival from time of diagnosis of liver metastases was 51.6 mo for the entire cohort. Conclusion A short course of chemotherapy prior to hepatic metastasectomy may serve to select candidates best suited for resection and it may also direct postoperative systemic treatment. Given the significant incidence of DVT, alternative systemic neoadjuvant regimens should be investigated, particularly those that avoid the use of a central venous line. Trial Registration NCT00168155.

  3. 2D longitudinal LV speckle tracking strain pattern in breast cancer survivors: sports activity vs exercise as prescription model. (United States)

    Galanti, Giorgio; Pedrizzetti, Gianni; Pedri, Stefano; Stefani, Laura


    Prevention strategies are important to optimize and to manage heart care in breast cancer survivors. Regular physical activity at moderate intensity is normally proposed to maintain myocardial performance; however, no data is available about the different impact of different levels of physical exercise. 2D speckle tracking echocardiography (2DSTE) is an accepted method for early detection of myocardial dysfunction. The study aims to monitor the cardiac performances in breast cancer survivors by 2DSTE analysis to manage sports activity vs physical activity. Two groups of previous breast cancer survivors (33 BCS) trained at moderate intensity and 55 athletes practicing dragon boat (DBA) sport were enrolled. They were matched with two healthy subjects groups: 23 competitive female athletes practicing different sports and 20 healthy women trained with exercise as prescription model. All women were studied by a complete echo examination including LV global longitudinal strain (GLS) assessment (XStrain-Esaote). EF and GS are only significantly higher in healthy subjects (-25.4 ± 2.1). Nevertheless, GLS values are within the normal range for all groups. Particularly, GS does not show any significant differences among subjects (-19.93 ± 4) practicing exercise as prescription when compared to the DBA competitive trained group. 2DSTE method is an appropriate method to supervise the intensity of exercise in breast cancer patients. Particularly, GLS can optimize and improve cancer therapy supporting and creating efficiencies within the health system confirming the role of the exercise prescription therapy in maintaining normal heart function.

  4. Dividing Fractions: A Pedagogical Technique (United States)

    Lewis, Robert


    When dividing one fraction by a second fraction, invert, that is, flip the second fraction, then multiply it by the first fraction. To multiply fractions, simply multiply across the denominators, and multiply across the numerators to get the resultant fraction. So by inverting the division of fractions it is turned into an easy multiplication of…

  5. Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction is characterized by dynamic impairment of active relaxation and contraction of the left ventricle on exercise and associated with myocardial energy deficiency. (United States)

    Phan, Thanh T; Abozguia, Khalid; Nallur Shivu, Ganesh; Mahadevan, Gnanadevan; Ahmed, Ibrar; Williams, Lynne; Dwivedi, Girish; Patel, Kiran; Steendijk, Paul; Ashrafian, Houman; Henning, Anke; Frenneaux, Michael


    We sought to evaluate the role of exercise-related changes in left ventricular (LV) relaxation and of LV contractile function and vasculoventricular coupling (VVC) in the pathophysiology of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and to assess myocardial energetic status in these patients. To date, no studies have investigated exercise-related changes in LV relaxation and VVC as well as in vivo myocardial energetic status in patients with HFpEF. We studied 37 patients with HFpEF and 20 control subjects. The VVC and time to peak LV filling (nTTPF, a measure of LV active relaxation) were assessed while patients were at rest and during exercise by the use of radionuclide ventriculography. Cardiac energetic status (creatine phosphate/adenosine triphosphate ratio) was assessed by the use of (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3-T. When patients were at rest, nTTPF and VVC were similar in patients with HFpEF and control subjects. The cardiac creatine phosphate/adenosine triphosphate ratio was reduced in patients with HFpEF versus control subjects (1.57 +/- 0.52 vs. 2.14 +/- 0.63; p = 0.003), indicating reduced energy reserves. Peak maximal oxygen uptake and the increase in heart rate during maximal exercise were lower in patients with HFpEF versus control subjects (19 +/- 4 ml/kg/min vs. 36 +/- 8 ml/kg/min, p active relaxation and abnormal VVC during exercise.

  6. Factors influencing left ventricular structure and stress-corrected systolic function in men and women with asymptomatic aortic valve stenosis (a SEAS Substudy)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramariuc, D.; Rieck, A.E.; Staal, E.M.


    also was a predictor of LV hypertrophy (p heart rate, aortic valve area, LV......To identify determinants of left ventricular (LV) structure and stress-corrected systolic function in men and women with asymptomatic aortic stenosis (AS), Doppler echocardiography was performed at baseline in 1,046 men and 674 women 28 to 86 years of age (mean 67 +/- 10) recruited.......05). In logistic regression analyses, LV hypertrophy was independently associated with male gender, severity of AS, hypertension, higher systolic blood pressure, and lower stress-corrected midwall shortening (scMWS) or stress-corrected fractional shortening (scFS; all p values

  7. Value of left ventricular regional ejection fraction determined by real-time three-dimensional echocardiography in diagnosis of aneurysm: compared with left ventriculography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiu-chang; YAN Cheng-jun; YAO Gui-hua; ZHANG Mei; LI Ji-fu; ZHANG Yun


    Background Regional ejection fraction (EF_R) measured by real-time three-dimensional echocardiography (RT-3DE)provides a novel method for quantifying left-ventricular (LV) regional systolic function. We aimed to explore the diagnostic value of regional ejection fraction (EFR) derived from RT-3DE in detecting LV aneurysms in patients with myocardial infarction. Methods Thirty-eight patients with myocardial infarction were prospectively enrolled and underwent electrocardiography (ECG), two-dimensional echocardiography (2-DE), RT-3DE and left ventriculography (LVG).Subjects with a negative EFR in at least one segment on RT-3DE were considered as having a ventricular aneurysm. We compared the sensitivity, specificity, Youden's index, and positive and negative predictive values of ECG, 2-DE and RT-3DE in determining LV aneurysm with detection by LVG.Results On LVG an LV aneurysm was diagnosed in 16 (42.1%) patients. The sensitivity and specificity were 62.5% and 86.4% for ECG, 81.2% and 95.4% for 2-DE, and 100.0% and 90.9% for RT-3DE in diagnosing LV aneurysm. Youden's indexes for ECG, 2-DE and RT-3DE were 0.49, 0.77 and 0.91, respectively. Positive and negative predictive values were 76.9% and 76.0% for ECG, 92.9% and 87.5% for 2-DE, and 88.9% and 100.0% for RT-3DE. Conclusions RT-3DE-derived EFR provides a novel, reliable index in the diagnosis of LV aneurysm and has excellent sensitivity and specificity.

  8. Cardiosphere-Derived Cells Reverse Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction in Rats by Decreasing Fibrosis and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Gallet, MD


    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of heart failure with a preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF is unclear. Myocardial fibrosis, inflammation, and cardiac hypertrophy have been suggested to contribute to the pathogenesis of HFpEF. Cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs are heart-derived cell products with antifibrotic and anti-inflammatory properties. This study tested whether rat CDCs were sufficient to decrease manifestations of HFpEF in hypertensive rats. Starting at 7 weeks of age, Dahl salt-sensitive rats were fed a high-salt diet for 6 to 7 weeks and randomized to receive intracoronary CDCs or placebo. Dahl rats fed normal chow served as controls. High-salt rats developed hypertension, left ventricular (LV hypertrophy, and diastolic dysfunction, without impairment of ejection fraction. Four weeks after treatment, diastolic dysfunction resolved in CDC-treated rats but not in placebo. The improved LV relaxation was associated with lower LV end-diastolic pressure, decreased lung congestion, and enhanced survival in CDC-treated rats. Histology and echocardiography revealed no decrease in cardiac hypertrophy after CDC treatment, consistent with the finding of sustained, equally-elevated blood pressure in CDC- and placebo-treated rats. Nevertheless, CDC treatment decreased LV fibrosis and inflammatory infiltrates. Serum inflammatory cytokines were likewise decreased after CDC treatment. Whole-transcriptome analysis revealed that CDCs reversed changes in numerous transcripts associated with HFpEF, including many involved in inflammation and/or fibrosis. These studies suggest that CDCs normalized LV relaxation and LV diastolic pressure while improving survival in a rat model of HFpEF. The benefits of CDCs occurred despite persistent hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy. By selectively reversing inflammation and fibrosis, CDCs may be beneficial in the treatment of HFpEF.

  9. Shortening of primary operators in N-extended $SCFT_{4}$ and harmonic-superspace analyticity

    CERN Document Server

    Andrianopoli, Laura; Sokatchev, Emery S; Zupnik, B M


    We present the analysis of all possible shortenings which occur for composite gauge invariant conformal primary superfields in SU(2,2/N) invariant gauge theories. These primaries have top-spin range N/2 \\leq J_{max} < N with J_{max} = J_1 + J_2, (J_1,J_2) being the SL(2,C) quantum numbers of the highest spin component of the superfield. In Harmonic superspace, analytic and chiral superfields give J_{max}= N/2 series while intermediate shortenings correspond to fusion of chiral with analytic in N=2, or analytic with different analytic structures in N=3,4. In the AdS/CFT language shortenings of UIR's correspond to all possible BPS conditions on bulk states. An application of this analysis to multitrace operators, corresponding to multiparticle supergravity states, is spelled out.

  10. [Comparison of force and shortening velocity in fast and slow rabbit muscle fibers at different temperatures]. (United States)

    Kochubeĭ, P V; Bershitskiĭ, S Iu


    The temperature dependence of force, maximal shortening velocity and power of maximally activated single permeabilized fibers from fast and slow muscles of the rabbit were recorded in a temperature range from 10 to 35 degrees C with 5 degrees C step. It was found that temperature dependence of force of both types of fibers is identical. Averaged maximal shortening velocity in the slow fibers, unlike the fast fibers, had no statistically significant temperature dependence that is not in agreement with the data obtained on intact rat muscle fibers and in an in vitro motility assay. However maximal shortening velocity in each individual slow fiber did depend on temperature. The temperature dependence of power of the slow fibers was lower than that of the fast ones. Because of large data scattering the average temperature dependence of power of the slow fibers was significantly lower than that in individual slow fibers.

  11. Assessment of muscle shortening and static posture in children with persistent asthma. (United States)

    Lopes, Erica A; Fanelli-Galvani, Adriana; Prisco, Camilla C V; Gonçalves, Raquel C; Jacob, Cristina M A; Cabral, Anna L B; Martins, Milton A; Carvalho, Celso R F


    Asthmatic patients experience an increase in airway resistance that overburdens both respiratory and non-respiratory muscles. The objective of the present study was to determine whether children with persistent asthma present muscle shortening and postural changes. The 60 boys evaluated, aged 7-12 (pubertal ages up to Tanner stage G2) were divided into three age- and BMI-matched groups of equal number: CON (no history of asthma or allergy); MPA (mild persistent asthma); SPA (severe persistent asthma). Pulmonary function, muscle shortening and static posture were evaluated. The SPA group presented higher protraction of the head and shoulder compared with the CON group [9.5 (6.0-12.0) degrees vs 5.5 (0.0-12.0) degrees, P control subjects in five out nine evaluated outcomes. Our data suggest that severe asthmatic children present postural adaptations and muscle shortening that seem to be related to disease severity.

  12. Single rabbit stomach smooth muscle cell myosin heavy chain SMB expression and shortening velocity. (United States)

    Eddinger, T J; Meer, D P


    Isolated single smooth muscle cells (SMCs) from different regions of the rabbit stomach were used to determine a possible correlation between unloaded shortening velocity and smooth muscle (SM) myosin heavy chain (MHC) S1 head isoform composition (SMA, no head insert; SMB, with head insert). alpha-Toxin-permeabilized isolated single cells were maximally activated to measure unloaded shortening velocity and subsequently used in an RT-PCR reaction to determine the SMA/SMB content of the same cell. SM MHC SMA and SMB isoforms are uniquely distributed in the stomach with cells from the fundic region expressing little SMB (38.1 +/- 7.3% SMB; n = 16); cells from the antrum express primarily SMB (94.9 +/- 1.0% SMB; n = 16). Mean fundic cell unloaded shortening velocity was 0.014 +/- 0.002 cell lengths/s compared with 0.036 +/- 0.002 for the antrum cells. Unloaded shortening velocity in these cells was significantly correlated with their percent SMB expression (r2 = 0.58). Resting cell length does not correlate with the percent SMB expression (n = 32 cells). Previously published assays of purified or expressed SMA and SMB heavy meromyosin show a twofold difference in actin filament sliding speed in in vitro motility assays. Extrapolation of our data to 0-100% SMB would give a 10-fold range of shortening velocity, which is closer to the approximately 20-fold range reported from various SM tissues. This suggests that mechanisms in addition to the MHC S1 head isoforms regulate shortening velocity.

  13. Edentulism and shortened dental arch in Brazilian elderly from the National Survey of Oral Health 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Túlio Freitas Ribeiro


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the distribution of edentulism and estimate the prevalence of functional dentition and shortened dental arch among elderly population. METHODS: A population-based epidemiological study was carried out with a sample of 5,349 respondents aged 65 to 74 years obtained from the 2002 and 2003 Brazilian Ministry of Health/Division of Oral Health survey database. The following variables were studied: gender; macroregion of residence; missing teeth; percentage that met the World Health Organization goal for oral health in the age group 65 to 74 years (50% having at least 20 natural teeth; presence of shortened dental arch; number of posterior occluding pairs of teeth. The Chi-square test assessed the association between categorical variables. The Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used to assess differences of mean between number of posterior occluding pairs teeth, macro-region and gender. RESULTS: The elderly population had an average of 5.49 teeth (SD: 7.93 with a median of 0. The proportion of completely edentulous respondents was 54.7%. Complete edentulism was 18.2% in the upper arch and 1.9% in the lower arch. The World Health Organization goal was achieved in 10% of all respondents studied. However, only 2.7% had acceptable masticatory function and aesthetics (having at least shortened dental arch and a mean number of posterior occluding pairs of 6.94 (SD=2.97. There were significant differences of the percentage of respondents that met the World Health Organization goal and presence of shortened dental arch between men and women. There were differences in shortened dental arch between macroregions. CONCLUSIONS: The Brazilian epidemiological oral health survey showed high rate of edentulism and low rate of shortened dental arch in the elderly population studied, thus suggesting significant functional and aesthetic impairment in all Brazilian macroregions especially among women.

  14. Shortening behavior of the different components of muscle-tendon unit during isokinetic plantar flexions. (United States)

    Hauraix, Hugo; Nordez, Antoine; Dorel, Sylvain


    The torque-velocity relationship has been widely considered as reflecting the mechanical properties of the contractile apparatus, and the influence of tendinous tissues on this relationship obtained during in vivo experiments remains to be determined. This study describes the pattern of shortening of various muscle-tendon unit elements of the triceps surae at different constant angular velocities and quantifies the contributions of fascicles, tendon, and aponeurosis to the global muscle-tendon unit shortening. Ten subjects performed isokinetic plantar flexions at different preset angular velocities (i.e., 30, 90, 150, 210, 270, and 330°/s). Ultrafast ultrasound measurements were performed on the muscle belly and on the myotendinous junction of the medial and lateral gastrocnemius muscles. The contributions of fascicles, tendon, and aponeurosis to global muscle-tendon unit shortening velocity were calculated for velocity conditions for four parts of the total range of motion. For both muscles, the fascicles' contribution decreased throughout the motion (73.5 ± 21.5% for 100-90° angular range to 33.7 ± 20.2% for 80-70°), whereas the tendon contribution increased (25.8 ± 15.4 to 55.6 ± 16.8%). In conclusion, the tendon contribution to the global muscle-tendon unit shortening is significant even during a concentric contraction. However, this contribution depends on the range of motion analyzed. The intersubject variability found in the maximal fascicle shortening velocity, for a given angular velocity, suggests that some subjects might possess a more efficient musculoarticular complex to produce the movement velocity. These findings are of great interest for understanding the ability of muscle-tendon shortening velocity.

  15. Force depression following muscle shortening in sub-maximal voluntary contractions of human adductor pollicis. (United States)

    Rousanoglou, Elissavet N; Oskouei, Ali E; Herzog, Walter


    Mechanical properties of skeletal muscles are often studied for controlled, electrically induced, maximal, or supra-maximal contractions. However, many mechanical properties, such as the force-length relationship and force enhancement following active muscle stretching, are quite different for maximal and sub-maximal, or electrically induced and voluntary contractions. Force depression, the loss of force observed following active muscle shortening, has been observed and is well documented for electrically induced and maximal voluntary contractions. Since sub-maximal voluntary contractions are arguably the most important for everyday movement analysis and for biomechanical models of skeletal muscle function, it is important to study force depression properties under these conditions. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine force depression following sub-maximal, voluntary contractions. Sets of isometric reference and isometric-shortening-isometric test contractions at 30% of maximal voluntary effort were performed with the adductor pollicis muscle. All reference and test contractions were executed by controlling force or activation using a feedback system. Test contractions included adductor pollicis shortening over 10 degrees, 20 degrees, and 30 degrees of thumb adduction. Force depression was assessed by comparing the steady-state isometric forces (activation control) or average electromyograms (EMGs) (force control) following active muscle shortening with those obtained in the corresponding isometric reference contractions. Force was decreased by 20% and average EMG was increased by 18% in the shortening test contractions compared to the isometric reference contractions. Furthermore, force depression was increased with increasing shortening amplitudes, and the relative magnitudes of force depression were similar to those found in electrically stimulated and maximal contractions. We conclude from these results that force depression occurs in sub

  16. In vivo maximal fascicle-shortening velocity during plantar flexion in humans. (United States)

    Hauraix, Hugo; Nordez, Antoine; Guilhem, Gaël; Rabita, Giuseppe; Dorel, Sylvain


    Interindividual variability in performance of fast movements is commonly explained by a difference in maximal muscle-shortening velocity due to differences in the proportion of fast-twitch fibers. To provide a better understanding of the capacity to generate fast motion, this study aimed to 1) measure for the first time in vivo the maximal fascicle-shortening velocity of human muscle; 2) evaluate the relationship between angular velocity and fascicle-shortening velocity from low to maximal angular velocities; and 3) investigate the influence of musculo-articular features (moment arm, tendinous tissues stiffness, and muscle architecture) on maximal angular velocity. Ultrafast ultrasound images of the gastrocnemius medialis were obtained from 31 participants during maximal isokinetic and light-loaded plantar flexions. A strong linear relationship between fascicle-shortening velocity and angular velocity was reported for all subjects (mean R(2) = 0.97). The maximal shortening velocity (V(Fmax)) obtained during the no-load condition (NLc) ranged between 18.8 and 43.3 cm/s. V(Fmax) values were very close to those of the maximal shortening velocity (V(max)), which was extrapolated from the F-V curve (the Hill model). Angular velocity reached during the NLc was significantly correlated with this V(Fmax) (r = 0.57; P < 0.001). This finding was in agreement with assumptions about the role of muscle fiber type, whereas interindividual comparisons clearly support the fact that other parameters may also contribute to performance during fast movements. Nevertheless, none of the biomechanical features considered in the present study were found to be directly related to the highest angular velocity, highlighting the complexity of the upstream mechanics that lead to maximal-velocity muscle contraction.

  17. Crustal shortening and Eocene extension in the southeastern Canadian Cordillera: Some thermal and rheological considerations (United States)

    Liu, Mian; Furlong, Kevin P.


    Metamorphic core complexes in the southeastern Canadian Cordillera were formed during Eocene crustal extension, shortly (within a few millions of years) after Late Jurassic-Paleocene crustal shortening. Thermal-rheological modeling, constrained by geological and geochronological studies of the Valhalla core complex and other core complexes in this region, is used to investigate two major problems concerning the formation of these core complexes: (1) the dynamic links between crustal shortening and extension and (2) the cooling history and unroofing rates during extension. Thermal-rheological effects associated with crustal shortening are integrated through the history of crustal compression, since crustal shortening in this region was a long and slow process and cannot be treated as an instantaneous event. Our results suggest that crustal shortening may have played an important role in Eocene extension in the southeastern Canadian Cordillera by (1) producing a thickened and therefore unstable crust and (2) thermally weakening the lithosphere. However, heat generated by crustal shortening is not enough to account for the thermal state of the Valhalla complex, and additional heat sources at depth may be necessary. We then investigate thermal evolution during extension in both a simple shear model and a progressive pure stretching model. We show that the geotherm in an extensional region is time-and space-dependent and is affected by many variables including the preextensional thermal history and the mode of extension. Thus caution needs to be exercised when inferring unroofing rates from thermochronologic data. The cooling history of the Valhalla core complex may be explained by unroofing at rates of 1-2 mm/yr.

  18. Superimposed folding and thrusting by two phases of mutually orthogonal or oblique shortening in analogue models (United States)

    Deng, Hongling; Koyi, Hemin A.; Nilfouroushan, Faramarz


    Orogens may suffer more than one phase shortening resulting in superposition of structures of different generations. Superimposition of orthogonal or oblique shortening is studied using sandbox and centrifuge modelling. Results of sand models show that in orthogonal superimposition, the two resulting structural trends are approximately orthogonal to each other. In oblique superimposition, structures trend obliquely to each other in the relatively thin areas of the model (foreland), and mutually orthogonal in areas where the model is thickened during the first phase of shortening (i.e. the hinterland). Thrusts formed during the first shortening phase may be reactivated during the later shortening phase. Spacing of the later phase structures is not as wide as expected, considering they across the pre-existing thickened wedge. Superposition of structures results in formation of type 1 fold interference pattern. Bedding is curved outwards both in the dome and basin structures. Folded layers are dipping and plunging outwards in a dome, while they are dipping and plunging inwards in a basin. In the areas between two adjacent domes or basins (i.e. where an anticline is superimposed by a syncline or a syncline is superimposed by an anticline), bedding is curved inwards, and the anticlines plunge inwards and the synclines outwards. The latter feature could be helpful to determine the age relationship for type 2 fold interference pattern. In tectonic regions where multiple phases of shortening have occurred, the orogenic-scale dome-and-basin and arrowhead-shaped interference patterns are commonly formed, as in the models. However, in some areas, the fold interference pattern might be modified by a later phase of thrusting. Similar to models results, superimposition of two and/or even more deformation phases may not be recorded by structures all over the tectonic area.

  19. Fractional Pure Birth Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Orsingher, Enzo; 10.3150/09-BEJ235


    We consider a fractional version of the classical non-linear birth process of which the Yule-Furry model is a particular case. Fractionality is obtained by replacing the first-order time derivative in the difference-differential equations which govern the probability law of the process, with the Dzherbashyan-Caputo fractional derivative. We derive the probability distribution of the number $ \\mathcal{N}_\

  20. Fractional vortex Hilbert's Hotel

    CERN Document Server

    Gbur, Greg


    We demonstrate how the unusual mathematics of transfinite numbers, in particular a nearly perfect realization of Hilbert's famous hotel paradox, manifests in the propagation of light through fractional vortex plates. It is shown how a fractional vortex plate can be used, in principle, to create any number of "open rooms," i.e. topological charges, simultaneously. Fractional vortex plates are therefore demonstrated to create a singularity of topological charge, in which the vortex state is completely undefined and in fact arbitrary.

  1. Fractional Electromagnetic Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez, J F; Bernal, J J; Tkach, V I; Guía, M


    In the present work we consider the electromagnetic wave equation in terms of the fractional derivative of the Caputo type. The order of the derivative being considered is 0 <\\gamma<1. A new parameter \\sigma, is introduced which characterizes the existence of the fractional components in the system. We analyze the fractional derivative with respect to time and space, for \\gamma = 1 and \\gamma = 1/2 cases.

  2. Distal femoral shortening in total hip arthroplasty for complex primary hip reconstruction. A new surgical technique. (United States)

    Koulouvaris, Panagiotis; Stafylas, Kosmas; Sculco, Thomas; Xenakis, Theodore


    Successful total hip arthroplasty (THA) in congenital dislocated hips demands anatomical reduction in the normal center of rotation without overstretching the sciatic nerve and without excessive compression or abnormal forces across the joint. Proximal femoral and subtrochanteric shortening osteotomy has been described for THA for the treatment of dislocated hips. However, these osteotomies are demanding, associated with deformation of femoral canal and nonunion, and may increase the femoral stem stress. This study reports excellent results in 24 patients with a new surgical technique that combines THA with a distal femoral shortening in severely deformed hips using customized components.

  3. Energy cost of isometric force production after active shortening in skinned muscle fibres. (United States)

    Joumaa, V; Fitzowich, A; Herzog, W


    The steady state isometric force after active shortening of a skeletal muscle is lower than the purely isometric force at the corresponding length. This property of skeletal muscle is known as force depression. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the energy cost of force production at the steady state after active shortening was reduced compared to the energy cost of force production for a purely isometric contraction performed at the corresponding length (same length, same activation). Experiments were performed in skinned fibres isolated from rabbit psoas muscle. Skinned fibres were actively shortened from an average sarcomere length of 3.0 µm to an average sarcomere length of 2.4 µm. Purely isometric reference contractions were performed at an average sarcomere length of 2.4 µm. Simultaneously with the force measurements, the ATP cost was measured during the last 30 seconds of isometric contractions using an enzyme-coupled assay. Stiffness was calculated during a quick stretch-release cycle of 0.2% fibre length performed once the steady state had been reached after active shortening and during the purely isometric reference contractions. Force and stiffness following active shortening were decreased by 10.0±1.8% and 11.0±2.2%, respectively compared to the isometric reference contractions. Similarly, ATPase activity per second (not normalized to the force) showed a decrease of 15.6±3.0% in the force depressed state compared to the purely isometric reference state. However, ATPase activity per second per unit of force was similar for the isometric contractions following active shortening (28.7±2.4 mM/ and the corresponding purely isometric reference contraction (30.9±2.8 mM/ Furthermore, the reduction in absolute ATPase activity per second was significantly correlated with force depression and stiffness depression. These results are in accordance with the idea that force depression following active shortening is

  4. Markers of cellular senescence. Telomere shortening as a marker of cellular senescence. (United States)

    Bernadotte, Alexandra; Mikhelson, Victor M; Spivak, Irina M


    The cellular senescence definition comes to the fact of cells irreversible proliferation disability. Besides the cell cycle arrest, senescent cells go through some morphological, biochemical, and functional changes which are the signs of cellular senescence. The senescent cells (including replicative senescence and stress-induced premature senescence) of all the tissues look alike. They are metabolically active and possess the set of characteristics in vitro and in vivo, which are known as biomarkers of aging and cellular senescence. Among biomarkers of cellular senescence telomere shortening is a rather elegant frequently used biomarker. Validity of telomere shortening as a marker for cellular senescence is based on theoretical and experimental data.

  5. Telomere shortening correlates to dysplasia but not to DNA aneuploidy in longstanding ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Ottessen, Mariann; Bendix, Laila; Kølvraa, Steen;


    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic, inflammatory bowel disease which may lead to dysplasia and adenocarcinoma in patients when long-lasting. Short telomeres have been reported in mucosal cells of UC patients. Telomeres are repetitive base sequences capping the ends of linear chromosomes......, and protect them from erosion and subsequent wrongful recombination and end-to-end joining during cell division. Short telomeres are associated with the development of chromosomal instability and aneuploidy, the latter being risk factors for development of dysplasia and cancer. Specifically, the abrupt...... shortening of one or more telomeres to a critical length, rather than bulk shortening of telomeres, seems to be associated with chromosomal instability....

  6. Shortening filtrations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ENOCHS Edgar E.


    Let C be a set of modules.We argue that there is an ordinal κ such that if a module has a filtration by modules in C,then it has a filtration of length κ by direct sums of modules in C.As an application we give another way to prove a result of Saorín and (S)(t)oví(c)ek and of (S)(t)oví(c)ek.

  7. 浅谈吕叔湘的作文教学观%A Brief Discussion on Lv Shuxiang's Teaching Idea of Writing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Writing teaching is a most important link in Chinese teaching,so many Chinese educators have deeply studied on writing teaching,including Lv Shuxiang.This paper summarizes and introduces Mr.Lv's teaching idea of writing from four aspects:title of a composition,teaching methods of writing,requirements of writing and writing assessment.%作文教学是语文教学中最重要的环节之一,许多语文学家都对此进行了深入的研究,吕叔湘先生也不例外。这篇文章主要从作文题目、作文教学方法、作文要求、作文评改等四个方面对吕老的作文观点进行了整合与介绍。

  8. Landslide risk assessment in the Göta Älv river valley to limit consequences of climate change on society (United States)

    Hedlund, Jonas; Lind, Bo; Tremblay, Marius; Zackrisson, Peter; Cederbom, Charlotte


    Higher temperatures, higher average precipitation and increased occurrence of extreme rainfall events are some expected climate changes in Sweden during the coming 70-100 years. Due to the changing climate the risk for floods, erosion and landslides are expected to increase. in large parts of the country. To prevent extensive floodings and damages of cities and infrastructure around Lake Vänern, it is necessary to allow controlled overflow from Lake Vänern through the river Göta Älv. An overflow in the river, in turn, leads to increased risk for erosion and landslides along the Göta Älv valley. In order to meet the upcoming climate changes and to handle the increasing flows through the river, we need to improve the knowledge of the stability of the entire river bank. The Swedish Government has commissioned the Swedish Geotechnical Institute (SGI) to investigate the landslide potential of the Göta Älv valley, taking the predicted climate changes into consideration. The investigated area includes the parts of Göta Älv that could be affected by the increased flows from Lake Vänern; areas where the increased flow will affect stability and where landslides could cause serious damages or damming of the river. The investigation area includes c. 90 km of the Göta Älv river plus tributaries in connection to Göta Älv. In the landslide risk analyses developed for Göta Älv, the likelihood of landslides and estimation of the subsequent consequences are included. The methodology involves mapping of landslide hazards and a judgement of the risk area on the basis of a risk matrix. The landslide risk analysis allows for an assessment of where geotechnical reinforcements would be necessary. A cost estimation for the required reinforcement measures is also provided. In areas where the estimated risk for a landslide is low (e.g. limited consequences), stability mapping in accordance with the model used by the Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency (MSB) is developed

  9. Molecular Characterizations of a Novel Putative DNA-Binding Protein LvDBP23 in Marine Shrimp L. vannamei Tissues and Molting Stages


    Yanisa Laoong-u-thai; Baoping Zhao; Amornrat Phongdara; Jinzeng Yang


    BACKGROUND: Litopenaeus Vannamei, well known as pacific white shrimp, is the most popular shrimp in the world shrimp market. Identification and characterization of shrimp muscle regulatory genes are not only important for shrimp genetic improvement, but also facilitate comparative genomic tools for understanding of muscle development and regeneration. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A novel mRNA encoding for a putative DNA-binding protein LvDBP23 was identified from Litopenaeus vannamei abdom...

  10. A prospective randomized study of irinotecan (CPT-11), leucovorin (LV) and 5-fluorouracil (5FU) versus leucovorin and 5-fluorouracil in patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma. (United States)

    Gennatas, C; Papaxoinis, G; Michalaki, V; Mouratidou, D; Andreadis, C; Tsavaris, N; Pafiti, A


    The purpose of this study was to compare the activity and toxicity of an irinotecan (CPT-11), leucovorin (LV) and 5-fluorouracil (5FU) combination with a standard regimen of 5FU and LV, in patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma. One hundred and sixty patients were randomized; 80 patients (group A) received LV 20 mg/m(2) bolus i.v. and 5FU 425 mg/m(2) bolus i.v. on days 1-5, every 28 days; 80 patients (group B) received CPT-11 80 mg/m(2) (30-90 min i.v. infusion), followed by LV 20 mg/m(2) bolus i.v. and 5FU 425 mg/m(2) bolus i.v. on days 1, 8, 15, 22, 29, and 36, every 8 weeks. The overall response rate was 30% and 47.5% in groups A and B respectively. Progression-free survival was significantly higher in the triple-drug combination arm (median 7.5 vs. 4.5 months; p= 0. 0335). However, overall survival did not differ significantly between the two arms (15 months vs. 14 months for the groups B and A respectively; p=0.3531). The main grade 3 adverse events were diarrhea (19%, in group A vs. 35% in group B; p=0.032) and mucositis (2% vs. 14%; p=0.017). The regimen containing irinotecan showed activity in advanced colorectal cancer. The overall safety data confirm this combination as a well-tolerated treatment.

  11. Handelsgødnings indflydelse på afgrøders indhold af arsen, bly, cadmium, krom, kviksølv og nikkel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bent Tolstrup; Elsgaard, Lars

    Denne rapport belyser indholdet af arsen (As), bly (Pb), cadmium (Cd), krom (Cr), kviksølv (Hg) og nikkel (Ni) i afgrøder, der er dyrket ved forskellige niveauer af handelsgødning (fra ugødet til to gange normal gødskning). Effekten af handelsgødning er sammenlignet med effekten af husdyrgødning...

  12. Fractional and noncommutative spacetimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arzano, M.; Calcagni, M.; Oriti, D.; Scalisi, M.


    We establish a mapping between fractional and noncommutative spacetimes in configuration space. Depending on the scale at which the relation is considered, there arise two possibilities. For a fractional spacetime with log-oscillatory measure, the effective measure near the fundamental scale determi

  13. Can Kindergartners Do Fractions? (United States)

    Cwikla, Julie


    Mathematics professor Julie Cwikla decided that she needed to investigate young children's understandings and see what precurricular partitioning notions young minds bring to the fraction table. Cwikla realized that only a handful of studies have examined how preschool-age and early elementary school-age students solve fraction problems (Empson…

  14. Can Kindergartners Do Fractions? (United States)

    Cwikla, Julie


    Mathematics professor Julie Cwikla decided that she needed to investigate young children's understandings and see what precurricular partitioning notions young minds bring to the fraction table. Cwikla realized that only a handful of studies have examined how preschool-age and early elementary school-age students solve fraction problems (Empson…

  15. An Appetite for Fractions (United States)

    Wilkerson, Trena L.; Bryan, Tommy; Curry, Jane


    This article describes how using candy bars as models gives sixth-grade students a taste for learning to represent fractions whose denominators are factors of twelve. Using paper models of the candy bars, students explored and compared fractions. They noticed fewer different representations for one-third than for one-half. The authors conclude…

  16. Categories of Fractions Revisited


    Fritz, Tobias


    The theory of categories of fractions as originally developed by Gabriel and Zisman is reviewed in a pedagogical manner giving detailed proofs of all statements. A weakening of the category of fractions axioms used by Higson is discussed and shown to be equivalent to the original axioms.

  17. On fractional programming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajona-Xandri, C.; Martinez-Legaz, J.E.


    This paper studies the minimax fractional programming problem, assuming quasiconvexity of the objective function, under the lower subdifferentiability viewpoint. Necessary and sufficient optimality conditions and dual properties are found. We present applications of this theory to find the Pareto efficient solutions of a multiobjective fractional problem and to solve several economic models.

  18. Matters which shorten the ozone layer; Substances qui appauvrissent la couche d'ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This document, proposed by the ministry of the national development and the environment, gives the list of the main texts relative to the matters which shorten the ozone layer and the evolution of the community regulations in this domain. The concerned matters are the Cfc and the HCFC production and use. (A.L.B.)

  19. [The concentration of growth factors in patients with inherent and acquired shortenings of limbs bones]. (United States)

    Strogov, M V; Luneva, S N; Novikov, K I


    The article deals with the results of study of level of growth factors in blood serum of patients with inherent and post-traumatic shortenings of limbs' bones. The detection in blood serum the level of epidermal growth factor insulin-like growth factor I and angiopoetins is proposed to monitor in given patients the reparative bone formation.

  20. The addition of lidocaine to bupivacaine does not shorten the duration of spinal anesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Jon; Husum, Bent; Staffeldt, Henrik


    The duration of spinal anesthesia with bupivacaine is often too long for day surgery. A recent study of patients presenting for transurethral surgery suggested that the addition of a small amount of lidocaine to intrathecal hyperbaric bupivacaine could shorten the duration of the sensory and motor...

  1. Decayed/missing/filled teeth and shortened dental arches in Tanzanian adults.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarita, P.T.N.; Witter, D.J.; Kreulen, C.M.; Matee, M.I.N.; Hof, M.A. van 't; Creugers, N.H.J.


    PURPOSE: This study assessed decayed/missing/filled teeth (DMFT), presence of occlusal units, and prevalence of shortened dental arches in a Tanzanian adult population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The dental state of samples of the Tanzanian population was studied. Oral examinations were conducted on

  2. Self-regulation by the Dutch medical profession of medical behavior that potentially shortens life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffiths, John; Krabbendam, H.; Ten Napel, H.M.


    One of the most striking features of the way in which the Dutch have gone about regulating euthanasia and other "medical behavior that potentially shortens Life (MBPS) the key role that self-regulation has played in the process of legal development.' The rules and procedures that govern euthanasia

  3. Recovery time of motor evoked potentials following lengthening and shortening muscle action in the tibialis anterior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tallent, J.; Goodall, S.; Hortobagyi, T.; Gibson, A. St Clair; French, D. N.; Howatson, G.


    Motor evoked potentials (MEP) at rest remain facilitated following an isometric muscle contraction. Because the pre-synaptic and post-synaptic control of shortening (SHO) and lengthening (LEN) contractions differs, the possibility exists that the recovery of the MEP is also task specific. The time c

  4. Corrective osteotomy for malunion of the distal radius - The effect of concomitant ulnar shortening osteotomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oskam, J; Bongers, KM; Karthaus, AJM; Frima, AJ; Klasen, HJ


    Positive ulnar variance due to inadequate correction of radial length is a common disorder after radial corrective osteotomy. To avoid this complication we performed a combination of ulnar-shortening osteotomy and radial corrective osteotomy in 6 of 22 radial corrections. The indication for the comb

  5. Ulnar Shortening Osteotomy After Distal Radius Fracture Malunion: Review of Literature (United States)

    Barbaric, Katarina; Rujevcan, Gordan; Labas, Marko; Delimar, Domagoj; Bicanic, Goran


    Malunion of distal radius fracture is often complicated with shortening of the radius with disturbed radio- ulnar variance, frequently associated with lesions of triangular fibrocartilage complex and instability of the distal radioulnar joint. Positive ulnar variance may result in wrist pain located in ulnar part of the joint, limited ulnar deviation and forearm rotation with development of degenerative changes due to the overloading that occurs between the ulnar head and corresponding carpus. Ulnar shortening osteotomy (USO) is the standard procedure for correcting positive ulnar variance. Goal of this procedure is to minimize the symptoms by restoring the neutral radio - ulnar variance. In this paper we present a variety of surgical techniques available for ulnar shorthening osteotomy, their advantages and drawbacks. Methods of ulnar shortening osteotomies are divided into intraarticular and extraarticular. Intraarticular method of ulnar shortening can be performed arthroscopically or through open approach. Extraarticular methods include subcapital osteotomy and osteotomy of ulnar diaphysis, which depending on shape can be transverse, oblique, and step cut. All of those osteotomies can be performed along wrist arthroscopy in order to dispose and treat possibly existing triangular fibrocartilage complex injuries. At the end we described surgical procedures that can be done in case of ulnar shorthening osteotomy failure. PMID:26157524

  6. Interlayer material transport during layer-normal shortening. Part I. The model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molen, I. van der


    To analyse mass-transfer during deformation, the case is considered of a multilayer experiencing a layer-normal shortening that is volume constant on the scale of many layers. Strain rate is homogeneously distributed on the layer-scale if diffusion is absent; when transport of matter between the

  7. Common Patterns of Congenital Lower Extremity Shortening: Diagnosis, Classification, and Follow-up. (United States)

    Bedoya, Maria A; Chauvin, Nancy A; Jaramillo, Diego; Davidson, Richard; Horn, B David; Ho-Fung, Victor


    Congenital lower limb shortening is a group of relatively rare, heterogeneous disorders. Proximal focal femoral deficiency (PFFD) and fibular hemimelia (FH) are the most common pathologic entities in this disease spectrum. PFFD is characterized by variable degrees of shortening or absence of the femoral head, with associated dysplasia of the acetabulum and femoral shaft. FH ranges from mild hypoplasia to complete absence of the fibula with variable shortening of the tibia. The development of the lower limb requires complex and precise gene interactions. Although the etiologies of PFFD and FH remain unknown, there is a strong association between the two disorders. Associated congenital defects in the lower extremity are found in more than 50% of patients with PFFD, ipsilateral FH being the most common. FH also has a strong association with shortening and bowing of the tibia and with foot deformities such as absence of the lateral rays of the foot. Early diagnosis and radiologic classification of these abnormalities are imperative for appropriate management and surgical planning. Plain radiography remains the main diagnostic imaging modality for both PFFD and FH, and appropriate description of the osseous abnormalities seen on radiographs allows accurate classification, prognostic evaluation, and surgical planning. Minor malformations may commonly be misdiagnosed.

  8. Crossbridge and non-crossbridge contributions to force in shortening and lengthening muscle. (United States)

    Ranatunga, K W; Roots, H; Pinniger, G J; Offer, G W


    Analysis of tension responses to ramp length changes in muscle can provide important information about the crossbridge cycle. During a ramp length change, the force response of an active muscle shows an early change in slope (the P₁ transition) followed by a later, gradual change in slope (the P₂ transition). Modeling shows that the first transition reflects the tension change associated with the crossbridge power stroke in shortening and with its reversal in lengthening; the reduction in slope at the second transition occurs when most of the crossbridges (myosin heads) that were attached at the start of the ramp become detached; the steady tension during shortening is borne mainly by post-stroke heads whereas tension during lengthening is borne mostly by pre-stroke heads. After the P₂ transition, the tension reaches a steady level in the model whereas in the experiments the tension continues to increase during lengthening or to decrease during shortening; this tension change is seen at a wide range of sarcomere lengths and even when active force is reduced by a myosin inhibitor. It appears that some non-crossbridge components in muscle fibers stiffen upon activation and contribute to the continued tension rise during lengthening; release of such tension leads to tension decline during shortening. Thus, non-crossbridge visco-elasticity in sarcomeres may also contribute to energy storage and release during in situ muscle function.

  9. Fiber type composition and maximum shortening velocity of muscles crossing the human shoulder. (United States)

    Srinivasan, R C; Lungren, M P; Langenderfer, J E; Hughes, R E


    A study of the fiber type composition of fourteen muscles spanning the human glenohumeral joint was carried out with the purpose of determining the contribution of fiber types to overall muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) and to estimate the maximum shortening velocity (V(max)) of those muscles. Muscle biopsies were procured from 4 male cadavers (mean age 50) within 24 hr of death, snap frozen, mounted, and transversely sectioned (10 microm). Slides were stained for myofibrillar ATPase after alkaline preincubation. Photoimages were taken of defined areas (100 fibers) using the Bioquant system, and fiber type and CSA were measured from these images. Staining for mATPase produced three different fiber types: slow-oxidative (SO), fast-oxidative-glycolytic (FOG), and fast-glycolytic (FG). On average, the muscle fiber type composition ranged from 22 to 40% of FG, from 17 to 51% of FOG, and from 23 to 56% of SO. Twelve out of the 14 muscles had average SO proportions ranging from 35 to 50%. V(max) was calculated from the fiber type contribution relative to CSA and shortening velocity values taken from the literature. The maximum velocities of shortening presented here provide a physiological basis for the development of human shoulder musculoskeletal models suitable for predicting muscle forces for functionally relevant tasks encompassing conditions of muscle shortening and lengthening.

  10. The effect of hypoxia on shortening contractions in rat diaphragm muscle.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machiels, H.A.; Heijden, E. van der; Heunks, L.M.A.; Dekhuijzen, P.N.R.


    Hypoxia is known to reduce isometric contractile properties of isolated rat diaphragm bundles. Its effect on isotonic contractile properties (i.e. force-velocity relationship and power output) has not been studied. We hypothesized that hypoxia reduces velocity of shortening and consequently power ou

  11. Contribution of NHE-1 to cell length cardiac shortening of normal and failing rabbit myocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M.G.J. van Borren; J.G. Zegers; A. Baartscheer; J.H. Ravesloot


    At the same intracellular pH (pH(i)) Na+/H+ exchange (NHE-1) fluxes of ventricular myocytes of hypertrophied failing hearts (HFH) are increased. We assessed how NHE-1 affected cell length shortening. pH(i) was measured fluorimetrically in resting and twitching (1 - 3 Hz)normal and HFH rabbit myocyte

  12. Changing Quality Controls: The Effects of Increasing Product Variety and Shortening Product Life Cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.D. van Iwaarden (Jos)


    textabstractIn many industries (e.g. cars, electronics, clothing) manufacturing complexity and unpredictability have increased in recent years because of increasing product variety and shortening product life cycles. At the same time, manufacturers in these industries appear to have more problems wi

  13. The Shortened Visuospatial Questionnaire for Children: A Useful Tool to Identify Students with Low Visuospatial Abilities (United States)

    Fastame, Maria Chiara; Cherchi, Rossella; Penna, Maria Pietronilla


    The current research was aimed mainly at exploring the reliability of a short-screening tool developed to self-evaluate visuospatial abilities in children. We presented 290 Italian third, fourth, and fifth graders with the 16-item Shortened Visuospatial questionnaire and several objective measures of intellectual efficiency, such as Raven's…


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    A shortened histamine challenge test was used in a study of occupational airway disease. We evaluated the safety, defined as the absence of a decrease in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) of greater than 40%. The occurrence of complaints, the repeatability of test results, and the averag

  15. Stochastic modeling of length-dependent telomere shortening in Corvus monedula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grasman, J.; Salomons, H. M.; Verhulst, S.


    It was recently shown that, within individuals, longer telomeres shorten at a higher rate. This explorative study deals with a mathematical model of this process. It is a nonlinear differential equation describing length-dependent decrease that can be linked to a Poisson process. The model also take

  16. Stochastic modelling of length-dependent telomere shortening in Corvus monedula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grasman, J.; Salomons, H.M.; Verhulst, S.


    It was recently shown that, within individuals, longer telomeres shorten at a higher rate. This explorative study deals with a mathematical model of this process. It is a nonlinear differential equation describing length-dependent decrease that can be linked to a Poisson process. The model also take

  17. Shortening full-length aptamer by crawling base deletion – Assisted by Mfold web server application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subash C.B. Gopinath


    Full Text Available Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment (SELEX is the method to select the specific aptamer against a wide range of targets. For this process, the initial library usually has a length of random sequences from ∼25 and it reaches over 100 bases. The lengthy sequences have disadvantages such as difficult to prepare, less stable and expensive. It is wise to prefer shorter version of aptamer for a wide range of applications including drug delivery process. It is a common practice to shorten the full-length aptamer by mapping analyses and it is tedious. Here, we used a crawling method to shorten the aptamer by different sequential deletion of bases from both 5′ and 3′ ends, assisted by Mfold web server application. Two different kinds of aptamer with varied lengths (randomized region of 30 and 74 bases were desired for this study, generated against Influenza A/Panama/2007/1999 (H3N2 and gD protein of Herpes Simplex Virus-1. It was found that shortening the aptamer length by crawling pattern is possible with the assistance of Mfold web server application. The obtained results resemble the shortened aptamer derived by mapping analyses. The proposed strategy is recommended to predict the shorter aptamer without involving any wet experimental section.

  18. Decayed/missing/filled teeth and shortened dental arches in Tanzanian adults.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarita, P.T.N.; Witter, D.J.; Kreulen, C.M.; Matee, M.I.N.; Hof, M.A. van 't; Creugers, N.H.J.


    PURPOSE: This study assessed decayed/missing/filled teeth (DMFT), presence of occlusal units, and prevalence of shortened dental arches in a Tanzanian adult population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The dental state of samples of the Tanzanian population was studied. Oral examinations were conducted on 5,5

  19. Regional myocardial shortening in relation to graft-reactive hyperemia and flow after coronary bypass surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.W. Brower (Ronald); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); E. Bos (Egbert); J. Nauta (Jan)


    textabstractExtent of regional shortening of myocardium in areas newly perfused by bypass grafting was determined in 56 patients by a new technique employing four to six radiopaque markers sutured in pairs to the epicardium near the coronary anastomosis. Paradoxical systolic expansion (PSE) was mani

  20. Development of a Shortened Form of the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Attitudes Scales. (United States)

    Mulhern, Fiona; Rae, Gordon


    Data from 196 Irish school children were analyzed and used to develop a shortened version of the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Attitudes Scales (E. Fennema and J. Sherman, 1976). Internal consistency estimates of the reliability of scores on the whole scale and each of the subscales of the original and short form were favorable. (SLD)

  1. Differential Telomere Shortening in Blood versus Arteries in an Animal Model of Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Tajbakhsh


    Full Text Available Vascular dysfunction is an early feature of diabetic vascular disease, due to increased oxidative stress and reduced nitric oxide (NO bioavailability. This can lead to endothelial cell senescence and clinical complications such as stroke. Cells can become senescent by shortened telomeres and oxidative stress is known to accelerate telomere attrition. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1 has been linked to vascular health by upregulating endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, suppressing oxidative stress, and attenuating telomere shortening. Accelerated leukocyte telomere attrition appears to be a feature of clinical type 2 diabetes (T2D and therefore the telomere system may be a potential therapeutic target in preventing vascular complications of T2D. However the effect of T2D on vascular telomere length is currently unknown. We hypothesized that T2D gives rise to shortened leukocyte and vascular telomeres alongside reduced vascular SIRT1 expression and increased oxidative stress. Accelerated telomere attrition was observed in circulating leukocytes, but not arteries, in T2D compared to control rats. T2D rats had blunted arterial SIRT1 and eNOS protein expression levels which were associated with reduced antioxidant defense capacity. Our findings suggest that hyperglycemia and a deficit in vascular SIRT1 per se are not sufficient to prematurely shorten vascular telomeres.

  2. Bringing the School to the Children : Shortening the Path to EFA


    Lehman, Douglas


    Recent education planning initiatives in West and Central Africa show that the path to EFA may be shortened considerably by reconsidering the way basic education is delivered in isolated rural communities. Since independence, education systems have been expanding rapidly and are now serving most of the easy-to-reach population. For progress to continue, the focus must be shifted toward the...

  3. Development and assessment of a shortened Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy Questionnaire (QOLCE-55). (United States)

    Goodwin, Shane W; Lambrinos, Anastasia I; Ferro, Mark A; Sabaz, Mark; Speechley, Kathy N


    To develop and validate a shortened version of the Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy Questionnaire (QOLCE). A secondary aim was to compare baseline risk factors predicting health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in children newly diagnosed with epilepsy, as identified using the original and shortened version. Data came from the Health-Related Quality of Life in Children with Epilepsy Study (HERQULES, N = 373), a multicenter prospective cohort study. Principal component analysis reduced the number of items from the original QOLCE, and factor analysis was used to assess the factor structure of the shortened version. Convergent and divergent validity was assessed by correlating the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ) with the shortened QOLCE. Multiple regression identified risk factors at diagnosis for HRQoL at 24 months. A four-factor, higher-order, 55-item solution was obtained. A total of 21 items were removed. The final model represents functioning in four dimensions of HRQoL: Cognitive, Emotional, Social, and Physical. The shortened QOLCE demonstrated acceptable fit: Bentler's Comparative Fit Index = 0.944; Tucker-Lewis Index = 0.942; root mean square approximation = 0.058 (90% CI: 0.056-0.061); weighted root mean square residuals (WRMR) = 1.582, and excellent internal consistency (α = 0.96, subscales α > 0.80). Factor loadings were good (first-order: λ = 0.66-0.93; higher-order λ = 0.66-0.85; p < 0.001 for all). The shortened QOLCE scores correlated strongly with similar subscales of the Child Health Questionnaire (ρ = 0.38-0.70) while correlating weakly with dissimilar subscales (ρ = 0.30-0.31). While controlling for HRQoL at diagnosis, predictors for better HRQoL at 24 months were the following: no cognitive problems reported (p = 0.001), better family functioning (p = 0.014), fewer family demands (p = 0.008), with an interaction between baseline HRQoL and cognitive problems (p = 0.011). Results offer initial evidence regarding reliability and validity

  4. Discussion and Analysis on Common Mistakes in LV Circuit Breaker Type Selection%低压断路器选型误区探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    There are various LV circuit breakers with different manufacturers, specifications and models available in the market. Regarding circuit breaker selection and using, there are some common mistakes of users that influence the actual effect. At best, such mistakes result in malfunction and movement resistance; at worst, they lead to life and property loss. From the aspect of product standard, issues like several common mistakes in LV circuit breaker selection: understanding and selection of parameters like Icu, Ics and Icw of LV circuit breaker; relationship between LV circuit breaker’s utilization category and full selective coordination; full and partial selective protections of circuit breakers in series; influence of circuit breaker’s trip value on selective coordination;let-though energy of LV circuit breaker and function of current limiting circuit breaker are illustrated. Suggestions are proposed on the basis of analysis.%市场上低压断路器的制造商众多,规格、型号各异。用户在选择使用断路器上还存在一些误区影响了实际使用效果,轻者误动拒动、重者遭受财产损失危及生命。文章试图从产品标准着眼解释几个主要对低压断路器选择认识的误区:如何理解和选择低压断路器的Ic u、 Ic s、 Ic w等参数,低压断路器的使用类别与全选择性配合的关系,串联断路器间的全选择性和局部选择性保护,断路器脱扣值的误差对选择性配合的影响,低压断路器的允通能量及限流型断路器的作用等,并在分析的基础上给出作者的建议。

  5. First-in-Human Treatment With a Dendritic Cell-targeting Lentiviral Vector-expressing NY-ESO-1, LV305, Induces Deep, Durable Response in Refractory Metastatic Synovial Sarcoma Patient. (United States)

    Pollack, Seth M; Lu, Hailing; Gnjatic, Sacha; Somaiah, Neeta; O'Malley, Ryan B; Jones, Robin L; Hsu, Frank J; Ter Meulen, Jan


    Effective induction of antitumor T cells is a pivotal goal of cancer immunotherapy. To this end, lentiviral vectors (LV) are uniquely poised to directly prime CD8 T-cell responses via transduction of dendritic cells in vivo and have shown promise as active cancer therapeutics in preclinical tumor models. However, until now, significant barriers related to production and regulation have prevented their widespread use in the clinic. We developed LV305, a dendritic cell-targeting, integration-deficient, replication incompetent LV from the ZVex platform, encoding the full-length cancer-testis antigen NY-ESO-1. LV305 is currently being evaluated in phase 1 and 2 trials in metastatic recurrent cancer patients with NY-ESO-1 positive solid tumors as a single agent and in combination with anti-PD-L1. Here we report on the first patient treated with LV305, a young woman with metastatic, recurrent, therapy-refractive NY-ESO-1 synovial sarcoma. The patient developed a robust NY-ESO-1-specific CD4 and CD8 T-cell response after 3 intradermal injections with LV305, and subsequently over 85% disease regression that is continuing for >2.5 years posttherapy. No adverse events >grade 2 occurred. This case demonstrates that LV305 can be safely administered and has the potential to induce a significant clinical benefit and immunologic response in a patient with advanced stage cancer.

  6. Drug-induced QT-interval shortening following antiepileptic treatment with oral rufinamide. (United States)

    Schimpf, Rainer; Veltmann, Christian; Papavassiliu, Theano; Rudic, Boris; Göksu, Turgay; Kuschyk, Jürgen; Wolpert, Christian; Antzelevitch, Charles; Ebner, Alois; Borggrefe, Martin; Brandt, Christian


    The arrhythmogenic potential of short QT intervals has recently been highlighted in patients with a short QT syndrome. Drug-induced QT-interval prolongation is a known risk factor for ventricular tachyarrhythmias. However, reports on drug-induced QT-interval shortening are rare and proarrhythmic effects remain unclear. Recently, rufinamide, a new antiepileptic drug for the add-on treatment of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, was approved in the European Union and the United States. Initial trials showed drug-induced QT-interval shortening. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of rufinamide on QT intervals in patients with difficult-to-treat epilepsies. Nineteen consecutive patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and other epilepsy syndromes were included (n = 12 men; mean age 41 ± 12 years). QRS, QT, and T(peak)-T(end) intervals were analyzed before and during rufinamide treatment. The mean QT interval shortened significantly following rufinamide administration (QT interval 349 ± 23 ms vs 327 ± 17 ms; corrected QT interval 402 ± 22 ms vs 382 ± 16 ms; P = .002). T(peak)-T(end) intervals were 79 ± 17 ms before and 70 ± 20 ms on treatment (P = .07). The mean reduction of the corrected QT interval was 20 ± 18 ms. During follow-up (3.04 ± 1.09 years), no adverse events including symptomatic cardiac arrhythmias or sudden cardiac deaths were observed. QTc-interval shortening following oral rufinamide administration in a small patient group was not associated with significant clinical adverse effects. These observations notwithstanding, the ability of rufinamide to significantly shorten the QT interval portends a potential arrhythmogenic risk that may best be guarded against by periodic electrocardiographic recordings. Copyright © 2012 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Oxidative Stress-induced Telomere Length Shortening of Circulating Leukocyte in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Soo; Kwak, Jin Wook; Lim, Su Jin; Park, Yong Kyun; Yang, Hoon Shik; Kim, Hyun Jik


    The main mechanism of pathogenesis which causes systemic complications in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients is believed to be intermittent hypoxia-induced intermediary effect and it depends on the burden of oxidative stress during sleep. We aimed to search the predictive markers which reflect the burden of systemic oxidative stress in patients with OSA and whether excessive telomere length shortening is a characteristic feature that can assess oxidative stress levels. We used quantitative PCR to measure telomere length using peripheral blood genomic DNA. Telomere lengths were compared in an age- and body mass index (BMI)-dependent manner in 34 healthy volunteers and 43 OSA subjects. We also performed reactive oxygen species assay to measure the concentration of hydrogen peroxide in the peripheral blood of healthy volunteers and OSA subjects. We found that the serum concentration of hydrogen peroxide was considerably higher in OSA patients, and that this was closely related with the severity of OSA. Significantly shortened telomere length was observed in the circulating leukocytes of the peripheral blood of OSA patients, and telomere length shortening was aggravated more acutely in an age- and BMI-dependent manner. An inverse correlation was observed between the concentration of hydrogen peroxide and the telomere length of OSA patients and excessive telomere length shortening was also linked to severity of OSA. The results provided evidence that telomere length shortening or excessive cellular aging might be distinctive in circulating leukocyte of OSA patients and may be an predictive biomarker for reflect the burden of oxidative stress in the peripheral blood of OSA patients. PMID:27699083

  8. Two-Stage Surgical Treatment for Non-Union of a Shortened Osteoporotic Femur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galal Zaki Said


    Full Text Available Introduction: We report a case of non-union with severe shortening of the femur following diaphysectomy for chronic osteomyelitis.Case Presentation: A boy, aged 16 years presented with a dangling and excessively short left lower limb. He was using an elbow crutch in his right hand to help him walk. He had a history of diaphysectomy for chronic osteomyelitis at the age of 9. Examination revealed a freely mobile non-union of the left femur. The femur was the seat of an 18 cm shortening and a 4 cm defect at the non-union site; the knee joint was ankylosed in extension. The tibia and fibula were 10 cm short. Considering the extensive shortening in the femur and tibia in addition to osteoporosis, he was treated in two stages. In stage I, the femoral non-union was treated by open reduction, internal fixation and iliac bone grafting. The patient was then allowed to walk with full weight bearing in an extension brace for 7 months. In Stage II, equalization of leg length discrepancy (LLD was achieved by simultaneous distraction of the femur and tibia by unilateral frames. At the 6 month follow- up, he was fully weight bearing without any walking aid, with a heel lift to compensate the 1.5 cm shortening. Three years later he reported that he was satisfied with the result of treatment and was leading a normal life as a university student.Conclusions: Two-stage treatment succeeded to restore about 20 cm of the femoral shortening in a severely osteoporotic bone. It has also succeeded in reducing the treatment time of the external fixator.

  9. Residual force depression following muscle shortening is exaggerated by prior eccentric drop jump exercise. (United States)

    Dargeviciute, Gintare; Masiulis, Nerijus; Kamandulis, Sigitas; Skurvydas, Albertas; Westerblad, Håkan


    We studied the relation between two common force modifications in skeletal muscle: the prolonged force depression induced by unaccustomed eccentric contractions, and the residual force depression (rFD) observed immediately after active shortening. We hypothesized that rFD originates from distortion within the sarcomeres and the extent of rFD: 1) correlates to the force and work performed during the shortening steps, which depend on sarcomeric integrity; and 2) is increased by sarcomeric disorganization induced by eccentric contractions. Nine healthy untrained men (mean age 26 yr) participated in the study. rFD was studied in electrically stimulated knee extensor muscles. rFD was defined as the reduction in isometric torque after active shortening compared with the torque in a purely isometric contraction. Eccentric contractions were performed as 50 repeated drop jumps with active deceleration to 90° knee angle, immediately followed by a maximal upward jump. rFD was assessed before and 5 min to 72 h after drop jumps. The series of drop jumps caused a prolonged force depression, which was about two times larger at 20-Hz than at 50-Hz stimulation. There was a significant correlation between increasing rFD and increasing mechanical work performed during active shortening both before and after drop jumps. In addition, a given rFD was obtained at a markedly lower mechanical work after drop jumps. In conclusion, the extent of rFD correlates to the mechanical work performed during active shortening. A series of eccentric contractions causes a prolonged reduction of isometric force. In addition, eccentric contractions exaggerate rFD, which further decreases muscle performance during dynamic contractions.

  10. Force depression and relaxation kinetics after active shortening and deactivation in mouse soleus muscle. (United States)

    Van Noten, P; Van Leemputte, M


    After active shortening, isometric force production capacity of muscle is reduced (force depression, FD). The mechanism is incompletely understood but increasing cross-bridge detachment and/or decreasing attachment rate might be involved. Therefore we aimed to investigate the relation between work delivered during shortening (W), and change in half-relaxation time (Δ0.5RT) and change in the slow phase of muscle relaxation (Δkslow), considered as a marker for cross-bridge detachment rate, after shortening and after a short (0.7s) interruption of activation (deactivation). We hypothesized that shortening induces an accelerated relaxation related to W which is, similar to FD, largely abolished by a short deactivation. In 10 incubated supra-maximally stimulated mouse soleus muscles, we varied the amount of FD at L0 by varying shortening amplitude (0.6, 1.2 and 2.4mm). We found that W not only induces FD (R(2)=0.92) but also a dose dependent accelerated relaxation (R(2)=0.88 and R(2)=0.77 for respectively Δkslow and Δ0.5RT). In cyclic movements this is of functional significance, because the loss in force generating capacity might be (partially) compensated by faster relaxation. After a short deactivation, both FD and Δkslow were largely abolished but Δ0.5RT remained largely present. Under the assumption that Δkslow reflects a change in cross-bridge detachment rate, these results support the idea that FD is an intrinsic sarcomeric property originating from a work induced reduction of the number of force generating cross-bridges, however not via decreased attachment but via increased detachment rate. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Fractional calculus in bioengineering. (United States)

    Magin, Richard L


    Fractional calculus (integral and differential operations of noninteger order) is not often used to model biological systems. Although the basic mathematical ideas were developed long ago by the mathematicians Leibniz (1695), Liouville (1834), Riemann (1892), and others and brought to the attention of the engineering world by Oliver Heaviside in the 1890s, it was not until 1974 that the first book on the topic was published by Oldham and Spanier. Recent monographs and symposia proceedings have highlighted the application of fractional calculus in physics, continuum mechanics, signal processing, and electromagnetics, but with few examples of applications in bioengineering. This is surprising because the methods of fractional calculus, when defined as a Laplace or Fourier convolution product, are suitable for solving many problems in biomedical research. For example, early studies by Cole (1933) and Hodgkin (1946) of the electrical properties of nerve cell membranes and the propagation of electrical signals are well characterized by differential equations of fractional order. The solution involves a generalization of the exponential function to the Mittag-Leffler function, which provides a better fit to the observed cell membrane data. A parallel application of fractional derivatives to viscoelastic materials establishes, in a natural way, hereditary integrals and the power law (Nutting/Scott Blair) stress-strain relationship for modeling biomaterials. In this review, I will introduce the idea of fractional operations by following the original approach of Heaviside, demonstrate the basic operations of fractional calculus on well-behaved functions (step, ramp, pulse, sinusoid) of engineering interest, and give specific examples from electrochemistry, physics, bioengineering, and biophysics. The fractional derivative accurately describes natural phenomena that occur in such common engineering problems as heat transfer, electrode/electrolyte behavior, and sub

  12. HeLv – Helpdesk für Lehrer/innen verhaltensauffälliger Schüler/innen - eine netzbasierte Serviceplattform für Lehrer/innen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Germany


    Full Text Available The article presents the serviceplatform HeLv-Helpdesk for teachers for pupils with conduct disorder ( HeLv offers easy access to its monitoring and coaching platform as well as a FAQ, contacts for networking with local institutions and a big offer of specialist literature. The focus of the article is on the genese of the service, actual developments and future work which will concentrate on better dissemination and awareness for the support being given by HeLv.

  13. Social Trust and Fractionalization:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian


    This paper takes a closer look at the importance of fractionalization for the creation of social trust. It first argues that the determinants of trust can be divided into two categories: those affecting individuals' trust radii and those affecting social polarization. A series of estimates using...... a much larger country sample than in previous literature confirms that fractionalization in the form of income inequality and political diversity adversely affects social trust while ethnic diversity does not. However, these effects differ systematically across countries, questioning standard...... interpretations of the influence of fractionalization on trust....

  14. Shortening Delivery Times of Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy by Reducing Proton Energy Layers During Treatment Plan Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Water, Steven van de, E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Kooy, Hanne M. [F. H. Burr Proton Therapy Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Heijmen, Ben J.M.; Hoogeman, Mischa S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands)


    Purpose: To shorten delivery times of intensity modulated proton therapy by reducing the number of energy layers in the treatment plan. Methods and Materials: We have developed an energy layer reduction method, which was implemented into our in-house-developed multicriteria treatment planning system “Erasmus-iCycle.” The method consisted of 2 components: (1) minimizing the logarithm of the total spot weight per energy layer; and (2) iteratively excluding low-weighted energy layers. The method was benchmarked by comparing a robust “time-efficient plan” (with energy layer reduction) with a robust “standard clinical plan” (without energy layer reduction) for 5 oropharyngeal cases and 5 prostate cases. Both plans of each patient had equal robust plan quality, because the worst-case dose parameters of the standard clinical plan were used as dose constraints for the time-efficient plan. Worst-case robust optimization was performed, accounting for setup errors of 3 mm and range errors of 3% + 1 mm. We evaluated the number of energy layers and the expected delivery time per fraction, assuming 30 seconds per beam direction, 10 ms per spot, and 400 Giga-protons per minute. The energy switching time was varied from 0.1 to 5 seconds. Results: The number of energy layers was on average reduced by 45% (range, 30%-56%) for the oropharyngeal cases and by 28% (range, 25%-32%) for the prostate cases. When assuming 1, 2, or 5 seconds energy switching time, the average delivery time was shortened from 3.9 to 3.0 minutes (25%), 6.0 to 4.2 minutes (32%), or 12.3 to 7.7 minutes (38%) for the oropharyngeal cases, and from 3.4 to 2.9 minutes (16%), 5.2 to 4.2 minutes (20%), or 10.6 to 8.0 minutes (24%) for the prostate cases. Conclusions: Delivery times of intensity modulated proton therapy can be reduced substantially without compromising robust plan quality. Shorter delivery times are likely to reduce treatment uncertainties and costs.

  15. Pre-power-stroke cross-bridges contribute to force transients during imposed shortening in isolated muscle fibers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio C Minozzo

    Full Text Available When skeletal muscles are activated and mechanically shortened, the force that is produced by the muscle fibers decreases in two phases, marked by two changes in slope (P₁ and P₂ that happen at specific lengths (L₁ and L₂. We tested the hypothesis that these force transients are determined by the amount of myosin cross-bridges attached to actin and by changes in cross-bridge strain due to a changing fraction of cross-bridges in the pre-power-stroke state. Three separate experiments were performed, using skinned muscle fibers that were isolated and subsequently (i activated at different Ca²⁺ concentrations (pCa²⁺ 4.5, 5.0, 5.5, 6.0 (n = 13, (ii activated in the presence of blebbistatin (n = 16, and (iii activated in the presence of blebbistatin at varying velocities (n = 5. In all experiments, a ramp shortening was imposed (amplitude 10%L₀, velocity 1 L₀•sarcomere length (SL•s⁻¹, from an initial SL of 2.5 µm (except by the third group, in which velocities ranged from 0.125 to 2.0 L₀•s⁻¹. The values of P₁, P₂, L₁, and L₂ did not change with Ca²⁺ concentrations. Blebbistatin decreased P₁, and it did not alter P₂, L₁, and L₂. We developed a mathematical cross-bridge model comprising a load-dependent power-stroke transition and a pre-power-stroke cross-bridge state. The P₁ and P₂ critical points as well as the critical lengths L₁ and L₂ were explained qualitatively by the model, and the effects of blebbistatin inhibition on P₁ were also predicted. Furthermore, the results of the model suggest that the mechanism by which blebbistatin inhibits force is by interfering with the closing of the myosin upper binding cleft, biasing cross-bridges into a pre-power-stroke state.

  16. Pre-power-stroke cross-bridges contribute to force transients during imposed shortening in isolated muscle fibers. (United States)

    Minozzo, Fabio C; Hilbert, Lennart; Rassier, Dilson E


    When skeletal muscles are activated and mechanically shortened, the force that is produced by the muscle fibers decreases in two phases, marked by two changes in slope (P₁ and P₂) that happen at specific lengths (L₁ and L₂). We tested the hypothesis that these force transients are determined by the amount of myosin cross-bridges attached to actin and by changes in cross-bridge strain due to a changing fraction of cross-bridges in the pre-power-stroke state. Three separate experiments were performed, using skinned muscle fibers that were isolated and subsequently (i) activated at different Ca²⁺ concentrations (pCa²⁺ 4.5, 5.0, 5.5, 6.0) (n = 13), (ii) activated in the presence of blebbistatin (n = 16), and (iii) activated in the presence of blebbistatin at varying velocities (n = 5). In all experiments, a ramp shortening was imposed (amplitude 10%L₀, velocity 1 L₀•sarcomere length (SL)•s⁻¹), from an initial SL of 2.5 µm (except by the third group, in which velocities ranged from 0.125 to 2.0 L₀•s⁻¹). The values of P₁, P₂, L₁, and L₂ did not change with Ca²⁺ concentrations. Blebbistatin decreased P₁, and it did not alter P₂, L₁, and L₂. We developed a mathematical cross-bridge model comprising a load-dependent power-stroke transition and a pre-power-stroke cross-bridge state. The P₁ and P₂ critical points as well as the critical lengths L₁ and L₂ were explained qualitatively by the model, and the effects of blebbistatin inhibition on P₁ were also predicted. Furthermore, the results of the model suggest that the mechanism by which blebbistatin inhibits force is by interfering with the closing of the myosin upper binding cleft, biasing cross-bridges into a pre-power-stroke state.

  17. Natriuretic peptides and Galectin-3 in senile heart failure patients with preserved ejection fraction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinova L.I.


    Full Text Available Purpose: to characterize biomarker panel in senile patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HF-pEF. Material and Methods. 356 senile patients with chronic heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF were examined to form the study sample of 48 male patients without atrium fibrillation, anemia, diabetes mellitus, onco-pathology and missing clinical data. NT-proBNP, galectin-3 (gal-3 and proANT assay was performed by commercially available ELISA kits. Results. In patients without left ventricular (LV regional wall motion abnormalities (RWMA. gal-3 (2,13 (0,98; 3,50 vs 5.16 (4,34;9.63 ng/mL, p = 0.011 and NT-proBNP (5,59 (1,00; 10.13 vs 32,04 (15,40; 46,18 fmol/mL, p=0,006 levels were significantly lower than in patients with LV RWMA. Contrarily proANP level was lower in patients with LV RWMA (3,24 (2,47; 3,75 vs 1,38 (0,83; 2,29 nmol/mL, p=0.071. proANP was the only biomarker to increase significantly in long livers (7,30 (4,52; 7,63 vs 2,68 (1,88; 3,32 nmol/mL, p=0.006. NT-proBNP positively correlated with glucose level and negatively with hsCRP (R=0,52, p=0,007. Conclusion. Biomarker panel in senile heart failure patients with preserved ejection fraction has characterized: increase in NT-proBNP and galectin-3 is associated with more severe clinical course and presence of regional wall motion abnormalities in senile patients.

  18. Discrete fractional calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Goodrich, Christopher


    This text provides the first comprehensive treatment of the discrete fractional calculus. Experienced researchers will find the text useful as a reference for discrete fractional calculus and topics of current interest. Students who are interested in learning about discrete fractional calculus will find this text to provide a useful starting point. Several exercises are offered at the end of each chapter and select answers have been provided at the end of the book. The presentation of the content is designed to give ample flexibility for potential use in a myriad of courses and for independent study. The novel approach taken by the authors includes a simultaneous treatment of the fractional- and integer-order difference calculus (on a variety of time scales, including both the usual forward and backwards difference operators). The reader will acquire a solid foundation in the classical topics of the discrete calculus while being introduced to exciting recent developments, bringing them to the frontiers of the...

  19. Fractional Derivative Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts, Mark D


    The degree by which a function can be differentiated need not be restricted to integer values. Usually most of the field equations of physics are taken to be second order, curiosity asks what happens if this is only approximately the case and the field equations are nearly second order. For Robertson-Walker cosmology there is a simple fractional modification of the Friedman and conservation equations. In general fractional gravitational equations similar to Einstein's are hard to define as this requires fractional derivative geometry. What fractional derivative geometry might entail is briefly looked at and it turns out that even asking very simple questions in two dimensions leads to ambiguous or intractable results. A two dimensional line element which depends on the Gamma-function is looked at.

  20. Long-Term Outcome of Step-Cut Ulnar Shortening Osteotomy for Ulnar Impaction Syndrome. (United States)

    Papatheodorou, Loukia K; Baratz, Mark E; Bougioukli, Sofia; Ruby, Tyler; Weiser, Robert W; Sotereanos, Dean G


    Extra-articular ulnar shortening osteotomy is a common procedure for the surgical treatment of ulnar impaction syndrome. Several techniques for this osteotomy have been developed to avoid the morbidity associated with a standard transverse osteotomy. However, these techniques require special instrumentation and are expensive. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome of step-cut ulnar shortening osteotomy without special jigs for ulnar impaction syndrome. A retrospective study of 164 consecutive patients who underwent step-cut ulnar shortening osteotomy between 2000 and 2010 was performed. The long arm of the step-cut osteotomy was oriented in the coronal plane parallel to the long axis of the ulna. The short arms of the osteotomy were perpendicular to the long axis in the axial plane. Fixation was performed with a palmar 3.5-mm standard neutralization plate and a lag screw. The goal of the osteotomy was to reduce ulnar variance, which was assessed in all patients with pronated grip-view radiographs preoperatively and postoperatively. Preoperative ulnar variance ranged from +1 to +6 mm. All patients were followed for at least 24 months. Union of the osteotomy site was achieved at a mean of 8.2 weeks. The union rate was 98.8%. There were 2 cases of nonunion, which required additional surgery. The mean postoperative ulnar variance was +0.2 mm (range, -1 to +1.5 mm) after a mean overall ulnar shortening of 2.5 mm. All patients returned to their previous work, in a mean of 4 months. The plate was removed from 12 patients because of plate-related symptoms. No other complications were encountered. The step-cut ulnar shortening osteotomy provides ample bone-to-bone contact and simplifies control of rotation. Stable internal fixation with standard techniques allowed an early return to functional activities. Palmar placement of the plate diminishes the need for plate removal. This is a simple and less expensive technique for ulnar shortening that does not

  1. Relationship between Spinal Cord Volume and Spinal Cord Injury due to Spinal Shortening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Qiu

    Full Text Available Vertebral column resection is associated with a risk of spinal cord injury. In the present study, using a goat model, we aimed to investigate the relationship between changes in spinal cord volume and spinal cord injury due to spinal shortening, and to quantify the spinal cord volume per 1-mm height in order to clarify a safe limit for shortening. Vertebral column resection was performed at T10 in 10 goats. The spinal cord was shortened until the somatosensory-evoked potential was decreased by 50% from the baseline amplitude or delayed by 10% relative to the baseline peak latency. A wake-up test was performed, and the goats were observed for two days postoperatively. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure the spinal cord volume, T10 height, disc height, osteotomy segment height, and spinal segment height pre- and postoperatively. Two of the 10 goats were excluded, and hence, only data from eight goats were analyzed. The somatosensory-evoked potential of these eight goats demonstrated meaningful changes. With regard to neurologic function, five and three goats were classified as Tarlov grades 5 and 4 at two days postoperatively. The mean shortening distance was 23.6 ± 1.51 mm, which correlated with the d-value (post-pre of the spinal cord volume per 1-mm height of the osteotomy segment (r = 0.95, p < 0.001 and with the height of the T10 body (r = 0.79, p = 0.02. The mean d-value (post-pre of the spinal cord volume per 1-mm height of the osteotomy segment was 142.87 ± 0.59 mm3 (range, 142.19-143.67 mm3. The limit for shortening was approximately 106% of the vertebral height. The mean volumes of the osteotomy and spinal segments did not significantly change after surgery (t = 0.310, p = 0.765 and t = 1.241, p = 0.255, respectively. Thus, our results indicate that the safe limit for shortening can be calculated using the change in spinal cord volume per 1-mm height.

  2. Shortening in the Central Andes at the transition to flat slab subduction (United States)

    Safipour, R.; DeCelles, P. G.; Carrapa, B.; Kapp, P. A.; Gehrels, G. E.; Reiners, P. W.


    Shortening in the Central Andes is considered to decrease north and south of the apex of the Bolivian orocline, mainly owing to differences in the pre-existing stratigraphic architecture of the continental margin. Estimates of shortening in the central Andes of northern Argentina remain poorly documented, but are required for assessment of the regional kinematic history of the orogenic system. The problem is acute at the north to south transition from the high elevation Puna plateau to the lower elevation region of the Sierras Pampeanas intra-foreland block uplifts, which corresponds with a transition to a flat segment of the subducting Nazca plate. Although deformation in the Eastern Cordillera appears to have propagated forelandward from west to east, the trend in the Sierras Pampeanas is not clear from existing data. We mapped the structures along a roughly E-W transect at latitude 28°S in the Sierra de Las Planchadas of the northern Sierras Pampeanas to measure finite strain and kinematic indicators, and to develop a regional restorable cross section for measuring total shortening. We also sampled for low-T thermochronology in order to determine the timing of exhumation and inferred thrust propagation. A minimum of 40 km of shortening in the Sierra de Las Planchadas is estimated from our restored cross section. When added to the 20 km shortening documented in ranges to the east by previous studies, this brings the total minimum estimated shortening at this latitude to ~60 km. Apatite fission track ages from the hanging walls of thrusts are ~20 Ma, and apatite helium ages range from 10 Ma west of the range to 2.3 Ma in the Fiambalá basin which borders the range to the east. Cretaceous and Paleogene cooling ages are observed in ranges to the east of the Sierra de Las Planchadas, so the young cooling ages found in this study suggest that exhumation was complex and possibly diachronous at this latitude. To the extent that exhumation occurs simultaneously with

  3. Serotonin in the solitary tract nucleus shortens the laryngeal chemoreflex in anaesthetized neonatal rats. (United States)

    Donnelly, William T; Bartlett, Donald; Leiter, J C


    What is the central question of this study? Failure to terminate apnoea and arouse is likely to contribute to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Serotonin is deficient in the brainstems of babies who died of SIDS. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that serotonin in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) would shorten reflex apnoea. What is the main finding and its importance? Serotonin microinjected into the NTS shortened the apnoea and respiratory inhibition associated with the laryngeal chemoreflex. Moreover, this effect was achieved through a 5-HT3 receptor. This is a new insight that is likely to be relevant to the pathogenesis of SIDS. The laryngeal chemoreflex (LCR), an airway-protective reflex that causes apnoea and bradycardia, has long been suspected as an initiating event in the sudden infant death syndrome. Serotonin (5-HT) and 5-HT receptors may be deficient in the brainstems of babies who die of sudden infant death syndrome, and 5-HT seems to be important in terminating apnoeas directly or in causing arousals or as part of the process of autoresuscitation. We hypothesized that 5-HT in the brainstem would limit the duration of the LCR. We studied anaesthetized rat pups between 7 and 21 days of age and made microinjections into the cisterna magna or into the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). Focal, bilateral microinjections of 5-HT into the caudal NTS significantly shortened the LCR. The 5-HT1a receptor antagonist, WAY 100635, did not affect the LCR consistently, nor did a 5-HT2 receptor antagonist, ketanserin, alter the duration of the LCR. The 5-HT3 specific agonist, 1-(3-chlorophenyl)-biguanide, microinjected bilaterally into the caudal NTS significantly shortened the LCR. Thus, endogenous 5-HT released within the NTS may curtail the respiratory depression that is part of the LCR, and serotonergic shortening of the LCR may be attributed to activation of 5-HT3 receptors within the NTS. 5-HT3 receptors are expressed presynaptically on C

  4. Intracellular Cadmium Isotope Fractionation (United States)

    Horner, T. J.; Lee, R. B.; Henderson, G. M.; Rickaby, R. E.


    Recent stable isotope studies into the biological utilization of transition metals (e.g. Cu, Fe, Zn, Cd) suggest several stepwise cellular processes can fractionate isotopes in both culture and nature. However, the determination of fractionation factors is often unsatisfactory, as significant variability can exist - even between different organisms with the same cellular functions. Thus, it has not been possible to adequately understand the source and mechanisms of metal isotopic fractionation. In order to address this problem, we investigated the biological fractionation of Cd isotopes within genetically-modified bacteria (E. coli). There is currently only one known biological use or requirement of Cd, a Cd/Zn carbonic anhydrase (CdCA, from the marine diatom T. weissfloggii), which we introduce into the E. coli genome. We have also developed a cleaning procedure that allows for the treating of bacteria so as to study the isotopic composition of different cellular components. We find that whole cells always exhibit a preference for uptake of the lighter isotopes of Cd. Notably, whole cells appear to have a similar Cd isotopic composition regardless of the expression of CdCA within the E. coli. However, isotopic fractionation can occur within the genetically modified E. coli during Cd use, such that Cd bound in CdCA can display a distinct isotopic composition compared to the cell as a whole. Thus, the externally observed fractionation is independent of the internal uses of Cd, with the largest Cd isotope fractionation occurring during cross-membrane transport. A general implication of these experiments is that trace metal isotopic fractionation most likely reflects metal transport into biological cells (either actively or passively), rather than relating to expression of specific physiological function and genetic expression of different metalloenzymes.

  5. Study of semi-leptonic decay of B meson, in the ways lvD{sup *} and lvD with ALEPH detector at LEP: measurement of the fragmentation function of b quark and search for D{sup **} states; Etude des desintegrations semi-leptoniques du meson B, dans les canaux D*lv et Dlv, aupres du detecteur ALEPH au LEP: mesure de la fonction de fragmentation du quark b et recherche d`etats D**

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonis, I. de


    This work is dedicated to the measurement of the fragmentation function of the quark b, with the ALEPH detector, at LEP. The main aspects of this measure is to be as independent as possible from any model. For this, we reconstruct the semi-leptonic decay modes of the B meson, in the ways lvD deg., lvD{sup *+} and lvD{sup +}. In a first step, we describe the criteria used to select those modes. Then, we determine the fragmentation function by measuring the ratio X{sub B} = 2 E{sub B} / {radical} S, where E{sub B} is the B meson energy and {radical} s/2 the useful energy in the center of mass. The measure of E{sub B} needs a precise reconstruction of the neutrino energy, which is not detected. We present here the method that we used for this reconstruction. Once the acceptance correction is applied, we obtain, for the variable X{sub B}, a distribution with mean value: < X{sub B} > = 0.711 {+-} 0.009 (stat). To be as independent as possible of the model (Peterson function) used n the Monte-Carlo determination of the acceptance, we do an iterative calculation of the acceptance. We obtain < X{sub B}> = 0.712 {+-} 0.009(stat) {+-} 0.017 (syst). Furthermore, this measure depends of the D** contribution, badly known for now. Therefore, we search this contribution, using the events selected before, on the one hand by a direct observation, on the other hand by reconstructing the mass of the B meson. (author). 64 refs.

  6. Global longitudinal strain and global circumferential strain by speckle-tracking echocardiography and feature-tracking cardiac magnetic resonance imaging: comparison with left ventricular ejection fraction. (United States)

    Onishi, Toshinari; Saha, Samir K; Delgado-Montero, Antonia; Ludwig, Daniel R; Onishi, Tetsuari; Schelbert, Erik B; Schwartzman, David; Gorcsan, John


    Left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) is a routine clinical standard to assess cardiac function. Global longitudinal strain (GLS) and global circumferential strain (GCS) have emerged as important LV functional measures. The objective of this study was to determine the relationships of GLS and GCS by speckle-tracking echocardiography and featuring-tracking cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) to CMR EF as a standard of reference in the same patients. A total of 73 consecutive patients aged 55 ± 15 years clinically referred for both CMR and echocardiography (EF range, 8%-78%) were studied. Routine steady-state free precession CMR images were prospectively analyzed offline using feature-tracking software for LV GLS, GCS, volumes, and EF. GLS was averaged from three standard longitudinal views and GCS from the mid-LV short-axis plane. Echocardiographic speckle-tracking was used from the similar imaging planes for GLS, GCS, LV volumes, and EF. Feature-tracking CMR strain was closely correlated with speckle-tracking strain in the same patients: GLS, r = -0.87; GCS, r = -0.92 (P tracking CMR were significantly correlated with standard manual tracing of multiple CMR short-axis images (r = 0.97, r = 0.98, and r = 0.97, P tracking were closely correlated with standard CMR EF: r = -0.85 and r = -0.95, respectively (P tracking CMR analysis was a rapid means to obtain myocardial strain similar to speckle-tracking echocardiography. GLS and GCS were closely correlated with CMR EF in this patient series and may play a role in the clinical assessment of LV function. Copyright © 2015 American Society of Echocardiography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Time-Dependent Regional Myocardial Strains in Patients with Heart Failure with a Preserved Ejection Fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane P. Smith


    Full Text Available Objectives. To better understand the etiology of HFpEF in a controlled human population, regional time-varying strains were computed using echocardiography speckle tracking in patients with heart failure with a preserved ejection fraction and normal subjects. Methods. Eleven normal volunteers and ten patients with echo-graded diastolic dysfunction and symptoms of heart failure were imaged with echocardiography and longitudinal, circumferential, and rotational strains were determined using speckle-tracking. Diastolic strain rate was also determined. Patient demographics and echo-derived flows, volumes, and pressures were recorded. Results. Peak longitudinal and circumferential strain was globally reduced in patients (p<0.001, when compared to controls. The patients attained peak longitudinal and circumferential strain at a consistently later point in systole than controls. Rotational strains were not different in most LV regions. Early diastolic strain rate was significantly reduced in the patients (p<0.001. LV mass and wall thickness were significantly increased in the patients; however ejection fraction was preserved and stroke volume was diminished (p<0.001. Conclusions. This study shows that patients with HFpEF have reduced early diastolic strain rate and reduced peak strain that is regionally homogeneous and that they also utilize a longer fraction of systole to achieve peak axial strains.

  8. Protein degradation and post-deboning tenderization in broiler breast meat with different degrees of muscle shortening (United States)

    Deboning broiler breast fillets prior to rigor mortis negatively influences tenderness due to sarcomere shortening. The effects of sarcomere shortening on muscle protein degradation and breast meat tenderization during post-deboning aging are not well understood. The objective of this study was to m...

  9. Stretch-shortening cycle muscle power in women and men aged 18-81 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwén, C E; Thorlund, Jonas Bloch; Magnusson, Stig Peter;


    This study explored the age-related deterioration in stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) muscle power and concurrent force-velocity properties in women and men across the adult life span. A total of 315 participants (women: n = 188; men: n = 127) aged 18-81 years performed maximal countermovement jump...... on an instrumented force plate. Maximal SSC leg extension power expressed per kg body mass (Ppeak) was greater in men than in women across the adult age span (P ......This study explored the age-related deterioration in stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) muscle power and concurrent force-velocity properties in women and men across the adult life span. A total of 315 participants (women: n = 188; men: n = 127) aged 18-81 years performed maximal countermovement jumps...

  10. Characterization of an ultrafast Bragg-Switch for shortening hard x-ray pulses (United States)

    Sander, M.; Koc, A.; Kwamen, C. T.; Michaels, H.; Reppert, A. v.; Pudell, J.; Zamponi, F.; Bargheer, M.; Sellmann, J.; Schwarzkopf, J.; Gaal, P.


    We present a nanostructured device that functions as photoacoustic hard x-ray switch. The device is triggered by femtosecond laser pulses and allows for temporal gating of hard x-rays on picosecond (ps) timescales. It may be used for pulse picking or even pulse shortening in 3rd generation synchrotron sources. Previous approaches mainly suffered from insufficient switching contrasts due to excitation-induced thermal distortions. We present a new approach where thermal distortions are spatially separated from the functional switching layers in the structure. Our measurements yield a switching contrast of 14, which is sufficient for efficient hard x-ray pulse shortening. The optimized structure also allows for utilizing the switch at high repetition rates of up to 208 kHz.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Kitarović


    Full Text Available This paper considers the hull girder ultimate strength of a bulk carrier at its midship section, as determined by an incremental-iterative progressive collapse analysis method prescribed by the International Association of Classification Societies Common Structural Rules for Bulk Carriers. In addition to the originally prescribed load – end shortening curves, curves determined by the nonlinear finite element method analysis (considering the influence of the idealized initial geometrical imperfections are also considered. Results obtained by both sets of curves are compared and discussed on both local (structural components load – end shortening curve and global (hull girder ulti-mate bending capacity and collapse sequence level, for both sagging and hogging cases.

  12. Reconstruction of neglected developmental dysplasia by total hip arthroplasty with subtrochanteric shortening osteotomy. (United States)

    Atilla, Bülent


    Patients with neglected developmental dysplasia (DDH) face with early osteoarthritis of the hip, limb length inequality and marked disability while total hip reconstruction is the only available choice.DDH has severe morphologic consequences, with distorted bony anatomy and soft tissue contractures around the hip. It is critical to evaluate patients thoroughly before surgery.Anatomic reconstruction at the level of true acetabulum with uncemented implant is the mainstay of treatment. This requires a subtrochanteric shortening osteotomy, which can be realised using different osteotomy and fixation options.Although a demanding technique with a high rate of related complications, once anatomic reconstruction of the hip is achieved, patients have a remarkably good functional capacity and implant survival during long follow-up periods. Cite this article: Atilla B. Reconstruction of neglected developmental dysplasia by total hip arthroplasty with subtrochanteric shortening osteotomy. EFORT Open Rev 2016;1:65-71. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.1.000026.

  13. A critical examination of the maximum velocity of shortening used in simulation models of human movement. (United States)

    Domire, Zachary J; Challis, John H


    The maximum velocity of shortening of a muscle is an important parameter in musculoskeletal models. The most commonly used values are derived from animal studies; however, these values are well above the values that have been reported for human muscle. The purpose of this study was to examine the sensitivity of simulations of maximum vertical jumping performance to the parameters describing the force-velocity properties of muscle. Simulations performed with parameters derived from animal studies were similar to measured jump heights from previous experimental studies. While simulations performed with parameters derived from human muscle were much lower than previously measured jump heights. If current measurements of maximum shortening velocity in human muscle are correct, a compensating error must exist. Of the possible compensating errors that could produce this discrepancy, it was concluded that reduced muscle fibre excursion is the most likely candidate.

  14. Does postsystolic motion or shortening predict recovery of myocardial function after primary percutanous coronary intervention?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terkelsen, Christian Juhl; Poulsen, Steen Hvitfeldt; Nørgaard, Bjarne Linde;


    or shortening appears more frequently in the acute phase in myocardial segments with impaired systolic function compared with normally functioning segments. However, presence of postsystolic contraction is not associated with improvement in strain or wall-motion score at follow-up, and does not seem......OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to evaluate whether presence of postsystolic motion or shortening defined by Doppler tissue imaging may predict recovery of regional myocardial function in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction. METHODS: Echocardiography was performed a few hours......); and normal myocardial function in the acute phase (type E, n = 759). RESULTS: There were no differences among type A, B, C, and D segments with regard to the proportion presenting postsystolic tissue velocity equal to or greater than 1.0 cm/s (0.52, 0.54, 0.60, and 0.47, respectively, P = .20...

  15. Telomere shortening leads to earlier age of onset in ALS mice (United States)

    Linkus, Birgit; Wiesner, Diana; MeΔner, Martina; Karabatsiakis, Alexander; Scheffold, Annika; Rudolph, K. Lenhard; Thal, Dietmar R.; Weishaupt, Jochen H.; Ludolph, Albert C.; Danzer, Karin M.


    Telomere shortening has been linked to a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. Recent evidence suggests that reduced telomerase expression results in shorter telomeres in leukocytes from sporadic patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) compared with healthy controls. Here, we have characterized telomere length in microglia, astroglia and neurons in human post mortem brain tissue from ALS patients and healthy controls. Moreover, we studied the consequences of telomerase deletion in a genetic mouse model for ALS. We found a trend towards longer telomeres in microglia in the brains of ALS patients compared to non-neurologic controls. Knockout of telomerase leading to telomere shortening accelerated the ALS phenotype in SOD1G93A–transgenic mice. Our results suggest that telomerase dysfunction might contribute to the age-related risk for ALS. PMID:26978042

  16. Surveying of the deformed terraces and crust shortening rate in the northwestern Tarim Basin: Comment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ The paper of Shen et al., entitled "Surveying of the deformed terraces and crust shortening rate in the northwest Tarim Basin", was published in Chinese Science Bulletin (Vol. 46, No. 12)[1]. Shen et al. found the deformation of Late Pleistocene to Holocene terraces of the Boguzi River across the Artushi Anticline in the northwest Tarim Basin close to the Pamir, and made level survey and differential GPS measurement, which is of great importance to geodynamics for research on the coupling of Tianshan Mountains uplifting and Tarim Basin depression. But their understanding to the deformation mechanics of terraces and the calculation methods of crustal shortening are open to discussion. Therefore, we discuss it with Shen Jun et al.

  17. Foreland shortening and crustal balancing in the Andes at 30°S latitude (United States)

    Allmendinger, R. W.; Figueroa, D.; Synder, D.; Beer, J.; Mpodozis, C.; Isaacks, B. L.


    Excellent surface exposures, known Benioff zone geometry, a dynamic morphology, and the availability of industry seismic reflection data all make the Andes at 30°S an excellent transect for investigating crustal-scale balanced sections. 150-170 km of horizontal shortening has occurred in three major belts located between the trench and the foreland. The thin-skinned, east-verging Precordillera of western Argentina accounts for 60-75% of the total shortening and formed mostly since major volcanism ceased at ˜10 Ma. Industry seismic reflection data show that the décollement of the Precordillera belt is located anomalously deep at ˜15 km. The belt is dominated by fault propagation folds and contains several prominent out-of-sequence thrust faults. Seismic stratigraphie analysis shows that Miocene strata in the Iglesia Valley, located between the Precordillera and the crest of the Andes, accumulated in a piggy-back basin. Onlap relations on the western side indicate that the High Cordillera was uplifted as a major fault bend fold over a buried ramp. Thrusting in the two western belts, both in the High Cordillera of Chile, formed during the waning stages of arc volcanism, 11-16 Ma. and account for 25-40% of the shortening. The observed shortening is probably greater than can be accounted for with reasonable crustal thicknesses, indicating the possibility of continental truncation or erosion along the plate margin or an anomalously thick root held down by the nearly flat subducted Nazca Plate. Our preferred crustal geometry puts the ramp between upper and lower crustal deformation west of the high topography, requiring crustal scale tectonic wedging to thicken the crust beneath the crest of the Andes. This non-unique model provides a simple explanation of the first order morphology of the Andes at this latitude.

  18. Effect of Preactivation on Torque Enhancement by the Stretch-Shortening Cycle in Knee Extensors. (United States)

    Fukutani, Atsuki; Misaki, Jun; Isaka, Tadao


    The stretch-shortening cycle is one of the most interesting topics in the field of sport sciences, because the performance of human movement is enhanced by the stretch-shortening cycle (eccentric contraction). The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the influence of preactivation on the torque enhancement by stretch-shortening cycle in knee extensors. Twelve men participated in this study. The following three conditions were conducted for knee extensors: (1) concentric contraction without preactivation (CON), (2) concentric contraction with eccentric preactivation (ECC), and (3) concentric contraction with isometric preactivation (ISO). Muscle contractions were evoked by electrical stimulation to discard the influence of neural activity. The range of motion of the knee joint was set from 80 to 140 degrees (full extension = 180 degrees). Angular velocities of the concentric and eccentric contractions were set at 180 and 90 degrees/s, respectively. In the concentric contraction phase, joint torques were recorded at 85, 95, and 105 degrees, and they were compared among the three conditions. In the early phase (85 degrees) of concentric contraction, the joint torque was larger in the ECC and ISO conditions than in the CON condition. However, these clear differences disappeared in the later phase (105 degrees) of concentric contraction. The results showed that joint torque was clearly different among the three conditions in the early phase whereas this difference disappeared in the later phase. Thus, preactivation, which is prominent in the early phase of contractions, plays an important role in torque enhancement by the stretch-shortening cycle in knee extensors.

  19. [STT-arthrodesis versus radial shortening osteotomy for Kienböck's disease]. (United States)

    Das Gupta, K; Tünnerhoff, H G; Haussmann, P


    Thirteen patients treated by STT fusion for Kienböck's disease (five stage 3 a, seven stage 3 b, and one stage 4) and 36 patients treated by radial shortening osteotomy (20 stage 3 a, 16 stage 3 b) were checked after 26 and 83 months average. The active range of motion and grip strength were compared by means of the Cooney score, discomfort and pain by the DASH score. X-rays were compared for the bone structure of the lunate and development or progress of carpal collapse. After STT fusion the active over-all range of motion decreased by about 10 degrees, grip strength improved slightly by approximately 10 %, pain and discomfort improved well. Consolidation of the lunate was seen in ten of thirteen patients. The patients treated with radial shortening osteotomy could all improve their range of motion by about 10 degrees and the grip strength by about 20 %, whereas discomfort and pain persisted in some cases. X-rays showed consolidation of the lunate in cases of eleven patients stage 3 a and twelve patients stage 3 b. Radiological results were not always corresponding to the clinical results and the patients' subjective estimation. A group of eight patients could be followed up after more than ten years; all of them showed excellent results. This may indicate the long-term result for those patients who benefit from radius shortening with early pain relief. We recommend both procedures for stage 3 a and 3 b and suggest to decide from case to case, according to the needs of the patient. Ulna minus variance or the patient's wish to restore full active range of motion indicate radial shortening.

  20. Variables Prognostic for Delayed Union and Nonunion Following Ulnar Shortening Fixed With a Dedicated Osteotomy Plate. (United States)

    Gaspar, Michael P; Kane, Patrick M; Zohn, Ralph C; Buckley, Taylor; Jacoby, Sidney M; Shin, Eon K


    To examine potential risk factors for the development of delayed or nonunion following elective ulnar shortening osteotomy using a dedicated osteotomy plating system. We performed a retrospective review of all patients who underwent elective ulnar shortening using the TriMed single osteotomy dynamic compression plating system by 1 of 2 fellowship-trained hand surgeons over a 5-year period. Demographic data and medical, surgical, and social histories were reviewed. Time to bony union was determined radiographically by a blinded reviewer. Bivariate statistical analysis was performed to examine the effect of explanatory variables on the time to union and the incidence of delayed or nonunion. Those variables associated with the development of delayed or nonunion were used in a multivariate logistic regression model. Complications, including the need for additional surgery, were also recorded. Seventy-two ulnar shortening osteotomy procedures were performed in 69 patients. Delayed union, defined as ≥ 6 months to union, occurred in 8 of 72 cases (11%). Of 72 surgeries, 4 (6%) resulted in nonunions, all of which required additional surgery. Hardware removal was performed in 13 of 72 (18%) of the cases. Time to union was significantly increased in smokers (6 ± 3 months) versus nonsmokers (3 ± 1 months). On multivariable analysis, diabetics and active smokers demonstrated a significantly higher risk of developing delayed union or nonunion. Patient age, sex, body mass index, thyroid disease, worker's compensation status, alcohol use, and amount smoked daily did not have an effect on the time to union or the incidence of delayed or nonunion. Despite the use of an osteotomy-specific plating system, smokers and diabetics were at significantly higher risk for both delayed union and nonunion following elective ulnar shortening osteotomy. Other known risk factors for suboptimal bony healing were not found to have a deleterious effect. Copyright © 2016 American Society for

  1. Time course of isotonic shortening and the underlying contraction mechanism in airway smooth muscle. (United States)

    Syyong, Harley T; Raqeeb, Abdul; Paré, Peter D; Seow, Chun Y


    Although the structure of the contractile unit in smooth muscle is poorly understood, some of the mechanical properties of the muscle suggest that a sliding-filament mechanism, similar to that in striated muscle, is also operative in smooth muscle. To test the applicability of this mechanism to smooth muscle function, we have constructed a mathematical model based on a hypothetical structure of the smooth muscle contractile unit: a side-polar myosin filament sandwiched by actin filaments, each attached to the equivalent of a Z disk. Model prediction of isotonic shortening as a function of time was compared with data from experiments using ovine tracheal smooth muscle. After equilibration and establishment of in situ length, the muscle was stimulated with ACh (100 μM) until force reached a plateau. The muscle was then allowed to shorten isotonically against various loads. From the experimental records, length-force and force-velocity relationships were obtained. Integration of the hyperbolic force-velocity relationship and the linear length-force relationship yielded an exponential function that approximated the time course of isotonic shortening generated by the modeled sliding-filament mechanism. However, to obtain an accurate fit, it was necessary to incorporate a viscoelastic element in series with the sliding-filament mechanism. The results suggest that a large portion of the shortening is due to filament sliding associated with muscle activation and that a small portion is due to continued deformation associated with an element that shows viscoelastic or power-law creep after a step change in force.

  2. Influence of sex on performance fatigability of the plantar flexors following repeated maximal dynamic shortening contractions. (United States)

    Lanning, Amelia C; Power, Geoffrey A; Christie, Anita D; Dalton, Brian H


    The purpose was to determine sex differences in fatigability during maximal, unconstrained velocity, shortening plantar flexions. The role of time-dependent measures (i.e., rate of torque development, rate of velocity development, and rate of neuromuscular activation) in such sex-related differences was also examined. By task termination, females exhibited smaller reductions in power and similar changes in rate of neuromuscular activation than males, indicating females were less fatigable than males.

  3. Shortened Length of Stay Improves Financial Outcomes in Living Donor Kidney Transplantation (United States)

    Villa, Manuel; Siskind, Eric; Sameyah, Emil; Alex, Asha; Blum, Mark; Tyrell, Richard; Fana, Melissa; Mishler, Marni; Godwin, Andrew; Kuncewitch, Michael; Alexander, Mohini; Israel, Ezra; Bhaskaran, Madhu; Calderon, Kellie; Jhaveri, Kenar D.; Sachdeva, Mala; Bellucci, Alessandro; Mattana, Joseph; Fishbane, Steven; Coppa, Gene; Molmenti, Ernesto


    Kidney transplantation is the preferred clinical and most cost-effective option for end-stage renal disease. Significant advances have taken place in the care of the transplant patients with improvements in clinical outcomes. The optimization of the costs of transplantation has been a constant goal as well. We present herein the impact in financial outcomes of a shortened length of stay after kidney transplant. PMID:24436592

  4. Influence of the heart rate on mean circumferential shortening velocity: echocardiographic study of 183 normal subjects. (United States)

    Mangiarotti, R; Martinotti, R; Monzani, V; Sardella, F; Pierini, A; Pastori, M; Randazzo, A


    Echocardiography was used to explore the influence of independent variables (age, body surface area and heart rate) on the mean circumferential shortening velocity (MVCF) in 183 healthy subjects. Multiple stepwise regression analysis shows that heart rate is the only variable of the three just mentioned that influences MVCF. A regression equation is evolved and proposed as an index of MVCF correction for varying heart rates.

  5. Effect of Preactivation on Torque Enhancement by the Stretch-Shortening Cycle in Knee Extensors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuki Fukutani

    Full Text Available The stretch-shortening cycle is one of the most interesting topics in the field of sport sciences, because the performance of human movement is enhanced by the stretch-shortening cycle (eccentric contraction. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the influence of preactivation on the torque enhancement by stretch-shortening cycle in knee extensors. Twelve men participated in this study. The following three conditions were conducted for knee extensors: (1 concentric contraction without preactivation (CON, (2 concentric contraction with eccentric preactivation (ECC, and (3 concentric contraction with isometric preactivation (ISO. Muscle contractions were evoked by electrical stimulation to discard the influence of neural activity. The range of motion of the knee joint was set from 80 to 140 degrees (full extension = 180 degrees. Angular velocities of the concentric and eccentric contractions were set at 180 and 90 degrees/s, respectively. In the concentric contraction phase, joint torques were recorded at 85, 95, and 105 degrees, and they were compared among the three conditions. In the early phase (85 degrees of concentric contraction, the joint torque was larger in the ECC and ISO conditions than in the CON condition. However, these clear differences disappeared in the later phase (105 degrees of concentric contraction. The results showed that joint torque was clearly different among the three conditions in the early phase whereas this difference disappeared in the later phase. Thus, preactivation, which is prominent in the early phase of contractions, plays an important role in torque enhancement by the stretch-shortening cycle in knee extensors.

  6. Chemical abundances in the protoplanetary disc LV 2 (Orion): clues to the causes of the abundance anomaly in H II regions (United States)

    Tsamis, Y. G.; Walsh, J. R.; Vílchez, J. M.; Péquignot, D.


    Optical integral field spectroscopy of the archetype protoplanetary disc LV 2 in the Orion nebula is presented, taken with the Very Large Telescope (VLT) FLAMES/Argus fibre array. The detection of recombination lines (RLs) of C II and O II from this class of objects is reported, and the lines are utilized as abundance diagnostics. The study is complemented with the analysis of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Faint Object Spectrograph ultraviolet and optical spectra of the target contained within the Argus field of view. By subtracting the local nebula background the intrinsic spectrum of the proplyd is obtained and its elemental composition is derived for the first time. The proplyd is found to be overabundant in carbon, oxygen and neon compared to the Orion nebula and the Sun. The simultaneous coverage over LV 2 of the C III]λ1908 and [O III]λ5007 collisionally excited lines (CELs) and C II and O II RLs has enabled us to measure the abundances of C2 + and O2 + for LV 2 with both sets of lines. The two methods yield consistent results for the intrinsic proplyd spectrum, but not for the proplyd spectrum contaminated by the generic nebula spectrum, thus providing one example where the long-standing abundance anomaly plaguing metallicity studies of H II regions has been resolved. These results would indicate that the standard forbidden-line methods used in the derivation of light metal abundances in H II regions in our own and other galaxies underestimate the true gas metallicity.

  7. Disappearance of spasticity after selective dorsal rhizotomy does not prevent muscle shortening in children with cerebral palsy: a case report. (United States)

    Spijker, Margje; Strijers, Rob L M; van Ouwerkerk, Willem J R; Becher, Jules G


    Selective dorsal rhizotomy is an effective treatment for spasticity in children with cerebral palsy who have a spastic motor disorder. It is hypothesized that muscle shortening is related to spasticity; the lack of stretch of a muscle is thought to be the cause of muscle shortening. If this is true, the treatment for spasticity should prevent the occurrence of muscle shortening during growth. We present the case of 1 child with cerebral palsy and spastic diplegia, for whom the treatment with selective dorsal rhizotomy was successful in improving the walking abilities. She did, however, develop muscle shortening during growth. In conclusion, the development of muscle shortening during growth in children with cerebral palsy and spastic paresis cannot be prevented by treatment for the spasticity alone.

  8. New Fractional Complex Transform for Conformable Fractional Partial Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çenesiz Y.


    Full Text Available Conformable fractional complex transform is introduced in this paper for converting fractional partial differential equations to ordinary differential equations. Hence analytical methods in advanced calculus can be used to solve these equations. Conformable fractional complex transform is implemented to fractional partial differential equations such as space fractional advection diffusion equation and space fractional telegraph equation to obtain the exact solutions of these equations.

  9. Extreme femoral shortening: an approach to the chronically dislocated hip in the nonambulatory pediatric population. (United States)

    Kalawadia, Jay V; Patel, Ronak M; Jensen, Layne; Sarwark, John


    There are many surgical techniques for treating the chronically dislocated, painful hip in patients with neuromuscular spasticity, but each has significant complication rates. We conducted a study to examine the outcomes of a novel technique, an extreme varus femoral shortening osteotomy, used in nonambulatory patients with neuromuscular spasticity. Patients who underwent the procedure were identified retrospectively by surgical codes. Medical records were reviewed for range of motion, pain and functional assessment, surgical indications, complications, and results. In addition, preoperative and postoperative radiographs were assessed, and caretaker questionnaires reviewed. Between 2001 and 2010, 1 surgeon performed 6 femoral shortening osteotomies in 5 nonambulatory patients with neuromuscular spasticity. In all 5 cases, there were improvements in pain, sitting tolerance, ease of hygiene, and ease of transfers at a minimum follow-up of 2 years (mean, 3.4 years). Postoperative complications included asymptomatic heterotopic ossification and recurrent subluxation. Extreme femoral shortening is a reproducible surgical technique that alleviates pain and makes hygiene easier in nonambulatory children with symptomatic hip dislocations caused by neuromuscular spasticity. Our complication rate was comparable to that of other procedures.

  10. Field Monitoring of Column Shortenings in a High-Rise Building during Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo Seon Park


    Full Text Available The automatic monitoring of shortenings of vertical members in high-rise buildings under construction is a challenging issue in the high-rise building construction field. In this study, a practical system for monitoring column shortening in a high-rise building under construction is presented. The proposed monitoring system comprises the following components: (1 a wireless sensing system and (2 the corresponding monitoring software. The wireless sensing system comprises the sensors and energy-efficient wireless sensing units (sensor nodes, master nodes, and repeater nodes, which automate the processes for measuring the strains of vertical members and transmitting the measured data to the remote server. The monitoring software enables construction administrators to monitor real-time data collected by the server via an Internet connection. The proposed monitoring system is applied to actual 66-floor and 72-floor high-rise buildings under construction. The system enables automatic and real-time measurements of the shortening of vertical members, which can result in more precise construction.

  11. Relative shortening velocity in locomotor muscles: turkey ankle extensors operate at low V/V(max). (United States)

    Gabaldón, Annette M; Nelson, Frank E; Roberts, Thomas J


    The force-velocity properties of skeletal muscle have an important influence on locomotor performance. All skeletal muscles produce less force the faster they shorten and typically develop maximal power at velocities of approximately 30% of maximum shortening velocity (V(max)). We used direct measurements of muscle mechanical function in two ankle extensor muscles of wild turkeys to test the hypothesis that during level running muscles operate at velocities that favor force rather than power. Sonomicrometer measurements of muscle length, tendon strain-gauge measurements of muscle force, and bipolar electromyographs were taken as animals ran over a range of speeds and inclines. These measurements were integrated with previously measured values of muscle V(max) for these muscles to calculate relative shortening velocity (V/V(max)). At all speeds for level running the V/V(max) values of the lateral gastrocnemius and the peroneus longus were low (muscles were capable of producing 90% of peak isometric force but only 35% of peak isotonic power. V/V(max) increased in response to the demand for mechanical power with increases in running incline and decreased to negative values to absorb energy during downhill running. Measurements of integrated electromyograph activity indicated that the volume of muscle required to produce a given force increased from level to uphill running. This observation is consistent with the idea that V/V(max) is an important determinant of locomotor cost because it affects the volume of muscle that must be recruited to support body weight.

  12. Response of slow and fast muscle to hypothyroidism: maximal shortening velocity and myosin isoforms (United States)

    Caiozzo, V. J.; Herrick, R. E.; Baldwin, K. M.


    This study examined both the shortening velocity and myosin isoform distribution of slow- (soleus) and fast-twitch (plantaris) skeletal muscles under hypothyroid conditions. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of two groups: control (n = 7) or hypothyroid (n = 7). In both muscles, the relative contents of native slow myosin (SM) and type I myosin heavy chain (MHC) increased in response to the hypothyroid treatment. The effects were such that the hypothyroid soleus muscle expressed only the native SM and type I MHC isoforms while repressing native intermediate myosin and type IIA MHC. In the plantaris, the relative content of native SM and type I MHC isoforms increased from 5 to 13% and from 4 to 10% of the total myosin pool, respectively. Maximal shortening velocity of the soleus and plantaris as measured by the slack test decreased by 32 and 19%, respectively, in response to hypothyroidism. In contrast, maximal shortening velocity as estimated by force-velocity data decreased only in the soleus (-19%). No significant change was observed for the plantaris.

  13. Circular and longitudinal muscles shortening indicates sliding patterns during peristalsis and transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation. (United States)

    Patel, Nirali; Jiang, Yanfen; Mittal, Ravinder K; Kim, Tae Ho; Ledgerwood, Melissa; Bhargava, Valmik


    Esophageal axial shortening is caused by longitudinal muscle (LM) contraction, but circular muscle (CM) may also contribute to axial shortening because of its spiral morphology. The goal of our study was to show patterns of contraction of CM and LM layers during peristalsis and transient lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation (TLESR). In rats, esophageal and LES morphology was assessed by histology and immunohistochemistry, and function with the use of piezo-electric crystals and manometry. Electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve was used to induce esophageal contractions. In 18 healthy subjects, manometry and high frequency intraluminal ultrasound imaging during swallow-induced esophageal contractions and TLESR were evaluated. CM and LM thicknesses were measured (40 swallows and 30 TLESRs) as markers of axial shortening, before and at peak contraction, as well as during TLESRs. Animal studies revealed muscular connections between the LM and CM layers of the LES but not in the esophagus. During vagal stimulated esophageal contraction there was relative movement between the LM and CM. Human studies show that LM-to-CM (LM/CM) thickness ratio at baseline was 1. At the peak of swallow-induced contraction LM/CM ratio decreased significantly (2). The pattern of contraction of CM and LM suggests sliding of the two muscles. Furthermore, the sliding patterns are in the opposite direction during peristalsis and TLESR.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢国刚; 樊小力; 吴苏娣; 宋新爱; 朱保恭; 唐斌


    Objective: To study the possible mechanism and prevention of disuse muscle atrophy. Methods: The shortened immobilization (plaster fixation) of rat' s soleus muscle (SOL) was used as the model of muscle and the lengthened immobilization of rat' s SOL muscle as "passive stretch" method. Types of skeletal muscle fibers were differentiated with m - ATPase staining technique. The changes of rat' s SOL muscle weight (wet weight) as well as the types and the mean cross - sectional area (CSA) of muscle fibers were examined respectively on day 2, 4,7, 14 and 21 under both shortened and lengthened immobilization and then the effect of passive stretch on soleus muscle atrophy in immobilized rats was observed. Results: When shortened immobilization was applied for 4 days, SOL muscle weight (wet weight) became lighter; the fiber crosssectional area (CSA) shrank and type Ⅰ muscle fibers started transforming into type Ⅱ, which all indicated immobilized muscles began to atrophy and as immobilization proceeded, muscle atrophy proceeded toward higher level. In contrast to that, when lengthened immobilization was applied, SOL muscle didn' t show any sign of atrophy until 7th day, and reached its highest level on day 14 and maintained that level even though immobilization continued. Conclusion: From the results, we conclude that passive stretch can either relieve or defer disuse muscle atrophy.

  15. Psychometric properties of a shortened version of the Physical Self-Concept Questionnaire (PSQ-S). (United States)

    Rodríguez-Fernández, Arantzazu; Axpe, Inge; Goñi, Alfredo


    The four-dimensional model of physical self-concept which differentiates the physical self-perceptions of ability, condition, attractiveness and strength is widely accepted. In the last two decades much research has been done on the physical self-concept and its relations with the psychological well-being/distress, anxiety disorders or Eating Behavior Disorders (EBD). To validate a shortened version of the Physical Self-Concept Questionnaire (PSQ-S) and verify its ability to discriminate between people with different levels of EBD. Responses of 1478 subjects between 13 and 21 years old to the shortened version of the PSQ were analyzed in order to check indexes of reliability and validity. Furthermore, the scores of 96 women aged 14 to 23 years old diagnosed of EBD were compared to 96 others without clinical diagnosis. The results indicate a reliability of 0.93 and confirm the tetrafactorial structure of the physical selfconcept. The highest physical self-concept is that of those without a clinical diagnosis of EBD. The Shortened-PSQ is a simple, reliable and suitable screening tool both for educational and clinical settings. It also provides a sufficient measure of physical self-concept for research purposes.

  16. Effective suppression of pulse shortening in a relativistic backward wave oscillator (United States)

    Cao, Yibing; Song, Zhimin; Wu, Ping; Fan, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Yuchuan; Teng, Yan; Sun, Jun


    This paper discusses pulse shortening present in a C-band relativistic backward wave oscillator (RBWO). Effects of the collector plasma are believed to be the main cause. This viewpoint is first verified in numerical simulation. The simulation results show that light charged particles such as hydrogen ions in the collector plasma would axially enter into the beam-microwave interaction region and suppress high-power microwave (HPM) generation. Simultaneously, heavy charged particles such as oxygen or ferric ions in the collector plasma would radially expand out and change the end reflection of the RBWO. All these effects can result in pulse shortening. Simulations also demonstrate that a coaxial collector can effectively suppress plasma effects by retarding their axial and radial expansions. Furthermore, a HPM experiment has confirmed the validity of the coaxial collector. Using this structure, the output power of the RBWO has been increased from 2.5 GW to 3 GW. No pulse shortening has been observed in the HPM experiment.

  17. Shortened Lifespan and Lethal Hemorrhage in a Hemophilia A Mouse Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice M Staber

    Full Text Available Hemophilia A animal models have helped advance our understanding of factor VIII deficiency. Previously, factor VIII deficient mouse models were reported to have a normal life span without spontaneous bleeds. However, the bleeding frequency and survival in these animals has not been thoroughly evaluated.To investigate the survival and lethal bleeding frequency in two strains of E-16 hemophilia A mice.We prospectively studied factor VIII deficient hemizygous affected males (n = 83 and homozygous affected females (n = 55 for survival and bleeding frequency. Animals were evaluated for presence and location of bleeds as potential cause of death.Hemophilia A mice had a median survival of 254 days, which is significantly shortened compared to wild type controls (p < 0.0001. In addition, the hemophilia A mice experienced hemorrhage in several tissues. This previously-underappreciated shortened survival in the hemophilia A murine model provides new outcomes for investigation of therapeutics and also reflects the shortened lifespan of patients if left untreated.

  18. Decreasing initial telomere length in humans intergenerationally understates age-associated telomere shortening. (United States)

    Holohan, Brody; De Meyer, Tim; Batten, Kimberly; Mangino, Massimo; Hunt, Steven C; Bekaert, Sofie; De Buyzere, Marc L; Rietzschel, Ernst R; Spector, Tim D; Wright, Woodring E; Shay, Jerry W


    Telomere length shortens with aging, and short telomeres have been linked to a wide variety of pathologies. Previous studies suggested a discrepancy in age-associated telomere shortening rate estimated by cross-sectional studies versus the rate measured in longitudinal studies, indicating a potential bias in cross-sectional estimates. Intergenerational changes in initial telomere length, such as that predicted by the previously described effect of a father's age at birth of his offspring (FAB), could explain the discrepancy in shortening rate measurements. We evaluated whether changes occur in initial telomere length over multiple generations in three large datasets and identified paternal birth year (PBY) as a variable that reconciles the difference between longitudinal and cross-sectional measurements. We also clarify the association between FAB and offspring telomere length, demonstrating that this effect is substantially larger than reported in the past. These results indicate the presence of a downward secular trend in telomere length at birth over generational time with potential public health implications.

  19. DC-link Voltage Control to Compensate Voltage Deviation for PV–BESSs Integrated System in Low-Voltage (LV Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Gyu-sub


    Full Text Available The exhaustion of fossil fuel and the greenhouse gas emission are one of the most significant energy and environmental issues, respectively. Photovoltaic (PV generators and battery energy storage systems (BESSs have been significantly increased for recent years. The BESSs are mainly used for smoothing active power fluctuation of the PV. In this paper, PV–BESSs integration of two DC/DC converters and one AC/DC converter is investigated and DC-link voltage control to compensate the AC voltage deviation is proposed for the PV‒BESS system in low-voltage (LV networks.

  20. Dyslipidemia and chronic inflammation markers are correlated with telomere length shortening in Cushing's syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Aulinas

    Full Text Available Cushing's syndrome (CS increases cardiovascular risk (CVR and adipocytokine imbalance, associated with an increased inflammatory state. Telomere length (TL shortening is a novel CVR marker, associated with inflammation biomarkers. We hypothesized that inflammatory state and higher CVR in CS might be related to TL shortening, as observed in premature aging.To evaluate relationships between TL, CVR and inflammation markers in CS.In a cross-sectional study, 77 patients with CS (14 males, 59 pituitary-, 17 adrenal- and 1 ectopic-origin; 21 active disease and 77 age-, gender-, smoking-matched controls were included. Total white blood cell TL was measured by TRF-Southern technique. Clinical data and blood samples were collected (lipids, adrenal function, glucose. Adiponectin, interleukin-6 (IL6 and C-reactive protein (CRP were available in a subgroup of patients (n=32. Correlations between TL and clinical features were examined and multiple linear regression analysis was performed to investigate potential predictors of TL.Dyslipidemic CS had shorter TL than non-dyslipidemic subjects (7328±1274 vs 7957±1137 bp, p<0.05. After adjustment for age and body mass index, cured and active CS dyslipidemic patients had shorter TL than non-dyslipidemic CS (cured: 7187±1309 vs 7868±1104; active: 7203±1262 vs 8615±1056, respectively, p<0.05. Total cholesterol and triglycerides negatively correlated with TL (r-0.279 and -0.259, respectively, p<0.05, as well as CRP and IL6 (r-0.412 and -0.441, respectively, p<0.05. No difference in TL according the presence of other individual CVR factors (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity were observed in CS or in the control group. Additional TL shortening was observed in dyslipidemic obese patients who were also hypertensive, compared to those with two or less CVR factors (6956±1280 vs 7860±1180, respectively, p<0.001. Age and dyslipidemia were independent negative predictors of TL.TL is shortened in dyslipidemic CS

  1. Fractional Vortices and Lumps

    CERN Document Server

    Eto, Minoru; Gudnason, Sven Bjarke; Konishi, Kenichi; Nagashima, Takayuki; Nitta, Muneto; Ohashi, Keisuke; Vinci, Walter


    We study what might be called fractional vortices, vortex configurations with the minimum winding from the viewpoint of their topological stability, but which are characterized by various notable substructures in the transverse energy distribution. The fractional vortices occur in diverse Abelian or non-Abelian generalizations of the Higgs model. The global and local features characterizing these are studied, and we identify the two crucial ingredients for their occurrence - the vacuum degeneracy leading to non-trivial vacuum moduli M, and the BPS nature of the vortices. Fractional vortices are further classified into two kinds. The first type of such vortices appear when M has orbifold Z_n singularities; the second type occurs in systems in which the vacuum moduli space M possesses either a deformed geometry or some singularity. These general features are illustrated with several concrete models.

  2. Fractional-order devices

    CERN Document Server

    Biswas, Karabi; Caponetto, Riccardo; Mendes Lopes, António; Tenreiro Machado, José António


    This book focuses on two specific areas related to fractional order systems – the realization of physical devices characterized by non-integer order impedance, usually called fractional-order elements (FOEs); and the characterization of vegetable tissues via electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) – and provides readers with new tools for designing new types of integrated circuits. The majority of the book addresses FOEs. The interest in these topics is related to the need to produce “analogue” electronic devices characterized by non-integer order impedance, and to the characterization of natural phenomena, which are systems with memory or aftereffects and for which the fractional-order calculus tool is the ideal choice for analysis. FOEs represent the building blocks for designing and realizing analogue integrated electronic circuits, which the authors believe hold the potential for a wealth of mass-market applications. The freedom to choose either an integer- or non-integer-order analogue integrator...

  3. Fractional and noncommutative spacetimes (United States)

    Arzano, Michele; Calcagni, Gianluca; Oriti, Daniele; Scalisi, Marco


    We establish a mapping between fractional and noncommutative spacetimes in configuration space. Depending on the scale at which the relation is considered, there arise two possibilities. For a fractional spacetime with log-oscillatory measure, the effective measure near the fundamental scale determining the log-period coincides with the nonrotation-invariant but cyclicity-preserving measure of κ-Minkowski spacetime. At scales larger than the log-period, the fractional measure is averaged and becomes a power law with real exponent. This can be also regarded as the cyclicity-inducing measure in a noncommutative spacetime defined by a certain nonlinear algebra of the coordinates, which interpolates between κ-Minkowski and canonical spacetime. These results are based upon a braiding formula valid for any nonlinear algebra which can be mapped onto the Heisenberg algebra.

  4. Fractional and noncommutative spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Arzano, Michele; Oriti, Daniele; Scalisi, Marco


    We establish a mapping between fractional and noncommutative spacetimes in configuration space. Depending on the scale at which the relation is considered, there arise two possibilities. For a fractional spacetime with log-oscillatory measure, the effective measure near the fundamental scale determining the log-period coincides with the non-rotation-invariant but cyclicity-preserving measure of \\kappa-Minkowski. At scales larger than the log-period, the fractional measure is averaged and becomes a power-law with real exponent. This can be also regarded as the cyclicity-inducing measure in a noncommutative spacetime defined by a certain nonlinear algebra of the coordinates, which interpolates between \\kappa-Minkowski and canonical spacetime. These results are based upon a braiding formula valid for any nonlinear algebra which can be mapped onto the Heisenberg algebra.

  5. Fractional standard map

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelman, Mark, E-mail: edelman@cims.nyu.ed [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, 251 Mercer St., New York, NY 10012 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Stern College at Yeshiva University, 245 Lexington Avenue, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Tarasov, Vasily E. [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, 251 Mercer St., New York, NY 10012 (United States)] [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)


    Properties of the phase space of the standard map with memory are investigated. This map was obtained from a kicked fractional differential equation. Depending on the value of the map parameter and the fractional order of the derivative in the original differential equation, this nonlinear dynamical system demonstrates attractors (fixed points, stable periodic trajectories, slow converging and slow diverging trajectories, ballistic trajectories, and fractal-like structures) and/or chaotic trajectories. At least one type of fractal-like sticky attractors in the chaotic sea was observed.

  6. In-ambulance abciximab administration in STEMI patients prior to primary PCI is associated with smaller infarct size, improved LV function and lower incidence of heart failure: results from the Leiden MISSION! acute myocardial infarction treatment optimization program. (United States)

    Hassan, Ayman K M; Liem, Su San; van der Kley, Frank; Bergheanu, Sandrin C; Wolterbeek, Ron; Bosch, Jan; Bootsma, Marianne; Zeppenfeld, Katja; van der Laarse, Arnoud; Atsma, Douwe E; Jukema, J Wouter; Schalij, Martin J


    Our aim was to evaluate the effects of early abciximab administration in the ambulance on immediate, short, and long term outcomes. Early abciximab administration before primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is recommended in practice guidelines. However, optimal timing of administration remains indistinct. Within a fixed protocol for PPCI, December 2006 was the cut-off point for this prospective study. A total of 179 consecutive patients with STEMI were enrolled, 90 patients received abciximab bolus in the hospital (in-hospital group), and 89 patients received abciximab bolus in the ambulance (in-ambulance group). The two groups were comparable for baseline and angiographic characteristics. The in-ambulance group received abciximab within the golden period (median 63 min). The infarct related artery (IRA) patency at onset of the PCI was four times higher in the in-ambulance group compared to in-hospital group (odds ratio = 4.9, 95% CI 2.4-10.1). Enzymatic infarct size was smaller in the in-ambulance group (cumulative 48-h CK release 8011 vs. 11267 U/L, P = 0.004). This was associated with higher left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) at 90 days post-PPCI measured by myocardial scintigraphy (59% vs. 54%, P = 0.01), and lower incidence of heart failure through a median of 210 days of clinical follow-up (3% vs.11%, P = 0.04). Early abciximab administration in the ambulance significantly improves early reperfusion in STEMI patients treated with PPCI. Moreover this is associated with a smaller infarct size, improved LV function and a lower risk of heart failure on clinical follow-up. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Reduced global longitudinal strain in association to increased left ventricular mass in patients with aortic valve stenosis and normal ejection fraction: a hybrid study combining echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheffold Thomas


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased muscle mass index of the left ventricle (LVMi is an independent predictor for the development of symptoms in patients with asymptomatic aortic stenosis (AS. While the onset of clinical symptoms and left ventricular systolic dysfunction determines a poor prognosis, the standard echocardiographic evaluation of LV dysfunction, only based on measurements of the LV ejection fraction (EF, may be insufficient for an early assessment of imminent heart failure. Contrary, 2-dimensional speckle tracking (2DS seems to be superior in detecting subtle changes in myocardial function. The aim of the study was to assess these LV function deteriorations with global longitudinal strain (GLS analysis and the relations to LVMi in patients with AS and normal EF. Methods 50 patients with moderate to severe AS and 31 controls were enrolled. All patients underwent echocardiography, including 2DS imaging. LVMi measures were performed with magnetic resonance imaging in 38 patients with AS and indexed for body surface area. Results The total group of patients with AST showed a GLS of -15,2 ± 3,6% while the control group reached -19,5 ± 2,7% (p Conclusions In conclusion, increased LVMi is reflected in abnormalities of GLS and the proportion of GLS impairment depends on the extent of LV hypertrophy. Therefore, simultaneous measurement of LVMi and GLS might be useful to identify patients at high risk for transition into heart failure who would benefit from aortic valve replacement irrespectively of LV EF.

  8. 论吕碧城护生思想的产生原因%Reasons for LV Bicheng’ s Protecting Animals Thought

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    At her early ages ,LV Bicheng advocated feminist movement and female educa-tion,while she devoted more to animal protecting activities at her middle age .There were pro-found thoughts for her choosing different life course ,including religion ,peace and civilization . The environment at that time ,domestically and abroad ,was also decisive .LV Bicheng made this decision with years of consideration .As a Buddhist ,it was her way of saving the chaotic society .%晚清著名女词人吕碧城早年致力于女权运动和兴办女学,中年后却致力于护生,从事动物保护运动。她之所以选择与早年不同的人生轨迹,其实包含了许多对于宗教、和平与文明的深刻思考,与当时的国内外形势有着密不可分的关系。这是吕碧城经过多年思考而得出的选择,是身为佛教徒的她对纷乱社会的拯救方式。

  9. Clinical Research on Use of Oxaliplcrtin in Combination with HCPT, LV and 5FU in a Regimen for Advanced Gastric Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GuoqingHu; QiangFu; MaolinJin; JieLi; LiangxiPan; YuxianBai; HuaijinWang; JianweiZhang; DingYu


    OBJECTIVE To observe the effects and adverse reactions of a OXA-HCPT LV/5FU 3 regimen for patients with advanced gastric cancer.METHODS OHLF3 regimen: OXA 130 mg/m2iv d 1, HCPT6 mg/m2, iv d 1-5, LV 200 mg/m2iv 2 h followed by a 5FU 400 mg/m2 iv bolus and 5FU 600mg/m2 iv d 1-3, were given, every 21 days as 1 cycle. Assessment of the tumor was conducted after 3 cycles and the effective cases were confirmed after 4 weeks.RESULTS Among 39 patients, 36 were actually evaluable. Overall response rates (CR + PR} were 50%' the major adverse reactions were mild hematological toxicity, nausea and vomiting and peripheral nerve abnormalities.CONCLUSION The OHLF 3 regimen using OXA and HCPT is effective and results in mild toxicity when used in combined chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer.

  10. Coinfection of Leishmania chagasi with Toxoplasma gondii, Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) in cats from an endemic area of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis. (United States)

    Sobrinho, Ludmila Silva Vicente; Rossi, Cláudio Nazaretian; Vides, Juliana Peloi; Braga, Eveline Tozzi; Gomes, Ana Amélia Domingues; de Lima, Valéria Marçal Félix; Perri, Sílvia Helena Venturoli; Generoso, Diego; Langoni, Hélio; Leutenegger, Christian; Biondo, Alexander Welker; Laurenti, Márcia Dalastra; Marcondes, Mary


    The aim of the present study was to determine the coinfection of Leishmania sp. with Toxoplasma gondii, Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) in a population of cats from an endemic area for zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis. An overall 66/302 (21.85%) cats were found positive for Leishmania sp., with infection determined by direct parasitological examination in 30/302 (9.93%), by serology in 46/302 (15.23%) and by both in 10/302 (3.31%) cats. Real time PCR followed by amplicon sequencing successfully confirmed Leishmania infantum (syn Leishmania chagasi) infection. Out of the Leishmania infected cats, coinfection with FIV was observed in 12/66 (18.18%), with T. gondii in 17/66 (25.75%) and with both agents in 5/66 (7.58%) cats. FeLV was found only in a single adult cat with no Leishmania infection. A positive association was observed in coinfection of Leishmania and FIV (p0.05). In conclusion, cats living in endemic areas of visceral leishmaniasis are significantly more likely to be coinfected with FIV, which may present confounding clinical signs and therefore cats in such areas should be always carefully screened for coinfections. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessment of the LV-C2 Stack Sampling Probe Location for Compliance with ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glissmeyer, John A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Antonio, Ernest J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Flaherty, Julia E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    This document reports on a series of tests conducted to assess the proposed air sampling location for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low-Activity Waste (LAW) C2V (LV-C2) exhaust stack with respect to the applicable criteria regarding the placement of an air sampling probe. Federal regulations require that a sampling probe be located in the exhaust stack according to the criteria established by the American National Standards Institute/Health Physics Society (ANSI/HPS) N13.1-1999, Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances from the Stack and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities. These criteria address the capability of the sampling probe to extract a sample that represents the effluent stream. The tests were conducted on the LV-C2 scale model system. Based on the scale model tests, the location proposed for the air sampling probe in the scale model stack meets the requirements of the ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999 standard for velocity uniformity, flow angle, gas tracer and particle tracer uniformity. Additional velocity uniformity and flow angle tests on the actual stack will be necessary during cold startup to confirm the validity of the scale model results in representing the actual stack.

  12. From Complex Fractional Fourier Transform to Complex Fractional Radon Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Hong-Yi; JIANG Nian-Quan


    We show that for n-dimensional complex fractional Fourier transform the corresponding complex fractional Radon transform can also be derived, however, it is different from the direct product of two n-dimensional real fractional Radon transforms. The complex fractional Radon transform of two-mode Wigner operator is calculated.

  13. Avoidance of Fractions. (United States)

    Hart, Kathleen; Kerslake, Daphne

    The Concepts in Secondary Mathematics and Science (CSMS) and Strategies and Errors in Secondary Mathematics (SESM) research projects based at Chelsa College, England, have shown the marked reluctance of secondary school students to use fractions when solving mathematical problems, even though they have been taught the topic for a number of years.…

  14. Brewing with fractionated barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, van L.H.G.


    Brewing with fractionated barley Beer is a globally consumed beverage, which is produced from malted barley, water, hops and yeast. In recent years, the use of unmalted barley and exogenous enzymes have become more popular because they enable simpler processing and reduced environmental impact. Raw

  15. Ramping up on Fractions (United States)

    Stephens, Ana C.; Bottge, Brian A.; Rueda, Enrique


    This article describes a technology-based and hands-on instructional intervention designed to advance middle school students' understandings of fractions. This problem-solving experience is based on the principles of Enhanced Anchored Instruction (EAI) and proved instructionally worthwhile and motivating to teachers and students in both inclusive …

  16. Sweet Work with Fractions (United States)

    Vinogradova, Natalya; Blaine, Larry


    Almost everyone loves chocolate. However, the same cannot be said about fractions, which are loved by markedly fewer. Middle school students tend to view them with wary respect, but little affection. The authors attempt to sweeten the subject by describing a type of game involving division of chocolate bars. The activity they describe provides a…

  17. Momentum fractionation on superstrata (United States)

    Bena, Iosif; Martinec, Emil; Turton, David; Warner, Nicholas P.


    Superstrata are bound states in string theory that carry D1, D5, and momentum charges, and whose supergravity descriptions are parameterized by arbitrary functions of (at least) two variables. In the D1-D5 CFT, typical three-charge states reside in high-degree twisted sectors, and their momentum charge is carried by modes that individually have fractional momentum. Understanding this momentum fractionation holographically is crucial for understanding typical black-hole microstates in this system. We use solution-generating techniques to add momentum to a multi-wound supertube and thereby construct the first examples of asymptotically-flat superstrata. The resulting supergravity solutions are horizonless and smooth up to well-understood orbifold singularities. Upon taking the AdS3 decoupling limit, our solutions are dual to CFT states with momentum fractionation. We give a precise proposal for these dual CFT states. Our construction establishes the very nontrivial fact that large classes of CFT states with momentum fractionation can be realized in the bulk as smooth horizonless supergravity solutions.

  18. Fractional statistics and confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Gaete, P; Gaete, Patricio; Wotzasek, Clovis


    It is shown that a pointlike composite having charge and magnetic moment displays a confining potential for the static interaction while simultaneously obeying fractional statistics in a pure gauge theory in three dimensions, without a Chern-Simons term. This result is distinct from the Maxwell-Chern-Simons theory that shows a screening nature for the potential.

  19. Brewing with fractionated barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, van L.H.G.


    Brewing with fractionated barley Beer is a globally consumed beverage, which is produced from malted barley, water, hops and yeast. In recent years, the use of unmalted barley and exogenous enzymes have become more popular because they enable simpler processing and reduced environmental impact. Raw

  20. Fractional Differential Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa El-Shahed


    where 2<α<3 is a real number and D0+α is the standard Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative. Our analysis relies on Krasnoselskiis fixed point theorem of cone preserving operators. An example is also given to illustrate the main results.

  1. Active myocyte shortening during the 'isovolumetric relaxation' phase of diastole is responsible for ventricular suction; 'systolic ventricular filling'. (United States)

    Buckberg, Gerald D; Castellá, Manuel; Gharib, Morteza; Saleh, Saleh


    To study the 'isovolumetric relaxation' phase of rapid ventricular filling by analysis of the shortening of cardiac muscle in the endocardial and epicardial segments of the left ventricle in the dual helical model of the ventricular band, described by Torrent-Guasp. In 10 pigs (27-82 kg), temporal shortening by sonomicrometer crystals was recorded while recording ECG, and measuring intraventricular pressure and dP/dt with Millar pressure transducers. The following sequence was observed; shortening began in descending or endocardial segment, and 82+/-23 ms later it was initiated in the epicardial or ascending segment of the band. The descending segment stops shortening during the rapid filling phase of fast descent of ventricular pressure, but the ascending segment shortening continues for 92+/-33 ms, so that active shortening continues during the period of isovolumetric relaxation. During the rapid filling phase, dopamine decreased the interval between completion of endocardial and termination of epicardial contraction from 92+/-20 to 33+/-8 ms. Conversely propranolol delayed the start of epicardial shortening from 82+/-23 to 121+/-20 ms, and prolonged the duration of endocardial contraction, causing a closer (21+/-5 ms vs 92+/-20 ms) interval between termination of contraction of endocardial and epicardial fibers. The resultant slope of the rapid descent of the left ventricular pressure curve became prolonged. These time sequences show that ongoing unopposed ascending segment shortening occurs during the phase of rapid fall of ventricular pressure. These active shortening phases respond to positive and negative inotropic stimulation, and indicate the classic concept of 'isovolumetric relaxation', IVR, must be reconsidered, and the new term 'isovolumetric contraction', IVC, or systolic ventricular filing may be used.

  2. Global and regional left ventricular strain indices in post-myocardial infarction patients with ventricular arrhythmias and moderately abnormal ejection fraction. (United States)

    Nguyen, Bich Lien; Capotosto, Lidia; Persi, Alessandro; Placanica, Attilio; Rafique, Asim; Piccirillo, Gianfranco; Gaudio, Carlo; Gang, Eli S; Siegel, Robert J; Vitarelli, Antonio


    The aim of the study described here was to compare myocardial strains in ischemic heart patients with and without sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) and moderately abnormal left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) to investigate which index could better predict VT on the basis of the analysis of global and regional left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. We studied 467 patients with previous myocardial infarction and LVEF >35%. Fifty-one patients had documented VT, and 416 patients presented with no VT. LV volumes and score index were obtained by 2-D echocardiography. Longitudinal, radial and circumferential strains were determined. Strains of the infarct, border and remote zones were also obtained. There were no differences in standard LV 2-D parameters between patients with and those without VT. Receiver operating characteristic values were -12.7% for global longitudinal strain (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.72), -4.8% for posterior-inferior wall circumferential strain (AUC = 0.80), 61 ms for LV mechanical dispersion (AUC = 0.84), -10.1% for longitudinal strain of the border zone (AUC = 0.86) and -9.2% for circumferential strain of the border zone (AUC = 0.89). In patients with previous myocardial infarction and moderately abnormal LVEF, peri-infarct circumferential strain was the strongest predictor of documented ventricular arrhythmias among all strain quantitative indices. Additionally, strain values from posterior-inferior wall infarctions had a higher association with arrhythmic events compared with global strain.

  3. Frequency of conduction abnormalities after transcatheter aortic valve implantation with the Medtronic-CoreValve and the effect on left ventricular ejection fraction. (United States)

    Tzikas, Apostolos; van Dalen, Bas M; Van Mieghem, Nicolas M; Gutierrez-Chico, Juan-Luis; Nuis, Rutger-Jan; Kauer, Floris; Schultz, Carl; Serruys, Patrick W; de Jaegere, Peter P T; Geleijnse, Marcel L


    New conduction abnormalities occur frequently after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). The relation between new conduction disorders and left ventricular (LV) systolic function after TAVI is unknown. The purpose of the present prospective, single-center study was to investigate the effect of TAVI on LV systolic function in relation to TAVI-induced conduction abnormalities. A total of 27 patients had undergone electrocardiography and transthoracic echocardiography the day before and 6 days after TAVI with the Medtronic-CoreValve system. The LV ejection fraction (EF) was calculated using the biplane Simpson method. The systolic mitral annular velocities and longitudinal strain were measured using speckle tracking echocardiography. After TAVI, 18 patients (67%) had new conduction abnormalities; 4 (15%) had a new paced rhythm and 14 patients (52%) had new left bundle branch block. In the patients with new conduction abnormalities, the EF decreased from 47 ± 12% to 44 ± 10%. In contrast, in those without new conduction abnormalities, the EF increased from 49 ± 12% to 54% ± 12%. The change in EF was significantly different among those with and without new conduction abnormalities (p Medtronic-CoreValve was associated with a lack of improvement in LV systolic function. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Developmental remodeling and shortening of the cardiac outflow tract involves myocyte programmed cell death. (United States)

    Watanabe, M; Choudhry, A; Berlan, M; Singal, A; Siwik, E; Mohr, S; Fisher, S A


    The embryonic outflow tract is a simple tubular structure that connects the single primitive ventricle with the aortic sac and aortic arch arteries. This structure undergoes a complex sequence of morphogenetic processes to become the portion of the heart that aligns the right and left ventricles with the pulmonary artery and aorta. Abnormalities of the outflow tract are involved in many clinically significant congenital cardiac defects; however, the cellular and molecular processes governing the development of this important structure are incompletely understood. Histologic and tissue-tagging studies indicate that the outflow tract tissues compact and are incorporated predominantly into a region of the right ventricle. The hypothesis tested in the current study was that cell death or apoptosis in the muscular portion of the outflow tract is an important cellular mechanism for outflow tract shortening. The tubular outflow tract myocardium was specifically marked by infecting myocytes of the chicken embryo heart with a recombinant replication-defective adenovirus expressing beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) under the control of the cytomegalovirus promoter. Histochemical detection of the beta -gal-labeled outflow tract myocytes revealed that the tubular structure shortened to become a compact ring at the level of the pulmonic infundibulum over several days of development (stages 25-32, embryonic days 4-8). The appearance of apoptotic cardiomyocytes was correlated with OFT shortening by two histologic assays, TUNEL labeling of DNA fragments and AnnexinV binding. The rise and fall in the number of apoptotic myocytes detected by histologic analyses paralleled the change in activity levels of Caspase-3, a protease in the apoptotic cascade, measured in outflow tract homogenates. These results suggest that the elimination of myocytes by programmed cell death is one mechanism by which the outflow tract myocardium remodels to form the proper connection between the ventricular

  5. New insight into the shortening of the collagen fibril D-period in human cornea. (United States)

    Jastrzebska, Maria; Tarnawska, Dorota; Wrzalik, Roman; Chrobak, Artur; Grelowski, Michal; Wylegala, Edward; Zygadlo, Dorota; Ratuszna, Alicja


    Collagen fibrils type I display a typical banding pattern, so-called D-periodicity, of about 67 nm, when visualized by atomic force or electron microscopy imaging. Herein we report on a significant shortening of the D-period for human corneal collagen fibrils type I (21 ± 4 nm) upon air-drying, whereas no changes in the D-period were observed for human scleral collagen fibrils type I (64 ± 4 nm) measured under the same experimental conditions as the cornea. It was also found that for the corneal stroma fixed with glutaraldehyde and air-dried, the collagen fibrils show the commonly accepted D-period of 61 ± 8 nm. We used the atomic force microscopy method to image collagen fibrils type I present in the middle layers of human cornea and sclera. The water content in the cornea and sclera samples was varying in the range of .066-.085. Calculations of the D-period using the theoretical model of the fibril and the FFT approach allowed to reveal the possible molecular mechanism of the D-period shortening in the corneal collagen fibrils upon drying. It was found that both the decrease in the shift and the simultaneous reduction in the distance between tropocollagen molecules can be responsible for the experimentally observed effect. We also hypothesize that collagen type V, which co-assembles with collagen type I into heterotypic fibrils in cornea, could be involved in the observed shortening of the corneal D-period.

  6. Effect of oil and shortening in rice bread quality: Relationship between dough rheology and quality characteristics. (United States)

    Mancebo, Camino M; Martínez, Mario M; Merino, Cristina; de la Hera, Esther; Gómez, Manuel


    One of the main problems with gluten-free breads is their texture and their rapid staling. Fats are widely used for the improvement of texture and other quality parameters in gluten-free breads. The effect of oil and shortening in rice-breads quality and its correlation with dough rheology has been analyzed. The inclusion of oil increased the specific volume of the breads and reduced their hardness, particularly with lower levels of hydration, whereas shortening did not modify specific volume or reduced it when hydration levels were higher. Oil, at levels of up to 30%, reduced the cohesiveness, springiness and resilience of breads, as well as the brightness of the crust, and increased the a* and b* values. Breads with oil also exhibited a greater number of pores per cm(2) , especially in doughs with higher levels of hydration. An inverse correlation between G' and G'' and bread specific volume has been observed, being the reciprocal-Y model a better predictor than the linear model to relate the bread specific volume. This study showed that the type and quantity of fat added in rice based breads affect the bread quality in a different way. In general, it can be said that the incorporation of up to 20% oil improved rice based breads. Oil increased the specific volume, the a* and b* parameters of the crust and the cell density. It also decreases hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, resilience, and the L* parameter. Converse to breads made with oil, the addition of shortening can negatively affect the quality of the breads. Moreover, the correlation analysis has demonstrated that the study of dough rheology could be a good predictor of gluten-free bread quality. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Telomere longitudinal shortening as a biomarker for dementia status of adults with Down syndrome. (United States)

    Jenkins, Edmund C; Ye, Lingling; Krinsky-McHale, Sharon J; Zigman, Warren B; Schupf, Nicole; Silverman, Wayne P


    Previous studies have suggested that Alzheimer's disease (AD) causes an accelerated shortening of telomeres, the ends of chromosomes consisting of highly conserved TTAGGG repeats that, because of unidirectional 5'-3' DNA synthesis, lose end point material with each cell division. Our own previous work suggested that telomere length of T-lymphocytes might be a remarkably accurate biomarker for "mild cognitive impairment" in adults with Down syndrome (MCI-DS), a population at dramatically high risk for AD. To verify that the progression of cognitive and functional losses due to AD produced this observed telomere shortening, we have now examined sequential changes in telomere length in five individuals with Down syndrome (3F, 2M) as they transitioned from preclinical AD to MCI-DS (N = 4) or dementia (N = 1). As in our previous studies, we used PNA (peptide nucleic acid) probes for telomeres and the chromosome 2 centromere (as an "internal standard" expected to be unaffected by aging or dementia status), with samples from the same individuals now collected prior to and following development of MCI-DS or dementia. Consistent shortening of telomere length was observed over time. Further comparisons with our previous cross-sectional findings indicated that telomere lengths prior to clinical decline were similar to those of other adults with Down syndrome (DS) who have not experienced clinical decline while telomere lengths following transition to MCI-DS or dementia in the current study were comparable to those of other adults with DS who have developed MCI-DS or dementia. Taken together, findings indicate that telomere length has significant promise as a biomarker of clinical progression of AD for adults with DS, and further longitudinal studies of a larger sample of individuals with DS are clearly warranted to validate these findings and determine if and how factors affecting AD risk also influence these measures of telomere length.

  8. Cost and cost-effectiveness of tuberculosis treatment shortening: a model-based analysis. (United States)

    Gomez, G B; Dowdy, D W; Bastos, M L; Zwerling, A; Sweeney, S; Foster, N; Trajman, A; Islam, M A; Kapiga, S; Sinanovic, E; Knight, G M; White, R G; Wells, W A; Cobelens, F G; Vassall, A


    Despite improvements in treatment success rates for tuberculosis (TB), current six-month regimen duration remains a challenge for many National TB Programmes, health systems, and patients. There is increasing investment in the development of shortened regimens with a number of candidates in phase 3 trials. We developed an individual-based decision analytic model to assess the cost-effectiveness of a hypothetical four-month regimen for first-line treatment of TB, assuming non-inferiority to current regimens of six-month duration. The model was populated using extensive, empirically-collected data to estimate the economic impact on both health systems and patients of regimen shortening for first-line TB treatment in South Africa, Brazil, Bangladesh, and Tanzania. We explicitly considered 'real world' constraints such as sub-optimal guideline adherence. From a societal perspective, a shortened regimen, priced at USD1 per day, could be a cost-saving option in South Africa, Brazil, and Tanzania, but would not be cost-effective in Bangladesh when compared to one gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. Incorporating 'real world' constraints reduces cost-effectiveness. Patient-incurred costs could be reduced in all settings. From a health service perspective, increased drug costs need to be balanced against decreased delivery costs. The new regimen would remain a cost-effective option, when compared to each countries' GDP per capita, even if new drugs cost up to USD7.5 and USD53.8 per day in South Africa and Brazil; this threshold was above USD1 in Tanzania and under USD1 in Bangladesh. Reducing the duration of first-line TB treatment has the potential for substantial economic gains from a patient perspective. The potential economic gains for health services may also be important, but will be context-specific and dependent on the appropriate pricing of any new regimen.

  9. Incorporated fish oil fatty acids prevent action potential shortening induced by circulating fish oil fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hester M Den Ruijter


    Full Text Available Increased consumption of fatty fish, rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (3-PUFAs reduces the severity and number of arrhythmias. Long term 3-PUFA-intake modulates the activity of several cardiac ion channels leading to cardiac action potential shortening. Circulating 3-PUFAs in the bloodstream and incorporated 3-PUFAs in the cardiac membrane have a different mechanism to shorten the action potential. It is, however, unknown whether circulating 3-PUFAs in the bloodstream enhance or diminish the effects of incorporated 3-PUFAs. In the present study, we address this issue. Rabbits were fed a diet rich in fish oil (3 or sunflower oil (9, as control for 3 weeks. Ventricular myocytes were isolated by enzymatic dissociation and action potentials were measured using the perforated patch clamp technique in the absence and presence of acutely administered 3-PUFAs. Plasma of 3 fed rabbits contained more free eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and isolated myocytes of 3 fed rabbits contained higher amounts of both EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in their sarcolemma compared to control. In the absence of acutely administered fatty acids, 3 myocytes had a shorter action potential with a more negative plateau than 9 myocytes. In the 9 myocytes, but not in the 3 myocytes, acute administration of a mixture of EPA+DHA shortened the action potential significantly. From these data we conclude that incorporated 3-PUFAs into the sarcolemma and acutely administered 3 fatty acids do not have a cumulative effect on action potential duration and morphology. As a consequence, patients with a high cardiac 3-PUFA status will probably not benefit from short term 3 supplementation as an antiarrhythmic therapy.

  10. Mid-term clinical outcome of radial shortening for kienbock disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad H Ebrahimzadeh


    Full Text Available Background: To evaluate the intermediate-term outcomes of radius shortening as a treatment for Kienbock′s disease. Materials and Methods: In a historical cohort, 16 skeletally mature patients (9 men and 7 women with Kienbock disease, who were treated with radial shortening osteotomy between 2002 and 2012, were reviewed in our study. The mean age of our patients was 30 (range 18-43 years old. According to Litchman staging, there were 7 wrists at stage II and 9 wrists at stage III (6 at stage IIIA and 3 at stage IIIB. The data of grip strength, pain (visual analog scale (VAS score, wrist range of motion (ROM, ulnar variance (according to Palmer method, and the Lichtman stage were gathered before and after surgery. We evaluated overall wrist function using the Mayo Wrist score and disabilities of the arm shoulder and hand (DASH score before surgery and at the last follow-up. Results: The average of follow-up was 7 years (range from 5 to 9 years. Preoperative ulnar variance was -1.3 mm (range from 2.5 to 1 preoperatively. The mean postoperative ulnar variance was 1 mm positive (range from 0.5 to 1.5. The VAS pain score, the mean arc of wrist flexion and extension, and grip strength improved significantly preoperatively compared to after recovery from surgery. The Lichtman stage was unchanged in nine patients, one grade worse in six patients, and one grade better in one patient. The mean DASH and Mayo scores improved significantly postoperatively compare with preoperation. Comparing preoperative positive, neuter, and negative ulnar variance, there was no significant difference in terms of VAS, DASH, and Mayo scores as well as ROM and grip strength. Conclusion: Our study shows that radius shortening surgery improves pain and disability regardless of ulnar variance.

  11. Human probing behavior of Aedes aegypti when infected with a life-shortening strain of Wolbachia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano A Moreira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mosquitoes are vectors of many serious pathogens in tropical and sub-tropical countries. Current control strategies almost entirely rely upon insecticides, which increasingly face the problems of high cost, increasing mosquito resistance and negative effects on non-target organisms. Alternative strategies include the proposed use of inherited life-shortening agents, such as the Wolbachia bacterium. By shortening mosquito vector lifespan, Wolbachia could potentially reduce the vectorial capacity of mosquito populations. We have recently been able to stably transinfect Aedes aegypti mosquitoes with the life-shortening Wolbachia strain wMelPop, and are assessing various aspects of its interaction with the mosquito host to determine its likely impact on pathogen transmission as well as its potential ability to invade A. aegypti populations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we have examined the probing behavior of Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes in an attempt to understand both the broader impact of Wolbachia infection on mosquito biology and, in particular, vectorial capacity. The probing behavior of wMelPop-infected mosquitoes at four adult ages was examined and compared to uninfected controls during video-recorded feeding trials on a human hand. Wolbachia-positive insects, from 15 days of age, showed a drastic increase in the time spent pre-probing and probing relative to uninfected controls. Two other important features for blood feeding, saliva volume and apyrase content of saliva, were also studied. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: As A. aegypti infected with wMelPop age, they show increasing difficulty in completing the process of blood feeding effectively and efficiently. Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes on average produced smaller volumes of saliva that still contained the same amount of apyrase activity as uninfected mosquitoes. These effects on blood feeding behavior may reduce vectorial capacity and point to underlying physiological

  12. Varying mechanical coupling along the Andean margin: Implications for trench curvature, shortening and topography (United States)

    Iaffaldano, G.; Di Giuseppe, E.; Corbi, F.; Funiciello, F.; Faccenna, C.; Bunge, H.-P.


    Convergent margins often exhibit spatial and temporal correlations between trench curvature, overriding plate shortening and topography uplift that provide insights into the dynamics of subduction. The Andean system, where the Nazca plate plunges beneath continental South America, is commonly regarded as the archetype of this class of tectonics systems. There is distinctive evidence that the degree of mechanical coupling between converging plates, i.e. the amount of resistive force mutually transmitted in the direction opposite to their motions, may be at the present-day significantly higher along the central Andean margin compared to the northern and southern limbs. However quantitative estimates of such resistance are still missing and would be desirable. Here we present laboratory models of subduction performed to investigate quantitatively how strong lateral coupling variations need to be to result in trench curvature, tectonic shortening and distribution of topography comparable to estimates from the Andean margin. The analogue of a two-layers Newtonian lithosphere/upper mantle system is established in a silicone putty/glucose syrup tank-model where lateral coupling variations along the interface between subducting and overriding plates are pre-imposed. Despite the simplicity of our setup, we estimate that coupling in the central margin as large as 20% of the driving force is sufficient to significantly inhibit the ability of the experimental overriding plate to slide above the subducting one. As a consequence, the central margin deforms and shortens more than elsewhere while the trench remains stationary, as opposed to the advancing lateral limbs. This causes the margin to evolve into a peculiar shape similar to the present-day trench of the Andean system.

  13. Creating, Naming, and Justifying Fractions (United States)

    Siebert, Daniel; Gaskin, Nicole


    For students to develop meaningful conceptions of fractions and fraction operations, they need to think of fractions in terms other than as just whole-number combinations. In this article, we suggest two powerful images for thinking about fractions that move beyond whole-number reasoning. (Contains 5 figures.)

  14. [The probiotic yogurt Activia shortens intestinal transit, but has not been shown to promote defecation]. (United States)

    Katan, M B


    Activia is a yogurt product containing the probiotic bacterium Bifidobacterium animalis DN-173 010. Five clinical trials have been carried out. Four of these show that dairy products containing this bacterium shorten intestinal transit in volunteers. However, except in a subgroup of 19 out of 267 patients in one study, no significant effect of Activia was reported on the frequency, quantity or consistency of stools. In its marketing in the Netherlands, the company that produces Activia, Danone, claims that Activia promotes defecation. There is insufficient scientific evidence to support this claim.

  15. Effective shortening of picosecond pulses emitted by a YAG:Nd/sup 3 +/ laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dianov, E.M.; Karasik, A.Y.; Mamyshev, P.V.; Onishchukov, G.I.; Prokhorov, A.M.; Stel' makh, M.F.; Fomichev, A.A.


    A 15-fold reduction in the duration of YAG:Nd/sup 3 +/ laser pulses was achieved under conditions of active mode locking and Q switching at a pulse repetition frequency approx.1 kHz. Phase self-modulation in a single-mode quartz fiber waveguide of length 10 m resulted in broadening of the laser emission spectrum right up to approx.10 cm/sup -1/ at the waveguide exit. The pulses were then shortened in a system with a diffraction grating. The pulse duration was measured by a correlation system in which the second harmonic was generated.

  16. Shortened constraint-induced movement therapy in subacute stroke - no effect of using a restraint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogårdh, Christina; Vestling, Monika; Sjölund, Bengt H


    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of using a mitt during shortened constraint-induced movement therapy for patients in the subacute phase after stroke. SUBJECTS: Twenty-four patients with stroke (mean age 57.6 (standard deviation (SD) 8.5) years; average 7 weeks post-stroke) with mild to moderate......, no statistically significant differences between the groups were found in any measures at any point in time. CONCLUSION: In this study, no effect of using a restraint in patients with subacute stroke was found. Thus, this component in the constraint-induced therapy concept seems to be of minor importance...

  17. Single clear corneal incision for glaucoma drainage device shortening in pediatric glaucoma. (United States)

    Radke, Phillip M; Bitrian, Elena; Grajewski, Alana L


    Glaucoma drainage devices are commonly used for management of glaucoma in adults and children. With time, the position of the tube can change and cause damage such as corneal scarring, iris or lens contact, and uveitis. Most of these problems can be improved with tube shortening and/or excision of adherent iris or fibrous tissue. We describe a surgical technique that uses a single clear corneal incision to externalize and trim the shunt in pediatric patients. The technique has a short surgical. We review the indications and outcomes for this procedure in 13 eyes of 12 children who required shunt revision.

  18. [Carotid endarterectomy. Experiences with shortening of interval between symptom and operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathenborg, L.K.; Baekgaard, N.; Jensen, Leif Pandora


    and in the neurological departments. The stroke and death rate was unchanged, 4% and 3% before and after fast track respectively. CONCLUSION: The time between symptom and CEA can be shortened by means of a fast track after thorough information and reorganization of the work involving these patients. In order to bring......INTRODUCTION: Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) prevents transient ischemic attack and stroke in patients with symptomatic high-grade carotid stenosis. In 2004 Rothwell et al showed that maximal benefit is gained if CEA is performed less than three weeks after the onset of the symptom. With the aim...

  19. Depth oriented brief therapy: an ideal technique as hospice lengths-of-stay continue to shorten. (United States)

    Thomson, Judith E; Jordan, Merle R


    The authors note that as hospice patients' lengths-of-stay continue to shorten, psychosocial/spiritual counselors are being challenged to help patients and families process the myriad of issues terminal illness gives rise to. Given this reality, the authors suggest that the Depth Oriented Brief Therapy (DOBT) approach should prove especially useful. The DOBT premise is that if people can be helped to experience the emotional meanings of why they hold on to emotionally painful symptoms then they can abandon their symptoms for healthier ways of being.

  20. Lactose tolerance test shortened to 30 minutes: an exploratory study of its feasibility and impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Domínguez-Jiménez


    Full Text Available Introduction: Lactose malabsorption (LM is a very common condition with a high prevalence in our setting. Lactose tolerance test (LTT is a basic, affordable test for diagnosis that requires no complex technology. It has been recently shown that this test can be shortened to 3 measurements (baseline, 30 min, 60 min with no impact on final results. The purpose of our study was to assess the feasibility and benefits of LTT simplification and shortening to 30 min, as well as the financial impact entailed. Material and methods: A multicenter, observational study of consecutive patients undergoing LTT for LM suspicion. Patients received 50 g of lactose following a fasting period of 12 h, and had blood collected from a vein at all 3 time points for the measurement of blood glucose (mg/dl. Differences between the shortened and complete test forms were analyzed using McNemar's test. A comparison of blood glucose levels between patients with normal and abnormal results was performed using Student's T-test for independent mean values. Consistency was assessed using the kappa index. A p < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: A total of 270 patients (69.6% females were included, with a mean age of 39.9 ± 16 years. LTT was abnormal for 151 patients (55.9%. We observed no statistically significant differences in baseline blood glucose levels between patients with normal and abnormal LTT results (p = 0.13; however, as was to be expected, such differences were obvious for the remaining time points (p < 0.01. Deleting blood glucose measurements at 60 minutes only led to overdiagnose LM (false positive results in 6 patients (2.22 %, with a kappa index of 0.95 (95% CI: 0.92-0.99 (p < 0.001 versus the complete test. Suppressing measurements at 60 min would have saved at least € 7,726. Conclusion: The shortening of LTT to only 2 measurements (baseline and 30-min hardly leads to any differences in final results, and would entail savings in

  1. -Dimensional Fractional Lagrange's Inversion Theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Abd El-Salam


    Full Text Available Using Riemann-Liouville fractional differential operator, a fractional extension of the Lagrange inversion theorem and related formulas are developed. The required basic definitions, lemmas, and theorems in the fractional calculus are presented. A fractional form of Lagrange's expansion for one implicitly defined independent variable is obtained. Then, a fractional version of Lagrange's expansion in more than one unknown function is generalized. For extending the treatment in higher dimensions, some relevant vectors and tensors definitions and notations are presented. A fractional Taylor expansion of a function of -dimensional polyadics is derived. A fractional -dimensional Lagrange inversion theorem is proved.

  2. Left atrial decompression pump for severe heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: theoretical and clinical considerations. (United States)

    Burkhoff, Daniel; Maurer, Mathew S; Joseph, Susan M; Rogers, Joseph G; Birati, Edo Y; Rame, J Eduardo; Shah, Sanjiv J


    The purpose of this study was to provide insight into the potential for left atrium (LA) to aortic mechanical circulatory support as a treatment for patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Although HFpEF arises from different etiologies, 1 hallmark of all forms of this syndrome is a small or minimally-dilated left ventricle (LV). Consequently, the use of traditional mechanical circulatory support in end-stage patients has been difficult. In contrast, HFpEF is also characterized by a large LA. Hemodynamic characteristics of 4 distinct HFpEF phenotypes were characterized from the published data: 1) hypertrophic cardiomyopathies; 2) infiltrative diseases; 3) nonhypertrophic HFpEF; and 4) HFpEF with common cardiovascular comorbidities (e.g., hypertension). Employing a previously-described cardiovascular simulation, the effects of a low-flow, micropump-based LA decompression device were modeled. The effect of sourcing blood from the LV versus the LA was compared. For all HFpEF phenotypes, mechanical circulatory support significantly increased cardiac output, provided a mild increase in blood pressure, and markedly reduced pulmonary and LA pressures. LV sourcing of blood reduced LV end-systolic volume into a range likely to induce suction. With LA sourcing, however, LV end-systolic volume increased compared with baseline. Due to pre-existing LA enlargement, LA volumes remained sufficiently elevated, thus minimizing the risk of suction. This theoretical analysis suggests that a strategy involving pumping blood from the LA to the arterial system may provide a viable option for end-stage HFpEF. Special considerations apply to each of the 4 types of HFpEF phenotypes described. Finally, an HFpEF-specific clinical profile scoring system (such as that of INTERMACS [Interagency Registry for Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support]) would aid in the selection of patients with the appropriate risk-benefit ratio for implantation of an active pump

  3. Fractional lattice charge transport (United States)

    Flach, Sergej; Khomeriki, Ramaz


    We consider the dynamics of noninteracting quantum particles on a square lattice in the presence of a magnetic flux α and a dc electric field E oriented along the lattice diagonal. In general, the adiabatic dynamics will be characterized by Bloch oscillations in the electrical field direction and dispersive ballistic transport in the perpendicular direction. For rational values of α and a corresponding discrete set of values of E(α) vanishing gaps in the spectrum induce a fractionalization of the charge in the perpendicular direction - while left movers are still performing dispersive ballistic transport, the complementary fraction of right movers is propagating in a dispersionless relativistic manner in the opposite direction. Generalizations and the possible probing of the effect with atomic Bose-Einstein condensates and photonic networks are discussed. Zak phase of respective band associated with gap closing regime has been computed and it is found converging to π/2 value. PMID:28102302

  4. Fractions in elementary education

    CERN Document Server

    Quinn, Frank


    This paper is one of a series in which elementary-education practice is analyzed by comparison with the history of mathematics, mathematical structure, modern practice, and (occasionally) cognitive neuroscience. The primary concerns are: Why do so many children find elementary mathematics difficult? And, why are the ones who succeed still so poorly prepared for college material needed for technical careers? The answer provided by conventional wisdom is essentially that mathematics is difficult. Third-graders are not developmentally ready for the subtlety of fractions, for instance, and even high-performing students cannot be expected to develop the skills of experienced users. However we will see that this is far from the whole story and is probably wrong: elementary-education fractions are genuinely harder and less effective than the version employed by experienced users. Experts discard at least 90% of what is taught in schools. Our educational system is actually counterproductive for skill development, and...

  5. Testing Fractional Action Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Shchigolev, V K


    The present work deals with a combined test of the so-called Fractional Action Cosmology (FAC) on the example of a specific model obtained by the author earlier. In this model, the effective cosmological term is proportional to the Hubble parameter squared through the so-called kinematic induction. The reason of studying this cosmological model could be explained by its ability to describe two periods of accelerated expansion, that is in agreement with the recent observations and the cosmological inflation paradigm. First of all, we put our model through the theoretical tests that gives a general conception of the influence of the model parameters on its behavior. Then, we obtain some restrictions on the principal parameters of the model, including the fractional index, by means of the observational data. Finally, the cosmography parameters and the observational data compared to the theoretical predictions are presented both analytically and graphically.

  6. Testing fractional action cosmology (United States)

    Shchigolev, V. K.


    The present work deals with a combined test of the so-called Fractional Action Cosmology (FAC) on the example of a specific model obtained by the author earlier. In this model, the effective cosmological term is proportional to the Hubble parameter squared through the so-called kinematic induction. The reason of studying this cosmological model could be explained by its ability to describe two periods of accelerated expansion, that is in agreement with the recent observations and the cosmological inflation paradigm. First of all, we put our model through the theoretical tests, which gives a general conception of the influence of the model parameters on its behavior. Then, we obtain some restrictions on the principal parameters of the model, including the fractional index, by means of the observational data. Finally, the cosmography parameters and the observational data compared to the theoretical predictions are presented both analytically and graphically.

  7. Nonlinear fractional relaxation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Tofighi


    We define a nonlinear model for fractional relaxation phenomena. We use -expansion method to analyse this model. By studying the fundamental solutions of this model we find that when → 0 the model exhibits a fast decay rate and when → ∞ the model exhibits a power-law decay. By analysing the frequency response we find a logarithmic enhancement for the relative ratio of susceptibility.

  8. Brewing with fractionated barley


    Donkelaar, van, CC René


    Brewing with fractionated barley Beer is a globally consumed beverage, which is produced from malted barley, water, hops and yeast. In recent years, the use of unmalted barley and exogenous enzymes have become more popular because they enable simpler processing and reduced environmental impact. Raw barley, however, contains less endogenous enzymes and more undesired components for the use of beer brewing, compared to malted barley.  The overall aim of this thesis is to investigate how ba...

  9. Two-stage revision of infected hip arthroplasty using a shortened post-operative course of antibiotics.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McKenna, Paul B


    We present a series of 30 consecutive patients with 31 infected total hip arthroplasties treated by a single surgeon over a 4-year period in whom a shortened post-operative course of antimicrobial chemotherapy was used.

  10. Effects of removable dental prostheses on masticatory performance of subjects with shortened dental arches: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, S.; Zhang, Q.; Witter, D.J.; Wang, Y.; Creugers, N.H.J.


    OBJECTIVE: To synthesise data on the effects of distal-extension removable dental prostheses (RDPs) on masticatory performance of subjects with (extreme) shortened dental arches ((E)SDAs). DATA: Search terms were: 'masticatory' respectively 'chewing' combined with 'performance', 'efficiency', or

  11. Momentum Fractionation on Superstrata

    CERN Document Server

    Bena, Iosif; Turton, David; Warner, Nicholas P


    Superstrata are bound states in string theory that carry D1, D5, and momentum charges, and whose supergravity descriptions are parameterized by arbitrary functions of (at least) two variables. In the D1-D5 CFT, typical three-charge states reside in high-degree twisted sectors, and their momentum charge is carried by modes that individually have fractional momentum. Understanding this momentum fractionation holographically is crucial for understanding typical black-hole microstates in this system. We use solution-generating techniques to add momentum to a multi-wound supertube and thereby construct the first examples of asymptotically-flat superstrata. The resulting supergravity solutions are horizonless and smooth up to well-understood orbifold singularities. Upon taking the AdS3 decoupling limit, our solutions are dual to CFT states with momentum fractionation. We give a precise proposal for these dual CFT states. Our construction establishes the very nontrivial fact that large classes of CFT states with mom...

  12. Variability in New Shortening Estimates from Southern Peru (12-14S); Implications for Mass Balance of the Andean Plateau. (United States)

    Gotberg, N.; McQuarrie, N.


    One of the fundamental questions of interest with regards to the Andean Plateau is the mass balance of material needed to create and sustain a 3-4 km high plateau. Is crustal shortening sufficient to support an isostatically compensated crust of 60-70km? We present new estimates of shortening across the northern margin of the Andean Plateau. The cross section extent, from the eastern edge of the volcanic arc to foreland basin, is approximately one half of the physiographic width of the Andean Plateau in Peru. Cross sectional shortening estimates in southern Peru (12-14°S) provide a best estimate of 123 km or 40% shortening with an absolute minimum estimate of 86 km or 30% and absolute maximum estimate of 275 km or 60%. We determined the maximum and minimum shortening estimates using the cross sectional area and possible variations in assumptions made about the amount of erosion, detachment dip, involvement of basement thrusts and displacement along faults. The best estimate of shortening is well short of the required 240-300km of shortening needed in order to account for a 60-70km thick crust under the entire plateau. This suggests that for an isostatically equilibrated crust either 1) there is a significant amount of shortening (~150km) in the western half of the plateau which, is hidden by the volcanic arc or 2) crustal material is being added to the Peruvian section of the Andean Plateau either through lower crustal flow or a process of magmatic underplating followed by differentiation and delamination.

  13. Changes in the maximum speed of shortening of frog muscle fibres early in a tetanic contraction and during relaxation. (United States)

    Josephson, R K; Edman, K A


    1. Isotonic shortening velocities at very light loads were examined in single fibres of the anterior tibialis muscle of the frog, Rana temporaria, using load-clamp recording and slack tests (temperature, 1-3 degrees C; initial sarcomere length, 2.25 microns). 2. Shortening velocities at very light loads (force-clamp recording) were found to be higher early in the rise of a tetanic contraction than during the plateau of the contraction. The upper limit of the load at which there was elevated shortening velocity early in the contraction was 1.5-5.4% of the maximum tetanic tension (Fo) depending on the particular fibre. 3. The maximum shortening velocity determined using the slack test method (Vo) was as much as 30% greater early in a contraction than at the tetanic plateau. Vo was elevated above the plateau level up to about 30 ms after the end of the latent period, which is equivalent to the time required for the force in an isometric contraction to rise to about 30% of Fo. Vo is depressed below the plateau value during relaxation at the cessation of stimulation. 4. Stimulation studies show that the cross-bridge model of Huxley (1957) predicts the maximum shortening velocity to be greater early in a contraction, when new actin binding sites are becoming activated and new cross-bridge connections are being formed rapidly, than during steady-state contraction. The elevated shortening velocity in the model is a consequence of new cross-bridges being formed in the pulling configuration, and there being a delay before the newly added bridges are dragged beyond their equilibrium position so they begin to retard shortening. The model also predicts that maximum shortening velocity should be depressed below the plateau level during early relaxation as cross-bridge binding sites are rapidly removed from the active population.

  14. Myosin heavy chain isoform expression regulates shortening velocity in smooth muscle: studies using an SMB KO mouse line. (United States)

    Karagiannis, Peter; Babu, G J; Periasamy, M; Brozovich, Frank V


    The kinetics of smooth muscle are thought to be partially determined by the level of the expression of the 7 amino acid insert, SMB, in the myosin heavy chain, as SMB is generally expressed at higher levels in faster smooth muscle. In this study, we determined the role of this insert on shortening velocity and force regeneration following rapid reduction in muscle length (k(step)) in bladder tissue from a transgenic mouse line expressing the insert at three different levels: wild type (WT, +/+, SMB/SMB), an SMA homozygous type (SMB KO, -/-), and a heterozygous type (+/-, SMB/SMA). Smooth muscle from +/+ bladder shorten faster than both the +/- and -/- bladder smooth muscle when activated with Ca2+, consistent with SMB determining the shortening velocity of smooth muscle. The addition of Pi to the fully activated skinned bladder strips did not affect the rate of shortening for either the +/+ or -/- bladder types but did significantly decrease the rate of shortening for the +/- type. In contrast, the addition of ADP to fully Ca2+ activated bladder strips increased the rate of shortening for all three bladder types. However after thiophosphorylation, ADP slowed the shortening velocity. These data are consistent with shortening velocity being determined by the level of activation (or crossbridge attachment) in smooth muscle. The rates of force regeneration according to the k(step) protocol showed no differences between bladder types and also proved insensitive to either Pi or ADP. These data suggest that the rates of force regeneration were determined not only by the kinetics of the crossbridge cycle, but also by factors outside the contractile apparatus.

  15. Temperature jump induced force generation in rabbit muscle fibres gets faster with shortening and shows a biphasic dependence on velocity. (United States)

    Ranatunga, K W; Roots, H; Offer, G W


    We examined the tension responses to ramp shortening and rapid temperature jump (muscle fibres at 8-9 degrees C (the fibre length (L(0)) was approximately 1.5 mm and sarcomere length 2.5 microm). The aim was to investigate the strain sensitivity of crossbridge force generation in muscle. The T-jump induced tension rise was examined during steady shortening over a wide range of velocities (V) approaching the V(max) (V range approximately 0.01 to approximately 1.5 L(0) s(1)). In the isometric state, a T-jump induced a biphasic tension rise consisting of a fast (approximately 50 s(1), phase 2b) and a slow (approximately 10 s(1), phase 3) component, but if treated as monophasic the rate was approximately 20 s(1). During steady shortening the T-jump tension rise was monophasic; the rate of tension rise increased linearly with shortening velocity, and near V(max) it was approximately 200 s(1), approximately 10x faster than in the isometric state. Relative to the tension reached after the T-jump, the amplitude increased with shortening velocity, and near V(max) it was 4x larger than in the isometric state. Thus, the temperature sensitivity of muscle force is markedly increased with velocity during steady shortening, as found in steady state experiments. The rate of tension decline during ramp shortening also increased markedly with increase of velocity. The absolute amplitude of T-jump tension rise was larger than that in the isometric state at the low velocities (shortening velocity is increased, probably enhancement of crossbridge force generation and faster (post-stroke) crossbridge detachment by negative strain. Overall, our results show that T-jump force generation is strain sensitive and becomes considerably faster when exposed to negative strain. Thus the crossbridge force generation step in muscle is both temperature sensitive (endothermic) and strain sensitive.

  16. Shortening spinal column reconstruction through posterior only approach for the treatment of unstable osteoporotic burst lumber fracture: a case report


    Shawky, Ahmed; Kroeber, Markus


    Study design Case report. Clinical question This study reports if shortening reconstruction procedure through posterior approach only can be used in osteoporotic unstable fracture as well as post-traumatic burst fracture. Methods An 80-year-old female patient with unstable burst osteoporotic fracture of L1 underwent posterior approach corpectomy and shortening reconstruction of the spinal column by non-expandable cages. Result The surgery was uneventful, with average blood loss. Using of smal...

  17. Comparison of hydrogenated vegetable shortening and nutritionally complete high fat diet on limited access-binge behavior in rats


    Davis, Jon F.; Melhorn, Susan J; Heiman, Justin U.; Tschöp, Matthias H.; Clegg, Deborah J.; Benoit, Stephen C.


    Previous studies have suggested that intermittent exposure to hydrogenated vegetable shortening yields a binge/compensate pattern of feeding in rats. The present study was designed to assess whether rats would exhibit similar patterns of intake when given intermittent access to a nutritionally complete high-fat diet. Four groups of rats received varying exposure to either hydrogenated vegetable shortening or high-fat diet for 8 consecutive weeks. Animals were given daily and intermittent acce...

  18. Exhumation and shortening distribution in the Taiwan orogen: insights from thermomechanical modeling (United States)

    Mouthereau, F.; Yamato, P.; Burov, E.


    The Taiwan orogen has long been regarded as a case example for studying exhumation and erosion processes in association with mountain building. In the recent years, the increasing number of thermochronometric data (mainly ZFT and AFT ages) has allowed to better understanding the deep-seated tectonic processes. For instance, using thermomechanical wedge modelling, up to 50% of underplating has been proposed to explain the observed distribution of FT ages. So it would appear that a large amount of materials added to the orogen originated in more deeper and ductile parts of the crust. The nature of this additional flux (velocity, mechanism of deformation) is however poorly constrained in the current thermomechanical model. Our concern is to use a fully- coupled visco-elasto-plastic themomechanical numerical model to reproduce the observed FT ages and long- term distribution of shortening. To this aim we use the numerical code PARA(O)VOZ based on F.L.A.C. (Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua) algorithm. Our results show that the particular distribution of shortening across the Taiwan belt as well as the rapid exhumation and thermal conditions in the hinterland are well accounted for by two superimposed flows of upper and lower crustal rocks decoupled from the subducting Eurasian mantle.

  19. Mechanical versus kinematical shortening reconstructions of the Zagros High Folded Zone (Kurdistan region of Iraq) (United States)

    Frehner, Marcel; Reif, Daniel; Grasemann, Bernhard


    This paper compares kinematical and mechanical techniques for the palinspastic reconstruction of folded cross sections in collision orogens. The studied area and the reconstructed NE-SW trending, 55.5 km long cross section is located in the High Folded Zone of the Zagros fold-and-thrust belt in the Kurdistan region of Iraq. The present-day geometry of the cross section has been constructed from field as well as remote sensing data. In a first step, the structures and the stratigraphy are simplified and summarized in eight units trying to identify the main geometric and mechanical parameters. In a second step, the shortening is kinematically estimated using the dip domain method to 11%-15%. Then the same cross section is used in a numerical finite element model to perform dynamical unfolding simulations taking various rheological parameters into account. The main factor allowing for an efficient dynamic unfolding is the presence of interfacial slip conditions between the mechanically strong units. Other factors, such as Newtonian versus power law viscous rheology or the presence of a basement, affect the numerical simulations much less strongly. If interfacial slip is accounted for, fold amplitudes are reduced efficiently during the dynamical unfolding simulations, while welded layer interfaces lead to unrealistic shortening estimates. It is suggested that interfacial slip and decoupling of the deformation along detachment horizons is an important mechanical parameter that controlled the folding processes in the Zagros High Folded Zone.

  20. Increasing flux rate to shorten leaching period and ramp-up production (United States)

    Ngantung, Billy; Agustin, Riska; Ravi'i


    J Resources Bolaang Mongondow (JBRM) has operated a dynamic heap leach in its Bakan Gold Mine since late 2013. After successfully surpassing its name plate capacity of 2.6 MT/annum in 2014, the clayey and transition ore become the next operational challenge. The presence of transition and clayey ore requires longer leaching period, hence reducing the leach pad capacity which then caused reduced production. Maintaining or even increasing production with such longer leaching ore types can be done by expanding the leach pad area which means an additional capital investment, and/or shortening the leaching cycle which compromise a portion of gold extraction. JBRM has been successfully increasing the leach pad production from 2.6 MT/annum to 3.8 MT/annum, whilst improving the gold extraction from around 70% to around 80%. This was achieved by managing the operation of the leach pad which is shortening the leach cycle by identifying and combining the optimal flux rate application versus the tonne processed in each cell, at no capital investment for expanding the cell capacity.

  1. Immediate liposuction could shorten the time for endoscopic axillary lymphadenectomy in breast cancer patients. (United States)

    Shi, Fujun; Huang, Zonghai; Yu, Jinlong; Zhang, Pusheng; Deng, Jianwen; Zou, Linhan; Zhang, Cheng; Luo, Yunfeng


    Endoscopic axillary lymphadenectomy (EALND) was introduced to clinical work to reduce side effects of conventional axillary lymphadenectomy, while the lipolysis and liposuction of EALND made the process consume more time. The aim of the study was to determine whether immediate liposuction after tumescent solution injection to the axilla could shorten the total time of EALND. Fifty-nine patients were enrolled in the study, 30 of them received EALND with traditional liposuction method (TLM), and the rest 29 patients received EALND with immediate liposuction method (ILM). The operation time, cosmetic result, drainage amount, and hospitalization time of the two groups were compared. The median EALND operation time of TLM group and ILM group were 68 and 46 min, respectively, the difference was significant (P  0.05). Our work suggests immediate liposuction could shorten the endoscopic axillary lymphadenectomy process, and this method would not compromise the operation results. However, due to the limitations of the research, more work needs to be done to prove the availability and feasibility of immediate liposuction.

  2. Analysis of modulation factor to shorten the delivery time in helical tomotherapy. (United States)

    Shimizu, Hidetoshi; Sasaki, Koji; Tachibana, Hiroyuki; Tomita, Natsuo; Makita, Chiyoko; Nakashima, Kuniyasu; Yokoi, Kazushi; Kubota, Takashi; Yoshimoto, Manabu; Iwata, Tohru; Kodaira, Takeshi


    A low modulation factor (MF) maintaining a good dose distribution contributes to the shortening of the delivery time and efficiency of the treatment plan in helical tomotherapy. The purpose of this study was to reduce the delivery time using initial values and the upper limit values of MF. First, patients with head and neck cancer (293 cases) or prostate cancer (181 cases) treated between June 2011 and July 2015 were included in the analysis of MF values. The initial MF value (MFinitial ) was defined as the average MFactual value, and the upper limit of the MF value (MFUL ) was defined according the following equation: MFUL = 2 × standard deviation of MFactual value + the average MFactual Next, a treatment plan was designed for patients with head and neck cancer (62 cases) and prostate cancer (13 cases) treated between December 2015 and June 2016. The average MFactual value for the nasopharynx, oropharynx, hypopharynx, and prostate cases decreased from 2.1 to 1.9 (p = 0.0006), 1.9 to 1.6 (p delivery time for the nasopharynx, oropharynx, hypopharynx, and prostate cases also decreased from 19.9 s cm(-1) to 16.7 s cm(-1) (p delivery time was shortened by the adaptation of MFinitial and MFUL values with a reduction in the average MFactual for head and neck cancer and prostate cancer cases. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  3. Hsp25 and Hsp72 content in rat skeletal muscle following controlled shortening and lengthening contractions. (United States)

    Holwerda, Andrew M; Locke, Marius


    The cytoprotective proteins, Hsp25 and Hsp72, are increased in skeletal muscle after nondamaging, shortening contractions, but the temporal pattern of expression and stimulatory mechanisms remain unclear. Thus, we sought to define the in vivo temporal patterns of expression for Hsp25 and Hsp72 after 2 opposing contractions types. To do this, male Sprague-Dawley rats had 1 tibialis anterior (TA) muscle electrically stimulated (5 sets of 20 repetitions) while being either forcibly lengthened (LC) or shortened (SC). At 2, 8, 24, 48, 72, or 168 h after the contractions both the stimulated and the nonstimulated (contra-lateral control) TA muscles were removed and processed to examine muscle damage (hemotoxylin and eosin staining) and Hsp content (Western blot analyses). Cross-sections from TA muscles subjected to LCs showed muscle fibre damage at 8 h and thereafter. In contrast, no muscle fibre damage was observed at any time point following SCs. When normalized to contra-lateral controls, Hsp25 and Hsp72 content were significantly (P < 0.01) increased at 24 h (3.1- and 3.8-fold, respectively) and thereafter. There were no significant increases in Hsp25 or Hsp72 content at any time point following SC. These data suggest that LCs, but not SCs, result in Hsp accumulation and that the fibre/cellular damage sustained from LCs may be the stimulus for elevating Hsp content.

  4. Unloaded shortening velocity of voluntarily and electrically activated human dorsiflexor muscles in vivo. (United States)

    Sasaki, Kazushige; Ishii, Naokata


    We have previously shown that unloaded shortening velocity (V(0)) of human plantar flexors can be determined in vivo, by applying the "slack test" to submaximal voluntary contractions (J Physiol 567:1047-1056, 2005). In the present study, to investigate the effect of motor unit recruitment pattern on V(0) of human muscle, we modified the slack test and applied this method to both voluntary and electrically elicited contractions of dorsiflexors. A series of quick releases (i.e., rapid ankle joint rotation driven by an electrical dynamometer) was applied to voluntarily activated dorsiflexor muscles at three different contraction intensities (15, 50, and 85% of maximal voluntary contraction; MVC). The quick-release trials were also performed on electrically activated dorsiflexor muscles, in which three stimulus conditions were used: submaximal (equal to 15%MVC) 50-Hz stimulation, supramaximal 50-Hz stimulation, and supramaximal 20-Hz stimulation. Modification of the slack test in vivo resulted in good reproducibility of V(0), with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.87 (95% confidence interval: 0.68-0.95). Regression analysis showed that V(0) of voluntarily activated dorsiflexor muscles significantly increased with increasing contraction intensity (R(2) = 0.52, Pmuscles remained unchanged (R(2)shortening velocity of human skeletal muscle in vivo.

  5. Diffusional kurtosis MRI of the lower leg: changes caused by passive muscle elongation and shortening. (United States)

    Filli, Lukas; Kenkel, David; Wurnig, Moritz C; Boss, Andreas


    Diffusional kurtosis MRI (DKI) quantifies the deviation of water diffusion from a Gaussian distribution. We investigated the influence of passive elongation and shortening of the lower leg muscles on the DKI parameters D (diffusion coefficient) and K (kurtosis). After approval by the local ethics committee, eight healthy volunteers (age, 29.1 ± 2.9 years) underwent MRI of the lower leg at 3 T. Diffusion-weighted images were acquired with 10 different b values at three ankle positions (passive dorsiflexion 10°, neutral position 0°, passive plantar flexion 40°). Parametrical maps of D and K were obtained by voxel-wise fitting of the signal intensities using a non-linear Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. D and K were measured in the tibialis anterior, medial and lateral gastrocnemius, and soleus muscles. In the neutral position, D and K values were in the range between 1.66-1.79 × 10(-3) mm(2) /s and 0.21-0.39, respectively. D and K increased with passive shortening, and decreased with passive elongation, which could also be illustrated on the parametrical maps. In dorsiflexion, D (p muscles are significantly influenced by the ankle joint position, indicating that the diffusion of water molecules in skeletal muscle deviates from a Gaussian distribution depending on muscle tonus. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Measurement of terrace deformation and crustal shortening of some renascent fold zones within Kalpin nappe structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG XiaoPing; RAN YongKang; CHENG JianWu; CHEN LiChun; XU XiWei


    The Kalpin nappe structure is a strongest thrust and fold deformation belt in front of the Tianshan Mountains since the Cenozoic time. The tectonic deformation occurred in 5-6 striking Mesozoic-Cenozoic fold zones, and some renascent folds formed on the recent alluvial-proluvial fans in front of the folded mountains. We used the total station to measure gully terraces along the longitudinal topographic profile in the renascent fold zones and collected samples from terrace deposits for age determination. Using the obtained formation time and shortening amount of the deformed terraces, we calculated the shortening rate of 4 renascent folds to be 0.1±0.03 mm/a, 0.12±0.04 mm/a, 0.59±0.18 mm/a, and 0.26±0.08 mm/a, respectively. The formation time of the renascent folds is some later than the major tectonic uplift event of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau 0.14 Ma ago. It may be the long-distance effect of this tectonic event on the Tianshan piedmont fold belt.

  7. Animal studies of life shortening and cancer risk from space radiation (United States)

    Wood, D. H.; Yochmowitz, M. G.; Hardy, K. A.; Salmon, Y. L.

    The U. S. Air Force study of the delayed effects of single, total body exposures to simulated space radiation in rhesus monkeys is now in its 21st year. Observations on 301 irradiated and 57 age-matched control animals indicate that life expectancy loss from exposure to protons in the energy range encountered in the Van Allen belts and solar proton events can be expressed as a logarithmic function of the dose. The primary causes of life shortening are cancer and endometriosis (an abnormal proliferation of the lining of the uterus in females). Life shortening estimates permit comparison of the risk associated with space radiation exposures to be compared with that of other occupational and environmental hazards, thereby facilitating risk/benefit decisions in the planning and operational phases of manned space missions. Calculations of the relative risk of fatal cancers in the irradiated subjects reveal that the total body surface dose required to double the risk of death from cancer over a 20-year post exposure period varies with the linear energy transfer (LET) of the radiation. The ability to determine the integrated dose and LET spectrum in space radiation exposures of human is, therefore, critical to the assessment of life-time cancer risk.

  8. Leucocyte Telomere Shortening in relation to Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhelong Liu


    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to investigate the association between oxidative stress and telomere length shortening in the comorbid depression and diabetes. Therefore, 71 patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2D and 52 subjects with normal glycemic level (control, Ctrl were enrolled. Depressive status was identified with the Depression Subscale of Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D. Leukocyte telomere length ratio (T/S ratio was determined with quantitative PCR. Oxidative stress status was evaluated with 8-hydroxy-desoxyguanosine (8-OHdG assay kit. Some other biochemical blood testing was also performed. The data showed that T2D patients had higher proportion of depression evaluated by the HADS-D (x2=4.196, P=0.041. T/S ratio was significantly negatively correlated with 8-OHdG, HADS-D, age, HbA1c, FPG, and HOMA-IR. In addition, HADS-D was significantly positively correlated with HbA1c, FPG, HOMA-IR, and 8-OHdG. Both HADS-D and 8-OHdG were the major independent predictors for T/S ratio. This study indicates that oxidative stress contributes to both telomere length shortening and depression development in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients, while in depression status, some other mechanisms besides oxidative stress may also affect the telomere length.

  9. Moderate stem-cell telomere shortening rate postpones cancer onset in a stochastic model (United States)

    Holbek, Simon; Bendtsen, Kristian Moss; Juul, Jeppe


    Mammalian cells are restricted from proliferating indefinitely. Telomeres at the end of each chromosome are shortened at cell division and when they reach a critical length, the cell will enter permanent cell cycle arrest—a state known as senescence. This mechanism is thought to be tumor suppressing, as it helps prevent precancerous cells from dividing uncontrollably. Stem cells express the enzyme telomerase, which elongates the telomeres, thereby postponing senescence. However, unlike germ cells and most types of cancer cells, stem cells only express telomerase at levels insufficient to fully maintain the length of their telomeres, leading to a slow decline in proliferation potential. It is not yet fully understood how this decline influences the risk of cancer and the longevity of the organism. We here develop a stochastic model to explore the role of telomere dynamics in relation to both senescence and cancer. The model describes the accumulation of cancerous mutations in a multicellular organism and creates a coherent theoretical framework for interpreting the results of several recent experiments on telomerase regulation. We demonstrate that the longest average cancer-free lifespan before cancer onset is obtained when stem cells start with relatively long telomeres that are shortened at a steady rate at cell division. Furthermore, the risk of cancer early in life can be reduced by having a short initial telomere length. Finally, our model suggests that evolution will favor a shorter than optimal average cancer-free lifespan in order to postpone cancer onset until late in life.

  10. Shortened telomere length in bipolar disorder: a comparison of the early and late stages of disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia M. Barbé-Tuana

    Full Text Available Objective: Bipolar disorder (BD has been associated with increased rates of age-related diseases, such as type II diabetes, metabolic syndrome, osteoporosis, and cardiovascular disorders. Several biological findings have been associated with age-related disorders, including increased oxidative stress, inflammation, and telomere shortening. The objective of this study was to compare telomere length among participants with BD at early and late stages and age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Methods: Twenty-six euthymic subjects with BD and 34 healthy controls were recruited. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood and mean telomere length was measured using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results: Telomere length was significantly shorter in both the early and late subgroups of BD subjects when compared to the respective controls (p = 0.002 and p = 0.005, respectively. The sample size prevented additional subgroup analyses, including potential effects of medication, smoking status, and lifestyle. Conclusion: This study is concordant with previous evidence of telomere shortening in BD, in both early and late stages of the disorder, and supports the notion of accelerated aging in BD.

  11. Optimising culture medium for producing the yeast Pichia onychis (Lv027 Optimización de un medio de cultivo para la producción de la levadura Pichia onychis (Lv027

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cotes Alba Marina


    Full Text Available Optimising Pichia onychis yeast biomass production was evaluated using different substrates and different physicochemical conditions for liquid fermentation. The Plackett-Burman statistical design was initially applied for screening the most important nutritional variables (three carbon sources and eight nitrogen sources affecting yeast biomass production. Four nutritional sources and two physicochemical variables were subsequently evaluated using a factorial fractionated design as the starting point for optimising the process by applying a central composite rotational design. The results obtained f rom employing a polynomial regression model using the experimental data showed that biomass production was strongly affected by nutritional and physicochemical conditions. The highest yield was obtained in the following conditions: 43,42 g/L carbon source, 0,261 g/L nitrogen organic source, shaking at 110 rpm, 6,0 pH, 48 h total fermentation time during which 8,95 XlO9 cells/mL were obtained, equivalent to 6,30 g/L dry biomass. Key words: Pichia onychis, optimisation, liquid fermentation.La optimización de la producción masiva de la levadura Pichia onychis fue investigada usando varios sustratos y evaluando diferentes condiciones físico-químicas de fermentación líquida. Inicialmente se realizó un screening aplicando el diseño estadístico Plackett-Burman para evaluar tres fuentes de carbono y ocho fuentes de nitrógeno (tanto orgánicas como inorgánicas con el fin de seleccionar los factores nutricionales más influyentes sobre el crecimiento de la levadura. Posteriormente, se evaluaron cuatro fuentes nutricionales y dos variables físico-químicas utilizando un diseño factorial fraccionado como punto de partida, para llevar a cabo después un proceso de optimización aplicando un diseño estadístico Central Compuesto Rotacional. Un modelo de regresión polinomial se desarrolló usando los datos experimentales; los resultados muestran

  12. Toxoplasma gondii, Dirofilaria immitis, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infections in stray and pet cats (Felis catus) in northwest China: co-infections and risk factors. (United States)

    Cong, Wei; Meng, Qing-Feng; Blaga, Radu; Villena, Isabelle; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Qian, Ai-Dong


    This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, Dirofilaria immitis, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infections among stray and pet cats in Lanzhou, northwest China, and to identify the influence of age, gender, and regions on seropositivity. T. gondii antibodies were examined in cat sera by the modified agglutination test (MAT). The circulating antigens of D. immitis and FeLV and specific antibodies to FIV were examined using kits commercially available. The overall prevalence of T. gondii, FIV, FeLV, and D. immitis was 19.34, 9.12, 11.33, and 3.04 %, respectively. For the genetic characterization of T. gondii genotypes in cats, genomic DNA was extracted from the seropositive cats and the T. gondii B1 gene was amplified using a semi-nested PCR. DNA samples giving positive B1 amplification were then genotyped using multilocus PCR-RFLP. Two T. gondii genotypes (ToxoDB#9 and ToxoDB#1) were identified. Results of the multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that older cats are more likely to be seropositive than juveniles for T. gondii, FIV, FeLV, and D. immitis. This is the first report of T. gondii genotypes in cats in northwest China. Moreover, the present study is the first study of retrovirus and D. immitis seroprevalence in cats in China. The results revealed that T. gondii, FIV, and FeLV infections are common in stray and pet cats in northwest China.

  13. Dynamic Route Shortening and Route Repairing Mechanism for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Rangaswamy


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Ad hoc Networks are wireless networks without any fixed infrastructure. The network topology changes frequently and unpredictably due to the random movement of the nodes. The ad hoc on Demand Distant Vector Routing (AODV protocol works in a dynamic fashion, by establishing a route on demand and continues that route until it breaks. Due to the changing network topology of ad hoc networks, if other routes with less hop count become available, the network topology is not able to adapt until the route break occurs. Hence in the route shortening scheme is some redundant nodes in the active route is replaced with a node that is not on the active route. When there is any link failure between any two nodes, the alternative route with optimum route to be constructed and not sending RRER message to the source node to initiate the route discovery process again. Approach: This study proposes a new routing protocol called, Dynamic Route Shortening and Repairing mechanism (DRSR. The route shortening is incorporated with route repairing mechanism, to improve the performance of the AODV. The route shortening scheme works by replacing some redundant nodes in the active route, with a node that is not on the active route. If there is a link failure between the two nodes, the route repairing mechanism repairs the route, by using the nodes that are close enough to the route to overhear the message. Whenever the links go down, the DRSR replaces the failed links with the optimum route that is adjacent to the main route and not sending and RRER message to the source node to initiate the route discovery process again. The alternative route construction process could be initiated at any time, not just when a route has failed. The dynamically constructed alternative route’s information is passed on to the upstream nodes, which then determine by themselves when to direct their packets to the Normal 0 false false false EN-US X

  14. Improving the Estimation of Uncalibrated Fractional Phase Offsets for PPP Ambiguity Resolution


    Xingxing Li; Zhang, X


    Integer ambiguity resolution in Precise Point Positioning (PPP) can shorten convergence time and improve accuracy significantly. Uncalibrated Fractional Offsets (UFOs) originating in the satellites destroy the integer nature of carrier phase ambiguities observed at a single station. Several methods have been developed to estimate UFO information from a reference network for PPP ambiguity resolution. In this paper, we present a new approach for estimating Zero-Differenced (ZD) UFOs via float Z...

  15. Fractional random walk lattice dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Michelitsch, Thomas; Riascos, Alejandro Perez; Nowakowski, Andrzeij; Nicolleau, Franck


    We analyze time-discrete and continuous `fractional' random walks on undirected regular networks with special focus on cubic periodic lattices in $n=1,2,3,..$ dimensions.The fractional random walk dynamics is governed by a master equation involving {\\it fractional powers of Laplacian matrices $L^{\\frac{\\alpha}{2}}$}where $\\alpha=2$ recovers the normal walk.First we demonstrate thatthe interval $0\\textless{}\\alpha\\leq 2$ is admissible for the fractional random walk. We derive analytical expressions for fractional transition matrix and closely related the average return probabilities. We further obtain thefundamental matrix $Z^{(\\alpha)}$, and the mean relaxation time (Kemeny constant) for the fractional random walk.The representation for the fundamental matrix $Z^{(\\alpha)}$ relates fractional random walks with normal random walks.We show that the fractional transition matrix elements exihibit for large cubic $n$-dimensional lattices a power law decay of an $n$-dimensional infinite spaceRiesz fractional deriva...

  16. Fits to Moment Measurements from B->Xc lv and B-> Xs gamma Decays using Heavy Quark Expansions in the Kinetic Scheme

    CERN Document Server

    Buchmüller, O L; Buchmueller, Oliver; Flaecher, Henning


    We present a fit to moment measurements of inclusive distributions in B->Xc lv and B->Xs gamma decays to extract values for the CKM matrix element |Vcb|, the b- and c- quark masses, and higher order parameters that appear in the Heavy Quark Expansion. The fit is carried out using theoretical calculations in the kinetic scheme and includes moment measurements of the BaBar, Belle, CDF, CLEO and DELPHI collaborations where correlation matrices have been published. We also derive values for the heavy quark distribution function parameters $m_b$ and $\\mu_{\\pi}^2$ in different theoretical schemes that can be used as input for the evaluation of the associated theory error on |Vub|.

  17. MuLV-related endogenous retroviral elements and Flt3 participate in aberrant end-joining events that promote B-cell leukemogenesis. (United States)

    Johnson, Radia M; Papp, Eniko; Grandal, Ildiko; Kowalski, Paul E; Nutter, Lauryl; Wong, Raymond C C; Joseph-George, Ann M; Danska, Jayne S; Guidos, Cynthia J


    During V(D)J recombination of immunoglobulin genes, p53 and nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) suppress aberrant rejoining of DNA double-strand breaks induced by recombinase-activating genes (Rags)-1/2, thus maintaining genomic stability and limiting malignant transformation during B-cell development. However, Rag deficiency does not prevent B-cell leukemogenesis in p53/NHEJ mutant mice, revealing that p53 and NHEJ also suppress Rag-independent mechanisms of B-cell leukemogenesis. Using several cytogenomic approaches, we identified a novel class of activating mutations in Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (Flt3), a receptor tyrosine kinase important for normal hematopoiesis in Rag/p53/NHEJ triple-mutant (TM) B-cell leukemias. These mutant Flt3 alleles were created by complex genomic rearrangements with Moloney leukemia virus (MuLV)-related endogenous retroviral (ERV) elements, generating ERV-Flt3 fusion genes encoding an N-terminally truncated mutant form of Flt3 (trFlt3) that was transcribed from ERV long terminal repeats. trFlt3 protein lacked most of the Flt3 extracellular domain and induced ligand-independent STAT5 phosphorylation and proliferation of hematopoietic progenitor cells. Furthermore, expression of trFlt3 in p53/NHEJ mutant hematopoietic progenitor cells promoted development of clinically aggressive B-cell leukemia. Thus, repetitive MuLV-related ERV sequences can participate in aberrant end-joining events that promote development of aggressive B-cell leukemia. © 2014 Johnson et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  18. Spectral transfer function analysis of respiratory hemodynamic fluctuations predicts end-diastolic stiffness in preserved ejection fraction heart failure. (United States)

    Abdellatif, Mahmoud; Leite, Sara; Alaa, Mohamed; Oliveira-Pinto, José; Tavares-Silva, Marta; Fontoura, Dulce; Falcão-Pires, Inês; Leite-Moreira, Adelino F; Lourenço, André P


    Preserved ejection fraction heart failure (HFpEF) diagnosis remains controversial, and invasive left ventricular (LV) hemodynamic evaluation and/or exercise testing is advocated by many. The stiffer HFpEF myocardium may show impaired stroke volume (SV) variation induced by fluctuating LV filling pressure during ventilation. Our aim was to investigate spectral transfer function (STF) gain from end-diastolic pressure (EDP) to indexed SV (SVi) in experimental HFpEF. Eighteen-week-old Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and ZSF1 lean (ZSF1 Ln) and obese rats (ZSF1 Ob) randomly underwent LV open-chest (OC, n = 8 each group) or closed-chest hemodynamic evaluation (CC, n = 6 each group) under halogenate anesthesia and positive-pressure ventilation at constant inspiratory pressure. Beat-to-beat fluctuations in hemodynamic parameters during ventilation were assessed by STF. End-diastolic stiffness (βi) and end-systolic elastance (Eesi) for indexed volumes were obtained by inferior vena cava occlusion in OC (multibeat) or single-beat method estimates in CC. ZSF1 Ob showed higher EDP spectrum (P heart catheterization-derived EDP surrogates to noninvasively determined SV as screening/diagnostic tool to assess myocardial stiffness in HFpEF.

  19. Uncharged compactlike and fractional Lorentz-violating BPS vortices in the CPT-even sector of the standard model extension (United States)

    Miller, C.; Casana, R.; Ferreira, M. M., Jr.; da Hora, E.


    We have investigated and verified the existence of stable uncharged Bogomol’nyi-Prasad-Sommerfeld (BPS) vortices in the framework of an Abelian Maxwell-Higgs model supplemented with CPT-even and Lorentz-violating (LV) terms belonging to the gauge and Higgs sectors of the standard model extension. The analysis is performed in two situations: first, by considering the Lorentz violation only in the gauge sector, and then in both gauge and Higgs sectors. In the first case, it is observed that the model supports vortices somehow equivalent to the ones appearing in a dielectric medium. The Lorentz violation controls the radial extension (core of the solution) and the magnetic field amplitude of the Abrikosov-Nielsen-Olesen vortices, yielding compactlike defects in an alternative and simpler way than that of k-field models. At the end, we consider the Lorentz-violating terms in the gauge and Higgs sectors. It is shown that the full model also supports compactlike uncharged BPS vortices in a modified vacuum, but this time there are two LV parameters controlling the defect structure. Moreover, an interesting novelty is introduced by the LV-Higgs sector: fractional vortex solutions.

  20. Gauge Invariant Fractional Electromagnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Lazo, Matheus Jatkoske


    Fractional derivatives and integrations of non-integers orders was introduced more than three centuries ago but only recently gained more attention due to its application on nonlocal phenomenas. In this context, several formulations of fractional electromagnetic fields was proposed, but all these theories suffer from the absence of an effective fractional vector calculus, and in general are non-causal or spatially asymmetric. In order to deal with these difficulties, we propose a spatially symmetric and causal gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic field from a Lagrangian formulation. From our fractional Maxwell's fields arose a definition for the fractional gradient, divergent and curl operators.

  1. Fractional Langevin equation and Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative. (United States)

    Sau Fa, Kwok


    In this present work we consider a fractional Langevin equation with Riemann-Liouville fractional time derivative which modifies the classical Newtonian force, nonlocal dissipative force, and long-time correlation. We investigate the first two moments, variances and position and velocity correlation functions of this system. We also compare them with the results obtained from the same fractional Langevin equation which uses the Caputo fractional derivative.

  2. Preheating with fractional powers (United States)

    Moghaddam, Hossein Bazrafshan; Brandenberger, Robert


    We consider preheating in models in which the potential for the inflaton is given by a fractional power, as is the case in axion monodromy inflation. We assume a standard coupling between the inflaton field and a scalar matter field. We find that in spite of the fact that the oscillation of the inflaton about the field value which minimizes the potential is anharmonic, there is nevertheless a parametric resonance instability, and we determine the Floquet exponent which describes this instability as a function of the parameters of the inflaton potential.

  3. Fractional cointegration rank estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasak, Katarzyna; Velasco, Carlos

    We consider cointegration rank estimation for a p-dimensional Fractional Vector Error Correction Model. We propose a new two-step procedure which allows testing for further long-run equilibrium relations with possibly different persistence levels. The fi…rst step consists in estimating......-likelihood ratio test of no-cointegration on the estimated p - r common trends that are not cointegrated under the null. The cointegration degree is re-estimated in the second step to allow for new cointegration relationships with different memory. We augment the error correction model in the second step...

  4. Fractional Reserve Banking


    Andreasen, Niels; Bjerregaard, Mads; Lund, Jonas; Olsen, Ove Bitsch; Rasmussen, Andreas Dalgas


    Projektet er bygget op omkring kritisk realisme, som er det gennemgående videnskabelige fundament til undersøgelsen af hvilke strukturelle grunde der er til finansiel ustabilitet i Danmark. Projektet går i dybden med Fractional Reserve Banking og incitamentsstrukturen i banksystemet. Vi bevæger os både på det makro- og mikroøkonomiske niveau i analysen. På makro niveau bruger vi den østrigske skole om konjunktur teori (The Positive Theory of the Cycle). På mikro niveau arbejder vi med princip...

  5. Fractional Reserve Banking


    Andreasen, Niels; Bjerregaard, Mads; Lund, Jonas; Olsen, Ove Bitsch; Rasmussen, Andreas Dalgas


    Projektet er bygget op omkring kritisk realisme, som er det gennemgående videnskabelige fundament til undersøgelsen af hvilke strukturelle grunde der er til finansiel ustabilitet i Danmark. Projektet går i dybden med Fractional Reserve Banking og incitamentsstrukturen i banksystemet. Vi bevæger os både på det makro- og mikroøkonomiske niveau i analysen. På makro niveau bruger vi den østrigske skole om konjunktur teori (The Positive Theory of the Cycle). På mikro niveau arbejder vi med princip...

  6. An analysis of the temperature dependence of force, during steady shortening at different velocities, in (mammalian) fast muscle fibres. (United States)

    Roots, H; Ranatunga, K W


    We examined, over a wide range of temperatures (10-35 degrees C), the isometric tension and tension during ramp shortening at different velocities (0.2-4 L(0)/s) in tetanized intact fibre bundles from a rat fast (flexor hallucis brevis) muscle; fibre length (L(0)) was 2.2 mm and sarcomere length approximately 2.5 microm. During a ramp shortening, the tension change showed an initial inflection of small amplitude (P(1)), followed by a larger exponential decline towards an approximate steady level; the tension continued to decline slowly afterwards and the approximate steady tension at a given velocity was estimated as the tension (P(2)) at the point of intersection between two linear slopes, as previously described (Roots et al. 2007). At a given temperature, the tension P(2) declined to a lower level and at a faster rate (from an exponential curve fit) as the shortening velocity was increased; the temperature sensitivity of the rate of tension decline during ramp shortening at different velocities was low (Q(10) 0.9-1.5). The isometric tension and the P(2) tension at a given shortening velocity increased with warming so that the relation between tension and (reciprocal) temperature was sigmoidal in both. In isometric muscle, the temperature T(0.5) for half-maximal tension was approximately 10 degrees C, activation enthalpy change (DeltaH) was approximately 100 kJ mol(-1) and entropy change (DeltaS) approximately 350 J mol(-1) K(-1). In shortening, these were increased with increase of velocity so that at a shortening velocity (approximately 4 L(0)/s) producing maximal power at 35 degrees C, T(0.5) was approximately 28 degrees C, DeltaH was approximately 200 kJ mol(-1) and DeltaS approximately 700 J mol(-1) K(-1); the same trends were seen in the tension data from isotonic release experiments on intact muscle and in ramp shortening experiments on maximally Ca-activated skinned fibres. In general, our findings show that the sigmoidal relation between force and

  7. Fractional Integral Inequalities via Hadamard’s Fractional Integral



    We establish new fractional integral inequalities, via Hadamard’s fractional integral. Several new integral inequalities are obtained, including a Grüss type Hadamard fractional integral inequality, by using Young and weighted AM-GM inequalities. Many special cases are also discussed.

  8. Body Fractions: A Physical Approach to Fraction Learning (United States)

    Mills, Judith


    Many students experience great difficulty understanding the meaning of fractions. For many students who have spent their early mathematics lessons focusing on counting (whole) numbers, recognising that there are many numbers between those whole numbers called fractional numbers, is quite revolutionary. The foundation of understanding fractions is…

  9. Cosmological Models with Fractional Derivatives and Fractional Action Functional

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V.K. Shchigolev


    Cosmological models of a scalar field with dynamical equations containing fractional derivatives or derived from the Einstein-Hilbert action of fractional order, are constructed. A number of exact solutions to those equations of fractional cosmological models in both eases is given.

  10. Development of tools to manage the operational monitoring and pre-design of the NPP-LV cycle; Desarrollo de herramientas para administrar el seguimiento operativo y el pre-diseno del ciclo de la CLV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perusquia, R.; Arredondo S, C.; Hernandez M, J. L.; Montes T, J. L.; Castillo M, A.; Ortiz S, J. J., E-mail: [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)


    This paper presents the development of tools to facilitate the management so much, the operational monitoring of boiling water reactors (BWR) of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde (NPP-LV) through independent codes, and how to carry out the static calculations corresponding to process of optimized pre-design of the reference cycle next to current cycle. The progress and preliminary results obtained with the program SACal, developed at Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ), central tool to achieve provide a management platform of the operational monitoring and pre-design of NPP-LV cycle are also described. The reached preliminary advances directed to get an Analysis center and automated design of fuel assembly cells are also presented, which together with centers or similar modules related with the fuel reloads form the key part to meet the targets set for the realization of a Management Platform of Nuclear Fuel of the NPP-LV. (Author)

  11. [Iliopsoas muscle syndrome. Functional disorders: shortening, spasm and weakness of a structurally unchanged muscle]. (United States)

    Grgić, Vjekoslav


    Functional (non-organic) disorders of the iliopsoas muscle (IPM), i.e. the shortening, spasm and weakness of the structurally unchanged IPM, can be manifested as abdominal and/or pelvic pain, pain in areas of the thoracolumbar (ThL) and lumbosacral (LS) spine, sacroiliac (SI) joint, hip, groin and anterior thigh on the side of the affected muscle as well as gait disturbances (iliopsoas muscle syndrome). By clinical examination of the IPM, including the transabdominal palpation, stretch and strength tests, pathological masses, shortening, painful spasm, weakness and tendon tenderness of that muscle can be diagnosed. The IPM is, like other postural muscles, inclined to shortening. The weakness of the IPM can be a consequence of the lesion of the lumbar plexus or femoral nerve that innervate the IPM, as well as a consequence of certain organic diseases of the IPM. Painful stimuli coming from somatic and visceral structures that are innervated from Th12-L4 nerve roots, from which the IPM segmental innervation also originates, can cause a reflex spasm of the IPM. A painful spasm of the IPM caused by disorders of the ThL and LS spine, SI and hip joint, can mimic diseases of the abdominal and pelvic organs. In the differential diagnosis of the IPM painful spasm, organic diseases of that muscle should be considered foremost (abscess, hematoma, tumor, metastase), as they can result in spasm, and the diseases of the abdominal and pelvic organs that can cause an IPM reflex spasm. The IPM functional disorders, which are not rare, are often overlooked during a clinical examination of a patient. Reasons for overlooking these disorders are: 1) a nonspecific and variable clinical picture presenting the IPM functional disorders, 2) the IPM functional disorders are a neglected source of pain, 3) the inaccessibility of the IPM for inspection, 4) the lack of knowledge of the IPM examination techniques and 5) the IPM functional disorders cannot be discovered by radiological

  12. Studies on Frying Quality of Virgin Coconut Oil and Shortening Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nor Omar


    Full Text Available The frying performances of palm solid shortening (PS and virgin coconut oil (VCO blends were evaluated. The fresh chickens were fried in a blended frying medium using an open fryer for 8 hours per day intermittently at 30 min interval for five consecutive days. Three types of oils were used; i.e. palm shortening without blending (PS, a blend of VCO: PS (10:90, and a blend of VCO: PS (20:80. The frying oils were collected periodically and their fatty acid composition (FAC, free fatty acid (FFA content, total polar compound (TPC and total polymer material (TPM were determined. In addition, the fried chicken was subjected to the analyses of oil absorption and sensory evaluation. The results showed that the frying performance of the VCO:PS (20:80 blend was better than VCO:PS (10:90 blend and PS in terms of TPM and TPC contents. The VCO:PS (20:80 gave TPC and TPM values of 17.4 and 1.40% respectively, the blend of VCO:PS (10:90 gave values of TPC and TPM of 18. 7 and 2.20% respectively, whilst PS with TPC of and TPM of 20.5 and 3.02 % respectively. Meanwhile, the oil absorption patterns showed that the fried chicken in VCO: PS (10:90 blend absorbed less oil compared to chickens fried in PS and VCO:PS (20:80 blend. The oil uptake in chickens fried in VCO:PS (10:90 blend was 1.75%, while in PS and VCO:PS (20:80 blend were 2.82 and 2.57 % respectively. In term of sensory evaluation, the addition of virgin coconut oil (VCO to palm based solid shortening (PS showed significant differences (p < 0.05 on crispiness, taste and overall scores on the 1st , 3rd and 5th day of frying. Although there were no significant difference on oiliness on the 1st and 3rd day, there was a significant difference on the 5th day of frying. In conclusion, the addition of a small proportion of VCO in PS would improve the frying performance of oil as well as sensory scores of the fried products.

  13. Shortened telomere length is associated with increased risk of cancer: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Ma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Telomeres play a key role in the maintenance of chromosome integrity and stability, and telomere shortening is involved in initiation and progression of malignancies. A series of epidemiological studies have examined the association between shortened telomeres and risk of cancers, but the findings remain conflicting. METHODS: A dataset composed of 11,255 cases and 13,101 controls from 21 publications was included in a meta-analysis to evaluate the association between overall cancer risk or cancer-specific risk and the relative telomere length. Heterogeneity among studies and their publication bias were further assessed by the χ(2-based Q statistic test and Egger's test, respectively. RESULTS: The results showed that shorter telomeres were significantly associated with cancer risk (OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.14-1.60, compared with longer telomeres. In the stratified analysis by tumor type, the association remained significant in subgroups of bladder cancer (OR = 1.84, 95% CI = 1.38-2.44, lung cancer (OR = 2.39, 95% CI = 1.18-4.88, smoking-related cancers (OR = 2.25, 95% CI = 1.83-2.78, cancers in the digestive system (OR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.53-1.87 and the urogenital system (OR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.12-2.67. Furthermore, the results also indicated that the association between the relative telomere length and overall cancer risk was statistically significant in studies of Caucasian subjects, Asian subjects, retrospective designs, hospital-based controls and smaller sample sizes. Funnel plot and Egger's test suggested that there was no publication bias in the current meta-analysis (P = 0.532. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this meta-analysis suggest that the presence of shortened telomeres may be a marker for susceptibility to human cancer, but single larger, well-design prospective studies are warranted to confirm these findings.

  14. The Geminga Fraction

    CERN Document Server

    Harding, A K; Gonthier, P L; Harding, Alice K.; Grenier, Isabelle A.; Gonthier, Peter L.


    Radio-quiet gamma-ray pulsars like Geminga may account for a number of the unidentified EGRET sources in the Galaxy. The number of Geminga-like pulsars is very sensitive to the geometry of both the gamma-ray and radio beams. Recent studies of the shape and polarization of pulse profiles of young radio pulsars have provided evidence that their radio emission originates in wide cone beams at altitudes that are a significant fraction (1 -10%) of their light cylinder radius. Such wide radio emission beams will be visible at a much larger range of observer angles than the narrow core components thought to originate at lower altitude. Using 3D geometrical modeling that includes relativistic effects from pulsar rotation, we study the visibility of such radio cone beams as well as that of the gamma-ray beams predicted by slot gap and outer gap models. From the results of this study one can obtain revised predictions for the fraction of Geminga-like, radio quiet pulsars present in the gamma-ray pulsar population.

  15. NESDIS VIIRS Green Vegetation Fraction (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains weekly Green Vegetation Fraction (GVF) derived from VIIRS. The Green Vegetation Fraction product is updated daily and is used as an input to...

  16. Advances in robust fractional control

    CERN Document Server

    Padula, Fabrizio


    This monograph presents design methodologies for (robust) fractional control systems. It shows the reader how to take advantage of the superior flexibility of fractional control systems compared with integer-order systems in achieving more challenging control requirements. There is a high degree of current interest in fractional systems and fractional control arising from both academia and industry and readers from both milieux are catered to in the text. Different design approaches having in common a trade-off between robustness and performance of the control system are considered explicitly. The text generalizes methodologies, techniques and theoretical results that have been successfully applied in classical (integer) control to the fractional case. The first part of Advances in Robust Fractional Control is the more industrially-oriented. It focuses on the design of fractional controllers for integer processes. In particular, it considers fractional-order proportional-integral-derivative controllers, becau...

  17. Acute pulmonary edema in patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction is associated with concentric left ventricular geometry. (United States)

    Imanishi, Junichi; Kaihotsu, Kenji; Yoshikawa, Sachiko; Nishimori, Makoto; Sone, Naohiko; Honjo, Tomoyuki; Iwahashi, Masanori


    Although acute pulmonary edema (APE) is common in patients with heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (EF), its pathogenesis in patients with HF with reduced EF (HFrEF) is not completely understood. The purpose of our study was to explore the contributions of left ventricular (LV) geometry to understand the difference between HFrEF patients with or without APE. We studied 122 consecutive acute decompensated HF patients with HFrEF (≤40%). APE was defined as acute-onset dyspnea and radiographic alveolar edema requiring immediate airway intervention. LV geometry was determined from a combination of the LV mass index and relative wall thickness (RWT). Long-term unfavorable outcome events were tracked during a follow-up of a median of 21 months (interquartile range, 10-28 months), during which APE was observed in 29 patients (24%). Compared to those without APE, hospitalized patients with APE had a higher systolic blood pressure, RWT, and LVEF and lower end-diastolic dimension. Among echocardiographic variables, a multivariate logistic regression analysis identified RWT as the only independent determinant of APE (hazard ratio: 2.46, p geometry (n = 25; RWT > 0.42) had a higher incidence of APE relative to those with non-concentric geometry. Furthermore, among patients with APE, mortality was significantly higher among those with concentric geometry (log-rank, p = 0.008). Compared with non-concentric geometry, concentric geometry (increased RWT, not LV mass) was strongly associated with APE onset and a poorer outcome among APE patients. An easily obtained echocardiographic RWT index may facilitate the risk stratification of patients.

  18. Dual Endothelin-A/Endothelin-B Receptor Blockade and Cardiac Remodeling in Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction. (United States)

    Valero-Munoz, Maria; Li, Shanpeng; Wilson, Richard M; Boldbaatar, Batbold; Iglarz, Marc; Sam, Flora


    Despite the increasing prevalence of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) in humans, there remains no evidence-based therapies for HFpEF. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) antagonists are a possibility because elevated ET-1 levels are associated with adverse cardiovascular effects, such as arterial and pulmonary vasoconstriction, impaired left ventricular (LV) relaxation, and stimulation of LV hypertrophy. LV hypertrophy is a common phenotype in HFpEF, particularly when associated with hypertension. In the present study, we found that ET-1 levels were significantly elevated in patients with chronic stable HFpEF. We then sought to investigate the effects of chronic macitentan, a dual ET-A/ET-B receptor antagonist, on cardiac structure and function in a murine model of HFpEF induced by chronic aldosterone infusion. Macitentan caused LV hypertrophy regression independent of blood pressure changes in HFpEF. Although macitentan did not modulate diastolic dysfunction in HFpEF, it significantly reduced wall thickness and relative wall thickness after 2 weeks of therapy. In vitro studies showed that macitentan decreased the aldosterone-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. These changes were mediated by a reduction in the expression of cardiac myocyte enhancer factor 2a. Moreover, macitentan improved adverse cardiac remodeling, by reducing the stiffer cardiac collagen I and titin n2b expression in the left ventricle of mice with HFpEF. These findings indicate that dual ET-A/ET-B receptor inhibition improves HFpEF by abrogating adverse cardiac remodeling via antihypertrophic mechanisms and by reducing stiffness. Additional studies are needed to explore the role of dual ET-1 receptor antagonists in patients with HFpEF. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Missing shortening in the thick-skinned retroarc thrust belt of the central Andes, northwestern Argentina, ~25°S (United States)

    Pearson, D. M.; Kapp, P. A.; Decelles, P. G.; Reiners, P. W.


    A very large discrepancy exists among estimated retroarc shortening magnitudes in the thin-skinned thrust belt of Bolivia and the thick-skinned thrust belt of northwestern Argentina. Fieldwork and structural analysis from this study at ~25°S latitude in northwestern Argentina confirm the presence of a mainly west verging, thick-skinned style of shortening in the region which, taken together with thermochronological data ((U-Th)/He in zircon and apatite and published apatite fission track results), imply up to 10 km of rapid, Miocene exhumation. Although these results suggest that significant exhumation occurred in the region, displacements on mapped, discrete faults are insufficient in magnitude (by ~15-20%) to generate the observed ~58 km thick crust (Yuan et al., 2002). We suggest that additional, unrecognized shortening or crustal addition is required in the region to explain the thick crust and occurred by 1) crustal flow from neighboring regions of thickened crust; 2) passive roof thrusting whereby major, likely mid-crustal shortening was fed to higher structural levels; 3) tectonic underplating of trench or forearc rocks; and/or 4) significant penetrative strain not accommodated by through going faults. We do not discard other mechanisms of crustal thickening and/or addition in the region, but magnitudes of upper crustal shortening required by excess area calculations are best explained by penetrative deformation within rheologically weak metaturbidites of the Neoproterozoic to Cambrian Puncoviscana Formation. Although penetrative strain was generally not considered in cross section restorations in the retroarc of Bolivia, a relative lack of these rheologically weak rocks there probably precludes penetrative deformation as a significant mode of deformation and may partially reconcile the discrepancy in along-strike shortening magnitudes. Significant shortening has been accommodated by penetrative strain in other orogens worldwide, including western North

  20. Modulation of corticospinal excitability during lengthening and shortening contractions in the first dorsal interosseus muscle of humans. (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Hirofumi; Kohno, Yutaka; Hirano, Tatsuya; Akai, Masami; Nakajima, Yasoichi; Nakazawa, Kimitaka


    Lengthening and shortening contractions are the fundamental patterns of muscle activation underlying various movements. It is still unknown whether or not there is a muscle-specific difference in such a fundamental pattern of muscle activation. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to investigate whether or not the relationship between lengthening and shortening contractions in the modulation of corticospinal excitability in the first dorsal interosseus (FDI) muscle is the same as that of previously tested muscles because the hand muscles are anatomically and functionally different from the other muscles. To this end, we investigated the relationship between the input-output curves of the corticospinal pathway (i.e., the relationship between the stimulus intensities vs. the area of motor-evoked potentials) during lengthening and shortening contractions in 17 healthy subjects. The shape of this relationship was sigmoidal and characterized by a plateau value, maximum slope, and threshold. The plateau value was at the same level between lengthening and shortening contractions. However, the maximum slope (P shortening contractions. These findings were different from the results of other muscles tested in previous studies (i.e., the soleus muscle and the elbow flexors). That is to say, the plateau value and the maximum slope during lengthening contractions were significantly lower than those during shortening contractions in previous studies. This study provides tentative evidence that the relationship between lengthening and shortening contractions in the modulation of corticospinal excitability differs between muscles, indicating that the underlying neural control is not necessarily the same even though the fundamental patterns of muscle activation are carried out.