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Sample records for luya mountain natural

  1. Relationship between tourism development and vegetated landscapes in Luya Mountain Nature Reserve, Shanxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhan-Hong; Zhang, Jin-Tun

    2005-09-01

    The relationship between tourism development and vegetated landscapes is analyzed for the Luya Mountain Nature Reserve (LMNR), Shanxi, China, in this study. Indices such as Sensitive Level (SL), Landscape Importance Value (LIV), information index of biodiversity (H'), Shade-tolerant Species Proportion (SSP), and Tourism Influencing Index (TII) are used to characterize vegetated landscapes, the impact of tourism, and their relationship. Their relationship is studied by Two-Way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN) and Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA). TWINSPAN gives correct and rapid partition to the classification, and DCA ordination shows the changing tendency of all vegetation types based on tourism development. These results reflect the ecological relationship between tourism development and vegetated landscapes. In Luya Mountain Nature Reserve, most plant communities are in good or medium condition, which shows that these vegetated landscapes can support more tourism. However, the occurrence of the bad condition shows that there is a severe contradiction between tourism development and vegetated landscapes.

  2. Point pattern analysis of different age-classes of Larix principis-rupprechtii in Luya Mountain Reserve,Shanxi Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jintun; MENG Dongping

    2007-01-01

    Larix principis-rupprechtii forest is an important vegetation formation and has a large distribution area in Luya Mountain Reserve,China.Spatial pattern analysis on individual trees in different age-classes of Larix principisrupprechtii was made in this paper.Here,we employed the technique of point pattern analysis,which could analyze patterns under all scales along a gradient.It was based on spatial mapped points of individual distribution.The results of this study showed that the densities of the five age-classes varied in the order:age-class 3>age-class 4>age-class 5>age-class 2>age-class 1.Although age-classes 1 and 2 have much fewer individuals than other three age-classes do,the population was stable at present.However,it would be necessary to take some measures for improving population regeneration for a long-time view.The individuals of all age-classes focused on clumping distribution in space;however,their distribution pattern varied with the change of scale.This mainly depended on biological features of Larix principis-rupprechtii and forest environments,but it also meant that the scale was an important factor in controlling spatial distribution pattern of tree individuals.The feature of clumping distribution became more significant with the increase of age.The relationships between individuals in different age-classes were almost all significantly correlated with each other.These associations became more significant within the older age-classes.This suggested that the individuals of different age-classes were interdistributed,by which the population could get benefits in resource utilization.The technique of point pattern analysis is effective and easy to be used in species pattern study.Its results are more closer to the reality,especially for community structure.

  3. Two-dimensional pattern analysis on dominant species and community in subalpine meadow of Luya Mountain,Shanxi Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jintun

    2007-01-01

    The spatial pattern analysis of population and community is important to understand community structure and has become one key topic in modern plant ecology.There are many techniques for analyzing one-dimensional pattern in ecological literature.Two-dimensional pattern analysis is better than one-dimensional analysis in the study on community spatial characteristics and structure.However,it is hard to analyze these two-dimensional patterns due to poor effective methodology.The two-dimensional sampling using two transects that meet at right angles was applied to get quadrat data in this work.And then the data from the two transects were analyzed separately by one-dimensional pattern analysis method,two-term local quadrat variance.The length,width,and area of patches at different scales of pattern for populations were obtained from the analysis.For community pattern,detrended correspondence analysis (DCA)was employed to summarize the species information firstly,and then the first DCA axis scores were analyzed to check its pattern.The application of this method to the pattern analysis on dominant populations and community for subalpine meadow (Comm.Polygonum viviparum+Carex rigescens+Kobresia bellardii)in the Luya mountains showed that it could release the characteristics of spatial pattern clearly and was a very effective technique.The method is easy to use and saves time with obvious advantages,compared with the twodimensional pattern analysis methods presented in the literatures.In the study meadow,the patterns of the main dominant species,Polygonum viviparum,Carex rigescens,and Kobresia bellardii,were apparent and comparatively regular in shape with large areas of patches at the same scale compared with other species such as Festuca sp.and Thalictrum petaloideum.There were two or three scales of patterns for each plant population studied.This was related to population features,the interaction with environmental factors,and their dominant position in the community

  4. 芦芽山林线白杆生长季径向生长动态%Dynamics of stem radial growth of Picea meyeri during the growing season at the treeline of Luya Mountain, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董满宇; 江源; 杨浩春; 王明昌; 张文涛; 郭媛媛

    2012-01-01

    Aims As an important ecological boundary, treeline ecotone is sensitive and vulnerable to external environmental changes, and tree growth at treeline is strongly constrained by the harsh environment. Our objectives were to analyze the characteristics of the stem radial growth of Picea meyeri during the growing season at the treeline of Luya Mountain, Shanxi, China and investigate the main environmental factors affecting radial growth. Methods From May to September 2009, an automatic point dendrometer was used to continuously monitor stem radial growth of P. meyeri. Environmental factors were measured by instruments synchronously. Important findings The daily variation pattern, i.e., reversible stem shrinking (day) and swelling (night), was controlled by the daily course of tree transpiration. The cumulative radial variation of P. meyeri during the growing season could be divided into three distinct periods: 1) stem rehydration, 2) stem rapid growth, and 3) stem dehydration contraction. During different growth periods, the major environmental factors controlling the stem radial growth were different. Soil water content, soil temperature, soil temperature and water content were the main environmental factors corresponding to the above mentioned three growth periods, respectively. Soil temperature determined the initiation of stem radial growth of P. meyeri. Photoperiod could act as the constricting factor for the growth rate of P. meyeri at the treeline. The maximum growth rate of P. meyeri occurred in late June, around the time of maximum day length (summer solstice), which may be a survival strategy to avoid frost damage during cold winter conditions at treeline.%高山林线作为树木分布的高度上限,是全球范围最重要的植被过渡带之一,其树木生长显著受到外界极端环境条件的影响.利用点状树木径向变化记录仪于2009年5-9月,对山西省芦芽山林线组成树种白杆(Picea meyeri)生长季内树木径向生长进

  5. Spermatophyte Flora Distribution in Hubei Daqi Mountain Nature Reserve

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Zhengyu; Cai, Jingyong; Bai, Tao; Jiang, Jianguo; Wang, Shaoming

    2013-01-01

    A basic ingredient analysis of flora and geographic elements of plant genera and families in Daqi Mountain Nature Reserve was conducted through the field survey and specimen collection, based on the system investigation of plant flora, and an R/T ratio comparison between the flora in Daqi Mountain and adjacent mountain floras was made. Plant taxonomy identification indicates that spermatophytes in the nature reserve comprises 1035 species of 534 genera, falling in 140families, of which 10 gym...

  6. Spermatophyte Flora Distribution in Hubei Daqi Mountain Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhengyu; LEI; Jingyong; CAI; Tao; BAI; Jianguo; JIANG; Shaoming; WANG

    2013-01-01

    A basic ingredient analysis of flora and geographic elements of plant genera and families in Daqi Mountain Nature Reserve was conducted through the field survey and specimen collection,based on the system investigation of plant flora,and an R/T ratio comparison between the flora in Daqi Mountain and adjacent mountain floras was made.Plant taxonomy identification indicates that spermatophytes in the nature reserve comprises 1035 species of 534 genera,falling in 140families,of which 10 gymnosperm species of 8 genera fall in 5 families,while 1025angiosperm species of 526 genera in 135 families.The analysis of flora demonstrates that the region harbors 15 flora distribution types,with high complexity,paleo-flora origin,distinct trait of temperate zone,abundant ingredient of tropical zone,and close connection with the flora of East China.

  7. Nature Reserve and Ecotourism Development in China's Wuzhishan Mountain Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Genzong; Qiu Penghua; Tang Shaoxia

    2007-01-01

    As the protected areas of land and coastal environment,nature reserves are designed to address how to reconcile the conservation of biodiversity, the quest for economic and social development and the maintenance of cultural values. This paper establishes a framework for nature reserve development that seeks to incorporate ecotourism into its strategies. The overall purpose was to identify the information needs required for a comprehensive nature reserve that incorporates ecotourism related values. It also illustrates the utility of this framework in the context of the Wuzhishan Mountain Region of China. A literature review, the first phase of a visionary strategy and a subsequent gap analysis for available management information were undertaken in order to achieve this paper's purpose. Finally, recommendations are presented for integrating ecotourism into nature reserve development in the Wuzhishan Mountain Region

  8. Practices of nature: movement and contemplation in the Marumbi mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Izabel de Carvalho

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Between the 1940s and 1960s a group of climbers was dedicated to brave the Marumbi mountains, a massive located at the Sea Mountain Range in State of Paraná (Brazil. They termed the sport practiced as "marumbinismo" and to organize their activities founded the Clube dos Marumbinistas de Curitiba. The paper presents the initial phase of ascents of those mountains, then the club consolidation phase and seeks to analyze how the sociopolitical context of that time, with emphasis on the importance of physical exercises in the supposed character building individual and national,has influenced the discourse of CMC. It also analyzes the internal structure of the club around a "culture of nature."

  9. [Genetic diversity of isoenzymes in mountain pine (Pinus mugo Turra) in natural populations in the Ukrainian Carpathian mountains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirko, Ia V

    2000-01-01

    Electrophoretic spectra of GOT, GDH, DIA, MDH, SOD, FDH, ADH, ACP, IDH enzymes in the megagametophytes of seeds of 69 mountain pine (Pinus mugo Turra) trees from natural populations of the Ukrainian Carpathian mountains have been described. 19 loci products had efficient electrophoretic separation. The analysis of alleles segregation of the heterozygous trees on the whole confirms monogenic inheritance of the discovered variants.

  10. Evaluation and reasonable exploitation on the natural view resources of Lushan Mountain scenic spot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Haihui; FAN Jinping; ZHUO Lihuan

    2007-01-01

    The paper carried on the classified and rating evaluation primarily on natural landscape resources in Lushan Mountain.According to the evaluation, exploiting and utilizing the situation of scenic spot natural landscape resources, some reasonable advices were given on further exploiting Lushan Mountain natural scenic spot, expecting that it could supply some theoretical references for the natural landscape resources sustainable development in Lushan Mountain in the future.

  11. Turkish Children's Drawing of Nature in a Certain Way: Range of Mountains in the Back, the Sun, Couple of Clouds, a River Rising from the Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulker, Riza

    2012-01-01

    This study reveals that Turkish kindergarten through 8th Grade (K-8) students draw nature pictures in a certain way; range of mountains in the background, a sun, a couple of clouds, a river rising from the mountains. There are similarities in the K-8 students' nature drawings in the way these nature items are organized on a drawing paper. We…

  12. Natural resource management plan : Volume I : Department of the Army, Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Natural resource management plan for the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) was prepared by Colorado State University for the U.S. Government to guide management to...

  13. Preliminary estimate of natural resource damage : Rocky Mountain Arsenal Superfund Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a preliminary estimate of natural resource damages associated with uncontrolled release of hazardous materials at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal Superfund Site...

  14. Study on the Effects of Natural Factors on Water Conservation Capacity of Qilian Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]The study aimed at analyzing the effects of natural factors on water conservation capacity of Qilian Mountain.[Method] Based on water conservation quantity,elevation data and SPOT-VEGETATION remote sensing data of Qilian Mountain in 2003,the relationship between water conservation quantity and influencing factors like elevation,slope,aspect and vegetation index varying greatly in the studied area was analyzed quantitatively by means of statistical method,and the effects of natural factors on wate...

  15. Mountain biking. Cool way to enjoy nature with side effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, MP

    Mountain biking grew from a trend to a serious branch of sport. This article presents the different subspecialties within the sport, the injury rates and the types of injuries among high-class and recreational bikers. The experiences made during several years as a team physician of top athletes as

  16. Mountain biking. Cool way to enjoy nature with side effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, MP

    2005-01-01

    Mountain biking grew from a trend to a serious branch of sport. This article presents the different subspecialties within the sport, the injury rates and the types of injuries among high-class and recreational bikers. The experiences made during several years as a team physician of top athletes as w

  17. Mountain biking. Cool way to enjoy nature with side effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, MP

    2005-01-01

    Mountain biking grew from a trend to a serious branch of sport. This article presents the different subspecialties within the sport, the injury rates and the types of injuries among high-class and recreational bikers. The experiences made during several years as a team physician of top athletes as w

  18. Problems and relevant strategies on natural forest protection in Changbai Mountain forest area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xian-cheng

    2003-01-01

    Changbai Mountain forest area is not only is a national timber base but also a green ecological defense for Songliao Plain of NE China. The Natural Forest Protection Project of this area has an important bearing on the social and economic sustainable development of Jilin Province or even the whole forest area in NE China. This paper summarized general conditions of natural forest in Changbai Mountain state-owned forest area and put forward six problems need to be urgently solved and five strategic suggestions on natural forest protection and sustainable management.

  19. Nature conservation in Central and Eastern Europe with a special emphasis on the Carpathian Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oszlanyi, Julius; Grodzinska, Krystyna; Badea, Ovidiu; Shparyk, Yuriy

    2004-07-01

    The natural environment of the Carpathian Mountains is one of the richest in Europe in terms of species richness and ecological value. In general, these mountains are well preserved and constitute an important part of Europe's nature resources. The Carpathian area, although divided by political and ethnic frontiers, provides an excellent example of the possibility of protection and conservation of natural and cultural heritage. Natural or seminatural forest ecosystems are the most valuable ecosystems together with man-made meadows and pastures. It is expected that the formerly diverse approaches to nature protection will become unified as the Carpathian countries are incorporated into the European Union. In this paper the various forms of nature protection in the individual Carpathian countries (Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, Ukraine and Romania) are described. - Current status of nature protection in countries of the Carpathian Region is described.

  20. Mountaineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘步东

    2005-01-01

    Most young people enjoy some forms of physical activities.It may be walking,cycling or swimming,or in wither,skating or skiing.It may be a game of some kind,football,hockey(曲棍球),golf,or tennis.Perhaps it may be mountaineering.

  1. Distribution of natural water loss in the mountains in the mountains of southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troxell, Harold C.

    1956-01-01

    Observational data obtained at various points in the mountains of Southern California indicate that a considerable part of the basin's precipitation is lost to the atmosphere by evapotranspiration. Occasionally the engineer is called upon to obtain the arcal distribution of this basin-wide loss. Currently one of the most promising methods for accomplishing this distribution in Southern California is based on the well-known P/E factor, where P represents the moisture availability and E the opportunity for evapotranspiration. The moisture availability is based on the precipitation and the opportunity for evapotranspiration on the evaporation from a type-A Weather Bureau pan. Where evaporation records are not available, suitable substitute values can often be estimated from regional temperature, humidity, and wind records.

  2. Nature conservation in Central and Eastern Europe with a special emphasis on the Carpathian Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oszlányi, Július; Grodzińska, Krystyna; Badea, Ovidiu; Shparyk, Yuriy

    2004-07-01

    The natural environment of the Carpathian Mountains is one of the richest in Europe in terms of species richness and ecological value. In general, these mountains are well preserved and constitute an important part of Europe's nature resources. The Carpathian area, although divided by political and ethnic frontiers, provides an excellent example of the possibility of protection and conservation of natural and cultural heritage. Natural or seminatural forest ecosystems are the most valuable ecosystems together with man-made meadows and pastures. It is expected that the formerly diverse approaches to nature protection will become unified as the Carpathian countries are incorporated into the European Union. In this paper the various forms of nature protection in the individual Carpathian countries (Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, Ukraine and Romania) are described.

  3. Eudontomyzon danfordi (Regan, 1911 Species Populations Ecological Status in Maramureş Mountains Nature Park (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtean-Bănăduc Angela

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Eudontomyzon danfordi characteristic habitats state of Maramureş Mountains Nature Park varies greatly, 19.05% are in excellent conservation status, 47.62% are in good/average status and 33.33% are in a partially degraded condition.

  4. Observed changes and future trends in vulnerability to natural hazards for mountain communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puissant, A.; Gazo, A.; Débonnaire, N.; Moravek, A.; Aguejdad, R.; -P., Malet J.; B., Martin

    2015-04-01

    Since 50 years, mountain areas are affected by important landcover and landuse changes characterized by the decrease of pastoral activities, reforestation or urbanization with the development of tourism activities and infrastructures. These natural and anthropogenic transformations have an impact on the socio-economic activities but also on the exposure of the communities to natural hazards. In the context of the ANR Project SAMCO which aims at enhancing the overall resilience of societies on the impacts of mountain risks, the objective of this research was to analyse landcover/use changes and to model future changes to assess the impacts of such change and to analyse trajectory of the vulnerability of mountain communities. For this research, an experiment is performed for two mountain areas of the French Alps (Barcelonnette Basin, Vars Basin). Changes in landcover and landuse are characterized over the period 1956-2010 for the two communities at two spatial scales (catchment, municipality). Four scenarios of landcover and landuse development (based on the Prelude European Project) are proposed for the period 2050 and 2100. Based on these scenarios, the evolution of vulnerability is estimated by using the Potential Damage Index method proposed by Puissant et al. (2013).

  5. 76 FR 77224 - Rocky Mountain Natural Gas LLC; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval and Revised Statement of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Rocky Mountain Natural Gas LLC; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval and Revised Statement of Operating Conditions Take notice that on November 30, 2011, Rocky Mountain...

  6. Plant Pb Contents in Elevation Zones of the Changbai Mountain National Nature Reserve, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Jun-Hong; CUI Bao-Shan; DENG Wei; WANG Qing-Gai; DING Qiu-Yi

    2007-01-01

    Typical plants and soils of four elevation zones,mountain tundra(Zone A),Betula ermanii forest(Zone B),mountain dark coniferous forest(Zone C),and mountain coniferous and broad-leaf forest(Zone D),along the vertical gradient of the northern mountain slope of the Changbai Mountain National Nature Reserve,Jilin Province,China,were sampled to study the relationship between plant and soil Pb,and to compare the Pb levels in typical plant types within the same elevation zone.The Pb contents in the soil and plant samples were measured by using a flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer.The results showed that the average plant Pb contents of the four plant elevation zones were lower than the average worldwide level.except for Zone B,Compared with the average level in China or the average worldwide level,the soil Pb levels of the four plant zones were higher,with Zones D and B having the lowest and highest averages,respectively.Plant Pb levels fluctuated from the upper to the lower zones,in a pattern of low-high-low-high,which was the same as that of the soils in the four zones.Furthermore.plant Pb was closely related to soll Pb.Depending on the plant species and plant parts,large differences were found in the Pb levels of typical plants within each zone.In Zone A,Vaccinium uliginosum and Rhododendron redowskianum had higher Pb levels than the other plants.In Zone C,the Pb levels in the branches of both plant species were higher than those in the leaves,which was contrary to Zone D.In Zone B,the Pb levels in the plant parts varied greatly with plant species.

  7. Natural flood retention in mountain areas by forests and forest like short rotation coppices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt-Imjela, Christian; Schulte, Achim; Hartwich, Jens

    2017-04-01

    Natural water retention is an important element of flood risk management in flood generating headwater areas in the low mountain ranges of Central Europe. In this context forests are of particular interest because of the high infiltration capacities of the soils and to increase water retention reforestation of agricultural land would be worthwhile. However competing claims for land use in intensely cultivated regions in Central Europe impede reforestation plans so the potential for a significant increase of natural water retention in forests is strongly limited. Nevertheless the development of innovative forms of land use and crop types opens new perspectives for a combination of agricultural land use with the water retention potential of forests. Recently the increasing demand for renewable energy resources leads to the cultivation of fast growing poplar and willow hybrids on agricultural land in short rotation coppices (SRC). Harvested in cycles of three to six years the wood from the plantations can be used as wood chips for heat and electricity production in specialized power plants. With short rotation plantations a crop type is established on arable land which is similar to forests so that an improvement of water retention can be expected. To what extend SRC may contribute to flood attenuation in headwater areas is investigated for the Chemnitzbach watershed (48 km2) in the Eastern Ore Mountains (Free State of Saxony, Germany), a low mountain range which is an important source of flood runoff in the Elbe basin. The study is based on a rainfall-runoff model of flood events using the conceptual modelling system NASIM. First results reveal a significant reduction of the flood peaks after the implementation of short rotation coppices. However the effect strongly depends on two factors. The first factor is the availability of areas for the plantations. For a substantial impact on the watershed scale large areas are required and with decreasing percentages of SRC

  8. Understanding Social Conflicts Between Forestry and Nature Protection Sectors: Case Study Velebit Mountain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Kiš

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The last couple of decades brought significant changes in forest and nature protection policy worldwide. Rising environmental awareness, over-utilization of scarce natural resources and global climate change set high goals for the forest and nature protection policy makers. This paper is about a case study of relations among various stakeholders on Velebit Mountain, a coast-by mountain in Central Croatia. Velebit Mountain is both: a nature protection area and a forest exploitation site, which raises various conflicts between these two sectors and major stakeholders. Purpose of this research was to investigate the relations among various interest groups and coalition parties, their opinions, aspirations and interests and, especially, the way to resolve issues or manage conflicts. Material and Methods: This case-study research was conducted in form of interviews held with the representatives of each of the defined stakeholder groups within the target area, i.e. Velebit Mountain Nature Park. Interviews consisted of several groups of questions (introductory part, conflicts, conflict management and policy development, while stakeholder groups included "Croatian Forests ltd.", a state-owned company in charge of the management of state forests, Nature Park Velebit, National Park Paklenica, National Park "Northern Velebit", hunters' associations, private forest owners, fishermen associations, representatives of the local administration and mountaineers' associations. The questionnaire consisted of open-ended questions regarding various issues divided into these four groups. The data was analyzed by using the NVivo qualitative data analysis software. Theoretical framework used in this research was Walker and Daniels' Social Conflict Theory (1997, p.13 which describes types of conflicts, ways to address them and typical sources of occurring conflicts. Results and Conclusion: The results showed which the most salient conflict

  9. Natural Hazard Prevention and the Mountain Land Risk Reduction in the Western Carpathians

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter Maas; Rudolf Ondrá(s)ik; Libor Jansky

    2005-01-01

    The Western Carpathians are located out of world main natural hazardous zones. Human casualties are related more to snow avalanches in connection with mountain hiking, some individuals yearly by flooding and rarely by forest fires. Economic lost about 0.1 to 0.2 %, exceptionally up to 0.8 % of the gross domestic product (GDP) proportionally to the Carpathian regions of particular countries.Natural disasters are linked, except of the above mentioned events, to infrequent small and medium scale earthquakes, landslides, and erosion. Records of the most harmful natural events are found in archives since the 16th century. Their systematic study and factor analysis started from the end of the 19th century, and protective measures and organization of impact mitigation developed during the 20th century to minimize the risk.

  10. Natural Analoges as a Check of Predicted Drift Stability at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Stuckless

    2006-03-10

    Calculations made by the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Project as part of the licensing of a proposed geologic repository (in southwestern Nevada) for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste, predict that emplacement tunnels will remain open with little collapse long after ground support has disintegrated. This conclusion includes the effects of anticipated seismic events. Natural analogues cannot provide a quantitative test of this conclusion, but they can provide a reasonableness test by examining the natural and anthropogenic examples of stability of subterranean openings. Available data from a variety of sources, combined with limited observations by the author, show that natural underground openings tend to resist collapse for millions of years and that anthropogenic subterranean openings have remained open from before recorded history through today. This stability is true even in seismically active areas. In fact, the archaeological record is heavily skewed toward preservation of underground structures relative to those found at the surface.

  11. PRELIMINARY RESEARCHES ON NATURAL HABITATS FROM PIETRICICA MOUNTAIN (PIATRA CRAIULUI NATIONAL PARK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Neblea

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a characterization of some natural habitats from Pietricica Mountain (Piatra Craiului National Park was maded. There were analyzed five types of habitats, according to NATURA 2000 classification, as follows: 4060 Alpine and boreal heaths, 4070* Bushes with Pinus mugo and Rhododendron hirsutum (Mugo-Rhododendretum hirsuti, 6170 Alpine and subalpine calcareous grasslands, 6430 Hydrophilous tall-herb fringe communities of plains and of the montane to alpine levels and 9410 Acidophilous Picea forests of the montane to alpine levels (Vaccinio-Piceetea.

  12. The Status of Romanogobio uranoscopus (Agassiz, 1828 Species, in Maramureş Mountains Nature Park (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtean-Bănăduc Angela

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The condition of aquatic habitats typically occupied by Romanogobio uranoscopus within the Maramureş Mountains Natural Park fluctuates, in the best cases, between reduced to average. Good or excellent conservation status is now absent for populations of this species in the researched area. The identified human impact types (poaching, minor riverbeds morphodynamic changes, solid and liquid natural flow changes, destruction of the riparian vegetation and bush vegetation, habitat fragmentation/isolation of population, organic and mining pollution and displaced fish that are washed away during the periodic flooding in the lotic sectors uniformized by humans are contributing to the diminished ecological state of Romanogobio uranoscopus habitats and for that reason populations. Romanogobio uranoscopus is now considered a rare species in the studied basin but where this species was specified as missing, it has been registered with a restorative potential.

  13. Patterns of ice nuclei from natural water sources in the mountains of Tirol, Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloh, Philipp; Hanlon, Regina; Pietsch, Renee; Anderson, Christopher; Schmale, David G., III; Grothe, Hinrich

    2017-04-01

    Heterogeneous ice nucleation—the process by which particles can nucleate ice between 0 and -35°C—is important for generating artificial snow. Though abiotic and biotic ice nuclei are present in many different natural and managed ecosystems, little is known about their nature, sources, and ecological roles. We collected samples of water and snow from the mountains of Tyrol, Austria in June, July, and November, 2016. The collected water was mostly from sources with minimal anthropogenic pollution, since most of the water from the sampled streams came from glacial melt. The samples were filtered through a 0.22μm filter, and microorganisms were cultured on different types of media. Resulting colonies were tested for their ice nucleation ability using a droplet freezing assay and identified to the level of the species. The unfiltered water and the filtered water will be subjected to additional assays using cryo microscopy and vibrational microscopy (IR and Raman- spectroscopy). Preliminary analyses suggested that the percentage of ice-nucleating microbes varied with season; greater percentages of ice nucleating microbes were present during colder months. The glacial melt also varies strongly over the year with the fraction of mineral dust suspended in it which serves as an inorganic ice nucleation agent. Further investigation of these samples may help to show the combined ice nuleation abilities of biological and non biological particles present in the mountains of Tirol, Austria. Future work may shed light on how the nucleation properties of the natural water changes with the time of the year and what may be responsible for these changes.

  14. Natural and planted flora of the log mountain surface - mined demonstration area, Bell County, Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, R.L. [Berea College, KY (United States); Wade, G.L. [USDA Forest Service, Burlington, VT (United States); Straw, R.A. [Univ. of Tennessee Plateau Experiment Station, Crossville, TN (United States)

    1996-12-31

    A descriptive study of the naturally invading and planted flora was conducted during 1984-1985 on a 14- and 21-year-old contour surface mine the 14.2 ha Log Mountain Demonstration Area (LMDA), in Bell County, Kentucky. Six habitats are designated from areas created from coal mining; the 1963 bench, 1970 bench, bench highwalls, mine outslopes, mine seeps, and coal haul-telephone microwave tower road. Twenty-four of 25 woody and herbaceous species (11 indigenous, 13 non-indigenous) have persisted from plantings by personnel of the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, USDA Forest Service. We recommend 11 native and exotic woody and herbaceous species for planting on coal surface-mined areas. An annotated list of vascular plants comprises 360 taxa (286 indigenous, 74 non-indigenous) in 224 genera from 82 families. Taxa consist of 1 Lycopodiophyta, 1 Equisetophyta, 8 Polypodiophyta, 7 Pinophyta, and 343 Magnoliophyta. The most species-rich families are the Asteraceae (64), Poaceae (39), Fabaceae (20), Cyperaceae (16), Rosaceae (13), and Lamiaceae (11). A total of 155 Bell County distribution records were documented. Three threatened Kentucky species (Gentiana decora, Liparis loeselii, Silene ovata) were present in refugial habitats created by surface mining. The high species richness has resulted from native and naturalized invading species from the environs, native and exotic planted species, and species from the remnant seed bank. Forest vegetation is a complex mosaic of natural and semi-natural plant communities on the unplanted and planted areas of LMDA.

  15. Investigations of natural groundwater hazards at the proposed Yucca Mountain high level nuclear waste repository. Part A: Geology at Yucca Mountain. Part B: Modeling of hydro-tectonic phenomena relevant to Yucca Mountain. Annual report - Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szymanski, J.S.; Schluter, C.M.; Livingston, D.E. [and others

    1993-05-01

    This document is an annual report describing investigations of natural groundwater hazards at the proposed Yucca Mountain, Nevada High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository.This document describes research studies of the origin of near surface calcite/silica deposits at Yucca Mountain. The origin of these deposits is controversial and the authors have extended and strengthened the basis of their arguments for epigenetic, metasomatic alteration of the tuffs at Yucca Mountain. This report includes stratigraphic, mineralogical, and geochronological information along with geochemical data to support the conclusions described by Livingston and Szymanski, and others. As part of their first annual report, they take this opportunity to clarify the technical basis of their concerns and summarize the critical geological field evidence and related information. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  16. Influence of mechanical activation on the properties of natural zeolites from Tokaj Mountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzimov, A. Y.; Kulkov, S. N.; Kurovics, E.; Eckl, W.; Pappert, S.

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents the results of a study of the influence of mechanical activation on morphology, specific surface area and phase composition of natural zeolite of Tokaj Mountain. During the mechanical activation of zeolites powders with specific surface area of 19-20 square meters per grams, significant changes in chemical and mineralogical compositions can be observed. The laboratory experiments had shown an intensive increase of specific surface area at the beginning of mechanical activation; a further relatively slow decrease and reduction of BET surfaces were observed. By increasing the mechanical activation time the amount of quartz, cristobalite-low, orthoclase mineral components were not stable, and their content have varied not so strongly as a decrease smectite 15 A, clinoptilolite, illite 2M1 or calcite. In addition, during the mechanical activation occurred amorphization, which was increased from 13% to 52%.

  17. Northern Rocky Mountain streamflow records: Global warming trends, human impacts or natural variability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Jacques, Jeannine-Marie; Sauchyn, David J.; Zhao, Yang

    2010-03-01

    The ˜60 year Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) is a major factor controlling streamflow in the northern Rocky Mountains, causing dryness during its positive phase, and wetness during its negative phase. If the PDO’s influence is not incorporated into a trend analysis of streamflows, it can produce detected declines that are actually artifacts of this low-frequency variability. Further difficulties arise from the short length and discontinuity of most gauge records, human impacts, and residual autocorrelation. We analyze southern Alberta and environs instrumental streamflow data, using void-filled datasets from unregulated and regulated gauges and naturalized records, and Generalized Least Squares regression to explicitly model the impacts of the PDO and other climate oscillations. We conclude that streamflows are declining at most gauges due to hydroclimatic changes (probably from global warming) and severe human impacts, which are of the same order of magnitude as the hydroclimate changes, if not greater.

  18. Natural regeneration of trees in three types of afforested stands in the Taihang Mountains, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xitian; Yan, Dongfeng; Liu, Canran

    2014-01-01

    Natural regeneration is the natural process by which plants replace themselves. It is a cost-effective way to re-establish vegetation, and it helps to preserve genetic identity and diversity. In this study, we investigated the natural regeneration of trees in three types of afforested stands in the Taihang Mountains, China, which were dominated by Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust), Quercus variabilis (Chinese cork oak) and Platycladus orientalis (Chinese arborvitae) respectively. A consistent pattern was found among the three types of stands, being that the density of seedlings was positively correlated with the overstory canopy cover and negatively correlated with the covers of shrub, herb and litter layers. While a positive correlation between the density of seedlings and stand age was found for the conifer stands, negative correlations were found for the two types of broadleaf stands. Correlations between the density of saplings and the stand attributes were not consistent among the three types of stands. The two types of broadleaf stands had higher densities of seedlings and saplings than the conifer stands. While the broadleaf stands had adequate recruits for regeneration, the conifer stands did not have enough recruits. Our findings suggest that the overstory canopy should be prevented from being disturbed, any reduction of the canopy cover will decrease the recruits and affect the regeneration.

  19. Natural regeneration of trees in three types of afforested stands in the Taihang Mountains, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xitian Yang

    Full Text Available Natural regeneration is the natural process by which plants replace themselves. It is a cost-effective way to re-establish vegetation, and it helps to preserve genetic identity and diversity. In this study, we investigated the natural regeneration of trees in three types of afforested stands in the Taihang Mountains, China, which were dominated by Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust, Quercus variabilis (Chinese cork oak and Platycladus orientalis (Chinese arborvitae respectively. A consistent pattern was found among the three types of stands, being that the density of seedlings was positively correlated with the overstory canopy cover and negatively correlated with the covers of shrub, herb and litter layers. While a positive correlation between the density of seedlings and stand age was found for the conifer stands, negative correlations were found for the two types of broadleaf stands. Correlations between the density of saplings and the stand attributes were not consistent among the three types of stands. The two types of broadleaf stands had higher densities of seedlings and saplings than the conifer stands. While the broadleaf stands had adequate recruits for regeneration, the conifer stands did not have enough recruits. Our findings suggest that the overstory canopy should be prevented from being disturbed, any reduction of the canopy cover will decrease the recruits and affect the regeneration.

  20. Assessing impact of forest cover change dynamics on high nature value farmland in Mediterranean mountain landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Cimini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A general trend of scrub encroachment and natural forest expansion (old-field succession has been occurring in the past fifty years in Mediterranean mountain areas. While this phenomenon enhances a series of ecological processes and environmental services, it may represent a threat for biodiversity conservation when occurring on high nature value (HNV extensive farmland. These open areas, created by traditional farming systems, have been recognized as a critically important European biodiversity resource. Understanding the drivers of Land Use and Land Cover Change (LUCC and their implications on the dynamics of forest and HNV farmland habitats plays a crucial role in biodiversity conservation in protected areas. In this perspective, the case study here presented aims to model recent (1989-2008 LUCC in a National Park of the Central Apennines (Italy and to produce a mid-term forecast (2008-2020. In the past twenty years, 57% of the land uptake by shrubland and 46% by forest has been occurring on former HNV farmland. Mid-term projections (2008-2020 confirm further HNV farmland decline. Localization of HNV farmland habitats vulnerable to change is a valuable decision-making tool to tradeoff in protected areas the conservation of traditional landscapes with the increase of forest and shrubland areas. In this perspective, concrete socio-economical and silvicultural measures are outlined to preserve these socially and economically-fragile open habitats.

  1. Adapting Natural Resource Management to Climate Change: The Blue Mountains and Northern Rockies Adaptation Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halofsky, J.; Peterson, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    Concrete ways to adapt to climate change are needed to help natural resource managers take the first steps to incorporate climate change into management and take advantage of opportunities to balance the negative effects of climate change. We recently initiated two science-management climate change adaptation partnerships, one with three national forests and other key stakeholders in the Blue Mountains region of northeastern Oregon, and the other with 16 national forests, three national parks and other stakeholders in the northern Rockies region. Goals of both partnerships were to: (1) synthesize published information and data to assess the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity of key resource areas, including water use, infrastructure, fisheries, and vegetation and disturbance; (2) develop science-based adaptation strategies and tactics that will help to mitigate the negative effects of climate change and assist the transition of biological systems and management to a warmer climate; (3) ensure adaptation strategies and tactics are incorporated into relevant planning documents; and (4) foster an enduring partnership to facilitate ongoing dialogue and activities related to climate change in the partnerships regions. After an initial vulnerability assessment by agency and university scientists and local resource specialists, adaptation strategies and tactics were developed in a series of scientist-manager workshops. The final vulnerability assessments and adaptation actions are incorporated in technical reports. The partnerships produced concrete adaptation options for national forest and other natural resource managers and illustrated the utility of place-based vulnerability assessments and scientist-manager workshops in adapting to climate change.

  2. Holocene Fire, Climate and Erosion in the Jemez Mountains, New Mexico: Natural and Anthropogenic Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, G. A.; Fitch, E. P.

    2013-12-01

    Ponderosa pine and mixed-conifer forests in the Jemez Mountains have been ravaged by extensive severe fires in the last two decades, which burned almost 1000 km2, roughly 30% of this middle-elevation range. Tree-ring fire history reconstructions indicate that a low-severity fire regime characterized the ca. 400 years before Euroamerican settlement, and that fuel buildup from fire suppression and land-use impacts contributed to increased fire severity in recent years. In order to better understand natural variability, climatic influences, and erosional effects of wildfire activity since ~5000 cal yr BP, we identified and 14C-dated fire-related alluvial deposits in the 2002 Lakes Fire area in the southwestern Jemez Mountains. These deposits indicate that most late Holocene fire-related erosional events were relatively minor, consistent with the low-severity burns that dominate the tree-ring record, but larger debris flows also occurred, suggesting at least small areas of high-severity fire. Although changes in postfire sedimentation are not so clearly related to millennial-scale Holocene climatic changes as in the Northern Rocky Mountains, peaks in fire-event probability correspond with severe regional multidecadal droughts ca. 1800 and 375 cal yr BP. Local microclimatic controls on vegetation, soils, and post-fire sedimentation are also evident. Relatively dense mixed-conifer stands including Douglas-fir typify moister north-facing basins, where soils are apparently thicker and more permeable than on southerly aspects. Alluvial fans of these basins are dominated by fire-related deposits (77% of measured stratigraphic thickness), thus we interpret that little erosion occurs in the absence of wildfires. Holocene fire-related events from north slopes are also of somewhat lower frequency, and possibly of higher severity. In contrast, in ponderosa pine-dominated south-facing basins, fire-related deposits make up only 39% of measured fan deposits. On drier south aspects

  3. Investigation on the Degradation of Natural Heritage of Singing Sand Mountain and Crescent Moon Spring at Dunhuang City, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Jihong

    2007-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to put forward a reasonable idea of the general protection for Singing Sand Mountain and Crescent Moon Spring,a rare and unique desert wonder,and of sustainable tourism development based on the research on the ecological environment around.Methods of documentation,case study and comparison were employed.Finally,aiming at solving the problems of natural environment and those existing after the exploitation of Singing Sand Mountain and Crescent Moon Spring the author puts forward three measures;the comprehensive treatment for Crescent Moon Spring(broadening resources of water and reducing expenditures,checking the decreasing depth of Crescent Moon Spring,and improving the geographical envkonment),the general protection envisions for Singing Sand Mountain and Crescent Moon Spring and establishing a dynamic monitoring and early-warning system of regional ecosystem.

  4. The population condition and the food availability of cuscus in the Arfak Mountains Nature Reserve, West Papua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTON SILAS SINERY

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Sinery AS, Boer C, Farida WR. 2012. The population condition and availability of feed of cuscus in the Arfak Mountain Nature Reserve, West Papua. Biodiversitas 13: 86-91. The cuscus is a pouched marsupial grouped in the Phalangeridae family, which is nocturnal, arboreal, herbivore, and in most cases the tail is prehensile. The animals are legally protected due to low reproduction, limited distribution area, and high rate of illegal hunting. The illegal hunting happened not only in the production forest areas but also in the reserve areas such as Nature Reserve of Arfak Mountain, directly or indirectly, affects the life quality of the ecosystem, mainly cuscuses population. Therefore, it is necessary to do efforts to have a better management of the region to ensure the sustenance of many components in it. This research is aimed to know the population density of cuscus in Arfak Mountain Nature Reserve and carried out for two months. The method used was descriptive by using direct and indirect observation. The result shows that cuscuses existing in the Arfak Mountain conservation area were northern common cuscus (Phalanger orientalis, ground cuscus (Phalanger gymnotis and common spotted cuscus (Spilocuscus maculatus. The biggest individual number is of P. orientalis with 39 individuals consisting of 18 males and 21 females, the second is of P. gymnotis with 10 individuals consisting of 4 males and 6 females, and the smallest is of S. maculatus with 9 individuals consisting of 4 males and 5 females. From the total of 58 cuscuses, there are 38 adult and 20 young cuscuses. There are 20 forest plant species identified as feed resources of cuscus in Arfak Mountain Nature Reserve. The parts of forest plant consumed by cuscus are fruits and young leaves. P. gymnotis also consumes small insects such as grasshopper. The cuscuses spread from lowland forest to highland forest (2,900 m asl.

  5. Species diversity of corticolous myxomycetes in Tianmu Mountain National Nature Reserve, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi-Sha; Yan, Shu-Zhen; Dai, Jun-Yong; Chen, Shuang-Lin

    2013-12-01

    The species diversity of corticolous myxomycetes on 4 vegetation types in the Tianmu Mountain National Natural Reserve, eastern China, was examined from 2011 to 2012. A total of 1440 moist chamber cultures were prepared with bark samples, which yielded several hundred collections representing 42 species in 20 genera. It was found that 79% of cultures produced some evidence (either plasmodia or fruiting bodies) of myxomycetes. Eight species (Comatricha elegans, Cribraria confusa, Licea pusilla, Cribraria microcarpa, Collaria arcyrionema, Licea biforis, Arcyria cinerea, and Clastoderma debaryanum) were abundant (exceeding 3% of all records), but about a third of all species were classified as rare. Species richness (S = 33) and diversity (exp[H'] = 16.60, S/G = 1.74) of corticolous myxomycetes were the most diverse in the deciduous broadleaf forest. The species recorded from coniferous forest showed the lowest species richness (S = 21) but the highest evenness (J' = 0.91). The cluster analyses were based on the Bray-Curtis similarity matrix, and the results indicated that corticolous myxomycete assemblages were distributed by a seasonal and annual pattern. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that season and pH were key factors in determining species distribution.

  6. Pollen dispersal in a mountainous area based on pollen analysis of four natural trap types from Lugu Lake, southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su-Ping LI; Ya-Qin HU; David Kay FERGUSON; Jian-Xin YAO; Cheng-Sen LI

    2013-01-01

    Palynological analysis of 24 samples from four types of natural pollen traps (Lugu Lake bottom sediments,surface soil,bark samples,and moss cushions) in four sites at different altitudes from the Lugu Lake area,southwest China,has been undertaken to investigate pollen dispersal and deposition in a mountainous area and assist with the interpretation of fossil pollen analysis.Detailed comparisons between the palynological assemblage and the modern vegetation in the Lugu Lake region have been carried out.Preliminary interpretations of the correlation between pollen assemblage and vegetation at the different vertical vegetational zones can be recognized by the percentages of the main taxa,and most of the pollen taxa except Pinus are expected to be underrepresented.Exotic pollen grains can be transported over mountains more than 70 km away by wind.Upslope or downslope transport of pollen grains is crucial when reconstructing palaeoclimate in mountainous areas.We summarize the altitudinal distributions of modern woody plants whose pollen grains are present at three sites,and reveal that pollen grains are more readily carried uphill than downhill.These findings have important implications regarding the reconstruction of vegetation in mountainous regions and the interpretion of palaeoelevations.

  7. A Natural Analogue for Thermal-Hydrological-Chemical Coupled Processes at the Proposed Nuclear Waste Repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Carey; Gordon Keating; Peter C. Lichtner

    1999-08-01

    Dike and sill complexes that intruded tuffaceous host rocks above the water table are suggested as natural analogues for thermal-hydrologic-chemical (THC) processes at the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Scoping thermal-hydrologic calculations of temperature and saturation profiles surrounding a 30-50 m wide intrusion suggest that boiling conditions could be sustained at distances of tens of meters from the intrusion for several thousand years. This time scale for persistence of boiling is similar to that expected for the Yucca Mountain repository with moderate heat loading. By studying the hydrothermal alteration of the tuff host rocks surrounding the intrusions, insight and relevant data can be obtained that apply directly to the Yucca Mountain repository and can shed light on the extent and type of alteration that should be expected. Such data are needed to bound and constrain model parameters used in THC simulations of the effect of heat produced by the waste on the host rock and to provide a firm foundation for assessing overall repository performance. One example of a possible natural analogue for the repository is the Paiute Ridge intrusive complex located on the northeastern boundary of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The complex consists of dikes and sills intruded into a partially saturated tuffaceous host rock that has stratigraphic sequences that correlate with those found at Yucca Mountain. The intrusions were emplaced at a depth of several hundred meters below the surface, similar to the depth of the proposed repository. The tuffaceous host rock surrounding the intrusions is hydrothermally altered to varying extents depending on the distance from the intrusions. The Paiute Ridge intrusive complex thus appears to be an ideal natural analogue of THC coupled processes associated with the Yucca Mountain repository. It could provide much needed physical and chemical data for understanding the influence of heat

  8. The appreciation of nature and landscape by tourism service providers and visitors in the Ore Mountains (Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Stein

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents empirical studies on the appreciation of nature and landscape in the Eastern Ore Mountains (Saxony, Germany by tourism service providers (TSP and visitors. Attractive landscape and experience of nature are the most important reasons to visit this region and to spend leisure time there. Particularly mountain meadows, raised bogs and mixed forests are highly appreciated. Deforestation, industrial development and the decline of biodiversity would reduce attractiveness for visitors. We also assessed whether the tourism sector is prepared to contribute to the funding of nature conservation and landscape management. Use of general tax revenues is favoured, but other modes would also be accepted, e.g. a nature tax. Willingness to pay (WTP is ranging between €0.75 and €1.36 per guest per night by TSP, or between €1.06 and €2.73 per day by visitors. With respect to landscape preference and WTP we found in some cases significant differences among visitors, depending on region of residence, age and education level. A major part of the annual costs for nature conservation and landscape could be covered by public funds (taxes, if the results of the WTP approach were understood as a sign of societal demand and a call to action.

  9. Species composition and minimum sampling area of a riparian mixed broadleaved-Korean pine forest in Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Fang-zhou; XU Dong; DENG Hong-bing

    2011-01-01

    Riparian areas are unique although often small component of the overall watershed landscape. The structure of riparian forests along Erdaobai River on the north slope of Changhai Mountain were investi- gated by using field data collected from eight sampling transects perpen- dicular to the Erdaobai River channel. Two kinds of species-area satura- tion curves were used to examine the relationship between species num- ber and minimum sampling area. The results showed that riparian gym- nosperms accounted for a high proportion of all gymnosperms in the Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve while riparian ferns and angiosperms accounted for a relatively low proportion. The average minimum sam- pling areas of riparian forest that included 60%, 80%, and 90% of the community species pool were about 85, 185, and 328 m, respectively; while those for nonriparian forest were about 275, 390, and 514 m, correspondingly.

  10. The Natural Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration Potential of Rocky Mountain Soils Derived From Volcanic Bedrock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, D. B.; Burchell, A.; Johnson, R. H.

    2008-12-01

    The possible economic and environmental ramifications of climate change have stimulated a range of atmospheric carbon mitigation actions, as well as, studies to understand and quantify potential carbon sinks. However, current carbon management strategies for reducing atmospheric emissions underestimate a critical component. Soils represent between 18 - 30% of the terrestrial carbon sink needed to prevent atmospheric doubling of CO2 by 2050 and a crucial element in mitigating climate change, natural terrestrial sequestration (NTS), is required. NTS includes all naturally occurring, cumulative, biologic and geologic processes that either remove CO2 from the atmosphere or prevent net CO2 emissions through photosynthesis and microbial fixation, soil formation, weathering and adsorption or chemical reactions involving principally alumino- ferromagnesium minerals, volcanic glass and clays. Additionally, NTS supports ecosystem services by improving soil productivity, moisture retention, water purification and reducing erosion. Thus, 'global climate triage' must include the protection of high NTS areas, purposeful enhancement of NTS processes and reclamation of disturbed and mined lands. To better understand NTS, we analyzed soil-cores from Colorado, Rocky Mountain Cordillera sites. North-facing, high-plains to alpine sites in non-wetland environments were selected to represent temperate soils that may be less susceptible to carbon pool declines due to global warming than soils in warmer regions. Undisturbed soils sampled have 2 to 6 times greater total organic soil carbon (TOSC) than global TOSC averages (4 - 5 Wt. %). Forest soils derived from weathering of intermediate to mafic volcanic bedrock have the highest C (34.15 Wt. %), C:N (43) and arylsulfatase (ave. 278, high 461 μg p-nitrophenol/g/h). Intermediate TOSC was identified in soils derived from Cretaceous shale (7.2 Wt. %) and Precambrian, felsic gneiss (6.2 Wt. %). Unreclaimed mine-sites have the lowest C (0

  11. MOUNTAINS UNITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Dovbenko

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Schools in the Ukrainian Carpathian mountain region work in specific conditions. They have original traditions, a special nature of learning and work. Indeed, because of a remote location mountain village school becomes the center for a cultural and spiritual life. Of course, it is related to a present social and economic situation in the country and a slow progress of society. Therefore, we need to look at mountain school with a broader angle, help it in comprehensive development of an individual and ensure an availability of quality education for children living in mountainous areas. Here we should talk about learning as well as laying the foundations for a life success. The international research project Mountain School. Status. Problems. Prospects for Development. Is established to help solve these problems. Precarpathian National University is an active member of the project.

  12. Is multifunctionality the future of mountain pastoralism? Lessons from the management of semi-natural grasslands in the Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feliu López-i-Gelats

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Land abandonment is pervasive in mountainous Europe. In the present situation of price-cost squeeze on pastoral households and general shift in the role of farming, the development of farming abandonment risk regions is generally associated with adoption of new multifunctional rural development strategies, such as farm tourism, which in the end entail less time being devoted to farming practices. We explored the effects of such developmental scheme on the preservation of semi-natural grasslands, in particular, and on the sustainability of mountain pastoralism, in general. While the effects on the preservation of semi-natural grasslands of full abandonment have been extensively explored, this is not the case of partial abandonment. Results showed that the adoption of simplified and low-cost management regimes, associated with partial abandonment and the increased adoption of part-time farming, immerses semi-natural grasslands in processes of secondary succession that undermine both their conservation and pastoral functions. This points the need for caution when endorsing multifunctional developmental schemes in farming abandonment risk regions, particularly when those imply less labor being devoted to pastoral practices. In conclusion, we stress that in farming abandonment risk regions it is possible to guarantee both viable pastoralism and diversified rural economy. However, it is necessary to implement developmental strategies that are centered on stimulating synergies between pastoralism and other economic activities, rather than promoting activities that depend on additional farmers’ polyvalence.

  13. Is multifunctionality the future of mountain pastoralism? Lessons from the management of semi-natural grasslands in the Pyrenees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López-i-Gelats, F.; Rivera-Ferre, M.G.; Madruga-Andreu, C.; Bartolomé-Filella, J.

    2015-07-01

    Land abandonment is pervasive in mountainous Europe. In the present situation of price-cost squeeze on pastoral households and general shift in the role of farming, the development of farming abandonment risk regions is generally associated with adoption of new multifunctional rural development strategies, such as farm tourism, which in the end entail less time being devoted to farming practices. We explored the effects of such developmental scheme on the preservation of semi-natural grasslands, in particular, and on the sustainability of mountain pastoralism, in general. While the effects on the preservation of semi-natural grasslands of full abandonment have been extensively explored, this is not the case of partial abandonment. Results showed that the adoption of simplified and low-cost management regimes, associated with partial abandonment and the increased adoption of part-time farming, immerses semi-natural grasslands in processes of secondary succession that undermine both their conservation and pastoral functions. This points the need for caution when endorsing multifunctional developmental schemes in farming abandonment risk regions, particularly when those imply less labor being devoted to pastoral practices. In conclusion, we stress that in farming abandonment risk regions it is possible to guarantee both viable pastoralism and diversified rural economy. However, it is necessary to implement developmental strategies that are centered on stimulating synergies between pastoralism and other economic activities, rather than promoting activities that depend on additional farmers’ polyvalence. (Author)

  14. Alternate source term models for Yucca Mountain performance assessment based on natural analog data and secondary mineral solubility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, W.M.; Codell, R.B.

    1999-07-01

    Performance assessment calculations for the proposed high level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, were conducted using the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Total-System Performance Assessment (TPA 3.2) code to test conceptual models and parameter values for the source term based on data from the Pena Blanca, Mexico, natural analog site and based on a model for coprecipitation and solubility of secondary schoepite. In previous studies the value for the maximum constant oxidative alteration rate of uraninite at the Nopal I uranium body at Pena Blanca was estimated. Scaling this rate to the mass of uranium for the proposed Yucca Mountain repository yields an oxidative alteration rate of 22 kg/y, which was assumed to be an upper limit on the release rate from the proposed repository. A second model was developed assuming releases of radionuclides are based on the solubility of secondary schoepite as a function of temperature and solution chemistry. Releases of uranium are given by the product of uranium concentrations at equilibrium with schoepite and the flow of water through the waste packages. For both models, radionuclides other than uranium and those in the cladding and gap fraction were modeled to be released at a rate proportional to the uranium release rate, with additional elemental solubility limits applied. Performance assessment results using the Pena Blanca oxidation rate and schoepite solubility models for Yucca Mountain were compared to the TPA 3.2 base case model, in which release was based on laboratory studies of spent fuel dissolution, cladding and gap release, and solubility limits. Doses calculated using the release rate based on natural analog data and the schoepite solubility models were smaller than doses generated using the base case model. These results provide a degree of confidence in safety predictions using the base case model and an indication of how conservatism in the base case model may be reduced in future analyses.

  15. Natural regeneration of deforested areas dominated by Pteridium aquilinum (L. Kuhn located in the serra da mantiqueira mountain range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Cristina Ribeiro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was set out with the objective of analyzing successional process in areas which are deforested and dominated by Pteridium aquilinum in the Serra da Mantiqueira mountain range, by researching the natural regeneration of shrub and tree species and evaluating both disturbance history and the edaphic conditions on the natural regeneration community. This research investigated two abandoned pasture areas in Bocaina de Minas county exposed to natural regeneration intervals ranging from six years (area named 6A to twenty years (area named 20A. The inventory occurred from sixty plots of 10 m², where all samples surveyed were between 0.15 m and 3 m high. All samples were identified and both the diameter in ground level and total height of the specimens were measured. The survey totaled 1,159 samples and 53 species. Melastomataceae was registered with the highest species richness and the highest specimen abundance. The two sampled areas showed species composition differences, with Jaccard similarity coefficient equal to 3.7%. The canonical correspondence analysis showed the correlations between natural regeneration stratum and non-labile phosphorus and clay in the 6A area. On the other hand, the 20A area showed correlations between plant regeneration and the K, P, Ca²+, Al³+ levels, with higher pH levels, and with the sum of exchangeable bases. In addition, the vegetation surveyed in area 20A was correlated with higher Pteridium population density. The results showed that the dominance of Pteridium aquilinum leads to successional process under inhibition, in which the ferns act negatively on the richness and abundance of shrub populations. It was also confirmed the Pteridium's affinity to steep areas, mainly in higher altitudes, where the soil is acid, as well as its preference to disturbed areas. Moreover, we highlight the fragilities of the mountain environments and the importance of preserving natural vegetation, as well as the bracken

  16. Timing and nature of tertiary plutonism and extension in the Grouse Creek Mountains, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, A.E.; Dumitru, T.A.; Miller, E.L.; Savage, C.F.I.; Wooden, J.L.

    2003-01-01

    The Grouse Creek-Albion-Raft River metamorphic core complex in northwestern Utah and southern Idaho is characterized by several Tertiary plutons with a range of ages and crosscutting relations that help constrain the timing of extensional deformation. In the Grouse Creek Mountains, at least three distinct, superimposed, extension-related Tertiary deformational events are bracketed by intrusive rocks, followed by a fourth event: motion on range-bounding faults. The Emigrant Pass plutonic complex was emplaced at depths of less than 10 km into Permianage rocks. SHRIMP U-Pb zircon analysis indicates a three-stage intrusion of the complex at 41.3 ?? 0.3 Ma, 36.1 ?? 0.2 Ma, and 34.3 ?? 0.3 Ma. The two youngest phases represent distinctly younger intrusive event(s) than the oldest phase, separated by more than 5 m.y. The oldest phase cuts several metamorphosed and deformed younger-on-older faults, providing a pre-41 Ma age bracket for oldest extension-related deformation in the region. The youngest phase(s) are interpreted to have been intruded during delelopment of a map-scale. N-S-trending recumbent fold, the Bovine Mountain fold, formed during vertical shortening of roof rocks during intrusion. This second event folded older normal faults that are likely pre-41 Ma. Zircons from the youngest part of the pluton show inheritance from Archean basement (???2.5 Ga) and from its Proterozoic sedimentary cover (???1.65 Ga). The Red Butte pluton, emplaced at 15-20 km depth, intruded highly metamorphosed Archean orthogneiss at 25.3 ?? 0.5 Ma; cores of some zircons yield latest Archean ages of 2.55 Ga. The pluton is interpreted to have been intruded during a third deformational and metamorphic event that resulted in vertical flattening fabrics formed during NW to EW stretching, ultimately leading to thinning of cover and top-to-the west motion on the Ingham Pass fault. The Ingham Pass fault represents an important structure in the Grouse Creek Mountains, as it juxtaposes two parts

  17. The issues of current rainfall estimation techniques in mountain natural multi-hazard investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Lu; Han, Dawei; Chen, Ningsheng; Wang, Tao

    2017-04-01

    Mountain hazards (e.g., landslides, debris flows, and floods) induced by rainfall are complex phenomena that require good knowledge of rainfall representation at different spatiotemporal scales. This study reveals rainfall estimation from gauges is rather unrepresentative over a large spatial area in mountain regions. As a result, the conventional practice of adopting the triggering threshold for hazard early warning purposes is insufficient. The main reason is because of the huge orographic influence on rainfall distribution. Modern rainfall estimation methods such as numerical weather prediction modelling and remote sensing utilising radar from the space or on land are able to provide spatially more representative rainfall information in mountain areas. But unlike rain gauges, they only indirectly provide rainfall measurements. Remote sensing suffers from many sources of errors such as weather conditions, attenuation and sampling methods, while numerical weather prediction models suffer from spatiotemporal and amplitude errors depending on the model physics, dynamics, and model configuration. A case study based on Sichuan, China is used to illustrate the significant difference among the three aforementioned rainfall estimation methods. We argue none of those methods can be relied on individually, and the challenge is on how to make the full utilisation of the three methods conjunctively because each of them only provides partial information. We propose that a data fusion approach should be adopted based on the Bayesian inference method. However such an approach requires the uncertainty information from all those estimation techniques which still need extensive research. We hope this study will raise the awareness of this important issue and highlight the knowledge gap that should be filled in so that such a challenging problem could be tackled collectively by the community.

  18. Contributions of natural and anthropogenic radiative forcing to mass loss of Northern Hemisphere mountain glaciers and quantifying their uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirabayashi, Yukiko; Nakano, Kazunari; Zhang, Yong; Watanabe, Satoshi; Tanoue, Masahiro; Kanae, Shinjiro

    2016-07-01

    Observational evidence indicates that a number of glaciers have lost mass in the past. Given that glaciers are highly impacted by the surrounding climate, human-influenced global warming may be partly responsible for mass loss. However, previous research studies have been limited to analyzing the past several decades, and it remains unclear whether past glacier mass losses are within the range of natural internal climate variability. Here, we apply an optimal fingerprinting technique to observed and reconstructed mass losses as well as multi-model general circulation model (GCM) simulations of mountain glacier mass to detect and attribute past glacier mass changes. An 8,800-year control simulation of glaciers enabled us to evaluate detectability. The results indicate that human-induced increases in greenhouse gases have contributed to the decreased area-weighted average masses of 85 analyzed glaciers. The effect was larger than the mass increase caused by natural forcing, although the contributions of natural and anthropogenic forcing to decreases in mass varied at the local scale. We also showed that the detection of anthropogenic or natural influences could not be fully attributed when natural internal climate variability was taken into account.

  19. Natural Mongolian Pine Forests in the Great Xing'an Mountains, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Zhiqiang; Liu Tong; Zhou Lin

    2003-01-01

    Based upon 134 reléves, the vegetation of the forests with Mongolian pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) of the Great Xing'an Mountains in the northeast China was classified into 3 communities, 7 types and 4 subtypes by numerical cluster analysis. 1) The Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica-Populus davidiana-community was found on relatively dry sites. It was subdivided into a Quercus mongolica-type, consisting of a Adenophora tetraphylla subtype, a Pulsatilla dahurica subtype, and a pure type; 2) The Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica-Rhododendron dauricum-community occurred on medium dry sites. It included a Calamagrostis angustifolia type, consisting of a Cladonia arbuscula subtype, a pure subtype, and a Rubus idaeus-type; 3) The Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica-Ledum palustre-community was found on periodically wet sites. It included a Picea koraiensis type, a Vaccinium uliginosum type, and a pure type.

  20. GIS-based analysis of tourist impact in mid-mountain protected natural area, Gorce National Park, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczyk, Aleksandra

    2010-05-01

    Many of the middle mountain areas are especially valuable due to high bio- and geo-diversity. Therefore, this areas are often protected by law in form of National or Landscape Park, as well as Natura 2000 Network. Moreover, mountain areas usually attract significant amount of tourist. Hence, environment is subject to combination of different forces including human impact (tourism, forest management, pasture) as well as natural processes. Usually areas with low environmental resiliency are, simultaneously, very valuable from ecological point of view and attractive as tourist regions. Hiking, biking and horse riding on the tourist trails are one of the basic forms of exploration of protected areas. Apart from a tourist function, trails have a significant ecological role - they limit walking to prepared paths and prevent dispersing of visitors. Thus the terrains, which for ecological reasons have to be excluded from direct human impact, are isolated. On the other hand using of tourist trials can have negative effect on the environment. The most important manifestation of this type of impacts is destroying of plant cover by trampling and running over. It leads to expose of a bare soil and, in consequence, to initialize and accelerate of natural erosion process. Improperly using of tourist trails and forest roads may lead to develop of gullies and significant degradation of environment. Hence, reasonable management of tourist activities, forestry and pasture is necessary for sustainable development in the mid-mountain areas. Study of tourist impact together with the assessment of susceptibility of the environment to degradation can be very helpful for planning and conservation activities. Analysis of spatial data within geographic information system (GIS) supply a very useful tool for estimating, modeling and establishing the relationships between tourist impact and environmental resiliency. This study presents implementation of the GIS analysis within one of the Polish

  1. A two-step fusion process for multi-criteria decision applied to natural hazards in mountains

    CERN Document Server

    Tacnet, Jean-Marc; Dezert, Jean

    2010-01-01

    Mountain river torrents and snow avalanches gen- erate human and material damages with dramatic consequences. Knowledge about natural phenomenona is often lacking and expertise is required for decision and risk management purposes using multi-disciplinary quantitative or qualitative approaches. Expertise is considered as a decision process based on imperfect information coming from more or less reliable and conflicting sources. A methodology mixing the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), a multi-criteria aid-decision method, and information fusion using Belief Function Theory is described. Fuzzy Sets and Possibilities theories allow to transform quantitative and qualita- tive criteria into a common frame of discernment for decision in Dempster-Shafer Theory (DST ) and Dezert-Smarandache Theory (DSmT) contexts. Main issues consist in basic belief assignments elicitation, conflict identification and management, fusion rule choices, results validation but also in specific needs to make a difference between importa...

  2. Unsaturated zone waters from the Nopal I natural analog, Chihuahua, Mexico -- Implications for radionuclide mobility at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickett, D.A.; Murphy, W.M.

    1999-07-01

    Chemical and U-Th isotopic data on unsaturated zone waters from the Nopal I natural analog reveal effects of water-rock interaction and help constrain models of radionuclide release and transport at the site and, by analogy, at the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Geochemical reaction-path modeling indicates that, under oxidizing conditions, dissolution of uraninite (spent fuel analog) by these waters will lead to eventual schoepite precipitation regardless of initial silica concentration provided that groundwater is not continuously replenished. Thus, less soluble uranyl silicates may not dominate the initial alteration assemblage and keep dissolved U concentrations low. Uranium-series activity ratios are consistent with models of U transport at the site and display varying degrees of leaching versus recoil mobilization. Thorium concentrations may reflect the importance of colloidal transport of low-solubility radionuclides in the unsaturated zone.

  3. Natural features of the Polimske Prokletije mountains from the point of their active protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Marko

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with basic natural values and features of the Prokletije range and points out the need for their active protection. Their value is that of natural treasure according to all criteria. They are a priceless contribution to science, culture, education, art and tourism. Therefore, it is important to preserve them and protect them as a national park.

  4. Changbai Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    The Changbai Mountains are located within the boundaries of Antu County, Fusong County and Changbai County of Jilin City of Jilin Province. They cover a total area of more than 200,000 hectares and is one of the largest nature preserves in China. There are abundant species of living things, such as Dongbei Tiger, sika, sable and

  5. Vegetation responses to natural regulation of elk in Rocky Mountain National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigenfuss, Linda C.; Singer, Francis J.; Bowden, David

    1999-01-01

    Little experimental information is available on the relationship between herbivory by native ungulates and vegetation in relatively undisturbed environments. A quasi-experimental situation exists in Rocky Mountain National Park, where elk (Cervus elaphus) populations have increased about 3-fold since 1968, following their release from artificial controls within the park boundaries. We reviewed data collected on vegetation transects established and monitored over the 25-year period from 1968 through 1992. Data were subjected to rigorous statistical analysis to detect trends following the release of elk from artificial controls. Increases in elk habitat use and decreases in deer habitat use were observed on all transects over the 25-year period. Significant increases in moss and lichen cover occurred in three offour vegetation types. Percent cover of bare ground, forbs (particularly Selaginella densa), and Carex spp. increased on grassland transects. Increases in timothy (Phleum pratense) were observed on meadow transects. Graminoid and litter cover increased on sagebrush transects, and shrub and litter cover increased on bitterbrush transects.

  6. Changing stakeholder relationships in nature reserve management: a case study on Snake Island-Laotie Mountain National Nature Reserve, Liaoning, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dan; Wang, Ziyan; Lassoie, James; Wang, Xiaoping; Sun, Lixin

    2014-12-15

    The number and total area of nature reserves in China has increased rapidly over the past couple of decades; however, the ability to effectively manage these reserves has not kept pace and conflicts between conservation efforts and economic development have emerged. The Snake Island-Laotie Mountain National Nature Reserve (SILMNNR) currently is experiencing the challenges of balancing conservation with local community development. This paper uses components analysis of human ecosystems (HEC) to examine conflicts arising from the management of the nature reserve and uses a stakeholder analysis to identify and better understand stakeholder inter-relationships in the SILMNNR-HEC. The goal of this study is to identify critical factors influencing stakeholder relationships in order to find ways of relieving conflicts between the reserve management and development. The stakeholder analysis revealed that the key stakeholders in the SILMNNR-HEC are natural resources, the Liaoning SILMNNR Authority, local residents, and enterprise developers; however, there was unequal power among stakeholders in the decision making process affecting the nature reserve. The paper evaluated the conditions and processes of SILMNNR-HEC through a framework of stakeholder relationships where critical factors, such as policy, finance, technology, and labor, and their respective strengths and feedbacks among stakeholders, were assessed and showed unequal flows of power among stakeholders. Two approaches are provided for transforming the unbalanced relationships into a stable and sustainable framework to sustainably manage the nature reserve: the first is by changing stakeholder relationships from opposition to cooperation; and the second by enhancing feedbacks and dynamics among stakeholders. The analysis used in this paper can be used as a model to assess conflicts around other protected areas in China and elsewhere.

  7. Comparison of soil bacterial communities in a natural hardwood forest and coniferous plantations in perhumid subtropical low mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Te; Hu, Hsueh-Wen; Whitman, William B; Coleman, David C; Chiu, Chih-Yu

    2014-12-01

    The bacterial community of forest soils is influenced by environmental disturbance and/or meteorological temperature and precipitation. In this study, we investigated three bacterial communities in soils of a natural hardwood forest and two plantations of conifer, Calocedrus formosana and Cryptomeria japonica, in a perhumid, low mountain area. By comparison with our previous studies with similar temperature and/or precipitation, we aimed to elucidate how disturbance influences the bacterial community in forest soils and whether bacterial communities in similar forest types differ under different climate conditions. Analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA gene clone libraries revealed that Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria were the most abundant phyla in the three forest soil communities, with similar relative abundance of various bacterial groups. However, UniFrac analysis based on phylogenetic information revealed differences of bacterial communities between natural hardwood forest and coniferous plantation soils. The diversities of bacterial communities of the replanted Calocedrus and Cryptomeria forests were higher than that in natural hardwood forest. The bacterial diversity of these three forest soil were all higher than those in the same forest types at other locations with less precipitation or with lower temperature. In addition, the distribution of some of the most abundant operational taxonomic units in the three communities differed from other forest soils, including those related to Acidobacteria, α-, β- and γ-Proteobacteria. Reforestation could increase the bacterial diversity. Therefore, soil bacterial communities could be shaped by the forestry management practices and climate differences in warm and humid conditions.

  8. Evaporation from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris following natural re-colonisation of the Cairngorm mountains, Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul H. Haria

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, changing land-use practices in the uplands of Scotland have resulted in increased re-colonisation of wet heath moorland by natural Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris woodland. The simple semi-empirical water use model, HYLUC, was used to determine the change in water balance with increasing natural pine colonisation. The model worked well for 1996. However, values of soil moisture deficit simulated by HYLUC diverged significantly from measurements in 1997 when rainfall quantity and intensities were less. Measured interception by the forest canopy (interception by the undergrowth was not measured was very different from HYLUC simulated values. By changing interception parameters to those optimised against measured canopy interception, HYLUC simulated changing soil moisture deficits better and gave more confidence in the resulting transpiration values. The results showed that natural pine woodland interception may be similar to plantation stands although the physical structure of the natural and plantation forests are different. Though having fewer storage sites for interception in the canopy, the natural pine woodland had greater ventilation and so evaporation of intercepted rainfall was enhanced, especially during low intensity rainfall. To understand the hydrological changes that would result with changing land-use (an expansion of natural forests into the wet heath land, the modelled outputs of the wet heath and mature forest sites were compared. Evaporation, a combination of transpiration and interception, was 41% greater for the forest site than for the wet heath moorland. This may have significant consequences for the rainfall-runoff relationship and consequently for the hydrological response of the catchment as the natural woodland cover increases Keywords: Evaporation; interception; transpiration; water balance; Scots pine; forest

  9. [Biogeochemical cycles in natural forest and conifer plantations in the high mountains of Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Juan Diego; González, María Isabel; Gallardo, Juan Fernando

    2011-12-01

    Plant litter production and decomposition are two important processes in forest ecosystems, since they provide the main organic matter input to soil and regulate nutrient cycling. With the aim to study these processes, litterfall, standing litter and nutrient return were studied for three years in an oak forest (Quercus humboldtii), pine (Pinus patula) and cypress (Cupressus lusitanica) plantations, located in highlands of the Central Cordillera of Colombia. Evaluation methods included: fine litter collection at fortnightly intervals using litter traps; the litter layer samples at the end of each sampling year and chemical analyses of both litterfall and standing litter. Fine litter fall observed was similar in oak forest (7.5 Mg ha/y) and in pine (7.8 Mg ha/y), but very low in cypress (3.5 Mg ha/y). Litter standing was 1.76, 1.73 and 1.3 Mg ha/y in oak, pine and cypress, respectively. The mean residence time of the standing litter was of 3.3 years for cypress, 2.1 years for pine and 1.8 years for oak forests. In contrast, the total amount of retained elements (N, P, S, Ca, Mg, K, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) in the standing litter was higher in pine (115 kg/ha), followed by oak (78 kg/ha) and cypress (24 kg/ha). Oak forests showed the lowest mean residence time of nutrients and the highest nutrients return to the soil as a consequence of a faster decomposition. Thus, a higher nutrient supply to soils from oaks than from tree plantations, seems to be an ecological advantage for recovering and maintaining the main ecosystem functioning features, which needs to be taken into account in restoration programs in this highly degraded Andean mountains.

  10. Rapid ice-rock avalanches versus gradual glacial processes? Implications for the natural hazard potential in the Karakoram Mountains (Pakistan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturrizaga, Lasafam

    2016-04-01

    There is a growing concern about extreme mass movements from combined ice-rock avalanches in glaciated environments areas in the light of increasing settlement activities in mountains and their forelands. Recent devastating events, such as those from Huascaran (Peru) in 1970 or Kolka (Caucasus) in 2002, have been an eye-opener in terms of the large run-out-distances and their hazard potential. At the same time there is a variety of topographic settings and distinct triggers of ice and rock failures, which leads in turn to a broad spectrum of multi-phase processes, such as the possible propagation of rock-ice-masses onto glacial surfaces with subsequent debris flows. These events are often not directly observable, and a sound interpretation of the sedimentary record is needed. However, the origin and process dynamics of giant debris accumulations in different mountain regions of the world is discussed increasingly controversially. In the last decade a lot of debris accumulations, which were classified formerly as moraines, were reinterpreted as products of mass movements. In this context, the study presented here, focuses on a case example from the upper Chapursan Valley at the Afghan-Pakistan border (Karakoram Range, Pakistan). The Chapursan Valley floor and the adjacent sediment cones are covered with an outstanding hummocky debris landscape over a length of about 10 km and a width of up to 1 km with individual hummocks reaching about 10 m in height. These landforms overlap with the zone of permanent settlement. According to local legends and reports of early travelers in this region, one of the largest settlement concentrations formerly occurred in the upper Chapursan Valley and was destroyed by a natural disaster. Geomorphological field investigations, sedimentological studies, a comparison of satellite images, an analysis of historical data and interviews with the local inhabitants were carried out to unravel the origin of the hummocky terrain. The results show

  11. Grazing-induced effects on soil properties modify plant competitive interactions in semi-natural mountain grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Roldán, Eduardo; Paz-Ferreiro, Jorge; Bardgett, Richard D

    2012-09-01

    Plant-soil feedbacks are widely recognized as playing a significant role in structuring plant communities through their effects on plant-plant interactions. However, the question of whether plant-soil feedbacks can be indirectly driven by other ecological agents, such as large herbivores, which are known to strongly modify plant community structure and soil properties, remains poorly explored. We tested in a glasshouse experiment how changes in soil properties resulting from long-term sheep grazing affect competitive interactions (intra- and inter-specific) of two graminoid species: Nardus stricta, which is typically abundant under high sheep grazing pressure in British mountain grasslands; and Eriophorum vaginatum, whose abundance is typically diminished under grazing. Both species were grown in monocultures and mixtures at different densities in soils taken from adjacent grazed and ungrazed mountain grassland in the Yorkshire Dales, northern England. Nardus stricta performed better (shoot and root biomass) when grown in grazing-conditioned soil, independent of whether or not it grew under inter-specific competition. Eriophorum vaginatum also grew better when planted in soil from the grazed site, but this occurred only when it did not experience inter-specific competition with N. stricta. This indicates that plant-soil feedback for E. vaginatum is dependent on the presence of an inter-specific competitor. A yield density model showed that indirect effects of grazing increased the intensity of intra-specific competition in both species in comparison with ungrazed-conditioned soil. However, indirect effects of grazing on the intensity of inter-specific competition were species-specific favouring N. stricta. We explain these asymmetric grazing-induced effects on competition on the basis of traits of the superior competitor and grazing effects on soil nutrients. Finally, we discuss the relevance of our findings for plant community dynamics in grazed, semi-natural

  12. State-Led Ecotourism Development and Nature Conservation: a Case Study of the Changbai Mountain Biosphere Reserve, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingli Wang

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Faced with fiscal constraints and enormous population pressures, 80% of Chinese nature reserves have employed ecotourism as a support and development strategy. Assessing the actual effects of ecotourism at a nature reserve that has a relatively long history of ecotourism development experience may be instructive for other reserves. Therefore, we take Changbai Mountain Biosphere Reserve (CMBR in northeastern China as a case study, for it is one of the pioneers in embracing ecotourism in China. Personal interviews and informal group discussions were employed to understand local residents’ attitudes toward conservation. Factors affecting their attitudes were then analyzed using logistic regression. Results indicate that attitudes held by most farmers are not favorable toward the conservation of the CMBR. It is not ecotourism but rather income from collection of forest products, household crop lands, and migrant labor that actually influences their attitudes. We found that the 1-day-sightseeing tour style, the limited tourism period, and the low level of education and extreme poverty of the local residents, together with existing institutions and lagging regulations make it very difficult for ecotourism to engender local residents’ support. We concluded that institutional measures to guarantee local people’s sharing in the revenue generated by the reserve, as well as regulations to ensure involvement of the local community in the decision-making process are preconditions for ecotourism to engender local support in China. Providing educational opportunities for children and vocational training for young local residents can also contribute indirectly to enhanced conservation.

  13. Hydrochemical characteristics of natural water and selenium-rich water resources in the Northern Daba Mountains, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chao; Luo, Kunli; Du, Yajun; Tian, Yuan; Long, Jie; Zhao, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Shixi

    2017-04-01

    The Northern Daba Mountains (NDM) of Shaanxi Province, China, are a well-known selenium (Se)-rich area, and the area is also known for endemic fluorine (F) and arsenic (As) poisoning. In order to study the hydrochemical characteristics and trace element contents of the natural waters of this region, 62 water samples were collected from Lan'gao area in the NDM. The hydrochemical composition was principally characterized by Ca·Mg-HCO3·SO4. F and As concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 0.67 mg/L and from 0.33 to 6.29 μg/L, respectively, lower than Chinese national standard and international guidelines for drinking water quality. One year of monitoring proved that F and As in natural water were not the sources of the local fluorosis and arseniasis in the NDM. The average Se concentration in fissure water was 5.20 μg/L. The average Se content of river water was 2.82 μg/L, 14 times that of the world's surface level (0.2 μg/L). The Se content in eight samples reached the Chinese national standards for mineral drinking water quality (>10 μg/L). Contrasting the water samples of May, July, and September in 2015 shows that the Se content is relatively stable and the increase of humidity might be beneficial to increase the content of selenium and strontium in water.

  14. Plant species diversity and dynamics in forests invaded by Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis in Tianmu Mountain Nature Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shangbin Bai

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis is an economically important plant, widely cultivated not only for its delicious shoots and versatile culms, but also as an important biomass resource in southern China.However, with its robust growth and strong rhizomes, it has recently been shown to be a problem tree, capable of dominating some forest stands. Indeed, it may displace species within the community it invades with considerable potential impacts. However, little is known about the consequences of its invasion on plant community composition. We compared plant biodiversity change in different communities where we monitored and removed bamboo over a seven years period (2005 to 2011 in Tianmu Mountain Nature Reserve, so as to elucidate the impacts of Moso bamboo invasion. The results showed that Moso bamboo invasion had negative effects on plant communities. Simpson’s Diversity Index in tree and shrub layers of bamboo forest was lower than that of forests consisting of needle and broad-leaved species, and also those containing a mixture of bamboo with needle and broad-leaved plants. However, Simpson’s Diversity Index in the herb layer of bamboo forest was higher than that in the two other forest types. Plant species richness, Simpson’s Diversity Index, and Pielou’s Eveness Index varied greatly among the different forest types over time. In the tree and shrub layers of forests containing bamboo growing with both needle and broad-leaved species, these three indices declined significantly over the monitoring period (P0.05. Plant species richness increased in the herb layer of forests containing bamboo mixed with needle and broad-leaved species, while Simpson’s Diversity Index and Pielou’s Eveness Index did not change greatly over time. The removal of Moso bamboo resulted in an increase in plant species richness and Simpson’s Diversity Index in the tree and shrub layers. In contrast, plant species richness, Simpson’s Diversity Index, and

  15. [Short-term death dynamics of trees in natural secondary poplar-birch forest in Changbai Mountains of Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhao-Chen; Hao, Zhan-Qing; Ye, Ji; Lin, Fei; Yuan, Zuo-Qiang; Xing, Ding-Liang; Shi, Shuai; Wang, Xu-gao

    2013-02-01

    Taking the 5 hm2 sampling plot in the natural secondary poplar-birch forest in Changbai Mountains as test object, and based on the two census data in 2005 and 2010, an analysis was made on the main tree species composition and quantity, size class distribution of dead individuals, and regeneration characteristics of the main tree species in different habitat types of the plot in 2005-2010. In the five years, the species number of the individuals with DBH> or = 1 cm increased from 46 to 47, among which, 3 species were newly appeared, and 2 species were disappeared. The number of the individuals changed from 16509 to 15027, among which, 2150 individuals died, accounting for 13% of the whole individuals in 2005, and 668 individuals were newly increased. The basal area of the trees increased from 28.79 m2.m-2 to 30.55 m2.m-2, with that of 41 species increased while that of 6 species decreased. The decrease of the basal area of Betula platyphylla and Populus davidiana accounted for 72.3% of the total decrease. Small individuals had higher mortality, as compared with large ones, and the mortality of the individuals with DBHDBH. No difference was observed in the tree mortality among different habitat types, but the mortality of the individuals with different size classes showed greater variation.

  16. [Aboveground biomass of natural Castanopsis carlesii-Schima superba community in Xiaokeng of Nanling Mountains, South China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ting-Ting; Li, Gen; Zhou, Guang-Yi; Wu, Zhong-Min; Zhao, Hou-Ben; Qiu, Zhi-Jun; Liang, Rui-You

    2013-09-01

    By the method of clear cutting, a measurement was made on the aboveground biomass (AGB) of 24-year old natural Castanopsis carlesii-Schima superba community in an 800 m2 plot in Xiaokeng of Nanling Mountains, South China. The distribution patterns of the total AGB in different forest layers, tree species, and tree layer organs were investigated, and the AGB regression models were constructed. The results showed that when constructing the AGB regression models, more than 12 samples would be feasible. Based on the measured AGB of 265 felled trees, the AGB models of mixed broadleaved species were AGB = 0. 128D(2.372) and AGB = 242.331(D2H)(0.947). The single tree's AGB model of C. carlesii, S. superba, and Cunninghamia lanceolata was also established. The total AGB of the forest community was 115.20 t x hm(-2), of which, the AGB of tree layer, understory layer, liana, and litter layer was 111.25, 1.01, 0.36, and 2.58 t x hm(-2), respectively. The AGB of C. carlesii and S. superba took up 39.1% and 28.7% of the tree layer AGB, respectively. The AGB of tree stem and branch-leaf occupied 81.0% and 19.0% of the tree layer AGB, respectively.

  17. Review: Natural tracers in fractured hard-rock aquifers in the Austrian part of the Eastern Alps—previous approaches and future perspectives for hydrogeology in mountain regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilberg, Sylke

    2016-08-01

    Extensive in-depth research is required for the implementation of natural tracer approaches to hydrogeological investigation to be feasible in mountainous regions. This review considers the application of hydrochemical and biotic parameters in mountain regions over the past few decades with particular reference to the Austrian Alps, as an example for alpine-type mountain belts. A brief introduction to Austria's hydrogeological arrangement is given to show the significance of fractured hard-rock aquifers for hydrogeological science as well as for water supply purposes. A literature search showed that research concerning fractured hard-rock aquifers in Austria is clearly underrepresented to date, especially when taking the abundance of this aquifer type and the significance of this topic into consideration. The application of abiotic natural tracers (hydrochemical and isotope parameters) is discussed generally and by means of examples from the Austrian Alps. The potential of biotic tracers (microbiota and meiofauna) is elucidated. It is shown that the meiofauna approach to investigating fractured aquifers has not yet been applied in the reviewed region, nor worldwide. Two examples of new approaches in mountainous fractured aquifers are introduced: (1) use of CO2 partial pressure and calcite saturation of spring water to reconstruct catchments and flow dynamics (abiotic approach), and, (2) consideration of hard-rock aquifers as habitats to reconstruct aquifer conditions (biotic approach).

  18. Characterizing the emission implications of future natural gas production and use in the U.S. and Rocky Mountain region: A scenario-based energy system modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Jeffrey

    The recent increase in U.S. natural gas production made possible through advancements in extraction techniques including hydraulic fracturing has transformed the U.S. energy supply landscape while raising questions regarding the balance of environmental impacts associated with natural gas production and use. Impact areas at issue include emissions of methane and criteria pollutants from natural gas production, alongside changes in emissions from increased use of natural gas in place of coal for electricity generation. In the Rocky Mountain region, these impact areas have been subject to additional scrutiny due to the high level of regional oil and gas production activity and concerns over its links to air quality. Here, the MARKAL (MArket ALlocation) least-cost energy system optimization model in conjunction with the EPA-MARKAL nine-region database has been used to characterize future regional and national emissions of CO 2, CH4, VOC, and NOx attributed to natural gas production and use in several sectors of the economy. The analysis is informed by comparing and contrasting a base case, business-as-usual scenario with scenarios featuring variations in future natural gas supply characteristics, constraints affecting the electricity generation mix, carbon emission reduction strategies and increased demand for natural gas in the transportation sector. Emission trends and their associated sensitivities are identified and contrasted between the Rocky Mountain region and the U.S. as a whole. The modeling results of this study illustrate the resilience of the short term greenhouse gas emission benefits associated with fuel switching from coal to gas in the electric sector, but also call attention to the long term implications of increasing natural gas production and use for emissions of methane and VOCs, especially in the Rocky Mountain region. This analysis can help to inform the broader discussion of the potential environmental impacts of future natural gas production

  19. Isolation of Legionella species from Noyu (unattended natural hot springs in mountains and fields) samples in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuhata, Katsunori; Edagawa, Akiko; Ishizaki, Naoto; Fukuyama, Masafumi

    2013-01-01

    In order to understand the habitation conditions of the bacteria of the genus Legionella in Noyu (unattended natural hot springs in mountains and fields) in Japan, isolation of Legionella spp. was attempted in the Noyu samples from 11 prefectures nationwide between May and September 2012, and the following results were obtained. Overall, Legionella spp. was isolated from 16 of 43 samples (37.2%). The species was isolated from the Hokkaido region to the Chugoku region but not from the Shikoku region to the Kyushu region. The number of bacteria detected was usually small, less than 5.0 × 10(1) CFU/100 ml, as found in 11 samples (68.8%), while counts of 10(2) or more to 10(3) or less CFU/100 ml were found in two samples (12.5%). Legionella pneumophila was the most commonly found strain, with 19 strains (90.5%) found, and was the dominant species. Regarding the serogrouping, four strains (21.1%) fell under group 1, the most common grouping, followed by three strains (15.8%) in group 3, two strains (10.5%) in group 5, etc. Moreover, the detected bacterial strains other than L. pneumophila included two strains (9.5%) of L. londiniensis. The temperature of the Noyu from which Legionella spp. was isolated was between 33.1°C and 41.5°C with a pH ranging from 5.2 to 8.1. The present report is the first report to clarify the habitation conditions of strains of Legionella spp. isolated from Noyu in Japan.

  20. Risk-based consequences of extreme natural hazard processes in mountain regions - Multi-hazard analysis in Tyrol (Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttenlau, Matthias; Stötter, Johann

    2010-05-01

    Reinsurance companies are stating a high increase in natural hazard related losses, both insured and economic losses, within the last decades on a global scale. This ongoing trend can be described as a product of the dynamic in the natural and in the anthroposphere. To analyze the potential impact of natural hazard process to a certain insurance portfolio or to the society in general, reinsurance companies or risk management consultants have developed loss models. However, those models are generally not fitting the scale dependent demand on regional scales like it is appropriate (i) for analyses on the scale of a specific province or (ii) for portfolio analyses of regional insurance companies. Moreover, the scientific basis of most of the models is not transparent documented and therefore scientific evaluations concerning the methodology concepts are not possible (black box). This is contrary to the scientific principles of transparency and traceability. Especially in mountain regions like the European Alps with their inherent (i) specific characteristic on small scales, (ii) the relative high process dynamics in general, (iii) the occurrence of gravitative mass movements which are related to high relief energy and thus only exists in mountain regions, (iv) the small proportion of the area of permanent settlement on the overall area, (v) the high value concentration in the valley floors, (vi) the exposition of important infrastructures and lifelines, and others, analyses must consider these circumstances adequately. Therefore, risk-based analyses are methodically estimating the potential consequences of hazard process on the built environment standardized with the risk components (i) hazard, (ii) elements at risk, and (iii) vulnerability. However, most research and progress have been made in the field of hazard analyses, whereas the other both components are not developed accordingly. Since these three general components are influencing factors without any

  1. Natural Communities and Rare Vascular Plants of West Mountain Wildlife Management Area and Nulhegan Basin Division of the Silvio O. Conte National Wildlife Refuge; Mapping, Description, and Ecological Management Recommendations

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In order to apply a landscape-scale approach to management of the lands, natural communities of the West Mountain Wildlife Management Area and Nulhegan Basin...

  2. Nature and origin of mineral coatings on volcanic rocks of the Black Mountain, Stonewall Mountain, and Kane Springs Wash volcanic centers, Southern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taranik, James V.; Hsu, Liang C.; Spatz, David

    1988-01-01

    Comparative lab spectra and Thematic Mapper imagery investigations at 3 Tertiary calderas in southern Nevada indicate that desert varnish is absorbant relative to underlying host rocks below about 0.7 to 1.3 microns, depending on mafic affinity of the sample, but less absorbant than mafic host rocks at higher wavelengths. Desert varnish occurs chiefly as thin impregnating films. Distribution of significant varnish accumulations is sparse and localized, occurring chiefly in surface recesses. These relationships result in the longer wavelength bands and high 5/2 values over felsic units with extensive desert varnish coatings. These lithologic, petrochemical, and desert varnish controlled spectral responses lead to characteristic TM band relationships which tend to correlate with conventionally mappable geologic formations. The concept of a Rock-Varnish Index (RVI) is introduced to help distinguish rocks with a potentially detectable varnish. Felsic rocks have a high RVI, and those with extensive desert varnish behave differently, spectrally, from those without extensive varnish. The spectrally distinctive volcanic formations at Stonewall Mountain provide excellent statistical class segregation on supervised classification images. A binary decision rule flow-diagram is presented to aid TM imagery analysis over volcanic terrane in semi-arid environments.

  3. MODEL PENGELOLAAN LINGKUNGAN TAMAN WISATA ALAM GUNUNG MEJA MANOKWARI PAPUA BARAT (Model Environmental Management of Meja Mountain Natural Manokwari West Papua (Model Environmental Management of Meja Mountain Natural Manokwari West Papua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalsen Basna

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Model pengelolaan lingkungan hutan Taman Wisata Alam Gunung Meja mencapai lingkungan keberkelanjutan apabila aspek ekologis, ekonornis, dan sosial budaya yang dinarnis diperlukan suatu konsep model lingkungan yang permanen dalam pengelolaannya. Model lingkungan adalah perwakilan sebuah objek dalam bentuk aktual atau situasi rill yang ditentukan secara sadar dan terencana. Penelitian ini bertujuan (i menganalisis model sistem blok, (2 mengontruksi model rekayasa struktur hutan tanaman lokal campuran sebagai pengedalian lingkungan masa kini, (3 mengonstuksi model arahan lingkungan pengelolaan wisata alam yang berbasis bisnis konservasi.Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah memadukan sumber informasi lingkungan dari data penginderaan jauh, peta tematik, sistem informasi geografis (SIG, dan survei lapangan. Populasi sampel mengenai kerusakan lingkungan dipilih dari peta satuan lahan sesuai dengan liputan citra lansat thematic mapper (TM atau enhanced thematic mapper (ETM seluruh kawasan dan survei lapangan.Hasil penelitian, adalah (1 perumusan model berdasarkan kondisi permasalahan yang terdiri atas model sistem blok berdasarkan blok daerah datar, daerah tangkapan air satu atau daerah dengan kerapatan hutan yang tinggi, blok kerapatan sedang atau daerah tangkapan air dua, blok daerah pernanfaatan dan blok rehabilitasi; (2 mengontruksi model rekayasa struktur hutan tanaman lokal campuran untuk pengendalian lingkungan masa kini berdasarkan stratifikasi tajuk; dan (3 menginstruksi model arahan pengelolaan lingkungan wisata alam yang berbasis bisnis konservasi berdasarkan pada pengembagan jalur pariwisata dan model pengembangan bisnis konservasi. ABSTRACT Model environmental management of forests Meja Mountain Natural Park has achieved thenvironmental aspects of sustainability where ecological, economic and socio-cultural dynamic. At present a concept model of the environment, that can be permanently implied in its management is

  4. HUTAN DALAM KEHIDUPAN MASYARAKAT HATAM DI LINGKUNGAN CAGAR ALAM PEGUNUNGAN ARFAK (Forest In Hatam Community Live On Arfak Mountains Natural Reserve Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Trida Salosa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Pegunungan Arfak adalah suatu wilayah dengan keunikan tersendiri di wilayah Propinsi Papua Barat. Wilayah ini didominasi oleh gunung-gunung yang tinggi dan ekosistemnya adalah ekosistem daerah pegunungan dan alpin, serta mengingat keunikan flora, fauna dan lingkungannya, maka wilayah ini ditetapkan sebagai Cagar AlamPegunungan Arfak. Wilayah Pegunungan Arfak ditempati oleh suku besar Arfak yang salah satu sub sukunya adalah sub suku Hatam. Hutan merupakan bagian dari kehidupan masyarakat Hatam. Terbentuknya kabupaten-kabupaten pemekaran secara tidak langsung akan berakibat terhadap kelestarian jenis yang ada di cagar alam. Analisis SWOT yang digunakan dalam studi ini dimaksudkan untuk merumuskan strategi-strategi yang memungkinkan untuk mengakomodasi kepentingan masyarakat dan menjaga kelestarian cagar alam. Penelitian dilaksanakan di kampung Anggra dan Apui di Distrik Minyambouw pada bulan Juni 2013. Hasil studi menunjukkan bahwa hutan sangat berperan dalam kehidupan masyarakat terutama dalam mengaplikasi nilai budaya dalam kehidupan masyarakat. Strategi yang tepat untuk menjaga kelestarian hutan dan mengakomodasi kepentingan masyarakat diharapkan agar didasarkan pada kearifan masyarakat dalam memanfaatkan hutan. ABSTRACT Arfak Mountains is a region with its own uniqueness in the Province of West Papua. This region is dominated by high mountains with particularities of flora and fauna in ecosystems of mountain and alpine. Therefore, it is designated as a Natural Reservation of Arfak Mountains. Arfak Mountains region is occupied by a large tribe of Arfak which is Hatam is one of its sub-tribe. Forests are part of Hatam people's lives. Establishment of districts expansion will indirectly result in the preservation of species in natural reservation. SWOT analysis used in this study is intended to look at the potential strategies in accomodating people interest and preserving the natural reservation. The study was conducted in villages of

  5. AUTECOLOGY OF INVASIVE SPECIES Cyperus rotundus L. IN FOREST EDGE OF POHEN MOUNTAIN, BATUKAHU NATURE RESERVE, BALI, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutomo Sutomo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic-origin forest disturbance has been known to increase the risk of invasion to native habitat. Invasive species caused problems for local ecosystems and their native species. The  research on the dynamics and autecology of invasive species Cyperus rotundus was conducted on anthropogenic disturbed Pohen mountain forest in Bali, Indonesia. Results showed significant changes in microclimatic variables from forest edge to interior. C. rotundus in Pohen mountain forest can be found in a road edge and forest exterior where sunlight is abundant and decrease in a more shady sites and absent under thick forest canopies CCA ordination analysis showed that C. rotundus in Pohen mountain forest tends to co-occur together with Imperata cylindrica and Bidens biternata. To be able to control potentially troublesome exotic invasive species, firstly we have to understand what factors limit their growth and development. Therefore this study is has important value because the data which from  result in studying invasive species autecology will act as baseline data that will be useful to generate management program including rehabilitation and restoration program. Key words: species dynamics, autecology, Cyperus rotundus, Pohen mountain forest, Bali

  6. Spatial variations of Pb in the vertical zone of the soil-plant system in the Changbai Mountain National Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The characteristics of vertical and horizontal variations of lead element(Pb) in soil-plant system of vertical zone in Changbai Mountain National Nature Reserve(CNNR) were studied.The results showed that Pb concentrations in soils of vertical zone are all above 25 mg/kg,and the average Pb concentration of each soil zone negatively correlates its degree of variation,i.e.brown coniferous forest soil zone has the lowest average Pb concentration of four soil zones,and the highest horizontal variation; however,mountain soddy forest soil has the highest average Pb concentration,and the lowest horizontal variation; the average concentration of plant Pb of each plant zone is lower than the worldwide average level of Pb in plant( Clarke),respectively,and plant Pb content order is consistent with soil Pb content order,but their horizontal variations are different from those in soil zones,the variation of mountain tundra forest zone is highest,but Betula ermanii forest zone the lowest.Vertical variation of plant Pb is obviously higher than that in soils with variation coefficient of 89.76%; the enrichment capability of plant for Pb is depended on the plant types and the different organs of plant; parent material and parent rock,pH values,soil organic matter and soil particle fraction etc.are the main factors influencing variations of Pb content in soil-plant system of vertical zone in CNNR.

  7. Biological and functional diversity of bird communities in natural and human modified habitats in Northern Flank of Knuckles Mountain Forest Range, Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KALYA SUBASINGHE

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Subasinghe K, Sumanapala AP. 2014. Biological and functional diversity of bird communities in natural and human modified habitats in Northern Flank of Knuckles Mountain Forest Range, Sri Lanka. Biodiversitas 15: 200-205. The Knuckles Mountain Forest Range (KMFR has a complex mosaic of natural and human modified habitats and the contribution of these habitats to the biological and functional diversities has not been deeply studied. Present study investigated both of these diversities in five habitat types (two natural habitats: Sub-montane forest and Pitawala Patana grassland; three modified habitats: cardamom, pinus and abandoned tea plantations in Northern Flank of KMFR using birds as the indicator group. Bird communities were surveyed using point count method. A total of 1,150 individuals belonging to 56 species were observed. The highest species richness was reported from the cardamom plantation where as sub-montane forest had the highest feeding guild diversity in terms of Shannon Weiner index. The abandoned tea plantation and the Pitawala Patana grasslands with fairly open habitats, showed relatively lower levels of feeding guild diversities. It is clear that the structurally complex habitats contribute more to the area’s biological and functional diversities and need to be taken into consideration when developing conservation plans.

  8. Extracting Features of Acacia Plantation and Natural Forest in the Mountainous Region of Sarawak, Malaysia by ALOS/AVNIR2 Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadaei, H.; Ishii, R.; Suzuki, R.; Kendawang, J.

    2013-12-01

    The remote sensing technique has provided useful information to detect spatio-temporal changes in the land cover of tropical forests. Land cover characteristics derived from satellite image can be applied to the estimation of ecosystem services and biodiversity over an extensive area, and such land cover information would provide valuable information to global and local people to understand the significance of the tropical ecosystem. This study was conducted in the Acacia plantations and natural forest situated in the mountainous region which has different ecological characteristic from that in flat and low land area in Sarawak, Malaysia. The main objective of this study is to compare extract the characteristic of them by analyzing the ALOS/AVNIR2 images and ground truthing obtained by the forest survey. We implemented a ground-based forest survey at Aacia plantations and natural forest in the mountainous region in Sarawak, Malaysia in June, 2013 and acquired the forest structure data (tree height, diameter at breast height (DBH), crown diameter, tree spacing) and spectral reflectance data at the three sample plots of Acacia plantation that has 10 x 10m area. As for the spectral reflectance data, we measured the spectral reflectance of the end members of forest such as leaves, stems, road surface, and forest floor by the spectro-radiometer. Such forest structure and spectral data were incorporated into the image analysis by support vector machine (SVM) and object-base/texture analysis. Consequently, land covers on the AVNIR2 image were classified into three forest types (natural forest, oil palm plantation and acacia mangium plantation), then the characteristic of each category was examined. We additionally used the tree age data of acacia plantation for the classification. A unique feature was found in vegetation spectral reflectance of Acacia plantations. The curve of the spectral reflectance shows two peaks around 0.3μm and 0.6 - 0.8μm that can be assumed to

  9. Landscape pattern and diversity of natural secondary forests in the eastern mountainous region, northeast China: A case study of Mao'ershan region in HeUongjiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIShu-juan; SUIYu-zheng; FENGHai-qing; WANGFeng-you; LIYu-wen

    2004-01-01

    Mao'ershan region is a representative natural secondary forested region in the eastern mountainous region, northeast of China. Under the support of ARC/INFO, the landscape pattern and landscape diversity of Mao'erhshan region were sudied by combining the forest type map (1:10 000), which was drawn from the aerial photographs (1999), field investigation and land utilization map (1:10 000). The selected indices included patch number, patch size, patch density index, richness index,dominance index, evenness index and diversity index. The results showed that the landscape dominant forest type in Mao'ershan region was softwood broad-leaved forest. In all landscape types, the average patch area of natural secondary forests was bigger than that of artificial forest. The patch density index of each landscape formed in artificial forest was higher than that of natural secondary forest. The landscape diversity index and landscape evenness index of natural forest were highest, the landscape heterogeneity was also, but the landscape dominance was lower. In natural forest, the control effects of landscape elements on landscape-structure, function and its change were weakened. The artificial forest was on the contrary.

  10. Performance analysis of image processing algorithms for classification of natural vegetation in the mountains of southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yool, S. R.; Star, J. L.; Estes, J. E.; Botkin, D. B.; Eckhardt, D. W.

    1986-01-01

    The earth's forests fix carbon from the atmosphere during photosynthesis. Scientists are concerned that massive forest removals may promote an increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide, with possible global warming and related environmental effects. Space-based remote sensing may enable the production of accurate world forest maps needed to examine this concern objectively. To test the limits of remote sensing for large-area forest mapping, we use Landsat data acquired over a site in the forested mountains of southern California to examine the relative capacities of a variety of popular image processing algorithms to discriminate different forest types. Results indicate that certain algorithms are best suited to forest classification. Differences in performance between the algorithms tested appear related to variations in their sensitivities to spectral variations caused by background reflectance, differential illumination, and spatial pattern by species. Results emphasize the complexity between the land-cover regime, remotely sensed data and the algorithms used to process these data.

  11. Natural potentials of the medicinal plants from the Orchidaceae family with mucus as the main ingredients from Zlatar mountain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matović, M.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The spontaneous medicinal flora of Zlatar Mountain was studied in the aim of realizing the possibilities of its sustainable use for the needs of the pharmaceutical industry. The special attention was paid to genera Orchis, Ophrys, Plathanthera, Gimnadenia, etc. from the orchid family (Orchidaceae of which salep is made (Tuber salep. Salep is a typical mucous drug (contains over 50% of mucus, which is very beneficial and useful. The primary role of salep is to heal and strengthen the organism and urge the sexual and every other biological ability. Orchids of which salep is made (Orchis coriophora, Orchis laxiflora, Orchis morio, Orchis mascula, Orchis pallens, Orchis purpurea, Orchis simia, Orchis tridentata and Orchis ustulata are to be found on numerous habitats of Zlatar (in the bright forests, clearing areas and on forest meadows.

  12. Origin of rhyolite by crustal melting and the nature of parental magmas in the Oligocene Conejos Formation, San Juan Mountains, Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, D. F.; Ghosh, A.; Price, C. W.; Rinard, B. D.; Cullers, R. L.; Ren, M.

    2005-01-01

    Four closely spaced volcanoes (Summer Coon; Twin Mountains; Del Norte; Carnero Creek) form the east-central cluster of Conejos volcanic centers. These Conejos rocks range from high-K basaltic andesite to rhyolite, with andesite volumetrically the most abundant. Summer Coon and Twin Mountains are composite volcanoes. The Del Norte and Carnero Creek volcanoes are deeply eroded dacite shields. Rhyolite (10% of our Conejos analyses but a much smaller percentage by volume) is only known from Summer Coon and Twin Mountains volcanoes, although high-SiO 2 dacite occurs in the Del Norte volcano. The younger Hinsdale Formation contains a related series ranging from transitional basalt to high-K andesite; we use Hinsdale Formation analyses to represent Conejos parental magmas. Conejos and Hinsdale magmas evolved through AFC processes: Basalt, after interacting with lower crust, assimilated low K/Rb crust, similar in some ways to Taylor and McLennan (Taylor, S.R., and McLennan, S.M., 1985, The continental crust: its composition and evolution. Oxford, Blackwell Scientific.) model upper crust; main series basaltic andesite fractionated to high-K andesite; rhyolite was produced by melting of high K/Ba upper crustal rocks similar to granite gneiss known from inclusions and basement outcrops. Some rhyolite may have been back-mixed into fractionating andesite and dacite. Field evidence for assimilation includes sanidinite-facies, partially melted, gneiss blocks up to 1 m in diameter. Temperature estimates (1100-900 ° C) from two-pyroxene equilibria are consistent with this interpretation, as are the sparsely porphyritic nature of the most-evolved rhyolites and the absence of phenocrystic alkali feldspar. Our study supports the conclusions of previous workers on AFC processes in similar, but generally more mafic, Conejos magmas of the southeastern San Juan Mountains. Our results, however, emphasize the importance of crustal melting in the generation of Conejos rhyolite. We further

  13. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE DESCRIPTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.M. Simmons

    2004-04-16

    The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' summarizes, in a single document, the current state of knowledge and understanding of the natural system at Yucca Mountain. It describes the geology; geochemistry; past, present, and projected future climate; regional hydrologic system; and flow and transport within the unsaturated and saturated zones at the site. In addition, it discusses factors affecting radionuclide transport, the effect of thermal loading on the natural system, and tectonic hazards. The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' is broad in nature. It summarizes investigations carried out as part of the Yucca Mountain Project since 1988, but it also includes work done at the site in earlier years, as well as studies performed by others. The document has been prepared under the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management quality assurance program for the Yucca Mountain Project. Yucca Mountain is located in Nye County in southern Nevada. The site lies in the north-central part of the Basin and Range physiographic province, within the northernmost subprovince commonly referred to as the Great Basin. The basin and range physiography reflects the extensional tectonic regime that has affected the region during the middle and late Cenozoic Era. Yucca Mountain was initially selected for characterization, in part, because of its thick unsaturated zone, its arid to semiarid climate, and the existence of a rock type that would support excavation of stable openings. In 1987, the United States Congress directed that Yucca Mountain be the only site characterized to evaluate its suitability for development of a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.

  14. Initial Study of the Ground Beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae and Other Invertebrates from “Leshnitsa” Nature Reserve(Central Stara Planina Mountains, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora M. Teofilova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The invertebrate fauna of the “Leshnitsa” nature reserve was studied, with particular consideration to the ground beetles. During the study altogether 394 specimens of carabid beetlesbelonging to 32 species and subspecies were captured, as well as 23 other invertebrate species,some of which are with a conservation significance (protected, Bulgarian and Balkan endemics.Ground beetles were characterized and classified according to their zoogeographical belonging,degree of endemism and the life forms they refer to. Threats for the invertebrate fauna and negativefactors of anthropogenic origin were determined and measures for diminishing of their effect wereproposed. So far the invertebrate fauna in this part of the mountain has been insufficiently studied.The real state of the diversity of this group in the area will be revealed only after futureinvestigations and discovery of additional new species for the region.

  15. 雾灵山自然保护区的山杨林%ASPEN (Populus davidiana) FOREST IN WULING   MOUNTAIN NATURAL RESERVE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭文增

    2001-01-01

    The researches on Populus davidiana forest were carried out in Wuling Mountain Natural Reserve. It expounded its distribution, habitat, physiognomy character (biological spectrum, leaf-size class, leaf-tepe, leaf-margin), structural feature(synusia, vertical stratification, quantitative character), and predicated on the succession dynamic status of Populus davidiana forest was put forward.%对雾灵山自然保护区的山杨林进行了研究。详细论述了其分布、生境、种类组成、外貌特征(生活型谱、叶级、叶形、叶缘)、结构特征(层次、层片、综合数量特征),并对其演替动态进行了分析。

  16. Descriptive study of an outbreak of equine sarcoid in a population of Cape mountain zebra (Equus zebra zebra in the Gariep Nature Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Nel

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of equine sarcoid occurred in a population of Cape mountain zebra (Equus zebra zebra at the Gariep Nature Reserve located in the southern Free State Province of South Africa in 1996. The course of the outbreak during 1996 to 2003 is described. During this period the average population size was 69 animals. Initially (1996 all affected animals were removed from the population. New cases continued to manifest and the incidence varied between 4.6% and 17.6 %. Prevalence reached 24.7% in 2002. No sexual predilection was noticed in the 39 recorded cases. Of the affected individuals, 64 % had a single lesion and no animal had more than 4 lesions. In males, the majority of lesions occurred in the inguinal area (55.17 %, whereas in females they mostly occurred on the head and neck (41.38 %. Lesions can increase 260 % in size annually and may impede movement.

  17. Natural history of Camponotus ant-fishing by the M group chimpanzees at the Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishie, Hitonaru

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to provide basic data on ant-fishing behavior among the M group chimpanzees at the Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania. Ant-fishing is a type of tool-using behavior that has been exhibited by Mahale chimpanzees when feeding upon arboreal carpenter ants (Camponotus spp.) since the 1970s, and is now regarded as a candidate of wild chimpanzee culture. Herein, I describe in detail the features of ant-fishing shown by the Mahale M group chimpanzees: (1) 2 species of Camponotus ants (Camponotus sp. (chrysurus-complex) [C. sp.1] and C. brutus) were identified as the target species of ant-fishing, and C. sp.1 was selected intensively as the main target; (2) 24 species (92 individuals) of trees were identified as ant-fishing sites-these were widely distributed throughout the western/lowland region of the M group's home range, and the top 5 species were used more frequently; (3) the efficiency of ant-fishing was influenced not only by the site choice or the skillfulness of the chimpanzees, but inevitably by the condition of the ants; (4) the estimated nutritional intake from ant-fishing was apparently negligible; (5) most of the M group members (50/60 individuals) older than 3 years of age successfully used tools to fish for ants; and (6) female chimpanzees engaged in ant-fishing more frequently and for longer periods than males did. Further, I compared the features of ant-fishing exhibited by the Mahale M group chimpanzees with those exhibited by the former K group at Mahale and by other populations of wild chimpanzees.

  18. Ungulate Impact on Natural Regeneration in Spruce-Beech-Fir Stands in Černý důl Nature Reserve in the Orlické Hory Mountains, Case Study from Central Sudetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Vacek

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a study on tree regeneration of forest stands in the Černý důl Nature Reserve, which is situated in the Orlické hory Mountains Protected Landscape area in the Czech Republic. Research was conducted in a spruce-beech stand with an admixture of silver fir, sycamore maple and rowan on two comparative permanent research plots (PRPs (PRP 1—fenced enclosure and PRP 2—unfenced. Typological, soil, phytosociological and stand characteristics of the two PRPs are similar. The results showed that ungulate browsing is a limiting factor for successful development of natural regeneration of autochthonous tree species. The population of tree species of natural regeneration on the fenced plot (PRP 1 is sufficient in relation to the site and stand conditions. However, natural regeneration on PRP 2 is considerably limited by browsing. Damage is greatest to fir, sycamore maple and rowan; less severe to beech; and the least to spruce.

  19. Long-term protection effects of national reserve to forest vegetation in 4 decades: Biodiversity change analysis of major forest types in Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Fan; SANG WeiGuo; LI GuangQi; LIU RuiGang; CHEN LingZhi; WANG Kun

    2008-01-01

    The Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve (CNR) was established in 1960 to protect the virgin Korean pine mixed hardwood forest, a typical temperate forest of northeast China. We conducted systematic stud-ies of vascular diversity patterns on the north slope of the CNR mountainside forests (800-1700 m a.s.I.) in 1963 and 2006 respectively. The aim of this comparison is to assess the long-term effects of the protection on plant biodiversity of CNR during the interval 43 years. The research was carried out in three types of forests: mixed coniferous and broad-leaved forest (MCBF), mixed coniferous forest (MCF), and sub-alpine coniferous forest (SCF), characterized by different dominant species. The alpha diversity indicted by species richness and the Shannon-Wiener index were found different in the same elevations and forest types during the 43-year interval. The floral composition and the diversity of vascular species were generally similar along altitudinal gradients before and after the 43-year interval, but some substantial changes were evident with the altitude gradient. In the tree layers, the dominant species in 2006 were similar to those of 1963, though diversity declined with altitude. The indices in the three forest types did not differ significantly between 1963 and 2006, and these values even increased in the MCBF and MCF from 1963 to 2006. However, originally dominant species, P. koraiensis for ex-ample, tended to decline, while the proportion of broad-leaved trees increased, and the species turn-over in the succession layers trended to shift to higher altitudes. The diversity pattern of the under canopy fluctuated along the altitudinal gradient due to micro-environmental variations. Comparison of the alpha diversity in the three forests shows that the diversity of the shrub and herb layer decreased with time. During the process of survey, we also found some rare and medicinal species disappeared. Analysis indicates that the changes of the diversity pattern

  20. Long-term protection effects of national reserve to forest vegetation in 4 decades: biodiversity change analysis of major forest types in Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve (CNR) was established in 1960 to protect the virgin Korean pine mixed hardwood forest, a typical temperate forest of northeast China. We conducted systematic stud- ies of vascular diversity patterns on the north slope of the CNR mountainside forests (800-1700 m a.s.l.) in 1963 and 2006 respectively. The aim of this comparison is to assess the long-term effects of the protection on plant biodiversity of CNR during the interval 43 years. The research was carried out in three types of forests: mixed coniferous and broad-leaved forest (MCBF), mixed coniferous forest (MCF), and sub-alpine coniferous forest (SCF), characterized by different dominant species. The alpha diversity indicted by species richness and the Shannon-Wiener index were found different in the same elevations and forest types during the 43-year interval. The floral composition and the diversity of vascular species were generally similar along altitudinal gradients before and after the 43-year interval, but some substantial changes were evident with the altitude gradient. In the tree layers, the dominant species in 2006 were similar to those of 1963, though diversity declined with altitude. The indices in the three forest types did not differ significantly between 1963 and 2006, and these values even increased in the MCBF and MCF from 1963 to 2006. However, originally dominant species, P. koraiensis for ex- ample, tended to decline, while the proportion of broad-leaved trees increased, and the species turn- over in the succession layers trended to shift to higher altitudes. The diversity pattern of the under canopy fluctuated along the altitudinal gradient due to micro-environmental variations. Comparison of the alpha diversity in the three forests shows that the diversity of the shrub and herb layer decreased with time. During the process of survey, we also found some rare and medicinal species disappeared. Analysis indicates that the changes of the diversity

  1. Long-term protection effects of National Reserve to forest vegetation in 4 decades: biodiversity change analysis of major forest types in Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Fan; Sang, WeiGuo; Li, GuangQi; Liu, RuiGang; Chen, LingZhi; Wang, Kun

    2008-10-01

    The Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve (CNR) was established in 1960 to protect the virgin Korean pine mixed hardwood forest, a typical temperate forest of northeast China. We conducted systematic studies of vascular diversity patterns on the north slope of the CNR mountainside forests (800-1700 m a.s.l.) in 1963 and 2006 respectively. The aim of this comparison is to assess the long-term effects of the protection on plant biodiversity of CNR during the interval 43 years. The research was carried out in three types of forests: mixed coniferous and broad-leaved forest (MCBF), mixed coniferous forest (MCF), and sub-alpine coniferous forest (SCF), characterized by different dominant species. The alpha diversity indicted by species richness and the Shannon-Wiener index were found different in the same elevations and forest types during the 43-year interval. The floral composition and the diversity of vascular species were generally similar along altitudinal gradients before and after the 43-year interval, but some substantial changes were evident with the altitude gradient. In the tree layers, the dominant species in 2006 were similar to those of 1963, though diversity declined with altitude. The indices in the three forest types did not differ significantly between 1963 and 2006, and these values even increased in the MCBF and MCF from 1963 to 2006. However, originally dominant species, P. koraiensis for example, tended to decline, while the proportion of broad-leaved trees increased, and the species turnover in the succession layers trended to shift to higher altitudes. The diversity pattern of the under canopy fluctuated along the altitudinal gradient due to micro-environmental variations. Comparison of the alpha diversity in the three forests shows that the diversity of the shrub and herb layer decreased with time. During the process of survey, we also found some rare and medicinal species disappeared. Analysis indicates that the changes of the diversity pattern in

  2. The detailed analysis of natural radionuclides dissolved in spa waters of the Kłodzko Valley, Sudety Mountains, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walencik-Łata, A; Kozłowska, B; Dorda, J; Przylibski, T A

    2016-11-01

    A survey was conducted to measure natural radioactivity in spa waters from the Kłodzko Valley. The main goal of this study was to determine the activity concentration of uranium, radium and radon isotopes in the investigated groundwaters. Samples were collected several times from 35 water intakes from 5 spas and 2 mineral water bottling plants. The authors examined whether the increased gamma radiation background, as well as the elevated values of radium and uranium content in reservoir rocks, have a significant impact on the natural radioactivity of these waters. The second objective of this research was to provide information about geochemistry of U, Ra, Rn radionuclides and the radiological and chemical risks incurred by ingestion of isotopes with drinking water. On the basis of results obtained, it is feasible to assess the health hazard posed by ingestion of natural radioactivity with drinking waters. Moreover, the data yielded by this research may be helpful in the process of verification of the application of these waters in balneotherapy. In addition, annual effective radiation doses resulting from the isotopes consumption were calculated on the basis of the evaluated activity concentrations. In dose assessment for uranium and radium isotopes, the authors provided values for different human age groups. The obtained uranium content in the investigated waters was compared with the currently valid regulations concerning the quality of drinking water. Based on the activity concentrations data, the activity isotopic ratios (234)U/(238)U, (226)Ra/(238)U, (222)Rn/(238)U, (222)Rn/(226)Ra and the correlations between radionuclides content were then examined. In brief, it may be concluded on the basis of the obtained results that radon solubility is inversely proportional to radium and uranium dissolution in environmental water circulation. The presented study allows conclusions to be drawn on the radionuclide circulation among different environmental biota: from

  3. Monitoring and analysis of natural vegetation in a special protected area of mountain Antichasia--Meteora, central Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meliadis, Ioannis; Platis, Panagiotis; Ainalis, Apostolos; Meliadis, Miltiadis

    2010-04-01

    Natural ecosystems are renewable resources with special environmental, social, and economical attributes and characteristics. The increasing need of human beings for a better environment results in the use of new technologies that offer many advantages in detecting changes in the ecosystems. Remote sensing tools, technology, and the spatial analysis of the Geographic Information System were used in determining any changes in this study which attempts to classify land cover over a 10-year period. The study area is in Thessaly, central Greece, and has been classified as a Special Protection Area, because of its important wild fauna. The results have shown that current technologies can be used for modeling environmental parameters which improve our knowledge of the attributes, characteristics, situation, trends, and changes of natural ecosystems. The changes over time that have been observed result from the development of the vegetation or to anthropogenic and socioeconomic reasons. Rational range management will be a very comprehensive tool for farmers. This action will have a positive impact on flora in the rangelands. The core strategy is to combine forest, pasture, and livestock so that each component produces usable products.

  4. A GIS-based vulnerability assessment tool for the quantification of natural risk in mountain and coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puissant, A.; Schlosser, A.; Gazo, A.; -P., Malet J.; Lissak, C.; Goutiere, M.; Peltier, A.; Houet, T.

    2015-04-01

    Decision-makers need friendly tools for estimating natural risk for different future scenarios and for designing risk reduction strategies. In this work, a flexible GIS-based tool is presented in order to estimate vulnerability indicators (physical, economical, social) over territories of different size and at different scales. The tool has been designed in order to meet the requests of several categories of users (e.g. risk managers, decision planners, scientists). The tool is dedicated to the assessment of the vulnerability from several natural hazards (rock fall, landslide, flood, coastal erosion). On the basis of a database on the elements at risk, the user first selects the analysis scale (micro at the scale of the element at risk; meso at the scale of the municipality; macro at the scale of the catchment). Then, the calculation of vulnerability indicators is performed from this selection. The functionalities of the tool will be presented, and example of vulnerability indicators for some communities exposed will be discussed. The tool is developed within the ANR Project SAMCO.

  5. 鹰咀界天然次生林自然保护区林地土壤特性研究%The Characteristics of Soil in Natural Secondary Forest Conservation Area of Yingzui Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴建平; 袁正科; 梁文斌

    2001-01-01

    According to the studies on 22 samples of soil profile from the natural forest conservation area at Yingzui mountain,the characteristics of soil were described.Research results indicated that the type of soil profile structure was A-B-C-D,and the soil development was successive.The average contents of organic matter in the soil was 54.30g*kg-1,the ratio of C/N was 10.93 and the bulk density was 1.25g*cm-3.the soil texture was heavy loam or light clay.The soil fertility was higher compared with the soil from natural forest conservation of ZhangJiajie mountain,which developed from the same parent material of silicon rocks as Yingzui area.The forest soil of the area is typical in the subtropical natural forest.So it is valuable to be protected.

  6. Analysis on Problems and Countermeasures of the Exploitation of Mountain Wutai Natural Tourism Resources%五台山自然旅游资源开发问题及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊晓霞

    2014-01-01

    五台山旅游面临着游客数量淡旺季分明、旅游品种单一的瓶颈。本文在分析五台山自然旅游资源概况、自然旅游活动现状、自然旅游资源与人文旅游资源关系的基础上,提出自然旅游资源开发有助于五台山旅游业突破瓶颈,实现可持续发展。基于生态旅游理论,进一步对五台山自然旅游资源的开发思路进行了探讨。%Mountain Wutai tourism faces the bottleneck problems of the relatively lower travel quality due to overload tourists in peak-season and single tourism activity. On the analysis of the Mountain Wutai natural tourism resources, natural tourism present situation, and the relationship between the natural tourist resources and humane tourist resources, the thesis puts forward the view that natural tourism resources development is beneficial to the breakthrough of the bottleneck to realize sustainable development. Based on the theory of ecological tourism, further development idea of the Mountain Wutai natural tourism resources is further discussed in this paper.

  7. Malacodiversity of the Tongbo Mountain Nature Reserve in Jiangxi Province%江西铜钹山自然保护区贝类物种多样性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳珊; 吴小平; 姜娇; 林向阳; 周少华; 谢广龙; 宋世超; 林昌勇; 汪文敏; 邓谱涓

    2014-01-01

    基于2012年7月至2013年8月调查的江西铜钹山自然保护区贝类资源,研究保护区内贝类的物种多样性,以及在不同生境类型下的分布规律和区系与动物地理组成,探索该地区内贝类物种组成和栖息环境之间的关系。通过定性与定量的方法共采得贝类42种及亚种,分别隶属于2纲4目16科28属。其中,淡水贝类15种,分别隶属于2纲3目7科10属;陆生贝类27种,分别隶属于1纲3目9科18属,其中有3种为江西的新记录:小柱倍唇螺(Diplommatina paxillus)、三重真卷螺(Euplecta trifilaris)和小石环肋螺(Plectotropis calculus)。淡水贝类优势种为放逸短沟蜷(Semisulcospira libertine)和小土蜗(Galba pervia),陆生贝类优势种为扁恰里螺(Kaliella depressa)、弗氏巴蜗牛(Bradybaena fortunei)和灰尖巴蜗牛(Bradybaena ravida ravida)。贝类动物地理区系组成以东洋界为主,共22种,占总种数的52.38%。采用Margalef丰富度指数dMA、Shannon-Wiener(1949)多样性指数H'、Pielou均匀度指数JSW对在不同生境类型下的贝类多样性进行分析,结果表明:灌丛生境陆生贝类的丰富度指数和多样性指数均最高,针阔混交林生境的均匀度指数最高。根据 Jaccard 公式计算并比较铜钹山与邻近自然保护区陆生贝类物种相似性系数发现:铜钹山自然保护区陆生贝类物种较丰富;与阳际峰自然保护区陆生贝类物种相似系数较高,为23.33%,与湖南莽山自然保护区物种相似性系数较低,为6.45%,并对其相似性差异进行了原因分析。%On account of the investigation of Mollusk at the Tongbo Mountain Nature Reserve from July 2012 to August 2013, we researched the distribution pattern of mollusk and its zoogeographical structure in different kinds of habitats, besides, we explored the relationship between species composition and their habitat of mollusk. The

  8. [Vertical distribution patterns of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium in Chinese pine forest soils developed from different parent materials in Songshan Mountain Nature Reserve, Beijing of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Li-hui; Sun, Zhao-di; Nie, Li-shui; Luo, Pan-pan; Wu, Ji-Gui; Xu, Wu-de

    2013-04-01

    Taking the soils developed from two kinds of parent materials (granite and limestone) under Pinus tabulaeformis forest at the same altitude in Songshan Mountain Nature Reserve of Beijing as test objects, this paper studied the vertical distribution patterns of soil total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium. The soil developed from granite had the total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium contents being 1.61-2. 35 g kg-1, 5. 84-10.74 mg kg- 1, and 39.33-93.66 mg kg-1, while that developed from limestone had the total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium contents being 1. 69 -2. 36 g kg-1, 4.45-8.57 mg . kg-1, and 60.66-124.00 mg kg-1, respectively. The total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium contents in the two soils were the highest in 0-10 cm layer, decreased with increasing depth, and had significant differences between different layers, showing that the soil total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium had a strong tendency to accumulate in surface layer. Such a tendency was more obvious for the soil developed from limestone. The paired t-test for the two soils indicated that the total nitrogen content in different layers had no significant difference, whereas the available phosphorus content in 0-10 cm layer and the available potassium content in 10-20 cm layer differed significantly.

  9. Natural and anthropogenic enrichments of molybdenum, thorium, and uranium in a complete peat bog profile, Jura Mountains, Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krachler, Michael; Shotyk, William

    2004-05-01

    A core from an ombrotrophic Swiss bog representing 12 370 (14)C years of peat accumulation was evaluated as a possible archive of atmospheric deposition of Mo, Th and U. Calcium, Sr, and Ba were also determined to quantify weathering inputs, Mn to follow possible redox transformations, and Rb to identify plant uptake. Each of these elements was determined using ICP-MS, following digestion in a microwave heated autoclave using 3 ml HNO(3) and 0.1 ml HBF(4). Calcium and Sr clearly identify the thickness of the ombrotrophic zone because they are enriched in the minerogenic zone relative to the concentration of mineral matter. The concentration of Ba, however, is proportional to the concentration of mineral matter in all samples, and is not added to peat column by weathering reactions at the peat-sediment interface. The lowest element concentrations are found during the Holocene climate optimum (5320 to 8030 (14)C year BP) with the following natural background values (n= 18): Mo 0.08 +/- 0.02 microg g(-1), U 0.029 +/- 0.008 microg g(-1), Ba 5.2 +/- 2.6 microg g(-1), Th 0.070 +/- 0.022 microg g(-1) and Rb 0.63 +/- 0.09 microg g(-1). By far the highest concentrations of Ba, Mn, Rb and Th were found during the Younger Dryas cold climate event (10 590 (14)C year BP) when the flux of atmospheric soil dust was at its post-glacial maximum. Molybdenum and U are elevated in concentration throughout the minerogenic zone because of sediment weathering and this masks the atmospheric signal in samples older than ca. 8000 (14)C year BP (ca. 9000 calendar years). Enrichment factors (EF) calculated using Sc as a conservative, lithogenic element shows that minerogenic peats are enriched in Mo up to 18x and U 26x, relative to the natural "background" values. During the two millennia prior to industrialisation, the accumulation rate of atmospheric Mo averaged 0.23 +/- 0.13 microg m(-2) year(-1). With the onset of the Industrial Revolution, Mo accumulation rates rapidly and continuously

  10. 宁夏云雾山自然保护区种子植物区系研究%Floristic Study of Spermatophyte in Yunwu Mountain Natural Reserves of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱仁斌; 程积民; 刘永进; 李维军; 魏琳

    2012-01-01

    云雾山自然保护区有种子植物54科163属243种(不包括栽培植物),区系分析结果表明:植物科属组成特点是少数大科包含多数的种,单种属所占比例高(73.6%),但包含的植物种数少(49.4%);龙胆科(Gentianaceae)、针茅属(Stipa)、委陵菜属(Potentilla)是云雾山草原植物区系的重要组成成分;种子植物属的分布区类型相对简单,中国特有分布属少,温带成分的绝对优势明显,占90.6%(除世界分布属);区系的起源较年轻,表现在植物的古老成分稀少;云雾山种子植物区系与六盘山和贺兰山的比较结果显示:植物区系相似性系数偏低,相对而言,与六盘山的亲缘关系较近;自然保护区的建立对于植物多样性的恢复成效显著.%There are 243 spermatophytes belonging to 54 families and 243 genera in Yunwu Mountain Natural Reserves (excluding cultivated species). Flora analysis showed that most species belong to a few large families. Mono-species genera accounting for 49. 4% of all the genera have a high proportion (73. 6%). Gentianaceae, Stipa and Potentilla are important components of grasslands flora in Yunwu Mountain. The areal types of spermatophytes genera are relatively simple, few Chinese endemic genera, dominant temperate genera accounting for 90. 6% (excluding cosmopolitan genera). The flora origin is young. Flora of spermatophytes in Yunwu Mountain has low similarity to those in Liupan Mountain and Helan Mountain, but the genetic relationship is closer to Liupan Mountain than Helan Mountain. The establishment of nature reserves in Yunwu Mountain achieved remarkable success to improve the recovery of plant diversity.

  11. Naturally acidic surface and ground waters draining porphyry-related mineralized areas of the Southern Rocky Mountains, Colorado and New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verplanck, P.L.; Nordstrom, D.K.; Bove, D.J.; Plumlee, G.S.; Runkel, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    Acidic, metal-rich waters produced by the oxidative weathering and resulting leaching of major and trace elements from pyritic rocks can adversely affect water quality in receiving streams and riparian ecosystems. Five study areas in the southern Rocky Mountains with naturally acidic waters associated with porphyry mineralization were studied to document variations in water chemistry and processes that control the chemical variations. Study areas include the Upper Animas River watershed, East Alpine Gulch, Mount Emmons, and Handcart Gulch in Colorado and the Red River in New Mexico. Although host-rock lithologies in all these areas range from Precambrian gneisses to Cretaceous sedimentary units to Tertiary volcanic complexes, the mineralization is Tertiary in age and associated with intermediate to felsic composition, porphyritic plutons. Pyrite is ubiquitous, ranging from ???1 to >5 vol.%. Springs and headwater streams have pH values as low as 2.6, SO4 up to 3700 mg/L and high dissolved metal concentrations (for example: Fe up to 400 mg/L; Cu up to 3.5 mg/L; and Zn up to 14.4 mg/L). Intensity of hydrothermal alteration and presence of sulfides are the primary controls of water chemistry of these naturally acidic waters. Subbasins underlain by intensely hydrothermally altered lithologies are poorly vegetated and quite susceptible to storm-induced surface runoff. Within the Red River study area, results from a storm runoff study documented downstream changes in river chemistry: pH decreased from 7.80 to 4.83, alkalinity decreased from 49.4 to porphyry mineralized areas, this study not only documents the range in concentrations of constituents of interest but also provides insight into the primary controls of water chemistry.

  12. Mountaineering Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Maher

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed: Mountaineering Tourism Edited by Ghazali Musa, James Higham, and Anna Thompson-Carr. Abingdon, United Kingdom: Routledge, 2015. xxvi + 358 pp. Hardcover. US$ 145.00. ISBN 978-1-138-78237-2.

  13. On the arsenic source mobilisation and its natural enrichment in the sediments of a high mountain cirque in the Pyrenees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharescu, Dragos George; Hooda, Peter S; Fernandez, Javier; Soler, Antonio Palanca; Burghelea, Carmen Ionela

    2009-11-01

    Recently arsenic contamination and its environmental and human health problems have been raising concerns worldwide. The occurrence of natural high levels of arsenic contamination has generally been reported for low altitude environments. Here we report a study conducted to assess the extent of arsenic mobilisation/transportation from previously identified arsenic source areas in a high altitude cirque of the Pyrenees as well as the potential contribution of As by snow. The concentration of arsenic in sediments of several tributaries was enriched up to about ten folds due to mobilisation of arsenic from the source areas within the catchment. The highest arsenic enrichments were found in an area dominated by quartzite and slate formation in the southern side of the basin, and it generally diminished towards the major lake downstream, possible due to mixing with sediments from non-source areas. At these sites arsenic exceeded the hazard quotient (HQ) limits for the protection of aquatic life. The potential hazard of the As-enriched sediments may be further enhanced outside the catchment as samples collected downstream the cirque have also shown arsenic concentration exceeding HQ unity. The arsenic concentrations in the water collected at a number of sites exceeded its guide value for the protection of aquatic life. The potential As contribution by snow in the area was low and was largely of lithospheric origin. The PCA analysis showed strong association of arsenic in sediments with the sediment mineralogical composition (Fe2O3, TiO2 and Mn). Arsenic in water was positively correlated with its concentration in the sediments and could potentially increase if the environmental/climate conditions change.

  14. YUCCA MOUNTAIN PROJECT - A BRIEFING --

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NA

    2003-08-05

    This report has the following articles: Nuclear waste--a long-term national problem; Spent nuclear fuel; High-level radioactive waste; Radioactivity and the environment; Current storage methods; Disposal options; U.S. policy on nuclear waste; The focus on Yucca Mountain; The purpose and scope of the Yucca Mountain Project; The approach for permanently disposing of waste; The scientific studies at Yucca Mountain; The proposed design for a repository at Yucca Mountain; Natural and engineered barriers would work together to isolate waste; Meticulous science and technology to protect people and the environment; Licensing a repository; Transporting waste to a permanent repository; The Environmental Impact Statement for a repository; Current status of the Yucca Mountain Project; and Further information available on the Internet.

  15. Reptiles Resources in Fanjing Mountain National Nature Reserve%梵净山国家自然保护区爬行动物资源调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雷; 冉辉; 梁琍; 沈正雄

    2011-01-01

    According to survey of reptiles resource in Fanjing Mountain National Nature Reserve in recent thirty years, this study showed that the reptiles in the reserve are 43 species belonging to 28 genera, 10 families, 3 suborders, 2 orders, accounting for 40.19% of the total number in Guizhou province. Among them, Zaocys nigromarginatus and Japalura szechwanensis are new records to Fanjing Mountain National Nature Reserve. The 38 species of Oriental Realm and 22 common species of both Central China and South China appear dominant over other species in this fauna. The total of 43 reptiles species in the reserve belong to the species of terrestrial wildlife which are protected by China and are beneficial or of important economic and scientific research value. In these species, 14 species are included in China Red Data Book of Endangered Animals, and 2 species are ranked in CITES Appendix II, 1 species is put into CITES Appendix III. Among the 43 species, 3 species are dominant, 5 species are common, and others are rare species. Considering the reserve condition and reptiles resource status, the endangered factors and protect suggestion for the reptiles resource in the reserve are discussed.%基于近三十年来铜仁学院生物科学与化学系对梵净山国家自然保护区爬行动物资源的调查,本文报道了该保护区现已记录爬行类隶属2目3亚目10科28属43种,占贵州省爬行类种数的40.19%,其中发现2个梵净山国家自然保护区爬行类新纪录,即黑线乌梢蛇和四川攀蜥。其动物区系组成以38种东洋界种类为主,并以22种东洋界华中区与华南区共有种占明显优势。保护区内43种爬行类均属“国家保护的有益的或者有重要经济、科学研究价值的陆生野生动物”;14种被列入“中国濒危动物红皮书”;有2种被列入CITES附录Ⅱ,1种被列入CITES附录Ⅲ;有3种为优势种,5种为常见种,其余35种为稀少种。结合该区实际

  16. Successful Female Mountaineers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANSIYIN

    2004-01-01

    The Third Mountaineering Meet took place from September 26 to October 8, 2003. It was sponsored by the Tibet Association for Mountaineers and undertaken by the Tibet Mountaineering Team and the Tibet Mountaineering School.

  17. Study on Poisonous Pteridophyte Plants in the North Slope of Taibai Mountain Nature Reserve%太白山自然保护区北坡有毒蕨类植物研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左茜; 李璟琦; 谢梓燚; 贺钰

    2014-01-01

    The distribution of wild poisonous pteridophyte plants in the north slope of Taibai Mountain Nature Reserve was studied by the author through three following ways :by reading references ,climbing up the mountain and investigating in wild field ,and studying the specimens preserved before .The results indicated that there are 7 species in Taibai Mountain Nature Reserve ,which takes 6 .4% species of the to-tal poisonous pteridophyte plants .According to different characters and usages ,poisonous pteridophyte plant were classified into medicine ,edibles and ornamental plants .The study provided scientific evidences for further exploitation and utilization of wild poisonous pteridophyte plants in Taibai Mountain Nature Reserve .%通过野外实地考察、室内标本鉴定和查阅整理资料相结合的方法,对太白山自然保护区有毒蕨类植物的种类、分布、有毒成分及其利用状况进行研究。结果表明:太白山自然保护区有毒蕨类植物有5科5属7种,均为小毒,占蕨类总数的6.4%,有药用、食用、观赏等多种用途。本研究可为合理开发和利用太白山有毒蕨类植物提供理论依据。

  18. Structure Characters of Pinus tabulaeformis Natural Forest on Xiaolong Mountain%小陇山油松天然林结构特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文桢; 赵中华; 惠刚盈; 张宋智

    2011-01-01

    The structure characters of Pinus tabulaeformis natural forest on Xiaolong Mountain, Cansu Province was studied by fixed sample survey of each tree positioning data with statistical software, the result showed that the tree composition of Pinus tabulaeformis natural forest was abundants, there had 18 tree species in community dominated by P. Tabulaeformis, however, the degree of tree species segregation was lower and the average value of mingling was weak. The diameter at breast height (DBH) distribution of forest stand followed a multi-shaped peak curve and the DBH distribution of P. Tabulaeformis population approximated to normal distribution and it was well fitted by Weibull function, the tree height increased with the tree DBH increasing and the relationship between tree height and DBH was well fitted by power function. The individual size of DBH, tree height and crown width of P. Tabulaeformis in stand was significantly differentiated; the average state belonged to medium. Both the horizontal distribution patterns of stand and P. Tabulaeformis population were random distributed.%利用固定样地每木定位调查数据和相关分析统计软件,对小陇山林区油松天然林的结构特征进行了分析.结果表明:油松天然林树种组成丰富,群落中共出现18个树种,油松占绝对优势,但样地树种隔离程度较低,属于弱度混交.油松天然林的直径分布为多峰山状曲线,油松种群的直径分布近似于正态分布,可用3参数Weibull分布拟合;树高随胸径的增大而增加,胸径与树高的关系可运用幂函数进行拟合.林分中油松个体的胸径、树高和冠幅的大小分化差异明显,整体上表现为中庸状态;油松天然林林木分布格局为随机分布,油松种群分布格局也为随机分布.

  19. Mountain medicin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Bjørn; Hjuler, Kasper Fjellhaugen

    2016-01-01

    Travelling to high altitudes is an increasingly popular form of recreational holiday. Individual medical advice may be essential for certain groups of individuals such as patients with chronic disorders, pregnant women or children. This is the second part in a series of two articles on mountain...

  20. 广西元宝山自然保护区两栖动物资源调查及保护%Survey and Conservation of Amphibia Resources in Yuanbao Mountain Nature Reserve of Guangxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋才云; 曾小飚

    2011-01-01

    The amphibian resources in Yuanbao Mountain Nature Reserve of Guangxi were investigated from March to August in 2009. The results showed that 27 species of amphibians, belonging to 18 genera, 8 families, 2 orders, were recorded in the reserve. The Shannon-Wienner diversity index and Pielou evenness index were 2.877 and 0.873 respectively. According to the zoogeographic division, this area belong to Western mountain and plateau subregion, Central China region, Oriental Realm. The fauna is mainly composed of species distributed in both Central and South China Region. The ecological categories of 27 amphibians are mainly running-water type and Terrestrial & Quiet-water type. Compared to Maoershan Nature Reserve and Guilin Lijiang scenic spots located in the north of Guangxi similarly, the similarity coefficient of amphibian communities in Yuanbao Mountain Nature Reserve is higher. On the contrary,it has smaller similarity coefficient than Cenwanglaoshan Nature Reserve, Longtan Nature Reserve, Diding Nature Reserve of west of Guangxi and Shiwandashan, Guabang mountain of South of Guangxi. Based on the status of the amphibian resources, some protective suggestions were provided in the paper.%2009年3~8月,对广西元宝山自然保护区的两栖动物资源进行了调查.结果表明,该保护区有两栖动物27种,隶属18属8科2目;物种多样性指数为2.877,均匀度指数为0.873.动物地理区划属东洋界华中区西部山地高原亚区黔桂湘低山丘陵省,区系组成以华中区与华南区共有种为主:生态类型以流水型和陆栖静水型种类占优势:保护区和同样地处桂北的猫儿山自然保护区、桂林漓江风景名胜区的两栖动物群落相似系数较高,而与桂西地区的岑王老山自然保护区、龙滩自然保护区、底定自然保护区和桂南地区的十万大山、挂榜山的相似系数较小.最后,根据资源现状提出了保护对策.

  1. Predicting the Impact of Temperature Change on the Future Distribution of Maize Stem Borers and Their Natural Enemies along East African Mountain Gradients Using Phenology Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sizah Mwalusepo

    Full Text Available Lepidopteran stem borers are among the most important pests of maize in East Africa. The objective of the present study was to predict the impact of temperature change on the distribution and abundance of the crambid Chilo partellus, the noctuid Busseola fusca, and their larval parasitoids Cotesia flavipes and Cotesia sesamiae at local scale along Kilimanjaro and Taita Hills gradients in Tanzania and Kenya, respectively. Temperature-dependent phenology models of pests and parasitoids were used in a geographic information system for mapping. The three risk indices namely establishment, generation, and activity indices were computed using current temperature data record from local weather stations and future (i.e., 2055 climatic condition based on downscaled climate change data from the AFRICLIM database. The calculations were carried out using index interpolator, a sub-module of the Insect Life Cycle Modeling (ILCYM software. Thin plate algorithm was used for interpolation of the indices. Our study confirmed that temperature was a key factor explaining the distribution of stem borers and their natural enemies but other climatic factors and factors related to the top-down regulation of pests by parasitoids (host-parasitoid synchrony also played a role. Results based on temperature only indicated a worsening of stem borer impact on maize production along the two East African mountain gradients studied. This was attributed to three main changes occurring simultaneously: (1 range expansion of the lowland species C. partellus in areas above 1200 m.a.s.l.; (2 increase of the number of pest generations across all altitudes, thus by 2055 damage by both pests will increase in the most productive maize zones of both transects; (3 disruption of the geographical distribution of pests and their larval parasitoids will cause an improvement of biological control at altitude below 1200 m.a.s.l. and a deterioration above 1200 m.a.s.l. The predicted increase in

  2. Predicting the Impact of Temperature Change on the Future Distribution of Maize Stem Borers and Their Natural Enemies along East African Mountain Gradients Using Phenology Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwalusepo, Sizah; Tonnang, Henri E Z; Massawe, Estomih S; Okuku, Gerphas O; Khadioli, Nancy; Johansson, Tino; Calatayud, Paul-André; Le Ru, Bruno Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Lepidopteran stem borers are among the most important pests of maize in East Africa. The objective of the present study was to predict the impact of temperature change on the distribution and abundance of the crambid Chilo partellus, the noctuid Busseola fusca, and their larval parasitoids Cotesia flavipes and Cotesia sesamiae at local scale along Kilimanjaro and Taita Hills gradients in Tanzania and Kenya, respectively. Temperature-dependent phenology models of pests and parasitoids were used in a geographic information system for mapping. The three risk indices namely establishment, generation, and activity indices were computed using current temperature data record from local weather stations and future (i.e., 2055) climatic condition based on downscaled climate change data from the AFRICLIM database. The calculations were carried out using index interpolator, a sub-module of the Insect Life Cycle Modeling (ILCYM) software. Thin plate algorithm was used for interpolation of the indices. Our study confirmed that temperature was a key factor explaining the distribution of stem borers and their natural enemies but other climatic factors and factors related to the top-down regulation of pests by parasitoids (host-parasitoid synchrony) also played a role. Results based on temperature only indicated a worsening of stem borer impact on maize production along the two East African mountain gradients studied. This was attributed to three main changes occurring simultaneously: (1) range expansion of the lowland species C. partellus in areas above 1200 m.a.s.l.; (2) increase of the number of pest generations across all altitudes, thus by 2055 damage by both pests will increase in the most productive maize zones of both transects; (3) disruption of the geographical distribution of pests and their larval parasitoids will cause an improvement of biological control at altitude below 1200 m.a.s.l. and a deterioration above 1200 m.a.s.l. The predicted increase in pest activity

  3. 大别山自然保护区天然次生林分类及其生态位特征%Classification and ecological niche of natural secondary forest in the Nature Reserve of Dabie Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张卓文; 王永健; 唐亚坤; ULRICH Apel; 王艳; 肖宋高; 李振

    2012-01-01

    Based on data with important values for classification and niche measuring,the classification, niche breadth and overlap of dominant woody species of natural secondary forest in Dabie Mountain Reserve were studied by means of sampling, two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN) ,detrend-ed correspondence analysis (DCA) and niche analysis. The results showed that communities of natural secondary forest in Dabie Mountain Reserve were divided into six community types (coniferous forest I and II 籧oniferous broad-leaved mixed forest I and IJ , deciduous broad-leaved forest E and evergreen deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest F) based on TWINSPAN and DCA. DCA ordination figures also reflected the pattern of communities changing from the coniferous forest I and H to coniferous broad-leaved mixed forest I and JJ ,then to deciduous and evergreen deciduous mixed forest. Pinus massoni-ana and Pinus hivangshanensis had a large niche breadth in coniferous forest I and JJ . Pinus and Quer-cus both had larger niche in coniferous broad-leaved mixed forest I and TJ . Many woody species had larger niche in deciduous and evergreen deciduous mixed forest. The niche breadth and overlap of main dominant species in different communities might change according to the succession trend. It was feasible for using niche overlap index and species characteristic as the main evaluation criterion in terms of majority species relationships in different community succession.%通过样方调查、TWINSPAN分类与DCA排序及生态位分析,以物种重要值为分类排序与生态位计测的数据指标,研究湖北省大别山自然保护区天然次生林分类及优势木本生态位宽度与重叠.结果表明:应用TWINSPAN分类并结合DCA排序,可将植被划分为6个群落类型(针叶林Ⅰ、Ⅱ,针阔混交林Ⅰ、Ⅱ,E落叶阔叶林和F常绿落叶阔叶混交林).同时DCA排序图中反映了植被由针叶林Ⅰ、Ⅱ——针阔混交林Ⅰ、Ⅱ——落叶阔叶林与

  4. The future of olive plantation systems on sloping and mountainous land; scenarios for production and natural resource conservation, First Annual Report. EU project Olivero:

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleskens, L.; Stroosnijder, L.; Graaff, de J.

    2004-01-01

    The project will devote itself to the future of olive plantation systems on sloping and mountainous land in southern Europe. These systems have been affected by emigration of local populations and fierce competition from low land plantations and from non-EU countries, and are currently neither produ

  5. [The necessity of new approaches to the elaboration of the projects for the sanitary (mountainous sanitary) protection districts around the therapeutic and health-promotion facilities, health resorts and their natural medical resources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razumov, A N; Adilov, V B

    2015-01-01

    The international experience gained during the past two centuries indicates that the most efficient and rational way to ensure the protection of the territories occupied by the therapeutic and health-promotion facilities, spa centres, and health resorts together with their natural medical resources is to set up sanitary (mountainous sanitary) protection districts or zones along the perimeter of these territories. Beginning from 2000, numerous changes and amendments have been annually introduced in the Russian legislation intended to ensure efficacious control over the rational exploitation of the territories of therapeutic and health-promotion value and their natural medical resources. These initiatives have negative effect on the activities of these organizations and the quality of the services they are expected to provide. Taken together these effects lead to the degradation of the spa and health resort business. Bearing in mind the current conditions for economic activities, it is proposed, in contrast to the former global approach, to envisage in the aforementioned projects the establishment of the sanitary (mountainous sanitary) protection districts or zones and determine their borders based on the results of the assessment of their potential for the protection of therapeutic factors and other valuable resources. Equally important is the maximum reduction of the areas of the second and third zones taking into account their relevant objective characteristics. In certain cases, the protective district may coincide with the second zone. As far as the federal health resorts and large territories of special health-promotion value are concerned, some of them may have two or more sanitary (mountainous sanitary) protection districts. Both the owners and the users of these territories should be provided the necessary and sufficient possibilities for the rational nature use at the grounds and in the adjacent water areas suitable for the development of health resort

  6. 重庆四面山自然保护区苔藓植物资源的调查%Investigation on Bryophytes in Simian Mountains Nature Reserve in Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张绍彬

    2012-01-01

    Based on an investigation and preliminary taxonomy in Chongqing Simian Mountains nature reserve area, the results showed that there are totally 34 families,52 genera and 62 species of bryophytes in this area, the resources are very rich.%在调查、分类和鉴定的基础上,发现重庆四面山自然保护区苔藓植物有34科、52属、62种,蕴藏资源丰富.

  7. Altitudinal and thermal gradients of hepatic Cyp1A gene expression in natural populations of Salmo trutta from high mountain lakes and their correlation with organohalogen loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarque, Sergio; Gallego, Eva [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18, 08034-Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Bartrons, Mireia; Catalan, Jordi [Center for Advanced Studies of Blanes (CEAB-CSIC), Acces Cala St. Francesc 14, 17300-Blanes, Catalonia (Spain); Grimalt, Joan O. [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18, 08034-Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Pina, Benjamin, E-mail: bpcbmc@cid.csic.e [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18, 08034-Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    The biomarker of xenobiotic exposure cytochrome p450A1 (Cyp1A) was used to analyze the biological response to chemical pollution in Salmo trutta (brown trout) from nine high mountain European lakes in Norway, Tatras, Tyrol, and central Pyrenees. Hepatic Cyp1A mRNA levels correlated both with the reciprocal of absolute annual average air temperatures of the sampled lakes and with muscle concentrations of several hydrophobic organohalogen compounds (OC), including chlorinated polychlorobiphenyls (PCB), DDE, and DDT. The correlation between Cyp1A expression and OC content was observed across the whole temperature range (between -0.7 deg. C and +6.2 deg. C), but also in the absence of any thermal gradient. We concluded that airborne pollutants accumulate in high mountain lake fish at concentrations high enough to increase Cyp1A expression, among other possible effects. As geographical distribution of semi-volatile OC is strongly influenced by air temperatures, future climate modifications will potentially enhance their physiological effects in lake ecosystems. - Altitudinal gradients of hepatic Cyp1A gene expression in mountain trout correlate with geographic and individual organohalogen distribution.

  8. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a ... New Mexico. Why Is the Study of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever a Priority for NIAID? Tickborne diseases ...

  9. Natural form elements of Changbai Mountain scenic area in the oil painting%浅析长白山地区风景油画写生中的自然形态要素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静; 吕懿轩

    2016-01-01

    所谓绘画中的自然形态是指在自然条件下形成的可触摸或可视的形态,像高山、河流、瀑布、树木等。这些自然形态要素在绘画中,不仅是对事物的客观再现,而且还可以通过画家对它们的描绘触及世界本源。在《康定斯基论点线面》中,他把自然形态各要素简单地归纳为基本的几何形状,如点、线、面等。这样每一个独立的形就是一种元素,这些元素在康定斯基的概念里,都赋予了科学性,在画布上呈现出了特有的符号,而不再是客观的形象。本文主要从点、线、面入手,分析长白山地区风景油画写生中的自然形态要素,总结在长白山地区进行艺术创作时的思考和探索。%The painting in the natural form, refers to the formation of under natural conditions, tangibly or visual form, like mountains, rivers, waterfals, trees, etc. These natural shape elements in painting, not only objectively present the things, but also through the painting touch the origin of the world. In “Wassily Kandinsky : Point and Line to Plane”, he put the elements of natural form simply as the basic geometry, such as point, line and plane. So each individual shape is a kind of elements, these elements in Kandinsky's concept, gives the scientific nature, on the canvas showing a unique symbol, and is no longer the objective image. This article mainly starts from the point, line, plane, analyzes natural shape elements of Changbai Mountain area landscape painting sketch, summarizes the thinking and exploration of artistic creation in the Changbai Mountain area.

  10. 基于WebGIS的石人山自然保护区管理信息系统的设计与实现%Design and Implementation of Shiren Mountain Nature Reserve Management Information System Based on WebGIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊华伟; 杨晓佩

    2012-01-01

    According to the environmental characteristics of Shiren Mountain Nature Reserve and combined with its management information system requirements, a conception based on WebGIS is formed for its establishment. ArcGIS Server and ArcGIS Engine technology of ArcGIS platform is utilized and Microsoft Visual Studio. NET is used as the development platform. Besides, the hybrid structure based on B/S and C/S is adopted. The framework, the functions, and the database are included in the system design and the system developed based on the system goal. Finally, the system is applied to the management of Shiren Mountain Nature Reserve and the results show that the system could achieve the desired effects as required by system goals, enhance the efficiency of Shiren Mountain management department, and thus promote the coordination and sustainability of environmental, economic, and social development in Shiren Mountain Nature Reserve.%针对石人山自然保护区环境特点,结合其管理信息系统的需求,利用ArcGIS平台的ArcGIS Server和ArcGIS Engine技术,借助Microsoft Visual Studio.NET开发平台,提出基于B/S和C/S的混合模式结构来构建石人山信息管理系统的思想,设计了系统的框架结构、功能模块和数据库,根据系统目标开发了系统.最后将本系统进行了初步应用,应用结果表明本系统按照系统目标的要求达到了预期的效果,能够提高石人山管理部门的工作效率,促进石人山自然保护区的环境、经济、社会协调可持续发展.

  11. Distribution of Spermatophyte Flora in Daqi Mountain Nature Reserve of Hubei Province%湖北大崎山自然保护区种子植物区系分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷正玉; 蔡京勇; 白涛; 江建国; 王少明

    2013-01-01

    A basic ingredient analysis of flora and geographic elements of plant genera and families in Daqi Mountain Nature Reserve was conducted through the field survey and specimen collection,based on the system investigation of plant flora,and an R/T comparison between the flora in Daqi Mountain and adjacent mountain floras was made.Plant taxonomy identification indicated that spermatophytes in the nature reserve contained 1 035 species of 534 genera,failing in 140 families,of which 10 gymnosperm species of 8 genera fall in 5 families,while 1 025 angiosperm species of 526 genera in 135 families.The analysis of flora demonstrated that the region harboured 15 flora distribution types,with high complexity,paleo-flora origin,distinct trait of temperate zone,abundant ingredient of tropical zone,and close connection with the flora of East China.%通过野外调查和标本采集,在进行植物系统调查的基础上,对湖北省大崎山自然保护区植物区系基本组成和科、属地理成分进行了分析,并与邻近山地植物区系进行了R/T的比较.经鉴定保护区内有种子植物140科534属1 035种,其中,裸子植物5科8属10种,被子植物135科526属1 025种.区系分析表明,该区植物区系复杂,具有15种分布类型,且植物区系起源古老,温带性质明显,热带成分丰富,与华东植物区系联系密切.

  12. 天目山自然保护区银杏天然种群生命表%Life table of natural Ginkgo biloba population in Tianmu Mountain Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玲; 张光富; 王锐; 孙国; 赵明水

    2011-01-01

    Based on the population life table and the theory of survival analysis, the static life table of GinKgo biloba population in Tianmu Mountain Nature Reserve of Zhejiang Province was compiled by applying the age class structure represented by DBH class and the smoothing out technique. The mortality rate curve, killing power curve, survival rate curve, and survival function curve were also analyzed to reveal the population' s quantitative dynamics. There was a fluctuation in the structure of G. biloba population. The survival curve of the population tended to the type of Deevey Ⅱ , and the individuals at adult stage were abundant. The mortality rate curve and killing power curve in the lifespan had similar variation trend, all with the peaks in 6th and llth age class periods. The survival rate of the population decreased monotonically, whereas the cumulative mortality rate was in adverse. The survival functional curve showed that the G. biloba population grew poorly in early age period and stably in middle age period, but declined in old age period.%以种群生命表和生存分析理论为基础,采用空间代替时间法和分段匀滑技术,编制浙江天目山自然保护区银杏天然种群特定时间生命表,绘制其死亡率曲线、消失率曲线、存活曲线和生存函数曲线,分析种群数量动态变化.结果表明:银杏种群结构存在波动性,趋于Deevey Ⅱ型,其成年阶段的个体较丰富;银杏种群死亡率和消失率曲线变化趋势基本一致,均出现2个高峰,均在第Ⅵ龄级和第Ⅺ龄级阶段出现第一和第二峰值;银杏种群的生存率单调下降,累计死亡率单调上升,生存率下降趋势前期高于后期,累计死亡率则相反;由生存函数曲线看出,天目山银杏种群具有前期薄弱、中期稳定和后期衰退的特点.

  13. Flora of Spermatophyte in Jiufu Mountain Natural Reserve of Youxi County, Fujian Province%福建省尤溪九阜山省级自然保护区种子植物区系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林盛坚

    2013-01-01

      福建省尤溪九阜山省级自然保护区属于中亚热带森林生态系统自然保护区,该区种子植物有137科491属992种及变种、变型。区系成分复杂,含单型属和少型属较多,植物区系较古老,成分过渡明显。根据区系地理成分分析,九阜山植物区系的性质是既有中亚热带植物区系的特点,又向南亚热带渗透过渡。%  Jiufu Mountain provincial natural reserve area is located in the subtropical forest ecosystem region, there are 992 species (including varieties and forma), of 491 genera, within 137 families of spermatophyte. The survey results show that the floristic elements are complex, rich in monotypical and oligotypical genus. The flora is ancient and interim clearly. According to the analysis on the geographic component of the flora, it is concluded that the nature of Jiufu Mountain flora is a typical of subtropical characteristics and transition to tropical one .

  14. Photochemical smog effects in mixed conifer forests along a natural gradient of ozone and nitrogen deposition in the San Bernardino Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbaugh, Michael; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Grulke, Nancy; Fenn, Mark; Poth, Mark; Temple, Patrick; Miller, Paul

    2003-06-01

    Toxic effects of photochemical smog on ponderosa and Jeffrey pines in the San Bernardino Mountains were discovered in the 1950s. It was revealed that ozone is the main cause of foliar injury manifested as chlorotic mottle and premature needle senescence. Various morphological, physiological and biochemical alterations in the affected plants have been reported over a period of about 40 years of multidisciplinary research. Recently, the focus of research has shifted from studying the effects of ozone to multiple pollutant effects. Recent studies have indicated that the combination of ozone and nitrogen may alter biomass allocation in pines towards that of deciduous trees, accelerate litter accumulation, and increase carbon sequestration rates in heavily polluted forests. Further study of the effects of multiple pollutants, and their long-term consequences on the mixed conifer ecosystem, cannot be adequately done using the original San Bernardino Mountains Air Pollution Gradient network. To correct deficiencies in the design, the new site network is being configured for long-term studies on multiple air pollutant concentrations and deposition, physiological and biochemical changes in trees, growth and composition of over-story species, biogeochemical cycling including carbon cycling and sequestration, water quality, and biodiversity of forest ecosystems. Eleven sites have been re-established. A comparison of 1974 stand composition with data from 2000 stand composition indicate that significant changes in species composition have occurred at some sites with less change at other sites. Moist, high-pollution sites have experienced the greatest amount of forest change, while dryer low-pollution sites have experienced the least amount of stand change. In general, ponderosa pine had the lowest basal area increases and the highest mortality across the San Bernardino Mountains.

  15. Preliminary study on the distribution pattern of small mammals in Ningxia Helan Mountain Nature Reserve%宁夏贺兰山自然保护区小兽格局分布的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴建华; 郑艳娟; 雷静; 白学礼; 张涛; 张家训

    2015-01-01

    目的:掌握贺兰山自然保护区小兽类动物种群格局与区系分布,为林业部门和旅游业预防鼠害及鼠传疾病提供科学依据以及为小兽类动物研究提供基础生物学资料。方法于2012年10月至2013年10月,在贺兰山东麓滚钟口和苏峪口两个区域的4个有林垂直带,采集小兽类标本,结合以前文献进行综合整理,建立小兽类动物种群分布信息数据库,运用Excel 2003软件和动物群落相似度进行分析。结果贺兰山自然保护区共有小兽类动物43种,隶属6目10科33属。分析表明,啮齿目仓鼠科、鼠科和跳鼠科共计26种,是贺兰山自然保护区小兽类动物的基本类群,北社鼠为优势种。在贺兰山的43种小兽类动物中,属古北界的30种,广布的12种,东洋界1种。结论通过调查基本掌握了贺兰山自然保护区部分地区小兽类动物的种群格局与区系分布,也为该地区进一步研究鼠传疾病提供了依据。%Objective In order to better grasp the Helan Mountain (Mts. Helan Shan region) Nature Reserve of small mammal animal population pattern and fauna distribution, and provide scientific basis for mice and rats transmit disease prevention of forestry department and the tourism, also provide the basic data for the study of biology of small mammals. Methods In 2012 October-2013 October on the activity peak in Helan Mountain donglu Gunzhongkou and Suyukou two region of 4 forest belt, acquisition of small mammal specimens, combined with the comprehensive arrangement of previous literature, a small mammal animal population distribution information data in the database, using Excel 2003 and animal community similarity analysis. Results The nature reserve has a total of 43 species of small mammals, belonging to 6 orders, 10 families and 32 genera. Analysis shows that, Rodentia, Cricetidae, Muridae and jerboa total 26 species, is the fundamental group of small mammals area of Helan

  16. Studies on the butterfly fauna in Luo Mountain National Nature Reserve of Ningxia,China%宁夏罗山国家自然保护区蝶类区系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姬学龙; 田会刚; 贾彦霞; 杨贵军; 王新谱

    2011-01-01

    The butterfly fauna in Luo Mountain Nature Reserve were investigated during from 2008 to 2009.The results show that there are 45 species butterflies belonging to 6 families and 32 genera in this area.The family Nymphalidae is the predominant group(8 genera and 14 species),occupying 28.13 % of the total species.The family Lycaenidae(9 genera and 10 species)and Satyridae(8 genera and 9 species) is the next,accounting for 25%.respectively,of the total.Analysis on the faunal composition from the view of the world animal fauna,the Palaearctic-Oriental species appears to be predominant,accounting for 46.67% of the total species.Analysis of butterfly composition in Luo mountain National Nature Reserve with Chinese fauna show that the type of North Region+North East Region+Mongolia Xinjiang Region+Qinghai Xizang Region+South West Region+Central Region+South Region appears to be dominant,accounting for 22.22%.The butterfly species composition between Luo mountain and Helan mountain has the highest similarity(Jaccard index=0.46),and Luo mountain and Liupan mountain has the lowest similarity(Jaccard index=0.19).%2008—2009年对宁夏罗山进行了系统的蝶类标本采集,经分类鉴定出45种,隶属6科32属,其中以蛱蝶科种类最多,计8属14种,占总种数的28.13%,灰蝶科和眼蝶科次之,分别计9属10种和8属9种,各占总种数的25%.从世界动物区系的构成来看,组成以古北区和东洋区共有种及典型古北种为主体,占总种数的46.67%,中国动物地理区划中以华北+东北+蒙新+青藏+西南+华中+华南型居多,占22.22%.罗山和贺兰山的蝶类相似性系数较高,为0.46,罗山和六盘山的蝶类相似性系数较低,为0.19,3个地区蝶类组成的相似性分析,符合宁夏昆虫地理区划特点.

  17. Climate Change Adaptation in the Carpathian Mountain Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werners, Saskia Elisabeth; Szalai, Sándor; Zingstra, Henk; Kőpataki, Éva; Beckmann, Andreas; Bos, Ernst; Civic, Kristijan; Hlásny, Tomas; Hulea, Orieta; Jurek, Matthias; Koch, Hagen; Kondor, Attila Csaba; Kovbasko, Aleksandra; Lakatos, M.; Lambert, Stijn; Peters, Richard; Trombik, Jiří; De Velde, Van Ilse; Zsuffa, István

    2016-01-01

    The Carpathian mountain region is one of the most significant natural refuges on the European continent. It is home to Europe’s most extensive tracts of montane forest, the largest remaining virgin forest and natural mountain beech-fir forest ecosystems. Adding to the biodiversity are semi-natural

  18. Zen Mountains: An Illusion of Perceptual Transparency

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The human visual system is usually very successful in segmenting complex natural scenes. During a trip to the Nepalese Himalayas, we observed an impossible example of Nature's beauty: “transparent” mountains. The scene is captured in a photograph in which a pair of mountain peaks viewed in the far distance appear to be transparent. This illusion results from a fortuitous combination of lighting and scene conditions, which induce an erroneous integration of multiple segmentation cues. The illu...

  19. Integrated Vulnerability and Impacts Assessment for Natural and Engineered Water-Energy Systems in the Southwest and Southern Rocky Mountain Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidwell, Vincent C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wolfsberg, Andrew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Middleton, Richard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    In the Southwest and Southern Rocky Mountains (SWSRM), energy production, energy resource extraction, and other high volume uses depend on water supply from systems that are highly vulnerable to extreme, coupled hydro-ecosystem-climate events including prolonged drought, flooding, degrading snow cover, forest die off, and wildfire. These vulnerabilities, which increase under climate change, present a challenge for energy and resource planners in the region with the highest population growth rate in the nation. Currently, analytical tools are designed to address individual aspects of these regional energy and water vulnerabilities. Further, these tools are not linked, severely limiting the effectiveness of each individual tool. Linking established tools, which have varying degrees of spatial and temporal resolution as well as modeling objectives, and developing next-generation capabilities where needed would provide a unique and replicable platform for regional analyses of climate-water-ecosystem-energy interactions, while leveraging prior investments and current expertise (both within DOE and across other Federal agencies).

  20. 秦岭自然保护区群成本效益研究(III)——综合效益评价%Cost-Benefit Analysis for the Qinling Mountain Nature Reserve Group:Evaluation of Comprehensive Benefits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王昌海; 温亚利; 李宵宇; 胡崇德; 司开创

    2012-01-01

    根据秦岭自然保护区群成本效益的计量结果,如何评价秦岭自然保护区群的综合效益是本文研究的关键问题。本文选用了模糊数学隶属函数法,结合秦岭自然保护区群三大效益的计量指标体系及计量结果,进一步筛选出17个主要的综合效益评价指标,同时按照评价指标体系对七大保护区的截面数据进行了估算。研究结果表明,秦岭自然保护区群中周至保护区和太白山的综合效益发展是最好的,佛坪、长青、牛背梁以及朱鹮自然保护区次之,相对综合效益发展最差的是天华山保护区。本研究总结出一套适合森林类型的自然保护区综合效益的评价指标体系与评价方法,可以在缺乏时间序列数据的情况下,利用横向截面数据了解目前自然保护区综合效益发展的情况,并为自然保护区生物多样性的保护提供科学依据。%Comprehensive benefit evaluation is the basis for nature reserve resource management and planning,and important in territorial planning.We evaluated nature reserve comprehensive benefits(1) to understand the operation and management of a nature reserve system,especially the harmonious development of the nature reserve with surrounding areas,and(2) provide a basis for the optimization of protection policy.Cost benefit evaluation takes the measurement as the foundation,and considers the whole reserve operation status,and the influence of the cost and benefit on regional development.We used the method of horizontal comparative analysis,involving the transverse comparison of nature reserves within the study area.Through the same time evaluation of the comprehensive benefit between them,we determined the optimal scheme and solved deficiencies in nature reserve development.We selected a fuzzy mathematics method and combined this with a measurement index system and measurement results for three major benefits across the Qinling Mountains nature reserve group

  1. natural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elías Gómez Macías

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Partiendo de óxido de magnesio comercial se preparó una suspensión acuosa, la cual se secó y calcinó para conferirle estabilidad térmica. El material, tanto fresco como usado, se caracterizó mediante DRX, área superficial BET y SEM-EPMA. El catalizador mostró una matriz de MgO tipo periclasa con CaO en la superficie. Las pruebas de actividad catalítica se efectuaron en lecho fijo empacado con partículas obtenidas mediante prensado, trituración y clasificación del material. El flujo de reactivos consistió en mezclas gas natural-aire por debajo del límite inferior de inflamabilidad. Para diferentes flujos y temperaturas de entrada de la mezcla reactiva, se midieron las concentraciones de CH4, CO2 y CO en los gases de combustión con un analizador de gases tipo infrarrojo no dispersivo (NDIR. Para alcanzar conversión total de metano se requirió aumentar la temperatura de entrada al lecho a medida que se incrementó el flujo de gases reaccionantes. Los resultados obtenidos permiten desarrollar un sistema de combustión catalítica de bajo costo con un material térmicamente estable, que promueva la alta eficiencia en la combustión de gas natural y elimine los problemas de estabilidad, seguridad y de impacto ambiental negativo inherentes a los procesos de combustión térmica convencional.

  2. 苍山国家级自然保护区鹅膏菌属真菌资源调查%Investigation of the Genus Amanita in Cangshan Mountain National Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚斌; 罗宗龙; 唐松明; 饶灿菏; 苏鸿雁

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the resources of Amanita from Cangshan National Nature Reserve. Methods: Random survey was conducted to investigate and identify the species of Amanita in Cangshan Mountain based on the morphology characters. Results:Nearly 200 samples were collected in Cangshan Mountain from 2008 to 2015 with 34 species of Amanita genus were identified. Conclusion:The resources of Amanita are abundant in Cangshan National Nature Reserve. Among the Amanita species in this area, A. hemibapha is tasted delicious, A. muscaria and A. excelsa are hypertoxic.%目的:调查苍山自然保护区内鹅膏菌属Amanita真菌资源。方法:采用随机调查的方法对苍山国家级自然保护区的鹅膏菌属真菌资源进行调查,并根据形态学特征对其进行鉴定。结果:在2008年至2015年间共采集标本近200份,鉴定出该区鹅膏菌属真菌34种。结论:苍山自然保护区内鹅膏菌属真菌资源丰富,其中本属真菌中花柄橙黄鹅膏Amanita hemibapha为美味野生食用菌;毒蝇鹅膏A. muscaria、块鳞鹅膏A. excelsa等为剧毒野生菌。

  3. Investigation on the flora of bryophytes in Yueliang Mountain Nature Reserve, Guizhou%月亮山自然保护区苔藓植物区系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谈洪英; 熊源新; 曹威; 钟世梅; 罗先真

    2015-01-01

    通过对贵州省月亮山自然保护区采集的约1000份标本的整理和鉴定,得出该地区苔藓植物有69科147属374种。对374种苔藓植物进行物种组成和区系成分的分析,得出优势科16个,优势属6个,区系划分为15种类型,其中中国—日本成分所占比例最大,并且区系成分具有由温带向热带过渡的特点。%Yueliang Mountain Nature Reserve is located at the junction of four counties:Chongjiang County, Rongjiang County, Sandu County and Libo County, at the longitude E 108°14′-109°12′, and latitude N 25°19′-26°03′, with a total area of 24800 hm2 . The flora of bryophytes is investigated for the first time through the study of 1000 collected specimens. A total of 374 species of bryophytes are identified, which be-long to 147 genera in 69 families. The species and floristic composition for the 374 species were analysed, with 16 families and six genera dominating the flora. The flora can be divided into 15 floristic elements, dom-inated by the Sino—Japan( SJ) element. The bryophytes flora in Yueliang Mountain Nature Reserve have the characteristics of transition from temperate to tropical elements.

  4. 重庆四面山自然保护区天牛区系研究%A Preliminary Study of Longicorn Beetle Flora in Simian Mountain Natural Reserve in Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆海亮; 陈力; 李竹

    2009-01-01

    A total of 48 species, 32 genera, 5 subfamilies of longicorn beetles in Simian Mountain Nature Reserve are identified, of which 2 species are new records in Chongqing. Based on the preliminary analysis of the longicorn fauna, results indicate that of them 30 species belong to the Oriental Realm, constituting 62.50% of the total, 2 species are from the Palareartic Realm, constituting 4.17% of the total and 14 species of 29.17% belong to the two regions mentioned above. And other 2 species are widely distributed, constituting 4.17% of the total. From that, the species of longicorn beetles distributed in the Oriental Realm predominate in Simian Mountain Nature Reserve.%整理、鉴定分布于重庆四面山自然保护区的天牛标本137号48种,隶属于天牛科5亚科32属,其中重庆市特有种2种,重庆市新记录种2种,并对其区系结构进行了分析.结果表明:东洋区系成分30种,占62.50%;古北区系成分2种;占4.17%,南北区系特征不明的14种,占29.17%;全国广布种2种,占4.17%.四面山天牛以东洋区系成分占明显优势.

  5. "Christ is the Mountain"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Hallencreutz

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author focuses on the religious function of symbols in the encounter and interaction of Christianity and other religions. Some observations on the religious function of the symbol of the Holy Mountain in different African contexts are presented. These contexts are a traditional Kikuyu religion, b a Christian hymn from Northern Tanzania, and c the New Year's Fiest of the independent Nazaretha Church among Zulu in South Africa. The examples of how the symbol of the holy mountain is used in different religious contexts in Africa are, of course, too limited to provide a basis for far-reaching generalizations on how symbols function religiously in the encounter of Christianity and other religions. However, this kind of analysis can be applied also when studying other encounters of religions inside and outside Africa. The symbol functions both as a carrier of a new religious message and as an indigenous means to appropriate this message locally and give it adequate form in different milieus. The symbols, which most likely have the religious functions are those which are of a general nature; light, way, living water, and which some are tempted to speak of as archetypes. Yet the comparison between the Chagga-hymn to the holy mountain and Shembe's interpretation of the blessing of the New Year's Fiest on Inhlangakozi indicates, that in the encounter of Christianity and other religions it is not only the symbols as such which produce the local appropriation of the new religious message and give it adequate localized form. Not even in the encounter of Christianity and other religions the symbols function religiously without human beings as actors in the historical process.

  6. Identification of the glaciers and mountain naturally dammed lakes in the Pskem, the Kashkadarya and the Surhandarya River basins, Uzbekistan, using ALOS satellite data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Semakova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The glacierized area of Uzbekistan is represented in three river basins – the Pskem, the Kashkadarya and the Surhandarya. This study considers the present state of the glaciers and high-mountain lakes distribution in this area based on the analysis and validation of advanced land observing satellite (ALOS/advanced visible and near infrared radiometer type 2 (AVNIR-2 satellite data. Between the 1960s and the 2010s, the glacierized area decreased by 23% in the Pskem River basin (including the Maydantal, by 49% in the Kashkadarya and by 40% in the Surhandarya (including the Sangardak and the Tupalang River basins. The retreat fairly slowed in the 1980s–2010s. There are 75 glacial lakes and 35 rock-dammed lakes (including landslide-dammed ones in the Pskem River basin, 45% of all the lakes covering the area less than 0.002 km2; 13 glacial lakes and 4 rock-dammed lakes in the Kashkadarya and 34 glacial lakes and 16 rock-dammed lakes in the Surhandarya River basins. The landslide rock-dammed Ikhnach Upper Lake lost 0.04 km2 in size from 1 August 2010 to 30 August 2010 because of the seepage through the rock dam and 0.10 km2 from 1 August to 18 October 2013.

  7. Conflicts and Countermeasures between Haba Snow Mountain Nature Reserve and Development of Peripheral Communities%哈巴雪山自然保护区与周边社区发展的冲突及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘大东; 王平; 杨帆; 王金亮; 晁增华

    2012-01-01

    采用问卷调查、访谈、参与性乡村评估(PRA)等方法对哈巴雪山自然保护区自然保护与周边社区发展的关系进行调查研究.结果表明:该保护区自然保护和周边社区发展存在冲突,一方面,自然保护给周边社区发展带来不利影响,如限制资源利用、制约发展空间、造成经济损失、剥夺旅游创收机会,补偿措施不到位等;另一方面,周边社区发展对自然保护造成威胁,如盗伐森林、违规采矿、过度采集、过度放牧、旅游开发非生态化等.最后得出科学合理规划功能区,加大经济损失补偿力度,发展生态旅游,实施社区共管是解决冲突的有效对策的结论.%Using research approaches such as questionnaire investigation, interview, and Participatory Rural Appraisal (PAR) , the relationship between Haba Snow Mountain Nature Reserve and its peripheral communities was studied. The results showed that there are lots of conflicts between Haba Snow Mountain Nature Reserve and its peripheral communities. On the one hand, conservation of natural environment brings inconvenience to the development of peripheral communities, such as limiting the use of resources, constraining space of development, resulting in economic losses, reducing tourist income and low compensation. On the other hand, peripheral communities' development threats conservation of the natural environment, for instance, illegal deforestation, illegal mining, over-harvesting, over-grazing and non-ecotourism. Therefore, effective suggestions were given as " scientific planning of functional areas, enhancing economic compensation, devoting more in ecotourism development, and realizing the cooperation of communities".

  8. Acute mountain sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    High altitude cerebral edema; Altitude anoxia; Altitude sickness; Mountain sickness; High altitude pulmonary edema ... Acute mountain sickness is caused by reduced air pressure and lower oxygen levels at high altitudes. The faster you ...

  9. The Utilization of Landsat 8 Multitemporal Imagery and Forest Canopy Density (FCD) Model for Forest Reclamation Priority of Natural Disaster Areas at Kelud Mountain, East Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himayah, S.; Hartono; Danoedoro, P.

    2016-11-01

    Remote sensing has the advantage in terms of temporal resolution that can be used to examine changes of the forest canopy density as occurred in Kelud Mountain after the eruption of 2014. Canopy density changes then used as a consideration for forest reclamation priority. This study aims to assess the ability of Landsat 8 multitemporal imagery and Forest Canopy Density (FCD) modeling for canopy density changes at Kelud forest before and after the eruption, as well as take advantage of the canopy density changes from FCD and biophysical condition of forest to make a forest reclamation priority. This research using a Landsat 8 imagery (26 June 2013 and 4 September 2015). The method that used is FCD modeling to obtain canopy density. Forest reclamation priority is determined based on the canopy density change after the eruption and biophysical factors such as slope, soil fertility and native vegetation. Landsat 8 can used to determine the forest canopy density of Kelud before and after eruption with an accuracy of 83.73% and 81.14%. Kelud forest reclamation priorities are divided into nine classes based on priority level. The most prioritized class is 1a with an area of 865 ha and class 1b with an area of 2.085 ha. Then class 1c (0 ha), 1d (413 ha), and 1e that most dominate (5.454 ha). Beside that, there is class 2a (1.900 ha) and 2b (243 ha), and the last is class 3a (467 ha) and 3b (1.172 Ha).ntroduction

  10. 山西芦芽山林线附近土壤水分空间分布特征及其影响因素%Spatial Distribution of Soil Water Content and Its Influential Factors in Transition Zone Along the Treeline of Luya Mountain, Shanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨艳刚; 江源; 张文涛; 李雪飞

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to investigate spatial distribution of soil moisture during the tree growing season, and analyze its influencing factors. Water contents in soil profiles were measured and its environmental and topographic factors analyzed in July and August 2008. The 18 monitored points were divided into 6 sections, where spatial distribution of soil moisture, relationship between soil water content and vegetation, topographic factors and initial soil moisture were analyzed. Soil moistures were measured using frequency domain reflectometry (FDR) , air temperatures and rainfalls were measured using the automatic weather stations, the topographic wetness index(ITW) and slope were worked out from DEM. The data were analyzed using SPSS 13. 0 software. Soil water content increased with increasing soil depth in the 10 - 30 cm soil layer in the forest section, and decreased in soils at 40 cm in depth, and an opposite trend was found in the meadow section. The soil water contents in soils at 10 and 40 cm in depth were relatively stable and at 20 and 30 cm in depth quite active. The soil water contents in soils at 20, 30 and 40 cm in depth were higher in the forest section than in the meadow section, with the maximum difference being 40.47% , whereas at 10 cm in it was higher in the meadow section than in the forest section. Soil moisture in all the sections was significantly affected by rainfall, peaking in 1 - 2 d after the rainfall event. The largest increase in soil moisture was found on the top of shady slopes and in the 10 cm soil layer, and a larger increase in soil moisture on sunny meadow slopes and in the 20 - 40 cm soil layer. The variation of soil moisture during the observation period was significantly related to slope in the 10 - 30 cm soil layer and negatively related to ITW in soils at 30 and 40 cm in depth, and negatively related with initial soil moisture in soils at 20 and 30 cm in depth. The findings show that, the temporal and spatial variation of soil water content was significantly affected by vegetation and rainfall. In some areas the variation of soil water content was affected not only by rainfall and vegetation, but also by initial soil moisture, slope and ITM.%于2008年植被生长季,在芦芽山荷叶坪亚高山草甸及森林-草甸过渡带内布设观测样带,应用FDR土壤剖面水分测量仪测量10~40cm深度土壤含水量,并分析其空间分布特征和影响因素.结果表明:(1)根据所处位置及地上植被状况可将样带分为林地样带和草甸样带,林地样带土壤含水量随深度增加呈先升高后降低的变化趋势,草甸样带则恰好相反.(2)10和40cm深度为土壤含水量稳定层,20和30cm深度为活跃层,且林地样带10cm深度土壤含水量小于草甸样带,20、30和40cm深度土壤含水量则大于草甸样带.(3)降雨发生后,阴坡上部树岛样带土壤含水量增幅最大,阳坡上、中、下部草甸样带土壤含水量增幅也较大;不同土层深度比较而言,10cm深度土壤含水量增幅最大,20、30和40cm深度土壤含水量增幅较为接近,土壤含水量对降雨的响应存在1~2d的时滞.(4)10、20和30cm土壤含水量变化值与坡度呈显著正相关,30、40cm土壤含水量变化值与初始土壤含水量呈显著负相关,20、30cm土壤含水量变化值与地形湿度指数呈显著负相关.研究区内土壤含水量空间分布格局及其动态变化受植被和降雨影响显著,初始土壤含水量、坡度以及地形湿度指数对其也有一定影响.

  11. microclimate and animal life in the equatorial mountains

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hedberg (1957) called this type of climate "winter every night and .... The diurnal nature of temperature change in the equatorial mountains is the .... the nature of night frosts and the accompanying microclimate at ground level, that will affect.

  12. Mountain Guides: Between Ethics and Socioeconomic Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Thierry; Bazin, Damien; Massiera, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    This study analysed mountain guides' representations of environmental responsibility and explored the paradox that these professionals face: using nature as a source of income while trying to preserve it. The study was mainly guided by the philosophical literature on this topic and made use of the concepts of sustainable development and nature.…

  13. Faunistic investigation of Tachinidae in Helan Mountain National Nature Reserve, China%贺兰山国家级自然保护区寄蝇科昆虫区系调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵喆; 王诗迪; 林海; 侯鹏; 苏云; 张春田

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the biodiversity and fauna of Tachinidae in Helan Mountain National Nature Reserve of China. Methods Morphology taxonomy and zoogeography principles and methods were applied in this study. Results Fifty -seven specie, 35 genera IS tribes and 4 subfamilies were identified. Among these tachinidae, one genus was newly recurded in China: (Elamya Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830); three species were newly recorded in China: Elomya lateratis (Meigen, 1824), Lydella ripae (Brischke, 1885), Phonomyia atypical Mesnil, 1963; two 9pecies are recorded as endemic in China: Peleteria flavobasicosta, Tachina genurufa; fourteen species were newly recorded of Inner Mongolia. Conclusion Because Helan Mountain was formed later than the time of divergence of tachinid flies, the Helan Mountain did not prevent the mutual diffusion of Palaearctic and Oriental tachinid flies. Therefore, the tachinid flies of Helan Mountain are dominated by Palaearctic and Oriental Tachinidae, especially tachinid flies that were distributed in both the Palaearctic and Oriental regions. All of the specimens are deposited in the Insect Collection, Shenyang Normal University, China.%目的 调查贺兰山国家级自然保护区寄蝇科昆虫种类及区系特征.方法 采用形态分类学和动物地理学原理与方法.结果 所采集蝇类经分类鉴定隶属4亚科15族35属57种,其中发现1个中国新纪录属:短柄寄蝇属(Elomya Robineau- Desvoidy,1830);3个中国新纪录种:侧短柄寄蝇[Elomya lateralis (Meigen,1824)]、岸厉寄蝇[Lydella ripae ( Brischke,1885)]、鹊声寄蝇(Phonomyia atypical Mesnil,1963);2个中国特有种:黄鳞长须寄蝇(Peleteria flavobasicosta)、源寄蝇(Tachina genurufa);14个内蒙古新纪录种.结论 由于贺兰山地貌形成的时间要明显晚于寄蝇科昆虫的形成、分化时间,贺兰山未能有效地阻止古北界和东洋界寄蝇种类的相互扩散,故该地区寄蝇科昆虫区系特征以古北界和

  14. 广西猫儿山鹅掌楸天然种群动态研究%Population structure dynamics of Liriodendron chinensis,a case study on a natural population in Maoer Mountain,Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李博; 冯源恒; 杨章旗; 袁晓峰; 叶靖; 李火根

    2013-01-01

    为进一步探讨鹅掌楸濒危的机制,对广西桂林猫儿山鹅掌楸天然种群进行了调查,以种群生命表及生存分析理论为基础,以林木径级结构代表龄级结构,编制鹅掌楸种群静态生命表,分析种群结构的动态变化特点.结果表明:鹅掌楸种群龄级结构为金字塔型,幼龄个体数量较多,中龄个体数居中,而老龄个体则相对数量较少,表现为增长型种群;在第Ⅳ龄级时该种群出现死亡高峰,其种群存活曲线属Deevey-Ⅱ型;猫儿山鹅掌楸天然种群具有前期种群数量快速减少,中后期稳定,末期衰退的特点.该研究结果对鹅掌楸天然种群的保护提供参考依据.%In order to provide reference and further explore endangered mechanism of Liriodendron chinensis natural populations the population structure dynamic of L. chinensis was analyzed by taking a natural population in Maoer Mountain of Guilin,Guangxi,as a sample. Based on the theory of population life table and survival analysis,the life table of L. chinensis population was constructed by replacing age classes with size-classes,and the population structure dynamic of L. chinensis was explored. The census data showed that the number of young seedling was larger than that of middle aged and old individuals, indicating that the population was in an incremental status. The survival curve in this population appeared to be a Deevey-Ⅱ type,with a peak of mortality in size class Ⅳ. It can be concluded that the population size of L. chinensis in Maoer mountain declined sharply in early stage, stablized in middle stage and fell rapidly in last stage.

  15. Geographic conditions for distribution of agriculture and potentials for tourism development on Mokra mountain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Marko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This work considers important natural conditions of distribution of agricultural production, cattle breeding in particular, and also potentials for tourism development on Mokra mountain. Half-nomadic cattle breeding in mountain settlements was highly developed in recent past. It represented the main source of existence for local highlanders. Today it is neglected and in phase of dying out. The mountain disposes with excellent natural potentials for ecological and mountain tourism, but these potentials are unused.

  16. 阿尔金山国家级自然保护区食肉鸟兽调查%Survey on Carnivore Birds and Mammals in Altun Mountain National Natural Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李叶; 张翔; 时磊

    2012-01-01

    2011-2012年,对阿尔金山国家级自然保护区的鼠类天敌——食肉鸟兽开展专项调查.通过调查,初步查明了保护区内共分布有鼠类天敌27种,分属2纲3目7科17属,其中有国家一级保护动物5种,二级保护动物17种.赤狐为保护区首次记录物种.对主要天敌的种类、分布、食性和活动规律,以及对高原鼠兔防治的潜在作用进行了初步分析.藏狐和大鵟可以作为进一步开展天敌防治鼠害工作的目标物种.%A special investigation on carnivorous mammals and birds was carried out in the Altun Mountain National Nature Reserve in 2011-2012. Research found out total 27 kinds of predators on rodent pests belonging to 2 classes,3 orders,7 families,and 17 genera distributing in the protected areas. Among them there are 5 kinds of national first class protection animal and 17 kinds of national second class protection animal. The red fox(Vulpes vuLpes)was first recorded from this region. The first analysis was carried out on varieties,distribution,feeding habits and the patterns of the main natural enemies and the potential role in controlling plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae) . Tibetan fox and Buzzard can be used as target species for a further natural enemies controlling pika project.

  17. Nature-based tourism and nature protection: quality standards for travelling in protected areas in the Alps. eco.mont (Journal on Protected Mountain Areas Research)|eco.mont Vol. 9 special issue|

    OpenAIRE

    Siegrist, Dominik; Ketterer Bonnelame, Lea

    2017-01-01

    Nature-based tourism is an important element of ecological and sustainable development in the Alps. A functioning quality management programme is essential to ensure high-quality nature-based tourism. The authors developed ten quality standards, differentiated by five quality-related criteria with associated indicators. Standards were developed by involving experts from all Alpine countries and using an Alpine-wide online survey; the standards were tested in six case studies. The quality stan...

  18. 云南轿子山自然保护区的杜鹃花科植物资源%The plant resource of Ericaceae in Yunnan Jiaozi Mountains nature reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈自然

    2012-01-01

      云南轿子山自然保护区有丰富的杜鹃花科植物资源,目前已知6属,46种(包括亚种及变种),分别占云南所有杜鹃花科植物属60%和总种数的12.17%.按照其用途将这些植物划分为观赏、药用、食用、芳香和有毒植物等5种类型.提出了对杜鹃花科野生植物资源进行开发利用和保护的措施.%  Yunnan Jiaozi Mountains nature reserve is plant resources of Ericaceae, Up till now, 6 genera and 46 species (include subspecies and varieties) of Ericaceae which is about 60% of the total genera and 12.17% of total species of Ericaceae in Yunnan Province. On the basic use of the Ericaceae, the Ericaceae can be classified into 5 types: ornamental plant resources, medicinal plant resources, edible plant resources, per-fume plant resources and poisonous plant resources etc. For the sustainable use of the Ericaceae plant resources, some measures for exploitation and protection of them are put forward finally.

  19. Preliminary Study on Population Ecology of Macaca arctoides in Tiantang Mountain Nature Reserve Yulin Guangxi%广西天堂山自然保护区红面猴种群生态学初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮桂文; 黄肇宇

    2014-01-01

    Population ecology and habitat characteristics of Macaca arctoides in Tiantang mountain nature reserve of Guangxi were studied by interview survey and sampling methods. There are two stump-tailed macaque populations. The number of two stump-tailed macaque populations reduced sharply because of the loss and fragmentation of their habitats, human disturbance and severe poaching. This study provides basic suggestion n on how to effectively protect the monkey.%通过访问调查和样方法对广西天堂山自然保护区的红面猴的种群生态学和栖息地特征进行了初步研究,保护区内分布有2群红面猴,由于栖息地的丧失和破碎化,人为干扰严重及其长期盗猎等因素,导致红面猴种群数量急剧下降。

  20. Analysis and distributional patterns of the invasive flora in a protected mountain area - a case study of Medvednica Nature Park (Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Vuković

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have analysed invasive flora of Medvednica Nature Park, Croatia with respect to their origins, life forms, systematic positions, types of seed dispersal, Ellenberg indicator values and spatial distributions using MTB 1/64 grid units for analyses. A total of 27 invasive plant species, belonging to 14 families, were recorded with Asteraceae being the most frequently occurring family. Therophytes were the most common life form, as is generally true of Croatian invasive plants; however, hemicryptophytes and geophytes were more frequent in Medvednica. Here, invasive plants originated mainly from both Americas with slightly lower portion in comparison to all Croatian invasive plants, while contrary was the case when comparing those originated from Asia. The most widespread species was Erigeron annuus (L. Pers., and the species with the lowest occurrence were Chamomilla suaveolens (Pursh. Rydb and Datura innoxia Mill. A multiple regression model explains 44% of the spatial variability in the invasive plants data per MTB 1/64 unit, using the number of all recorded plant species, the average elevation and the lengths of paths and roads as estimators. The latter two variables also had the most influence on the ordination axes in analyses of the spatial distribution of seed dispersal types present in each MTB 1/64 unit. Anemochory was the most frequent type of seed dispersal.

  1. THE SURFACE PALYNOFLORA FROM JINFO MOUNTAIN NATIONAL NATURE RESERVE, CHONGQING%重庆金佛山国家自然保护区现代植被表土孢粉的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝秀东; 欧阳绪红; 谢世友; 罗伦德

    2011-01-01

    Surface palynomorphs were prepared from topsoil sampled from the ten main vegetation types in the Jinfo Mountain National Nature Reserve, Chongqing. The palynomorph assemblages yielded a total of 106 pollen and spore species, with coniferous trees, ferns, and broad-leaved trees dominating, at 8. 94%-56. 30%, 19. 73%-46. 77% and 6. 17%-39. 28%, respectively. Then shrubs and herbaceous plants with 6. 24%-29. 77% and 5.58%-18. 24%. Marsh herbaceous pollen, at just 0. 14% frequency, was found only in a single plot, JFS-5, reflecting very local habitat. The basic characteristics of these surface palynomorph assemblages were found to reflect accurately the local macroflora in terms of plant species composition, vegetational structure, and elevation above sea level. These results will therefore provide useful reference information for study of Quaternary palaeovegetation, palaeoclimate, and palaeoenvi-ronments in the Jinfo Mountain region and also other such elevated areas of central southern China.%通过对重庆金佛山国家自然保护区10个不同植被类型的表土调查和采样,研究该区表土孢粉组合特征.结果表明,研究区植物孢粉共由106科属组成,其中以针叶乔木、蕨类和阔叶乔木孢粉占优势,含量分别为8.94%-56.30%、19.73%-46.77%和6.17%-39.28%,其次是灌木和草本花粉,分别为6.24%-29.77%和5.58%-18.24%,沼生草本花粉含量最小,仅为0.14%,且只是在样点JFS-5少量发现.研究区不同植被类型的表土孢粉组合特征基本反映了当地现今的植物构成、植被面貌及其垂直分布规律,能够较好反映出山地植物群落的基本特征,为今后在该区及其周边地区开展第四纪古植被、古气候和古环境的重建等孢粉研究提供参考性依据.

  2. Preliminary Research on Bryophyta Resources In the Heicha Mountain Nature Reserve%黑茶山自然保护区苔藓植物资源初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王振军

    2012-01-01

    Through field investigation,literature review,data collation and analysis,a preliminary research for Bryophyta resources was conducted in the Heicha Mountain Natural Reserve.The results showed that,there are 223 species of moss in the Heicha Mountain Reserve,belonging to 74 genus of 33 families,among which Hepaticae has 15 species,10 genus of 9 families,and moss has 2 variants,11 varieties,195 species,64 genus of 24 families;Bryophyta temperate flora composition has 32 genus and 74.3% of the region's,the temperate zone property has an absolute advantage.Tropical flora composition for 2 genus,showed certain tropical origin.Bryophyta community are divided into four types,namely aquatic community,rock community,soil communities and wood community.For bryophyta,the protection should be adopted predominantly,and its utilization should be strictly controlled.%通过实地调查、查阅文献、数据整理和分析,对黑茶山自然保护区苔藓植物资源进行了初步研究。结果表明,黑茶山保护区内共有苔藓植物33科74属223种,其中苔类植物9科10属15种,藓类植物24科64属195种11个变种2个变型;苔藓植物温带区系成分有26属,占该地区的74.29%,温带性质占有绝对优势,热带区系成分为2属,表明了一定的热带渊源;本区苔藓植物群落有4种类型,即水生群落、石生群落、土生群落和木生群落。对保护区苔藓植物要以保护为主,严格控制开发利用。

  3. A study of tourist market structure and behavior characteristics in Maoer Mountain nature reserve%猫儿山自然保护区游客市场结构及行为特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廉同辉; 王金叶

    2012-01-01

    The data about tourist market structure and behavior characteristics of Maoer nature reserve in Guangxi, such as the tourists occupation, income, gender, age and place as well as tourist information channels, travel motivations and perception analysis are collected by questionnaire. Then these data are analyzed through statistical model and quantitative analysis to discuss the tourism market structure and behavior characteristics. Lastly, some suggestions, like market - oriented product development for tourism are proposed to improve the development of Maoer Mountain nature reserve.%文章采用问卷调查法收集广西猫儿山国家级自然保护区有关游客职业、收入、性别、年龄、客源地等市场结构特征数据,以及游客获知渠道、旅游动机、感知分析等行为特征数据,然后采用统计模型与定量分析方法对收集到的数据进行分析处理,探讨了猫儿山自然保护区国内游客市场结构及行为特征,并以此提出以市场为导向进行旅游产品开发、充分利用事件营销等拓展猫儿山自然保护区旅游市场的措施。

  4. Mountain Plover [ds109

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Point locations representing observations of mountain plover (Charadrius montanus) feeding and roosting flocks (and occasional individuals) documented during an...

  5. 宁夏贺兰山自然保护区生物多样性现状与保护对策%Current Situation and Protection Countermeasures of Biodiversity of Ningxia Helan Mountain National Nature Re-serve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘向才; 胡天华; 贾永华; 王春良

    2015-01-01

    The Helan mountain is located in the extension of the temperate steppe area and desert area, is the important center of biological diversity and biological resources treasure house in the northwest arid area of China. The total area of Ningxia Helan Mountain National Nature Reserve is 193,535.68 hm2,and it has a special geographical position,the com-plex floristic composition, various vegetation types and rich biodiversity. According to the second comprehensive scientific survey statistics,this area had 5 classes,24 orders,56 families and 218 species of terrestrial vertebrate,had 84 families, 329 genera, 647 species and 17 varieties of the wild vascular plants, had 26 families, 65 genera and 142 species of mosses, had 32 families, 81 genera and 259 species of macro fungi, it also had 165 families, 700 genera and 1 025 species of insects. However,in the recent half century,the biodiversity has reduced because of the environmental degrada-tion which caused by artificial intervention. The protection and management countermeasures just like increasing propaganda, strengthening scientific research and enforcement of the protection law were put forward based on the analysis of the status and the characteristics of biodiversity and the causes of the reduction of biological diversity of Ningxia Helan mountain and the existing problems in the protection work.%贺兰山地跨温带草原与荒漠两大植被区域,是我国西北干旱区重要的生物多样性中心和生物资源宝库。宁夏贺兰山国家级自然保护区总面积193535.68 hm2,其地理位置特殊,植物区系组成复杂,植被类型多样,生物多样性丰富。据保护区第二次综合科学考察统计,该区有陆生脊椎动物5纲24目56科218种,野生维管植物84科329属647种17变种,苔藓植物26科65属142种,大型真菌32科81属259种,昆虫165科700属1025种。然而近半个世纪以来,由于人为活动的干预使其生态环境逐渐恶化,生物

  6. The Altai Mountains environmental disaster (Eastern Kazakhstan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmadiyeva, Z. K.

    2009-12-01

    The space centre "Baikoniyr" (Kazakhstan) has had substantial affects on the environment. During the past several decades as a result of the launching of carrier rockets, such as "Proton" that use as fuel the asymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (ASDH), more well-known as "heptyl", the unique mountain landscapes in Eastern Kazakhstan have been subjected to pollution. In 2004, RSE "Kazakh research Institute of Ecology and Climate" carried out the complex geochemical and radiation researches in East Kazakhstan that is an impact area of second stages of carrier rockets. Such detailed examinations of this area were conducted for the first time because the Eastern Kazakhstan Mountains are difficult for human access. The landscape-geochemical research over the natural landscapes covered the ridge, low, and middle mountains with fir forests. The research results have shown the presence of heptyl in the samples of the soil, plants, and rivers’ bottom sediments. The findings of the influence of space activity on environment of the Kazakhstan part of the Altai Mountains confirm and complement the Russian scientific research results over the territory of the neighbouring Altai Krai. Though the heptyl pollution in the investigated region is of a local nature and highly spatially inhomogeneous, nevertheless, this anthropogenic effect intensifying from year to year increases the load on the natural ecosystems. In particular, it strengthens the desertification process of mountain regions of East Kazakhstan.

  7. Study on impact of human activities for natural environment in Changbai Mountain of typical area%人类活动对长白山典型区域自然环境的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵建军; 张洪岩; 王野乔; 乔志和; 候光雷

    2011-01-01

    以1977年MSS、1993年TM和2007年TM三个时期遥感影像为数据基础,借助遥感和GIS技术以及景观生态学分析方法,对长白山30年来土地利用/覆被和景观格局动态时空规律进行了定量分析,并探讨了人类活动对其产生的影响程度.结果表明:建设用地、耕地、未利用地、其他植被和林地在30年里都发生了很大的变化.1977-1993年间,林地和水域呈现减少趋势,耕地、建设用地、未利用地和其他植被呈明显增加趋势;1993-2007年林地和耕地面积呈减少趋势,其他土地覆被类型还呈增加趋势.建设用地、未利用地和其他植被一直处于增加状态,虽然1993年之后增加趋势有所减慢,但是其范围蔓延到更高海拔地区.在景观水平上和类型水平上都发生了很大变化,景观破碎化严重,人类活动对研究区土地覆被变化带来了很大的负面效应,并且在短时期内很难恢复.%The main purpose of this paper is to analyze quantitatively in the land use/cover change and landscape patterns of Changbai Mountain region in the past 30 years, observe the characteristics and evolution,investigate the relationships between the human activities of the two countries and LUCC and landscape patterns,reveal the law of its dynamic evolution and ecological-environmental benefits from a macroscopic point of view, and provide scientific basis for environmental and ecological protection and the sustainable use of natural resources. In this paper,the surrounding area of Changbai Mountain Centrum around 7 854 km2 was chosen as an study area on LUCC and its ecological environment effect. Based on remote sensing data of MSS in 1977 and TM in 1993 and 2007 of the area,the LUCC and landscape pattern changes in the past 30 years were analyzed through remote sensing and GIS technology combining with the methods of Landscape ecology. Studied the date of three periods of land use and landscape patterns in Changbai Mountain region

  8. Czech Children's Drawing of Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Zuhal; Kubiatko, Milan; Topal, Hatice

    2012-01-01

    Do world children draw nature pictures in a certain way? Range of mountains in the background, a sun, couple clouds, a river rising from mountains. Is this type of drawing universal in the way these nature items are organized on a drawing paper? The sample size from Czech Republic included 33 participants from two kindergartens. They were 5 and 6…

  9. Effects of recreational flow releases on natural resources of the Indian and Hudson Rivers in the Central Adirondack Mountains, New York, 2004-06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldigo, Barry P.; Mulvihill, C.I.; Ernst, A.G.; Boisvert, B.A.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC), and Cornell University carried out a cooperative 2-year study from the fall of 2004 through the fall of 2006 to characterize the potential effects of recreational-flow releases from Lake Abanakee on natural resources in the Indian and Hudson Rivers. Researchers gathered baseline information on hydrology, temperature, habitat, nearshore wetlands, and macroinvertebrate and fish communities and assessed the behavior and thermoregulation of stocked brown trout in study reaches from both rivers and from a control river. The effects of recreational-flow releases (releases) were assessed by comparing data from affected reaches with data from the same reaches during nonrelease days, control reaches in a nearby run-of-the-river system (the Cedar River), and one reach in the Hudson River upstream from the confluence with the Indian River. A streamgage downstream from Lake Abanakee transmitted data by satellite from November 2004 to November 2006; these data were used as the basis for developing a rating curve that was used to estimate discharges for the study period. River habitat at most study reaches was delineated by using Global Positioning System and ArcMap software on a handheld computer, and wetlands were mapped by ground-based measurements of length, width, and areal density. River temperature in the Indian and Hudson Rivers was monitored continuously at eight sites during June through September of 2005 and 2006; temperature was mapped in 2005 by remote imaging made possible through collaboration with the Rochester Institute of Technology. Fish communities at all study reaches were surveyed and characterized through quantitative, nearshore electrofishing surveys. Macroinvertebrate communities in all study reaches were sampled using the traveling-kick method and characterized using standard indices. Radio telemetry was used to track the movement and persistence of

  10. A case of Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubel, Barry S

    2007-01-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a serious, generalized infection that is spread to humans through the bite of infected ticks. It can be lethal but it is curable. The disease gets its name from the Rocky Mountain region where it was first identified in 1896. The fever is caused by the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii and is maintained in nature in a complex life cycle involving ticks and mammals. Humans are considered to be accidental hosts and are not involved in the natural transmission cycle of this pathogen. The author examined a 47-year-old woman during a periodic recall appointment. The patient had no dental problems other than the need for routine prophylaxis but mentioned a recent problem with swelling of her extremities with an accompanying rash and general malaise and soreness in her neck region. Tests were conducted and a diagnosis of Rocky Mountain spotted fever was made.

  11. Mountains as early warning indicators of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M. W.

    2015-12-01

    The panoramic splendor and complexity of mountain environments have inspired and challenged humans for centuries. These areas have been variously perceived as physical structures to be conquered, as sites of spiritual inspiration, and as some of the last untamed natural places on Earth. In our time, the perception that "mountains are forever" may provide solace to those seeking stability in a rapidly changing world. However, changes in the hydrology and in the abundance and species composition of the native flora and fauna of mountain ecosystems are potential bellwethers of global change, because these systems have a propensity to amplify environmental changes within specific portions of this landscape. Mountain areas are thus sentinels of climate change. We are seeing effects today in case histories I present from the Himalaya's, Andes, Alps, and Rocky Mountains. Furthermore, these ecosystem changes are occurring in mountain areas before they occur in downstream ecosystems. Thus, mountains are early warning indicators of perturbations such as climate change. The sensitivity of mountain ecosystems begs for enhanced protection and worldwide protection. Our understanding of the processes that control mountain ecosystems—climate interactions, snowmelt runoff, biotic diversity, nutrient cycling—is much less developed compared to downstream ecosystems where human habitation and development has resulted in large investments in scientific knowledge to sustain health and agriculture. To address these deficiencies, I propose the formation of an international mountain research consortium.

  12. Mountain Pine Beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gene D. Amman; Mark D. McGregor; Robert E. Jr. Dolph

    1989-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, is a member of a group of beetles known as bark beetles: Except when adults emerge and attack new trees, the mountain pine beetle completes its life cycle under the bark. The beetle attacks and kills lodgepole, ponderosa, sugar, and western white pines. Outbreaks frequently develop in lodgepole pine stands that...

  13. Mountain chickadee (Poecile gambeli)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, D. Archibald; Grundel, Ralph; Dahlsten, Donald L.; Poole, Alan; Gill, Frank

    1999-01-01

    The Mountain Chickadee (Poecile gambeli), a small, cavity-nesting songbird, is one of the most common birds of montane and coniferous forest from southern Arizona and Baja California north to British Columbia and the Yukon territory. This publication describes the life history of the Mountain Chickadee.

  14. 贺兰山天然油松林凋落物储量与分解过程的研究%Reserves and Decomposition Process of Litter in Natural Pinus tabulaeformis Forest in the Helan Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鹏; 程积民; 王继飞

    2011-01-01

    油松是贺兰山天然林区的重要建群种,生长已有近百年历史,已经形成了深厚的凋落物层,对促进森林土壤养分积累与森林的自然更新起着重要的作用。通过标准样地的凋落物调查,结果表明:不同龄级的油松凋落物厚度与储量不同,72龄级的储量最高,为46.09 t/hm2,其次是63龄级,为45.32 t/hm2,45龄级的储量较低,为22.41 t/hm2;不同立地条件下凋落物的储量不同,坡下部储量最大,为29.64 t/hm2,其次是坡中部和坡上部,分别为21.38 t/hm2和16.31 t/hm2。表明在贺兰山的生态条件下,油松林凋落物的储量受生长年限和立地条件的影响,分解过程也出现了较为明显的异质性,其趋势是大龄级的分解速率远高于中龄级,坡下部大于坡中部和坡上部,成为目前林区土壤有机质积累的重要来源。%As an important constructive arbor species in Helan Mountain Natural Forest Region,growing nearly a century,Pinus tabulaeformis has formed a deep litter layer,which plays an important role in promoting soil nutrient accumulation and natural regeneration.The results of the litter survey on standard plots show that: reserves and thickness of Pinus tabulaeformis litter change among age classes,the reserves of up to 72 age class,as 46.09t/hm2,followed by 63 age classes for 45.32 t/hm2,the lower reserves of 45 age class for 22.41 t/hm2.And litter reserves vary under different site conditions: the lower slopes up to 29.64 t/hm2,followed by the central and the upper slope,respectively,21.38 t/hm2 and 16.31 t/hm2.It shows that Pinus tabulaeformis litter reserves in the Helan Mountain are influenced by the growing years and site conditions.Also,there is an apparent heterogeneity in decomposition process.The tendency shows that decomposition rate of litter at older age class is much higher than the younger age class;the lower slope is greater than the central and the upper slope.The litter is an important part of soil

  15. 江西铜钹山大型真菌区系地理成分分析%Geographical Components of Macrofungal Flora in Tongbo Mountain Nature Reserve, Jiangxi Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张林平; 张扬; 王舒; 栾丰刚; 李冬; 林昌勇

    2013-01-01

    为了解江西铜钹山自然保护区大型真菌区系多样性,对该地区的大型真菌区系地理成分进行了分析.结果表明:该地区共有大型真菌185种,隶属46科92属.其中优势科为Polyporaceae(40种,占21.62%)、Tricholomataceae(15种,占8.11%)、Russulaceae(13种,占7.03%)和Baletaceae(11种,5.95%);优势属为Russula(10种,占5.41%)、Marasmius(9种,占4.86%)、Tremella(6种,3.24%)、Xylaria(6种,3.24%)、Stereum(5种,2.70%)、Microporus(5种,2.70%)、Coprinus(5种,2.70%);属的区系地理成分可分为世界广布成分(69.57%)、泛热带成分(19.57%)、北温带成分(9.78%)、东亚-北美洲成分(2.17%),分析结果表明铜钹山大型真菌的属以广布成分为主,其次为热带成分和北温带成分.%To understand the diversity of macrofungal flora in Tongbo Mountain Nature Reserve of Jiangxi Province,an investigation was conducted on the geographical components of the flora.A total of 185 macrofungal species were identified,belonging to 92 genera of 45 families.The dominant families were Polyporaceae (40 species,21.62 %),Tricholomataceae (15 species,8.11%),Russulaceae (13 species,7.03 %),and Baletaceae (11 species,5.95%),and the dominant genera were Russula (10 species,5.41%),Marasmius (9 species,4.86%),Tremella (6 species,3.24%),Xylaria (6 species,3.24%),Stereum (5 species,2.70%),Microporus (5 species,2.70%),and Coprinus (5 species,2.70%).Geographically,the genera can be grouped into four components,i.e.,Cosmopolitans (69.57%),Pan-tropic elements (19.57%),North Temperate elements (9.78%),Eastern 1Asia-Northern America elements (2.17%).The results suggest that the genera of silvan macrofungi in Tongbo Mountain Nature Reserve of Jiangxi are dominated by cosmopolitan elements,followed by tropical and temperate floristic elements.

  16. THE MOUNTAIN REGIONS IN CONTEXT OF STRATEGY 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTONESCU Daniela

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The mountain regions in Romania and European Union represent a special territory of interest, with a huge economic, social, environmental and cultural potential. More, mountain area is considerate a natural-economic region and constitutes an important objective for regional development policy. The main sectors of mountain area are presented in agriculture and tourism fields that lead the key role in safeguarding the sensitive eco-system and thereby maintaining the general living and working space.Mountain areas should have a specific policy defined by the sustainable development principle, which meets the needs of the present without compromising the opportunities of future generations. The specific mountain policy aims to reduce the imbalance between favored and disadvantaged mountain regions, permanently marked by natural, economic, social, cultural and environmental constraints. In previous programming period, mountain regions among have profited from the intensive regional support, in specially, for constructing of and connecting them to fresh water and waste water networks, in particular for increasing of life quality. In context of 2020 Strategy, the Member States will concentrate investments on a small number of thematic objectives. In advanced regions, 60 % of funds will used for only two of these objectives (competitiveness of SME and research/innovation. The all less developed regions will received about 50% of Structural Funds In Romania, mountain representing 29.93% out of the total national surface and 20.14% from UAA (Utilised Agricultural Area of total national. The mountain territory has around 20% of the national population and is overlapping almost 100% with the Carpathian Mountains. Due to these conditions, Romania's regional development policy must take into account the specificities of mountain area, the problems they faced, and the requirements of 2020 Strategy.This paper presents the main aspects to be taken into account

  17. 柳河罗通山自然保护区植物多样性调查与分析%The investigation and analysis of plant diversity of Liuhe Luotong mountain nature protection area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海波; 黄俊汉; 任鹏飞

    2014-01-01

    通过对吉林柳河罗通山自然保护区植物种类的调查与分析,结果表明:区域内有蕨类植物14科24种,裸子植物2科6种,被子植物82科399种,占吉林省植物种类的18.1%;分属4个植被类型、19个植物群系。区域内有吉林省新记录种1种,少见种2种;国家Ⅰ级重点保护野生植物1种,国家Ⅱ级重点保护野生植物6种。%The plant species of Liuhe Luotong mountain nature protection area of Jilin province were investigated and ana -lyzed.The result showed that there are 14 families 24 species of ferns , 2 families 6 species of gymnosperm and 82 families 399 species of angiosperm in this area .It occupied 18.1% in plant species of Jilin province .Furthermore, it belonged 4 vegetational forms and 19 plant formations .There was 1 new record species and 2 uncommon species of Jilin province , 1 national Ⅰlevel priority protection wild plants and 6 national Ⅱlevel priority protection wild plants in the area .

  18. 太白山自然保护区外生菌根及菌根真菌调查研究%A study on ectomycorrhiza and mycorrhiza fungi in Taibai Mountain Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴重华; 王吉忍; 杨俊秀; 吴国华

    2001-01-01

    报道了太白山自然保护区外生菌根及菌根真菌的调查研究结果。共获得外生菌根真菌28种,隶属6科18属;查明主要菌根树种是巴山冷杉(Abies fargesii Franch)和太白红杉(Larix chinensis Beissn)。主要菌根真菌是红菇(Russuluceae)和牛肝菌(Boletaceae)。并对其生态分布进行了分析,以亚高山(Subalpine belt)南坡2 850~3 300 m、北坡3 000~3 200 m区带最适合于菌根(Mycorrhiza)及菌根真菌子实体(Mycorrhiza fungi fruit bodies)的形成。%An investigation result on Ectomycorrhiza and Ectomycorrhiza fungi in Taibai Mountain Nature Reserve is reported in this paper.28 species of Ectomycorrhiza fungi are found,they belong to 18 genus of 6 subjects;and Abies forgesii Franch and Larix chinensii are found to be the major hosts,and Russulaceae and Boletareae are major mycorrhiza fungi. The Ecologic distribution of Ectomycorrhiza and Mcorrhiza Fungi are also studied,it is most suit to form mycorrhiza and mycorrhiza fungi fruit bodies in the south slope between 2 850~3 300 m and the north slope between 3 000~3 200 m area of subalpine belt.

  19. Impact of natural climate change and historical land use on vegetation cover and geomorphological process dynamics in the Serra dos Órgãos mountain range in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehren, U.; Sattler, D.; Heinrich, J.

    2010-03-01

    dating techniques, such as pollen analysis. The impact of early civilizations on deforestation, forest fragmentation and geomorphological process dynamics is estimated on the basis of archaeological and anthropological findings. Furthermore, historical sources, such as written documents, maps, paintings and photographs, were collected and analysed to get a more detailed picture of the younger landscape history. As a result we present a landscape genetic model for the Late Quaternary in the Serra dos Órgãos mountain range and the Guanabara Basin. Based on a functional analysis of the natural process dynamics we reconstruct the human impact on the vegetation cover and related erosion and sedimentation processes in different time periods. According to this, the polycyclic climate fluctuations in the Pleistocene emerge as periods of stability and instability in the landscape system. During dry and cool periods of the Ice Ages forests drew back and erosion processes increased, causing higher erosion and deposition rates on slopes and stronger incision of river beds, accompanied by a deposition of gravels. The colluvial soils presently found in the mountain region were mainly deposited during the last instability period in the Late Pleistocene (Wisconsin) and Early Holocene. With the return of rainforests from their retreats under wetter climate conditions in the mid Holocene, slopes were stabilized under a dense vegetation cover. In the Late Holocene erosion conditions changed again with human deforestation and land use, which led to high erosion rates in the mountainous landscape. Concerning the human impact on rainforests and geomorphological process dynamics we give an overview of the pre-historical (Sambaqui, Tupi) and historical (colonial exploitation cycles) landscape transformation and degradation processes for different landscape units within the Serra dos Órgãos and its floodplains. The results not only give a detailed picture of historical land use patterns and

  20. Rare and endangered plant species of the Chinese Altai Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marina; V.OLONOVA

    2010-01-01

    Altai (also named Altay in China) Mountain Country (Mountain System) is a unique natural region,located on the border between different floristic regimes of the Boreal and ancient Mediterranean sub-kingdoms,where distribution of plant species is actually limited. It is known to have sufficient endemic floral biodiversity in the Northern Asia. Many plants of Altai Mountain System need effective care and proper conservation measures for their survival and longer-term protection. Important Plant Area identified as the IUCN (the International Union for Conservation of Nature),specified criteria attract global attention for protection of floral biodiversity across the world. The records of 71 plant species from the Chinese Altai Mountains attributed to the criterion A and the dark conifer forests of Chinese Altai Mountains satisfied the criterion C,which may help qualify to fulfill the national obligation of the Convention on Biological Diversity.

  1. A new network on mountain geomorphosites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Since about two decades, the value of geoheritage in mountain areas has been re-discovered in various parts of the Alps (Reynard et al., 2010) and other mountain ranges, and various initiatives (protection of sites worthy of protection, inventories of geomorphosites, geotourist promotion, creation of geoparks, etc.) to conserve or promote mountain geoheritage have been developed. As mountains are recognized as natural areas with a very high geodiversity, and at the same time as areas with a great potential for the development of soft tourism, a new Network on Mountain Geomorphosites was created in October 2012 in conclusion to a workshop organized by the University of Lausanne (Switzerland). The Network is open to all researchers active in geoheritage, geoconservation and geotourism studies in mountain areas. For the first years research will focus on three main issues: - Geoheritage and natural processes: Mountains are very sensitive areas where climate change impacts are very acute and where active geomorphological processes rapidly modify landscapes. It is hypothesized that geoheritage will be highly impacted by global change in the future. Nevertheless, at the moment, very little research is carried out on the evolution of landforms recognized as geoheritage and no specific management measures have been developed. Also, the tourist activities related to geoheritage, especially the trails developed to visit geomorphosites, are sensitive to geomorphological processes in mountain areas in a context of global change, and need, therefore, to be better addressed by geomorphologists. - Geotourism: During the last two decades numerous initiatives have developed geotourism in mountain areas. Nevertheless, studies addressing issues such as the needs of the potential public(s) of geotourism, the evaluation of the quality of the geotourist products developed by scientists and/or local authorities, and the assessment of the economic benefits of geotourism for the regional

  2. Rocky Mountain Arsenal Timeline

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document details all of the major events having occurred at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal from it's establishment on May 2, 1942 up through the document's release...

  3. Landforms of High Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek A. McDougall

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed: Landforms of High Mountains. By Alexander Stahr and Ewald Langenscheidt. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer, 2015. viii + 158 pp. US$ 129.99. Also available as an e-book. ISBN 978-3-642-53714-1.

  4. Rocky Mountain spotted fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mountain spotted fever is caused by the bacteria Rickettsia rickettsii (R. Rickettsii) , which is carried by ticks. ... Saunders; 2014:chap 212. Walker DH, Blaton LS. Rickettsia rickettsii and other spotted fever group rickettsiae (Rocky ...

  5. Diurnal variation of mountain waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Worthington

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Mountain waves could be modified as the boundary layer varies between stable and convective. However case studies show mountain waves day and night, and above e.g. convective rolls with precipitation lines over mountains. VHF radar measurements of vertical wind (1990–2006 confirm a seasonal variation of mountain-wave amplitude, yet there is little diurnal variation of amplitude. Mountain-wave azimuth shows possible diurnal variation compared to wind rotation across the boundary layer.

  6. Engineered barrier environment, Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilder, D.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The suitability of Yucca Mountain (YM) as a potential nuclear waste repository site will ultimately depend on how well it provides for isolation of the waste. Analysis of isolation capabilities of YM must consider interactions between natural and engineered systems. In addition, environmental conditions are important to EBS design, materials testing, selection, design criteria, and waste-form characterization. Studies of environmental interactions with the EBS, have emphasized processes and changed (not ambient) conditions resulting from interaction with waste, since these are the pertinent conditions for the EBS. The results of these studies indicate that the radioactive heat-of-decay from spent nuclear fuel will play a dominant role in the performance of a potential repository at Yucca Mountain. In addition, coupled hydrothermal-geochemical phenomena may significantly affect the performance of natural barriers surrounding the repository. Depending on the thermal-loading management strategy, as well as site conditions, repository heat may either substantially increase the likelihood of water contacting waste packages, with an associated potential increased magnitude of release and transport of radionuclides, or preclude, or at least minimize, these effects for extended periods of time, perhaps as much as hundreds of thousand years.

  7. 六盘山国家自然保护区珍稀濒危植物及其分布特点调查%Investigation of rare and endanger ed plants and their distribution feature in the Liupan Mountain National Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁彩霞; 余杨春; 田瑛

    2016-01-01

    Using the combination of sample plot survey and line transect method, in Liupan Mountain National Natural Protection Area of rare and endangered plant resource status and distribution were studied. Investigation of Liupan Mountain within the territory of the distribution of national rare and endangered plant species and analysis its distribution characteristics. The results showed that in Liupan Mountain National Nature Reserve within the area of distribution of rare and endangered plants in a total of 19 families, 29 genera and 36 species, which focused on the protection of plants at the national level have three, 24 species of national key protected plants, 10 species of other endangered plants, at an altitude of 1800 to 2400 meters range is relatively concentrated distribution of rare and endangered plants in Liupan Mountain National Regional, should focus on strengthening the management and protection.%采用样地调查与样线调查相结合的方法,对六盘山国家级自然保护区珍稀濒危植物及分布状况进行了调查,分析其分布特点,结果表明:六盘山国家级自然保护区境内分布国家珍稀濒危植物共19科30属37种,其中国家一级重点保护植物有3种,国家二级重点保护植物23种,其他濒危植物11种,海拔1800~2400 m范围是六盘山国家珍稀濒危植物分布相对集中的区域,应重点加强管护。

  8. 浙江凤阳山天然混交林林分空间结构分析%Stand spatial structure of a natural mixed forest in the Fengyang Mountains of Zhejiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王群; 张金池; 田月亮; 叶立新; 刘胜龙

    2012-01-01

    To provide a theoretical basis and provide technical support for structural adjustments in a natural mixed forest, stand spatial structure of a mixed forest in the Fengyang Mountains National Nature Reserve of Zhejiang Province was determined using three structural parameters; uniform angle index, mingling, and neighborhood comparison. Four typical plots of 20 m X 20 m were surveyed for tree diameter at breast height above 5 cm. Results showed that dominant tree populations of Schima superba, Berrya ammonilla, Fagus lu-cida, and Cyclobalanopsis multinervis exhibited diverse and dominant species characteristics. The largest number of dominant species S. superba in the comparison of the space is in the moderation status. 77% Sycop-sis sinensis is completely oppressed and 8% is in the most dominant state, which shows that Sycopsis sinensis differentiates seriously. The average mingling of 5. superba is 0.48 exhibiting aggregation of a single species. Because of less amount of Quercus glandulifera var. brevipetiolata, the average mingling is only 0.17 indicating Quercus glandulifera var. brevipetiolata distribution appeared as gobbets. Whereas the average mingling of other tree species is above 0.5. In addition to S. superba and Quercus glandulifera var. brevipetiolata, the oth- er species seldom cluster together and have greater degree of isolation, which indicates the stand has the less moderate mixed degree. Distribution patterns for forests gradually move toward a random distribution in climax community succession, so natural mixed forest in the Fengyang Mountain develop into evergreen broad-leaved forest. [Ch, 2 fig. 4 tab. 18 ref.]%以浙江凤阳山天然混交林为研究对象,对其角尺度、混交度和大小比数3个林分空间结构参数进行测定分析,以期为该区域阔叶混交林林分结构的优化调整提供理论依据和技术支持.在凤阳山国家级自然保护区内,设置20 m×20 m的4个固定样地,采用全面调查法,调查

  9. 天目山自然保护区旅游解说系统的调查与分析%An Investigation and Analysis of Tourism Interpretation System in Tianmu Mountain Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王祖良; 张建国; 崔会平; 邵磊

    2011-01-01

    Good tourism interpretation system is one of important content of eco-tourism district construction.It is the important means to improve the tourists traveling experience quality and accept environmental education. In order to study the setting status and visitors' usage of the tourism interpretation system in Tianmu mountain national nature reserve, the paper studied its tourism environment interpretation system by means of the site investigation and survey. The results showed that the interpretation system was more normative, fused with the tourism cultural connotation, and better explanation guidance. Meanwhile, the research also found that there was various existing problems in it. Such as interpretation system was not perfect, guide's personnel quality should be further enhanced, and the commentator brand system remained to be improved, and so on. Based on the existing problems, the paper put forward suggestions that we should establish the perfect function visitor center, increase the way such as electronic interpretation system to improve it.%良好的旅游解说系统,是提高游客旅游体验质量和接受环境教育的重要手段,是生态旅游区建设的重要内容之一.为了解天目山国家级自然保护区旅游解说系统设置状况和游客使用情况,以实地勘察和问卷调查为手段,对其旅游环境解说系统进行调查与分析.结果表明,景区的解说系统比较规范,并能与景区的文化蕴涵相融合,也能起到较好的解说引导作用.同时,也发现其解说系统存在着一些问题,如解说系统不完善、导游人员素质有待提高、解说牌示系统有待改善等问题.针对这些问题,建议通过建立功能完善的游客中心、增加电子解说系统等途径,来推进其旅游解说系统的功能提升.

  10. ECONOMIC-UTILITARIAN AND SPIRITUAL-EXISTENTIAL BASES OF FOSTERING ENVIRONMENTAL AWARENESS IN MOUNTAIN DWELLERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Moskalets

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article high lights the psychology economic-utilitarian motivation in mountain dwellers to care for nature as a basic resource in their recreation and relaxation activities – the main means of promoting the social and economic growth of mountain areas. Such motivation provides a psychological foundation for the spiritual-existential bases of ecological culture in mountain areas as well as in all natural climatic regions having recreation, relaxation, and health care potentials.

  11. Mountain saved. is a mountain earned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margolis, K.

    The Anaconda Copper Company boasted that the smokestack on its Washee smelter mill was the world's tallest. It also was probably the world's deadliest. Mysterious livestock deaths began occurring in 1906. They seemed to concentrate in the path of the prevailing westerly winds, carrying the Washee's smelter smoke plume toward Mt. Haggin. As evidence mounted that the deaths were connected to particulate fallout from the smelter (largely oxides of zinc, arsenic, lead, and copper), there were rumblings of lawsuits against Anaconda. The company felt threatened, but did not possess the technology to cure the situation. To protect itself, Anaconda purchased all the lands that were affected by fallout from the smelter smokestack. The result was the formation of the 154,000-acre Mt. Haggin Ranch. Today, the Anaconda Copper Company uses sophisticated pollution abatement equipment, and it is possible to see the healing that has taken place in recent years. The ranch includes rugged mountain peaks and ridges, high mountain valleys, and rolling foothills. A fisherman's paradise, the area also contains 20 mountain lakes, numerous ponds, and over 60 miles of trout streams. The Conservancy has been working to save Mt. Haggin since 1969. Negotiations have involved not only the fee owner--Mt. Haggin Livestock, Inc.--but also parties holding grazing and timber contracts, a variety of public agencies, and the Anaconda Company, which still holds some rights over the portion of the property not yet purchased by the Conservancy. The Conservancy assists in preserving lands like Mt. Haggin by handling the financial and legal aspects of land purchases. The Conservancy is allocating property to two ultimate recipients: the U.S. Forest Service and the montana Department of Fish and Game.

  12. STRAWBERRY MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS, OREGON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, T.P.; Stotelmeyer, Ronald B.

    1984-01-01

    The Strawberry Mountain Wilderness extends 18 mi along the crest of the Strawberry Range and comprises about 53 sq mi in the Malheur National Forest, Grant County, Oregon. Systematic geologic mapping, geochemical sampling and detailed sampling of prospect workings was done. A demonstrated copper resource in small quartz veins averaging at most 0. 33 percent copper with traces of silver occurs in shear zones in gabbro. Two small areas with substantiated potential for chrome occur near the northern edge of the wilderness. There is little promise for the occurrence of additional mineral or energy resources in the Strawberry Mountain Wilderness.

  13. Himalayan Mountain Range, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Snow is present the year round in most of the high Himalaya Mountain Range (33.0N, 76.5E). In this view taken at the onset of winter, the continuous snow line can be seen for hundreds of miles along the south face of the range in the Indian states of Punjab and Kashmir. The snow line is at about 12,000 ft. altitude but the deep Cenab River gorge is easily delineated as a break along the south edge of the snow covered mountains. '

  14. The History and Current Status of Felid Population in Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve%长白山自然保护区猫科动物种群数量变化及现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朴正吉; 睢亚臣; 崔志刚; 张国利; 王群; 傅学魁

    2011-01-01

    1985~2009年,在长白山自然保护区及其周边地区采用野外样线调查和社会访问调查的方法,对猫科动物种群数量变化及影响因素进行了研究.结果表明,长白山自然保护区记载的东北虎(Pantheratigris)、远东豹(P.pardus)、猞猁(Felis lynx)和豹猫(F.bengalensis)4种猫科动物中,野外调查仅统计到猞猁和豹猫2种,调查总次数中,猞猁出现率为3.09%±2.30%,平均遇见个体数为(0.010±0.007)只/km;豹猫的出现率为7.66%±6.19%,平均遇见个体数为(0.03±0.02)只/km.访问调查结果显示,1960~1980年期间,在长白山自然保护区及周边6 000 km2范围内捕杀东北虎13只,捕杀远东豹2只.根据被猎杀东北虎的分布范围,估计其领域面积为560 km2.东北虎和远东豹的历史分布密度为0.22只/100 km2和0.03只/100 km2.目前,猞猁和豹猫的种群数量非常稀少,已处于区域性濒危状态.这说明了猫科动物对区域环境变化比较敏感,表明栖息地破坏和过度捕猎动物是导致濒危的重要原因.%Propulation trends of wild cat species were estimated based on the data collected from 30 transect lines oin each winter of 1985 to 2009 and from interviewing the local people in Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve and its surrounding area. Previous studies have recorded the tracks of four cats, Eurasian Lynx( Felis lynx), Leopard Cat (F. benglaensis), Siberian Tiger( Panthera tigris) , and Amour Leopard( P. pardus) in the study area. However, only Lynx and Leopard cat were found in our filed survey. Transect lines with tracks of Eurasian Lynx only accounted 3.09% + 2.30% of the total transect surveys conducted, and the encounter rate was 0. 010 ±0. 007 ind/km transect in average. The tracks of Leopared Cat were recorded in 7.66% +6. 19%of the total transects surveyed with a encounter rate of 0. 03 + 0.02 ind/km, respectively. Total of 13 killings on Siberian Tigers and 2 killings on Amure Leopards were reported by the

  15. Framing the Human Dimensions of Mountain Systems: Integrating Social Science Paradigms for a Global Network of Mountain Observatories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney G. Flint

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Global Network of Mountain Observatories (GNOMO is an international initiative seeking to increase communication and collaboration and align methodologies to assess commonalities and differences across the world's mountain landscapes. Oriented toward sustainable mountain development, GNOMO requires the integration of social and natural sciences, as well as a diverse array of stakeholder perspectives. This paper highlights challenges associated with integrating social sciences because of the inherent paradigmatic differences within the social sciences. The value orientations of mountain researchers, as well as the divergent societal and institutional values regarding mountains, create a need for new approaches to observing mountain landscapes. A framework is presented to organize complex information about mountain social–ecological systems based on human conditions (from vulnerability to wellbeing, environmental actions (from degradation to stewardship, and environmental conditions that vary across time, space, and scales. A multiparadigmatic, multimethod approach is proposed to combine theory-driven quantitative indicators, qualitative perspectives from diverse knowledge standpoints, and critical inquiries into power relationships to fully represent dynamic mountain systems.

  16. Forest health monitoring in the Eastern Arc Mountains of Kenya and Tanzania: A baseline report on selected forest reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seif Madoffe; James Mwang' ombe; Barbara O' Connell; Paul Rogers; Gerard Hertel; Joe Mwangi

    2005-01-01

    This status report presents the results of 43 permanent forest health study plots (3871 trees, saplings, and seedlings) established in 2000 and 2001 in parts of three areas of the Eastern Arc Mountains - the Taita Hills in Kenya (Ngangao and Chawia), the East Usambara Mountains (Amani Nature Reserve) and the Uluguru Mountains (Morogoro Teachers College and Kimboza) in...

  17. Understand mountain studies from earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The Sichuan earthquake on 12 May was the most devastating one to hit China over the past 60 years or so. As the affected were mostly mountainous areas, serious damages were caused by various secondary disasters ranging from mountain collapse to the formation of quake lakes. This leaves Prof. DENG Wei, director-general of the Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, CAS, much to think about, and he is calling for strengthening studies on mountain science.

  18. Zen Mountains: An Illusion of Perceptual Transparency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan G. Wardle

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The human visual system is usually very successful in segmenting complex natural scenes. During a trip to the Nepalese Himalayas, we observed an impossible example of Nature's beauty: “transparent” mountains. The scene is captured in a photograph in which a pair of mountain peaks viewed in the far distance appear to be transparent. This illusion results from a fortuitous combination of lighting and scene conditions, which induce an erroneous integration of multiple segmentation cues. The illusion unites three classic principles of visual perception: Metelli's constraints for perceptual transparency, the Gestalt principle of good continuation, and depth from contrast and atmospheric scattering. This real-world “failure” of scene segmentation reinforces how ingeniously the human visual system typically integrates complex sources of perceptual information using heuristics based on likelihood as shortcuts to veridical perception.

  19. 缙云山自然保护区常见菊科植物花粉形态特征分析%Study on Pollen Morphology of Compositae in Jinyun Mountain Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张德怀; 韩晓丽; 孙爱芝; 代然然; 郭洪亮

    2013-01-01

    Pollen morphology of 17 compositae plants from Jinyun Mountain Nature Reserve in Chongqing Municipality are observed and analyzed under light microscope (LM). The results show that the pollen grains are radially symmetrical, spherical or subsphaeroidal in shape, and the polar view is 3-labed-rounded. They all have 3 colporates. By their pollen morphological features, the 17 species are divided into 4 types. (1) The pollen has big reticulation veins. The representative plants are in three genera: Yoμngia japonica ( L. ) DC, Ixeris polycephala Cass, Paraprenanthes heptantha Shih et D. J. Liou and P. sororia (Miq. ) Shih. (2) The pollen is characterized by sharp, dense and long spines. The representative plants are in four genera: Bidens Pilosa L. , Galinsoga parviflora Cav. , Siegesbeckia orientaiis L. and Bidens tripartite L. (3) Its main characteristics are that the base of spine is swelling and the spine is blunt. The representative plants are in four genera: Sinosenecio oldhamiaus (Maxim.) B. Nord, Senecio scandens Buch. -Ham, Blumea megacephala (Randeria)Chang et Tseng and Kalimeris indica (L. ) Sch. -Bip. (4)This type is characterized by sparse, short, and uniform spines. The representative plants are in four genera: Vernonia cumingiana Diels, Crassocephalum crepidioides (Benth. ) S. Moore (Gynura crepidioides Benth) , Eclip-ta prostrate L. and Gnaphaliμm of fine D. Don. Pollen morphology is different between different plants, but plants with similar pollen morphology can come from different tribes-genera.%应用光学显微镜对缙云山自然保护区17种常见菊科植物的花粉形态进行了观察和分析,结果显示花粉粒均为辐射对称,大多为近球形-长球形,萌发孔均为三孔沟,极面观为三裂圆形.根据花粉形态特征分析,17种菊科植物花粉类型可分为4大类:①花粉形态以粗大网状纹饰为主要特征,以黄鹤菜、苦荬菜、雷山假福王草、假福王草植物为代表;②花粉形态以刺

  20. Influence of Habitat Fragmentation on Butterfly Diversity in Dinghu Mountain Nature Reserve%生境破碎化对鼎湖山蝶类多样性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡雅虹; 龙志泳; 林东; 陈嘉欣; 陈敏豪; 毕倩琪; 李旭坤; 庆宁

    2015-01-01

    随着鼎湖山自然保护区旅游业迅猛发展,人为干扰不断加剧,需了解人为干扰造成的生境破碎化对蝶类的影响.该次调查在鼎湖山自然保护区的缓冲区、核心区和旅游区共记录蝴蝶9科、90属、144种.其中蛱蝶科种类最多(35种,24.31%),保护种19种,主要为凤蝶科(4种)、眼蝶科(4种)、蛱蝶科(4种);园林害虫11种,主要为弄蝶科(3种).调查结果显示,旅游区的特有蝶类种类少(1种),其寄主为金丝桃科植物,多样性最低;而保护区内特有蝶类的种类较多(34种),主要寄主为禾本科植物;寄主植物最丰富的是山蟠蛱蝶,主要寄生于豆科植物;核心区多样性最高,其中有收录于红色名录的燕凤蝶、么妹黄粉蝶、惊恐方环蝶等.结合鼎湖山自然保护区各功能区的生境、蝶类物种多样性和群落多样性的分析结果显示,人为干扰越强,生境破碎化程度越高,蝴蝶种类数量越少,与海拔高度则无明显关系.%The effects of habitat fragmentation caused by the increasing human disturbance as the vigorous develop-ment on the population of the butterflies were investigated in the Dinghu Mountain Nature Reserve.Based on diver-sity of the butterflies in Dinghushan from different areas ( buffer area, core area and tourist area) , we recorded 144 species which belong to 9 families and 90 genera, and the Nymphalidae had the most species ( 35 species, 24.31%) .Ninteen protected species, including 4 endemic species each of the Papilionidae, Satyridae families and the Vanessa Branch, and 11 species of garden pests mainly belong to Hesperiidae (3 endemic species) were recor-ded.The results show that few species of butterflies and only one endemic species were recorded in the tourist area, and their host plants are Hypericum.More species in protected areas (34 endemic species) were recorded with the highest diversity in core

  1. 河北小五台山自然保护区蝶类群落多样性%Study on community diversity of butterfly in Xiaowutai mountain state nature reserves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾欣; 任国栋

    2011-01-01

    为了探明河北小五台山自然保护区蝴蝶种类及其组成,对该保护区的蝶类群落组成及多样性进行了研究.结果表明,小五台山保护区有蝴蝶123种,隶属于7科75属.其中,蛱蝶科的属和物种数种最丰富,为25属49种,占绝对优势;喙蝶科的属数和种数最少,为1属1种.蛱蝶科和眼蝶科的优势种最多,占优势种类的78.57%,构成蝶类的主要优势种群.弄蝶科的物种丰富度指数和均匀度指数最高,分别为1.914 9和0.200 4;蛱蝶科的多样性指数最高,为3.000 8,凤蝶科的物种丰富度指数最低,为0.552 6;凤蝶科的优势度指数最高,为0.866 9.4个不同采集地的蝶类多样性显示,涿鹿杨家坪具有最高的物种数(107种)、个体数(2 020只)和总的多样性指数(3.635 2),涿鹿杨家坪和蔚县金河口的物种相似性系数最高,为0.584 7,共有蝴蝶69种,为中等相似.%To identify the species and compositions of butterflies in Xiaowutai Mountain State National Nature Reserve in Hebei, the community diversity of butterflies thereof was investigated in 4 different sites in 2010. Results show that there were 123 butterfly species belonging to 7 families and 75 genera. Nymphalidae had the most number of genera (25) and species (49), while Libytheidae only had 1 genus and 1 species. Nymphalidae and Satyridae had most dominant species, accounting for 78. 57%, which constituted the main groups in butterfly community. Hesperiidae had the highest richness index (1. 914 9) and evenness index (0. 200 4). Nymphalidae had the highest diversity index (3.000 8). Papilionidae had the highest dominance index (0. 866 9), while Papilionidae had the lowest richness index (0. 552 6) and diversity index (0.552 6). The diversity index, specific richness, dominance index, evenness index and similarity coefficient of the four sites were calculated and analyzed. It is concluded that Yangjiaping had the most species (107), number of individuals (2 020) and highest

  2. 卡拉麦里山有蹄类自然保护区蒙古野驴生境适宜性评价%Habitat suitability assessment of Equus hemionus hemionus in Kalamaili Mountain Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林杰; 徐文轩; 杨维康; 夏参军; 刘伟

    2012-01-01

    为加强蒙古野驴(Equus hemionus hemionus)的生境保护及管理工作,作者以2005年以来在卡拉麦里山有蹄类自然保护区的野外调查数据为基础,在地理信息系统(GIS)支持下,以距水源点距离、坡度、植被类型和人类活动为评价因子,采用生境评价模型,对蒙古野驴的生境进行了适宜性评价.不考虑人类活动影响下,春、夏、秋、冬四季潜在总适宜生境面积分别为9,784 km2、8,090 km2、9,379 km2和10,856 km2,分别占保护区总面积的54.4%、44.9%、52.1%和60.3%.由于受到国道、矿产开采、冬季放牧等人类活动的强烈影响,研究区内适宜生境大量丧失,冬季丧失面积最多,为6,629 km2,占冬季潜在总适宜面积的61.1%.基于评价结果作者提出了相应的蒙古野驴种群保护措施:(1)加强水源地的保护;(2)限制冬季进入保护区内家畜的数量,并为蒙古野驴划定预留适宜生境;(3)严格制定进入保护区的制度;(4)拆除迁移路线上的边境围栏或建设野生动物通道,以保障蒙古野驴正常的迁徙活动,恢复其种群基因交流.%To improve habitat conservation and management of the Khulan {Equus hemiomus hemionus), we assessed the habitat suitability of this species in the Kalamaili Mountain Nature Reserve. Distance from water point, slope, vegetation type and human activities were selected as factors for habitat suitability assessment, and the habitat evaluation model for the assessment was conducted with GIS. In the absence of human activities, the total area of potential suitable habitat was 9,784 km2, 8,090 km2, 9,379 km2 and 10,856 km2 during the four seasons, accounting for 54.4%, 44.9%, 52.1% and 60.3% of the total reserve area, respectively. However, the reserve was negatively affected by a national highway, mine exploration, and grazing livestock. As a result, a large amount of suitable habitats were lost in the reserve. Especially in winter, nearly 6,629 km2 of

  3. Autumn Foraging-sites Selection of Brown-eared Pheasant in Huanglong Mountain Nature Couservation, Shaanxi Province%陕西黄龙山自然保护区褐马鸡秋季觅食地选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏群; 廉振民

    2011-01-01

    2006年10~11月,在陕西黄龙山自然保护区对褐马鸡觅食地选择进行研究.分析表明:褐马鸡喜欢生活在针阔混交林;海拔1200~1400m;小于10°的平缓坡;中坡位;山沟;乔木盖度50%~80%,乔木高度小于10 m,乔木密度小于0.10个/m2;灌丛盖度小于30%,灌丛高度大于1.5 m,灌丛密度小于1个/m2;草本盖度小于30%,草本高度小于16 cm;隐蔽级小于10%;水源距离小于300 m;林边距离小于100 m;人为干扰距离100~300 m的环境.主成分分析表明,褐马鸡觅食地选择的主要因子有4种,依次为:地形及草本植物因子(海拔、地理性、坡位、草本盖度和高度)、隐蔽因子(灌丛盖度、密度和高度以及隐蔽级)、干扰因子(水源距离、人为干扰距离、林边距离和植被类型)、食物因子(乔木直径、高度、密度和盖度).%The autumn foraging habitat selection of brown-eared pheasant ( Crossoptilon mantchuricum) in Huanglong Mountain nature conservation, Shaanxi Province, is studied, from October to November in 2006. The analyses show that foraging habitats are characterized by coniferous and broadleaved forest, altitude( 1 200 ~ 1 400 m ), slope degree( < 10°), mid slope location, gully, arboreous cover(50% ~80% ), arboreous hight( < 10 m), arboreous density ( < 0.1/m2), and shrub cover( < 30% ), and shrub height ( > 1.5 m) and shrub density( < 1/m2 ), and herbaceous cover( < 30% ), herbaceous height( < 16 cm), sheltering class( < 10% ),distance to water source( <500 m), edge of woods( < 100 m) and human disturbance( 100 ~300 m). The main component analysis shows that there are four factors affecting the habitat selection of brown eared-pheasant. They are classified as factors of geography and herbage( altitude, cover and average height of herbs, geographical characters and slope location) , sheltering factor( cover, height and density of shrub and sheltering class), disturbance factor( distance to

  4. Vertical distribution of bryophytes in Yueliang Mountain Nature Reserve%月亮山自然保护区苔藓植物垂直分布初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗先真; 熊源新; 曹威; 钟世梅; 谈洪英; 夏欣; 周书芹

    2016-01-01

    该研究通过采集、鉴定和测量苔藓植物标本并用SPSS软件进行数据分析,对贵州省月亮山自然保护区苔藓植物的垂直分布规律进行了初步分析。结果表明:月亮山自然保护区苔藓植物共有69科147属374种,苔藓植物呈明显的带状分布;不同海拔苔藓植物科属种所占的百分比均呈先升高后降低,优势科灰藓科( Hypnaceae)和细鳞苔科( Lejeuneaceae)和优势属凤尾藓属( Fissidens)、耳叶苔属( Frullania)、真藓属( Bryum)、疣鳞苔属( CoLoLejeunea)和细鳞苔属( Lejeunea)内种数在不同海拔也呈相同趋势;该地区苔藓植物石生群落和土生群落分布最广,木生群落次之,水生群落分布最少;苔藓植物雌雄异株数量在不同海拔均比同株数量多,比例约为7∶3;随着海拔升高,多种不利环境使长柄绢藓( Entodon macropodus)的叶片显著变小、叶长与叶宽的比显著增大,叶片由卵圆形变为卵状披针形,孢蒴极显著缩短、孢子直径显著增大,孢子的产量逐渐减少,不利苔藓植物的繁殖,蒴柄显著增长,有利于孢子的传播,体现了苔藓植物在不同的海拔的适应性。该研究结果为进一步研究苔藓植物的分布及环境适应性提供了基本资料。%The vertical distribution law of bryophytes was studied and analyzed by collecting and identifying bryophytes specimens, measuring and analyzing data by SPSS in Yueliang Mountain Nature Reserve, Guizhou, China. The results showed that there were 69 families, 147 genera and 374 species, with obvious vertical bands of bryophytes. The percent-age of families, genera and species increased first then decreased along with the increasing of altitude and the dominant families Hypnaceae and Lejeuneaceae, as well as the dominant genera Fissidens, Frullania, Bryum, Cololejeunea and Lejeunea had similar trend. The rock-community and soil-community possessed the most widely distribution

  5. 河南伏牛山区典型森林植被乔木层生物量研究%The Biomass of Typical Tree Layer of Forest Vegetation in the Nature Reserve of Funiu Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕会涛; 杨红震; 凡琳洁; 王炳焱; 高贤明

    2014-01-01

    选择伏牛山国家级自然保护区的五种典型植被类型作为研究对象,对15块临时样方内的乔木树种,分别测量出树高,胸径等因子,通过异速生长模型进行不同乔木树种生物量测定,进一步进行分析。结果表明,在选取的五种典型森林植被中,生物量大小依次为落叶针叶林>落叶阔叶林>针阔混交林>常绿针叶林>锐齿槲栎林。在落叶针叶林中,日本落叶松各个器官生物量在总的生物量所占比重从大到小依次为树干>树根>树枝>树皮>树叶。这一生物量分配格局既有利于日本落叶松的自身生长,也体现了对环境的适应性。在落叶针叶林、落叶阔叶林、针阔混交林、常绿针叶林、锐齿槲栎林中,乔木树种的地上生物量均大于地下生物量,尤其是对于落叶针叶林来说,地上生物量远远大于地下生物量。%In this paper we chose five kinds of typical vegetation type as the research objects in the nature reserve of Funiu mountain within the 15 pieces of temporary samples on tree species,respectively,then measured the tree height,diameter at breast height,and other factors. Through determination of different tree species biomass allometric growth model,we analyzed the biomass and further results. The selection of five kinds of typical forest vegetations,show the biomass sizes as deciduous coniferous forest>deciduous broad-leaved forest>mixed forest>evergreen coniferous forest>needle sharp tooth oriental white oak forest. In deciduous coniferous forest ,Japanese larch various organ biomass in total biomass accounted for the order from large to small is the trunk>root>branch>bark>leaf. The biomass allocation pattern is conducive to the growth of Japanese larch ,also reflected the adaptability to the environment. In deciduous coniferous forest,deciduous broad-leaved forest,mixed forest,evergreen coniferous forest,needle sharp teeth,oriental white oak forest,the ground

  6. Niche characteristics of dominant species populations in Castanopsis fargesii forest in Jinggang mountain national nature reserve%井冈山国家自然保护区栲树林优势种群生态位特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁松; 欧阳杰; 吕丹; 欧阳勋志

    2014-01-01

    Based on the field survey to Jinggang Mountain National Nature Reserve evergreen broad-leaved forest, 8 environmental types for Castanopsis fargesii were selected. Using the plots which in different environmental types as resource state, and the species of important value as the state index on resource state to quantitatively analyzed the breadth, overlap, similarity of the niche dominant species populations in Castanopsis fargesii community. The results showed that: the Castanopsis fargesii, Castanopsis fabric and Machilus thunbergii had great important value and wide niche breadth. Their Hurlbert niche breadth values were 0.853、0.787、0.720, respectively. They played a decisive role in the community structure and function. The Elaeocarpus decipens only appeared in two resource states and it’s weak in resources utilization capacities. Its Hurlbert niche breadth value was 0.026;the niche overlapping of 15 dominant species populations included three degrees which consisted of high overlap, moderate overlap and low overlap, high overlap accounted for 4.8%, moderate overlap accounted for 35.2%and low overlap accounted for 60%.The low overlap found in this study suggests less fierce interspecies competition for communal resource utilization in the Castanopsis fargesii forest. There is a larger niche similarity among most of the dominant species in the Castanopsis fargesii forest, the ecological characteristics of them were similar. Comprehensive analysis shows that, the species of the Castanopsis fargesii forest had higher ability and resource utilization in the study area, and the interspecies competition was not intense. The community was in the relativeiy stable stage.%在对井冈山国家自然保护区常绿阔叶林林分调查的基础上,选择有栲树分布的不同环境类型设置8个典型样地,以不同生境的样地作为资源位,以物种重要值作为资源位上的状态指标,对栲树林优势种群的生态位宽度、生态位

  7. Species diversity of epiphytic bryophytes in Baihua Mountain National Nature Reserve,Beijing%北京百花山自然保护区树附生苔藓植物物种多样性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田晔林; 李俊清; 石爱平; 于建军; 王文和

    2013-01-01

    An investigation was conducted on the species diversity of epiphytic bryophytes in Baihua Mountain National Nature Reserve, Beijing in 2004-2010. A total of 495 specimens were recorded, belonging to 34 species, 21 genera, and 13 families, among which, Pottiaceae, Leskeaceae, Entodontaceae, Orthotrichaceae, and Hypnaceae were the dominant families, and Lindbergia sinensis, Pylaisiella polyantha, L. brachyptera, and Frullania musicicola were the dominant species. There were three peaks of the vertical distribution of the epiphytic bryophytes, i. e. , altitude 1700 m (10 species) , and only 5 species were distributed at altitude 1200-1300 m. Shannon index was the highest for Betula platyphylla ( 1. 816) and the smallest for Juglans mandshurica (1. 500) , Pielou evenness index was the highest for Populus davidiaria (0. 910) and the smallest for Q. liaotungensis (0.591) , Simpson index was the highest for Q. liaotungensis (0.335) and the smallest for P. davidiana (0. 181) , and Patrick index was the highest for Q. liaotungensis (13) and the smallest for P. davidiana and J. mandshurica (7). The species diversity indices of the epiphytic bryophytes were related to habitat, bark crack, and water availability.%北京百花山保护区树附生苔藓植物共有13科21属34种,其中优势科有丛藓科(Pottiaceae)、薄罗藓科(Leskeaceae)、绢藓科(Entodontaceae)、木灵藓科(Orthotrichaceae)和灰藓科(Hypnaceae),优势种有中华细枝藓(Lindbergia sinensis)、金灰藓(Pylaisiella polyantha)、细枝藓(L.brachyptera)、盔瓣耳叶苔(Frullania musicicola)等.海拔1200 m以下地带(14种)、海拔1400 ~ 1500 m地带(11种)以及海拔1700 m以上地带(10种)是百花山树附生苔藓植物垂直分布的3个高峰.海拔1200 ~ 1300 m为低谷(5种).树附生植物物种Shannon指数最大的是白桦(Betula platyphylla)(1.816),最小的是核桃楸(Juglans mandshurica)(1.500);山杨(Populus davidiana)树附生植物的Pielou均匀度指数最高(0

  8. Museum of Wangwu Mountain International Geo-park

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baofeng LI; Weining ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    The design for Wangwu Mountain Geological Park Museum emphasizes protecting terrain, geomorpho-logy and natural vegetation, utilization of local materials and traditional craftsmanship, and integrates multi-spe-cialty design into a whole. The idea of green architecture organically guides the designer to create a museum in a remote mountain and creates a special place that is geo-logically significant in architectural language.

  9. Active versus passive radon monitoring at the Yucca Mountain site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, M.D. [Science Applications International Corp., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Federal Regulations have mandated that a baseline assessment for the Yucca Mountain Site be performed. This includes the detection and monitoring of specific radionuclides present at the site. These radionuclides include radon 222, a decay progeny of naturally occurring uranium. Two radon monitoring systems are utilized at the Yucca Mountain site to detect ambient levels of radon. The first is a passive time integrated system, and the second is a continuous radon monitoring (CRM) system.

  10. Mountain-Plains Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountain-Plains Education and Economic Development Program, Inc., Glasgow AFB, MT.

    The document lists the Mountain-Plains curriculum by job title (where applicable), including support courses. The curriculum areas covered are mathematics skills, communication skills, office education, lodging services, food services, marketing and distribution, welding support, automotive, small engines, career guidance, World of Work, health…

  11. Xiuhua Mountain Museum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    XIUHUA Mountain Museum,a building nestled amongthe hills,is the first private museum of the Tujiaethnicity.Its name is an amalgamation of the names ofthe couple who run it,Gong Daoxiu and her husband ChenChuhua.According to Chen,the reason that he put his wife’s

  12. Individual Tree Aboveground Biomass of Larix gmelinii Natural Forest in the Northern Greater Khingan Mountains%大兴安岭北部兴安落叶松天然林单木地上生物量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖生苓; 杨嘉龙

    2014-01-01

    deviation absolute MAE were 0. 907 -0. 947 ,1. 887 -17. 368 ,1. 011% -2. 703%,-4. 937% -6. 998%,5. 408% -10. 886%; 3 ) Statistical analysis of the measured values of Larix gmelinii natural forest in the northern Greater Khingan Mountains,got the region single natural forest stem biomass covered the aboveground biomass of 60. 37% -76. 80%,stem biomass proportion with the increase of forest age increased first,then decreased. Bark biomass covered the aboveground biomass of 7. 15% -20. 11%,the proportion trend of decrease with the increase of forest age. Branch biomass covered the aboveground biomass of 8. 51% -14. 29%,branch biomass proportion along with the age increasing basic rendering. Leaf biomass covered the aboveground biomass of 5. 12% -7. 09%,leaf biomass accounted for the proportion of the biggest was low forest age.

  13. Digital mountains: toward development and environment protection in mountain regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaobo

    2007-06-01

    Former studies on mountain system are focused on the department or subject characters, i.e. different department and branches of learning carry out researches only for their individual purposes and with individual characters of the subject of interests. As a whole, their investigation is lacking of comprehensive study in combination with global environment. Ecological environment in mountain regions is vulnerable to the disturbance of human activities. Therefore, it is a key issue to coordinate economic development and environment protection in mountain regions. On the other hand, a lot of work is ongoing on mountain sciences, especially depending on the application of RS and GIS. Moreover, the development of the Digital Earth (DE) provides a clue to re-understand mountains. These are the background of the emergence of the Digital Mountains (DM). One of the purposes of the DM is integrating spatial related data and information about mountains. Moreover, the DM is a viewpoint and methodology of understanding and quantifying mountains holistically. The concept of the DM is that, the spatial and temporal data related to mountain regions are stored and managed in computers; moreover, manipulating, analyzing, modeling, simulating and sharing of the mountain information are implemented by utilizing technologies of RS, GIS, GPS, Geo-informatic Tupu, computer, virtual reality (VR), 3D simulation, massive storage, mutual operation and network communication. The DM aims at advancing mountain sciences and sustainable mountain development. The DM is used to providing information and method for coordinating the mountain regions development and environment protection. The fundamental work of the DM is the design of the scientific architecture. Furthermore, construct and develop massive databases of mountains are the important steps these days.

  14. The mountain Cer: Potentials for tourism development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grčić Mirko D.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In northwest of Serbia in the meridians directions an elongated mountain range of Cer with Iverak and Vlašić stretches itself. On the north it goes down to Mačva and Posavina, on the west to Podrinje, on the east to the valley of Kolubara, on the south to the basins and valleys of Jadar and upper Kolubara, which separate it from the mountains of Valjevo and Podrinje area. Cer mountain offers extremely good condition for development of eco-tourism. The variety of relief with gorgeous see-sites, natural rarities, convenient bio-climatic conditions, significant water resources, forest complexes, medieval fortresses, cultural-historic monuments, richness of flora and fauna, preserved rural environment, traditions and customs of local population, were all neglected as strategic factors in the development of tourism. This mountain’s potentials are quite satisfactory for the needs of eco-tourism, similar to the National Park of Fruška Gora, but it has lacked an adequate ecotourist strategy so far. This study aims to pointing to the potential and possibilities of ecotourist valorization of this mountain.

  15. Acidification in the mountains ?; Foersurning i fjaellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degerman, E. [National Board of Fisheries, Drottningholm (Sweden). Inst. of Freshwater Research; Engblom, E.; Lingdell, P.E. [Limnodata AB, Skinnskatteberg (Sweden); Melin, E.; Olofsson, E. [Haerjedalens Kommun, Sveg (Sweden)

    1992-12-31

    The present paper is a literature review dealing with the extent of acidification in the Swedish mountain range. The first effects of acidification were noted in the beginning of the 1960`s in the Fulufjaell area in the southernmost part of the mountain range. Since then many studies have been published indicating that the extent of acidification and the negative effects of biota were widespread. However, many scientists have claimed that there is no acidification in the area and that acid surges following snow melt have always been a problem to the fauna due to natural dilution of the water. This is contradicted by this paper. Acidification in this area is caused by anthropogenic emissions of acidifying substances. It is shown that the mountain area has a higher load of airborne pollutants than the surrounding lowland. Lakes are not as badly affected as streams, but an overall loss of alkalinity is found in the entire mountain range and several small ephemeral lakes in the southern part of the range have lost alkalinity completely. There are indications that acidification also affects lichens (Cladonia spp.) negatively, and it is suspected that the abundance of epilithic green algae has increased in streams. Relatively few objects have been limed so far. Re colonization of benthos, fish and birds has been noted after liming. It is recommended that the liming programme is extended. The ultimate goal should be to achieve a pH above 5 in snow to avoid harmful effects to the most sensitive water bodies. 307 refs

  16. Characterize Eruptive Processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Krier

    2004-10-04

    The purpose of this scientific analysis report, ''Characterize Eruptive Processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada'', is to present information about natural volcanic systems and the parameters that can be used to model their behavior. This information is used to develop parameter-value distributions appropriate for analysis of the consequences of volcanic eruptions through a repository at Yucca Mountain. This scientific analysis report provides information to four other reports: ''Number of Waste Packages Hit by Igneous Intrusion'', (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170001]); ''Atmospheric Dispersal and Deposition of Tephra from Potential Volcanic Eruption at Yucca Mountain, Nevada'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170026]); ''Dike/Drift Interactions'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170028]); ''Development of Earthquake Ground Motion Input for Preclosure Seismic Design and Postclosure Performance Assessment of a Geologic Repository at Yucca Mountain, NV'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170027], Section 6.5). This report is organized into seven major sections. This section addresses the purpose of this document. Section 2 addresses quality assurance, Section 3 the use of software, Section 4 identifies the requirements that constrain this work, and Section 5 lists assumptions and their rationale. Section 6 presents the details of the scientific analysis and Section 7 summarizes the conclusions reached.

  17. ARISK PHENOMENA IN THE SILVANIA MOUNTAINS, INTUITIVE AND GENETIC REFLEXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAMELIA BOGDAN

    2014-05-01

    and on the other hand, between the latter and the Oradea hills (Plopiș Mountains. The Silvania Mountains are located in the Southwest of Sălaj County, on an area of tectonic fragmentation, which involves the risk of production of some natural and anthropic risk phenomena. We consider appropriate the elaboration of an assessment and identification strategy of these risks considering the qualitative criteria (ZERMOS which refer to three categories of risks: high, average and low and on this basis we have focused on four risk regions within the Silvania Mountains.

  18. Geologic reconnaissance of the Hot Springs Mountains, Churchill County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voegtly, Nickolas E.

    1981-01-01

    A geologic reconnaissance of the Hot Springs Mountains and adjacent areas, which include parts of the Brady-Hazen and the Stillwater-Soda Lake Known Geothermal Resource Areas, during June-December 1975, resulted in a reinterpretation of the nature and location of some Basin and Range faults. In addition, the late Cenozoic stratigraphy has been modified, chiefly on the basis of radiometric dates of volcanic rocks by U.S. Geological Survey personnel and others. The Hot Springs Mountains are in the western part of the Basin and Range province, which is characterized by east-west crustal extension and associated normal faulting. In the surrounding Trinity, West Humboldt, Stillwater, and Desert Mountains, Cenozoic rocks overlie ' basement ' rocks of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic age. A similar relation is inferred in the Hot Springs Mountains. Folding and faulting have taken place from the late Tertiary to the present. (USGS)

  19. A simple method to estimate fractal dimension of mountain surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Kolwankar, Kiran M

    2014-01-01

    Fractal surfaces are ubiquitous in nature as well as in the sciences. The examples range from the cloud boundaries to the corroded surfaces. Fractal dimension gives a measure of the irregularity in the object under study. We present a simple method to estimate the fractal dimension of mountain surface. We propose to use easily available satellite images of lakes for this purpose. The fractal dimension of the boundary of a lake, which can be extracted using image analysis softwares, can be determined easily which gives the estimate of the fractal dimension of the mountain surface and hence a quantitative characterization of the irregularity of the topography of the mountain surface. This value will be useful in validating models of mountain formation

  20. The development of mountain risk governance: challenges for application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, S.; Stötter, J.

    2015-01-01

    The complexity the management of mountain risks in the Alps has considerably increased since its institutionalisation in the late nineteenth century. In the history of approaches to dealing with mountain risks four successive paradigms can be distinguished on the basis of key indicators such as guiding principles, characteristic elements and typical instruments: "hazard protection", "hazard management", "risk management", and "risk governance". In this contribution, special attention is paid to the development of hazard zone planning and the growing importance of communication and participation over the course of this transformation. At present, the risk management paradigm has reached maturity. In the Alps, risk governance frameworks are not yet applied to risks from natural hazards. Based on a historical analysis, the suitability and applicability of general risk governance frameworks in the context of mountain risks are discussed. Necessary adaptations (e.g., in administration, educational, and legal structures) are proposed for the upcoming transformation towards mountain risk governance.

  1. Rockfall exposures in Montserrat mountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontquerni Gorchs, Sara; Vilaplana Fernández, Joan Manuel; Guinau Sellés, Marta; Jesús Royán Cordero, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    Mountain. It is important to mention that the exposure level calculation has been obtained from natural hazard data do not protected by defense works. Results of this work enable us to consider best strategies to reduce rockfalls risk in the PNMM. It is clear that, apart from the required structural defense works, some of them already made, implementation of strategies not involving structural defense is, in the medium and long term, the best policy to mitigate the risk. In the PNMM case, rethinking of mobility and traffic management on the mountain access would be definitely helpful to achieve a minimized geological risk.

  2. Suitability evaluation and zoning in ecological natural restoration of soil and water conservation in Funiu Mountains Area of Huaihe River Valley%淮河流域伏牛山区水土保持生态自然修复适宜性评价与分区

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐志强; 张光灿; 刘霞; 王冰; 赵瑜; 李欢; 吴迪

    2013-01-01

    伏牛山区水土流失危害严重,实施水土保持生态修复是加快区域水土流失防治步伐的有效措施.针对大区域生态修复工程建设亟待解决的适宜性区划问题,采用主导因子分级组合及其专题图叠加分析法,对伏牛山区生态自然修复的适宜性进行评价与分区.1)提出地貌类型、土地覆被类型和地面坡度3个主导因子作为生态自然修复适宜性评价与分区指标,并对其进行分级(分类)和分区;2)按照实施封禁保育(促进生态自然修复)措施的适宜程度,提出“适宜”、“暂不适宜”和“不适宜”3个生态自然修复适宜性等级,并确定其区域分布格局;3)将伏牛山区的生态自然修复适宜性划分为2个大区(一级区)、4个亚区(二级区)和15个类型区(三级区).研究结果可为伏牛山区水土保持生态自然修复工程的规划布局提供技术支撑.%The soil erosion in Funiu Mountains Area is serious,and the implementation of ecological restoration in soil and water conservation is an effective way to solve the problem of soil and water loss.Aiming at resolving the suitability division problems in large-scale ecological restoration project,the dominant factor grading combination and the analysis methods of thematic map overlay were used to evaluate and zone the suitability of ecological natural restoration in Funiu Mountains Area.The results showed that 1) the three dominant factors including geomorphological types,land-cover types and the slopes of the ground,were proposed as the indexes in the suitability assessment and classification of ecological natural restoration; 2) According to the degree of suitability in the implement of protected conservation,namely the ecological natural restoration,three suitability grades of ecological natural restoration including suitability,temporarily unsuitability and unsuitability,were proposed in Funiu Mountains Area,and their regional distribution patterns were

  3. Patient-centred mountain medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szawarski, Piotr; Hillebrandt, David

    2016-08-01

    Venturing into the mountains, doctors have accompanied expeditions to provide routine care to the teams, undertake research and occasionally take on a rescue role. The role of doctors practicing mountain medicine is evolving. Public health issues involving concepts of health and safety have become necessary with the coming of commercial and youth expeditions. Increasingly individuals with a disability or a medical diagnosis choose to ascend to high altitudes. Doctors become involved in assessment of risk and providing advice for such individuals. The field of mountain medicine is perhaps unique in that acceptance of risk is part of the ethos of climbing and adventure. The pursuit of mountaineering goals may represent the ultimate conquest of a disability. Knowledge of mountain environment is essential in facilitating mountain ascents for those who choose to undertake them, in spite of a disability or medical condition.

  4. HENDUAN MOUNTAINS A Dazzling World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The Indian Continent drifted northward and eventually collideawith the Euro-Asian Continent,pushing up the piece of land weknow today as the Himalayas and Henduan Mountains.Located where Qinghai,Tibet,Yunnan and Sichuan all meet.Asia,including the Nujiang,Jinshajiang and Lancanjiang.In the mountains,rivers Wave a drop of about 2,500 meters.Late last year,we drove into the mountainous area,covering adistance of some 1,000 km.

  5. Key issues for mountain areas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Price, Martin F; Jansky, Libor; Iatsenia, Andrei A

    2004-01-01

    ... and livelihood opportunities . . . ... Safdar Parvez and Stephen F. Rasmussen 86 6 Mountain tourism and the conservation of biological and cultural diversity... Wendy Brewer Lama and Nikhat Sattar 11...

  6. A Breath of Mountain Air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU LINTAO

    2011-01-01

    Mountains are everywhere,and rivers flow in almost every valley.This is the Qinling Mountains,a major eastto-west range in southern Shaanxi Province,bordering Hubei and Henan provinces.Because of its huge forest coverage,the Qinling Mountains are also known as one of the lungs of China.Expectations for travelling are changing in China as the lifestyle of city dwellers has become fast-paced and demanding.That provides the Qirding Mountain area a great opportunity to develop leisure tourism.

  7. MOUNTAIN-SCALE COUPLED PROCESSES (TH/THC/THM)MODELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y.S. Wu

    2005-08-24

    This report documents the development and validation of the mountain-scale thermal-hydrologic (TH), thermal-hydrologic-chemical (THC), and thermal-hydrologic-mechanical (THM) models. These models provide technical support for screening of features, events, and processes (FEPs) related to the effects of coupled TH/THC/THM processes on mountain-scale unsaturated zone (UZ) and saturated zone (SZ) flow at Yucca Mountain, Nevada (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174842], Section 2.1.1.1). The purpose and validation criteria for these models are specified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Coupled Processes (Mountain-Scale TH/THC/THM, Drift-Scale THC Seepage, and Drift-Scale Abstraction) Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174842]). Model results are used to support exclusion of certain FEPs from the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) model on the basis of low consequence, consistent with the requirements of 10 CFR 63.342 [DIRS 173273]. Outputs from this report are not direct feeds to the TSPA-LA. All the FEPs related to the effects of coupled TH/THC/THM processes on mountain-scale UZ and SZ flow are discussed in Sections 6 and 7 of this report. The mountain-scale coupled TH/THC/THM processes models numerically simulate the impact of nuclear waste heat release on the natural hydrogeological system, including a representation of heat-driven processes occurring in the far field. The mountain-scale TH simulations provide predictions for thermally affected liquid saturation, gas- and liquid-phase fluxes, and water and rock temperature (together called the flow fields). The main focus of the TH model is to predict the changes in water flux driven by evaporation/condensation processes, and drainage between drifts. The TH model captures mountain-scale three-dimensional flow effects, including lateral diversion and mountain-scale flow patterns. The mountain-scale THC model evaluates TH effects on

  8. Mountains Under Pressure: Evaluating Ecosystem Services and Livelihoods in the Upper Himalayan Region of Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhusal, Jagat K.; Chapagain, Prem Sagar; Regmi, Santosh; Gurung, Praju; Zulkafli, Zed; Karpouzoglou, T.D.; Pandeya, Bhopal; Buytaert, Wouter; Clark, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Natural resource-based livelihoods in mountainous regions are subject to new types of development as well as climate related pressures and vulnerabilities. On one hand, the integrity of the mountainous landscape is under pressure from the melting of glaciers, changes in water availability, rainfall

  9. Human impacts to mountain streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Ellen

    2006-09-01

    Mountain streams are here defined as channel networks within mountainous regions of the world. This definition encompasses tremendous diversity of physical and biological conditions, as well as history of land use. Human effects on mountain streams may result from activities undertaken within the stream channel that directly alter channel geometry, the dynamics of water and sediment movement, contaminants in the stream, or aquatic and riparian communities. Examples include channelization, construction of grade-control structures or check dams, removal of beavers, and placer mining. Human effects can also result from activities within the watershed that indirectly affect streams by altering the movement of water, sediment, and contaminants into the channel. Deforestation, cropping, grazing, land drainage, and urbanization are among the land uses that indirectly alter stream processes. An overview of the relative intensity of human impacts to mountain streams is provided by a table summarizing human effects on each of the major mountainous regions with respect to five categories: flow regulation, biotic integrity, water pollution, channel alteration, and land use. This table indicates that very few mountains have streams not at least moderately affected by land use. The least affected mountainous regions are those at very high or very low latitudes, although our scientific ignorance of conditions in low-latitude mountains in particular means that streams in these mountains might be more altered than is widely recognized. Four case studies from northern Sweden (arctic region), Colorado Front Range (semiarid temperate region), Swiss Alps (humid temperate region), and Papua New Guinea (humid tropics) are also used to explore in detail the history and effects on rivers of human activities in mountainous regions. The overview and case studies indicate that mountain streams must be managed with particular attention to upstream/downstream connections, hillslope

  10. International Frameworks for Disaster Risk Reduction: Useful Guidance for Sustainable Mountain Development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Zimmermann

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, a number of global frameworks have been developed for disaster risk reduction (DRR. The Hyogo Framework for Action 2005–2015 and its successor document, the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction, adopted in Japan in March 2015, provide general guidance for reducing risks from natural hazards. This is particularly important for mountainous areas, but DRR for mountain areas and sustainable mountain development received little attention in the recent policy debate. The question remains whether the Hyogo and Sendai frameworks can provide guidance for sustainable mountain development. This article evaluates the 2 frameworks in light of the special challenges of DRR in mountain areas and argues that, while the frameworks offer valuable guidance, they need to be further adapted for local contexts—particularly for mountain areas, which require special attention because of changing risk patterns like the effects of climate change and high land-use pressure.

  11. mitochondrion Spermophilus musicus (Caucasian mountain ground [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mitochondrion Spermophilus musicus (Caucasian mountain ground [gbrod]: 2 CDS's (760... of codon usage for each CDS (format) Homepage mitochondrion Spermophilus musicus (Caucasian mountain ground ...

  12. Mountains and Tropical Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naiman, Z.; Goodman, P. J.; Krasting, J. P.; Malyshev, S.; Russell, J. L.; Stouffer, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    Observed tropical convection exhibits zonal asymmetries that strongly influence spatial precipitation patterns. The drivers of changes to this zonally-asymmetric Walker circulation on decadal and longer timescales have been the focus of significant recent research. Here we use two state-of-the-art earth system models to explore the impact of earth's mountains on the Walker circulation. When all land-surface topography is removed, the Walker circulation weakens by 33-59%. There is a ~30% decrease in global, large-scale upward vertical wind velocities in the middle of the troposphere, but only minor changes in global average convective mass flux, precipitation, surface and sea-surface temperatures. The zonally symmetric Hadley circulation is also largely unchanged. Following the spatial pattern of changes to large-scale vertical wind velocities, precipitation becomes less focused over the tropics. The weakening of the Walker circulation, but not the Hadley circulation, is similar to the behavior of climate models during radiative forcing experiments: in our simulations, the weakening is associated with changes in vertical wind velocities, rather than the hydrologic cycle. These results indicate suggest that mountain heights may significantly influence the Walker circulation on geologic time scales, and observed changes in tropical precipitation over millions of years may have been forced by changes in tropical orography.

  13. Protected areas in mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton, L. S.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The importance of a global Protected Areas Network in sustaining appropriate mountain development is presented in this paper. Present status of the world’s “official” Protected Areas in the UN List, and the proportion that are in mountain areas, and including international designations (World Heritage and Biosphere Reserves. Current and future challenges in the management of these special areas are also commented.



    El autor destaca la importancia de una Red Mundial de Espacios Protegidos para el desarrollo sostenible de las montañas. Comenta luego el estatus actual de las Áreas Protegidas “oficiales” del Mundo en la Lista de las Naciones Unidas y qué proporción de ellas forma parte de las montañas, sin olvidar las figuras internacionales de protección como Patrimonio de la Humanidad y Reservas de Biosfera. Para terminar, se discuten los problemas de gestión actuales y futuros de estas áreas tan especiales

  14. Mountain biking injuries in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Kylee B; Meyers, Michael C

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decade, the sport of mountain biking has experienced extensive growth in youth participation. Due to the unpredictable nature of outdoor sport, a lack of rider awareness and increased participation, the number of injuries has unnecessarily increased. Many believe that the actual incidence of trauma in this sport is underestimated and is just the 'tip of the iceberg'. The most common mechanism of injury is usually attributed to downhill riding and forward falling. Although rare, this type of fall can result in serious cranial and thoraco-abdominal trauma. Head and neck trauma continue to be documented, often resulting in concussions and the possibility of permanent neurological sequelae. Upper limb injuries range from minor dermal abrasions, contusions and muscular strains to complex particular fracture dislocations. These are caused by attempting to arrest the face with an outstretched hand, leading to additional direct injury. Common overuse injuries include repeated compression from the handlebars and vibration leading to neurovascular complications in the hands. Along with reports of blunt abdominal trauma and lumbar muscle strains, lower extremity injuries may include various hip/pelvic/groin contusions, patellofemoral inflammation, and various muscle strains. The primary causes of mountain biking injuries in children and adolescents include overuse, excessive fatigue, age, level of experience, and inappropriate or improperly adjusted equipment. Additional factors contributing to trauma among this age group involve musculoskeletal immaturity, collisions and falls, excessive speed, environmental conditions, conditioning and fitness status of the rider, nonconservative behavioural patterns, and inadequate medical care. The limited available data restrict the identification and understanding of specific paediatric mountain biking injuries and injury mechanisms. Education about unnecessary risk of injury, use of protective equipment, suitable bikes

  15. 新疆巴尔鲁克山自然保护区野生植物资源研究%Research on Wild Plant Resources in Barluk Mountain Natural Reserve of Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段小兵; 努尔巴依·阿布都沙力克

    2011-01-01

    Based on field investigation,sample collecting and literature review,a systematic taxonomic study was conducted on the wild plant resources in Barluk Mountain. As indicated by the results, there were a total of 988 species, 386 genera and 71 families of wild plants ,which could be classified into 9 types of medicinal plants,forage plants, nectar plants, edible plants ,ornamental plants,technical plants, oil plants, sand-fixing plants and poisonous plants according to their main economic uses, aiming to provide scientific data for the utilization and protection of these wild plants.%通过实地调查、文献资料查阅和标本鉴定,对新疆巴尔鲁克山的野生植物进行了系统的植物分类学研究.结果表明,巴尔鲁克山有野生种子植物71 科386属988种;按照其主要的经济用途可将这些植物划分为药用、饲用、蜜源、食用、观赏、工艺、油料、防风固沙、有毒等9种类型,旨在为该地区野生植物资源的合理开发与保护提供科学依据.

  16. [Modeling of species distribution using topography and remote sensing data, with vascular plants of the Tukuringra Range low mountain belt (Zeya state Nature Reserve, Amur Region) as a case study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudov, S V

    2016-01-01

    On the basis of maximum entropy method embedded in MaxEnt software, the cartographic models are designed for spatial distribution of 63 species of vascular plants inhabiting low mountain belt of the Tukuringra Range. Initial data for modeling were actual points of a species occurrence, data on remote sensing (multispectral space snapshots by Landsat), and a digital topographic model. It is found out that the structure of factors contributing to the model is related to species ecological amplitude. The distribution of stenotopic species is determined, mainly, by the topography, which thermal and humidity conditions of habitats are associated with. To the models for eurytopic species, variables formed on the basis of remote sensing contribute significantly, those variables encompassing the parameters of the soil-vegetable cover. In course of the obtained models analyzing, three principal groups of species are revealed that have similar distribution pattern. Species of the first group are restricted in their distribution by the slopes of the. River Zeya and River Giluy gorges. Species of the second group are associated with the southern macroslope of the range and with southern slopes of large rivers' valleys. The third group incorporates those species that are distributed over the whole territory under study.

  17. European mountain biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy, Jennifer

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper, originally prepared as a discussion document for the ESF Exploratory Workshop «Trends in European Mountain Biodiversity - Research Planning Workshop», provides an overview of current mountain biodiversity research in Europe. It discusses (a biogeographical trends, (b the general properties of biodiversity, (c environmental factors and the regulation of biodiversity with respect to ecosystem function, (d the results of research on mountain freshwater ecosystems, and (e climate change and air pollution dominated environmental interactions.- The section on biogeographical trends highlights the importance of altitude and latitude on biodiversity. The implications of the existence of different scales over the different levels of biodiversity and across organism groups are emphasised as an inherent complex property of biodiversity. The discussion on ecosystem function and the regulation of biodiversity covers the role of environmental factors, productivity, perturbation, species migration and dispersal, and species interactions in the maintenance of biodiversity. Regional and long-term temporal patterns are also discussed. A section on the relatively overlooked topic of mountain freshwater ecosystems is presented before the final topic on the implications of recent climate change and air pollution for mountain biodiversity.

    [fr] Ce document a été préparé à l'origine comme une base de discussion pour «ESF Exploratory Workshop» intitulé «Trends in European Mountain Biodiversity - Research Planning Workshop»; il apporte une vue d'ensemble sur les recherches actuelles portant sur la biodiversité des montagnes en Europe. On y discute les (a traits biogéographiques, (b les caractéristiques générales- de la biodiversité, (c les facteurs environnementaux et la régulation de la biodiversité par rapport à la fonction des écosystèmes, (d les résultats des études sur les écosystèmes aquatiques des montagnes et (e les

  18. Total system performance assessment for Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boak, J.M. [USDOE Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Office, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1994-12-31

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy`s evaluation of site suitability for a potential high-level radioactive waste repository, the long-term behavior of the mined geologic disposal system must be determined. This determination requires a knowledge of the characteristics of the present natural system, waste-package and engineered-system designs, a description of the environment around the emplacement zone, and descriptions of possible perturbations that may affect the nature of the engineered and natural systems. In 1991, participants in the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project completed a preliminary assessment of the likely performance of a potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This preliminary assessment evaluated aqueous and gaseous flow, future climatic conditions, and disturbances to the system by basaltic volcanism and inadvertent human intrusion. A second total system performance evaluation is currently in progress. This second iteration is building on the previous analyses in a number of ways. More recent site characterization information and a much more complex model representing the source term are being incorporated. Multiple waste package designs, emplacement modes, and areal power densities are being analyzed. (author).

  19. Volcanic Pipe of the Namuaiv Mountain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir K. Karzhavin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed at reconstructing thermodynamic conditions required for the studied mineral assemblages to be created and exist in nature. The results of the investigations confirm to the recent ideas about an important, even leading, role of temperature, pressure and dioxide carbon in diamond formation in volcanic pipers. The results of this theoretical research allows assuming that one of the reasons for the absence of diamonds in the Namuaiv Mountain volcanic pipe may lie in the increased content of water and oxidizing environmental conditions of their formation

  20. Mountain-Scale Coupled Processes (TH/THC/THM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Dixon

    2004-02-09

    The purpose of this Model Report is to document the development of the Mountain-Scale Thermal-Hydrological (TH), Thermal-Hydrological-Chemical (THC), and Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical (THM) Models and evaluate the effects of coupled TH/THC/THM processes on mountain-scale UZ flow at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This Model Report was planned in ''Technical Work Plan (TWP) for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone'' (BSC 2002 [160819], Section 1.12.7), and was developed in accordance with AP-SIII.10Q, Models. In this Model Report, any reference to ''repository'' means the nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, and any reference to ''drifts'' means the emplacement drifts at the repository horizon. This Model Report provides the necessary framework to test conceptual hypotheses for analyzing mountain-scale hydrological/chemical/mechanical changes and predict flow behavior in response to heat release by radioactive decay from the nuclear waste repository at the Yucca Mountain site. The mountain-scale coupled TH/THC/THM processes models numerically simulate the impact of nuclear waste heat release on the natural hydrogeological system, including a representation of heat-driven processes occurring in the far field. The TH simulations provide predictions for thermally affected liquid saturation, gas- and liquid-phase fluxes, and water and rock temperature (together called the flow fields). The main focus of the TH Model is to predict the changes in water flux driven by evaporation/condensation processes, and drainage between drifts. The TH Model captures mountain-scale three dimensional (3-D) flow effects, including lateral diversion at the PTn/TSw interface and mountain-scale flow patterns. The Mountain-Scale THC Model evaluates TH effects on water and gas chemistry, mineral dissolution/precipitation, and the resulting impact to UZ hydrological properties, flow and transport. The THM Model addresses changes

  1. Mountains of Our Future Earth: Defining Priorities for Mountain Research—A Synthesis From the 2015 Perth III Conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin H. Gleeson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Perth conferences, held every 5 years in Perth, Scotland, bring together people who identify as mountain researchers and who are interested in issues related to global change in mountain social-ecological systems. These conferences provide an opportunity to evaluate the evolution of research directions within the mountain research community, as well as to identify research priorities. The Future Earth Strategic Research Agenda provides a useful framework for evaluating the mountain research community's progress toward addressing global change and sustainability challenges. Using a process originally set up to analyze contributions to the 2010 conference, the abstracts accepted for the 2015 conference in the context of the Future Earth framework were analyzed. This revealed a continued geographic underrepresentation in mountain research of Africa, Latin America, and South and Southeast Asia but a more even treatment of biophysical and social science themes than in 2010. It also showed that the Perth conference research community strongly focused on understanding system processes (the Dynamic Planet theme of the Future Earth research agenda. Despite the continued bias of conference contributions toward traditional observation- and conservation-oriented research, survey results indicate that conference participants clearly believe that transdisciplinary, transformative research is relevant to mountains. Of the 8 Future Earth focal challenges, those related to safeguarding natural assets, promoting sustainable land use, increasing resilience and understanding the water-energy-food nexus received considerable attention. The challenges related to sustainable consumption, decarbonizing socioeconomic systems, cities, and health were considerably less well represented, despite their relevance to mountain socioeconomic systems. Based on these findings, we outline a proposal for the future directions of mountain research.

  2. Leading Organizational Change Is Like Climbing a Mountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Judith

    2004-01-01

    Leading organizational change is like climbing a mountain. Transformational leaders must prepare to lead change, understand the process and nature of change, and provide the essential gear so that those involved can be successful. The author draws on the literature and personal experiences as a hiker and change leader to provide a guide for…

  3. Geology at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-05-01

    Both advocates and critics disagree on the significance and interpretation of critical geological features which bear on the safety and suitability of Yucca Mountain as a site for the construction of a high-level radioactive waste repository. Critics believe that there is sufficient geological evidence to rule the site unsuitable for further investigation. Some advocates claim that there is insufficient data and that investigations are incomplete, while others claim that the site is free of major obstacles. We have expanded our efforts to include both the critical evaluations of existing geological and geochemical data and the collection of field data and samples for the purpose of preparing scientific papers for submittal to journals. Summaries of the critical reviews are presented in this paper.

  4. Iron Mountain Electromagnetic Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gail Heath

    2012-07-01

    Iron Mountain Mine is located seventeen miles northwest of Redding, CA. After the completion of mining in early 1960s, the mine workings have been exposed to environmental elements which have resulted in degradation in water quality in the surrounding water sheds. In 1985, the EPA plugged ore stoops in many of the accessible mine drifts in an attempt to restrict water flow through the mine workings. During this process little data was gathered on the orientation of the stoops and construction of the plugs. During the last 25 years, plugs have begun to deteriorate and allow acidic waters from the upper workings to flow out of the mine. A team from Idaho National Laboratory (INL) performed geophysical surveys on a single mine drift and 3 concrete plugs. The project goal was to evaluate several geophysical methods to determine competence of the concrete plugs and orientation of the stopes.

  5. Study on Natural Enemies Species of Soybean Aphid and Population Dynamics in Hilly Semi-mountainous Regions of Mudanjiang City%牡丹江丘陵半山区大豆蚜天敌昆虫种类及种群动态的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    时新瑞

    2012-01-01

    The species and population dynamics of natural enemies of soybean aphid in hilly semi-mountainous region of Mudanjiang city were studied to prevent soybean aphid in large area synthetically. The results showed that the advantaged natural enemies were lacewings, syrphus flies, ladybird, parasitic wasps (stiff aphid). The main advantaged natural enemies of soybean aphid occurred early at the end of June and early of July,the peak appeared at flowering stage of soybeans(mid July), disappeared in the early maturity stage of soybeans. The natural enemies appeared the earliest was lacewings, followed by ladybird. The dynamics of natural enemy population changed with the amount of soybean aphid.%为充分利用天敌昆虫大面积综合防治大豆蚜虫,对牡丹江丘陵半山区大豆蚜天敌昆虫种类及动态进行了研究。结果表明:牡丹江丘陵半山区大豆蚜优势天敌主要有草蛉、食蚜蝇、瓢虫和寄生蜂(僵蚜)。各优势天敌主要出现在大豆蚜的发生初期(6月末7月初),高峰期出现在大豆的花期(7月中旬左右),消失于大豆成熟初期。而天敌种群以草蛉出现最早,其次是瓢虫。天敌种群的动态变化随着大豆蚜虫发生量变化而变化。

  6. 梵净山自然保护区珙桐天然种群生命表与生存分析%Life table and survival analysis of natural Davidia involucrata population in Fanjing Mountain Nature Reserve, Guizhou Province of Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴明开; 沈志君; 刘海; 吴沿友; 何汝态; 邱阳; 杨妮; 杨宁

    2012-01-01

    以种群生命表和生存分析理论为基础,采用空间代替时间法和分段匀滑技术,编制梵净山自然保护区珙桐天然种群特定时间生命表,绘制其死亡率曲线、消失率曲线、存活曲线和生存函数曲线,分析种群数量动态变化.结果表明:珙桐种群结构存在波动性,趋于DeeveyⅢ型,其幼年阶段的个体较丰富;珙桐种群死亡率和消失率曲线变化趋势基本一致,在这一发育过程中有两个死亡高峰,一个出现在幼苗向幼树的过渡期(Ⅰ龄级→Ⅱ龄级),另一个出现在从中龄向老龄过渡的阶段(Ⅷ龄级→Ⅸ龄级);种群生存分析表明,珙桐种群的生存率单调下降,累计死亡率单调上升,Ⅷ龄级后,种群生存率小于8%,累计死亡率大干92%,危险率超过生存率;4个生存函数曲线表明,梵净山珙桐有前期锐减、中期稳定和后期衰退的特点.幼苗和中龄级个体的不足是导致珙桐濒危的重要原因.%Based on the population life table and the theory of survival analysis, and by using the age class structure represented by DBH (diameter at breast height) class and the stage-smoothing technique, a specific life table of Davidia involucrata population in Fanjing Mountain Nature Reserve was compiled, and the mortality rate curve, killing power curve, survival rate curve, and survival function curve were analyzed, aimed to reveal the quantitative dynamics of the population. There was a fluctuation in the structure of the D. involucrata population. The survival curve of the population appeared to be of Deevey M type, and the individuals at young stage were abundant. The mortality rate curve and disappearance rate curve in the lifespan had similar variation trend, and the population had two distinct peaks of mortality, i.e. , from I to II age class and from VIC to K age class. The survival analysis showed that the population mortality rate was increasing all along, while the survival rate was decreasing all

  7. Glacial effects limiting mountain height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egholm, D L; Nielsen, S B; Pedersen, V K; Lesemann, J-E

    2009-08-13

    The height of mountain ranges reflects the balance between tectonic rock uplift, crustal strength and surface denudation. Tectonic deformation and surface denudation are interdependent, however, and feedback mechanisms-in particular, the potential link to climate-are subjects of intense debate. Spatial variations in fluvial denudation rate caused by precipitation gradients are known to provide first-order controls on mountain range width, crustal deformation rates and rock uplift. Moreover, limits to crustal strength are thought to constrain the maximum elevation of large continental plateaus, such as those in Tibet and the central Andes. There are indications that the general height of mountain ranges is also directly influenced by the extent of glaciation through an efficient denudation mechanism known as the glacial buzzsaw. Here we use a global analysis of topography and show that variations in maximum mountain height correlate closely with climate-controlled gradients in snowline altitude for many high mountain ranges across orogenic ages and tectonic styles. With the aid of a numerical model, we further demonstrate how a combination of erosional destruction of topography above the snowline by glacier-sliding and commensurate isostatic landscape uplift caused by erosional unloading can explain observations of maximum mountain height by driving elevations towards an altitude window just below the snowline. The model thereby self-consistently produces the hypsometric signature of the glacial buzzsaw, and suggests that differences in the height of mountain ranges mainly reflect variations in local climate rather than tectonic forces.

  8. Research on soil faunal community composition and structure in the Gaoligong Mountains National Nature Reserve%高黎贡山自然保护区大型土壤动物群落特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖能文; 刘向辉; 戈峰; 欧阳志云

    2009-01-01

    系统调查了高黎贡山国家自然保护区土壤性质与土壤动物的种类与分布.海拔高度决定土壤的性质,土壤温度、湿度、有机质含量和磷的含量与海拔有明显的相关.在不同海拔11个样地共采集到大型土壤动物标本1万余号,分属于2个门,5纲,18目,47科,13亚科.等翅目Isoptera、膜翅目Hymenoptera和弹尾目Collembola昆虫是主要类群,随着海拔高度的增加,土壤动物数量和种类,以及Simpson指数、Shannon-Wiener指数和均匀度指数都是先增加然后减少.在海拔1500~2500 m左右数量最多,然后递减,土壤动物的分布以中山部最多而山顶部和底部较少的变化趋势.土壤动物的分布受海拔和土壤性质的影响.%The Gaoligong Mountain, as the subtropics climate, is located in the collision region between the Indian tectonic plate and the Eurasian tectonic plate. In this experiment, the soil property, fauna community type and distribution of 11 samples in Gaoligong Mountain were studied from altitude 960 m to 3188 m. The results showed that the soil property was determined by altitudinal gradient. Significant correlation was observed in soil temperature, water content, organic content and phosphorus content with altitudinal gradient (P<0.05). Two phylums(Annelida and Arthropoda), three classes (Oligochaeta, Arachnida, Diplopoda, Chilopoda, Insect), eighteen Orders, forty-seven Families and thirteen Subfamilys were included in the soil fauna. Isoptera, Hymenoptera and Collembola were dominant in these groups, and Coleoptera, Derampteraand and Diptera were common groups. A single-peak curve was appeared in the vertical distribution pattern of soil fauna. The number of the soil fauna individuals and groups, as well as the value of Simpson Index, Shannon-Wiener Index and Evenness Index gradually increased and then decreased with increase of elevation. The peak of soil fauna appeared in the areas from 1500 m to 2500 m above sea level. Soil fauna

  9. 雾灵山自然保护区动植物标本的除虫与防腐技术%Deinsectization and Preservation Technology for Animal and Plant Specimens in Wuling Mountain Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛浩

    2012-01-01

    在介绍雾灵山动植物标本馆概况的基础上,对植物标本的除虫和动物标本的防腐进行了探讨。指出危害植物标本的主要是天牛类的蛀干害虫,危害动物标本的主要是花斑皮蠹、衣蛾及导致发霉的孢子植物。通过实践,总结出一套包括熏蒸、喷洒、堵虫孔的除虫方法,利用敌敌畏、溴氰菊酯、福尔马林、高锰酸钾等杀虫防腐剂彻底杀灭害虫。%Based on the introduction of the general situation of Wuling Mountain plant and animal specimen museum,the deinsectization of plant specimens and the preservation of animal specimens are explored in the paper.The plant specimens are mainly damaged by trunk borers such as longhorn beetle,and the animal specimens are mainly damaged by Trogoderma variabile Ballion,clothes moth and spore plants leading to mildew.Through practice,we sum up a set of methods to remove the insects,such as fumigation,spraying and blocking the wormhole of debugging.Furthermore,we use the insecticidal preservatives such as dichlorvos,deltamethrin,formalin and potassium permanganate to kill pests thoroughly.

  10. [Mountain medicine - an introduction. I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjuler, Kasper Fjellhaugen; Bay, Bjørn

    2016-10-31

    Tourism to high-altitude areas is increasingly popular even from low-lying regions such as Denmark. Mountain sports include skiing, mountaineering, and ski touring. The young, elderly and at-risk individuals with pre-existing illnesses engage in recreational mountain activities. Thus, risk assessment and counselling regarding altitude exposure is increasingly relevant to all healthcare providers. In this first article of two in a review series, we summarize the state of the art of altitude physiology, alpine dangers and avalanches, and medical aspects of the increased UV-exposure at altitude.

  11. 27 CFR 9.80 - York Mountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false York Mountain. 9.80... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “York Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The approved map for the York Mountain viticultural area is the U.S.G.S. map entitled...

  12. 27 CFR 9.108 - Ozark Mountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ozark Mountain. 9.108... Ozark Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Ozark Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of Ozark Mountain...

  13. 27 CFR 9.55 - Bell Mountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bell Mountain. 9.55... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Bell Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Bell Mountain viticultural area...

  14. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section... Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Red Mountain viticultural area...

  15. Crustaceans from the groundwaters of Vratchanska Planina Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVAN PANDOURSKI

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Thirty one Crustacean species from 21 localities are reported from groundwaters of Vratchanska Planina Mountain. The list of species is completed on the basis of available bibliographic sources and original data of authors. Faunal samples are collected at the natural access to underground ecosystem, caves and springs. Eight species are stygobionts: three cyclopoids, one harpacticoid, three isopods and one amphipod, or 6.6 % of all the Bulgarian stygobiont Crustacean fauna. Elaphoidella balkanica Apostolov and Protelsonia lakatnicensis (Buresch & Gueorguiev are local endemic species of the Vratchanska planina Mountains.

  16. Orderly ecological system for mountains, rivers, forest, farmland and lakes, and innovation path of purpose regulation of natural resources%山水林田湖生命共同体与自然资源用途管制路径创新

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄贤金; 杨达源

    2016-01-01

    “山水林田湖生命共同体”是人与自然关系和谐的具体体现。而自然资源管理机制、体制是自然资源用途管制制度作用的基石,因此,自然资源用途管制的机制协同,需要基于行政监管与产权管理关系、法律产权与经济产权的关系、多部门管理与统筹管理关系的协同。据此,文章就推进自然资源用途管制路径创新提出有关建议,即:形成以土地要素为载体的自然资源产权登记及管理制度;形成以产权管理为核心的自然资源行政监管制度;形成以市场决定作用为主导的自然资源优化配置制度;形成以《自然资源法》为统领的自然资源统筹管理制度。%Orderly ecological systems for mountains, rivers, forest, farmland and lakes represent a harmonious relationship between humans and nature. The mechanisms and institutions of natural resources management form the cornerstone of the system, Purpose Regulation of Natural Resources (PRNR). Consequently, the coordination mechanisms of PRNR require a synergistic relationship, including the relationship between administrative management and property right management, property right of law and economy, and multi-sector management and overal management. Therefore, this study puts forward some suggestions regarding the innovation path of PRNR. First, registration and management systems of property right of natural resources should be formed; second, administrative supervision systems of natural resources should be created based on the management of property right; third, optimal allocation systems of natural resources, in which the market plays a dominant role, should be built up. Finaly, the overal management system of natural resources (Law of Natural Resources occupies the ruling position) should be established.

  17. Sport and Recreation Influence upon Mountain Area and Sustainable Tourism Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelica J. MARKOVIĆ

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In contemporary tourism, sport and recreation are increasingly becoming the dominant motives for undertaking the journey, and as a result of modern living, active holidays are more frequent. Mountain areas have always been attractive to deal with the various sports activities. Winter sports were the initiators of the development of mountain resorts. Mountain resorts invest in construction of hotels, ski lifts, snowmaking equipment, for the sake of attracting a growing number of tourist clientele. On the other hand, sport and recreation also serve to promote summer mountain tourism. Tennis, golf, swimming, horseback riding are key tools to attract visitors in the summer months toward the resorts facilities. The main problems regarding the development of mountain tourism centers come in the form of the growing concern for the preservation of the environment, of the human and traffic congestion in the mountains and the intensive use of natural resources by tourists. This paper aims to highlight the positive and negative impacts of sport and recreation in the development of mountain tourism and to present possible solutions to reduce negative impacts. Methodology is based on document review of many bibliographic resources, which are related with skiing and mountain biking as examples of winter and summer sport activities on mountains.

  18. Habitat use by mountain nyala Tragelaphus buxtoni determined using stem bite diameters at point of browse, bite rates, and time budgets in the Bale Mountains National Park, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon A. TADESSE, Burt P. KOTLER

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the habitat use of mountain nyala Tragelaphus buxtoni in the northern edge of the Bale Mountains National Park, Ethiopia. The aims of this study were to: (1 measure and quantify habitat-specific stem bite diameters of mountain nyala foraging on common natural plant species in two major habitat types (i.e. grasslands versus woodlands, and (2 quantify the bite rates (number of bites per minute and the activity time budgets of mountain nyala as functions of habitat type and sex-age category. We randomly laid out three transects in each habitat type. Following each transect, through focal animal observations, we assessed and quantified stem diameters at point of browse (dpb, bite rates, and time budgets of mountain nyala in grasslands versus woodlands. Stem dpb provide a measure of natural giving-up densities (GUDs and can be used to assess foraging costs and efficiencies, with greater stem dpb corresponding to lower costs and greater efficiencies. The results showed that stem dpb, bite rates, induced vigilance, and proportion of time spent in feeding differed between habitats. In particular, mountain nyala had greater stem dpb, higher bite rates, and spent a greater proportion of their time in feeding and less in induced vigilance in the grasslands. In addition, adult females had the highest bite rates, and the browse species Solanum marginatum had the greatest stem dpb. Generally, grasslands provide the mountain nyala with several advantages over the woodlands, including offering lower foraging costs, greater safety, and more time for foraging. The study advocates how behavioural indicators and natural GUDs are used to examine the habitat use of the endangered mountain nyala through applying non-invasive techniques. We conclude that the resulting measures are helpful for guiding conservation and management efforts and could be applicable to a number of endangered wildlife species including the mountain nyala [Current Zoology 59 (6 : 707

  19. The Dilemma of Mountain Roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountain roads and trails are proliferating throughout developing Southeast Asia with severe but largely unrecognized long-term consequences related to effects of landslides and surface erosion on communities and downstream resources.

  20. A mountain of millipedes IV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Two species of the genus Prionopetalum Attems, 1909, are recorded from the Udzungwa Mountains: P. asperginis sp. nov. and P. kraepelini (Attems, 1896). Prionopetalum stuhlmanni Attems, 1914, is synonymized under P. kraepelini. Odontopyge fasciata Attems, 1896, is transferred from Prionopetalum...

  1. The Table Mountain Field Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Table Mountain Field Site, located north of Boulder, Colorado, is designated as an area where the magnitude of strong, external signals is restricted (by State...

  2. On Resources and Fauna in Jigongshan Mountain Nature Reserve%鸡公山国家自然保护区蝶类资源与区系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄斌; 王利明; 赵琴

    2011-01-01

    2005-2008年对鸡公山自然保护区蝶类资源进行了调查,共鉴定有112种,隶属9科68属.其中凤蝶科4属14种,蛱蝶科22属32种,粉蝶科8属17种,眼蝶科7属16种,灰蝶科11属14种,弄蝶科13属16种,喙蝶科、珍蝶科、绢蝶科均为1属1种.发现本地区新纪录种20种,河南省新记录种6种.蝶类属种平均比值为0.61,单属数占总属数的69.1%,古北种类与东洋种类的比值为0.33(16/48).蝶类区系结构表明:鸡公山自然保护区蝴蝶种群以东洋种为主,具有东洋界属性向古北界过渡的特征.%From 2005 to 2008, the butterfly resource in Jigongshan mountain Henan Province was investigated. 112 species belonging to 68 genera 9 families are collected. Among them, the family Papilonidae consist of 4 genera and 14 species, the family Nymphalidae consist of 22 genera and 32 specie, the family Pieridae consisting of 8 genera and 17 species, the family Satyridae consist of 7 genera and 16 species, the family Lycaenidae consist of 11 genera and 14 species, the family Hesperiidae consist of 13 genera and 16 species, the Libytheidae and Acraeidae and Parnassi-idea are all 1 genera and 1 species. Among them, 19 species and 6 species are first recorded in this district and in Henan respectively. Hie average ratio of genera to species is 0.61, the monotypic genera are 69.1% of the total genera, the ratio is 0.33 (16/48) of the Oriental realm species to the palaearctic realm species. The results show that the main elements of the fauna in this region are oriental species, the fauna distribution of these butterflies belong to transition of the oriental property to palaearctic.

  3. THE MOST SUCCE SSFUL MOUNTAINEERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Tsering Dorje:I Dream of Climbing Mt. Qomolangma Carrying the Olympic Torch Tsering Dorje,the oldest of the Tibetan professional mountaineers,has successfully reached a total of fourteen of the world's highest mountain summits.His companions jokingly refer to him as"Aku"(meaning"uncle"in Tibetan).However, acting as an uncle,he has to shoulder the responsibilities of team leader to take care of the others.

  4. Field Studies Delve Into the Intricacies of Mountain Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Harindra J. S.; Pardyjak, Eric R.

    2013-09-01

    Mountain meteorology, in particular weather prediction in complex (rugged) terrain, is emerging as an important topic for science and society. Large urban settlements such as Los Angeles, Hong Kong, and Rio de Janeiro have grown within or in the shadow of complex terrain, and managing the air quality of such cities requires a good understanding of the air flow patterns that spill off of mountains. On a daily time scale, the interconnected engineered and natural systems that sustain urban metabolism and quality of life are affected by weather [Fernando, 2010]. Further, recent military engagements in remote mountainous areas have heightened the need for better weather predictions—alpine warfare is considered to be one of the most dangerous types of combat.

  5. Mountain Child: Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audsley, Annie; Wallace, Rebecca M M; Price, Martin F

    2016-12-01

    Objectives This systematic review identifies and reviews both peer-reviewed and 'grey' literature, across a range of disciplines and from diverse sources, relating to the condition of children living in mountain communities in low- and middle-income countries. Findings The literature on poverty in these communities does not generally focus on the particular vulnerabilities of children or the impact of intersecting vulnerabilities on the most marginalised members of communities. However, this literature does contribute analyses of the broader context and variety of factors impacting on human development in mountainous areas. The literature on other areas of children's lives-health, nutrition, child mortality, education, and child labour-focuses more specifically on children's particular vulnerabilities or experiences. However, it sometimes lacks the broader analysis of the many interrelated characteristics of a mountainous environment which impact on children's situations. Themes Nevertheless, certain themes recur across many disciplines and types of literature, and point to some general conclusions: mountain poverty is influenced by the very local specificities of the physical environment; mountain communities are often politically and economically marginalised, particularly for the most vulnerable within these communities, including children; and mountain communities themselves are an important locus for challenging and interrupting cycles of increasing inequality and disadvantage. While this broad-scale review represents a modest first step, its findings provide the basis for further investigation.

  6. BVOC fluxes above mountain grassland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Bamberger

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Grasslands comprise natural tropical savannah over managed temperate fields to tundra and cover one quarter of the Earth's land surface. Plant growth, maintenance and decay result in volatile organic compound (VOCs emissions to the atmosphere. Furthermore, biogenic VOCs (BVOCs are emitted as a consequence of various environmental stresses including cutting and drying during harvesting. Fluxes of BVOCs were measured with a proton-transfer-reaction-mass-spectrometer (PTR-MS over temperate mountain grassland in Stubai Valley (Tyrol, Austria over one growing season (2008. VOC fluxes were calculated from the disjunct PTR-MS data using the virtual disjunct eddy covariance method and the gap filling method. Methanol fluxes obtained with the two independent flux calculation methods were highly correlated (y = 0.95×−0.12, R2 = 0.92. Methanol showed strong daytime emissions throughout the growing season – with maximal values of 9.7 nmol m−2 s−1, methanol fluxes from the growing grassland were considerably higher at the beginning of the growing season in June compared to those measured during October (2.5 nmol m−2 s−1. Methanol was the only component that exhibited consistent fluxes during the entire growing periods of the grass. The cutting and drying of the grass increased the emissions of methanol to up to 78.4 nmol m−2 s−1. In addition, emissions of acetaldehyde (up to 11.0 nmol m−2 s−1, and hexenal (leaf aldehyde, up to 8.6 nmol m−2 s−1 were detected during/after harvesting.

  7. Water management in mountainous Jardhar Village, Chamba Block, Uttarakhand, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RK Kamble

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An attempt has been carried out to assess water management practices adopted by Jardhar villagers in Chamba block of Uttrakhand. The rain water during rainy season got collected in chahals (mountainous tanks on top of mountains. The rain water which got collected in these structures percolates through mountains and forms number of small streams which were perennial in nature. The water from these streams were received in a small metal tank at the end of stream in the mountain and through a steel pipe this collected water was diverted and collected into a cement tank at an elevated location at the entrance of the village. From this elevated water reservoir water was distributed at various locations in the village through public stand posts. The sustainable utilization of water in this mountainous area paved way for availability of water throughout the year and thus can sustain the population in such a topographic region. This traditional water management in Jardhar village has set an example of water management which can be adopted in such terrains throughout the world. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i1.9946 International Journal of Environment Vol.3(1 2014: 93-100

  8. Waste management outlook for mountain regions: Sources and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semernya, Larisa; Ramola, Aditi; Alfthan, Björn; Giacovelli, Claudia

    2017-09-01

    Following the release of the global waste management outlook in 2015, the United Nations Environment Programme (UN Environment), through its International Environmental Technology Centre, is elaborating a series of region-specific and thematic waste management outlooks that provide policy recommendations and solutions based on current practices in developing and developed countries. The Waste Management Outlook for Mountain Regions is the first report in this series. Mountain regions present unique challenges to waste management; while remoteness is often associated with costly and difficult transport of waste, the potential impact of waste pollutants is higher owing to the steep terrain and rivers transporting waste downstream. The Outlook shows that waste management in mountain regions is a cross-sectoral issue of global concern that deserves immediate attention. Noting that there is no 'one solution fits all', there is a need for a more landscape-type specific and regional research on waste management, the enhancement of policy and regulatory frameworks, and increased stakeholder engagement and awareness to achieve sustainable waste management in mountain areas. This short communication provides an overview of the key findings of the Outlook and highlights aspects that need further research. These are grouped per source of waste: Mountain communities, tourism, and mining. Issues such as waste crime, plastic pollution, and the linkages between exposure to natural disasters and waste are also presented.

  9. Mountain biodiversity patterns at low and high latitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molau, Ulf

    2004-11-01

    This paper presents an overview of mountain biodiversity at a multitude of scales in space, time, and function. Even though species richness is usually the focal component in nature conservation, genetic diversity within species is equally important. The small-scale distribution of species in the tropical Andes, as exemplified by the plant genera Calceolaria and Bartsia, contrasts against the situation in high-latitude mountains, e.g., the Scandes, where species have wide ranges and many are circumpolar. Recent studies on alpine plants based on molecular methods show that the intraspecific genetic diversity tends to increase with latitude, a situation brought about by the glaciation history with repeated contraction-expansion episodes of species' distributions. In tropical mountains, species distributions are geographically much narrower, often as a result of relatively recent, local speciation. Thus, whereas species richness in mountains decreases from the Equator towards the poles, genetic diversity shows the opposite trend. Finally, a comparison of ecosystem diversity in low- and high-latitude mountain ranges (tropical Andes vs. Scandes) shows that the landscapes differ profoundly with regard to timberline ecotones, snow distribution, and climate variables, and are subject to widely different impacts of global change

  10. Lead Speciation in remote Mountain Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plöger, A.; van den Berg, C. M. G.

    2003-04-01

    In natural waters trace metals can become complexed by organic matter. This complexation can change the geochemistry of the metals by preventing them being scavenged, thereby increasing their residence time in the water column. The chemical speciation of trace metals also affects the bioavalability and their toxicological impact on organisms. It is therefore important to determine the chemical speciation of trace metals as well as their concentrations. Mountain lakes have been less studied in the past than other lakes- partly because of their remoteness and partly because they were perceived to be unpolluted and undisturbed. But work so far on mountain lakes has shown that most sites are affected and threatened, for example by transboundary air pollutants like trace metals. One of the important features that distinguishes these lakes from lowland lakes at similar latitudes is the fact that they may be isolated from the atmosphere for six months or more during the winter by a thick ice cover. Also, as these lakes are remote from direct anthropogenic influences, they reflect the regional distribution of pollutants transferred via the atmosphere. For this work, under the framework of the EMERGE (European Mountain lake Ecosystems: Regionalisation, diaGnostic and socio-economic Evaluation) programme, two remote mountain lakes have been studied in detail, with water sampling taking place at different times of the year to investigate possible seasonal differences in lead concentrations and speciation. Results so far have shown that lead-complexing ligand concentrations are in excess to dissolved lead concentrations, indicating that dissolved lead probably occurs fully complexed in these lakes. Therefore the toxic fraction is likely to be less than the dissolved lead concentration. Also, lead concentrations at the time of the spring thaw are higher than autumn concentrations just before ice cover, indicating that a significant proportion of fallout onto the lake catchment

  11. The origins of mountain geoecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ives, Jack D.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Mountain geoecology, as a sub-discipline of Geography, stems from the life and work of Carl Troll who, in turn, was inspired by the philosophy and mountain travels of Alexander von Humboldt. As founding chair of the IGU Commission on High-Altitude Geoecology (1968, Troll laid the foundations for inter-disciplinary and international mountain research. The paper traces the evolution of the Commission and its close links with the UNESCO Man and Biosphere Programme (1972- and the United Nations University’s mountain Project (1978-. This facilitated the formation of a major force for inclusion of a mountain chapter in AGENDA 21 during the 1992 Rio de Janeiro Herat Summit (UNCED and the related designation by the United Nations of 2002 as the International Year of Mountains. In this way, mountain geoecology not only contributed to worldwide mountain research but also entered the political arena in the struggle for sustainable mountain development and the well-being of mountain people.La geoecología de montaña, como sub-disciplina de la Geografía, entronca con la vida y trabajo de Carl Troll, quien, a su vez, fue inspirado por la filosofía y viajes de Alexander von Humboldt. Como presidente fundador de la comisión de la UGI sobre High Altitude Geoecology (1968, Troll colocó las bases para la investigación interdisciplinar e internacional de las montañas. Este trabajo presenta la evolución de la Comisión y sus estrechas relaciones con el Programa Hombre y Biosfera de UNESCO (1972- y con el Proyecto de montaña de la Universidad de Naciones Unidas (1978-. Esto facilitó la inclusión de un capítulo sobre la montaña en AGENDA 21 durante la Cumbre de la Tierra de Río de Janeiro (UNCED, y la consiguiente designación de 2002 como el Año Internacional de las Montañas por parte de Naciones Unidas. En este sentido, la geoecología de montaña no sólo contribuyó a la investigación de las montañas del mundo sino que también empujó a la pol

  12. 武夷山香果树自然种群生殖构件特性研究%Characteristics of Reproductive Modules of Emmenopterys henryi Natural Population in Wuyi Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭连金; 林国卫; 徐卫红; 王艾平

    2011-01-01

    Features of the reproductive modules of Emmenopterys henryi in Wuyi Mountain, one of endangered plants in China, were investigated. The results showed that the initial time of flowering in E. henryi population presonted variability, about 7 days gap. The initial time of flowering with in population was in the middle of July, and ended in late August, its blooming period lasted 33 days. The distribution of reproductive modules related to the habitat and the position of tree crown. The number of flowers, buds and fruits in E. henryi pure population were significantly higher than other populations, but no significant difference in Phyllostachys edulis forests and conifer and broad-leaved mixed forests. In different crown layers, the middle and lower layer were significantly lower than upper layer in number of reproductive branches and reproductive branch ratio, however, south of the crown were higher than other directions.The abortive rates at flowering stage and fruit stage were higher(81.45% and 58. 12% ), and they were remarkable differences among the habitats and crown positions. The high abortive rate lead to low fruit yield, it is one of the reasons to make E. henryi being endangered. Principal component analysis showed that reproductive module were impacted significantly by the light, slope aspect, tree layer cover in the E.henryi population.%对武夷山香果树自然种群生殖构件特性进行了研究.结果表明:(1)香果树种群始花时间变异较大,可相差7 d左右,始花时间为7月中旬,8月下旬结束,花期约33 d;(2)生殖构件的数量与生境和树冠位置有一定关系,香果树纯林中生殖枝数显著高于其他种群,针叶林和毛竹林中香果树生殖构件分布相当.不同冠层之间生殖构件以中、下层显著低于上层,南向树冠显著高于其他各方向生殖构件数;(3)香果树花期和果期败育率高(81.45%和58.12%),并在不同生境和树冠位置产生显著差异,结实率低

  13. Two new species of Hypoaspis from Helan Mountain Nature Reserve of Ningxia, China(Acari:Laelapidae)%中国宁夏贺兰山自然保护区下盾螨属2新种记述(蜱螨亚纲,厉螨科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白学礼; 闫毅; 张涛

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes two new species Hypoaspis ( Cosmolaelaps ) helanshanensis sp . nov . and Hypoaspis (Cosmolaelaps) liujingyuani sp. nov., in the genus Hypoaspis Canestrini, 1885. All specimens were collected from Helan Mountain Nature Reserve of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China, from nest of Myrmos spp.. The type specimens are deposited in the Collection of the Medical Entomology of Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology Academy of Military Medical Science, Beijing, China and Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Yinchuan, Ningxia, China. The genus Hypoaspis was erected by Canestrini in 1885, belongs to Laelapidae Berlese, Karg(1979) divided Hypoaspis into eight subgenera: Hypoaspis Canestrini, Hypohasta Karg, Cosmolaelaps Berlese, Alloparasitus Berlese, Geolaelaps Tragardh, Pneumolaelaps Berlese, Holostaspis Kolenati and Laelaspis Berlese; while Evans & Till(1979) promoted these subgenera(Cosmolaelaps, Holostaspis, Pneumolaelaps, and Laelaspis) to genera. This paper follws Kart(1979). Up to now, Hypoaspis has a total of more than 170 known species worldwide, and more than 60 species(subspecies) of them have been reported from China(Teng, 1993;Bai et al. 1993;1994;1995;2002;2012;Bei et al. 2003;Gu et al. 1990;1991;1992;Liu, et al. 1996;Ma et al. 1996;1997;1998;2000;2003;2004;2009;2010;Xu et al. 1996). Two new species of Hypoaspis were collected from Helan Mountain Nature Reserve of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China, from nest of Myrmos spp. in this paper. Terminology used for the dorsal idiosomal chaetotaxy follows Kart (1979), the measurements are given inμm.%描述宁夏下盾螨属Hypoaspis Canestrini,1885的2新种,即贺兰山下盾螨,新种Hypoaspis(Cosmo-laelaps) helanshanensis sp. nov.和刘氏下盾螨,新种Hypoaspis(Cosmolaelaps) liujingyuani sp. nov.,标本采自宁夏贺兰山自然保护区的蚂蚁Myrmos sp.巢穴中,保存于军事医学科学院微生物流行病研究所医学昆虫标

  14. 江西定南云台山自然保护区种子植物组成及区系初步研究%Preliminar y Study on Composition an d Flora of Spermatophytes in Din gnan Yuntai Mountain Natural Reserve Area in Jiangx i

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓华; 涂飞云; 张智能; 黄晓凤

    2015-01-01

    根据相关资料、野外调查和标本采集的结果,对江西定南云台山自然保护区种子植物的组成及区系进行了初步研究。结果表明:该保护区种子植物有164科685属1382种;其中,裸子植物6科9属11种,被子植物158科676属1371种;国家一级重点保护野生植物2种,国家二级重点保护野生植物13种;此保护区种子植物区系成分复杂,科、属区系均以热带性为主;中国特有属有23个。%Abstratc:According to the previous relevant information, field survey and specimen collection results, we carried out a prelim-inary study on the composition and flora of spermatophytes in Dingnan Yuntai mountain natural reserve area in Jiangxi.The results indicated that the natural reserve area possessed 1382 species of spermatophytes in 685 genera of 164families , including 11 species of gymnosperms in 9 genera of 6 families, and 1371 species of angiosperms in 676 genera of 158 families; there were 2 species of first-grade nationally-protected wild plants and 13species of second -grade nationally-protected wild plants.In this natural reserve area, the floral elements of spermatophytes were complex, the floras of both family and genus showed the tropical traits mainly, and there were 23 China-specific genera.

  15. The Investigation and Analysis of the Impact of Ecotourism on the Biodiversity of Jiufu Mountain Nature Reserve%福建省尤溪九阜山自然保护区开展生态旅游活动对生物多样性影响调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘世华

    2015-01-01

    There are advantages and disadvantages to carry out ecotourism activity in natural protection area .How to do harm to benefit ,to exploit it under the protection and maintain the sustainable development ,are difficult prob‐lems faced for all natural protection area and urgently need to be resolved .In this paper ,the author through the sys‐tematic investigation and discussion on the biodiversity status quo in the Jiufu mountain nature reserve ,analysis of the ecotourism impact on the biodiversity of the protection area ,put forward the conservation strategies under the premise of protecting biological diversity .%自然保护区开展生态旅游活动,有利也有弊,如何化弊为利,做到在保护中开发,在开发中得到可持续发展,是自然保护区共同面临和迫切需要解决的难题。通过对尤溪九阜山省级自然保护区内的生物多样性现状进行系统调查和论述,分析研究了九阜山自然保护区开发生态旅游对区内生物多样性影响,并结合实际提出了在保护生物多样性的前提下开发尤溪九阜山自然保护区生态旅游保育对策。

  16. 小兴安岭红松种群天然更新及影响因子的探讨%The Natural Regeneration and Its Impact Factors of Korean Pine Population in Xiaoxing'anling Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海军; 张淑兰; 王长宝

    2015-01-01

    The natural regeneration of Korean pine species has always been an important issue concerned by vegetation ecologists.To study further on the natural regeneration process of Korean pine,its natural update status and influencing factors are summarized and discussed from the Korean pine seeds,seedlings bank,population structure and dynamic and community structure and diversity.Now,the reservation of Korean pine seed and seedling bank amount are falling due to nut picking,and the natural regeneration of Korean pine population is mainly influenced by ecological factors,such as birds and animals,forest canopy density,forest gap and deforestation.To protect and maintain the development and stable update of Korean pine community,the measures of controlling to pick pine nuts,protecting wildlife,moderately cutting or selective cutting,planting conifers and protecting broad-leaved trees,and so on are recommended.%红松种群的天然更新一直是植被生态学家关注的重要问题,为了深刻了解红松天然更新过程,从红松土壤种子库、幼苗库、种群结构和动态以及群落结构和多样性等方面,对其天然更新状况及影响因子进行了综述和探讨,认为:红松的种子库和幼苗库可能由于松果采摘,其储藏量在减少;红松种群天然更新主要受鸟兽、林分郁闭度、林窗、森林采伐等生态因子的影响。建议采取控制松果采摘,保护野生动物,适度采伐或择伐,栽针保阔等措施来保护和维持红松林群落的发展和稳定更新。

  17. Raman spectroscopy of efflorescent sulfate salts from Iron Mountain Mine Superfund Site, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobron, Pablo; Alpers, Charles N

    2013-03-01

    The Iron Mountain Mine Superfund Site near Redding, California, is a massive sulfide ore deposit that was mined for iron, silver, gold, copper, zinc, and pyrite intermittently for nearly 100 years. As a result, both water and air reached the sulfide deposits deep within the mountain, producing acid mine drainage consisting of sulfuric acid and heavy metals from the ore. Particularly, the drainage water from the Richmond Mine at Iron Mountain is among the most acidic waters naturally found on Earth. The mineralogy at Iron Mountain can serve as a proxy for understanding sulfate formation on Mars. Selected sulfate efflorescent salts from Iron Mountain, formed from extremely acidic waters via drainage from sulfide mining, have been characterized by means of Raman spectroscopy. Gypsum, ferricopiapite, copiapite, melanterite, coquimbite, and voltaite are found within the samples. This work has implications for Mars mineralogical and geochemical investigations as well as for terrestrial environmental investigations related to acid mine drainage contamination.

  18. Raman spectroscopy of efflorescent sulfate salts from Iron Mountain Mine Superfund Site, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobron, Pablo; Alpers, Charles N.

    2013-01-01

    The Iron Mountain Mine Superfund Site near Redding, California, is a massive sulfide ore deposit that was mined for iron, silver, gold, copper, zinc, and pyrite intermittently for nearly 100 years. As a result, both water and air reached the sulfide deposits deep within the mountain, producing acid mine drainage consisting of sulfuric acid and heavy metals from the ore. Particularly, the drainage water from the Richmond Mine at Iron Mountain is among the most acidic waters naturally found on Earth. The mineralogy at Iron Mountain can serve as a proxy for understanding sulfate formation on Mars. Selected sulfate efflorescent salts from Iron Mountain, formed from extremely acidic waters via drainage from sulfide mining, have been characterized by means of Raman spectroscopy. Gypsum, ferricopiapite, copiapite, melanterite, coquimbite, and voltaite are found within the samples. This work has implications for Mars mineralogical and geochemical investigations as well as for terrestrial environmental investigations related to acid mine drainage contamination.

  19. The role of travel intermediaries in the development of sustainable mountain tourism. The case of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Icoz

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to investigate the current situation of mountain tourism and its sustainability in Turkey as a new and ascending tourism product. In addition, tourism policies of Turkish Ministry of Culture and Tourism in the mountain tourism area are scrutinized. Not only the tourism policies of the government are enough to promote a new alternative tourism type, but also the role and effects of tourism middlemen such as travel agencies, tour operators, and tour wholesalers cannot be denied in the promotion of a destination. Mountain tourism can be accepted and classified as one of these mentioned alternative and newly developed types of tourism in many destinations. Therefore, mountain tourism could be one of the best alternative tourism opportunities for many destinations if they have sufficient resources, namely naturally attractive mountains and related infra and/or superstructure.

  20. Relief Evolution in Tectonically Active Mountain Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipple, Kelin X.

    2004-01-01

    The overall aims of this 3-yr project, as originally proposed were to: (1) investigate quantitatively the roles of fluvial and glacial erosion in the evolution of relief in mountainous regions, and (2) test rigorously the quality and accuracy of SRTM topographic data in areas of rugged relief - both the most challenging and of greatest interest to geomorphic, neotectonic, and hazards applications. Natural laboratories in both the western US and the Southern Alps of New Zealand were identified as most promising. The project has been both successful and productive, despite the fact that no SRTM data for our primary field sites in New Zealand were released on the time frame of the work effort. Given the delayed release of SRTM data, we pursued the scientific questions of the roles of fluvial and, especially, glacial erosion in the evolution of relief in mountainous regions using available digital elevation models (DEMs) for the Southern Alps of New Zealand (available at both 25m and 50m pixel sizes), and USGS 10m and 30m DEMs within the Western US. As emphasized in the original proposal, we chose the emphasis on the role of glacial modification of topographic relief because there has been little quantitative investigation of glacial erosion processes at landscape scale. This is particularly surprising considering the dramatic sculpting of most mid- and high-latitude mountain ranges, the prodigious quantities of glacially-derived sediment in terrestrial and marine basins, and the current cross-disciplinary interest in the role of denudational processes in orogenesis and the evolution of topography in general. Moreover, the evolution of glaciated landscapes is not only a fundamental problem in geomorphology in its own right, but also is at the heart of the debate over Late Cenozoic linkages between climate and tectonics.

  1. Trade-Offs between Ecosystem Services in a Mountain Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Briner

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mountain ecosystems provide a broad range of ecosystem services (ES. Trade-offs between different ES are an important aspect in the assessment of future sustainable land-use. Management of ES in mountain regions must confront the challenges of spatial and temporal heterogeneity, and interaction with structural changes in agriculture and forestry. Using a social-ecological modeling framework, we assess the relationships between forest and agricultural ES in a mountain region in Switzerland. Based on the concept of jointness in production, we evaluated trade-offs and synergies among food provision, biodiversity conservation, carbon sequestration, and protection against natural hazards. Results show that increasing the provision of a focal ES in a mountain region may result in alternating trade-offs and synergies, depending on the interaction of economic and technological interdependencies. Thus, management schemes aiming to increase the provision of one focal ES have to consider not only the technological or biological nature of interrelationships, but also the economic interdependencies among different ES. Trade-offs and synergies from these interactions strongly depend on the underlying structural and environmental conditions driven by socioeconomic and climatic developments.

  2. A Mountain-Scale Monitoring Network for Yucca Mountain PerformanceConfirmation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freifeld, Barry; Tsang, Yvonne

    2006-01-20

    Confirmation of the performance of Yucca Mountain is required by 10 CFR Part 63.131 to indicate, where practicable, that the natural system acts as a barrier, as intended. Hence, performance confirmation monitoring and testing would provide data for continued assessment during the pre-closure period. In general, to carry out testing at a relevant scale is always important, and in the case of performance confirmation, it is particularly important to be able to test at the scale of the repository. We view the large perturbation caused by construction of the repository at Yucca Mountain as a unique opportunity to study the large-scale behavior of the natural barrier system. Repository construction would necessarily introduce traced fluids and result in the creation of leachates. A program to monitor traced fluids and construction leachates permits evaluation of transport through the unsaturated zone and potentially downgradient through the saturated zone. A robust sampling and monitoring network for continuous measurement of important parameters, and for periodic collection of agrochemical samples, is proposed to observe thermo-hydrogeochemical changes near the repository horizon and down to the water table. The sampling and monitoring network can be used to provide data to (1) assess subsurface conditions encountered and changes in those conditions during construction and waste emplacement operations; and (2) for modeling to determine that the natural system is functioning as intended.

  3. Age-class differences in shoot photosynthesis and water relations of Fraser fir (Abies fraseri), southern Appalachian Mountains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith Reinhardt; Daniel M. Johnson; William K. Smith

    2009-01-01

    Fraser fir (Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir.) is an endemic tree species found only in refugial mountain-top forests in the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. Very few studies have investigated the ecophysiology of this species in its natural environment. We measured and compared photosynthetic gas exchange and water relations of understory germinant...

  4. Magma Dynamics at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Krier

    2005-08-29

    Small-volume basaltic volcanic activity at Yucca Mountain has been identified as one of the potential events that could lead to release of radioactive material from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) designated nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Release of material could occur indirectly as a result of magmatic dike intrusion into the repository (with no associated surface eruption) by changing groundwater flow paths, or as a result of an eruption (dike intrusion of the repository drifts, followed by surface eruption of contaminated ash) or volcanic ejection of material onto the Earth's surface and the redistribution of contaminated volcanic tephra. Either release method includes interaction between emplacement drifts and a magmatic dike or conduit, and natural (geologic) processes that might interrupt or halt igneous activity. This analysis provides summary information on two approaches to evaluate effects of disruption at the repository by basaltic igneous activity: (1) descriptions of the physical geometry of ascending basaltic dikes and their interaction with silicic host rocks similar in composition to the repository host rocks; and (2) a summary of calculations developed to quantify the response of emplacement drifts that have been flooded with magma and repressurized following blockage of an eruptive conduit. The purpose of these analyses is to explore the potential consequences that could occur during the full duration of an igneous event.

  5. 藓类-兴安落叶松林木质物残体贮量及组成%Storage and composition of coarse woody debris in natural SPhagnum-Bryum-Larix gmelinii forests of Daxing’anling Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秋良; 王飞; 李小梅; 张凤鹤; 青梅; 高娃

    2013-01-01

      以大兴安岭藓类-兴安落叶松林为研究对象,估算木质物残体(WD)的贮量及组成,分析WD随着龄组的动态变化趋势。WD 又可分为粗木质残体(CWD)和细木质残体(FWD),随着对 CWD 研究的不断深入,CWD 的直径划分标准有了改进,美国学者把直径大于10 cm的WD定为CWD,但我国大多学者的研究仍然沿用以往的直径大于2.5 cm的标准,致使研究结果与国际研究无法进行比较。鉴于此,采用新的 CWD划分标准,分析CWD的物种组成、径级结构、腐烂等级及树种组成等特征,揭示CWD密度、体积和生物量贮量及特征随着龄组的变化趋势。结果表明,(1)WD体积和生物量为2.09~151.03 m3·hm-2和1.57~55.11 t·hm-2。从组成上来看,中龄林以倒木和小枝为主(占73.00%),近熟林以枯立木和倒木为主(占96.04%),过熟林以枯立木为主(93.18%)。从类型上来看,中龄林均为FWD,近熟林和过熟林中CWD生物量达75%以上。(2)龄组显著影响着藓类-兴安落叶松林WD和CWD的生物量和组成。随着龄组的增加,WD生物量和枯立木比例逐渐增加,倒木和大枝比例减小。CWD 生物量和体积随着龄组的增大而逐渐增加。(3)近熟林中 CWD密度、体积和生物量(217株·hm-2、40.51 m3·hm-2、20.61 t·hm-2)均小于过熟林(258株·hm-2、138.82 m3·hm-2、48.88 t·hm-2)。(4)近熟林CWD体积和生物量均以Ⅱ-Ⅲ级腐烂为主(两者之和分别占90.81%和89.01%),过熟林以Ⅲ级腐烂为主(占36.15%和41.23%)。(5)过熟林CWD密度、体积和生物量均以10~20 cm为主,且以枯立木居多。%The storage of woody debris (WD) and the dynamic of WD with age groups were analyzed in SPhagnum-Bryum-Larix gmelinii forest of Daxing’ an mountains. WD may be divided into the coarse woody debris (CWD) and fine wood residues (FWD). The diameter larger than 10 cm for WD was

  6. Additive Stand-Level Biomass Models for Natural Larch Forest in the East of Daxing’an Mountains%大兴安岭东部天然落叶松林可加性林分生物量估算模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董利虎; 李凤日

    2016-01-01

    【目的】探讨林分乔木层生物量的估算方法,为大区域、大尺度森林生物量的估算提供理论依据。【方法】利用1990—2010年5期大兴安岭东部天然落叶松林固定样地数据,选择基于林分变量的林分生物量模型和基于林分蓄积量的林分生物量模型作为林分乔木层生物量估算的方法,利用似然分析法去判断2种模型的误差结构(相加型和相乘型),并采用聚合型可加性生物量模型建立其林分生物量模型,模型参数估计采用非线性似乎不相关回归模型方法。采用“刀切法”评价所建立的林分生物量模型。【结果】经似然分析法判断,2种模型的误差结构是相乘型的,对数转换的线性回归更适合用来拟合林分生物量数据;2种模型的调整后确定系数 R2a >0.94,平均相对误差 ME为0%~5%,平均相对误差绝对值 MAE<15%;所建立的2种可加性林分生物量模型的预测精度在98%以上。【结论】虽然基于林分蓄积量的林分生物量和基于林分变量的林分生物量模型形式不同,但二者都具有较好的预测精度;就本研究而言,2种估算林分生物量的方法都能对大兴安岭东部天然落叶松林林分生物量进行很好地估算。%Objective]The traditional method based on forest inventory data plays an import role in assessment of forest biomass at regional scale and its dynamics and verification of the remote-sensing based model and improvement of its prediction precision. The forest biomass methods at regional scale have attracted most attention of researchers,developing the stand-level biomass model has become a new trend. Based on 1990—2010 forestry inventory data (the 5th inventory) of natural larch forest in the east of Daxing’an Mountains,we studied how to use two methods ( i. e. ,stand biomass models respectively based on stand variables and stand volume ) to establish the additive system of stand

  7. 自然保护与旅游发展的互动及其机制研究——以鼎湖山自然保护区为例%Interactive Mechanism between Nature Conservation and Tourism Development:A Case Study of Dinghu Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周志红; 廖继武; 周永章

    2011-01-01

    自然保护区具备良好的旅游发展条件,如何在自然保护的基础上发展旅游是自然保护区可持续发展面临的问题之一.以中国第一个自然保护区鼎湖山为研究区,探讨其自然保护与旅游发展之间的互动关系.研究结果表明自然保护区的自然保护对象与旅游发展资源存在时空同一性,自然保护增强了旅游的吸引力,提升了其文化价值,而旅游开发亦在资金投入、文物修复、生态恢复等方面起到了促进作用.二者的互动是价值、功能、管理等要素作用的结果.%Nature reserves are considered to be significant tourism destinations because of their good conditions for tourism development, their aesthetic and scientific values. Tourism development ought to be one of the directions to achieve the purpose of nature conservation. Therefore, for nature reserves the relationship between natural conservation and tourism development should be well deal with. The studies on that topic have mostly focused on protection and paid more attention to the negative influence of development to protection, yet the interactive relationship between the two has always been ignored. Taking Dinghu Mountain Nature Reserve, the first one in China, as an instance, the paper discusses the mechanism and the ways to realize the interactive and commensal relationship between natural conservation and tourism development, so as to provide practical basis for solving the contradiction between them. The results show that the protecting object of nature reserve is the same with the attraction of tourism development, and they are coincident in the spatial distribution. The protecting work and scientific research in nature reserve enhance the tourism attraction, provide a scientific basis for doing tourism activities, and further promote the development of tourism. By carrying out tourism activities and mining their culture, the ecological and scientific values of the reserve will be

  8. Job performance in the mountain metros

    OpenAIRE

    Mark C. Snead; Kate Watkins

    2012-01-01

    This issue of the Rocky Mountain Economist explores the labor market performance of the mountain state metropolitan areas, including recent industry trends and comparisons to state and national job performance.

  9. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever: Statistics and Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF) Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment Statistics ...

  10. Cheyenne Mountain Air Force Station NPDES Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under NPDES permit CO-0034762, the Cheyenne Mountain Air Force Station is authorized to discharge from the interior storm drainage system and air exhaust stacks at the Cheyenne Mountain Complex, in El Paso County, Colorado, to tributaries Fountain Creek.

  11. Yearly report, Yucca Mountain project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brune, J.N.

    1992-09-30

    We proposed to (1) Develop our data logging and analysis equipment and techniques for analyzing seismic data from the Southern Great Basin Seismic Network (SGBSN), (2) Investigate the SGBSN data for evidence of seismicity patterns, depth distribution patterns, and correlations with geologic features (3) Repair and maintain our three broad band downhole digital seismograph stations at Nelson, nevada, Troy Canyon, Nevada, and Deep Springs, California (4) Install, operate, and log data from a super sensitive microearthquake array at Yucca Mountain (5) Analyze data from micro-earthquakes relative to seismic hazard at Yucca Mountain.

  12. Life in the Taihang Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    THE Taihang Mountain Range meanders for 500 kilometers across the territories of Henan, Shanxi and Hebei provinces. It is an important ecological screen for the North China Plain and source of water. In Hebei’s Shexian County sits Wangjinzhuang, a 300-year-old stone village nestled in the mountains.The village is a stone world-lanes, houses, court-yard walls, towers, pavilions, tables, benches and mills are all hewn fom ancient rock. Streets and lanes are paved in stones of various shapes and sizes whose sur-

  13. WHITE MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS, NEW MEXICO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segerstrom, Kenneth; Stotelmeyer, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey the White Mountain Wilderness, which constitutes much of the western and northern White Mountains, New Mexico, is appraised to have six areas of probable mineral potential for base and precious metals. If mineral deposits exist in the wilderness, the potential is for small deposits of base and precious metals in veins and breccia pipes or, more significanlty, the possibility for large low-grade disseminated porphyry-type molybdenum deposits. There is little promise for the occurrence of geothermal energy resources in the area.

  14. Effects of extreme natural events on the provision of ecosystem services in a mountain environment: The importance of trail design in delivering system resilience and ecosystem service co-benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczyk, Aleksandra M; White, Piran C L; Ewertowski, Marek W

    2016-01-15

    A continued supply of ecosystem services (ES) from a system depends on the resilience of that system to withstand shocks and perturbations. In many parts of the world, climate change is leading to an increased frequency of extreme weather events, potentially influencing ES provision. Our study of the effects of an intense rainfall event in Gorce National Park, Poland, shows: (1) the intense rainfall event impacted heavily on the supply of ES by limiting potential recreation opportunities and reducing erosion prevention; (2) these negative impacts were not only restricted to the period of the extreme event but persisted for up to several years, depending on the pre-event trail conditions and post-event management activities; (3) to restore the pre-event supply of ES, economic investments were required in the form of active repairs to trails, which, in Gorce National Park, were an order of magnitude higher than the costs of normal trail maintenance; and (4) when recreational trails were left to natural restoration, loss of biodiversity was observed, and recovery rates of ES (recreation opportunities and soil erosion prevention) were reduced in comparison to their pre-event state. We conclude that proper trail design and construction provides a good solution to avoid some of the negative impacts of extreme events on recreation, as well as offering co-benefits in terms of protecting biodiversity and enhancing the supply of regulating services such as erosion prevention.

  15. Tourist Perception of Tourism Destination Image Analysis Based on Digital Footprints:A Case Study of World Natural Heritage Tianshan Mountain%基于旅游数字足迹的目的地旅游形象游客感知研究--以新疆天山世界自然遗产为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘植强; 梁保尔

    2015-01-01

    Tourism Destination Image has a great significance in tourism development of Xinjiang Tianshan Mountain. By now there have been fewer empirical researches on Tianshan tourism image perception. Essays about Xinjiang Tianshan World Natural Heritage in cyberspace, using the software of ROST Content Mining, as well as grounded theory could be found, respectively analyzing cognition and emotional image of Xinjiang Tianshan Mountain. The conclusion is that images of tourists towards Tianshan are cognitive and emotional dimensions are consistent with the distribution of image perception. From cognition and emotion in perception of tourism image, visitors show a strong perception to“ambience”and“tourist attraction”, while weak perception to“tourist facilities”and“Service Management”. At the same time,“social environment”, which shows a negative impact, makes visitors feel negative, seriously affecting tourists’satisfaction and revisit intention towards Tianshan.%旅游形象对新疆天山旅游业发展具有重要意义,但目前关于新疆天山旅游形象感知的实证研究却很有限。本文以新疆天山世界自然遗产地为研究对象,以452篇发布于网络空间的旅游数字足迹为研究样本,采用ROST ContentMining软件以及扎根理论分别对新疆天山旅游认知形象与情感形象进行分析,得出游客对新疆天山旅游形象呈正面感知的结论。本文发现,游客对旅游认知形象与情感形象感知维度呈一致分布且感知侧重性突出。在旅游认知形象与情感形象感知中,游客对“环境氛围”与“旅游吸引物”感知程度较强,而对“旅游设施”与“服务管理”感知程度较弱。同时,具有负面影响的“社会环境”使游客感知呈现消极状态,严重影响着游客对新疆天山的满意度与重游意愿。

  16. Assessment of the habitat fragmentation density in Postãvaru Mountains, Brasov County (Romania)

    OpenAIRE

    IULIA FONTANINE

    2013-01-01

    Postăvaru Mountains are one of the most important touristic areas of Romania and Brașov County. Here, the most important mountain resorts of Romania, Poiana Brașov is located, known for its numerous ski paths. Also, the high accessibility of the area is given by the developed road network across the mountains. The aim of this study is to analyse the degree of natural habitat fragmentation, caused mainly by touristic activities and grazing that lead to deforestation and...

  17. 雀儿山新路海自然保护区高山种子植物区系研究%Study on the Flora of Spermatophyte in Xinluhai Nature Reserve of the Queer Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静

    2012-01-01

    在野外调查和资料整理的基础上,对新路海自然保护区植物区系组成和分布区类型进行了研究.结果表明,该地区共有种子植物164种,隶属于41科、99属;科的分布类型以世界分布和北温带分布为主,属的分布以北温带分布和世界分布属为主,温带成分比例远大于热带成分,反映出该地区明显的温带性质;该区植物种类较为贫乏,草本植物类型占明显优势,充分体现出该区植被以高山草地为主的特点.%Based on the field investigation, the flora of spermatophyte in Xinluhai Nature Reserve was analyzed. The results showed that there were 41 families, 99 genera and 164 species of seed plants. The top families distribution types were cosmopolitan and north temperate ones, while the main genera distribution types were north temperate and cosmopolitan ones, and the proportion of the temperate ones was higher than the tropic ones, which showed that the north temperate elements were dominant in floristic composition. In this area, the plant species were lack, and herbaceous plants had a distinct advantage, showing a characteristic of the vegetation.

  18. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever KidsHealth > For Parents > Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Print A A A What's in ... en español La rickettsiosis maculosa About RMSF Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a bacterial infection that's ...

  19. 49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is west of...

  20. 27 CFR 9.94 - Howell Mountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Howell Mountain. 9.94... Howell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Howell Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Howell...

  1. Storymakers: Hopa Mountain's Early Literacy Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templin, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    Hopa Mountain's StoryMakers program is an innovative, research-based program for donating high quality young children's books to parents. Hopa Mountain is a nonprofit organization based in Bozeman, Montana. Hopa Mountain works with groups of rural and tribal citizen leaders who form StoryMakers Community Teams to talk one-on-one with local parents…

  2. 27 CFR 9.102 - Sonoma Mountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sonoma Mountain. 9.102... Sonoma Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sonoma Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Sonoma...

  3. 27 CFR 9.112 - Arkansas Mountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arkansas Mountain. 9.112... Arkansas Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Arkansas Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Arkansas...

  4. Some Edible Mushrooms of Kop Mountain (Erzurum-Bayburt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Keleş

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present research was conducted on macrofungi collected from Kop Mountain (Erzurum-Bayburt between the years of 2010 and 2011. The colorful photographs of macrofungi in the natural habitat were taken and their morphological and ecological features were determined and the information on macrofungi given by local people was recorded. According to the field and laboratory studies; 44 edible macrofungi taxa belonging to 14 families and 5 ordos located in Pezizomycetes and Agaricomycetes classes were identified.

  5. Some Edible Mushrooms of Kop Mountain (Erzurum-Bayburt)

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Keleş; Tolga Polat; Kenan Demirel

    2016-01-01

    The present research was conducted on macrofungi collected from Kop Mountain (Erzurum-Bayburt) between the years of 2010 and 2011. The colorful photographs of macrofungi in the natural habitat were taken and their morphological and ecological features were determined and the information on macrofungi given by local people was recorded. According to the field and laboratory studies; 44 edible macrofungi taxa belonging to 14 families and 5 ordos located in Pezizomycetes and Agaricomycetes class...

  6. Nearinfrared spectral mapping of Titan's mountains and channels

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, J.W.; Radebaugh, J.; Brown, R. H.; Wall, S.; Soderblum, L.; Lunine, J.; Buratti, B. J.; Baines, K.H.; Sotin, C.; Le Mouelic, S.; Rodriguez, S.; Clark, R.N.; Nicholson, P. D; Jaumann, Ralf (Prof. Dr.); Lopes, R.

    2007-01-01

    Cassini studies of the surface of Titan are beginning to reveal its nature. In addition to hills, channels, and cobbles seen by the Huygens probe, the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) and RADAR instruments onboard the orbiter have seen sand dunes , channels , mountains [5, 6], and cryovolcanic candidates. Recently the RADAR team announced the discovery of possible lakes near Titan’s north pole.

  7. Fire Environment Mechanism of Lightning Fire for Daxing an Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Lightning fire is one of natural fires; its mechanism is very complex and difficult to control. Daxing'an Mountain is the main region that lightning fires occur in China. Research on lightning fires indicates that special fuel, dry-storm weather and high altitude form the lightning fire environment. Lightning fires have close relation with lights. When lightning occurs, especially dry-lightning which brings little precipitation with surface temperature growing and fuel dehydrating, these often lead to l...

  8. A mountain of millipedes V

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Three new genera of Odontopygidae are described, all based on new species from the Udzungwa mountains, Tanzania, and all monotypic: Casuariverpa gen. nov. (type species: C. scarpa gen. et sp. nov.), Yia gen. nov. (type species: Y. geminispina gen. et sp. nov.), and Utiliverpa gen. nov. (type...

  9. A mountain of millipedes III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    The new genus Geotypodon gen. nov. is described. It includes two species from the Udzungwa Mountains: G. millemanus gen. et sp. nov. (type species) and G. submontanus gen. et sp. nov., one species from nearby Iringa: G. iringensis gen. et sp. nov., and 18 previously described species hitherto...

  10. Years Spent on Mountain Roads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    SONG Fangrong, the Tu nationality girl who grew up drinking water from mountain springs, walked into the Great Hall of the People in Beijing to accept the highest prize for China’s youth—the "May 4th Youth Prize." Not long before, she had been named one of the National Ten Outstanding Youths. She is the only individual to have won both.

  11. Forest ecosystem services of Changbai Mountain in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO; Guofan(邵国凡); LI; Jing(李静); WU; Gang(吴钢); XIAO; Han(肖寒); ZHAO; Jingzhu(赵景柱)

    2002-01-01

    The forest ecosystem of the Changbai Mountain is the most typical upland temperate forest ecosystem in eastern Asia. It is also of the most primitive vegetation type that came into being through the natural succession of soil and vegetation following volcanic eruption. The forest ecosystem has great importance for maintaining the structures and functions of the watershed ecosystems of the Songhua River, the Yalu River and the Tumen River. We combined physical assessment method(PAM) with the value assessment method(VAM) to evaluate the forest ecosystem services of the northern slope of the Changbai Mountain, including eco-tourism, forest by-products, timber, soil and water conservation, air purification, and the recycling of nutritive elements. We also assessed the integrated forest ecosystem service and analyzed its dynamics. The service value provided by the Changbai Mountain forest ecosystem amounts up to RMB 3.38×1012 yuan, of which, water conservation is 66%, water conservation and air purification together make up 80%, while the timber value is only 7%. Therefore, developing the ecosystem services besides timber is the best way to exert the integrated value of the forest ecosystem services of Changbai Mountain.

  12. A preliminary characterization of the spatial variability of precipitation at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hevesi, J.A.; Flint, A.L. [Geological Survey, Mercury, NV (United States); Ambos, D.S. [Foothill Engineering Consultants, Mercury, NV (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Isohyetal maps of precipitation and numerical models for simulating precipitation are needed to characterize natural infiltration at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The objective of this study was to characterize the spatial variability of precipitation within the domain of the natural catchments overlying the potential repository, and to define preliminary geostatistical models based on differences in storm type for the numerical simulation of precipitation.

  13. Integrated Futures for Europe's Mountain Regions: Reconciling Biodiversity Conservation and Human Livelihoods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jonathan Mitchley; Martin F. Price; Joseph Tzanopoulos

    2006-01-01

    Europe's mountains cover nearly half of the continent's area and are home to one fifth of the European population. Mountain areas are hotspots of biodiversity and agriculture has played a multifunctional role in defining and sustaining mountain biodiversity. Ongoing trends of agricultural decline are having negative impacts on mountain biodiversity.This paper presents results from an interdisciplinary European research project, BioScene, which investigated the relationship between agriculture and biodiversity in six mountain study areas across Europe to provide recommendations for reconciling biodiversity conservation with social and economic activities through an integrated rural development strategy.BioScene used scenario analysis and stakeholder participation as tools for structuring the analysis of alternative mountain futures. Three main BioScene scenarios were evaluated: Business as Usual (BaU),Agricultural Liberalisation (Lib), Managed Change for Biodiversity (MCB). BioScene brought together ecologists, economists, sociologists and rural geographers, to carry out interdisciplinary analysis of the scenarios: identifying key drivers of change, assessing the biodiversity consequences and evaluating costeffectiveness. BioScene used a sustainability assessment to integrate the research outputs across natural and social science disciplines to assess the broader sustainability of the scenarios in terms of biodiversity,natural resources, rural development, social development, economic development and institutional capacity. The sustainability assessment showed that the MCB scenario was potentially the most sustainable of the three BioScene scenarios. Through the reconciliation of potentially conflicting objectives,such as conservation, economic development and human livelihoods, and with a strong participatory planning approach, the MCB scenario could represent an alternative approach to BaU for sustainable rural development in Europe's mountains. BioScene confirms

  14. Mountain geomorphosites in Odle Group (Dolomites, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coratza, Paola; Ghinoi, Alessandro; Marchetti, Mauro; Soldati, Mauro

    2016-04-01

    scattered glacial deposits, marking the stadial advance of the glacial tongue. The well preserved morphology of a frontal moraine arc is quite unusual for this sector of the Dolomites where gravity-induced slope processes, active since the retreat of the last glaciers, have partly hid the till and the glacial landforms. Peculiar example of rock glaciers and protalus ramparts can be found in the upper part of Val dla Roa. Moreover, gravity-induced features such as scree slopes, talus cones and landslides of various type and size affect every sector of the area. This area has appeared to be suitable to develop new ways and strategies to educate hikers to the dynamicity of mountains environments and to natural geomorphological risks, favouring an easy understanding and comprehension of the landscape and of its hazards and a responsible and safe fruition of high-mountain tourist areas.

  15. Interspecific relationship of woody plants in Quercus wutaishanica community in Wulu Mountain Nature Reserve, Shanxi Province of China: A quantitative analysis%山西五鹿山自然保护区辽东栎群落木本植物种间数量关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白玉宏; 毕润成; 张钦弟

    2012-01-01

    基于2×2联列表,应用方差比率法、x2检验、Pearson相关系数及Spearman秩相关系数检验等数量分析方法对山西五鹿山自然保护区辽东栎群落的27个优势种,共351个种对间的关联性进行定量研究.方差分析表明,27个优势种群的总体种间关联性呈不显著关联,种的分布相对独立.x2检验结果有154个种对呈正相关,188个种对呈负相关,正负关联比为0.82;Pearson相关系数检验有124个种对呈正相关,226个种对呈负相关,正负关联比为0.55;Spearman秩相关系数检验有151个种对呈正相关,200个种对呈负相关,正负关联比为0.76;与x2检验相比,Pearson相关系数和Spearman秩相关系数检验具有较高的灵敏度.351个种对中,绝大多数种对的联结关系未达到显著水平,说明五鹿山自然保护区辽东栎群落具有明显的次生性.根据这27个优势种群对环境的适应方式和主导生态因素辅助以PCA排序,可将它们划分为3种生态种组.%Based on 2 × 2 contingency table, and by using quantitative analysis methods, this paper studied the interspecific relationship among 351 species pairs of 27 dominant woody species in Quercus wutaishanica community in Wulu Mountain Nature Reserve. Variance analysis showed that the interspecific correlation of the 27 dominant populations was not significant, and the distribution of the species was relatively independent. The x2 test showed that among the 351 species pairs, 154 pairs were positively while 188 pairs were negatively correlated, and the correlation ratio was 0.82. Pearson' s correlation coefficient test showed that 124 pairs were positively while 226 pairs were negatively correlated, and the correlation ratio was 0. 55. Spearman' s rank correlation coefficient test showed that 151 pairs were positively while 200 pairs were negatively correlated, and the correlation ratio was 0.76. Compared with x2 test, the Pearson' s correlation coefficient and Spearman' s rank

  16. Best Practices Case Study: Pine Mountain Builders - Pine Mountain, GA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-09-01

    Case study of Pine Mountain Builders who worked with DOE’s IBACOS team to achieve HERS scores of 59 on 140 homes built around a wetlands in Georgia. The team used taped rigid foam exterior sheathing and spray foam insulation in the walls and on the underside of the attic for a very tight 1.0 to 1.8 ACH 50 building shell.

  17. Urban hydrology in mountainous middle eastern cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Grodek

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean climate together with the type of urban setting found in mountainous Middle Eastern cities generate much lower runoff yields than previously reported and than usually estimated for urban design. In fact, a close analysis shows that most of the rainwater remains within the cities as a possible source for urban groundwater recharge. The present study examined two locales – Ramallah, an old traditional Palestinian Arab town, and Modiin, a new township in Israel – both situated on the karstic Yarkon Taninim aquifer. This aquifer supplies the only high-quality drinking water in the region (one quarter of the Israeli-Palestinian water demand, which is characterized by dense populations and limited water resources.

    This paper provides the first measured information on the hydrological effects of urbanization in the area. It was found that the shift of the mountainous natural steep slopes into a series of closed-terraces with homes and gardens create areas that are disconnected from the urban runoff response. Roofs drained into the attached gardens create favorable recharge units. Mainly low-gradient roads became the principal source for urban runoff already following 1–4 mm of rainfall. Parallel roads converted single peak hydrographs towards multi-peak runoff responses, increasing flow duration and reducing peak discharges. The remaining urban area (public parks, natural areas, etc. generated runoff only as a result of high-magnitude rainstorms. All of the above conditions limited urban runoff coefficients to an upper boundary of only 35% and 30% (Ramallah and Modiin, respectively. During extreme rainstorms (above 100 mm similar runoff coefficients were measured in urban and natural catchments as a result of the limited areas contributing to runoff in the urban areas, while natural terrain does not have these artificial limits. Hence, the effects of urbanization decrease with event magnitude and there is significant

  18. Urban hydrology in mountainous middle eastern cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Grodek

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean climate together with the type of urban setting found in mountainous Middle Eastern cities generate much lower runoff yields than previously reported and than usually estimated for urban design. In fact, a close analysis shows that most of the rainwater remains within the cities as a possible source for urban groundwater recharge. The present study examined two locales – Ramallah, an old traditional Palestinian Arab town, and Modiin, a new township in Israel – both situated on the karstic Yarkon Taninim aquifer. This aquifer supplies the only high-quality drinking water in the region (one quarter of the Israeli-Palestinian water demand, which is characterized by dense populations and limited water resources. This paper provides the first measured information on the hydrological effects of urbanization in the area. It was found that the shift of the mountainous natural steep slopes into a series of closed-terraced homes and gardens created areas that are disconnected from the urban runoff response. Roofs drained into the attached gardens and created favorable recharge units. Mainly low-gradient roads became the principal source for urban runoff already following 1–4 mm of rainfall. Parallel roads converted single peak hydrographs towards multi-peak runoff responses, increasing flow duration and reducing peak discharges. The remaining urban area (public parks, natural areas, etc. generated runoff only as a result of high-magnitude rainstorms. All of the above conditions limited urban runoff coefficients to an upper boundary of only 22% and 30% (Ramallah and Modiin, respectively. During extreme rainstorms (above 100 mm similar runoff coefficients were measured in urban and natural catchments as a result of the limited areas contributing to runoff in the urban areas, while natural terrain does not have these artificial limits. Hence, it was found, the effects of urbanization decrease with event magnitude and there is

  19. Natural gas; Gas Natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Carlos A.; Moraes, Claudia C.D. [Eletricidade de Sao Paulo S.A. (ELETROPAULO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fonseca, Carlos H.F. [Centrais Eletricas de Santa Catarina S.A., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Silva, Clecio Fabricio da; Alves, Ricardo P. [Companhia Paranaense de Energia (COPEL), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Sposito, Edivaldo Soares; Hulle, Lutero [Espirito Santo Centrais Eletricas S.A. (ESCELSA), Vitoria, ES (Brazil); S. Martins, Icaro da [Centrais Eletricas do Norte do Brasil S.A. (ELETRONORTE), Belem, PA (Brazil); Vilhena, Joao Luiz S. de [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Fagundes, Zaluar Aquino [Companhia Estadual de Energia Eletrica do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    1996-12-31

    An increase in the consumption of natural gas in Brazil is an expected fact in what concerns energetic planning. This work presents the existing situation in what concerns natural gas utilization in the main world economies, as well as an analysis of the participation of this fuel among the energy final consumption per sources. The Brazilian consumption of natural gas is also analysed as well as the international agreement between Brazil and Bolivia for natural gas commercialization. Some legal, institutional and political aspects related to natural gas commercialization are also discussed. Finally, several benefits to be brought by the utilization of natural gas are presented 10 refs., 3 tabs.

  20. Application of Gender Analysis in Community-based Natural Resource Management in the Mountainous Areas of Guizhou Province%社会性别分析在贵州山区社区自然资源管理中的运用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏园; 李志南

    2001-01-01

    Gender analysis had been adopted in the project of “Community-based Natural Resource Management in the Mountainous Area of Guizhou Province, China”, which was of help to enhance the effectiveness and equity of the project interventions to a certain degree. While, it is imperative to take long-term and strategic interventions to challenge the traditional mainstream value nurtured for thousands years in order to achieve the sustainable and equitable economic development goal. That is to meet the practical needs of marginalized female group, to bring up their capability, to have them organized so as to enable them to achieve the strategic goal of being in the mainstream of development.%贵州山区社区自然资源管理中运用社会性别分析的方法,在一定程度上提高了项目在试验区干预措施的有效性和公平性,但要挑战数千年来形成的主流传统文化的价值观,达到持续、公平的经济发展目标,仍须长时间的策略干预,即满足弱势妇女群体的实际需求、培养能力,有组织地实现弱势妇女群体进入发展主流的战略目标。

  1. Review of Human Study on Mountain Ecosystems%山地生态系统人文研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方一平

    2001-01-01

    Author analysed the background of human study on mountain ecosystems, which cover MAB_6 project initia tive, focus on aspects, activities framwork.and the major fields of human study on mountain ecosystems since 1971. Of all fields, four mafor aspects studyed wer e set forth as follows:(1)The theory of model of human study on mountain ecosyst ems.(2)The mechanism and application between human and mountain ecosystem intera ction, Which include the study of impacts, relationships, pov erty relief, and sustainable development in mountain regions. (3)The study of pr oceeding between human and mountain ecosystems interaction. (4)The study of reso urces management in mountain regions, Which cover natural, social and economic r esources. (5)The study of role of women in mountain ecosystem protection.Finally , the differences between domestic and oversea in the aspects of human study of mountain ecosystem are discussed as a focal point, which cover the fiel ds of study,the levels of study the methods of study and schematic ideas of st udy.%回顾和评述了近二十多年来国外山地生态系统人文研 究的相关领域。同时对比分析了我国与国外在该领域的研究内容、层次、方法和观念方面的 差异。

  2. Towards the ecotourism: a decision support model for the assessment of sustainability of mountain huts in the Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubelj Ars, Mojca; Bohanec, Marko

    2010-12-01

    This paper studies mountain hut infrastructure in the Alps as an important element of ecotourism in the Alpine region. To improve the decision-making process regarding the implementation of future infrastructure and improvement of existing infrastructure in the vulnerable natural environment of mountain ecosystems, a new decision support model has been developed. The methodology is based on qualitative multi-attribute modelling supported by the DEXi software. The integrated rule-based model is hierarchical and consists of two submodels that cover the infrastructure of the mountain huts and that of the huts' surroundings. The final goal for the designed tool is to help minimize the ecological footprint of tourists in environmentally sensitive and undeveloped mountain areas and contribute to mountain ecotourism. The model has been tested in the case study of four mountain huts in Triglav National Park in Slovenia. Study findings provide a new empirical approach to evaluating existing mountain infrastructure and predicting improvements for the future. The assessment results are of particular interest for decision makers in protected areas, such as Alpine national parks managers and administrators. In a way, this model proposes an approach to the management assessment of mountain huts with the main aim of increasing the quality of life of mountain environment visitors as well as the satisfaction of tourists who may eventually become ecotourists.

  3. Study on the Development of Under-forest Economy in Guangdong Mountain Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing; CHEN; Hongou; ZHANG; Qitao; WU

    2015-01-01

    From the origin and connotation of the under-forest economy,this paper analyzed plight of the development of under-forest economy in Guangdong mountain areas. It discussed benefits of under-forest economy,favorable conditions and development path of under-forest economy in Guangdong mountain areas. Results indicate that developing under-forest economy is an essential path for realizing green growth and coordinated development of Guangdong mountain areas. However,due to terrain,market,management and technology reasons,the under-forest economy is still not fully developed in Guangdong mountain areas. The development path of under-forest economy suitable for Guangdong mountain areas should be based on ecological protection and oriented towards maximizing ecological,economic and social benefits. Guangdong mountain areas have in-born natural and resource advantages,economic pull of development mode and market demand change,and favorable condition of policy encouragement for development of under-forest economy. Finally,it came up with recommendations for development of under-forest economy in Guangdong mountain areas from development mode,industrial distribution and development direction.

  4. Rethinking risk and disasters in mountain areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Hewitt

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This chapter presents a view of risk and disaster in the mountains that finds them fully a part of public safety issues in modern states and developments, rather than separated from them. This contrasts with prevailing approaches to disaster focused on natural hazards, “unscheduled” or extreme events, and emergency preparedness; approaches strongly reinforced by mountain stereotypes. Rather, we find the legacies of social and economic histories, especially relations to down-country or metropolitan actors, are decisive in shaping contemporary “mountain realities”. Developments in transportation, resource extraction and tourism that serve state and international agendas can increase rather than reduce risks for mountain populations, and undermine pre-existing strategies to minimise environmental dangers. Above all, we see rapid urbanisation in mountains generally and the Himalaya in particular as highly implicated in exacerbating risks and creating new types of vulnerabilities. Enforced displacement, and concentration of people in urban agglomerations, is a major part of the modern history of mountain lands that invites more careful exploration. Rapid expansion of built environments and infrastructure, without due regard to hazards and structural safety, introduce new and complex risks, while altering older equations with and to the land and sapping people’s resilience. In the lives of mountain people, environmental hazards are mostly subordinate to other, societal sources of risk and vulnerability, and to the insecurities these involve. Basically we conclude that “marginalisation” of mountain lands is primarily an outcome of socio-economic developments in which their condition is subordinated to strategic planning by state, metropolitan and global actors.Cet article aborde la question des risques et des catastrophes en montagne. Il vise non pas à dissocier mais plutôt à replacer ces concepts au cœur des questions de s

  5. Microbial activity at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, J.M.; Meike, A.

    1995-09-25

    The U.S. Department of Energy is engaged in a suitability study for a potential geological repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the containment and storage of commercially generated spent fuel and defense high-level nuclear waste. There is growing recognition of the role that biotic factors could play in this repository, either directly through microbially induced corrosion (MIC), or indirectly by altering the chemical environment or contributing to the transport of radionuclides. As a first step toward describing and predicting these processes, a workshop was held on April 10-12, 1995, in Lafayette, California. The immediate aims of the workshop were: (1) To identify microbially related processes relevant to the design of a radioactive waste repository under conditions similar to those at Yucca Mountain. (2) To determine parameters that are critical to the evaluation of a disturbed subterranean environment. (3) To define the most effective means of investigating the factors thus identified.

  6. Contributing to Sustainable Mountain Development by Facilitating Networking and Knowledge Sharing through ICT - Collaboration between Rocky Mountain States and Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baktybek Abdrisaev

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights new opportunities for sharing knowledge and networking through the use of information and communication technologies to better contribute to Sustainable Mountain Development and Millennium Development Goals. It analyzes current challenges in mountain countries in Central Asia where political instability and weak governance, in addition to their challenging natural conditions, constitute major constraints for peoples’ lives. The authors examine possible ways to tackle the major obstacles through IT-enabled knowledge sharing and networking. They discuss a number of collaborative initiatives between Rocky Mountain States in the United States and mountain nations in Central Asia aimed at promoting the values of a democratic society and good governance through networking between educators, legislators. Also, these initiatives are aimed at fostering critical thinking through independent e-media. Based on the analysis, they suggest further ways in facilitating networking and knowledge sharing for Sustainable Mountain Development through the use of information and communication technologies by joining the efforts of all active players and also eliciting more contribution from the mountainous communities of the United States.

  7. DISCONTINUITIES AND INADVERTENCES IN MOUNTAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VASILESCU RAMONA VIOLETA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available For some, mountain outings represent hikes; for some – rock climbing, and for others they consist of staying in a pension or hotel, while enjoying a pool in addition to the comfort of their home. This paper considers hiking enthusiasts, especially those who set off from their camp in the morning and return to their tent or nonluxurious accommodation in the evening.

  8. Thunderstorms, Andean Mountains Ridgeline, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    In this scenic view of thunderstorms skirting the eastern ridgeline of the Andeas Mountains in northern Argentina (approximate coordinates 28.0S, 57.0W), the confluence of the Rio Salado and Rio Saladillo where they merge with the Rio Parana can be seen in sunglint. Thunderstorms along the eastern Andes are typical at this time of year (Southern Hemisphere summer) with anvils moving to the east from the core of the storm.

  9. Ambient ozone in forests of the Central and Eastern European mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bytnerowicz, A.; Godzik, B.; Grodzinska, K.; Fraczek, W.; Musselman, R.; Manning, W.; Badea, O.; Popescu, F.; Fleischer, P

    2004-07-01

    Ambient ozone (O{sub 3}) concentrations in the forested areas of the Central and Eastern European (CEE) mountains measured on passive sampler networks and in several locations equipped with active monitors are reviewed. Some areas of the Carpathian Mountains, especially in Romania and parts of Poland, as well as the Sumava and Brdy Mountains in the Czech Republic are characterized by low European background concentrations of the pollutant (summer season means {approx}30 ppb). Other parts of the Carpathians, especially the western part of the range (Slovakia, the Czech Republic and Poland), some of the Eastern (Ukraine) and Southern (Romania) Carpathians and the Jizerske Mountains have high O{sub 3} levels with peak values >100 ppb and seasonal means {approx}50 ppb. Large portions of the CEE mountain forests experience O{sub 3} exposures that are above levels recommended for protection of forest and natural vegetation. Continuation of monitoring efforts with a combination of active monitors and passive samplers is needed for developing risk assessment scenarios for forests and other natural areas of the CEE Region. - Ozone concentrations in Central and Eastern European mountain ranges are elevated and phytotoxic to sensitive vegetation.

  10. Characterize Eruptive Processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Valentine

    2001-12-20

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR), ''Characterize Eruptive Processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada'', presents information about natural volcanic systems and the parameters that can be used to model their behavior. This information is used to develop parameter-value distributions appropriate for analysis of the consequences of volcanic eruptions through a potential repository at Yucca Mountain. Many aspects of this work are aimed at resolution of the Igneous Activity Key Technical Issue (KTI) as identified by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC 1998, p. 3), Subissues 1 and 2, which address the probability and consequence of igneous activity at the proposed repository site, respectively. Within the framework of the Disruptive Events Process Model Report (PMR), this AMR provides information for the calculations in two other AMRs ; parameters described herein are directly used in calculations in these reports and will be used in Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). Compilation of this AMR was conducted as defined in the Development Plan, except as noted. The report begins with considerations of the geometry of volcanic feeder systems, which are of primary importance in predicting how much of a potential repository would be affected by an eruption. This discussion is followed by one of the physical and chemical properties of the magmas, which influences both eruptive styles and mechanisms for interaction with radioactive waste packages. Eruptive processes including the ascent velocity of magma at depth, the onset of bubble nucleation and growth in the rising magmas, magma fragmentation, and velocity of the resulting gas-particle mixture are then discussed. The duration of eruptions, their power output, and mass discharge rates are also described. The next section summarizes geologic constraints regarding the interaction between magma and waste packages. Finally, they discuss bulk grain size produced by relevant explosive eruptions and grain

  11. Sustainable Food Security in the Mountains of Pakistan: Towards a Policy Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasul, Golam; Hussain, Abid

    2015-01-01

    The nature and causes of food and livelihood security in mountain areas are quite different to those in the plains. Rapid socioeconomic and environmental changes added to the topographical constraints have exacerbated the problem of food insecurity in the Hindu Kush-Himalayan (HKH) region. In Pakistan, food insecurity is significantly higher in the mountain areas than in the plains as a result of a range of biophysical and socioeconomic factors. The potential of mountain niche products such as fruit, nuts, and livestock has remained underutilized. Moreover, the opportunities offered by globalization, market integration, remittances, and non-farm income have not been fully tapped. This paper analyzes the opportunities and challenges of food security in Pakistan's mountain areas, and outlines a framework for addressing the specific issues in terms of four different types of area differentiated by agro-ecological potential and access to markets, information, and institutional services.

  12. Late Cenozoic tectonic deformation in the Tianshan Mountain and its foreland basins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Peizhen

    2004-01-01

    @@ The magnificent Tianshan Mountain has owned its respects and high praise since the beginning of ancient Chinese civilization. When the history wheeled into the 1990s, a large group of earth scientists once again focused their sights on the Tianshan Mountain, the most spectacular Cenozoic rejuvenated intra-plate mountain building. Why does such strong tectonic deformation occur in the continental interior several thousand kilometers away from plate boundaries? What are the pattern and magnitude of the tectonic deformation? What factors dominate tectonic deformation in the continental interior? How do the dynamic processes at the depth dictate tectonic deformation near the surface? The Tianshan Mountain provides a natural laboratory to answer these important scientific questions.

  13. Mountain Pine Beetle Host Selection Between Lodgepole and Ponderosa Pines in the Southern Rocky Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Daniel R; Briggs, Jennifer S; Jacobi, William R; Negrón, José F

    2016-02-01

    Recent evidence of range expansion and host transition by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins; MPB) has suggested that MPB may not primarily breed in their natal host, but will switch hosts to an alternate tree species. As MPB populations expanded in lodgepole pine forests in the southern Rocky Mountains, we investigated the potential for movement into adjacent ponderosa pine forests. We conducted field and laboratory experiments to evaluate four aspects of MPB population dynamics and host selection behavior in the two hosts: emergence timing, sex ratios, host choice, and reproductive success. We found that peak MPB emergence from both hosts occurred simultaneously between late July and early August, and the sex ratio of emerging beetles did not differ between hosts. In two direct tests of MPB host selection, we identified a strong preference by MPB for ponderosa versus lodgepole pine. At field sites, we captured naturally emerging beetles from both natal hosts in choice arenas containing logs of both species. In the laboratory, we offered sections of bark and phloem from both species to individual insects in bioassays. In both tests, insects infested ponderosa over lodgepole pine at a ratio of almost 2:1, regardless of natal host species. Reproductive success (offspring/female) was similar in colonized logs of both hosts. Overall, our findings suggest that MPB may exhibit equally high rates of infestation and fecundity in an alternate host under favorable conditions.

  14. NATURAL RESOURCES ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.F. Fenster

    2000-12-11

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the scientific work that was performed to evaluate and assess the occurrence and economic potential of natural resources within the geologic setting of the Yucca Mountain area. The extent of the regional areas of investigation for each commodity differs and those areas are described in more detail in the major subsections of this report. Natural resource assessments have focused on an area defined as the ''conceptual controlled area'' because of the requirements contained in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulation, 10 CFR Part 60, to define long-term boundaries for potential radionuclide releases. New requirements (proposed 10 CFR Part 63 [Dyer 1999]) have obviated the need for defining such an area. However, for the purposes of this report, the area being discussed, in most cases, is the previously defined ''conceptual controlled area'', now renamed the ''natural resources site study area'' for this report (shown on Figure 1). Resource potential can be difficult to assess because it is dependent upon many factors, including economics (demand, supply, cost), the potential discovery of new uses for resources, or the potential discovery of synthetics to replace natural resource use. The evaluations summarized are based on present-day use and economic potential of the resources. The objective of this report is to summarize the existing reports and information for the Yucca Mountain area on: (1) Metallic mineral and mined energy resources (such as gold, silver, etc., including uranium); (2) Industrial rocks and minerals (such as sand, gravel, building stone, etc.); (3) Hydrocarbons (including oil, natural gas, tar sands, oil shales, and coal); and (4) Geothermal resources. Groundwater is present at the Yucca Mountain site at depths ranging from 500 to 750 m (about 1,600 to 2,500 ft) below the ground surface. Groundwater resources are not discussed in this

  15. 重度火烧对大兴安岭天然林土壤有机碳和黑碳的影响1)%Impact of Severe Burning on Soil Organic Carbon and Black Carbon Content in Natural Forest of Daxing’ an Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷雨雨; 辛颖; 赵雨森; 陈璐; 王丽红

    2014-01-01

    In the severe burned area of Daxing’ an Mountains, we studied the impact of severe burning on the soil organic carbon and black carbon content of natural forest.Both soil organic carbon and black carbon content decreased with deeper soil ho-rizon in unburned natural forest and severe burned area.Compared with unburned natural forest, the soil organic carbon content at 0-5 cm increased by 41.56%in severe burned area.Soil organic carbon content at 5-10 cm and 10-20 cm hori-zon had little change.Soil black carbon content at 0-5 cm increased by 21.37 g/kg ( p<0.05) , which at 5-10 cm and 10-20 cm increased by 1.25 g/kg and 1.15 g/kg, respectively.However, the increase of soil black carbon in 5-10 cm and 10-20 cm didn’ t reach significant levels.The proportion of soil black carbon to organic carbon was in 14.0%-18.1%in unburned natural forest, and rose first then fell with soil horizon deepening.While the proportion of soil black carbon to organic car-bon in severe burned area was in 17.3%-28.0%and decreased with deeper soil horizon.The proportion of soil black car-bon to organic carbon in severe burned area was higher than that in unburned natural forest.The soil organic carbon content displayed a significant linear correlation with the soil black carbon content in both severe burned and unburned forest ( p<0.01) , which meant soil black carbon played an important role in the immobilization of soil organic carbon in Daxing’ an Mountains forests.%以大兴安岭重度火烧迹地土壤为研究对象,通过对比研究,探讨重度火烧对大兴安岭天然林土壤有机碳和黑碳的影响。结果表明:对照样地和重度火烧迹地的土壤有机碳和黑碳质量分数都随土层深入而降低。与对照样地相比,重度火烧迹地0~5 cm土层土壤有机碳质量分数增加了41.56%,>5~10 cm和>10~20 cm土层有机碳质量分数变化不大。0~5 cm土层黑碳质量分数增加了21.37 g/kg ( p<0.05

  16. Mountain pine beetles and emerging issues in the management of woodland caribou in Westcentral British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Cichowski

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The Tweedsmuir—Entiako caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou herd summers in mountainous terrain in the North Tweedsmuir Park area and winters mainly in low elevation forests in the Entiako area of Westcentral British Columbia. During winter, caribou select mature lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta forests on poor sites and forage primarily by cratering through snow to obtain terrestrial lichens. These forests are subject to frequent large-scale natural disturbance by fire and forest insects. Fire suppression has been effective in reducing large-scale fires in the Entiako area for the last 40—50 years, resulting in a landscape consisting primarily of older lodgepole pine forests, which are susceptible to mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae attack. In 1994, mountain pine beetles were detected in northern Tweedsmuir Park and adjacent managed forests. To date, mountain pine beetles have attacked several hundred thousand hectares of caribou summer and winter range in the vicinity of Tweedsmuir Park, and Entiako Park and Protected Area. Because an attack of this scale is unprecedented on woodland caribou ranges, there is no information available on the effects of mountain pine beetles on caribou movements, habitat use or terrestrial forage lichen abundance. Implications of the mountain pine beetle epidemic to the Tweedsmuir—Entiako woodland caribou population include effects on terrestrial lichen abundance, effects on caribou movement (reduced snow interception, blowdown, and increased forest harvesting outside protected areas for mountain pine beetle salvage. In 2001 we initiated a study to investigate the effects of mountain pine beetles and forest harvesting on terrestrial caribou forage lichens. Preliminary results suggest that the abundance of Cladina spp. has decreased with a corresponding increase in kinnikinnick (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi and other herbaceous plants. Additional studies are required to determine caribou movement and

  17. Resources, tourism and mountain territorial development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Rationale and objectivesThe Journal of Alpine Research is preparing a special issue dedicated to the theme “Resources”, tourism and mountain territorial development.” The objective is to bring together analyses concerning the identification, “invention,” communication and exploitation of territorial resources in development initiatives including tourism in African and European mountainous regions, or beyond. It will particularly stress the capacity of referring to “mountains,” as a generic ca...

  18. On the Mountain Urban Landscape Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU ChunLan

    2009-01-01

    Mountain Urban Landscape Studies is a discipline to research on the formation, evolution and char-acteristics of the urban landscape in mountainous areas. The author has made systematic research on the basic issues of the subject, including the definition of mountain urban landscape studies, its con-notation and denotation, the research scope, research background and significance, research meth-odology, its relationship with landscape architecture, architecture, city planning and other disciplines.

  19. On the Mountain Urban Landscape Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Mountain Urban Landscape Studies is a discipline to research on the formation,evolution and characteristics of the urban landscape in mountainous areas. The author has made systematic research on the basic issues of the subject,including the definition of mountain urban landscape studies,its connotation and denotation,the research scope,research background and significance,research methodology,its relationship with landscape architecture,architecture,city planning and other disciplines.

  20. Location Awareness in a Mountain Rescue Domain

    OpenAIRE

    Georgopoulos, Panagiotis; Edwards, Christopher; Dunmore, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Aiding the efficient collaboration and coordination of rescue teams is a challenging task especially in a heterogeneous mountainous region. Knowing the exact location of the rescuers during a mountain search and rescue mission can be of great value for the successful progress of the mission and help the mission coordinator in taking informed decisions. The devised Location Awareness System can provide, in a quasi real time manner, exact location information of the rescuers on the mountain, to...

  1. A strange and surprising debate: mountains, original sin and 'science' in seventeenth-century England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wragge-Morley, Alexander

    2009-06-01

    It could come as a shock to learn that some seventeenth-century men of science and learning thought that mountains were bad. Even more alarmingly, some thought that God had imposed them on the earth to punish man for his sins. By the end of the seventeenth century, surprisingly many English natural philosophers and theologians were engaged in a debate about whether mountains were 'good' or 'bad', useful or useless. At stake in this debate were not just the careers of its participants, but arguments about the best ways of looking at and reckoning with 'nature' itself.

  2. Fouffeen Mountain Summits:the Dreams and Glory of Chinese Mountaineers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DORJE; DRADUL

    2007-01-01

    As the first mountaineering team to challenge the fourteen world's highest mountain summits,these Chinese mountaineers have finally realized their dream.They are all ethnic Tibetans and have gone through hardship and dangers over the years;some of them have even contributed their lives to the realization of the project.Finally,three of them have accomplished it and set a marvelous record in world mountaineering that is unprecedented.

  3. Cheap Artificial AB-Mountains, Extraction of Water and Energy from Atmosphere and Change of Regional Climate

    CERN Document Server

    Bolonkin, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    Author suggests and researches a new revolutionary method for changing the climates of entire countries or portions thereof, obtaining huge amounts of cheap water and energy from the atmosphere. In this paper is presented the idea of cheap artificial inflatable mountains, which may cardinally change the climate of a large region or country. Additional benefits: The potential of tapping large amounts of fresh water and energy. The mountains are inflatable semi-cylindrical constructions from thin film (gas bags) having heights of up to 3 - 5 km. They are located perpendicular to the main wind direction. Encountering these artificial mountains, humid air (wind) rises to crest altitude, is cooled and produces rain (or rain clouds). Many natural mountains are sources of rivers, and other forms of water and power production - and artificial mountains may provide these services for entire nations in the future. The film of these gasbags is supported at altitude by small additional atmospheric overpressure and may be...

  4. Differences in chanses of potential evaporation in the mountainous and oasis regions of the Tarim basin, northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN SongJun; HU HePing; YANG DaWen; LIU QunChang

    2009-01-01

    Data from eleven meteorological stations in the Tianshan mountains and the north slope of west Kunlun mountains, and eighteen meteorological stations in the Keidu- Kongque river, Akesu river, Kashiger river and Yankant river oases were examined to assess the differences in changes in potential evaporation from 1960 to 2006 in the mountainous and oasis regions of the Tarim basin and the relationships of these changes to meteorological factors. The decreasing trends in potential evaporation were primarily due to the decrease in the aerodynamic terms in both the mountainous and oasis regions, but the trends in the oasis regions were more pronounced. Based on the complementary relationship between potential and actual evaporation, the decreasing trends in potential evaporation appeared to be related to the increasing trends in precipitation in the mountainous regions and the increasing trends in water consumption in the oasis regions, thus reflecting the different impacts of natural changes and anthropogenic influences.

  5. Differences in changes of potential evaporation in the mountainous and oasis regions of the Tarim basin, northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Data from eleven meteorological stations in the Tianshan mountains and the north slope of west Kunlun mountains, and eighteen meteorological stations in the Kaidu-Kongque river, Akesu river, Kashiger river and Yankant river oases were examined to assess the differences in changes in potential evaporation from 1960 to 2006 in the mountainous and oasis regions of the Tarim basin and the relationships of these changes to meteorological factors. The decreasing trends in potential evaporation were primarily due to the decrease in the aerodynamic terms in both the mountainous and oasis regions, but the trends in the oasis regions were more pronounced. Based on the complementary relationship between potential and actual evaporation, the decreasing trends in potential evaporation appeared to be related to the increasing trends in precipitation in the mountainous regions and the increasing trends in water consumption in the oasis regions, thus reflecting the different impacts of natural changes and anthropogenic influences.

  6. Landscape, Mountain Worship and Astronomy in Socaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyano, Ricardo

    The spatiotemporal analysis of mountain worship in the indigenous community of Socaire, Atacama, northern Chile, relates to cultural, geographical, climatic, psychological, and astronomical information gathered from ethno archaeological studies. We identify a system of offerings to the mountains that incorporates concepts such as ceque (straight line), mayllku (mountain lord or ancestor), and pacha (space and time). Here, the mountains on the visible horizon (Tumisa, Lausa, Chiliques, Ipira, and Miñiques) feature as the fingers on the left hand (PAH Triad). This structure regulates annual activities and rituals and sets the basis for the Socaireños' worldview raised on a humanized landscape.

  7. Effect of Long-Term Fertilisation and Amendment on Sub-Alpine Grasslands in the Bucegi Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sebastian Constantinescu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Research carried out at the Mountain Grassland Research Basis of Blana (Bucegi Mountains aimed at improving the grassland of Nardus stricta locate 1,800 m above sea level. Research started in the year 2000 with the establishment of a trial made up of five variants: T – natural grassland (control; A – natural grassland fertilised with NPK; B – natural grassland fertilised with NPK + animal folding; C – natural grassland, amended + fertilised with NPK + animal folding. The paper presents the effect of long-term treatments (applied every single year starting with the year 1995 on dry matter production and on the floristic composition in the year 2011.

  8. A mountain of millipedes I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Twenty new species of the millipede genus Chaleponcus Attems, 1914, are described from the Udzungwa Mountains: C. netus sp. nov., C. quasimodo sp. nov., C. malleolus sp. nov., C. scopus sp. nov., C. nikolajscharffi sp. nov., C. mwanihanensis sp. nov., C. basiliscus sp. nov., C. krai sp. nov., C. ...... and unusual tarsal setation of a few species tentatively suggest adaptive radiation......., they constitute the Chaleponcus dabagaensis-group, well characterized by apparently apomorphic gonopodal characters, presumably monophyletic, and the first example of a major radiation within the Udzungwas. All species are restricted to altitudes >1390 m, all but one were found in only one, rarely two forest...

  9. Cascade Mountain Range in Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrod, David R.

    2016-01-01

    The Cascade mountain system extends from northern California to central British Columbia. In Oregon, it comprises the Cascade Range, which is 260 miles long and, at greatest breadth, 90 miles wide (fig. 1). Oregon’s Cascade Range covers roughly 17,000 square miles, or about 17 percent of the state, an area larger than each of the smallest nine of the fifty United States. The range is bounded on the east by U.S. Highways 97 and 197. On the west it reaches nearly to Interstate 5, forming the eastern margin of the Willamette Valley and, farther south, abutting the Coast Ranges. 

  10. OS X Mountain Lion bible

    CERN Document Server

    Gruman, Galen

    2012-01-01

    The complete guide to Mac OS X, fully updated for the newest release! The Mac's solid, powerful operating system and the exploding popularity of iOS devices are fueling a strong increase in market share for Apple. Previous editions of this book have sold more than 75,000 copies, and this new edition is fully updated with all the exciting features of OS X Mountain Lion, including Game Center, Messages, and Notifications. Written by industry expert Galen Gruman, it covers all the basics and then delves deep into professional and higher-end topics, making it the one book you need to succeed with

  11. Four new tree-ring chronologies from old black pine forests of Sandıras Mountain (Mugla, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Doğan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sandıras Mountain is located in southwest of Gölgeli Mountain, which lies parallel to border of Aegean and Mediterranean Regions, in Southwestern Anatolia. This mountainous area is one of the natural distribution areas of black pine (Pinus nigra Arn. and has the oldest black pine communities in Turkey. Monumental black pine stands and the large number of individual monumental trees can be observed between the 1200 and 2000 m elevations of the mountain (especially north slope of the mountain. In this paper, we present preliminary results of a dendrochronological research on old black pine trees of Sandıras Mountain. Four new tree-ring chronologies were built from upper and lower elevations of south and north slopes of the mountain. The shortest and the longest chronologies were 241 and 820 years-long (obtained from upper elevation of the north slope, respectively. In this research, we record the most sensitive black pine trees (mean sensitivity value is 0.27 of Turkey from the north slope of Sandıras Mountain.

  12. Evaluating the recreation potential of Ilgaz Mountain National Park in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Mehmet; Sevik, Hakan

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, natural areas have become a preferred recreation area for people looking to escape their busy urban lives. The world has become so complicated that people now seek solace in areas of nature. Recreational activities conducted in natural areas, such as Ilgaz Mountain National Park, should be respectful of the environment to ensure balance and no negative environmental impact. This balance should safeguard environmental protection and only be used with the right to establish recreation planning. National parks are protected areas where the most beautiful wonders of nature exist. Thus, urban planning for recreation, and demand for recreation areas, must demonstrate both the potential of recreation resources and the protection of Ilgaz Mountain National Park. Urban open and green spaces have an important function, and in this study, it has been looked at Ilgaz Mountain National Park to examine the current situation. The aim of this study is to ensure the sustainability of natural and cultural resources via an evaluation to reveal the necessary practices and precautions regarding the area's recreational potential. As a result, Ilgaz Mountain National Park's recreation potential was found to be 72 %, and thus, it is considered to be an area of high recreation potential.

  13. Lessons from a 5 yr citizen-science monitoring program, Mountain Watch, to engage hikers in air quality/visibility and plant phenology monitoring in the mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, G.; Weihrauch, D.; Kimball, K.; McDonough, C.

    2010-12-01

    The AMC’s citizen scientist monitoring program, Mountain Watch, engages hikers in observational monitoring while recreating in the northern Appalachian Mountains. The program uses two monitoring activities:1) tracking the phenology of 11 mountain flowers species, and 2) the visitors real world perception of on-mountain visibility and its ‘quality’ with proximate monitored air quality parameters. The Mountain Watch program objectives are a) to engage and educate the public through hands-on monitoring, b) to motivate the participant to take further action towards environmental stewardship, and c) to provide supplemental data to AMC’s ongoing science-based research to further our understanding of the impact of human activity on mountain ecosystems. The Mountain Watch plant monitoring includes recording the time and location of alpine and forest plants flowering and other phenological phases using AMC field guides and datasheets. In the White Mountains of New Hampshire concurrent meteorological data, including soil temperature, is paired with the phenology observations as part of AMC’s research to develop spatial and temporal phenology models with air and soil temperature for northeastern mountains. Mountain Watch’s visibility monitoring program has hikers record visual range and rate the view at select vistas in comparison to a clear day view photo guide when visiting AMC’s backcountry huts. The results are compared to proximate air quality measurements, which assists in determining how White Mountain National Forest air quality related values and natural resources management objectives are being met. Since 2006 the Mountain Watch program has received over 3,500 citizen datasheets for plant reproductive phenology and visibility monitoring. We estimate that we have reached more than 15,000 hikers through our facility based education programming focused on air quality and phenology and field monitoring hikes. While we consider this good success in engaging

  14. Changes in the Mountain Cryosphere and Potential Risks to Downstream Communities: Insights from the Indian Himalayan Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Simon; Ballesteros, Juan Antonio; Huggel, Christian; Linsbauer, Andreas; Mal, Suraj; Singh Rana, Ranbir; Singh Randhawa, Surjeet; Ruiz-Villanueva, Virginia; Salzmann, Nadine; Singh Samant, Sher; Stoffel, Markus

    2017-04-01

    Mountain environments around the world are often considered to be amongst the most sensitive to the impacts of climate change. For people living in mountain communities, there are clear challenges to be faced as their livelihoods and subsistence are directly dependent on their surrounding natural environment. But what of the wider implications for societies and large urban settlements living downstream - why should they care about the climate-driven changes occurring potentially hundreds of kilometers away in the snow and ice capped mountains? In this contribution we address this question, drawing on studies and experiences gained within joint Indo-Swiss research collaborations focused on the Indian Himalayan states of Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand. With the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change currently embarking on the scoping of their 6th Assessment Cycle, which includes a planned Special Report on Oceans and the Cryosphere, this contribution provides a timely reminder of the importance of mountain regions, and potential far-reaching consequences of changes in the mountain cryosphere. Our studies highlight several key themes which link the mountain environment to the lowland populated areas, including the role of the mountain cryosphere as a water source, far-reaching hazards and disasters that can originate from mountain regions, the role of mountains in providing essential ecosystem services, the economic importance of tourism in mountain regions, and the importance of transportation routes which pass through mountain environments. These themes are intricately linked, as for example demonstrated during the 2013 Uttarakhand flood disaster where many of the approximately 6000 fatalities were tourists visiting high mountain pilgrimage sites. As a consequence of the disaster, tourists stayed away during subsequent seasons with significant economic impacts felt across the State. In Himachal Pradesh, a key national transportation corridor is the Rohtang pass

  15. Report on the Status of the Cheat Mountain Salamander in the Cabin Mountain Area of West Virginia 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This outlines the results of field surveys that were conducted for the Cheat Mountain salamander on the Kelley property on three mountains in the Cabin Mountain area...

  16. Fractal analysis in digital cartographic modeling of Miroč mountain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valjarević Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Miroc is a mountain in Eastern Serbia placed between Donji Milanovac and Tekija in Negotinska Krajina. The highest mountain summit is Veliki Strbac, 768 metres above sea level. Miroc is the most protruding part of Eastern Serbia and the most western part of the Djerdap Mountain Massive. The mountain is surrounded by the Danube from all the sides. Miroc Mountain, Veliki and Mali Srbac, the Danube River, the Djerdap Gorge, Veliki and Mali Kazan are the real place of world permeation both on land and in the water. This embraces the territory of nearly 500 km2. Fractal Geometry is a sort of new language used for describing, modeling or analyzing complex shapes in nature. A fractal is a diminished unity copy; the type that resembles itself. The work objective is to show the possibility of using computer analyses as well as the programme languages Python, C++, GIS software, Global Mapper 15.2 and QGIS/a in the example of Miroc Mountain morphometric features. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176008 i br. III44006

  17. 27 CFR 9.213 - Snipes Mountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Snipes Mountain. 9.213... Snipes Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Snipes Mountain”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Snipes Mountain” is a term of viticultural...

  18. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Charles R

    2013-04-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is typically undifferentiated from many other infections in the first few days of illness. Treatment should not be delayed pending confirmation of infection when Rocky Mountain spotted fever is suspected. Doxycycline is the drug of choice even for infants and children less than 8 years old.

  19. 36 CFR 13.910 - Mountain climbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mountain climbing. 13.910 Section 13.910 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Provisions § 13.910 Mountain climbing. (a) Climbing Mount McKinley or Mount Foraker without a permit...

  20. Summiteers--Moving Mountains with Bereaved Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Hans-Georg

    2011-01-01

    Summiteers are people who rush to the top. There is a mountain summit and a metaphorical summit inside us which we can climb. In the area of mountain summits, Reinhold Messner is surely the best known and most successful summiteer. He climbed, among other things, the highest peak on earth without supplemental oxygen. In the language of the country…

  1. 27 CFR 9.205 - Chehalem Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chehalem Mountains. 9.205... Chehalem Mountains. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Chehalem Mountains”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Chehalem Mountains” is a term of...

  2. The mountain vegetation of South Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montesinos-Tubée, D.B.

    2016-01-01

    THE MOUNTAIN VEGETATION OF SOUTH PERU: SYNTAXONOMY, ECOLOGY, PHYTOGEOGRAPHY AND CONSERVATION This thesis presents an overview and revision of plant communities from xerophytic and mountain landscapes in the dry Andes of South Peru. The revision is based on comparison of the collecte

  3. Can wolves help save Japan's mountain forests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber-meyer, Shannon

    2017-01-01

    Japan’s wolves were extinct by 1905. Today Japan's mountain forests are being killed by overabundant sika deer and wild boars. Since the early 1990s, the Japan Wolf Association has proposed wolf reintroduction to Japan to restore rural ecology and to return a culturally important animal. In this article I discuss whether the return of wolves could help save Japan's mountain forests.

  4. A Report from Great Smoky Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋瑾

    2008-01-01

    This is a report from Great Smoky Mountain. From this report, I will tell you a story about me and my team. After ten years of hardworking, we made some achievements in Branson, Missouri in America, and then we turned to Great Smoky Mountain for another business. To my group and me, itis like a legend.

  5. The Bauhaus and Black Mountain College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellert, JoAnn C.

    1972-01-01

    In view of the sixteen-year tenure (1933-1949) at Black Mountain College of Josef Albers, a former Bauhaus Master, and his wife, Anni, a Bauhaus graduate and teacher, exploration of the influence of the Bauhaus on this small, progressive, art-centered college in the mountains of North Carolina is warrented. (Author)

  6. The mountain vegetation of South Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montesinos-Tubée, D.B.

    2016-01-01

    THE MOUNTAIN VEGETATION OF SOUTH PERU: SYNTAXONOMY, ECOLOGY, PHYTOGEOGRAPHY AND CONSERVATION This thesis presents an overview and revision of plant communities from xerophytic and mountain landscapes in the dry Andes of South Peru. The revision is based on comparison of the

  7. 78 FR 29366 - Green Mountain Power Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Green Mountain Power Corporation Notice of Filing Take notice that on May 2, 2013, Green Mountain Power Corporation filed additional information in support of its request...

  8. The effect of mountain wind on the falling snow deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengshi; Huang, Ning

    2017-04-01

    The air-flow over morphologic prominence is of vital importance for the temporal and spatial variations of snow distribution, which may further affect the hydrological cycle, climate system, ecological evolution as well as other natural processes. Most previous studies have neglected the effect of non-uniform mountain wind on the trajectory of falling snow particle and thus the uneven snow distribution over complex terrain is little known. Here in this paper, we carry out a numerical study on the deposition process of mixed grain size snow particles over mountain terrains. A three-dimensional large eddy simulation (LES) code is used to predict the wind field and the fluid-solid coupling effect is considered, the Lagrangian particle tracking method is employed to track the movement of each falling snow particle. Our results suggest the boundary layer flow over steep slopes or complex terrains exhibits obvious uneven characteristics. The mountain wind has obvious effect on the motion of snow particles and finally results in a non-uniform distribution of snow. This research is of significance to understand the evolution of high resolution snow distribution in cold highland areas.

  9. Energy in the Mountain West: Colonialism and Independence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Piet; Lloyd Brown; Robert Cherry; Craig Cooper; Harold Heydt; Richard Holman; Travis McLing

    2007-08-01

    In many ways, the mountain west (Alaska, Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, New Mexico, Nevada, Utah, Wyoming) is an energy colony for the rest of the United States: it is rich in energy resources that are extracted to fuel economic growth in the wealthier and more populous coastal regions. Federal agencies and global corporations often behave as if the mountain west is a place to be exploited or managed for the benefit of customers and consumers elsewhere. Yet, the area. is not vast empty space with a limitless supply of natural resources, but rather a fast-growing region with a diverse economic base dependent on a limited supply of water. New decision processes and collaborations are slowly changing this situation, but in a piecemeal fashion that places local communities at odds with powerful external interests. Proper planning of major development is needed to insure that the west has a strong economic and cultural future after the fossil energy resources decline, even if that might be a century from now. To encourage the necessary public discussions, this paper identifies key differences between the mountain west and the rest of the United States and suggests some holistic approaches that could improve our future. This paper is designed to provoke thought and discussion; it does not report new analyses on energy resources or usage. It is a summary of a large group effort.

  10. Flash floods in the Tatra Mountain streams: frequency and triggers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros-Cánovas, J A; Czajka, B; Janecka, K; Lempa, M; Kaczka, R J; Stoffel, M

    2015-04-01

    Flash floods represent a frequently recurring natural phenomenon in the Tatra Mountains. On the northern slopes of the mountain chain, located in Poland, ongoing and expected future changes in climate are thought to further increase the adverse impacts of flash floods. Despite the repeat occurrence of major floods in the densely populated foothills of the Polish Tatras, the headwaters have been characterized by a surprising lack of data, such that any analysis of process variability or hydrometeorological triggers has been largely hampered so far. In this study, dendrogeomorphic techniques have been employed in four poorly-gauged torrential streams of the northern slope of the Tatra Mountains to reconstruct temporal and spatial patterns of past events. Using more than 1100 increment cores of trees injured by past flash floods, we reconstruct 47 events covering the last 148 years and discuss synoptic situations leading to the triggering of flash floods with the existing meteorological and flow gauge data. Tree-ring analyses have allowed highlighting the seasonality of events, providing new insights about potential hydrometeorological triggers as well as a differentiating flash flood activity between catchments. Results of this study could be useful to design future strategies to deal with flash flood risks at the foothills of the Polish Tatras and in the Vistula River catchment.

  11. Extinct mountain goat ( Oreamnos harringtoni) in Southeastern Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Jim I.; Agenbroad, Larry D.; Phillips, Arthur M.; Middleton, Larry T.

    1987-05-01

    The extinct Harrington's mountain goat ( Oreamnos harringtoni Stock) is predominantly known from dry cave localities in the Grand Canyon, Arizona, in addition to two sites in the Great Basin, Nevada, and from San Josecito Cave, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. A dry shelter in Natural Bridges National Monument, on the central Colorado Plateau, southeastern Utah, preserves numerous remains of the extinct mountain goat in addition to pack rat middens. Remains from a 100-cm stratigraphic profile indicate that O. harringtoni lived on the plateau >39,800 yr B.P., the oldest directly dated find of extinct mountain goat. Plant macrofossils indicate that Engelmann's spruce ( Picea engelmannii), limber pine ( Pinus flexilis), rose ( Rosa cf. woodsii), and Douglas fir ( Pseudotsuga menziesii) grew during the late Pleistocene where a riparian and a pinyon-juniper ( Pinus edulis-Juniperus osteosperma) community now predominates; Douglas fir are found only in mesic, protected, north-facing areas. Limber pine, Douglas fir, bark, and grasses were the major dietary components in the dung. A springtime diet of birch ( Betula) is determined from pollen clumps in dung pellets.

  12. Small fishes crossed a large mountain range: Quaternary stream capture events and freshwater fishes on both sides of the Taebaek Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daemin; Hirt, M Vincent; Simons, Andrew M; Won, Yong-Jin

    2016-08-31

    The Taebaek Mountains in South Korea serves as the most apparent biogeographic barrier for South Korean freshwater fishes, resulting in two distinct ichthyofaunal assemblages on the eastern (East/Japan Sea slope) and western (Yellow Sea and Korea Strait slopes) sides of the mountain range. Of nearly 100 species of native primary freshwater fishes in South Korea, only 18 species occur naturally on both sides of the mountain range. Interestingly, there are five rheophilic species (Phoxinus phoxinus, Coreoleuciscus splendidus, Ladislavia taczanowskii, Iksookimia koreensis and Koreocobitis rotundicaudata) found on both sides of the Taebaek Mountains that are geographically restricted to the Osip River (and several neighboring rivers, for L. taczanowskii and I. koreensis) on the eastern side of the mountain range. The Osip River and its neighboring rivers also shared a rheophilic freshwater fish, Liobagrus mediadiposalis, with the Nakdong River on the western side of the mountain range. We assessed historical biogeographic hypotheses on the presence of these rheophilic fishes, utilizing DNA sequence data from the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Results of our divergence time estimation indicate that ichthyofaunal transfers into the Osip River (and several neighboring rivers in East Sea slope) have occurred from the Han (Yellow Sea slope) and Nakdong (Korea Strait slope) rivers since the late-Pleistocene. The inferred divergence times for the ichthyofaunal transfer across the Taebaek Mountains were consistent with the timing of hypothesized multiple reactivations of the Osip River Fault (late-Pleistocene), suggesting that the Osip River Fault reactivations may have caused stream capture events, followed by ichthyofaunal transfer, not only between the Osip and Nakdong rivers, but also between the Osip and Han rivers. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Mountain coniferous forests, refugia and butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Zoltán

    2008-05-01

    The boreal coniferous forests form the most extended vegetation zone of the Northern Hemisphere. As opposed to North America, they are disconnected from the mountain coniferous forests in Europe, because of the dominant east-west direction of the mountain chains. Consequently, the mountain forests show some unique characteristic features of glacial survival and postglacial history, as well. The mountain coniferous forests have numerous common floral and faunal elements with the boreal zone. However, the few unique faunal elements of the European mountain coniferous forests can be used to unravel the peculiar patterns and processes of this biome. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Thomas Schmitt and Karola Haubrich (2008) use the relatively common and taxonomically well-studied butterfly, the large ringlet (Erebia euryale) to identify the last glacial refugia and postglacial expansion routes.

  14. Ecological response to the climate change on the northern slope of the Tianshan Mountains in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xi; LUO Geping; XIA Jun; ZHOU Kefa; LOU Shaoping; YE Minquan

    2005-01-01

    The Tianshan Mountains is a high and huge mountain body lying across the central part of Xinjiang, China, and is also the main area where the runoff forms in Xinjiang. In this paper, a set of RS-based study methods is put forward for deriving the information about the natural change of the ecology in arid areas, and the relationship between the climate change trend and the corresponding ecological response on the northern slope of the Tianshan Mountains since recent 40 years is analyzed from the scales of the land cover ecosystems and landscapes based on the observed data of climate, hydrology, modern glaciers and lakes on the northern slopes of the Tianshan Mountains since recent 40 years and the satellite RS data since recent 10 years by using the RS and GIS technologies. The results are as follows: (1) The overall trend of climate change on the northern slope of the Tianshan Mountains since recent 40 years is that both air temperature and precipitation are increased, especially the increase amplitudes of air temperature, precipitation and annual runoff volume are high since the decade of the 1990s; (2) the integrated indexes of the vegetation in all the geographical divisions on the northern slope of the Tianshan Mountains are obviously increased since recent 10 years, especially in the artificial oases and the foothill belts, such a change trend is advantageous for improving the vegetation ecology; and (3) the vegetation ecology in the arid areas is extremely sensitive to the climate change, the vegetation coverage and the biomass on the northern slope of the Tianshan Mountains are continuously increased because of the climate change since recent 10 years, their increase amplitudes in the plains and during the late stage are obviously higher than that in the mountainous regions and during the early stage.

  15. Changes in vegetation cover and composition in the Swedish mountain region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedenås, Henrik; Christensen, Pernilla; Svensson, Johan

    2016-08-01

    Climate change, higher levels of natural resource demands, and changing land use will likely lead to changes in vegetation configuration in the mountain regions. The aim of this study was to determine if the vegetation cover and composition have changed in the Swedish region of the Scandinavian Mountain Range, based on data from the long-term landscape biodiversity monitoring program NILS (National Inventory of Landscapes in Sweden). Habitat type and vegetation cover were assessed in 1740 systematically distributed permanent field plots grouped into 145 sample units across the mountain range. Horvitz-Thompson estimations were used to estimate the present areal extension of the alpine and the mountain birch forest areas of the mountain range, the cover of trees, shrubs, and plants, and the composition of the bottom layer vegetation. We employed the data from two subsequent 5-year monitoring periods, 2003-2007 and 2008-2012, to determine if there have been any changes in these characteristics. We found that the extension of the alpine and the mountain birch forest areas has not changed between the inventory phases. However, the total tree canopy cover increased in the alpine area, the cover of graminoids and dwarf shrubs and the total cover of field vegetation increased in both the alpine area and the mountain birch forest, the bryophytes decreased in the alpine area, and the foliose lichens decreased in the mountain birch forest. The observed changes in vegetation cover and composition, as assessed by systematic data in a national and regional monitoring scheme, can validate the results of local studies, experimental studies, and models. Through benchmark assessments, monitoring data also contributes to governmental policies and land-management strategies as well as to directed cause and effect analyses.

  16. Vertical patterns of the flora of seed plants in Dawei Mountain in Yunnan Province, Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Juan; Ma Qin-yan; Du Fan; Yang Yu-ming

    2007-01-01

    Vertical gradients incorporate multiple resources gradients which vary continuously. Therefore, research on mountain floristic patterns along vertical gradients is important to reveal regular patterns of the flora along environmental gradients and to understand the changes in biodiversity along these gradients and their biological fitness. This study was designed to explore the characteristics of the floral compositions and ecological significance of floristic patterns along the vertical gradients of the National Nature Reserve of Dawei Mountain, located in the southeast of Yunnan Province. We analyzed the structural characteristics of the flora and the distribution patterns of its floristic components as a function of elevation on the basis of our field investigations along vertical vegetation transects. We carried out a systematic cluster analysis in order to determine the dividing line of floristic changes by elevation along gradients and studied the effects of mountain climate on the vertical variation of floristic composition. The study shows: 1)that the obvious boundary, which differentiates tropical distribution, is located at an elevation of approximately 1,500 m, which separates the tropical rain forests from the evergreen broad-leaved forests; 2) that humid rain forests are found below 700 m elevation,mountain rain forests between 700 and 1,500 m, monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forests between 1,300 and 1,800 m and mountain mossy evergreen broad-leaved forests above 1,800 m. Non-representative mountain mossy dwarf forests (above 2,100 m) in the area are found on the windward sides and barren lands on mountain slopes; 3) that Hopea mollissima is one of the major component species of mountain rain forests, but it should not be considered as the major indicator species in humid rain forests as is generally accepted.

  17. NaturAnalogs for the Unsaturated Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Simmons; A. Unger; M. Murrell

    2000-03-08

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document natural and anthropogenic (human-induced) analog sites and processes that are applicable to flow and transport processes expected to occur at the potential Yucca Mountain repository in order to build increased confidence in modeling processes of Unsaturated Zone (UZ) flow and transport. This AMR was prepared in accordance with ''AMR Development Plan for U0135, Natural Analogs for the UZ'' (CRWMS 1999a). Knowledge from analog sites and processes is used as corroborating information to test and build confidence in flow and transport models of Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This AMR supports the Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR) and the Yucca Mountain Site Description. The objectives of this AMR are to test and build confidence in the representation of UZ processes in numerical models utilized in the UZ Flow and Transport Model. This is accomplished by: (1) applying data from Boxy Canyon, Idaho in simulations of UZ flow using the same methodologies incorporated in the Yucca Mountain UZ Flow and Transport Model to assess the fracture-matrix interaction conceptual model; (2) Providing a preliminary basis for analysis of radionuclide transport at Pena Blanca, Mexico as an analog of radionuclide transport at Yucca Mountain; and (3) Synthesizing existing information from natural analog studies to provide corroborating evidence for representation of ambient and thermally coupled UZ flow and transport processes in the UZ Model.

  18. A sightability model for mountain goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, C.G.; Jenkins, K.J.; Chang, W.-Y.

    2009-01-01

    Unbiased estimates of mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) populations are key to meeting diverse harvest management and conservation objectives. We developed logistic regression models of factors influencing sightability of mountain goat groups during helicopter surveys throughout the Cascades and Olympic Ranges in western Washington during summers, 20042007. We conducted 205 trials of the ability of aerial survey crews to detect groups of mountain goats whose presence was known based on simultaneous direct observation from the ground (n 84), Global Positioning System (GPS) telemetry (n 115), or both (n 6). Aerial survey crews detected 77 and 79 of all groups known to be present based on ground observers and GPS collars, respectively. The best models indicated that sightability of mountain goat groups was a function of the number of mountain goats in a group, presence of terrain obstruction, and extent of overstory vegetation. Aerial counts of mountain goats within groups did not differ greatly from known group sizes, indicating that under-counting bias within detected groups of mountain goats was small. We applied HorvitzThompson-like sightability adjustments to 1,139 groups of mountain goats observed in the Cascade and Olympic ranges, Washington, USA, from 2004 to 2007. Estimated mean sightability of individual animals was 85 but ranged 0.750.91 in areas with low and high sightability, respectively. Simulations of mountain goat surveys indicated that precision of population estimates adjusted for sightability biases increased with population size and number of replicate surveys, providing general guidance for the design of future surveys. Because survey conditions, group sizes, and habitat occupied by goats vary among surveys, we recommend using sightability correction methods to decrease bias in population estimates from aerial surveys of mountain goats.

  19. Floristic study of Cheondeungsan Mountain in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ro-Young Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of native plants of Cheondeungsan Mountain (807 m, N 37°05'00“–37°05'30”, E 128°00'0“–128°02'0” in Chungcheongbuk-do was determined and the major flora were identified. During field investigations carried out from May 2011 to October 2011, 87 families, 254 genera, and 369 taxonomic groups (327 species, 4 subspecies, 33 varieties, and 5 forms were confirmed, and the distribution of 219 taxonomic groups was discovered for the first time. The distribution of four endemic plants of Korea, including Ajuga spectabilis Nakai and Salvia chanryoenica Nakai, and that of Penthorum chinense Pursh, a Grade V specific plant species, was found. There were 20 taxa of naturalized plants at Cheondeungsan; the growth and development of plants that are harmful to the ecosystem, such as Ambrosia artemisiifolia L., Ambrosia trifida L., Eupatorium rugosum Houtt., and Aster pilosus Willd., was observed around the forest paths and lowlands.

  20. Developing consistent scenarios to assess flood hazards in mountain streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzorana, B; Comiti, F; Scherer, C; Fuchs, S

    2012-02-01

    The characterizing feature of extreme events in steep mountain streams is the multiplicity of possible tipping process patterns such as those involving sudden morphological changes due to intense local erosion, aggradation as well as clogging of critical flow sections due to wood accumulations. Resolving a substantial part of the uncertainties underlying these hydrological cause-effect chains is a major challenge for flood risk management. Our contribution is from a methodological perspective based on an expert-based methodology to unfold natural hazard process scenarios in mountain streams to retrace their probabilistic structure. As a first step we set up a convenient system representation for natural hazard process routing. In this setting, as a second step, we proceed deriving the possible and thus consistent natural hazard process patterns by means of Formative Scenario Analysis. In a last step, hazard assessment is refined by providing, through expert elicitation, the spatial probabilistic structure of individual scenario trajectories. As complement to the theory the applicability of the method is shown through embedded examples. To conclude we discuss the major advantages of the presented methodological approach for hazard assessment compared to traditional approaches, and with respect to the risk governance process.

  1. Forest cutting and regeneration methodology on Changbai Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAILi-min; SHAOGuo-fan; CHENGao; LIUXin-shuang; GUANZhi-peng; LIYang

    2003-01-01

    This paper discussed the characteristics of degenerated forest ecosystems in Changbai Mountain area,which include over-harvest natural forest,typical secondary forest,derived forest,and artificial forest.Forest cutting and regeneration methods that were historically used in the region were summarized.They lnclude diameter-class selective cutting,clearcutting,upbringing selective cutting,and selective sutting.We proposed cutting methods for the broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest,spruce-fir forest,and larch forest.The measures for restoring the original mixed forest ecosystems were recommended.

  2. Alien Roadside Species More Easily Invade Alpine than Lowland Plant Communities in a Subarctic Mountain Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembrechts, Jonas J.; Milbau, Ann; Nijs, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Effects of roads on plant communities are not well known in cold-climate mountain ecosystems, where road building and development are expected to increase in future decades. Knowledge of the sensitivity of mountain plant communities to disturbance by roads is however important for future conservation purposes. We investigate the effects of roads on species richness and composition, including the plant strategies that are most affected, along three elevational gradients in a subarctic mountain ecosystem. We also examine whether mountain roads promote the introduction and invasion of alien plant species from the lowlands to the alpine zone. Observations of plant community composition were made together with abiotic, biotic and anthropogenic factors in 60 T-shaped transects. Alpine plant communities reacted differently to road disturbances than their lowland counterparts. On high elevations, the roadside species composition was more similar to that of the local natural communities. Less competitive and ruderal species were present at high compared with lower elevation roadsides. While the effects of roads thus seem to be mitigated in the alpine environment for plant species in general, mountain plant communities are more invasible than lowland communities. More precisely, relatively more alien species present in the roadside were found to invade into the surrounding natural community at high compared to low elevations. We conclude that effects of roads and introduction of alien species in lowlands cannot simply be extrapolated to the alpine and subarctic environment. PMID:24586947

  3. Soil quality and productivity responses to watershed restoration in the Ouachita mountains of Arkansas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Stanturf; Daniel A. Marion; Martin Spetich; Kenneth Luckow; James M. Guldin; Hal O. Liechty; Calvin E. Meier

    2000-01-01

    The Ouachita Mountains Ecosystem Management Research Project (OEMP) is a large interdisciplinary research project designed to provide the scientific foundation for landscape management at the scale of watersheds. The OEMP has progressed through three phases: developing natural regeneration alternatives to clearcutting and planting; testing of these alternatives at the...

  4. An attempt to restore a central European species-rich mountain grassland through grazing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matejkova, [No Value; van Diggelen, R; Prach, K

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the effects of re-establishing seasonal cattle grazing by 0.7 animal.ha(-1) on vegetation in a long-term abandoned, and partly degraded, semi-natural mountain pasture in the Sumava National Park, Czech Republic. There was very uneven grazing intensity inside the locality, and gr

  5. THE EFFECTS OF ELEVATED METALS ON BENTHIC COMMUNITY METABOLISM IN A ROCKY MOUNTAIN STREAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of elevated metals (dissolved Zn, Mn and/or Fe) in a Rocky Mountain stream were assessed using measures of primary productivity, community respiration and water-column toxicity. Primary productivity was measured as rates of O2 evolution from natural substrates incubat...

  6. [Genetic control of Silver fir isozymes (Abies alba Mill.) of the Ukrainian Carpathian Mountains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshikov, I I; Morozova, N N; Pirko, Ia V

    2003-01-01

    Genetic control of GOT, GDH, DIA, MDH, ME, SOD, FDH, ADH, ACP, LAP enzymes has been studied in the seed megagametophytes of Silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) from four natural populations of the Ukrainian Carpathian mountains. The distinct electrophoretic division has been obtained for the 21 loci products. The analysis of allele segregation in the heterozygous trees confirms monogenic inheritance of the revealed variants.

  7. [Genetic control of the isoenzymes in Cembra pine (Pinus cembra L.) in the Ukrainian Carpathian Mountains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirko, Ia V; Korshikov, I I

    2001-01-01

    Genetic control of GOT, GDH, DIA, MDH, SOD, FDH, ADH, ACP, and LAP enzymes was studied in the seed megagametophytes of cembra pine (Pinus cembra L.) from the natural population of the Ukrainian Carpa-thian mountains. Efficient electrophoretic separation was obtained for 21 loci products. The analysis of allele segregation in heterozygous trees confirms monogenic inheritance of the revealed variants.

  8. Exposure to Sumas Mountain chrysotile induces similar gene expression changes as Libby Amphibole but has greater effect on long-term pathology and lung function

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to provide understanding of the toxicity of naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) including Libby amphibole (LA), Sumas Mountain chrysotile (SM), El Dorado Hills tremolite (ED) and Ontario ferroactinolite cleavage fragments (ON). Rat-respirable fractions (aer...

  9. A Report on a Breeding Landbird Survey at the Putney Mountain Unit of the Silvio O. Conte National Fish and Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During the spring of 2000, the Vermont Institute of Natural Science (VINS) conducted its first breeding landbird survey at the Putney Mountain Unit (Tract 15) of the...

  10. Late glacial aridity in southern Rocky Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, O.K.; Pitblado, B.L. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1995-09-01

    While the slopes of the present-day Colorado Rocky Mountains are characterized by large stands of subalpine and montane conifers, the Rockies of the late glacial looked dramatically different. Specifically, pollen records suggest that during the late glacial, Artemisia and Gramineae predominated throughout the mountains of Colorado. At some point between 11,000 and 10,000 B.P., however, both Artemisia and grasses underwent a dramatic decline, which can be identified in virtually every pollen diagram produced for Colorado mountain sites, including Como Lake (Sangre de Cristo Mountains), Copley Lake and Splains; Gulch (near Crested Butte), Molas Lake (San Juan Mountains), and Redrock Lake (Boulder County). Moreover, the same pattern seems to hold for pollen spectra derived for areas adjacent to Colorado, including at sites in the Chuska Mountains of New Mexico and in eastern Wyoming. The implications of this consistent finding are compelling. The closest modem analogues to the Artemisia- and Gramineae-dominated late-glacial Colorado Rockies are found in the relatively arid northern Great Basin, which suggests that annual precipitation was much lower in the late-glacial southern Rocky Mountains than it was throughout the Holocene.

  11. Mountains Move Up the European Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin F. Price

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mountain areas cover a significant proportion of the European continent. Within the European Union (EU, many of the newest Member States have particularly high proportions of mountainous land. Ongoing debates in the EU relate to perceptions of mountains as being “handicapped” or marginalized versus having specific development opportunities, and to the challenges of climate change and other global changes. In 2015 and 2016, these issues have been highlighted by the European Parliament and through the publication of a strategic research agenda by the Swiss–Austrian Alliance.

  12. Periglacial landforms in the Pohorje Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Natek

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to the well-studied Pleistocene glaciation, periglacial phenomena in Slovenia have been given less scientific attention because they are not particularly evident in high mountains due to prevailing carbonate rocks. This, however, is not the case in the Pohorje Mountains: built of igneous and metamorphic rocks, it was not glaciated due to its insufficient elevation, but was subject to periglacial processes. In the article, some of the periglacial landforms of the Pohorje Mountains are presented for the first time, especially nivation hollows in the uppermost zone, and the Jezerc cirque where a smaller glacier, unknown until recently, existed at the peak of the glaciation.

  13. Location awareness in a mountain rescue domain

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The notion of location awareness in a Mountain Rescue domain is critical for the mission coordinator of a Mountain Rescue Team who tries to organize the team and make informed decisions for all its members. The knowledge of location of each member of the team while they are on a mission, could be provided by sending GPS coordinates from a device that each rescue worker would carry, to the server of the team located at its headquarters. The physical characteristics of the Mountain Rescue domai...

  14. Hydraulics and morphology of mountain rivers; literature survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieben, J.

    1993-01-01

    Present knowledge on fluvial processes in mountain rivers should be expanded to enable the development of projects dealing with mountain rivers or mountain-river catchment areas. This study reviews research on hydraulic and morphological features of mountain rivers. A major characteristic of mountai

  15. GUMNET - A new subsurface observatory in the Guadarrama Mountains, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, V.

    2012-04-01

    This year GUadarrama Monintoring NETwork Initiative (GUMNET), a highly interdisciplinary group of scientists was funded for setting up an observational network in the Sierra de Guadarrama north of Madrid. This mountain range is part of the central system, and reaches maximal heights more than 2400 m. It is regarded as a zone of regionally high meteorological, climatological, and environmental significance. The monitoring network aims at long-term meteorological, climatological, and environmental observations. Though primarily targeting the experimental investigation of atmosphere-land interactions in mountainous areas, it will provide an unique environment for a wide spectrum of scientific investigations. The network comprises a large number of meteorological and environmental observation sites, concentrated in, but not restricted to, the area of the Peñalara Natural Park. In particular, several (up to 6) of these complete meteorological observation sites will be complemented by shallow (20 m) boreholes, where temperature and soil moisture are monitored. Additionally, there will be the opportunity to do (repeated) temperature logging in deeper boreholes (up to 700 m) on a profile across the mountain range, which were drilled several years ago as part of the pre-site investigations for the nearly 30 km long Guadarrama railway tunnel. This initiative is part of the Moncloa Campus (http://www.campusmoncloa.es/en/), and comprises groups from the Complutense (UCM) and Polytechnic (UPM) universities of Madrid, Spain's State Meteorological Agency (AEMET), the CIEMAT research center, and the Peñalara Natural Park. However, most of the data will be available to the scientific community, and interested researchers will be welcome to use this framework for their own research.

  16. Annotated checklist and database for vascular plants of the Jemez Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foxx, T. S.; Pierce, L.; Tierney, G. D.; Hansen, L. A.

    1998-03-01

    Studies done in the last 40 years have provided information to construct a checklist of the Jemez Mountains. The present database and checklist builds on the basic list compiled by Teralene Foxx and Gail Tierney in the early 1980s. The checklist is annotated with taxonomic information, geographic and biological information, economic uses, wildlife cover, revegetation potential, and ethnographic uses. There are nearly 1000 species that have been noted for the Jemez Mountains. This list is cross-referenced with the US Department of Agriculture Natural Resource Conservation Service PLANTS database species names and acronyms. All information will soon be available on a Web Page.

  17. Biomass distribution patterns of ecotones between forest and swamp in Changbai Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper studied the biomass distribution patterns of Larix olgensis/swamp ecotones and Betula platyphlla/swamp ecotones in Changbai Mountain so as to provide theory foundation for the management of these nature resources, by setting up sample belts, investigating initial data along the environmental gradients change, and establishing regression models. By means of regression models, the biomass of communities, layers, tree species and organs was calculated. In this system, it was found that the community biomass increased gradually along the environmental gradients change from swamp to forest in Changbai Mountain. Furthermore, the ecotoneal biomass distributed mainly over tree layer. The tree biomass distributed mainly in two or three dominate tree species.

  18. 七姊妹山自然保护区黄杉年龄胸径树高的相关性研究%Study on the Correlation among Age,DBH and Tree Height of the Pseudotsuga sinensis in Qizimei Mountain Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊斌梅; 汪正祥; 李中强; 张娥; 田凯; 李亭亭; 李泽; 宋春禄

    2016-01-01

    为深入探究林木的生长规律、更好地保护珍稀树种,对七姊妹山黄杉群落进行了调查。选用7种常见的回归模型对黄杉的胸径-年龄、树高-年龄、树高-胸径之间关系进行分析。结果显示:黄杉的胸径、树高与树龄成正相关,树高与胸径也成正相关,三次曲线模型可以很好地表达黄杉胸径-年龄和树高-年龄关系,表达式为:y =-0.0001x3+0.011x2+0.179x +4.44及 z =0.00007x3-0.015x2+1.105x -10.81;幂函数 z =1.778y0.659是描述黄杉树高-胸径关系的最优模型,并对其可靠性进行了检验,结果显示:实测值和预测值无显著差异(P>0.05),表明所选的最优方程可以用来估算黄杉年龄、胸径和树高的值。本文可为该区域黄杉生长规律和预测林木蓄积量研究提供理论支撑。%A survey was conducted in Qizimei Mountains Nature Reserve about the Pseudotsuga sinensis communities to further analyze the growth of regular trees and better protect the rare species. Meanwhile, seven common regression models were applied to study the correlation of the DBH and age,tree height and age,tree height and DBH of the Pseudotsuga sinensis. The results showed that there is a positive cor-relation between DBH and age,tree height and age of the Pseudotsuga sinensis,as well as DBH and tree height. The cubic equations perform the best for describing the relationship between age and DBH,age and height. The equation are:y=-0. 0001x3 +0. 011x2 +0. 179x+4. 44 and z=0. 00007x3 -0. 015x2+1. 105x-10. 81;Moreover,the best correlation model is z=1. 778y0.659 for modeling of tree height and DBH. The optimal models were tested for reliability and the result shows there is no significant difference between predicted and observed values(P>0. 05 ),which demonstrated the best models can be used to estimate the value of age,tree height and DBH of the Pseudotsuga sinensis. Furthermore,the study can fur

  19. Plant Functional Types and Their Impact Environmental Factors in a Naturally Recovered Poplar-birch Woodland on the North Slope of Qilian Mountains, China%祁连山北坡自然恢复杨桦林地植物功能型组成及其影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石福习; 赵成章; 任珩; 周伟; 高福元; 盛亚萍; 李丽丽

    2012-01-01

    Plant functional types (PFTs) are important in understanding the dynamics and the functions of an ecosystems, which provide also useful information for ecosystem management. In 28 observation plots of a naturally recovered popiar-birch woodland on the north slope of Qilian Mountains, China, 81 plant species were classified into 18 plant functional types (PFTs), according to their life forms (including arbors, lianas, subshrub, shrub, perennial grasses, perennial forbs and annual or biennial grass) and ecotypes (including xerophyte, xerophytic and mesophytic, mesophyte and hygrophyte). The relationships between PFTs and environmental factors were studied using Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA). The results showed that the dominant PFTs were PFTsl6 (mesophytic perennial forbs), PFTs23 (hygrophytic perennial forbs), PFTs9 (xerophytic and mesophytic perennial forbs) and PFTslS (mesophytic shrub) on the poplar-birch restoration woodland. The stratificd structure with wood, shrub and herb layers indicated the plant life forms had a tendency of complication and structurization, and the emerging mesophyte plants reflected changes of the micro-environments. The distribution patterns of PFTs were controlled by the soil physical and chemical properties in that soil bulk density, soil organic carbon and content of nitrogen determined the characteristics of the plant life forms, while the soil water moisture and canopy cover were the main ecologis factors that affected the distribution of ecotypes. The slope position and slope aspect controlled the plant distribution pattem and formation of the community.%依据生活型(乔木、藤本、灌木、半灌木、多年生禾草、多年生杂类草和一二年生草本)和水分生态型(旱生、旱中生、中生和湿生)将祁连山北坡次生杨桦林28个调查样地中的81个物种划分为18种植物功能型(Plant function types,PFTs),并通过典范对应分析(CCA)方法研究植物功能型与环境因子间

  20. 北京百花山自然保护区不同植被地面生苔藓植物物种多样性%Species Diversity of Floor Bryophytes in Different Vegetations in Baihua Mountain National Nature Reserve, Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田晔林; 王文和; 颜亭玉; 李俊清

    2013-01-01

    By means of species similarity coefficient and species diversity index,the characteristics of species diversity of floor bryophytes in the Baihua Mountain National Nature Reserve in Beijing were studied.The results showed that there were 65 floor species (including subspecies and varieties) belonging to 31 genera of 13 families.Species composition,dominant families and dominant species were different in 8 kinds of vegetation,Pottiaceae and Bryaceae were the absolutefamilies in meadow and shrub,but the Entodontaceae was the most common family in forest vegetation.The species similarity between Pinus tabulaeformis forest and deciduous broadleaved forest was the highest (0.516 3),but meadow and Vitex negundo shrub between mostly forest vegetation were zero.The growth base was the most important environment factor related to the distribution of floor bryophytes,and the humidity,herbage coverage,litter coverage were also related to the distribution of the bryophytes on floor.Betula platyphylla forest and deciduous broadleaved forest were the center of bryophyte diversity and the key area for the bryophyte diversity conversation.%采用相似性系数和物种多样性指数对北京百花山自然保护区8种植被内地面生苔藓植物的物种多样性进行了研究,得知8种植被中地面生苔藓植物有13科31属65种(含种以下的单位),优势科6科,优势种12种.不同植被中苔藓植物的物种组成、优势科和优势种不同,丛藓科和真藓科植物在草甸和灌丛内占绝对优势,而森林植被内的绢藓科为绝对优势科;油松林和落叶阔叶混交林的物种相似性最高为51.63,草甸和荆条灌丛与大部分植被的物种相似为0.地面生苔藓植物的分布与其生长的基质相关性最大,另外水分条件、小生境、草本层盖度和凋落物盖度等也影响地面生苔藓植物的分布.白桦林和落叶阔叶混交林应成为生物多样性保护的重点植被类型.

  1. Wordsworth and His Nature Poems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gong Liyan

    2001-01-01

    Wordsworth is a famous British Romantic poet who belongs to the Lake School of the Romanticists, and one of the forerunners of 19th century English Romanticism. He is not only one of the greatest theoreticians in poetry, but also a great practitioner of his own theory. In early childhood, he lived in the beautiful Lake District in Northwest England, and that made him love deeply nature and the nearest beings to nature.He is a nature poet, and is especially at his best in descriptions of mountains and rivers, flowers and birds, children and peasants, and reminiscences of his own childhood and youth. With simple yet fresh words and strong emotion, he sings highly of the comfort and inspiration nature gives him, and shows his true love to the nearest beings to nature.

  2. Geomorphology and Ecology of Mountain Landscapes: an interdisciplinary approach to problem-based learning in a particular geographical setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wemple, B.; Thomas, E. P.; Shanley, J.

    2006-12-01

    Mountain settings provide some unique conditions for the instruction of earth surface processes and ecology. Recent attention has also highlighted certain risks to mountain environments posed by development pressures and climate change scenarios. We describe a course developed for senior undergraduate students that focuses on an integrated, interdisciplinary view of ecological, geophysical, and socio-political processes in mountain settings. We use a problem-based learning approach where students first learn to collect and analyze data around a set of field problems tackled during a one-week field intensive. Next, students explore a range of research problems from mountain settings through a semester-long seminar focusing on current scholarly readings and visits with resource managers, policy makers and stakeholders. Finally, students craft and execute a research project and present results in a symposium setting. Our course builds on the traditional model of the Geoscience field camp, employs a geographical perspective to think synthetically about the nature of mountain landscapes, uses an interdisciplinary approach to study processes and process- interactions of the mountain setting, and explores some of the unique challenges facing mountain regions.

  3. Annual Copper Mountain Conferences on Multigrid and Iterative Methods, Copper Mountain, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, Stephen F. [Front Range Scientific, Inc., Lake City, CO (United States)

    2016-03-25

    This project supported the Copper Mountain Conference on Multigrid and Iterative Methods, held from 2007 to 2015, at Copper Mountain, Colorado. The subject of the Copper Mountain Conference Series alternated between Multigrid Methods in odd-numbered years and Iterative Methods in even-numbered years. Begun in 1983, the Series represents an important forum for the exchange of ideas in these two closely related fields. This report describes the Copper Mountain Conference on Multigrid and Iterative Methods, 2007-2015. Information on the conference series is available at http://grandmaster.colorado.edu/~copper/.

  4. Recent population trends of mountain goats in the Olympic Mountains, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Kurt J.; Happe, Patricia J.; Beirne, Katherine F.; Hoffman, Roger A.; Griffin, Paul C.; Baccus, William T.; Fieberg, John

    2012-01-01

    Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) were introduced in Washington's Olympic Mountains during the 1920s. The population subsequently increased in numbers and expanded in range, leading to concerns by the 1970s over the potential effects of non-native mountain goats on high-elevation plant communities in Olympic National Park. The National Park Service (NPS) transplanted mountain goats from the Olympic Mountains to other ranges between 1981 and 1989 as a means to manage overabundant populations, and began monitoring population trends of mountain goats in 1983. We estimated population abundance of mountain goats during 18–25 July 2011, the sixth survey of the time series, to assess current population status and responses of the population to past management. We surveyed 39 sample units, comprising 39% of the 59,615-ha survey area. We estimated a population of 344 ± 72 (90% confidence interval [CI]) mountain goats in the survey area. Retrospective analysis of the 2004 survey, accounting for differences in survey area boundaries and methods of estimating aerial detection biases, indicated that the population increased at an average annual rate of 4.9% since the last survey. That is the first population growth observed since the cessation of population control measures in 1990. We postulate that differences in population trends observed in western, eastern, and southern sections of the survey zone reflected, in part, a variable influence of climate change across the precipitation gradient in the Olympic Mountains.

  5. Water Resources by 2100 in Mountains with Declining Glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beniston, M.

    2015-12-01

    Future shifts in temperature and precipitation patterns, and changes in the behavior of snow and ice - and possibly the quasi-disappearance of glaciers - in many mountain regions will change the quantity, seasonality, and possibly also the quality of water originating in mountains and uplands. As a result, changing water availability will affect both upland and populated lowland areas. Economic sectors such as agriculture, tourism or hydropower may enter into rivalries if water is no longer available in sufficient quantities or at the right time of the year. The challenge is thus to estimate as accurately as possible future changes in order to prepare the way for appropriate adaptation strategies and improved water governance. The European ACQWA project, coordinated by the author, aimed to assess the vulnerability of water resources in mountain regions such as the European Alps, the Central Chilean Andes, and the mountains of Central Asia (Kyrgyzstan) where declining snow and ice are likely to strongly affect hydrological regimes in a warmer climate. Based on RCM (Regional Climate Model) simulations, a suite of cryosphere, biosphere and economic models were then used to quantify the environmental, economic and social impacts of changing water resources in order to assess how robust current water governance strategies are and what adaptations may be needed to alleviate the most negative impacts of climate change on water resources and water use. Hydrological systems will respond in quantity and seasonality to changing precipitation patterns and to the timing of snow-melt in the studied mountain regions, with a greater risk of flooding during the spring and droughts in summer and fall. The direct and indirect impacts of a warming climate will affect key economic sectors such as tourism, hydropower, agriculture and the insurance industry that will be confronted to more frequent natural disasters. The results from the ACQWA project suggest that there is a need for a

  6. [FY 1996 Budget Summary : Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains information related to Rocky Mountain Arsenal's budget for the 1996 fiscal year. Page 1 is the memorandum from the Service to the U.S. Army...

  7. VT Green Mountain National Forest - Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) GMNFTRAILS contains minor Forest Service roads and all trails within the proclamation boundary of the Green Mountain National Forest and many of...

  8. Great Smoky Mountains National Park Geology

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Digital Geologic Units of Great Smoky Mountains National Park and Vicinity, Tennessee and North Carolina consists of geologic units mapped as area (polygon)...

  9. Rocky Mountain Arsenal : 2006 vegetation management plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this Vegetation Management Plan (VMP) is to describe the approach for implementing vegetation management activities at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal...

  10. Rocky Mountain Arsenal : 2007 vegetation management plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this Vegetation Management Plan (VMP) is to describe the approach for implementing vegetation management activities at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal...

  11. Quartz Mountain/Oklahoma Summer Arts Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frates, Mary Y.; Madeja, Stanley S.

    1982-01-01

    Describes the Quartz Mountain Oklahoma Summer Arts Institute program. It is designed to nurture artistic talent and to provide intensive arts experiences in music, dance, theater, and the visual arts for talented students aged 14-18. (AM)

  12. VT Green Mountain Power Pole Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) Green Mountain Power (GMP) pole and OVERHEAD linear distribution/sub-transmission model data. THE LINEAR DISTRIBUTION LAYER ONLY INCLUDES OVERHEAD...

  13. Badgers on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Nineteen badgers (Taxidea taxus) were captured on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) using Woodstream Softcatch traps and live snares. This represents a minimum...

  14. Fishery management scenarios : Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The fishery resources at Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) have been managed by the US Fish and Wildlife Service since the early 1960's. Management activities included...

  15. Great Smoky Mountains National Wetland Habitats

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the extent, approximate location and type of wetlands and deepwater habitats in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. These data...

  16. Vegetation resources of Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report presents the results of plant ecological studies conducted at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) in 1986 and 1987. The studies were performed by...

  17. Owl Mountain Partnership : An external assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — External review of the Owl Mountain Partnership (OMP) to identify benefits and successes associatedwith collaborative work through the perceptions of participating...

  18. Starling nest box monitoring [Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document described the standard operating procedures for observing and recording data collected from starling nest box monitoring at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal....

  19. MOUNTAIN TOURISM-PLEASURE AND NECESSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Corina SLUSARIUC

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Tourism has a more and more important role in the economic development of many countries. Mountain tourism is an anti-stress solutions and a type of disconnection from the citadel life style through replacing some activities of media consuming type, games and virtual socializing with therapy through movement, the physical activity being an essential dimension in assuring the high life quality. Mountaineering is searched for: practicing winter sports, its invigorating and comforting, relaxing role, medical spa treatments practicing hiking, alpinism. Mountain tourism generates increased economic benefits for the surrounding areas, improves the life quality of the local communities and can assure the prosperity of some disadvantaged areas, being able to be a remedy for unindustrialised regions. Mountain tourism contributes to the economic development of the region and also to satisfying spiritual and psychological needs of the people, representing a necessity for a touristic area and a pleasure for tourist consumers.

  20. Great Smoky Mountains National Park Hydro Plus

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Park Hydro Plus is a value-added attribution of data produced by Great Smoky Mountains National Park and published by the USGS NHD. Not to be confused with the USGS...

  1. [FY 1989 Budget Summary : Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a single page document summarizing Rocky Mountain Arsenal's Budget for the 1989 fiscal year. There are three mentioned tasks; Operations & Planning, Law...

  2. [FY 1990 Budget Summary : Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains information related to Rocky Mountain Arsenal's budget for the 1990 fiscal year. The specifics are broken down into seven tasks, task #1 being...

  3. VT Green Mountain National Forest - Trails

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) GMNFTRAILS contains minor Forest Service roads and all trails within the proclamation boundary of the Green Mountain National Forest and many of...

  4. Yucca Mountain reveals its secrets to scientists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gertz, C.P. [Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Teitelbaum, S. [Science Applications International Corp., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1994-12-31

    US nuclear power plants have generated some 20,000 metric tons of waste, according to Carl P. Gertz, former Department of Energy (DOE) project manager for Yucca Mountain Site Characterization, and Sheldon Teitelbaum, senior writer for the Las Vegas-based Science Application International Corporation. In the search for disposal methods, DOE fixed on Yucca Mountain, Nevada, a {open_quotes}sprawling heap of volcanic tuff{close_quotes} situated on a parcel of federally owned land 90 miles northwest of Las Vegas. The authors maintain that Yucca Mountain`s sparse population, dry climate, deep watertable, and 5,000-foot-thick layer of compressed volcanic rock may make it a suitable long-term storage facility. Nevertheless, Gertz and Teitelbaum say, much research must be done before the site is formally adopted as a repository and begins to receive shipments of high-level nuclear waste.

  5. Great Smoky Mountains National Park Fish Distribution

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Background and History The brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) is the only trout native to the southern Appalachian Mountains. It was once widespread in Great Smoky...

  6. [Water Sample Results : Rocky Mountain Arsenal : 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A memorandum, from sample collector (organization unknown) Cathy H. to Rocky Mountain Arsenal staff, prefaces tabular water sample results collected from various...

  7. Tectonic and neotectonic framework of the Yucca Mountain Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweickert, R.A.

    1992-09-30

    Highlights of major research accomplishments concerned with the tectonics and neotectonics of the Yucca Mountain Region include: structural studies in Grapevine Mountains, Bullfrog Hills, and Bare Mountain; recognition of significance of pre-Middle Miocene normal and strike-slip faulting at Bare Mountain; compilation of map of quaternary faulting in Southern Amargosa Valley; and preliminary paleomagnetic analysis of Paleozoic and Cenozoic units at Bare Mountain.

  8. Floods in mountain environments: A synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffel, Markus; Wyżga, Bartłomiej; Marston, Richard A.

    2016-11-01

    Floods are a crucial agent of geomorphic change in the channels and valley floors of mountains watercourses. At the same time, they can be highly damaging to property, infrastructure, and life. Because of their high energy, mountain watercourses are highly vulnerable to environmental changes affecting their catchments and channels. Many factors have modified and frequently still tend to modify the environmental conditions in mountain areas, with impacts on geomorphic processes and the frequency, magnitude, and timing of floods in mountain watercourses. The ongoing climate changes vary between regions but may affect floods in mountain areas in many ways. In many mountain regions of Europe, widespread afforestation took place over the twentieth century, considerably increasing the amounts of large wood delivered to the channels and the likelihood of jamming bridges. At the same time, deforestation continues in other mountain areas, accelerating runoff and amplifying the magnitude and frequency of floods in foreland areas. In many countries, in-channel gravel mining has been a common practice during recent decades; the resultant deficit of bed material in the affected channels may suddenly manifest during flood events, resulting in the failure of scoured bridges or catastrophic channel widening. During the past century many rivers in mountain and foreland areas incised deeply; the resultant loss of floodplain water storage has decreased attenuation of flood waves, hence increasing flood hazard to downstream river reaches. On the other hand, a large amount of recent river restoration activities worldwide may provide examples of beneficial changes to flood risk, attained as a result of increased channel storage or reestablished floodplain water storage. Relations between geomorphic processes and floods operate in both directions, which means that changes in flood probability or the character of floods (e.g., increased wood load) may significantly modify the morphology

  9. Bedrock geologic Map of the Central Block Area, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W.C. Day; C. Potter; D. Sweetkind; R.P. Dickerson; C.A. San Juan

    1998-09-29

    Bedrock geologic maps form the foundation for investigations that characterize and assess the viability of the potential high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. As such, this map focuses on the central block at Yucca Mountain, which contains the potential repository site. The central block is a structural block of Tertiary volcanic rocks bound on the west by the Solitario Canyon Fault, on the east by the Bow Ridge Fault, to the north by the northwest-striking Drill Hole Wash Fault, and on the south by Abandoned Wash. Earlier reconnaissance mapping by Lipman and McKay (1965) provided an overview of the structural setting of Yucca Mountain and formed the foundation for selecting Yucca Mountain as a site for further investigation. They delineated the main block-bounding faults and some of the intrablock faults and outlined the zoned compositional nature of the tuff units that underlie Yucca Mountain. Scott and Bonk (1984) provided a detailed reconnaissance geologic map of favorable area at Yucca Mountain in which to conduct further site-characterization studies. Of their many contributions, they presented a detailed stratigraphy for the volcanic units, defined several other block-bounding faults, and outlined numerous intrablock faults. This study was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Yucca Mountain Project to provide a detailed (1:6,000-scale) bedrock geologic map for the area within and adjacent to the potential repository area at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. Prior to this study, the 1:12,000-scale map of Scott and Bonk (1984) was the primary source of bedrock geologic data for the Yucca Mountain Project. However, targeted detailed mapping within the central block at Yucca Mountain revealed structural complexities along some of the intrablock faults that were not evident at 1:12,000 (Scott and Bonk, 1984). As a result, this study was undertaken to define the character and extent of the dominant structural features in the

  10. Delimiting tropical mountain ecoregions for conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Platts, Philip J.; Burgess, Neil David; Gereau, Roy E.

    2011-01-01

    is imprecise and inconsistent boundary placement. For globally important mountain regions such as the Eastern Arc (Tanzania and Kenya), where qualitative definitions of biophysical affinity are well established, rule-based methods for landform classification provide a straightforward solution to ambiguities...... of predicted, but as yet undocumented, biological importance. Similar methods could work well in other regions where mountain extent is poorly resolved. Spatial data accompany the online version of this article....

  11. The Rock Paintings of the Helan Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    THE HelanMountains sit ina corner of theNingxia Hui Autonom-ous Region of north-western China in a widearc running for 250 kmfrom north to south.Insome places the range is20 to 30 km across;the individual moun-tain peaks are on aver-age 1,400 m above sealevel and the high-est peak Shaguozhou,reaches 3,556 m intothe sky.When the YellowRiver enters Ningxia

  12. Complement C3 in Bernese Mountain dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Bernhard; Eichenberger, Simone; Joller-Jemelka, Helen I; Wittenbrink, Max M; Reusch, Claudia E

    2010-06-01

    Previous research suggests that low serum concentrations of the third component of complement (C3) are associated with both the susceptibility to infectious agents such as Borrelia burgdorferi and the development of glomerular disease. We hypothesized that low levels of C3 are associated with the coincident occurrence of B. burgdorferi infection and glomerulonephritis in Bernese Mountain dogs. The aims of this study were to evaluate the serum concentration of C3 in Bernese Mountain dogs with and without antibodies against B. burgdorferi and to compare this concentration with that of healthy control dogs. Eighty-three clinically healthy Bernese Mountain dogs and 46 control dogs were included. Antibodies against B. burgdorferi were determined using an ELISA with a whole cell sonicate as antigen. Results were confirmed using Western blot. C3 was measured using a single radial immunodiffusion test. Results were reported as the percentage concentration of C3 compared with that in pooled preserved canine serum (100% C3 concentration). Median C3 concentration was 128.5% in Bernese Mountain dogs with antibodies against B. burgdorferi, 133.5% in B. burgdorferi-negative Bernese Mountain dogs, 87.8% in positive control dogs, and 102.2% in negative control dogs. Within Bernese Mountain and control groups, C3 was lower in dogs with antibodies against B. burgdorferi compared with those without. Percentage concentration of C3 was higher in healthy Bernese Mountain dogs compared with control dogs. Low C3 concentration is not an explanation for the high prevalence of B. burgdorferi infections and glomerular disease in Bernese Mountain dogs.

  13. Mapping snow avalanche risk using GIS technique and 3D modeling in Ceahlau Mountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covasnianu, A.; Grigoras, I. R.; State, L. E.; Balin, D.; Hogas, S.; Balin, I.

    2009-04-01

    This study consisted in a precise mapping project (GPS field campaign and on-screen digitization of the topographic maps at 1:5.000 scale) of the Ceahlau mountain area in Romanian Carpathians in order to address the snow avalanche risk management, surveying and monitoring. Thus we considered the slope, aspect, altitude, landforms and roughness derived from a high resolute numerical terrain model (31 km2 at 1: 5.000 scale resulted in a spatial resolution of 3 m by the help of Topo to Raster tool). These parameters were classified according to a model applied into Tatra Mountains and used over Ceahlau Massive. The results were adapted and interpreted considering to the European Avalanche Hazard Scale. This work was made in the context of the elaboration of Risk Map and is directly concerning both the security of tourism activities but also the management of the Natural Park Ceahlau. The extension of this method to similar mountain areas is ongoing.

  14. 阿尔金山自然保护区基于野牦牛、藏野驴、藏羚羊适宜栖息地的生态容量估测%Estimation of ecological carrying capacity for wild yak, kiang, and Tibetan antelope based on habitat suitability in the Aerjin Mountain Nature Reserve, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董世魁; 翁晋; 武晓宇; 刘世梁; 苏旭坤; 吴娱; 石建斌; 李晓文; 张翔; 许东华

    2015-01-01

    阿尔金山国家级自然保护区保护了以野牦牛( Bos mutus)、藏野驴( Equus kiang)、藏羚羊( Pantholops hodgsoni)为代表的青藏高原特有野生动物及其栖息地,但是近年来野生动物数量的快速增长引发了栖息地退化的问题,科学量化阿尔金山自然保护区各类栖息地对野牦牛、藏羚羊、藏野驴的生态容量,并提出相应的野生动物管理措施,是实现保护区可持续管理的根本途径。本文应用遥感技术和地面调查相结合的方法,系统分析了保护区内野牦牛、藏野驴和藏羚羊的栖息地需求,建立了植物生物量和NDVI 的关系模型,结合三类野生动物的食性分析,估测了适宜栖息地(高寒草原、高寒荒漠草原、高寒草甸、高寒荒漠)为三类野生动物提供的可食植物量,推算了适宜栖息地和整个保护区可以承载三类野生动物的生态容量。结果表明:阿尔金山自然保护区内野牦牛、藏野驴和藏羚羊的适宜栖息地面积分别为31866.07、24035.51、24035.51 km2,三类野生动物的适宜栖息地之间相互重叠,藏野驴和藏羚羊的适宜栖息地基本相同;全保护区内,高寒草原、高寒荒漠草原、高寒荒漠和高寒草甸分别提供了3944.91×104、3126.32×104、138.19×104、564.49×104 kg可食植物量;结合三类野生动物的栖息地重叠程度及食物需求量分析,得出阿尔金山保护区的最大生态容量为野牦牛7951头/a、藏野驴6907头/a、藏羚羊27094只/a;结合三类野生动物对食物资源的占有率估计,得出阿尔金山三类野生动物的生态容量变幅为野牦牛3976—7156头/a,藏野驴3454—6216头/a、藏羚羊13547—24385只/a。根据阿尔金山自然保护区各类栖息地对三类野生动物的生态容量,提出适当控制藏野驴种群数量、增加藏羚羊种群数量的建议,以促进野生动物种群数量的持续增长和栖息地的有效保护。%Altun Mountain

  15. Total-System Performance Assessment for the Yucca Mountain Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.L. Wilson

    2001-12-13

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is under consideration as a potential site for a repository for high-level radioactive waste. Total-system performance-assessment simulations are performed to evaluate the safety of the site. Features, events, and processes have been systematically evaluated to determine which ones are significant to the safety assessment. Computer models of the disposal system have been developed within a probabilistic framework, including both engineered and natural components. Selected results are presented for three different total-system simulations, and the behavior of the disposal system is discussed. The results show that risk is dominated by igneous activity at early times, because the robust waste-package design prevents significant nominal (non-disruptive) releases for tens of thousands of years or longer. The uncertainty in the nominal performance is dominated by uncertainties related to waste-package corrosion at early times and by uncertainties in the natural system, most significantly infiltration, at late times.

  16. Long term BVOC fluxes above mountain grassland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Bamberger

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Grasslands comprise natural tropical savannah over managed temperate fields to tundra and cover over a quarter of the Earth's land surface. Plant growth, maintenance and decay result in volatile organic compound (VOCs emissions to the atmosphere. Furthermore, biogenic VOCs (BVOCs are emitted due to various environmental stresses including cutting and drying during harvesting. Fluxes of BVOCs were measured with a proton-transfer-reaction – mass-spectrometer (PTR-MS over temperate mountain grassland in Stubai Valley (Tyrol, Austria over one growing season (2008. VOC fluxes were calculated from the disjunct PTR-MS data using the virtual disjunct eddy covariance method and the gap filling method. The two independent methods obtained methanol fluxes following a regression line of y=0.94x−0.06 (correlation factor: R2=0.94. Methanol showed strong daytime emissions throughout the growing season. With maximal values of 9.7 nmol m−2 s−1 the methanol fluxes from growing grassland were considerably higher at the beginning of the growing season in June compared to those measured during October (2.5 nmol m−2 s−1. During the growth only methanol emissions were observed. The cutting and drying of the grass increased the emissions of methanol, up to 30 nmol m−2 s−2. In addition, emissions of acetaldehyde, up to 10 nmol m−2 s−1, and hexenal (leaf aldehyde were detected during harvesting.

  17. “Kekexilli: Mountain Patrol”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChenBaoguang

    2005-01-01

    At the 17th Tokyo International Film Festival which condluded on October 31,2004,the Special July Prize went to the sole participating Chinese film “Kekexilli:Mountain Patrol”.The theme of the film is “thrill,obligation and life”。During the weeklong festival,every screening of the film played to a packed house and received enthusiastic applause.Director Lu Chuan cried when he accepted the prize onstage.He told the media,“I put my heart and soul into producing this film.But I believe it was worth it,because the film has gained recognition by so many people”.The film debuted in mainland China on October 1,2004.According to producer wang Zhonglei,the investment in the production totaled 10 million RMB.Box office figures from the mainland are estimated to reach 10 million RMB.Meanwhile,the overseas copyright has been sold for 800,000 USD.

  18. Major results of geophysical investigations at Yucca Mountain and vicinity, southern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, H.W.; Ponce, D.A. [eds.] [Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hunter, W.C. [ed.] [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States). Yucca Mountain Project Branch

    1995-12-31

    In the consideration of Yucca Mountain as a possible site for storing high level nuclear waste, a number of geologic concerns have been suggested for study by the National Academy of Sciences which include: (1) natural geologic and geochemical barriers, (2) possible future fluctuations in the water table that might flood a mined underground repository, (3) tectonic stability, and (4) considerations of shaking such as might be caused by nearby earthquakes or possible volcanic eruptions. This volume represents the third part of an overall plan of geophysical investigation of Yucca Mountain, preceded by the Site Characterization Plan (SCP; dated 1988) and the report referred to as the Geophysical White Paper, Phase 1, entitled Status of Data, Major Results, and Plans for Geophysical Activities, Yucca Mountain Project (Oliver and others, 1990). The SCP necessarily contained uncertainty about applicability and accuracy of methods then untried in the Yucca Mountain volcano-tectonic setting, and the White Paper, Phase 1, focused on summarization of survey coverage, data quality, and applicability of results. For the most part, it did not present data or interpretation. The important distinction of the current volume lies in presentation of data, results, and interpretations of selected geophysical methods used in characterization activities at Yucca Mountain. Chapters are included on the following: gravity investigations; magnetic investigations; regional magnetotelluric investigations; seismic refraction investigations; seismic reflection investigations; teleseismic investigations; regional thermal setting; stress measurements; and integration of methods and conclusions. 8 refs., 60 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. SOCIALIZATION OF A PERSONALITY IN RURAL AND MOUNTAINOUS CONDITIONS IN THE CONTEXT OF PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulianna Mokanyuk

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the features of socialization in education and educational environment in rural and mountain schools. The author analyzes the characteristics of vocational guidance for adolescents; components of career guidance in schools in rural and mountainous areas. The author believes that the need to create and implement proactive forms and technologies to learn. It is primarily about school degree, since it is in the high school age formed the basis of social identity formation. This motivated the study of the methodological aspects of the education of pupils in schools in rural and mountainous areas. Targeting high school students for professional work in general secondary education system needs rethinking science, the result of which should be the introduction of educational practice new meaning of educational work, new forms of career guidance. Before modern rural and mountain schools acute problem enhance career guidance activities. The main content of professional orientation of young people in rural areas is to cultivate students' professional interests to sustainable agriculture in the daily academic and extracurricular activities. In this connection it is necessary to start adequate training for innovative development of rural and mountainous areas in need of systematic approach to training process that involves complex requirements, which form a system of nature.

  20. Labs in the field? Rocky mountain biological stations in the early twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Biological field stations proliferated in the Rocky Mountains region of the western United States during the early decades of the twentieth century. This essay examines these Rocky Mountain field stations as hybrid lab-field sites from the perspective of the field side of the dichotomy: as field sites with raised walls rather than as laboratories whose walls with the natural world have been lowered. Not only were these field stations transformed to be more like laboratories, but they were also embedded within the particular regional environmental and institutional context of the Rocky Mountains. Using the University of Colorado's Mountain Laboratory at Tolland and other contemporaneous sites as examples, this essay analyzes key features of these sites, including their location within transportation networks, buildings, equipment, personnel, scheduling, recreational and social activities, and other material and social practices on the ground. Considering both the distinctive and shared characteristics of the Rocky Mountain field stations in comparison to other types of field stations provides a more complete picture of the diversity and range of lab-field hybrid sites in the biological sciences in the early twentieth-century United States.

  1. Climate Change Impacts on Ecosystem Services in High Mountain Areas: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Palomo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available High mountain areas are experiencing some of the earliest and greatest impacts of climate change. However, knowledge on how climate change impacts multiple ecosystem services that benefit different stakeholder groups remains scattered in the literature. This article presents a review of the literature on climate change impacts on ecosystem services benefiting local communities and tourists in high mountain areas. Results show a lack of studies focused on the global South, especially where there are tropical glaciers, which are likely to be the first to disappear. Climate change impacts can be classified as impacts on food and feed, water availability, natural hazards regulation, spirituality and cultural identity, aesthetics, and recreation. In turn, climate change impacts on infrastructure and accessibility also affect ecosystem services. Several of these impacts are a direct threat to the lives of mountain peoples, their livelihoods and their culture. Mountain tourism is experiencing abrupt changes too. The magnitude of impacts make it necessary to strengthen measures to adapt to climate change in high mountain areas.

  2. 伏牛山自然保护区不同生长阶段栓皮栎(Quercus variabilis)的光合生理生态特性%Physiological and Ecological Characteristics of Photosynthesis of Quercus variabilis of Different Development Stages in the Funiu Mountain National Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范玉龙; 胡楠; 丁圣彦; 卢训令

    2015-01-01

    of the eco⁃system, but also a major driving factor of regeneration and development of plant communities. In a forest ecosystem, photosynthetic physiologico⁃ecological charac⁃teristics of its dominant species affects the structure and function of the whole eco⁃system. The Funiu Mountain National Nature Reserve, sitting in the transitional zone between the north subtropics and the south warm⁃temperate,has preserved an intact type of forest ecosystem. Quercus variabilis, as its main dominant species in areas of low altitude, regenerates nicely forming distinct layers. Photosynthesis of the plants of different development stages ( arbor, shrub and seedling) was measured with a Li-6400 photosynthetic meter and a fluorimeter in the field, and chlorophyll contents in the plants deter⁃mined in the laboratory. Results show that ( 1) the plant at its seedling stage is the highest in apparent quantum yield and in chlorophyll content, but the lowest in dark respiration rate and in light compensation point; ( 2) the plant at its arbor stage is the highest in high⁃light adaptability, but the lowest in chlorophyll content, and does not show any phenomenon of midday depression, and diurnal variation of its net photosynthesis at different layers is mainly governed by light intensity;(3)the plant at its arbor stage is the highest in PSⅡ maximum photochemical quantum yield, while the plant at its seed⁃ ling, the lowest;and ( 4) the plant, regardless of growth stage, is higher in the morning than in the afternoon in stomatal conductance and in transpiration rate;and in water use efficiency, too, at all the stages, except the arbor stage, when it goes reversely. Such divergences of the plant in photosynthetic characteristics with the developmental stage enable it to a⁃dapt to different environments. That′s why the plants grow nicely at all stages, showing strong regeneration ability and an inherent impetus towards positive succession.

  3. The Soil Carbon Storage of Natural Secondary Forest in the Northern of Funiu Mountain of Quercus variabilis in Different Growth Stages%伏牛山北坡栓皮栎天然次生林不同生长阶段土壤碳储量研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕会涛; 凡琳洁; 杨红震; 裴志涛

    2016-01-01

    为开展栓皮栎林的碳储量估算做一些前期的探索研究工作,选择伏牛山国家级自然保护区北坡浅山丘陵区3种不同生长阶段的天然次生林栓皮栎林群落,调查研究了土壤层碳储量的分配特点及变化规律,并对3种不同生长阶段样地的实地调查以及实验测定的碳含量的分析.研究结果表明:1)栓皮栎林不同生长阶段土壤容重均表现为从表层到土壤深处随深度增加而逐渐增加的趋势;同时随着土层深度的增加,不同生长阶段土壤有机碳含量急剧下降,以土壤最底层(30~50 cm)的有机碳含量最低.2)对于同一生长阶段的生长阶段而言,在土壤垂直剖面上,土壤有机质随着土壤深度的增加呈现逐渐减小的趋势,且林地土壤表层(0~10 cm)的土壤有机质明显大于其他层次.3)栓皮栎林不同生长阶段林分土壤各层次的碳储量都随着土层深度的增加而降低,以地表0~10 cm的土壤碳储量最大.幼龄林土壤在0~50 cm碳储量为43.49 t·hm-2,中龄林为83.67 t·hm-2,成熟林为67.53 t·hm-2.%In order to do some preliminary exploration and research work for cork oak forest carbon storage estimates , choosing Funiu Mountain Nature Reserve North Slope hilly area three different growth stages of natural secondary forest cork oak forest,we investigated the distribution characteristics and changing law of soil carbon storage and three different growth stages of fieldwork plots and experimental determination of carbon content. The results showed as follows.(1)Soil density of Quercus forest with different growth stages from the surface to depths of soil , increase gradually with the depth increasing;at the same time with the increase of soil depth,soil organic carbon of different growth stages sharply drop,and the soil at the bottom(30~50 cm)has minimum organic carbon content. (2)For the growth phases of the same growth stage,in a vertical section on

  4. Model for predicting mountain wave field uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiens, Florentin; Lott, François; Millet, Christophe; Plougonven, Riwal

    2017-04-01

    Studying the propagation of acoustic waves throughout troposphere requires knowledge of wind speed and temperature gradients from the ground up to about 10-20 km. Typical planetary boundary layers flows are known to present vertical low level shears that can interact with mountain waves, thereby triggering small-scale disturbances. Resolving these fluctuations for long-range propagation problems is, however, not feasible because of computer memory/time restrictions and thus, they need to be parameterized. When the disturbances are small enough, these fluctuations can be described by linear equations. Previous works by co-authors have shown that the critical layer dynamics that occur near the ground produces large horizontal flows and buoyancy disturbances that result in intense downslope winds and gravity wave breaking. While these phenomena manifest almost systematically for high Richardson numbers and when the boundary layer depth is relatively small compare to the mountain height, the process by which static stability affects downslope winds remains unclear. In the present work, new linear mountain gravity wave solutions are tested against numerical predictions obtained with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. For Richardson numbers typically larger than unity, the mesoscale model is used to quantify the effect of neglected nonlinear terms on downslope winds and mountain wave patterns. At these regimes, the large downslope winds transport warm air, a so called "Foehn" effect than can impact sound propagation properties. The sensitivity of small-scale disturbances to Richardson number is quantified using two-dimensional spectral analysis. It is shown through a pilot study of subgrid scale fluctuations of boundary layer flows over realistic mountains that the cross-spectrum of mountain wave field is made up of the same components found in WRF simulations. The impact of each individual component on acoustic wave propagation is discussed in terms of

  5. Anti-Atlas Mountains, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The Anti-Atlas Mountains of Morocco formed as a result of the collision of the African and Eurasian tectonic plates about 80 million years ago. This collision destroyed the Tethys Ocean; the limestone, sandstone, claystone, and gypsum layers that formed the ocean bed were folded and crumpled to create the Atlas and Anti-Atlas Mountains. In this ASTER image, short wavelength infrared bands are combined to dramatically highlight the different rock types, and illustrate the complex folding. The yellowish, orange and green areas are limestones, sandstones and gypsum; the dark blue and green areas are underlying granitic rocks. The ability to map geology using ASTER data is enhanced by the multiple short wavelength infrared bands, that are sensitive to differences in rock mineralogy. This image was acquired on June 13, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and

  6. Rurality, ethnicity and mountain areas:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Laure Amilhat-Szary

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In a Latin American context where indigenous populations have had to wait until the end of the XXth century to recover a certain visibility, the definition of Andean identity is still an issue. In this paper, an analysis of the various steps in a territorially based collective movement provides insights into this identity that was for so long denied or repressed on account of socio-political conditions. The possible re-assertion of “Andeanity” is very complex, as the case study of the “Aymaras Sin Fronteras” (Aymaras without borders movement reveals. In this movement, the territorialisation process is based on the dialectics between its rural, ethnic and mountain (Andean components.Dans un contexte latinoaméricain où les populations autochtones ont dû attendre la fin du XXème siècle pour regagner en visibilité, l’identité andine pose question. Dans cet article, l’analyse des étapes d’une mobilisation collective à base territoriale permet de suivre la  redécouverte d’un ancrage identitaire longtemps nié ou refoulé du fait des conditions socio-politiques. L’affirmation retrouvée de l’ethnicité, voire de l’« andinité » s’avère très  complexe, comme le cas étudié, l’alliance « Aymaras sin Fronteras » (Aymaras sans frontières le révèle. Dans ce cas, le processus de territorialisation se fonde sur une interaction dialectique entre ses composantes rurale, ethnique, et montagnarde (andine.

  7. Adoption of Geospatial Systems towards evolving Sustainable Himalayan Mountain Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, M. S. R.; Bajracharya, B.; Pradhan, S.; Shestra, B.; Bajracharya, R.; Shakya, K.; Wesselmann, S.; Ali, M.; Bajracharya, S.; Pradhan, S.

    2014-11-01

    Natural resources dependence of mountain communities, rapid social and developmental changes, disaster proneness and climate change are conceived as the critical factors regulating sustainable Himalayan mountain development. The Himalayan region posed by typical geographic settings, diverse physical and cultural diversity present a formidable challenge to collect and manage data, information and understands varied socio-ecological settings. Recent advances in earth observation, near real-time data, in-situ measurements and in combination of information and communication technology have transformed the way we collect, process, and generate information and how we use such information for societal benefits. Glacier dynamics, land cover changes, disaster risk reduction systems, food security and ecosystem conservation are a few thematic areas where geospatial information and knowledge have significantly contributed to informed decision making systems over the region. The emergence and adoption of near-real time systems, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), board-scale citizen science (crowd-sourcing), mobile services and mapping, and cloud computing have paved the way towards developing automated environmental monitoring systems, enhanced scientific understanding of geophysical and biophysical processes, coupled management of socio-ecological systems and community based adaptation models tailored to mountain specific environment. There are differentiated capacities among the ICIMOD regional member countries with regard to utilization of earth observation and geospatial technologies. The region can greatly benefit from a coordinated and collaborative approach to capture the opportunities offered by earth observation and geospatial technologies. The regional level data sharing, knowledge exchange, and Himalayan GEO supporting geospatial platforms, spatial data infrastructure, unique region specific satellite systems to address trans-boundary challenges would go a long way in

  8. Assessing the impacts of climatic change on mountain water resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beniston, Martin; Stoffel, Markus

    2014-09-15

    As the evidence for human induced climate change becomes clearer, so too does the realization that its effects will have impacts on numerous environmental and socio-economic systems. Mountains are recognized as very sensitive physical environments with populations whose histories and current social positions often strain their capacity to accommodate intense and rapid changes to their resource base. It is thus essential to assess the impacts of a changing climate, focusing on the quantity of water originating in mountain regions, particularly where snow and ice melt represent a large streamflow component as well as a local resource in terms of freshwater supply, hydropower generation, or irrigation. Increasing evidence of glacier retreat, permafrost degradation and reduced mountain snowpack has been observed in many regions, thereby suggesting that climate change may seriously affect streamflow regimes. These changes could in turn threaten the availability of water resources for many environmental and economic systems, and exacerbate a range of natural hazards that would compound these impacts. As a consequence, socio-economic structures of downstream living populations would be also impacted, calling for better preparedness and strategies to avoid conflicts of interest between water-dependent economic actors. This paper is thus an introduction to the Special Issue of this journal dedicated to the European Union Seventh Framework Program (EU-FP7) project ACQWA (Assessing Climate Impacts on the Quantity and Quality of WAter), a major European network of scientists that was coordinated by the University of Geneva from 2008 to 2014. The goal of ACQWA has been to address a number of these issues and propose a range of solutions for adaptation to change and to help improve water governance in regions where quantity, seasonality, and perhaps quality of water may substantially change in coming decades.

  9. Pyritic ash-flow tuff, Yucca Mountain, Nevada -- A discussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, S.I.; Larson, L.T.; Noble, D.C. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Textural and mineralogic evidence exists for at least one episode of widespread hydrothermal alteration of volcanic rocks deep in Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Despite this evidence, Castor et al. infer that most of the pyrite found in tuffs at Yucca Mountain was introduced as ejecta (lithic fragments) incorporated during the eruptions of the tuffs, rather than by in-situ hydrothermal activity. Their conclusions appear to be based on their observation that most of the pyrite resides in unaltered to variably altered and veined lithic fragments, whereas pyrite-bearing veins are absent in the tuff matrix, titanomagnetite and mafic phenocrysts in the matrix are generally not replaced by pyrite, and feldspar phenocrysts in the pyritic tuff matrix are generally unaltered. Castor et al. dismiss the much smaller quantities of pyrite disseminated in the tuff matrix, including relatively rare pyritized hornblende and biotite grains, as xenolithic as well. The pyritic tuffs belong to large-volume, subalkaline rhyolite ash-flow units (ca. > 150 to 250 km{sup 3} each). The interpretation of Castor et al. has broad implications for the temperature, fO{sub 2} and fS{sub 2} of major ash flow eruptions. Pyrite origin also bears on the nature of past fluid flow and water-rock reactions at Yucca Mountain, which in turn are important factors in assessing the potential for currently undiscovered mineral resources in the area of the proposed nuclear waste repository. We have studied core and cuttings from the same drill holes studied by Castor et al., as well as other drill holes. It is our contention that the inconsistent lateral and stratigraphic distribution of the pyrite, textural features of the pyrite, and phase stability considerations are incompatible with the {open_quotes}lithic{close_quotes} origin of Castor et al., and are more reasonably explained by in-situ formation from hydrothermal fluids containing low, but geochemically significant, concentrations of reduced sulfur.

  10. Spatial variation in the power of mountain streams in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonstad, Mark A.

    2003-09-01

    The principle indicator of river energy expenditure, stream power, has a significant influence on many forms and process attributes of the fluvial system, yet few basin-wide analyses of stream power variations have ever been conducted. Recent studies hypothesize a peak in the mean stream power distribution in small (10 km 2)- to intermediate (100 km 2)-sized basins. To test hypothetical stream power profiles in a high mountain setting, 129 cross-sections of stream networks within the Costilla basin of northern New Mexico and southern Colorado were measured for channel form, local sediment conditions, and basin characteristics. Geomorphic and hydrologic analysis of these river sites throughout the Costilla basin yielded evidence of abundant local control over fluvial processes and forms. Within the basin, the spatial deviations of stream power from the hypothetical patterns derived from hydraulic geometry, in some cases >200% deviation, match areas of specific geologic and hydrogeologic control. As an alternative to traditional hydraulic descriptions of downstream channel form, a probabilistic process-response model can incorporate local and basin-scale variables and allow more realistic feedback mechanisms than in traditional regime theory. The probabilistic nature of this type of model also allows prediction of multiple modes of channel adjustment, an ever-present challenge to extremal and physically based simulations.

  11. Geology of the Southern Appalachian Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Sandra H.B.

    2008-01-01

    The Southern Appalachian Mountains includes the Blue Ridge province and parts of four other physiographic provinces. The Blue Ridge physiographic province is a high, mountainous area bounded by several named mountain ranges (including the Unaka Mountains and the Great Smoky Mountains) to the northwest, and the Blue Ridge Mountains to the southeast. Metamorphic rocks of the mountains include (1) fragments of a billion-year-old supercontinent, (2) thick sequences of sedimentary rock that were deposited in subsiding (sinking) basins on the continent, (3) sedimentary and volcanic rocks that were deposited on the sea floor, and (4) fragments of oceanic crust. Most of the rocks formed as sediments or volcanic rocks on ocean floors, islands, and continental plates; igneous rocks formed when crustal plates collided, beginning about 450 million years ago. The collision between the ancestral North American and African continental plates ended about 270 million years ago. Then, the continents began to be stretched, which caused fractures to open in places throughout the crust; these fractures were later filled with sediment. This product (U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map 2830) consists of a geologic map of the Southern Appalachian Mountains overlain on a shaded-relief background. The map area includes parts of southern Virginia, eastern West Virginia and Tennessee, western North and South Carolina, northern Georgia and northeastern Alabama. Photographs of localities where geologic features of interest can be seen accompany the map. Diagrams show how the movement of continental plates over many millions of years affected the landscapes seen today, show how folds and faults form, describe important mineral resources of the region, and illustrate geologic time. This two-sided map is folded into a convenient size (5x9.4 inches) for use in the field. The target audience is high school to college earth science and geology teachers and students; staffs of

  12. Integrated Evaluation Model for Eco- Environmental Quality in Mountainous Region Based on Remote Sensing and GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ainong; WANG Angsheng; HE Xiaorong; FENG Wenlan; ZHOU Wancun

    2006-01-01

    Based on Remote Sensing (RS), Geographic Information System (GIS), and combining Principal Component Analysis, this paper designed a numerical integrated evaluation model for mountain eco-environment on the base of grid scale. Using this model, we evaluated the mountain eco-environmental quality in a case study area-the upper reaches of Minjiang River, and achieved a good result, which accorded well with the real condition. The study indicates that, the integrated evaluation model is suitable for multi-layer spatial factor computation, effectively lowing man's subjective influence in the evaluation process; treating the whole river basin as a system, the model shows full respect to the circulation of material and energy, synthetically embodies the determining impact of such natural condition as water-heat and landform, as well as human interference in natural eco-system; the evaluation result not only clearly presents mountainous vertical distribution features of input factors, but also provides a scientific and reliable thought for quantitatively evaluating mountain eco-environment.

  13. A sustainable agricultural paradigm of mountain-basin systems in the northwestern arid zone of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinshi

    2003-07-01

    The Mountain-Basin System(MBS) in the northwestern arid zone of China consists of mountain vegetation vertical belt system and concentric circular vegetation (geologic and geomorphic) system of desert basin. The MBS contains three "circles": mountain, pedimont fan and alluvial plain, including nine belts, they are alpine belt, montane forest-grassland belt, low-montane desert belt, gravel gobi desert belt, agricultural oasis, marginal belt of diluvial fan, alluvial desert plain, sandy desert belt, and lake. The above-mentioned zonation is the most essential existence and functional pattern of those precious natural resources. It is the presentation of an irresistible rule of the nature and, also, the guidance system of ecological conservation and land use. Basing on this foundation, a "mountain-oasis-ecotone-desert eco-productive paradigm"is proposed. The MBS is it"s basic frame. It"s driving forces are biogeochemical circulation, biogeophysic process, and biogeosocial interaction, which run through the whole system. Thus, the establishment of a sustainable agricultural system and an optimized land use and land cover structure and pattern, which aimed at ecological conservation may be possible.

  14. DANGERS AND SAFETY MEASURES IN A MOUNTAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovica Petković

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Mountaineering and everything that is connected with it is a sport with con¬tro¬lled risk. Mountaineers, alpinists, climbers, cavers and all the others who visit and sojourn in mountains are faced with many risks and dangers, which are caused by na¬ture and also by their own mistakes. The dangers in the mountains, like dangers in any other environment, are mainly predictable, so it is best to deal with them with good esti¬mation, knowledge and skill. One has to be aware of his surroundings – the moun¬tain, to respect it and to know what is dangerous and how much it is dangerous at any moment. The organization of the mountaineering expeditions and leadership per¬haps re¬present the highest level of security control. To develop skills for organizing and lead¬ing a group means to ensure the safety of the entire group – to work pre¬ven¬ti¬ve¬ly at the level of the entire group, not only at the level of an individual. The success of the enti¬re group as well as safety depends on the organization and leadership.

  15. New international long-term ecological research on air pollution effects on the Carpathian Mountain forests, Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Badea, Ovidiu; Barbu, Ion; Fleischer, Peter; Fraczek, Witold; Gancz, Vladimir; Godzik, Barbara; Grodzińska, Krystyna; Grodzki, Wojciech; Karnosky, David; Koren, Milan; Krywult, Marek; Krzan, Zbigniew; Longauer, Roman; Mankovska, Blanka; Manning, William J; McManus, Michael; Musselman, Robert C; Novotny, Julius; Popescu, Flaviu; Postelnicu, Daniela; Prus-Głowacki, Wiesław; Skawiński, Paweł; Skiba, Stefan; Szaro, Robert; Tamas, Stefan; Vasile, Cristian

    2003-06-01

    An international cooperative project on distribution of ozone in the Carpathian Mountains, Central Europe was conducted from 1997 to 1999. Results of that project indicated that in large parts of the Carpathian Mountains, concentrations of ozone were elevated and potentially phytotoxic to forest vegetation. That study led to the establishment of new long-term studies on ecological changes in forests and other ecosystems caused by air pollution in the Retezat Mountains, Southern Carpathians, Romania and in the Tatra Mountains, Western Carpathians on the Polish-Slovak border. Both of these important mountain ranges have the status of national parks and are Man & the Biosphere Reserves. In the Retezat Mountains, the primary research objective was to evaluate how air pollution may affect forest health and biodiversity. The main research objective in the Tatra Mountains was to evaluate responses of natural and managed Norway spruce forests to air pollution and other stresses. Ambient concentrations of ozone (O(3)), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) as well as forest health and biodiversity changes were monitored on densely distributed research sites. Initial monitoring of pollutants indicated low levels of O(3), SO(2), and NO(x) in the Retezat Mountains, while elevated levels of O(3) and high deposition of atmospheric sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) have characterized the Tatra Mountains. In the Retezat Mountains, air pollution seems to have little effect on forest health; however, there was concern that over a long time, even low levels of pollution may affect biodiversity of this important ecosystem. In contrast, severe decline of Norway spruce has been observed in the Tatra Mountains. Although bark beetle seems to be the immediate cause of that decline, long-term elevated levels of atmospheric N and S depositions and elevated O(3) could predispose trees to insect attacks and other stresses. European and US scientists studied pollution deposition, soil and

  16. Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review of Key Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, M. W.; Antonia, O.; Penev, M.

    2013-03-01

    The United States has 11 distinct natural gas pipeline corridors: five originate in the Southwest, four deliver natural gas from Canada, and two extend from the Rocky Mountain region. This study assesses the potential to deliver hydrogen through the existing natural gas pipeline network as a hydrogen and natural gas mixture to defray the cost of building dedicated hydrogen pipelines.

  17. FORMS OF SUSTAINABLE TOURISM SUITABLE TO APUSENI MOUNTAINS, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bac Dorin Paul

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable tourism is the result of the melange between tourism and sustainable tourism. The concept has evolved during the last decades of the twentieth century, in international conferences, summits etc. organized by the World Tourism Organization, the United Nations and other international organizations where it was defined, characterized and criticized. Unfortunately, the concept was not able to overcome its theoretical conceptualization and it did not reach practitioners of the tourism industry. Sustainable tourism has several forms which are actually practiced by tourists all over the world: ecotourism, backpacking, rural tourism, nature-based tourism, pro-poor tourism, volunteer tourism etc. In the present paper, we have focused on an area in Apuseni Mountains, Romania. We tried to identify the forms of sustainable tourism most suitable for this area considering: natural resources, socio-economical development, protected areas, gastronomic traditions etc. After considering all these we have selected three forms: ecotourism, volunteer tourism and slow tourism, which could have the highest impact in promoting this area, and actually all the Apuseni Mountains as an important destination for sustainable tourism. The arguments for ecotourism are based on the numerous natural tourism resources> caves, gorges, forests and wildlife. Volunteers are needed especially in conservation and English language course. For slow tourism, there are numerous trails for walking and biking. Also there are several foods, mainly based on milk and wild berries that should be promoted and sold under the slow food brand. The shortcomings of the research are the lack of quantitative and qualitative results, as there is no information regarding the number of tourists which visit the area during each year. Also, it is hard to compare the benefits of sustainable tourism with those of mass tourism, due to the lack of references. So it is harder to argue for sustainable

  18. Analysis on classification and species diversity of Pinus taiwanensis community in Daiyun Mountain National Nature Reserve%戴云山国家级自然保护区黄山松群落类型与物种多样性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任国学; 刘金福; 徐道炜; 洪伟; 郑世群; 黄志森

    2011-01-01

    采用典型取样法对戴云山国家级自然保护区黄山松(Pinus taiwanensis Hayata)群落的类型和物种多样性进行了分析.以乔木层主要树种的重要值为参考指标,通过系统聚类分析,可将该黄山松群落分为8个群丛类型:黄山松+杉木—乌药—铁芒萁群丛(Assoc.P.taiwanensis+ Cunninghamia lanceolata - Lindera aggregate - Dicranopteris linearis);黄山松+多脉青冈—细枝柃—里白群丛(Assoc.P.taiwanensis+Cyclobalanopsis multinervis-Eurya loquaianaHicriopteris glauca);黄山松+江南山柳—短尾越桔—铁芒萁群丛(Assoc.P.taiwanensis+ Clethra cavaleriei- Vaccinium carlesii-Dicranopteris linearis);黄山松+甜槠—肿节少穗竹—里白群丛(Assoc.P.taiwanensis+ Castanopsis eyreiOligostachyum oedogonatum-Hicriopteris glauca);黄山松+吊钟花—短尾越桔—狗脊群丛(Assoc.P.taiwanensis+Enkianthus quinqueflorus-Vaccinium carlesii-Woodwardia japonica);黄山松+华丽杜鹃—短尾越桔—里白群丛(Assoc.P.taiwanensis+ Rhododendron farrerae- Vaccinium carlesii- Hicriopteris glauca);黄山松+光叶水青冈—满山红—铁芒萁群丛(Assoc.P.taiwanensis+Fagus lucida-Rhododendron mariesii-Dicranopteris linearis);黄山松—满山红—平颖柳叶箬群丛(Assoc.P.taiwanensis-Rhododendron mariesii-Isachne truncata).各群丛总体物种丰富度指数和多样性指数总体上呈随海拔升高而降低的趋势,总体均匀度指数Pielou指数和Alatalo指数波动不大.在群落垂直结构上,乔木层、灌木层和草本层物种丰富度指数、多样性指数和均匀度指数有差异;各群丛间乔木层和灌木层的物种丰富度指数、多样性指数和均匀度指数波动较大,草本层这3个指数波动较小且数值上小于前两者.分析结果显示:海拔是决定该黄山松群落多样性差异的主导因子.%Classification and species diversity of Pinus taiwanensis Hayata community in Daiyun Mountain National Nature Reserve

  19. From coseismic offsets to fault-block mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, George A.; Parsons, Tom

    2017-09-01

    In the Basin and Range extensional province of the western United States, coseismic offsets, under the influence of gravity, display predominantly subsidence of the basin side (fault hanging wall), with comparatively little or no uplift of the mountainside (fault footwall). A few decades later, geodetic measurements [GPS and interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR)] show broad (˜100 km) aseismic uplift symmetrically spanning the fault zone. Finally, after millions of years and hundreds of fault offsets, the mountain blocks display large uplift and tilting over a breadth of only about 10 km. These sparse but robust observations pose a problem in that the coesismic uplifts of the footwall are small and inadequate to raise the mountain blocks. To address this paradox we develop finite-element models subjected to extensional and gravitational forces to study time-varying deformation associated with normal faulting. Stretching the model under gravity demonstrates that asymmetric slip via collapse of the hanging wall is a natural consequence of coseismic deformation. Focused flow in the upper mantle imposed by deformation of the lower crust localizes uplift, which is predicted to take place within one to two decades after each large earthquake. Thus, the best-preserved topographic signature of earthquakes is expected to occur early in the postseismic period.

  20. Monitoring air quality in mountains: Designing an effective network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    A quantitatively robust yet parsimonious air-quality monitoring network in mountainous regions requires special attention to relevant spatial and temporal scales of measurement and inference. The design of monitoring networks should focus on the objectives required by public agencies, namely: 1) determine if some threshold has been exceeded (e.g., for regulatory purposes), and 2) identify spatial patterns and temporal trends (e.g., to protect natural resources). A short-term, multi-scale assessment to quantify spatial variability in air quality is a valuable asset in designing a network, in conjunction with an evaluation of existing data and simulation-model output. A recent assessment in Washington state (USA) quantified spatial variability in tropospheric ozone distribution ranging from a single watershed to the western third of the state. Spatial and temporal coherence in ozone exposure modified by predictable elevational relationships ( 1.3 ppbv ozone per 100 m elevation gain) extends from urban areas to the crest of the Cascade Range. This suggests that a sparse network of permanent analyzers is sufficient at all spatial scales, with the option of periodic intensive measurements to validate network design. It is imperative that agencies cooperate in the design of monitoring networks in mountainous regions to optimize data collection and financial efficiencies.

  1. Seasonal cycles in streamwater quality on Catoctin Mountain, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Karen C.; Bricker, Owen P.

    1995-01-01

    In 1980, the U.S. Congress mandated the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) to study the effects of acidic precipitation (acid rain). In 1982, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) was selected to be the lead Federal agency under NAPAP to monitor the composition of precipitation and its effects on the environment. In 1982, the USGS began to monitor precipitation and streamwater on Catoctin Mountain in north-central Maryland (fig. 1); the effort has continued through the present. Beginning in 1990, funding for these data-collection and interpretation activities was supplemented by the Maryland Department of the Environment and the Maryland Department of Natural Re- sources. The collection and interpretation of long-term precipitation and streamwater-quality records, such as those at Catoctin Mountain, provide valuable information for management decisions. At the local level, the information can be used to identify periods when streamwater quality may pose a danger to aquatic resources, such as finfish; at the national level, the information can be used to assess the effectiveness of the Clean Air Act Amendments.

  2. Structural diversity of forest communities on Baihuashan Mountain,Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The structural diversity of forests on Baihuashan Mountain,Beijing,was surveyed by a plotless method combined with branch and leaf coverage estimation in the different layers.New structural indices were constructed,calculated and compared among different communities.On the basis of previous work,structural diversity of forest communities at the stand level was described by a vertical complexity index and a horizontal heterogeneity index.From a correlational analysis among the new indices and other commonly used biodiversity indices,we concluded that the new indices are closely related to a tree height inequality index and the Shannon-Wiener index of the tree and shrub layer,which indicated that the new indices were good at indicating structural diversity in the different forests on Baihuashan Mountain.The results show that,in natural forests,structural diversity of pioneer communities is much lower than in late successive communities.In plantations,structural diversity is determined by the stage of development and tree species.Tending would increase horizontal heterogeneity and decrease vertical complexity.

  3. From coseismic offsets to fault-block mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, George A.; Parsons, Thomas E.

    2017-01-01

    In the Basin and Range extensional province of the western United States, coseismic offsets, under the influence of gravity, display predominantly subsidence of the basin side (fault hanging wall), with comparatively little or no uplift of the mountainside (fault footwall). A few decades later, geodetic measurements [GPS and interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR)] show broad (∼100 km) aseismic uplift symmetrically spanning the fault zone. Finally, after millions of years and hundreds of fault offsets, the mountain blocks display large uplift and tilting over a breadth of only about 10 km. These sparse but robust observations pose a problem in that the coesismic uplifts of the footwall are small and inadequate to raise the mountain blocks. To address this paradox we develop finite-element models subjected to extensional and gravitational forces to study time-varying deformation associated with normal faulting. Stretching the model under gravity demonstrates that asymmetric slip via collapse of the hanging wall is a natural consequence of coseismic deformation. Focused flow in the upper mantle imposed by deformation of the lower crust localizes uplift, which is predicted to take place within one to two decades after each large earthquake. Thus, the best-preserved topographic signature of earthquakes is expected to occur early in the postseismic period.

  4. Soil erosion in mountainous areas: how far can we go?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egli, Markus

    2017-04-01

    Erosion is the counter part of soil formation, is a natural process and cannot be completely impeded. With respect to soil protection, the term of tolerable soil erosion, having several definitions, has been created. Tolerable erosion is often equalled to soil formation or production. It is therefore crucial that we know the rates of soil formation when discussing sustainability of soil use and management. Natural rates of soil formation or production are determined by mineral weathering or transformation of parent material into soil, dust deposition and organic matter incorporation. In mountain areas where soil depth is a main limiting factor for soil productivity, the use and management of soils must consider how to preserve them from excessive depth loss and consequent degradation of their physical, chemical and biological properties. Even under natural conditions, landscape surfaces and soils are known to evolve in complex, non-linear ways over time. As a result, soil production and erosion change substantially with time. The fact that soil erosion and soil production processes are discontinuous over time is an aspect that is in most cases completely neglected. To conserve a given situation, tolerable values should take these dynamics into account. Measurements of long and short-term physical erosion rates, total denudation, weathering rates and soil production have recently become much more widely available through cosmogenic and fallout nuclide techniques. In addition to this, soil chronosequences deliver a precious insight into the temporal aspect of soil formation and production. Examples from mountainous and alpine areas demonstrate that soil production rates strongly vary as a function of time (with young soils and eroded surfaces having distinctly higher rates than old soils). Extensive erosion promotes rejuvenation of the surface and, therefore, accelerates chemical weathering and soil production - the resulting soil thickness will however be shallow

  5. PECULIARITIES OF GRAMMAR STUDY OF MOUNTAIN FIRST-FORM PUPILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Kiryk

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The articles describes the role of analiztor system (auditory, visual, kinesthetic at the initial stage of learning literacy and language development six years old. They from specific integration system, that provides more efficient perception, memorization and reproduction of educational material. The article deals with attempt to ascertain linguadidactic interconnections and interdependence between grammar education (reading, writing and speech of six-year pupils. Summing up it should be mentioned to organize 6-year pupils studing in the country mountain school becides pedagogical, economical, geographic and social problems psychologic linguadidactic are added. Preferences of mountain country children: –                    Formation from childhood ability to live in harmony with nature; –                    Sensitive  perception of alive and inanimate surrounding nature; –                    Life-style form children’s responsibility for entrusted things, labour habits, training by hard nature conditions. They should be solved in complex providing achievents of psychology, pedagogics, linguists and up-to-date technology. The aim of the article  - to reveal individual peculiarities of country mountain child who needs special method of approach to grammar studing as well as to help country teacher who strongly feels lack for efficient method help. All these affect on prepearing level, children’s outlook, general development. Scientific and methodogical institutions have not easy task-system training and skill raising of primary school teachers to realize State standart of primary general education. Acquaintance of country teacher with up-to-date achievements in psychologic, pedagogic and linguistic education will help him to organize his work in the country school on rather higher level as well as let him give more qualitative education services and save country school as the

  6. Mountain Residence at Mt.Fuchun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Yuan Dynasty paintings laid stress on landscape with literary interest. Poems, calligraphy and painting were consciously arranged in perfect harmony so as to form the style of mountains-and-water painting with the "scholars’ painting" as its main theme. Huang Gongwang (1269-1354) was learned. Proficient in tonality and good at calligraphy, he began to paint mountains and streams when he was in his 50s. With his magnificent,refined and elegant style, Huang Gongwang’s paintings gained important position among artists of the time. The scroll Mountain Residence at Mt. Fuchun is his most popular piece. As a paper wash painting scroll, it is divided into two sections with the previous section 31.8 cm tall and 51.4 cm long,owned by the Zhejiang Provincial Museum, and the latter section 33 cm tall and 636.9 cm long, owned by the Palace Museum in Taiwan.

  7. Mechanical excavator performance in Yucca Mountain tuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozdemir, L. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (USA); Hansen, F.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)

    1991-01-01

    A research effort of four phases is in progress at the Colorado School of Mines. The overall program will evaluate the cutability of welded tuff and other lithologies likely to be excavated at Yucca Mountain in the site characterization process. Several mechanical systems are considered with emphasis given to the tunnel boring machine. The research comprises laboratory testing, linear drag bit and disc cutter tests and potentially large-scale laboratory demonstrations to support potential use of a tunnel boring machine in welded tuff. Preliminary estimates of mechanical excavator performance in Yucca Mountain tuff are presented here. As phases of the research project are completed, well quantified estimates will be made of performance of mechanical excavators in the Yucca Mountain tuffs. 3 refs., 2 tabs.

  8. Periurban landscapes in mountain areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Bertrand

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Les mutations des paysages régionaux dues aux pressions urbaines questionnent l’usage du sol. Elles interpellent à la fois des enjeux économiques, sociaux et environnementaux voire spatiaux sous-tendus par l’étalement urbain, l’accroissement des déplacements domicile-travail, le mitage de l’espace. Ces évolutions et dysfonctionnements renvoient à la question de la durabilité du développement des régions, et particulièrement des Alpes, espace contraint géographiquement et objet de nombreuses pressions anthropiques et riche en biotopes remarquables. Cet article est basé sur deux ans de travaux menés par des socio-économistes et des écologues sur les effets sur le paysage et l’environnement de la périurbanisation d’un massif alpin. Nous avons pris en compte l’espace dans les processus environnementaux, économiques ou sociaux. Intrinsèque dans les analyses écologiques, elle a longtemps posé problème à l’économie pour intégrer l’espace comme dimension à part entière des processus économiques. Trois thèmes sont ici développés : l’approche du point de vue du paysage, les problèmes d’échelles spatiales et temporelles, le choix d’indicateurs. Ils demandent de hiérarchiser les questions et de pratiquer le travail en commun. Aller au-delà nécessite de développer une interrogation plus écologique ou plus économique et/ou sociale en quittant de ce fait l’interface pour favoriser des interrogations disciplinaires particulières.Changes in regional landscapes due to urban pressures raise questions regarding land use. They also give rise to economic, social and environmental issues related to urban sprawl, increases in daily commuting, and land consumption. These changes and dysfunctions are ultimately underpinned by the question of sustainable regional development. Mountain regions such as the Alps, with their various outstanding biotopes in a restricted space, are particularly vulnerable.

  9. Flow directionality, mountain barriers and functional traits determine diatom metacommunity structuring of high mountain streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaoyu; Li, Bin; He, Fengzhi; Gu, Yuan; Sun, Meiqin; Zhang, Haomiao; Tan, Lu; Xiao, Wen; Liu, Shuoran; Cai, Qinghua

    2016-04-19

    Stream metacommunities are structured by a combination of local (environmental filtering) and regional (dispersal) processes. The unique characters of high mountain streams could potentially determine metacommunity structuring, which is currently poorly understood. Aiming at understanding how these characters influenced metacommunity structuring, we explored the relative importance of local environmental conditions and various dispersal processes, including through geographical (overland), topographical (across mountain barriers) and network (along flow direction) pathways in shaping benthic diatom communities. From a trait perspective, diatoms were categorized into high-profile, low-profile and motile guild to examine the roles of functional traits. Our results indicated that both environmental filtering and dispersal processes influenced metacommunity structuring, with dispersal contributing more than environmental processes. Among the three pathways, stream corridors were primary pathway. Deconstructive analysis suggested different responses to environmental and spatial factors for each of three ecological guilds. However, regardless of traits, dispersal among streams was limited by mountain barriers, while dispersal along stream was promoted by rushing flow in high mountain stream. Our results highlighted that directional processes had prevailing effects on metacommunity structuring in high mountain streams. Flow directionality, mountain barriers and ecological guilds contributed to a better understanding of the roles that mountains played in structuring metacommunity.

  10. Changing climate and endangered high mountain ecosystems in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Daniel; Moreno, Hernán Alonso; Gutiérrez, María Elena; Zapata, Paula Andrea

    2008-07-15

    High mountain ecosystems are among the most sensitive environments to changes in climatic conditions occurring on global, regional and local scales. The article describes the changing conditions observed over recent years in the high mountain basin of the Claro River, on the west flank of the Colombian Andean Central mountain range. Local ground truth data gathered at 4150 m, regional data available at nearby weather stations, and satellite info were used to analyze changes in the mean and the variance, and significant trends in climatic time series. Records included minimum, mean and maximum temperatures, relative humidity, rainfall, sunshine, and cloud characteristics. In high levels, minimum and maximum temperatures during the coldest days increased at a rate of about 0.6 degrees C/decade, whereas maximum temperatures during the warmest days increased at a rate of about 1.3 degrees C/decade. Rates of increase in maximum, mean and minimum diurnal temperature range reached 0.6, 0.7, and 0.5 degrees C/decade. Maximum, mean and minimum relative humidity records showed reductions of about 1.8, 3.9 and 6.6%/decade. The total number of sunny days per month increased in almost 2.1 days. The headwaters exhibited no changes in rainfall totals, but evidenced an increased occurrence of unusually heavy rainfall events. Reductions in the amount of all cloud types over the area reached 1.9%/decade. In low levels changes in mean monthly temperatures and monthly rainfall totals exceeded + 0.2 degrees C and - 4% per decade, respectively. These striking changes might have contributed to the retreat of glacier icecaps and to the disappearance of high altitude water bodies, as well as to the occurrence and rapid spread of natural and man-induced forest fires. Significant reductions in water supply, important disruptions of the integrity of high mountain ecosystems, and dramatic losses of biodiversity are now a steady menu of the severe climatic conditions experienced by these

  11. Development pattern of the industry form in mountains area:Case study of the Three Gorges Reservoir area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Quanguang

    2008-01-01

    The mountainous areas (mountain,plateau and hilly area) cover more than 85% of the total land territory of China.Nature and humanity in very mountainous area has its own geographic characteristics.In the process of industrialization and urbanization in China realizing the sustainable development of the mountainous areas optiinizing man-land system,and adopting and continuously developing corresponding economic modes of the mountainous areas with mulli-functiorns of economy,ecology,culture and society to charactertze production content,mode of production,mode of operation is not only helpful to economy,society and ecological value and is of great aesthetic value,but also solve the technological problems of the subject of starting undertaking to finally transform the region al resource advantage of the mountainous area into the advantage of capital and technology for economic develop ment and to get rid of the contradiction between underdeveloped economy,and abundant resources.This paper takes the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) area for example to show that it's of great practical and theoretical significance to develop"Five Types of Agriculture" and to optimize eco-environment,industrial structure,department structure regional distribution,variety structure and quality structure.

  12. Sustainable Land Use in Mountain Regions Under Global Change: Synthesis Across Scales and Disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Huber

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mountain regions provide essential ecosystem goods and services (EGS for both mountain dwellers and people living outside these areas. Global change endangers the capacity of mountain ecosystems to provide key services. The Mountland project focused on three case study regions in the Swiss Alps and aimed to propose land-use practices and alternative policy solutions to ensure the provision of key EGS under climate and land-use changes. We summarized and synthesized the results of the project and provide insights into the ecological, socioeconomic, and political processes relevant for analyzing global change impacts on a European mountain region. In Mountland, an integrative approach was applied, combining methods from economics and the political and natural sciences to analyze ecosystem functioning from a holistic human-environment system perspective. In general, surveys, experiments, and model results revealed that climate and socioeconomic changes are likely to increase the vulnerability of the EGS analyzed. We regard the following key characteristics of coupled human-environment systems as central to our case study areas in mountain regions: thresholds, heterogeneity, trade-offs, and feedback. Our results suggest that the institutional framework should be strengthened in a way that better addresses these characteristics, allowing for (1 more integrative approaches, (2 a more network-oriented management and steering of political processes that integrate local stakeholders, and (3 enhanced capacity building to decrease the identified vulnerability as central elements in the policy process. Further, to maintain and support the future provision of EGS in mountain regions, policy making should also focus on project-oriented, cross-sectoral policies and spatial planning as a coordination instrument for land use in general.

  13. The Role of Travel Intermediaries in the Development of Sustainable Mountain Tourism - the Case of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Icoz Onur

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to investigate the current situation of mountain tourism and its sustainability in Turkey. Not only the tourism policies of the government are enough to promote a new alternative tourism type, but also the role and effects of tourism middlemen such as travel agencies, tour operators, and tour wholesalers cannot be denied in the promotion of a destination. Mountain tourism could be one of the best alternative tourism opportunities for many destinations if they have sufficient resources, namely naturally attractive mountains and related infra and/or superstructure. Turkey and Aegean region have many attractive resources in this sense. In this research, in addition to analyzing the current situation in Turkey; ways of developing mountain tourism in a sustainable way as well as possible roles and effects of travel intermediaries in this area are questioned. With this purpose, the contents of the research vary differently. The first part depends on literature review presenting general definitions and discussions concerning mountain tourism. In the second part of the study, tourism policies in general and the mountain tourism policies of Turkish Government will be discussed. In the last part, the field survey is applied by developing and distributing questionnaire to major group A travel agencies in Turkey and outbound tour operators organizing tours to Turkey as well. The sample of the research consists of 83 firms and each was reached via e-mail. The data gained through the survey were analysed by computer based statistical program, SPSS 16. In the discussion part of the research, depending on the major findings, the comments and suggestions for further researches were developed.

  14. Participatory and Integrated Research in Mountainous Regions of Thailand and Vietnam: Approaches and Lessons Learned

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andreas Neef; Franz Heidhues; Karl Stahr; Pittaya Sruamsiri

    2006-01-01

    Participatory and integrated research approaches employed by a long-term ThaiVietnamese-German collaborative research program,circles of resource scarcity, environmental degradation and rural poverty in mountainous regions of northern Thailand and northern Vietnam are discussed in this paper. We present two examples from the Thai component of the research program to show how different disciplines and stakeholders need to cooperate at different scales to make meaningful scientific contributions towards sustainable land use and rural development in mountainous regions. The case of resource conservation in the Thai highlands shows that local and scientific knowledge, conventional surveys and participatory modeling can be creatively combined. Integrated research on the potential of integrating fruit trees and associated technologies into mountain farming systems suggests that natural scientists have to work alongside economists and social scientists to avoid harmful effects of purely technology-driven and productivityenhancing approaches. The success of new technologies cannot be measured solely by adoption rates and yield increases, but also needs to take into account their long-term impact on various groups of farmers and the ecological, economic and social trade-offs that they entail. Technical and institutional innovations need to go hand in hand to provide viable livelihood opportunities for smallholder farmers in mountain watersheds. The major lesson learned from the first six years of our research in the mountains of Thailand and Vietnam is that conventional and participatory approaches are not antagonistic; if scientists from various disciplines and research paradigms are open-minded, the combination of both approaches can produce meaningful results that cater for the needs of both the academic community and local stakeholders in mountain environments.

  15. Independent management and financial review, Yucca Mountain Project, Nevada. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-15

    The Yucca Mountain Project is one part of the Department of Energy`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program (the Program) which was established by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, and as amended in 1987. The Program`s goal is to site the nation`s first geologic repository for the permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste, in the form of spent fuel rod assemblies, generated by the nuclear power industry and a smaller quantity of Government radioactive waste. The Program, which also encompasses the transportation system and the multipurpose canister system was not the subject of this Report. The subject of this Review was only the Yucca Mountain Project in Nevada. While the Review was directed toward the Yucca Mountain Project rather than the Program as a whole, there are certain elements of the Project which cannot be addressed except through discussion of some Program issues. An example is the Total System Life Cycle Cost addressed in Section 7 of this report. Where Program issues are discussed in this Report, the reader is reminded of the scope limitations of the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) contract to review only the Yucca Mountain Project. The primary scope of the Review was to respond to the specific criteria contained in the NARUC scope of work. In responding to these criteria, the Review Team understood that some interested parties have expressed concern over the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act relative to the Yucca Mountain Project and the nature of activities currently being carried out by the Department of Energy at the Yucca Mountain Project site. The Review Team has attempted to analyze relevant portions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act as Amended, but has not conducted a thorough analysis of this legislation that could lead to any specific legal conclusions about all aspects of it.

  16. 2016: Special Use Permits : Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This reference is a collection of Special Use Permits originating from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR Complex. The Complex consists of Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR,...

  17. 2012: Special Use Permits : Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This reference is a collection of Special Use Permits originating from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR Complex. The Complex consists of Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR,...

  18. 2015: Special Use Permits : Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This reference is a collection of Special Use Permits originating from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR Complex. The Complex consists of Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR,...

  19. [Exit Strategy - Issues Summary : Rocky Mountain Arsenal : January 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is the Exit Strategy spreadsheet developed in a joint meeting between the Rocky Mountain Arsenal Council and the Rocky Mountain Arsenal Committee...

  20. 2014: Special Use Permits : Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This reference is a collection of Special Use Permits originating from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR Complex. The Complex consists of Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR,...

  1. 2017: Special Use Permits : Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This reference is a collection of Special Use Permits originating from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR Complex. The Complex consists of Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR,...

  2. 2013: Special Use Permits : Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This reference is a collection of Special Use Permits originating from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR Complex. The Complex consists of Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR,...

  3. 2008: Special Use Permits : Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This reference is a collection of Special Use Permits originating from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR Complex. The Complex consists of Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR,...

  4. 2011: Special Use Permits : Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This reference is a collection of Special Use Permits originating from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR Complex. The Complex consists of Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR,...

  5. Mountain Regions in Swiss Politics and Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Bätzing

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed: Die schweizerischen Berggebiete in der Politik [ Mountain Regions in Swiss Politics and Policies] By Gilles Rudaz and Bernard Debarbieux. Translated from French (see below. Zurich, Switzerland: vdf Hochschulverlag, 2014. 136 pp. CHF 24.00, € 21.00. Also available as an e-book. ISBN 978-3-7281-3604-6. Reviewed: La montagne Suisse en politique [ Mountain Regions in Swiss Politics and Policies] By Gilles Rudaz and Bernard Debarbieux. Lausanne, Switzerland: Presses polytechniques et universitaires romandes, 2013. 128 pp. CHF 17.50. Also available as an e-book. ISBN 978-2-88915-043-4.

  6. Periglacial landforms in the Pohorje Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Natek

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to the well-studied Pleistocene glaciation, periglacial phenomena in Slovenia havebeen given less scientific attention because they are not particularly evident in high mountainsdue to prevailing carbonate rocks. This, however, is not the case in the Pohorje Mountains:built of igneous and metamorphic rocks, it was not glaciated due to its insufficient elevation,but was subject to periglacial processes. In the article, some of the periglacial landforms ofthe Pohorje Mountains are presented for the first time, especially nivation hollows in theuppermost zone, and the Jezerc cirque where a smaller glacier, unknown until recently, existedat the peak of the glaciation.

  7. MOUNTAIN TOURISM INTERCONNECTIONS. VARIATION OF MOUNTAIN TOURIST FLOW IN SUCEAVA COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George CHEIA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mountain tourism, in addition to one of the most common types of tourism, is generated by a complex of factors and at the same time, triggers a series of processes involving tourism phenomenon, especially the environment where it is taking place. This paper aims to discuss some of these causal factors, and the relationship between this type of tourism and the tourist area itself (1. By using SPSS analytical methods , it can be practically demonstrated the impact of mountain tourist flow in spas (2 and mountain resorts (3 in Suceava county.

  8. Power and Energy: Geopolitical Aspects of the Transnational Natural Gas Pipelines from the Caspian Sea Basin to Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    this strategy, the mountains —the Carpathians , the Caucasus and the Tien Shan—continue to play a key role. The Carpathians , which incorporate Ukraine...involved.”74 However, Kyrgyzstan has no strategic resources, but its importance to Russia lies in its geostrategic position. The Tien Shan Mountains in...Central Asia act as a natural barrier between Russia, and South Asia and China. Within the Tien Shan Mountains lies the core of Central Asia—the

  9. 75 FR 12163 - Class E Airspace; Mountain View, AR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Class E Airspace; Mountain View, AR AGENCY: Federal... proposes to amend Class E airspace at Mountain View, AR. Decommissioning of the Wilcox non-directional beacon (NDB) at Mountain View Wilcox Memorial Field Airport has made this action necessary for the...

  10. 27 CFR 9.118 - Ben Lomond Mountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ben Lomond Mountain. 9.118... Lomond Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Ben Lomond Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Ben...

  11. Aspen biology, community classification, and management in the Blue Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    David K. Swanson; Craig L. Schmitt; Diane M. Shirley; Vicky Erickson; Kenneth J. Schuetz; Michael L. Tatum; David C. Powell

    2010-01-01

    Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) is a valuable species that is declining in the Blue Mountains of northeastern Oregon. This publication is a compilation of over 20 years of aspen management experience by USDA Forest Service workers in the Blue Mountains. It includes a summary of aspen biology and occurrence in the Blue Mountains, and a...

  12. 27 CFR 9.155 - Texas Davis Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Texas Davis Mountains. 9... Texas Davis Mountains. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Texas Davis Mountains.” (b) Approved map. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Texas...

  13. 27 CFR 9.31 - Santa Cruz Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Santa Cruz Mountains. 9.31... Cruz Mountains. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Santa Cruz Mountains.” (b) Approved maps. The 24 approved U.S.G.S. maps for determining the boundaries are 23...

  14. Phytogeography of the tropical north-east African mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Friis

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The tropical north-east African mountains are tentatively divided into four phytochoria, the formal rank of which is not defined. The division is based on patterns of distribution and endemism in the region. The recognition of a distinct Afromontane phytochorion is now well established (Chapman & White, 1970; Werger, 1978; White, 1978. However, there is still very little information on the phytogeography of the individual mountains or mountain systems. This study hopes to fill a little of the gap by analysing distribution patterns and patterns of endemism in the flora of the tropical north-east African mountains. The north-east African mountain system is the largest in tropical Africa (see e.g. map in White, 1978. At the core of this system is the large Ethiopian massif, around which are located various mountains and mountain chains. These include the Red Sea Hills in the Sudan, the mountain chain in northern Somalia, the south-west Arabian mountains, and the Imatong mountains of south-east Sudan. The latter are often referred to the East African mountain system (White, 1978 but. as I will point out later, they also have a close connection with the south-west highlands of Ethiopia. The paper presents some results of my study of the mountain flora of tropical north-east Africa, particularly the forest species. Where no source is indicated, the data are from my own unpublished studies.

  15. Summary report on the geochemistry of Yucca Mountain and environs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, W.R.; Wolfsberg, K.; Rundberg, R.S.

    1982-12-01

    This report gives a detailed description of work at Los Alamos that will help resolve geochemical issues pertinent to siting a high-level nuclear waste repository in tuff at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. It is necessary to understand the properties and setting of the host tuff because this rock provides the first natural barrier to migration of waste elements from a repository. The geochemistry of tuff is being investigated with particular emphasis on retardation processes. This report addresses the various aspects of sorption by tuff, physical and chemical makeup of tuff, diffusion processes, tuff/groundwater chemistry, waste element chemistry under expected repository conditions, transport processes involved in porous and fracture flow, and geochemical and transport modeling.

  16. Amphibians of the Simbruini Mountains (Latium, Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierangelo Crucitti

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Little attention has been paid to the herpetological fauna of the Simbruini Mountains Regional Park, Latium (Central Italy. In this study, we surveyed 50 sites in the course of about ten years of field research, especially during the period 2005-2008. Nine amphibian species, four Caudata and five Anura, 60.0% out of the 15 amphibian species so far observed in Latium, were discovered in the protected area: Salamandra salamandra, Salamandrina perspicillata, Lissotriton vulgaris, Triturus carnifex, Bombina pachypus, Bufo balearicus, Bufo bufo, Rana dalmatina, Rana italica. Physiography of sites has been detailed together with potential threatening patterns. For each species the following topics have been discussed; ecology of sites, altitudinal distribution, phenology, sintopy. Salamandra salamandra and Bombina pachypus are at higher risk. The importance of the maintenance of artificial/natural water bodies for the conservation management of amphibian population of this territory is discussed.

  17. [Excluded mountain populations, unsustainable cities: the enigma of public participation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portella, Sergio Luiz Dias; Nunes, João Arriscado

    2014-10-01

    By highlighting the extreme event of 11-12 January 2011 in the mountain cities of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, an attempt is made to exemplify the triad paradigmatically: contemporary problems / government inability to adapt / low public participation, and highlight the issue with some reflections on the gap between discourse on social participation and its inexistence. The goal is to elicit reflection that generates a polemic regarding the technical nature of the scientific reports produced and thus be able to integrate the overriding question into the set of reflections: How can one plan more resilient locations that are simultaneously socially equitable, have economic vitality, are environmentally compatible and less vulnerable to disasters? The reflections are the result of the analysis of technical and scientific documents.

  18. Geotechnical Issues in Total System Performance Assessments of Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HO,CLIFFORD K.; HOUSEWORTH,JIM; WILSON,MICHAEL L.

    1999-12-21

    A Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) of Yucca Mountain consists of integrated sub-models and analyses of natural and engineered systems. Examples of subsystem models include unsaturated-zone flow and transport, seepage into drifts, coupled thermal hydrologic processes, transport through the engineered barrier system, and saturated-zone flow and transport. The TSPA evaluates the interaction of important processes among these subsystems, and it determines the impact of these processes on the overall performance measures (e.g., dose rate to humans). This paper summarizes the evaluation, abstraction, and combination of these subsystem models in a TSPA calculation, and it provides background on the individual TSPA subsystem components that are most directly impacted by geotechnical issues. The potential impact that geologic features, events, and processes have on the overall performance is presented, and an evaluation of the sensitivity of TSPA calculations to these issues is also provided.

  19. Evolution of puma lentivirus in bobcats (Lynx rufus) and mountain lions (Puma concolor) in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Justin S; Bevins, Sarah N; Serieys, Laurel E K; Vickers, Winston; Logan, Ken A; Aldredge, Mat; Boydston, Erin E; Lyren, Lisa M; McBride, Roy; Roelke-Parker, Melody; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Troyer, Jennifer L; Riley, Seth P; Boyce, Walter M; Crooks, Kevin R; VandeWoude, Sue

    2014-07-01

    Mountain lions (Puma concolor) throughout North and South America are infected with puma lentivirus clade B (PLVB). A second, highly divergent lentiviral clade, PLVA, infects mountain lions in southern California and Florida. Bobcats (Lynx rufus) in these two geographic regions are also infected with PLVA, and to date, this is the only strain of lentivirus identified in bobcats. We sequenced full-length PLV genomes in order to characterize the molecular evolution of PLV in bobcats and mountain lions. Low sequence homology (88% average pairwise identity) and frequent recombination (1 recombination breakpoint per 3 isolates analyzed) were observed in both clades. Viral proteins have markedly different patterns of evolution; sequence homology and negative selection were highest in Gag and Pol and lowest in Vif and Env. A total of 1.7% of sites across the PLV genome evolve under positive selection, indicating that host-imposed selection pressure is an important force shaping PLV evolution. PLVA strains are highly spatially structured, reflecting the population dynamics of their primary host, the bobcat. In contrast, the phylogeography of PLVB reflects the highly mobile mountain lion, with diverse PLVB isolates cocirculating in some areas and genetically related viruses being present in populations separated by thousands of kilometers. We conclude that PLVA and PLVB are two different viral species with distinct feline hosts and evolutionary histories. Importance: An understanding of viral evolution in natural host populations is a fundamental goal of virology, molecular biology, and disease ecology. Here we provide a detailed analysis of puma lentivirus (PLV) evolution in two natural carnivore hosts, the bobcat and mountain lion. Our results illustrate that PLV evolution is a dynamic process that results from high rates of viral mutation/recombination and host-imposed selection pressure.

  20. GIS FOR PREDICTING THE AVALANCHE ZONES IN THE MOUNTAIN REGIONS OF KAZAKHSTAN

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Foothills of Trans Ili Alatau is a recreational area with buildings and sports facilities and resorts, sanatoriums, etc. In summer and winter there are a very large number of skiers, climbers, tourists and workers of organizations which located in the mountains. In this regard, forecasting natural destructive phenomena using GIS software is an important task of many scientific fields. The formation of avalanches, except meteorological conditions, such as temperature, wind speed, snow thicknes...