WorldWideScience

Sample records for luxembourg

  1. Luxembourg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    The population of Luxembourg stood at 366,000 in 1986, with an annual growth rate of under 1%. The infant mortality rate is 11.7/1000. Life expectancy is 70 years for men and 76.7 years for women. There is 100% literacy. Luxembourg's gross domestic product in 1986 was US$5.1 billion, with an annual growth rate of 2.5% and a per capita income of $13,900. Of the labor force of 161,000, 5% are engaged in agriculture, 35% are employed in industry and commerce, 49% work in services, and 11% are employed by the government. Luxembourg has a parliamentary form of government with a constitutional monarchy. The 3 major parties are the Christian Social Party, the Socialist Party, and the Democratic (Liberal) Party. Luxembourg is a highly industrialized, export-intensive country. The iron and steel sector is the most important single sector of the economy; steel accounts for 36% of all exports, 10% of the gross domestic product, and 9% of the work force. The recent relative decline of the steel sector has been offset by the development of Luxembourg as a financial center. In 1987, the government estimates that unemployment will remain below 1.8%, inflation will increase slightly to 2%, and the gross domestic product's growth will increase to 2.8%.

  2. The Luxembourg Space Resources Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, M.

    2017-09-01

    This keynote talk by M. Link from the Directorate of ICT and Space Affairs, Ministry of the Economy, The Government of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, will provide an overview of Luxembourg's ins-space resource utilization initiative.

  3. Luxembourg; Selected Issues and Statistical Appendix

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2000-01-01

    Luxembourg's impressive growth performance has been accompanied by regional specialization of production, high labor mobility, export-propelled growth, and the dominance of regional growth fluctuations. Luxembourg's public pension system faces the challenges of population aging and Luxembourg's small, open, and highly specialized economy. Luxembourg's labor market performance holds a seeming paradox, favorable labor market outcomes are coupled with rigid labor market institutions. The supervi...

  4. Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inserra, P

    1985-09-01

    This article provides a profile of Luxembourg, a country known for its high standard of living and social stability. The total fertility rate in Luxembourg in 1983 was 1.4. 26% of the population are immigrants. The total population of teh country stood at 364,602 in 1981 and is expected to decline to 349,000 by the year 2000 if present trends continue. Immigration is actively promoted to provide manual labor; about 30% of immigrants are from Portugal. The 1981 census counted 128,456 households in the country, with an average household size of 2.83 people. 24% of men over 18 years and 23% of women over 15 years have never married. Although only 19% of men over age 65 years are widowers, 55% of women in this age group are widows. About 50,000 Luxembourgers are over 65 years of age. In 1983, the full time work force was 158,500 and the unemployment rate was 1.6%. Women comprise about 40% of the labor force. The inflation rate has declined sharply, from 8.6% in 1983 to 5.7% in 1984. A large portion of the average household budget is allocate toward further education, leisure, and culture. About 70% of the population are homeowners. The atmosphere of austerity present elsewhere in Europe has not affected Luxembourg; leaders are optimistic about the country's economic future.

  5. [Suicide in Luxembourg: a statistical study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    A review of the situation concerning suicide in Luxembourg is presented. The existing laws are first described, and some methodological questions are summarized. A statistical analysis of suicide in the country is then presented. Data are included on trends over time, 1881-1982; and on variations in suicide by sex, age, marital status, religion, nationality, and occupation and standard of living. A bibliography is also provided.

  6. Country policy profile - Luxembourg. December 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    In Luxembourg, electricity from renewable sources is mainly promoted through a feed-in tariff as well as through subsidies. Private individuals operating small solar installations are entitled to tax benefits. The production of heat from renewable energy sources is promoted through four different subsidy schemes. Finally, the only support scheme for renewable energy sources used in transport is a quota system. Several policies aim at promoting the development, installation and usage of RES-installations, such as a training programme for RES-installers; a general research, development and demonstration (RD and D) programme and support schemes for RES-H infrastructures (source: RES-Legal Europe)

  7. Euthanasia in Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Each of the Benelux countries (Belgium, Luxembourg, Netherlands) has enacted legislation that partially decriminalises euthanasia, defined as an act that intentionally terminates someone's life at their request. In the Netherlands and Luxembourg, but not in Belgium, the legislation partially decriminalised assisted suicide at the same time. In all three countries, euthanasia can only be performed by a doctor, in response to the patient's voluntary and well-considered request, and for patients who have an incurable disease that causes unbearable suffering, without any prospect of relief. In the Netherlands, minors can request euthanasia as of the age of 12 years. In 2011, reported euthanasia accounted for about 1% of deaths in Belgium and 3% in the Netherlands. In 75% of cases, cancer was the disease leading to a request for euthanasia. In the Netherlands, the number of cases of euthanasia reported by doctors in surveys matches the number that is officially declared. In Belgium, it is thought that there are as many unreported as reported cases of euthanasia. Since the enactment of euthanasia legislation, fewer deaths involve the intentional administration of lethal drugs without an explicit request from the patient.

  8. Country policy profile - Luxembourg. August 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-08-01

    In Luxembourg, electricity from renewable sources is mainly promoted through a feed-in tariff as well as through subsidies. Private individuals operating small solar installations are entitled to tax benefits. The production of heat from renewable energy sources is promoted through four different subsidy schemes. Finally, the only support scheme for renewable energy sources used in transport is a quota system. Several policies aim at promoting the development, installation and usage of RES-installations, such as a training programme for RES-installers; a general research, development and demonstration (RD and D) programme and support schemes for RES-H infrastructures (source: RES-Legal Europe). New feed-in tariff for electricity were formally introduced in August 2014

  9. [Historic Development of Clinical Biology Laboratories in Luxembourg].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wennig R; Humbel R-L

    2014-01-01

    After a short overview on the development of diagnostic tools in clinical biology at an international level from Antiquity towards today, a history of the clinical biology including public and private institutions in Luxembourg will be outlined.

  10. Energy policies of IEA countries: Luxembourg -- 2008 Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-03-20

    Luxembourg has reformed its energy policies across all sectors since the last IEA in-depth review in 2004. The country has fully liberalised its electricity and natural gas markets, and is actively participating in the development of the evolving Central West European regional electricity system. Luxembourg has also prepared a broad action plan on energy efficiency, improved the support system for renewable energy sources and revised taxes to mitigate climate change. The country's energy policy in the coming decade will be shaped by the EU 2020 targets that call for substantial reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, and strong increases in renewable energy and energy efficiency. These targets will be hard to meet, given that roughly half of energy-related CO2 emissions come from transport fuel use by foreign truckers and motorists, and that Luxembourg's potential for producing much more renewable energy is limited. Luxembourg is heavily dependent on oil. Although oil sources are well diversified by country of origin, more than 85% of oil stocks are held in neighbouring countries and often based on short-term leasing contracts. This leaves the country vulnerable to potential oil supply disruptions. Luxembourg should swiftly implement a plan to improve the security of oil supply. This review analyses the energy challenges facing Luxembourg and provides critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide the country towards achieving its sustainability targets.

  11. Act of 22 February 1968 on Luxembourg nationality, as amended by the Acts of 26 June 1975, 20 June 1977, and 11 December 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Among other things, the 1986 amendments to this law provide that Luxembourg nationality is granted to children born of a Luxembourg mother, rather than only of a Luxembourg father, and that the possibility of choosing Luxembourg nationality is available to a male foreigner married to a woman with Luxembourg nationality, rather than only to a female foreigner married to a man with Luxembourg nationality.

  12. The Grand Duchy on the Grand Tour: A Historical Study of Student Migration in Luxembourg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohstock, Anne; Schreiber, Catherina

    2013-01-01

    Since Luxembourg became independent in 1839, practically the entire political, economic and intellectual elite of the country has been socialised abroad. It was only in 2003 that the Grand Duchy set up its own university; before then, young Luxembourgers had to study in foreign countries. Over the past 150 years, Luxembourg has thus experienced…

  13. [Sports in Luxembourg. The role of heart healthy sports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delagardelle, C

    2015-01-01

    30 years of organized ambulatory heart sport in Luxembourg Promoter of health sports. For more than 30 years both mortality and morbidity due to coronary artery disease (CAD) are significantly decreasing (> 70%) in the western world. This achievement is due to multiple interventions in the direct treatment of CAD and, especially, in fighting its risk factors: smoking, high blood pressure, hypercholesterolemia and physical inactivity. In 1984 the first ambulatory heart sport group (phase 3 of cardiac reeducation) was founded in Luxembourg City, followed in 1991 by a section in Esch/Alzette and in 2002 by a 3ème section in Ettelbrück. These phase 3 cardiac sport groups (= chronic phase) are organized by some committed patients working on a voluntary basis and performing a professional job. Paradoxically these phase 3 groups preceded the phases 1 and 2 (= "in hospital" and subacute) of cardiac rehabilitation. However, in a parallel way ambulatory phase 2 physical activity (PA) was started in the main hospitals in Luxembourg City (Centrum), Esch/Alzette (South) and Ettelbrück ( North). In 2002 a cornerstone study by Myers et al proved that physical fitness is the most determinant of survival both for healthy people and for cardiac patients: The better the fitness, quantified in METs, the better the prognosis and this fact is the basis for the application of sports therapy in cardiac and most other patients. An important epidemiological study published in 2012 by Lee et al in Lancet analyzed the effects of physical inactivity (PI) all over the world: 4 important diseases were studied: CAD, breast cancer, colon cancer and type 2 diabetes. The effects of PI are most pronounced in colon cancer followed by diabetes 2, breast cancer and then CAD. As a mean about 9% of all deaths -5.9 million in 57 million deaths/year worldwide- are caused by PI and for Luxembourg 12.9%. This cornerstone study can serve as rationale for physical therapy (PT) intervention in oncology

  14. Investment Fund Governance: An empirical investigation of Luxembourg UCITS

    OpenAIRE

    Hazenberg, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Investment funds potentially suffer from the conflict of interest between investors and fund management companies. Fund boards could help mitigate this conflict. In Luxembourg, the second largest fund domicile globally, fund boards are not required to have independent board members. Nevertheless, many firms have independent board members on their fund boards. The research question investigated is whether or not boards with (more) independent board members are more effective for investors,...

  15. Income, Wealth and Consumption of Cross-Border Commuters to Luxembourg

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Y. Mathä; Alessandro Porpiglia; Michael Ziegelmeyer

    2012-01-01

    Exceeding 40% of domestic employment cross-border commuters are extremely important to Luxembourg's economy and labour market in general. This paper presents unique information on their income, wealth and consumption using representative survey data from cross-border commuter households to Luxembourg. The estimated average total net wealth of cross-border commuter households is about EUR 240,000, which falls substantially short of comparable estimates for Luxembourg resident households exceed...

  16. How Do the Elderly Fare Cross-Nationally? Evidence from the Luxembourg Income Study Project

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Saunders; Timothy M. Smeeding

    1998-01-01

    This paper uses microdata from the Luxembourg Income Study How Do the Elderly in Taiwan Fare Cross-Nationally? Evidence from the Luxembourg Income Study Project Peter Saunders and Timothy M. Smeeding Social Policy Research Centre, Discussion Paper, No.81 Abstract This paper uses microdata from the Luxembourg Income Study (LIS) to estimate and compare four dimensions of the well-being of the aged in Taiwan and eight other countries - the United States, Japan, Australia, Poland, Finland, German...

  17. Improving Education Achievement and Attainment in Luxembourg. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 508

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, David; Ernst, Ekkehard

    2006-01-01

    Improving education achievement in Luxembourg is a priority for strengthening productivity growth and enhancing residents' employment prospects in the private sector, where employers mainly hire cross-border workers. Student achievement in Luxembourg is below the OECD average according to the 2003 OECD PISA study, with the performance gap between…

  18. INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION IN LUXEMBOURG Continuous Reporting System on Migration OECD

    OpenAIRE

    Nienaber, Birte; Jacobs, Sarah; Sommarribas, Adolfo

    2016-01-01

    Luxembourg has been a country of immigration for more than 50 years. Located in the heart of Europe, it holds a strong attraction for EU citizens and nationals from countries all around the world, who play a central role in the national economy, making an important contribution to the population growth and the labour market. Over the course of 2015, Luxembourg’s population has continued its steady growth of approximately 13.000 people per year, increasing by 2,36%, from 562.958 on 1st Jan...

  19. Cost of disorders of the brain in Luxembourg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisdorff, A; Sobocki, P; Cloos, J M; Andrée, C; Graziano, M E

    2006-01-01

    Brain disorders (psychiatric, neurological and neurosurgical diseases) are leading causes of disease and disability. According to WHO data they cause 35% of the burden of all diseases in Europe. The present study aims to estimate the cost of defined brain disorders and adds all selected disorders to arrive at the total cost for Luxembourg. A model combining published economic and epidemiological data retrieved from the OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) and Eurostat databases on brain disorders in Europe (EU member countries, Iceland, Norway and Switzerland) was used. We transformed and converted data for a defined period into the same currency (Euro 2004) and adjusted country specific economic data for purchasing power and relative size of economy and imputed data where no local data were available. There are an estimated 123000 people in Luxembourg currently living with a brain disorder. The total annual cost of brain disorders is estimated at Euro 500 million in 2004 or an average of Euro 1100 per inhabitant. Mental disorders constitute 62% of the total cost (excluding dementia), followed by neurological diseases (excluding dementia) 22%, neurosurgical diseases excluding herniated discs 2.2%. Direct medical expenditures (outpatient care, hospitalization, drugs) have a share of 32%, direct non-medical costs (social services, informal care, adaptation, transportation) 18% and indirect costs (sick leave, early retirement and premature death) 51%.

  20. The Luxembourg Declaration on Patient Safety: a political comment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mars Di Bartolomeo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Services provided for European citizens’ healthcare are not services like standard commercial services. Healthcare services need to be accessible, independent of the citizen’s economic or social background and should at the same time be available to all at the best possible quality level.

    The Luxembourg Declaration on Patient Safety recognizes these challenging fundamental principles. Patient safety is a key aspect for all European policy makers, as it is a vital question of equitable access to health care. Nevertheless we know that unfortunately a considerable amount of avoidable safety events still occur all across Europe!

    However differently organized our national health systems may be, it is vital to share experience and knowledge at a European level in order to be able to learn from the experiences of the different memberstates. No uniform solution can be found and decreed from the bottom down, nevertheless Europe can contribute and help to raise standards by a common effort. The Luxembourg Declaration is a launching pad for European progress in this field as it sets important goals and demonstrates the steps to be undertaken. It is a calling and gives us hope for measurable progress in the future.

  1. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Luxembourg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-12-01

    The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg is a tiny, roughly triangular, sovereign state situated in Western Europe and bordered by Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany and Prance. Its total surface area is 998 sq. miles (2,586 sq. kilometres). Its situation in Europe has made it a natural crossroads, with its language, economic interests and ways of life reflecting its close association with its neighbours. It has, however, remained a separate, if not always autonomous, political unit since the tenth century. It is one of the nine member states of the European Economic Community. The country is made up of an elevated northern tableland and a southern lower plateau. The northern section comprises part of the Ardennes mountains which continue in south-east Belgium and form a plateau generally ranging between 1,000 and 2,000 feet. Iron ore mines are located near the French border. The southern section has an elevation of below 15,000 feet and comprises mainly heavily wooded good agricultural land. There has been virtually no work done; no uranium occurrences of significance are recorded. No specific exploration for uranium in Luxembourg is apparent at the present. There are no specific regulations relating to uranium exploration,which is covered by the rules relating to mineral exploration in general

  2. Ecological deficit and use of natural capital in Luxembourg from 1995 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugani, Benedetto; Roviani, Davide; Hild, Paula; Schmitt, Bianca; Benetto, Enrico

    2014-01-15

    Scarcity of natural resources and productive land is a global issue affecting the provision of goods and services at the country scale. This is particularly true for small regions with highly developed economies such as Luxembourg, which usually balance the chronic unavailability of resources (in particular with regard to fossil fuels) with an increasing demand of imported raw materials, energy and manufactured commodities. Based on historical time-series analysis (from 1995 to 2009), this paper determines the state of natural capital (NC) utilization in Luxembourg and estimates its ecological deficit (ED). Accordingly, solar energy demand (SED) and ecological footprint (EF) for Luxembourg have been initially calculated based on a recently developed country-specific environmentally extended input-output model. Thereafter, these indicators have been compared to the corresponding annual trends of potential NC (estimated using the emergy concept) and biocapacity, respectively. Results show that the trends in ED and in the use of NC in Luxembourg have not increased substantially during the years surveyed. However, the estimates also highlight that the NC of Luxembourg is directly and indirectly overused by a factor higher than 20, while circa 9 additional 'Luxembourg states' would be ideally necessary to satisfy the current land's requirements of the country and thus balance the impact induced by the EF. An in-depth analysis of the methodological advantages and limitations behind our modelling approach has been performed to validate our findings and propose a road map to improve the environmental accounting for NC and biocapacity in Luxembourg. © 2013.

  3. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Luxembourg 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Luxembourg for responding to an oil supply crisis. In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this full publication, the IEA will provide updates to the country chapters as these become available following the specific country's review. The aim of series of publications is to provide an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. The 2007 publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies.

  4. Les débuts du tourisme au Grand-Duché de Luxembourg. Au temps où le Luxembourg était à 6 heures 30 de Paris The development of tourism in Luxembourg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Jeck

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Les débuts de l’industrie touristique au Grand-Duché de Luxembourg se situent au XIXe siècle. Les « touristes romantiques » découvrent le côté « pittoresque » d’un pays, jadis appelé « Pays des loups », et diffusent, par le biais de leurs récits, la première propagande touristique pour le Luxembourg. Parallèlement aux regards bienveillants des visiteurs de passage, les Luxembourgeois prennent conscience de leur patrimoine et de sa valorisation. Soucieux de montrer les beautés d’un pays qui, au niveau politique, intellectuel, culturel et économique, s’émancipe au XIXe siècle, quelques pionniers dont l’hôtelier Alexis Heck s’engagent dans le destination management du Luxembourg. Aidés par les nouvelles technologies de la mobilité, les protagonistes du tourisme donnent l’exemple aux autorités publiques qui suivent très vite l’initiative privée pour transfigurer les préoccupations touristiques en une « industrie nationale ». La promotion du pays, qui inclut le tourisme collectif et récréatif, va de pair avec l’affirmation de l’indépendance du Luxembourg.

  5. Control of radioactivity at the Luxembourg steel-making facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, C.

    1999-01-01

    The Luxembourg steel industry has a yearly capacity of close to 3 million tonnes of raw steel produced from scrap at three electric arc furnace steel-making plants. It has introduced in 1994 a comprehensive system of measuring devices to prevent radioactive material from being introduced into its meltshops. Detection equipment has been installed at the road and railroad accesses to the three plants. Further to the controls of incoming scrap, radioactivity is monitored on both the steel and the slag samples of each heat produced at the plants. This measure is taken in order to detect any incident involving the melting of a radioactive source that might have escaped the controls of incoming material as soon as possible. The triple purpose of these controls is: (i) to protect the personnel of the steel making plants from radiation hazards; (ii) to maintain the integrity of the equipment; and (iii) to assure integrity of the products. The presentation describes the possible origins of radioactive contamination in steel scrap as well as the behaviour in the steel making process of the different radionuclides that can be expected to be introduced into the steel making vessels through steel scrap. Together with the government agency for radiation protection, procedures have been developed for the management of any event of detection of radioactivity in the plants and to assure optimum availability of the measuring equipment. These procedures are described and commented in the presentation. The presentation includes also a report on the experience from 4 years of monitoring, during which more than 10 million tonnes of scrap have passed the gates of the steel-making plants of ProfilARBED and ARES. (author)

  6. Transnational Skills Development in Post-Industrial Knowledge Economies: The Case of Luxembourg and The Greater Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Lukas; Gardin, Matias

    2018-01-01

    Luxembourg exhibits strong transnational traits within its skills regime, defying any neat fit with existing educational typologies. It is characterised by its high-skill economy, cross-cultural characteristics, and central location within the European Union. As such, Luxembourg has developed a hybrid strategy of responding to labour market…

  7. The Stranger within: Luxembourg's Early School System as a European Prototype of Nationally Legitimized International Blends (ca. 1794-1844)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyssen, Geert

    2013-01-01

    This comparative analysis of Luxembourg's early school (law) system reveals the extent to which European school systems reflect "national-cultural idiosyncrasies" apart from "structural isomorphism". It first examines the legal soil into which the Luxembourg school system was implanted. Legislative pendular swings, reflecting…

  8. Transnational Experiences, Language Competences and Worldviews: Contrasting Language Policies in Two Recently Migrated Greek Families in Luxembourg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Claudine; Gogonas, Nikolaos

    2018-01-01

    Against the backdrop of the ongoing crisis-led migration from Southern to Northwestern Europe, the present paper reports on a case study of two families who have recently migrated from Greece to Luxembourg. Luxembourg has a trilingual education system and many pupils of migrant background face difficulties on this account. Drawing on the framework…

  9. Discovering and explaining work-family strategies of parents in Luxembourg

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhelyazkova, Nevena

    2014-01-01

    The presented analysis discovers and explains typical patterns of work-family reconciliation for parents who had a child in the same period (2003) and in the same country (Luxembourg), thus facing the same macroeconomic and institutional conditions. Work-family trajectories are reconstructed as

  10. Estimation of Damping for one of the new European Court Towers in Luxembourg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Brandt, Anders; Georgakis, Christos

    2011-01-01

    The two new high rise buildings for the European court in Luxembourg have been tested by a harmonic shaker and by Operational Modal Analysis. The background for the tests is to estimate the influence on the damping of one of the towers from a series of Tuned Liquid Dampers (TLDs) placed on top of...

  11. Estimation of damping for one of the new European court towers in Luxembourg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Brandt, Anders; Georgakis, Christos T.

    2011-01-01

    The two new high rise buildings for the European Court of Justice in Luxembourg have been tested by harmonic shakers and by Operational Modal Analysis. The background for the tests is to estimate the influence on the damping of one of the towers from an array of Tuned Liquid Dampers (TLDs) placed...

  12. Multilingual Practices of University Students and Changing Forms of Multilingualism in Luxembourg

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bres, Julia; Franziskus, Anne

    2014-01-01

    With its own national language, Luxembourgish, and three languages of administration, French, German and Luxembourgish, Luxembourg has long been a very multilingual country. The nature of this multilingualism is now changing, due to the rising proportion of migrants in the country, who now make up 43% of the resident population. The changing…

  13. Towards a Repertoire-Building Approach: Multilingualism in Language Classes for Refugees in Luxembourg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalocsányiová, Erika

    2017-01-01

    This contribution examines how the diverse language resources that teachers and learners bring to the classroom can support the process of language learning. It draws on a range of linguistic ethnographic data collected at a French language course that was attended mostly by Syrian and Iraqi refugees in Luxembourg. Drawing on the analysis of…

  14. Acculturation, immigration status and cardiovascular risk factors among Portuguese immigrants to Luxembourg: findings from ORISCAV-LUX study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkerwi, Ala'a; Sauvageot, Nicolas; Pagny, Sybil; Beissel, Jean; Delagardelle, Charles; Lair, Marie-Lise

    2012-10-11

    No previous study has examined the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and explored the influence of immigration status and acculturation on overweight/obesity among the Portuguese immigrants to Luxembourg. Our objectives were to (1) compare the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors between native Luxembourgers and Portuguese immigrants, (2) examine the relationship between immigrant generation status, proportion of life spent in Luxembourg and language proficiency or preference (as proxy variables of acculturation) and overweight/obesity among Portuguese immigrants, and (3) elucidate the role of underlying socioeconomic, behavioral and dietary factors in overweight/obesity differences among the two populations. Recent national cross-sectional data from ORISCAV-LUX survey 2007-2008, composed of 843 subjects were analyzed. Overweight/obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI) >25 kg/m(2). Acculturation score was measured by using immigrant generation status, proportion of life spent in Luxembourg, and language proficiency or preference. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association between acculturation markers and overweight/obesity. Further, a series of successive models were fitted to explore the separated and added impact of potential mediators (socioeconomic status, physical activity, dietary factors) on overweight/obesity among Luxembourgers and Portuguese immigrants. Compared to Luxembourgers, Portuguese immigrants of first and second generation were younger and currently employed. About 68% of first generation Portuguese had only primary school, and about 44% were living below poverty threshold. Although the cardiovascular risk factors were comparable, Portuguese immigrants were more frequently overweight and obese than Luxembourgers, even after age and gender standardization to the European population. Overweight/obesity was significantly higher among Portuguese of first generation compared

  15. Acculturation, immigration status and cardiovascular risk factors among Portuguese immigrants to Luxembourg: findings from ORISCAV-LUX study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkerwi Ala’a

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background No previous study has examined the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and explored the influence of immigration status and acculturation on overweight/obesity among the Portuguese immigrants to Luxembourg. Our objectives were to (1 compare the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors between native Luxembourgers and Portuguese immigrants, (2 examine the relationship between immigrant generation status, proportion of life spent in Luxembourg and language proficiency or preference (as proxy variables of acculturation and overweight/obesity among Portuguese immigrants, and (3 elucidate the role of underlying socioeconomic, behavioral and dietary factors in overweight/obesity differences among the two populations. Methods Recent national cross-sectional data from ORISCAV-LUX survey 2007–2008, composed of 843 subjects were analyzed. Overweight/obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI >25kg/m2. Acculturation score was measured by using immigrant generation status, proportion of life spent in Luxembourg, and language proficiency or preference. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association between acculturation markers and overweight/obesity. Further, a series of successive models were fitted to explore the separated and added impact of potential mediators (socioeconomic status, physical activity, dietary factors on overweight/obesity among Luxembourgers and Portuguese immigrants. Results Compared to Luxembourgers, Portuguese immigrants of first and second generation were younger and currently employed. About 68% of first generation Portuguese had only primary school, and about 44% were living below poverty threshold. Although the cardiovascular risk factors were comparable, Portuguese immigrants were more frequently overweight and obese than Luxembourgers, even after age and gender standardization to the European population. Overweight/obesity was significantly

  16. Organisational aspects of mammography screening in digital settings: First experiences of Luxembourg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shannoun, F.; Schanck, J. M.; Scharpantgen, A.; Wagnon, M. C.; Ben Daoud, M.; Back, C.

    2008-01-01

    Luxembourg has been conducting a breast cancer screening programme since 1992, like a large number of other European countries, as early detection and treatment of breast cancer have been proven to reduce mortality. The majority of these screening programmes are based on analogue X-ray technology and have optimised their organisation of transporting, archiving and reading with respect to films. Last decade is marked by enormous developments in digital mammography. Different technologies such as flat panel-, computed radiography- and scanning systems became available. Digital mammography is expected to have a major impact on quality and organisation of breast cancer screening programmes. Screening programmes are now faced with a huge challenge of incorporating the digital technology, including implementation of electronic image exchange, conception of new electronic work-flow, establishing adapted quality assurance programmes and training of radiologists and technical personnel. Initial experiences of the Luxembourg approach in organising digital mammography screening and its quality assurance are reported. (authors)

  17. Discovering and explaining work-family strategies of parents in Luxembourg

    OpenAIRE

    Zhelyazkova, Nevena

    2014-01-01

    The presented analysis discovers and explains typical patterns of work-family reconciliation for parents who had a child in the same period (2003) and in the same country (Luxembourg), thus facing the same macroeconomic and institutional conditions. Work-family trajectories are reconstructed as sequences of states using administrative records, so that working hours and use of leave provisions or other social security benefits are taken into account. Next, a clustering algorithm is applied to ...

  18. Developing a phenological model for grapevine to assess future frost risk in Luxembourg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffarra, A.; Molitor, D.; Pertot, I.; Sinigoy, P.; Junk, J.

    2012-04-01

    Late frost damage represents a significant hazard to grape production in cool climate viticulture regions such as Luxembourg. The main aim of our study is to analyze the frequency of these events for the Luxembourg's winegrowing region in the future. Spring frost injuries on grape may occur when young green parts are exposed to air temperature below 0°C. The potential risk is determined by: (i) minimum air temperature conditions and the (ii) the timing of bud burst. Therefore, we developed and validated a model for budburst of the grapevine (*Vitis vinifera)* cultivar Rivaner, the most grown local variety, based on multi-annual data from 7 different sites across Europe and the US. An advantage of this approach is, that it could be applied to a wide range of climate conditions. Higher spring temperatures were projected for the future and could lead to earlier dates of budburst as well as earlier dates of last frost events in the season. However, so far it is unknown if this will increase or decrease the risk of severe late frost damages for Luxembourg's winegrowing region. To address this question results of 10 regional climate change projections from the FP6 ENSEMBLES project (spatial resolution = 25km; A1B emission scenario) were combined with the new bud burst model. The use of a multi model ensemble of climate change projections allows for a better quantification of the uncertainties. A bias corrections scheme, based on local observations, was applied to the model output. Projected daily minimum air temperatures, up to 2098, were compared to the projected date of bud burst in order to quantify the future frost risk for Luxembourg.

  19. Lost in Translanguaging? Practices of Language Promotion in Luxembourg ish Early Childhood Educatio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Neumann

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Luxembourg maintains by far the largest proportion of foreign immigrants in Europe. This is also reflected in the population of children. About 50% of children under the age of four are foreign nationals. Accordingly, the question of how to deal with linguistic diversity represents one of the biggest challenges in the professional debate about early childhood education in Luxembourg. The article will refer to this issue on the basis of several insights stemming from an ethnographic study in Luxembourgish daycare centers which was conducted between 2009 and 2012 by the working group Early Childhood: Education and Care at the University of Luxembourg. The study explored practices professionals apply to come up with the superdiverse and translingual environment in order to meet the political expectation of promoting foreign children’s competences before they enter school. Based on the empirical investigations of everyday language use in center-based early childhood education, the article will not only characterize two different modes of language promotion (institutional monolingualization in one language and institutional monolingualization in several languages but also highlight the ambiguities of those language promotion practices which, although facing a translingual environment, are still based on a multilingual standard.

  20. Training in the Motor Vehicle Repair and Sales Sector in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Report for the FORCE Programme. First Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krier, Paul; Mathgen, Ted

    An international team of researchers studied the following aspects of training in Luxembourg's motor vehicle repair and sales sector: structure and characteristics; institutional and social context; relationship to Luxembourg's overall labor market; changing structural, economic, and organizational conditions; and training and recruitment and…

  1. Innovation in learning and development in multilingual and multicultural contexts: Principles learned from a higher educational study programme in Luxembourg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Gudrun

    2011-12-01

    Multilingualism in education is a conceptual as well as a pedagogical challenge of the 21st century. Luxembourg, with its three statutory official languages (Luxembourgish, French and German), is an especially complex setting. The gap between traditional principles of language education on the one hand and the challenging impacts of today's multilingualisms on the other led the University of Luxembourg (founded in 2003) to set up a developmentally-driven Master's programme in 2007, entitled "Learning and Development in Multilingual and Multicultural Contexts". After a presentation of the general multilingual settings in Luxembourg, this paper discusses the constellation of the multilingual University's staff and students and provides an analysis of the concept of the course by outlining its innovative approach, its principles and lessons learned with regard to running a trilingual higher education programme.

  2. An unusual discovery of human remains from the medieval church of Grevenmacher (Luxembourg).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautmann, Bernd; Bis-Worch, Christiane

    2017-12-01

    The occurrence of burned human remains on a Christian burial ground is very rare in medieval Europe. Therefore, the discovery of a complex consisting of commingled burned and unburned human bones within the church of Grevenmacher (Luxembourg) is from special interest for anthropological as well as archaeological research. In the current paper we present methods for a comprehensive analysis for such an exceptional case connected with the question if this bone accumulation represents a form of funerary custom or if other factors lead to its composition. Thereof, two possible scenarios for the occurrence of this unusual composition were created and discussed.

  3. The influence of age and gender on venous symptomatology. An epidemiological survey in Belgium and Luxembourg

    OpenAIRE

    Vuylsteke, Marc E.; Colman, Roos; Thomis, Sarah; Guillaume, Genevieve; Degrande, Evy; Staelens, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study is to measure the incidence of the symptoms in patients with chronic venous disease (CVD) and to look for the influence of age on the severity of symptoms for both genders. Materials and methods A survey was carried out in Belgium and Luxembourg between May and September 2013. Patient recruitment was done by 406 general practitioners (GPs). Each GP screened 10-20 consecutive patients older than 18 years. Inquiries were made regarding the presence of symptoms and poss...

  4. First isolation of a rabid bat infected with European bat lyssavirus in Luxembourg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servat, A; Herr, J; Picard-Meyer, E; Schley, L; Harbusch, C; Michaux, C; Pir, J; Robardet, E; Engel, E; Cliquet, F

    2015-02-01

    Rabid bats are regularly reported in Europe, especially in countries that have implemented a bat surveillance network. In May 2013, bat rabies was evidenced for the first time in Luxembourg (southern city of Differdange). The rabies virus, an EBLV-1b strain, was diagnosed in a serotine bat that bit a 29-year-old male person while he was asleep. The man received rapidly a post-exposure RABV treatment and was put under strict medical supervision. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Tuned Liquid Dampers for the New European Court of Justice, Luxembourg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgakis, Christos; Koss, Hans Holger

    2005-01-01

    As a consequence of their unique positioning and 3,5:1 plan ratio, the proposed twin 103m buildings of the latest expansion of the European Court of Justice (Luxembourg) led to the commissioning of a comprehensive set of wind-tunnel tests. Experimental testing and numerical analyses showed...... the buildings to be susceptible to unacceptably large wind-induced accelerations at the top levels. To mitigate these vibrations, a Tuned Liquid Damper (TLD) array is proposed and designed for both buildings. With an optimal design of the TLD array, total maximum reductions in top-level accelerations are found...

  6. Geological and thermal exploration for an evaluation of the geothermal potential of Luxembourg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schintgen, Tom; Förster, Andrea

    2013-04-01

    In 2010, work has commenced on the evaluation of the geothermal potential of Luxembourg. The concept of this evaluation comprises several steps. Given the limited amount of geological data and the lack of petrothermal data as well as on crustal heat flow, in-depth studies are needed that allow a comprehensive insight into the shallow as well as deep thermal subsurface structure and thus to make temperature prognoses for the use of geothermal energy. Here we report the geological structure of the Mesozoic Trier-Luxembourg Basin (TLB) with its various lithological units as well as the geology of the underlying basement units. The thickness of the Mesozoic section increases from 400-500 m in the northeastern part of the basin to a maximum of 1100 m in the southern part of Luxembourg. New data on thermal parameters, such as the thermal conductivity (TC), radiogenic heat production (RHP) and porosity are presented for the major lithotypes of the TLB as well as of the underlying Paleozoic basement. These data originated from core samples (Mesozoic formations) and from sampling of outcrops of Luxembourg's surroundings (Paleozoic formations). Thus data are now available for an up to 13-km-thick succession of the upper crust, comprising the Lower Cambrian to the Middle Ordovician, the relatively thick Lower Devonian and the Triassic to Liassic of the TLB. For the remainder of the crust down to the Moho thermal properties are determined by translating seismic velocities into rock types and using average values for TC and RHP for these metamorphic and igneous rocks. Based on the new values of TC and a temperature log measured under thermal equilibrium in a 300-m deep borehole, surface heat flow was determined. These data form the basis for modeling the subsurface temperatures along two regional crustal cross sections, which cover most of the Rhenohercynian Zone of the Variscan orogenic belt. They extend from the Lower Paleozoic Stavelot Massif in the Belgian Ardennes in the

  7. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Luxembourg 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Luxembourg for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  8. The impact of ageing population on pay-as-you-go pension systems: The case of Luxembourg

    OpenAIRE

    Guigou, Jean-Daniel; Lovat, Bruno; Schiltz, Jang

    2010-01-01

    Financing of the Luxembourg pension system is based on a pay-as-you-go system and hence on an intergenerational contract. As is the case for most other European countries, this system will be exposed to the effects of demographic aging over the coming decades. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the impact of this demographic deficit on the long term sustainability of the Luxembourg pension system. We proceed in two steps. In a first step, we highlight the evolution of salaries in ...

  9. Delineating spring recharge areas in a fractured sandstone aquifer (Luxembourg) based on pesticide mass balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farlin, J.; Drouet, L.; Gallé, T.; Pittois, D.; Bayerle, M.; Braun, C.; Maloszewski, P.; Vanderborght, J.; Elsner, M.; Kies, A.

    2013-06-01

    A simple method to delineate the recharge areas of a series of springs draining a fractured aquifer is presented. Instead of solving the flow and transport equations, the delineation is reformulated as a mass balance problem assigning arable land in proportion to the pesticide mass discharged annually in a spring at minimum total transport cost. The approach was applied to the Luxembourg Sandstone, a fractured-rock aquifer supplying half of the drinking water for Luxembourg, using the herbicide atrazine. Predictions of the recharge areas were most robust in situations of strong competition by neighbouring springs while the catchment boundaries for isolated springs were extremely sensitive to the parameter controlling flow direction. Validation using a different pesticide showed the best agreement with the simplest model used, whereas using historical crop-rotation data and spatially distributed soil-leaching data did not improve predictions. The whole approach presents the advantage of integrating objectively information on land use and pesticide concentration in spring water into the delineation of groundwater recharge zones in a fractured-rock aquifer.

  10. Doing Poorly: The Real Income of American Children in a Comparative Perspective. Luxembourg Income Study. Working Paper No. 127.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainwater, Lee; Smeeding, Timothy M.

    This paper investigates the real living standards and poverty status of U.S. children in the 1990s compared to the children in 17 other nations, including Europe, Scandinavia, Canada, and Australia. The analysis is based on the Luxembourg Income Study database. It was found that American children have lower real spendable income than do comparable…

  11. Pollen records of mardel deposits: The effects of climatic oscillations and land management on soil erosion in Gutland, Luxembourg

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slotboom, R.T.; van Mourik, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Typically for the geomorphology of the Luxembourger Gutland is the occurrence of mardels, a local name for small closed depressions. They occur on various substrates and can have a natural or anthropogenic genesis. In general, mardels on the Strassen marls are abandoned quarries, related to

  12. Living arrangements of young adults living independently: evidence from the Luxembourg Income Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, K S; Garner, T I

    1990-12-01

    A cross-country comparison of the impact of socioeconomic factors on household formation by young adults in the 15-24 age group is presented. "Of those young people living independently (not in their parental homes), how do incomes from various sources affect their decision whether to live alone or with others? The sample did not include all persons in the 15-24 age group, only those living independently. A logit analysis of the living alone question was conducted using data from five countries (Canada, the Federal Republic of Germany, the United Kingdom, Australia, and the United States) included in the LIS [Luxembourg Income Study] data base to determine whether differences across countries exist." excerpt

  13. Structural Health Monitoring Using Wireless Technologies: An Ambient Vibration Test on the Adolphe Bridge, Luxembourg City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Oth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Major threats to bridges primarily consist of the aging of the structural elements, earthquake-induced shaking and standing waves generated by windstorms. The necessity of information on the state of health of structures in real-time, allowing for timely warnings in the case of damaging events, requires structural health monitoring (SHM systems that allow the risks of these threats to be mitigated. Here we present the results of a short-duration experiment carried out with low-cost wireless instruments for monitoring the vibration characteristics and dynamic properties of a strategic civil infrastructure, the Adolphe Bridge in Luxembourg City. The Adolphe Bridge is a masonry arch construction dating from 1903 and will undergo major renovation works in the upcoming years. Our experiment shows that a network of these wireless sensing units is well suited to monitor the vibration characteristics of such a historical arch bridge and hence represents a low-cost and efficient solution for SHM.

  14. The Limits of Polycentrism at the City-regional Scale: The case of Luxembourg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Decoville

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Over the last fifteen years, promoters of the European spatial planning policy have presented polycentrism as the most promising strategy for answering the challenge of a more even spatial development. However, there is still no empirical evidence proving that this conceptual tool is adaptable to all scales. In this paper, we propose two different approaches of urban hierarchy with regards to its capacity to structure spatial development at a city-regional scale: the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. The first one depicts a classical urban hierarchy based on the location of urban amenities. The second one, which takes into account the accessibility to these amenities, shows the polycentric model in a more nuanced manner. Our results underline the differences between these two models and call for caution with respect to the adoption of the polycentric model at this spatial scale, since it could potentially lead to an increase in urban sprawl.

  15. Luxembourg in the Early Days of the EEC: Null Player or Not?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Mayer

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Voters whose yes-or-no decision never makes a difference to the outcome in a simple voting game are known as “null players”. Luxembourg’s role in the Council of Ministers during the first period of the European Economic Community (EEC is often cited as a real-world case. The paper contrasts the textbook claim that Luxembourg was a null player with a more comprehensive picture of Luxembourg’s role in EEC’s voting system. The assessment of Luxembourg’s voting power is sensitive to the role played by the European Commission in the decision-making procedure and the measurement concepts underlying power evaluations.

  16. Income inequality and educational assortative mating: Evidence from the Luxembourg Income Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, David

    2015-07-01

    Though extensive research has explored the prevalence of educational assortative mating, what causes its variation across countries and over time is not well understood. Using data from the Luxembourg Income Study Database, I investigate the hypothesis that assortative mating by income is influenced by income inequality between educational strata. I find that in countries with greater returns to education, the odds of any sort of union that crosses educational boundaries is substantially reduced. However, I do not find substantial evidence of an effect of changes in returns to education on marital sorting within countries. Educational and labor market parity between males and females appear to be negatively related to marital sorting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. How Do the Elderly in Taiwan Fare Cross-Nationally? Evidence from the Luxembourg Income Study (LIS) Project

    OpenAIRE

    Smeeding, Timothy Michael; Saunders, Peter

    1998-01-01

    This paper uses microdata from the Luxembourg Income Study (LIS) to estimate and compare four dimensions of the well-being of the aged in Taiwan and eight other countries - the United States, Japan, Australia, Poland, Finland, Germany, Hungary and Canada. Together, these nine countries cover a broad variety of economic experience, institutional development and cultural tradition which complicate the task of comparing them. The four dimensions studies are (relative) poverty, income distributio...

  18. Multiscale investigation of catchment functioning using environmental tracers: Insights from the mesoscale Attert basin in Luxembourg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrede, S.; Pfister, L.; Krein, A.; Bogaard, T. A.; Savenije, H. H. G.; Uhlenbrook, S.

    2009-04-01

    Experimental hydrology focuses traditionally on field investigations at smaller spatial and temporal scales and research is driven by small-scale, detailed and complex investigations of densely instrumented research sites. However, to improve operational water management and protection of water resources at the river basin scale, it is necessary to study the hydrological processes across a range of scales. Empirical studies investigating catchment structure and functioning across multiple scales are still rare and urgently needed. Besides geomorphologic and climatic catchment descriptors, environmental tracers have been recognized as a fundamental tool in experimental hydrology to assess the scaling gap, as they provide an independent and integrative perspective of catchment functioning and scaling. A three year tracer study is being carried out in the Attert river basin in Luxembourg to identify how major controls of runoff generation change across scales and to investigate the spatial and temporal functioning of larger basins. The mesoscale (300 km²) Attert catchment is located in the Midwestern part of Luxembourg and lies at the transition zone of contrasting bedrock lithology that is a major control for runoff generation: The Northern part is characterized by Devonian schist of the Ardennes massif, while sedimentary deposits of sandstone and marls dominate in the Southern part of the basin. Major hydrochemical tracers including stable water isotopes were grab sampled fortnightly and, where possible, also event-based at 13 nested stream locations ranging in size from 0.5 to 300 km² throughout the basin. Results using Deuterium and a range of hydrochemical tracers confirm the major role of bedrock lithology for runoff response of different geological parts of the basins: Hydrological response of schistose basins is characterized by seasonal variation and a delayed shallow groundwater component originating from a saprolitic zone, sandstone basins exhibit a

  19. Soil mechanical properties of MBT waste from Luxembourg, Germany and Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattaraporn Pimolthai

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical and biological treatments (MBT of waste have become well known in Europe and Asia. The maximum particle size of waste is reduced by the removal of larger plastic materials from municipal solid waste during mechanical processing. The mechanical properties of the MBT waste are significantly changed by this process. An effective treatment system can lead to a better quality of output materials which do not cause environmental problems. This paper shows the comparative mechanical properties of MBT wastes from Luxembourg, Germany and Thailand. This research focused on the smaller 10 mm-fraction of MBT samples, in order to describe and evaluate the potential application of the small size material as a cover liner in landfill sites. Therefore the smaller 10 mm-fraction of MBT samples were tested for geotechnical properties. The small size waste particles were analysed in laboratory tests in order to determine their particle size, particle shape, compaction, permeability, shear strength, porosity and water absorption capacity, including comparison with the properties of soil material. The results showed that reduced particles were likely to act as a compact, low permeable material with a high potential for water absorption. The amount of remaining fibre and foil components in the materials cause different mechanical and hydraulic behaviours in the samples. The leachate of MBT samples showed very low concentrations of chemical oxygen demand, ammonium, and heavy metals, compared to the landfill leachate of untreated waste.

  20. Archaeometrical analyses demonstrates that humans excavated clay from mardels on the Luxembourger Gutland plateau to produce ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanmourik, Jan; Braekmans, Dennis

    2017-04-01

    Mardels, small closed depressions, are distinctive landforms on the Luxembourger Gutland plateau. In the present landscape most mardels are shallow fens, filled with colluvial sediments. Slotboom (1963) investigated 108 mardels in the Luxembourger Gutland and ascribed the mardels in the Luxembourger Keuper marl formations to subsurface solution of gypsum inclusions, followed by collapse and subsidence of the overlying beds. The colluvial deposits in the mardels were palynologically dated as Post Roman. Schmalen (2001) published an actualized inventory of mardels in the Gutland. This inventory includes also mardels on the Lias marls, a formation without gypsum inclusions. Etienne et al. (2011) considered beside natural processes also anthropogenic factors as explanation for CD's in the Lorraine landscape. The sediments in the majority of the CD's were palynologically dated as Post Roman. Combined with the open character of the local vegetation this suggest that the majority of the mardels are probably abandoned Roman quarries. Slotboom and van Mourik (2015) showed that the fillings of the mardels on the Lias marls are Post-Roman, just as on the Keuper marls. To answer the question "are mardels natural subsidence basins or abandoned quarries" we need additional information from the soil archives. Firstly we must identify the process, responsible for the deposition of clay in the mardels. The majority of the mardels in the Gutland occur in clusters in deciduous forests. Earthworm activity in the forest soils promote lateral clay leaching and soil erosion and mardels function as sediment traps. Due to this process clay with the best properties for the production of ceramics occurred in mardels. This process was active during the whole Holocene. It is striking that we did not find Pre-Roman but only Post-Roman mardel fillings. Secondly we need information about the practice of clay, excavated from mardels. If mardels are really abandoned quarries, the excavated

  1. Rectal cancer in Luxembourg : a national population-based data report, 1988–1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheiden, René; Sand, Julien; Weber, Joseph; Turk, Philippe; Wagener, Yolande; Capesius, Catherine

    2003-01-01

    Morphologic criteria which might help to support the need for a preventive strategy for early detection of rectal cancer were analysed. Population-based data on rectal adenomas with high-grade dysplastic changes (n = 199) and invasive adenocarcinomas (n = 912) registered by the national Morphologic Tumour Registry (MTR) and diagnosed in a central department of pathology in Luxembourg between 1988 and 1998 were considered. The analysis concerned time trends in frequency, crude incidence, tumour-stage, the rectal 'high-grade' adenoma/invasive adenocarcinoma-ratio and the survival rates. Histopathological tumour-stage parameters (UICC/AJCC, 1997) in a consecutive series of 641 resected rectal cancers and their relationship with the observed patient survival are investigated. The majority of invasive adenocarcinomas are diagnosed at a late stage (i.e. Stage II and III) into contrast with the highly significant increase (355 %) in frequency of rectal high-grade adenomas (Stage 0). During the two-time periods 1988–1992 and 1994–1998 Stage I and Stage IV-cases decreased by 11 % and 47 % respectively. Tumour-stage correlates with prognosis. The rectal high-grade adenoma / invasive adenocarcinoma-ratio improved significantly over the last five years. Over the study period, there has been a highly significant rise in the incidence of resected rectal adenomas with high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia. The ratio of early tumours to invasive cancers has risen while the numbers of colonoscopies and rectoscopies remained unchanged respectively decreased. As the number of advanced tumour-stages remained stable, mass-screening procedures focusing on the fifty to sixty age group should be reinforced

  2. The Impact of the Basel III Liquidity Regulations on the Bank Lending Channel: A Luxembourg case study

    OpenAIRE

    Gaston Giordana; Ingmar Schumacher

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we study the impact of the Basel III liquidity regulations, namely the Liquidity Coverage Ratio (LCR) and the Net Stable Funding Ratio (NSFR), on the bank lending channel in Luxembourg. For this aim we built, based on individual bank data, time series of the LCR and NSFR for a sample of banks covering between 82% and 100% of total assets of the banking sector. Additionally, we simulated the optimal balance sheet adjustments needed to adhere to the regulations. We extend the exis...

  3. Colon cancer in Luxembourg: a national population-based data report, 1988–1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheiden, René; Pescatore, Paul; Wagener, Yolande; Kieffer, Nelly; Capesius, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    Over the last two decades time trends in incidence rates of colorectal cancer, changes in the proportions of stage at diagnosis and changes in the anatomic sub-site distribution of colon cancers have been reported in some European countries. In order to determine a strategy for early detection of colon cancer in the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg, all consecutive colon adenocarcinomas diagnosed during the period 1988–1998 at a nation-wide level were reviewed. The population-based data of the national Morphologic Tumour Registry report all new high-grade adenomas (i.e. high-grade intraepithelial adenomatous neoplasias) and all consecutive new invasive adenocarcinomas of the colon diagnosed in the central department of pathology. Attention has been focused on variations in incidence, stage, anatomical site distribution and survival rates. Rectal cancers were excluded. Over the study period, 254 new colonic high-grade adenomas and 1379 new invasive adenocarcinomas were found; the crude incidence rates of colon adenocarcinomas grew steadily by 30%. Comparing the two 5-year periods 1988–1992 and 1994–1998, the crude incidence rates of high-grade adenomas (stage 0) rose by 190%, that of stage I cases by 14.3%, stage II cases 12.9% and stage III cases 38.5%, whereas the crude incidence rates of stage IV cases decreased by 11.8%. The high-grade adenoma/adenocarcinoma ratio increased. The right-sided colonic adenocarcinomas in elderly patients (>69 years) increased by 76%. The observed survival rates correlated with tumour stages. The overall observed 5-year survival rate (stage I-IV) was 51 ± 3% (95% confidence interval). The increasing incidence rates of colon adenocarcinomas, the persistence of advanced tumour stages (stage III), the mortality rates which remain stable, and the changing trends in the age- and sub-site distribution underline the need for preventive measures at the age of 50 in asymptomatic patients to reduce mortality from colo(rectal) cancer

  4. Dissolved and particulate nutrient export from rural catchments: a case study from Luxembourg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvia-Castellví, Mercè; Iffly, Jean François; Borght, Paul Vander; Hoffmann, Lucien

    2005-05-15

    Nutrient enrichment of freshwaters continues to be one of the most serious problems facing the management of surface waters. Effective remediation/conservation measures require accurate qualitative and quantitative knowledge of nutrient sources, transport mechanisms, transformations and annual dynamics of different nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) forms. In this paper, nitrate (NO3-N), soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations and loads are presented for two adjacent rural basins of 306 km2 and 424 km2, and for five sub-basins differing in size (between 1 km2 and 33 km2), land use (extent of forest cover between 20% and 93%) and household pressure (from 0 to 40 people/km2) with the aim of studying the influence of land use and catchment size on nutrient exports. The studied catchments are all situated on Devonian schistous substrates in the Ardennes region (Belgium-Luxembourg), and therefore have similar hydrological regimes. As the study period could not be the same for all basins, annual export coefficients were corrected with the 25 years normalized discharge of the Sure River: two regression analyses (for dry and humid periods) relating monthly nutrient loads to monthly runoff were used to determine correction factors to be applied to each parameter and each basin. This procedure allows for the comparing annual export coefficients from basins sampled in different years. Results show a marked seasonal response and a large variability of NO3-N export loads between forested (4 kg N ha-1 year-1), agricultural (27-33 kg N ha-1 year-1) and mixed catchments (17-22 kg N ha-1 year-1). For SRP and TP, no significant agricultural impact was found. Land and bank erosion control the total P massflow in the studied catchments (0.4-1.3 kg P ha-1 year-1), which is mostly in a particulate form, detached and transported during storm events. Soluble reactive P fluxes ranged between 10% and 30% of the TP mass, depending on the importance of point

  5. Colon cancer in Luxembourg: a national population-based data report, 1988–1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagener Yolande

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last two decades time trends in incidence rates of colorectal cancer, changes in the proportions of stage at diagnosis and changes in the anatomic sub-site distribution of colon cancers have been reported in some European countries. In order to determine a strategy for early detection of colon cancer in the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg, all consecutive colon adenocarcinomas diagnosed during the period 1988–1998 at a nation-wide level were reviewed. Methods The population-based data of the national Morphologic Tumour Registry report all new high-grade adenomas (i.e. high-grade intraepithelial adenomatous neoplasias and all consecutive new invasive adenocarcinomas of the colon diagnosed in the central department of pathology. Attention has been focused on variations in incidence, stage, anatomical site distribution and survival rates. Rectal cancers were excluded. Results Over the study period, 254 new colonic high-grade adenomas and 1379 new invasive adenocarcinomas were found; the crude incidence rates of colon adenocarcinomas grew steadily by 30%. Comparing the two 5-year periods 1988–1992 and 1994–1998, the crude incidence rates of high-grade adenomas (stage 0 rose by 190%, that of stage I cases by 14.3%, stage II cases 12.9% and stage III cases 38.5%, whereas the crude incidence rates of stage IV cases decreased by 11.8%. The high-grade adenoma/adenocarcinoma ratio increased. The right-sided colonic adenocarcinomas in elderly patients (>69 years increased by 76%. The observed survival rates correlated with tumour stages. The overall observed 5-year survival rate (stage I-IV was 51 ± 3% (95% confidence interval. Conclusion The increasing incidence rates of colon adenocarcinomas, the persistence of advanced tumour stages (stage III, the mortality rates which remain stable, and the changing trends in the age- and sub-site distribution underline the need for preventive measures at the age of 50 in asymptomatic

  6. Situation Report--Barbados, Finland, German Democratic Republic, Italy, Lesotho, Luxembourg, Malagasy Republic (Madagascar), Malaysia (West), Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Singapore, Sweden, Syrian Arab Republic, and Yugoslavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in 15 foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Barbados, Finland, German Democratic Republic, Italy, Lesotho, Luxembourg, Malagasy Republic, Malaysia (West), Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Singapore, Sweden, Syrian Arab Republic, and Yogoslavia. Information…

  7. Effects of litter quality and parent material on organic matter characteristics and N-dynamics in Luxembourg beech and hornbeam forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, A.M.; Martinez-Hernandez, G.B.

    2009-01-01

    To test effects of litter quality and soil conditions on N-dynamics, we selected seven forests in Luxembourg dominated by beech (Fagus sylvatica, L.) and hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.), and located on acid loam, decalcified marl or limestone, and measured organic matter characteristics, microbial C

  8. Geological controls on isotopic signatures of streamflow: results from a nested catchment experiment in Luxembourg (Europe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Laurent; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.; Hissler, Christophe; Martinez-Carreras, Nuria; Gourdol, Laurent; Klaus, Julian; François Iffly, Jean; Barnich, François; Stewart, Mike K.

    2014-05-01

    Controls of geology and topography on hydrological metrics, like summer low flow (Grant and Tague, 2004) or dynamic storage (Sayama et al., 2011), have been identified in nested catchment experiments. However, most tracer-based studies on streamflow generation have been carried out in small (10 km2) homogenous catchments (Klaus and McDonnell, 2013). The controlling effects of catchment physiography on how catchments store and release water, and how this eventually controls stream isotope behaviour over a large range of scale are poorly understood. Here, we present results from a nested catchment analysis in the Alzette River basin (Luxembourg, Europe). Our hydro-climatological network consists of 16 recording streamgauges and 21 pluviographs. Catchment areas range from 0.47 to 285 km2, with clean and mixed combinations of distinct geologies ranging from schists to marls, sandstone, dolomite and limestone. Our objective was to identify geological controls on (i) winter runoff ratios, (ii) maximum storage and (iii) isotopic signatures in streamflow. For each catchment we determined average runoff ratios from winter season precipitation-discharge double-mass curves. Maximum catchment storage was based on the dynamic storage change approach of Sayama et al. (2011). Changes in isotopic signatures of streamflow were documented along individual catchment flow duration curves. We found strong correlations between average winter runoff ratios, maximum storage and the prevailing geological settings. Catchments with impermeable bedrock (e.g. marls or schists) were characterised by small storage potential and high average filling ratios. As a consequence, these catchments also exhibited the highest average runoff ratios. In catchments underlain by permeable bedrock (e.g. sandstone), storage potential was significantly higher and runoff ratios were considerably smaller. The isotopic signatures of streamflow showed large differences between catchments. In catchments dominated by

  9. A new perspective on catchment storage gained from a nested catchment experiment in Luxembourg (Europe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Laurent; Klaus, Julian; Hissler, Christophe; François Iffly, Jean; Gourdol, Laurent; Martinez-Carreras, Nuria; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.

    2014-05-01

    Recent hydrological process research focussed on how much water a catchment can store and how these catchments store and release water. Storage can be a valuable metric for catchment description, inter-comparison, and classification. Further storage controls catchment mixing, non-linearities in rainfall-runoff transformation and eco-hydrological processes. Various methods exist to determine catchment storage (e.g. natural tracer, soil moisture and groundwater data, hydrological models). Today it remains unclear what parts of the catchment storage are measured with the different models. Here we present a new hydrometric approach to answer the question how much water a catchment can store. We tested our approach in a dense hydro-climatological monitoring network that encompasses 16 recording streamgauges and 21 pluviographs in the Alzette River basin in Luxembourg (Europe). Catchment scales are ranging from 0.47 to 285 km2 and they have clean- and mixed combinations of distinct geologies ranging from schists to marls, sandstone, dolomite and limestone. Previous investigations in the area of interest have shown that geology largely controls winter runoff coefficients. Here, we focus at how catchment geology is ultimately affecting catchment storage. We used the approach of Sayama et al. (2011) to compute catchment dynamic storage changes for each winter season over the period 2002-2012 (based on precipitation as input; discharge and evapotranspiration as output). We determined dynamic storage changes for each winter semester (October to March) in all 16 catchments over the period 2002-2012. At the beginning of each hydrological winter season, all catchments showed similar trends in storage change. A few weeks into the winter season, catchments with lowest permeability (e.g. marls) started to plateau. The highest storage values were reached several months later in the season in catchments dominated by permeable substrate (e.g. sandstone). For most catchments, we found

  10. Implications of a consumer-based perspective for the estimation of GHG emissions. The illustrative case of Luxembourg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caro, Dario, E-mail: caro2@unisi.it [Ecodynamics Group/DEEPS, Department of Environment, Earth and Physical Sciences, University of Siena, Via A. Moro, 2, I-53100 Siena (Italy); Department of Animal Science, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Rugani, Benedetto [Public Research Centre Henri Tudor (CRPHT), Resource Centre for Environmental Technologies (CRTE), 6A, avenue des Hauts-Fourneaux, L-4362 Esch-sur-Alzette (Luxembourg); Pulselli, Federico Maria [Ecodynamics Group/DEEPS, Department of Environment, Earth and Physical Sciences, University of Siena, Via A. Moro, 2, I-53100 Siena (Italy); Benetto, Enrico [Public Research Centre Henri Tudor (CRPHT), Resource Centre for Environmental Technologies (CRTE), 6A, avenue des Hauts-Fourneaux, L-4362 Esch-sur-Alzette (Luxembourg)

    2015-03-01

    The Kyoto protocol has established an accounting system for national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions according to a geographic criterion (producer perspective), such as that proposed by the IPCC guidelines for national GHG inventories. However, the representativeness of this approach is still being debated, because the role of final consumers (consumer perspective) is not considered in the emission allocation system. This paper explores the usefulness of a hybrid analysis, including input–output (IO) and process inventory data, as a complementary tool for estimating and allocating national GHG emissions according to both consumer- and producer-based perspectives. We assess the historical GHG impact profile (from 1995 to 2009) of Luxembourg, which is taken as a case study. The country's net consumption over time is estimated to generate about 28,700 Gg CO{sub 2}e/year on average. Compared to the conventional IPCC inventory, the IO-based framework typically shows much higher emission estimations. This relevant discrepancy is mainly due to the different points of view obtained from the hybrid model, in particular with regard to the contribution of imported goods and services. Detailing the GHG inventory by economic activity and considering a wider system boundary make the hybrid IO method advantageous as compared to the IPCC approach, but its effective implementation is still limited by the relatively complex modeling system, as well as the lack of coordination and scarce availability of datasets at the national level. - Highlights: • GHG emissions for Luxembourg are assessed using hybrid input–output (IO) modeling. • Consumer and producer perspectives are compared for the period 1995–2009. • IO-based GHG profiles are remarkably higher than traditional IPCC inventorying. • IO-based GHG accounting presents some advantages but is limited in implementation. • Key-aspects of IPCC and IO-based methods are extensively investigated and compared.

  11. Implications of a consumer-based perspective for the estimation of GHG emissions. The illustrative case of Luxembourg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caro, Dario; Rugani, Benedetto; Pulselli, Federico Maria; Benetto, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    The Kyoto protocol has established an accounting system for national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions according to a geographic criterion (producer perspective), such as that proposed by the IPCC guidelines for national GHG inventories. However, the representativeness of this approach is still being debated, because the role of final consumers (consumer perspective) is not considered in the emission allocation system. This paper explores the usefulness of a hybrid analysis, including input–output (IO) and process inventory data, as a complementary tool for estimating and allocating national GHG emissions according to both consumer- and producer-based perspectives. We assess the historical GHG impact profile (from 1995 to 2009) of Luxembourg, which is taken as a case study. The country's net consumption over time is estimated to generate about 28,700 Gg CO 2 e/year on average. Compared to the conventional IPCC inventory, the IO-based framework typically shows much higher emission estimations. This relevant discrepancy is mainly due to the different points of view obtained from the hybrid model, in particular with regard to the contribution of imported goods and services. Detailing the GHG inventory by economic activity and considering a wider system boundary make the hybrid IO method advantageous as compared to the IPCC approach, but its effective implementation is still limited by the relatively complex modeling system, as well as the lack of coordination and scarce availability of datasets at the national level. - Highlights: • GHG emissions for Luxembourg are assessed using hybrid input–output (IO) modeling. • Consumer and producer perspectives are compared for the period 1995–2009. • IO-based GHG profiles are remarkably higher than traditional IPCC inventorying. • IO-based GHG accounting presents some advantages but is limited in implementation. • Key-aspects of IPCC and IO-based methods are extensively investigated and compared

  12. Life satisfaction two-years after stroke onset: the effects of gender, sex occupational status, memory function and quality of life among stroke patients (Newsqol) and their family caregivers (Whoqol-bref) in Luxembourg

    OpenAIRE

    Baumann, Mich?le; Couffignal, Sophie; Le Bihan, Etienne; Chau, Nearkasen

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Life satisfaction (LS) of cerebrovascular disease survivors and their family caregivers may relate to socioeconomic factors, impaired functions, health-related quality of life (QoL), but their respective influences remain unclear. This study assessed, two years post-stroke onset, the effects of these factors on patients’ LS and family caregivers’ LS in Luxembourg. Methods All stroke patients admitted to all hospitals in Luxembourg were identified by the ‘Inspection Général...

  13. Entre idéal et polémique. La littérature politique dans la Bohême des Luxembourg

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vojtíšek, J.; Žůrek, Václav

    -, č. 67 (2014), s. 11-30 ISSN 0751-2708 Grant - others:ERC(CZ) Origins of the Vernacular Mode. Regional Identities and European Networks in Late Medieval Europe Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : allegory * Bohemia * house of Luxembourg * mirrors for princes * political literature * political society Subject RIV: AB - History http:// medieval es.revues.org/7365

  14. Human Campylobacteriosis in Luxembourg, 2010?2013: A Case-Control Study Combined with Multilocus Sequence Typing for Source Attribution and Risk Factor Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mossong, Jo?l; Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Penny, Christian; Devaux, Anthony; Olinger, Christophe; Losch, Serge; Cauchie, Henry-Michel; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Ragimbeau, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis has increased markedly in Luxembourg during recent years. We sought to determine which Campylobacter genotypes infect humans, where they may originate from, and how they may infect humans. Multilocus sequence typing was performed on 1153 Campylobacter jejuni and 136 C. coli human strains to be attributed to three putative animal reservoirs (poultry, ruminants, pigs) and to environmental water using the asymmetric island model. A nationwide case-control study (2010?2013) for...

  15. First Zenith Total Delay and Integrated Water Vapour Estimates from the Near Real-Time GNSS Data Processing Systems at the University of Luxembourg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, F.; Teferle, F. N.; Bingley, R. M.

    2012-04-01

    Since September 2011 the University of Luxembourg in collaboration with the University of Nottingham has been setting up two near real-time processing systems for ground-based GNSS data for the provision of zenith total delay (ZTD) and integrated water vapour (IWV) estimates. Both systems are based on Bernese v5.0, use the double-differenced network processing strategy and operate with a 1-hour (NRT1h) and 15-minutes (NRT15m) update cycle. Furthermore, the systems follow the approach of the E-GVAP METO and IES2 systems in that the normal equations for the latest data are combined with those from the previous four updates during the estimation of the ZTDs. NRT1h currently takes the hourly data from over 130 GNSS stations in Europe whereas NRT15m is primarily using the real-time streams of EUREF-IP. Both networks include additional GNSS stations in Luxembourg, Belgium and France. The a priori station coordinates for all of these stem from a moving average computed over the last 20 to 50 days and are based on the precise point positioning processing strategy. In this study we present the first ZTD and IWV estimates obtained from the NRT1h and NRT15m systems in development at the University of Luxembourg. In a preliminary evaluation we compare their performance to the IES2 system at the University of Nottingham and find the IWV estimates to agree at the sub-millimetre level.

  16. From the Harvard Medical Practice Study to the Luxembourg Declaration. Changes in the approach to patient safety. Closing remarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Damiani

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the Harvard Medical Practice Study was published in 1991 the growing mass of international literature has demonstrated that medical adverse events can cause iatrogenic illnesses, prolonged hospitalisations and increased costs. In 1999-2001, reports made by the Institute of Medicine (IOM in the USA, the Department of Health (DoH in the UK and the Australian Patient Safety Foundation (APSF stressed the necessity for creating a safer environment and a reporting culture throughout healthcare systems. They also emphasized the need for researchers to investigate means of turning policies into practice. Since their publication a lot of effort has gone into collecting data on adverse events and near misses. As a result, in 2001, the AHRQ published a Health Technology Assessment report on best practices for patient safety. While in Australia national meetings have been dedicated to address important issues across the whole spectrum of healthcare. In the UK the Audit Commission has published a report that is also focused on medication safety: “A spoonful of sugar”. In 2004 the World Health Organisation promoted a Patient Safety Alliance; while in April 2005the Standing Committee of European Doctors organised a Conference in Luxembourg called “Patient safety - Making it happen!”. The issue of patient safety is therefore seen as a priority by EU institutional bodies and by many European health stakeholders.

  17. Psychosocial risk and protective factors of secondary school dropout in Luxembourg: the protocol of an exploratory case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esch, Pascale; Bocquet, Valéry; Pull, Charles; Couffignal, Sophie; Graas, Marc; Lair, Marie-Lise; Lehnert, Torsten; Fond-Harmant, Laurence; Ansseau, Marc

    2011-07-13

    In Luxembourg, the extensive phenomenon of school dropout is a prime policy concern in the light of individual, social and economic consequences. Although the authorities report an overall decrease of the national dropout rate, the proportion of early school leavers who remain without any specific occupation is still alarming. Therefore, this study intends a shift of focus from system-inherent to individual factors, including mental health and family correlates, to provide a more comprehensive analysis of the dropout phenomenon. The objectives of this study are to investigate the type and prevalence of psychiatric disorders among school dropouts and to compare the findings with those by a matched control group of regularly enrolled students. Furthermore, family variables and socioeconomic status will be analysed, as they are factors likely to interfere with both educational attainment and mental health. A trained psychologist will use structured interviews and self-report forms to investigate for mental health issues, information on schooling, socioeconomic situation and family life. Controls will be matched for gender, age, school type and educational grade. As school dropouts face a serious risk of long term professional and social marginalization, there is an evident need for action. Identifying psychosocial risk and protective factors of school dropout will deliver solid insight on how to conceive public health strategies for young people who may need a more customized support to carry out their academic potential. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01354236.

  18. Physical activity, sedentary behavior time and lipid levels in the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Georgina E; Alkerwi, Ala'a

    2015-08-11

    Recently attention has been drawn to the health impacts of time spent engaging in sedentary behaviors. While many studies have investigated general physical activity (PA) in relation to blood lipid levels, the current study aimed to examine the intensity of activity, including sedentary behavior time, and time spent engaging in moderate and intense PA, with concentrations of HDL and LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglycerides. Participants comprised 1331 individuals, aged 18 to 70 years, from the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg (ORISCAV-LUX) study, who underwent objective cardiovascular health assessments and completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Time spent engaging in sedentary behaviors (screen time on a workday and a day off, and total sitting time on a work day), and moderate and intense PA, were related to levels of HDL and LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglycerides. Analyses were conducted in the whole sample, and then with stratification according to BMI (normal weight versus overweight/obese). Both lower screen time during days off and higher intense PA time were significantly associated with higher HDL-cholesterol after full adjustment for socio-demographic factors, dietary factors and smoking (both p sedentary behavior time variables were observed (all p sedentary behavior time variable and lipid levels in those overweight or obese. Spending less time in sedentary behaviors, and engaging in medium levels of intense physical activity may be associated with a more favorable blood lipid profile, particularly with regard to levels of HDL and triglycerides.

  19. Spatial organisation of badgers (Meles meles in a medium-density population in Luxembourg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain C Frantz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract
    Any hypothesis aiming to explain the social organisation of Eurasian badgers Meles meles has to consider its wide inter-population variability. We used radiotracking techniques to investigate the spatial organisation and the pattern of space-use by badger in Luxembourg, where badger density can be considered moderate compared to most of Europe.
    Eight badgers belonging to five social groups were caught and radio-collared. The size of individual home ranges, as assesses by 100% minimum convex polygons in spring-summer 2002 and 2003, varied from 42.5 ha to 171.8 ha. Core areas corresponded to the 50-70% kernel isopleths and covered an average of 10.1% of individual home ranges. The home ranges of badgers caught at the same sett overlapped largely (average 83.3%, whilst the overlap between neighbouring ranges did not exceed 13.8%. Altogether six boundary latrines were found at the intersection of group ranges. Overall, the spatial system of the Luxembourg badgers is quite flexible, with the boundaries of some group ranges remaining constant over the years, while others may expand or contract.
    Riassunto
    Organizzazione spaziale del tasso (Meles meles in una popolazione a media densità del Lussemburgo.
    Qualsiasi ipotesi che voglia spiegare l’organizzazione sociale del tasso Meles meles, deve tener conto della sua ampia variabilità tra le popolazioni.
    Tramite la radiotelemetria e il monitoraggio delle latrine, la struttura territoriale e l’uso dello spazio da parte del tasso sono stati analizzati in una popolazione del Lussemburgo, dove la densità della specie può essere considerata intermedia rispetto ai valori noti per il resto dell’Europa.
    Sono stati marcati con radio-collari otto tassi, appartenenti a cinque diversi gruppi sociali. Le dimensioni delle aree vitali, stimate con il minimo poligono convesso al 100

  20. Social and economic inequalities in fatal opioid and cocaine related overdoses in Luxembourg: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Origer, Alain; Le Bihan, Etienne; Baumann, Michèle

    2014-09-01

    To investigate social and economic inequalities in fatal overdose cases related to opioid and cocaine use, recorded in Luxembourg between 1994 and 2011. Cross-examination of national data from law enforcement and drug use surveillance sources and of forensic evidence in a nested case-control study design. Overdose cases were individually matched with four controls, when available, according to sex, year of birth, drug administration route and duration of drug use. 272 cases vs 1056 controls were analysed. Conditional logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the respective impact of a series of socioeconomic variables. Being professionally active [OR=0.66 (95% CI 0.45-0.99)], reporting salary as main legal income source [OR=0.42 (95% CI 0.26-0.67)] and education attainment higher than primary school [OR=0.50 (95% CI 0.34-0.73)] revealed to be protective factors, whereas the professional status of the father or legal guardian of victims was not significantly associated to fatal overdoses. Socioeconomic inequalities in drug users impact on the occurrence of fatal overdoses. Compared to their peers, users of illicit drugs with lower socioeconomic profiles show increased odds of dying from overdose. However, actual and self-referred socioeconomic characteristics of drug users, such as educational attainment and employment, may have a greater predictive value of overdose mortality than the parental socioeconomic status. Education, vocational training and socio-professional reintegration should be part of drug-related mortality prevention policies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Using stable isotopes to estimate and compare mean residence times in contrasting geologic catchments (Attert River, NW Luxembourg)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Carreras, N.; Fenicia, F.; Frentress, J.; Wrede, S.; Pfister, L.

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, stable isotopes have been increasingly used to characterize important aspects of catchment hydrological functioning, such as water storage dynamics, flow pathways and water sources. These characteristics are often synthesized by the Mean Residence Time (MRT), which is a simple catchment descriptor that employ the relation of distinct stable isotopic signatures in the rainfall input and streamflow output of a catchment that are significantly dampened through sub-surface propagation. In this preliminary study, MRT was estimated in the Attert River catchment (NW Luxembourg), where previous studies have shown that lithology exerts a major control on runoff generation. The Attert catchment lies at the transition zone of contrasting bedrock lithology: the Northern part is characterized by Devonian schist of the Ardennes massif, while sedimentary deposits of sandstone and marls dominate in the south of the catchment. As a consequence of differing lithologic characteristics, hydrological processes change across scales. The schistose catchments exhibit a delayed shallow groundwater component, sandstone catchments have slow-responding year-round groundwater component, whereas flashy runoff regimes prevails in the marly catchments. Under these circumstances, the MRTs are expected to vary significantly according to lithology, and provide additional understanding in internal catchment processes and their scale dependencies. In order to test this, bi-weekly monitoring of rainfall and discharge stable water isotope composition (oxygen-18 and deuterium) has been carried out since 2007 in 10 nested sub-catchments ranging in size from 0.4 to 247 km2 in the Attert catchment. MRT was estimated using different lumped convolution integral models and sine wave functions with varying transit times distributions (TTDs). TTDs were evaluated through calibration. Further research efforts will deal with the application of conceptual models to simulate and compare TTD, using

  2. Prevalence and Correlates of Vitamin D Deficiency and Insufficiency in Luxembourg Adults: Evidence from the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors (ORISCAV-LUX Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ala'a Alkerwi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Evidence on vitamin D status and related risk factors in Luxembourg adults is lacking. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency and related risk factors among healthy adults in Luxembourg. Based on clinicians’ observations, it was hypothesized that vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency might be common in our population, constituting a significant public health concern. A nationally representative random sample of 1432 adults was enrolled in the ORISCAV-LUX study, 2007–2008. The participants were divided into four categories according to their serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD]. Descriptive, univariate and multivariate statistical analyses used weighted methods to account for the stratified sampling scheme. Only 17.1% of the population had a “desirable” serum 25(OHD level ≥75 nmol/L, whereas 27.1% had “inadequate” [serum 25(OHD level 50–74 nmol/L], 40.4% had “insufficient” [serum 25(OHD level 25–49 nmol/L], and 15.5% had “deficient” [serum 25(OHD level <25 nmol/L]. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was greater among current smokers, obese subjects, those having reduced HDL-cholesterol level and fair/poor self-perception of health, compared to their counterparts. The prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency was additionally higher among nondrinkers of alcohol, Portuguese and subjects from non-European countries. The final multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that smoking status and obesity were independent correlates of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency, respectively. Inadequate vitamin D status is highly prevalent among adults in Luxembourg and is associated with specific lifestyle factors. Along with the effect of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency on the risk of several diseases, cancer and mortality, our findings have practical implications for public health dietary recommendations, and of particular importance for healthcare

  3. Construction of a Florentine Queen in Paris: the building of Marie de Médicis’s image in the Luxembourg Palace

    OpenAIRE

    Greer, Alexandra Lyons

    2016-01-01

    This thesis’ main goal is to answer the question: from where did Peter Paul Rubens’s Life of Marie de Medici Cycle come? Previous literature has focused on the content of the twenty-four canvases of the Medici Cycle and their meanings. However, they have not viewed the Medici Cycle as part of a bigger whole and thus part of a larger agenda that was symbolised through Marie de Medici’s construction and patronage of her own palace in Paris, the Luxembourg Palace. Originally plann...

  4. Zhořelecké vévodství v koncepci lucemburské České koruny / The role of Görlitz in the concept of the Luxembourg crown of Bohemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Bobková

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the dynastic policies of Charles IV. and his ideas about the arrangement of government in the Crown of Bohemia. It refers to so-called emperor’s testaments where the emperor describes in detail the succesion of the male members of the Luxembourg line and denotes their rank in rule. The pillar of the whole structure was the King of Bohemia, the absolute sovereign over all of the lands of the Crown of Bohemia. The remaining Luxembourgs were to hold their lands as a royal tenure. In this spirit, Charles IV. created a whole new duchy of Görlitz for his son John.

  5. Cross-Sequential Results on Creativity Development in Childhood Within two Different School Systems: Divergent Performances in Luxembourg Versus German Kindergarten and Elementary School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günter Krampen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is conducting methodologically sound, cross-sequential analyses of the creativity development of children attending different school systems. Culture-free tests of creativity (ideational fluency and flexibility and intelligence were administered in 5 cohorts (two kindergarten and first three elementary school years, which were retested in three consecutive years. Samples include 244 Luxembourg and 312 German children enrolled in educational systems with obligatory kindergarten and 6-year comprehensive elementary school versus optional kindergarten, 4-year comprehensive elementary school and educational placement thereafter. Results demonstrate (1 linear increases in intelligence, (2 declines of divergent performances after school enrollment in both samples, (3 increases in divergent performances up to the 5th elementary school year in Luxembourg and up to the 3rd elementary school year in Germany (i.e., the next to last school year before educational placement followed by a second creativity slump. Cross-sequential results confirm discontinuities in the development of divergent productions in childhood.

  6. Public and private energy RTD expenditures in Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands. A pilot study on behalf of SenterNovem based on an IEA format

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lako, P.; Ros, M.E.

    2007-07-01

    This study aims to present a broad view of energy RTD expenditures of Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands, in the public domain and by private enterprises. Data is provided as much as possible by disaggregating into a format of the IEA (IEA code). IEA data serve as the starting point for data collection. The main task is to fill in the gaps in the database, viz.: Completing the IEA database for Belgium with regard to public energy RTD; Starting with a database of public energy RTD for Luxembourg; Collecting, retrieving, and analysing private energy RTD data for the Netherlands. The latter data, based on a 'bottom-up' approach, are compared to recent data of SenterNovem based on an R and D subsidy scheme in the Netherlands. The private energy RTD expenditures from both sources (the bottom-up approach in this study and the data of SenterNovem) are combined to one database of private energy RTD that may be used for, e.g., the IEA

  7. Jeunes générations, inégalités et problèmes sociaux : chômeurs, décrocheurs, Neets, au Luxembourg et chez nos voisins

    OpenAIRE

    Chauvel, Louis

    2016-01-01

    The international debate on NEETS differs from Luxembourguish realities: the problem associated with unemployment or downward mobile youth as it is described in Japan, Australia or France has no perfect equivalent in Luxembourg, where the main problem of youth integration is housing shortage and increasing difficulties to gain autonomy, issues that are exacerbated for the children of immigrants.

  8. Investigation of an excess of Salmonella enteritidis phage type 14b and MLVA type 4-7-3-13-10-2-2 in Luxembourg, Belgium and Germany during 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossong, J; Ragimbeau, C; Schuh, J; Weicherding, P; Peetso, R; Wildemauwe, C; Imberechts, H; Rabsch, W; Bertrand, S

    2012-01-01

    We investigated an increase of human cases of Salmonella Enteritidis occurring from August until November 2010 in Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany involving an estimated three hundred laboratory confirmed cases. Molecular typing indicated that the increase in Luxembourg and Belgium was due a particular strain having phage type 14b, MLVA pattern 4-7-3-13-10-2-2 and fully susceptible to the Enternet panel of antibiotics. MLVA and phage typing were found to have similar discriminatory power on a collection of 40 Belgian and Luxembourg strains isolated during 2010. Epidemiological investigations in Luxembourg suggested eggs as a possible source for some cases, although supermarket eggs tested were negative. No other EU countries observed a substantial increase of cases, although three smaller outbreaks in Germany were also due to a strain with the same phage type and MLVA pattern. In 2010 the EU directive banning battery cages came into force in Germany followed by a dioxin food scare incident. Given that the EU Laying Hens Directive will come into force across all Member States in 2012, a closer monitoring of Salmonella contamination of imported eggs at retail and wholesale level is recommended.

  9. 'In This Country My Children Are Learning Two of the Most Important Languages in Europe': Ideologies of Language as a Commodity among Greek Migrant Families in Luxembourg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogonas, Nikos; Kirsch, Claudine

    2018-01-01

    This paper explores the language ideologies of three middle-class migrant Greek families in Luxembourg, one 'established' family and two 'new' crisis-led migrant families, all of whose children attend Luxembourgish state schools. While the families differ in terms of migration trajectory, their language ideologies converge. The findings of this…

  10. Daily chocolate consumption is inversely associated with insulin resistance and liver enzymes in the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkerwi, Ala'a; Sauvageot, Nicolas; Crichton, Georgina E; Elias, Merrill F; Stranges, Saverio

    2016-05-01

    This study examined the association of chocolate consumption with insulin resistance and serum liver enzymes in a national sample of adults in Luxembourg. A random sample of 1153 individuals, aged 18-69 years, was recruited to participate in the cross-sectional Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg study. Chocolate consumption (g/d) was obtained from a semi-quantitative FFQ. Blood glucose and insulin levels were used for the homoeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Hepatic biomarkers such as serum γ-glutamyl-transpeptidase (γ-GT), serum aspartate transaminase and serum alanine transaminase (ALT) (mg/l) were assessed using standard laboratory assays. Chocolate consumers (81·8 %) were more likely to be younger, physically active, affluent people with higher education levels and fewer chronic co-morbidities. After excluding subjects taking antidiabetic medications, higher chocolate consumption was associated with lower HOMA-IR (β=-0·16, P=0·004), serum insulin levels (β=-0·16, P=0·003) and γ-GT (β=-0·12, P=0·009) and ALT (β=-0·09, P=0·004), after adjustment for age, sex, education, lifestyle and dietary confounding factors, including intakes of fruits and vegetables, alcohol, polyphenol-rich coffee and tea. This study reports an independent inverse relationship between daily chocolate consumption and levels of insulin, HOMA-IR and liver enzymes in adults, suggesting that chocolate consumption may improve liver enzymes and protect against insulin resistance, a well-established risk factor for cardiometabolic disorders. Further observational prospective research and well-designed randomised-controlled studies are needed to confirm this cross-sectional relationship and to comprehend the role and mechanisms that different types of chocolate may play in insulin resistance and cardiometabolic disorders.

  11. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Smoking and Smoking Cessation Due to a Smoking Ban: General Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study in Luxembourg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchicaya, Anastase; Lorentz, Nathalie; Demarest, Stefaan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to measure changes in socioeconomic inequalities in smoking and smoking cessation due to the 2006 smoking ban in Luxembourg. Data were derived from the PSELL3/EU-SILC (Panel Socio-Economique Liewen Zu Letzebuerg/European Union—Statistic on Income and Living Conditions) survey, which was a representative survey of the general population aged ≥16 years conducted in Luxembourg in 2005, 2007, and 2008. Smoking prevalence and smoking cessation due to the 2006 smoking ban were used as the main smoking outcomes. Two inequality measures were calculated to assess the magnitude and temporal trends of socioeconomic inequalities in smoking: the prevalence ratio and the disparity index. Smoking cessation due to the smoking ban was considered as a positive outcome. Three multiple logistic regression models were used to assess social inequalities in smoking cessation due to the 2006 smoking ban. Education level, income, and employment status served as proxies for socioeconomic status. The prevalence of smoking decreased by 22.5% between 2005 and 2008 (from 23.1% in 2005 to 17.9% in 2008), but socioeconomic inequalities in smoking persisted. Smoking prevalence decreased by 24.2% and 20.2% in men and women, respectively; this difference was not statistically significant. Smoking cessation in daily smokers due to the 2006 smoking ban was associated with education level, employment status, and income, with higher percentages of quitters among those with a lower socioeconomic status. The decrease in smoking prevalence after the 2006 law was also associated with a reduction in socioeconomic inequalities, including differences in education level, income, and employment status. Although the smoking ban contributed to a reduction of such inequalities, they still persist, indicating the need for a more targeted approach of smoke-free policies directed toward lower socioeconomic groups. PMID:27100293

  12. Virus Status, Varroa Levels, and Survival of 20 Managed Honey Bee Colonies Monitored in Luxembourg Between the Summer of 2011 and the Spring of 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clermont Antoine

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty managed honey bee colonies, split between 5 apiaries with 4 hives each, were monitored between the summer of 2011 and spring of 2013. Living bees were sampled in July 2011, July 2012, and August 2012. Twenty-five, medium-aged bees, free of varroa mites, were pooled per colony and date, to form one sample. Unlike in France and Belgium, Chronic Bee Paralysis Virus (CBPV has not been found in Luxembourg. Slow Bee Paralysis Virus (SBPV and Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus (IAPV levels were below detection limits. Traces of Kashmir Bee Virus (KBV were amplified. Black Queen Cell Virus (BQCV, Varroa destructor Virus-1 (VDV-1, and SacBrood Virus (SBV were detected in all samples and are reported from Luxembourg for the first time. Varroa destructor Macula- Like Virus (VdMLV, Deformed Wing Virus (DWV, and Acute Bee Paralysis Virus (ABPV were detected at all locations, and in most but not all samples. There was a significant increase in VDV-1 and DWV levels within the observation period. A principal component analysis was unable to separate the bees of colonies that survived the following winter from bees that died, based on their virus contents in summer. The number of dead varroa mites found below colonies was elevated in colonies that died in the following winter. Significant positive relationships were found between the log-transformed virus levels of the bees and the log-transformed number of mites found below the colonies per week, for VDV-1 and DWV. Sacbrood virus levels were independent of varroa levels, suggesting a neutral or competitive relationship between this virus and varroa.

  13. Soil archives of mardel deposits: the impact of Late Holocene vegetation development, climatic oscillations and historical land use on soil erosion in Luxembourg

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mourik, Jan; Slotboom, Ruud

    2014-05-01

    Mardel genesis. Mardels are small scale circular to elongated closed depressions (Ø > 50 m). They occur in Luxembourg on the Lias plateau in the Gutland, but also in other regions with landscapes, developed on Keuper and Lias deposits (as Lorraine). We can distinguish geogenetic and anthropogenic mardels. There are two types of genetic mardels, sink holes (controlled by diaclases in the Luxembourger sandstone and 'true mardels' or subsidence basins (controlled by dissolved gypsic lenses in marls of the Keuper deposits). These mardels developed during the Holocene. The age of the mardel sediments is Subatlantic; the sediments have been deposited on a palaeosol. Anthropogenic mardels are the result of historic clay excavation (Roman Time or younger). The age of these mardels is Subatlantic. The age of the sediments is also Subatlantic; the sediments have been deposited on a truncated soil in excavations. In all the genetic types of mardels, the sediments can consist of peat, peaty loam, or colluvic clayloam and the mardel sediments contain always valuable soil archives for the reconstruction of the impact of vegetation development, climatic oscillations and land use on soil erosion and deposition. Comparison of mardel deposits and valley deposits. - Pre-Holocene mardels have been eroded during the Weichselian. Geogenic mardels have been developed during the Holocene, anthropogenic mardels have been excavated since Roman Time. The age of the clastic (colluvic) deposits in mardels is Subatlantic - In the Late Glacial, valley bottoms were rather broad and covered with a gravelly bed load. Till the Subboreal river incision was active in primary valleys and peat accumulation took place on broad valley bottoms of secondary valleys. Since Celtic/Roman Time deforestation and extension of agriculture. During the Subatlantic colluvic/alluvic sedimentation took place on all the valley bottoms. The Subatlantic is a period of accelerated sedimentation of clastic sediments in

  14. The Text of the Agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    The text of the Agreement, and of the Protocol thereto, between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article III (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (reproduced in document INFCIRC/140) is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  15. The Text of the Agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    The text of the Agreement, and of the Protocol thereto, between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article III (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (reproduced in document INFCIRC/140) is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members [es

  16. The Text of the Agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The Agreement of 5 April 1973, and the Protocol thereto, between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article 111(1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons entered into force, pursuant to the first sentence of Article 25(a) thereof, on 21 February 1977 [es

  17. Towards prospective life cycle sustainability analysis: exploring complementarities between social and environmental life cycle assessments for the case of Luxembourg's energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rugani, B.; Benetto, E.; Igos, E.; Quinti, G.; Declich, A.; Feudo, F.

    2014-01-01

    Sustainability typically relies on the durable interaction between humans and the environment. Historically, modelling tools such as environmental-life cycle assessment (E-LCA) have been developed to address the mitigation of environmental impacts generated by human activities. More recently, social-life cycle assessment (S-LCA) methods have been proposed to investigate the social sustainability sphere, looking at the life cycle effects generated by positive or negative pressures on social endpoints (i.e. well-being of stakeholders). Despite this promising added value, however, S-LCA methods still show limitations and challenges to be faced, e.g. regarding the lack of high quality datasets and the implementation of consensual social impact assessment indicators. This paper discusses on the complementarity between S-LCA and E-LCA towards the definition of prospective life cycle sustainability analysis (LCSA) approaches. To this aim, a case study is presented comparing (i) E-LCA results of business-as-usual (BAU) scenarios of energy supply and demand technology changes in Luxembourg, up to 2025, based on economic equilibrium modeling and hybrid life cycle inventories, with (ii) a monetary-based input-output estimation of the related changes in the societal sphere. The results show that environmental and social issues do not follow the same impact trends. While E-LCA outputs highlight contrasting patterns, they do generally underlie a relatively low decrease in the aggregated environmental burdens curve (around 20% of decrease over the single-score impact trend over time). In contrast, social hotspots (identified in S-LCA by specific risk indicators of human rights, worker treatment, poverty, etc.) are typically increasing over time according to the growth of the final energy demand. Overall, the case study allowed identifying possible synergies and tradeoffs related to the impact of projected energy demands in Luxembourg. Despite the studied approach does not fully

  18. The epidemiology of mild cognitive impairment (MCI and Alzheimer’s disease (AD in community-living seniors: protocol of the MemoVie cohort study, Luxembourg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perquin Magali

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease (AD are increasingly considered a major public health problem. The MemoVie cohort study aims to investigate the living conditions or risk factors under which the normal cognitive capacities of the senior population in Luxembourg (≥ 65 year-old evolve (1 to mild cognitive impairment (MCI – transitory non-clinical stage – and (2 to AD. Identifying MCI and AD predictors undeniably constitutes a challenge in public health in that it would allow interventions which could protect or delay the occurrence of cognitive disorders in elderly people. In addition, the MemoVie study sets out to generate hitherto unavailable data, and a comprehensive view of the elderly population in the country. Methods/design The study has been designed with a view to highlighting the prevalence in Luxembourg of MCI and AD in the first step of the survey, conducted among participants selected from a random sample of the general population. A prospective cohort is consequently set up in the second step, and appropriate follow-up of the non-demented participants allows improving the knowledge of the preclinical stage of MCI. Case-control designs are used for cross-sectional or retrospective comparisons between outcomes and biological or clinical factors. To ensure maximal reliability of the information collected, we decided to opt for structured face to face interviews. Besides health status, medical and family history, demographic and socio-cultural information are explored, as well as education, habitat network, social behavior, leisure and physical activities. As multilingualism is expected to challenge the cognitive alterations associated with pathological ageing, it is additionally investigated. Data relative to motor function, including balance, walk, limits of stability, history of falls and accidents are further detailed. Finally, biological examinations, including ApoE genetic polymorphism are

  19. Science Production in Germany, France, Belgium, and Luxembourg: Comparing the Contributions of Research Universities and Institutes to Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics, and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Justin J W; Dusdal, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Charting significant growth in science production over the 20th century in four European Union member states, this neo-institutional analysis describes the development and current state of universities and research institutes that bolster Europe's position as a key region in global science. On-going internationalization and Europeanization of higher education and science has been accompanied by increasing competition as well as collaboration. Despite the policy goals to foster innovation and further expand research capacity, in cross-national and historical comparison neither the level of R&D investments nor country size accounts completely for the differential growth of scientific productivity. Based on a comprehensive historical database from 1900 to 2010, this analysis uncovers both stable and dynamic patterns of production and productivity in Germany, France, Belgium, and Luxembourg. Measured in peer-reviewed research articles collected in Thomson Reuters' Science Citation Index Expanded, which includes journals in the fields of Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics, and Health, we show the varying contributions of different organizational forms, especially research universities and research institutes. Comparing the institutionalization pathways that created the conditions necessary for continuous and strong growth in scientific productivity in the European center of global science emphasizes that the research university is the key organizational form across countries.

  20. Human Campylobacteriosis in Luxembourg, 2010-2013: A Case-Control Study Combined with Multilocus Sequence Typing for Source Attribution and Risk Factor Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossong, Joël; Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Penny, Christian; Devaux, Anthony; Olinger, Christophe; Losch, Serge; Cauchie, Henry-Michel; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Ragimbeau, Catherine

    2016-02-10

    Campylobacteriosis has increased markedly in Luxembourg during recent years. We sought to determine which Campylobacter genotypes infect humans, where they may originate from, and how they may infect humans. Multilocus sequence typing was performed on 1153 Campylobacter jejuni and 136 C. coli human strains to be attributed to three putative animal reservoirs (poultry, ruminants, pigs) and to environmental water using the asymmetric island model. A nationwide case-control study (2010-2013) for domestic campylobacteriosis was also conducted, including 367 C. jejuni and 48 C. coli cases, and 624 controls. Risk factors were investigated by Campylobacter species, and for strains attributed to different sources using a combined case-control and source attribution analysis. 282 sequence types (STs) were identified: ST-21, ST-48, ST-572, ST-50 and ST-257 were prevailing. Most cases were attributed to poultry (61.2%) and ruminants (33.3%). Consuming chicken outside the home was the dominant risk factor for both Campylobacter species. Newly identified risk factors included contact with garden soil for either species, and consuming beef specifically for C. coli. Poultry-associated campylobacteriosis was linked to poultry consumption in wintertime, and ruminant-associated campylobacteriosis to tap-water provider type. Besides confirming chicken as campylobacteriosis primary source, additional evidence was found for other reservoirs and transmission routes.

  1. Identifying the origins of local atmospheric deposition in the steel industry basin of Luxembourg using the chemical and isotopic composition of the lichen Xanthoria parietina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hissler, Christophe; Stille, Peter; Krein, Andreas; Geagea, Majdi Lahd; Perrone, Thierry; Probst, Jean-Luc; Hoffmann, Lucien

    2008-11-01

    Trace metal atmospheric contamination was assessed in one of the oldest European industrial sites of steel production situated in the southern part of the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg. Using elemental ratios as well as Pb, Sr, and Nd isotopic compositions as tracers, we found preliminary results concerning the trace metal enrichment and the chemical/isotopic signatures of the most important emission sources using the lichen Xanthoria parietina sampled at 15 sites along a SW-NE transect. The concentrations of these elements decreased with increasing distance from the historical and actual steel-work areas. The combination of the different tracers (major elements, Rare Earth Element ratios, Pb, Sr and Nd isotopes) enabled us to distinguish between three principal sources: the historical steel production (old tailings corresponding to blast-furnace residues), the present steel production (industrial sites with arc electric furnace units) and the regional background (baseline) components. Other anthropogenic sources including a waste incinerator and major roads had only weak impacts on lichen chemistry and isotopic ratios. The correlation between the Sr and Nd isotope ratios indicated that the Sr-Nd isotope systems represented useful tools to trace atmospheric emissions of factories using scrap metal for steel production.

  2. Geographical variation of overweight, obesity and related risk factors: Findings from the European Health Examination Survey in Luxembourg, 2013-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samouda, Hanen; Ruiz-Castell, Maria; Bocquet, Valery; Kuemmerle, Andrea; Chioti, Anna; Dadoun, Frédéric; Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Stranges, Saverio

    2018-01-01

    The analyses of geographic variations in the prevalence of major chronic conditions, such as overweight and obesity, are an important public health tool to identify "hot spots" and inform allocation of funding for policy and health promotion campaigns, yet rarely performed. Here we aimed at exploring, for the first time in Luxembourg, potential geographic patterns in overweight/obesity prevalence in the country, adjusted for several demographic, socioeconomic, behavioural and health status characteristics. Data came from 720 men and 764 women, 25-64 years old, who participated in the European Health Examination Survey in Luxembourg (2013-2015). To investigate the geographical variation, geo-additive semi-parametric mixed model and Bayesian modelisations based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques for inference were performed. Large disparities in the prevalence of overweight and obesity were found between municipalities, with the highest rates of obesity found in 3 municipalities located in the South-West of the country. Bayesian approach also underlined a nonlinear effect of age on overweight and obesity in both genders (significant in men) and highlighted the following risk factors: 1. country of birth for overweight in men born in a non-European country (Posterior Odds Ratio (POR): 3.24 [1.61-8.69]) and women born in Portugal (POR: 2.44 [1.25-4.43]), 2. low educational level (secondary or below) for overweight (POR: 1.66 (1.06-2.72)] and obesity (POR:2.09 [1.05-3.65]) in men, 3. single marital status for obesity in women (POR: 2.20 [1.24-3.91]), 4.fair (men: POR: 3.19 [1.58-6.79], women: POR: 2.24 [1.33-3.73]) to very bad health perception (men: POR: 15.01 [2.16-98.09]) for obesity, 5. sleeping more than 6 hours for obesity in unemployed men (POR: 3.66 [2.02-8.03]). Protective factors highlighted were: 1. single marital status against overweight (POR: [0.60 (0.38-0.96)]) and obesity (POR: 0.39 [0.16-0.84]) in men, 2. the fact to be widowed against overweight in

  3. Surface heat flow and lithosphere thermal structure of the larger Luxembourg area as a basis for the evaluation of its geothermal potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schintgen, Tom; Förster, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    The evaluation of the geothermal potential and the type of geothermal use necessitates knowledge of the subsurface temperature distribution in combination with hydraulic properties (e.g. porosity, permeability and hydraulic conductivity). In the larger Luxembourg area, only a few subsurface temperature data are available restricted to shallow depth. This paucity in data required to assess the thermal regime to drillable depths by modeling. The thermal model was constrained by surface heat flow and the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) characterized by the 1300° C isotherm. A surface heat-flow value of 75 ± 7 (2σ) mW m-2 was determined in central Luxembourg, which corroborates most values known from adjacent areas. The conceptual geological model for thermal modeling has a high resolution in the upper 15 km due to a wealth of geological data, while refraction seismic data and xenoliths provide petrological constraints for the lower part of the model down to the crust/mantle boundary. Thermal rock properties assigned to geological units are based on a large set of laboratory data, complemented by some literature data for the lower parts of the crust. The thermal structure is investigated by calculating 2-D steady-state thermal models along three crustal cross sections developed for the study area assuming a purely conductive lithosphere. The location of the LAB at 100 km depth, as typical for the Ardennes, provides the best fit with the measured surface heat flow of about 75 mW m-2. This LAB model provides temperatures at 5 km of 115-118° C on average and of about 600° C at the Moho. The resulting mantle heat flow in this model is 39-40 mW m-2. A reduced lithosphere thickness of 50 km as typical for the Eifel area to the east results in an increase of surface heat flow to 97 mW m-2 and of the mantle heat flow to 65 mW m-2, respectively. If heating from the Eifel plume had reached the surface yet, temperatures at 5 km would be about 20° C higher (and

  4. Tea, but not coffee consumption, is associated with components of arterial pressure. The Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors study in Luxembourg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkerwi, Ala'a; Sauvageot, Nicolas; Crichton, Georgina E; Elias, Merrill F

    2015-07-01

    There is uncertainty regarding the impact of tea and coffee consumption on arterial blood pressure. The present study aimed to examine the association between blood pressure (BP) components, namely, systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP, mean arterial pressure, and pulse pressure (PP), and tea or coffee consumption, taking into account simultaneous consumption. The study population was derived from a national cross-sectional stratified sample of 1352 individuals aged 18 to 69 years, recruited between November 2007 and January 2009 to participate in the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg study. We hypothesized that greater tea consumption would be independently associated with lower BP. Tea and coffee consumptions in deciliters per day were obtained from a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Participants were classified into 3 groups: nonconsumers, ≤3-dL/d consumers, and >3-dL/d consumers of each beverage separately. After exclusion of subjects taking antihypertensive medications, several general linear models were performed to investigate the independent relationship between tea/coffee consumption and BP components. Tea consumers (36.3%) were more likely to be younger women, nonsmokers, with better cardiometabolic profiles, and less frequent chronic pathologies, whereas the reverse was true for coffee consumers (88%). Greater tea consumption was associated with lower SBP and PP values, after adjustment for age, sex, education, lifestyle, and dietary confounding factors, including coffee drinking. No association between BP components and coffee consumption was observed. Daily consumption of 1 dL of tea was associated with a significant reduction of SBP by 0.6 mm Hg and PP by 0.5 mm Hg. Given the widespread consumption of tea and coffee throughout the world, together with the major cardiovascular disease risk, our findings have important implications for human health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Mental health (GHQ12; CES-D and attitudes towards the value of work among inmates of a semi-open prison and the long-term unemployed in Luxembourg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Bihan Etienne

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim To analyse the relationships between mental health and employment commitment among prisoners and the long-term unemployed (LTU trying to return to work. Method Fifty-two of 62 male inmates of a semi-open prison (Givenich Penitentiary Centre, the only such unit in Luxembourg, and 69 LTU registered at the Luxembourg Employment Administration completed a questionnaire exploring: 1 mental health (measured by means of scales GHQ12 and CES-D; 2 employment commitment; 3 availability of a support network, self-esteem, empowerment; and 4 socio-demographic characteristics. Results Compared with LTU, inmates were younger, more had work experience (54.9% vs 26.1%, and more were educated to only a low level (71.1% vs 58.0%. The link between employment commitment and mental health in the LTU was the opposite of that seen among the prisoners: the more significant the perceived importance of employment, the worse the mental health (GHQ12 p = 0.003; CES-D p Conclusion The two groups clearly need professional support. Future research should further investigate the link between different forms of professional help and mental health. Randomized controlled trials could be carried out in both groups, with interventions to improve work commitment for prisoners and to help with getting a job for LTU. For those LTU who value employment but cannot find it, the best help may be psychological support.

  6. Impact of Patients' Communication with the Medical Practitioners, on Their Adherence Declared to Preventive Behaviours, Five Years after a Coronary Angiography, in Luxembourg.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michèle Baumann

    Full Text Available Patients of the National Institute of Cardiac Surgery and Interventional Cardiology in Luxembourg who underwent coronary angiography were surveyed for hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes and overweight/obesity between 2008/9 and 2013/4. For each cardiovascular risk factor (CVRFs, we analysed the associations between the quality of the patients' communication with the medical practitioner and their adherence declared to preventive behaviours.1,289 completed a self-administered questionnaire on communication with the medical practitioner (P'Com-5 items scale; Cronbach 0.87. 61.8% stopped smoking, 57.9% reduced or stopped their consumption of salt, 71.9% of fat, and 62.8% of sugar, and whereas 65% increased their consumption of fruit and vegetables and 19.8% increased their physical activity. Around 37% reported having made changes following their doctor's advice. 90% were followed by a cardiologist and 95.9% by an attending physician.No link was observed between declaration of physical activity, smoking, fats, and quality of communication. Significant associations: for increased consumption of fruit and vegetables was linked with the quality of doctor-patient communication when patients were overweight (OR = 1.081, obese (OR = 1.130, hypercholesterolemic (OR = 1.102, hypertensive (OR = 1.084 or diabetic (OR = 1.103. Reduction in salt intake was linked only to patients with hypertension (OR = 1.102, whereas reduction or cessation of sugar consumption was linked to overweight (OR = 1.093, and more so obese, (OR = 1.106, hypercholesterolemics (OR = 1.103 and diabetics (OR = 1.173.Good doctor-patient communication was related to nutrition, particularly increased consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables. Accurate perception of CVRFs by both patients and medical practitioners is essential for CV protection. The aim of instructing patients is to encourage them to make informed decisions about how to change their lifestyle. In routinely, P

  7. The text of the Agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-05-01

    On 5 April 1989 the Agency received in respect of the European Atomic Energy Community and Spain the notification required by Article 23(a) of the Agreement of 5 April 1973 between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency, which therefore came into force for Spain on that date

  8. Son Excellence Monsieur Pierre-Louis Lorenz Ambassadeur extraordinaire et plénipotentiaire Représentant permanent du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg auprès de l’Office des Nations Unies et des autres organisations internationales à Genève

    CERN Multimedia

    Ordan, Julien Marius

    2017-01-01

    Signature de Son Excellence Monsieur Pierre-Louis Lorenz Ambassadeur extraordinaire et plénipotentiaire Représentant permanent du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg auprès de l’Office des Nations Unies et des autres organisations internationales à Genève

  9. Mass chest screening in Luxembourg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayser, P.

    1987-01-01

    At the present time, all the groups of people examined are not belonging to high risk groups or groups capable of spreading the disease either among colleagues of the profession or users of products or services they are providing. Consequently it will be important to better select in the future the high risk groups. It will be probably necessary to abrogate the examination of future couples. There is presently a project to be adopted in the near future stipulating that mass radiological examinations for prevention of diseases have to be approved by the Ministry of Health, only if they are medically and epidemiologically justified

  10. The Text of the Agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons; Texte de l'Accord entre la Belgique, le Danemark, la Republique Federale d' Allemagne, l'Irlande, l'Italie, le Luxembourg, les Pays-Bas, la Communaute Europeenne de l'En-Ergie Atomique et L'Agence En Application Du Traite Sur La Non-Proliferation Des Armes Nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1973-09-14

    The text of the Agreement, and of the Protocol thereto, between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article III (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (reproduced in document INFCIRC/140) is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members [French] Le texte de l'Accord, ainsi que celui du Protocole qui y est joint, entre la Belgique, le Danemark, la Republique fdrale d'Allemae, l'Irlande, l'Italie, le Luxembourg, les Pays-Bas, la Communaute europenne de l'energie atomique et l'Agence condu en application des paragraphes 1 et 4 de l'article III du Traite sur la non proliferation des armes nucleaires sont reproduits dans le present document pour l'information de tous les Membres.

  11. Energy efficiency of new school buildings and office buildings in Luxembourg based on consumption data and simulations; Energieeffizienz neuer Schul- und Buerogebaeude in Luxemburg basierend auf Verbrauchsdaten und Simulationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thewes, Andreas

    2011-07-01

    In Luxemburg, energy consumption in the building and housing sector has been significantly increasing over the last years. From 1990 to 2005, the fraction of the tertiary sector (including private and public households), compared to the entire national energy consumption, increased from only 20% to 31% [ENEL, 2008]. An assessment of the energy saving potential of buildings requires a comprehensive data basis with real consumption figures that are not yet available. Assessments on energy saving measures conducted so far are only based on rough estimates. One focus of this study was to create a priori a detailed energy consumption database for new ''School and Administrative Buildings'' for Luxembourg. These are both groups pursuant to the EU Directive [EU, 2010] and cover a major part of the building and housing sector in Luxembourg besides residential buildings. Based on the samples collected, it was able to expand the figures to the entire country using mathematical methods and the medium heat and electricity consumption of these two types of buildings. After collecting some details about each object, it was able to analyze the influence of different parameters, such as building age, size, type, glass fraction etc., on energy consumption using multivariate statistical methods. A posteriori, the results from the database were verified using parameter studies to existing objects and one object still under construction. Based on this, important key parameters relevant for both energy savings and thermal comfort could be found. This knowledge are necessary to understand energy flows within buildings better and, based on this, to be able meeting the nearly zero energy buildings requirements as set out by the EU Directive in the years to come. In particular, this study focused on the negative effects of growing window areas on the energy consumptions and discussed them thoroughly. Also, we tested and/or provided calculational evidence of further

  12. Application of XAD-2 resin-based passive samplers and SPME–GC–MS/MS analysis for the monitoring of spatial and temporal variations of atmospheric pesticides in Luxembourg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schummer, Claude; Tuduri, Ludovic; Briand, Olivier; Appenzeller, Brice M.; Millet, Maurice

    2012-01-01

    Passive air sampling has been shown to be a very interesting alternative to high-volume sampling by overcoming its disadvantages (size, weight, expensiveness). However, to date, only limited data is available about passive air sampling of current-use pesticides. In order to test if passive samplers allow monitoring of spatial and temporal variations of atmospheric pesticide concentrations, five XAD-2-resin based passive air samplers were deployed at five locations in Luxembourg. Samplers were analyzed using accelerated solvent extraction coupled to solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Collected data was used to study the spatial and temporal variations of the concentrations of the compounds. Twenty two pesticides were detected between March and October, while no pesticides were detected from November to February. Highest concentrations were measured on the rural sites, suggesting that the used XAD-2 resin-based passive samplers allow the simultaneous monitoring of multiple current-use pesticides and identifying spatial and temporal variations. - Highlights: ► XAD-2 passive sampling of current-used pesticides. ► Coupling of ASE and SPME–GC–MS/MS for the analysis of pesticides in XAD-2 passive sampling. ► XAD-2 passive samplers suitable for current-used pesticides atmospheric sampling. ► XAD-2 passive samplers suitable for spatial and temporal atmospheric concentrations variations. - XAD-2 passive sampling of current-use pesticides in the atmosphere.

  13. European Capitals of Culture and the limits of the urban effects in Luxembourg and Sibiu 2007 Capitais europeias da cultura e os limites dos efeitos urbanos em Luxemburgo e Sibiu 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Palonen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A mega-event is a replicant: local copy of a global model. The European Capitals of Culture (ECC is an annual mega-event, currently usually held in two European cities. This paper argues it has three particular dimensions, recognisable from the European Union’s policy. First designed to articulate a European identity, it has been a mover for local urban transformation and city-branding, and later participation. The policy projects Europe as “family of cultures”, which suggests attention for a particular ECC year, when the old Saxon fortress town of Luxembourg hosted the title together with the former Saxon fortress town Sibiu of Romania, which joined the European Union only the same year: 2007. The article asks, what are the limits of the urban effects of the three dimensions of the European Capitals of Culture, using as a method urban art interventions for investigating the limits and potential spatial effects of the ECCs and the extent of the diffusion of institutional elements.

  14. Life satisfaction two-years after stroke onset: the effects of gender, sex occupational status, memory function and quality of life among stroke patients (Newsqol) and their family caregivers (Whoqol-bref) in Luxembourg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Michèle; Couffignal, Sophie; Le Bihan, Etienne; Chau, Nearkasen

    2012-09-25

    Life satisfaction (LS) of cerebrovascular disease survivors and their family caregivers may relate to socioeconomic factors, impaired functions, health-related quality of life (QoL), but their respective influences remain unclear. This study assessed, two years post-stroke onset, the effects of these factors on patients' LS and family caregivers' LS in Luxembourg. All stroke patients admitted to all hospitals in Luxembourg were identified by the 'Inspection Général de la Sécurité Sociale' using the only national system database for care expenditure reimbursement. Their diagnosis was confirmed by medical investigator. The sample included ninety four patients living at home having given consent (mean age 65.5 years) and sixty two main caregivers (mean age 59.3 years). Questionnaires were completed during face-to-face interviews. LS was assessed via European single question (range 1-10), survivors' QoL via Newsqol (11 dimensions), and caregivers' QoL via Whoqol-bref (4 domains) (range 0-100). Data were analysed using multiple regression models. Two years after stroke onset, 44.7% of patients suffered from impaired sensory function, 35.1% from impaired motor function, and 31.9% from impaired memory function. Mean patient' LS was 7.1/10 (SD 1.9). It was higher in women (+12.4) and lower among unemployed socioeconomically active patients (-13.1, vs. retired people). Adjusted for sex, occupation, impaired motor and memory functions, LS positively correlated with scores of Newsqol feelings, sleep, emotion, cognition and pain dimensions (slopes 0.20 to 0.31), but did not correlate with those of caregivers' Whoqol-bref domains. Family caregiver' LS was 7.2 (SD 1.7). It was lower in those with patients suffering from impaired memory function (-12.8) as well as from feelings and emotion issues (slopes 0.22). It was associated with all caregivers' Whoqol-bref domains (physical health, psychological health, environment, and social relationships) (slopes 0.53 to 0.68). Two

  15. Life satisfaction two-years after stroke onset: the effects of gender, sex occupational status, memory function and quality of life among stroke patients (Newsqol and their family caregivers (Whoqol-bref in Luxembourg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baumann Michèle

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Life satisfaction (LS of cerebrovascular disease survivors and their family caregivers may relate to socioeconomic factors, impaired functions, health-related quality of life (QoL, but their respective influences remain unclear. This study assessed, two years post-stroke onset, the effects of these factors on patients’ LS and family caregivers’ LS in Luxembourg. Methods All stroke patients admitted to all hospitals in Luxembourg were identified by the ‘Inspection Général de la Sécurité Sociale’ using the only national system database for care expenditure reimbursement. Their diagnosis was confirmed by medical investigator. The sample included ninety four patients living at home having given consent (mean age 65.5 years and sixty two main caregivers (mean age 59.3 years. Questionnaires were completed during face-to-face interviews. LS was assessed via European single question (range 1–10, survivors’ QoL via Newsqol (11 dimensions, and caregivers’ QoL via Whoqol-bref (4 domains (range 0–100. Data were analysed using multiple regression models. Results Two years after stroke onset, 44.7% of patients suffered from impaired sensory function, 35.1% from impaired motor function, and 31.9% from impaired memory function. Mean patient’ LS was 7.1/10 (SD 1.9. It was higher in women (+12.4 and lower among unemployed socioeconomically active patients (−13.1, vs. retired people. Adjusted for sex, occupation, impaired motor and memory functions, LS positively correlated with scores of Newsqol feelings, sleep, emotion, cognition and pain dimensions (slopes 0.20 to 0.31, but did not correlate with those of caregivers’ Whoqol-bref domains. Family caregiver’ LS was 7.2 (SD 1.7. It was lower in those with patients suffering from impaired memory function (−12.8 as well as from feelings and emotion issues (slopes 0.22. It was associated with all caregivers’ Whoqol-bref domains (physical health, psychological health

  16. A hepatitis A, B, C and HIV prevalence and risk factor study in ever injecting and non-injecting drug users in Luxembourg associated with HAV and HBV immunisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Removille, Nathalie; Origer, Alain; Couffignal, Sophie; Vaillant, Michel; Schmit, Jean-Claude; Lair, Marie-Lise

    2011-05-19

    In Luxembourg, viral hepatitis and HIV infection data in problem drug users (PDUs) are primarily based on self-reporting. Our study aimed to determine the prevalence of HAV, HBV, HCV and HIV infections in ever injecting (IDUs) and non-injecting drug users (nIDUs) including inherent risk factors analysis for IDUs. Secondary objectives were immunisation against HAV and HBV, referral to care and treatment facilities as well as reduction in risk behaviour. A nationwide, cross-sectional multi-site survey, involving 5 in-, 8 out-treatment and 2 prison centres, included both an assisted questionnaire (n = 368) and serological detection of HIV and Hepatitis A, B, C (n = 334). A response rate of 31% resulted in the participation of 310 IDUs and 58 nIDUs. Risk factors such as drug use, sexual behaviour, imprisonment, protection and health knowledge (HAV, HBV status and immunisations, HCV, HIV), piercing/tattoo and use of social and medical services were studied by means of chi2 and logistic models. Seroprevalence results for IDUs were 81.3% (218/268, 95%CI=[76.6; 86.0]) for HCV, 29.1% (74/254, 95%CI=[25.5;34.7 ]) for HBV (acute/chronic infection or past cured infection), 2.5% (5/202, 95%CI=[0.3; 4.6]) for HIV-1 and 57.1% (108/189, 95%CI=[50.0; 64.1]) for HAV (cured infections or past vaccinations). Seroprevalence results for nIDUs were 19.1% (9/47, 95%CI=[7.9;30.3]) for HCV, 8.9% (4/45, 95%CI=[0.6;17.2]) for HBV (acute/chronic infection or past cured infection), 4.8% (2/42, 95%CI=[-1.7;11.3]) for HIV-1 and 65.9% (27/41, 95%CI=[51.4;80.4]) for HAV. Prisoners showed the highest rates for all infections. Age, imprisonment and setting of recruitment were statistically associated with HCV seropositivity. Age, speedball career and nationality were significantly associated with HBV seropositivity. Only 56% of the participants in outpatient centres collected their serology results and 43 doses of vaccine against HAV and/or HBV were administered. Despite the existing national risk

  17. Life satisfaction of two-year post-stroke survivors: effects of socio-economic factors, motor impairment, Newcastle stroke-specific quality of life measure and World Health Organization quality of life: bref of informal caregivers in Luxembourg and a rural area in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Michèle; Lurbe, Kàtia; Leandro, Maria-Engracia; Chau, Nearkasen

    2012-01-01

    Life satisfaction of stroke survivors is known to be associated with socio-economic factors and the survivor's and his/her caregiver's quality of life, but their respective influence remains to be fully elucidated. To analyse the stroke survivors' life satisfaction 2 years after the event and its relationships with quality of life, socio-economic and stroke-related characteristics, and with informal caregivers' life satisfaction and quality of life . Over 18 months, all stroke patients from Luxembourg and north-eastern Portugal who lived at home were identified from the Inspection Générale de la Sécurité Sociale and hospital records, respectively. The clinical diagnosis of cerebrovascular disease was confirmed. We excluded all patients who declared that stroke did not result in neurological impairments at the time of stroke from the statistical analysis. The samples comprised 79 patients in Luxembourg and 48 in Portugal. Patients and the people they identified as their main caregivers were interviewed using validated questionnaires measuring life satisfaction, i.e. the Newcastle Stroke-Specific Quality of Life (Newsqol - 11 subscales), which identifies the areas affected by stroke among patients, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life - bref (Whoqol-bref - 4 subscales) of informal caregivers. Survivors without neurological impairment at the time of stroke were excluded. Data were analysed via multiple-regression models. Life satisfaction was higher among women and lower among subjects with impaired motor functions. It was lower among Portuguese respondents with low-level education (life satisfaction than did working people (-7.9/100). Controlling for socio-economic factors, life satisfaction was associated with feelings- Newsqol (slope 0.25) among Luxembourg residents, and with feelings-, mobility- and self-care-Newsqol (slopes 0.24, 0.27 and 0.33, respectively) among Portuguese respondents. Life satisfaction of patients was strongly related to that

  18. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Luxembourg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. Main support instruments for incentivising electricity from renewable energy sources are feed-in tariffs and feed-in premiums. A subsidy instrument is used as well. Households operating small solar installations are entitled to tax benefits. Renewable heat production is promoted through four subsidy instruments. Renewable transport fuels are promoted by way of a bio-fuels blending quota scheme

  19. A hepatitis A, B, C and HIV prevalence and risk factor study in ever injecting and non-injecting drug users in Luxembourg associated with HAV and HBV immunisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmit Jean-Claude

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Luxembourg, viral hepatitis and HIV infection data in problem drug users (PDUs are primarily based on self-reporting. Our study aimed to determine the prevalence of HAV, HBV, HCV and HIV infections in ever injecting (IDUs and non-injecting drug users (nIDUs including inherent risk factors analysis for IDUs. Secondary objectives were immunisation against HAV and HBV, referral to care and treatment facilities as well as reduction in risk behaviour. Methods A nationwide, cross-sectional multi-site survey, involving 5 in-, 8 out-treatment and 2 prison centres, included both an assisted questionnaire (n = 368 and serological detection of HIV and Hepatitis A, B, C (n = 334. A response rate of 31% resulted in the participation of 310 IDUs and 58 nIDUs. Risk factors such as drug use, sexual behaviour, imprisonment, protection and health knowledge (HAV, HBV status and immunisations, HCV, HIV, piercing/tattoo and use of social and medical services were studied by means of chi2 and logistic models. Results Seroprevalence results for IDUs were 81.3% (218/268, 95%CI=[76.6; 86.0] for HCV, 29.1% (74/254, 95%CI=[25.5;34.7 ] for HBV (acute/chronic infection or past cured infection, 2.5% (5/202, 95%CI=[0.3; 4.6] for HIV-1 and 57.1% (108/189, 95%CI=[50.0; 64.1] for HAV (cured infections or past vaccinations. Seroprevalence results for nIDUs were 19.1% (9/47, 95%CI=[7.9;30.3] for HCV, 8.9% (4/45, 95%CI=[0.6;17.2] for HBV (acute/chronic infection or past cured infection, 4.8% (2/42, 95%CI=[-1.7;11.3] for HIV-1 and 65.9% (27/41, 95%CI=[51.4;80.4] for HAV. Prisoners showed the highest rates for all infections. Age, imprisonment and setting of recruitment were statistically associated with HCV seropositivity. Age, speedball career and nationality were significantly associated with HBV seropositivity. Only 56% of the participants in outpatient centres collected their serology results and 43 doses of vaccine against HAV and/or HBV were administered

  20. The Text of the Agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Article 23(a) of the Agreement, and the Protocol thereto, between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Agreement shall come into force for non-nuclear-weapon States Party to NPT which become members of the European Atomic Energy Community upon: (i) Notification to the Agency by the State concerned that its procedures with respect to the coming into force of the Agreement have been completed; and (ii) Notification to the Agency by the European Atomic Energy Community that it is in a position to apply its safeguards in respect of that State for the purposes of the Agreement [es

  1. The Text of the Agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Article 23(a) of the Agreement, and the Protocol thereto, between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Agreement shall come into force for non-nuclear-weapon States Party to NPT which become members of the European Atomic Energy Community upon: (i) Notification to the Agency by the State concerned that its procedures with respect to the coming into force of the Agreement have been completed; and (ii) Notification to the Agency by the European Atomic Energy Community that it is in a position to apply its safeguards in respect of that State for the purposes of the Agreement [fr

  2. The Text of the Agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Estonia and the Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Article 23(a) of the Agreement, and the Protocol thereto, between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Agreement shall come into force for non-nuclear-weapon States Party to NPT which become members of the European Atomic Energy Community upon: (i) Notification to the Agency by the State concerned that its procedures with respect to the coming into force of the Agreement have been completed; and (ii) Notification to the Agency by the European Atomic Energy Community that it is in a position to apply its safeguards in respect of that State for the purposes of the Agreement [es

  3. The Text of the Agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Article 23(a) of the Agreement, and the Protocol thereto, between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Agreement shall come into force for non-nuclear-weapon States Party to NPT which become members of the European Atomic Energy Community upon: (i) Notification to the Agency by the State concerned that its procedures with respect to the coming into force of the Agreement have been completed; and (ii) Notification to the Agency by the European Atomic Energy Community that it is in a position to apply its safeguards in respect of that State for the purposes of the Agreement [es

  4. The Text of the Agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Article 23(a) of the Agreement, and the Protocol thereto, between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Agreement shall come into force for non-nuclear-weapon States Party to NPT which become members of the European Atomic Energy Community upon: (i) Notification to the Agency by the State concerned that its procedures with respect to the coming into force of the Agreement have been completed; and (ii) Notification to the Agency by the European Atomic Energy Community that it is in a position to apply its safeguards in respect of that State for the purposes of the Agreement

  5. The Text of the Agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Cyprus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Article 23(a) of the Agreement, and the Protocol thereto, between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Agreement shall come into force for non-nuclear-weapon States Party to NPT which become members of the European Atomic Energy Community upon: (i) Notification to the Agency by the State concerned that its procedures with respect to the coming into force of the Agreement have been completed; and (ii) Notification to the Agency by the European Atomic Energy Community that it is in a position to apply its safeguards in respect of that State for the purposes of the Agreement

  6. The Text of the Agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Article 23(a) of the Agreement, and the Protocol thereto, between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Agreement shall come into force for non-nuclear-weapon States Party to NPT which become members of the European Atomic Energy Community upon: (i) Notification to the Agency by the State concerned that its procedures with respect to the coming into force of the Agreement have been completed; and (ii) Notification to the Agency by the European Atomic Energy Community that it is in a position to apply its safeguards in respect of that State for the purposes of the Agreement

  7. The Text of the Agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Estonia and the Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Article 23(a) of the Agreement, and the Protocol thereto, between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Agreement shall come into force for non-nuclear-weapon States Party to NPT which become members of the European Atomic Energy Community upon: (i) Notification to the Agency by the State concerned that its procedures with respect to the coming into force of the Agreement have been completed; and (ii) Notification to the Agency by the European Atomic Energy Community that it is in a position to apply its safeguards in respect of that State for the purposes of the Agreement

  8. The text of the agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Finland, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Article 23(a) of the Agreement of 5 April 1973 between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article III (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Agreement shall come into force for non-nuclear-weapon States Party to NPT which become members of the European Atomic Energy Community upon: (i) Notification to the Agency by the State concerned that its procedures with respect to the coming into force of the Agreement have been completed; and (ii) Notification to the Agency by the European Atomic Energy Community that it is in a position to apply its safeguards in respect of that State for the purposes of the Agreement. On 18 September 1995 the Agency received in respect of the European Atomic Energy Community and Finland the notifications required by Article 23(a) of the Agreement. For practical accounting purposes as proposed in the notifications, the Agreement came into force for Finland on 1 October 1995

  9. The text of the agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Article 23(a) of the Agreement, and the Protocol thereto, between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Agreement shall come into force for non-nuclear-weapon States Party to NPT which become members of the European Atomic Energy Community upon: (i) Notification to the Agency by the State concerned that its procedures with respect to the coming into force of the Agreement have been completed; and (ii) Notification to the Agency by the European Atomic Energy Community that it is in a position to apply its safeguards in respect of that State for the purposes of the Agreement. The Agreement and the Protocol thereto, which came into force for the above-mentioned original signatories on 21 February 1977, have also entered into force for Austria, Cyprus, Estonia, Finland, Greece, Hungary, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain and Sweden. The Agency received from the Republic of Latvia on 17 March 2008 and from the European Atomic Energy Community on 1 October 2008, the notifications required by Article 23(a) of the Agreement. Accordingly, the Agreement entered into force for Latvia on 1 October 2008

  10. The Text of the Agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Hungary and Malta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Article 23(a) of the Agreement, and the Protocol thereto, between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Agreement shall come into force for non-nuclear-weapon States Party to NPT which become members of the European Atomic Energy Community upon: (i) Notification to the Agency by the State concerned that its procedures with respect to the coming into force of the Agreement have been completed; and (ii) Notification to the Agency by the European Atomic Energy Community that it is in a position to apply its safeguards in respect of that State for the purposes of the Agreement. The Agreement and the Protocol thereto, which came into force for the above-mentioned original signatories on 21 February 1977, have also entered into force for Austria, Estonia, Finland, Greece, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Slovakia, Slovenia and Sweden

  11. The Text of the Agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons; Texto del Acuerdo Concertado Entre Belgica, Dinamarca, La Republica Federal De Alemania, Irlanda, Italia, Luxemburgo, Los Paises Bajos, La Comunidad Europea De Energia Ato Mica Y El Organismo En Relacion Con El Tratado Sobre La No Proliferacion De Las Armas Nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1973-09-14

    The text of the Agreement, and of the Protocol thereto, between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article III (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (reproduced in document INFCIRC/140) is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members [Spanish] Para informacion de todos los Estados Miembros, en el presente documento se transcribe el texto del Acuerdo concertado entre Belgica, Dinamarca, la Republica Federal de Alemania, Irlanda, Italia, Luxemburgo, los Paises Bajos, la Comunidad Europea de Energia Atomica y el Organismo en ejecucion de lo dispuesto en los parrafos 1 y 4 del articulo III del Tratado sobre la no proliferacion de las armas nucleares, asi como el del Protocolo que acompana a dicho Acuerdo.

  12. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of the Czech Republic [es

  13. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of the Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Article 17.a. of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of the Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Additional Protocol shall come into force on the date on which the Agency receives from the Community and the Signatory States written notification that their respective requirements for entry into force have been met. Article 23(a) of INFCIRC/193 provides the means for non-signatory States of the Additional Protocol to express their consent to be bound by the Additional Protocol. The Additional Protocol which came into force for the above-mentioned original signatories (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, the Community and the Agency) on 30 April 2004, has also entered into force for Cyprus, Estonia, Hungary, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia. The Agency received from the Republic of Latvia on 17 March 2008 and from the European Atomic Energy Community on 1 October 2008, notification that their respective requirements had been met. Accordingly, the Additional Protocol came into force for Latvia on 1 October 2008

  14. Luxembourg; Staff Report for the 2015 Article IV Consultation

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2015-01-01

    This 2015 Article IV Consultation highlights that Luxembourg’s economic model, emphasizing fiscal stability, openness, firm prudential oversight, and responsiveness to investor needs, is delivering strong growth. Buoyant financial services exports contributed to real growth of close to 3 percent in 2014, with strong job creation. Budget 2015 launched a multi-year fiscal consolidation aimed at offsetting falling revenues from electronic commerce. The economy faces important challenges going fo...

  15. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Estonia and the Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Article 17.a. of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Additional Protocol shall come into force on the date on which the Agency receives from the Community and the Signatory States written notification that their respective requirements for entry into force have been met. Article 23(a) of INFCIRC/193 provides the means for non-signatory States of the Additional Protocol to express their consent to be bound by the Additional Protocol

  16. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Estonia and the Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Article 17.a. of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Additional Protocol shall come into force on the date on which the Agency receives from the Community and the Signatory States written notification that their respective requirements for entry into force have been met. Article 23(a) of INFCIRC/193 provides the means for non-signatory States of the Additional Protocol to express their consent to be bound by the Additional Protocol [es

  17. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Article 17.a. of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Additional Protocol shall come into force on the date on which the Agency receives from the Community and the Signatory States written notification that their respective requirements for entry into force have been met. Article 23(a) of Inference/193 provides the means for non-signatory States of the Additional Protocol to express their consent to be bound by the Additional Protocol [es

  18. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in the Annex to this document for the information of all Members. The Additional Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 11 June 1998. It was signed in Vienna on 22 September 1998

  19. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Article 17.a. of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Additional Protocol shall come into force on the date on which the Agency receives from the Community and the Signatory States written notification that their respective requirements for entry into force have been met. Article 23(a) of INFCIRC/193 provides the means for non-signatory States of the Additional Protocol to express their consent to be bound by the Additional Protocol

  20. Anti-money laundering and counter-terrorist financing in the Luxembourg investment fund market

    OpenAIRE

    Dietz, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    The field of Anti-Money Laundering and Counter-Terrorist Financing in their current form have had an important impact on the financial world for almost half a century. Today, Money Laundering and Terrorist Financing pose a threat to the integrity of the financial markets and systems worldwide. The intention behind implementing a regulatory Anti-Money Laundering and Counter-Terrorist Financing framework is to cut off the financial resources of criminals and to follow back the traces that finan...

  1. Collective labour law after Viking, Laval, Rüffert, and Commission v. Luxembourg

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Peijpe, T.

    2009-01-01

    The judgments of the European Court of Justice (ECJ) in the International Transport Workers’ Federation and Finnish Seamen’s Union v Viking Line ABP and OÜ Viking Line Eesti (hereinafter ‘Viking’), Laval un Partneri Ltd v Svenska Byggnadsarbetareförbundet and Others (hereinafter ‘Laval’), Dirk

  2. From Lëtzebuerg to Luxembourg: EU Law, Non-Discrimination and Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    BELAVUSAU, Uladzislau

    2010-01-01

    [Virginie Pontin v. T-Comalux SA, ECJ (Third Chamber), Judgment of 29 October 2009, C-63/08] In autumn 2009 the ECJ made another step forward in fostering gender equality through the instrumental framework of the EU law. The case triggers the right of pregnant women to protection against employers, who use inadequately constructed procedural norms to disguise an illegal dismissal. The Court holds that where the only remedy available under national legislation to a worker dismissed during preg...

  3. Prevalence of antibodies against canine distemper virus among red foxes in Luxembourg

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.C. Damien; S. Losch; J. Mossong; C.P. Muller (Claude); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); B.E.E. Martina (Byron)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractCanine distemper virus (CDV) has a wide host spectrum, and during the past years, distemper has been observed in species that were previously not considered to be susceptible. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of CDV-specific antibodies in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) sampled

  4. Prevalence of antibodies against canine distemper virus among red foxes in Luxembourg.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.C. Damien; B.E.E. Martina (Byron); S. Losch; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); C.P. Muller (Claude)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractCanine distemper virus (CDV) has a wide host spectrum, and during the past years, distemper has been observed in species that were previously not considered to be susceptible. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of CDV-specific antibodies in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) sampled

  5. Male use of parental leave in Luxembourg : empirical analysis of administrative records

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhelyazkova, N.

    2013-01-01

    The study investigates the decisions of fathers to use parental leave at the individual level. The focus is on the opportunity cost fathers would face for using the leave. Opportunity cost is measured in two ways: as the difference between the parental leave benefit and the salary of the father and

  6. Suicide attempts prior to fatal drug overdose in Luxembourg from 1994 to 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Origer, Alain; Baumann, Michèle

    2013-01-01

    Educational Objectives: This study may help participants to recognize factors influencing suicidal behavior that should be assessed or monitored in the context of substance use. Purpose: To assess the prevalence of lifetime suicide attempts in opiate and cocaine related (FOD) cases. To analyze associations between suicide attempts and socio-demographic, life and substance use profiles of FOD victims . Methods: A triangulation approach allowed to cross-examining data from national law enfor...

  7. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Luxembourg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General Regulatory Framework: 1. General; 2. Mining; 3. Radioactive substances, nuclear fuel and equipment; 4. Nuclear installations (Licensing and inspection, including nuclear safety; Emergency measures); 5. Trade in nuclear materials and equipment; 6. Radiation protection; 7. Radioactive waste management; 8. Non-proliferation and physical protection; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear third party liability; II. General Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities (Minister of Health; Minister of Labour; Other Ministers competent); 2. Advisory bodies (Higher Health Council)

  8. The Constitutional Fundaments of Public Administration in Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Latvia and Luxembourg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela V. CĂRĂUŞAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study is to present the administrative system in some European Union member states. The systemic approach offers us the possibility to achieve a comprehensive overview of the scope and content of public administration. In terms of systemic evaluation, public administration is seen as a social entity specific to certain period of development, characterized by a mode of action, structure and logic. Starting from the systemic approach we will highlight how member states' constitutional regulations tailored the European administrative systems. Public administration, as a system, is understood as an evolutionary process, with objects, attributes and relationships that combine and allow proper operation. Also, public administration system approach provides the basis for a consistent and rigorous approach to an ideal model of government that summarizes all the advantages - goals for any administration, namely: nationality, effectiveness, optimum citizens serving etc.

  9. Paradoxical differences in N-dynamics between Luxembourg soils: litter quality or parent material?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, A.M.; Smit, A.

    2009-01-01

    To explore whether litter quality could alter differences in N-dynamics between soil types, we compared spruce and beech growing on soils with parent material sandstone and limestone, and beech and hornbeam on acid marl and limestone. We measured pH, organic matter content, C:N ratio, soil

  10. Paradoxical differences in N-dynamics between Luxembourg soils: Litter quality or parent material?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, A.M.; Smit, A.

    2009-01-01

    To explore whether litter quality could alter differences in N-dynamics between soil types, we compared spruce and beech growing on soils with parent material sandstone and limestone, and beech and hornbeam on acid marl and limestone. We measured pH, organic matter content, C:N ratio, soil

  11. Paradoxical differences in N-dynamics between Luxembourg soils: litter quality or parent material?

    OpenAIRE

    Kooijman, A.M.; Smit, A.

    2009-01-01

    To explore whether litter quality could alter differences in N-dynamics between soil types, we compared spruce and beech growing on soils with parent material sandstone and limestone, and beech and hornbeam on acid marl and limestone. We measured pH, organic matter content, C:N ratio, soil respiration and net N-mineralization of the organic layer and the mineral topsoil in a laboratory incubation experiment and estimated gross N-mineralization and immobilization with a simulation model. Speci...

  12. Inferring catchment precipitation by doing hydrology backward : A test in 24 small and mesoscale catchments in Luxembourg

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krier, R.; Matgen, P.; Goergen, K.; Pfister, L.; Hoffmann, L.; Kirchner, J.W.; Uhlenbrook, S.; Savenije, H.H.G.

    2012-01-01

    The complexity of hydrological systems and the necessary simplification of models describing these systems remain major challenges in hydrological modeling. Kirchner's (2009) approach of inferring rainfall and evaporation from discharge fluctuations by “doing hydrology backward” is based on the

  13. Enteroaggregative Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli of serotype O104:H4 in Belgium and Luxembourg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. De Rauw

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, a large outbreak of infections caused by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC O104:H4 occurred in Germany. This exceptionally virulent strain combined virulence factors of enteroaggregative E. coli (EAggEC and STEC. After the outbreak only a few sporadic cases of infection with this rare serotype were reported, most of which were related to travel to the Middle East or North Africa. Here we describe two cases of enteroaggregative STEC (Agg-STEC O104:H4 infection that occurred in Belgium in 2012 and 2013 respectively. In both cases travel in a Mediterranean country preceded the infection. The first strain was isolated from the stool of a 42-year-old woman presenting bloody diarrhoea, who had travelled to Tunisia the week before. The second case involves a 14-year-old girl who, upon her return from Turkey to Belgium, suffered from an episode of bloody diarrhoea and haemolytic uraemic syndrome. Extended typing of the isolates with pulsed field gel electrophoresis revealed that the strains were closely related, though not exactly the same as the 2011 outbreak strain. This report supports the previously made hypothesis that Agg-STEC has a human reservoir and might be imported by travellers coming from an area where the pathogen is endemic. Furthermore, it emphasizes the concern that these bacteria may cause future outbreaks as evenly virulent O104:H4 isolates seem to be widespread.

  14. An unpopular geriatric syndrome: Management of chronic constipation in some European countries. Denmark, Estonia, Italy and Luxembourg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curiale, V.; Kolk, H.; Pedersen, Hanne K.

    2013-01-01

    , and care usually relies on patients by the use of over the counter laxatives or herbal remedies, with little or no physician control except for the most severe cases. This paper explores the epidemiology, screening, diagnosis and management of chronic constipation in old age in four very different European....... The choice of laxatives lies more on patients, with osmotic laxatives (lactulose and macrogol) being the most widely used group. The use of herbal remedies is highly variable and in many cases concealed....

  15. Does Europe need two Courts of Human Rights? On the Relationship between the Strasbourg and Luxembourg Courts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Jens Elo

    2003-01-01

    Den Europæiske Menneskerettighedsdomstol, European Court of Human Rights, EF-Domstolen, European Court of Justice......Den Europæiske Menneskerettighedsdomstol, European Court of Human Rights, EF-Domstolen, European Court of Justice...

  16. Parental leave take up and return to work of mothers in Luxembourg: An application of the model of nested dichotomies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhelyazkova, N.

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the use of parental leave after birth of a child for working mothers. Even though employment rates of women in industrialized countries are rising, women continue to assume the primary responsibility for caring for young children after they are born. Therefore it is interesting

  17. Systems for the monitoring of working conditions relating to health and safety : extensive descriptions : Belgium, Germany, Luxembourg, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, R.; Verboon, F.

    1991-01-01

    This report contains the extensive descriptions of (some of) the monitoring systems on health and safety in use in the Benelux countries and Germany. The project of which this report is a part aimed at gathering information on monitoring systems throughout the EC member states.

  18. Litter quality effects of beech and hornbeam on undergrowth species diversity in Luxembourg forests on limestone and decalcified marl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Question: Do beech and hornbeam differ in undergrowth species diversity, and could these differences be explained by mass of the organic layer, pH or soil moisture? Could species richness under beech and hornbeam be explained by differences in N dynamics? Location: Ancient forests dominated by beech

  19. Relationship between self-reported weight change, educational status, and health-related quality of life in patients with diabetes in Luxembourg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchicaya, Anastase; Lorentz, Nathalie; Demarest, Stefaan; Beissel, Jean; Wagner, Daniel R

    2015-09-18

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between self-reported weight change, socio-economic status, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with diabetes, 5 years after they underwent coronary angiography. Between 2013 and 2014, 1873 of 4391 patients (319 with diabetes) who underwent coronary angiography between 2008 and 2009 participated in a follow-up study. Three out of four domains of the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL)-BREF (physical health, psychological health and social relationships) were surveyed during the follow-up period. To assess the relationship between weight change and HRQOL, generalized linear models were constructed for every dimension of the WHOQOL-BREF, with educational level as a predictor and sex, age, marital status, smoking status, hypertension, cholesterol, ischemic heart disease, acute myocardial infarction, and stable angina pectoris as covariates. The mean age of the patients was 70 years and almost three-quarters of the patients (72.7 %) were men. During the 12 months preceding the follow-up survey, 22.6 % of the patients reported weight loss, 20 % reported weight gain, and 57.4 % reported no weight change. There were significant differences in the HRQOL scores between patients who reported weight loss and those who reported either weight gain or unchanged weight. The most affected domains were physical and psychological health, with higher scores for patients who reported weight loss (54.7 and 67.2, respectively) than those who reported weight gain (46.3 and 58.5, respectively). The generalized linear model confirmed higher HRQOL scores among patients who reported weight loss and revealed an association between the HRQOL score and education level. Weight change and education level were associated with HRQOL in patients with diabetes. Self-reported weight loss and no weight change were positively associated with HRQOL in patients with diabetes, while weight gain was negatively associated with HRQOL.

  20. Association between Nutritional Awareness and Diet Quality: Evidence from the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg (ORISCAV-LUX Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ala'a Alkerwi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the association between nutritional awareness and diet quality, as indicated by energy density, dietary diversity and adequacy to achieve dietary recommendations, while considering the potentially important role of socioeconomic status (SES. Data were derived from 1351 subjects, aged 18–69 years and enrolled in the ORISCAV-LUX study. Energy density score (EDS, dietary diversity score (DDS and Recommendation Compliance Index (RCI were calculated based on data derived from a food frequency questionnaire. Nutritional awareness was defined as self-perception of the importance assigned to eating balanced meals, and classified as high, moderate, or of little importance. Initially, a General Linear Model was fit that adjusted for age, sex, country of birth, and body mass index (BMI. Furthermore, simultaneous contributions to diet quality of individual-level socioeconomic factors, education, and household income were examined across levels of nutritional awareness. Attributing high importance was associated inversely with energy density (p = 0.02, positively with both dietary diversity (p < 0.0001, and adequacy to dietary recommendations (p < 0.0001, independent of demographic factors, weight status and SES. Further adjustment for household income in the EDS-related multivariable model, reduced the β coefficient by 47% for the “moderate importance” category and 36% for the “high importance” category. Likewise, the β coefficient decreased by 13.6% and 10.7% in the DDS-related model, and by 12.5%, and 7.1% in the RCI-related model, respectively, across awareness categories. Nutritional awareness has a direct effect on diet quality, with a minor component of variance explained by improved income. The impact of nutritional awareness on diet quality seems to be a promising area for both health promotion and health policy research.

  1. Cooperation under the RES Directive - Case study on a joint project: An offshore wind park in the North Sea (cooperation between the Netherlands, Belgium, UK, and Luxembourg)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitzing, Lena; Nysten, Jana; Gephart, Malte

    .The joint project consists of a 1000 MW offshore wind park located on Dutch territory, to beconnected to an offshore hub on Belgian territory. Belgium, the Netherlands and the UK will togetherundertake the joint project and share the production and the RES benefits. Belgium will be the drivingforce...... of the joint project, organising the necessary negotiations and initiatives. The country will alsoassume most risks related to the development of the wind park. Therefore, we assume that the jointproject will be shared in the following way: 40% to Belgium, 30% to the Netherlands, and 30% tothe UK. We further...

  2. Association between nutritional awareness and diet quality: evidence from the observation of cardiovascular risk factors in Luxembourg (ORISCAV-LUX) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkerwi, Ala'a; Sauvageot, Nicolas; Malan, Leoné; Shivappa, Nitin; Hébert, James R

    2015-04-14

    This study examined the association between nutritional awareness and diet quality, as indicated by energy density, dietary diversity and adequacy to achieve dietary recommendations, while considering the potentially important role of socioeconomic status (SES). Data were derived from 1351 subjects, aged 18-69 years and enrolled in the ORISCAV-LUX study. Energy density score (EDS), dietary diversity score (DDS) and Recommendation Compliance Index (RCI) were calculated based on data derived from a food frequency questionnaire. Nutritional awareness was defined as self-perception of the importance assigned to eating balanced meals, and classified as high, moderate, or of little importance. Initially, a General Linear Model was fit that adjusted for age, sex, country of birth, and body mass index (BMI). Furthermore, simultaneous contributions to diet quality of individual-level socioeconomic factors, education, and household income were examined across levels of nutritional awareness. Attributing high importance was associated inversely with energy density (p = 0.02), positively with both dietary diversity (p diet quality, with a minor component of variance explained by improved income. The impact of nutritional awareness on diet quality seems to be a promising area for both health promotion and health policy research.

  3. Conference Proceedings of Energy Absorption of Aircraft Structures as an Aspect Crashworthiness (66th) Held in Luxembourg on 1-6 May 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    efforts dans les f~murs ou dans la colonne vert~brale. 2.1.3. Jauges 11 peut s’agir de jauges simples, doubles ou de rosettes 3 directions. Les jauges ...34, -acc~l~rombtres mannequin en "classe 180", -efforts en "classe 180", - jauges en "classe 180", -r~sultantes efforts en "classe 180", -sommes des

  4. Gossip as a Channel for Circulating Subversive Truth: In Heym's The King David Report, the GDR and the Jardin du Luxembourg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Fishelov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Dans la Chronique du roi David (1991 , Stefan Heym (1913-2001 propose une perspective favorable sur le potin, nonobstant la censure biblique de cette activité (ex : Proverbe 11:13. La réécriture satirique de Heym de l'histoire biblique se concentre sur le personnage d’Ethan, un écrivain-historien nommé par le roi Salomon pour composer un rapport officiel sur la vie et l’arrivée au pouvoir du roi David. À un moment donné les deux fils d’Ethan, Sem et Sheleph, reviennent du marché et racontent à Ethan certaines rumeurs «savoureuses» qu'ils y ont entendues. Ces rumeurs, tandis qu’elles sont un peu exagérées et embellies, fournissent toutefois des aperçus de la situation politique qui sont beaucoup plus fidèles à la vérité que les inventions des porte-parole officiels. Pour justifier le portrait littéraire de Heym du potin comme une voie pour communiquer la vérité subversive dans les régimes autoritaires, je cite la recherche historique systématique de Robert Darnton au sujet des voies diverses pour communiquer les nouvelles de Paris au dix-huitième siècle (Darnton, 2000. In The King David Report (1972, Stefan Heym (1913-2001 offers a favorable view of gossip, notwithstanding biblical censuring of that activity (e.g. Proverb 11:13. Heym's satirical re-telling of the biblical story focuses on the character of Ethan, a writer-historian appointed by King Solomon to compose an official report on the life and rise to power of King David. At one point Ethan's two sons, Shem and Sheleph, come back from the market, telling Ethan of some "juicy" rumors they heard there. These rumors, while using some exaggerations and added embellishments, nevertheless provide insights into the political situation much more faithful to the truth than the fabrications of official spokespersons. To substantiate Heym's literary portrayal of gossip as a channel for communicating subversive truth in authoritarian regimes, I cite Robert Darnton's systematic historical research into the diverse channels for communicating news in Paris of the eighteenth century (Darnton, 2000.

  5. Kalle Norberg õpetab eestlasi kasutama Luksemburgi pangasaladuste kaitset / Airi Ilisson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilisson, Airi, 1980-

    2004-01-01

    Firma Luxembourg Financial Service filiaal Eestis hakkab pakkuma privaatpanganduse teenust. Vt. samas intervjuud Kalle Norbergiga. Kommenteerib Tiit Vähi. Lisad: Luxembourg Financial Services; Luksemburgi ärikeskkond; Info lekib

  6. 7 CFR 319.8-17 - Importation for exportation, and importation for transportation and exportation; storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN..., Eire, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain (United Kingdom), Iceland, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg...

  7. 9 CFR 94.18 - Restrictions on importation of meat and edible products from ruminants due to bovine spongiform...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE..., Finland, France, Germany, Greece, the Republic of Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg...

  8. 48 CFR 25.407 - Agreement on Trade in Civil Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Civil Aircraft. Those countries are Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Macao, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Romania...

  9. 77 FR 17353 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; New Designated Country (Armenia) and Other Trade Agreements Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ..., Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macao China...

  10. 31 CFR 500.322 - Authorized trade territory; member of the authorized trade territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Ireland, the Federal Republic of Germany and the Western Sector of Berlin, Finland, France (including Monaco), Greece, Iceland, Italy, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, San...

  11. 76 FR 61282 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Definition of “Qualifying Country End Product...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ..., Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Israel, Italy, Luxembourg...: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Israel, Italy...

  12. Maksuhalduri diskretsiooniõigus versus riigiabi / Kristiine Kübard, Kateriin Ambrozevits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kübard, Kristiine

    2017-01-01

    Riigiabi andmise tuvastamisest. Maksuhalduri diskretsiooniõiguse ulatusest, riigiabi tuvastamisest, maksukohustuse tasumise ajatamisest ja maksuvõla kustutamisest. Rahvusvahelisest finantsskandaalist Luxembourg Leaks'ist

  13. 21 CFR Appendix B to Subpart A of... - List of Authorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... la Pharmacie, Algemene Farmaceutische Inspectie. Denmark: Laegemiddelstyrelsen. Germany..., Dipartimento alimenti e nutrizione e sanità pubblica veterinaria-Div. IX. Luxembourg: Division de la Pharmacie...

  14. 75 FR 9488 - Basel Comprehensive Quantitative Impact Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ..., Luxembourg, Mexico, the Netherlands, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, South Africa, Spain, Sweden... measurement method for market risk. \\3\\ Basel Committee on Banking Supervision, Revisions to the Basel II...

  15. 76 FR 19788 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Telemanagement Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ... notifications were filed for the purpose of extending the Act's provisions limiting the recovery of antitrust...-LLC, Dubai, UNITED ARAB EMIRATES; Ciminko, Luxembourg, LUXEMBOURG; Cloud Scope Technologies, Inc... computing and networking services, Amsterdam, NETHERLANDS; Savvion, Santa Clara, CA; Site of Knowledge Group...

  16. The Text of the Agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The Agency received from the Czech Republic on 18 May 2009 and from the European Atomic Energy Community on 1 October 2009, the notifications required by Article 23(a) of the Agreement. Accordingly, the Agreement entered into force for the Czech Republic on 1 October 2009 [es

  17. The Text of the Agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The Agency received from Romania on 22 August 2007 and from the European Atomic Energy Community on 1 May 2010, the notifications required by Article 23(a) of the Agreement. Accordingly, the Agreement entered into force for Romania on 1 May 2010 [es

  18. The Text of the Agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The Agency received from Romania on 22 August 2007 and from the European Atomic Energy Community on 1 May 2010, the notifications required by Article 23(a) of the Agreement. Accordingly, the Agreement entered into force for Romania on 1 May 2010 [fr

  19. The Text of the Agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Agency received from the Czech Republic on 18 May 2009 and from the European Atomic Energy Community on 1 October 2009, the notifications required by Article 23(a) of the Agreement. Accordingly, the Agreement entered into force for the Czech Republic on 1 October 2009 [fr

  20. The Text of the Agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The Agency received from Romania on 22 August 2007 and from the European Atomic Energy Community on 1 May 2010, the notifications required by Article 23(a) of the Agreement. Accordingly, the Agreement entered into force for Romania on 1 May 2010

  1. The Text of the Agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Agency received from the Czech Republic on 18 May 2009 and from the European Atomic Energy Community on 1 October 2009, the notifications required by Article 23(a) of the Agreement. Accordingly, the Agreement entered into force for the Czech Republic on 1 October 2009

  2. Arctic Capability Inventory Tool User Guide: Version 2 (International References)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Liechtenstein,Lithuania,Luxembourg,Macedonia,Malta,MarshallIslands,Moldova,Mongolia, Montenegro ,Morocco,TheNetherlands,NewZealand,Norway,Oman...thattheirusewouldbedetrimental tohumansoranimalsor plants thatareusefultohumans;and (b)anywaterthatcontainsasubstanceinsucha...detrimentaltohumansoranimalsor plants thatareusefultohumans. Application Geographicalapplication 76.ThisDivisionappliesinrespect

  3. "Vangilaagris ja välismaal oskavad eestlased ühte hoida" : Leelo Tungal ringreisil Euroopas / Leelo Tungal ; küsitlenud Jan Kaus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tungal, Leelo, 1947-

    2010-01-01

    Lugemisaasta raames esines Leelo Tungal eesti koolides Londonis, Stockholmis, Brüsselis, Luxembourg'is, Helsingis ja Pariisis. Pariisis toimus veel luuleõhtu Põhjamaade raamatukogus, ka selle ürituse korraldajast Tarah Xaintorxare'ist

  4. Operational Law Handbook 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-26

    Denmark Egypt France [Greece] India Iraq Japan Luxembourg Morocco Nepal [the Netherlands] Norway Oman Pakistan Saudi Arabia [Spain...Support Equipment CSH Combat Support Hospital CSM Command Sergeant Major CSP Contracting Support Plan CSR Controlled Supply Rate CSS Combat Service

  5. 75 FR 1235 - Revisions to the Requirements for: Transboundary Shipments of Hazardous Wastes Between OECD...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ..., Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway... Requirements for: Transboundary Shipments of Hazardous Wastes Between OECD Member Countries, Export Shipments of Spent Lead- Acid Batteries, Submitting Exception Reports for Export Shipments of Hazardous Wastes...

  6. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 744 - Countries Not Subject to Certain Nuclear End-Use Restrictions in § 744.2(a)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS CONTROL POLICY: END-USER AND END-USE BASED Pt. 744, Supp. 3... Marino and Holy See) Japan Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Norway Portugal Spain Sweden Turkey United...

  7. 7 CFR 98.101 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... updated and expanded membership of nations. The original EC members are Belgium, Britain, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal and Spain. Horsemeat. That U.S...

  8. 32 CFR 728.42 - NATO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 728.42 NATO. (a) NATO SOFA nations. Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Federal Republic of Germany, France, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Turkey, the United Kingdom...

  9. East African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (CHWs) to promote WASH practices and to collect household based data using a structured reporting tool. ... are encouraged to purchase from local shops. Hand washing ... Ethics Review Board of Médecins Sans Frontières,. Luxembourg.

  10. GI Locator Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... LIBERIA LIBYA LIECHTENSTEIN LITHUANIA LUXEMBOURG MACAO MADAGASCAR MALAWI MALAYSIA MALDIVES MALI MALTA MARIANA ISLANDS MARSHALL ISLANDS Martinique ... OF KOREA REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA REUNION ROMANIA RUSSIAN FEDERATION RWANDA SAINT BARTHéLEMY SAINT HELENA SAINT KITTS AND ...

  11. Raudtee ostu analüüsis riigi jaoks Norbergi firma / Jaanus Piirsalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Piirsalu, Jaanus, 1973-

    2006-01-01

    Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniministeerium ei näe huvide konflikti selles, et Luxembourg Financial Services aitas teha finantsanalüüsi Eesti Raudtee aktsiate ostu otstarbekuse kohta. Lisa: Deutsche Bahn tunneb huvi

  12. Renewable energy in the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, Allan; Myers, Stephen; Trow, Stuart

    1998-05-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Overview of European Renewable Energy; Austria; Belgium; Denmark; Finland; France; Germany; Greece; Ireland; Italy; Luxembourg; The Netherlands; Portugal; Spain; Sweden; The United Kingdom. (Author)

  13. 50 CFR Appendix A to Chapter I - Codes for the Representation of Names of Countries (Established by the International Organization...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... Finland FI. France FR. Gabon GA. Gambia GM. German Democratic Republic DD. Germany, Federal Republic of DE.... Liechtenstein LI. Luxembourg LU. Madagascar MG. Malawi MW. Malaysia MY. Maldives MV. Mali ML. Malta MT...

  14. 76 FR 41795 - Granting of Request for Early Termination of the Waiting Period Under the Premerger Notification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... Holdeo LLC; Green Valley Ranch Gaming, LLC; Station Holdco LLC. 20110912 G Harvest Partners V, L.P.; Blue... Luxembourg Holdings I S.a.r.l. (``KLH I''); Evonik Industries AG; Kinove Luxembourg Holdings I S.a.r.l... Corporation. 20111013 G LyondellBasell Industries, N.V.; B.P. p.l.c.; LyondellBasell Industries, N.V. 20111014...

  15. A programme for Euratom safeguards inspectors, used in the assay of high enriched (H.E.U.) and low enriched (L.E.U.) uranium fuel materials by active neutron interrogation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vocino, V.; Farese, N.; Maucq, T.; Nebuloni, M.

    1991-01-01

    The programme AECC (Active Euratom Coincidence Counters) has been developed at the Joint Research Center, Ispra by the Euratom Safeguards Directorate, Luxembourg and the Safety Technology Institute, Ispra for the acquisition, evaluation, management and storage of measurement data originating from active neutron interrogation of HEU and LEU fuel materials. The software accommodates the implementation of the NDA (Non Destructive Assay) procedures for the Active Well Coincidence Counters and Active Neutron Coincidence Counters deployed by the Euratom Safeguards Directorate, Luxembourg

  16. A programme for Euratom safeguards inspectors, used in the assay of plutonium bearing materials by passive neutron interrogation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vocino, V.; Farese, N.; Maucq, T.; Nebuloni, M.

    1991-01-01

    The programme PECC (Passive Euratom Coincidence Counters) has been developed at the Joint Research Center, Ispra by the Euratom Safeguards Directorate, Luxembourg and the Safety Technology Institute, Ispra for the acquisition, evaluation, management and storage of measurements data originating from passive neutron assay of plutonium bearing materials. The software accommodates the implementation of the NDA (Non Destructive Assay) procedures for all types of passive neutron coincidence deployed by the Euratom Safeguards Directorate, Luxembourg

  17. Řízení rizik a interní audit v integrovaném procesním managementu nemocnic

    OpenAIRE

    Keclíková, Kristýna; Briš, Petr

    2011-01-01

    The paper focuses on the issue of improving patient safety, which is now a global issue. Foreign studies have shown that approximately 10 % of hospitalizations occur at patient's damage. The Czech Republic, respectively Ministry of Health of the Czech Republic, is currently developing a series of activities to promote the Luxembourg Declaration (Luxembourg Declaration on Patient Safety), which was approved at the EU Member States Summit and calls on the EU Member States to deal with this issu...

  18. LATEST CHALLENGES IN EFFICIENCY CONVERGENCE IN BALKAN AND BALTIC COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihăiță-Cosmin M. POPOVICI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of banks has been widely and extensively studied in the past few decades. Using a sample of Balkan and Baltic countries and by employing a Data Envelopment Analysis model, we want to highlight the main challenges for the highly concentrated banking system. Over the period 2007 - 2011, these countries have coped with the worst financial crisis from the Great Depression, which has severe effects on the banking systems. Our sample includes the least developed countries in the EU and for reference purpose, Luxembourg, with the highest GDP per capita. We expect to find similarities between Balkan countries and Baltic countries and we can draw lessons from Luxembourg`s results.

  19. On the link between partial meet, kernel, and infra contraction and its application to horn logic

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Booth, R

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Intelligence Research 42 (2011) 31-53 Submitted 4/11; published 9/11 On the Link between Partial Meet, Kernel, and Infra Contraction and its Application to Horn Logic Richard Booth richard.booth@uni.lu Universit e du Luxembourg Luxembourg Thomas Meyer... tommie.meyer@meraka.org.za Centre for Arti cial Intelligence Research University of KwaZulu-Natal and CSIR Meraka Institute South Africa Ivan Varzinczak ivan.varzinczak@meraka.org.za Centre for Arti cial Intelligence Research University of Kwa...

  20. The object grid exemption on the European legal test bench; Die Objektnetzausnahme auf dem europarechtlichen Pruefstand. Eine Bestandsaufnahme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, S.

    2008-04-15

    Since its birth, paragraph 110 EnWG is controversially discussed in the energy industry. Within shortest time, this regulation is treated at the European Court of Justice (Luxembourg, Luxembourg) and is a starting point for a petition of predecision. As the first, this request concerns the interpretation of the regulation of the domestic electricity market. A collision between the object grid exemption and the European defaults was determined. Whether it was allowed to come at all so far, how the procedure could be terminated and which consequences result from this, is described in the contribution under consideration.

  1. Reconstruction of the Leudelange refuse incineration plant with integration of existing plant parts; Erneuerung der MVA Leudelange unter Integration vorhandener Anlagenteile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechner, Harm-Peter; Jolas, Uwe [EEW Energy from Waste GmbH, Helmstedt (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    SIDOR, a special purpose association for waste management in Luxembourg, manages the waste disposal of around two-thirds of Luxembourg's entire population. E.ON Energy from Waste (EEW) participated in SIDOR's tender process for both constructing as well as operating a new incineration line with an overall capacity of 150,000 t/a, which was accepted by SIDOR in October 2006. The new incineration line with an overall gross heat output of 67 MWth replaced the existing lines after completion. (orig.)

  2. 7 CFR 319.8-8 - Lint, linters, and waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lint, linters, and waste. 319.8-8 Section 319.8-8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... Britain and Northern Ireland (United Kingdom), Iceland, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway...

  3. Cross-Linguistic and Cross-Cultural Effects on Verbal Working Memory and Vocabulary: Testing Language-Minority Children with an Immigrant Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel de Abreu, Pascale M. J.; Baldassi, Martine; Puglisi, Marina L.; Befi-Lopes, Debora M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors explored the impact of test language and cultural status on vocabulary and working memory performance in multilingual language-minority children. Method: Twenty 7-year-old Portuguese-speaking immigrant children living in Luxembourg completed several assessments of first (L1)- and second-language (L2) vocabulary…

  4. 76 FR 79379 - Risk-Based Capital Guidelines: Market Risk; Alternatives to Credit Ratings for Debt and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ..., China, France, Germany, Hong Kong SAR, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Korea, Luxembourg, Mexico, the..., the legislative history of section 939A focuses on the conflicts of interest of credit rating agencies... illustrates how CDS spreads and CRCs could be used together to assign specific risk-weighting factors. In...

  5. Access to Vocational Training in Three Sectors of the European Economy. Comparative Analysis. 2nd Edition. CEDEFOP Panorama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassibille, Gerard; Paul, Jean-Jacques

    This report presents findings of a study of the theoretical and practical methods of access to continuing vocational training. It summarizes six reports that compare the following: the construction sector in Spain, France, Italy, and Luxembourg; the banking, insurance, commerce, and administration sectors in Germany, Ireland, the Netherlands, and…

  6. Henry the Seventh and Italy, an historiographical account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Maria Varanini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article represents an introduction to the contributions published in the monographic section dedicated to the expedition of Henry VII of Luxembourg in Italy (1310-1313. It provides an historiographic overview and some insightful clues.

  7. Europe edges closer to an integrated science policy

    CERN Multimedia

    Schiermeier, Q

    2000-01-01

    At a meeting in Luxembourg last week, the research ministers of the 15 member states of the EU fixed a schedule for changes intended to forge closer links between the science activities and policies pursued by individual member states (1 page).

  8. General Framework for Employment. Tableau de Bord. (Synoptic Table). Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Employment, Industrial Relations and Social Affairs.

    This synoptic table provides an overview and comparison of employment trends and policy measures for each member state of the European Community. Information on the following countries is presented in eight chapters: Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Spain, France, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, and United Kingdom. Chapter 0…

  9. The impact of high speed rail on airport competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terpstra, I.; Lijesen, M.G.

    2015-01-01

    We study the effects of introducing a high speed train connection on competition between airports, focusing on the new HST-link between Amsterdam and Brussels. We conduct a detailed analysis regarding the airport choice of passengers living in the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, Northern France

  10. Measuring Agglomeration Forces in a Financial Center

    OpenAIRE

    Bourgain, Arnaud; Pieretti, Patrice

    2006-01-01

    Basing on Scitovsky's (1954) definition of external economies and applying the method of Caballero and Lyons (1990) to macro data of Luxembourg services industry, we find significant agglomeration forces between financial intermediaries (downstream industry) on the one hand and business services and computer industry (upstream industries) on the other.

  11. peripheralia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    is in Luxembourg, where men are retiring at 57 years, although the official age at which to receive a pension is 65. Demographers now talk about the “young old” ... end, health and economics permitting, it is an individual choice. Dr Chris Ellis. Family Physician, Pietermaritzburg, KwaZulu-Natal e-mail: cristobalellis@gmail.

  12. Economic Analysis Of Cassava Production In Akwa Ibom State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... encourage farmers to use recommended rate of fertilizer application, improved varieties of cassava stem for increased efficiency and increased cassava production in the country since there is availability of markets for Nigeria cassava products( chips/pellets) in China, Netherlands, Germany, Belgium and Luxembourg.

  13. Impact of a gradual increase in milk quotas on the EU dairy sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouamra-Mechemache, Z.; Jongeneel, R.; Requillart, V.

    2008-01-01

    The European Union (EU) dairy sector is facing significant changes due to EU enlargement, the Luxembourg reform and ongoing World Trade Organisation (WTO) negotiations. This paper explores the impact of alternative dairy policies in the context of a WTO agreement and further dairy policy

  14. Do Differences in School's Instruction Time Explain International Achievement Gaps in Maths, Science and Language? Evidence from Developed and Developing Countries. CEE DP 118

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavy, Victor

    2010-01-01

    There are large differences across countries in instructional time in public schooling institutions. For example, among European countries such as Belgium, France and Greece, pupils aged 15 have an average of over a thousand hours per year of total compulsory classroom instruction while in England, Luxembourg and Sweden the average is only 750…

  15. 75 FR 52310 - Quarterly Update to Annual Listing of Foreign Government Subsidies on Articles of Cheese Subject...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ... Administration, International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, 14th Street and Constitution Ave... Constitution Ave., NW., Washington, DC 20230. This determination and notice are in accordance with section 702..., Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and...

  16. Pragmatism of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization’s and European Union’s Strategic Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-13

    Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherland, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia , Spain, Turkey...Netherland, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia , Spain, Sweden, and United Kingdom. 3 North Atlantic Treaty Organizations, “NATO-EU: A...supranational organization through a constitutional process, the organization did achieve its highest level of state integration within the

  17. 76 FR 14649 - Quarterly Update to Annual Listing of Foreign Government Subsidies on Articles of Cheese Subject...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ..., International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, 14th Street and Constitution Ave., NW... Constitution Ave., NW., Washington, DC 20230. This determination and notice are in accordance with section 702..., Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and...

  18. Taxes for energy products, electricity and CO2. Consequences of the revision of the Energy Taxation Directive for the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blom, M.J.; Schroten, A.; Geurts, F.

    2011-07-01

    Taxes on energy products, electricity and CO2 are compared for a number of EU countries (Germany, Belgium, Denmark, United Kingdom, France, Luxembourg, Spain, Sweden and the Netherlands) with special focus on the fiscal, economic and environmental impacts of the revision of the European Energy Directive for the Netherlands. [nl

  19. Agreement between the Republic of Slovenia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Suspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Agreement of 5 April 1973 between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article III, (I) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, and the Protocol Additional thereto, entered into force for the Republic of Slovenia on 1 September 2006 [es

  20. Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Estonia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Suspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Agreement of 5 April 1973 between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article III, (I) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons came into force for the Republic of Estonia on 1 December 2005 [es

  1. Agreement between the Czech Republic and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Suspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The Agreement of 5 April 1973 between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article III, (I) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, and the Protocol Additional thereto, entered into force for the Czech Republic on 1 October 2009 [es

  2. The Text of the Agreement between Romania and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Suspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The Agreement of 5 April 1973 between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article III, (I) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, and the Protocol Additional thereto, entered into force for Romania on 1 May 2010 [es

  3. The Text of the Agreement between the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Suspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Agreement of 5 April 1973 between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article III, (I) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons entered into force for the Slovak Republic on 1 December 2005 [es

  4. Statistical Inference and Patterns of Inequality in the Global North

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Timothy Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Cross-national inequality trends have historically been a crucial field of inquiry across the social sciences, and new methodological techniques of statistical inference have recently improved the ability to analyze these trends over time. This paper applies Monte Carlo, bootstrap inference methods to the income surveys of the Luxembourg Income…

  5. Anthropogenic vanadium emissions to air and ambient air concentrations in North-West Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visschedijk, A.H.J.; Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.; Hulskotte, J.H.J.; Quass, U.

    2013-01-01

    An inventory of Vanadium emissions for North-West Europe for the year 2005 was made based on an identification of the major sources. The inventory covers Belgium, Germany, Denmark, France, United Kingdom, Luxembourg, Netherlands and the OSPAR region of the North Sea. Vanadium emission were

  6. European Models of Bilingual Education: Practice, Theory and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beardsmore, Hugo Baetens

    1993-01-01

    European Community initiatives in language management include educational models involved in promoting mastery of at least three languages. The Luxembourg model outlines a trilingual program for the whole school population; the European School model, a complex multilingual program; and the Foyer Project, plans for immigrant minorities to move into…

  7. Introduction of computers in education : state of the art in eight countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plomp, T.; Pelgrum, W.J.

    1991-01-01

    In 1989, the IEA Computers in Education study collected data on computer use in elementary, lower- and upper secondary education in 22 countries. This paper presents some preliminary results for lower secondary education in Belgium-Flemish, Belgium-French, France, Greece, Japan, Luxembourg, The

  8. 75 FR 18571 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    ... this opportunity to comment on a new information collection, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act..., Canada, China, France, Germany, Hong Kong SAR, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Korea, Luxembourg, Mexico... of Review: New collection. Affected Public: Businesses or other for-profit. Estimated Number of...

  9. Translingual Practices and Monoglot Policy Aspirations: A Case Study of Pakistan's Plurilingual Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Hina

    2018-01-01

    Current research in multilingual countries supports local languages and recognizes plurilingual practices as a proficiency (e.g. Luxembourg and Nordic countries in Europe, Bolivia, Argentina, and Columbia in South America). Yet linguistically diverse and multilingual regions, such as Pakistan, continue to be challenged by monoglot language…

  10. International survey of environmental programmes - a compilation of information from twelve countries received in response to a questionnaire distributed in 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyllander, C.; Karlberg, O.; Luening, M.; Larsson, C.M.; Johansson, G.

    1995-11-01

    The report compiles information from Cuba, Finland, Germany, Japan, South Korea, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malaysia, Romania, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom, relevant to the organisation and execution of programmes for environmental surveillance of nuclear facilities (source and environmental monitoring). 28 refs, 19 tabs

  11. Primal and Dual Penalty Methods for Contact Problems with Geometrical Non-linearities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vondrák, V.; Dostál, Z.; Dobiáš, Jiří; Pták, Svatopluk

    -, č. 5 (2005), s. 449-450 ISSN 1617-7061. [GAMM Annual Meeting 2005. Luxembourg, 28.03.2005-01.04.2005] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA101/05/0423 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : primal penalty * dual penalty * contact problem Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  12. Wind-induced Vibrations in the European Court Towers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jannick B.; Brincker, Rune; Andersen, Ken G.

    2012-01-01

    Issues regarding occupancy comfort in vibration-sensitive structures are the motivation of this study concerning windinduced vibrations in the European Court Towers in Luxembourg. In one of the two identical towers tuned liquid dampers (TLD) have been installed. Recent studies investigate the cha...

  13. 9 CFR 94.1 - Regions where rinderpest or foot-and-mouth disease exists; importations prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Mexico, Namibia (excluding the region north of the Veterinary Cordon Fence), The Netherlands, New... signed by an authorized official of the national animal health service of the exporting region that...

  14. Gender Differences in Poverty : A Cross-National Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiepking, Pamala; Maas, Ineke

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we describe and explain country differences in the effect of gender on the risk of becoming poor, using data from the Luxembourg Income Study on 22 industrialized countries. Although in most countries women are more likely to become poor than men, this is not the case for all

  15. Gender differences in poverty: a cross-national study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiepking, P.; Maas, W.A.F.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we describe and explain country differences in the effect of gender on the risk of becoming poor, using data from the Luxembourg Income Study on 22 industrialized countries. Although in most countries women are more likely to become poor than men, this is not the case for all

  16. Survey of Ergonomics Databases in Member Countries of the International Ergonomics Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    6 China 2 Ireland 1 Japan 3 13 countries 4Luxembourg 1 30 respondents Netherlands 1 South Africa 1 Switzerland 2 Thailand 1 Uruguay 1 *Some British...Biological Engineering and Computing World Textile Abstracts Medicina del Lavoro Medicina y Segundad del Trabajo Zeitschrift fi~r Arbeituwisenchaft Mens en

  17. "Občasné" a "dočasné" rezidence Jana Lucemburského v Lucembursku, Francii a Itálii

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Benešovská, Klára

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 11, - (2008), s. 147-167 ISSN 0862-979X. [Dvory a rezidence ve středověku II. Praha, 18.10.2007-19.10.2007] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80330511 Keywords : Gothic architecture * 14th century * John of Luxembourg * residences Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  18. Africa, Asia, Europe, and Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Eudora I.

    1992-01-01

    This annotated bibliography lists 30 government documents published between 1988 and 1991 by Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Burundi, Chile, China, Columbia, Denmark, France, Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Hong Kong, India, Italy, Luxembourg, Mexico, Nepal, Nigeria, Portugal, Rwanda, South Africa, and Thailand. Topics addressed include the environment,…

  19. The Signe d’Or Award Scheme from 1956 to 1960: The Economic Reasons for "Good Design"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gimeno Martinez, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    In the myriad of design awards that emerged in Europe in the 1950s, the Signe d'Or Industriel (Het Gouden Kenteken) sought to award »good design« from the Benelux countries (Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg). As a Benelux-wide award it only had four editions, from 1956 to 1960. Subsequent

  20. European Vocational Education Systems. A Guide to Vocational Education and Training in the European Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Helen

    This book describes the 12 vocational education systems conducted by the members of the European Community. The 12 country chapters (Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, and the United Kingdom) follow the same model and are organized into the following six sections: key facts,…

  1. Coalitions and the Decision making Process on the Common Flexicurity Principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Mikkel Mailand

    than the regimes and cut to some extent across the usual division of countries, in that Scandinavian and the Anglo-Saxon countries form the core of one of the coalitions, whereas a number of continental countries - Belgium, Luxembourg, Italy, Greece and Spain - are now found in the core of the other...

  2. 9 CFR 94.12 - Pork and pork products from regions where swine vesicular disease exists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Panama, Poland, Portugal... any live swine, and uses only pork or pork products which originate in regions listed in paragraph (a... paying all costs for such inspections (it is anticipated that such inspections will occur up to four...

  3. Social and Occupational Integration of Disadvantaged People. Leonardo da Vinci Good Practices Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

    This document profiles nine European programs that exemplify good practice in social and occupational integration of disadvantaged people. The programs profiled are as follows: (1) Restaurant Venezia (a CD-ROM program to improve the reading and writing skills of young people in Luxembourg who have learning difficulties); (2) an integrated…

  4. Design og implementering af to virkemidler, der skal forbedre kvaliteten og øge status af undervisning ved universitetet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolin, Jens; Kobayashi, Sofie

    Didaktik, Københavns Universitet. European Commission (2013). Report to the European Commission on Improving the quality of teaching and learning in Europe’s higher education institutions. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union. http://ec.europa.eu/education/library/ebooks...

  5. The Benelux Approach to EU Integration and External Action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blockmans, S.

    2017-01-01

    As small states with a cosmopolitan outlook, Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg, have a natural interest in good-neighbourly relations and in cooperating through the EU. However, despite the closely knit nature of the economic, monetary and physical spheres of the lowlands, their attitudes to

  6. Rocket and Missile Container Engineering Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    provide the required rigidity. TABLE 9-4. GROUP IV WOODS Ash Beech Birch Elm, hard Hackberry Hickory Locust Maple, hard Oak Pecan Stacking...SWEDEN ·., FRANCE SWITZERLAND GREECE NETHERLANDS HUNGARY ITALY LUXEMBOURG GERMANY POLAND NORWAY ROMANIA YUGOSLAVIA FLAT CAR ITEM LENGTH 32’ 10

  7. Seadused, mis ajavad naerma / Mariliis Jõras, Riivo Riismaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jõras, Mariliis

    2008-01-01

    Eestis ja teistes riikides kehtinud ja kehtivatest kummalistest liikluseeskirjadest ja -määrustest. Lisatud: Eesti liikluseeskirjad ; Kanada, Ameerika Ühendriigid, Inglismaa, Tšehhi, Luxembourg, Belgia, Sloveenia, Korea, Hispaania, Saudi Araabia, Portugal, Albaania, Hiina, Austraalia, Taani, Horvaatia, Šveits

  8. Plasma and urine, pharmacokinetics of the dopamine agonist alpha-dihydroergocryptine in patients with hepatic dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Althaus, M; de Mey, C; Ezan, E; Ciecko-Michalska, [No Value; Kostka-Trabkal, E; Goszcz, A; Retzow, A

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic behavior of unchanged alpha -dihydroergocryptine (DHEC, Almirid (R), Desitin Arzneimittel GmbH, Hamburg, Germany, under licence of Polichem S.A., Luxembourg) and total DHEC (unchanged DHEC and pooled metabolites) in plasma and

  9. [Astrologic and medical manuscript of the 18th Century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugener, Henri

    2010-01-01

    We present a manuscript from the 18th century, an extract taken from the "Great and the Little Albert" attributed to Albertus Magnus. The linguistic variety in the paper is typical for a text composed in Luxembourg. Added to this text are two incantations and a short cartomancy paper.

  10. Protocol to amend the convention on third party liability in the field of nuclear energy of 29th July 1960, as amended by the additional protocol of 28th January 1964, Paris, 16 November 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This Protocol further amends the Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy of 29 July 1960, concluded between the Federal Republic of Germany, Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Spain, Finland, France, Greece, Italy, Luxembourg, Norway, Netherlands, Portugal, United Kingdom, Sweden, Switzerland and Turkey within the framework of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. (U.K.)

  11. 10 CFR 110.26 - General license for the export of nuclear reactor components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General license for the export of nuclear reactor components. 110.26 Section 110.26 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF... Denmark Finland France Germany Greece Indonesia Ireland Italy Japan Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg...

  12. 10 CFR 110.30 - Members of the Nuclear Suppliers Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Members of the Nuclear Suppliers Group. 110.30 Section 110.30 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND... Italy Japan Latvia Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Republic of Korea Romania...

  13. Who Is Guarding Serbia’s Borders? An Assessment of Serbia’s Progress in Border Security Development and Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    competition by restricting the non-state controlled independent media through restrictive conditions on licensing and institutional censorship ... Malaysia , New Zealand, Pakistan, Poland, Slovak Republic, Sweden, the Russian Federation and the Ukraine...Kingdom, United States, Luxembourg and from the non-NATO countries Australia, Austria, Argentina, Finland, Egypt, Ireland, Malaysia , Morocco, New Zealand

  14. Reference Aid: Glossary of Acronyms, Abbreviations, and Special Terms Used in the Western Europe Romance-Language Press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-11-25

    Artistic Agency for Cultural Exchange (Fr) Ground Forces Tactical Air Support (Fr) Association for the Struggle Against Kidney Diseases (Spa...Union for the New Republic (Fr) National Union of Italian Univer- sity Representa- tives (Ita) Popular Unity (Ita) Peoples Artist Union (Spa...of beiges Societes Luxembourg Luxembour- Gymnastic Socie- geoises de ties (Lux) Gymnastique 124 uso Union Workers Trade Sindical Union (Spa

  15. Young Children Capitalising on Their Entire Language Repertoire for Language Learning at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Claudine

    2018-01-01

    While translanguaging has been well researched in bilingual settings with older pupils and has been found to contribute to cognitive and personal development, there is little research on translanguaging of young multilinguals. In trilingual Luxembourg, at school, children learn Luxembourgish aged 4, German aged 6 and French aged 7, with the…

  16. Proposal for unified nomenclatural rules for Cyanobacteria vs. Cyanophytes: “Cyano-Guide”

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Komárek, Jiří; Golubić, S.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 158, č. 117 (2005), s. 17-18 ISSN 0342-1120. [Symposium of the International Association for Cyanophyte Research /16./. Luxembourg, 30.08.2004-03.09.2004] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : cyanobacteria * nomenclature * nomenclatoric Code Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  17. Twenty-five years of life lessons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Annemieke; Dorren, Luuk; Noord, Van Hans; Veraart, Josja; Cusell, Casper; Sterk, Henk Pieter

    2017-01-01

    For 25 years, Physical Geography students of the University of Amsterdam have experienced a 6-week field training in the cuesta landscape in Luxembourg around Diekirch. They studied the geology of the Gutland and surrounding areas, such as Ardennes and Eiffel. They mapped geomorphological patterns,

  18. Inessa Josing Flash Artis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    'Flash Art'i' 1998. a. nov.-dets. numbris Rosa Martínezi artiklis suvisest Manifesta II näitusest Luxembourg'is on positiivselt mainitud ka Inessa Josingut. Illustratsiooniks toodud seitsmest fotost ühel on I. Josingu aknakujundus 'What Must I Do to be Saved?'

  19. SOCRATES. EPIC Europe Eurofocus 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Gill

    SOCRATES is the European Community's new education program for the member states of the European Union (EU) (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom) and the European Economic Area (EU plus Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway). Its aims…

  20. White certificates: 14 concerned countries in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signoret, Stephane

    2017-01-01

    Under the constraint of the European directive on energy efficiency, several countries have created or strengthened their white-certificate-type (or certificate of energy saving) obligation system. This article proposes brief overviews of the situation and implemented systems in Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Denmark, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Poland, Slovenia, Spain, and United Kingdom

  1. Computer simulations for state-of-the-art engineering design of a commercial building in Prague

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartak, M.; Drkal, F.; Hensen, J.L.M.; Lain, M.; Schwarzer, J.

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes the computer simulation work, which was carried out to support the engineering design team of the Luxembourg Plaza building development in Prague. The simulations for this study were based on (1) energy balance models covering the whole building for heating and cooling load

  2. Forging Harmony in the Social Organism: Industry and the Power of Psychometric Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Frederik

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the initiating role of the steel industry in educational selection by means of psychometric techniques used in the psycho-physiological laboratory associated with a vocational school in Luxembourg founded in 1914. It first considers the origins of, and initial meanings bestowed upon, this first (and perhaps also last)…

  3. Chloroplast DNA variation of oaks in western Central Europe and genetic consequences of human influences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    König, A.O.; Ziegenhagen, B.; Dam, van B.C.; Csaikl, U.M.; Coart, E.; Degen, B.; Burg, K.; Vries, de S.M.G.; Petit, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    Oak chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) variation was studied in a grid-based inventory in western Central Europe, including Belgium, The Netherlands, Luxembourg, Germany, the Czech Republic, and the northern parts of Upper and Lower Austria. A total of 2155 trees representing 426 populations of Quercus robur

  4. International survey of environmental programmes - a compilation of information from twelve countries received in response to a questionnaire distributed in 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyllander, C; Karlberg, O; Luening, M; Larsson, C M; Johansson, G

    1995-11-01

    The report compiles information from Cuba, Finland, Germany, Japan, South Korea, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malaysia, Romania, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom, relevant to the organisation and execution of programmes for environmental surveillance of nuclear facilities (source and environmental monitoring). 28 refs, 19 tabs.

  5. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Agency received from the Republic of Bulgaria on 15 September 2008 and from the European Atomic Energy Community on 1 May 2009, notification that their respective requirements had been met. Accordingly, the Additional Protocol came into force for Bulgaria on 1 May 2009 [es

  6. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The Agency received from Romania on 22 August 2007 and from the European Atomic Energy Community on 1 May 2010, notification that their respective requirements had been met. Accordingly, the Additional Protocol came into force for Romania on 1 May 2010 [es

  7. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Agency received from the Republic of Bulgaria on 15 September 2008 and from the European Atomic Energy Community on 1 May 2009, notification that their respective requirements had been met. Accordingly, the Additional Protocol came into force for Bulgaria on 1 May 2009 [fr

  8. Emergency exercise ''Mosel 90''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miska, H.H.

    1993-01-01

    An emergency exercise for the environs of the nuclear power plant CPN de Cattenom was performed from April, 5th to 7th, 1990. Administration and operational personnel from Luxembourg, Saarland, and Rhineland-Palatinate (RP) participated in the combined staff and field exercise; the competent French authority, la Prefecture de Metz, played the role of the licencee. While each responsible authority tested its alarm -and response plan and trained its personnel, a major aim of the off-site exercise was to investigate and improve the methods of communication in this border region location; the outer planning zone (radius 25 km) of the French reactors encompasses parts of Luxembourg and of the two German states mentioned above. Preparation and scenario of the exercise will be explained and lessons learned will be discussed

  9. THE IMPACT OF TAX SYSTEM ON GLOBAL COMPETITIVENESS. ANALYSIS ON THE LEVEL OF EUROPEAN UNION MEMBER STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandusa Tudose

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Summarizing the results of theoretical and empirical research, the paper aims to analyze the impact of tax system on global competitiveness through the following three variables: taxation on incentives to invest; total tax rate and taxation on incentives to work. Summarizing the analysis to the European Union member states, the paper presents rankings and provides interpretations for each case. Luxembourg is the country where there is registered: a the biggest impact on competitiveness of tax policies supporting investment, b the largest fiscal affordability (measured by GDP/capita and total tax rate and c the most generous labor taxation system in the EU. However, in the ranking realized based on the global competitiveness index Luxembourg ranks on the 22nd place, on the first place being Finland.

  10. GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF LAFFER'S THEORY FOR BENELUX COUNTRIES DURING 1995-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bunescu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about finding a tax burden rate, that generates the largest amount of tax revenues, have attracted the attention of researchers all the time. Law scarcity of public financial resources in relation to public expenditure determines the continuous monitoring of the evolution of binominal concepts: fiscal pressure versus tax revenues. The most simple and practical approach is given by the well-known Laffer’s curve. This paper aims to determine in graphical representation of the curve for Belgium, Netherlands and Luxembourg. The research is based on data provided by the European Commission for18 years. Conclusions for Benelux countries refer to the fact that the optimum value of tax burden is very closed to the maximum tax burden applied by them (the differences are below 1 percent, even equal for Belgium. Moreover, Luxembourg and Belgium are positioned in the admissible area of this theory, while the Netherlands have a fluctuant position.

  11. Rotavirus vaccination in Europe: drivers and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parez, N; Giaquinto, C; Du Roure, C; Martinon-Torres, F; Spoulou, V; Van Damme, P; Vesikari, T

    2014-05-01

    Rotavirus gastroenteritis is a vaccine-preventable disease that confers a high medical and economic burden in more developed countries and can be fatal in less developed countries. Two vaccines with high efficacy and good safety profiles were approved and made available in Europe in 2006. We present an overview of the status of rotavirus vaccination in Europe. We discuss the drivers (including high effectiveness and effect of universal rotavirus vaccination) and barriers (including low awareness of disease burden, perception of unfavourable cost-effectiveness, and potential safety concerns) to the implementation of universal rotavirus vaccination in Europe. By February, 2014, national universal rotavirus vaccination had been implemented in Belgium, Luxembourg, Austria, Finland, Greece, Luxembourg, Norway, and the UK. Four other German states have issued recommendations and reimbursement is provided by sickness funds. Other countries were at various stages of recommending or implementing universal rotavirus vaccination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Use of Time- and Frequency-Domain Approaches for Damage Detection in Civil Engineering Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. H. Nguyen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to apply both time- and frequency-domain-based approaches on real-life civil engineering structures and to assess their capability for damage detection. The methodology is based on Principal Component Analysis of the Hankel matrix built from output-only measurements and of Frequency Response Functions. Damage detection is performed using the concept of subspace angles between a current (possibly damaged state and a reference (undamaged state. The first structure is the Champangshiehl Bridge located in Luxembourg. Several damage levels were intentionally created by cutting a growing number of prestressed tendons and vibration data were acquired by the University of Luxembourg for each damaged state. The second example consists in reinforced and prestressed concrete panels. Successive damages were introduced in the panels by loading heavy weights and by cutting steel wires. The illustrations show different consequences in damage identification by the considered techniques.

  13. Development of excise on automotive fuels in the neighbouring countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleijenberg, A.N.; Janse, P.

    1994-04-01

    The political options for the Netherlands to implement the pricing policy for road traffic by means of an increase of excise, as formulated in the Second Transport Structure Plan (SVV-2), are limited by the excise level in neighbouring countries. Therefore, a study on the title subject has been carried out. First, an overview is given of the historical development of sales prices since 1980 for Belgium, Germany, Luxembourg and France with special attention for the large price differences. Next, insight into the effects of a price difference at the borders is given. Subsequently the development in the policy of the European Union with regard to harmonization of excise tariffs is discussed. Environmental organizations in Belgium and Luxembourg were contacted to learn about the expected development of excises in those countries. 5 figs., 6 tabs., 4 appendices, 10 refs

  14. Comment on “An algorithm for identification and classification of individuals with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus in a large primary care database”, written by Sharma et al

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bocquet V

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Valéry Bocquet Competence Center for Methodology and Statistics, Luxembourg Institute of Health, LuxembourgDiabetes is a disease whose global prevalence has been rising year after year, and by 2014 more than 400 million individuals were diagnosed with diabetes.1 As a consequence, screening of patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes has become important, both to estimate the prevalence of diabetes and to treat affected individuals. For that purpose, a two-step algorithm suggested by Sharma et al2 was recently published, whose aims were to identify type 1 or type 2 individuals from a primary care database. The first step of the algorithm was based on the diagnostic records, treatment given, and results obtained from clinical tests. The second part was based on the combination of diagnostic codes, prescribed medications, age at the time of diagnosis, and finally whether the case was prevalent or incident.View original paper by Sharma et al

  15. Tailoring ISO/IEC 27001 for SMEs: A Guide to Implement an Information Security Management System in Small Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdevit, Thierry; Mayer, Nicolas; Barafort, Béatrix

    While Information Security Management Systems (ISMS) are being adopted by the biggest IT companies, it remains quite difficult for smaller entities to implement and maintain all the requirements of ISO/IEC 27001. In order to increase information security in Luxembourg, the Public Research Centre Henri Tudor has been charged by the Luxembourg Ministry of Economy and Foreign Trade to find solutions to facilitate ISMS deployment for SMEs. After an initial experiment aiming at assisting a SME in getting the first national ISO/IEC 27001 certification for a private company, an implementation guide for deploying an ISMS, validated by local experts and experimented in SMEs, has been released and is presented in this paper.

  16. Assessment of Intelligent Tutoring Systems Technologies and Opportunities (Evaluation et opportunites des technologies des systemes de tutorat intelligents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    6) Conflict Resolution − Interpersonal skills, mutual trust, and psychological safety enabling people to be assertive about and take accountability...Gustafson, S., Beaubein, J., Salas, E. and Barach, P. (2005). Medical Teamwork and Patient Safety : The Evidence-based Relation. Agency for Healthcare...Or-Bach. • Japan (JPN) – 2: Riichiro Mizoguchi; Kazuhsia Seta. • Korea (KOR) – 1: Key Sun Choi. • Luxembourg (LUX) – 1: Samuel Greiff. • Malaysia

  17. Multilingualism and Specific Language Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Engel de Abreu, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    Is a multilingual education beneficial for children? What are the optimal conditions under which a child can become perfectly multilingual? When should we be concerned about a multilingual child's language skills? What are the signs of Specific Language Impairment in a child who speaks more than one language? Developmental psychologist and Associate Professor in multilingual cognitive development at the University of Luxembourg Pascale Engel de Abreu will address these questions based on what...

  18. Economics in Counterinsurgency: Analyzing and Applying History’s Lessons on Economic Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    country exchange had broken down and the black market flourished. The reaction of the starving workers was to press for 27Ibid. 28Ibid., 11. 18...Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway , Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland, and Turkey.92 The CEEC dialog that summer was heavily influenced by...Vickers, Rhiannon. Manipulating Hegemony: State Power, Labour , and the Marshall Plan in Britain. Hampshire: New York: Houndmills, Basingstoke, 2000. West

  19. Invited commentary on … When unbearable suffering incites psychiatric patients to request euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Brendan D

    2017-10-01

    Euthanasia is available in Belgium and Luxembourg for untreatable and unbearable suffering resulting from 'physical and/or psychological suffering that cannot be alleviated and results from a serious and incurable disease, caused by accident or illness'. Verhofstadt et al 's valuable analysis of testimonials from psychiatric patients requesting euthanasia demonstrates that elements of this suffering might well be alleviated. We should not kill our patients. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017.

  20. Communications Received from Members regarding the Export of Nuclear Material and of Certain Categories of Equipment and Other Material. Two Further Communications dated 26 September 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    On 3 October 1975 the Director General received a letter from the Resident Representative of the Netherlands to the Agency transmitting two communications dated 10 September from the Minister for Foreign Affairs of Luxembourg dealing respectively with the export of nuclear material and the export of certain categories of equipment and other material. The Resident Representative requested that all Members be informed of the contents of the two communications, and they are accordingly reproduced below

  1. Conclusions on the two technical panels on HLW-disposal and waste treatment processes respectively

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinkespiller, J.A.; Dejonghe, P.; Feates, F.

    1986-01-01

    The paper reports the concluding panel session at the European Community Conference on radioactive waste management and disposal, Luxembourg 1985. The panel considered the conclusions of two preceeding technical panels on high level waste (HLW) disposal and waste treatment processes. Geological disposal of HLW, waste management, safety assessment of waste disposal, public opinion, public acceptance of the manageability of radioactive wastes, international cooperation, and waste management in the United States, are all discussed. (U.K.)

  2. Welfare family policies and gender earnings inequality: A cross-national comparative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mandel, Hadas; Semyonov, Moshe

    2003-01-01

    The present study examines whether and to what extent welfare-family policies are likely to affect earnings inequality between economically active men and women. Using hierarchical linear models, we combine individual-level variables (obtained from the Luxembourg Income Study) with country level data (obtained from secondary sources) to evaluate the net effects of welfare family policies on gender earnings inequality across 20 industrialized countries. The analysis reveals that net of individ...

  3. Technogeopologistics: Supply Networks and Military Power in the Industrial Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    United States was inconclusive. The Germans controlled Mackinder’s united German-heartland region after the treaty of Brest -Litovsk in December 1917...to envelop Paris . Two additional armies would attack through Luxembourg on the center wing, while two others would hold the South as part of the...left wing (See Figure 6 Below).9 The plan called for the capture of Paris and the surrender of France in six weeks. In order to reach such an

  4. Protocol to amend the convention of 31st January 1963 supplementary to the Paris convention of 29th July 1960 on third party liability in the field of nuclear energy, as amended by the additional protocol of 28th January 1964, Paris, 16 November 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This Protocol further amends the Convention of 31 January 1963 supplementary to the Paris Convention of 29 July 1960 on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy, concluded between the Federal Republic of Germany, Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Spain, Finland, France, Italy, Luxembourg, Norway, Netherlands, United Kingdom, Sweden and Switzerland, within the framework of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. (U.K.)

  5. International Comparisons of Income Inequality: Tests for Lorenz Dominance across Nine Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Bishop, John; Smith, W. James; Formby, John

    1989-01-01

    This paper examines income inequality across nine countries using the Luxembourg Income Study data set. New statistical tests and comparability of data provide an exceptionally clear picture of relative income inequality. Only 4 comparisons out of a possible 108 cannot be ranked. In most cases, differences in the definition of the recipient unit make little difference in the rankings. Irrespective of recipient units, Sweden, Norway, and Germany come out at the top of the ordinal Lorenz rankin...

  6. Euroopa Liit - meie uus ühiskodu / Tõnu Prei

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Prei, Tõnu, 1950-

    2006-01-01

    Järg 21. märts, 4.,11.,25. apr. lk. 6,6,4. Euroopa Liidu tekkelugu. EL-i institutsioonid. Lisad: Liikmesriigid; Brüssel; Strasbourg; Luxembourg; Ühinenud Euroopa kolm tuhandeaastast pealinna. Vt. samas: Euroopa Ülemnõukogu; Euroopa Liidu Nõukogu; Euroopa Komisjon; Euroopa Parlament; Eesti rahva esindajad Euroopa Parlamendis; Euroopa Kohus; Euroopa Kontrollikoda; Euroopa ombudsman; Euroopa anmekaitseinspektor; Euroopa Keskpank; Euroopa Investeerimispank; Euroopa Investeerimisfond

  7. Autonomous Weapon Systems: A Brief Survey of Developmental, Operational, Legal, and Ethical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    importance of maintaining human control over selecting and at- tacking targets, although there is less clarity on what would constitute ‘meaningful human...Singa- pore, Slovakia, Slovenia , South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Taiwan, Thailand, Trinidad and Tobago, Tu- nisia, Turkey...Denmark, Estonia, Germany, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Norway, Poland, Romania, Slova- kia, Slovenia , and the United States), and will be made

  8. The rise of precarious employment in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Brady, David; Biegert, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Long considered the classic coordinated market economy featuring employment security and relatively little employment precarity, the German labor market has undergone profound changes in recent decades. We assess the evidence for a rise in precarious employment in Germany from 1984 to 2013. Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) through the Luxembourg Income Study, we examine low-wage employment, working poverty, and temporary employment. We also analyze changes in the demogra...

  9. Dynamic response functions, helical gaps, and fractional charges in quantum wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Tobias; Pedder, Christopher J.; Tiwari, Rakesh P.; Schmidt, Thomas L.

    We show how experimentally accessible dynamic response functions can discriminate between helical gaps due to magnetic field, and helical gaps driven by electron-electron interactions (''umklapp gaps''). The latter are interesting since they feature gapped quasiparticles of fractional charge e / 2 , and - when coupled to a standard superconductor - an 8 π-Josephson effect and topological zero energy states bound to interfaces. National Research Fund, Luxembourg (ATTRACT 7556175), Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (GRK 1621 and SFB 1143), Swiss National Science Foundation.

  10. Quadrennial Defense Review Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    medicine , and computer network operations. While we continue to employ a mix of programs and incentives to recruit quality personnel, we are also...Lithuania* Singapore Australia Finland Luxembourg* Slovakia* Austria France* Macedonia Slovenia* Azerbaijan Georgia Montenegro Spain* Belgium...20,000 positions by 2015. We will continue to significantly enhance Secretary of Defense Robert M. Gates meets with plant workers during a tour of an

  11. Communications Received from Certain Member States Regarding Guidelines for the Export of Nuclear Material, Equipment and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency has received Notes Verbales, dated 31 August 2001, from the Resident Representatives to the Agency of Argentina, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Luxembourg, Netherlands, New Zealand, Portugal, Republic of Korea, Romania, Russian Federation, Slovakia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, the United States and the United Kingdom, relating to the export of nuclear material, equipment and technology

  12. Working memory, phonological awareness, and developing language skills

    OpenAIRE

    Engel de Abreu, Pascale; Gathercole, S

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between working memory, verbal short-term memory, phonological awareness, and developing language skills was explored longitudinally in children growing up in a multilingual society. A sample of 121 children from Luxembourg were followed from the end of Kindergarten to 1st Grade, and completed multiple assessments of verbal short-term memory, complex working memory, phonological awareness, native and foreign vocabulary knowledge, language comprehension, and reading. Resu...

  13. Assessment of off-site consequences of nuclear accidents (MARIA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywood, S.M.

    1985-01-01

    A brief report is given of a workshop held in Luxembourg in 1985 on methods for assessing the off-site radiological consequences of nuclear accidents (MARIA). The sessions included topics such as atmospheric dispersion; foodchain transfer; urban contamination; demographic and land use data; dosimetry, health effects, economic and countermeasures models; uncertainty analysis; and application of probabilistic risk assessment results as input to decision aids. (U.K.)

  14. Panel session: Disposal of HLW - ready for implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heremans, R.; Come, B.; Barbreau, A.; Girardi, F.

    1986-01-01

    The paper is a report of a panel session at the European Community conference on radioactive waste management and disposal, Luxembourg 1985, concerning the safe and long-term disposal of high-activity and long-lived waste. The subjects discussed include: geological barriers including deep sea-bed sediments, engineered barriers, technological problems (repository construction, waste emplacement, backfilling and sealing), safety analysis, performance assessment of disposal system components, and finally institutional, legal and financial aspects of geological disposal. (U.K.)

  15. European Banking Union D: Cross-Border Resolution—Dexia Group

    OpenAIRE

    Rosalind Z. Wiggins; Natalia Tente; Andrew Metrick

    2014-01-01

    In September 2008, Dexia Group, SA, the world’s largest provider of public finance, experienced a sudden liquidity crisis. In response, the governments of Belgium, France, and Luxembourg provided the company a capital infusion and credit support. In February 2010, the company adopted a European Union (EU)-approved restructuring plan that required it to scale back its businesses and cease proprietary trading. In June 2011, Dexia withdrew from the government-sponsored credit support program bef...

  16. Essays on the common currency, real financial market exchange rates and capital flows

    OpenAIRE

    Ozimkovska, Valenetyna

    2016-01-01

    Chapter 1 of this thesis studies the impact of the introduction of the euro on the volatility of industrial production growth and the characteristics of the optimal currency in the EU-12 countries (Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal and Spain).Chapter 2 investigates the relationship between cross-border equity flows and relative international asset prices expressed in the same currency which can be considered as the Real F...

  17. Creating a business toolbox for a start-up : a case study of SnapSwap International

    OpenAIRE

    Kovshikov, Iaroslav

    2017-01-01

    This thesis was implemented at SnapSwap International in spring and summer 2017. The case company is a fin-tech start-up established in 2015 and located in Luxembourg. The company aims to develop a new payment solution (money messenger) for the European market. The purpose of the thesis is to observe commonly used business techniques (SWOT, Business Model Canvas (BMC), Persona, and Empathy Map) and analyze current business activities of the company employing these tools. The theoretic...

  18. Responsible research and innovation in ICT: The case of privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Peissl, Walter

    2011-01-01

    In: Von Schomberg, R. (Hrsg.), 2011: Towards Responsible Research and Innovation in the Information and Communication Technologies and Security Technologies Fields. Luxembourg: Publication Office of the European Union, pp. 35-45.The broad use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in almost every part of daily life produces a huge amount of data. Personal data of the user or of people involved constitute a major part of the data stored and processed. They reveal a lot about the ...

  19. Fatherhood, intra-household employment dynamics, and men's earnings in a cross-national perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Boeckmann, Irene; Budig, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Studies find fatherhood earnings premiums in several European countries and the United States. Yet little research investigates how intra-household dynamics shape the size of the fatherhood premium cross-nationally. Using data from the Luxembourg Income Study we examine how the division of labor in two-parent households is associated with the fatherhood premium in fourteen countries. We find cross-national variation in the presence and size of the fatherhood premium. Our findings also show th...

  20. Access to Grey Content: An Analysis of Grey Literature based on Citation and Survey Data, A Follow-up Study

    OpenAIRE

    Farace, Dominic J. (GreyNet); Frantzen, Jerry (GreyNet); Boekhorst, Albert K. (UvA); Schöpfel, Joachim (INIST-CNRS); Stock, Christiane (INIST-CNRS); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    2005-01-01

    Grey literature, an area of interest to special librarians and information professionals, can be traced back a half-century. However, grey literature as a specialized field in information studies is less than a decade old. At GL'97 in Luxembourg, grey literature was redefined "as information produced on all levels of government, academics, business and industry in electronic and print formats not controlled by commercial publishers (i.e. where publishing is not the primary activity of the pro...

  1. Ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The law covering ionising radiation in Luxembourg is summarised under the headings: introduction (the outline law of 25 March 1963, and the Grand-Ducal Decree of 8 February 1967); the control of establishments (the authorisation procedure; emergency measures, suspension and withdrawal of the authorisation; alterations to the establishment); the importation, distribution and transit of radioactive substances; the transport of radioactive substances; the protection and safety of the population as a whole; sanctions; international conventions. (U.K.)

  2. Communications of 30 June 1995 received from Member States regarding the export of nuclear material and of certain categories of equipment and other material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    The Director General has received letters of 30 June 1995 from the Resident Representative of Argentina, Australia, Austria, Canada, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Greece, Hungary Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, the Slovak Republic, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America, concerning the export of nuclear material and of certain categories of equipment and other material

  3. The differentiated impacts of organizational innovation practices on technological innovation persistence

    OpenAIRE

    Le Bas , Christian; Mothe , Caroline; Nguyen-Thi , Thuc Uyen

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to test the major determinants of technological (product and process) innovation persistence and provides evidence of the significant role of organizational innovation. Design/methodology/approach – Data came from two waves of the Luxembourg Community Innovation Survey (CIS): CIS2006 for 2004-2006 and CIS2008 for 2006-2008. The longitudinal data set resulted in a final sample of 287 firms. A multinomial probit model estimates the ...

  4. The impact of EMU on European unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Juan F. Jimeno; Jose Vinals

    1998-01-01

    Persistent unemployment is the top social and economic problem of most EU countries. Today, the unemployment rate in most EU countries is above ten percent and, although unemployment has decreased during expansions, the average EU unemployment rate within each cycle has increased since the early seventies. Although unemployment evolutions have been to some extent similar in EU countries, there are some outliers. On the one side, Portugal, Austria, the UK, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg, whic...

  5. Language learning through storying on iTEO

    OpenAIRE

    Kirsch, Claudine; Di Letizia, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    Luxembourg is a trilingual country and the EU state with the highest percentage of foreign residents. Currently, 62% of nursery children do not speak Luxembourgish as their first language. They learn Luxembourgish in the nursery aged 4. The project “TEO” aims at developing multilingual oracies through collaborative storytelling in nursery and lower primary schools. “Storying” is a leading activity because it activates cognitive, social and emotional processes. It capitalizes on children’s...

  6. [Recent demographic trends].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    A review of demographic trends in Luxembourg in 1982 is presented. A decline in fertility, the first since 1977, is noted, together with an increase in divorce, as well as a negative migration balance for the first time since 1967. Topics covered include natural increase and migration, fertility, marriage and divorce, mortality, adoption, and legislation affecting the family. Special consideration is given to the mortality experience of those who were subjected to compulsory labor during World War II.

  7. Sub-Saharan Africa Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-13

    renovated and modernized with the help of the European Investment Bank (EIB), Luxembourg, which has granted a conditional loan of 12 million ECU (1 ECU...implementation of Portuguese know-how, occupational training programs, and technological renovation ." Rocha de Matos was also of the opinion that this...newspapers and magazines (for example, ENERGIA and NOVEMBRO) appear only sporadically, and the students want to have regular news about our country

  8. Reserve Component Programs, Fiscal Year 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    would fight. War- time missions are executed with United States and foreign forces, just as would occur &WV ft Ra RDdNemv cowei hr ~u~, FY M87 Exwutdm...Luxembourg Somalia Bermuda Greece Madagascar South Korea Bolivia Greenland Malaysia Spain Brazil Grenada Marshall Islands Sweden Cameroon Guam Mexico...Major Dell M. Dempsey, USMCR Ecuadoran Military attache in Panama 0 Colonel James V. Dugar, ANGUS * Young, Colonel Ralph R. (USAR) 0 Colonel

  9. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve: History, Perspectives, and Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-28

    Germany , Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden...Iran. Firms providing, or insuring tankers carrying, refined product to Iran would also be included in the prohibition. The Drawdown Authorities The...taking place in the operation of oil markets after the experiences of the 1970s, and deregulation of oil price and supply. Sales of SPR oil authorized

  10. The nuclear safety at Cattenom: when an anomaly becomes a fundamental problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legrand, V.; Marignac, Y.

    2003-02-01

    The Cattenom nuclear power plant established in Moselle, near Luxembourg is the center of incidents that placed in the context of the actual management of its park by EDF are significant of a safety erosion, linked to the research of economic performance. More, the analysis of the management by the operator and its supervision authority of these incidents raises questions on their ability to evaluate, control and exchange information on these problems. (N.C.)

  11. International Cooperation in Acquisition, Technology and Logistics (IC in AT&L) Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    to think of the hierarchy of relationships as a pyramid as illustrated in Figure 1-2. Even though IC in AT&L programs form the capstone, it does...negotiation Czech Republic RDT&E Agreement Egypt TRDP Agreement Finland RDT&E Agreement in final national staffing France RDT&E Agreement Germany RDT&E...Act Australia Luxembourg Belgium Netherlands Canada Norway Egypt Portugal Denmark Spain France Sweden Germany Switzerland Greece Turkey Israel

  12. Charles IV 1978-2016. Reviewing the Ideological Background of the Exhibitions and Conferences in 1978

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Benešovská, Klára

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 1 (2017), s. 158-173 ISSN 2336-3452 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-39192S Institutional support: RVO:68378033 Keywords : Charles IV, King of Bohemia and Holy Roman Emperor * exhibitions in 2016 and 1978, Prague-Nuremberg-Cologne * art of the Luxembourg era 1350–1420 * historiography Subject RIV: AL - Art , Architecture, Cultural Heritage OBOR OECD: Art s, Art history

  13. Advance Pricing Agreements and the Selectivity Criterion in EU State Aid Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Härö, O

    2017-01-01

    The Commission of the EU has recently decided that Advance Pricing Agreement rulings (the APA rulings) that Ireland, Luxembourg and the Netherlands have granted for Apple, Fiat and Starbucks (respectively) constitute illegal State aid according to Article 107 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). The Commission claims that the APA rulings deviate from the arm´s length principle and that they grant economic benefit for the beneficiary undertakings in a selective manner...

  14. Subjective Well-Being of Children in the Context of Educational Transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günter Krampen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of two empirical studies is the analysis of the development of subjective well-being in kindergarten and elementary school students in the context of the educational transitions (1 from kindergarten to elementary school and (2 from elementary to secondary schools in two different national school systems. Semi-structured interviews on self-esteem and dysthymic mood (i.e., low spirits, feelings of depressiveness and of dejection were administered in 5 cohorts (two kindergarten and the first three elementary school years. Measurements were repeated three times each a year apart. Samples refer to 312 German and 244 Luxembourg children enrolled in educational systems with optional kindergarten, 4-year comprehensive elementary school, and educational placement thereafter (Germany versus obligatory kindergarten and 6-year comprehensive elementary school (Luxembourg. Time- and age-effects point to significant discontinuities in the development of subjective well-being. There are declines of self-esteem and increases of dysthymic mood just after school enrollment (“transition shock” in the Luxembourg sample, whereas quite similar developments are observed in the last elementary school year before educational placement for secondary education in the German sample. School enrollment and educational placement for secondary education are critical life events with significant impact on children’s well-being, which varies between different school systems.

  15. Prevalence of Dementia and Cognitive Complaints in the Context of High Cognitive Reserve: A Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perquin, Magali; Diederich, Nico; Pastore, Jessica; Lair, Marie-Lise; Stranges, Saverio; Vaillant, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to assess the prevalence of dementia and cognitive complaints in a cross-sectional sample of Luxembourg seniors, and to discuss the results in the societal context of high cognitive reserve resulting from multilingualism. Methods A population sample of 1,377 people representative of Luxembourg residents aged over 64 years was initially identified via the national social insurance register. There were three different levels of contribution: full participation in the study, partial participation, and non-participation. We examined the profiles of these three different samples so that we could infer the prevalence estimates in the Luxembourgish senior population as a whole using the prevalence estimates obtained in this study. Results After careful attention to the potential bias and of the possibility of underestimation, we considered the obtained prevalence estimates of 3.8% for dementia (with corresponding 95% confidence limits (CL) of 2.8% and 4.8%) and 26.1% for cognitive complaints (CL = [17.8–34.3]) as trustworthy. Conclusion Based on these findings, we postulate that high cognitive reserve may result in surprisingly low prevalence estimates of cognitive complaints and dementia in adults over the age of 64 years, which thereby corroborates the longer disability-free life expectancy observed in the Luxembourg population. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to report such Luxembourgish public health data. PMID:26390288

  16. On the potential for the Partial Triadic Analysis to grasp the spatio-temporal variability of groundwater hydrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourdol, L.; Hissler, C.; Pfister, L.

    2012-04-01

    The Luxembourg sandstone aquifer is of major relevance for the national supply of drinking water in Luxembourg. The city of Luxembourg (20% of the country's population) gets almost 2/3 of its drinking water from this aquifer. As a consequence, the study of both the groundwater hydrochemistry, as well as its spatial and temporal variations, are considered as of highest priority. Since 2005, a monitoring network has been implemented by the Water Department of Luxembourg City, with a view to a more sustainable management of this strategic water resource. The data collected to date forms a large and complex dataset, describing spatial and temporal variations of many hydrochemical parameters. The data treatment issue is tightly connected to this kind of water monitoring programs and complex databases. Standard multivariate statistical techniques, such as principal components analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis, have been widely used as unbiased methods for extracting meaningful information from groundwater quality data and are now classically used in many hydrogeological studies, in particular to characterize temporal or spatial hydrochemical variations induced by natural and anthropogenic factors. But these classical multivariate methods deal with two-way matrices, usually parameters/sites or parameters/time, while often the dataset resulting from qualitative water monitoring programs should be seen as a datacube parameters/sites/time. Three-way matrices, such as the one we propose here, are difficult to handle and to analyse by classical multivariate statistical tools and thus should be treated with approaches dealing with three-way data structures. One possible analysis approach consists in the use of partial triadic analysis (PTA). The PTA was previously used with success in many ecological studies but never to date in the domain of hydrogeology. Applied to the dataset of the Luxembourg Sandstone aquifer, the PTA appears as a new promising statistical

  17. Psychological quality of life and its association with academic employability skills among newly-registered students from three European faculties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Michèle; Ionescu, Ion; Chau, Nearkasen

    2011-04-18

    In accord with new European university reforms initiated by the Bologna Process, our objectives were to assess psychological quality of life (QoL) and to analyse its associations with academic employability skills (AES) among students from the Faculty of Language, Literature, Humanities, Arts and Education, Walferdange Luxembourg (F1, mostly vocational/applied courses); the Faculty of Social and Human Sciences, Liege, Belgium (F2, mainly general courses); and the Faculty of Social Work, Iasi, Romania (F3, mainly vocational/professional courses). Students who redoubled or who had studied at other universities were excluded. 355 newly-registered first-year students (145 from F1, 125 from F2, and 85 from F3) were invited to complete an online questionnaire (in French, German, English or Romanian) covering socioeconomic data, the AES scale and the QoL-psychological, QoL-social relationships and QoL-environment subscales as measured with the World Health Organisation Quality of Life short-form (WHOQoL-BREF) questionnaire. Analyses included multiple regressions with interactions. QoL-psychological, QoL-social relationships and QoL-environment' scores were highest in F1 (Luxembourg), and the QoL-psychological score in F2 (Belgium) was the lower. AES score was higher in F1 than in F3 (Romania). A positive link was found between QoL-psychological and AES for F1 (correlation coefficient 0.29, pskills that increase employability from the faculties offering vocational/applied/professional courses in Luxembourg and Romania, but not their academically orientated Belgian counterparts. In the context of developing a European Higher Educational Area, these measurements are major indicators that can be used as a guide to promoting programs geared towards counseling, improvement of the social environment, and services to assist with university work and facilitate achievement of future professional projects.

  18. The relationship between emotion regulation capacity, heart rate variability, and quality of life in individuals with alcohol-related brain damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinmetz JP

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Jean-Paul Steinmetz,1,2 Claus Vögele,3,4 Christiane Theisen-Flies,5 Carine Federspiel,1,2 Stefan Sütterlin6,7 1Department of Research and Development, ZithaSenior, 2Centre for Memory and Mobility, ZithaSenior, 3Institute for Health and Behaviour, Integrative Research Unit on Social and Individual Development (INSIDE, University of Luxembourg, Luxembourg; 4Research Group Health Psychology, University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium; 5Home St Joseph, ZithaSenior, Luxembourg; 6Department of Psychology, Lillehammer University College, Lillehammer, 7Division of Surgery and Clinical Neuroscience, Department of Psychosomatic Medicine, Oslo University Hospital – Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway Abstract: The reliable measurement of quality of life (QoL presents a challenge in individuals with alcohol-related brain damage. This study investigated vagally mediated heart rate variability (vmHRV as a physiological predictor of QoL. Self- and proxy ratings of QoL and dysexecutive symptoms were collected once, while vmHRV was repeatedly assessed over a 3-week period at weekly intervals in a sample of nine alcohol-related brain damaged patients. We provide robustness checks, bootstrapped correlations with confidence intervals, and standard errors for mean scores. We observed low to very low heart rate variability scores in our patients in comparison to norm values found in healthy populations. Proxy ratings of the QoL scale “subjective physical and mental performance” and everyday executive dysfunctions were strongly related to vmHRV. Better proxy-rated QoL and fewer dysexecutive symptoms were observed in those patients with higher vmHRV. Overall, patients showed low parasympathetic activation favoring the occurrence of dysfunctional emotion regulation strategies. Keywords: heart rate variability, emotion regulation, alcohol-related brain damage, quality of life

  19. Evaluation and analysis of energy consumption in office buildings; Feldstudie zum Energieverbrauch von Buerogebaeuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maas, Stefan; Scholzen, Frank; Thewes, Andreas; Waldmann, Daniele [Universitaet Luxemburg, Campus Kirchberg, Fakultaet fuer Naturwissenschaften, Technologie und Kommunikation, Forschungseinheit Ingenieurswissenschaften, Luxemburg (Luxembourg); Zuerbes, Arno [Fachhochschule Bingen, Fachbereich Technik, Informatik und Wirtschaft, Bingen am Rhein (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    During the last years the national energy consumption of Luxembourg shifted noticeable towards the building sector. In 1990 71 % of the total domestic end energy consumption was ascribed to industrial sector and only 20 % to the building sector. The distribution changed significantly and in 2005 the energy consumption dedicated to industrial sector represented only 44 %, transport 25 % and the tertiary sector 31 % [1], which includes private and public households as well as non-residential buildings. The buildings account for 40 % of total energy consumption in the EU and there is an enormous energy saving potential. Therefore the EUdirective 2002/91/EG [2] requires from all EU Member States to save energy in this sector. Hence the energy saving of buildings present an essential part of climate protection. Furthermore the new directive 2010/31/EG [3] requires from the Member States to tighten national standards and to draw up national plans for increasing the number of nearly zero-energy buildings. But for a better understanding of energy flows in buildings and to develop energy saving concepts as well as to estimate possible energy savings of buildings a detailed analysis of energy consumption databases is an important precondition. The following field survey monitors 47 office buildings in Luxembourg. A separate gathering of electricity, heat and cooling energy consumptions allowed a detailed energetic analysis. A statistical analysis and interpretation of new buildings differentiated by energy sources as well as definition of energy relevant parameters like the window ratio, the construction method, the type of use or the kind of technical installations show the problems of typical existing office buildings. A final extrapolation to the population of all new office buildings in Luxembourg helps to estimate the energy saving potential.

  20. Psychological quality of life and its association with academic employability skills among newly-registered students from three European faculties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionescu Ion

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In accord with new European university reforms initiated by the Bologna Process, our objectives were to assess psychological quality of life (QoL and to analyse its associations with academic employability skills (AES among students from the Faculty of Language, Literature, Humanities, Arts and Education, Walferdange Luxembourg (F1, mostly vocational/applied courses; the Faculty of Social and Human Sciences, Liege, Belgium (F2, mainly general courses; and the Faculty of Social Work, Iasi, Romania (F3, mainly vocational/professional courses. Method Students who redoubled or who had studied at other universities were excluded. 355 newly-registered first-year students (145 from F1, 125 from F2, and 85 from F3 were invited to complete an online questionnaire (in French, German, English or Romanian covering socioeconomic data, the AES scale and the QoL-psychological, QoL-social relationships and QoL-environment subscales as measured with the World Health Organisation Quality of Life short-form (WHOQoL-BREF questionnaire. Analyses included multiple regressions with interactions. Results QoL-psychological, QoL-social relationships and QoL-environment' scores were highest in F1 (Luxembourg, and the QoL-psychological score in F2 (Belgium was the lower. AES score was higher in F1 than in F3 (Romania. A positive link was found between QoL-psychological and AES for F1 (correlation coefficient 0.29, p Conclusions Psychological quality of life is associated with acquisition of skills that increase employability from the faculties offering vocational/applied/professional courses in Luxembourg and Romania, but not their academically orientated Belgian counterparts. In the context of developing a European Higher Educational Area, these measurements are major indicators that can be used as a guide to promoting programs geared towards counseling, improvement of the social environment, and services to assist with university work and facilitate

  1. Sensitive nuclear activities in certain free world countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    A concise, ready reference is provided for use in reviewing license applications for exporting to several countries for possible need of referral to DOE. For each country, nuclear explosive and sensitive nuclear activities, such as enrichment, reprocessing, heavy water production, and fabrication of fuel containing plutonium, are listed, as well as the organizations and installations responsible for such activities. Some activities are also included that are not sensitive but are closely related and could easily lead to sensitive activities. The countries covered are: Australia, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Federal Republic of Germany, France, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Turkey, and the United States

  2. Energy policies of IEA countries: 1994 review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This 1994 edition contributes to the IEA's on-going analysis of countries'energy policies and market developments. it reviews recent trends and developments in energy demand and supply, efficiency, technology and environment. This year's Energy Policies includes: - critical reviews of all 23 IEA Member countries, including in-depth reviews of Finland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg and Switzerland; - a synthesis report highlighting major energy policy developments and market trends in IEA Member countries and an overview of significant energy developments elsewhere in the world; -an analysis of trends in key energy indicators over a twenty year period. (authors)

  3. Europe of energy and transports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruete, M.

    2006-01-01

    The Directorate-General for Energy and Transport (DG TREN), based in Brussels, reports to Jacques Barrot, Vice-President of the European Commission, Commissioner for Transport and Andris Piebalgs, Commissioner for Energy. The Directorate-General for Energy and Transport is headed by Matthias Ruete and has a staff of over 1000 people in ten Directorates located in Brussels and Luxembourg. In addition to the development of Community transport and energy policies, including dealing with State aid, the Directorate-General is responsible for managing the financial support programmes for the trans-European networks, technological development and innovation. In this paper, M. Ruete tells us more about these missions

  4. A comparison of the poverty impact of transfers, taxes and market income across five OECD countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Sami; Duclos, Jean-Yves

    2010-01-01

    This paper compares the poverty reduction impact of income sources, taxes and transfers across five OECD countries. Since the estimation of that impact can depend on the order in which the various income sources are introduced into the analysis, it is done by using the Shapley value. Estimates of the poverty reduction impact are presented in a normalized and unnormalized fashion, in order to take into account the total as well as the per dollar impacts. The methodology is applied to data from the Luxembourg Income Study database.

  5. Integrated environmental assessment of future energy scenarios based on economic equilibrium models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igos, E.; Rugani, B.; Rege, S.; Benetto, E.; Drouet, L.; Zachary, D.; Haas, T.

    2014-01-01

    The future evolution of energy supply technologies strongly depends on (and affects) the economic and environmental systems, due to the high dependency of this sector on the availability and cost of fossil fuels, especially on the small regional scale. This paper aims at presenting the modeling system and preliminary results of a research project conducted on the scale of Luxembourg to assess the environmental impact of future energy scenarios for the country, integrating outputs from partial and computable general equilibrium models within hybrid Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) frameworks. The general equilibrium model for Luxembourg, LUXGEM, is used to evaluate the economic impacts of policy decisions and other economic shocks over the time horizon 2006-2030. A techno-economic (partial equilibrium) model for Luxembourg, ETEM, is used instead to compute operation levels of various technologies to meet the demand for energy services at the least cost along the same timeline. The future energy demand and supply are made consistent by coupling ETEM with LUXGEM so as to have the same macro-economic variables and energy shares driving both models. The coupling results are then implemented within a set of Environmentally-Extended Input-Output (EE-IO) models in historical time series to test the feasibility of the integrated framework and then to assess the environmental impacts of the country. Accordingly, a dis-aggregated energy sector was built with the different ETEM technologies in the EE-IO to allow hybridization with Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) and enrich the process detail. The results show that the environmental impact slightly decreased overall from 2006 to 2009. Most of the impacts come from some imported commodities (natural gas, used to produce electricity, and metalliferous ores and metal scrap). The main energy production technology is the combined-cycle gas turbine plant 'Twinerg', representing almost 80% of the domestic electricity production in Luxembourg

  6. The Eurozone Dynamic Cohesion: Convergence or Divergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonin Rusek

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The long term economic dynamics of the Eurozone’s original 12 countries (Greece, Italy, Spain, Portugal, Ireland, Germany, Netherlands, Luxembourg, Belgium, Austria, Finland, France is analyzed and compared. It is today increasingly recognized that the diverging competitiveness between the Eurozone members is at the root of the current crisis. But the competitiveness dynamics and its impact on the crucial fiscal and financial variables during the common currency existence is seldom analyzed and compared, especially as far as the different groups of countries (and/or different areas within the Eurozone are concerned.

  7. Cyclical convergence of Central and Eastern European countries to the Euro area core. New methodological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana ALEXE

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The current paper develops an analysis on the degree of business cycle convergence of the new member states of the EU towards the Euro area core (Germany, France, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands and Luxembourg during 1996 – 2010.Unlike the previous research, the study takes into consideration the similarity of cycles, and not their synchronization. Furthermore, from the methodological point of view, it explores the use of survey indicators in the analysis of the cycles, thus in addition to the traditional approach that employs the GDP. The results obtained through clusterization show that the degree of convergence towards Euro area core remains modest.

  8. Keynes, family allowances and Keynesian economic policy

    OpenAIRE

    Pressman, Steven

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a short history of family allowances and documents the fact that Keynes supported family allowances as early as the 1920s, continuing through the 1930s and early 1940s. Keynes saw this policy as a way to help households raise their children and also as a way to increase consumption without reducing business investment. The paper goes on to argue that a policy of family allowances is consistent with Keynesian economics. Finally, the paper uses the Luxembourg Income Study to...

  9. EURATOM, origin and contents of Community European of the energy atomic; EURATOM, origen y contenidos de Comunidad Europea de la energia atomica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prieto Serrano, N.

    2015-07-01

    After the creation, in 1951, of the European Community of the Coal and steel (ECSC), the first step in a Europe together, Federal, Belgium Germany, France, Italy, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands signed in March 1957, the treaties of Rome that established the foundations for the creation of the European Economic Community (EEC) and the European Community Atomic Energy (CEEa or Euratom). We started with this a series of articles dedicated to pregnancy, the content and issued legislation of the Euratom Treaty, particularly in the areas that most affect the management of radioactive waste. (Author)

  10. Decision Support to Combined Joint Task Force and Component Commanders (L’aide a la prise de decisions pour les commandants de composantes et de groupes de forces interarmees multinationales)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    RTO-TR-SAS-044 4 Stapler 4 in total 5 Hole punch 4 in total 6 Long ruler 4 in total 7 Protractor and set squares 4 in total 8 Compass 4 in...ESPAGNE 00187 Roma Information Centre, Building 247 SDG TECEN / DGAM Dstl Porton Down C/ Arturo Soria 289 LUXEMBOURG Salisbury Madrid 28033 Voir...CZECH REPUBLIC H-1525 Budapest P O Box 26 SDG TECEN / DGAM LOM PRAHA s.p. C/ Arturo Soria 289 VTÚL a PVO o.z. ICELAND Madrid 28033 DIS ČR – NATO RTO

  11. Measuring the Potential of Local Green Growth – An Analysis of Greater Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharpe, Samantha; Andersen, Maj Munch; Genoff, Rodin

    . Early results show that Copenhagen is well advanced on the path to a green economy; however, building on recent achievements, more can be done to accelerate the transition and secure Copenhagen’s leadership position in green industries and foster a green way of life for its citizens.......This briefing note summarises preliminary findings from the first case study in an OECD project to develop indicators for the green transition which can be used at the local level1. This new framework is being tested in regions in five countries: Denmark, Belgium, Chile, Germany and Luxembourg...

  12. Urinary BPA measurements in children and mothers from six European member states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Covaci, Adrian; Hond, Elly Den; Geens, Tinne

    2015-01-01

    -mother pairs were recruited through schools or population registers from six European member states (Belgium, Denmark, Luxembourg, Slovenia, Spain and Sweden). Children (5-12y) and mothers donated a urine sample. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, life style, dietary habits, and educational...... determinants. Consumption of canned food and social class (represented by the highest educational level of the family) were the most important predictors for the urinary levels of BPA in mothers and children. The individual BPA levels in children were significantly correlated with the levels in their mothers...

  13. Communications of 15 November 1999 received from Member States regarding the export of nuclear material and of certain categories of equipment and other material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the letters dated 15 November 1999 received by the Director General of the IAEA from the Resident Representatives of Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, the Slovak Republic, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America, concerning the export of nuclear material and of certain categories of equipment and other material

  14. Communications Received from Members Regarding the Export of Nuclear Material and of Certain Categories of Equipment and other Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    The Director General has received letters dated 3 September 1990 from the Resident Representatives to the Agency of Australia, Canada, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Finland, the German Democratic Republic, the Federal Republic of Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Japan, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Sweden, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United States of America concerning the commitments of these Member States under Article III, paragraph 2, of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

  15. Communications Received from Certain Member States Regarding Guidelines for Transfers of Nuclear-related Dual-use Equipment, Materials, Software and Related Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency has received Notes Verbales, dated 1 December 2005, from the Resident Representatives to the Agency of Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Poland, Portugal, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America, relating to transfers of nuclear-related dual-use equipment, materials, software and related technology [es

  16. Communication received from the Permanent Mission of Denmark to the Agency regarding Guidelines for the Export of Nuclear Material, Equipment and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency has received Notes Verbales, dated 1 December 2005, from the Resident Representatives to the Agency of Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Croatia, Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Poland, Portugal, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America, relating to the export of nuclear material, equipment and technology

  17. Communication received from the Member States of the European Community regarding the provision of certain additional information on production, inventories and international transfers of nuclear material and on exports of certain relevant equipment and non-nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    The document reproduces the text of the note verbale received by the Director General on 30 November 1992 from the Permanent Missions to the Agency of Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, relating to the provision of certain additional information on production, inventories and international transfer of nuclear material and on exports of certain relevant equipment and non-nuclear material. The note verbale dated 23 November 1992, received by the Director General from the Commission of the European Communities and relating to the same subject, is reproduced as well

  18. Communications Received from Certain Member States Regarding Guidelines for the Export of Nuclear Material, Equipment and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency has received Notes Verbales, dated 1 December 2005, from the Resident Representatives to the Agency of Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Croatia, Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Poland, Portugal, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America, relating to the export of nuclear material, equipment and technology

  19. Communications Received from Certain Member States Regarding Guidelines for the Export of Nuclear Material, Equipment and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency has received Notes Verbales, dated 1 December 2005, from the Resident Representatives to the Agency of Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Croatia, Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Poland, Portugal, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America, relating to the export of nuclear material, equipment and technology [es

  20. Communication received from the Permanent Mission of Denmark to the Agency regarding Guidelines for the Export of Nuclear Material, Equipment and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency has received Notes Verbales, dated 1 December 2005, from the Resident Representatives to the Agency of Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Croatia, Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Poland, Portugal, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America, relating to the export of nuclear material, equipment and technology [es

  1. Communications Received from Certain Member States Regarding Guidelines for Transfers of Nuclear-related Dual-use Equipment, Materials, Software and Related Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency has received Notes Verbales, dated 1 December 2005, from the Resident Representatives to the Agency of Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Poland, Portugal, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America, relating to transfers of nuclear-related dual-use equipment, materials, software and related technology

  2. Communications of 30 November 1995 received from certain Member States regarding guidelines for the export of nuclear material, equipment and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-19

    The Director General has received notes verbales of 30 November 1995 from the Resident Representatives to the Agency of Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, the Slovak Republic, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America relating to the export of nuclear material, equipment and technology. The purpose of the notes verbales is to provide further information on those Governments` Guidelines for transfers of nuclear-related dual-use equipment, material and related technology.

  3. Gas and electricity prices in France and in the European Union in 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Zheng

    2015-10-01

    This publication presents and comments tables and graphs of data related to natural gas prices for enterprises and for households and to their evolution between 2013 and 2014, to the electricity price for enterprises and for households and to their evolution between 2013 and 2014 in European countries (Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Germany, Denmark, Estonia, Spain, Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Croatia, Ireland, Italy, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Latvia, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Sweden, Slovenia, Slovakia, United Kingdom), in the euro Zone (19 countries), and in the European Union as a whole

  4. A polyphasic approach to assess the cyanobacterial diversity of summer samples from Czech reservoirs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boutte, Ch.; Komárková, Jaroslava; Grubisic, S.; Znachor, Petr; Bataille, A.; Zapomělová, E.; Gullukaya, A.; Jezberová, Jitka; Wilmotte, A.

    -, č. 117 (2005), s. 177-195 ISSN 0342-1120. [Symposium of the International Association for Cyanophyte Research /16./. Luxembourg, 30.08.2004-03.09.2004] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IBS6017004 Grant - others:EU(XE) MIDI-CHIP EVK2-CT-1999-00026; BFSP(BE) B-BLOOMS EVK2/34 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : DGGE * 16S rRNA * cyanobacteria * eutrophic reservoirs Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  5. Le train de l’histoire : une géographie.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Lévy

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available En prévision de la grève qui allait affecter son réseau le 2 juin 2005, la Société nationale des chemins de fer français a acheté dans la presse de son pays de vastes espaces publicitaires pour indiquer quels trains circuleraient ce jour-là. Dans la rubrique des trains « au départ de la province », on trouvait notamment les points d’origine suivants : Bâle, Barcelone, Berlin, Brigue, Bruxelles, Chur [Coire], Francfort, Hambourg, Lausanne, Luxembourg, Madrid, Munich, Rome, ...

  6. World Energy Data System (WENDS). Volume III. Country data, LY-PO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    The World Energy Data System contains organized data on those countries and international organizations that may have critical impact on the world energy scene. Included in this volume, Vol. III, are Libya, Luxembourg, Malaysia, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, Poland, and Portugal. The following topics are covered for most of the countries: economic, demographic, and educational profiles; energy policy; indigenous energy resources and uses; forecasts, demand, exports, imports of energy supplies; environmental considerations of energy supplies; power production facilities; energy industries; commercial applications of energy; research and development activities of energy; and international activities.

  7. Applying consequential LCA to support energy policy: Land use change effects of bioenergy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vázquez-Rowe, Ian, E-mail: ian.vazquez@tudor.lu; Marvuglia, Antonino; Rege, Sameer; Benetto, Enrico

    2014-02-01

    Luxembourg aims at complying with the EU objective of attaining a 14% use of bioenergy in the national grid by 2020. The increase of biomethane production from energy crops could be a valuable option in achieving this objective. However, the overall environmental benefit of such option is yet to be proven. Consequential Life Cycle Assessment (CLCA) has shown to be a useful tool to evaluate the environmental suitability of future energy scenarios and policies. The objective of this study was, therefore, to evaluate the environmental consequences of modifying the Luxembourgish agricultural system to increase maize production for biomethane generation. A total of 10 different scenarios were modelled using a partial equilibrium (PE) model to identify changes in land cultivation based on farmers' revenue maximisation, which were then compared to the baseline scenario, i.e. the state of the agricultural sector in 2009. The results were divided into three different consequential decision contexts, presenting differing patterns in terms of land use changes (LUCs) but with minor shifts in environmental impacts. Nevertheless, energy from maize production would imply substantially higher environmental impacts when compared with the current use of natural gas, mainly due to increases in climate change and agricultural land occupation impacts. The results are discussed based on the consequences they may generate on the bioenergy policy, the management of arable land, the changes in import–export flows in Luxembourg and LUCs in the domestic agricultural system. In addition, the specific PE + LCA method presented intends to be of use for other regional studies in which a high level of site-specific data is available. - Highlights: • Partial equilibrium (PE) model created for the agricultural sector in Luxembourg • PE model combined with a consequential LCA approach to support energy policy • The impact of LUCs due to the additional production of maize for energy was

  8. Communications received from Members regarding the export of nuclear material and of certain categories of equipment and other material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    The Director General has received a letter dated 7 October 1993 from the Permanent Mission of Bulgaria, letters dated 8 October 1993 from the Permanent Missions of Australia, Austria, Canada, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Japan, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, the Russian Federation, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the United States of America, and a letter dated 11 October 1993 from the Permanent Mission of Poland to the International Atomic Energy Agency concerning the export of nuclear material and of certain categories of equipment and other material. Text of the letter is presented

  9. Communication of 30 June 1995 Received from France Regarding the Export of Nuclear Material and of Certain Categories of Equipment and Other Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    The Director General has received letters concerning the export of nuclear material and of certain categories of equipment and other material from the following Resident Representatives to the International Atomic Energy Agency: a letter dated 28 February 1994 from the Resident Representative of France; letters dated 1 March 1994 from the Resident Representatives of Australia, Austria, Bulgaria, Canada, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United States of America; and a letter dated 22 March 1994 from the Resident Representative of Romania [ru

  10. Communications received from Member States regarding the Export of Nuclear Material and of Certain Categories of Equipment and other Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The Director General has received letters concerning the export of nuclear material and of certain categories of equipment and other material from the following Resident Representatives to the International Atomic Energy Agency: a letter dated 28 February 1994 from the Resident Representative of France; letters dated 1 March 1994 from the Resident Representatives of Australia, Austria, Bulgaria, Canada, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United States of America; and a letter dated 22 March 1994 from the Resident Representative of Romania [es

  11. The Central Biobank and Virtual Biobank of BIOMARKAPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reijs, Babette L R; Teunissen, Charlotte E; Goncharenko, Nikolai

    2015-01-01

    Biobanks are important resources for biomarker discovery and assay development. Biomarkers for Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease (BIOMARKAPD) is a European multicenter study, funded by the EU Joint Programme-Neurodegenerative Disease Research, which aims to improve the clinical use of body fluid......Bank of Luxembourg. The virtual biobank provides an overview of available CSF, plasma, serum, and DNA samples at each site. Currently, at the central biobank of BIOMARKAPD samples are available from over 400 subjects with normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), AD, frontotemporal dementia (FTD), vascular...

  12. Communications received from certain member states regarding guidelines for the export of nuclear material, equipment and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    The document reproduces the text of the notes verbales dated 1 June 1992, received by the Director General from the Resident Representatives to the Agency of Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Czech and Slovak Federal Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America relating to the export of nuclear material, equipment for technology. The purpose of these notes verbales is to clarify parts of the Trigger List incorporated in the Annex A to the Guidelines for Nuclear Transfer. 1 tab

  13. Communications Received from Certain Member States Regarding Guidelines for Transfers of Nuclear-related Dual-use Equipment, Materials, Software and Related Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency has received Notes Verbales, dated 1 December 2005, from the Resident Representatives to the Agency of Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Poland, Portugal, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America, relating to transfers of nuclear-related dual-use equipment, materials, software and related technology [fr

  14. Hours of Paid Work in Duel Earner Couples: The U.S. in Cross-National Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, Jerry A.; Gornick, Janet C.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we examine the hours of paid work of husbands and wives in ten industrialized countries, using data from the Luxembourg Income Study. We present results on the average hours of paid work put in jointly by couples, on the proportion working very long weekly hours, and on gender equality in working time within families. The United States ranks at or near the top on most indicators of working time for couples, because of 1) a high proportion of dual-earner couples; 2) long average ...

  15. Denmark country report 2017

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Lotte; Rostgaard, Tine

    2017-01-01

    The LP&R network produces an annual review of leave policies and related research, starting in 2004. The review covers Maternity, Paternity and Parental leaves; leave to care for sick children and other employment-related measures to support working parents; and early childhood education and care......, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Korea, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russian Federation, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States of America and Uruguay....

  16. Denmark country report 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Lotte; Rostgaard, Tine

    2016-01-01

    The LP&R network produces an annual review of leave policies and related research, starting in 2004. The review covers Maternity, Paternity and Parental leaves; leave to care for sick children and other employment-related measures to support working parents; and early childhood education and care....... In addition to the new country, these are: Australia, Austria, Brazil, Belgium, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal...

  17. Denmark country note

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Lotte; Rostgaard, Tine

    2014-01-01

    The LP&R network produces an annual review of leave policies and related research, starting in 2004 (for earlier reviews, go to Archive 2005-2013). The review covers Maternity, Paternity and Parental leaves; leave to care for sick children and other employment-related measures to support working......, Israel. Altogether, it covers 35 countries. In addition to Israel, these are: Austria, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland...

  18. Applying consequential LCA to support energy policy: Land use change effects of bioenergy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vázquez-Rowe, Ian; Marvuglia, Antonino; Rege, Sameer; Benetto, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Luxembourg aims at complying with the EU objective of attaining a 14% use of bioenergy in the national grid by 2020. The increase of biomethane production from energy crops could be a valuable option in achieving this objective. However, the overall environmental benefit of such option is yet to be proven. Consequential Life Cycle Assessment (CLCA) has shown to be a useful tool to evaluate the environmental suitability of future energy scenarios and policies. The objective of this study was, therefore, to evaluate the environmental consequences of modifying the Luxembourgish agricultural system to increase maize production for biomethane generation. A total of 10 different scenarios were modelled using a partial equilibrium (PE) model to identify changes in land cultivation based on farmers' revenue maximisation, which were then compared to the baseline scenario, i.e. the state of the agricultural sector in 2009. The results were divided into three different consequential decision contexts, presenting differing patterns in terms of land use changes (LUCs) but with minor shifts in environmental impacts. Nevertheless, energy from maize production would imply substantially higher environmental impacts when compared with the current use of natural gas, mainly due to increases in climate change and agricultural land occupation impacts. The results are discussed based on the consequences they may generate on the bioenergy policy, the management of arable land, the changes in import–export flows in Luxembourg and LUCs in the domestic agricultural system. In addition, the specific PE + LCA method presented intends to be of use for other regional studies in which a high level of site-specific data is available. - Highlights: • Partial equilibrium (PE) model created for the agricultural sector in Luxembourg • PE model combined with a consequential LCA approach to support energy policy • The impact of LUCs due to the additional production of maize for energy was

  19. Photothermal Thermography Applied to the Non-destructive Testing of Different Types of Works of Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnar, J. L.; Mouhoubi, K.; Szatanik-Perrier, G.; Vallet, J. M.; Detalle, V.

    2012-11-01

    In this article, various cases in helping to restore works of art by stimulated infrared thermography are presented. First, the method allows detecting old restorations found on a mural painting in the French senate. Then, it is demonstrated how the photothermal method enables determination of the underlying structure of the mural painting "The Apotheosis of Saint Bruno" in the Charterhouse of Villeneuve-lez-Avignon. Finally, the method allows locating separate canvas paintings on "Avenant de l'aurore" in the "Luxembourg" French Senate building.

  20. Communications of 30 November 1995 received from certain Member States regarding guidelines for the export of nuclear material, equipment and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The Director General has received notes verbales of 30 November 1995 from the Resident Representatives to the Agency of Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, the Slovak Republic, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America relating to the export of nuclear material, equipment and technology. The purpose of the notes verbales is to provide further information on those Governments' Guidelines for transfers of nuclear-related dual-use equipment, material and related technology

  1. Communication of 30 June 1995 Received from France Regarding the Export of Nuclear Material and of Certain Categories of Equipment and Other Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Director General has received letters concerning the export of nuclear material and of certain categories of equipment and other material from the following Resident Representatives to the International Atomic Energy Agency: a letter dated 28 February 1994 from the Resident Representative of France; letters dated 1 March 1994 from the Resident Representatives of Australia, Austria, Bulgaria, Canada, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United States of America; and a letter dated 22 March 1994 from the Resident Representative of Romania [es

  2. Communications received from Member States regarding the Export of Nuclear Material and of Certain Categories of Equipment and other Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Director General has received letters concerning the export of nuclear material and of certain categories of equipment and other material from the following Resident Representatives to the International Atomic Energy Agency: a letter dated 28 February 1994 from the Resident Representative of France; letters dated 1 March 1994 from the Resident Representatives of Australia, Austria, Bulgaria, Canada, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United States of America; and a letter dated 22 March 1994 from the Resident Representative of Romania [fr

  3. Communication of 30 June 1995 Received from France Regarding the Export of Nuclear Material and of Certain Categories of Equipment and Other Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Director General has received letters concerning the export of nuclear material and of certain categories of equipment and other material from the following Resident Representatives to the International Atomic Energy Agency: a letter dated 28 February 1994 from the Resident Representative of France; letters dated 1 March 1994 from the Resident Representatives of Australia, Austria, Bulgaria, Canada, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United States of America; and a letter dated 22 March 1994 from the Resident Representative of Romania

  4. How much do we spend on prescription medicines? Out-of-pocket costs for patients in Australia and other OECD countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Anna; Preen, David B; Glover, John; Semmens, James; Roughead, Elizabeth E

    2011-08-01

    To determine changes in out-of-pocket expenditure on prescription medicines for Australian patients, and how patient expenditure compares with other Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries. We examined out-of-pocket expenditure on prescription medicines by patients in Australia between 1970 and 2007, and between Australia and 15 other OECD countries (Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, Republic of Korea (South Korea), Luxembourg, Poland, Slovak Republic, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United States) in 2005. Spending on publicly subsidised medicines by Australian patients increased from $16 per person in 1971 to $62 in 2007. Patient expenditure on all prescription medicines had risen to $134 per person in 2007. Out-of-pocket expenditure for Australian patients ranked 4th of 14 OCED countries with universal pharmaceutical subsidies. Australian patients pay 28% of national pharmaceutical expenditure; more than patients in South Korea (27%), Slovak Republic (26%), Sweden (22%), France, Luxembourg, Japan and Switzerland (17%), Germany (15%), Czech Republic (11%) and Spain (6%), but less than patients in Finland (36%), Denmark (33%) and Poland (34%). Compared to other OECD countries, Australian out-of-pocket costs are now in the mid to upper range. Further increases have the potential to significantly affect access to care.

  5. More does not always mean better – the problem of working time in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Ignaciuk

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of an eight-hour working day and forty eight-hour working week was the result of many years of struggle of the workers of Europe and America, demanding respect for their rights, including the right to leisure and family life. Currently, in many European countries, average working time is shorter than that established by the International Labour Conference in the Convention of 1919. The longest – 40 hour working time – valid in Greece, Malta and in most countries of the former socialist bloc (with the exception of Slovakia and the Czech Republic. In the so-called fifteen countries (EU-15 average weekly working hours (excluding overtime in 2007 was 37.9 hours. According to official statistics in all countries of the European Union, the actual working time is longer than that specified in collective agreements. Employees work the longest in Austria, Greece, Great Britain, the Czech Republic and Poland, while the shortest is in Luxembourg.It was observed that there is an inverse relationship between working time and work efficiency. In countries, where workers have the most days off from work and/or shortest time, labor productivity is the largest (eg, Luxembourg, Sweden, Ireland, France and Germany. The effects of fatigue for workers not only have an impact on staff competencies, but also imprint their mark on the sphere of social life and the whole economy. Therefore, the concern should be treated any ideas for extending working hours.

  6. Communications Received from Certain Member States Regarding Guidelines for Transfers of Nuclear-related Dual-use Equipment, Materials, Software and Related Technology; Communications recues de certains Etats Membres concernant les directives applicables aux transferts d'equipements, de matieres et de logiciels a double usage dans le domaine nucleaire, ainsi que de technologies connexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-04-10

    The Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency has received Notes Verbales, dated 1 December 2005, from the Resident Representatives to the Agency of Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Poland, Portugal, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America, relating to transfers of nuclear-related dual-use equipment, materials, software and related technology [French] Le Directeur general de l'Agence internationale de l'energie atomique a recu des notes verbales datees du 1er decembre 2006 des representants permanents aupres de l'Agence des Etats suivants : Afrique du Sud, Allemagne, Argentine, Australie, Autriche, Belarus, Belgique, Bresil, Bulgarie, Canada, Croatie, Espagne, Estonie, Etats-Unis d'Amerique, Finlande, France, Grece, Hongrie, Irlande, Italie, Japon, Lettonie, Lituanie, Luxembourg, Malte, Nouvelle-Zelande, Pays-Bas, Pologne, Portugal, Republique de Coree, Republique tcheque, Royaume-Uni de Grande-Bretagne et d'Irlande du Nord, Slovenie, Suede, Suisse, Turquie et Ukraine, au sujet des transferts d'equipements, de matieres et de logiciels e double usage dans le domaine nucleaire, ainsi que de technologies connexes.

  7. Adherence to physical activity recommendations and its associated factors: an interregional population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ala'a Alkerwi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Though the influence of physical activity in preventing cardiovascular diseases is well documented, only a few comparative studies have determined the degree of adherence to physical activity recommendations among populations and identified the demographic, socioeconomic, behavioural and health-related factors associated with good compliance. Design and methods. Cross-sectional interregional NESCaV survey of 3133 subjects compared three populations, Luxembourg, Lorraine (France and Wallonia (Belgium, by using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Age and gender prevalence rates of physical activity were standardized to the European population. Results. The likelihood to meet the recommendations was higher in Luxembourg, after adjustment for age, gender, education, employment, weight status, morbidity score, health perception and level of importance attributed to the practice of physical activity (P<0.0001. The odds for meeting the recommendations were significantly higher among those with secondary than tertiary education. Compared to good self-health perception, subjects with poor or fair self-perceived health were less likely to meet the recommendations; this also applied to those attributing little or enough importance to physical activity compared with great importance. Conclusions. Region, education, self-perceived health and perception of importance of physical activity were emerged as independent determinants of meeting the recommendations. Awareness of the positive health effects of physical activity might thus be crucial for motivating the people to become more active. Further research is needed to explore potential region-specific factors which might explain the difference in population behaviours with respect to physical activity.

  8. Pharmacotherapy of panic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles B Pull

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Charles B Pull1, Cristian Damsa21Department of Neurosciences, Centre Hospitalier de Luxembourg, Luxembourg; 2Department of Psychiatry, Clinical Investigation Program, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, USAAbstract: Panic disorder (PD is a common, persistent and disabling mental disorder. It is often associated with agoraphobia. The present article reviews the current status of pharmacotherapy for PD with or without agoraphobia as well as the current status of treatments combing pharmacotherapy with cognitive behavior therapy (CBT. The review has been written with a focus on randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses, and reviews that have been published over the past few years. Effective pharmacological treatments include tricyclic antidepressants, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, and various benzodiazepines. Treatment results obtained with CBT compare well with pharmacotherapy, with evidence that CBT is at least as effective as pharmacotherapy. Combining pharmacotherapy with CBT has been found to be superior to antidepressant pharmacotherapy or CBT alone, but only in the acute-phase treatment. Long term studies on treatments combining pharmacotherapy and CBT for PD with or without agoraphobia have found little benefit, however, for combination therapies versus monotherapies. New investigations explore the potential additional value of sequential versus concomitant treatments, of cognitive enhancers and virtual reality exposure therapy, and of education, self management and Internet-based interventions.Keywords: Panic disorder, agoraphobia, pharmacotherapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, combination treatments.

  9. Remote Teaching of Histopathology Using Scanned Slides via Skype Between the United Kingdom and Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotimi, Olorunda; Orah, Nnamdi; Shaaban, Abeer; Daramola, Adetola O; Abdulkareem, Fatimah B

    2017-02-01

    -Web-based learning is a major component of distance education. -To explore Web-based applications for pathology teaching in resource-limited sub-Saharan Africa. -The participants were consultant pathologists and trainees drawn from tertiary institutions in Nigeria. They viewed the digital slides via the Leeds virtual pathology Web site, after which, interactive lectures were given via Skype (Skype Communications, Luxembourg City, Luxembourg). Questionnaires were administered via SurveyMonkey (Palo Alto, California) to all participants of 12 sessions between 2014 and 2015. -Nine consultant pathologists and 33 trainees participated in this survey. Of all respondents, 29 (69%) thought it was fairly easy to navigate the system, 11 (26.2%) thought it was easy, whereas 2 (4.8%) felt it was difficult. In addition, 26 respondents (61.9%) found it fairly easy to make a make a diagnosis, 13 (31%) thought it was easy, and 3 (7.1%) noted that it was difficult. Twenty-four respondents (57.1%) had a fairly smooth user experience, 12 (28.6%) experienced occasional crashes, whereas 6 (14.3%) reported a smooth experience. Almost all (41 of 42; 97.6%) respondents felt the pathology teaching was beneficial to their local pathology practice, and all (100%) indicated the need for additional, similar sessions. -The beneficial applications of Internet-based lectures make them a viable, cheaper, and cost-effective alternative to face-to-face lectures in our environment.

  10. A comparison of inpatient versus outpatient resistance patterns of pediatric urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saperston, Kara N; Shapiro, Daniel J; Hersh, Adam L; Copp, Hillary L

    2014-05-01

    Prior single center studies showed that antibiotic resistance patterns differ between outpatients and inpatients. We compared antibiotic resistance patterns for urinary tract infection between outpatients and inpatients on a national level. We examined outpatient and inpatient urinary isolates from children younger than 18 years using The Surveillance Network (Eurofins Scientific, Luxembourg, Luxembourg), a database of antibiotic susceptibility results, as well as patient demographic data from 195 American hospitals. We determined the prevalence and antibiotic resistance patterns of the 6 most common uropathogens, including Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus. We compared differences in uropathogen prevalence and resistance patterns for outpatient and inpatient isolates using chi-square analysis. We identified 25,418 outpatient (86% female) and 5,560 inpatient (63% female) urinary isolates. Escherichia coli was the most common uropathogen overall but its prevalence varied by gender and visit setting, that is 79% of uropathogens overall for outpatient isolates, including 83% of females and 50% of males, compared to 54% for overall inpatient isolates, including 64% of females and 37% of males (p resistance to many antibiotics was lower in the outpatient vs inpatient setting, including trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole 24% vs 30% and cephalothin 16% vs 22% for E. coli (each p resistance rates of several antibiotics are higher for urinary specimens obtained from inpatients vs outpatients. Separate outpatient vs inpatient based antibiograms can aid in empirical prescribing for pediatric urinary tract infections. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cross-linguistic and cross-cultural effects on verbal working memory and vocabulary: testing language-minority children with an immigrant background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu, Pascale M J Engel; Baldassi, Martine; Puglisi, Marina L; Befi-Lopes, Debora M

    2013-04-01

    In this study, the authors explored the impact of test language and cultural status on vocabulary and working memory performance in multilingual language-minority children. Twenty 7-year-old Portuguese-speaking immigrant children living in Luxembourg completed several assessments of first (L1)- and second-language (L2) vocabulary (comprehension and production), executive-loaded working memory (counting recall and backward digit recall), and verbal short-term memory (digit recall and nonword repetition). Cross-linguistic task performance was compared within individuals. The language-minority children were also compared with multilingual language-majority children from Luxembourg and Portuguese-speaking monolinguals from Brazil without an immigrant background matched on age, sex, socioeconomic status, and nonverbal reasoning. Results showed that (a) verbal working memory measures involving numerical memoranda were relatively independent of test language and cultural status; (b) language status had an impact on the repetition of high- but not on low-wordlike L2 nonwords; (c) large cross-linguistic and cross-cultural effects emerged for productive vocabulary; (d) cross-cultural effects were less pronounced for vocabulary comprehension with no differences between groups if only L1 words relevant to the home context were considered. The study indicates that linguistic and cognitive assessments for language-minority children require careful choice among measures to ensure valid results. Implications for testing culturally and linguistically diverse children are discussed.

  12. Combination of equilibrium models and hybrid life cycle-input–output analysis to predict the environmental impacts of energy policy scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igos, Elorri; Rugani, Benedetto; Rege, Sameer; Benetto, Enrico; Drouet, Laurent; Zachary, Daniel S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The environmental impacts of two energy policy scenarios in Luxembourg are assessed. • Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) and Partial Equilibrium (PE) models are used. • Results from coupling of CGE and PE are integrated in hybrid Life Cycle Assessment. • Impacts due to energy related production and imports are likely to grow over time. • Carbon mitigation policies seem to not substantially decrease the impacts’ trend. - Abstract: Nowadays, many countries adopt an active agenda to mitigate the impact of greenhouse gas emissions by moving towards less polluting energy generation technologies. The environmental costs, directly or indirectly generated to achieve such a challenging objective, remain however largely underexplored. Until now, research has focused either on pure economic approaches such as Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) and partial equilibrium (PE) models, or on (physical) energy supply scenarios. These latter could be used to evaluate the environmental impacts of various energy saving or cleaner technologies via Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology. These modelling efforts have, however, been pursued in isolation, without exploring the possible complementarities and synergies. In this study, we have undertaken a practical combination of these approaches into a common framework: on the one hand, by coupling a CGE with a PE model, and, on the other hand, by linking the outcomes from the coupling with a hybrid input–output−process based life cycle inventory. The methodological framework aimed at assessing the environmental consequences of two energy policy scenarios in Luxembourg between 2010 and 2025. The study highlights the potential of coupling CGE and PE models but also the related methodological difficulties (e.g. small number of available technologies in Luxembourg, intrinsic limitations of the two approaches, etc.). The assessment shows both environmental synergies and trade-offs due to the implementation of

  13. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This section treats of the following National legislative and regulatory activities: 1 - Argentina: Organisation and structure; 2 - France: Radioactive waste management (Act No. 2016-1015 of 25 July 2016 specifying the procedures for creating a reversible deep geological repository for long-lived medium and high-level radioactive waste), Liability and compensation (Decree No. 2016-333 of 21 March 2016 implementing Article L. 597-28 of the French Environmental Code and relating to third party liability in the field of nuclear energy; Ministerial Order of 19 August 2016 listing the sites benefiting from a reduced amount of liability pursuant to decree No. 2016-333 of 21 March 2016 implementing Article L. 597-28 of the French Environmental Code and relating to third party liability in the field of nuclear energy), Nuclear facilities (Decree No. 2016-846 of 28 June 2016 related to the modification, final shutdown and decommissioning of basic nuclear installations, and to subcontracting); 3 - Germany: Nuclear trade - including non-proliferation (Amendments to the Foreign Trade Act and the Foreign Trade Ordinance (2015)), Radioactive waste management (Act on the Organisational Restructuring in the Field of Radioactive Waste Management (2016); Final report of the Commission to Review the Financing for the Phase-out of Nuclear Energy; Draft Bill of an Act on the Reorganisation of the Responsibility of Nuclear Waste Disposal (2016)); 4 - Lithuania: Nuclear safety and radiological protection (including nuclear emergency planning), Nuclear security (Physical security of sources of ionising radiation), Radioactive waste management, Licensing and regulatory infrastructure (Enforcement measures); 5 - Luxembourg: Radioactive waste management (Agreement between the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg and the Kingdom of Belgium on the Management and Final Disposal of the Radioactive Waste of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg on the Territory of the Kingdom of Belgium, signed on 4 July 2016); 6

  14. TRAVEL IN THE SCHENGEN AREA

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2001-01-01

    You are reminded that holders of French residence permits (for example, the carte spéciale issued by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, a resident's card, a temporary residence card or a receipt issued during the renewal of such residence documents) do not need visas for tourist travel (including conferences) to countries applying the provisions of the Schengen Convention, provided that the duration of the travel is less than three months. The countries applying the provisions of the Schengen Convention are Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal and Spain; and since 25 March 2001 Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. For longer stays and for other than tourist visits, you are strongly advised to make enquiries at the relevant consulates.http://www.cern.ch/relations/

  15. Pour un puissant service public international

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2012-01-01

    Les différentes organisations internationales et européennes basées en Europe emploient des dizaines de milliers de fonctionnaires publics internationaux et européens. Les membres du personnel de ces organisations sont soumis à divers régimes de droit juridique et doivent faire appel contre les décisions administratives avant d’aller aux différents tribunaux administratifs internationaux (e.g. TAOIT, TANU, TFPU, TAOCDE). CERN, une des organisations les plus importantes, se doit d’être à l’affut des derniers développements dans ce domaine. L’Association du personnel a donc envoyé des représentants à un colloque sur « les évolutions de la protection juridictionnelle des fonctionnaires internationaux et européens » qui a eu lieu au Luxembourg le 1 et 2 avril 2011. Nous n&rsqu...

  16. Regional European Specialization and Concentration in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Neculita

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Enlargement has become a fundamental priority of the European Union after the 90’s. Up to now seven rounds have been held for enlarging the Community which initially was made up of six Member States (Belgium, Germany, France, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands. Among all EU enlargements, the eastward enlargement from 2004 was the biggest challenge, both due to the number of new Member States which joined - the number of EU inhabitants increasing to approximately from 380 to 485 million, but also due to the difference of Gross Domestic Product between the old and new EU members. This paper aims to provide insights in European integration and absorption of European funds into the newest that joined the European Union. The paper proposes an analysis of integration and specialization in Eastern Europe by means of data and statistics provided by European and national statistics institutions.

  17. Intake of Lutein-Rich Vegetables Is Associated with Higher Levels of Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Crichton

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Levels of physical inactivity, a major contributor to burden of disease, are high in many countries. Some preliminary research suggests that circulating lutein concentrations are associated with high levels of physical activity (PA. We aimed to assess whether the intake of lutein-containing foods, including vegetables and eggs, is associated with levels of PA in two studies conducted in different countries. Dietary data and PA data collected from participants in two cross-sectional studies: the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study (MSLS, conducted in Central New York, USA (n = 972, and the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg Study (ORISCAV-LUX (n = 1331 were analyzed. Higher intakes of lutein containing foods, including green leafy vegetables, were associated with higher levels of PA in both study sites. Increasing the consumption of lutein-rich foods may have the potential to impact positively on levels of PA. This needs to be further explored in randomized controlled trials.

  18. Evaluating Living Standard Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birčiaková Naďa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the evaluation of selected available indicators of living standards, divided into three groups, namely economic, environmental, and social. We have selected six countries of the European Union for analysis: Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Luxembourg, France, and Great Britain. The aim of this paper is to evaluate indicators measuring living standards and suggest the most important factors which should be included in the final measurement. We have tried to determine what factors influence each indicator and what factors affect living standards. We have chosen regression analysis as our main method. From the study of factors, we can deduce their impact on living standards, and thus the value of indicators of living standards. Indicators with a high degree of reliability include the following factors: size and density of population, health care and spending on education. Emissions of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere also have a certain lower degree of reliability.

  19. THE EUROPEAN ROMANIA THROUGH THE WINDOW OF THE SCOREBOARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Susanu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available By the Winter EU Summit in December 18, 2004 in Brussels, Romania concluded the accession negotiations and on April 25, 2005 at Neumünster Abbey in Luxembourg the Treaty of Accession was signed, so that from January 1, 2007, it to became a EU member with full rights and obligations. In the seven years after accession one can say that many things have changed, but a careful contextual analysis of some relevant macroeconomic indicators for Romania creates the impression that the changes are not entirely appropriate to the schedule of assumed obligations. Longtime expectations of wealth and basic individual freedoms which animated the entire Romanian population in a national consensus of historical value are still a part of the aspiration and motivation for the social reconfiguration that came after decades of communist tough oppression and deprivation.

  20. The point on transports and their impact on environment: european comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cugny-Seguin, M.

    2009-01-01

    In Europe the volume of goods transport is increasing. The demand of road transport is not linked to economical activity of the country but is in correlation with the economic growth; It increased in the economies of new members states. As well the travelers transport as the final energy consumption of transports are not coupled with the gross national product. But the transports have an impact on environment. they are the first emitter of greenhouse gases in France, and the second one in Europe (of twenty five members). The atmospheric emissions of transport are reducing in Europe. This reduction is important for road transport. the environmental performances in France are near the average of the Europe of fifteen. because of their economic growth, Ireland, Spain and Luxembourg saw an important growth of the transport demand, of the energy consumption and emissions. (N.C.)

  1. Communication Received from the Permanent Mission of the Netherlands regarding Certain Member States' Guidelines for the Export of Nuclear Material, Equipment and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-12-01

    The Agency has received a Note Verbale from the Permanent Mission of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, dated 12 July 2011, in which it requests that the Agency circulate to all Member States a letter of 12 July 2011 from the Chairman of the Nuclear Suppliers Group, Ambassador Piet de Klerk, to the Director General, on behalf of the Governments of Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Republic of Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russian Federation, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America, providing further information on those Governments' Guidelines for Nuclear Transfers [es

  2. Contested ‘relational policy spaces’ in two European border regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dörry, Sabine; Walther, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Cross-border cooperation to promote economic development and political integration has been among the EU’s key themes since the 1990s, and contemporary policy networks are considered useful organisational solutions. Focusing on transport policies in the border regions of Basel and Luxembourg, we...... analyse measures of persistency of national preferences among policy actors, mapping their perceived ‘policy spaces of action’ and conceptualising these policy spaces as relational. We discuss two empirical findings: The networks’ various actors on either side of the border appear to perceive the actual...... ‘policy spaces’ very differently. Therefore, and due to the networks’ terminability, these policy spaces are highly contested and frequently negotiated between the actors. Based on a combination of in-depth interviews, sketch maps, and social network analysis, we show that large spatiocultural differences...

  3. Radioactive waste management and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, R.; Orlowski, S.

    1980-01-01

    The first European Community conference on Radioactive Waste Management and Disposal was held in Luxembourg, where twenty-five papers were presented by scientists involved in European Community contract studies and by members of the Commission's scientific staff. The following topics were covered: treatment and conditioning technology of solid intermediate level wastes, alpha-contaminated combustible wastes, gaseous wastes, hulls and dissolver residues and plutonium recovery; waste product evaluation which involves testing of solidified high level wastes and other waste products; engineering storage of vitrified high level wastes and gas storage; and geological disposal in salt, granite and clay formations which includes site characterization, conceptual repository design, waste/formation interactions, migration of radionuclides, safety analysis, mathematical modelling and risk assessment

  4. Energy industry in central and eastern Europe status of the accession negotiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, K.

    2003-01-01

    Energy was the starting point for the European Union with the signature of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) Treaty back in 1951. Germany, France, the Netherlands, Belgium, Italy and Luxembourg decided for the first time to create supranational and democratic institutions in the common interest of the European citizens. This was the basis for guiding Europe over the past fifty years towards the European Union of today. Now we are on the point of making a historic decision. Far more is at stake in this enlargement round than the simple acceptance of new Member States and the enlargement of the Union. It is a question of ending the artificial division of Europe brought about by two world wars and of taking a decisive step towards the completion of European unification. (orig.) [de

  5. Research in Institutional Economics in Management Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    This report maps research in institutional economics in management science in the European Union for the 1995 to 2002 period. The reports applies Internet search based on a university listing, search on journal databases, key informants and an internet-based survey. 195 researchers are identified....... In (sub-)disciplinary terms, organization, strategy, corporate governance, and international business are the major areas of application of institutional economics ideas. In terms of countries, the EU strongholds are Holland, Denmark, UK, and Germany. There is apparently no or very little relevant...... research in Ireland, Portugal, Luxembourg and Greece. Based on the findings of the report, it seems warranted to characterize the EU research effort in the field as being rather dispersed and uncoordinated. Thus, there are no specialized journals, associations or PhD courses. This state of affairs...

  6. Ancient human genomes suggest three ancestral populations for present-day Europeans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaridis, Iosif; Patterson, Nick; Mittnik, Alissa; Renaud, Gabriel; Mallick, Swapan; Kirsanow, Karola; Sudmant, Peter H.; Schraiber, Joshua G.; Castellano, Sergi; Lipson, Mark; Berger, Bonnie; Economou, Christos; Bollongino, Ruth; Fu, Qiaomei; Bos, Kirsten I.; Nordenfelt, Susanne; Li, Heng; de Filippo, Cesare; Prüfer, Kay; Sawyer, Susanna; Posth, Cosimo; Haak, Wolfgang; Hallgren, Fredrik; Fornander, Elin; Rohland, Nadin; Delsate, Dominique; Francken, Michael; Guinet, Jean-Michel; Wahl, Joachim; Ayodo, George; Babiker, Hamza A.; Bailliet, Graciela; Balanovska, Elena; Balanovsky, Oleg; Barrantes, Ramiro; Bedoya, Gabriel; Ben-Ami, Haim; Bene, Judit; Berrada, Fouad; Bravi, Claudio M.; Brisighelli, Francesca; Busby, George B. J.; Cali, Francesco; Churnosov, Mikhail; Cole, David E. C.; Corach, Daniel; Damba, Larissa; van Driem, George; Dryomov, Stanislav; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel; Fedorova, Sardana A.; Romero, Irene Gallego; Gubina, Marina; Hammer, Michael; Henn, Brenna M.; Hervig, Tor; Hodoglugil, Ugur; Jha, Aashish R.; Karachanak-Yankova, Sena; Khusainova, Rita; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Kittles, Rick; Kivisild, Toomas; Klitz, William; Kučinskas, Vaidutis; Kushniarevich, Alena; Laredj, Leila; Litvinov, Sergey; Loukidis, Theologos; Mahley, Robert W.; Melegh, Béla; Metspalu, Ene; Molina, Julio; Mountain, Joanna; Näkkäläjärvi, Klemetti; Nesheva, Desislava; Nyambo, Thomas; Osipova, Ludmila; Parik, Jüri; Platonov, Fedor; Posukh, Olga; Romano, Valentino; Rothhammer, Francisco; Rudan, Igor; Ruizbakiev, Ruslan; Sahakyan, Hovhannes; Sajantila, Antti; Salas, Antonio; Starikovskaya, Elena B.; Tarekegn, Ayele; Toncheva, Draga; Turdikulova, Shahlo; Uktveryte, Ingrida; Utevska, Olga; Vasquez, René; Villena, Mercedes; Voevoda, Mikhail; Winkler, Cheryl; Yepiskoposyan, Levon; Zalloua, Pierre; Zemunik, Tatijana; Cooper, Alan; Capelli, Cristian; Thomas, Mark G.; Ruiz-Linares, Andres; Tishkoff, Sarah A.; Singh, Lalji; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Villems, Richard; Comas, David; Sukernik, Rem; Metspalu, Mait; Meyer, Matthias; Eichler, Evan E.; Burger, Joachim; Slatkin, Montgomery; Pääbo, Svante; Kelso, Janet; Reich, David; Krause, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    We sequenced the genomes of a ~7,000 year old farmer from Germany and eight ~8,000 year old hunter-gatherers from Luxembourg and Sweden. We analyzed these and other ancient genomes1–4 with 2,345 contemporary humans to show that most present Europeans derive from at least three highly differentiated populations: West European Hunter-Gatherers (WHG), who contributed ancestry to all Europeans but not to Near Easterners; Ancient North Eurasians (ANE) related to Upper Paleolithic Siberians3, who contributed to both Europeans and Near Easterners; and Early European Farmers (EEF), who were mainly of Near Eastern origin but also harbored WHG-related ancestry. We model these populations’ deep relationships and show that EEF had ~44% ancestry from a “Basal Eurasian” population that split prior to the diversification of other non-African lineages. PMID:25230663

  7. Practical approach to a procedure for judging the results of analytical verification measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyrich, W.; Spannagel, G.

    1979-01-01

    For practical safeguards a particularly transparent procedure is described to judge analytical differences between declared and verified values based on experimental data relevant to the actual status of the measurement technique concerned. Essentially it consists of two parts: Derivation of distribution curves for the occurrence of interlaboratory differences from the results of analytical intercomparison programmes; and judging of observed differences using criteria established on the basis of these probability curves. By courtesy of the Euratom Safeguards Directorate, Luxembourg, the applicability of this judging procedure has been checked in practical data verification for safeguarding; the experience gained was encouraging and implementation of the method is intended. Its reliability might be improved further by evaluation of additional experimental data. (author)

  8. THE RETIREMENT SYSTEM. FISCAL AND METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARINEL NEDELUŢ

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently, in most countries, but particularly in European and in the more developed world, heated discussions about reforming the current pension system. To address adequately the taxation of pension incomes in our country is very important to know and how this issue is regulated in different countries, but especially the European ones in the developed world. In terms of taxation of pensions, European countries are divided into three groups: 1. European countries where pension income is not taxed: Bulgaria, Slovakia and Lithuania. 2. European countries where pension income is subject to progressive taxation: Belgium, Cyprus, Greece, Finland, France, Ireland, Luxembourg, Malta, United Kingdom, Norway (not EU member, the Netherlands and Spain. 3. European countries where pension income is taxed based flat: Austria, Estonia, Germany, Latvia, Portugal, Romania, Sweden, Slovenia and Hungary.

  9. Jeux d’échelles, ou quand la quantité change la qualité

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Pumain

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Les jeux sont faits. La fièvre économique et urbaine s’est emparée de la Chine. Les media ont pris conscience du rôle mondial nouveau de ce pays, au cours de cette année 2004 que la France lui avait dédiée. Après le paradisiaque Luxembourg, mais devant les Etats-Unis, la Chine est devenue en ce début de XXIe siècle la principale destination des investissements étrangers dans le monde. Les taux de croissance à deux chiffres ont toujours fait rêver les spéculateurs et autres adeptes du profit à...

  10. A Collaborative Reasoning Maintenance System for a Reliable Application of Legislations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamisier, Thomas; Didry, Yoann; Parisot, Olivier; Feltz, Fernand

    Decision support systems are nowadays used to disentangle all kinds of intricate situations and perform sophisticated analysis. Moreover, they are applied in areas where the knowledge can be heterogeneous, partially un-formalized, implicit, or diffuse. The representation and management of this knowledge become the key point to ensure the proper functioning of the system and keep an intuitive view upon its expected behavior. This paper presents a generic architecture for implementing knowledge-base systems used in collaborative business, where the knowledge is organized into different databases, according to the usage, persistence and quality of the information. This approach is illustrated with Cadral, a customizable automated tool built on this architecture and used for processing family benefits applications at the National Family Benefits Fund of the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg.

  11. Quality of Work: Validation of a New Instrument in Three Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffgen, Georges; Kohl, Diane; Reese, Gerhard; Happ, Christian; Sischka, Philipp

    2015-11-26

    A new instrument to measure quality of work was developed in three languages (German, French and Luxembourgish) and validated in a study of employees working in Luxembourg. A representative sample (n = 1529) was taken and exploratory factor analysis revealed a six-factor solution for the 21-item instrument (satisfaction and respect, mobbing, mental strain at work, cooperation, communication and feedback, and appraisal). Reliability analysis showed satisfying reliability for all six factors and the total questionnaire. In order to examine the construct validity of the new instrument, regression analyses were conducted to test whether the instrument predicted work characteristics’ influence on three components of well-being -- burnout, psychological stress and maladaptive coping behaviors. The present validation offers a trilingual inventory for measuring quality of work that may be used, for example, as an assessment tool or for testing the effectiveness of interventions.

  12. Communication Received from the Permanent Mission of the United States of America to the International Atomic Energy Agency regarding Certain Member States' Guidelines for the Export of Nuclear Material, Equipment and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale from the Permanent Mission of the United States of America, dated 12 October 2012, in which it requests that the Agency circulates, to all Member States, a letter of 5 September 2012 from the Chairman of the Nuclear Suppliers Group, Mr Richard J.K. Stratford, to the Director General, on behalf of the Governments of Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Republic of Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russian Federation, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America, providing further information on those Governments' Guidelines for Nuclear Transfers

  13. Communication received from certain member states regarding guidelines for the export of nuclear material, equipment and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-16

    The document contains the text of note verbales dated 17 October 1996 received by the Director General of the IAEA from the Resident Representatives to the Agency of Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, the Russian Federation, the Slovak Republic, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United States of America relating to export of nuclear material, equipment and technology. A similar note verbal dated 30 July 1997 has been received by the Director General of the IAEA from the Resident Representative to the Agency of Brazil. The purpose of the notes verbale is to provide further information on those Governments` Guidelines for Nuclear Transfers.

  14. Communication Received from the Permanent Mission of the United States of America to the International Atomic Energy Agency regarding Certain Member States' Guidelines for the Export of Nuclear Material, Equipment and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale from the Permanent Mission of the United States of America, dated 12 October 2012, in which it requests that the Agency circulates, to all Member States, a letter of 5 September 2012 from the Chairman of the Nuclear Suppliers Group, Mr Richard J.K. Stratford, to the Director General, on behalf of the Governments of Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Republic of Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russian Federation, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America, providing further information on those Governments’ Guidelines for Nuclear Transfers [es

  15. AMFIE Information meetings

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

      Open to all members of personnel (users, staff, …) as well as retired staff. Public presentation with Question/Answer session Wednesday, November 28, 2012 from 12:00 to 13:00 Main Building, room C Private consultations on appointment Wednesday, November 28, 2012 from 10:00 to 11:30 and from 14:00 to 17:30 Main Building, room D AMFIE is a cooperative society open exclusively to international civil servants. It is managed by a group of active and retired international civil servants. Created in 1990 as a fully licensed financial institution, it is subject to the laws and regulations which govern the activities of Luxembourg's financial sector. The Cooperative offers its members a broad range of financial services and products at little or no cost in the seven currencies available to accounts holders (EUR, CHF, GBP, DKK, USD, CAD, AUD). www.amfie.org More information : - Indico - HR Department, tel 74125.

  16. AMFIE Information meetings

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Meetings open to all members of personnel (users, staff, etc) as well as retired staff.   Public presentation with question/answer session Wednesday 18 April 2012 From 12:00 to 13:00 In room 40-2-A01 Private consultations on appointment Wednesday 18 April 2012 From 10:00 to 11:30 and from 14:00 to 17:30 In room 5-5-028 AMFIE is a cooperative society open exclusively to international civil servants. It is managed by a group of active and retired international civil servants. Created in 1990 as a fully licensed financial institution, it is subject to the laws and regulations which govern the activities of Luxembourg's financial sector. The Cooperative offers its members a broad range of financial services and products at little or no cost in the six currencies available to account holders (EUR, CHF, GBP, USD, CAD, AUD). More information here. HR Department Tel. 74125

  17. Communication Received from the Permanent Mission of the Netherlands regarding Certain Member States' Guidelines for the Export of Nuclear Material, Equipment and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The Agency has received a Note Verbale from the Permanent Mission of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, dated 12 July 2011, in which it requests that the Agency circulate to all Member States a letter of 12 July 2011 from the Chairman of the Nuclear Suppliers Group, Ambassador Piet de Klerk, to the Director General, on behalf of the Governments of Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Republic of Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russian Federation, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America, providing further information on those Governments' Guidelines for Nuclear Transfers

  18. Communication Received from the Permanent Mission of the United States of America to the International Atomic Energy Agency regarding Certain Member States' Guidelines for the Export of Nuclear Material, Equipment and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale from the Permanent Mission of the United States of America, dated 12 October 2012, in which it requests that the Agency circulates, to all Member States, a letter of 5 September 2012 from the Chairman of the Nuclear Suppliers Group, Mr Richard J.K. Stratford, to the Director General, on behalf of the Governments of Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Republic of Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russian Federation, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America, providing further information on those Governments’ Guidelines for Nuclear Transfers

  19. Radiological consequences of radioactive effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, R.H.

    1979-01-01

    A study of the differential radiological impact of the nuclear fuel cycle with and without plutonium recycle is being undertaken jointly by the National Radiological Protection Board and the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA). A summary is given of the development of the methodology detailed in their first report to the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) (NRPB/CEA, A methodology for evaluating the radiological consequences of radioactive effluents released in normal operations. Luxembourg, CEC Doc. V/3011/75 EN (1979)). The Collective Effective Dose Equivalent Commitment was used in an attempt to assess the total health detriment. The application of the methodology within particular member states of the European Community has been discussed at seminars. Sensitivity analysis can identify the more important parameters for improving the accuracy of the assessment. (UK)

  20. Economic Conditions of Young Adults Before and After the Great Recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sironi, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Transition to adulthood has undoubtedly changed in the last few decades. For youth today, an important marker of adulthood is self-actualization in their professional career, and, consequently, also the achievement of stable financial conditions. Economic conditions of youth are greatly subject to fluctuations in the economy, and the subsequent governmental response. Using the Luxembourg Income Study, this work investigates the trends in income from work of young adults before and after the Great Recession of 2008 in five countries-US, UK, Norway, Germany, and Spain. The findings showed deterioration in economic conditions of young men, but with differences across countries. Young women suffered less from the crisis, and in some countries, their economic situation improved. The general negative trend was especially pronounced for those with high education, which is primarily because they stayed in education longer.

  1. Communications received from certain Member States regarding guidelines for the export of nuclear material, equipment and technology. Nuclear-related dual-use transfers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The Director General has received notes verbales dated 30 June 1995 from the Resident Representatives to the Agency of Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, the Slovak Republic, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United States of America relating to the export of nuclear material, equipment and technology. The purpose of the notes verbales is to provide further information on those Governments` Guidelines for Transfers of Nuclear-related Dual-use Equipment, Material and related Technology. In the light of the wish expressed at the end of each note verbale, the text of the notes verbales is annexed hereto. The enclosure to these notes verbales is also reproduced in full in the Annex.

  2. Royal Order of 27 July 1966 relating to the reciprocal recognition of licences for the import, transport, transit, and distribution of radioactive substances between the countries of the Benelux Economic Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1966-01-01

    This Royal Order made taking into account the 1958 Act on protection of the population against the hazards of ionizing radiations, the 1963 Royal Order embodying the general regulations on protection of the population and workers against the hazards of ionizing radiations and the 1966 recommendation of the Committee of Ministers of the Benelux Economic Union lays down that, notwithstanding Section 38 and 57 of the 1963 Royal Order, licences for the import, transport and transit of radioactive substances or devices containing them which are issued by the competent authorities of the Netherlands or Luxembourg are valid in Belgium. Also, a Belgia distributor of such substances or devices containing them must ensure that a consignee residing in either of these countries holds the licences required by his national law. (NEA) [fr

  3. A review of installed solar photovoltaic and thermal collector capacities in relation to solar potential for the EU-15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celik, Ali Naci; Muneer, Tariq; Clarke, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This article analyses the energy statistics of 15 European Union countries (EU-15), giving special emphasis to the installed solar photovoltaic and thermal collector capacity. The installed capacities per capita are analysed in relation to the solar radiation income of respective countries with the view to explore the relationship between the solar income and its utilisation as of the year 2006. In terms of the installed solar thermal collector capacity, Austria leads the statistics amongst the countries studied with 223W th collector capacity per capita, followed by Greece with 207W th . Except for Greece, it is observed that the countries with high solar radiation income are lacking to realise their solar potential. Regarding the installed photovoltaic power per capita, Luxembourg leads the pack by a wide margin with 47W p capacity, followed by Germany with 30W p . Fiscal instruments to invigorate the deployment of solar energy have also been identified in this work. (author)

  4. The challenges of organising cervical screening programmes in the 15 old member states of the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arbyn, Marc; Rebolj, Matejka; De Kok, Inge M C M

    2009-01-01

    Cervical cancer incidence and mortality can be reduced substantially by organised cytological screening at 3 to 5 year intervals, as was demonstrated in the Nordic countries, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands and parts of Italy. Opportunistic screening, often proposed at yearly schedules, has...... also reduced the burden of cervical cancer in some, but not all, of the other old member states (belonging to the European Union since 1995) but at a cost that is several times greater. Well organised screening programmes have the potential to achieve greater participation of the target population......, France, Germany, Greece, Luxembourg, Portugal and Spain) have not yet started national organised implementation of screening for cervical cancer. A decision was made by the Irish government to extend their pilot programme nationally while new regional programmes commenced in Portugal and Spain...

  5. Communications received from certain Member States regarding guidelines for the export of nuclear material, equipment and technology. Nuclear-related dual-use transfers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    The Director General has received notes verbales dated 30 June 1995 from the Resident Representatives to the Agency of Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, the Slovak Republic, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United States of America relating to the export of nuclear material, equipment and technology. The purpose of the notes verbales is to provide further information on those Governments' Guidelines for Transfers of Nuclear-related Dual-use Equipment, Material and related Technology. In the light of the wish expressed at the end of each note verbale, the text of the notes verbales is annexed hereto. The enclosure to these notes verbales is also reproduced in full in the Annex

  6. The text of the agreement of 11 June 1971 between Finland and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Suspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Agreement of 5 April 1973, and the Protocol thereto, between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article III(1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons came into force for Finland on 1 October 1995. As a result of the coming into force of the aforesaid Agreement for Finland, the application of safeguards under the Agreement of 11 June 1971, which entered into force on 9 February 1972, between Finland and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons has been suspended

  7. Dose optimisation in computed radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiner-Karoussou, A.

    2005-01-01

    After the installation of computed radiography (CR) systems in three hospitals in Luxembourg a patient dose survey was carried out for three radiographic examinations, thorax, pelvis and lumbar spine. It was found that the patient doses had changed in comparison with the patient doses measured for conventional radiography in the same three hospitals. A close collaboration between the manufacturers of the X-ray installations, the CR imaging systems and the medical physicists led to the discovery that the speed class with which each radiographic examination was to be performed, had been ignored, during installation of the digital imaging systems. A number of procedures were carried out in order to calibrate and program the X-ray installations in conjunction with the CR systems. Following this optimisation procedure, a new patient dose survey was carried out for the three radiographic examinations. It was found that patient doses for the three hospitals were reduced. (authors)

  8. Quality of Work: Validation of a New Instrument in Three Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Steffgen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: A new instrument to measure quality of work was developed in three languages (German, French and Luxembourgish and validated in a study of employees working in Luxembourg. Methods and results: A representative sample (n = 1529 was taken and exploratory factor analysis revealed a six-factor solution for the 21-item instrument (satisfaction and respect, mobbing, mental strain at work, cooperation, communication and feedback, and appraisal. Reliability analysis showed satisfying reliability for all six factors and the total questionnaire. In order to examine the construct validity of the new instrument, regression analyses were conducted to test whether the instrument predicted work characteristics’ influence on three components of well-being—burnout, psychological stress and maladaptive coping behaviors. Conclusion: The present validation offers a trilingual inventory for measuring quality of work that may be used, for example, as an assessment tool or for testing the effectiveness of interventions.

  9. Quality of Work: Validation of a New Instrument in Three Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffgen, Georges; Kohl, Diane; Reese, Gerhard; Happ, Christian; Sischka, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and objective: A new instrument to measure quality of work was developed in three languages (German, French and Luxembourgish) and validated in a study of employees working in Luxembourg. Methods and results: A representative sample (n = 1529) was taken and exploratory factor analysis revealed a six-factor solution for the 21-item instrument (satisfaction and respect, mobbing, mental strain at work, cooperation, communication and feedback, and appraisal). Reliability analysis showed satisfying reliability for all six factors and the total questionnaire. In order to examine the construct validity of the new instrument, regression analyses were conducted to test whether the instrument predicted work characteristics’ influence on three components of well-being—burnout, psychological stress and maladaptive coping behaviors. Conclusion: The present validation offers a trilingual inventory for measuring quality of work that may be used, for example, as an assessment tool or for testing the effectiveness of interventions. PMID:26703634

  10. Vers une nouvelle démocratie représentative

    OpenAIRE

    Poirier, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    La démocratie représentative au Luxembourg et les challenges auxquels elle est confrontée n’en font pas un cas d’espèce en Europe. Pourtant, l’ingénierie politique doit être aussi élevée voire plus forte qu’ailleurs en raison même de l’exposition internationale de son économie, sa capacité à demeurer attractive et compétitive et de sa composition démographique unique dans l’Union européenne au niveau des Etats. Il s’agit en l’occurrence d’« augmenter » la démocratie représentative au sens « a...

  11. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This section treats of the following National legislative and regulatory activities: 1 - France: General legislation, regulations and instruments; Nuclear trade (including non-proliferation); International co-operation; 2 - India: Licensing and regulatory infrastructure; Liability and compensation; 3 - Ireland: Nuclear safety and radiological protection (including nuclear emergency planning); Transport of radioactive material; Nuclear trade (including non-proliferation); 4 - Lithuania: Licensing and regulatory infrastructure; Nuclear safety and radiological protection (including nuclear emergency planning); Radioactive waste management; 5 - Luxembourg: Nuclear safety and radiological protection (including nuclear emergency planning); 6 - Slovak Republic: International co-operation; General legislation, regulations and instruments; 7 - Spain: Radioactive materials (including physical protection); Radioactive waste management; 8 - United States: Licensing and regulatory infrastructure

  12. The radon problem in schools and public buildings in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poffijn, A.; Uyttenhove, J.; Tondeur, F.

    1992-01-01

    Owing to differences in geology, radon in Belgium is recognised to be a more serious problem in the southern part of the country than in the northern part. From national and regional surveys, it became clear that in the province of Luxembourg indoor radon concentrations exceeding the European reference level of 400 Bq.m -3 frequently occur. As many people (children as well as adults) spend an important part of the day indoors at school or at work, it was decided by the local authorities to conduct a more systematic survey. In all schools and public buildings, measurements with integrating etched track devices have been performed. The results of these campaigns are discussed and a limiting scheme for radon in schools and public buildings, based mainly upon the existing Belgian regulations for protecting against ionising radiation is presented. (author)

  13. Communications received from certain Member States regarding guidelines for the export of nuclear material, equipment and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    The document reproduces the text of the notes verbales dated 15 May 1992, received by the Director General from the Resident Representatives to the Agency of Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Czech and Slovak Federal Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia Federation, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United States of America relating to the export of nuclear material, equipment and technology and the Guidelines for Transfer of Nuclear-Related Dual-Use Equipment, Material and Related Technology. An Annex to these Guidelines contains the list of Nuclear-Related Dual-Use Equipment and Materials and Related Technology

  14. Emotions, Aesthetics and Wellbeing in Science Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellocchi, Alberto; Cassie, Quigley; Otrel-Cass, Kathrin

    2017-01-01

    This internationally edited collection on emotions, aesthetics, and wellbeing emerged following an exploratory research workshop held in Luxembourg associated with the journal Cultural Studies of Science Education (CSSE). The workshop was entitled ‘Innovation and collaboration in cultural studies...... of science education: Towards an international research agenda.’ Authors were invited to articulate the theoretical and philosophical underpinnings of their research, offering empirical elaborations to illustrate applications of these conceptual and methodological foundations. An outcome...... informing such research. Possibilities for future research are elaborated within the collection generating scope for further collaborative and international studies informed by perspectives represented in the collection. In the present chapter, we outline the origin of this edited collection against...

  15. Strategies to determine and control the contributions of indoor air pollution to total inhalation exposure (STRATEX)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cochet, C.; Fernandes, E.O.; Jantunen, M.

    ECA-IAQ (European Collaborative Action, Urban Air, Indoor Environment and Human Exposure), 2006. Strategies to determine and control the contributions of indoor air pollution to total inhalation exposure (STRATEX), Report No 25. EUR 22503 EN. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications...... of the European Communities It is now well established that indoor air pollution contributes significantly to the global burden of disease of the population. Therefore, the knowledge of this contribution is essential in view of risk assessment and management. The ECA STRATEX report collates the respective...... information and describes the strategies to determine population exposure to indoor air pollutants. Its major goal is to emphasise the importance of the contribution of indoor air to total air exposure. Taking this contribution into account is a prerequisite for sound risk assessment of air pollution...

  16. Communications received from Member States regarding the export of nuclear material and of certain categories of equipment and other material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    The Director General has received letters concerning the export of nuclear material and of certain categories of equipment and other material from the following Resident Representatives to the International Atomic Energy Agency: a letter dated 28 February 1994 from the Resident Representative of France; letters dated 1 March 1994 from the Resident Representatives of Australia, Austria, Bulgaria, Canada, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United States of America; and a letter dated 22 March 1994 from the Resident Representative of Romania. In the light of the wish expressed at the end of each letter, the text of the letters is attached hereto

  17. Energy Law in the Netherlands. Recent developments in the Dutch energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In de Braekt, M.; Berger, K.; Ouwehand, P.; Reinders, E.M.

    2007-01-01

    European Energy Review 2007 provides an overview of the key developments that have taken place in the energy sector in 30 European jurisdictions during in 2006. Written by law firms in those jurisdictions, the review also includes a summary of each legal and regulatory energy framework. Issues such as industry structure, Third Party Access, the framework applying to use of system both at the transmission and distribution levels, market entry, promotion of renewable generation, nuclear power and cross border interconnection are examined. The jurisdictions covered are: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. This record concerns Energy Law The Netherlands.

  18. Border installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenaerts, Koen

    1988-01-01

    Border installations cover all nuclear plants located near the border with a neighbouring state. However, the actual distance depends on the context. The distance can vary considerably. Also the prohibition on siting near a heavily populated area also defines the actual distance variably. The distance criteria may be modified by other factors of topography, prevailing climate and so on. Various examples which illustrate the problems are given. For example, the Creys-Melville nuclear power plant is 80km from Geneva and the Cattonam installation is 12km from the French border with Luxembourg and Germany. The Cattenom case is explained and the legal position within the European Institutions is discussed. The French licensing procedures for nuclear power stations are described with special reference to the Cattenom power plant. Border installations are discussed in the context of European Community Law and Public International Law. (U.K.)

  19. Aggregation, Validation, and Generalization of Qualitative Data - Methodological and Practical Research Strategies Illustrated by the Research Process of an empirically Based Typology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Daniel; Willems, Helmut

    2017-06-01

    The article deals with the question of how aggregated data which allow for generalizable insights can be generated from single-case based qualitative investigations. Thereby, two central challenges of qualitative social research are outlined: First, researchers must ensure that the single-case data can be aggregated and condensed so that new collective structures can be detected. Second, they must apply methods and practices to allow for the generalization of the results beyond the specific study. In the following, we demonstrate how and under what conditions these challenges can be addressed in research practice. To this end, the research process of the construction of an empirically based typology is described. A qualitative study, conducted within the framework of the Luxembourg Youth Report, is used to illustrate this process. Specifically, strategies are presented which increase the likelihood of generalizability or transferability of the results, while also highlighting their limitations.

  20. Communication received from certain Member States regarding guidelines for the export of nuclear material, equipment and technology. Nuclear transfers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    The Director General has received notes verbales dated 30 June 1995 from the Resident Representatives to the Agency of Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, the Slovak Republic, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United States of America relating to the export of nuclear material, equipment and technology. The purpose of the notes verbales is to provide further information on those Governments' Guidelines for Nuclear Transfers. In the light of the wish expressed at the end of each note verbale, the text of the notes verbales is annexed hereto. The enclosure to these notes verbales is also reproduced in full in the Annex

  1. Communication received from certain Member States regarding guidelines for the export of nuclear material, equipment and technology. Nuclear transfers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The Director General has received notes verbales dated 30 June 1995 from the Resident Representatives to the Agency of Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, the Slovak Republic, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United States of America relating to the export of nuclear material, equipment and technology. The purpose of the notes verbales is to provide further information on those Governments` Guidelines for Nuclear Transfers. In the light of the wish expressed at the end of each note verbale, the text of the notes verbales is annexed hereto. The enclosure to these notes verbales is also reproduced in full in the Annex.

  2. Communication received from certain member states regarding guidelines for the export of nuclear material, equipment and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The document contains the text of note verbales dated 17 October 1996 received by the Director General of the IAEA from the Resident Representatives to the Agency of Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, the Russian Federation, the Slovak Republic, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United States of America relating to export of nuclear material, equipment and technology. A similar note verbal dated 30 July 1997 has been received by the Director General of the IAEA from the Resident Representative to the Agency of Brazil. The purpose of the notes verbale is to provide further information on those Governments' Guidelines for Nuclear Transfers

  3. Results of environmental radioactivity measurements in the Member States of European Community for air-deposition-water 1973-1974, milk 1972-1973-1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The present document is the fifteenth report published by the Health and Safety Directorate of the Commission of the European Communities concerning ambient radioactivity and using the data collected by the stations in charge of the surveillance of the environmental radioactivity in Member States. The results are compiled and extracted from the data sent to the Commission in application of Article 36 of the Treaty of Rome instituting the European Atomic Energy Community. It is the first document in which data from Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom which joined the European Community on 1 January 1973 are included in addition to data from Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands. The results presented in this report cover the years 1973 and 1974 for air deposition and surface water and the years 1972, 1973 and 1974 for milk

  4. Intercomparison of passive radon-detectors under field conditions in epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreienbrock, L; Poffijn, A; Tirmarche, M; Feider, M; Kies, A; Darby, S C

    1999-05-01

    The Ardennes and Eifel region is a geologically distinct area covering parts of Germany, Belgium, France, and Luxembourg where enhanced concentrations of radon occur in some houses and other buildings. An international case-control study is being conducted to examine the role of radon in the etiology of lung cancer in this area. The radon detectors used are issued by different laboratories involving a variety of detector types and processes. A series of intercomparisons in houses was therefore conducted under similar conditions of exposure in the field. In most situations the different detectors gave similar results. Nevertheless, in some situations open and closed detectors yielded different results. Therefore, estimates of radon exposure have to be adjusted if results are to be pooled.

  5. European study of occupational radiation exposure - ESOREX -. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frasch, G.; Anatschkowa, E.

    1997-11-01

    The ESOREX-Project consists of several surveys executed in the Member States of the European Union, furthermore in Iceland, Norway and Switzerland. Its purpose is to survey in each of these countries 1. the administrative systems used to register individual occupational radiation exposure, 2. the numbers of occupationally radiation exposed persons and dose distributions for the year 1995. The study shall describe and compare the administrative structures of the various national registration systems and the quantity structures. It shall identify the differences between the states and analyze the possibilities for a European harmonization. In order to achieve the co-operation of the European states the European Commission and the BfS organized an international introductory workshop in Luxembourg in May, 1997. The proceedings reflect the presentations of the participants and the results of the discussions. (orig.) [de

  6. Communications received from certain Member States regarding guidelines for the export of nuclear material, equipment and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency has received Notes Verbale, dated 31 August 2001, from the Resident Representatives to the Agency of Argentina, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Luxembourg, Netherlands, New Zealand, Portugal, Republic of Korea, Romania, Russian Federation, Slovakia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, the United States and the United Kingdom, relating to the export of nuclear material, equipment and technology. The purpose of the Notes Verbale is to provide further information on those Governments' Guidelines for Nuclear Transfers. In the light of the wish expressed at the end of each Note Verbale, the text of the Notes Verbale is attached. The attachment to the Notes Verbale is also reproduced in full

  7. Development of a field measurement methodology for studying the thermal indoor environment in hybrid GEOTABS buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Khovalyg, Dolaana; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2018-01-01

    buildings. The three demonstration buildings were an office building in Luxembourg, an elderly care home in Belgium, and an elementary school in Czech Republic. All of these buildings are equipped with hybrid GEOTABS systems; however, they vary in size and function, which requires a unique measurement...... methodology for studying them. These buildings already have advanced Building Management Systems (BMS); however, a more detailed measurement plan was needed for the purposes of the project to document the current performance of these systems regarding thermal indoor environment and energy performance......, and to be able to document the improvements after the implementation of the MPC. This study provides the details of the developed field measurement methodology for each of these buildings to study the indoor environmental quality (IEQ) in details. The developed measurement methodology can be applied to other...

  8. THE JURISDICTION OF THE COURT OF JUSTICE OF THE EUROPEAN UNION TO DELIVER A CANCELLATION JUDGMENT REGARDING THE INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS TO WHICH THE EU IS PARTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana-Mariana POPESCU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the case where international agreements are treated as legal acts of EU institutions, they may be subject to judicial review exercised by the Court in Luxembourg. Given the fact that we assimilate international agreements to legal acts of the European Union, we would be tempted to ask ourselves the following questions: to what extent declaring an agreement, by a judgment of the Court of Justice of the EU delivered in the action for cancellation, as being inapplicable to the EU legal order, affects the security of international relationships? If these relationships are affected, is it possible to exclude the subsequent verification conducted by the Court? In the study below, our purpose is to find answer to these questions.

  9. CEC workshop on methods for assessing the offsite radiological consequences of nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luykx, F.; Sinnaeve, J.

    1986-01-01

    On Apr 15-19, 1985, in Luxembourg, the Commission of the European Communities (CEC), in collaboration with the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK), Federal Republic of Germany, and the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB), United Kingdom, presented a workshop on methods for assessing the offsite radiological consequences of nuclear accidents. The program consisted of eight sessions. The main conclusions, which were presented in the Round Table Session by the individual Session Chairmen, are summarized. Session topics are as follows: Session I: international developments in the field of accident consequence assessment (ACA); Session II: atmospheric dispersion; Session III: food chain models; Session IV: urban contamination; Session V: demographic and land use data; Session VI: dosimetry, health effects, economic and counter measure models; Session VII: uncertainty analysis; and Session VIII: application of probabilistic consequence models as decision aids

  10. Evolution of electricity prices for households in Western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruciani, Michel

    2011-11-01

    The author reports a study of the evolution of electricity prices in the housing sector since the 1990's in the 15 countries who were then members of the European Union (Germany, Denmark, Spain, Belgium, Sweden, Austria, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, United Kingdom, Finland, France and Greece). In a first part, he discusses trends and proposes some comparisons which show that the electricity price has been remaining almost steady for 15 years, and has much less increased that those of gas and oil products. He notices a rather large discrepancy between the 15 countries (a comparison takes taxes into account, and comparison is made with tax included or excluded). The second part proposes an analysis of the evolutions and influences of national energy policies for each country

  11. Are cyberbullies less empathic? Adolescents' cyberbullying behavior and empathic responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffgen, Georges; König, Andreas; Pfetsch, Jan; Melzer, André

    2011-11-01

    Meta-analyses confirm a negative relationship between aggressive behavior and empathy, that is, the ability to understand and share the feelings of others. Based on theoretical considerations, it was, therefore, hypothesized that a lack of empathic responsiveness may be characteristic for cyberbullies in particular. In the present study, 2.070 students of Luxembourg secondary schools completed an online survey that included a cyberbullying questionnaire(4) and a novel empathy short scale. According to the main hypothesis, analyses of variances indicated that cyberbullies demonstrated less empathic responsiveness than non-cyberbullies. In addition, cyberbullies were also more afraid of becoming victims of cyberbullying. The findings confirm and substantially extend the research on the relationship between empathy and aggressive behavior. From an educational point of view, the present findings suggest that training of empathy skills might be an important tool to decrease cyberbullying.

  12. Dataset Preservation for the Long Term: Results of the DareLux Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugène Dürr

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the DareLux (Data Archiving River Environment Luxembourg Project was the preservation of unique and irreplaceable datasets, for which we chose hydrology data that will be required to be used in future climatic models. The results are: an operational archive built with XML containers, the OAI-PMH protocol and an architecture based upon web services. Major conclusions are: quality control on ingest is important; digital rights management demands attention; and cost aspects of ingest and retrieval cannot be underestimated. We propose a new paradigm for information retrieval of this type of dataset. We recommend research into visualisation tools for the search and retrieval of this type of dataset.

  13. For a strong international public service

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2012-01-01

    The importance of international organizations in Europe The numerous international and European organizations based in Europe employ together many tens of thousands of international and European civil servants. The members of personnel of these organizations are subject to various legal regimes and have to appeal against administrative decisions before different administrative tribunals (e.g., ILOAT, UNAT, EUCST, OECDAT). CERN being one of the larger European organizations, it is important that we stay abreast of the latest developments in this area. Therefore, the Staff Association sent two representatives to a colloquium “New developments in the legal protection of international and European civil servants”, held in Luxembourg the 1st and 2nd of April 2011.  This is not the place to review in detail the different aspects of the recent evolution in the various legal systems, which were presented there (the proceedings can be consulted in the Secretariat of the Staff Associatio...

  14. European Conference on Data Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine; Böhmer, Matthias; Data Science, Learning by Latent Structures, and Knowledge Discovery; ECDA 2013

    2015-01-01

    This volume comprises papers dedicated to data science and the extraction of knowledge from many types of data: structural, quantitative, or statistical approaches for the analysis of data; advances in classification, clustering, and pattern recognition methods; strategies for modeling complex data and mining large data sets; applications of advanced methods in specific domains of practice. The contributions offer interesting applications to various disciplines such as psychology, biology, medical and health sciences; economics, marketing, banking, and finance; engineering; geography and geology;  archeology, sociology, educational sciences, linguistics, and musicology; library science. The book contains the selected and peer-reviewed papers presented during the European Conference on Data Analysis (ECDA 2013) which was jointly held by the German Classification Society (GfKl) and the French-speaking Classification Society (SFC) in July 2013 at the University of Luxembourg.

  15. The DAFNE databank as a simple tool for nutrition policy. DAta Food NEtworking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichopoulou, A

    2001-10-01

    To identify, quantify and depict variation of food habits in Europe, using data from the DAFNE (DAta Food NEtworking) databank. Household budget survey data of 12 European countries, namely Belgium, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Spain and the United Kingdom, around 1990. Data from the DAFNE databank are presented in simple pictorial presentations, which reveal considerable disparities in food habits. Furthermore, there appears to be nutritional variation within countries by socio-demographic groups, defined by their residence and educational level. The distribution patterns of food availability provide insights into the determinants of food preferences, as conditioned by current forces. The factors influencing consumer choice are many and varied. Thus, in order to promote healthy eating, it is essential to identify the food habits of the target population. In this context, information derived from household budget surveys, used in the development of the DAFNE databank, could be very important.

  16. Results of environmental radioactivity measurements in the member states of the European Community for air, deposition, water, milk, 1975-1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The present document is the sixteenth report published by the Health and Safety Directorate of the Commission of the European Communities concerning ambient radioactivity. It was drawn up using the data collected by the stations in charge of the surveillance of environmental radioactivity in the Member States. The results are extracts from the data sent to the Commission in application of Article 36 of the Treaty of Rome instituting the European Atomic Energy Community. This is the second document which includes data from the enlarged community-viz. Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, plus Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom, who joined the Community on 1 January 1973. The results presented in this report deal with radioactive contamination of the air, precipitaton and fallout, surface water and milk during 1975 and 1976

  17. Generation of diurnal variation for influent data for dynamic simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langergraber, G; Alex, J; Weissenbacher, N; Woerner, D; Ahnert, M; Frehmann, T; Halft, N; Hobus, I; Plattes, M; Spering, V; Winkler, S

    2008-01-01

    When using dynamic simulation for fine tuning of the design of activated sludge (AS) plants diurnal variations of influent data are required. For this application usually only data from the design process and no measured data are available. In this paper a simple method to generate diurnal variations of wastewater flow and concentrations is described. The aim is to generate realistic influent data in terms of flow, concentrations and TKN/COD ratios and not to predict the influent of the AS plant in detail. The work has been prepared within the framework of HSG-Sim (Hochschulgruppe Simulation, http://www.hsgsim.org), a group of researchers from Germany, Austria, Luxembourg, Poland, the Netherlands and Switzerland. (c) IWA Publishing 2008.

  18. Authorization procedure for containers and modalities of transport of radioactive substances within the EC Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaducci, S.

    1977-02-01

    In all EC Member States, the transport of radioactive substances, the activity of which is higher than a specific level, is subject to regulatory requirements. Most of these requirements demand an administrative authorization before starting transport. In Belgium, authorization may take the form of a general, particular or special authorization, and in Luxembourg of a general or particular authorization. The latter applies in France and Italy but in these countries specific provisions also exist depending on the means of transport used. The latter specific provisions also exist in Germany and in the Netherlands. On the contrary in the United Kingdom, no administrative authorization is needed for such transport, except for special consignments. Finally, it is to be noted that neither in Denmark nor in Ireland have regulatory requirements been laid down with respect to such authorization procedure

  19. The justification of discriminating environmental control instruments. An investigation of the range of the free movement of goods and labour and its limitation by means of the environmental protection as the treaty objective using the German energy promoting laws EEG and KWKModG as an example; Die Rechtfertigung von diskriminierenden umweltpolitischen Steuerungsinstrumenten. Eine Untersuchung der Reichweite der Warenverkehrsfreiheit und ihrer Begrenzung durch den Umweltschutz als Vertragsziel am Beispiel der deutschen Energiefoerdergesetze EEG und KWKModG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholz, Lydia

    2012-07-01

    The range of the free movement of goods and labour and its limitation by means of the environmental protection as the treaty objective of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (AEUV) are the objective of this study. The investigation is performed in light of the German energy promoting laws EEG (Renewable Energy Law) and KWKModG (Act for the Retention, Modernisation and Expansion of Combined Heat and Power) whose incentive effect is combined with a discriminating interference of the free merchandise traffic. Based on the PreussenElektra legislation of the European Court of Justice (Luxembourg, Luxembourg) and the succession jurisdiction, the author of the contribution under consideration reports on whether the European Court of Justice has opened the Cassis formula as a basis for justification for discriminations. This can be negotiated. After all, the analysis of the Supreme Court decision comes to the result that the European Court of Justice has applied the known method of practical concordance in the PreussenElektra decision. In case of a collision of treaty objectives of equal rank - merchandise traffic and environmental traffic - one only has to perform an appreciation of values which may involve a justification of discriminating impacts in the free movement of goods and labour. The fundamentals of the minimis notice from the European Competition Act can be decisive for the justification and for the conformity of the domestic market of a discriminating national law if an intervention is connected with a partial market fore closure. These fundamentals have some influence on the consideration as part of the testing of concordance.

  20. Association of Sedentary Behavior Time with Ideal Cardiovascular Health: The ORISCAV-LUX Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Georgina E.; Alkerwi, Ala'a

    2014-01-01

    Background Recently attention has been drawn to the health impacts of time spent engaging in sedentary behaviors. No studies have examined sedentary behaviors in relation to the newly defined construct of ideal cardiovascular health, which incorporates three health factors (blood pressure, total cholesterol, fasting plasma glucose) and four behaviors (physical activity, smoking, body mass index, diet). The purpose of this study was to examine associations between sedentary behaviors, including sitting time, and time spent viewing television and in front of a computer, with cardiovascular health, in a representative sample of adults from Luxembourg. Methods A cross-sectional analysis of 1262 participants in the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg study was conducted, who underwent objective cardiovascular health assessments and completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. A Cardiovascular Health Score was calculated based on the number of health factors and behaviors at ideal levels. Sitting time on a weekday, television time, and computer time (both on a workday and a day off), were related to the Cardiovascular Health Score. Results Higher weekday sitting time was significantly associated with a poorer Cardiovascular Health Score (p = 0.002 for linear trend), after full adjustment for age, gender, education, income and occupation. Television time was inversely associated with the Cardiovascular Health Score, on both a workday and a day off (p = 0.002 for both). A similar inverse relationship was observed between the Cardiovascular Health Score and computer time, only on a day off (p = 0.04). Conclusion Higher time spent sitting, viewing television, and using a computer during a day off may be unfavorably associated with ideal cardiovascular health. PMID:24925084

  1. Implementation of comparative effectiveness research in personalized medicine applications in oncology: current and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IJzerman MJ

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Maarten J IJzerman,1,3 Andrea Manca,2,3 Julia Keizer,1 Scott D Ramsey4 1Department of Health Technology and Services Research, University of Twente, Enschede, the Netherlands; 2Centre for Health Economics, University of York, York, UK; 3Department of Population Health, Luxembourg Institute of Health, Strassen, Luxembourg, 4Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, USAAbstract: Personalized medicine (PM or precision medicine has been defined as an innovative approach that takes into account individual differences in people's genes, environments, and lifestyles in prevention and treatment of disease. In PM, genomic information may contribute to the molecular understanding of disease, to optimize preventive health care strategies, and to fit the best drug therapies to the patient's individual characteristics. Evidence development in the era of genomic medicine is extremely challenging due to a number of factors. These include the rapid technological innovation in molecular diagnostics and targeted drug discoveries, and hence the large number of mutations and multiple ways these may influence treatment decisions. Although the evidence base for PM is evolving rapidly, the main question to be explored in this article is whether existing evidence is also fit for comparative effectiveness research (CER. As a starting point, this paper therefore reflects on the evidence required for CER and the evidence gaps preventing decisions on market access and coverage. The paper then discusses challenges and potential barriers for applying a CER paradigm to PM, identifies common methodologies for designing clinical trials in PM, discusses various approaches for analyzing clinical trials to infer from population to individual level, and presents an example of a clinical trial in PM (The RxPONDER TRIAL demonstrating good practice. The paper concludes with a future perspective, including modeling approaches for evidence synthesis.Keywords: personalized

  2. Contribution de la géochimie organique à une esquisse paléoécologique des shistes bitumeux du Toarcien de l'Est du bassin de Paris. Etude de la matière organique insoluble (kérogènes Contribution of Organic Geochemistry to a Paleoecological Sketch of Toarcian Oil Shales in the Eastern Paris Basin. Analysis of Insoluble Organic Matter (Kerogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huc A. Y.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'étude des kérogènes des schistes cartons du Toarcien inférieur du bassin de Paris au niveau de l'affleurement oriental (du Luxembourg au Morvan confirme l'homogénéité globale de la matière organique dans cette formation. Il s'agit d'une matière organique d'origine marine autochtone. Cependant l'existence de fluctuations (de faible amplitude répondant à une logique géographique conforte la notion de provinces géochimiques dans ce bassin, telle qu'elle avait été définie à l'occasion de l'étude de la fraction soluble (CHCIsJ. La distinction entre une province nord (Lorraine et une province sud (Avallonais,Haute-Saône, Haute-Marne pourrait être imputable à un apport détritique plus sensible dans la partie septentrionale du bassin et/ou aux conditions de milieu ayant régné au moment du dépôt. The present study of kerogens isolated from early Toorcion shales sompled on the eastern out-trop of the Paris Basin (from Luxembourg to Morvan verifies the overall homogeneity of the organic matter in this formation. This organic matter is of autoch thonous marine origin. However, the occurrence of small variations related to different geogrophical locations reinforces the concept of geochemical provinces in this basin as revealed by a previous analysis of the chloroform extracts. Differences between a northern province (Lorraine and a southern province (Avallon area, Haute-Saône, Haute-Marne could be interpreted as the consequence of a more important detrital input in the northern part of the basin and/or of different environmental conditions at the time of deposition.

  3. Association of sedentary behavior time with ideal cardiovascular health: the ORISCAV-LUX study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina E Crichton

    Full Text Available Recently attention has been drawn to the health impacts of time spent engaging in sedentary behaviors. No studies have examined sedentary behaviors in relation to the newly defined construct of ideal cardiovascular health, which incorporates three health factors (blood pressure, total cholesterol, fasting plasma glucose and four behaviors (physical activity, smoking, body mass index, diet. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between sedentary behaviors, including sitting time, and time spent viewing television and in front of a computer, with cardiovascular health, in a representative sample of adults from Luxembourg.A cross-sectional analysis of 1262 participants in the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg study was conducted, who underwent objective cardiovascular health assessments and completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. A Cardiovascular Health Score was calculated based on the number of health factors and behaviors at ideal levels. Sitting time on a weekday, television time, and computer time (both on a workday and a day off, were related to the Cardiovascular Health Score.Higher weekday sitting time was significantly associated with a poorer Cardiovascular Health Score (p = 0.002 for linear trend, after full adjustment for age, gender, education, income and occupation. Television time was inversely associated with the Cardiovascular Health Score, on both a workday and a day off (p = 0.002 for both. A similar inverse relationship was observed between the Cardiovascular Health Score and computer time, only on a day off (p = 0.04.Higher time spent sitting, viewing television, and using a computer during a day off may be unfavorably associated with ideal cardiovascular health.

  4. Association of sedentary behavior time with ideal cardiovascular health: the ORISCAV-LUX study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Georgina E; Alkerwi, Ala'a

    2014-01-01

    Recently attention has been drawn to the health impacts of time spent engaging in sedentary behaviors. No studies have examined sedentary behaviors in relation to the newly defined construct of ideal cardiovascular health, which incorporates three health factors (blood pressure, total cholesterol, fasting plasma glucose) and four behaviors (physical activity, smoking, body mass index, diet). The purpose of this study was to examine associations between sedentary behaviors, including sitting time, and time spent viewing television and in front of a computer, with cardiovascular health, in a representative sample of adults from Luxembourg. A cross-sectional analysis of 1262 participants in the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg study was conducted, who underwent objective cardiovascular health assessments and completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. A Cardiovascular Health Score was calculated based on the number of health factors and behaviors at ideal levels. Sitting time on a weekday, television time, and computer time (both on a workday and a day off), were related to the Cardiovascular Health Score. Higher weekday sitting time was significantly associated with a poorer Cardiovascular Health Score (p = 0.002 for linear trend), after full adjustment for age, gender, education, income and occupation. Television time was inversely associated with the Cardiovascular Health Score, on both a workday and a day off (p = 0.002 for both). A similar inverse relationship was observed between the Cardiovascular Health Score and computer time, only on a day off (p = 0.04). Higher time spent sitting, viewing television, and using a computer during a day off may be unfavorably associated with ideal cardiovascular health.

  5. Communication Received from the Permanent Mission of the Netherlands regarding Certain Member States' Guidelines for the Export of Nuclear Material, Equipment and Technology; Communication recue de la mission permanente des Pays-Bas concernant les Directives de certains Etats Membres applicables a l'exportation de matieres, d'equipements et de technologie nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-09-05

    The Agency has received a Note Verbale from the Permanent Mission of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, dated 12 July 2011, in which it requests that the Agency circulate to all Member States a letter of 12 July 2011 from the Chairman of the Nuclear Suppliers Group, Ambassador Piet de Klerk, to the Director General, on behalf of the Governments of Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Republic of Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russian Federation, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America, providing further information on those Governments' Guidelines for Nuclear Transfers [French] L'Agence a recu une note verbale de la mission permanente du Royaume des Pays-Bas, en date du 12 juillet 2011, lui demandant de communiquer a tous les Etats Membres une lettre du 12 juillet 2011 du president du Groupe des fournisseurs nucleaires, l'ambassadeur Piet de Klerk, adressee au Directeur general au nom des gouvernements des Etats suivants : Afrique du Sud, Allemagne, Argentine, Australie, Autriche, Belarus, Belgique, Bresil, Bulgarie, Canada, Chine, Croatie, Chypre, Danemark, Espagne, Estonie, Etats-Unis d'Amerique, Federation de Russie, Finlande, France, Grece, Hongrie, Irlande, Islande, Italie, Japon, Kazakhstan, Lettonie, Lituanie, Luxembourg, Malte, Norvege, Nouvelle-Zelande, Pays-Bas, Pologne, Portugal, Republique de Coree, Republique tcheque, Roumanie, Royaume-Uni de Grande-Bretagne et d'Irlande du Nord, Slovaquie, Slovenie, Suede, Suisse, Turquie et Ukraineb. Cette lettre apporte des informations supplementaires sur les Directives de ces gouvernements applicables aux transferts nucleaires.

  6. Does legal physician-assisted dying impede development of palliative care? The Belgian and Benelux experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambaere, Kenneth; Bernheim, Jan L

    2015-08-01

    In 2002, physician-assisted dying was legally regulated in the Netherlands and Belgium, followed in 2009 by Luxembourg. An internationally frequently expressed concern is that such legislation could stunt the development of palliative care (PC) and erode its culture. To study this, we describe changes in PC development 2005-2012 in the permissive Benelux countries and compare them with non-permissive countries. Focusing on the seven European countries with the highest development of PC, which include the three euthanasia-permissive and four non-permissive countries, we compared the structural service indicators for 2005 and 2012 from successive editions of the European Atlas of Palliative Care. As an indicator for output delivery of services to patients, we collected the amounts of governmental funding of PC 2002-2011 in Belgium, the only country where we could find these data. The rate of increase in the number of structural PC provisions among the compared countries was the highest in the Netherlands and Luxembourg, while Belgium stayed on a par with the UK, the benchmark country. Belgian government expenditure for PC doubled between 2002 and 2011. Basic PC expanded much more than endowment-restricted specialised PC. The hypothesis that legal regulation of physician-assisted dying slows development of PC is not supported by the Benelux experience. On the contrary, regulation appears to have promoted the expansion of PC. Continued monitoring of both permissive and non-permissive countries, preferably also including indicators of quantity and quality of delivered care, is needed to evaluate longer-term effects. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Differences between the succinate dehydrogenase sequences of isopyrazam sensitive Zymoseptoria tritici and insensitive Fusarium graminearum strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubos, Tiphaine; Pasquali, Matias; Pogoda, Friederike; Casanova, Angèle; Hoffmann, Lucien; Beyer, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Forty-one Zymoseptoria tritici strains isolated in Luxembourg between 2009 and 2010 were highly sensitive towards the new succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor (SDHI) isopyrazam, with concentrations inhibiting fungal growth by 50% (EC50) ranging from 0.0281 to 4.53μM, whereas 41 Fusarium graminearum strains isolated in Europe and Northern America between 1969 and 2009 were insensitive with the average rate of inhibition converging towards 28% with increasing isopyrazam concentration. Seven isolates of both species covering the range of isopyrazam sensitivities observed in the present study were selected for the sequencing of the subunits B, C and D of the succinate dehydrogenase (sdh) gene. Predicted sdh amino acid sequences of subunits B, C and D were identical among F. graminearum strains. By comparing with fungal strains where resistance towards SDHIs was previously reported, three variations were unique to F. graminearum; B-D130N located in the iron-sulfur cluster [2Fe-2S], B-A275T located in the [3Fe-4S] cluster and an additional S at amino acid position 83-84 of sdhC, probably modifying structurally the ubiquinone binding site and therefore the biological activity of the fungicide. No variation was found among the Z. tritici strains in subunits B and D. Two variations were observed within the subunit C sequences of Z. tritici strains: C-N33T and C-N34T. The difference in EC50 values between Z. tritici strains with the NN and TT configuration was non-significant at P=0.289. Two outliers in the Z. tritici group with significantly higher EC50 values that were not related to mutations in the sdhB, sdhC, or sdhD were detected. The role of isopyrazam for the control of F. graminearum and Z. tritici in Luxembourg is discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Euthanasia and assisted suicide in selected European countries and US states: systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steck, Nicole; Egger, Matthias; Maessen, Maud; Reisch, Thomas; Zwahlen, Marcel

    2013-10-01

    Legal in some European countries and US states, physician-assisted suicide and voluntary active euthanasia remain under debate in these and other countries. The aim of the study was to examine numbers, characteristics, and trends over time for assisted dying in regions where these practices are legal: Belgium, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Oregon, Washington, and Montana. This was a systematic review of journal articles and official reports. Medline and Embase databases were searched for relevant studies, from inception to end of 2012. We searched the websites of the health authorities of all eligible countries and states for reports on physician-assisted suicide or euthanasia and included publications that reported on cases of physician-assisted suicide or euthanasia. We extracted information on the total number of assisted deaths, its proportion in relation to all deaths, and socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of individuals assisted to die. A total of 1043 publications were identified; 25 articles and reports were retained, including series of reported cases, physician surveys, and reviews of death certificates. The percentage of physician-assisted deaths among all deaths ranged from 0.1%-0.2% in the US states and Luxembourg to 1.8%-2.9% in the Netherlands. Percentages of cases reported to the authorities increased in most countries over time. The typical person who died with assistance was a well-educated male cancer patient, aged 60-85 years. Despite some common characteristics between countries, we found wide variation in the extent and specific characteristics of those who died an assisted death.

  9. SCALE DEVELOPMENT FOR MEASURING AND PREDICTING ADOLESCENTS' LEISURE TIME PHYSICAL ACTIVITY BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Arribas Galarraga

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a scale for assessing and predicting adolescents' physical activity behavior in Spain and Luxembourg using the Theory of Planned Behavior as a framework. The sample was comprised of 613 Spanish (boys = 309, girls = 304; M age =15.28, SD =1.127 and 752 Luxembourgish adolescents (boys = 343, girls = 409; M age = 14.92, SD = 1.198, selected from students of two secondary schools in both countries, with a similar socio-economic status. The initial 43-items were all scored on a 4-point response format using the structured alternative format and translated into Spanish, French and German. In order to ensure the accuracy of the translation, standardized parallel back-translation techniques were employed. Following two pilot tests and subsequent revisions, a second order exploratory factor analysis with oblimin direct rotation was used for factor extraction. Internal consistency and test-retest reliabilities were also tested. The 4-week test-retest correlations confirmed the items' time stability. The same five factors were obtained, explaining 63.76% and 63.64% of the total variance in both samples. Internal consistency for the five factors ranged from α = 0.759 to α = 0. 949 in the Spanish sample and from α = 0.735 to α = 0.952 in the Luxembourgish sample. For both samples, inter-factor correlations were all reported significant and positive, except for Factor 5 where they were significant but negative. The high internal consistency of the subscales, the reported item test-retest reliabilities and the identical factor structure confirm the adequacy of the elaborated questionnaire for assessing the TPB-based constructs when used with a population of adolescents in Spain and Luxembourg. The results give some indication that they may have value in measuring the hypothesized TPB constructs for PA behavior in a cross-cultural context

  10. EU research in 'operational safety of existing installations' under the nuclear fission programme 1998-2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goethem, G. van; Zurita, A.; Manolatos, P.; Bermejo, J. Martin; Casalta, S.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, an overview is given of the most important aspects of the research activities organised by the European Union (EU) in the area of reactor safety under the current 5th Euratom Framework Programme 1998-2002 (FP-5). This area is focussing on 'Operational Safety of Existing Installations'. The fundamental safety objective for nuclear power plants (NPPs) consists in protecting the public and the environment from the harmful effects resulting from ionising radiations. Community research with this objective is carried out through both 'indirect actions' (organised by DG Research) and 'direct actions' (carried out by DG Joint Research Centre/JRC). The mid-term achievements of this area were discussed at the symposium FISA-2001 (EC Luxembourg, 12-14 November 2001/750 pages, EUR 20281 EN, OPOCE Luxembourg 2002). This research area is actually part of the FP-5 Key Action NUCLEAR FISSION, which consists of the following four areas: reactor safety, waste management (including partitioning and transmutation), future systems (including high temperature reactors), and radiation protection. More specifically, this paper deals with the strategy, the organisation and the main achievements of the 73 multi-partner projects cosponsored by the European Union as 'indirect actions' (shared-cost and concerted actions). These projects are organised in three clusters, each devoted to one key safety issue. Each cluster is treated in a separate section of this paper, namely: (1) Plant Life Extension and Management (PLEM cluster), (2) Severe Accident Management (SAM cluster), and (3) Evolutionary Safety Concepts (EVOL cluster). The total cost of the 'indirect actions' of this Community research area is approximately Euro 82.5 million, out of which Euro 43 million is contributed by the EU budget. At FISA-2001, only the 'indirect actions' that started before 1 January 2001, were formally presented, i.e. a total of 41 projects - the 32 more recent multi-partner projects were

  11. Radiation Protection Of Outside Workers: Implementation Of The EC Council Directive 90/641/EURATOM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jannsens, A.; Schnuer, K.; Naegele, J.; Lefaure, C.; Vaillant, L.

    2006-01-01

    national regulations. In addition, a Seminar was held in Luxembourg on 29 and 30 November 2005, gathering representatives from EC departments, national regulatory bodies, operators, outside undertakings and from trade unions. The participants discussed measures aimed at coping with these above-mentioned challenges for the radiological protection of outside workers. The paper will provide information on the results of the survey and will present the summaries and conclusions of the discussions of the Luxembourg workshop. (authors)

  12. Radiation Protection Of Outside Workers: Implementation Of The EC Council Directive 90/641/EURATOM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannsens, A.; Schnuer, K.; Naegele, J. [European Commission, DG Energy and Transport B. EUROFORUM, 4455, L-2920 (Luxembourg); Lefaure, C.; Vaillant, L. [Nuclear Protection Evaluation Centre (CEPN) Batiment Expansion 10000, 28 rue de la Redoute, 92263 Fontenay-aux- Roses (France)

    2006-07-01

    States national regulations. In addition, a Seminar was held in Luxembourg on 29 and 30 November 2005, gathering representatives from EC departments, national regulatory bodies, operators, outside undertakings and from trade unions. The participants discussed measures aimed at coping with these above-mentioned challenges for the radiological protection of outside workers. The paper will provide information on the results of the survey and will present the summaries and conclusions of the discussions of the Luxembourg workshop. (authors)

  13. Flood Risk Assessment Based On Security Deficit Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, J.; Metzger, R.; Hingray, B.; Musy, A.

    Risk is a human perception: a given risk may be considered as acceptable or unac- ceptable depending on the group that has to face that risk. Flood risk analysis of- ten estimates economic losses from damages, but neglects the question of accept- able/unacceptable risk. With input from land use managers, politicians and other stakeholders, risk assessment based on security deficit analysis determines objects with unacceptable risk and their degree of security deficit. Such a risk assessment methodology, initially developed by the Swiss federal authorities, is illustrated by its application on a reach of the Alzette River (Luxembourg) in the framework of the IRMA-SPONGE FRHYMAP project. Flood risk assessment always involves a flood hazard analysis, an exposed object vulnerability analysis, and an analysis combing the results of these two previous analyses. The flood hazard analysis was done with the quasi-2D hydraulic model FldPln to produce flood intensity maps. Flood intensity was determined by the water height and velocity. Object data for the vulnerability analysis, provided by the Luxembourg government, were classified according to their potential damage. Potential damage is expressed in terms of direct, human life and secondary losses. A thematic map was produced to show the object classification. Protection goals were then attributed to the object classes. Protection goals are assigned in terms of an acceptable flood intensity for a certain flood frequency. This is where input from land use managers and politicians comes into play. The perception of risk in the re- gion or country influences the protection goal assignment. Protection goals as used in Switzerland were used in this project. Thematic maps showing the protection goals of each object in the case study area for a given flood frequency were produced. Com- parison between an object's protection goal and the intensity of the flood that touched the object determine the acceptability of the risk and the

  14. Precision of intraoral digital dental impressions with iTero and extraoral digitization with the iTero and a model scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flügge, Tabea V; Schlager, Stefan; Nelson, Katja; Nahles, Susanne; Metzger, Marc C

    2013-09-01

    Digital impression devices are used alternatively to conventional impression techniques and materials. The aims of this study were to evaluate the precision of digital intraoral scanning under clinical conditions (iTero; Align Technologies, San Jose, Calif) and to compare it with the precision of extraoral digitization. One patient received 10 full-arch intraoral scans with the iTero and conventional impressions with a polyether impression material (Impregum Penta; 3M ESPE, Seefeld, Germany). Stone cast models manufactured from the impressions were digitized 10 times with an extraoral scanner (D250; 3Shape, Copenhagen, Denmark) and 10 times with the iTero. Virtual models provided by each method were roughly aligned, and the model edges were trimmed with cutting planes to create common borders (Rapidform XOR; Inus Technologies, Seoul, Korea). A second model alignment was then performed along the closest distances of the surfaces (Artec Studio software; Artec Group, Luxembourg, Luxembourg). To assess precision, deviations between corresponding models were compared. Repeated intraoral scanning was evaluated in group 1, repeated extraoral model scanning with the iTero was assessed in group 2, and repeated model scanning with the D250 was assessed in group 3. Deviations between models were measured and expressed as maximums, means, medians, and root mean square errors for quantitative analysis. Color-coded displays of the deviations allowed qualitative visualization of the deviations. The greatest deviations and therefore the lowest precision were in group 1, with mean deviations of 50 μm, median deviations of 37 μm, and root mean square errors of 73 μm. Group 2 showed a higher precision, with mean deviations of 25 μm, median deviations of 18 μm, and root mean square errors of 51 μm. Scanning with the D250 had the highest precision, with mean deviations of 10 μm, median deviations of 5 μm, and root mean square errors of 20 μm. Intraoral and extraoral scanning

  15. Scale Development for Measuring and Predicting Adolescents’ Leisure Time Physical Activity Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Francis; Romero Granados, Santiago; Arribas Galarraga, Silvia

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a scale for assessing and predicting adolescents’ physical activity behavior in Spain and Luxembourg using the Theory of Planned Behavior as a framework. The sample was comprised of 613 Spanish (boys = 309, girls = 304; M age =15.28, SD =1.127) and 752 Luxembourgish adolescents (boys = 343, girls = 409; M age = 14.92, SD = 1.198), selected from students of two secondary schools in both countries, with a similar socio-economic status. The initial 43-items were all scored on a 4-point response format using the structured alternative format and translated into Spanish, French and German. In order to ensure the accuracy of the translation, standardized parallel back-translation techniques were employed. Following two pilot tests and subsequent revisions, a second order exploratory factor analysis with oblimin direct rotation was used for factor extraction. Internal consistency and test-retest reliabilities were also tested. The 4-week test-retest correlations confirmed the items’ time stability. The same five factors were obtained, explaining 63.76% and 63.64% of the total variance in both samples. Internal consistency for the five factors ranged from α = 0.759 to α = 0. 949 in the Spanish sample and from α = 0.735 to α = 0.952 in the Luxembourgish sample. For both samples, inter-factor correlations were all reported significant and positive, except for Factor 5 where they were significant but negative. The high internal consistency of the subscales, the reported item test-retest reliabilities and the identical factor structure confirm the adequacy of the elaborated questionnaire for assessing the TPB-based constructs when used with a population of adolescents in Spain and Luxembourg. The results give some indication that they may have value in measuring the hypothesized TPB constructs for PA behavior in a cross-cultural context. Key points When using the structured alternative format, weak internal consistency was obtained

  16. Geochemical and palynological records for the end-Triassic Mass-Extinction Event in the NE Paris Basin (Luxemburg)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, Natascha; van de Schootbrugge, Bas; Thein, Jean; Fiebig, Jens; Franz, Sven-Oliver; Hanzo, Micheline; Colbach, Robert; Faber, Alain

    2016-04-01

    The End-Triassic mass-extinction event is one of the "big five" mass extinctions in Earth's history. Large scale flood basalt volcanism associated with the break-up of Pangaea, which resulted in the opening of the central Atlantic Ocean, is considered as the leading cause. In addition, an asteroid impact in Rochechouart (France; 201 ± 2 Ma) may have had a local influence on ecosystems and sedimentary settings. The Luxembourg Embayment, in the NE Paris Basin, offers a rare chance to study both effects in a range of settings from deltaic to lagoonal. A multidisciplinary study (sedimentology, geochemistry, palynology) has been carried out on a number of outcrops and cores that span from the Norian to lower Hettangian. Combined geochemical and palynological records from the Boust core drilled in the NE Paris Basin, provide evidence for paleoenvironmental changes associated with the end-Triassic mass-extinction event. The Triassic-Jurassic stratigraphy of the Boust core is well constrained by palynomorphs showing the disappaerance of typical Triassic pollen taxa (e.g. Ricciisporites tuberculates) and the occurrence of the marker species Polypodiisporites polymicroforatus within the uppermost Rhaetian, prior to the Hettangian dominance of Classopollis pollen. The organic carbon stable isotope record (δ13Corg) spanning the Norian to Hettangian, shows a series of prominent negative excursions within the middle Rhaetian, followed by a trend towards more positive values (approx -24 per mille) within the uppermost Rhaetian Argiles de Levallois Member. The lowermost Hettangian is characterized by a major negative excursion, reaching - 30 per mille that occurs in organic-rich sediments. This so-called "main negative excursion" is well-known from other locations, for example from Mariental in Northern Germany and from St Audrie's Bay in England, and Stenlille in Denmark. Based on redox-sensitive trace element records (V, Cr, Ni, Co, Th, U) the lowermost Hettangian in most of

  17. Radiological mass screening within the Member States of the European Community. Regulations, practices, effectiveness. Proceedings of a seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochard, J.

    1987-01-01

    Under the Euratom Treaty it is the task of the Commission of the European Community to ensure the health protection of workers and the general public against the dangers of ionizing radiation. Dose limits and the principals of radiation protection were first laid down in a Council Directive of 1959, and have since been repeatedly adapted. The specific problems of radiation protection of persons undergoing medical examination or treatment are the subject of a separate Council Directive of 3 September 1984. This directive specifies that 'all medical exposures must be medically justified and kept as low as reasonably achievable'. The concept of justification is particularly critical in the case of mass-screening activities. For some diseases with low prevalence the radiological detriment to the population resulting from radiological mass-screening procedures might be greater than the individual benefit of the diagnosis. In addition the costs of public health care are rising in all Member States of the European Community and the effectiveness of public health care programmes like mass-screening must be carefully examined. A technical workshop on practices and regulations in the field of radiological mass-screening within the Member States (Luxembourg, 4-5 December 1984) and a seminar on the same subject (Luxembourg, 3-4 December 1985) were therefore organized by the Commission of the European Communities in cooperation with the Commissariat a l'energie Atomique, CEA, and the Centre d'etude sur l'evaluation de la protection dans le domaine nucleaire, CEPN (France). The workshop provided up-to-date information on effectiveness and cost of radiological mass-screening programmes in the Member States. The seminar provided the representatives of the national authorities responsible for radiation protection, public health and occupational medicine with an opportunity to discuss mass-screening practices with experts. This publication contains the papers presented at the

  18. A New Global Vertical Land Movement Data Set from the TIGA Combined Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunegnaw, Addisu; Teferle, Felix Norman; Ebuy Abraha, Kibrom; Santamaría-Gómez, Alvaro; Gravelle, Médéric; Wöppelman, Guy; Schöne, Tilo; Deng, Zhiguo; Bingley, Richard; Hansen, Dionne Nicole; Sanchez, Laura; Moore, Michael; Jia, Minghai

    2017-04-01

    Globally averaged sea level has been estimated from the network of tide gauges installed around the world since the 19th century. These mean sea level (MSL) records provide sea level relative to a nearby tide gauge benchmark (TGBM), which allows for the continuation of the instrumental record in time. Any changes in the benchmark levels, induced by vertical land movements (VLM) affect the MSL records and hence sea level estimates. Over the last two decades sea level has also been observed using satellite altimeters. While the satellite observations are globally more homogeneous providing a picture of sea level not confined to coastlines, they require the VLM-corrected MSL records for the bias calibration of instrumental drifts. Without this calibration altimeter instruments from different missions cannot be combined. GPS has made it possible to obtain highly accurate estimates of VLM in a geocentric reference frame for stations at or close to tide gauges. Under the umbrella of the International GNSS Service (IGS), the Tide Gauge Benchmark Monitoring (TIGA) Working Group (WG) has been established to apply the expertise of the GNSS community to solving issues related to the accuracy and reliability of the vertical component to provide estimates of VLM in a well-defined global reference frame. To achieve this objective, five TIGA Analysis Centers (TACs) contributed re-processed global GPS network solutions to TIGA, employing the latest bias models and processing strategies in accordance with the second re-processing campaign (repro2) of the IGS. These solutions include those of the British Isles continuous GNSS Facility - University of Luxembourg consortium (BLT), the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ) Potsdam, the German Geodetic Research Institute (DGF) at the Technical University of Munich, Geoscience Australia (AUT) and the University of La Rochelle (ULR). In this study we present to the sea level community an evaluation of the VLM estimates from the

  19. Radar-based rainfall estimation: Improving Z/R relations through comparison of drop size distributions, rainfall rates and radar reflectivity patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuper, Malte; Ehret, Uwe

    2014-05-01

    The relation between the measured radar reflectivity factor Z and surface rainfall intensity R - the Z/R relation - is profoundly complex, so that in general one speaks about radar-based quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) rather than exact measurement. Like in Plato's Allegory of the Cave, what we observe in the end is only the 'shadow' of the true rainfall field through a very small backscatter of an electromagnetic signal emitted by the radar, which we hope has been actually reflected by hydrometeors. The meteorological relevant and valuable Information is gained only indirectly by more or less justified assumptions. One of these assumptions concerns the drop size distribution, through which the rain intensity is finally associated with the measured radar reflectivity factor Z. The real drop size distribution is however subject to large spatial and temporal variability, and consequently so is the true Z/R relation. Better knowledge of the true spatio-temporal Z/R structure therefore has the potential to improve radar-based QPE compared to the common practice of applying a single or a few standard Z/R relations. To this end, we use observations from six laser-optic disdrometers, two vertically pointing micro rain radars, 205 rain gauges, one rawindsonde station and two C-band Doppler radars installed or operated in and near the Attert catchment (Luxembourg). The C-band radars and the rawindsonde station are operated by the Belgian and German Weather Services, the rain gauge data was partly provided by the French, Dutch, Belgian, German Weather Services and the Ministry of Agriculture of Luxembourg and the other equipment was installed as part of the interdisciplinary DFG research project CAOS (Catchment as Organized Systems). With the various data sets correlation analyzes were executed. In order to get a notion on the different appearance of the reflectivity patterns in the radar image, first of all various simple distribution indices (for example the

  20. Assimilation of zenith total delays in the AROME France convective scale model: a recent assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Francois Mahfouf

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The impact of assimilating GPS zenith total delays (ZTD in the convective scale model AROME is assessed over a 1-month period in summer 2013. The experimental set-up is similar to the current operational usage at Météo-France where the observing system has been expanded in July 2013 in a three-dimensional variational (3D-Var data assimilation scheme with a 3-hour cycling. Three experiments are performed. In a baseline experiment the GPS ZTD provided through the E-GVAP programme are withdrawn from the observing system (NOGPS. In a second experiment, GPS ZTD from E-GVAP are included in the observing system, representing the operational configuration at Météo-France (EGVAP. The last experiment is similar to EGVAP but new ZTD observations processed by the University of Luxembourg are also assimilated on top of all other observations (UL01. In the first stage, it has been verified through a systematic comparison with model counterparts that the quality of ZTD data processed by the University of Luxembourg is similar to the one provided by other analysis centres from the E-GVAP programme. After a number of quality controls, it has been possible to assimilate around 90 additional observations on top of around 600 stations from E-GVAP every 3 hours. Despite the small fraction of observations assimilated in AROME that ZTD represent (<2%, it is shown that they systematically improve the atmospheric humidity short-range forecasts by a comparison with other observing systems informative about water vapour (radiosoundings, satellite radiances, surface networks even though it is by small amounts. When examining objective precipitation scores over France, the improvement brought by the UL01 stations on top of E-GVAP is systematic for all daily precipitation thresholds. Examination of several case studies reveals the ability of the ZTD observations to modify the intensity and location of precipitating areas in accordance with previous studies. The addition

  1. The debate over the creation of a Museum of Modern Art in Paris between the wars and the shaping of an evolutionary narrative for French art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chara Kolokytha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper comments on the state policies towards modern art throughout the interwar period identifying the private initiatives that sought to precipitate the creation of a museum of contemporary art in Paris. It seeks to discuss the debate over the necessity for the creation of a Museum of Modern Art in Paris that was initiated in the Parisian press shortly after the controversial “Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes”, in 1925, and was perpetuated with the re-organisation of the collections of the Louvre, the Luxembourg museum, and the Jeu de Paume in the late 1920s. The offi cial announcement, in 1934, of the creation of a museum of modern art in Paris, in 1937, initiated a new debate that concerned its collections. A series of exhibitions organised on the occasion of  the “Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques”, in 1937, served as a model for the shaping of an evolutionary narrative for French art in which modern art that emerged from 1905 to 1925 appeared as the culmination of the French art tradition. However, the infl uence of foreign artists over French modern art was largely contested, while the discussion initiated by the champions of an international school added a nonconformist nuance to a nationally-oriented dialogue. L’articolo affronta le politiche statali nei confronti dell’arte moderna nel periodo compreso tra le due guerre, individuando anche le iniziative private che hanno cercato di spingere verso la creazione di un museo di arte contemporanea a Parigi. Esso cerca di ricostruire il dibattito avviato sulla stampa parigina poco dopo la controversa “Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes” del 1925, proseguito con la riorganizzazione delle collezioni del Louvre, del museo del Luxembourg e del Jeu de Paume alla fine degli anni Venti. L’annuncio uffi ciale della creazione di un museo d’arte moderna a Parigi, nel 1934, avvia un nuovo

  2. AMFIE

    CERN Multimedia

    AMFIE

    2016-01-01

        We are pleased to announce that Mrs. Janine Rivals, Honoray Vice-President of AMFIE, and Mrs. Gabriele Strupp, Business Development Manager for AMFIE, will be at CERN in Geneva for a Presentation on Thursday, 13th October 2016 starting at 12:30 in the Council Chamber (Main building)  Private consultations upon appointment: Thursday, 13th October 2016 from 14:00 to 16:00 - Building 61/R-006 (Ground floor, Main building) 15:00 to 18:00 - Building 61/1-007 - Room B (1st floor, Main building) Members and colleagues who wish to meet AMFIE’s representatives for one-to-one private consultations are invited to contact Mrs. Janine Rivals(+33/6 63 58 36 62, janine.rivals@amfie.org) or AMFIE's Secretariat in Luxembourg (+352/42 36 61-1 or amfie@amfie.org). For any request of appointment, please provide us with a telephone number. We invite you to visit regularly our website www.amfie.org under the "Calendar" me...

  3. Radioactive Waste Management - Community Policy and Research Initiatives. The sixth international conference on the management and disposal of radioactive waste - Euradwaste '04

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsstroem, Hans [Research Directorate Energy, Nuclear Fission and Radiation Protection, European Commission, MO-75 5/37, 200 avenue de la Loi, B-1049 Brussels (Belgium); Ruiz, P Fernandez [DG Research, Energy, Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, CSN, C/ Justo Dorado, 11, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    The sixth international conference on the management and disposal of radioactive waste organized be European Commission, held on 29-31 March 2004 in Luxembourg aimed to cover the following objectives: - To present EC policy in waste management, in particular the proposed 'Directive on the Management of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Radioactive Waste' and to discuss relating issues such as the effect on national programmes, site selection, EU added value, the case for EU safety standards, and various socio-political aspects; - To highlight the main results of the Fifth Framework Programme (FP5) of EURATOM for 'Nuclear Energy, Fission Research and Training Activities' in the field of waste in spent fuel management and disposal, and partitioning and transmutation; - To present examples of activities under FP5 and to discuss further research European integration through FP6. The program was divided into two main groups: 1. 'Community Policy and Socio-Political Aspects' which included sessions on community policy initiatives, disposal option, common safety standards and public involvement and acceptance; 2. 'Community Research Activities - FP5' which included sessions on partitioning and transmutation, geological disposal and research networking. There were 29 oral presentations and 36 poster presentations which, for the latter, allowed detailed presentations of the results of the EU-funded research projects. The conference was attended by some 240 participants from 27 countries.

  4. Model-based aviation advice on distal volcanic ash clouds by assimilating aircraft in situ measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Fu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The forecast accuracy of distal volcanic ash clouds is important for providing valid aviation advice during volcanic ash eruption. However, because the distal part of volcanic ash plume is far from the volcano, the influence of eruption information on this part becomes rather indirect and uncertain, resulting in inaccurate volcanic ash forecasts in these distal areas. In our approach, we use real-life aircraft in situ observations, measured in the northwestern part of Germany during the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption, in an ensemble-based data assimilation system combined with a volcanic ash transport model to investigate the potential improvement on the forecast accuracy with regard to the distal volcanic ash plume. We show that the error of the analyzed volcanic ash state can be significantly reduced through assimilating real-life in situ measurements. After a continuous assimilation, it is shown that the aviation advice for Germany, the Netherlands and Luxembourg can be significantly improved. We suggest that with suitable aircrafts measuring once per day across the distal volcanic ash plume, the description and prediction of volcanic ash clouds in these areas can be greatly improved.

  5. Energy deprivation dynamics and regulatory reforms in Europe: Evidence from household panel data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poggi, Ambra; Florio, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    The typical ingredients of energy reforms in the European Union (EU) in the 1990s were full or partial privatization, vertical disintegration and liberalization. This paper analyses the effects of energy reforms on the probability of households experiencing deprivation, defined as difficulty in paying the bills. We use two sets of micro-data. First, the European Community Household Panel (ECHP), a large EU survey, offers evidence on people who report having been unable to pay scheduled utility bills. We consider seven European countries: Denmark, Belgium, France, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands and Spain, and eight ECHP waves (1994-2001), with around 28,000 observations. Second, we also use micro-data from the European Statistics on Income and Living Conditions survey (EU-SILC) 2004-2005, with around 84,000 observations. The countries included are Belgium, France, Ireland, Italy, Spain, Austria, Finland, Luxembourg, Norway and Sweden. As indicators of regulatory reforms in the same countries and years we use ECTR (formerly REGREF), a database provided by the OECD. In both samples we find evidence that privatization increases the probability of households experiencing deprivation. Vertical disintegration has a similar effect and also increases the persistence in the status of household deprivation. Liberalization has no statistically significant effect. We discuss possible interpretations of these findings.

  6. Tracing the HIV-1 subtype B mobility in Europe: a phylogeographic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitner, Thomas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Paraskevis, D [KATHOLIEKE UNIV; Pybus, O [UNIV OF OXFORD; Magiorkinis, G [KATHOLIEKE UNIV; Hatzakis, A [KATHOLIEKE UNIV

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence and the origin of HIV-1 subtype B, the most prevalent circulating clade among the long-term residents in Europe, have been studied extensively. However the spatial diffusion of the epidemic from the perspective of the virus has not previously been traced. In the current study we inferred the migration history of HIV-1 subtype B by way of a phylogeography of viral sequences sampled from 16 European countries and Israel. Migration events were inferred from viral phylogenies by character reconstruction using parsimony. With regard to the spatial dispersal of the HIV subtype B sequences across viral phylogenies, in most of the countries in Europe the epidemic was introduced by multiple sources and subsequently spread within local networks. Poland provides an exception where most of the infections were the result of a single point introduction. According to the significant migratory pathways, we show that there are considerable differences across Europe. Specifically, Greece, Portugal, Serbia and Spain, provide sources shedding HIV-1; Austria, Belgium and Luxembourg, on the other hand, are migratory targets, while for Denmark, Germany, Italy, Israel, Norway, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland and the UK we inferred significant bidirectional migration. For Poland no significant migratory pathways were inferred. Subtype B phylogeographies provide a new insight about the geographical distribution of viral lineages, as well as the significant pathways of virus dispersal across Europe, suggesting that intervention strategies should also address tourists, travellers and migrants.

  7. Radiation Safety Issues in High Altitude Commercial Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Shinn, Judy L.

    1995-01-01

    The development of a global economy makes the outlook for high speed commercial intercontinental flight feasible, and the development of various configurations operating from 20 to 30 km have been proposed. In addition to the still unresolved issues relating to current commercial operations (12-16 km), the higher dose rates associated with the higher operating altitudes makes il imperative that the uncertainties in the atmospheric radiation environment and the associated health risks be re-examined. Atmospheric radiation associated with the galactic cosmic rays forms a background level which may, under some circumstances, exceed newly recommended allowable exposure limits proposed on the basis of recent evaluations of the A -bomb survivor data (due to increased risk coefficients). These larger risk coefficients, within the context of the methodology for estimating exposure limits, are resulting in exceedingly low estimated allowable exposure limits which may impact even present day flight operations and was the reason for the CEC workshop in Luxembourg (1990). At higher operating altitudes, solar particles events can produce exposures many orders of magnitude above background levels and pose significant health risks to the most sensitive individuals (such as during pregnancy). In this case the appropriate quality factors are undefined, and some evidence exists which indicates that the quality factor for stochastic effects is a substantial underestimate.

  8. Economic growth, inequality, and the economic position of the poor in 1985-1995: an international perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangas, Olli

    2002-01-01

    The "trickle-down" theory argues that wider income differences are good for economic growth, that growth is good for the poor, and therefore that widening income disparities benefit the poor. The theory thus fulfills Rawlsian principles of justice. The purpose of this article is to present a preliminary evaluation of the correctness of this theory. Income data for 21 countries were obtained from the Luxembourg Income Study, for the period 1985-95. The results of the analysis show no clear connections between inequality and economic prosperity. The wider the inequality, the worse is the absolute income of the poor. In this respect the theory is falsified. However, the trickle-down theory is partly correct in arguing for the beneficial effects of economic growth for the poor: the absolute income level of the poor is dependent on what is happening in the national economy, while the incidence and depth of poverty in advanced countries are not so much associated with economic factors as a result of national social policy programs.

  9. Multivariate Statistical Analysis of the E‑C ommunication in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Poláčková

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Th e aim of the paper is to analyze the e-communication in the member states of the European Union. On the basis of data from the Eurobarometer 75.1 survey and from the Eurostat database the diff erences in e-communication level among the European Union states were analyzed. Principal component analysis was used for the general analysis of diff erences between the states of European Union. It was possible to explain 77% of the total variance by the first two components. Th e fi rst component represents the level of e-communication while the second component characterizes quality of services and proportion of advanced Internet users. The overall e-communication level was evaluated using the component indicator. The Northern states together with the Netherlands and Luxembourg achieve the highest e communication level. On the other hand, thesouthern states (Greece, Italy, Portugal together with the two new member states (Romania, Bulgaria received the lowest rating, while Romania has been found an outlier on the basis of principal component analysis as well.

  10. Wage inequality, the health system, and infant mortality in wealthy industrialized countries, 1970-1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macinko, James A; Shi, Leiyu; Starfield, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    This pooled, cross-sectional, time-series study assesses the impact of health system variables on the relationship between wage inequality and infant mortality in 19 OECD countries over the period 1970-1996. Data are derived from the OECD, World Value Surveys, Luxembourg Income Study, and political economy databases. Analyses include Pearson correlation and fixed-effects multivariate regression. In year-specific and time-series analyses, the Theil measure of wage inequality (based on industrial sector wages) is positively and statistically significantly associated with infant mortality rates--even while controlling for GDP per capita. Health system variables--in particular the method of healthcare financing and the supply of physicians--significantly attenuated the effect of wage inequality on infant mortality. In fixed effects multivariate regression models controlling for GDP per capita and wage inequality, variables generally associated with better health include income per capita, the method of healthcare financing, and physicians per 1000 population. Alcohol consumption, the proportion of the population in unions, and government expenditures on health were associated with poorer health outcomes. Ambiguous effects were seen for the consumer price index, unemployment rates, the openness of the economy, and voting rates. This study provides international evidence for the impact of wage inequalities on infant mortality. Results suggest that improving aspects of the healthcare system may be one way to partially compensate for the negative effects of social inequalities on population health.

  11. Dynamic effects on the acceptance of hydrogen technologies - an international comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinz, Boris; Erdmann, Georg

    2008-01-01

    Social acceptance plays an important role for the future hydrogen economy and a broad market launch of hydrogen technologies. Neglecting the aspect of public acceptance and attitude may become a serious obstacle for the establishment of a mass market infrastructure. With a standardized questionnaire and a standardized procedure, personal interviews were conducted with at least 300 persons in Amsterdam, Barcelona, Berlin, Hamburg, London, Luxembourg, Madrid and Reykjavik, in total with 3352 persons. Thus the dynamics of the public attitude toward hydrogen were analyzed, whereby the possibility of setbacks and accidents was taken into consideration. Whereas 68% of the interviewed persons would be supportive of the aforementioned technologies, an amount of 31% was determined to be volatile. An amount of 77% stated that they would use a hydrogen bus instead of a conventional one if they could choose, but an amount of 21% was indifferent. It will be shown how these amounts can affect the balance of acceptance and how stable the acceptance of hydrogen technologies can be considered in the evaluated six countries. (author)

  12. The central biobank and virtual biobank of BIOMARKAPD: a resource for studies on neurodegenerative diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babette eReijs

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBiobanks are important resources for biomarker discovery and assay development. Biomarkers for Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Disease (BIOMARKAPD is a European multicenter study, funded by the EU Joint Programme - Neurodegenerative Disease Research (JPND, that aims to improve the clinical use of body fluid markers for the diagnosis and prognosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD and Parkinson’s disease (PD. The objective was to standardize the assessment of existing assays and to validate novel fluid biomarkers for AD and PD. To support the validation of novel biomarkers and assays, a central and a virtual biobank for body fluids and associated data from subjects with neurodegenerative diseases have been established. In the central biobank, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and blood samples were collected according to the BIOMARKAPD standardized preanalytical procedures (SOP and stored at Integrated BioBank of Luxembourg (IBBL. The virtual biobank provides an overview of available CSF, plasma, serum, and DNA samples at each site. Currently, at the central biobank of BIOMARKAPD samples are available from over 400 subjects with normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment (MCI, AD, frontotemporal dementia (FTD, vascular dementia (VaD, multiple system atrophy (MSA, progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP, PD, PD with dementia, and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB. The virtual biobank contains information on over 8600 subjects with varying diagnoses from 21 local biobanks. A website has been launched to enable sample requests from the central biobank and virtual biobank.

  13. [Euthanasia outside Europe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julesz, Máté

    2014-08-10

    The passive form of euthanasia is legalized almost in every civilized country. Its active form is not a generally accepted legal institution. In Europe, active euthanasia is legalized only in The Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg and Switzerland. In Australia, the Act on the Rights of the Terminally Ill of 1995 legalized the institution of assisted suicide, which is not identical to active euthanasia. The difference lies in the fact that legalized active euthanasia means that the author of a murder is not punishable (under certain circumstances), whilst assisted suicide is not about murder, rather about suicide. In the first case, the patient is killed on his or her request by someone else. In the second case, the patient himself or herself executes the act of self-killing (by the assistance of a healthcare worker). In Australia, the institution of assisted suicide was repealed in 1997. Assisted suicide is legal in four USA member states: in Vermont, Washington, Montana and Oregon. In Uruguay, the active form of euthanasia has been legal since 1932.

  14. Swine Influenza Virus Antibodies in Humans, Western Europe, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerloff, Nancy A.; Kremer, Jacques R.; Charpentier, Emilie; Sausy, Aurélie; Olinger, Christophe M.; Weicherding, Pierre; Schuh, John; Van Reeth, Kristien

    2011-01-01

    Serologic studies for swine influenza viruses (SIVs) in humans with occupational exposure to swine have been reported from the Americas but not from Europe. We compared levels of neutralizing antibodies against 3 influenza viruses—pandemic (H1N1) 2009, an avian-like enzootic subtype H1N1 SIV, and a 2007–08 seasonal subtype H1N1—in 211 persons with swine contact and 224 matched controls in Luxembourg. Persons whose profession involved contact with swine had more neutralizing antibodies against SIV and pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus than did the controls. Controls also had antibodies against these viruses although exposure to them was unlikely. Antibodies against SIV and pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus correlated with each other but not with seasonal subtype H1N1 virus. Sequential exposure to variants of seasonal influenza (H1N1) viruses may have increased chances for serologic cross-reactivity with antigenically distinct viruses. Further studies are needed to determine the extent to which serologic responses correlate with infection. PMID:21392430

  15. The impact and efficiency of public administration excellence on fostering SMEs in EU countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Aristovnik

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the impact and efficiency of bureaucracy on the development of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs in the European Union (EU. For this purpose, the article applies a non-parametric approach, i.e. data envelopment analysis (DEA, to assess the best performers in terms of transforming existing bureaucratic burdens into selected SME indicators, such as growth in their numbers, employment or value added in the 2010-2014 period. The empirical results show that Luxembourg, Sweden and, in particular, the Baltic States can serve as a good benchmark for transforming a relatively favourable environment of public administration excellence into SME indicator growth. On the other hand, Denmark and the UK, despite their top ease-of-doing-business rankings could not significantly spur SME growth in the considered period. Nevertheless, the main goal for the large majority of EU member states, especially in South-east Europe and the Mediterranean region, remains a further reduction of bureaucracy that could be useful for improving the regulatory environment of SMEs and thus aid in an even more rapid recovery from the crisis.

  16. Cross-Temporal and Cross-National Poverty and Mortality Rates among Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Fritzell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A prime objective of welfare state activities is to take action to enhance population health and to decrease mortality risks. For several centuries, poverty has been seen as a key social risk factor in these respects. Consequently, the fight against poverty has historically been at the forefront of public health and social policy. The relationship between relative poverty rates and population health indicators is less self-evident, notwithstanding the obvious similarity to the debated topic of the relationship between population health and income inequality. In this study we undertake a comparative analysis of the relationship between relative poverty and mortality across 26 countries over time, with pooled cross-sectional time series analysis. We utilize data from the Luxembourg Income Study to construct age-specific poverty rates across countries and time covering the period from around 1980 to 2005, merged with data on age- and gender-specific mortality data from the Human Mortality Database. Our results suggest not only an impact of relative poverty but also clear differences by welfare regime that partly goes beyond the well-known differences in poverty rates between welfare regimes.

  17. Assisted death and the slippery slope-finding clarity amid advocacy, convergence, and complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, M J

    2012-06-01

    This paper unpacks the slippery slope argument as it pertains to assisted death.The assisted-death regimes of the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, Switzerland, and the states of Washington and Oregon are discussed and examined with respect to the slippery slope analytical rubric. In addition to providing a preliminary explanation of how the slippery slope argument has been academically defined and constructed, the paper examines assisted-death models from the perspective of considering what might exist at the top and at the bottom of the slippery slope. It also explores the nature and scope of safeguards implemented to avoid slippage, and shows that what lies at the top and bottom of the slippery slope may be different from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. After identifying some of the recent concerns that have arisen within each of the jurisdictions (concerns that might be viewed by some as evidence of slide), the paper concludes by making note of certain critical issues in the current assisted-death debate that merit deeper examination.

  18. Assisted death and the slippery slope—finding clarity amid advocacy, convergence, and complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper unpacks the slippery slope argument as it pertains to assisted death. The assisted-death regimes of the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, Switzerland, and the states of Washington and Oregon are discussed and examined with respect to the slippery slope analytical rubric. In addition to providing a preliminary explanation of how the slippery slope argument has been academically defined and constructed, the paper examines assisted-death models from the perspective of considering what might exist at the top and at the bottom of the slippery slope. It also explores the nature and scope of safeguards implemented to avoid slippage, and shows that what lies at the top and bottom of the slippery slope may be different from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. After identifying some of the recent concerns that have arisen within each of the jurisdictions (concerns that might be viewed by some as evidence of slide), the paper concludes by making note of certain critical issues in the current assisted-death debate that merit deeper examination. PMID:22670093

  19. Health care expenditure in the Islamic Republic of Iran versus other high spending countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, Bahman; Soltani, Shahin; Javan-Noughabi, Javad; Faramarzi, Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Background: In all countries, health expenditures are a main part of government expenditure, and governments try to find policies and strategies to reduce this expenditure. Overall expenditure index has been raised 30 times during the past 20 years in Iran, while in the health sector, the growth in health expenditures index has been 71 times. The present study aimed at examining health care expenditure in the Islamic Republic of Iran versus other high spending countries. Methods: A comparative panel study was conducted in selected countries with the high mean of health expenditure per capita. Data were collected from the WORLD BANK. Out- of- pocket (OOP), health expenditure per capita, public and private health expenditure, and total health expenditure were compared among the selected counties. Results: Iran has the lowest health expenditure per capita compared to other countries and the USA has the highest health expenditures per capita. In Iran, out- of- pocket expenditure, with more than 50%, was the most cost, while in Luxembourg it was the least cost during 2004 to 2014, with less than 12%. Conclusion: Our findings revealed that politicians and health care executives should find a stable source to finance the health system. Stable sources of financing lead to having a steady trend in health expenditure.

  20. St. Valentine--patron saint of epilepsy: illustrating the semiology of seizures over the course of six centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluger, Gerhard; Kudernatsch, Verena

    2009-01-01

    From the 15th century to the present day, Christian art has portrayed people who suffer from epilepsy as attributes in illustrations of Saint Valentine (SV). The objective of our study was to interpret the works of art from a modern epileptological perspective on the basis of a collection of portrayals of SV in Europe that was as comprehensive as possible. The people depicted as attributes were analyzed with respect to their age, gender, social status, and possible seizure semiology. Three hundred forty-one illustrations of SV from Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Poland, Scotland, Slovakia, and Switzerland were systematically analyzed. Irrespective of the age of the work of art, among the 143 pictures of people with possible epilepsy characteristics, there were more males than females from various levels of society. As far as could be interpreted, there were 17 infants, 35 children, 7 adolescents, and 84 adults. With respect to possible seizure semiology, infantile spasms (n=10), atonic seizures (n=13), tonic seizures (n=53), absences (n=2), psychogenic seizures (n=4), and postictal or undefinable states (n=61) were differentiated in a subjective assessment. Despite the fact that from a modern perspective, the 15th to 20th centuries in Europe seemed to be dominated by a rather superstitious attitude toward epilepsy, there is striking accuracy in the detail of the semiology in many of the historic portrayals, and a well-founded knowledge of epilepsy is apparent.

  1. Mathematical methods for assessment and analysis of honey yield data for Bulgaria and the European Union for the period 1961-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Keranova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The objective of this work is to assess the average yields of bee honey for the period from 1961 to 2014 for all countries of the European Union. For this purpose, a single-factor analysis of variance was used. As a result of the surveys, it was found that the highest average yield of honey in the EU is in Germany (20541.91 t and Spain (20253.43 t, while the lowest yield is in Ireland (199.74 t and Luxembourg (133,2 t. Data on the production of bee honey in Bulgaria by regions from 2006 to 2014 were also analyzed, and mathematical models were made, reflecting the relationship between the respective honey yields and the survey period. The data on the basis of which the study was carried out are from the FAOSTAD database and the Agro-statistical reference book for 2000-2014 of the “Agro-statistics” Department of the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Forestry of the Republic of Bulgaria.

  2. Analyzing the environmental and resource pressures from European energy activity: A comparative study of EU member states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Álvarez, María Teresa; Moreno, Blanca; Soares, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable development and environmental protection are key concepts in the European energy policy. The Europe 2020 Strategy establishes the necessity of reducing environmental pressure and resource consumption to increase sustainable development in the EU. In this context, the aim of this paper is to develop an Environmental and Resource Pressure Aggregated Index that considers these two dimensions. This index provides information about the achievement of the targets in the member states as well as the achieved effects of the environmental policies on energy policy and sustainable development. Therefore, it would help policy-makers to plan future policy actions. The results show that, among EU countries, Portugal, Latvia, Italy, Austria and France have low environmental and resource pressure. Recommendations are made for member states with the worst results (Estonia, Poland, Cyprus, Czech Republic and Luxembourg) in order to improve their actions in climate change and energy policy. - Highlights: • An aggregated index about environmental protection in energy policy is obtained. • It aggregates environmental and resource pressures dimensions. • Portugal, Latvia, Italy, Austria and France have the best results. • Reinforcing policies are necessary in Estonia, Poland, Cyprus and Czech Republic.

  3. Untangling the causal relationship between tax burden distribution and economic growth in 23 OECD countries: Fresh evidence from linear and non-linear Granger causality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Saafi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to investigate the linear and nonlinear causality between a set of alternative tax burden ratios and economic growth in 23 OECD countries. To that end, the linear causality approach of Toda– Yamamoto (1995 and the nonparametric causality method of Kyrtsou and Labys (2006 are applied to annual data spanning from 1970 to 2014. Results obtained from the nonlinear causality test tend to reject the neutrality hypothesis for the tax structure–growth relationship in 19 of the 23 OECD countries. In the majority of the countries under investigation, the evidence is in line with the growth hypothesis where causality running from economic growth to tax burden ratios was detected in Australia, Denmark, Finland, Japan, New Zealand, and Norway. The opposite causality running from tax structure to economic growth was found in Germany, Netherlands, Portugal, and Sweden. In contrast, the neutrality hypothesis was supported in Austria, Italy, Luxembourg, and the USA, whereas the feedback hypothesis was supported in Turkey and the UK. Additional robustness checks show that when the signs of variations are taken into account, there is an asymmetric causality running from positive tax burden shocks to positive per capita GDP shocks for Belgium, France, and Turkey. Overall, our findings suggest that policy implications of the tax structure-economic growth relationships should be interpreted with caution, taking into account the test-dependent and country-specific results.

  4. Developing noise control strategies for entire railway networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oertli, Jakob

    2006-06-01

    The EU Environmental Noise Directive (2002/49) requires member states to deliver noise maps to the commission by 2007 and action plans by 2008 both for agglomerations as well as for major roads, railways and airports. Noise mitigation projects resulting from action plans are usually very expensive and therefore may threaten the economic viability of the railways in the current harsh competitive transport market, thus hindering sustainable transport policies. It is therefore of vital interest that the action plans and the resulting projects are designed in the most cost-effective way possible. The EU and Union of Railways (UIC) sponsored project Strategies and Tools to Assess and Implement noise Reducing measures for Railway Systems (STAIRRS) recognized this need and developed a tool, with which such optimal solutions can be obtained for entire railway networks. Since data collection is the most expensive part of the analysis, noise mapping data is ideally collected in such a way that it can be used for the calculation of the different scenarios, from which the most cost-effective action plans are chosen. The paper shows how the STAIRRS tool is used for this purpose and how cost-effectiveness considerations have led to optimal railway noise mitigation strategies in Switzerland and have given a basis for noise related decision making in Luxembourg.

  5. REFLECTIONS OVER THE FINANCIAL CRISIS AND TAX HEAVENS INFLUENCE IN LAUNCHING IT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin ENEA

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The problem of tax havens, "Finance about black holes, was revived in November 2008, during the worst financial crisis at a meeting of 17 countries held in Paris on the initiative of Germany and France. Participating countries have asked the OECD to update until mid 2009, a blacklist of tax havens, adding that Berlin called Switzerland. A previous list was published in early 2000 by the OECD. But there were only three countries - Monaco, Andorra and Liechtenstein. Some states were removed from the list over the years, after he had pledged transparency. Fearing not appear on the list updated, Belgium, Austria, Luxembourg, Switzerland, Liechtenstein and Andorra but announced last minute changes to national laws on banking secrecy. According to OECD methodology, a country must meet four criteria to fall within the tax havens. First, association with tax havens you levied level is very low, and in some cases to zero. But this criterion is not sufficient given that each jurisdiction has the right to individually set the taxes levied inside. Other criteria set forth by the OECD refers to the lack of transparency of bank operations, the existence of regulations that impede the exchange of information between governments on taxes and the absence of conditions for economic activities undertaken by some companies to be substantial. This latter criterion may reveal the intention of certain countries to attract investment based only on the opportunities offered by the tax - the so-called offshore centers.

  6. IMPACT OF POLICIES AND PUBLIC FINANCING INSTRUMENTS ON R&D INVESTMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steliana SANDU

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on the Romania country review, produced as internal working papers for the research project “Monitoring and analysis of policies and public financing instruments conducive to higher levels of R&D investment”. The aim of the project is to serve as support for policy developments in Europe, notably in the framework of CREST activities. It is running by a consortium of 7 partners:· UNU-MERIT (The Netherlands, consortium leader·Technopolis (The Netherlands· PREST – University of Manchester (United Kingdom· ZEW (Germany· Joanneum Research (Austria· Wiseguys Ltd. (United Kingdom and INTRASOFT International (Luxembourg. Each country review provides expert’s view on the policy mix and its is to provide an exploratory analysis of the current policy mixes in place and detect the most important areas of interactions between instruments as well as new modes of policy governance that are particularly adapted (or detrimental for the building of policy mixes.

  7. Analysis of European Union Economy in Terms of GDP Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona VINEREAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the crises on national economies represented a subject of analysis and interest for a wide variety of research studies. Thus, starting from the GDP composition, the present research exhibits an analysis of the impact of European economies, at an EU level, of the events that followed the crisis of 2007 – 2008. Firstly, the research highlighted the existence of two groups of countries in 2012 in European Union, namely segments that were compiled in relation to the structure of the GDP’s components. In the second stage of the research, a factor analysis was performed on the resulted segments, that showed that the economies of cluster A are based more on personal consumption compared to the economies of cluster B, and in terms of government consumption, the situation is reversed. Thus, between the two groups of countries, a different approach regarding the role of fiscal policy in the economy can be noted, with a greater emphasis on savings in cluster B. Moreover, besides the two groups of countries resulted, Ireland and Luxembourg stood out because these two countries did not fit in either of the resulted segments and their economies are based, to a large extent, on the positive balance of the external balance.

  8. Diet Soft Drink Consumption is Associated with the Metabolic Syndrome: A Two Sample Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Crichton

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Comparative analyses of soft drink intakes in samples from the United States and Europe, and assessed intakes in relation to prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS and its individual components are currently lacking. We used data collected on cardiovascular health and dietary intakes in participants from two cross-sectional studies: the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study (MSLS, conducted in Central New York, USA in 2001–2006 (n = 803, and the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg Study (ORISCAV-LUX, conducted in 2007–2009 (n = 1323. Odds ratios for MetS were estimated according to type and quantity of soft drink consumption, adjusting for demographic, lifestyle and dietary factors, in both studies. In both studies, individuals who consumed at least one soft drink per day had a higher prevalence of MetS, than non-consumers. This was most evident for consumers of diet soft drinks, consistent across both studies. Diet soft drink intakes were also positively associated with waist circumference and fasting plasma glucose in both studies. Despite quite different consumption patterns of diet versus regular soft drinks in the two studies, findings from both support the notion that diet soft drinks are associated with a higher prevalence of MetS.

  9. Joint remote data transmission field trial at Ahaus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pekkarinen, J.; Meylemans, P.; Rudolf, K.; Schink, F.J.; Kuribayashi, T.; Leslie, R.F.; Neumann, G.

    2001-05-01

    The international safeguards authorities Euratom Safeguards Office and international atomic energy agency (IAEA) intend to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of their inspection efforts in nuclear facilities by replacing unattended remote monitoring technology for on-site inspection activities. In order to study aspects of cost-effectiveness as well as technical feasibility and reliability, a 13-month dedicated field trial was performed at the Ahaus spent fuel storage facility testing the remote retrieval of authenticated and encrypted image data files from a digital multi-camera optical surveillance system (DMOS) with three cameras. Each image data file was released with a delay of 24 hours for remote retrieval via ISDN. Retrieval, reviewing and archiving took place at Euratom headquarters in Luxembourg. Due to the applied distributed data storage concept no loss of data took place. The data reduction principle of front end scene change detection worked reliably, i.e. it was possible to significantly reduce the amount of data to be remotely transmitted and the associated transmission costs. Under the assumption that technically mature safeguards instrumentation is available, the implementation of remote monitoring systems is technically feasible but requires cost-benefit analyses on a case-by-case basis. (orig.) [de

  10. Future Trajectories of Renewable Energy Consumption in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Cucchiella

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy sources (RESs are able to reduce the European Union (EU’s dependence on foreign energy imports, also meeting sustainable objectives to tackle climate change and to enhance economic opportunities. Energy management requires a quantitative analysis and the European Commission follows the performance of each Member State (MS in order to define the corrective measures towards 2020 targets. Starting from historical data reported in the Eurostat database and through a mathematical model, this work proposes future trajectories towards 2020 of the share of energy from renewables (REs in terms of gross final energy consumption (GFEC. Furthermore, a quantitative analysis based on two indices—(i the share of REs in GFEC, and (ii gross final renewable energy consumption (GFREC per capita—permits a comparison among 28 MSs. The share of REs in GFEC in EU 28 varies from 19.4% to 21.8% in future trajectories towards 2020. Sweden and Finland occupy the top part of the ranking, while six MSs (Belgium, France, Ireland, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, and the United Kingdom are not able to reach the 2020 targets.

  11. The EU Vs. Russia: Legal Nature and Implementation of the Union’s Restrictive Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voinikov Vadim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The author proposes his take on the EU sanctions against Russia. He aims to understand the legal nature of the EU restrictions, the exact procedure of their implementation, revision, and repeal, as well as their judicial review. To this end, he proposes a system of sanction classification, analyses current EU legislation on the imposition and implementation of sanctions, as well as the case law on the sanction policy. The author also examines EU sanctions imposed on other countries and compares them to the Russian ones. He thus comes up with the following classification of sanctions against Russia: individual sanctions, those targeted at Crimea and Sevastopol, and anti-Russian economic sanctions. He concludes that the EU sanctions against Russia are inconsistent with the legal nature of restrictive measures, since they are a punishment rather than a policy tool. The author believes that in the current political conditions it may be difficult for the European Union to reach a unanimous agreement to repeal or prolong the sanctions. This article is inspired by the discussions that took place during the international conference “Russia and the EU: the Question of Trust” held in Luxembourg on November, 28—29 (2014.

  12. Population compliance with national dietary recommendations and its determinants: findings from the ORISCAV-LUX study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkerwi, Ala'a; Sauvageot, Nicolas; Nau, Anne; Lair, Marie-Lise; Donneau, Anne-Françoise; Albert, Adelin; Guillaume, Michèle

    2012-12-14

    The objective of the present study was to determine the proportion of adults meeting national recommendations for food and nutrient intake and to identify the demographic, socio-economic and behavioural factors that may contribute to weaken dietary compliance. ORISCAV-LUX is a cross-sectional study that took place in Luxembourg (2007-8). A representative stratified random sample of 1352 adults aged 18-69 years participated in the nationwide cardiovascular health survey. A FFQ was used to estimate food intake. Radar charts were built to compare graphically the compliance of the participants with different key dietary guidelines on the same set of axes. The thirteen food- and nutrient-based recommendations were scored and summed to create a recommendation compliance index (range -0·5 to 14). Ordinal logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the factors contributing to poor dietary compliance. Several food- and nutrient-based guidelines were insufficiently respected compared with others. The greatest gaps occurred in the adherence to grain and dairy product consumption guidelines, as well as to total fat and notably to SFA recommendations. Age, country of birth, economic status, smoking status and subject's awareness of the importance of balanced meals emerged as independently associated with weak dietary compliance. Obese subjects conformed more to dietary recommendations compared with normal-weight subjects. The findings underscore the need for specific nutrition education messages along with targeted interventions. Efforts should be continued to increase population awareness of the importance of a healthy lifestyle and a balanced diet.

  13. More than just nickels and dimes: a cross-national analysis of working poverty in affluent democracies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, David; Fullerton, Andrew S; Cross, Jennifer Moren

    2010-01-01

    Despite its centrality to contemporary inequality, working poverty is often popularly discussed but rarely studied by sociologists. Using the Luxembourg Income Study (2009), we analyze whether an individual is working poor across 18 affluent democracies circa 2000. We demonstrate that working poverty does not simply mirror overall poverty and that there is greater cross-national variation in working than overall poverty. We then examine four explanations for working poverty: demographic characteristics, economic performance, unified theory, and welfare generosity. We utilize Heckman probit models to jointly model the likelihood of employment and poverty among the employed. Our analyses provide the least support for the economic performance explanation. There is modest support for unified theory as unionization reduces working poverty in some models. However, most of these effects appear to be mediated by welfare generosity. More substantial evidence exists for the demographic characteristics and welfare generosity explanations. An individual's likelihood of being working poor can be explained by (a) a lack of multiple earners or other adults in one's household, low education, single motherhood, having children and youth; and (b) the generosity of the welfare state in which he or she resides. Also, welfare generosity does not undermine employment and reduces working poverty even among demographically vulnerable groups. Ultimately, we encourage a greater role for the welfare state in debates about working poverty.

  14. The economic impact of reduced value added tax rates for groceries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavomíra Martinková

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The value added tax represents one of the most important sources of state budget revenues of EU Member States. The basic value added tax rate is in the EU currently between 15% in Luxembourg to 27% applied in Hungary. The revenues from this tax represent an average of 17.5% of all tax revenues of EU countries and create an average GDP of 7.0% (year 2016, EU 28. As revenues from value added tax represent a stable income of state budget, the legislative changes in the system of value added tax, mainly its reductions as well as its imposition on groceries, can significantly influence further macroeconomic development. In the last year, the government of the Slovak Republic implemented changes in universal indirect taxing in such way that in addition to the standard value added tax rate of 20%, the Act No. 268/2015 on Value added tax adopted in 2016 a decreased value added tax rate of 10% on selected groceries, in order to support domestic producers and reduce the tax burden of low-income and middle-income groups. According to the European Commission (2007, the reduced rate of value added tax in selected cases has its justification and importance in the country's economy. The aim of this paper is to analyse the economic impact of the applied reduced value added tax on food in the Slovak Republic in the context of household expenditures and revenues of the state budget.

  15. Child poverty and changes in child poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Hao; Corak, Miles

    2008-08-01

    This article offers a cross-country overview of child poverty, changes in child poverty, and the impact of public policy in North America and Europe. Levels and changes in child poverty rates in 12 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries during the 1990s are documented using data from the Luxembourg Income Study project, and a decomposition analysis is used to uncover the relative role of demographic factors, labor markets, and income transfers from the state in determining the magnitude and direction of the changes. Child poverty rates fell noticeably in only three countries and rose in three others. In no country were demographic factors a force for higher child poverty rates, but these factors were also limited in their ability to cushion children from adverse shocks originating in the labor market or the government sector. Increases in the labor market engagement of mothers consistently lowered child poverty rates, while decreases in the employment rates and earnings of fathers were a force for higher rates. Finally, there is no single road to lower child poverty rates. Reforms to income transfers intended to increase labor supply may or may not end up lowering the child poverty rate.

  16. The legislative backgrounds of workplace health promotion in three European countries: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šidagytė, Rasa; Eglīte, Maija; Salmi, Anne; Šorytė, Dovilė; Vanadziņš, Ivars; Hopsu, Leila; Lerssi-Uskelin, Jaana; Bulotaitė, Laima; Kozlova, Lāsma; Lakiša, Svetlana; Vičaitė, Sigita

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates the legal database and theoretical basis of workplace health promotion (WHP) in three European countries: Finland, Latvia and Lithuania, and aims to find insights into effective WHP implementation. In November 2013, a stakeholders' survey was carried out. The questionnaire included questions about legal documents and non-legislative measures relevant to WHP, institutions and other bodies/organizations working in the field, WHP conception/definition, and implementation of WHP activities according to the enterprises' size. Only Finland has adopted a specific law on occupational health care (separate from occupational safety). ILO conventions No. 161 (Occupational Health Services Convention) and No. 187 (Promotional Framework for Occupational Safety and Health Convention) are ratified only in Finland. In Finland, the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health acts as one ministry, while two Baltic countries have two separate ministries (one for health and another for social affairs). None of the countries has legally approved a definition of WHP. Latvia and Lithuania tend to separate WHP from other activities, whereas Finland integrates WHP into other occupational health and safety elements. Finland has a more extensive legislative and organizational background to WHP than Latvia and Lithuania. In defining WHP, all the countries refer to the Luxembourg Declaration on Workplace Health Promotion in the European Union. Finland's practice of integrating WHP into other occupational health and safety elements is important.

  17. International migration and unemployment in established member countries of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Palát

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to evaluate relationships of the rate of migration and the unemployment rate in established member countries of the European Union covering also the period of the last financial and economic crisis and using statistical methods. To determine parameters of a regression function were used methods of regression and correlation analysis including testing the statistical significance. Nearly all countries (except Luxemburg and Austria show a negative linear relationship between tested indicators however not always statistically significant. Based on these results, the existence of correlation is evident between the crude rate of net migration and the unemployment rate in more than a half of the monitored countries. Calculated correlation indices show highly statistically significant results for typically immigrant’s destination countries, e.g. Germany, United Kingdom, Luxembourg, and Belgium but we can find statistically significant results also in countries which are facing enormous economic problems during the last financial and economic crisis, esp. in Ireland, Spain and Italy. With an exemption of Belgium, the selected type of regression function doesn’t play a role as it regards the statistical significance of correlation indices and the use of polynomials of higher degrees doesn’t improve those results significantly. The analysis of the crude rate of net migration and the unemployment rate presented in this paper can be further used and developed when other variables would be added to the model.

  18. [Euthanasia in history and the present - in the spectrum between euthanasia and terminal care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Engelhardt, Dietrich

    2010-01-01

    Euthanasia signifies in antiquity an easy and happy death and not at all an active termination of life, which was forbidden in the Hippocratic oath, but justified by philosophers. In the Christian middle ages active euthanasia and abortion are explicitly refused. At the beginnings of modern times MORE (1516) and BACON (1623) plead for euthanasia and differentiate for the first time between "euthanasia interior" as a mental preparation and "euthanasia exterior" as a physical and direct termination of life. Around 1900 a change takes place--in medicine as well as in the humanities and arts. The lawyer Karl BINDING and the psychiatrist Alfred HOCHE (1920) support active euthanasia in the case of mental deficiency; similar views are taken by the population. Under the "Third Reich" euthanasia unlawfully is carried out as termination of life without or even against consent. Today oaths, declarations and laws are intended to prevent such a "medicine without humanity" (MITSCHERLICH and MIELKE 1947). Active voluntary euthanasia is under certain conditions allowed by the legislation in some countries (Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg). Essential seem the consideration of different types of euthanasia and above all a psychical-mental assistance in the process of dying. The height of culture is measured by dealing with death and dying.

  19. FOREIGN DRIVING LICENCES IN FRANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Service des relations avec les Pays Hôtes

    2000-01-01

    1. PERSONS RESIDING IN FRANCE1.1 National driving licences from countries belonging to the EEAa) ValidityCurrent national driving licences issued by a country belonging to the European Economic Area (here inafter called EEA) are, in principle, valid in France. N.B. : The countries belonging to the EEA are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom.b)\tRegistrationTo ensure that all the conditions of validity in France have been met, holders of driving licences issued by a country belonging to the EEA, who reside in France (i.e. hold a residence permit issued by a Préfecture, or a carte spéciale issued by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, which is equivalent to a residence permit), can have their licences registered with the Préfecture of the department where they live (for Ain, call 04 74 32 30 00, for Haute Savoie call 04 50 33 ...

  20. Energy deprivation dynamics and regulatory reforms in Europe: Evidence from household panel data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poggi, Ambra [Department of Economics, University of Milan-Bicocca and LABORatorio Revelli, Collegio C. Alberto (Italy); Florio, Massimo, E-mail: massimo.florio@unimi.i [Department of Economics, Business and Statistics, University of Milan, Via Conservatorio 7, 20122 Milan (Italy)

    2010-01-15

    The typical ingredients of energy reforms in the European Union (EU) in the 1990s were full or partial privatization, vertical disintegration and liberalization. This paper analyses the effects of energy reforms on the probability of households experiencing deprivation, defined as difficulty in paying the bills. We use two sets of micro-data. First, the European Community Household Panel (ECHP), a large EU survey, offers evidence on people who report having been unable to pay scheduled utility bills. We consider seven European countries: Denmark, Belgium, France, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands and Spain, and eight ECHP waves (1994-2001), with around 28,000 observations. Second, we also use micro-data from the European Statistics on Income and Living Conditions survey (EU-SILC) 2004-2005, with around 84,000 observations. The countries included are Belgium, France, Ireland, Italy, Spain, Austria, Finland, Luxembourg, Norway and Sweden. As indicators of regulatory reforms in the same countries and years we use ECTR (formerly REGREF), a database provided by the OECD. In both samples we find evidence that privatization increases the probability of households experiencing deprivation. Vertical disintegration has a similar effect and also increases the persistence in the status of household deprivation. Liberalization has no statistically significant effect. We discuss possible interpretations of these findings.