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Sample records for luteolin triggers global

  1. Flexible trigger menu implementation on the Global Trigger for the CMS Level-1 trigger upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    MATSUSHITA, Takashi; CMS Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    The CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has continued to explore physics at the high-energy frontier in 2016. The integrated luminosity delivered by the LHC in 2016 was 41 fb-1 with a peak luminosity of 1.5 × 1034 cm-2s-1 and peak mean pile-up of about 50, all exceeding the initial estimations for 2016. The CMS experiment has upgraded its hardware-based Level-1 trigger system to maintain its performance for new physics searches and precision measurements at high luminosities. The Global Trigger is the final step of the CMS Level-1 trigger and implements a trigger menu, a set of selection requirements applied to the final list of objects from calorimeter and muon triggers, for reducing the 40 MHz collision rate to 100 kHz. The Global Trigger has been upgraded with state-of-the-art FPGA processors on Advanced Mezzanine Cards with optical links running at 10 GHz in a MicroTCA crate. The powerful processing resources of the upgraded system enable implementation of more algorithms at a time than previously possible, allowing CMS to be more flexible in how it handles the available trigger bandwidth. Algorithms for a trigger menu, including topological requirements on multi-objects, can be realised in the Global Trigger using the newly developed trigger menu specification grammar. Analysis-like trigger algorithms can be represented in an intuitive manner and the algorithms are translated to corresponding VHDL code blocks to build a firmware. The grammar can be extended in future as the needs arise. The experience of implementing trigger menus on the upgraded Global Trigger system will be presented.

  2. Upgrade of the CMS Global Muon Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Jeitler, Manfred; Rabady, Dinyar; Sakulin, Hannes; Stahl, Achim

    2015-01-01

    The increase in center-of-mass energy and luminosity for Run-II of the Large Hadron Collider poses new challenges for the trigger systems of the experiments. To keep triggering with a similar performance as in Run-I, the CMS muon trigger is currently being upgraded. The new algorithms will provide higher resolution, especially for the muon transverse momentum and will make use of isolation criteria that combine calorimeter with muon information already in the level-1 trigger. The demands of the new algorithms can only be met by upgrading the level-1 trigger system to new powerful FPGAs with high bandwidth I/O. The processing boards will be based on the new μTCA standard. We report on the planned algorithms for the upgraded Global Muon Trigger (μGMT) which sorts and removes duplicates from boundaries of the muon trigger sub-systems. Furthermore, it determines how isolated the muon candidates are based on calorimetric energy deposits. The μGMT will be implemented using a processing board that features a larg...

  3. Upgrade of the CMS Global Muon Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Lingemann, Joschka; Sakulin, Hannes; Jeitler, Manfred; Stahl, Achim

    2015-01-01

    The increase in center-of-mass energy and luminosity for Run 2 of the Large Hadron Collider pose new challenges for the trigger systems of the experiments. To keep triggering with a similar performance as in Run 1, the CMS muon trigger is currently being upgraded. The new algorithms will provide higher resolution, especially for the muon transverse momentum and will make use of isolation criteria that combine calorimeter with muon information already in the level-1 trigger. The demands of the new algorithms can only be met by upgrading the level-1 trigger system to new powerful FPGAs with high bandwidth I/O. The processing boards will be based on the new microTCA standard. We report on the planned algorithms for the upgraded Global Muon Trigger (GMT) which combines information from the muon trigger sub-systems and assigns the isolation variable. The upgraded GMT will be implemented using a Master Processor 7 card, built by Imperial College, that features a large Xilinx Virtex 7 FPGA. Up to 72 optical links at...

  4. Flexible trigger menu implementation on the Global Trigger for the CMS Level-1 trigger upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Matsushita, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    The CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has continued to explore physics at the high-energy frontier in 2016. The integrated luminosity delivered by the LHC in 2016 was 41~fb$^{-1}$ with a peak luminosity of 1.5 $\\times$ 10$^{34}$ cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ and peak mean pile-up of about 50, all exceeding the initial estimations for 2016. The CMS experiment has upgraded its hardware-based Level-1 trigger system to maintain its performance for new physics searches and precision measurements at high luminosities. The Global Trigger is the final step of the CMS \\mbox{Level-1} trigger and implements a trigger menu, a set of selection requirements applied to the final list of objects from calorimeter and muon triggers, for reducing the 40 MHz collision rate to 100 kHz. The Global Trigger has been upgraded with state-of-the-art FPGA processors on Advanced Mezzanine Cards with optical links running at 10 GHz in a MicroTCA crate. The powerful processing resources of the upgraded system enable implemen...

  5. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The hardware of the trigger components has been mostly finished. The ECAL Endcap Trigger Concentrator Cards (TCC) are in production while Barrel TCC firmware has been upgraded, and the Trigger Primitives can now be stored by the Data Concentrator Card for readout by the DAQ. The Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT) system is complete, and the timing is being finalized. All 502 HCAL trigger links to RCT run without error. The HCAL muon trigger timing has been equalized with DT, RPC, CSC and ECAL. The hardware and firmware for the Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) jet triggers are being commissioned and data from these triggers is available for readout. The GCT energy sums from rings of trigger towers around the beam pipe beam have been changed to include two rings from both sides. The firmware for Drift Tube Track Finder, Barrel Sorter and Wedge Sorter has been upgraded, and the synchronization of the DT trigger is satisfactory. The CSC local trigger has operated flawlessly u...

  6. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    2012-01-01

      Level-1 Trigger The Level-1 Trigger group is ready to deploy improvements to the L1 Trigger algorithms for 2012. These include new high-PT patterns for the RPC endcap, an improved CSC PT assignment, a new PT-matching algorithm for the Global Muon Trigger, and new calibrations for ECAL, HCAL, and the Regional Calorimeter Trigger. These should improve the efficiency, rate, and stability of the L1 Trigger. The L1 Trigger group also is migrating the online systems to SLC5. To make the data transfer from the Global Calorimeter Trigger to the Global Trigger more reliable and also to allow checking the data integrity online, a new optical link system has been developed by the GCT and GT groups and successfully tested at the CMS electronics integration facility in building 904. This new system is now undergoing further tests at Point 5 before being deployed for data-taking this year. New L1 trigger menus have recently been studied and proposed by Emmanuelle Perez and the L1 Detector Performance Group...

  7. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    At the March meeting, the CMS trigger group reported on progress in production, tests in the Electronics Integration Center (EIC) in Prevessin 904, progress on trigger installation in the underground counting room at point 5, USC55, the program of trigger pattern tests and vertical slice tests and planning for the Global Runs starting this summer. The trigger group is engaged in the final stages of production testing, systems integration, and software and firmware development. Most systems are delivering final tested electronics to CERN. The installation in USC55 is underway and integration testing is in full swing. A program of orderly connection and checkout with subsystems and central systems has been developed. This program includes a series of vertical subsystem slice tests providing validation of a portion of each subsystem from front-end electronics through the trigger and DAQ to data captured and stored. After full checkout, trigger subsystems will be then operated in the CMS Global Runs. Continuous...

  8. Global tracker for the ALICE high level trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vik, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    This thesis deals with two main topics. The first is the implementation and testing of a Kalman filter algorithm in the HLT (High Level Trigger) reconstruction code. This will perform the global tracking in the HLT, that is merging tracklets and hits from the different sub-detectors in the central barrel detector. The second topic is a trigger mode of the HLT which uses the global tracking of particles through the TRD (Transition Radiation Detector), TPC (Time Projection Chamber) and the ITS (Inner Tracking System): The dielectron trigger. Global tracking: The Kalman filter algorithm has been introduced to the HLT tracking scheme. (Author)

  9. The Level-1 Global Muon Trigger for the CMS Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Sakulin, H; Taurok, Anton

    2003-01-01

    The three independent Level-1 muon trigger systems in CMS deliver up to 16 muon candidates per bunch crossing, each described by transverse momentum, direction, charge and quality. The Global Muon Trigger combines these measurements in order to find the best four muon candidates in the entire detector and attaches bits from the calorimeter trigger to denote calorimetric isolation and confirmation. A single-board logic design is presented: via a special front panel and a custom back plane more...

  10. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The trigger synchronization procedures for running with cosmic muons and operating with the LHC were reviewed during the May electronics week. Firmware maintenance issues were also reviewed. Link tests between the new ECAL endcap trigger concentrator cards (TCC48) and the Regional Calorimeter Trigger have been performed. Firmware for the energy sum triggers and an upgraded tau trigger of the Global Calorimeter Triggers has been developed and is under test. The optical fiber receiver boards for the Track-Finder trigger theta links of the DT chambers are now all installed. The RPC trigger is being made more robust by additional chamber and cable shielding and also by firmware upgrades. For the CSC’s the front-end and trigger motherboard firmware have been updated. New RPC patterns and DT/CSC lookup tables taking into account phi asymmetries in the magnetic field configuration are under study. The motherboard for the new pipeline synchronizer of the Global Trigg...

  11. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Trigger Hardware The status of the trigger components was presented during the September CMS Week and Annual Review and at the monthly trigger meetings in October and November. Procedures for cold and warm starts (e.g. refreshing of trigger parameters stored in registers) of the trigger subsystems have been studied. Reviews of parts of the Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) and the Global Trigger (GT) have taken place in October and November. The CERN group summarized the status of the Trigger Timing and Control (TTC) system. All TTC crates and boards are installed in the underground counting room, USC55. The central clock system will be upgraded in December (after the Global Run at the end of November GREN) to the new RF2TTC LHC machine interface timing module. Migration of subsystem's TTC PCs to SLC4/ XDAQ 3.12 is being prepared. Work is on going to unify the access to Local Timing Control (LTC) and TTC CMS interface module (TTCci) via SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol, a lightweight XML-based messaging ...

  12. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The production of the trigger hardware is now basically finished, and in time for the turn-on of the LHC. The last boards produced are the Trigger Concentrator Cards for the ECAL Endcaps (TCC-EE). After the recent installation of the four EE Dees, the TCC-EE prototypes were used for their commissioning. Production boards are arriving and are being tested continuously, with the last ones expected in November. The Regional Calorimeter Trigger hardware is fully integrated after installation of the last EE cables. Pattern tests from the HCAL up to the GCT have been performed successfully. The HCAL triggers are fully operational, including the connection of the HCAL-outer and forward-HCAL (HO/HF) technical triggers to the Global Trigger. The HCAL Trigger and Readout (HTR) board firmware has been updated to permit recording of the tower “feature bit” in the data. The Global Calorimeter Trigger hardware is installed, but some firmware developments are still n...

  13. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith from contributions of C. Leonidopoulos

    2010-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software Since nearly all of the Level-1 (L1) Trigger hardware at Point 5 has been commissioned, activities during the past months focused on the fine-tuning of synchronization, particularly for the ECAL and the CSC systems, on firmware upgrades and on improving trigger operation and monitoring. Periodic resynchronizations or hard resets and a shortened luminosity section interval of 23 seconds were implemented. For the DT sector collectors, an automatic power-off was installed in case of high temperatures, and the monitoring capabilities of the opto-receivers and the mini-crates were enhanced. The DTTF and the CSCTF now have improved memory lookup tables. The HCAL trigger primitive logic implemented a new algorithm providing better stability of the energy measurement in the presence of any phase misalignment. For the Global Calorimeter Trigger, additional Source Cards have been manufactured and tested. Testing of the new tau, missing ET and missing HT algorithms is underw...

  14. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The final parts of the Level-1 trigger hardware are now being put in place. For the ECAL endcaps, more than half of the Trigger Concentrator Cards for the ECAL Endcap (TCC-EE) are now available at CERN, such that one complete endcap can be covered. The Global Trigger now correctly handles ECAL calibration sequences, without being influenced by backpressure. The Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT) hardware is complete and working in USC55. Intra-crate tests of all 18 RCT crates and the Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) are regularly taking place. Pattern tests have successfully captured data from HCAL through RCT to the GCT Source Cards. HB/HE trigger data are being compared with emulator results to track down the very few remaining hardware problems. The treatment of hot and dead cells, including their recording in the database, has been defined. For the GCT, excellent agreement between the emulator and data has been achieved for jets and HF ET sums. There is still som...

  15. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    2010-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The Level-1 Trigger hardware has performed well during both the recent proton-proton and heavy ion running. Efforts were made to improve the visibility and handling of alarms and warnings. The tracker ReTRI boards that prevent fixed frequencies of Level-1 Triggers are now configured through the Trigger Supervisor. The Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) team has introduced a buffer cleanup procedure at stops and a reset of the QPLL during configuring to ensure recalibration in case of a switch from the LHC clock to the local clock. A device to test the cables between the Regional Calorimeter Trigger and the GCT has been manufactured. A wrong charge bit was fixed in the CSC Trigger. The ECAL group is improving crystal masking and spike suppression in the trigger primitives. New firmware for the Drift Tube Track Finder (DTTF) sorters was developed to improve fake track tagging and sorting. Zero suppression was implemented in the DT Sector Collector readout. The track finder b...

  16. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    by Wesley Smith

    2011-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software After the winter shutdown minor hardware problems in several subsystems appeared and were corrected. A reassessment of the overall latency has been made. In the TTC system shorter cables between TTCci and TTCex have been installed, which saved one bunch crossing, but which may have required an adjustment of the RPC timing. In order to tackle Pixel out-of-syncs without influencing other subsystems, a special hardware/firmware re-sync protocol has been introduced in the Global Trigger. The link between the Global Calorimeter Trigger and the Global Trigger with the new optical Global Trigger Interface and optical receiver daughterboards has been successfully tested in the Electronics Integration Centre in building 904. New firmware in the GCT now allows a setting to remove the HF towers from energy sums. The HF sleeves have been replaced, which should lead to reduced rates of anomalous signals, which may allow their inclusion after this is validated. For ECAL, improvements i...

  17. Pro-apoptotic effects of the flavonoid luteolin in rat H4IIE cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michels, G.; Waetjen, W.; Niering, P.; Steffan, B.; Thi, Q.-H. Tran; Chovolou, Y.; Kampkoetter, A.; Bast, A.; Proksch, P.; Kahl, R.

    2005-01-01

    Polyphenols are ubiquitous substances in the diet. Their anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-viral effects are of interest for human health, and polyphenols such as luteolin are used at high concentrations in food supplements. The aim of this project was to determine the intrinsic effects of luteolin in H4IIE rat hepatoma cells. Luteolin is relatively toxic, cell death was caused via induction of apoptosis as detected by DNA-ladder formation, by nuclear fragmentation and activation of apoptotic enzymes (caspase-2, -3/7, -9 and -8/10). Luteolin (250 μM, 24 h) increased the caspase-3/7 activity four-fold and the caspase-9 activity six-fold. In a time course experiment caspase-9 is activated after 6 h, while caspase-2 and -3/7 are activated after 12 h. After 24 h, caspase-8/10 also displays activation. We found a concentration-dependent increase in malondialdehyde release suggesting a prooxidative effect of luteolin. Furthermore, we analysed DNA strand break formation by luteolin and found a distinct increase of DNA strand breaks after incubation for 3 h with 100 μM luteolin, a concentration which induces oligonucleosomal DNA cleavage at 24 h. In conclusion, the sequence of events is compatible with the assumption that luteolin triggers the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis, probably by inducing DNA damage

  18. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    2011-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software New Forward Scintillating Counters (FSC) for rapidity gap measurements have been installed and integrated into the Trigger recently. For the Global Muon Trigger, tuning of quality criteria has led to improvements in muon trigger efficiencies. Several subsystems have started campaigns to increase spares by recovering boards or producing new ones. The barrel muon sector collector test system has been reactivated, new η track finder boards are in production, and φ track finder boards are under revision. In the CSC track finder, an η asymmetry problem has been corrected. New pT look-up tables have also improved efficiency. RPC patterns were changed from four out of six coincident layers to three out of six in the barrel, which led to a significant increase in efficiency. A new PAC firmware to trigger on heavy stable charged particles allows looking for chamber hit coincidences in two consecutive bunch-crossings. The redesign of the L1 Trigger Emulator...

  19. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith, from contributions of D. Acosta

    2012-01-01

      The L1 Trigger group deployed several major improvements this year. Compared to 2011, the single-muon trigger rate has been reduced by a factor of 2 and the η coverage has been restored to 2.4, with high efficiency. During the current technical stop, a higher jet seed threshold will be applied in the Global Calorimeter Trigger in order to significantly reduce the strong pile-up dependence of the HT and multi-jet triggers. The currently deployed L1 menu, with the “6E33” prescales, has a total rate of less than 100 kHz and operates with detector readout dead time of less than 3% for luminosities up to 6.5 × 1033 cm–2s–1. Further prescale sets have been created for 7 and 8 × 1033 cm–2s–1 luminosities. The L1 DPG is evaluating the performance of the Trigger for upcoming conferences and publication. Progress on the Trigger upgrade was reviewed during the May Upgrade Week. We are investigating scenarios for stagin...

  20. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The road map for the final commissioning of the level-1 trigger system has been set. The software for the trigger subsystems is being upgraded to run under CERN Scientific Linux 4 (SLC4). There is also a new release for the Trigger Supervisor (TS 1.4), which implies upgrade work by the subsystems. As reported by the CERN group, a campaign to tidy the Trigger Timing and Control (TTC) racks has begun. The machine interface was upgraded by installing the new RF2TTC module, which receives RF signals from LHC Point 4. Two Beam Synchronous Timing (BST) signals, one for each beam, can now be received in CMS. The machine group will define the exact format of the information content shortly. The margin on the locking range of the CMS QPLL is planned for study for different subsystems in the next Global Runs, using a function generator. The TTC software has been successfully tested on SLC4. Some TTC subsystems have already been upgraded to SLC4. The TTCci Trigger Supervisor ...

  1. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Alimena

    2013-01-01

    Trigger Strategy Group The Strategy for Trigger Evolution And Monitoring (STEAM) group is responsible for the development of future High-Level Trigger menus, as well as of its DQM and validation, in collaboration and with the technical support of the PdmV group. Taking into account the beam energy and luminosity expected in 2015, a rough estimate of the trigger rates indicates a factor four increase with respect to 2012 conditions. Assuming that a factor two can be tolerated thanks to the increase in offline storage and processing capabilities, a toy menu has been developed using the new OpenHLT workflow to estimate the transverse energy/momentum thresholds that would halve the current trigger rates. The CPU time needed to run the HLT has been compared between data taken with 25 ns and 50 ns bunch spacing, for equivalent pile-up: no significant difference was observed on the global time per event distribution at the only available data point, corresponding to a pile-up of about 10 interactions. Using th...

  2. The new Global Muon Trigger of the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Fulcher, Jonathan Richard; Rabady, Dinyar Sebastian; Reis, Thomas; Sakulin, Hannes

    2016-01-01

    For the 2016 physics data runs the L1 trigger system of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment underwent a major upgrade to cope with the increasing instantaneous luminosity of the CERN LHC whilst maintaining a high event selection efficiency for the CMS physics program. Most subsystem specific trigger processor boards were replaced with powerful general purpose processor boards, conforming to the MicroTCA standard, whose tasks are performed by firmware on an FPGA of the Xilinx Virtex 7 family. Furthermore, the muon trigger system moved from a subsystem centered approach, where each of the three muon detector systems provides muon candidates to the Global Muon Trigger (GMT), to a region based system, where muon track finders (TFs) combine information from the subsystems to generate muon candidates in three detector regions, that are then sent to the upgraded GMT. The upgraded GMT receives up to 108 muons from the processors of the muon TFs in the barrel, overlap, and endcap detector regions. The muons are...

  3. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Roberta Arcidiacono

    2013-01-01

    Trigger Studies Group (TSG) The Trigger Studies Group has just concluded its third 2013 workshop, where all POGs presented the improvements to the physics object reconstruction, and all PAGs have shown their plans for Trigger development aimed at the 2015 High Level Trigger (HLT) menu. The Strategy for Trigger Evolution And Monitoring (STEAM) group is responsible for Trigger menu development, path timing, Trigger performance studies coordination, HLT offline DQM as well as HLT release, menu and conditions validation – this last task in collaboration with PdmV (Physics Data and Monte Carlo Validation group). In the last months the group has delivered several HLT rate estimates and comparisons, using the available data and Monte Carlo samples. The studies were presented at the Trigger workshops in September and December, and STEAM has contacted POGs and PAGs to understand the origin of the discrepancies observed between 8 TeV data and Monte Carlo simulations. The most recent results show what the...

  4. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    by Wesley Smith

    2010-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The overall status of the L1 trigger has been excellent and the running efficiency has been high during physics fills. The timing is good to about 1%. The fine-tuning of the time synchronization of muon triggers is ongoing and will be completed after more than 10 nb-1 of data have been recorded. The CSC trigger primitive and RPC trigger timing have been refined. A new configuration for the CSC Track Finder featured modified beam halo cuts and improved ghost cancellation logic. More direct control was provided for the DT opto-receivers. New RPC Cosmic Trigger (RBC/TTU) trigger algorithms were enabled for collision runs. There is further work planned during the next technical stop to investigate a few of the links from the ECAL to the Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT). New firmware and a new configuration to handle trigger rate spikes in the ECAL barrel are also being tested. A board newly developed by the tracker group (ReTRI) has been installed and activated to block re...

  5. Global search of triggered non-volcanic tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Tzu-Kai Kevin

    Deep non-volcanic tremor is a newly discovered seismic phenomenon with low amplitude, long duration, and no clear P- and S-waves as compared with regular earthquake. Tremor has been observed at many major plate-boundary faults, providing new information about fault slip behaviors below the seismogenic zone. While tremor mostly occurs spontaneously (ambient tremor) or during episodic slow-slip events (SSEs), sometimes tremor can also be triggered during teleseismic waves of distance earthquakes, which is known as "triggered tremor". The primary focus of my Ph.D. work is to understand the physical mechanisms and necessary conditions of triggered tremor by systematic investigations in different tectonic regions. In the first chapter of my dissertation, I conduct a systematic survey of triggered tremor beneath the Central Range (CR) in Taiwan for 45 teleseismic earthquakes from 1998 to 2009 with Mw ≥ 7.5. Triggered tremors are visually identified as bursts of high-frequency (2-8 Hz), non-impulsive, and long-duration seismic energy that are coherent among many seismic stations and modulated by the teleseismic surface waves. A total of 9 teleseismic earthquakes has triggered clear tremor in Taiwan. The peak ground velocity (PGV) of teleseismic surface waves is the most important factor in determining tremor triggering potential, with an apparent threshold of ˜0.1 cm/s, or 7-8 kPa. However, such threshold is partially controlled by the background noise level, preventing triggered tremor with weaker amplitude from being observed. In addition, I find a positive correlation between the PGV and the triggered tremor amplitude, which is consistent with the prediction of the 'clock-advance' model. This suggests that triggered tremor can be considered as a sped-up occurrence of ambient tremor under fast loading from the passing surface waves. Finally, the incident angles of surface waves also play an important rule in controlling the tremor triggering potential. The next

  6. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The trigger system has been constantly in use in cosmic and commissioning data taking periods. During CRAFT running it delivered 300 million muon and calorimeter triggers to CMS. It has performed stably and reliably. During the abort gaps it has also provided laser and other calibration triggers. Timing issues, namely synchronization and latency issues, have been solved. About half of the Trigger Concentrator Cards for the ECAL Endcap (TCC-EE) are installed, and the firmware is being worked on. The production of the other half has started. The HCAL Trigger and Readout (HTR) card firmware has been updated, and new features such as fast parallel zero-suppression have been included. Repairs of drift tube (DT) trigger mini-crates, optical links and receivers of sector collectors are under way and have been completed on YB0. New firmware for the optical receivers of the theta links to the drift tube track finder is being installed. In parallel, tests with new eta track finde...

  7. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    R. Carlin with contributions from D. Acosta

    2012-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Data-taking continues at cruising speed, with high availability of all components of the Level-1 trigger. We have operated the trigger up to a luminosity of 7.6E33, where we approached 100 kHz using the 7E33 prescale column.  Recently, the pause without triggers in case of an automatic "RESYNC" signal (the "settle" and "recover" time) was reduced in order to minimise the overall dead-time. This may become very important when the LHC comes back with higher energy and luminosity after LS1. We are also preparing for data-taking in the proton-lead run in early 2013. The CASTOR detector will make its comeback into CMS and triggering capabilities are being prepared for this. Steps to be taken include improved cooperation with the TOTEM trigger system and using the LHC clock during the injection and ramp phases of LHC. Studies are being finalised that will have a bearing on the Trigger Technical Design Report (TDR), which is to be rea...

  8. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    At the December meeting, the CMS trigger group reported on progress in production, tests in the Electronics Integration Center (EIC) in Prevessin 904, progress on trigger installation in the underground counting room at point 5, USC55, and results from the Magnet Test and Cosmic Challenge (MTCC) phase II. The trigger group is engaged in the final stages of production testing, systems integration, and software and firmware development. Most systems are delivering final tested electronics to CERN. The installation in USC55 is underway and moving towards integration testing. A program of orderly connection and checkout with subsystems and central systems has been developed. This program includes a series of vertical subsystem slice tests providing validation of a portion of each subsystem from front-end electronics through the trigger and DAQ to data captured and stored. This is combined with operations and testing without beam that will continue until startup. The plans for start-up, pilot and early running tri...

  9. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith from contributions of C. Leonidopoulos, I. Mikulec, J. Varela and C. Wulz.

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software Over the past few months, the Level-1 trigger has successfully recorded data with cosmic rays over long continuous stretches as well as LHC splash events, beam halo, and collision events. The L1 trigger hardware, firmware, synchronization, performance and readiness for beam operation were reviewed in October. All L1 trigger hardware is now installed at Point 5, and most of it is completely commissioned. While the barrel ECAL Trigger Concentrator Cards are fully operational, the recently delivered endcap ECAL TCC system is still being commissioned. For most systems there is a sufficient number of spares available, but for a few systems additional reserve modules are needed. It was decided to increase the overall L1 latency by three bunch crossings to increase the safety margin for trigger timing adjustments. In order for CMS to continue data taking during LHC frequency ramps, the clock distribution tree needs to be reset. The procedures for this have been tested. A repl...

  10. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    R. Arcidiacono

    2013-01-01

      In 2013 the Trigger Studies Group (TSG) has been restructured in three sub-groups: STEAM, for the development of new HLT menus and monitoring their performance; STORM, for the development of HLT tools, code and actual configurations; and FOG, responsible for the online operations of the High Level Trigger. The Strategy for Trigger Evolution And Monitoring (STEAM) group is responsible for Trigger Menu development, path timing, trigger performance studies coordination, HLT offline DQM as well as HLT release, menu and conditions validation – in collaboration and with the technical support of the PdmV group. Since the end of proton-proton data taking, the group has started preparing for 2015 data taking, with collisions at 13 TeV and 25 ns bunch spacing. The reliability of the extrapolation to higher energy is being evaluated comparing the trigger rates on 7 and 8 TeV Monte Carlo samples with the data taken in the past two years. The effect of 25 ns bunch spacing is being studied on the d...

  11. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    2011-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software Overall the L1 trigger hardware has been running very smoothly during the last months of proton running. Modifications for the heavy-ion run have been made where necessary. The maximal design rate of 100 kHz can be sustained without problems. All L1 latencies have been rechecked. The recently installed Forward Scintillating Counters (FSC) are being used in the heavy ion run. The ZDC scintillators have been dismantled, but the calorimeter itself remains. We now send the L1 accept signal and other control signals to TOTEM. Trigger cables from TOTEM to CMS will be installed during the Christmas shutdown, so that the TOTEM data can be fully integrated within the CMS readout. New beam gas triggers have been developed, since the BSC-based trigger is no longer usable at high luminosities. In particular, a special BPTX signal is used after a quiet period with no collisions. There is an ongoing campaign to provide enough spare modules for the different subsystems. For example...

  12. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware The CERN group is working on the TTC system. Seven out of nine sub-detector TTC VME crates with all fibers cabled are installed in USC55. 17 Local Trigger Controller (LTC) boards have been received from production and are in the process of being tested. The RF2TTC module replacing the TTCmi machine interface has been delivered and will replace the TTCci module used to mimic the LHC clock. 11 out of 12 crates housing the barrel ECAL off-detector electronics have been installed in USC55 after commissioning at the Electronics Integration Centre in building 904. The cabling to the Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT) is terminated. The Lisbon group has completed the Synchronization and Link mezzanine board (SLB) production. The Palaiseau group has fully tested and installed 33 out of 40 Trigger Concentrator Cards (TCC). The seven remaining boards are being remade. The barrel TCC boards have been tested at the H4 test beam, and good agreement with emulator predictions were found. The cons...

  13. Potentiation of luteolin cytotoxicity by flavonols fisetin and quercetin in human chronic lymphocytic leukemia cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sak, Katrin; Kasemaa, Kristi; Everaus, Hele

    2016-09-14

    Despite numerous studies chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) still remains an incurable disease. Therefore, all new compounds and novel strategies which are able to eradicate CLL cells should be considered as valuable clues for a potential future remedy against this malignancy. In the present study, the cytotoxic profiles of natural flavonoids were described in two human CLL cell lines, HG-3 and EHEB, indicating the flavone luteolin as the most potent flavonoid with half-maximal inhibitory constants (IC50) of 37 μM and 26 μM, respectively. Luteolin significantly increased the apoptotic cell population in both cell lines by increasing the activities of caspases-3 and -9 and triggering the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Two flavonols, fisetin and quercetin, were somewhat less efficient in suppressing cellular viability, whereas baicalein, chrysin, (+)-catechin and hesperetin exerted only a small or no response at doses as high as 100 μM. Both fisetin and quercetin were able to augment the cytotoxic activity of luteolin in both cell lines by reducing the IC50 values up to four fold. As a result of this, luteolin displayed cytotoxicity activity already at low micromolar concentrations that could potentially be physiologically achievable through oral ingestion. No other tested flavonoids were capable of sensitizing CLL cells to luteolin pointing to a specific binding of fisetin and quercetin to the cellular targets which interfere with the signaling pathways induced by luteolin. Although further molecular studies to unravel this potentiating mechanism are certainly needed, this phenomenon could contribute to future remedies for prevention and treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

  14. Upgrade of the global muon trigger at the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00282545; Sakulin, Hannes

    2016-09-14

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment is one of two general purpose detectors at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the particle physics research laboratory in Geneva (CERN). As such it allows a broad array of physics analyses from precision measurements of the standard model of particle physics to searches for exotic new particles. A series of upgrades and maintenance procedures took place in the first shut down from 2013 to 2015. The aim was to prepare the LHC for the collision energy of 13 TeV and further increase its luminosity. During this shut down also upgrades of the CMS experiment were installed.Due to the high rate of collisions at the LHC, it is impossible to record all such events. In order to reduce the event rate to a manageable level, a trigger system is deployed that selects interesting events. At the CMS experiment this system is divided into two levels: A first hardware based system that is optimised for speed and a second that is software based and applies more time consuming and preci...

  15. Implementation and synchronisation of the First Level Global Trigger for the CMS experiment at LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taurok, A.; Bergauer, H.; Padrta, M.

    2001-01-01

    The hardware implementation of the First Level Global Trigger for the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider is described. Special emphasis is given to the algorithm logic and the synchronisation procedure. Up to 128 different trigger algorithms are calculated in parallel by the Global Trigger (GT) for every beam crossing taking place at 25 ns intervals. Already, at the first trigger level the GT is able to select complex topological event configurations by performing fast calculations. The electronics is based on VME and relies completely on Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) technology. The electronic circuits are optimised for speed by exploiting, to a great extent, the small look-up tables provided in the FPGA chips

  16. The design of a flexible Global Calorimeter Trigger system for the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooke, J J [H.H. Wills Physics Lab, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Cussans, D G [H.H. Wills Physics Lab, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Frazier, R J E [H.H. Wills Physics Lab, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Galagedera, S B [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Heath, G P [H.H. Wills Physics Lab, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Huckvale, B J [H.H. Wills Physics Lab, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Nash, S J [H.H. Wills Physics Lab, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Newbold, D M [H.H. Wills Physics Lab, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Shah, A A [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2007-10-15

    We have developed a novel design of triggering system as part of the pipelined hardware Level-1 trigger logic for the CMS experiment at LHC. The Global Calorimeter Trigger is the last element in the processing of calorimeter data, and provides most of the input to the final Level-1 decision. We present the detailed functional requirements for this system. Our design meets the requirements using generic, configurable Trigger Processing Modules built from commercial programmable logic and high-speed serial data links. We describe the hardware, firmware and software components of this solution. CMS has chosen an alternative solution to build the final trigger system; we discuss the implications of our experiences for future development projects along similar lines.

  17. Luteolin suppresses cancer cell proliferation by targeting vaccinia-related kinase 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Seul Kim

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled proliferation, a major feature of cancer cells, is often triggered by the malfunction of cell cycle regulators such as protein kinases. Recently, cell cycle-related protein kinases have become attractive targets for anti-cancer therapy, because they play fundamental roles in cellular proliferation. However, the protein kinase-targeted drugs that have been developed so far do not show impressive clinical results and also display severe side effects; therefore, there is undoubtedly a need to investigate new drugs targeting other protein kinases that are critical in cell cycle progression. Vaccinia-related kinase 1 (VRK1 is a mitotic kinase that functions in cell cycle regulation by phosphorylating cell cycle-related substrates such as barrier-to-autointegration factor (BAF, histone H3, and the cAMP response element (CRE-binding protein (CREB. In our study, we identified luteolin as the inhibitor of VRK1 by screening a small-molecule natural compound library. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of luteolin as a VRK1-targeted inhibitor for developing an effective anti-cancer strategy. We confirmed that luteolin significantly reduces VRK1-mediated phosphorylation of the cell cycle-related substrates BAF and histone H3, and directly interacts with the catalytic domain of VRK1. In addition, luteolin regulates cell cycle progression by modulating VRK1 activity, leading to the suppression of cancer cell proliferation and the induction of apoptosis. Therefore, our study suggests that luteolin-induced VRK1 inhibition may contribute to establish a novel cell cycle-targeted strategy for anti-cancer therapy.

  18. Global observation of Omori-law decay in the rate of triggered earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, T.

    2001-12-01

    Triggered earthquakes can be large, damaging, and lethal as evidenced by the 1999 shocks in Turkey and the 2001 events in El Salvador. In this study, earthquakes with M greater than 7.0 from the Harvard CMT catalog are modeled as dislocations to calculate shear stress changes on subsequent earthquake rupture planes near enough to be affected. About 61% of earthquakes that occurred near the main shocks are associated with calculated shear stress increases, while ~39% are associated with shear stress decreases. If earthquakes associated with calculated shear stress increases are interpreted as triggered, then such events make up at least 8% of the CMT catalog. Globally, triggered earthquakes obey an Omori-law rate decay that lasts between ~7-11 years after the main shock. Earthquakes associated with calculated shear stress increases occur at higher rates than background up to 240 km away from the main-shock centroid. Earthquakes triggered by smaller quakes (foreshocks) also obey Omori's law, which is one of the few time-predictable patterns evident in the global occurrence of earthquakes. These observations indicate that earthquake probability calculations which include interactions from previous shocks should incorporate a transient Omori-law decay with time. In addition, a very simple model using the observed global rate change with time and spatial distribution of triggered earthquakes can be applied to immediately assess the likelihood of triggered earthquakes following large events, and can be in place until more sophisticated analyses are conducted.

  19. Luteolin ameliorates cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in mice through inhibition of platinum accumulation, inflammation and apoptosis in the kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domitrović, Robert; Cvijanović, Olga; Pugel, Ester Pernjak; Zagorac, Gordana Blagojević; Mahmutefendić, Hana; Škoda, Marko

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of flavone luteolin against cisplatin (CP)-induced kidney injury in mice. Luteolin at doses of 10 mg/kg was administered intraperitoneally (ip) once daily for 3 days following single CP (10 or 20 mg/kg) ip injection. Mice were sacrificed 24 h after the last dose of luteolin. The CP treatment significantly increased serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen and induced pathohistological changes in the kidneys. Renal oxidative/nitrosative stress was evidenced by decreased glutathione (GSH) levels and increased 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) formation as well as cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) expression. The CP administration triggered inflammatory response in mice kidneys through activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and overexpression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Simultaneously, the increase in renal p53 and caspase-3 expression indicated apoptosis of tubular cells. The administration of luteolin significantly reduced histological and biochemical changes induced by CP, decreased platinum (Pt) levels and suppressed oxidative/nitrosative stress, inflammation and apoptosis in the kidneys. These results suggest that luteolin is an effective nephroprotective agent, with potential to reduce Pt accumulation in the kidneys and ameliorate CP-induced nephrotoxicity

  20. Modelling of local/global architectures for second level trigger at the LHC experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajduk, Z.; Iwanski, W.; Korecyl, K.; Strong, J.

    1994-01-01

    Different architectures of the second level triggering system for experiments on LHC have been simulated. The basic scheme was local/global system with distributed computing power. As a tool the authors have used the object-oriented MODSIM II language

  1. First results on the performance of the CMS global calorimeter trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Foudas, C; Jones, J; Rose, A; Stettler, M; Sidiropoulos, G; Tapper, A; Brooke, J; Frazier, R; Heath, G; Hansen, M; PH-EP

    2007-01-01

    The CMS Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) uses data from the CMS calorimeters to compute a number kinematical quantities which characterize the LHC event. The GTC output is used by the Global Trigger (GT) along with data from the Global Muon Trigger (GMT) to produce the Level-1 Accept (L1A) decision. The design for the current GCT system commenced early in 2006. After a rapid development phase all the different GCT components have been produced and a large fraction of them have been installed at the CMS electronics cavern (USC-55). There the GCT system has been under test since March 2007. This paper reports results from tests which took place at the USC-55. Initial tests aimed to test the integrity of the GCT data and establish that the proper synchronization had been achieved both internally within GCT as well as with the Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT) which provides the GCT input data and with GT which receives the GCT results. After synchronization and data integrity had been established, Monte Carlo E...

  2. Global Omori law decay of triggered earthquakes: Large aftershocks outside the classical aftershock zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Tom

    2002-09-01

    Triggered earthquakes can be large, damaging, and lethal as evidenced by the1999 shocks in Turkey and the 2001 earthquakes in El Salvador. In this study, earthquakes with Ms ≥ 7.0 from the Harvard centroid moment tensor (CMT) catalog are modeled as dislocations to calculate shear stress changes on subsequent earthquake rupture planes near enough to be affected. About 61% of earthquakes that occurred near (defined as having shear stress change ∣Δτ∣ ≥ 0.01 MPa) the Ms ≥ 7.0 shocks are associated with calculated shear stress increases, while ˜39% are associated with shear stress decreases. If earthquakes associated with calculated shear stress increases are interpreted as triggered, then such events make up at least 8% of the CMT catalog. Globally, these triggered earthquakes obey an Omori law rate decay that lasts between ˜7-11 years after the main shock. Earthquakes associated with calculated shear stress increases occur at higher rates than background up to 240 km away from the main shock centroid. Omori's law is one of the few time-predictable patterns evident in the global occurrence of earthquakes. If large triggered earthquakes habitually obey Omori's law, then their hazard can be more readily assessed. The characteristic rate change with time and spatial distribution can be used to rapidly assess the likelihood of triggered earthquakes following events of Ms ≥ 7.0. I show an example application to the M = 7.7 13 January 2001 El Salvador earthquake where use of global statistics appears to provide a better rapid hazard estimate than Coulomb stress change calculations.

  3. [Protective effects of luteolin on neurons against oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion injury via improving Na+/K+ -ATPase activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lumei; Zhang, Mingming; Ding, Yuemin; Fang, Yuting; Yao, Chunlei; Zhang, Xiong

    2010-04-01

    Luteolin, a flavone, has considerable neuroprotective effects by its anti-oxidative mechanism. However, it is still unclear whether luteolin can protect neurons against oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) induced injury. After 2 hours oxygen-glucose deprivation and 24 hours reperfusion treatment in primary cultured hippocampal neurons, the neuron viability, survival rate and apoptosis rate were evaluated by MTT assay, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage assay and Hoechst staining, respectively. The activity of Na+/K+ -ATPase was examined in cultured neurons or in the hippocampus of SD rats treated by 10 minutes global cerebral ischemia and followed 24 hours reperfusion. Treatment by OGD/R markedly reduced neuronal viability, increased LDH leakage rate and increased apoptosis rate. Application of luteolin (10-100 micromol x L(-1)) during OGD inhibited OGD/R induced neuron injury and apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Compared to the control group or OGP/R-treated neurons, the activity of Na+/K+ -ATPase was significantly suppressed in global ischemia/reperfusion group or OGD/R-treated neurons. Application of luteolin during ischemia or OGD preserved the Na+/K+ -ATPase activity. Furthermore, inhibition of Na+/K+ -ATPase with ouabain attenuated the protective effect afforded by luteolin. The data provide the evidence that luteolin has neuroprotective effect against OGD/R induced injury and the protective effect may be associated with its ability to improve Na+/K+ -ATPase activity after OGD/R.

  4. Uncertain added value of Global Trigger Tool for monitoring of patient safety in cancer care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipczak, Henriette; Neckelmann, Kirsten; Steding-Jessen, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring patient safety is a challenging task. The lack of a golden standard has contributed to the recommendation and introduction of several methods. In 2000 the Danish Lung Cancer Registry (DLCR) was established to monitor the clinical management of lung cancer. In 2008 the Global Trigger Tool...... (GTT) was recommended in Denmark as a tool for the monitoring of patient safety. Ideally, the recommendation of a new tool should be preceded by a critical assessment of its added value....

  5. Real Time Global Tests of the ALICE High Level Trigger Data Transport Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, B.; Cicalo J.; Cleymans, C.; de Vaux, G.; Fearick, R.W.; Lindenstruth, V.; Richter, M.; Rorich, D.; Staley, F.; Steinbeck, T.M.; Szostak, A.; Tilsner, H.; Weis, R.; Vilakazi, Z.Z.

    2008-01-01

    The High Level Trigger (HLT) system of the ALICE experiment is an online event filter and trigger system designed for input bandwidths of up to 25 GB/s at event rates of up to 1 kHz. The system is designed as a scalable PC cluster, implementing several hundred nodes. The transport of data in the system is handled by an object-oriented data flow framework operating on the basis of the publisher-subscriber principle, being designed fully pipelined with lowest processing overhead and communication latency in the cluster. In this paper, we report the latest measurements where this framework has been operated on five different sites over a global north-south link extending more than 10,000 km, processing a ``real-time'' data flow.

  6. Design and Development of a Graphical Setup Software for the CMS Global Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Glaser, P; Bergauer, H; Padrta, M; Taurok,A; Wulz, C E

    2006-01-01

    The CMS experiment at CERNs Large Hadron Collider will search for new physics at high energies. Its trigger system is an essential component in the selection process of potentially interesting events. The Global Trigger is the final stage of the first-level selection process. It is implemented as a complex electronic system containing logic devices, which need to be programmed according to physics requirements. It has to reject or accept events for further processing based on coarse measurements of particle properties such as energies, momenta and location. Algorithms similar to the ones used in the physics analysis are executed in parallel during the event selection process. A graphical setup program to define these algorithms and to subsequently configure the hardware has been developed. The design and implementation of the program, guided by the principal requirements of flexibility, quality assurance, platform-independence and extensibility, are described.

  7. The flavones apigenin and luteolin induce FOXO1 translocation but inhibit gluconeogenic and lipogenic gene expression in human cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Bumke-Vogt

    Full Text Available The flavones apigenin (4',5,7,-trihydroxyflavone and luteolin (3',4',5,7,-tetrahydroxyflavone are plant secondary metabolites with antioxidant, antiinflammatory, and anticancer activities. We evaluated their impact on cell signaling pathways related to insulin-resistance and type 2 diabetes. Apigenin and luteolin were identified in our U-2 OS (human osteosarcoma cell screening assay for micronutrients triggering rapid intracellular translocation of the forkhead box transcription factor O1 (FOXO1, an important mediator of insulin signal transduction. Insulin reversed the translocation of FOXO1 as shown by live cell imaging. The impact on the expression of target genes was evaluated in HepG2 (human hepatoma cells. The mRNA-expression of the gluconeogenic enzymes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pc, the lipogenic enzymes fatty-acid synthase (FASN and acetyl-CoA-carboxylase (ACC were down-regulated by both flavones with smaller effective dosages of apigenin than for luteolin. PKB/AKT-, PRAS40-, p70S6K-, and S6-phosphorylation was reduced by apigenin and luteolin but not that of the insulin-like growth factor receptor IGF-1R by apigenin indicating a direct inhibition of the PKB/AKT-signaling pathway distal to the IGF-1 receptor. N-acetyl-L-cysteine did not prevent FOXO1 nuclear translocation induced by apigenin and luteolin, suggesting that these flavones do not act via oxidative stress. The roles of FOXO1, FOXO3a, AKT, sirtuin1 (SIRT1, and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived2-like2 (NRF2, investigated by siRNA knockdown, showed differential patterns of signal pathways involved and a role of NRF2 in the inhibition of gluconeogenic enzyme expression. We conclude that these flavones show an antidiabetic potential due to reduction of gluconeogenic and lipogenic capacity despite inhibition of the PKB/AKT pathway which justifies detailed investigation in vivo.

  8. [Detection of adverse events in hospitalized adult patients by using the Global Trigger Tool method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Ruiz, O; Ruiz-López, P; Gómez-Cámara, A; Ramírez-Martín, M

    2015-01-01

    To identify and characterize adverse events (AE) in an Internal Medicine Department of a district hospital using an extension of the Global Trigger Tool (GTT), analyzing the diagnostic validity of the tool. An observational, analytical, descriptive and retrospective study was conducted on 2013 clinical charts from an Internal Medicine Department in order to detect EA through the identification of 'triggers' (an event often related to an AE). The 'triggers' and AE were located by systematic review of clinical documentation. The AE were characterized after they were identified. A total of 149 AE were detected in 291 clinical charts during 2013, of which 75.3% were detected directly by the tool, while the rest were not associated with a trigger. The percentage of charts that had at least one AE was 35.4%. The most frequent AE found was pressure ulcer (12%), followed by delirium, constipation, nosocomial respiratory infection and altered level of consciousness by drugs. Almost half (47.6%) of the AE were related to drug use, and 32.2% of all AE were considered preventable. The tool demonstrated a sensitivity of 91.3% (95%CI: 88.9-93.2) and a specificity of 32.5% (95%CI: 29.9-35.1). It had a positive predictive value of 42.5% (95%CI: 40.1-45.1) and a negative predictive value of 87.1% (95%CI: 83.8-89.9). The tool used in this study is valid, useful and reproducible for the detection of AE. It also serves to determine rates of injury and to observe their progression over time. A high frequency of both AE and preventable events were observed in this study. Copyright © 2014 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. The oxidation of luteolin, the natural flavonoid dye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramešová, Šárka; Sokolová, Romana; Tarábek, Ján; Degano, Ilaria

    2013-01-01

    The oxidation of natural flavonoid luteolin in aqueous solution is studied by electrochemical methods, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), spectroelectrochemistry and separation techniques HPLC-DAD and HPLC–MS/MS. The number of electrons involved in the oxidation of luteolin depends on the presence of its dissociation forms in solution. The study explains the differences in the number of electrons presented in the literature. The overall one electron oxidation mechanism of luteolin in alkaline solution is explained by the comproportionation reaction of resulting quinone, despite the fact that quinone is formed by two electron oxidation. Then a hydroxylation takes place. The EPR spectroelectrochemical study of the semiquinone radical anion formation as well as of the reaction steps following the electron transfer during the oxidation is presented. The novelty of this contribution consists in the additional temperature controlled semi-quantitative in situ EPR spectroelectrochemical experiment of the flavonoid oxidation. The data acquired by temperature controlled in situ EPR spectroelectrochemistry supports the comproportionation/disproportionation equilibria as well as the oxidative decomposition of luteolin and shows that the formation of a pi-dimer is less probable. The oxidation products hydroxy-luteolin and 3,5-dihydroxy-2-(2-oxoacetyl)phenyl-3,4-dihydroxybenzoate are not stable under ambient conditions and decompose to low molecular hydroxycompounds such as 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid and 2,5,7-trihydroxy-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one

  10. Assessment of the global trigger tool to measure, monitor and evaluate pateint safety in cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otto Mattsson, Thea; Lehmann-Knudsen, Janne; Lauritsen, Jens M

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Countries around the world are currently aiming to improve patient safety by means of the Institute for Healthcare Improvement global trigger tool (GTT), which is considered a valid tool for evaluating and measuring patient safety within organisations. So far, only few data....... RESULTS: Only 31% of adverse events (AE) were identified by both teams, and further differences in categorisation of identical events was found. Moderate interrater agreement (κ=0.45) between teams gave rise to different conclusions on the patient safety process when monitoring using SPC charts. The Bland......-Altman plot suggests little systematic error but large random error. CONCLUSIONS: Review teams may identify different AE and reach different conclusions on the safety process when using the GTT on identical charts. Tracking true change in the safety level is difficult due to measurement error of the GTT...

  11. THE SHADOW BANKING SYSTEM AND ITS ROLE IN TRIGGERING THE GLOBAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen BOGHEAN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Financial innovation, the deficiencies of corporate governance, moral hazard, easy money policies, government inefficiency, and mainly the activity of the shadow banking system have all played a critical role in setting off the global financial crisis. Due to the imbalances it has triggered, the shadow banking system has been at the core of the most widespread and profound world crisis of all time, as the attempt to use financial capital as efficiently as possible by resorting to “innovative” products has significantly contributed to the advent of the financial crisis. The present crisis has already proved that the banking and financial activity can have a deeply disturbing impact on our economy, but the flexibility of lending mechanisms and the various reactions of the players on the market that are otherwise inherent in a dynamic economic system, cannot exist in the absence of banking mechanisms.

  12. Does adding an appended oncology module to the Global Trigger Tool increase its value?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, Thea Otto; Knudsen, Janne Lehmann; Brixen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine any additional value in the evaluation of safety levels by adding an appended oncology module to the Institute for Healthcare Improvement's Global Trigger Tool (GTT). DESIGN: Comparison of two independent retrospective chart reviews: one review team using the general GTT...... method and one using the general GTT method plus the appended oncology module on the same inpatient charts. SETTING: The Department of Clinical Oncology at a Danish University Hospital (1000 beds). PARTICIPANTS: All inpatients admitted to the hospital in 2010, n = 3692, biweekly sample of 10 admission...... per 1000 admission days. RESULTS: No significant (95% confidence interval) difference was found between review teams using the general GTT versus the general GTT plus the appended oncology module on the total number of identified AEs, AEs per 100 admissions, AEs per 1000 admission days...

  13. Luteolin, a flavonoid, inhibits AP-1 activation by basophils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Toru; Higa, Shinji; Arimitsu, Junsuke; Naka, Tetsuji; Ogata, Atsushi; Shima, Yoshihito; Fujimoto, Minoru; Yamadori, Tomoki; Ohkawara, Tomoharu; Kuwabara, Yusuke; Kawai, Mari; Matsuda, Hisashi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Maezaki, Naoyoshi; Tanaka, Tetsuaki; Kawase, Ichiro; Tanaka, Toshio

    2006-01-01

    Flavonoids including luteolin, apigenin, and fisetin are inhibitors of IL-4 synthesis and CD40 ligand expression by basophils. This study was done to search for compounds with greater inhibitory activity of IL-4 expression and to clarify the molecular mechanisms through which flavonoids inhibit their expression. Of the 37 flavonoids and related compounds examined, ayanin, luteolin, and apigenin were the strongest inhibitors of IL-4 production by purified basophils in response to anti-IgE antibody plus IL-3. Luteolin did not suppress Syk or Lyn phosphorylation in basophils, nor did suppress p54/46 SAPK/JNK, p38 MAPK, and p44/42 MAPK activation by a basophilic cell line, KU812 cells, stimulated with A23187 and PMA. However, luteolin did inhibit phosphorylation of c-Jun and DNA binding activity of AP-1 in nuclear lysates from stimulated KU812 cells. These results provide a fundamental structure of flavonoids for IL-4 inhibition and demonstrate a novel action of flavonoids that suppresses the activation of AP-1

  14. GLOBAL INSTABILITY OF THE EXO-MOON SYSTEM TRIGGERED BY PHOTO-EVAPORATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ming; Xie, Ji-Wei; Zhou, Ji-Lin; Liu, Hui-Gen; Zhang, Hui, E-mail: jwxie@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: zhoujl@nju.edu.cn [School of Astronomy and Space Science and Key Laboratory of Modern Astronomy and Astrophysics in Ministry of Education, Nanjing University, 210093 (China)

    2016-12-10

    Many exoplanets have been found in orbits close to their host stars and thus they are subject to the effects of photo-evaporation. Previous studies have shown that a large portion of exoplanets detected by the Kepler mission have been significantly eroded by photo-evaporation. In this paper, we numerically study the effects of photo-evaporation on the orbital evolution of a hypothesized moon system around a planet. We find that photo-evaporation is crucial to the stability of the moon system. Photo-evaporation can erode the atmosphere of the planet thus leading to significant mass loss. As the planet loses mass, its Hill radius shrinks and its moons increase their orbital semimajor axes and eccentricities. When some moons approach their critical semimajor axes, global instability of the moon system would be triggered, which usually ends up with two, one or even zero surviving moons. Some lost moons could escape from the moon system to become a new planet orbiting the star or run away further to become a free-floating object in the Galaxy. Given the destructive role of photo-evaporation, we speculate that exomoons are less common for close-in planets (<0.1 au), especially those around M-type stars, because they are more X-ray luminous and thus enhancing photo-evaporation. The lessons we learn in this study may be helpful for the target selection of on-going/future exomoon searching programs.

  15. The oxidation of luteolin, the natural flavonoid dye

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ramešová, Šárka; Sokolová, Romana; Tarábek, Ján; Degano, I.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 110, NOV 2013 (2013), s. 646-654 ISSN 0013-4686 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/1607 Grant - others:Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR(CZ) M200401201 Program:M Institutional support: RVO:61388955 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : oxidation * flavonoids * luteolin Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 4.086, year: 2013

  16. Luteolin, a flavonoid, inhibits CD40 ligand expression by activated human basophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Toru; Arimitsu, Junsuke; Higa, Shinji; Naka, Tetsuji; Ogata, Atsushi; Shima, Yoshihito; Fujimoto, Minoru; Yamadori, Tomoki; Ohkawara, Tomoharu; Kuwabara, Yusuke; Kawai, Mari; Kawase, Ichiro; Tanaka, Toshio

    2006-01-01

    We have previously shown that flavonoids such as luteolin, apigenin and fisetin inhibit interleukin 4 and interleukin 13 production. In this study, we investigated whether luteolin can suppress CD40 ligand expression by basophils. A human basophilic cell line, KU812, was stimulated with A23187 and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) with or without various concentrations of luteolin or other flavonoids for 12 h, and CD40 ligand expression was analyzed by FACS. The effect of luteolin on CD40 ligand mRNA expression was studied by semiquantitative reverse transcription PCR analysis. In addition, CD40 ligand expression was also measured in purified basophils that had been stimulated for 12 h with A23187 plus PMA with or without various concentrations of luteolin. CD40 ligand expression by KU812 cells was enhanced noticeably in response to A23187 and even more strikingly augmented by A23187 plus PMA. The expression was significantly suppressed by 10 or 30 microM of luteolin, whereas myricetin failed to inhibit. Reverse transcription PCR analyses demonstrated that luteolin inhibited CD40 ligand mRNA expression by stimulated KU812 cells. Of the six flavonoids examined, luteolin, apigenin, fisetin and quercetin at 30 microM showed a significant inhibitory effect on CD40 ligand expression. The incubation of purified basophils with A23187 plus PMA significantly enhanced CD40 ligand expression, and the presence of luteolin again had an inhibitory effect. Luteolin inhibits CD40 ligand expression by activated basophils.

  17. Luteolin suppresses angiogenesis and vasculogenic mimicry formation through inhibiting Notch1-VEGF signaling in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Mingde; Hu, Lei; Zhang, Baogui; Zhu, Zhenglun; Li, Jianfang; Zhu, Zhenggang; Yan, Min; Liu, Bingya

    2017-08-26

    Gastric cancer is a great threat to the health of the people worldwide and lacks effective therapeutic regimens. Luteolin is one of Chinese herbs and presents in many fruits and green plants. In our previous study, we observed that luteolin inhibited cell migration and promoted cell apoptosis in gastric cancer. In the present study, luteolin significantly inhibited tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) through decreasing cell migration and proliferation of HUVECs in a dose-dependent manner. Vasculogenic mimicry (VM) tubes formed by gastric cancer cells were also inhibited with luteolin treatment. To explore how luteolin inhibited tubes formation, ELISA assay for VEGF was performed. Both of the VEGF secretion from Hs-746T cells and HUVECs were significantly decreased subsequent to luteolin treatment. In addition, cell migration was increased with the interaction between gastric cancer cells and HUVECs in co-culture assays. However, the promoting effects were abolished subsequent to luteolin treatment. Furthermore, luteolin inhibited VEGF secretion through suppressing Notch1 expression in gastric cancer. Overexpression of Notch1 in gastric cancer cells partially rescued the effects on cell migration, proliferation, HUVECs tube formation, and VM formation induced by luteolin treatment. In conclusion, luteolin inhibits angiogenesis and VM formation in gastric cancer through suppressing VEGF secretion dependent on Notch1 expression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Upgrade of the Global Muon Trigger for the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00356020; Widmann, Eberhard

    The Large Hadron Collider is a large particle accelerator at the CERN research laboratory, designed to provide particle physics experiments with collisions at unprecedented centre-of-mass energies. For its second running period both the number of colliding particles and their collision energy were increased. To cope with these more challenging conditions and maintain the excellent performance seen during the first running period, the Level-1 trigger of the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment --- a sophisticated electronics system designed to filter events in real-time --- was upgraded. This upgrade consisted of the complete replacement of the trigger electronics and a full redesign of the system's architecture. While the calorimeter trigger path now follows a time-multiplexed processing model where the entire trigger data for a collision are received by a single processing board, the muon trigger path was split into regional track finding systems where each newly introduced track finder receives data from all th...

  19. Performance of the ATLAS global transverse-momentum triggers at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The global transverse momentum triggers of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider are designed to select collision events with non-interacting particles passing through the detector and events with a large amount of outgoing momentum transverse to the beam axis. These triggers use sums over the full calorimeter, and therefore can be very sensitive to the average number of interactions per bunch crossing. This note describes the methodology and the performance of the transverse-momentum trigger algorithms that were deployed during the 2012 ATLAS data taking campaign at 8 TeV center-of-mass energy. Improvements over what was done in 2011 resulted in better efficiency in 2012 despite a doubling of the per bunch crossing luminosity.

  20. Did the Chicxulub meteorite impact trigger eruptions at mid-ocean ridges globally?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, J. S.; Karlstrom, L.

    2017-12-01

    Are there causal links between the eruption of large igneous provinces, meteorite impacts, and mass extinctions? Recent dating suggests that state shifts in Deccan Traps eruptions, including erupted volumes, feeder dike orientations, and magma chemistry, occurred shortly after the Chicxulub impact. A proposed explanation for this observation is an increase in upper mantle permeability following the Chicxulub impact that accelerated the pace of Deccan volcanism [Richards et al., 2015]. If such triggering occurred, at global distances not associated with the impact antipode, it is reasonable to hypothesize that other reservoirs of stored melt may have been perturbed as well. We present evidence that mid-ocean ridge activity increased globally following the impact. Anomalously concentrated free-air gravity and sea-floor topographic roughness suggest volumes of excess oceanic ridge magmatism in the range of 2 x 105 to 106 km3 within 1 Myrs of the Chicxulub impact. This signal is only clearly observed for half-spreading rates above 35 mm/yr, possibly because crust formed at slower spreading rates is too complex to preserve the signal. Because similar anomalies are observed separately in the Indian and Pacific Oceans, and because the timing of the signal does not clearly align with changes in spreading rates, we do not favor plume activity as an explanation. Widespread mobilization of existing mantle melt by post-impact seismic radiation, and subsequent emplacement of melt as crustal intrusions and eruptions, can explain the volume and distribution of anomalous crust without invoking impact-induced melt production. Although the mechanism for increasing permeability is not clear at either Deccan or mid-ocean ridges, these results support the hypothesis that the causes and consequences of the Deccan Traps, Chicxulub impact, and K-Pg mass extinction should not be considered in isolation. We conclude by discussing several enigmatic observations from K-Pg time that heightened

  1. Exploring similarities and differences in hospital adverse event rates between Norway and Sweden using Global Trigger Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Deilk?s, Ellen Tveter; Risberg, Madeleine Borgstedt; Haugen, Marion; Lindstr?m, Jonas Christoffer; Nyl?n, Urban; Rutberg, Hans; Michael, Soop

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: In this paper, we explore similarities and differences in hospital adverse event (AE) rates between Norway and Sweden by reviewing medical records with the Global Trigger Tool (GTT). Design: All acute care hospitals in both countries performed medical record reviews, except one in Norway. Records were randomly selected from all eligible admissions in 2013. Eligible admissions were patients 18 years of age or older, undergoing care with an in-hospital stay of at least 24 hours, exc...

  2. Luteolin Ameliorates Hypertensive Vascular Remodeling through Inhibiting the Proliferation and Migration of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Su

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Preliminary researches showed that luteolin was used to treat hypertension. However, it is still unclear whether luteolin has effect on the hypertensive complication such as vascular remodeling. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of luteolin on the hypertensive vascular remodeling and its molecular mechanism. Method and Results. We evaluated the effect of luteolin on aorta thickening of hypertension in spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHRs and found that luteolin could significantly decrease the blood pressure and media thickness of aorta in vivo. Luteolin could inhibit angiotensin II- (Ang II- induced proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs. Dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA staining result showed that luteolin reduced Ang II-stimulated ROS production in VSMCs. Furthermore, western blot and gelatin zymography results showed that luteolin treatment leaded to a decrease in ERK1/2, p-ERK1/2, p-p38, MMP2, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA protein level. Conclusion. These data support that luteolin can ameliorate hypertensive vascular remodeling by inhibiting the proliferation and migration of Ang II-induced VSMCs. Its mechanism is mediated by the regulation of MAPK signaling pathway and the production of ROS.

  3. The profound reach of the 11 April 2012 M 8.6 Indian Ocean earthquake: Short‐term global triggering followed by a longer‐term global shadow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollitz, Fred; Burgmann, Roland; Stein, Ross S.; Sevilgen, Volkan

    2014-01-01

    The 11 April 2012 M 8.6 Indian Ocean earthquake was an unusually large intraoceanic strike‐slip event. For several days, the global M≥4.5 and M≥6.5 seismicity rate at remote distances (i.e., thousands of kilometers from the mainshock) was elevated. The strike‐slip mainshock appears through its Love waves to have triggered a global burst of strike‐slip aftershocks over several days. But the M≥6.5 rate subsequently dropped to zero for the succeeding 95 days, although the M≤6.0 global rate was close to background during this period. Such an extended period without an M≥6.5 event has happened rarely over the past century, and never after a large mainshock. Quiescent periods following previous large (M≥8) mainshocks over the past century are either much shorter or begin so long after a given mainshock that no physical interpretation is warranted. The 2012 mainshock is unique in terms of both the short‐lived global increase and subsequent long quiescent period. We believe that the two components are linked and interpret this pattern as the product of dynamic stressing of a global system of faults. Transient dynamic stresses can encourage short‐term triggering, but, paradoxically, it can also inhibit rupture temporarily until background tectonic loading restores the system to its premainshock stress levels.

  4. Oxidative stress suppression by luteolin-induced heme oxygenase-1 expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Gui-bo; Sun, Xiao; Wang, Min [Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Resources Utilization of Chinese Herbal Medicine, Ministry of Education, Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100193 (China); Ye, Jing-xue [Jilin Agricultural University, No.2888, Xincheng Street, Changchun, 130021, Jilin (China); Si, Jian-yong [Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Resources Utilization of Chinese Herbal Medicine, Ministry of Education, Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100193 (China); Xu, Hui-bo [Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences of Jilin Province, Gongnongda road 1745, Changchun, 130021, Jiblin (China); Meng, Xiang-bao; Qin, Meng; Sun, Jing [Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Resources Utilization of Chinese Herbal Medicine, Ministry of Education, Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100193 (China); Wang, Hong-wei, E-mail: hwang@nju.edu.cn [Center for Translational Medicine and Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Sun, Xiao-bo, E-mail: sunsubmit@163.com [Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Resources Utilization of Chinese Herbal Medicine, Ministry of Education, Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100193 (China)

    2012-12-01

    Luteolin, a flavonoid that exhibits antioxidative properties, exerts myocardial protection effects. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not yet fully understood. To investigate the effects of luteolin on myocardial injury protection and its possible mechanisms, a myocardial injury model was established with intragastric administration of 4 mg/kg isoproterenol (ISO) to male Sprague–Dawley rats (200–220 g) daily for 2 days. We found that pretreatment of luteolin (160, 80 and 40 mg/kg, i.g., respectively) daily for 15 days can prevent ISO-induced myocardial damage, including decrease of serum cardiac enzymes, improvement electrocardiography and heart vacuolation. Luteolin also improved the free radical scavenging and antioxidant potential, suggesting one possible mechanism of luteolin-induced cardio-protection is mediated by blocking the oxidative stress. To clarify the mechanisms, we performed the in vitro study by hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2})-induced cytotoxicty model in H9c2 cells. We found that luteolin pretreatment prevented apoptosis, increased the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and enhanced the binding of Nrf2 to the antioxidant response element, providing an adaptive survival response against H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-derived oxidative cytotoxicity. The addition of Znpp, a selective HO-1 competitive inhibitor, reduced the cytoprotective ability of luteolin, indicating the vital role of HO-1 on these effects. Luteolin also activated Akt and ERK, whereas the addition of LY294002 and U0126, the pharmacologic inhibitors of PI3K and ERK, attenuated luteolin-induced HO-1 expression and cytoprotective effect. Taken together, the above findings suggest that luteolin protects against myocardial injury and enhances cellular antioxidant defense capacity through the activation of Akt and ERK signal pathways that leads to Nrf2 activation, and subsequently HO-1 induction. -- Highlights: ► Luteolin prevents isoproterenol-induced myocardial damage.

  5. Oxidative stress suppression by luteolin-induced heme oxygenase-1 expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Gui-bo; Sun, Xiao; Wang, Min; Ye, Jing-xue; Si, Jian-yong; Xu, Hui-bo; Meng, Xiang-bao; Qin, Meng; Sun, Jing; Wang, Hong-wei; Sun, Xiao-bo

    2012-01-01

    Luteolin, a flavonoid that exhibits antioxidative properties, exerts myocardial protection effects. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not yet fully understood. To investigate the effects of luteolin on myocardial injury protection and its possible mechanisms, a myocardial injury model was established with intragastric administration of 4 mg/kg isoproterenol (ISO) to male Sprague–Dawley rats (200–220 g) daily for 2 days. We found that pretreatment of luteolin (160, 80 and 40 mg/kg, i.g., respectively) daily for 15 days can prevent ISO-induced myocardial damage, including decrease of serum cardiac enzymes, improvement electrocardiography and heart vacuolation. Luteolin also improved the free radical scavenging and antioxidant potential, suggesting one possible mechanism of luteolin-induced cardio-protection is mediated by blocking the oxidative stress. To clarify the mechanisms, we performed the in vitro study by hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 )-induced cytotoxicty model in H9c2 cells. We found that luteolin pretreatment prevented apoptosis, increased the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and enhanced the binding of Nrf2 to the antioxidant response element, providing an adaptive survival response against H 2 O 2 -derived oxidative cytotoxicity. The addition of Znpp, a selective HO-1 competitive inhibitor, reduced the cytoprotective ability of luteolin, indicating the vital role of HO-1 on these effects. Luteolin also activated Akt and ERK, whereas the addition of LY294002 and U0126, the pharmacologic inhibitors of PI3K and ERK, attenuated luteolin-induced HO-1 expression and cytoprotective effect. Taken together, the above findings suggest that luteolin protects against myocardial injury and enhances cellular antioxidant defense capacity through the activation of Akt and ERK signal pathways that leads to Nrf2 activation, and subsequently HO-1 induction. -- Highlights: ► Luteolin prevents isoproterenol-induced myocardial damage. ► Luteolin

  6. Luteolin inhibits the Nrf2 signaling pathway and tumor growth in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chian, Song; Thapa, Ruby; Chi, Zhexu [Department of Biochemistry and Genetics, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Wang, Xiu Jun [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Tang, Xiuwen, E-mail: xiuwentang@zju.edu.cn [Department of Biochemistry and Genetics, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2014-05-16

    Highlights: • Luteolin inhibits the Nrf2 pathway in mouse liver and in xenografted tumors. • Luteolin markedly inhibits the growth of xenograft tumors. • Luteolin enhances the anti-cancer effect of cisplatin in mice in vivo. • Luteolin could serve as an adjuvant in the chemotherapy of NSCLC. - Abstract: Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is over-expressed in many types of tumor, promotes tumor growth, and confers resistance to anticancer therapy. Hence, Nrf2 is regarded as a novel therapeutic target in cancer. Previously, we reported that luteolin is a strong inhibitor of Nrf2 in vitro. Here, we showed that luteolin reduced the constitutive expression of NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 in mouse liver in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Further, luteolin inhibited the expression of antioxidant enzymes and glutathione transferases, decreasing the reduced glutathione in the liver of wild-type mice under both constitutive and butylated hydroxyanisole-induced conditions. In contrast, such distinct responses were not detected in Nrf2{sup −/−} mice. In addition, oral administration of luteolin, either alone or combined with intraperitoneal injection of the cytotoxic drug cisplatin, greatly inhibited the growth of xenograft tumors from non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line A549 cells grown subcutaneously in athymic nude mice. Cell proliferation, the expression of Nrf2, and antioxidant enzymes were all reduced in tumor xenograft tissues. Furthermore, luteolin enhanced the anti-cancer effect of cisplatin. Together, our findings demonstrated that luteolin inhibits the Nrf2 pathway in vivo and can serve as an adjuvant in the chemotherapy of NSCLC.

  7. Man -made greenhouse gases trigger unified force to start global warming impacts referred to as climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karishnan, K.J.; Kalam, A.

    2011-01-01

    Global warming problems due to man-made greenhouse gases (GHGs), appear to be a serious concern and threat to the globe. CO/sub 2/, O/sub 3, NOx and HFC's are the main greenhouse gases and CO/sub 2/ is one of the main cause of global warming. CO/sub 2/ is emitted from burning fossil fuels to produce electricity from power plants and burning of gasoline in vehicles and airplanes. Global greenhouse gases and its sources in regions are discussed in this paper. This paper initially discusses the CO/sub 2/ emissions and the recycle of CO/sub 2/ in biodiesel. This paper mainly focuses on 'Unified Force'. The increase of H/sub 2/O in the sea due to warming of the globe triggers the 'Unified Force' or 'Self-Compressive Surrounding Pressure Force' which is proportional to the H/sub 2/O level in the sea to start global warming impacts referred to as climate change. This paper also points out the climate change and the ten surprising results of global warming. Finally, this paper suggests switching from fossil fuel technology to green energy technologies like biodiesel which recycles CO/sub 2/ emissions and also Hydrogen Energy and Fuel Cell Technologies which eradicates global warming impacts. The benefits of switching from fossil fuel to biodiesel and Hydrogen Energy utilization includes reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and pollution, economic independence by having distributed production and burning of biodiesel does not add extra CO/sub 2/ to the air that contributes global warming impacts. (author)

  8. Luteolin restricts dengue virus replication through inhibition of the proprotein convertase furin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Minhua; Watanabe, Satoru; Chan, Kitti Wing Ki; He, Qiuyan; Zhao, Ya; Zhang, Zhongde; Lai, Xiaoping; Luo, Dahai; Vasudevan, Subhash G; Li, Geng

    2017-07-01

    In many countries afflicted with dengue fever, traditional medicines are widely used as panaceas for illness, and here we describe the systematic evaluation of a widely known natural product, luteolin, originating from the "heat clearing" class of herbs. We show that luteolin inhibits the replication of all four serotypes of dengue virus, but the selectivity of the inhibition was weak. In addition, ADE-mediated dengue virus infection of human cell lines and primary PBMCs was inhibited. In a time-of-drug-addition study, luteolin was found to reduce infectious virus particle formation, but not viral RNA synthesis, in Huh-7 cells. During the virus life cycle, the host protease furin cleaves the pr moiety from prM protein of immature virus particles in the trans-Golgi network to produce mature virions. Analysis of virus particles from luteolin-treated cells revealed that prM was not cleaved efficiently. Biochemical interrogation of human furin showed that luteolin inhibited the enzyme activity in an uncompetitive manner, with Ki value of 58.6 μM, suggesting that treatment may restrict the virion maturation process. Luteolin also exhibited in vivo antiviral activity in mice infected with DENV, causing reduced viremia. Given the mode of action of luteolin and its widespread source, it is possible that it can be tested in combination with other dengue virus inhibitors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Luteolin and its inhibitory effect on tumor growth in systemic malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapoor, Shailendra, E-mail: shailendrakapoor@yahoo.com [74 crossing place, Mechanicsville, VA (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Lamy et al have provided interesting data in their recent article in your esteemed journal. Luteolin augments apoptosis in a number of systemic malignancies. Luteolin reduces tumor growth in breast carcinomas. Luteolin mediates this effect by up-regulating the expression of Bax and down-regulating the expression of Bcl-xL. EGFR-induced MAPK activation is also attenuated. As a result there is increased G2/ M phase arrest. These effects have been seen both in vivo as well as in vitro. It also reduces ERα expression and causes inhibition of IGF-1 mediated PI3K–Akt pathway. Luteolin also activates p38 resulting in nuclear translocation of the apoptosis-inducing factor. Simultaneously it also activates ERK. As a result there is increased intra-tumoral apoptosis which is caspase dependent as well as caspase independent. - Highlights: ► Luteolin and tumor growth in breast carcinomas. ► Luteolin and pulmonary cancer. ► Luteolin and colon cancer.

  10. Comparative study of anti-angiogenic activities of luteolin, lectin and lupeol biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambasta, Rashmi K; Jha, Saurabh Kumar; Kumar, Dhiraj; Sharma, Renu; Jha, Niraj Kumar; Kumar, Pravir

    2015-09-18

    Angiogenesis is a hallmark feature in the initiation, progression and growth of tumour. There are various factors for promotion of angiogenesis on one hand and on the other hand, biomolecules have been reported to inhibit cancer through anti-angiogenesis mechanism. Biomolecules, for instance, luteolin, lectin and lupeol are known to suppress cancer. This study aims to compare and evaluate the biomolecule(s) like luteolin, lupeol and lectin on CAM assay and HT-29 cell culture to understand the efficacy of these drugs. The biomolecules have been administered on CAM assay, HT-29 cell culture, cell migration assay. Furthermore, bioinformatics analysis of the identified targets of these biomolecules have been performed. Luteolin has been found to be better in inhibiting angiogenesis on CAM assay in comparison to lupeol and lectin. In line with this study when biomolecules was administered on cell migration assay via scratch assay method. We provided evidence that Luteolin was again found to be better in inhibiting HT-29 cell migration. In order to identify the target sites of luteolin for inhibition, we used software analysis for identifying the best molecular targets of luteolin. Using software analysis best target protein molecule of these biomolecules have been identified. VEGF was found to be one of the target of luteolin. Studies have found several critical point mutation in VEGF A, B and C. Hence docking analysis of all biomolecules with VEGFR have been performed. Multiple allignment result have shown that the receptors are conserved at the docking site. Therefore, it can be concluded that luteolin is not only comparatively better in inhibiting blood vessel in CAM assay, HT-29 cell proliferation and cell migration assay rather the domain of VEGFR is conserved to be targeted by luteolin, lupeol and lectin.

  11. Globally homochiral assembly of two-dimensional molecular networks triggered by co-absorbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Yang, Wen-Hong; Wang, Dong; Wan, Li-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the chirality induction and amplification processes, and the construction of globally homochiral surfaces, represent essential challenges in surface chirality studies. Here we report the induction of global homochirality in two-dimensional enantiomorphous networks of achiral molecules via co-assembly with chiral co-absorbers. The scanning tunnelling microscopy investigations and molecular mechanics simulations demonstrate that the point chirality of the co-absorbers transfers to organizational chirality of the assembly units via enantioselective supramolecular interactions, and is then hierarchically amplified to the global homochirality of two-dimensional networks. The global homochirality of the network assembly shows nonlinear dependence on the enantiomeric excess of chiral co-absorber in the solution phase, demonstrating, for the first time, the validation of the 'majority rules' for the homochirality control of achiral molecules at the liquid/solid interface. Such an induction and nonlinear chirality amplification effect promises a new approach towards two-dimensional homochirality control and may reveal important insights into asymmetric heterogeneous catalysis, chiral separation and chiral crystallization.

  12. Tectonic collision and uplift of Wallacea triggered the global songbird radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyle, Robert G.; Oliveros, Carl H.; Andersen, Michael J.; Hosner, Peter A.; Benz, Brett W.; Manthey, Joseph D.; Travers, Scott L.; Brown, Rafe M.; Faircloth, Brant C.

    2016-08-01

    Songbirds (oscine passerines) are the most species-rich and cosmopolitan bird group, comprising almost half of global avian diversity. Songbirds originated in Australia, but the evolutionary trajectory from a single species in an isolated continent to worldwide proliferation is poorly understood. Here, we combine the first comprehensive genome-scale DNA sequence data set for songbirds, fossil-based time calibrations, and geologically informed biogeographic reconstructions to provide a well-supported evolutionary hypothesis for the group. We show that songbird diversification began in the Oligocene, but accelerated in the early Miocene, at approximately half the age of most previous estimates. This burst of diversification occurred coincident with extensive island formation in Wallacea, which provided the first dispersal corridor out of Australia, and resulted in independent waves of songbird expansion through Asia to the rest of the globe. Our results reconcile songbird evolution with Earth history and link a major radiation of terrestrial biodiversity to early diversification within an isolated Australian continent.

  13. Luteolin Inhibits Angiotensin II-Stimulated VSMC Proliferation and Migration through Downregulation of Akt Phosphorylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongda Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Luteolin is a naturally occurring flavonoid found in many plants that possesses cardioprotective properties. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effect of luteolin on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs proliferation and migration induced by Angiotensin II (Ang II and to investigate the mechanism(s of action of this compound. Rat VSMCs were cultured in vitro, and the proliferation and migration of these cells following Ang II stimulation were monitored. Different doses of luteolin were added to VSMC cultures, and the proliferation and migration rate were observed by MTT and Transwell chamber assays, respectively. In addition, the expressions of p-Akt (308, p-Akt (473, and proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA in VSMCs were monitored by Western blotting. This study demonstrated that luteolin has an inhibitory effect on Ang II-induced VSMC proliferation and migration. Further, the levels of p-Akt (308, p-Akt (473, and PCNA were reduced in VSMCs treated with both Ang II and luteolin compared to VSMCs treated with only Ang II. These findings strongly suggest that luteolin inhibits Ang II-stimulated proliferation and migration of VSMCs, which is partially due to downregulation of the Akt signaling pathway.

  14. Anti-Inflammatory and Antipruritic Effects of Luteolin from Perilla (P. frutescens L. Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In Hwa Jeon

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Perilla (Perilla frutescens L. leaves have shown therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of inflammatory disorders, allergies, bronchial asthma, and systemic damage due to free radicals. In the present study we analyzed the active constituents in perilla leaves using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and isolated luteolin, a polyphenolic flavonoid. We investigated the anti-inflammatory and antipruritic properties of luteolin. Luteolin inhibited the secretion of inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β (IL-1 β and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α from human mast cells (HMC-1 stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate plus calcium ionophore A23187 in a dose-dependent manner. Luteolin also significantly reduced the histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells stimulated by compound 48/80, a potent histamine liberator. Furthermore, the administration of luteolin markedly inhibited the scratching behavior and vascular permeability induced by pruritogens, such as compound 48/80 or serotonin, in ICR mice. These results suggested that luteolin has potential as a therapeutic agent against inflammation and itch-related skin diseases.

  15. Role of a Cyclooxygenase Inhibitor and Luteolin in the Regression of Colon Tumors in Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, E.S.A.

    2015-01-01

    Colon carcinogenesis is a devastating problem leading to morbidity and mortality in developed countries. Colon cancer is a complex multi-step process involving progressive disruption of homeostatic mechanisms controlling intestinal epithelial proliferation/inflammation, differentiation and programmed cell death. Colon cancer is the third most common malignant neoplasm worldwide. Its incidence strongly varies globally and is closely linked to elements of a so-called western lifestyle. In Egypt reports showed that colon cancer was detected in 11–15% of patients who underwent colonoscopy and diagnosed in 29–31% of patients aged 40 years or younger. The present study was planned to evaluate the effect of a cyclooxygenase inhibitor (aspirin) and a natural product (luteolin) and on colon cancer induced by 1, 2 dimethylhydrazine (DMH), beside studying the effects of luteolin and aspirin either alone or combined with fractionated low doses of γ- irradiation as a route of cancer therapy. Seventy adult male Wistar rats were divided into seven groups 10 animals each and treated as follows: 1. Control group (G1): rats of this group received distilled water via gavages for 15 weeks. 2. Colon tumor induction group (G2): rats of this group were injected subcutaneously with DMH (20 mg/kg body weight) once a week for 15 weeks. 3. Colon tumor + irradiation group (G3): these rats were injected subcutaneously with DMH (20 mg/kg body weight) once a week for 15 weeks then at the beginning of the 8th week they were exposed to γ-radiation at a dose level of 0.5 Gy/week x 8 and continued during DMH treatment. 4. Colon tumor + aspirin treatment group (G4): rats of this group gavaged aspirin (50 mg/kg/ week) and injected subcutaneously with DMH for 15 weeks. 5. Colon tumor + luteolin treatment group (G5): these rats were treated orally with LUT (0.2 mg/kg body weight/ day) and injected subcutaneously with DMH (20 mg/kg body weight/ week) for 15 weeks. 6. Colon tumor + aspirin

  16. The development of the Global Feature Extractor for the LHC Run-3 upgrade of L1 Calorimeter trigger system

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00065614; The ATLAS collaboration; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Kai; Lanni, Francesco; Takai, Helio; Tang, Shaochun; Wu, Weihao; ATLAS Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Global Feature Extractor (gFEX) is one of several modules in LHC Run-3 upgrade of Level 1 Calorimeter (L1Calo) trigger system in ATLAS experiment. It is a single Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture (ATCA) module for large-area jet identifying with three Xilinx Virtex UltraScale FPGAs for data processing and a system-on-chip (SoC) FPGA for control and monitoring. A pre-prototype board has been designed to verify all functionalities, which includes one Xilinx Virtex-7 FPGA, one Zynq FPGA, several MiniPODs, MicroPODs, DDR3 SDRAM and other components. The performance of pre-prototype has been tested and evaluated. As a major challenge, the high-speed links in FPGAs are stable at 12.8 Gb/s with Bit Error Ratio (BER) < 10-15 (no error detected). The low-latency parallel GPIO (General Purpose I/O) buses for communication between FPGAs are stable at 960 Mb/s. The peripheral components of Zynq FPGA like DDRs, UART, SPI flashes, Ethernet and so on, have also been verified. The test results of pre-...

  17. Luteolin as reactive oxygen generator by X-ray and UV irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, Michiru; Mori, Takashi; Takahashi, Junko; Iwahashi, Hitoshi

    2018-05-01

    Non-toxic X-ray-responsive substances can be used in the radiosensitization of cancer, like porphyrin mediated radiotherapy. However, most X-ray-responsive substances are toxic. To find novel non-toxic X-ray-responsive substances, we studied the X-ray and UV reactivity of 40 non-toxic compounds extracted from plants. Dihydroethidium was used as an indicator to detect reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by the compounds under X-ray or UV irradiation. We found that 13 of the investigated compounds generated ROS under X-ray irradiation and 17 generated ROS under UV irradiation. Only 4 substances generated ROS under both X-ray and UV. In particular, luteolin exhibited the highest activity among the investigated compounds; therefore, the ROS generated by luteolin were thoroughly characterized. To identify the ROS, we employed a combination of ROS detection reagents and their quenchers. O2·- generation by luteolin was monitored using dihydroethidium and superoxide dismutase (as an O2·- quencher). OH· and 1O2 generation was determined using aminophenyl fluorescein with ethanol (OH· quencher) and Singlet Oxygen Sensor Green® with NaN3 (1O2 quencher), respectively. Generation of O2·- under X-ray and UV irradiation was observed; however, no OH· or 1O2 was detected. The production of ROS from luteolin is surprising, because luteolin is a well-known antioxidant.

  18. Cytotoxic Effect of Luteolin on Human Colorectal Cancer Cell Line (HCT-15: Crucial Involvement of Reactive Oxygen Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Pandurangan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Colorectal cancer, a major health concern worldwide, is the third mostcommon form of cancer and second leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Theflavonoids are naturally occurring diphenylpropanoids ubiquitous in plant foods andimportant components of the human diet. Luteolin, a bioflavonoid, possesses manybeneficial effects including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic activities. Methods:We used the HCT-15 colon adenocarcinoma cell line in this study. Cellswere treated with luteolin (100 µM. Results: Membrane damage markers such as alkaline phosphatase and lactatedehydrogenase were analyzed in a time-dependent manner. Luteolin increased reactiveoxygen species in a time-dependent manner. DNA damage, a hallmark of apoptosis,was induced by luteolin as analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis. Conclusion: Luteolin acts as a potential cytotoxic agent that can be used to treatcolorectal cancer.

  19. Synthesis of organic nitrates of luteolin as a novel class of potent aldose reductase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi-Qin; Cheng, Ning; Zheng, Xiao-Wei; Peng, Sheng-Ming; Zou, Xiao-Qing

    2013-07-15

    Aldose reductase (AR) plays an important role in the design of drugs that prevent and treat diabetic complications. Aldose reductase inhibitors (ARIs) have received significant attentions as potent therapeutic drugs. Based on combination principles, three series of luteolin derivatives were synthesised and evaluated for their AR inhibitory activity and nitric oxide (NO)-releasing capacity in vitro. Eighteen compounds were found to be potent ARIs with IC50 values ranging from (0.099±0.008) μM to (2.833±0.102) μM. O(7)-Nitrooxyethyl-O(3'),O(4')-ethylidene luteolin (La1) showed the most potent AR inhibitory activity [IC50=(0.099±0.008) μM]. All organic nitrate derivatives released low concentrations of NO in the presence of l-cysteine. Structure-activity relationship studies suggested that introduction of an NO donor, protection of the catechol structure, and the ether chain of a 2-carbon spacer as a coupling chain on the luteolin scaffold all help increase the AR inhibitory activity of the resulting compound. This class of NO-donor luteolin derivatives as efficient ARIs offer a new concept for the development and design of new drug for preventive and therapeutic drugs for diabetic complications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. On the difference in decomposition of taxifolin and luteolin vs. fisetin and quercetin in aqueous media

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sokolová, Romana; Ramešová, Šárka; Kocábová, Jana; Kolivoška, Viliam; Degano, I.; Pitzalis, E.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 147, č. 8 (2016), s. 1375-1383 ISSN 0026-9247 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-05180S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : oxidation mechanism * fisetin * luteolin Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 1.282, year: 2016

  1. Liver fibrosis in mice induced by carbon tetrachloride and its reversion by luteolin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domitrovic, Robert; Jakovac, Hrvoje; Tomac, Jelena; Sain, Ivana

    2009-01-01

    Hepatic fibrosis is effusive wound healing process in which excessive connective tissue builds up in the liver. Because specific treatments to stop progressive fibrosis of the liver are not available, we have investigated the effects of luteolin on carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced hepatic fibrosis. Male Balb/C mice were treated with CCl 4 (0.4 ml/kg) intraperitoneally (i.p.), twice a week for 6 weeks. Luteolin was administered i.p. once daily for next 2 weeks, in doses of 10, 25, and 50 mg/kg of body weight. The CCl 4 control group has been observed for spontaneous reversion of fibrosis. CCl 4 -intoxication increased serum aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase levels and disturbed hepatic antioxidative status. Most of these parameters were spontaneously normalized in the CCl 4 control group, although the progression of liver fibrosis was observed histologically. Luteolin treatment has increased hepatic matrix metalloproteinase-9 levels and metallothionein (MT) I/II expression, eliminated fibrinous deposits and restored architecture of the liver in a dose-dependent manner. Concomitantly, the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein and α-smooth muscle actin indicated deactivation of hepatic stellate cells. Our results suggest the therapeutic effects of luteolin on CCl 4 -induced liver fibrosis by promoting extracellular matrix degradation in the fibrotic liver tissue and the strong enhancement of hepatic regenerative capability, with MTs as a critical mediator of liver regeneration.

  2. Exploring similarities and differences in hospital adverse event rates between Norway and Sweden using Global Trigger Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deilkås, Ellen Tveter; Risberg, Madeleine Borgstedt; Haugen, Marion; Lindstrøm, Jonas Christoffer; Nylén, Urban; Rutberg, Hans; Michael, Soop

    2017-03-20

    In this paper, we explore similarities and differences in hospital adverse event (AE) rates between Norway and Sweden by reviewing medical records with the Global Trigger Tool (GTT). All acute care hospitals in both countries performed medical record reviews, except one in Norway. Records were randomly selected from all eligible admissions in 2013. Eligible admissions were patients 18 years of age or older, undergoing care with an in-hospital stay of at least 24 hours, excluding psychiatric and care and rehabilitation. Reviews were done according to GTT methodology. Similar contexts for healthcare and similar socioeconomic and demographic characteristics have inspired the Nordic countries to exchange experiences from measuring and monitoring quality and patient safety in healthcare. The co-operation has promoted the use of GTT to monitor national and local rates of AEs in hospital care. 10 986 medical records were reviewed in Norway and 19 141 medical records in Sweden. No significant difference between overall AE rates was found between the two countries. The rate was 13.0% (95% CI 11.7% to 14.3%) in Norway and 14.4% (95% CI 12.6% to 16.3%) in Sweden. There were significantly higher AE rates of surgical complications in Norwegian hospitals compared with Swedish hospitals. Swedish hospitals had significantly higher rates of pressure ulcers, falls and 'other' AEs. Among more severe AEs, Norwegian hospitals had significantly higher rates of surgical complications than Swedish hospitals. Swedish hospitals had significantly higher rates of postpartum AEs. The level of patient safety in acute care hospitals, as assessed by GTT, was essentially the same in both countries. The differences between the countries in the rates of several types of AEs provide new incentives for Norwegian and Swedish governing bodies to address patient safety issues. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please

  3. The preliminary development and testing of a global trigger tool to detect error and patient harm in primary-care records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wet, C; Bowie, P

    2009-04-01

    A multi-method strategy has been proposed to understand and improve the safety of primary care. The trigger tool is a relatively new method that has shown promise in American and secondary healthcare settings. It involves the focused review of a random sample of patient records using a series of "triggers" that alert reviewers to potential errors and previously undetected adverse events. To develop and test a global trigger tool to detect errors and adverse events in primary-care records. Trigger tool development was informed by previous research and content validated by expert opinion. The tool was applied by trained reviewers who worked in pairs to conduct focused audits of 100 randomly selected electronic patient records in each of five urban general practices in central Scotland. Review of 500 records revealed 2251 consultations and 730 triggers. An adverse event was found in 47 records (9.4%), indicating that harm occurred at a rate of one event per 48 consultations. Of these, 27 were judged to be preventable (42%). A further 17 records (3.4%) contained evidence of a potential adverse event. Harm severity was low to moderate for most patients (82.9%). Error and harm rates were higher in those aged > or =60 years, and most were medication-related (59%). The trigger tool was successful in identifying undetected patient harm in primary-care records and may be the most reliable method for achieving this. However, the feasibility of its routine application is open to question. The tool may have greater utility as a research rather than an audit technique. Further testing in larger, representative study samples is required.

  4. Nanostructured lipid carriers versus microemulsions for delivery of the poorly water-soluble drug luteolin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Wang, Lan; Zhao, Yiqing; He, Man; Zhang, Xin; Niu, Mengmeng; Feng, Nianping

    2014-12-10

    Nanostructured lipid carriers and microemulsions effectively deliver poorly water-soluble drugs. However, few studies have investigated their ability and difference in improving drug bioavailability, especially the factors contributed to the difference. Thus, this study was aimed at investigating their efficiency in bioavailability enhancement based on studying two key processes that occur in NLC and ME during traverse along the intestinal tract: the solubilization process and the intestinal permeability process. The nanostructured lipid carriers and microemulsions had the same composition except that the former were prepared with solid lipids and the latter with liquid lipids; both were evaluated for particle size and zeta potential. Transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray diffraction were performed to characterize their properties. Furthermore, in vitro drug release, in situ intestinal absorption, and in vitro lipolysis were studied. The bioavailability of luteolin delivered using nanostructured lipid carriers in rats was compared with that delivered using microemulsions and suspensions. The in vitro analysis revealed different release mechanisms for luteolin in nanostructured lipid carriers and microemulsions, although the in situ intestinal absorption was similar. The in vitro lipolysis data indicated that digestion speed and extent were higher for microemulsions than for nanostructured lipid carriers, and that more of the former partitioned to the aqueous phase. The in vivo bioavailability analysis in rats indicated that the oral absorption and bioavailability of luteolin delivered using nanostructured lipid carriers and microemulsions were higher than those of luteolin suspensions. Nanostructured lipid carriers and microemulsions improved luteolin's oral bioavailability in rats. The rapid lipid digestion and much more drug solubilized available for absorption in microemulsions may contribute to better absorption and

  5. A comparison of temporal and location-based sampling strategies for global positioning system-triggered electronic diaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törnros, Tobias; Dorn, Helen; Reichert, Markus; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich; Salize, Hans-Joachim; Tost, Heike; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Zipf, Alexander

    2016-11-21

    Self-reporting is a well-established approach within the medical and psychological sciences. In order to avoid recall bias, i.e. past events being remembered inaccurately, the reports can be filled out on a smartphone in real-time and in the natural environment. This is often referred to as ambulatory assessment and the reports are usually triggered at regular time intervals. With this sampling scheme, however, rare events (e.g. a visit to a park or recreation area) are likely to be missed. When addressing the correlation between mood and the environment, it may therefore be beneficial to include participant locations within the ambulatory assessment sampling scheme. Based on the geographical coordinates, the database query system then decides if a self-report should be triggered or not. We simulated four different ambulatory assessment sampling schemes based on movement data (coordinates by minute) from 143 voluntary participants tracked for seven consecutive days. Two location-based sampling schemes incorporating the environmental characteristics (land use and population density) at each participant's location were introduced and compared to a time-based sampling scheme triggering a report on the hour as well as to a sampling scheme incorporating physical activity. We show that location-based sampling schemes trigger a report less often, but we obtain more unique trigger positions and a greater spatial spread in comparison to sampling strategies based on time and distance. Additionally, the location-based methods trigger significantly more often at rarely visited types of land use and less often outside the study region where no underlying environmental data are available.

  6. Is detection of adverse events affected by record review methodology? an evaluation of the "Harvard Medical Practice Study" method and the "Global Trigger Tool".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unbeck, Maria; Schildmeijer, Kristina; Henriksson, Peter; Jürgensen, Urban; Muren, Olav; Nilsson, Lena; Pukk Härenstam, Karin

    2013-04-15

    There has been a theoretical debate as to which retrospective record review method is the most valid, reliable, cost efficient and feasible for detecting adverse events. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility and capability of two common retrospective record review methods, the "Harvard Medical Practice Study" method and the "Global Trigger Tool" in detecting adverse events in adult orthopaedic inpatients. We performed a three-stage structured retrospective record review process in a random sample of 350 orthopaedic admissions during 2009 at a Swedish university hospital. Two teams comprised each of a registered nurse and two physicians were assigned, one to each method. All records were primarily reviewed by registered nurses. Records containing a potential adverse event were forwarded to physicians for review in stage 2. Physicians made an independent review regarding, for example, healthcare causation, preventability and severity. In the third review stage all adverse events that were found with the two methods together were compared and all discrepancies after review stage 2 were analysed. Events that had not been identified by one of the methods in the first two review stages were reviewed by the respective physicians. Altogether, 160 different adverse events were identified in 105 (30.0%) of the 350 records with both methods combined. The "Harvard Medical Practice Study" method identified 155 of the 160 (96.9%, 95% CI: 92.9-99.0) adverse events in 104 (29.7%) records compared with 137 (85.6%, 95% CI: 79.2-90.7) adverse events in 98 (28.0%) records using the "Global Trigger Tool". Adverse events "causing harm without permanent disability" accounted for most of the observed difference. The overall positive predictive value for criteria and triggers using the "Harvard Medical Practice Study" method and the "Global Trigger Tool" was 40.3% and 30.4%, respectively. More adverse events were identified using the "Harvard Medical Practice Study

  7. Dietary Flavonoids as Therapeutics for Preterm Birth: Luteolin and Kaempferol Suppress Inflammation in Human Gestational Tissues In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Courtney; Lim, Ratana; Poljak, Marin; Lappas, Martha

    2013-01-01

    Infection/inflammation is commonly associated with preterm birth (PTB), initiating uterine contractions and rupture of fetal membranes. Proinflammatory cytokines induce matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that degrade the extracellular matrix (ECM) and prostaglandins which initiate uterine contractions. Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and activator-protein- (AP-)1 have key roles in the formation of these prolabour mediators. In nongestational tissues, dietary flavonoids such as luteolin and kaempferol inhibit NF-κB, AP-1, and their downstream targets. The aim of this study was to determine if luteolin and kaempferol reduce infection-induced prolabour mediators in human gestational tissues. Fetal membranes were incubated with LPS, and primary amnion cells and myometrial cells were incubated with IL-1β in the absence or presence of luteolin or kaempferol. Luteolin and kaempferol significantly reduced LPS-induced secretion of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and IL-8) and prostaglandins (PGE2 and PGF2α) in fetal membranes, IL-1β-induced COX-2 gene expression and prostaglandin production in myometrium, and IL-1β-induced MMP-9 activity in amnion and myometrial cells. Luteolin and kaempferol decreased IL-1β-induced NF-κB p65 DNA binding activity and nuclear c-Jun expression. In conclusion, luteolin and kaempferol inhibit prolabour mediators in human gestational tissues. Given the central role of inflammation in provoking preterm labour, phytophenols may be a therapeutic approach to reduce the incidence of PTB. PMID:23840918

  8. Anticancer effect of luteolin is mediated by downregulation of TAM receptor tyrosine kinases, but not interleukin-8, in non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youn Ju; Lim, Taeho; Han, Min Su; Lee, Sun-Hwa; Baek, Suk-Hwan; Nan, Hong-Yan; Lee, Chuhee

    2017-02-01

    TAM receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), Tyro3, Axl and MerTK, transduce diverse signals responsible for cell survival, growth, proliferation and anti-apoptosis. In the present study, we demonstrated the effect of luteolin, a flavonoid with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities, on the expression and activation of TAM RTKs and the association with its cytotoxicity in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. We observed the cytotoxic effect of luteolin in parental A549 and H460 cells as well as in cisplatin-resistant A549/CisR and H460/CisR cells. Exposure of these cells to luteolin also resulted in a dose‑dependent decrease in clonogenic ability. Next, luteolin was found to decrease the protein levels of all three TAM RTKs in the A549 and A549/CisR cells in a dose‑dependent manner. In a similar manner, in H460 and H460/CisR cells, the protein levels of Axl and Tyro3 were decreased following luteolin treatment. In addition, Axl promoter activity was decreased by luteolin, indicating that luteolin suppresses Axl expression at the transcriptional level. We next found that luteolin abrogated Axl phosphorylation in response to growth arrest-specific 6 (Gas6), its ligand, implying the inhibitory effect of luteolin on Gas6-induced Axl activation. Ectopic expression of Axl was observed to attenuate the antiproliferative effect of luteolin, while knockdown of the Axl protein level using a gold nanoparticle-assisted gene delivery system increased its cytotoxicity. In contrast to the inhibitory effect of luteolin on the expression of TAM RTKs, interleukin-8 (IL-8) production was not decreased by luteolin in H460 and H460/CisR cells, while IL-8 production/cell was increased. Collectively, our data suggest that TAM RTKs, but not IL-8, are promising therapeutic targets of luteolin to abrogate cell proliferation and to overcome chemoresistance in NSCLC cells.

  9. Brain "fog," inflammation and obesity : key aspects of neuropsychiatric disorders improved by luteolin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theoharis Constantin Theoharides

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Brain fog is a constellation of symptoms that include reduced cognition, inability to concentrate and multitask, as well as loss of short and long term memory. Brain fog characterizes patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs, celiac disease, chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, mastocytosis and postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS, as well as minimal cognitive impairment, an early clinical presentation of Alzheimer’s disease (AD, and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Brain fog may be due to inflammatory molecules, including adipocytokines and histamine released from mast cells (MCs further stimulating microglia activation, and causing focal brain inflammation. Recent reviews have described the potential use of natural flavonoids for the treatment of neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases. The flavone luteolin has numerous useful actions that include: anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, microglia inhibition, neuroprotection, and memory increase. A liposomal luteolin formulation in olive fruit extract improved attention in children with ASDs and brain fog in mastocytosis patients. Methylated luteolin analogues with increased activity and better bioavailability could be developed into effective treatments for neuropsychiatric disorders and brain fog.

  10. Brain "fog," inflammation and obesity: key aspects of neuropsychiatric disorders improved by luteolin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theoharides, Theoharis C; Stewart, Julia M; Hatziagelaki, Erifili; Kolaitis, Gerasimos

    2015-01-01

    Brain "fog" is a constellation of symptoms that include reduced cognition, inability to concentrate and multitask, as well as loss of short and long term memory. Brain "fog" characterizes patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), celiac disease, chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, mastocytosis, and postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS), as well as "minimal cognitive impairment," an early clinical presentation of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Brain "fog" may be due to inflammatory molecules, including adipocytokines and histamine released from mast cells (MCs) further stimulating microglia activation, and causing focal brain inflammation. Recent reviews have described the potential use of natural flavonoids for the treatment of neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases. The flavone luteolin has numerous useful actions that include: anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, microglia inhibition, neuroprotection, and memory increase. A liposomal luteolin formulation in olive fruit extract improved attention in children with ASDs and brain "fog" in mastocytosis patients. Methylated luteolin analogs with increased activity and better bioavailability could be developed into effective treatments for neuropsychiatric disorders and brain "fog."

  11. The Level-1 Calorimeter Global Feature Extractor (gFEX) Boosted Object Trigger for the Phase-I Upgrade of the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00235957; The ATLAS collaboration; Stark, Giordon; Miller, David

    2016-01-01

    The Global Feature Extractor (gFEX) module is a planned component of the Level 1 online trigger system for the ATLAS experiment planned for installation during the Phase I upgrade in 2018. This unique single electronics board with multiple high speed processors will receive coarse-granularity information from all the ATLAS calorimeters enabling the identification in real time of large-radius jets for capturing Lorentz-boosted objects such as top quarks, Higgs, $Z$ and $W$ bosons. The gFEX architecture also facilitates the calculation of global event variables such as missing transverse energy, centrality for heavy ion collisions, and event-by-event pile-up energy density. Details of the electronics architecture that provides these capabilities are presented, along with results of tests of the prototype systems now available. The status of the firmware algorithm design and implementation as well as monitoring capabilities are also presented.

  12. A global database of seismically and non-seismically triggered landslides for 2D/3D numerical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domej, Gisela; Bourdeau, Céline; Lenti, Luca; Pluta, Kacper

    2017-04-01

    Landsliding is a worldwide common phenomenon. Every year, and ranging in size from very small to enormous, landslides cause all too often loss of life and disastrous damage to infrastructure, property and the environment. One main reason for more frequent catastrophes is the growth of population on the Earth which entails extending urbanization to areas at risk. Landslides are triggered by a variety and combination of causes, among which the role of water and seismic activity appear to have the most serious consequences. In this regard, seismic shaking is of particular interest since topographic elevation as well as the landslide mass itself can trap waves and hence amplify incoming surface waves - a phenomenon known as "site effects". Research on the topic of landsliding due to seismic and non-seismic activity is extensive and a broad spectrum of methods for modeling slope deformation is available. Those methods range from pseudo-static and rigid-block based models to numerical models. The majority is limited to 2D modeling since more sophisticated approaches in 3D are still under development or calibration. However, the effect of lateral confinement as well as the mechanical properties of the adjacent bedrock might be of great importance because they may enhance the focusing of trapped waves in the landslide mass. A database was created to study 3D landslide geometries. It currently contains 277 distinct seismically and non-seismically triggered landslides spread all around the globe whose rupture bodies were measured in all available details. Therefore a specific methodology was developed to maintain predefined standards, to keep the bias as low as possible and to set up a query tool to explore the database. Besides geometry, additional information such as location, date, triggering factors, material, sliding mechanisms, event chronology, consequences, related literature, among other things are stored for every case. The aim of the database is to enable

  13. Trigger finger

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... digit; Trigger finger release; Locked finger; Digital flexor tenosynovitis ... cut or hand Yellow or green drainage from the cut Hand pain or discomfort Fever If your trigger finger returns, call your surgeon. You may need another surgery.

  14. Protection by the flavonoids quercetin and luteolin against peroxide- or menadione-induced oxidative stress in MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatokun, Amos A; Tome, Mercedes; Smith, Robert A; Darlington, L Gail; Stone, Trevor W

    2015-01-01

    Potential protective effects of the flavonoids quercetin and luteolin have been examined against the oxidative stress of MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells. Although hydrogen peroxide and menadione reduced cell viability, the toxicity was prevented by desferrioxamine or catalase but not superoxide dismutase, suggesting the involvement of hydrogen peroxide in both cases. Quercetin and luteolin reduced the oxidative damage, especially that caused by hydrogen peroxide. When cultures were pre-incubated with quercetin or luteolin, protection was reduced or lost. Protection was also reduced when a 24 h pre-incubation with the flavonoids was followed by exposure to menadione alone. Pretreating cultures with luteolin impaired protection by quercetin, whereas quercetin pretreatment did not affect protection by luteolin. It is concluded that quercetin and luteolin suppress oxidative damage to MC3T3-E1 cells, especially caused by peroxide. The reduction in protection by pretreatment implies a down-regulation of part of the toxic transduction pathway.

  15. Strengths and weaknesses of working with the Global Trigger Tool method for retrospective record review: focus group interviews with team members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schildmeijer, Kristina; Nilsson, Lena; Perk, Joep; Arestedt, Kristofer; Nilsson, Gunilla

    2013-09-24

    The aim was to describe the strengths and weaknesses, from team member perspectives, of working with the Global Trigger Tool (GTT) method of retrospective record review to identify adverse events causing patient harm. A qualitative, descriptive approach with focus group interviews using content analysis. 5 Swedish hospitals in 2011. 5 GTT teams, with 5 physicians and 11 registered nurses. 5 focus group interviews were carried out with the five teams. Interviews were taped and transcribed verbatim. 8 categories emerged relating to the strengths and weaknesses of the GTT method. The categories found were: Usefulness of the GTT, Application of the GTT, Triggers, Preventability of harm, Team composition, Team tasks, Team members' knowledge development and Documentation. Gradually, changes in the methodology were made by the teams, for example, the teams reported how the registered nurses divided up the charts into two sets, each being read respectively. The teams described the method as important and well functioning. Not only the most important, but also the most difficult, was the task of bringing the results back to the clinic. The teams found it easier to discuss findings at their own clinics. The GTT method functions well for identifying adverse events and is strengthened by its adaptability to different specialties. However, small, gradual methodological changes together with continuingly developed expertise and adaption to looking at harm from a patient's perspective may contribute to large differences in assessment over time.

  16. Phytochemical analysis of Passiflora loefgrenii Vitta, a rich source of luteolin-derived flavonoids with antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argentieri, Maria Pia; Levi, Marisa; Guzzo, Flavia; Avato, Pinarosa

    2015-11-01

    The paper describes the flavonoid composition of the aerial parts (young leaves, YL; adult leaves, AL; stems, ST) of Passiflora loefgrenii Vitta, a rare species native to Brazil, where it is traditionally used as food. Antioxidant potential has also been evaluated. To the best of our knowledge, no phytochemical and biological study on this species has been reported previously. Compositional data have been acquired combining HPLC-diode array detector (DAD) and Electrospary ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) analyses. Antioxidant activity has been evaluated by the 2,2'-di-phenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl method. Glycosylated flavones, with luteolin as the main aglycone, can be regarded as biomarkers for this drug. Qualitative composition of the extracts from YL, AL and ST was similar. The bulk of the constituents was made up by 8-C-ß-glucosyl luteolin (orientin), 7-O-α-rhamnosyl-6-C-ß-glucosyl luteolin and 6-C-α-rhamnosyl luteolin, which totally amounted to 16.57 (73%), 10.77 (74%) and 5.07 (77%) μg/mg in YL, AL and ST, respectively. P. loefgrenii showed a good antioxidant activity (IC50 of 350 μg/ml), higher than generally reported for other passifloras. P. loefgrenii, rich in luteolin glycosides, can be regarded as a good candidate to be explored for therapeutic properties other than the sedative one since it represents a rich source of valuable flavonoids with antioxidant potential. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  17. Metabolic interactions between acetaminophen (paracetamol) and two flavonoids, luteolin and quercetin, through in-vitro inhibition studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Lei; Kwara, Awewura; Greenblatt, David J

    2017-12-01

    Excessive exposure to acetaminophen (APAP, paracetamol) can cause liver injury through formation of a reactive metabolite that depletes hepatic glutathione and causes hepatocellular oxidative stress and damage. Generation of this metabolite is mediated by Cytochrome-P450 (CYP) isoforms, mainly CYP2E1. A number of naturally occurring flavonoids can mitigate APAP-induced hepatotoxicity in experimental animal models. Our objective was to determine the mechanism of these protective effects and to evaluate possible human applicability. Two flavonoids, luteolin and quercetin, were evaluated as potential inhibitors of eight human CYP isoforms, of six UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) isoforms and of APAP glucuronidation and sulfation. The experimental model was based on in-vitro metabolism by human liver microsomes, using isoform-specific substrates. Luteolin and quercetin inhibited human CYP isoforms to varying degrees, with greatest potency towards CYP1A2 and CYP2C8. However, 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC 50 values) were generally in the micromolar range. UGT isoforms were minimally inhibited. Both luteolin and quercetin inhibited APAP sulfation but not glucuronidation. Inhibition of human CYP activity by luteolin and quercetin occurred with IC 50 values exceeding customary in-vivo human exposure with tolerable supplemental doses of these compounds. The findings indicate that luteolin and quercetin are not likely to be of clinical value for preventing or treating APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  18. Identification of luteolin as enterovirus 71 and coxsackievirus A16 inhibitors through reporter viruses and cell viability-based screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lin; Su, Weiheng; Jin, Jun; Chen, Jiawen; Li, Xiaojun; Zhang, Xuyuan; Sun, Meiyan; Sun, Shiyang; Fan, Peihu; An, Dong; Zhang, Huafei; Zhang, Xiguang; Kong, Wei; Ma, Tonghui; Jiang, Chunlai

    2014-07-17

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common pediatric illness mainly caused by infection with enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16). The frequent HFMD outbreaks have become a serious public health problem. Currently, no vaccine or antiviral drug for EV71/CA16 infections has been approved. In this study, a two-step screening platform consisting of reporter virus-based assays and cell viability‑based assays was developed to identify potential inhibitors of EV71/CA16 infection. Two types of reporter viruses, a pseudovirus containing luciferase-encoding RNA replicons encapsidated by viral capsid proteins and a full-length reporter virus containing enhanced green fluorescent protein, were used for primary screening of 400 highly purified natural compounds. Thereafter, a cell viability-based secondary screen was performed for the identified hits to confirm their antiviral activities. Three compounds (luteolin, galangin, and quercetin) were identified, among which luteolin exhibited the most potent inhibition of viral infection. In the cell viability assay and plaque reduction assay, luteolin showed similar 50% effective concentration (EC50) values of about 10 μM. Luteolin targeted the post-attachment stage of EV71 and CA16 infection by inhibiting viral RNA replication. This study suggests that luteolin may serve as a lead compound to develop potent anti-EV71 and CA16 drugs.

  19. Anti-chikungunya activity of luteolin and apigenin rich fraction from Cynodon dactylon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Krishnan Saravana Murali; Srinivasan Sivasubramanian; Savariar Vincent; Shanmugaraj Bala Murugan; Bupesh Giridaran; Sundaram Dinesh; Palani Gunasekaran; Kaveri Krishnasamy; Ramalingam Sathishkumar

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To obtain luteolin and apigenin rich fraction from the ethanolic extract ofCynodon dactylon (L.) (C. dactylon) Pers and evaluate the fraction’s cytotoxicity and anti-Chikungunya potential using Vero cells.Methods:The ethanolic extract ofC. dactylon was subjected to silica gel column chromatography to obtain anti-chikungunya virus (CHIKV) fraction. Reverse phase-HPLC and GC-MS studies were carried out to identify the major phytochemicals in the fraction using phytochemical standards. Cytotoxicity and the potential of the fraction against CHIKV were evaluatedin vitrousing Vero cells. Reduction in viral replication was assessed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) after treating the viral infected Vero cells with the fraction.Results:Reverse Phase-HPLC and GC-MS studies confirmed the presence of flavonoids, luteolin and apigenin as major phytochemicals in the anti-CHIKV ethanolic fraction ofC. dactylon. The fraction was found to exhibit potent viral inhibitory activity (about 98%) at the concentration of 50 µg/mL as observed by reduction in cytopathic effect, and the cytotoxic concentration of the fraction was found to be 250 µg/mL. RT-PCR analyses indicated that the reduction in viral mRNA synthesis in fraction treated infected cells was much higher than the viral infected control cells.Conclusions:Luteolin and apigenin rich ethanolic fraction fromC. dactylon can be utilized as a potential therapeutic agent against CHIKV infection as the fraction does not show cytotoxicity while inhibiting the virus.

  20. Anti-chikungunya activity of luteolin and apigenin rich fraction from Cynodon dactylon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali, Krishnan Saravana; Sivasubramanian, Srinivasan; Vincent, Savariar; Murugan, Shanmugaraj Bala; Giridaran, Bupesh; Dinesh, Sundaram; Gunasekaran, Palani; Krishnasamy, Kaveri; Sathishkumar, Ramalingam

    2015-05-01

    To obtain luteolin and apigenin rich fraction from the ethanolic extract of Cynodon dactylon (L.) (C. dactylon) Pers and evaluate the fraction's cytotoxicity and anti-Chikungunya potential using Vero cells. The ethanolic extract of C. dactylon was subjected to silica gel column chromatography to obtain anti-chikungunya virus (CHIKV) fraction. Reverse phase-HPLC and GC-MS studies were carried out to identify the major phytochemicals in the fraction using phytochemical standards. Cytotoxicity and the potential of the fraction against CHIKV were evaluated in vitro using Vero cells. Reduction in viral replication was assessed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) after treating the viral infected Vero cells with the fraction. Reverse Phase-HPLC and GC-MS studies confirmed the presence of flavonoids, luteolin and apigenin as major phytochemicals in the anti-CHIKV ethanolic fraction of C. dactylon. The fraction was found to exhibit potent viral inhibitory activity (about 98%) at the concentration of 50 µg/mL as observed by reduction in cytopathic effect, and the cytotoxic concentration of the fraction was found to be 250 µg/mL. RT-PCR analyses indicated that the reduction in viral mRNA synthesis in fraction treated infected cells was much higher than the viral infected control cells. Luteolin and apigenin rich ethanolic fraction from C. dactylon can be utilized as a potential therapeutic agent against CHIKV infection as the fraction does not show cytotoxicity while inhibiting the virus. Copyright © 2015 Hainan Medical College. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Large-scale deployment of the Global Trigger Tool across a large hospital system: refinements for the characterisation of adverse events to support patient safety learning opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, V S; Saldaña, M; Gilder, R; Nicewander, D; Kennerly, D A

    2011-01-01

    The Institute for Healthcare Improvement encourages use of the Global Trigger Tool to objectively determine and monitor adverse events (AEs). Baylor Health Care System (BHCS) is an integrated healthcare delivery system in North Texas. The Global Trigger Tool was applied to BHCS's eight general acute care hospitals, two inpatient cardiovascular hospitals and two rehabilitation/long-term acute care hospitals. Data were collected from a monthly random sample of charts for each facility for patients discharged between 1 July 2006 and 30 June 2007 by external professional nurse auditors using an MS Access Tool developed for this initiative. In addition to the data elements recommended by Institute for Healthcare Improvement, BHCS developed fields to permit further characterisation of AEs to identify learning opportunities. A structured narrative description of each identified AE facilitated text mining to further characterise AEs. INITIAL FINDINGS: Based on this sample, AE rates were found to be 68.1 per 1000 patient days, or 50.8 per 100 encounters, and 39.8% of admissions were found to have ≥1 AE. Of all AEs identified, 61.2% were hospital-acquired, 10.1% of which were associated with a National Coordinating Council - Medical Error Reporting and Prevention harm score of "H or I" (near death or death). To enhance learning opportunities and guide quality improvement, BHCS collected data-such as preventability and AE source-to characterise the nature of AEs. Data are provided regularly to hospital teams to direct quality initiatives, moving from a general focus on reducing AEs to more specific programmes based on patterns of harm and preventability.

  2. Luteolin decreases invasiveness, deactivates STAT3 signaling, and reverses interleukin-6 induced epithelial–mesenchymal transition and matrix metalloproteinase secretion of pancreatic cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang XC

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Xince Huang,1 Shengjie Dai,1 Juji Dai,1 Yuwu Xiao,1 Yongyu Bai,1 Bicheng Chen,1,2 Mengtao Zhou1 1Department of Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province, People’s Republic of China; 2Zhejiang Provincial Top Key Discipline in Surgery, Wenzhou Key Laboratory of Surgery, Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Luteolin, a flavone, has been shown to exhibit anticancer properties. Here, we investigated whether luteolin affects epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT and invasiveness of pancreatic cancer cell lines and their underlying mechanism. Pancreatic cancer cell lines PANC-1 and SW1990 were used in our study, and their EMT characters, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP expression level, invasiveness, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 activity were determined after luteolin treatment. We also treated pancreatic cancer cells with interleukin-6 (IL-6 to see whether IL-6-induced activation of STAT3, EMT, and MMP secretion was affected by luteolin. We found that luteolin inhibits EMT and MMP2, MMP7, and MMP9 expression in a dose-dependent manner, similar to STAT3 signaling. Through Transwell assay, we found that invasiveness of pancreatic cancer cells was inhibited by luteolin. EMT characters and MMP secretion increase with STAT3 activity after IL-6 treatment and these effects, caused by IL-6, were inhibited by luteolin. We concluded that luteolin inhibits invasiveness of pancreatic cancer cells, and we speculated that luteolin inhibits EMT and MMP secretion likely through deactivation of STAT3 signaling. Luteolin has potential antitumor effects and merits further investigation. Keywords: epithelial–mesenchymal transition, matrix metalloproteinase, luteolin, STAT3

  3. Apoptosis Triggers Specific, Rapid, and Global mRNA Decay with 3′ Uridylated Intermediates Degraded by DIS3L2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall P. Thomas

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis is a tightly coordinated cell death program that damages mitochondria, DNA, proteins, and membrane lipids. Little is known about the fate of RNA as cells die. Here, we show that mRNAs, but not noncoding RNAs, are rapidly and globally degraded during apoptosis. mRNA decay is triggered early in apoptosis, preceding membrane lipid scrambling, genomic DNA fragmentation, and apoptotic changes to translation initiation factors. mRNA decay depends on mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization and is amplified by caspase activation. 3′ truncated mRNA decay intermediates with nontemplated uridylate-rich tails are generated during apoptosis. These tails are added by the terminal uridylyl transferases (TUTases ZCCHC6 and ZCCHC11, and the uridylated transcript intermediates are degraded by the 3′ to 5′ exonuclease DIS3L2. Knockdown of DIS3L2 or the TUTases inhibits apoptotic mRNA decay, translation arrest, and cell death, whereas DIS3L2 overexpression enhances cell death. Our results suggest that global mRNA decay is an overlooked hallmark of apoptosis.

  4. Antioxidant Activity and Isolation of Luteoline from Centaurea behen L. Grown in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Esmaeili

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids are secondary metabolites providing Ultraviolet-visible (UV spectroscopy protection and color in almost all terrestrial plants and fruits. They have a fused ring system consisting of an aromatic ring and a benzopyran ring with a phenyl substituent. As their biological activities have an impact on human health, they serve as target molecules in the development of new drugs. The objective of this research was to study the antioxidant activity and chemical analysis of the luteoline from Centaurea behen L. (Compositae family. The aerial parts of powdered and dried C. behen were extracted with methanol (MeOH in a Soxhlet apparatus over a period of 2 days. The concentrated total extract was extracted with petroleum ether, diethylether, and methanol. From the methanol extract of the aerial parts of C. behen, the flavonoid derivative (luteoline was identified. The aerial parts’ extract demonstrated effective antioxidant activity measured in terms of half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50. The product extract has been isolated by UV, column chromatography (CC, and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The structures involved were elucidated by 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation (HMBC spectra. The compound identified had not been reported in previous studies of C. behen L.

  5. Facile synthesis of mPEG-luteolin-capped silver nanoparticles with antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity to neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Weixia; Wang, Yong; Li, Xiao; Lu, Minghua; Liu, Xiuhua

    2017-12-01

    We firstly report a facile route for the green synthesis of mPEG-luteolin-capped silver nanoparticles (mPEG-luteolin-AgNPs) using mPEG-luteolin as both the reducer and stabilizer. The reaction was carried out in a stirred aqueous solution at 50°C without additional poisonous reagents. The prepared mPEG-luteolin-AgNPs was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), zeta potential and UV-vis (UV-vis) spectrum, respectively. The proportions of mPEG-luteolin capped silver nanoparticles is about 89.9%, and the content of silver is 6.65%. The mPEG-luteolin-AgNPs was evaluated the antimicrobial effects on Staphlococcus aureus, Extended spectrum β-Lactamases Staphlococcus aureus, Escherichia Coli and Extended spectrum β-Lactamases Escherichia Coli using drilling hole method. The results showed that both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria were killed by the mPEG-luteolin-AgNPs at low concentration. Meanwhile, the cell viability assay demonstrated that mPEG-luteolin-AgNPs had toxic effects on human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Sphingosine Kinase 2 and Ceramide Transport as Key Targets of the Natural Flavonoid Luteolin to Induce Apoptosis in Colon Cancer Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loubna Abdel Hadi

    Full Text Available The plant flavonoid luteolin exhibits different biological effects, including anticancer properties. Little is known on the molecular mechanisms underlying its actions in colorectal cancer (CRC. Here we investigated the effects of luteolin on colon cancer cells, focusing on the balance between ceramide and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P, two sphingoid mediators with opposite roles on cell fate. Using cultured cells, we found that physiological concentrations of luteolin induce the elevation of ceramide, followed by apoptotic death of colon cancer cells, but not of differentiated enterocytes. Pulse studies revealed that luteolin inhibits ceramide anabolism to complex sphingolipids. Further experiments led us to demonstrate that luteolin induces an alteration of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER-Golgi flow of ceramide, pivotal to its metabolic processing to complex sphingolipids. We report that luteolin exerts its action by inhibiting both Akt activation, and sphingosine kinase (SphK 2, with the consequent reduction of S1P, an Akt stimulator. S1P administration protected colon cancer cells from luteolin-induced apoptosis, most likely by an intracellular, receptor-independent mechanism. Overall this study reveals for the first time that the dietary flavonoid luteolin exerts toxic effects on colon cancer cells by inhibiting both S1P biosynthesis and ceramide traffic, suggesting its dietary introduction/supplementation as a potential strategy to improve existing treatments in CRC.

  7. Trigger Finger

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in a bent position. People whose work or hobbies require repetitive gripping actions are at higher risk ... developing trigger finger include: Repeated gripping. Occupations and hobbies that involve repetitive hand use and prolonged gripping ...

  8. Wound healing effect of flavonoid rich fraction and luteolin isolated from Martynia annua Linn. on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Santram Lodhi; Abhay K Singhai

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate wound healing potential of flavonoid fractions of Martynia annua (M. annua) Linn. leaves in diabetic rats on the basis of folkloric information and preliminary study. Methods: The flavonoid compound luteolin and apigenin were isolated from dried leaves of plant by column chromatography. The two concentrations (0.2% and 0.5% w/w) of luteolin and flavonoid fraction were selected for topically applied as ointment on diabetic wound. The Povidone Iodine Ointment USP was used as a reference. On 18th days, protein content, hydroxyproline and antioxidants (SOD, CAT and GSH) level in granuloma tissues were determined.Results:The results showed that, percent wound contraction were observed significantly (P<0.01) greater in MAF fraction and 0.5% w/w of luteolin treatment groups. Presence of matured collagen fibres and fibroblasts with better angiogenesis were observed in histopathological studies.Conclusions:In conclusion, our findings suggest that flavonoid fraction (MAF) and luteolin (0.5%w/w) may have potential benefit in enhancing wound healing in diabetic condition, possibly due to free-radical scavenging activity of plant.

  9. Luteolin inhibits the colon cancer HT-29 cell proliferation, migration and epithelial-mesenchymal transition: an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Meng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the regulating effect of luteolin on colon cancer HT-29 cell proliferation, migration and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Methods: Colon cancer HT-29 cells were cultured and randomly divided into two groups, control group were treated with serum-free medium without drugs and LUT group were treated with serum-free medium containing luteolin. After 24 h of treatment, cells were collected to extract RNA, and then fluorescent quantitative PCR method was used to determine the mRNA expression of proliferation genes, migration genes and epithelial-mesenchymal transition genes. Results: After 24 h of luteolin treatment, Lrig1, TSPYL5, Bim, SOX15 and DLC1 mRNA expression in LUT group were significantly higher than those in control group while RPS15a, Bad, TRPV5, TRPV6, PLD2, IBP, SphK1, FAK, Vimentin and N-cadherin mRNA expression were significantly lower than those in control group. Conclusion: Luteolin has inhibiting effect on colon cancer HT-29 cell proliferation, migration and epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

  10. Inhibitory effect of luteolin on estrogen biosynthesis in human ovarian granulosa cells by suppression of aromatase (CYP19).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dan-feng; Yang, Li-juan; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Guo-lin

    2012-08-29

    Inhibition of aromatase, the key enzyme in estrogen biosynthesis, is an important strategy in the treatment of breast cancer. Several dietary flavonoids show aromatase inhibitory activity, but their tissue specificity and mechanism remain unclear. This study found that the dietary flavonoid luteolin potently inhibited estrogen biosynthesis in a dose- and time-dependent manner in KGN cells derived from human ovarian granulosa cells, the major source of estrogens in premenopausal women. Luteolin decreased aromatase mRNA and protein expression in KGN cells. Luteolin also promoted aromatase protein degradation and inhibited estrogen biosynthesis in aromatase-expressing HEK293A cells, but had no effect on recombinant expressed aromatase. Estrogen biosynthesis in KGN cells was inhibited with differing potencies by extracts of onion and bird chili and by four other dietary flavonoids: kaempferol, quercetin, myricetin, and isorhamnetin. The present study suggests that luteolin inhibits estrogen biosynthesis by decreasing aromatase expression and destabilizing aromatase protein, and it warrants further investigation as a potential treatment for estrogen-dependent cancers.

  11. Luteolin inhibits Cr(VI)-induced malignant cell transformation of human lung epithelial cells by targeting ROS mediated multiple cell signaling pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Son, Young-Ok; Divya, Sasidharan Padmaja; Roy, Ram Vinod; Hitron, John Andrew; Wang, Lei [Center for Research on Environmental Disease, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Kim, Donghern; Dai, Jin [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Asha, Padmaja [National Centre for Aquatic Animal Health, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin (India); Zhang, Zhuo [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Wang, Yitao [State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine, Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences, University of Macau, Macau (China); Shi, Xianglin, E-mail: xshi5@email.uky.edu [Center for Research on Environmental Disease, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a well-known human carcinogen associated with the incidence of lung cancer. Inhibition of metal induced carcinogenesis by a dietary antioxidant is a novel approach. Luteolin, a natural dietary flavonoid found in fruits and vegetables, possesses potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. We found that short term exposure of human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) to Cr(VI) (5 μM) showed a drastic increase in ROS generation, NADPH oxidase (NOX) activation, lipid peroxidation, and glutathione depletion, which were significantly inhibited by the treatment with luteolin in a dose dependent manner. Treatment with luteolin decreased AP-1, HIF-1α, COX-2, and iNOS promoter activity induced by Cr(VI) in BEAS-2B cells. In addition, luteolin protected BEAS-2B cells from malignant transformation induced by chronic Cr(VI) exposure. Moreover, luteolin also inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α) and VEGF in chronic Cr(VI) exposed BEAS-2B cells. Western blot analysis showed that luteolin inhibited multiple gene products linked to survival (Akt, Fak, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL), inflammation (MAPK, NF-κB, COX-2, STAT-3, iNOS, TNF-α) and angiogenesis (HIF-1α, VEGF, MMP-9) in chronic Cr(VI) exposed BEAS-2B cells. Nude mice injected with BEAS-2B cells chronically exposed to Cr(VI) in the presence of luteolin showed reduced tumor incidence compared to Cr(VI) alone treated group. Overexpression of catalase (CAT) or SOD2, eliminated Cr(VI)-induced malignant transformation. Overall, our results indicate that luteolin protects BEAS-2B cells from Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis by scavenging ROS and modulating multiple cell signaling mechanisms that are linked to ROS. Luteolin, therefore, serves as a potential chemopreventive agent against Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • Luteolin inhibited Cr(VI)-induced oxidative stress. • Luteolin inhibited chronic Cr(VI)-induced malignant transformation.

  12. Luteolin inhibits Cr(VI)-induced malignant cell transformation of human lung epithelial cells by targeting ROS mediated multiple cell signaling pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Son, Young-Ok; Divya, Sasidharan Padmaja; Roy, Ram Vinod; Hitron, John Andrew; Wang, Lei; Kim, Donghern; Dai, Jin; Asha, Padmaja; Zhang, Zhuo; Wang, Yitao; Shi, Xianglin

    2014-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a well-known human carcinogen associated with the incidence of lung cancer. Inhibition of metal induced carcinogenesis by a dietary antioxidant is a novel approach. Luteolin, a natural dietary flavonoid found in fruits and vegetables, possesses potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. We found that short term exposure of human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) to Cr(VI) (5 μM) showed a drastic increase in ROS generation, NADPH oxidase (NOX) activation, lipid peroxidation, and glutathione depletion, which were significantly inhibited by the treatment with luteolin in a dose dependent manner. Treatment with luteolin decreased AP-1, HIF-1α, COX-2, and iNOS promoter activity induced by Cr(VI) in BEAS-2B cells. In addition, luteolin protected BEAS-2B cells from malignant transformation induced by chronic Cr(VI) exposure. Moreover, luteolin also inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α) and VEGF in chronic Cr(VI) exposed BEAS-2B cells. Western blot analysis showed that luteolin inhibited multiple gene products linked to survival (Akt, Fak, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL), inflammation (MAPK, NF-κB, COX-2, STAT-3, iNOS, TNF-α) and angiogenesis (HIF-1α, VEGF, MMP-9) in chronic Cr(VI) exposed BEAS-2B cells. Nude mice injected with BEAS-2B cells chronically exposed to Cr(VI) in the presence of luteolin showed reduced tumor incidence compared to Cr(VI) alone treated group. Overexpression of catalase (CAT) or SOD2, eliminated Cr(VI)-induced malignant transformation. Overall, our results indicate that luteolin protects BEAS-2B cells from Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis by scavenging ROS and modulating multiple cell signaling mechanisms that are linked to ROS. Luteolin, therefore, serves as a potential chemopreventive agent against Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • Luteolin inhibited Cr(VI)-induced oxidative stress. • Luteolin inhibited chronic Cr(VI)-induced malignant transformation.

  13. The development of the Global Feature Extractor for the LHC Run-3 upgrade of the ATLAS L1 Calorimeter trigger system

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Weihao; The ATLAS collaboration; Chen, Hucheng; Lanni, Francesco; Takai, Helio; Tang, Shaochun; ATLAS TDAQ Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Global Feature Extractor (gFEX) is one of several modules in LHC Run-3 upgrade of Level 1 Calorimeter (L1Calo) trigger system in the ATLAS experiment. It is a single Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture (ATCA) module for large-area jet identification with three Xilinx UltraScale FPGAs for data processing and a system-on-chip (SoC) FPGA for control and monitoring. A pre-prototype board has been designed to verify all functionalities. The performance of this pre-prototype has been tested and evaluated. As a major achievement, the high-speed links in FPGAs are stable at 12.8 Gb/s with Bit Error Ratio (BER) < 10-15 (no error detected). The low-latency parallel GPIO (General Purpose I/O) buses for communication between FPGAs are stable at 960 Mb/s. Besides that, the peripheral components of Soc FPGA have also been verified. After laboratory tests, the link speed test with LAr (Liquid Argon Calorimeter) Digital Processing Blade (LDPB) AMC card has been carried out at CERN for determination of t...

  14. The D0 calorimeter trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guida, J.

    1992-12-01

    The D0 calorimeter trigger system consists of many levels to make physics motivated trigger decisions. The Level-1 trigger uses hardware techniques to reduce the trigger rate from ∼ 100kHz to 200Hz. It forms sums of electromagnetic and hadronic energy, globally and in towers, along with finding the missing transverse energy. A minimum energy is set on these energy sums to pass the event. The Level-2 trigger is a set of software filters, operating in a parallel-processing microvax farm which further reduces the trigger rate to a few Hertz. These filters will reject events which lack electron candidates, jet candidates, or missing transverse energy in the event. The performance of these triggers during the early running of the D0 detector will also be discussed

  15. Luteolin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles synthesis, characterization, & improvement of bioavailability, pharmacokinetics in vitro and vivo studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Hao; Meng, Murtaza Hasan Weiwei; Zhao, Haiwei; Iqbal, Javed; Dai, Rongji; Deng, Yulin; Lv, Fang

    2014-04-01

    Luteolin (LU, 5,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxyflavone) most active compound in Chinese herbal flavones has been acting as a antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and antimutagen. However, its poor bioavailability, hydrophobicity, and pharmacokinetics restrict clinical application. Here in this study, LU-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles have been prepared by hot-microemulsion ultrasonic technique to improve the bioavailability & pharmacokinetics of compound. LU-loaded solid lipid nanoparticle size was confirmed by particle size analyzer with range from 47 to 118 nm, having zepta potential -9.2 mV and polydisperse index 0.247, respectively. Round-shaped SLNPs were obtained by using transmission electron microscope, and encapsulation efficiency 74.80 % was calculated by using HPLC. Both in vitro and vivo studies, LC-MS/MS technique was used for quantification of Luteolin in rat. The T max value of drug with LU-SLNs after the administration was Ten times shorter than pure Luteolin suspension administration. C max value of drug after the administration of LU-SLNs was five times higher than obtained with native drug suspension. Luteolin with SLNs has increased the half-life approximately up to 2 h. Distribution and clearance of drug with SLNs were significantly decreased by 2.16-10.57 fold, respectively. In the end, the relative bioavailability of SLNs has improved about 4.89 compared to Luteolin with SLNs. From this study, it can be concluded that LU-SLNs have not only great potential for improving solubility but also increased the drug concentration in plasma. Furthermore, use of LC-MS/MS for quantification of LU-SLNs in rat plasma is reliable and of therapeutic usefulness, especially for neurodegenerative and cancerous disorders in humans.

  16. Two dietary polyphenols, fisetin and luteolin, reduce inflammation but augment DNA damage-induced toxicity in human RPE cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hytti, Maria; Szabó, Dora; Piippo, Niina; Korhonen, Eveliina; Honkakoski, Paavo; Kaarniranta, Kai; Petrovski, Goran; Kauppinen, Anu

    2017-04-01

    Plant-derived polyphenols are known to possess anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. In recent years, several studies have investigated their potential benefits for treating chronic diseases associated with prolonged inflammation and excessive oxidative stress, such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Previously, two polyphenols, fisetin and luteolin, have been reported to increase the survival of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells suffering from oxidative stress as well as decreasing inflammation but the benefits of polyphenol therapy seem to depend on the model system used. Our aim was to analyze the effects of fisetin and luteolin on inflammation and cellular viability in a model of nonoxidative DNA damage-induced cell death in human RPE (hRPE) cells. Pretreatment of ARPE-19 or primary hRPE cells with the polyphenols augmented etoposide-induced cell death as measured by the lactate dehydrogenase and 3-(4,5-dimethyldiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays. However, the treatment was able to reduce the release of two proinflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and IL-8, which were determined by enzyme-linked Immunosorbent assay. Analyses of caspase 3 activity, p53 acetylation and SIRT1 protein levels revealed the apoptotic nature of etoposide-evoked cell death and that fisetin and luteolin augmented the etoposide-induced acetylation of p53 and decreased SIRT1 levels. Taken together, our findings suggest that the cytoprotective effects of fisetin and luteolin depend on the stressor they need to combat, whereas their anti-inflammatory potential is sustained over a variety of model systems. Careful consideration of disease pathways will be necessary before fisetin or luteolin can be recommended as therapeutic agents for inflammatory diseases in general and specifically AMD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Biphasic Response to Luteolin in MG-63 Osteoblast-Like Cells under High Glucose‑Induced Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Abbasi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clinical evidence indicates the diabetes-induced impairment of osteogenesis caused by a decrease in osteoblast activity. Flavonoids can increase the differentiation and mineralization of osteoblasts in a high-glucose state. However, some flavonoids such as luteolin may have the potential to induce cytotoxicity in osteoblast-like cells. This study was performed to investigate whether a cytoprotective concentration range of luteolin could be separated from a cytotoxic concentration range in human MG-63 osteoblast-like cells in high-glucose condition. Methods: Cells were cultured in a normal- or high-glucose medium. Cell viability was determined with the MTT assay. The formation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS was measured using probe 2’,7’ -dichlorofluorescein diacetate, and osteogenic differentiation was evaluated with an alkaline phosphatase bioassay. Results: ROS generation, reduction in alkaline phosphatase activity, and cell death induced by high glucose were inhibited by lower concentrations of luteolin (EC50, 1.29±0.23 µM. Oxidative stress mediated by high glucose was also overcome by N-acetyl-L-cysteine. At high concentrations, luteolin caused osteoblast cell death in normal- and high-glucose states (IC50, 34±2.33 and 27±2.42 µM, respectively, as represented by increased ROS and decreased alkaline phosphatase activity. Conclusion: Our results indicated that the cytoprotective action of luteolin in glucotoxic condition was manifested in much lower concentrations, by a factor of approximately 26 and 20, than was its cytotoxic activity, which occurred under normal or glucotoxic condition, respectively.

  18. Triggering Artefacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Preben Holst; Robinson, Mike

    1995-01-01

    and adapting them to specific situations need not be ad hoc.Triggering artefacts are a way of systematically challenging both designers' preunderstandings and the conservatism of work practice. Experiences from the Great Belt tunnel and bridge project are used to illustrate howtriggering artefacts change...

  19. CMS Trigger Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Donato, Silvio

    2017-01-01

    During its second run of operation (Run 2) which started in 2015, the LHC will deliver a peak instantaneous luminosity that may reach $2 \\cdot 10^{34}$ cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ with an average pile-up of about 55, far larger than the design value. Under these conditions, the online event selection is a very challenging task. In CMS, it is realized by a two-level trigger system the Level-1 (L1) Trigger, implemented in custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. In order to face this challenge, the L1 trigger has been through a major upgrade compared to Run 1, whereby all electronic boards of the system have been replaced, allowing more sophisticated algorithms to be run online. Its last stage, the global trigger, is now able to perform complex selections and to compute high-level quantities, like invariant masses. Likewise, the algorithms that run in the HLT go through big improvements; in particular, new appr...

  20. 3-Prenyl luteolin, a new prenylated flavone with melanin biosynthesis inhibitory activity from wood of Artocarpus heterophyllus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arung, Enos Tangke; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Ryuichiro

    2010-09-01

    In our efforts to find new whitening agent from natural resources, we focused on wood of Artocarpus heterophyllus which shows anti-melanogenesis activity. By activity-guided fractionation of A. heterophyllus wood extract, a new prenylated flavonoid, 3-prenyl luteolin (1) was isolated. The IC(50) of mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory activity of 1 was 76.3 microM. The results of the comparison with that of luteolin showed the prenyl substituent at C-3 position of 1 play an important role for revealing tyrosinase inhibition. In melanin formation inhibition on B16 melanoma cells, IC(50) of 1 was 56.7 microM with less cytotoxicity. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of Luteolin and Quercetin in Combination with Some Conventional Antibiotics against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman Amin, Muhammad; Khurram, Muhammad; Khan, Taj Ali; Faidah, Hani S; Ullah Shah, Zia; Ur Rahman, Shafiq; Haseeb, Abdul; Ilyas, Muhammad; Ullah, Naseem; Umar Khayam, Sahibzada Muhammad; Iriti, Marcello

    2016-11-22

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of flavonoids luteolin (L) and quercetin + luteolin (Q + L) in combination with commonly used antibacterial agents against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clinical isolates and S. aureus (ATCC 43300). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of L and Q + L, as well as the MICs of flavonoids in combination with antibiotics were determined and results showed an increased activity of flavonoids with antibiotics. The synergistic, additive, or antagonistic relationships between flavonoids (L and Q + L) and antibiotics were also evaluated, and additive and synergistic effects were observed for some antibiotic + flavonoid combinations. In addition, some combinations were also found to damage the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane, as assessed through potassium leakage assay. The effects of flavonoids and flavonoids + antibiotics on mecA gene mutations were also tested, and no functional variation was detected in the coding region.

  2. Luteolin and fisetin suppress oxidative stress by modulating sirtuins and forkhead box O3a expression under in vitro diabetic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Arang; Lee, Wooje; Yun, Jung-Mi

    2017-10-01

    Chronic hyperglycemia induces oxidative stress via accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and contributes to diabetic complications. Hyperglycemia induces mitochondrial superoxide anion production through the increased activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase. This study aimed to determine whether fisetin and luteolin treatments suppress the oxidative stress by modulating the expression of sirtuins (SIRTs) and forkhead box O3a (FOXO3a) under hyperglycemic conditions in human monocytes. Human monocytic cells (THP-1) were cultured under osmotic control (14.5 mmol/L mannitol), normoglycemic (NG, 5.5 mmol/L glucose), or hyperglycemic (HG, 20 mmol/L glucose) conditions, in the absence or presence of fisetin and luteolin for 48 h. To determine the effect of fisetin and luteolin treatments on high glucose-induced oxidative stress, western blotting and intracellular staining were performed. Hyperglycemic conditions increased the ROS production, as compared to normoglycemic condition. However, fisetin and luteolin treatments inhibited ROS production under hyperglycemia. To obtain further insight into ROS production in hyperglycemic conditions, evaluation of p47phox expression revealed that fisetin and luteolin treatments inhibited p47phox expression under hyperglycemic conditions. Conversely, the expression levels of SIRT1, SIRT3, SIRT6, and FOXO3a were decreased under high glucose conditions compared to normal glucose conditions, but exposure to fisetin and luteolin induced the expression of SIRT1, SIRT3, SIRT6, and FOXO3a. The above findings suggest that fisetin and luteolin inhibited high glucose-induced ROS production in monocytes through the activation of SIRTs and FOXO3a. The results of our study supports current researches that state fisetin and luteolin as potential agents for the development of novel strategies for diabetes.

  3. Fisetin and luteolin protect human retinal pigment epithelial cells from oxidative stress-induced cell death and regulate inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hytti, Maria; Piippo, Niina; Korhonen, Eveliina; Honkakoski, Paavo; Kaarniranta, Kai; Kauppinen, Anu

    2015-01-01

    Degeneration of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells is a clinical hallmark of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of blindness among aged people in the Western world. Both inflammation and oxidative stress are known to play vital roles in the development of this disease. Here, we assess the ability of fisetin and luteolin, to protect ARPE-19 cells from oxidative stress-induced cell death and to decrease intracellular inflammation. We also compare the growth and reactivity of human ARPE-19 cells in serum-free and serum-containing conditions. The absence of serum in the culture medium did not prevent ARPE-19 cells from reaching full confluency but caused an increased sensitivity to oxidative stress-induced cell death. Both fisetin and luteolin protected ARPE-19 cells from oxidative stress-induced cell death. They also significantly decreased the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines into the culture medium. The decrease in inflammation was associated with reduced activation of MAPKs and CREB, but was not linked to NF- κB or SIRT1. The ability of fisetin and luteolin to protect and repair stressed RPE cells even after the oxidative insult make them attractive in the search for treatments for AMD. PMID:26619957

  4. Thermal treatment of luteolin-7-O-β-glucoside improves its immunomodulatory and antioxidant potencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maatouk, Mouna; Mustapha, Nadia; Mokdad-Bzeouich, Imen; Chaaban, Hind; Abed, Besma; Iaonnou, Irina; Ghedira, Kamel; Ghoul, Mohamed; Ghedira, Leila Chekir

    2017-11-01

    Phytochemicals extracted from flowers, roots and bark, leaves, and other plant sources have been used extensively throughout human history with varying levels of efficacy in prevention and treatment of disease. Recently, advanced methods for characterization and clinical use of these materials have allowed modern understanding of their properties to be used as immunomodulatory agents that act by enhancement of endogenous cytoprotective mechanisms, avoiding interference with normal physiologic signaling and highly effective medical treatment with minimal adverse side effects. Simple methods have been identified for improving their biological effects, such as thermal conditioning by heating or freezing-prominent example being heat treatment of lycopene and tetrahydrocannabinol. The present investigation shows improvement of the ability of heat to augment splenocyte proliferation, natural killer (NK) cell activities, and antioxidant capacity of the flavonoid luteolin-7-O-β-glucoside (L7G) in comparison with the native (non heat-treated) molecule, while further demonstrating that both the native and the heat-treated variants exhibit comparable antioxidant properties, as evidenced by their effects in macrophages by inhibition of nitric oxide production and lysosomal enzyme activity in experiments that strengthen lysosomal membrane integrity. Outcomes of these studies suggest that heat-treated L7G shows promise for use in immunotherapy, including anti-cancer regimens, as shown by its improvement of NK cell cytotoxicity.

  5. Co-ultramicronized palmitoylethanolamide/luteolin promotes neuronal regeneration after spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalia eCrupi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injury (SCI stimulates activation of astrocytes and infiltration of immune cells at the lesion site; however, the mechanism that promotes the birth of new neurons is still under debate. Neuronal regeneration is restricted after spinal cord injury, but can be stimulated by experimental intervention. Previously we demonstrated that treatment co-ultramicronized palmitoylethanolamide and luteolin, namely co-ultraPEALut, reduced inflammation. The present study was designed to explore the neuroregenerative properties of co-ultra PEALut in an estabished murine model of SCI. A vascular clip was applied to the spinal cord dura at T5 to T8 to provoke injury. Mice were treated with co-ultraPEALut (1 mg/kg, intraperitoneally daily for 72 h after SCI. Co-ultraPEALut increased the numbers of both bromodeoxyuridine-positive nuclei and doublecortin-immunoreactive cells in the spinal cord of injured mice. To correlate neuronal development with synaptic plasticity a Golgi method was employed to analyze dendritic spine density. Co-ultraPEALut administration stimulated expression of the neurotrophic factors brain-derived neurotrophic factor, glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor, nerve growth factor and neurotrophin-3. These findings show a prominent effect of co-ultraPEALut administration in the management of survival and differentiation of new neurons and spine maturation, and may represent a therapeutic treatment for spinal cord and other traumatic diseases.

  6. Luteolin Reduces Alzheimer’s Disease Pathologies Induced by Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darrell Sawmiller

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI occurs in response to an acute insult to the head and is recognized as a major risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Indeed, recent studies have suggested a pathological overlap between TBI and AD, with both conditions exhibiting amyloid-beta (Aβ deposits, tauopathy, and neuroinflammation. Additional studies involving animal models of AD indicate that some AD-related genotypic determinants may be critical factors enhancing temporal and phenotypic symptoms of TBI. Thus in the present study, we examined sub-acute effects of moderate TBI delivered by a gas-driven shock tube device in Aβ depositing Tg2576 mice. Three days later, significant increases in b-amyloid deposition, glycogen synthase-3 (GSK-3 activation, phospho-tau, and pro-inflammatory cytokines were observed. Importantly, peripheral treatment with the naturally occurring flavonoid, luteolin, significantly abolished these accelerated pathologies. This study lays the groundwork for a safe and natural compound that could prevent or treat TBI with minimal or no deleterious side effects in combat personnel and others at risk or who have experienced TBI.

  7. Luteolin Prevents H2O2-Induced Apoptosis in H9C2 Cells through Modulating Akt-P53/Mdm2 Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Chang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Luteolin, a falconoid compound in many Chinese herbs and formula, plays important roles in cardiovascular diseases. The underlying mechanism of luteolin remains to be further elaborated. Methods. A model of hydrogen peroxide- (H2O2- induced H9C2 cells apoptosis was established. Cell viabilities were examined with an MTT assay. 2′,7′-Dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA and flow cytometry were used to detect ROS level and apoptosis rate, respectively. The expressions of signaling proteins related to apoptosis were analyzed by western blot and mRNA levels were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Quercetin was applied as positive drug. Results. Incubation with various concentrations of H2O2 (0, 50, 100, and 200 μM for 1 h caused dose-dependent loss of cell viability and 100 μM H2O2 reduced the cell viability to approximately 50%. Treatments with luteolin and quercetin protected cells from H2O2-induced cytotoxicity and reduced cellular ROS level and apoptosis rate. Moreover, luteolin could downregulate the expressions of Bax, caspase-8, cleaved-caspase-3, and p53 in apoptotic signaling pathway. Further study showed that the expressions of Akt, Bcl-2, and Mdm2 were upregulated by luteolin. Conclusion. Luteolin protects H9C2 cells from H2O2-induced apoptosis. The protective and antiapoptotic effects of luteolin could be mediated by regulating the Akt-P53/Mdm2 apoptotic pathway.

  8. Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  9. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-01-01

    There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  10. The TOTEM modular trigger system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagliesi, M.G., E-mail: mg.bagliesi@pi.infn.i [University of Siena and INFN Pisa (Italy); Berretti, M.; Cecchi, R.; Greco, V.; Lami, S.; Latino, G.; Oliveri, E.; Pedreschi, E.; Scribano, A.; Spinella, F.; Turini, N. [University of Siena and INFN Pisa (Italy)

    2010-05-21

    The TOTEM experiment will measure the total cross-section with the luminosity independent method and study elastic and diffractive scattering at the LHC. We are developing a modular trigger system, based on programmable logic, that will select meaningful events within 2.5{mu}s. The trigger algorithm is based on a tree structure in order to obtain information compression. The trigger primitive is generated directly on the readout chip, VFAT, that has a specific fast output that gives low resolution hits information. In two of the TOTEM detectors, Roman Pots and T2, a coincidence chip will perform track recognition directly on the detector readout boards, while for T1 the hits are transferred from the VFATs to the trigger hardware. Starting from more than 2000 bits delivered by the detector electronics, we extract, in a first step, six trigger patterns of 32 LVDS signals each; we build, then, on a dedicated board, a 1-bit (L1) trigger signal for the TOTEM experiment and 16 trigger bits to the CMS experiment global trigger system for future common data taking.

  11. The TOTEM modular trigger system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagliesi, M.G.; Berretti, M.; Cecchi, R.; Greco, V.; Lami, S.; Latino, G.; Oliveri, E.; Pedreschi, E.; Scribano, A.; Spinella, F.; Turini, N.

    2010-01-01

    The TOTEM experiment will measure the total cross-section with the luminosity independent method and study elastic and diffractive scattering at the LHC. We are developing a modular trigger system, based on programmable logic, that will select meaningful events within 2.5μs. The trigger algorithm is based on a tree structure in order to obtain information compression. The trigger primitive is generated directly on the readout chip, VFAT, that has a specific fast output that gives low resolution hits information. In two of the TOTEM detectors, Roman Pots and T2, a coincidence chip will perform track recognition directly on the detector readout boards, while for T1 the hits are transferred from the VFATs to the trigger hardware. Starting from more than 2000 bits delivered by the detector electronics, we extract, in a first step, six trigger patterns of 32 LVDS signals each; we build, then, on a dedicated board, a 1-bit (L1) trigger signal for the TOTEM experiment and 16 trigger bits to the CMS experiment global trigger system for future common data taking.

  12. Trigger circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verity, P.R.; Chaplain, M.D.; Turner, G.D.J.

    1984-01-01

    A monostable trigger circuit comprises transistors TR2 and TR3 arranged with their collectors and bases interconnected. The collector of the transistor TR2 is connected to the base of transistor TR3 via a capacitor C2 the main current path of a grounded base transistor TR1 and resistive means R2,R3. The collector of transistor TR3 is connected to the base of transistor TR2 via resistive means R6, R7. In the stable state all the transistors are OFF, the capacitor C2 is charged, and the output is LOW. A positive pulse input to the base of TR2 switches it ON, which in turn lowers the voltage at points A and B and so switches TR1 ON so that C2 can discharge via R2, R3, which in turn switches TR3 ON making the output high. Thus all three transistors are latched ON. When C2 has discharged sufficiently TR1 switches OFF, followed by TR3 (making the output low again) and TR2. The components C1, C3 and R4 serve to reduce noise, and the diode D1 is optional. (author)

  13. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Andru?cã Maria Carmen

    2013-01-01

    The field of globalization has highlighted an interdependence implied by a more harmonious understanding determined by the daily interaction between nations through the inducement of peace and the management of streamlining and the effectiveness of the global economy. For the functioning of the globalization, the developing countries that can be helped by the developed ones must be involved. The international community can contribute to the institution of the development environment of the gl...

  14. Microwave-Assisted Simultaneous Extraction of Luteolin and Apigenin from Tree Peony Pod and Evaluation of Its Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzheng Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient microwave-assisted extraction (MAE technique was employed in simultaneous extraction of luteolin and apigenin from tree peony pod. The MAE procedure was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM and compared with other conventional extraction techniques of macerate extraction (ME and heat reflux extraction (HRE. The optimal conditions of MAE were as follows: employing 70% ethanol volume fraction as solvent, soaking time of 4 h, liquid-solid ratio of 10 (mL/g, microwave irradiation power of 265 W, microwave irradiation time of 9.6 min, and 3 extraction cycles. Under the optimal conditions, 151 μg/g luteolin and 104 μg/g apigenin were extracted from the tree peony pod. Compared with ME and HRE, MAE gave the highest extraction efficiency. The antioxidant activities of the extracts obtained by MAE, ME, and HRE were evaluated using a 2,2-di(4-tert-octylphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical-scavenging assay, a ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP, and a reducing power assay. Meanwhile, the structural changes of the unprocessed and processed tree peony pod samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy.

  15. The Development of the Global Feature eXtractor (gFEX) for ATLAS Level 1 Calorimeter Trigger at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Shaochun; The ATLAS collaboration; Chen, Hucheng

    2018-01-01

    During the ATLAS Phase-I upgrade, the gFEX will be designed to maintain the trigger acceptance against the increasing luminosity for the ATLAS Level-1 calorimeter trigger system. The gFEX is designed to identify patterns of energy associated with the hadronic decays of high momentum Higgs, W, & Z bosons, top quarks, and exotic particles in real time at the LHC crossing rate. The prototype v1 and v2 have been designed and fully tested in 2015 and 2016 respectively. With the lessons learned, a pre-production board with three UltraScale+ FPGAs and one ZYNQ UltraScale+, and 35 MiniPODs are implemented in an ATCA module. This board will receive coarse-granularity (0.2x0.2) information from the entire ATLAS calorimeters on up to 300 optical fibers and each FPGA has 24 links to the L1Topo at the speed up to 12.8 Gb/s.

  16. Trigger processing using reconfigurable logic in the CMS calorimeter trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooke, J J; Cussans, D G; Heath, G P; Maddox, A J; Newbold, D M; Rabbetts, P D

    2001-04-01

    We present the design of the Global Calorimeter Trigger processor for the CMS detector at LHC. This is a fully pipelined processor system which collects data from all the CMS calorimeters and produces summary information used in forming the Level-1 trigger decision for each event. The design in based on the use of state-of-the-art reconfigurable logic devices (FPGAs) and fast data links. We present the results of device testing using a low-latency pipelined sort algorithm, which demonstrate that an FPGA can be used to perform processing previously foreseen to require custom ASICs. Our design approach results in a powerful, flexible and compact processor system.

  17. Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    Globalization is often referred to as external to education - a state of affair facing the modern curriculum with numerous challenges. In this paper it is examined as internal to curriculum; analysed as a problematization in a Foucaultian sense. That is, as a complex of attentions, worries, ways...... of reasoning, producing curricular variables. The analysis is made through an example of early childhood curriculum in Danish Pre-school, and the way the curricular variable of the pre-school child comes into being through globalization as a problematization, carried forth by the comparative practices of PISA...

  18. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    F. Gerard Adams

    2008-01-01

    The rapid globalization of the world economy is causing fundamental changes in patterns of trade and finance. Some economists have argued that globalization has arrived and that the world is “flat†. While the geographic scope of markets has increased, the author argues that new patterns of trade and finance are a result of the discrepancies between “old†countries and “new†. As the differences are gradually wiped out, particularly if knowledge and technology spread worldwide, the t...

  19. ATLAS FTK Fast Track Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Iizawa, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Fast TracKer (FTK) will perform global track reconstruction after each Level-1 trigger accept signal to enable the software-based higher level trigger to have early access to tracking information. FTK is a dedicated processor based on a mixture of advanced technologies. Modern, powerful Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) form an important part of the system architecture, and the large level of computing power required for pattern recognition is provided by incorporating standard-cell ASICs named Associative Memory (AM). Motivation and the architecture of the FTK system will be presented, and the status of hardware and simulation will be following.

  20. Gefitinib and luteolin cause growth arrest of human prostate cancer PC-3 cells via inhibition of cyclin G-associated kinase and induction of miR-630.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minami A Sakurai

    Full Text Available Cyclin G-associated kinase (GAK, a key player in clathrin-mediated membrane trafficking, is overexpressed in various cancer cells. Here, we report that GAK expression is positively correlated with the Gleason score in surgical specimens from prostate cancer patients. Embryonic fibroblasts from knockout mice expressing a kinase-dead (KD form of GAK showed constitutive hyper-phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR. In addition to the well-known EGFR inhibitors gefitinib and erlotinib, the dietary flavonoid luteolin was a potent inhibitor of the Ser/Thr kinase activity of GAK in vitro. Co-administration of luteolin and gefitinib to PC-3 cells had a greater effect on cell viability than administration of either compound alone; this decrease in viability was associated with drastic down-regulation of GAK protein expression. A comprehensive microRNA array analysis revealed increased expression of miR-630 and miR-5703 following treatment of PC-3 cells with luteolin and/or gefitinib, and exogenous overexpression of miR-630 caused growth arrest of these cells. GAK appears to be essential for cell death because co-administration of gefitinib and luteolin to EGFR-deficient U2OS osteosarcoma cells also had a greater effect on cell viability than administration of either compound alone. Taken together, these findings suggest that GAK may be a new therapeutic target for prostate cancer and osteosarcoma.

  1. Combination Treatments with Luteolin and Fisetin Enhance Anti-Inflammatory Effects in High Glucose-Treated THP-1 Cells Through Histone Acetyltransferase/Histone Deacetylase Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Arang; Yun, Jung-Mi

    2017-08-01

    Hyperglycemia leads to diabetes and its diabetic complications. In this study, we investigated the synergistic effects of luteolin and fisetin on proinflammatory cytokine secretion and its underlying epigenetic regulation in human monocytes exposed to hyperglycemic (HG) concentrations. Human monocytic cells (THP-1) were cultured under controlled (14.5 mM mannitol), normoglycemic (5.5 mM glucose), or HG (20 mM glucose) conditions in the absence or presence of the two phytochemicals for 48 h. Whereas HG conditions significantly induced histone acetylation, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation, interleukin 6, and tumor necrosis factor-α release from THP-1 cells; combination treatments with the two phytochemicals (500 nM fisetin, and l μM and 500 nM luteolin) suppressed NF-κB activity and inflammatory cytokine release. Fisetin, luteolin, and their combination treatments also significantly decreased the activity of histone acetyltransferase, a known NF-κB coactivator; inhibited reactive oxygen species production; and activated sirtuin (SIRT)1 and forkhead box O3a (FOXO3a) expressions (P < .05). Thus, combination treatments with the two phytochemicals inhibited HG condition-induced cytokine production in monocytes, through epigenetic changes involving NF-κB activation. We, therefore, suggest that combination treatments with luteolin and fisetin may be a potential candidate for the treatment and prevention of diabetes and its complications.

  2. The development of Global Feature eXtractor (gFEX) - the ATLAS calorimeter Level 1 trigger for ATLAS at High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)759889; The ATLAS collaboration; Begel, Michael; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Kai; Lanni, Francesco; Takai, Helio; Wu, Weihao

    2017-01-01

    As part of the ATLAS Phase-I Upgrade, the gFEX is designed to help maintain the ATLAS Level-1 trigger acceptance rate with the increasing LHC luminosity. The gFEX identifies patterns of energy associated with the hadronic decays of high momentum Higgs, W, & Z bosons, top quarks, and exotic particles in real time at the 40MHz LHC bunch crossing rate. The prototype v1 and v2 were designed and fully tested in 2015 and 2016 respectively. A pre-production gFEX board has been manufactured, which is an ATCA module consisting of three UltraScale+ FPGAs and one ZYNQ UltraScale+, and 35 MiniPODs are implemented in an ATCA module. This board receives coarse-granularity (0.2x0.2) information from the entire ATLAS calorimeters on up to 300 optical fibers and 96 links to the L1Topo at the speed up to 12.8 Gb/s.

  3. Nitrogen-Fixing Nodules Are an Important Source of Reduced Sulfur, Which Triggers Global Changes in Sulfur Metabolism in Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalloniati, Chrysanthi; Krompas, Panagiotis; Karalias, Georgios; Udvardi, Michael K; Rennenberg, Heinz; Herschbach, Cornelia; Flemetakis, Emmanouil

    2015-09-01

    We combined transcriptomic and biochemical approaches to study rhizobial and plant sulfur (S) metabolism in nitrogen (N) fixing nodules (Fix(+)) of Lotus japonicus, as well as the link of S-metabolism to symbiotic nitrogen fixation and the effect of nodules on whole-plant S-partitioning and metabolism. Our data reveal that N-fixing nodules are thiol-rich organs. Their high adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reductase activity and strong (35)S-flux into cysteine and its metabolites, in combination with the transcriptional upregulation of several rhizobial and plant genes involved in S-assimilation, highlight the function of nodules as an important site of S-assimilation. The higher thiol content observed in nonsymbiotic organs of N-fixing plants in comparison to uninoculated plants could not be attributed to local biosynthesis, indicating that nodules are an important source of reduced S for the plant, which triggers whole-plant reprogramming of S-metabolism. Enhanced thiol biosynthesis in nodules and their impact on the whole-plant S-economy are dampened in plants nodulated by Fix(-) mutant rhizobia, which in most respects metabolically resemble uninoculated plants, indicating a strong interdependency between N-fixation and S-assimilation. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  4. The LHCb trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korolko, I.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes progress in the development of the LHCb trigger system since the letter of intent. The trigger philosophy has significantly changed, resulting in an increase of trigger efficiency for signal B events. It is proposed to implement a level-1 vertex topology trigger in specialised hardware. (orig.)

  5. Data analysis at Level-1 Trigger level

    CERN Document Server

    Wittmann, Johannes; Aradi, Gregor; Bergauer, Herbert; Jeitler, Manfred; Wulz, Claudia; Apanasevich, Leonard; Winer, Brian; Puigh, Darren Michael

    2017-01-01

    With ever increasing luminosity at the LHC, optimum online data selection is getting more and more important. While in the case of some experiments (LHCb and ALICE) this task is being completely transferred to computer farms, the others - ATLAS and CMS - will not be able to do this in the medium-term future for technological, detector-related reasons. Therefore, these experiments pursue the complementary approach of migrating more and more of the offline and High-Level Trigger intelligence into the trigger electronics. This paper illustrates how the Level-1 Trigger of the CMS experiment and in particular its concluding stage, the Global Trigger, take up this challenge.

  6. Luteolin-7-O-Glucoside Present in Lettuce Extracts Inhibits Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Production and Viral Replication by Human Hepatoma Cells in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xian Cui

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is endemic in Asia and chronic hepatitis B (CHB is a major public health issue worldwide. Current treatment strategies for CHB are not satisfactory as they induce a low rate of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg loss. Extracts were prepared from lettuce hydroponically cultivated in solutions containing glycine or nitrate as nitrogen sources. The lettuce extracts exerted potent anti-HBV effects in HepG2 cell lines in vitro, including significant HBsAg inhibition, HBV replication and transcription inhibition, without exerting cytotoxic effects. When used in combination interferon-alpha 2b (IFNα-2b or lamivudine (3TC, the lettuce extracts synergistically inhibited HBsAg expression and HBV replication. By using differential metabolomics analysis, Luteolin-7-O-glucoside was identified and confirmed as a functional component of the lettuce extracts and exhibited similar anti-HBV activity as the lettuce extracts in vitro. The inhibition rate on HBsAg was up to 77.4%. Moreover, both the lettuce extracts and luteolin-7-O-glucoside functioned as organic antioxidants and, significantly attenuated HBV-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS accumulation. Luteolin-7-O-glucoside also normalized ROS-induced mitochondrial membrane potential damage, which suggests luteolin-7-O-glucoside inhibits HBsAg and HBV replication via a mechanism involving the mitochondria. Our findings suggest luteolin-7-O-glucoside may have potential value for clinical application in CHB and may enhance HBsAg and HBV clearance when used as a combination therapy.

  7. The Central Trigger Processor (CTP)

    CERN Multimedia

    Franchini, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    The Central Trigger Processor (CTP) receives trigger information from the calorimeter and muon trigger processors, as well as from other sources of trigger. It makes the Level-1 decision (L1A) based on a trigger menu.

  8. Wired and Wireless Camera Triggering with Arduino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauhanen, H.; Rönnholm, P.

    2017-10-01

    Synchronous triggering is an important task that allows simultaneous data capture from multiple cameras. Accurate synchronization enables 3D measurements of moving objects or from a moving platform. In this paper, we describe one wired and four wireless variations of Arduino-based low-cost remote trigger systems designed to provide a synchronous trigger signal for industrial cameras. Our wireless systems utilize 315 MHz or 434 MHz frequencies with noise filtering capacitors. In order to validate the synchronization accuracy, we developed a prototype of a rotating trigger detection system (named RoTriDeS). This system is suitable to detect the triggering accuracy of global shutter cameras. As a result, the wired system indicated an 8.91 μs mean triggering time difference between two cameras. Corresponding mean values for the four wireless triggering systems varied between 7.92 and 9.42 μs. Presented values include both camera-based and trigger-based desynchronization. Arduino-based triggering systems appeared to be feasible, and they have the potential to be extended to more complicated triggering systems.

  9. The Run-2 ATLAS Trigger System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez, A Ruiz

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger successfully collected collision data during the first run of the LHC between 2009-2013 at different centre-of-mass energies between 900 GeV and 8TeV. The trigger system consists of a hardware Level-1 and a software-based high level trigger (HLT) that reduces the event rate from the design bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz to an average recording rate of a few hundred Hz. In Run-2, the LHC will operate at centre-of-mass energies of 13 and 14 TeV and higher luminosity, resulting in up to five times higher rates of processes of interest. A brief review of the ATLAS trigger system upgrades that were implemented between Run-1 and Run-2, allowing to cope with the increased trigger rates while maintaining or even improving the efficiency to select physics processes of interest, will be given. This includes changes to the Level-1 calorimeter and muon trigger systems, the introduction of a new Level-1 topological trigger module and the merging of the previously two-level HLT system into a single event processing farm. A few examples will be shown, such as the impressive performance improvements in the HLT trigger algorithms used to identify leptons, hadrons and global event quantities like missing transverse energy. Finally, the status of the commissioning of the trigger system and its performance during the 2015 run will be presented. (paper)

  10. Simultaneous Determination and Pharmacokinetic Study of Quercetin, Luteolin, and Apigenin in Rat Plasma after Oral Administration of Matricaria chamomilla L. Extract by HPLC-UV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxv Dong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and sensitive HPLC-UV method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of quercetin, luteolin, and apigenin in rat plasma after oral administration of Matricaria chamomilla L. extract. The flow rate was set at 1.0 ml/min and the detection wavelength was kept at 350 nm. The calibration curves were linear in the range of 0.11–11.36 μg/ml for quercetin, 0.11–11.20 μg/ml for luteolin, and 0.11–10.60 μg/ml for apigenin, respectively. The intraday and interday precisions (RSD were less than 8.32 and 8.81%, respectively. The lower limits of quantification (LLOQ of the three compounds were 0.11 μg/ml. The mean recoveries for quercetin, luteolin, and apigenin were 99.11, 95.62, and 95.21%, respectively. Stability studies demonstrated that the three compounds were stable in the preparation and analytical process. The maximum plasma concentration (Cmax was 0.29 ± 0.06, 3.04 ± 0.60, and 0.42 ± 0.10 μg/ml, respectively. The time to reach the maximum plasma concentration (Tmax was 0.79 ± 0.25, 0.42 ± 0.09, and 0.51 ± 0.13 h, respectively. The validated method was successfully applied to investigate the pharmacokinetics study of quercetin, luteolin, and apigenin in rat plasma after oral administration of M. chamomilla extract.

  11. BAT Triggering Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Kassandra M.; Fenimore, E. E.; Palmer, D. M.; BAT Team

    2006-09-01

    The Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) onboard Swift has detected and located about 160 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in its first twenty months of operation. BAT employs two triggering systems to find GRBs: image triggering, which looks for a new point source in the field of view, and rate triggering, which looks for a significant increase in the observed counts. The image triggering system looks at 1 minute, 5 minute, and full pointing accumulations of counts in the detector plane in the energy range of 15-50 keV, with about 50 evaluations per pointing (about 40 minutes). The rate triggering system looks through 13 different time scales (from 4ms to 32s), 4 overlapping energy bins (covering 15-350 keV), 9 regions of the detector plane (from the full plane to individual quarters), and two background sampling models to search for GRBs. It evaluates 27000 trigger criteria in a second, for close to 1000 criteria. The image triggering system looks at 1, 5, and 40 minute accumulations of counts in the detector plane in the energy range of 15-50 keV. Both triggering systems are working very well with the settings from before launch and after we turned on BAT. However, we now have more than a year and a half of data to evaluate these triggering systems and tweak them for optimal performance, as well as lessons learned from these triggering systems.

  12. Ursolic acid and luteolin-7-glucoside improve lipid profiles and increase liver glycogen content through glycogen synthase kinase-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Marisa F; Camsari, Cagri; Sá, Carla M; Lima, Cristovao F; Fernandes-Ferreira, Manuel; Pereira-Wilson, Cristina

    2010-06-01

    In the present study, two phytochemicals - ursolic acid (UA) and luteolin-7-glucoside (L7G) - were assessed in vivo in healthy rats regarding effects on plasma glucose and lipid profile (total cholesterol, HDL and LDL), as well as liver glycogen content, in view of their importance in the aetiology of diabetes and associated complications. Both UA and L7G significantly decreased plasma glucose concentration. UA also significantly increased liver glycogen levels accompanied by phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3). The increase in glycogen deposition induced by UA (mediated by GSK3) could have contributed to the lower plasma glucose levels observed. Both compounds significantly lowered total plasma cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein levels, and, in addition, UA increased plasma high-density lipoprotein levels. Our results show that UA particularly may be useful in preventable strategies for people at risk of developing diabetes and associated cardiovascular complications by improving plasma glucose levels and lipid profile, as well as by promoting liver glycogen deposition.

  13. Does increasing the size of bi-weekly samples of records influence results when using the Global Trigger Tool? An observational study of retrospective record reviews of two different sample sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mevik, Kjersti; Griffin, Frances A; Hansen, Tonje E; Deilkås, Ellen T; Vonen, Barthold

    2016-04-25

    To investigate the impact of increasing sample of records reviewed bi-weekly with the Global Trigger Tool method to identify adverse events in hospitalised patients. Retrospective observational study. A Norwegian 524-bed general hospital trust. 1920 medical records selected from 1 January to 31 December 2010. Rate, type and severity of adverse events identified in two different samples sizes of records selected as 10 and 70 records, bi-weekly. In the large sample, 1.45 (95% CI 1.07 to 1.97) times more adverse events per 1000 patient days (39.3 adverse events/1000 patient days) were identified than in the small sample (27.2 adverse events/1000 patient days). Hospital-acquired infections were the most common category of adverse events in both the samples, and the distributions of the other categories of adverse events did not differ significantly between the samples. The distribution of severity level of adverse events did not differ between the samples. The findings suggest that while the distribution of categories and severity are not dependent on the sample size, the rate of adverse events is. Further studies are needed to conclude if the optimal sample size may need to be adjusted based on the hospital size in order to detect a more accurate rate of adverse events. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. The ZEUS calorimeter first level trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, W.H.; Ali, I.; Behrens, B.; Fordham, C.; Foudas, C.; Goussiou, A.; Jaworski, M.; Kinnel, T.; Lackey, J.; Robl, P.; Silverstein, S.; Dawson, J.W.; Krakauer, D.A.; Talaga, R.L.; Schlereth, J.L.

    1994-10-01

    The design of the ZEUS Calorimeter First Level Trigger (CFLT) is presented. The CFLT utilizes a pipelined architecture to provide trigger data for a global first leel trigger decision 5 μsec after each beam crossing, occurring every 96 nsec. The charges from 13K phototubes are summed into 1792 trigger tower pulseheights which are digitized by flash ADC's. The digital values are linearized, stored and used for sums and pattern tests. Summary data is forwarded to the Global First Level Trigger for each crossing 2 μsec after the crossing occurred. The CFLT determines the total energy, the total transverse energy, the missing energy, and the energy and number of isolated electrons and muons. It also provides information on the electromagnetic and hadronic energy deposited in various regions of the calorimeter. The CFLT has kept the experimental trigger rate below ∼200 Hz at the highest luminosity experienced at HERA. Performance studies suggest that the CFLT will keep the trigger rate below 1 kHZ against a rate of proton-beam gas interactions on the order of the 100 kHz expected at design luminosity. (orig.)

  15. Stay away from asthma triggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asthma triggers - stay away from; Asthma triggers - avoiding; Reactive airway disease - triggers; Bronchial asthma - triggers ... clothes. They should leave the coat outside or away from your child. Ask people who work at ...

  16. Anti-tumor activities of luteolin and silibinin in glioblastoma cells: overexpression of miR-7-1-3p augmented luteolin and silibinin to inhibit autophagy and induce apoptosis in glioblastoma in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Mrinmay; Ray, Swapan K

    2016-03-01

    Glioblastoma is the deadliest brain tumor in humans. High systemic toxicity of conventional chemotherapies prompted the search for natural compounds for controlling glioblastoma. The natural flavonoids luteolin (LUT) and silibinin (SIL) have anti-tumor activities. LUT inhibits autophagy, cell proliferation, metastasis, and angiogenesis and induces apoptosis; while SIL activates caspase-8 cascades to induce apoptosis. However, synergistic anti-tumor effects of LUT and SIL in glioblastoma remain unknown. Overexpression of tumor suppressor microRNA (miR) could enhance the anti-tumor effects of LUT and SIL. Here, we showed that 20 µM LUT and 50 µM SIL worked synergistically for inhibiting growth of two different human glioblastoma U87MG (wild-type p53) and T98G (mutant p53) cell lines and natural combination therapy was more effective than conventional chemotherapy (10 µM BCNU or 100 µM TMZ). Combination of LUT and SIL caused inhibition of growth of glioblastoma cells due to induction of significant amounts of apoptosis and complete inhibition of invasion and migration. Further, combination of LUT and SIL inhibited rapamycin (RAPA)-induced autophagy, a survival mechanism, with suppression of PKCα and promotion of apoptosis through down regulation of iNOS and significant increase in expression of the tumor suppressor miR-7-1-3p in glioblastoma cells. Our in vivo studies confirmed that overexpression of miR-7-1-3p augmented anti-tumor activities of LUT and SIL in RAPA pre-treated both U87MG and T98G tumors. In conclusion, our results clearly demonstrated that overexpression of miR-7-1-3p augmented the anti-tumor activities of LUT and SIL to inhibit autophagy and induce apoptosis for controlling growth of different human glioblastomas in vivo.

  17. Lessons from (triggered) tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomberg, Joan

    2010-01-01

    I test a “clock-advance” model that implies triggered tremor is ambient tremor that occurs at a sped-up rate as a result of loading from passing seismic waves. This proposed model predicts that triggering probability is proportional to the product of the ambient tremor rate and a function describing the efficacy of the triggering wave to initiate a tremor event. Using data mostly from Cascadia, I have compared qualitatively a suite of teleseismic waves that did and did not trigger tremor with ambient tremor rates. Many of the observations are consistent with the model if the efficacy of the triggering wave depends on wave amplitude. One triggered tremor observation clearly violates the clock-advance model. The model prediction that larger triggering waves result in larger triggered tremor signals also appears inconsistent with the measurements. I conclude that the tremor source process is a more complex system than that described by the clock-advance model predictions tested. Results of this and previous studies also demonstrate that (1) conditions suitable for tremor generation exist in many tectonic environments, but, within each, only occur at particular spots whose locations change with time; (2) any fluid flow must be restricted to less than a meter; (3) the degree to which delayed failure and secondary triggering occurs is likely insignificant; and 4) both shear and dilatational deformations may trigger tremor. Triggered and ambient tremor rates correlate more strongly with stress than stressing rate, suggesting tremor sources result from time-dependent weakening processes rather than simple Coulomb failure.

  18. Triggering trigeminal neuralgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Stefano, Giulia; Maarbjerg, Stine; Nurmikko, Turo

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Although it is widely accepted that facial pain paroxysms triggered by innocuous stimuli constitute a hallmark sign of trigeminal neuralgia, very few studies to date have systematically investigated the role of the triggers involved. In the recently published diagnostic classification...

  19. Triggering the GRANDE array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, C.L.; Bratton, C.B.; Gurr, J.; Kropp, W.; Nelson, M.; Sobel, H.; Svoboda, R.; Yodh, G.; Burnett, T.; Chaloupka, V.; Wilkes, R.J.; Cherry, M.; Ellison, S.B.; Guzik, T.G.; Wefel, J.; Gaidos, J.; Loeffler, F.; Sembroski, G.; Goodman, J.; Haines, T.J.; Kielczewska, D.; Lane, C.; Steinberg, R.; Lieber, M.; Nagle, D.; Potter, M.; Tripp, R.

    1990-01-01

    A brief description of the Gamma Ray And Neutrino Detector Experiment (GRANDE) is presented. The detector elements and electronics are described. The trigger logic for the array is then examined. The triggers for the Gamma Ray and the Neutrino portions of the array are treated separately. (orig.)

  20. Trigger Menu in 2017

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    This document summarises the trigger menu deployed by the ATLAS experiment during 2017 data taking at proton-proton collision centre-of-mass energies of $\\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV and $\\sqrt{s}=5$ TeV at the LHC and describes the improvements with respect to the trigger system and menu used in 2016 data taking.

  1. Causality and headache triggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Dana P.; Smitherman, Todd A.; Martin, Vincent T.; Penzien, Donald B.; Houle, Timothy T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to explore the conditions necessary to assign causal status to headache triggers. Background The term “headache trigger” is commonly used to label any stimulus that is assumed to cause headaches. However, the assumptions required for determining if a given stimulus in fact has a causal-type relationship in eliciting headaches have not been explicated. Methods A synthesis and application of Rubin’s Causal Model is applied to the context of headache causes. From this application the conditions necessary to infer that one event (trigger) causes another (headache) are outlined using basic assumptions and examples from relevant literature. Results Although many conditions must be satisfied for a causal attribution, three basic assumptions are identified for determining causality in headache triggers: 1) constancy of the sufferer; 2) constancy of the trigger effect; and 3) constancy of the trigger presentation. A valid evaluation of a potential trigger’s effect can only be undertaken once these three basic assumptions are satisfied during formal or informal studies of headache triggers. Conclusions Evaluating these assumptions is extremely difficult or infeasible in clinical practice, and satisfying them during natural experimentation is unlikely. Researchers, practitioners, and headache sufferers are encouraged to avoid natural experimentation to determine the causal effects of headache triggers. Instead, formal experimental designs or retrospective diary studies using advanced statistical modeling techniques provide the best approaches to satisfy the required assumptions and inform causal statements about headache triggers. PMID:23534872

  2. The LHCb trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Hernando Morata, Jose Angel

    2006-01-01

    The LHCb experiment relies on an efficient trigger to select a rate up to 2 kHz of events useful for physics analysis from an initial rate of 10 MHz of visible collisions. In this contribution, we describe the different LHCb trigger algorithms and present their expected performance.

  3. The NA27 trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizzarri, R.; Di Capua, E.; Falciano, S.; Iori, M.; Marel, G.; Piredda, G.; Zanello, L.; Haupt, L.; Hellman, S.; Holmgren, S.O.; Johansson, K.E.

    1985-05-01

    We have designed and implemented a minimum bias trigger together with a fiducial volume trigger for the experiment NA27, performed at the CERN SPS. A total of more than 3 million bubble chamber pictures have been taken with a triggered cross section smaller than 75% of the total inelastic cross section. Events containing charm particles were triggered with an efficiency of 98 +2 sub(-3)%. With the fiducial volume trigger, the probability for a picture to contain an interaction in the visible hydrogen increased from 47.3% to 59.5%, reducing film cost and processing effort with about 20%. The improvement in data taking rate is shown to be negligible. (author)

  4. Flavonoids such as luteolin, fisetin and apigenin are inhibitors of interleukin-4 and interleukin-13 production by activated human basophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Toru; Higa, Shinji; Arimitsu, Junsuke; Naka, Tetsuji; Shima, Yoshihito; Ohshima, Shiro; Fujimoto, Minoru; Yamadori, Tomoki; Kawase, Ichiro; Tanaka, Toshio

    2004-06-01

    We have previously shown that fisetin, a flavonol, inhibits IL-4 and IL-13 synthesis by allergen- or anti-IgE-antibody-stimulated basophils. This time, we investigated the inhibition of IL-4 and IL-13 production by basophils by other flavonoids and attempted to determine the fundamental structure of flavonoids related to inhibition. We additionally investigated whether flavonoids suppress leukotriene C4 synthesis by basophils and IL-4 synthesis by T cells in response to anti-CD3 antibody. Highly purified peripheral basophils were stimulated for 12 h with anti-IgE antibody alone or anti-IgE antibody plus IL-3 in the presence of various concentrations of 18 different kinds of flavones and flavonols. IL-4 and IL-13 concentrations in the supernatants were then measured. Leukotriene C4 synthesis was also measured after basophils were stimulated for 1 h in the presence of flavonoids. Regarding the inhibitory activity of flavonoids on IL-4 synthesis by T cells, peripheral blood mononuclear cells were cultured with flavonoids in anti-CD3-antibody-bound plates for 2 days. Luteolin, fisetin and apigenin were found to be the strongest inhibitors of both IL-4 and IL-13 production by basophils but did not affect leukotriene C4 synthesis. At higher concentrations, these flavonoids suppressed IL-4 production by T cells. Based on a hierarchy of inhibitory activity, the basic structure for IL-4 inhibition by basophils was determined. Due to the inhibitory activity of flavonoids on IL-4 and IL-13 synthesis, it can be expected that the intake of flavonoids, depending on the quantity and quality, may ameliorate allergic symptoms or prevent the onset of allergic diseases. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  5. PERFORMANCE OF THE ATLAS JET TRIGGER AND FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS

    CERN Document Server

    Sherafati, Nima; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the LHC uses a two-level trigger system to record interesting events maintaining good signal efficiency at lower energies where pileup dominates. A new challenge is to control the increased trigger rate due to the expected higher pileup for LHC Run 2. This poster presents the jet trigger efficiency as a function of the offline jet transverse momentum for proton-proton collision data at the centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. In addition, the efficiencies of global sequential calibrated (GSC) jet trigger, trimmed jet and trimmed dijet triggers are shown.

  6. LHCb Topological Trigger Reoptimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Khairullin, Egor; Rogozhnikov, Alex; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Ilten, Philip; Williams, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The main b-physics trigger algorithm used by the LHCb experiment is the so- called topological trigger. The topological trigger selects vertices which are a) detached from the primary proton-proton collision and b) compatible with coming from the decay of a b-hadron. In the LHC Run 1, this trigger, which utilized a custom boosted decision tree algorithm, selected a nearly 100% pure sample of b-hadrons with a typical efficiency of 60-70%; its output was used in about 60% of LHCb papers. This talk presents studies carried out to optimize the topological trigger for LHC Run 2. In particular, we have carried out a detailed comparison of various machine learning classifier algorithms, e.g., AdaBoost, MatrixNet and neural networks. The topological trigger algorithm is designed to select all ’interesting” decays of b-hadrons, but cannot be trained on every such decay. Studies have therefore been performed to determine how to optimize the performance of the classification algorithm on decays not used in the training. Methods studied include cascading, ensembling and blending techniques. Furthermore, novel boosting techniques have been implemented that will help reduce systematic uncertainties in Run 2 measurements. We demonstrate that the reoptimized topological trigger is expected to significantly improve on the Run 1 performance for a wide range of b-hadron decays. (paper)

  7. NOMAD Trigger Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varvell, K.

    1995-01-01

    The author reports on the status of an offline study of the NOMAD triggers, which has several motivations. Of primary importance is to demonstrate, using offline information recorded by the individual subdetectors comprising NOMAD, that the online trigger system is functioning as expected. Such an investigation serves to complement the extensive monitoring which is already carried out online. More specific to the needs of the offline software and analysis, the reconstruction of tracks and vertices in the detector requires some knowledge of the time at which the trigger has occurred, in order to locate relevant hits in the drift chambers and muon chambers in particular. The fact that the different triggers allowed by the MIOTRINO board take varying times to form complicates this task. An offline trigger algorithm may serve as a tool to shed light on situations where the online trigger status bits have not been recorded correctly, as happens in a small number of cases, or as an aid to studies with the aim of further refinement of the online triggers themselves

  8. Luteolin Isolated from the Medicinal Plant Elsholtzia rugulosa (Labiatae Prevents Copper-Mediated Toxicity in β-Amyloid Precursor Protein Swedish Mutation Overexpressing SH-SY5Y Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanhua Du

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Luteolin, a 3’,4’,5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone, is a plant flavonoid and pharmacologically active agent that has been isolated from several plant species. In the present study, the effects of luteolin obtained from the medicinal plant Elsholtzia rugulosa and the related mechanisms were examined in an Alzheimer's disease (AD cell model. In this model, copper was used to exacerbate the neurotoxicity in β-amyloid precursor protein Swedish mutation stably overexpressed SH-SY5Y cells (named “APPsw cells” for short. Based on this model, we demonstrated that luteolin increased cell viability, reduced intracellular ROS generation, enhanced the activity of SOD and reversed mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation. Inhibition of caspase-related apoptosis was consistently involved in the neuroprotection afforded by luteolin. Furthermore, it down-regulated the expression of AβPP and lowered the secretion of Aβ1-42. These results indicated that luteolin from the Elsholtzia rugulosa exerted neroprotective effects through mechanisms that decrease AβPP expression, lower Aβ secretion, regulate the redox imbalance, preserve mitochondrial function, and depress the caspase family-related apoptosis.

  9. Calo trigger acquisition system

    CERN Multimedia

    Franchini, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Calo trigger acquisition system - Evolution of the acquisition system from a multiple boards system (upper, orange cables) to a single board one (below, light blue cables) where all the channels are collected in a single board.

  10. Calorimetry triggering in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Igonkina, O; Adragna, P; Aharrouche, M; Alexandre, G; Andrei, V; Anduaga, X; Aracena, I; Backlund, S; Baines, J; Barnett, B M; Bauss, B; Bee, C; Behera, P; Bell, P; Bendel, M; Benslama, K; Berry, T; Bogaerts, A; Bohm, C; Bold, T; Booth, J R A; Bosman, M; Boyd, J; Bracinik, J; Brawn, I, P; Brelier, B; Brooks, W; Brunet, S; Bucci, F; Casadei, D; Casado, P; Cerri, A; Charlton, D G; Childers, J T; Collins, N J; Conde Muino, P; Coura Torres, R; Cranmer, K; Curtis, C J; Czyczula, Z; Dam, M; Damazio, D; Davis, A O; De Santo, A; Degenhardt, J; Delsart, P A; Demers, S; Demirkoz, B; Di Mattia, A; Diaz, M; Djilkibaev, R; Dobson, E; Dova, M, T; Dufour, M A; Eckweiler, S; Ehrenfeld, W; Eifert, T; Eisenhandler, E; Ellis, N; Emeliyanov, D; Enoque Ferreira de Lima, D; Faulkner, P J W; Ferland, J; Flacher, H; Fleckner, J E; Flowerdew, M; Fonseca-Martin, T; Fratina, S; Fhlisch, F; Gadomski, S; Gallacher, M P; Garitaonandia Elejabarrieta, H; Gee, C N P; George, S; Gillman, A R; Goncalo, R; Grabowska-Bold, I; Groll, M; Gringer, C; Hadley, D R; Haller, J; Hamilton, A; Hanke, P; Hauser, R; Hellman, S; Hidvgi, A; Hillier, S J; Hryn'ova, T; Idarraga, J; Johansen, M; Johns, K; Kalinowski, A; Khoriauli, G; Kirk, J; Klous, S; Kluge, E-E; Koeneke, K; Konoplich, R; Konstantinidis, N; Kwee, R; Landon, M; LeCompte, T; Ledroit, F; Lei, X; Lendermann, V; Lilley, J N; Losada, M; Maettig, S; Mahboubi, K; Mahout, G; Maltrana, D; Marino, C; Masik, J; Meier, K; Middleton, R P; Mincer, A; Moa, T; Monticelli, F; Moreno, D; Morris, J D; Mller, F; Navarro, G A; Negri, A; Nemethy, P; Neusiedl, A; Oltmann, B; Olvito, D; Osuna, C; Padilla, C; Panes, B; Parodi, F; Perera, V J O; Perez, E; Perez Reale, V; Petersen, B; Pinzon, G; Potter, C; Prieur, D P F; Prokishin, F; Qian, W; Quinonez, F; Rajagopalan, S; Reinsch, A; Rieke, S; Riu, I; Robertson, S; Rodriguez, D; Rogriquez, Y; Rhr, F; Saavedra, A; Sankey, D P C; Santamarina, C; Santamarina Rios, C; Scannicchio, D; Schiavi, C; Schmitt, K; Schultz-Coulon, H C; Schfer, U; Segura, E; Silverstein, D; Silverstein, S; Sivoklokov, S; Sjlin, J; Staley, R J; Stamen, R; Stelzer, J; Stockton, M C; Straessner, A; Strom, D; Sushkov, S; Sutton, M; Tamsett, M; Tan, C L A; Tapprogge, S; Thomas, J P; Thompson, P D; Torrence, E; Tripiana, M; Urquijo, P; Urrejola, P; Vachon, B; Vercesi, V; Vorwerk, V; Wang, M; Watkins, P M; Watson, A; Weber, P; Weidberg, T; Werner, P; Wessels, M; Wheeler-Ellis, S; Whiteson, D; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Wildt, M; Winklmeier, F; Wu, X; Xella, S; Zhao, L; Zobernig, H; de Seixas, J M; dos Anjos, A; Asman, B; Özcan, E

    2009-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is preparing for data taking at 14 TeV collision energy. A rich discovery physics program is being prepared in addition to the detailed study of Standard Model processes which will be produced in abundance. The ATLAS multi-level trigger system is designed to accept one event in 2 105 to enable the selection of rare and unusual physics events. The ATLAS calorimeter system is a precise instrument, which includes liquid Argon electro-magnetic and hadronic components as well as a scintillator-tile hadronic calorimeter. All these components are used in the various levels of the trigger system. A wide physics coverage is ensured by inclusively selecting events with candidate electrons, photons, taus, jets or those with large missing transverse energy. The commissioning of the trigger system is being performed with cosmic ray events and by replaying simulated Monte Carlo events through the trigger and data acquisition system.

  11. BTeV Trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottschalk, Erik E.

    2006-01-01

    BTeV was designed to conduct precision studies of CP violation in BB-bar events using a forward-geometry detector in a hadron collider. The detector was optimized for high-rate detection of beauty and charm particles produced in collisions between protons and antiprotons. The trigger was designed to take advantage of the main difference between events with beauty and charm particles and more typical hadronic events-the presence of detached beauty and charm decay vertices. The first stage of the BTeV trigger was to receive data from a pixel vertex detector, reconstruct tracks and vertices for every beam crossing, reject at least 98% of beam crossings in which neither beauty nor charm particles were produced, and trigger on beauty events with high efficiency. An overview of the trigger design and its evolution to include commodity networking and computing components is presented

  12. Calorimetry triggering in ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igonkina, O; Achenbach, R; Andrei, V; Adragna, P; Aharrouche, M; Bauss, B; Bendel, M; Alexandre, G; Anduaga, X; Aracena, I; Backlund, S; Bogaerts, A; Baines, J; Barnett, B M; Bee, C; P, Behera; Bell, P; Benslama, K; Berry, T; Bohm, C

    2009-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is preparing for data taking at 14 TeV collision energy. A rich discovery physics program is being prepared in addition to the detailed study of Standard Model processes which will be produced in abundance. The ATLAS multi-level trigger system is designed to accept one event in 2 | 10 5 to enable the selection of rare and unusual physics events. The ATLAS calorimeter system is a precise instrument, which includes liquid Argon electro-magnetic and hadronic components as well as a scintillator-tile hadronic calorimeter. All these components are used in the various levels of the trigger system. A wide physics coverage is ensured by inclusively selecting events with candidate electrons, photons, taus, jets or those with large missing transverse energy. The commissioning of the trigger system is being performed with cosmic ray events and by replaying simulated Monte Carlo events through the trigger and data acquisition system.

  13. Calorimetry Triggering in ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igonkina, O.; Achenbach, R.; Adragna, P.; Aharrouche, M.; Alexandre, G.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X.; Aracena, I.; Backlund, S.; Baines, J.; Barnett, B.M.; Bauss, B.; Bee, C.; Behera, P.; Bell, P.; Bendel, M.; Benslama, K.; Berry, T.; Bogaerts, A.; Bohm, C.; Bold, T.; Booth, J.R.A.; Bosman, M.; Boyd, J.; Bracinik, J.; Brawn, I.P.; Brelier, B.; Brooks, W.; Brunet, S.; Bucci, F.; Casadei, D.; Casado, P.; Cerri, A.; Charlton, D.G.; Childers, J.T.; Collins, N.J.; Conde Muino, P.; Coura Torres, R.; Cranmer, K.; Curtis, C.J.; Czyczula, Z.; Dam, M.; Damazio, D.; Davis, A.O.; De Santo, A.; Degenhardt, J.

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is preparing for data taking at 14 TeV collision energy. A rich discovery physics program is being prepared in addition to the detailed study of Standard Model processes which will be produced in abundance. The ATLAS multi-level trigger system is designed to accept one event in 2/10 5 to enable the selection of rare and unusual physics events. The ATLAS calorimeter system is a precise instrument, which includes liquid Argon electro-magnetic and hadronic components as well as a scintillator-tile hadronic calorimeter. All these components are used in the various levels of the trigger system. A wide physics coverage is ensured by inclusively selecting events with candidate electrons, photons, taus, jets or those with large missing transverse energy. The commissioning of the trigger system is being performed with cosmic ray events and by replaying simulated Monte Carlo events through the trigger and data acquisition system.

  14. Calorimetry triggering in ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igonkina, O [Nikhef National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Achenbach, R; Andrei, V [Kirchhoff Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Adragna, P [Physics Department, Queen Mary, University of London, London (United Kingdom); Aharrouche, M; Bauss, B; Bendel, M [Institut fr Physik, Universitt Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Alexandre, G [Section de Physique, Universite de Geneve, Geneva (Switzerland); Anduaga, X [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata (Argentina); Aracena, I [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), Stanford (United States); Backlund, S; Bogaerts, A [European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Baines, J; Barnett, B M [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxon (United Kingdom); Bee, C [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, IN2P3-CNRS, Marseille (France); P, Behera [Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa (United States); Bell, P [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Benslama, K [University of Regina, Regina (Canada); Berry, T [Department of Physics, Royal Holloway and Bedford New College, Egham (United Kingdom); Bohm, C [Fysikum, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-04-01

    The ATLAS experiment is preparing for data taking at 14 TeV collision energy. A rich discovery physics program is being prepared in addition to the detailed study of Standard Model processes which will be produced in abundance. The ATLAS multi-level trigger system is designed to accept one event in 2 | 10{sup 5} to enable the selection of rare and unusual physics events. The ATLAS calorimeter system is a precise instrument, which includes liquid Argon electro-magnetic and hadronic components as well as a scintillator-tile hadronic calorimeter. All these components are used in the various levels of the trigger system. A wide physics coverage is ensured by inclusively selecting events with candidate electrons, photons, taus, jets or those with large missing transverse energy. The commissioning of the trigger system is being performed with cosmic ray events and by replaying simulated Monte Carlo events through the trigger and data acquisition system.

  15. LHCb Topological Trigger Reoptimization

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00400931; Ilten, Philip; Khairullin, Egor; Rogozhnikov, Alex; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Williams, Michael

    2015-12-23

    The main b-physics trigger algorithm used by the LHCb experiment is the so-called topological trigger. The topological trigger selects vertices which are a) detached from the primary proton-proton collision and b) compatible with coming from the decay of a b-hadron. In the LHC Run 1, this trigger, which utilized a custom boosted decision tree algorithm, selected a nearly 100% pure sample of b-hadrons with a typical efficiency of 60-70%; its output was used in about 60% of LHCb papers. This talk presents studies carried out to optimize the topological trigger for LHC Run 2. In particular, we have carried out a detailed comparison of various machine learning classifier algorithms, e.g., AdaBoost, MatrixNet and neural networks. The topological trigger algorithm is designed to select all "interesting" decays of b-hadrons, but cannot be trained on every such decay. Studies have therefore been performed to determine how to optimize the performance of the classification algorithm on decays not used in the training. ...

  16. Topological Trigger Developments

    CERN Multimedia

    Likhomanenko, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    The main b-physics trigger algorithm used by the LHCb experiment is the so-called topological trigger. The topological trigger selects vertices which are a) detached from the primary proton-proton collision and b) compatible with coming from the decay of a b-hadron. In the LHC Run 1, this trigger utilized a custom boosted decision tree algorithm, selected an almost 100% pure sample of b-hadrons with a typical efficiency of 60-70%, and its output was used in about 60% of LHCb papers. This talk presents studies carried out to optimize the topological trigger for LHC Run 2. In particular, we have carried out a detailed comparison of various machine learning classifier algorithms, e.g., AdaBoost, MatrixNet and uBoost. The topological trigger algorithm is designed to select all "interesting" decays of b-hadrons, but cannot be trained on every such decay. Studies have therefore been performed to determine how to optimize the performance of the classification algorithm on decays not used in the training. These inclu...

  17. Data analysis at the CMS level-1 trigger: migrating complex selection algorithms from offline analysis and high-level trigger to the trigger electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Wulz, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    With ever increasing luminosity at the LHC, optimum online data selection is becoming more and more important. While in the case of some experiments (LHCb and ALICE) this task is being completely transferred to computer farms, the others -- ATLAS and CMS -- will not be able to do this in the medium-term future for technological, detector-related reasons. Therefore, these experiments pursue the complementary approach of migrating more and more of the offline and high-level trigger intelligence into the trigger electronics. The presentation illustrates how the level-1 trigger of the CMS experiment and in particular its concluding stage, the so-called ``Global Trigger", take up this challenge.

  18. Luteolin Inhibits Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Myocardial Injury in Rats via Downregulation of microRNA-208b-3p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Bian

    Full Text Available Luteolin (LUT, a kind of flavonoid which is extracted from a variety of diets, has been reported to convey protective effects of various diseases. Recent researches have suggested that LUT can carry out cardioprotective effects during ischemia/reperfusion (I/R. However, there have no reports on whether LUT can exert protective effects against myocardial I/R injury through the actions of specific microRNAs (miRs. The purpose of this study was to determine which miRs and target genes LUT exerted such function through.Expression of various miRs in perfused rat hearts was detected using a gene chip. Target genes were predicted with TargetScan, MiRDB and MiRanda. Anoxia/reoxygenation was used to simulate I/R. Cells were transfected by miR-208b-3p mimic, inhibitor and small interfering RNA of Ets1 (avian erythroblastosis virus E26 (v ets oncogene homolog 1. MiR-208b-3p and Ets1 mRNA were quantified by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The percentage of apoptotic cells was detected by annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide dyeing and flow cytometry. The protein expression levels of cleaved caspase-3, Bcl-2, Bax, and Ets1 were examined by western blot analysis. A luciferase reporter assay was used to verify the combination between miR-208b-3p and the 3'-untranslated region of Ets1.LUT pretreatment reduced miR-208b-3p expression in myocardial tissue, as compared to the I/R group. And LUT decreased miR-208b-3p expression and apoptosis caused by I/R. However, overexpression of miR-208b-3p further aggravated the changes caused by I/R and blocked all the effects of LUT. Knockdown of miR-208b-3p expression also attenuated apoptosis, while knockdown of Ets1 promoted apoptosis. Further, the luciferase reporter assay showed that miR-208b-3p could inhibit Ets1 expression.LUT pretreatment conveys anti-apoptotic effects after myocardial I/R injury by decreasing miR-208b-3p and increasing Ets1 expression levels.

  19. Data-driven performance evaluation method for CMS RPC trigger ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    level triggers, to handle the large stream of data produced in collision. The information transmitted from the three muon subsystems (DT, CSC and RPC) are collected by the Global Muon Trigger (GMT) Board and merged. A method for evaluating ...

  20. Hierarchical trigger of the ALICE calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Muller, Hans; Novitzky, Norbert; Kral, Jiri; Rak, Jan; Schambach, Joachim; Wang, Ya-Ping; Wang, Dong; Zhou, Daicui

    2010-01-01

    The trigger of the ALICE electromagnetic calorimeters is implemented in 2 hierarchically connected layers of electronics. In the lower layer, level-0 algorithms search shower energy above threshold in locally confined Trigger Region Units (TRU). The top layer is implemented as a single, global trigger unit that receives the trigger data from all TRUs as input to the level-1 algorithm. This architecture was first developed for the PHOS high pT photon trigger before it was adopted by EMCal also for the jet trigger. TRU units digitize up to 112 analogue input signals from the Front End Electronics (FEE) and concentrate their digital stream in a single FPGA. A charge and time summing algorithm is combined with a peakfinder that suppresses spurious noise and is precise to single LHC bunches. With a peak-to-peak noise level of 150 MeV the linear dynamic range above threshold spans from MIP energies at 215 up to 50 GeV. Local level-0 decisions take less than 600 ns after LHC collisions, upon which all TRUs transfer ...

  1. The ATLAS Tau Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Dam, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at CERN’s LHC has implemented a dedicated tau trigger system to select hadronically decaying tau leptons from the enormous background of QCD jets. This promises a significant increase in the discovery potential to the Higgs boson and in searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. The three level trigger system has been optimised for effciency and good background rejection. The first level uses information from the calorimeters only, while the two higher levels include also information from the tracking detectors. Shower shape variables and the track multiplicity are important variables to distinguish taus from QCD jets. At the initial lumonosity of 10^31 cm^−2 s^−1, single tau triggers with a transverse energy threshold of 50 GeV or higher can be run standalone. Below this level, the tau signatures will be combined with other event signature

  2. The ATLAS Tau Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Rados, PK; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    Physics processes involving tau leptons play a crucial role in understanding particle physics at the high energy frontier. The ability to efficiently trigger on events containing hadronic tau decays is therefore of particular importance to the ATLAS experiment. During the 2012 run, the Large Hadronic Collder (LHC) reached instantaneous luminosities of nearly $10^{34} cm^{-2}s^{-1}$ with bunch crossings occurring every $50 ns$. This resulted in a huge event rate and a high probability of overlapping interactions per bunch crossing (pile-up). With this in mind it was necessary to design an ATLAS tau trigger system that could reduce the event rate to a manageable level, while efficiently extracting the most interesting physics events in a pile-up robust manner. In this poster the ATLAS tau trigger is described, its performance during 2012 is presented, and the outlook for the LHC Run II is briefly summarized.

  3. ALICE High Level Trigger

    CERN Multimedia

    Alt, T

    2013-01-01

    The ALICE High Level Trigger (HLT) is a computing farm designed and build for the real-time, online processing of the raw data produced by the ALICE detectors. Events are fully reconstructed from the raw data, analyzed and compressed. The analysis summary together with the compressed data and a trigger decision is sent to the DAQ. In addition the reconstruction of the events allows for on-line monitoring of physical observables and this information is provided to the Data Quality Monitor (DQM). The HLT can process event rates of up to 2 kHz for proton-proton and 200 Hz for Pb-Pb central collisions.

  4. Trigger and decision processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franke, G.

    1980-11-01

    In recent years there have been many attempts in high energy physics to make trigger and decision processes faster and more sophisticated. This became necessary due to a permanent increase of the number of sensitive detector elements in wire chambers and calorimeters, and in fact it was possible because of the fast developments in integrated circuits technique. In this paper the present situation will be reviewed. The discussion will be mainly focussed upon event filtering by pure software methods and - rather hardware related - microprogrammable processors as well as random access memory triggers. (orig.)

  5. The STAR trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieser, F.S.; Crawford, H.J.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Greiner, L.C.; Judd, E.G.; Klein, S.R.; Meissner, F.; Minor, R.; Milosevich, Z.; Mutchler, G.; Nelson, J.M.; Schambach, J.; VanderMolen, A.S.; Ward, H.; Yepes, P.

    2003-01-01

    We describe the trigger system that we designed and implemented for the STAR detector at RHIC. This is a 10 MHz pipelined system based on fast detector output that controls the event selection for the much slower tracking detectors. Results from the first run are presented and new detectors for the 2001 run are discussed

  6. Asthma Triggers: Gain Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... harm people too. Try to use pest management methods that pose less of a risk. Keep counters, sinks, tables and floors clean and ... with pest challenges in your home and other environments. [EPA ... pests while reducing pesticide risks; roaches are often asthma triggers and shouldn’t ...

  7. Physics issues on triggering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The detectors at the ILC are planned to run without hardware trigger. The ... as not coming from the interaction point and not matching to the silicon detectors ... electrons so that additional dE/dx cuts can help, making also here a factor 10 or.

  8. AIDS radio triggers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, A M

    1991-07-01

    In April 1991, the Ethnic Communities' Council of NSW was granted funding under the Community AIDS Prevention and Education Program through the Department of Community Services and Health, to produce a series of 6x50 second AIDS radio triggers with a 10-second tag line for further information. The triggers are designed to disseminate culturally-sensitive information about HIV/AIDS in English, Italian, Greek, Spanish, Khmer, Turkish, Macedonian, Serbo-Croatian, Arabic, Cantonese, and Vietnamese, with the goal of increasing awareness and decreasing the degree of misinformation about HIV/AIDS among people of non-English-speaking backgrounds through radio and sound. The 6 triggers cover the denial that AIDS exists in the community, beliefs that words and feelings do not protect one from catching HIV, encouraging friends to be compassionate, compassion within the family, AIDS information for a young audience, and the provision of accurate and honest information on HIV/AIDS. The triggers are slated to be completed by the end of July 1991 and will be broadcast on all possible community, ethnic, and commercial radio networks across Australia. They will be available upon request in composite form with an information kit for use by health care professionals and community workers.

  9. Dealing with Asthma Triggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... one trigger that you shouldn't avoid because exercise is important for your health. Your doctor will want you to be active, so talk with him or her about what to do before playing ... or 15 minutes before you exercise or play sports. And, of course, you'll ...

  10. Trigger Finger (Stenosing Tenosynovitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Trigger Finger Email to a friend * required fields ...

  11. FTK: a Fast Track Trigger for ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J; Auerbach, B; Blair, R; Andreani, A; Andreazza, A; Citterio, M; Annovi, A; Beretta, M; Castegnaro, A; Atkinson, M; Cavaliere, V; Chang, P; Bevacqua, V; Crescioli, F; Blazey, G; Bogdan, M; Boveia, A; Canelli, F; Cheng, Y; Cervigni, F

    2012-01-01

    We describe the design and expected performance of a the Fast Tracker Trigger (FTK) system for the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The FTK is a highly parallel hardware system designed to operate at the Level 1 trigger output rate. It is designed to provide global tracks reconstructed in the inner detector with resolution comparable to the full offline reconstruction as input of the Level 2 trigger processing. The hardware system is based on associative memories for pattern recognition and fast FPGAs for track reconstruction. The FTK is expected to dramatically improve the performance of track based isolation and b-tagging with little to no dependencies of pile-up interactions.

  12. The ZEUS second level calorimeter trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong, S.J. de.

    1990-01-01

    ZEUS is a detector for the HERA ep collider, consisting of several large components. The most important being the inner tracking detectors, which are positioned nearest to the interaction point, the calorimeter surrounding the inner tracking detectors and the muon detectors on the outside of the experimental setup. Each component will deliver a vast amount of information. In order to keep this information manageable, data is preprocessed and condensed per component and then combined to obtain the final global trigger result. The main subject of this thesis is the second level calorimeter trigger processor of the ZEUS detector. In order to be able to reject the unwanted events passing the first level, the topological event signature will have to be used at the second level. The most demanding task of the second level is the recognition of local energy depositions corresponding to isolated electrons and hadron jets. Also part of the work performed by the first level will be repeated with a higher level of accuracy. Additional information not available to the first level trigger will be processed and will be made available to the global second level trigger decision module. For the second level calorimeter trigger processor a special VME module, containing two transputers, has been developed. The second level calorimeter trigger algorithm described in this thesis was tested with simulated events, that were tracked through a computer simulation of the ZEUS detector. A part of this thesis is therefore devoted to the description of the various Monte Carlo models and the justification of the way in which they were used. (author). 132 refs.; 76 figs.; 18 tabs

  13. Performance of the ATLAS Trigger System in 2010

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdesselam, Abdelouahab; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acerbi, Emilio; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Aderholz, Michael; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Akiyama, Kunihiro; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Aliyev, Magsud; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral, Pedro; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amorim, Antonio; Amorós, Gabriel; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Andrieux, Marie-Laure; Anduaga, Xabier; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonelli, Stefano; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoun, Sahar; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Archambault, John-Paul; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Asfandiyarov, Ruslan; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Astvatsatourov, Anatoli; Atoian, Grigor; Aubert, Bernard; Auerbach, Benjamin; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Austin, Nicholas; Avolio, Giuseppe; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Ay, Cano; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Bachy, Gerard; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahinipati, Seema; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Mark; Baker, Sarah; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, Fernando; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barashkou, Andrei; Barbaro Galtieri, Angela; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Detlef; Bartsch, Valeria; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Battistoni, Giuseppe; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beare, Brian; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Behera, Prafulla; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellina, Francesco; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Beloborodova, Olga; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Ben Ami, Sagi; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Benchouk, Chafik; Bendel, Markus; Benedict, Brian Hugues; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernardet, Karim; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertin, Antonio; Bertinelli, Francesco; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bitenc, Urban; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanchot, Georges; Blazek, Tomas; Blocker, Craig; Blocki, Jacek; Blondel, Alain; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Jennifer; Boelaert, Nele; Böser, Sebastian; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Bolnet, Nayanka Myriam; Bona, Marcella; Bondarenko, Valery; Boonekamp, Maarten; Boorman, Gary; Booth, Chris; Bordoni, Stefania; Borer, Claudia; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borjanovic, Iris; Borroni, Sara; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Botterill, David; Bouchami, Jihene; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boulahouache, Chaouki; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozhko, Nikolay; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Bracinik, Juraj; Braem, André; Branchini, Paolo; Brandenburg, George; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brelier, Bertrand; Bremer, Johan; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Breton, Dominique; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Brodbeck, Timothy; Brodet, Eyal; Broggi, Francesco; Bromberg, Carl; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, William; Brown, Gareth; Brown, Heather; Brubaker, Erik; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Buanes, Trygve; Bucci, Francesca; Buchanan, James; Buchanan, Norman; Buchholz, Peter; Buckingham, Ryan; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Budick, Burton; Büscher, Volker; Bugge, Lars; Buira-Clark, Daniel; Bulekov, Oleg; Bunse, Moritz; Buran, Torleiv; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgess, Thomas; Burke, Stephen; Busato, Emmanuel; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butin, François; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Buttinger, William; Byatt, Tom; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Caloi, Rita; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camard, Arnaud; Camarri, Paolo; Cambiaghi, Mario; Cameron, David; Cammin, Jochen; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Canale, Vincenzo; Canelli, Florencia; Canepa, Anadi; Cantero, Josu; Capasso, Luciano; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capriotti, Daniele; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Caramarcu, Costin; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Bryan; Caron, Sascha; Carrillo Montoya, German D; Carter, Antony; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Cascella, Michele; Caso, Carlo; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo Martin; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Cataldi, Gabriella; Cataneo, Fernando; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cauz, Diego; Cavalleri, Pietro; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Cazzato, Antonio; Ceradini, Filippo; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Cevenini, Francesco; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chan, Kevin; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Chapman, John Wehrley; Chareyre, Eve; Charlton, Dave; Chavda, Vikash; Cheatham, Susan; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Li; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Tingyang; Chen, Xin; Cheng, Shaochen; Cheplakov, Alexander; Chepurnov, Vladimir; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Cheung, Sing-Leung; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiefari, Giovanni; Chikovani, Leila; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chizhov, Mihail; Choudalakis, Georgios; Chouridou, Sofia; Christidi, Illectra-Athanasia; Christov, Asen; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciba, Krzysztof; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciobotaru, Matei Dan; Ciocca, Claudia; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirilli, Manuela; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Benoit; Clement, Christophe; Clifft, Roger; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coe, Paul; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Cogneras, Eric; Cojocaru, Claudiu; Colas, Jacques; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collard, Caroline; Collins, Neil; Collins-Tooth, Christopher; Collot, Johann; Colon, German; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Consonni, Michele; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conventi, Francesco; Cook, James; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cooper-Smith, Neil; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Costin, Tudor; Côté, David; Coura Torres, Rodrigo; Courneyea, Lorraine; Cowan, Glen; Cowden, Christopher; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Crescioli, Francesco; Cristinziani, Markus; Crosetti, Giovanni; Crupi, Roberto; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Cuciuc, Constantin-Mihai; Cuenca Almenar, Cristóbal; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cuneo, Stefano; Curatolo, Maria; Curtis, Chris; Cwetanski, Peter; Czirr, Hendrik; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; D'Orazio, Alessia; Da Rocha Gesualdi Mello, Aline; Da Silva, Paulo Vitor; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dahlhoff, Andrea; Dai, Tiesheng; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dameri, Mauro; Damiani, Daniel; Danielsson, Hans Olof; Dannheim, Dominik; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Daum, Cornelis; Dauvergne, Jean-Pierre; Davey, Will; Davidek, Tomas; Davidson, Nadia; Davidson, Ruth; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Adam; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Dawson, John; Daya, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Castro Faria Salgado, Pedro; De Cecco, Sandro; de Graat, Julien; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De La Taille, Christophe; De la Torre, Hector; De Lotto, Barbara; De Mora, Lee; De Nooij, Lucie; De Oliveira Branco, Miguel; De Pedis, Daniele; de Saintignon, Paul; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dean, Simon; Dedovich, Dmitri; Degenhardt, James; Dehchar, Mohamed; Deile, Mario; Del Papa, Carlo; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delpierre, Pierre; Delruelle, Nicolas; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demirkoz, Bilge; Deng, Jianrong; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Devetak, Erik; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; DeWilde, Burton; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Dhullipudi, Ramasudhakar; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Luise, Silvestro; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diblen, Faruk; Diehl, Edward; Dieli, Michele Vincenzo; Dietl, Hans; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dindar Yagci, Kamile; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djilkibaev, Rashid; Djobava, Tamar; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Do Valle Wemans, André; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobbs, Matt; Dobinson, Robert; Dobos, Daniel; Dobson, Ellie; Dobson, Marc; Dodd, Jeremy; Dogan, Ozgen Berkol; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Doi, Yoshikuni; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolenc, Irena; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Dohmae, Takeshi; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donega, Mauro; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dos Anjos, Andre; Dosil, Mireia; Dotti, Andrea; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Dowell, John; Doxiadis, Alexander; Doyle, Tony; Drasal, Zbynek; Drees, Jürgen; Dressnandt, Nandor; Drevermann, Hans; Driouichi, Chafik; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jörg; Dubbs, Tim; Dube, Sourabh; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Dührssen, Michael; Duerdoth, Ian; Duflot, Laurent; Dufour, Marc-Andre; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Duxfield, Robert; Dwuznik, Michal; Dydak, Friedrich; Dzahini, Daniel; Düren, Michael; Ebenstein, William; Ebke, Johannes; Eckert, Simon; Eckweiler, Sebastian; Edmonds, Keith; Edwards, Clive; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Ehrich, Thies; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Eisenhandler, Eric; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Katherine; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Ely, Robert; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Engelmann, Roderich; Engl, Albert; Epp, Brigitte; Eppig, Andrew; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Escobar, Carlos; Espinal Curull, Xavier; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienne, Francois; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evangelakou, Despoina; Evans, Hal; Fabbri, Laura; Fabre, Caroline; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falou, Alain; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farley, Jason; Farooque, Trisha; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Fatholahzadeh, Baharak; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Fazio, Salvatore; Febbraro, Renato; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Ivan; Fedorko, Woiciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Fellmann, Denis; Felzmann, Ulrich; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Fenyuk, Alexander; Ferencei, Jozef; Ferland, Jonathan; Fernando, Waruna; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrara, Valentina; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrer, Maria Lorenza; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filippas, Anastasios; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Gordon; Fischer, Peter; Fisher, Matthew; Fisher, Steve; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleckner, Johanna; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Flick, Tobias; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Föhlisch, Florian; Fokitis, Manolis; Fonseca Martin, Teresa; Forbush, David Alan; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Foster, Joe; Fournier, Daniel; Foussat, Arnaud; Fowler, Andrew; Fowler, Ken; Fox, Harald; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Frank, Tal; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; Fratina, Sasa; French, Sky; Froeschl, Robert; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gadfort, Thomas; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallas, Manuel; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galyaev, Eugene; Gan, KK; Gao, Yongsheng; Gapienko, Vladimir; Gaponenko, Andrei; Garberson, Ford; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garitaonandia, Hegoi; Garonne, Vincent; Garvey, John; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaumer, Olivier; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gayde, Jean-Christophe; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerlach, Peter; Gershon, Avi; Geweniger, Christoph; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghez, Philippe; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giakoumopoulou, Victoria; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Adam; Gibson, Stephen; Gilbert, Laura; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gilewsky, Valentin; Gillberg, Dag; Gillman, Tony; Gingrich, Douglas; Ginzburg, Jonatan; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giovannini, Paola; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giunta, Michele; Giusti, Paolo; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glazov, Alexandre; Glitza, Karl-Walter; Glonti, George; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goebel, Martin; Göpfert, Thomas; Goeringer, Christian; Gössling, Claus; Göttfert, Tobias; Goldfarb, Steven; Goldin, Daniel; Golling, Tobias; Golovnia, Serguei; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; Gonidec, Allain; Gonzalez, Saul; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goodson, Jeremiah Jet; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorfine, Grant; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Gorokhov, Serguei; Goryachev, Vladimir; Gosdzik, Bjoern; Gosselink, Martijn; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gouanère, Michel; Gough Eschrich, Ivo; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grabski, Varlen; Grafström, Per; Grah, Christian; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Grau, Nathan; Gray, Heather; Gray, Julia Ann; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenfield, Debbie; Greenshaw, Timothy; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griesmayer, Erich; Griffiths, Justin; Grigalashvili, Nugzar; Grillo, Alexander; Grinstein, Sebastian; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grognuz, Joel; Groh, Manfred; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grybel, Kai; Guarino, Victor; Guest, Daniel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guida, Angelo; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Guler, Hulya; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Bin; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Ambreesh; Gusakov, Yury; Gushchin, Vladimir; Gutierrez, Andrea; Gutierrez, Phillip; Guttman, Nir; Gutzwiller, Olivier; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haas, Stefan; Haber, Carl; Hackenburg, Robert; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Hadley, David; Haefner, Petra; Hahn, Ferdinand; Haider, Stefan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haller, Johannes; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Han, Hongguang; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hance, Michael; Handel, Carsten; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, John Renner; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hansson, Per; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hare, Gabriel; Harenberg, Torsten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Karl; Hartert, Jochen; Hartjes, Fred; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hassani, Samira; Hatch, Mark; Hauff, Dieter; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawes, Brian; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Donovan; Hayakawa, Takashi; Hayden, Daniel; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Hazen, Eric; He, Mao; Head, Simon; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heine, Kristin; Heinemann, Beate; Heisterkamp, Simon; Helary, Louis; Heldmann, Michael; Heller, Mathieu; Hellman, Sten; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, Robert; Henke, Michael; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Henry-Couannier, Frédéric; Hensel, Carsten; Henß, Tobias; Medina Hernandez, Carlos; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg, Ruth; Hershenhorn, Alon David; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hessey, Nigel; Hidvegi, Attila; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Daniel; Hill, John; Hill, Norman; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirsch, Florian; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holder, Martin; Holmes, Alan; Holmgren, Sven-Olof; Holy, Tomas; Holzbauer, Jenny; Homma, Yasuhiro; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Horazdovsky, Tomas; Horn, Claus; Horner, Stephan; Horton, Katherine; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Houlden, Michael; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howarth, James; Howell, David; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hruska, Ivan; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Huang, Guang Shun; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Hughes-Jones, Richard; Huhtinen, Mika; Hurst, Peter; Hurwitz, Martina; Husemann, Ulrich; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibbotson, Michael; Ibragimov, Iskander; Ichimiya, Ryo; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Idzik, Marek; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Yuri; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Imbault, Didier; Imhaeuser, Martin; Imori, Masatoshi; Ince, Tayfun; Inigo-Golfin, Joaquin; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Ionescu, Gelu; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Ishii, Koji; Ishikawa, Akimasa; Ishino, Masaya; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Itoh, Yuki; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakubek, Jan; Jana, Dilip; Jankowski, Ernest; Jansen, Eric; Jantsch, Andreas; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Jeanty, Laura; Jelen, Kazimierz; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jenni, Peter; Jeremie, Andrea; Jež, Pavel; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Jha, Manoj Kumar; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Ge; Jin, Shan; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Joffe, David; Johansen, Lars; Johansen, Marianne; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johnert, Sebastian; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tegid; Jones, Tim; Jonsson, Ove; Joram, Christian; Jorge, Pedro; Joseph, John; Ju, Xiangyang; Juranek, Vojtech; Jussel, Patrick; Kabachenko, Vasily; Kabana, Sonja; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kadlecik, Peter; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kaiser, Steffen; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalinin, Sergey; Kalinovskaya, Lidia; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kaplon, Jan; Kar, Deepak; Karagoz, Muge; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karr, Kristo; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasmi, Azzedine; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Mayuko; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katsoufis, Elias; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kayl, Manuel; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keates, James Robert; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Kekelidze, George; Kelly, Marc; Kennedy, John; Kenney, Christopher John; Kenyon, Mike; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerschen, Nicolas; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Ketterer, Christian; Keung, Justin; Khakzad, Mohsen; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchenko, Dmitri; Khodinov, Alexander; Kholodenko, Anatoli; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Nikolai; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Min Suk; Kim, Peter; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; Kirk, Julie; Kirsch, Guillaume; Kirsch, Lawrence; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiver, Andrey; Kiyamura, Hironori; Kladiva, Eduard; Klaiber-Lodewigs, Jonas; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klemetti, Miika; Klier, Amit; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Klous, Sander; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluge, Thomas; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knobloch, Juergen; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Ko, Byeong Rok; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kocnar, Antonin; Kodys, Peter; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Koenig, Sebastian; Köpke, Lutz; Koetsveld, Folkert; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kohn, Fabian; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kokott, Thomas; Kolachev, Guennady; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolesnikov, Vladimir; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Kollar, Daniel; Kollefrath, Michael; Kolya, Scott; Komar, Aston; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kono, Takanori; Kononov, Anatoly; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kootz, Andreas; Koperny, Stefan; Kopikov, Sergey; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Koreshev, Victor; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotamäki, Miikka Juhani; Kotov, Sergey; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasel, Olaf; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, James; Kreisel, Arik; Krejci, Frantisek; Kretzschmar, Jan; Krieger, Nina; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruth, Andre; Kubota, Takashi; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kuhn, Dietmar; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kummer, Christian; Kuna, Marine; Kundu, Nikhil; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurata, Masakazu; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuykendall, William; Kuze, Masahiro; Kuzhir, Polina; Kvasnicka, Ondrej; Kvita, Jiri; Kwee, Regina; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Labarga, Luis; Labbe, Julien; Lablak, Said; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Rémi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laisne, Emmanuel; Lamanna, Massimo; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lancon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Landsman, Hagar; Lane, Jenna; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lapin, Vladimir; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Larionov, Anatoly; Larner, Aimee; Lasseur, Christian; Lassnig, Mario; Lau, Wing; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavorato, Antonia; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Lazarev, Alexandre; Lazzaro, Alfio; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Maner, Christophe; Le Menedeu, Eve; Lebedev, Alexander; Lebel, Céline; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Michel; Legendre, Marie; Leger, Annie; LeGeyt, Benjamin; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Leltchouk, Mikhail; Lendermann, Victor; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatiana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lessard, Jean-Raphael; Lesser, Jonas; Lester, Christopher; Leung Fook Cheong, Annabelle; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levitski, Mikhail; Lewandowska, Marta; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Shu; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhihua; Liang, Zhijun; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lichtnecker, Markus; Lie, Ki; Liebig, Wolfgang; Lifshitz, Ronen; Lilley, Joseph; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipinsky, Lukas; Lipniacka, Anna; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Chuanlei; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Shengli; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Lockwitz, Sarah; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Loken, James; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Losty, Michael; Lou, Xinchou; Lounis, Abdenour; Loureiro, Karina; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lu, Liang; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Ludwig, Andreas; Ludwig, Dörthe; Ludwig, Inga; Ludwig, Jens; Luehring, Frederick; Luijckx, Guy; Lumb, Debra; Luminari, Lamberto; Lund, Esben; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lundberg, Björn; Lundberg, Johan; Lundquist, Johan; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lupi, Anna; Lutz, Gerhard; Lynn, David; Lys, Jeremy; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Macana Goia, Jorge Andres; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Mackeprang, Rasmus; Madaras, Ronald; Mader, Wolfgang; Maenner, Reinhard; Maeno, Tadashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Magalhaes Martins, Paulo Jorge; Magnoni, Luca; Magradze, Erekle; Mahalalel, Yair; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahout, Gilles; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malecki, Pawel; Malecki, Piotr; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mameghani, Raphael; Mamuzic, Judita; Manabe, Atsushi; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Mangeard, Pierre-Simon; Manjavidze, Ioseb; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Manz, Andreas; Mapelli, Alessandro; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marin, Alexandru; Marino, Christopher; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Robin; Marshall, Zach; Martens, Kalen; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Andrew; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Franck Francois; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Philippe; Martin, Tim; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Maß, Martin; Massa, Ignazio; Massaro, Graziano; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mathes, Markus; Matricon, Pierre; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mattravers, Carly; Maugain, Jean-Marie; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; May, Edward; Mayne, Anna; Mazini, Rachid; Mazur, Michael; Mazzanti, Marcello; Mazzoni, Enrico; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; McGlone, Helen; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McLaren, Robert Andrew; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Mechtel, Markus; Medinnis, Mike; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Meguro, Tatsuma; Mehdiyev, Rashid; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meinhardt, Jens; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Meng, Zhaoxia; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Menot, Claude; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meuser, Stefan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer, Joerg; Meyer, Thomas Christian; Meyer, W Thomas; Miao, Jiayuan; Michal, Sebastien; Micu, Liliana; Middleton, Robin; Miele, Paola; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Miller, Robert; Mills, Bill; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Miñano, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Miralles Verge, Lluis; Misiejuk, Andrzej; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitrofanov, Gennady; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miyagawa, Paul; Miyazaki, Kazuki; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mockett, Paul; Moed, Shulamit; Moeller, Victoria; Mönig, Klaus; Möser, Nicolas; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohn, Bjarte; Mohr, Wolfgang; Mohrdieck-Möck, Susanne; Moisseev, Artemy; Moles-Valls, Regina; Molina-Perez, Jorge; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montesano, Simone; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Moorhead, Gareth; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morais, Antonio; Morange, Nicolas; Morel, Julien; Morello, Gianfranco; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morii, Masahiro; Morin, Jerome; Morita, Youhei; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morone, Maria-Christina; Morozov, Sergey; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Mudrinic, Mihajlo; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Müller, Thomas; Muenstermann, Daniel; Muijs, Sandra; Muir, Alex; Munwes, Yonathan; Murakami, Koichi; Murray, Bill; Mussche, Ido; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakano, Itsuo; Nanava, Gizo; Napier, Austin; Nash, Michael; Nation, Nigel; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Neal, Homer; Nebot, Eduardo; Nechaeva, Polina; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Silke; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Nesterov, Stanislav; Neubauer, Mark; Neusiedl, Andrea; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen Thi Hong, Van; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicolas, Ludovic; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Niedercorn, Francois; Nielsen, Jason; Niinikoski, Tapio; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolaev, Kirill; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Henrik; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nishiyama, Tomonori; Nisius, Richard; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nomoto, Hiroshi; Nordberg, Markus; Nordkvist, Bjoern; Norton, Peter; Novakova, Jana; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nožička, Miroslav; Nozka, Libor; Nugent, Ian Michael; Nuncio-Quiroz, Adriana-Elizabeth; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nyman, Tommi; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'Neale, Steve; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Odier, Jerome; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Ohshita, Hidetoshi; Ohska, Tokio Kenneth; Ohsugi, Takashi; Okada, Shogo; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olcese, Marco; Olchevski, Alexander; Oliveira, Miguel Alfonso; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olivito, Dominick; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Omachi, Chihiro; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlov, Iliya; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Ortega, Eduardo; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Osuna, Carlos; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Ottersbach, John; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Ouyang, Qun; Owen, Mark; Owen, Simon; Øye, Ola; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Paganis, Efstathios; Paige, Frank; Pajchel, Katarina; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panes, Boris; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Panuskova, Monika; Paolone, Vittorio; Papadelis, Aras; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Paramonov, Alexander; Park, Woochun; Parker, Andy; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pecsy, Martin; Pedraza Morales, Maria Isabel; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Peng, Haiping; Pengo, Ruggero; Penson, Alexander; Penwell, John; Perantoni, Marcelo; Perez, Kerstin; Perez Cavalcanti, Tiago; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Peric, Ivan; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Perrodo, Pascal; Persembe, Seda; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Onne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Jorgen; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petschull, Dennis; Petteni, Michele; Pezoa, Raquel; Phan, Anna; Phillips, Alan; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Pickford, Andrew; Piec, Sebastian Marcin; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Ping, Jialun; Pinto, Belmiro; Pirotte, Olivier; Pizio, Caterina; Placakyte, Ringaile; Plamondon, Mathieu; Plano, Will; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskach, Anatoly; Poblaguev, Andrei; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poggioli, Luc; Poghosyan, Tatevik; Pohl, Martin; Polci, Francesco; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polini, Alessandro; Poll, James; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pomarede, Daniel Marc; Pomeroy, Daniel; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Porter, Robert; Posch, Christoph; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Prabhu, Robindra; Pralavorio, Pascal; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Pretzl, Klaus Peter; Pribyl, Lukas; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Price, Michael John; Prichard, Paul; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Prudent, Xavier; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Psoroulas, Serena; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Purdham, John; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Pylypchenko, Yuriy; Qian, Jianming; Qian, Zuxuan; Qin, Zhonghua; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Quinonez, Fernando; Raas, Marcel; Radescu, Voica; Radics, Balint; Rador, Tonguc; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rahimi, Amir; Rahm, David; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rammes, Marcus; Ramstedt, Magnus; Randrianarivony, Koloina; Ratoff, Peter; Rauscher, Felix; Rauter, Emanuel; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Reichold, Armin; Reinherz-Aronis, Erez; Reinsch, Andreas; Reisinger, Ingo; Reljic, Dusan; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Renkel, Peter; Rensch, Bertram; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resende, Bernardo; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richards, Alexander; Richter, Robert; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ridel, Melissa; Rieke, Stefan; Rijpstra, Manouk; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Rios, Ryan Randy; Riu, Imma; Rivoltella, Giancesare; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robinson, Mary; Robson, Aidan; Rocha de Lima, Jose Guilherme; Roda, Chiara; Roda Dos Santos, Denis; Rodier, Stephane; Rodriguez, Diego; Rodriguez Garcia, Yohany; Roe, Adam; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rojo, Victoria; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romanov, Victor; Romeo, Gaston; Romero Maltrana, Diego; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Matthew; Rosenbaum, Gabriel; Rosenberg, Eli; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosselet, Laurent; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rossi, Lucio; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexander; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubinskiy, Igor; Ruckert, Benjamin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Gerald; Rühr, Frederik; Ruggieri, Federico; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rulikowska-Zarebska, Elzbieta; Rumiantsev, Viktor; Rumyantsev, Leonid; Runge, Kay; Runolfsson, Ogmundur; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Rust, Dave; Rutherfoord, John; Ruwiedel, Christoph; Ruzicka, Pavel; Ryabov, Yury; Ryadovikov, Vasily; Ryan, Patrick; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Rzaeva, Sevda; Saavedra, Aldo; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvachua Ferrando, Belén; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Samset, Björn Hallvard; Sandaker, Heidi; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sandvoss, Stephan; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Saraiva, João; Sarangi, Tapas; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, Edward; Sarri, Francesca; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Takashi; Sasao, Noboru; Satsounkevitch, Igor; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Savard, Pierre; Savinov, Vladimir; Savu, Dan Octavian; Savva, Panagiota; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Says, Louis-Pierre; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scallon, Olivia; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schäfer, Uli; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R. Dean; Schamov, Andrey; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schlereth, James; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmidt, Michael; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schmitz, Martin; Schöning, André; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schram, Malachi; Schroeder, Christian; Schroer, Nicolai; Schuh, Silvia; Schuler, Georges; Schultes, Joachim; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Jan; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwierz, Rainer; Schwindling, Jerome; Scott, Bill; Searcy, Jacob; Sedykh, Evgeny; Segura, Ester; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellden, Bjoern; Sellers, Graham; Seman, Michal; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sevior, Martin; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shank, James; Shao, Qi Tao; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaver, Leif; Shaw, Christian; Shaw, Kate; Sherman, Daniel; Sherwood, Peter; Shibata, Akira; Shichi, Hideharu; Shimizu, Shima; Shimojima, Makoto; Shin, Taeksu; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sidoti, Antonio; Siebel, Anca-Mirela; Siegert, Frank; Siegrist, James; Sijacki, Djordje; Silbert, Ohad; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simmons, Brinick; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinnari, Louise Anastasia; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Skvorodnev, Nikolai; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Sloan, Terrence; Sloper, John erik; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Ben Campbell; Smith, Douglas; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snow, Steve; Snow, Joel; Snuverink, Jochem; Snyder, Scott; Soares, Mara; Sobie, Randall; Sodomka, Jaromir; Soffer, Abner; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Solovyanov, Oleg; Sondericker, John; Soni, Nitesh; Sopko, Vit; Sopko, Bruno; Sorbi, Massimo; Sosebee, Mark; Soukharev, Andrey; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spila, Federico; Spiriti, Eleuterio; Spiwoks, Ralf; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stahl, Thorsten; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staude, Arnold; Stavina, Pavel; Stavropoulos, Georgios; Steele, Genevieve; Steinbach, Peter; Steinberg, Peter; Stekl, Ivan; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stevenson, Kyle; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockmanns, Tobias; Stockton, Mark; Stoerig, Kathrin; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stonjek, Stefan; Strachota, Pavel; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strang, Michael; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Strong, John; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strube, Jan; Stugu, Bjarne; Stumer, Iuliu; Stupak, John; Sturm, Philipp; Soh, Dart-yin; Su, Dong; Subramania, Halasya Siva; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Sugimoto, Takuya; Suhr, Chad; Suita, Koichi; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Sushkov, Serge; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Svatos, Michal; Sviridov, Yuri; Swedish, Stephen; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Szeless, Balazs; Sánchez, Javier; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taga, Adrian; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tamsett, Matthew; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanaka, Yoshito; Tani, Kazutoshi; Tannoury, Nancy; Tappern, Geoffrey; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tardif, Dominique; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tassi, Enrico; Tatarkhanov, Mous; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Christopher; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terwort, Mark; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Thadome, Jocelyn; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thioye, Moustapha; Thoma, Sascha; Thomas, Juergen; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thun, Rudolf; Tic, Tomáš; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timmermans, Charles; Tipton, Paul; Tique Aires Viegas, Florbela De Jes; Tisserant, Sylvain; Tobias, Jürgen; Toczek, Barbara; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokunaga, Kaoru; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tong, Guoliang; Tonoyan, Arshak; Topfel, Cyril; Topilin, Nikolai; Torchiani, Ingo; Torrence, Eric; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Traynor, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Treis, Johannes; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alesandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Trinh, Thi Nguyet; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trivedi, Arjun; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiakiris, Menelaos; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsung, Jieh-Wen; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tua, Alan; Tuggle, Joseph; Turala, Michal; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turlay, Emmanuel; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Tyrvainen, Harri; Tzanakos, George; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Uhrmacher, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Underwood, David; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Unno, Yoshinobu; Urbaniec, Dustin; Urkovsky, Evgeny; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Uslenghi, Massimiliano; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Vahsen, Sven; Valenta, Jan; Valente, Paolo; Valentinetti, Sara; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; van der Graaf, Harry; van der Kraaij, Erik; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van der Poel, Egge; van der Ster, Daniel; Van Eijk, Bob; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; van Kesteren, Zdenko; van Vulpen, Ivo; Vandelli, Wainer; Vandoni, Giovanna; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Varela Rodriguez, Fernando; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vassilakopoulos, Vassilios; Vazeille, Francois; Vegni, Guido; Veillet, Jean-Jacques; Vellidis, Constantine; Veloso, Filipe; Veness, Raymond; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinek, Elisabeth; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virchaux, Marc; Viret, Sébastien; Virzi, Joseph; Vitale, Antonio; Vitells, Ofer; Viti, Michele; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vlasak, Michal; Vlasov, Nikolai; Vogel, Adrian; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; Volpini, Giovanni; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Loeben, Joerg; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobiev, Alexander; Vorwerk, Volker; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Voss, Thorsten Tobias; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wagner, Peter; Wahlen, Helmut; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walbersloh, Jorg; Walch, Shannon; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Joshua C; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Warsinsky, Markus; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Anthony; Waugh, Ben; Weber, Jens; Weber, Marc; Weber, Michele; Weber, Pavel; Weidberg, Anthony; Weigell, Philipp; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Wellenstein, Hermann; Wells, Phillippa; Wen, Mei; Wenaus, Torre; Wendler, Shanti; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Werth, Michael; Wessels, Martin; Weydert, Carole; Whalen, Kathleen; Wheeler-Ellis, Sarah Jane; Whitaker, Scott; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Sebastian; Whitehead, Samuel Robert; Whiteson, Daniel; Whittington, Denver; Wicek, Francois; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilhelm, Ivan; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Eric; Williams, Hugh; Willis, William; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wilson, Michael Galante; Wilson, Alan; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winkelmann, Stefan; Winklmeier, Frank; Wittgen, Matthias; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wooden, Gemma; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wraight, Kenneth; Wright, Catherine; Wrona, Bozydar; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wunstorf, Renate; Wynne, Benjamin; Xaplanteris, Leonidas; Xella, Stefania; Xie, Song; Xie, Yigang; Xu, Chao; Xu, Da; Xu, Guofa; Yabsley, Bruce; Yamada, Miho; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamaoka, Jared; Yamazaki, Takayuki; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zhaoyu; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Weiming; Yao, Yushu; Yasu, Yoshiji; Ybeles Smit, Gabriel Valentijn; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Riktura; Young, Charles; Youssef, Saul; Yu, Dantong; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Zaets, Vassilli; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zajacova, Zuzana; Zalite, Youris; Zanello, Lucia; Zarzhitsky, Pavel; Zaytsev, Alexander; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeller, Michael; Zemla, Andrzej; Zendler, Carolin; Zenin, Anton; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zenonos, Zenonas; Zenz, Seth; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhan, Zhichao; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Long; Zhao, Tianchi; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zheng, Shuchen; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, Yue; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhuravlov, Vadym; Zieminska, Daria; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zitoun, Robert; Živković, Lidija; Zmouchko, Viatcheslav; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; Zolnierowski, Yves; Zsenei, Andras; zur Nedden, Martin; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2012-01-03

    Proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV and heavy ion collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$=2.76 TeV were produced by the LHC and recorded using the ATLAS experiment's trigger system in 2010. The LHC is designed with a maximum bunch crossing rate of 40 MHz and the ATLAS trigger system is designed to record approximately 200 of these per second. The trigger system selects events by rapidly identifying signatures of muon, electron, photon, tau lepton, jet, and B meson candidates, as well as using global event signatures, such as missing transverse energy. An overview of the ATLAS trigger system, the evolution of the system during 2010 and the performance of the trigger system components and selections based on the 2010 collision data are shown. A brief outline of plans for the trigger system in 2011 is presented

  14. Upgrades of the ATLAS trigger system

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00221618; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    In coming years the LHC is expected to undergo upgrades to increase both the energy of proton-proton collisions and the instantaneous luminosity. In order to cope with these more challenging LHC conditions, upgrades of the ATLAS trigger system will be required. This talk will focus on some of the key aspects of these upgrades. Firstly, the upgrade period between 2019-2021 will see an increase in instantaneous luminosity to $3\\times10^{34} \\rm{cm^{-2}s^{-1}}$. Upgrades to the Level 1 trigger system during this time will include improvements for both the muon and calorimeter triggers. These include the upgrade of the first-level Endcap Muon trigger, the calorimeter trigger electronics and the addition of new calorimeter feature extractor hardware, such as the Global Feature Extractor (gFEX). An overview will be given on the design and development status the aforementioned systems, along with the latest testing and validation results. \\\\ By 2026, the High Luminosity LHC will be able to deliver 14 TeV collisions ...

  15. The D-Zero Run II Trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blazey, G. C.

    1997-01-01

    The general purpose D0 collider detector, located at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, requires significantly enhanced data acquisition and triggering to operate in the high luminosity (L = 2 x 10 32 cm -2 s -1 ), high rate environment (7 MHz or 132 ns beam crossings) of the upgraded TeVatron proton anti-proton accelerator. This article describes the three major levels and frameworks of the new trigger. Information from the first trigger stage (L1) which includes scintillating, tracking and calorimeter detectors will provide a deadtimeless, 4.2 (micro)s trigger decision with an accept rate of 10 kHz. The second stage (L2), comprised of hardware engines associated with specific detectors and a single global processor will test for correlations between L1 triggers. L2 will have an accept rate of 1 kHz at a maximum deadtime of 5% and require a 100 (micro)s decision time. The third and final stage (L3) will reconstruct events in a farm of processors for a final instantaneous accept rate of 50 Hz

  16. The CMS trigger in Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Tosi, Mia

    2018-01-01

    During its second period of operation (Run 2) which started in 2015, the LHC will reach a peak instantaneous luminosity of approximately 2$\\times 10^{34}$~cm$^{-2}s^{-1}$ with an average pile-up of about 55, far larger than the design value. Under these conditions, the online event selection is a very challenging task. In CMS, it is realised by a two-level trigger system: the Level-1 (L1) Trigger, implemented in custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm.\\\\ In order to face this challenge, the L1 trigger has undergone a major upgrade compared to Run 1, whereby all electronic boards of the system have been replaced, allowing more sophisticated algorithms to be run online. Its last stage, the global trigger, is now able to perform complex selections and to compute high-level quantities, like invariant masses. Likewise, the algorithms that run in the HLT went through big improvements; in particular, new ap...

  17. The ZEUS calorimeter first level trigger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, S.; Ali, I.; Behrens, B.; Foudas, C.; Fordham, C.; Goussiou, A.; Jaworski, M.; Lackey, J.; Reeder, D.; Robl, P.; Smith, W. H.; Vaiciulis, A.; Wodarczyk, M.; Dawson, J.; Krakauer, D.; Talaga, R.; Schlereth, J.; Zhang, H.

    1995-02-01

    An overview of the ZEUS calorimeter first level trigger is presented. The CFLT uses a pipelined architecture to accept and analyze calorimeter data for every 96 ns beam crossing interval. PMT signals are combined by analog electronics into electromagnetic and hadronic sums for 896 trigger towers. The analog sums are then digitized and analyzed. The CFLT determines the total, transverse, and missing transverse energy, identifies isolated electrons and muons, and sums energies in programmable subregions. Calculations are performed in 96 ns steps, and new data are accepted for every beam crossing. Trigger data are forwarded to the global first level trigger (GFLT) after 2 μs, allowing a GFLT accept to be issued 5 μs after the beam crossing which produced the event. Important features of the CFLT include a 12-bit effective dynamic range, extensive use of memory lookup tables for trigger calculations, fast pattern searches for isolated leptons, and low electronics noise. During the 1993 HERA run, the CFLT reduced a 50 kHz background rate to around 100 Hz.

  18. The ATLAS Tau Trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rados, Petar Kevin

    2013-06-01

    The tau lepton plays a crucial role in understanding particle physics at the Tera scale. One of the most promising probes of the Higgs boson coupling to fermions is with detector signatures involving taus. In addition, many theories beyond the Standard Model, such as supersymmetry and exotic particles (W' and Z'), predict new physics with large couplings to taus. The ability to trigger on hadronic tau decays is therefore critical to achieving the physics goals of the ATLAS experiment. The higher instantaneous luminosities of proton-proton collisions achieved by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in 2012 resulted in a larger probability of overlap (pile-up) between bunch crossings, and so it was critical for ATLAS to have an effective tau trigger strategy. The details of this strategy are summarized in this paper, and the results of the latest performance measurements are presented. (authors)

  19. The LPS trigger system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benotto, F.; Costa, M.; Staiano, A.; Zampieri, A.; Bollito, M.; Isoardi, P.; Pernigotti, E.; Sacchi, R.; Trapani, P.P.; Larsen, H.; Massam, T.; Nemoz, C.

    1996-03-01

    The Leading Proton Spectrometer (LPS) has been equipped with microstrip silicon detectors specially designed to trigger events with high values of x L vertical stroke anti p' p vertical stroke / vertical stroke anti p p vertical stroke ≥0.95 where vertical stroke anti p' p vertical stroke and vertical stroke anti p p vertical stroke are respectively the momenta of outgoing and incoming protons. The LPS First Level Trigger can provide a clear tag for very high momentum protons in a kinematical region never explored before. In the following we discuss the physics motivation in tagging very forward protons and present a detailed description of the detector design, the front end electronics, the readout electronics, the Monte Carlo simulation and some preliminary results from 1995 data taking. (orig.)

  20. Minimum risk trigger indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tingey, F.H.

    1979-01-01

    A viable safeguards system includes among other things the development and use of indices which trigger various courses of action. The usual limit of error calculation provides such an index. The classical approach is one of constructing tests which, under certain assumptions, make the likelihood of a false alarm small. Of concern also is the test's failure to indicate a loss (diversion) when in fact one has occurred. Since false alarms are usually costly and losses both costly and of extreme strategic sinificance, there remains the task of balancing the probability of false alarm and its consequences against the probability of undetected loss and its consequences. The application of other than classical hypothesis testing procedures are considered in this paper. Using various consequence models, trigger indices are derived which have certain optimum properties. Application of the techniques would enhance the material control function

  1. Neural networks for triggering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denby, B.; Campbell, M.; Bedeschi, F.; Chriss, N.; Bowers, C.; Nesti, F.

    1990-01-01

    Two types of neural network beauty trigger architectures, based on identification of electrons in jets and recognition of secondary vertices, have been simulated in the environment of the Fermilab CDF experiment. The efficiencies for B's and rejection of background obtained are encouraging. If hardware tests are successful, the electron identification architecture will be tested in the 1991 run of CDF. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  2. The ARGUS vertex trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, N.; Kolander, M.; Kolanoski, H.; Siegmund, T.; Bergter, J.; Eckstein, P.; Schubert, K.R.; Waldi, R.; Imhof, M.; Ressing, D.; Weiss, U.; Weseler, S.

    1995-09-01

    A fast second level trigger has been developed for the ARGUS experiment which recognizes tracks originating from the interaction region. The processor compares the hits in the ARGUS Micro Vertex Drift Chamber to 245760 masks stored in random access memories. The masks which are fully defined in three dimensions are able to reject tracks originating in the wall of the narrow beampipe of 10.5 mm radius. (orig.)

  3. Global Landslide Catalog Export

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Landslide Catalog (GLC) was developed with the goal of identifying rainfall-triggered landslide events around the world, regardless of size, impacts or...

  4. Zinc triggers microglial activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, Tiina M; Higashi, Youichirou; Suh, Sang Won; Escartin, Carole; Nagasawa, Kazuki; Swanson, Raymond A

    2008-05-28

    Microglia are resident immune cells of the CNS. When stimulated by infection, tissue injury, or other signals, microglia assume an activated, "ameboid" morphology and release matrix metalloproteinases, reactive oxygen species, and other proinflammatory factors. This innate immune response augments host defenses, but it can also contribute to neuronal death. Zinc is released by neurons under several conditions in which microglial activation occurs, and zinc chelators can reduce neuronal death in animal models of cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we show that zinc directly triggers microglial activation. Microglia transfected with a nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) reporter gene showed a severalfold increase in NF-kappaB activity in response to 30 microm zinc. Cultured mouse microglia exposed to 15-30 microm zinc increased nitric oxide production, increased F4/80 expression, altered cytokine expression, and assumed the activated morphology. Zinc-induced microglial activation was blocked by inhibiting NADPH oxidase, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), or NF-kappaB activation. Zinc injected directly into mouse brain induced microglial activation in wild-type mice, but not in mice genetically lacking PARP-1 or NADPH oxidase activity. Endogenous zinc release, induced by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion, likewise induced a robust microglial reaction, and this reaction was suppressed by the zinc chelator CaEDTA. Together, these results suggest that extracellular zinc triggers microglial activation through the sequential activation of NADPH oxidase, PARP-1, and NF-kappaB. These findings identify a novel trigger for microglial activation and a previously unrecognized mechanism by which zinc may contribute to neurological disorders.

  5. Consumerism triggers AC explosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafferty, Richard

    1997-05-01

    The growth in air conditioning in the United Kingdom in recent years is examined in this article, and split systems, the phasing out of CFC and HCFC refrigerants, global warming, and comfort levels are considered. (UK)

  6. ATLAS Tau Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Belanger-Champagne, C; Bosman, M; Brenner, R; Casado, MP; Czyczula, Z; Dam, M; Demers, S; Farrington, S; Igonkina, O; Kalinowski, A; Kanaya, N; Osuna, C; Pérez, E; Ptacek, E; Reinsch, A; Saavedra, A; Sopczak, A; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Tsuno, S; Vorwerk, V; Watson, A; Xella, S

    2008-01-01

    Moving to the high energy scale of the LHC, the identification of tau leptons will become a necessary and very powerful tool, allowing a discovery of physics beyond Standard Model. Many models, among them light SM Higgs and various SUSY models, predict an abundant production of taus with respect to other leptons. The reconstruction of hadronic tau decays, although a very challenging task in hadronic enviroments, allows to increase a signal efficiency by at least of factor 2, and provides an independent control sample to disantangle lepton tau decays from prompt electrons and muons. Thanks to the advanced calorimetry and tracking, the ATLAS experiment has developed tools to efficiently identify hadronic taus at the trigger level. In this presentation we will review the characteristics of taus and the methods to suppress low-multiplicity, low-energy jets contributions as well as we will address the tau trigger chain which provide a rejection rate of 10^5. We will further present plans for commissioning the ATLA...

  7. Surgery for trigger finger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, Haroldo Junior; Tamaoki, Marcel Jun; Lenza, Mário; Gomes Dos Santos, Joao Baptista; Faloppa, Flávio; Belloti, Joao Carlos

    2018-02-20

    Trigger finger is a common clinical disorder, characterised by pain and catching as the patient flexes and extends digits because of disproportion between the diameter of flexor tendons and the A1 pulley. The treatment approach may include non-surgical or surgical treatments. Currently there is no consensus about the best surgical treatment approach (open, percutaneous or endoscopic approaches). To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of different methods of surgical treatment for trigger finger (open, percutaneous or endoscopic approaches) in adults at any stage of the disease. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase and LILACS up to August 2017. We included randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials that assessed adults with trigger finger and compared any type of surgical treatment with each other or with any other non-surgical intervention. The major outcomes were the resolution of trigger finger, pain, hand function, participant-reported treatment success or satisfaction, recurrence of triggering, adverse events and neurovascular injury. Two review authors independently selected the trial reports, extracted the data and assessed the risk of bias. Measures of treatment effect for dichotomous outcomes calculated risk ratios (RRs), and mean differences (MDs) or standardised mean differences (SMD) for continuous outcomes, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). When possible, the data were pooled into meta-analysis using the random-effects model. GRADE was used to assess the quality of evidence for each outcome. Fourteen trials were included, totalling 1260 participants, with 1361 trigger fingers. The age of participants included in the studies ranged from 16 to 88 years; and the majority of participants were women (approximately 70%). The average duration of symptoms ranged from three to 15 months, and the follow-up after the procedure ranged from eight weeks to 23 months.The studies reported nine types of comparisons: open surgery versus steroid injections (two

  8. Trigger Timing Module for SVD2 upgrade at Belle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, M.C.; Gao, Z.W.; Guo, Y.N.; Kawasaki, T.; Ueno, K.; Velikzhanin, Y.S.

    2003-01-01

    We have developed a Trigger Timing Module (TTM2) for the control and readout electronics (CORE) of the upgraded Silicon Vertex Detector (SVD2) for use in the BELLE experiment. Eleven Trigger Timing Modules located at one VME-crate provide timing and strobe signals for the SVD2 CORE electronics and make communication between SVD2 and Global Decision Logic of the BELLE data acquisition system. The main motivation to make a new TTM design is to avoid glitches

  9. Triggering at high luminosity: fake triggers from pile-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.

    1983-01-01

    Triggers based on a cut in transverse momentum (p/sub t/) have proved to be useful in high energy physics both because they indicte that a hard constituent scattering has occurred and because they can be made quickly enough to gate electronics. These triggers will continue to be useful at high luminosities if overlapping events do not cause an excessive number of fake triggers. In this paper, I determine if this is indeed a problem at high luminosity machines

  10. Nostalgia: content, triggers, functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine; Arndt, Jamie; Routledge, Clay

    2006-11-01

    Seven methodologically diverse studies addressed 3 fundamental questions about nostalgia. Studies 1 and 2 examined the content of nostalgic experiences. Descriptions of nostalgic experiences typically featured the self as a protagonist in interactions with close others (e.g., friends) or in momentous events (e.g., weddings). Also, the descriptions contained more expressions of positive than negative affect and often depicted the redemption of negative life scenes by subsequent triumphs. Studies 3 and 4 examined triggers of nostalgia and revealed that nostalgia occurs in response to negative mood and the discrete affective state of loneliness. Studies 5, 6, and 7 investigated the functional utility of nostalgia and established that nostalgia bolsters social bonds, increases positive self-regard, and generates positive affect. These findings demarcate key landmarks in the hitherto uncharted research domain of nostalgia.

  11. The ATLAS hadronic tau trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Black, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    With the high luminosities of proton-proton collisions achieved at the LHC, the strategies for triggering have become more important than ever for physics analysis. The naive inclusive single tau lepton triggers now suffer from severe rate limitations. To allow for a large program of physics analyses with taus, the development of topological triggers that combine tau signatures with other measured quantities in the event is required. These combined triggers open many opportunities to study new physics beyond the Standard Model and to search for the Standard Model Higgs. We present the status and performance of the hadronic tau trigger in ATLAS. We demonstrate that the ATLAS tau trigger ran remarkably well over 2011, and how the lessons learned from 2011 led to numerous improvements in the preparation of the 2012 run. These improvements include the introduction of tau selection criteria that are robust against varying pileup scenarios, and the implementation of multivariate selection techniques in the tau trig...

  12. The ATLAS hadronic tau trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Black, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    With the high luminosities of proton-proton collisions achieved at the LHC, the strategies for triggering have become more important than ever for physics analysis. The naïve inclusive single tau lepton triggers now suffer from severe rate limitations. To allow for a large program of physics analyses with taus, the development of topological triggers that combine tau signatures with other measured quantities in the event is required. These combined triggers open many opportunities to study new physics beyond the Standard Model and to search for the Standard Model Higgs. We present the status and performance of the hadronic tau trigger in ATLAS. We demonstrate that the ATLAS tau trigger ran remarkably well over 2011, and how the lessons learned from 2011 led to numerous improvements in the preparation of the 2012 run. These improvements include the introduction of tau selection criteria that are robust against varying pileup scenarios, and the implementation of multivariate selection techniques in the tau tri...

  13. Preparation and characterization of monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol-poly(ε-caprolactone micelles for the solubilization and in vivo delivery of luteolin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu JF

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Jin-Feng Qiu,1 Xiang Gao,1,2 Bi-Lan Wang,1 Xia-Wei Wei,1 Ma-Ling Gou,1 Ke Men,1 Xing-Yu Liu,1 Gang Guo,1 Zhi-Yong Qian,1 Mei-Juan Huang1 1Department of Thoracic Oncology, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital and Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China; 2Medical School and Department of Pathophysiology, College of Preclinical and Forensic Medical Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Luteolin (Lu is one of the flavonoids with anticancer activity, but its poor water solubility limits its use clinically. In this work, we used monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol-poly(ε-caprolactone (MPEG-PCL micelles to encapsulate Lu by a self-assembly method, creating a water-soluble Lu/MPEG-PCL micelle. These micelles had a mean particle size of 38.6 ± 0.6 nm (polydispersity index = 0.16 ± 0.02, encapsulation efficiency of 98.32% ± 1.12%, and drug loading of 3.93% ± 0.25%. Lu/MPEG-PCL micelles could slowly release Lu in vitro. Encapsulation of Lu in MPEG-PCL micelles improved the half-life (t½; 152.25 ± 49.92 versus [vs] 7.16 ± 1.23 minutes, P = 0.007, area under the curve (0–t (2914.05 ± 445.17 vs 502.65 ± 140.12 mg/L/minute, P = 0.001, area under the curve (0–∞ (2989.03 ± 433.22 vs 503.81 ± 141.41 mg/L/minute, P = 0.001, and peak concentration (92.70 ± 11.61 vs 38.98 ± 7.73 mg/L, P = 0.003 of Lu when the drug was intravenously administered at a dose of 30 mg/kg in rats. Also, Lu/MPEG-PCL micelles maintained the cytotoxicity of Lu on 4T1 breast cancer cells (IC50 = 6.4 ± 2.30 µg/mL and C-26 colon carcinoma cells (IC50 = 12.62 ± 2.17 µg/mL in vitro. These data suggested that encapsulation of Lu into MPEG-PCL micelles created an aqueous formulation of Lu with potential anticancer effect. Keywords: luteolin, micelle, MPEG-PCL, cancer therapy

  14. The ATLAS hadronic tau trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamim, Mansoora

    2012-01-01

    The extensive tau physics programs of the ATLAS experiment relies heavily on trigger to select hadronic decays of tau lepton. Such a trigger is implemented in ATLAS to efficiently collect signal events, while keeping the rate of multi-jet background within the allowed bandwidth. This contribution summarizes the performance of the ATLAS hadronic tau trigger system during 2011 data taking period and improvements implemented for the 2012 data collection.

  15. Trigger design for a gamma ray detector of HIRFL-ETF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhong-Wei; Su, Hong; Qian, Yi; Kong, Jie

    2013-10-01

    The Gamma Ray Array Detector (GRAD) is one subsystem of HIRFL-ETF (the External Target Facility (ETF) of the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL)). It is capable of measuring the energy of gamma-rays with 1024 CsI scintillators in in-beam nuclear experiments. The GRAD trigger should select the valid events and reject the data from the scintillators which are not hit by the gamma-ray. The GRAD trigger has been developed based on the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGAs) and PXI interface. It makes prompt trigger decisions to select valid events by processing the hit signals from the 1024 CsI scintillators. According to the physical requirements, the GRAD trigger module supplies 12-bit trigger information for the global trigger system of ETF and supplies a trigger signal for data acquisition (DAQ) system of GRAD. In addition, the GRAD trigger generates trigger data that are packed and transmitted to the host computer via PXI bus to be saved for off-line analysis. The trigger processing is implemented in the front-end electronics of GRAD and one FPGA of the GRAD trigger module. The logic of PXI transmission and reconfiguration is implemented in another FPGA of the GRAD trigger module. During the gamma-ray experiments, the GRAD trigger performs reliably and efficiently. The function of GRAD trigger is capable of satisfying the physical requirements.

  16. Trigger design for a gamma ray detector of HIRFL-ETF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Zhongwei; Su Hong; Qian Yi; Kong Jie

    2013-01-01

    The Gamma Ray Array Detector (GRAD) is one subsystem of HIRFL-ETF (the External Target Facility (ETF) of the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL)). It is capable of measuring the energy of gamma-rays with 1024 CsI scintillators in in-beam nuclear experiments. The GRAD trigger should select the valid events and reject the data from the scintillators which are not hit by the gamma-ray. The GRAD trigger has been developed based on the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGAs) and PXI interface. It makes prompt trigger decisions to select valid events by processing the hit signals from the 1024 CsI scintillators. According to the physical requirements, the GRAD trigger module supplies 12-bit trigger information for the global trigger system of ETF and supplies a trigger signal for data acquisition (DAQ) system of GRAD. In addition, the GRAD trigger generates trigger data that are packed and transmitted to the host computer via PXI bus to be saved for off-line analysis. The trigger processing is implemented in the front-end electronics of GRAD and one FPGA of the GRAD trigger module. The logic of PXI transmission and reconfiguration is implemented in another FPGA of the GRAD trigger module. During the gamma-ray experiments, the GRAD trigger performs reliably and efficiently. The function of GRAD trigger is capable of satisfying the physical requirements. (authors)

  17. Trigger and data acquisition

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Gaspar, C

    2001-01-01

    Past LEP experiments generate data at 0.5 MByte/s from particle detectors with over a quarter of a million readout channels. The process of reading out the electronic channels, treating them, and storing the date produced by each collision for further analysis by the physicists is called "Data Acquisition". Not all beam crossings produce interesting physics "events", picking the interesting ones is the task of the "Trigger" system. In order to make sure that the data is collected in good conditions the experiment's operation has to be constantly verified. In all, at LEP experiments over 100 000 parameters were monitored, controlled, and synchronized by the "Monotoring and control" system. In the future, LHC experiments will produce as much data in a single day as a LEP detector did in a full year's running with a raw data rate of 10 - 100 MBytes/s and will have to cope with some 800 million proton-proton collisions a second of these collisions only one in 100 million million is interesting for new particle se...

  18. Antifatigue Effect of Luteolin-6-C-Neohesperidoside on Oxidative Stress Injury Induced by Forced Swimming of Rats through Modulation of Nrf2/ARE Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-fang Duan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Luteolin-6-C-neohesperidoside (LN is a flavonoid isolated from moso bamboo leaf. This study was performed to evaluate the antifatigue effect of LN on a rat model undergoing the weight-loaded forced swimming test (FST. Briefly, male Sprague-Dawley rats (20–22 weeks old were forced to undertake exhaustive swimming every other day for 3 weeks. Each swimming session was followed by the administration of distilled water, LN (25–75 mg/kg, or ascorbic acid (100 mg/kg 1 h later. Oral administration of LN significantly improved exercise endurance; normalized alterations in energy metabolic markers; and decreased serum lactic acid, lactate dehydrogenase, and blood urea nitrogen levels of rats that underwent FST. Moreover, LN enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant capacity, as measured by enzyme activity assays, RT-PCR, and Western blotting, as well as decreasing the levels of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, and IL-6 and increasing the level of anti-inflammatory (IL-10 in the liver and skeletal muscle. These results suggested that LN reduces both physical and mental effects of chronic fatigue, probably by attenuating oxidative stress injury and inflammatory responses in the liver and skeletal muscle. This study thus supports the use of LN in functional foods for antifatigue and antioxidant effects.

  19. Antifatigue Effect of Luteolin-6-C-Neohesperidoside on Oxidative Stress Injury Induced by Forced Swimming of Rats through Modulation of Nrf2/ARE Signaling Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Fang-Fang; Guo, Ying; Li, Jing-Wan; Yuan, Ke

    2017-01-01

    Luteolin-6-C-neohesperidoside (LN) is a flavonoid isolated from moso bamboo leaf. This study was performed to evaluate the antifatigue effect of LN on a rat model undergoing the weight-loaded forced swimming test (FST). Briefly, male Sprague-Dawley rats (20-22 weeks old) were forced to undertake exhaustive swimming every other day for 3 weeks. Each swimming session was followed by the administration of distilled water, LN (25-75 mg/kg), or ascorbic acid (100 mg/kg) 1 h later. Oral administration of LN significantly improved exercise endurance; normalized alterations in energy metabolic markers; and decreased serum lactic acid, lactate dehydrogenase, and blood urea nitrogen levels of rats that underwent FST. Moreover, LN enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant capacity, as measured by enzyme activity assays, RT-PCR, and Western blotting, as well as decreasing the levels of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor- α , interleukin-1 β (IL-1 β ), and IL-6 and increasing the level of anti-inflammatory (IL-10) in the liver and skeletal muscle. These results suggested that LN reduces both physical and mental effects of chronic fatigue, probably by attenuating oxidative stress injury and inflammatory responses in the liver and skeletal muscle. This study thus supports the use of LN in functional foods for antifatigue and antioxidant effects.

  20. Upgrade trigger: Biannual performance update

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Couturier, Ben; Esen, Sevda; De Cian, Michel; De Vries, Jacco Andreas; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fontana, Marianna; Grillo, Lucia; Hasse, Christoph; Jones, Christopher Rob; Le Gac, Renaud; Matev, Rosen; Neufeld, Niko; Nikodem, Thomas; Polci, Francesco; Del Buono, Luigi; Quagliani, Renato; Schwemmer, Rainer; Seyfert, Paul; Stahl, Sascha; Szumlak, Tomasz; Vesterinen, Mika Anton; Wanczyk, Joanna; Williams, Mark Richard James; Yin, Hang; Zacharjasz, Emilia Anna

    2017-01-01

    This document presents the performance of the LHCb Upgrade trigger reconstruction sequence, incorporating changes to the underlying reconstruction algorithms and detector description since the Trigger and Online Upgrade TDR. An updated extrapolation is presented using the most recent example of an Event Filter Farm node.

  1. Minimum Bias Trigger in ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwee, Regina

    2010-01-01

    Since the restart of the LHC in November 2009, ATLAS has collected inelastic pp collisions to perform first measurements on charged particle densities. These measurements will help to constrain various models describing phenomenologically soft parton interactions. Understanding the trigger efficiencies for different event types are therefore crucial to minimize any possible bias in the event selection. ATLAS uses two main minimum bias triggers, featuring complementary detector components and trigger levels. While a hardware based first trigger level situated in the forward regions with 2.2 < |η| < 3.8 has been proven to select pp-collisions very efficiently, the Inner Detector based minimum bias trigger uses a random seed on filled bunches and central tracking detectors for the event selection. Both triggers were essential for the analysis of kinematic spectra of charged particles. Their performance and trigger efficiency measurements as well as studies on possible bias sources will be presented. We also highlight the advantage of these triggers for particle correlation analyses. (author)

  2. Discrete element modeling of triggered slip in faults with granular gouge: application to dynamic earthquake triggering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferdowsi, B.

    2014-01-01

    Recent seismological observations based on new, more sensitive instrumentation show that seismic waves radiated from large earthquakes can trigger other earthquakes globally. This phenomenon is called dynamic earthquake triggering and is well-documented for over 30 of the largest earthquakes worldwide. Granular materials are at the core of mature earthquake faults and play a key role in fault triggering by exhibiting a rich nonlinear response to external perturbations. The stick-slip dynamics in sheared granular layers is analogous to the seismic cycle for earthquake fault systems. In this research effort, we characterize the macroscopic scale statistics and the grain-scale mechanisms of triggered slip in sheared granular layers. We model the granular fault gouge using three dimensional discrete element method simulations. The modeled granular system is put into stick-slip dynamics by applying a conning pressure and a shear load. The dynamic triggering is simulated by perturbing the spontaneous stick-slip dynamics using an external vibration applied to the boundary of the layer. The influences of the triggering consist in a frictional weakening during the vibration interval, a clock advance of the next expected large slip event and long term effects in the form of suppression and recovery of the energy released from the granular layer. Our study suggests that above a critical amplitude, vibration causes a significant clock advance of large slip events. We link this clock advance to a major decline in the slipping contact ratio as well as a decrease in shear modulus and weakening of the granular gouge layer. We also observe that shear vibration is less effective in perturbing the stick-slip dynamics of the granular layer. Our study suggests that in order to have an effective triggering, the input vibration must also explore the granular layer at length scales about or less than the average grain size. The energy suppression and the subsequent recovery and increased

  3. DUMAND data acquisition with triggering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, A.E.; Theriot, D.; March, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    A data acquisition scheme for the standard DUMAND array that includes a simple triggering scheme as a fundamental part of the system is presented. Although there are a number of not yet fully understood parameters, it is assumed that thresholds can be set in such a manner as to give rise to a triggered signal that is not so dominated by randoms that it gives a substantial decrease in the data acquisition rate over that which would be required by a nontriggered system. It is also assumed that the triggering logic is relatively simple and does not need major computational capabilities for a trigger logic decision. With these assumptions, it is possible to generate the trigger at the array and restrict the data transfer to shore. However, with a not unreasonable delay of 200 microseconds, it is even possible to transmit the information for the trigger to shore and perform all that logic on the shore. The critical point is to send the minimum amount of information necessary to construct the trigger such that one need not send all the possible information in all detectors of the array continuously to shore. 1 figure

  4. The CMS Level-1 Trigger Barrel Track Finder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ero, J.; Wulz, C.; Evangelou, I.; Flouris, G.; Foudas, C.; Loukas, N.; Manthos, N.; Papadopoulos, I.; Paradas, E.; Guiducci, L.; Sotiropoulos, S.; Sphicas, P.; Triossi, A.

    2016-01-01

    The design and performance of the upgraded CMS Level-1 Trigger Barrel Muon Track Finder (BMTF) is presented. Monte Carlo simulation data as well as cosmic ray data from a CMS muon detector slice test have been used to study in detail the performance of the new track finder. The design architecture is based on twelve MP7 cards each of which uses a Xilinx Virtex-7 FPGA and can receive and transmit data at 10 Gbps from 72 input and 72 output fibers. According to the CMS Trigger Upgrade TDR the BMTF receives trigger primitive data which are computed using both RPC and DT data and transmits data from a number of muon candidates to the upgraded Global Muon Trigger. Results from detailed studies of comparisons between the BMTF algorithm results and the results of a C++ emulator are also presented. The new BMTF will be commissioned for data taking in 2016

  5. Operation and Monitoring of the CMS Regional Calorimeter Trigger Hardware

    CERN Document Server

    Klabbers, P

    2008-01-01

    The electronics for the Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT) of the Compact Muon Solenoid Experiment (CMS) have been produced, tested, and installed. The RCT hardware consists of one clock distribution crate and 18 double-sided crates containing custom boards, ASICs, and backplanes. The RCT receives 8-bit energies and a data quality bit from the HCAL and ECAL Trigger Primitive Generators (TPGs) and sends it to the CMS Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) after processing. Integration tests with the TPG and GCT subsystems have been successful. Installation is complete and the RCT is integrated into the Level-1 Trigger chain. Data taking has begun using detector noise, cosmic rays, proton-beam debris, and beamhalo muons. The operation and configuration of the RCT is a completely automated process. The tools to monitor, operate, and debug the RCT are mature and will be described in detail, as well as the results from data taking with the RCT.

  6. Triggered Release from Polymer Capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esser-Kahn, Aaron P. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry; Odom, Susan A. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry; Sottos, Nancy R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; White, Scott R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Aerospace Engineering; Moore, Jeffrey S. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry

    2011-07-06

    Stimuli-responsive capsules are of interest in drug delivery, fragrance release, food preservation, and self-healing materials. Many methods are used to trigger the release of encapsulated contents. Here we highlight mechanisms for the controlled release of encapsulated cargo that utilize chemical reactions occurring in solid polymeric shell walls. Triggering mechanisms responsible for covalent bond cleavage that result in the release of capsule contents include chemical, biological, light, thermal, magnetic, and electrical stimuli. We present methods for encapsulation and release, triggering methods, and mechanisms and conclude with our opinions on interesting obstacles for chemically induced activation with relevance for controlled release.

  7. The CDF level-3 trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devlin, T.

    1993-01-01

    The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) has been operating at the Tevatron and collecting data on proton-antiproton interactions with collision rates above 250,000 Hz. Three levels of filtering select events for data logging at a rate of about 4 Hz. The Level 3 trigger provides most of the capabilities of the offline production programs for event reconstruction and physics analysis. The type of physics triggers, application of cuts, and combinations of logical requirements for event selection are controlled at run time by a trigger table using a syntax fully integrated with the Level 1 and Level 2 hardware triggers. The level 3 software operates in 48 RISC/UNIX processors (over 1000 mips) served by four 20-MByte/sec data buses for input, output and control. The system architecture, debugging, code validation, error reporting, analysis capabilities and performance will be described

  8. Luteolin Inhibits Tumorigenesis and Induces Apoptosis of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells via Regulation of MicroRNA-34a-5p

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze-Qun Jiang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Luteolin (LTL exerts remarkable tumor suppressive activity on various types of cancers, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. However, it is not completely understood whether the mechanism of its action against NSCLC is related to microRNAs (miRNAs. In the present study, we investigated the anti-tumor effects of LTL on NSCLC in vitro and in vivo. The results revealed that LTL could inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in both A549 and H460 cells. In a H460 xenograft tumor model of nude mice, LTL significantly suppressed tumor growth, inhibited cell proliferation, and induced apoptosis. miRNA microarray and quantitative PCR (qPCR analysis indicated that miR-34a-5p was dramatically upregulated upon LTL treatment in tumor tissues. Furthermore, MDM4 was proved to be a direct target of miR-34a-5p by luciferase reporter gene assay. LTL treatment was associated with increased p53 and p21 protein expressions and decreased MDM4 protein expression in both NSCLC cells and tumor tissues. When miR-34a-5p was inhibited in vitro, the protein expressions of Bcl-2 and MDM4 were recovered, while that of p53, p21, and Bax were attenuated. Moreover, caspase-3 and caspase-9 activation induced by LHL treatment in vitro were also suppressed by miR-34a-5p inhibition. Overall, LTL could inhibit tumorigenesis and induce apoptosis of NSCLC cells by upregulation of miR-34a-5p via targeting MDM4. These findings provide novel insight into the molecular functions of LTL that suggest its potential as a therapeutic agent for human NSCLC.

  9. Where do we stand after twenty years of dynamic triggering studies? (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prejean, S. G.; Hill, D. P.

    2013-12-01

    In the past two decades, remote dynamic triggering of earthquakes by other earthquakes has been explored in a variety of physical environments with a wide array of observation and modeling techniques. These studies have significantly refined our understanding of the state of the crust and the physical conditions controlling earthquake nucleation. Despite an ever growing database of dynamic triggering observations, significant uncertainties remain and vigorous debate in almost all aspects of the science continues. For example, although dynamic earthquake triggering can occur with peak dynamic stresses as small as 1 kPa, triggering thresholds and their dependence on local stress state, hydrological environment, and frictional properties of faults are not well understood. Some studies find a simple threshold based on the peak amplitude of shaking while others find dependencies on frequency, recharge time, and other parameters. Considerable debate remains over the range of physical processes responsible for dynamic triggering, and the wide variation in dynamic triggering responses and time scales suggests triggering by multiple physical processes. Although Coulomb shear failure with various friction laws can often explain dynamic triggering, particularly instantaneous triggering, delayed dynamic triggering may be dependent on fluid transport and other slowly evolving aseismic processes. Although our understanding of the global distribution of dynamic triggering has improved, it is far from complete due to spatially uneven monitoring. A major challenge involves establishing statistical significance of potentially triggered earthquakes, particularly if they are isolated events or time-delayed with respect to triggering stresses. Here we highlight these challenges and opportunities with existing data. We focus on environmental dependence of dynamic triggering by large remote earthquakes particularly in volcanic and geothermal systems, as these systems often have high

  10. Conflict-Triggered Top-Down Control: Default Mode, Last Resort, or No Such Thing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugg, Julie M.

    2014-01-01

    The conflict monitoring account posits that globally high levels of conflict trigger engagement of top-down control; however, recent findings point to the mercurial nature of top-down control in high conflict contexts. The current study examined the potential moderating effect of associative learning on conflict-triggered top-down control…

  11. The Run-2 ATLAS Trigger System: Design, Performance and Plan

    CERN Document Server

    zur Nedden, Martin; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    In high-energy physics experiments, online selection is crucial to select interesting collisions from the large data volume. The ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) utilizes the trigger system that consists of a hardware Level-1 (L1) and a software based high-level trigger (HLT), reducing the event rate from the design bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz to an average recording rate of about 1000 Hz. In the LHC Run-2 starting from in 2015, the LHC operates at centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV providing a luminosity up to $1.2 \\cdot 10^{34} {\\rm cm^{-2}s^{-1}}$. The ATLAS trigger system has to cope with these challenges, while maintaining or even improving the efficiency to select relevant physics processes. In this paper, the ATLAS trigger system for LHC Run-2 is reviewed. Secondly, the impressive performance improvements in the HLT trigger algorithms used to identify leptons, hadrons and global event quantities like missing transverse energy is shown. Electron, muon and photon triggers covering trans...

  12. The DOe Silicon Track Trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinbrueck, Georg

    2003-01-01

    We describe a trigger preprocessor to be used by the DOe experiment for selecting events with tracks from the decay of long-lived particles. This Level 2 impact parameter trigger utilizes information from the Silicon Microstrip Tracker to reconstruct tracks with improved spatial and momentum resolutions compared to those obtained by the Level 1 tracking trigger. It is constructed of VME boards with much of the logic existing in programmable processors. A common motherboard provides the I/O infrastructure and three different daughter boards perform the tasks of identifying the roads from the tracking trigger data, finding the clusters in the roads in the silicon detector, and fitting tracks to the clusters. This approach provides flexibility for the design, testing and maintenance phases of the project. The track parameters are provided to the trigger framework in 25 μs. The effective impact parameter resolution for high-momentum tracks is 35 μm, dominated by the size of the Tevatron beam

  13. Review Document: Full Software Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Albrecht, J; Raven, G

    2014-01-01

    This document presents a trigger system for the upgraded LHCb detector, scheduled to begin operation in 2020. This document serves as input for the internal review towards the "DAQ, online and trigger TDR". The proposed trigger system is implemented entirely in software. In this document we show that track reconstruction of a similar quality to that available in the offline algorithms can be performed on the full inelastic $pp$-collision rate, without prior event selections implemented in custom hardware and without relying upon a partial event reconstruction. A track nding eciency of 98.8 % relative to oine can be achieved for tracks with $p_T >$ 500 MeV/$c$. The CPU time required for this reconstruction is about 40 % of the available budget. Proof-of-principle selections are presented which demonstrate that excellent performance is achievable using an inclusive beauty trigger, in addition to exclusive beauty and charm triggers. Finally, it is shown that exclusive beauty and charm selections that do not intr...

  14. RPC Trigger Robustness: Status Report

    CERN Document Server

    Di Mattia, A; Nisati, A; Pastore, F; Vari, R; Veneziano, Stefano; Aielli, G; Camarri, P; Cardarelli, R; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Simone, A; Liberti, B; Santonico, R

    2002-01-01

    The present paper describes the Level-1 Barrel Muon Trigger performance as expected with the current configuration of the RPC detectors designed for the Barrel Muon Spectrometer of ATLAS. Results of a beam test performed at the X5-GIF facility at CERN are presented in order to show the trigger efficiency with different conditions of RPC detection efficiency and several background rates. Small (50$\\times$50 cm$^2$) RPC chambers with final Front-end electronics and splitter boards are used in the test, while the coincidence logic is applied off-line using a detailed simulation of the coincidence matrix.

  15. Fast processor for dilepton triggers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsanevas, S.; Kostarakis, P.; Baltrusaitis, R.

    1983-01-01

    We describe a fast trigger processor, developed for and used in Fermilab experiment E-537, for selecting high-mass dimuon events produced by negative pions and anti-protons. The processor finds candidate tracks by matching hit information received from drift chambers and scintillation counters, and determines their momenta. Invariant masses are calculated for all possible pairs of tracks and an event is accepted if any invariant mass is greater than some preselectable minimum mass. The whole process, accomplished within 5 to 10 microseconds, achieves up to a ten-fold reduction in trigger rate

  16. DT Local Trigger performance in 2015

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Local Trigger system of the CMS Drift Tube chambers (DT) was checked applying similar methods as in the LHC Run 1 (2012). The main variables shown in this note are the trigger efficiency, the trigger quality and the fraction of trigger ghosts. The performance was found to be comparable or better than in Run 1.

  17. The Trigger for Early Running

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS Collaboration

    2009-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger and data acquisition system is based on three levels of event selection designed to capture the physics of interest with high efficiency from an initial bunch crossing rate of 40 MHz. The selections in the three trigger levels must provide sufficient rejection to reduce the rate to 200 Hz, compatible with offline computing power and storage capacity. The LHC is expected to begin its operation with a peak luminosity of 10^31 with a relatively small number of bunches, but quickly ramp up to higher luminosities by increasing the number of bunches, and thus the overall interaction rate. Decisions must be taken every 25 ns during normal LHC operations at the design luminosity of 10^34, where the average bunch crossing will contain more than 20 interactions. Hence, trigger selections must be deployed that can adapt to the changing beam conditions while preserving the interesting physics and satisfying varying detector requirements. In this paper, we provide a menu of trigger selections that can be...

  18. The CDF Silicon Vertex Trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dell'Orso, Mauro

    2006-01-01

    Motivations, design, performance and ongoing upgrade of the CDF Silicon Vertex Trigger are presented. The system provides CDF with a powerful tool for online tracking with offline quality in order to enhance the reach on B-physics and large P t -physics coupled to b quarks

  19. Implementation of BES-III TOF trigger system in programmable logic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Wei; Liu Shubin; Liu Xuzong; An Qi

    2009-01-01

    The TOF trigger sub-system on the upgrading Beijing Spectrometer is designed to receive 368 bits fast hit signals from the front end electronics module to yield 7 bits trigger information according to the physical requirement. It sends the processed real time trigger information to the Global-Trigger-Logic to generate the primal trigger signal L1, and sends processed 136 bits real time position information to the Track-Match-Logic to calculate the particle flight tracks. The sub-system also packages the valid events for the DAQ system to read out. Following the reconfigurable concept, a large number of programmable logic devices are employed to increase the flexibility and reliability of the system, and decrease the complexity and the space requirement of PCB layout. This paper describes the implementation of the kernel trigger logic in a programmable logic device. (authors)

  20. Upgrades to the ATLAS trigger system   

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00221618; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    In coming years the LHC is expected to undergo upgrades to increase both the energy of proton-proton collisions and the instantaneous luminosity. In order to cope with these more challenging LHC conditions, upgrades of the ATLAS trigger system will be required. This talk will focus on some of the key aspects of these upgrades. Firstly, the upgrade period between 2019-2021 will see an increase in instantaneous luminosity to $3\\times10^{34} \\rm{cm^{-2}s^{-1}}$. Upgrades to the Level 1 trigger system during this time will include improvements for both the muon and calorimeter triggers. These include the upgrade of the first-level Endcap Muon trigger, the calorimeter trigger electronics and the addition of new calorimeter feature extractor hardware, such as the Global Feature Extractor (gFEX). An overview will be given on the design and development status the aforementioned systems, along with the latest testing and validation results. By 2026, the High Luminosity LHC will be able to deliver 14 TeV collisions wit...

  1. Dynamic Earthquake Triggering on Seismogenic Faults in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Y.; Chen, X.; Peng, Z.; Aiken, C.

    2016-12-01

    Regions with high pore pressure are generally more susceptible to dynamic triggering from transient stress change caused by surface wave of distant earthquakes. The stress threshold from triggering studies can help understand the stress state of seismogenic faults. The recent dramatic seismicity increase in central US provides a rich database for assessing dynamic triggering phenomena. We begin our study by conducting a systematic analysis of dynamic triggering for the continental U.S using ANSS catalog (with magnitude of completeness Mc=3) from 49 global mainshocks (Ms>6.5, depth1kPa). We calculate β value for each 1° by 1° bins in 30 days before and 10 days after the mainshock. To identify regions that experience triggering from a distant mainshock, we generate a stacked map using β≥2 - which represents significant seismicity rate increase. As expected, the geothermal and volcanic fields in California show clear response to distant earthquakes. We also note areas in Oklahoma and north Texas show enhanced triggering, where wastewater-injection induced seismicity are occurring. Next we focus on Oklahoma and use a local catalog from Oklahoma Geological Survey with lower completeness threshold Mc to calculate the beta map in 0.2° by 0.2° bins for each selected mainshock to obtain finer spatial resolutions of the triggering behavior. For those grids with β larger than 2.0, we use waveforms from nearby stations to search for triggered events. The April 2015 M7.8 Nepal earthquake causes a statistically significant increase of local seismicity (β=3.5) in the Woodward area (west Oklahoma) during an on-going earthquake sequence. By visually examining the surface wave from the nearest station, we identify 3 larger local events, and 10 additional smaller events with weaker but discernable amplitude. Preliminary analysis shows that the triggering is related to Rayleigh wave, which would cause dilatational or shear stress changes along the strike direction of

  2. Triggers in UA2 and UA1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorenbosch, J.

    1985-01-01

    The UA2 and UA1 trigger systems are described as they will be used after the upgrade of the CERN SPPS. The luminosity of the collider will increase to 3x10 30 . The bunch spacing is 4 microseconds, comparable to the time available for a second level trigger at the SSC. The first level triggers are very powerful and deliver trigger rates of about 100 Hz. The UA1 second level trigger operates on the final digitizings with a combination of special and general purpose processors. At the highest trigger levels a small farm of processors performs the final reduction. (orig.)

  3. Muon Trigger for Mobile Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisyak, M.; Usvyatsov, M.; Mulhearn, M.; Shimmin, C.; Ustyuzhanin, A.

    2017-10-01

    The CRAYFIS experiment proposes to use privately owned mobile phones as a ground detector array for Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays. Upon interacting with Earth’s atmosphere, these events produce extensive particle showers which can be detected by cameras on mobile phones. A typical shower contains minimally-ionizing particles such as muons. As these particles interact with CMOS image sensors, they may leave tracks of faintly-activated pixels that are sometimes hard to distinguish from random detector noise. Triggers that rely on the presence of very bright pixels within an image frame are not efficient in this case. We present a trigger algorithm based on Convolutional Neural Networks which selects images containing such tracks and are evaluated in a lazy manner: the response of each successive layer is computed only if activation of the current layer satisfies a continuation criterion. Usage of neural networks increases the sensitivity considerably comparable with image thresholding, while the lazy evaluation allows for execution of the trigger under the limited computational power of mobile phones.

  4. Stimulus conflict triggers behavioral avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignath, David; Eder, Andreas B

    2015-12-01

    According to a recent extension of the conflict-monitoring theory, conflict between two competing response tendencies is registered as an aversive event and triggers a motivation to avoid the source of conflict. In the present study, we tested this assumption. Over five experiments, we examined whether conflict is associated with an avoidance motivation and whether stimulus conflict or response conflict triggers an avoidance tendency. Participants first performed a color Stroop task. In a subsequent motivation test, participants responded to Stroop stimuli with approach- and avoidance-related lever movements. These results showed that Stroop-conflict stimuli increased the frequency of avoidance responses in a free-choice motivation test, and also increased the speed of avoidance relative to approach responses in a forced-choice test. High and low proportions of response conflict in the Stroop task had no effect on avoidance in the motivation test. Avoidance of conflict was, however, obtained even with new conflict stimuli that had not been presented before in a Stroop task, and when the Stroop task was replaced with an unrelated filler task. Taken together, these results suggest that stimulus conflict is sufficient to trigger avoidance.

  5. Industrial accidents triggered by lightning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renni, Elisabetta; Krausmann, Elisabeth; Cozzani, Valerio

    2010-12-15

    Natural disasters can cause major accidents in chemical facilities where they can lead to the release of hazardous materials which in turn can result in fires, explosions or toxic dispersion. Lightning strikes are the most frequent cause of major accidents triggered by natural events. In order to contribute towards the development of a quantitative approach for assessing lightning risk at industrial facilities, lightning-triggered accident case histories were retrieved from the major industrial accident databases and analysed to extract information on types of vulnerable equipment, failure dynamics and damage states, as well as on the final consequences of the event. The most vulnerable category of equipment is storage tanks. Lightning damage is incurred by immediate ignition, electrical and electronic systems failure or structural damage with subsequent release. Toxic releases and tank fires tend to be the most common scenarios associated with lightning strikes. Oil, diesel and gasoline are the substances most frequently released during lightning-triggered Natech accidents. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The UA1 trigger processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grayer, G.H.

    1981-01-01

    Experiment UA1 is a large multi-purpose spectrometer at the CERN proton-antiproton collider, scheduled for late 1981. The principal trigger is formed on the basis of the energy deposition in calorimeters. A trigger decision taken in under 2.4 microseconds can avoid dead time losses due to the bunched nature of the beam. To achieve this we have built fast 8-bit charge to digital converters followed by two identical digital processors tailored to the experiment. The outputs of groups of the 2440 photomultipliers in the calorimeters are summed to form a total of 288 input channels to the ADCs. A look-up table in RAM is used to convert the digitised photomultiplier signals to energy in one processor, combinations of input channels, and also counts the number of clusters with electromagnetic or hadronic energy above pre-determined levels. Up to twelve combinations of these conditions, together with external information, may be combined in coincidence or in veto to form the final trigger. Provision has been made for testing using simulated data in an off-line mode, and sampling real data when on-line. (orig.)

  7. ATLAS Level-1 Topological Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Daniel; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment has introduced and recently commissioned a completely new hardware sub-system of its first-level trigger: the topological processor (L1Topo). L1Topo consist of two AdvancedTCA blades mounting state-of-the-art FPGA processors, providing high input bandwidth (up to 4 Gb/s) and low latency data processing (200 ns). L1Topo is able to select collision events by applying kinematic and topological requirements on candidate objects (energy clusters, jets, and muons) measured by calorimeters and muon sub-detectors. Results from data recorded using the L1Topo trigger will be presented. These results demonstrate a significantly improved background event rejection, thus allowing for a rate reduction without efficiency loss. This improvement has been shown for several physics processes leading to low-pT leptons, including H->tau tau and J/Psi->mu mu. In addition to describing the L1Topo trigger system, we will discuss the use of an accurate L1Topo simulation as a powerful tool to validate and optimize...

  8. ATLAS FTK: Fast Track Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Volpi, Guido; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    An overview of the ATLAS Fast Tracker processor is presented, reporting the design of the system, its expected performance, and the integration status. The next LHC runs, with a significant increase in instantaneous luminosity, will provide a big challenge to the trigger and data acquisition systems of all the experiments. An intensive use of the tracking information at the trigger level will be important to keep high efficiency in interesting events, despite the increase in multiple p-p collisions per bunch crossing (pile-up). In order to increase the use of tracks within the High Level Trigger (HLT), the ATLAS experiment planned the installation of an hardware processor dedicated to tracking: the Fast TracKer (FTK) processor. The FTK is designed to perform full scan track reconstruction at every Level-1 accept. To achieve this goal, the FTK uses a fully parallel architecture, with algorithms designed to exploit the computing power of custom VLSI chips, the Associative Memory, as well as modern FPGAs. The FT...

  9. A novel turbulence trigger for neoclassical tearing modes in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Sanae-I.; Yagi, Masatoshi; Itoh, Kimitaka

    2003-07-01

    Stochastic trigger by microturbulence for neoclassical tearing mode (NTM) is studied. NTM induces topological change of magnetic structure and has subcritical nature. Transition rate of probability density function for and statistically-averaged amplitude of NTM are obtained. Boundary in the phase diagram is determined as the statistical long time average of the transition conditions. NTM can be excited by crossing this boundary even in the absence of other global instabilities. (author)

  10. Headache triggers in the US military.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theeler, Brett J; Kenney, Kimbra; Prokhorenko, Olga A; Fideli, Ulgen S; Campbell, William; Erickson, Jay C

    2010-05-01

    Headaches can be triggered by a variety of factors. Military service members have a high prevalence of headache but the factors triggering headaches in military troops have not been identified. The objective of this study is to determine headache triggers in soldiers and military beneficiaries seeking specialty care for headaches. A total of 172 consecutive US Army soldiers and military dependents (civilians) evaluated at the headache clinics of 2 US Army Medical Centers completed a standardized questionnaire about their headache triggers. A total of 150 (87%) patients were active-duty military members and 22 (13%) patients were civilians. In total, 77% of subjects had migraine; 89% of patients reported at least one headache trigger with a mean of 8.3 triggers per patient. A wide variety of headache triggers was seen with the most common categories being environmental factors (74%), stress (67%), consumption-related factors (60%), and fatigue-related factors (57%). The types of headache triggers identified in active-duty service members were similar to those seen in civilians. Stress-related triggers were significantly more common in soldiers. There were no significant differences in trigger types between soldiers with and without a history of head trauma. Headaches in military service members are triggered mostly by the same factors as in civilians with stress being the most common trigger. Knowledge of headache triggers may be useful for developing strategies that reduce headache occurrence in the military.

  11. The Jefferson Lab Trigger Supervisor System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ed Jastrzembsi; David Abbott; Graham Heyes; R.W. MacLeod; Carl Timmer; Elliott Wolin

    2000-01-01

    We discuss the design and performance of a Trigger Supervisor System for use in nuclear physics experiments at Jefferson Lab. We also discuss the enhanced features of a new Trigger Supervisor Module now under construction

  12. The Jefferson Lab Trigger Supervisor System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jastrzembski, E.; Abbott, D.J.; Heyes, W.G.; MacLeod, R.W.; Timmer, C.; Wolin, E.

    1999-01-01

    The authors discuss the design and performance of a Trigger Supervisor System for use in nuclear physics experiments at Jefferson Lab. They also discuss the enhanced features of a new Trigger Supervisor Module now under construction

  13. The Trigger System of the CMS Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Felcini, Marta

    2008-01-01

    We give an overview of the main features of the CMS trigger and data acquisition (DAQ) system. Then, we illustrate the strategies and trigger configurations (trigger tables) developed for the detector calibration and physics program of the CMS experiment, at start-up of LHC operations, as well as their possible evolution with increasing luminosity. Finally, we discuss the expected CPU time performance of the trigger algorithms and the CPU requirements for the event filter farm at start-up.

  14. Triggers for a high sensitivity charm experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian, D.C.

    1994-07-01

    Any future charm experiment clearly should implement an E T trigger and a μ trigger. In order to reach the 10 8 reconstructed charm level for hadronic final states, a high quality vertex trigger will almost certainly also be necessary. The best hope for the development of an offline quality vertex trigger lies in further development of the ideas of data-driven processing pioneered by the Nevis/U. Mass. group

  15. First level trigger of the DIRAC experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanas'ev, L.G.; Karpukhin, V.V.; Kulikov, A.V.; Gallas, M.

    2001-01-01

    The logic of the first level trigger of the DIRAC experiment at CERN is described. A parallel running of different trigger modes with tagging of events and optional independent prescaling is realized. A CAMAC-based trigger system is completely computer controlled

  16. The D OE software trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linnemann, J.T.; Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI

    1992-10-01

    In the D OE experiment, the software filter operates in a processor farm with each node processing a single event. Processing is data-driven: the filter does local processing to verify the candidates from the hardware trigger. The filter code consists of independent pieces called ''tools''; processing for a given hardware bit is a ''script'' invoking one or more ''tools'' sequentially. An offline simulator drives the same code with the same configuration files, running on real or simulated data. Online tests use farm nodes parasiting on the data stream. We discuss the performance of the system and how we attempt to verify its correctness

  17. Calorimeter triggers for hard collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landshoff, P.V.; Polkinghorne, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    We discuss the use of a forward calorimeter to trigger on hard hadron-hadron collisions. We give a derivation in the covariant parton model of the Ochs-Stodolsky scaling law for single-hard-scattering processes, and investigate the conditions when instead a multiple- scattering mechanism might dominate. With a proton beam, this mechanism results in six transverse jets, with a total average multiplicity about twice that seen in ordinary events. We estimate that its cross section is likely to be experimentally accessible at avalues of the beam energy in the region of 100 GeV/c

  18. Triggering for charm, beauty, and truth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, J.A.

    1982-02-01

    As the search for more and more rare processes accelerates, the need for more and more effective event triggers also accelerates. In the earliest experiments, a simple coincidence often sufficed not only as the event trigger, but as the complete record of an event of interest. In today's experiments, not only has the fast trigger become more sophisticated, but one or more additional level of trigger processing precedes writing event data to magnetic tape for later analysis. Further search experiments will certainly require further expansion in the number of trigger levels required to filter those rare events of particular interest

  19. The Database Driven ATLAS Trigger Configuration System

    CERN Document Server

    Martyniuk, Alex; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    This contribution describes the trigger selection configuration system of the ATLAS low- and high-level trigger (HLT) and the upgrades it received in preparation for LHC Run 2. The ATLAS trigger configuration system is responsible for applying the physics selection parameters for the online data taking at both trigger levels and the proper connection of the trigger lines across those levels. Here the low-level trigger consists of the already existing central trigger (CT) and the new Level-1 Topological trigger (L1Topo), which has been added for Run 2. In detail the tasks of the configuration system during the online data taking are Application of the selection criteria, e.g. energy cuts, minimum multiplicities, trigger object correlation, at the three trigger components L1Topo, CT, and HLT On-the-fly, e.g. rate-dependent, generation and application of prescale factors to the CT and HLT to adjust the trigger rates to the data taking conditions, such as falling luminosity or rate spikes in the detector readout ...

  20. Hadronic Triggers and trigger-object level analysis at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Zaripovas, Donatas Ramilas; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Hadronic signatures are critical to the high energy physics analysis program, and are broadly used for both Standard Model measurements and searches for new physics. These signatures include generic quark and gluon jets, as well as jets originating from b-quarks or the decay of massive particles (such as electroweak bosons or top quarks). Additionally missing transverse momentum from non-interacting particles provides an interesting probe in the search for new physics beyond the Standard Model. Developing trigger selections that target these events is a huge challenge at the LHC due to the enormous rates associated with these signatures. This challenge is exacerbated by the amount of pile-up activity, which continues to grow. In order to address these challenges, several new techniques have been developed during the past year in order to significantly improve the potential of the 2017 dataset and overcome the limiting factors to more deeply probing for new physics, such as storage and computing requirements f...

  1. Hadronic triggers and trigger object-level analysis at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Zaripovas, Donatas Ramilas; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Hadronic signatures are critical to the high energy physics analysis program at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), and are broadly used for both Standard Model measurements and searches for new physics. These signatures include generic quark and gluon jets, as well as jets originating from b-quarks or the decay of massive particles (such as electroweak bosons or top quarks). Additionally missing transverse momentum from non-interacting particles provides an interesting probe in the search for new physics beyond the Standard Model. Developing trigger selections that target these events is a huge challenge at the LHC due to the enormous event rates associated with these signatures. This challenge is exacerbated by the amount of pile-up activity, which continues to grow. In order to address these challenges, several new techniques have been developed during the past year in order to significantly improve the potential of the 2017 dataset and overcome the limiting factors, such as storage and computing requirements...

  2. Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations for Studying Solar Flare Trigger Mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhamad, J.; Kusano, K.; Inoue, S.; Shiota, D. [Institute for Space-Earth Environmental Research, Nagoya University, Furocho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi, 464-8601 (Japan)

    2017-06-20

    In order to understand the flare trigger mechanism, we conduct three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations using a coronal magnetic field model derived from data observed by the Hinode satellite. Several types of magnetic bipoles are imposed into the photospheric boundary of the Nonlinear Force-free Field model of Active Region (AR) NOAA 10930 on 2006 December 13, to investigate what kind of magnetic disturbance may trigger the flare. As a result, we confirm that certain small bipole fields, which emerge into the highly sheared global magnetic field of an AR, can effectively trigger a flare. These bipole fields can be classified into two groups based on their orientation relative to the polarity inversion line: the so-called opposite polarity, and reversed shear structures, as suggested by Kusano et al. We also investigate the structure of the footpoints of reconnected field lines. By comparing the distribution of reconstructed field lines and observed flare ribbons, the trigger structure of the flare can be inferred. Our simulation suggests that the data-constrained simulation, taking into account both the large-scale magnetic structure and small-scale magnetic disturbance (such as emerging fluxes), is a good way to discover a flare-producing AR, which can be applied to space weather prediction.

  3. THE CURRENCY CRISIS TRIGGER OF THE ROMANIAN FINANCIAL CRISIS OF 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu SOVIANI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the ways the financial crisis started to manifest into the Romanian Financial System, through the exchange rate channel. The focus of this Paper is on how the Romanian decision makers contributed in triggering the financial crisis (that would have been triggered anyway. The paper will determine the trigger (the first obvious event for the Romanian Financial Crisis (the debut and it will prove that the consequences of this trigger could have been anticipated - it is in line with similar triggers for the debut in other currency crises. Therefore, one of the main conclusions of this paper is that while a global crisis starts to manifest the local economy should limit the exuberance of the decision makers in order to smooth the effects of the crisis.

  4. Triggers of oral lichen planus flares and the potential role of trigger avoidance in disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hannah X; Blasiak, Rachel; Kim, Edwin; Padilla, Ricardo; Culton, Donna A

    2017-09-01

    Many patients with oral lichen planus (OLP) report triggers of flares, some of which overlap with triggers of other oral diseases, including oral allergy syndrome and oral contact dermatitis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of commonly reported triggers of OLP flares, their overlap with triggers of other oral diseases, and the potential role of trigger avoidance as a management strategy. Questionnaire-based survey of 51 patients with biopsy-proven lichen planus with oral involvement seen in an academic dermatology specialty clinic and/or oral pathology clinic between June 2014 and June 2015. Of the participants, 94% identified at least one trigger of their OLP flares. Approximately half of the participants (51%) reported at least one trigger that overlapped with known triggers of oral allergy syndrome, and 63% identified at least one trigger that overlapped with known triggers of oral contact dermatitis. Emotional stress was the most commonly reported trigger (77%). Regarding avoidance, 79% of the study participants reported avoiding their known triggers in daily life. Of those who actively avoided triggers, 89% reported an improvement in symptoms and 70% reported a decrease in the frequency of flares. Trigger identification and avoidance can play a potentially effective role in the management of OLP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Modular trigger processing The GCT muon and quiet bit system

    CERN Document Server

    Stettler, Matthew; Hansen, Magnus; Iles, Gregory; Jones, John; PH-EP

    2007-01-01

    The CMS Global Calorimeter Trigger system's HCAL Muon and Quiet bit reformatting function is being implemented with a novel processing architecture. This architecture utilizes micro TCA, a modern modular communications standard based on high speed serial links, to implement a processing matrix. This matrix is configurable in both logical functionality and data flow, allowing far greater flexibility than current trigger processing systems. In addition, the modular nature of this architecture allows flexibility in scale unmatched by traditional approaches. The Muon and Quiet bit system consists of two major components, a custom micro TCA backplane and processing module. These components are based on Xilinx Virtex5 and Mindspeed crosspoint switch devices, bringing together state of the art FPGA based processing and Telcom switching technologies.

  6. Soil Temperature Triggers the Onset of Photosynthesis in Korean Pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiabing; Guan, Dexin; Yuan, Fenhui; Wang, Anzhi; Jin, Changjie

    2013-01-01

    In forest ecosystems, the onset of spring photosynthesis may have an important influence on the annual carbon balance. However, triggers for the onset of photosynthesis have yet to be clearly identified, especially for temperate evergreen conifers. The effects of climatic factors on recovery of photosynthetic capacity in a Korean pine forest were investigated in the field. No photosynthesis was detectable when the soil temperature was below 0°C even if the air temperature was far beyond 15°C. The onset of photosynthesis and sap flow was coincident with the time of soil thawing. The rates of recovery of photosynthetic capacity highly fluctuated with air temperature after onset of photosynthesis, and intermittent frost events remarkably inhibited the photosynthetic capacity of the needles. The results suggest that earlier soil thawing is more important than air temperature increases in triggering the onset of photosynthesis in Korean pine in temperate zones under global warming scenarios. PMID:23755227

  7. FPGA based compute nodes for high level triggering in PANDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehn, W; Gilardi, C; Kirschner, D; Lang, J; Lange, S; Liu, M; Perez, T; Yang, S; Schmitt, L; Jin, D; Li, L; Liu, Z; Lu, Y; Wang, Q; Wei, S; Xu, H; Zhao, D; Korcyl, K; Otwinowski, J T; Salabura, P

    2008-01-01

    PANDA is a new universal detector for antiproton physics at the HESR facility at FAIR/GSI. The PANDA data acquisition system has to handle interaction rates of the order of 10 7 /s and data rates of several 100 Gb/s. FPGA based compute nodes with multi-Gb/s bandwidth capability using the ATCA architecture are designed to handle tasks such as event building, feature extraction and high level trigger processing. Data connectivity is provided via optical links as well as multiple Gb Ethernet ports. The boards will support trigger algorithms such us pattern recognition for RICH detectors, EM shower analysis, fast tracking algorithms and global event characterization. Besides VHDL, high level C-like hardware description languages will be considered to implement the firmware

  8. Application of Vector Triggering Random Decrement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, J. C.; Ibrahim, S. R.; Brincker, Rune

    result is a Random Decrement function from each measurement. In traditional Random Decrement estimation the triggering condition is a scalar condition, which should only be fulfilled in a single measurement. In vector triggering Random Decrement the triggering condition is a vector condition......This paper deals with applications of the vector triggering Random Decrement technique. This technique is new and developed with the aim of minimizing estimation time and identification errors. The theory behind the technique is discussed in an accompanying paper. The results presented...... in this paper should be regarded as a further documentation of the technique. The key point in Random Decrement estimation is the formulation of a triggering condition. If the triggering condition is fulfilled a time segment from each measurement is picked out and averaged with previous time segments. The final...

  9. Application of Vector Triggering Random Decrement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, J. C.; Ibrahim, S. R.; Brincker, Rune

    1997-01-01

    result is a Random Decrement function from each measurement. In traditional Random Decrement estimation the triggering condition is a scalar condition, which should only be fulfilled in a single measurement. In vector triggering Random Decrement the triggering condition is a vector condition......This paper deals with applications of the vector triggering Random Decrement technique. This technique is new and developed with the aim of minimizing estimation time and identification errors. The theory behind the technique is discussed in an accompanying paper. The results presented...... in this paper should be regarded as a further documentation of the technique. The key point in Random Decrement estimation is the formulation of a triggering condition. If the triggering condition is fulfilled a time segment from each measurement is picked out and averaged with previous time segments. The final...

  10. Smart trigger logic for focal plane arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, James E; Campbell, David V; Holmes, Michael L; Lovejoy, Robert; Wojciechowski, Kenneth; Kay, Randolph R; Cavanaugh, William S; Gurrieri, Thomas M

    2014-03-25

    An electronic device includes a memory configured to receive data representing light intensity values from pixels in a focal plane array and a processor that analyzes the received data to determine which light values correspond to triggered pixels, where the triggered pixels are those pixels that meet a predefined set of criteria, and determines, for each triggered pixel, a set of neighbor pixels for which light intensity values are to be stored. The electronic device also includes a buffer that temporarily stores light intensity values for at least one previously processed row of pixels, so that when a triggered pixel is identified in a current row, light intensity values for the neighbor pixels in the previously processed row and for the triggered pixel are persistently stored, as well as a data transmitter that transmits the persistently stored light intensity values for the triggered and neighbor pixels to a data receiver.

  11. The STAR Level-3 trigger system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, C.; Berger, J.; Demello, M.; Dietel, T.; Flierl, D.; Landgraf, J.; Lange, J.S.; LeVine, M.J.; Ljubicic, A.; Nelson, J.; Roehrich, D.; Stock, R.; Struck, C.; Yepes, P.

    2003-01-01

    The STAR Level-3 trigger issues a trigger decision upon a complete online reconstruction of Au+Au collisions at relativistic heavy ion collider energies. Central interactions are processed up to a rate of 50 s -1 including a simple analysis of physics observables. The setup of the processor farm and the event reconstruction as well as experiences and the proposed trigger algorithms are described

  12. Upgrade trigger & reconstruction strategy: 2017 milestone

    CERN Document Server

    Albrecht, Johannes; Campora Perez, Daniel Hugo; Cattaneo, Marco; Marco, Clemencic; Couturier, Ben; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fontana, Marianna; Grillo, Lucia; Hasse, Christoph; Hill, Donal; Jones, Christopher Rob; Lemaitre, Florian; Lupton, Olli; Matev, Rosen; Pearce, Alex; Polci, Francesco; Promberger, Laura; Ponce, Sebastien; Quagliani, Renato; Raven, Gerhard; Sciascia, Barbara; Schiller, Manuel Tobias; Stahl, Sascha; Szymanski, Maciej Pawel; Chefdeville, Maximilien

    2018-01-01

    The LHCb collaboration is currently preparing an update of the experiment to take data in Run 3 of the LHC. The dominant feature of this upgrade is a trigger-less readout of the full detector followed by a full software trigger. To make optimal use of the collected data, the events are reconstructed at the inelastic collision rate of 30 MHz. This document presents the baseline trigger and reconstruction strategy as of the end of 2017.

  13. A muon trigger for the MACRO apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbarito, E.; Bellotti, R.; Calicchio, M.; Castellano, M.; DeCataldo, G.; DeMarzo, C.; Erriquez, O.; Favuzzi, C.; Giglietto, N.; Liuzzi, R.; Spinelli, P.

    1991-01-01

    A trigger circuit based on EPROM components, able to manage up to 30 lines from independent counters, is described. The circuit has been designed and used in the MACRO apparatus at the Gran Sasso Laboratory for triggering on fast particles. The circuit works with standard TTL positive logic and is assembled in a double standard CAMAC module. It has a high triggering capacity and a high flexibility. (orig.)

  14. The ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achenbach, R; Andrei, V; Adragna, P; Apostologlou, P; Barnett, B M; Brawn, I P; Davis, A O; Edwards, J P; Asman, B; Bohm, C; Ay, C; Bauss, B; Bendel, M; Dahlhoff, A; Eckweiler, S; Booth, J R A; Thomas, P Bright; Charlton, D G; Collins, N J; Curtis, C J

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger uses reduced-granularity information from all the ATLAS calorimeters to search for high transverse-energy electrons, photons, τ leptons and jets, as well as high missing and total transverse energy. The calorimeter trigger electronics has a fixed latency of about 1 μs, using programmable custom-built digital electronics. This paper describes the Calorimeter Trigger hardware, as installed in the ATLAS electronics cavern

  15. The ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achenbach, R; Andrei, V [Kirchhoff-Institut fuer Physik, University of Heidelberg, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Adragna, P [Physics Department, Queen Mary, University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Apostologlou, P; Barnett, B M; Brawn, I P; Davis, A O; Edwards, J P [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Asman, B; Bohm, C [Fysikum, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Ay, C; Bauss, B; Bendel, M; Dahlhoff, A; Eckweiler, S [Institut fuer Physik, University of Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Booth, J R A; Thomas, P Bright; Charlton, D G; Collins, N J; Curtis, C J [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)], E-mail: e.eisenhandler@qmul.ac.uk (and others)

    2008-03-15

    The ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger uses reduced-granularity information from all the ATLAS calorimeters to search for high transverse-energy electrons, photons, {tau} leptons and jets, as well as high missing and total transverse energy. The calorimeter trigger electronics has a fixed latency of about 1 {mu}s, using programmable custom-built digital electronics. This paper describes the Calorimeter Trigger hardware, as installed in the ATLAS electronics cavern.

  16. The ATLAS Trigger System Commissioning and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Hamilton, A

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger has been used very successfully to collect collision data during 2009 and 2010 LHC running at centre of mass energies of 900 GeV, 2.36 TeV, and 7 TeV. This paper presents the ongoing work to commission the ATLAS trigger with proton collisions, including an overview of the performance of the trigger based on extensive online running. We describe how the trigger has evolved with increasing LHC luminosity and give a brief overview of plans for forthcoming LHC running.

  17. A Novel in situ Trigger Combination Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzatu, Adrian; Warburton, Andreas; Krumnack, Nils; Yao, Wei-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Searches for rare physics processes using particle detectors in high-luminosity colliding hadronic beam environments require the use of multi-level trigger systems to reject colossal background rates in real time. In analyses like the search for the Higgs boson, there is a need to maximize the signal acceptance by combining multiple different trigger chains when forming the offline data sample. In such statistically limited searches, datasets are often amassed over periods of several years, during which the trigger characteristics evolve and their performance can vary significantly. Reliable production cross-section measurements and upper limits must take into account a detailed understanding of the effective trigger inefficiency for every selected candidate event. We present as an example the complex situation of three trigger chains, based on missing energy and jet energy, to be combined in the context of the search for the Higgs (H) boson produced in association with a W boson at the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). We briefly review the existing techniques for combining triggers, namely the inclusion, division, and exclusion methods. We introduce and describe a novel fourth in situ method whereby, for each candidate event, only the trigger chain with the highest a priori probability of selecting the event is considered. The in situ combination method has advantages of scalability to large numbers of differing trigger chains and of insensitivity to correlations between triggers. We compare the inclusion and in situ methods for signal event yields in the CDF WH search.

  18. The ATLAS Muon and Tau Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Dell'Asta, L; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    [Muon] The ATLAS experiment at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) deploys a three-levels processing scheme for the trigger system. The level-1 muon trigger system gets its input from fast muon trigger detectors. Fast sector logic boards select muon candidates, which are passed via an interface board to the central trigger processor and then to the High Level Trigger (HLT). The muon HLT is purely software based and encompasses a level-2 (L2) trigger followed by an event filter (EF) for a staged trigger approach. It has access to the data of the precision muon detectors and other detector elements to refine the muon hypothesis. Trigger-specific algorithms were developed and are used for the L2 to increase processing speed for instance by making use of look-up tables and simpler algorithms, while the EF muon triggers mostly benefit from offline reconstruction software to obtain most precise determination of the track parameters. There are two algorithms with different approaches, namely inside-out and outside-in...

  19. Geometrical Acceptance Analysis for RPC PAC Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Seo, Eunsung

    2010-01-01

    The CMS(Compact Muon Solenoid) is one of the four experiments that will analyze the collision results of the protons accelerated by the Large Hardron Collider(LHC) at CERN(Conseil Europen pour la Recherche Nuclaire). In case of the CMS experiment, the trigger system is divided into two stages : The Level-1 Trigger and High Level Trigger. The RPC(Resistive Plate Chamber) PAC(PAttern Comparator) Trigger system, which is a subject of this thesis, is a part of the Level-1 Muon Trigger System. Main task of the PAC Trigger is to identify muons, measures transverse momenta and select the best muon candidates for each proton bunch collision occurring every 25 ns. To calculate the value of PAC Trigger efficiency for triggerable muon, two terms of different efficiencies are needed ; acceptance efficiency and chamber efficiency. Main goal of the works described in this thesis is obtaining the acceptance efficiency of the PAC Trigger in each logical cone. Acceptance efficiency is a convolution of the chambers geometry an...

  20. Landslide triggering by rain infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Richard M.

    2000-01-01

    Landsliding in response to rainfall involves physical processes that operate on disparate timescales. Relationships between these timescales guide development of a mathematical model that uses reduced forms of Richards equation to evaluate effects of rainfall infiltration on landslide occurrence, timing, depth, and acceleration in diverse situations. The longest pertinent timescale is A/D0, where D0 is the maximum hydraulic diffusivity of the soil and A is the catchment area that potentially affects groundwater pressures at a prospective landslide slip surface location with areal coordinates x, y and depth H. Times greater than A/D0 are necessary for establishment of steady background water pressures that develop at (x, y, H) in response to rainfall averaged over periods that commonly range from days to many decades. These steady groundwater pressures influence the propensity for landsliding at (x, y, H), but they do not trigger slope failure. Failure results from rainfall over a typically shorter timescale H2/D0 associated with transient pore pressure transmission during and following storms. Commonly, this timescale ranges from minutes to months. The shortest timescale affecting landslide responses to rainfall is √(H/g), where g is the magnitude of gravitational acceleration. Postfailure landslide motion occurs on this timescale, which indicates that the thinnest landslides accelerate most quickly if all other factors are constant. Effects of hydrologic processes on landslide processes across these diverse timescales are encapsulated by a response function, R(t*) = √(t*/π) exp (-1/t*) - erfc (1/√t*), which depends only on normalized time, t*. Use of R(t*) in conjunction with topographic data, rainfall intensity and duration information, an infinite-slope failure criterion, and Newton's second law predicts the timing, depth, and acceleration of rainfall-triggered landslides. Data from contrasting landslides that exhibit rapid, shallow

  1. Nonlinear dynamical triggering of slow slip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Paul A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Knuth, Matthew W [WISCONSIN; Kaproth, Bryan M [PENN STATE; Carpenter, Brett [PENN STATE; Guyer, Robert A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Le Bas, Pierre - Yves [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Daub, Eric G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Marone, Chris [PENN STATE

    2010-12-10

    Among the most fascinating, recent discoveries in seismology have been the phenomena of triggered slip, including triggered earthquakes and triggered-tremor, as well as triggered slow, silent-slip during which no seismic energy is radiated. Because fault nucleation depths cannot be probed directly, the physical regimes in which these phenomena occur are poorly understood. Thus determining physical properties that control diverse types of triggered fault sliding and what frictional constitutive laws govern triggered faulting variability is challenging. We are characterizing the physical controls of triggered faulting with the goal of developing constitutive relations by conducting laboratory and numerical modeling experiments in sheared granular media at varying load conditions. In order to simulate granular fault zone gouge in the laboratory, glass beads are sheared in a double-direct configuration under constant normal stress, while subject to transient perturbation by acoustic waves. We find that triggered, slow, silent-slip occurs at very small confining loads ({approx}1-3 MPa) that are smaller than those where dynamic earthquake triggering takes place (4-7 MPa), and that triggered slow-slip is associated with bursts of LFE-like acoustic emission. Experimental evidence suggests that the nonlinear dynamical response of the gouge material induced by dynamic waves may be responsible for the triggered slip behavior: the slip-duration, stress-drop and along-strike slip displacement are proportional to the triggering wave amplitude. Further, we observe a shear-modulus decrease corresponding to dynamic-wave triggering relative to the shear modulus of stick-slips. Modulus decrease in response to dynamical wave amplitudes of roughly a microstrain and above is a hallmark of elastic nonlinear behavior. We believe that the dynamical waves increase the material non-affine elastic deformation during shearing, simultaneously leading to instability and slow-slip. The inferred

  2. The trigger supervisor: Managing triggering conditions in a high energy physics experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadsworth, B.; Lanza, R.; LeVine, M.J.; Scheetz, R.A.; Videbaek, F.

    1987-01-01

    A trigger supervisor, implemented in VME-bus hardware, is described, which enables the host computer to dynamically control and monitor the trigger configuration for acquiring data from multiple detector partitions in a complex experiment

  3. Tools for Trigger Aware Analyses in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Krasznahorkay, A; The ATLAS collaboration; Stelzer, J

    2010-01-01

    In order to search for rare processes, all four LHC experiments have to use advanced triggering methods for selecting and recording the events of interest. At the expected nominal LHC operating conditions only about 0.0005% of the collision events can be kept for physics analysis in ATLAS. Therefore the understanding and evaluation of the trigger performance is one of the most crucial parts of any physics analysis. ATLAS’s first level trigger is composed of custom-built hardware, while the second and third levels are implemented using regular PCs running reconstruction and selection algorithms. Because of this split, accessing the results of the trigger execution for the two stages is different. The complexity of the software trigger presents further difficulties in accessing the trigger data. To make the job of the physicists easier when evaluating the trigger performance, multiple general-use tools are provided by the ATLAS Trigger Analysis Tools group. The TrigDecisionTool, a general tool, is provided to...

  4. The Run-2 ATLAS Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger has been successfully collecting collision data during the first run of the LHC between 2009-2013 at a centre-of-mass energy between 900 GeV and 8 TeV. The trigger system consists of a hardware Level-1 (L1) and a software based high-level trigger (HLT) that reduces the event rate from the design bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz to an average recording rate of a few hundred Hz. In Run-2, the LHC will operate at centre-of-mass energies of 13 and 14 TeV resulting in roughly five times higher trigger rates. We will briefly review the ATLAS trigger system upgrades that were implemented during the shutdown, allowing us to cope with the increased trigger rates while maintaining or even improving our efficiency to select relevant physics processes. This includes changes to the L1 calorimeter and muon trigger systems, the introduction of a new L1 topological trigger module and the merging of the previously two-level HLT system into a single event filter farm. At hand of a few examples, we will show the ...

  5. The Run-2 ATLAS Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00222798; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger successfully collected collision data during the first run of the LHC between 2009-2013 at different centre-of-mass energies between 900 GeV and 8 TeV. The trigger system consists of a hardware Level-1 and a software-based high level trigger (HLT) that reduces the event rate from the design bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz to an average recording rate of a few hundred Hz. In Run-2, the LHC will operate at centre-of-mass energies of 13 and 14 TeV and higher luminosity, resulting in roughly five times higher trigger rates. A brief review of the ATLAS trigger system upgrades that were implemented between Run-1 and Run-2, allowing to cope with the increased trigger rates while maintaining or even improving the efficiency to select physics processes of interest, will be given. This includes changes to the Level-1 calorimeter and muon trigger systems, the introduction of a new Level-1 topological trigger module and the merging of the previously two-level HLT system into a single event filter farm. A ...

  6. Intelligent trigger processor for the crystal box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, G.H.; Butler, H.S.; Cooper, M.D.

    1981-01-01

    A large solid angle modular NaI(Tl) detector with 432 phototubes and 88 trigger scintillators is being used to search simultaneously for three lepton flavor changing decays of muon. A beam of up to 10 6 muons stopping per second with a 6% duty factor would yield up to 1000 triggers per second from random triple coincidences. A reduction of the trigger rate to 10 Hz is required from a hardwired primary trigger processor described in this paper. Further reduction to < 1 Hz is achieved by a microprocessor based secondary trigger processor. The primary trigger hardware imposes voter coincidence logic, stringent timing requirements, and a non-adjacency requirement in the trigger scintillators defined by hardwired circuits. Sophisticated geometric requirements are imposed by a PROM-based matrix logic, and energy and vector-momentum cuts are imposed by a hardwired processor using LSI flash ADC's and digital arithmetic loci. The secondary trigger employs four satellite microprocessors to do a sparse data scan, multiplex the data acquisition channels and apply additional event filtering

  7. Trigger factors for familial hemiplegic migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Møller; Hauge, Anne Werner; Ashina, Messoud

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to identify and describe migraine trigger factors in patients with familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) from a population-based sample.......The aim was to identify and describe migraine trigger factors in patients with familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) from a population-based sample....

  8. The ATLAS Level-1 Topological Trigger Performance

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00371751; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The LHC will collide protons in the ATLAS detector with increasing luminosity through 2016, placing stringent operational and physical requirements to the ATLAS trigger system in order to reduce the 40 MHz collision rate to a manageable event storage rate of 1 kHz, while not rejecting interesting physics events. The Level-1 trigger is the first rate-reducing step in the ATLAS trigger system with an output rate of 100 kHz and decision latency smaller than 2.5 μs. It consists of a calorimeter trigger, muon trigger and a central trigger processor. During the LHC shutdown after the Run 1 finished in 2013, the Level-1 trigger system was upgraded including hardware, firmware and software updates. In particular, new electronics modules were introduced in the real-time data processing path: the Topological Processor System (L1Topo). It consists of a single AdvancedCTA shelf equipped with two Level-1 topological processor blades. They receive real-time information from the Level-1 calorimeter and muon triggers, which...

  9. Do episodes of anger trigger myocardial infarction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, J; Hallqvist, J; Diderichsen, Finn

    1999-01-01

    Our objectives were to study anger as a trigger of acute myocardial infarction (MI) and to explore potential effect modification by usual behavioral patterns related to hostility.......Our objectives were to study anger as a trigger of acute myocardial infarction (MI) and to explore potential effect modification by usual behavioral patterns related to hostility....

  10. Triggering soft bombs at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapen, Simon; Griso, Simone Pagan; Papucci, Michele; Robinson, Dean J.

    2017-08-01

    Very high multiplicity, spherically-symmetric distributions of soft particles, with p T ˜ few×100 MeV, may be a signature of strongly-coupled hidden valleys that exhibit long, efficient showering windows. With traditional triggers, such `soft bomb' events closely resemble pile-up and are therefore only recorded with minimum bias triggers at a very low efficiency. We demonstrate a proof-of-concept for a high-level triggering strategy that efficiently separates soft bombs from pile-up by searching for a `belt of fire': a high density band of hits on the innermost layer of the tracker. Seeding our proposed high-level trigger with existing jet, missing transverse energy or lepton hardware-level triggers, we show that net trigger efficiencies of order 10% are possible for bombs of mass several × 100 GeV. We also consider the special case that soft bombs are the result of an exotic decay of the 125 GeV Higgs. The fiducial rate for `Higgs bombs' triggered in this manner is marginally higher than the rate achievable by triggering directly on a hard muon from associated Higgs production.

  11. The LVL2 trigger goes online

    CERN Multimedia

    David Berge

    On Friday, the 9th of February, the ATLAS TDAQ community reached an important milestone. In a successful integration test, cosmic-ray muons were recorded with parts of the muon spectrometer, the central-trigger system and a second-level trigger algorithm. This was actually the first time that a full trigger slice all the way from the first-level trigger muon chambers up to event building after event selection by the second-level trigger ran online with cosmic rays. The ATLAS trigger and data acquisition system has a three-tier structure that is designed to cope with the enormous demands of proton-proton collisions at a bunch-crossing frequency of 40 MHz, with a typical event size of 1-2 MB. The online event selection has to reduce the incoming rate by a factor of roughly 200,000 to 200 Hz, a rate digestible by the archival-storage and offline-processing facilities. ATLAS has a mixed system: the first-level trigger (LVL1) is in hardware, while the other two consecutive levels, the second-level trigger (LVL2)...

  12. Reliability model analysis and primary experimental evaluation of laser triggered pulse trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Debiao; Yang Xinglin; Li Yuan; Li Jin

    2012-01-01

    High performance pulse trigger can enhance performance and stability of the PPS. It is necessary to evaluate the reliability of the LTGS pulse trigger, so we establish the reliability analysis model of this pulse trigger based on CARMES software, the reliability evaluation is accord with the statistical results. (authors)

  13. A general-purpose trigger processor system and its application to fast vertex trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazumi, M.; Banas, E.; Natkaniec, Z.; Ostrowicz, W.

    1997-12-01

    A general-purpose hardware trigger system has been developed. The system comprises programmable trigger processors and pattern generator/samplers. The hardware design of the system is described. An application as a prototype of the very fast vertex trigger in an asymmetric B-factory at KEK is also explained. (author)

  14. The ATLAS Level-1 Trigger Timing Setup

    CERN Document Server

    Spiwoks, R; Ellis, Nick; Farthouat, P; Gällnö, P; Haller, J; Krasznahorkay, A; Maeno, T; Pauly, T; Pessoa-Lima, H; Resurreccion-Arcas, I; Schuler, G; De Seixas, J M; Torga-Teixeira, R; Wengler, T

    2005-01-01

    The ATLAS detector at CERN's LHC will be exposed to proton-proton collisions at a bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz. In order to reduce the data rate, a three-level trigger system selects potentially interesting physics. The first trigger level is implemented in electronics and firmware. It aims at reducing the output rate to less than 100 kHz. The Central Trigger Processor combines information from the calorimeter and muon trigger processors and makes the final Level-1-Accept decision. It is a central element in the timing setup of the experiment. Three aspects are considered in this article: the timing setup with respect to the Level-1 trigger, with respect to the expriment, and with respect to the world.

  15. MR imaging findings of trigger thumb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Eric Y.; Chen, Karen C.; Chung, Christine B. [VA San Diego Healthcare System, Radiology Service, San Diego, CA (United States); University of California, San Diego Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Trigger finger (or trigger thumb), also known as sclerosing tenosynovitis, is a common clinical diagnosis that rarely presents for imaging. Because of this selection bias, many radiologists may not be familiar with the process. Furthermore, patients who do present for imaging frequently have misleading examination indications. To our knowledge, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of trigger thumb have not been previously reported in the literature. In this article, we review the entity of trigger thumb, the anatomy involved, and associated imaging findings, which include flexor pollicis longus tendinosis with a distinct nodule, A1 pulley thickening, and tenosynovitis. In addition, in some cases, an abnormal Av pulley is apparent. In the rare cases of trigger finger that present for MR imaging, accurate diagnosis by the radiologist can allow initiation of treatment and avoid further unnecessary workup. (orig.)

  16. MR imaging findings of trigger thumb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Eric Y.; Chen, Karen C.; Chung, Christine B.

    2015-01-01

    Trigger finger (or trigger thumb), also known as sclerosing tenosynovitis, is a common clinical diagnosis that rarely presents for imaging. Because of this selection bias, many radiologists may not be familiar with the process. Furthermore, patients who do present for imaging frequently have misleading examination indications. To our knowledge, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of trigger thumb have not been previously reported in the literature. In this article, we review the entity of trigger thumb, the anatomy involved, and associated imaging findings, which include flexor pollicis longus tendinosis with a distinct nodule, A1 pulley thickening, and tenosynovitis. In addition, in some cases, an abnormal Av pulley is apparent. In the rare cases of trigger finger that present for MR imaging, accurate diagnosis by the radiologist can allow initiation of treatment and avoid further unnecessary workup. (orig.)

  17. Pulse triggering mechanism of air proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, T.; Mori, T.; Watanabe, T.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the pulse triggering mechanism of a cylindrical proportional counter filled with air at atmospheric pressure for the incidence of β-rays. Experimental results indicate that primary electrons created distantly from the anode wire by a β-ray are transformed into negative ions, which then detach electrons close to the anode wire and generate electron avalanches thus triggering pulses, while electrons created near the anode wire by a β-ray directly trigger a pulse. Since a negative ion pulse is triggered by a single electron detached from a negative ion, multiple pulses are generated by a large number of ions produced by the incidence of a single β-ray. It is therefore necessary not to count pulses triggered by negative ions but to count those by primary electrons alone when use is made of air proportional counters for the detection of β-rays. (orig.)

  18. Concept of the CMS Trigger Supervisor

    CERN Document Server

    Magrans de Abril, Ildefons; Varela, Joao

    2006-01-01

    The Trigger Supervisor is an online software system designed for the CMS experiment at CERN. Its purpose is to provide a framework to set up, test, operate and monitor the trigger components on one hand and to manage their interplay and the information exchange with the run control part of the data acquisition system on the other. The Trigger Supervisor is conceived to provide a simple and homogeneous client interface to the online software infrastructure of the trigger subsystems. This document specifies the functional and non-functional requirements, design and operational details, and the components that will be delivered in order to facilitate a smooth integration of the trigger software in the context of CMS.

  19. The TIGER trigger processor for the CAMERA detector at COMPASS-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, Tobias; Buechele, Maximilian; Fischer, Horst; Gorzellik, Matthias; Grussenmeyer, Tobias; Herrmann, Florian; Joerg, Philipp; Kremser, Paul; Kunz, Tobias; Michalski, Christoph; Schopferer, Sebastian; Szameitat, Tobias [Physikalisches Institut der Universitaet Freiburg, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    In today's nuclear and high-energy physics experiments the background-induced occupancy of the detector channels can be quite high; therefore it is important to have sophisticated trigger subsystems which process the data in real-time to generate trigger objects for the global trigger decision. In this work we present a FPGA based low-latency trigger processor for the COMPASS-II experiment. TIGER is a high-performance trigger processor that was developed to fit perfectly in the GANDALF framework and extend its versatility. It is designed as a VXS module and is allocated to the central VXS switch slot, which has a direct link from every payload slot. The synchronous transfer protocol was optimized for low latencies and offers a bandwidth of up to 8 Gbit/s per link. The centerpiece of the board is a Xilinx Virtex-6 SX315T FPGA, offering vast programmable logic, embedded memory and DSP resources. It is accompanied by DDR3 memory, a COM Express CPU and a MXM GPU. Besides the VXS backplane ports, the board features two SFP+ transceivers, 32 LVDS inputs and 32 LVDS outputs to interface with the global trigger system and a Gigabit Ethernet port for configuration and monitoring.

  20. Designing signal-enriched triggers for boosted jets.

    CERN Document Server

    Toumazou, Marina

    2017-01-01

    Triggers designed to favour the selection of hadronically decaying massive particles have been studied. Both triggers using solely ET and mass cuts (similar to new 2017 triggers) and triggers exploiting polarization information have been studied. The mass cut triggers show substantial gains in rate reduction, while the benefits of polarization triggers are less obvious. The final conclusion is that it is more useful to identify and trigger on generic boosted decays, irrespective of the polarization of the decaying particle

  1. First level trigger processor for the ZEUS calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, J.W.; Talaga, R.L.; Burr, G.W.; Laird, R.J.; Smith, W.; Lackey, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the design of the first level trigger processor for the ZEUS calorimeter. This processor accepts data from the 13,000 photomultipliers of the calorimeter which is topologically divided into 16 regions, and after regional preprocessing, performs logical and numerical operations which cross regional boundaries. Because the crossing period at the HERA collider is 96 ns, it is necessary that first-level trigger decisions be made in pipelined hardware. One microsecond is allowed for the processor to perform the required logical and numerical operations, during which time the data from ten crossings would be resident in the processor while being clocked through the pipelined hardware. The circuitry is implemented in 100K ECL, Advanced CMOS discrete devices, and programmable gate arrays, and operates in a VME environment. All tables and registers are written/read from VME, and all diagnostic codes are executed from VME. Preprocessed data flows into the processor at a rate of 5.2GB/s, and processed data flows from the processor to the Global First-Level Trigger at a rate of 700MB/s. The system allows for subsets of the logic to be configured by software and for various important variables to be histogrammed as they flow through the processor. 2 refs., 3 figs

  2. First-level trigger processor for the ZEUS calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, J.W.; Talaga, R.L.; Burr, G.W.; Laird, R.J.; Smith, W.; Lackey, J.

    1990-01-01

    The design of the first-level trigger processor for the Zeus calorimeter is discussed. This processor accepts data from the 13,000 photomultipliers of the calorimeter, which is topologically divided into 16 regions, and after regional preprocessing performs logical and numerical operations that cross regional boundaries. Because the crossing period at the HERA collider is 96 ns, it is necessary that first-level trigger decisions be made in pipelined hardware. One microsecond is allowed for the processor to perform the required logical and numerical operations, during which time the data from ten crossings would be resident in the processor while being clocked through the pipelined hardware. The circuitry is implemented in 100K emitter-coupled logic (ECL), advanced CMOS discrete devices and programmable gate arrays, and operates in a VME environment. All tables and registers are written/read from VME, and all diagnostic codes are executed from VME. Preprocessed data flows into the processor at a rate of 5.2 Gbyte/s, and processed data flows from the processor to the global first-level trigger at a rate of 70 Mbyte/s. The system allows for subsets of the logic to be configured by software and for various important variables to be histogrammed as they flow through the processor

  3. Constraining the trigger for an ancient warming episode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Colin

    2011-08-01

    The Paleocene epoch (˜66-56 million years ago) was sandwiched between sudden climate shifts and mass extinctions. The boundary between the end of the Paleocene and the beginning of the Eocene (the P-E boundary) saw the global average temperature soar by 5°C over a few thousand years, leading to a pronounced reorganization of both terrestrial and oceanic plant and animal communities. The P-E boundary warming was triggered by an influx of atmospheric carbon dioxide, but the influx's ultimate trigger is still being debated. Other prominent warming events within the Paleogene (˜66-23 million years ago), the broad time span that encompasses the Paleocene and Eocene, have been linked to regularly recurring changes in the eccentricity of the Earth's orbit that take place on 100,000- and 405,000-year cycles. Proponents of this view suggest that an alignment of the two cycles could lead to the warming of deep ocean waters, melting frozen methane and triggering an increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide. However, some studies have suggested that the P-E boundary warming was instead the product of geological processes, where carbon-rich rocks were baked by injected magma, which eventually liberated the carbon to the atmosphere. Deciding between proposed explanations for the cause of the P-E warming, whether they are astronomical or geological, depends on accurately pinning the event in time. (Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, doi:10.1029/2010GC003426, 2011)

  4. The ATLAS Electron and Photon Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Samuel David; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Electron and photon triggers covering transverse energies from 5 GeV to several TeV are essential for signal selection in a wide variety of ATLAS physics analyses to study Standard Model processes and to search for new phenomena. Final states including leptons and photons had, for example, an important role in the discovery and measurement of the Higgs boson. Dedicated triggers are also used to collect data for calibration, efficiency and fake rate measurements. The ATLAS trigger system is divided in a hardware-based Level-1 trigger and a software-based high-level trigger, both of which were upgraded during the LHC shutdown in preparation for Run-2 operation. To cope with the increasing luminosity and more challenging pile-up conditions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, the trigger selections at each level are optimized to control the rates and keep efficiencies high. To achieve this goal multivariate analysis techniques are used. The ATLAS electron and photon triggers and their performance with Run 2 dat...

  5. The ATLAS Electron and Photon Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Samuel David; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Electron and photon triggers covering transverse energies from 5 GeV to several TeV are essential for signal selection in a wide variety of ATLAS physics analyses to study Standard Model processes and to search for new phenomena. Final states including leptons and photons had, for example, an important role in the discovery and measurement of the Higgs boson. Dedicated triggers are also used to collect data for calibration, efficiency and fake rate measurements. The ATLAS trigger system is divided in a hardware-based Level-1 trigger and a software-based high-level trigger, both of which were upgraded during the LHC shutdown in preparation for Run-2 operation. To cope with the increasing luminosity and more challenging pile-up conditions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, the trigger selections at each level are optimized to control the rates and keep efficiencies high. To achieve this goal multivariate analysis techniques are used. The ATLAS electron and photon triggers and their performance with Run 2 dat...

  6. The D0 run II trigger system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Michigan State U.

    2004-01-01

    The D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron was upgraded for Run II. This upgrade included improvements to the trigger system in order to be able to handle the increased Tevatron luminosity and higher bunch crossing rates compared to Run I. The D0 Run II trigger is a highly exible system to select events to be written to tape from an initial interaction rate of about 2.5 MHz. This is done in a three-tier pipelined, buffered system. The first tier (level 1) processes fast detector pick-off signals in a hardware/firmware based system to reduce the event rate to about 1. 5kHz. The second tier (level 2) uses information from level 1 and forms simple Physics objects to reduce the rate to about 850 Hz. The third tier (level 3) uses full detector readout and event reconstruction on a filter farm to reduce the rate to 20-30 Hz. The D0 trigger menu contains a wide variety of triggers. While the emphasis is on triggering on generic lepton and jet final states, there are also trigger terms for specific final state signatures. In this document we describe the D0 trigger system as it was implemented and is currently operating in Run II

  7. The performance of the ATLAS Inner Detector Trigger algorithms in pp collisions at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS [The ATLAS Collaboration, The ATLAS Experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider, JINST 3:S08003, 2008 (2008)] Inner Detector trigger algorithms have been running online during data taking with proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) since December 2009. Preliminary results on the performance of the algorithms in collisions at centre-of-mass energies of 900 GeV and 7 TeV, are discussed. The ATLAS trigger performs the online event selection in three stages. The Inner Detector information is used in the second and third triggering stages, referred to as Level-2 trigger (L2) and Event Filter (EF) respectively, or collectively as the High Level Trigger (HLT). The HLT runs software algorithms on large farms of commercial CPUs and is designed to reject collision events in real time, keeping the most interesting few events in every thousand. The average execution times per event at L2 and the EF are around 40 ms and 4 s respectively and the Inner Detector trigger algorithms can use only a fraction of these times. Within these times, data from interesting regions of the Inner Detector have to be read out through the network, unpacked, clustered and converted to the ATLAS global coordinates. The pattern recognition follows to identify the trajectories of charged particles (tracks), which are then used in combination with information from the other subdetectors to accept or reject events depending on whether they satisfy certain trigger signatures.

  8. Drift Tubes Trigger System of the CMS Experiment at LHC : Commissioning and Performances

    CERN Document Server

    Battilana, Carlo

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis the performances of the CMS Drift Tubes Local Trigger System of the CMS detector are studied. CMS is one of the general purpose experiments that will operate at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. Results from data collected during the Cosmic Run At Four Tesla (CRAFT) commissioning exercise, a globally coordinated run period where the full experiment was involved and configured to detect cosmic rays crossing the CMS cavern, are presented. These include analyses on the precision and accuracy of the trigger reconstruction mechanism and measurement of the trigger efficiency. The description of a method to perform system synchronization is also reported, together with a comparison of the outcomes of trigger electronics and its software emulator code.

  9. Tidal triggering of earthquakes suggests poroelastic behavior on the San Andreas Fault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delorey, Andrew A.; Elst, Nicholas J. van der; Johnson, Paul Allan

    2016-01-01

    Tidal triggering of earthquakes is hypothesized to provide quantitative information regarding the fault's stress state, poroelastic properties, and may be significant for our understanding of seismic hazard. To date, studies of regional or global earthquake catalogs have had only modest successes in identifying tidal triggering. We posit that the smallest events that may provide additional evidence of triggering go unidentified and thus we developed a technique to improve the identification of very small magnitude events. We identify events applying a method known as inter-station seismic coherence where we prioritize detection and discrimination over characterization. Here we show tidal triggering of earthquakes on the San Andreas Fault. We find the complex interaction of semi-diurnal and fortnightly tidal periods exposes both stress threshold and critical state behavior. Lastly, our findings reveal earthquake nucleation processes and pore pressure conditions – properties of faults that are difficult to measure, yet extremely important for characterizing earthquake physics and seismic hazards.

  10. Tidal triggering of earthquakes suggests poroelastic behavior on the San Andreas Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorey, Andrew; Van Der Elst, Nicholas; Johnson, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Tidal triggering of earthquakes is hypothesized to provide quantitative information regarding the fault's stress state, poroelastic properties, and may be significant for our understanding of seismic hazard. To date, studies of regional or global earthquake catalogs have had only modest successes in identifying tidal triggering. We posit that the smallest events that may provide additional evidence of triggering go unidentified and thus we developed a technique to improve the identification of very small magnitude events. We identify events applying a method known as inter-station seismic coherence where we prioritize detection and discrimination over characterization. Here we show tidal triggering of earthquakes on the San Andreas Fault. We find the complex interaction of semi-diurnal and fortnightly tidal periods exposes both stress threshold and critical state behavior. Our findings reveal earthquake nucleation processes and pore pressure conditions – properties of faults that are difficult to measure, yet extremely important for characterizing earthquake physics and seismic hazards.

  11. ATLAS: triggers for B-physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, Simon

    2000-01-01

    The LHC will produce bb-bar events at an unprecedented rate. The number of events recorded by ATLAS will be limited by the rate at which they can be stored offline and subsequently analysed. Despite the huge number of events, the small branching ratios mean that analysis of many of the most interesting channels for CP violation and other measurements will be limited by statistics. The challenge for the Trigger and Data Acquisition (DAQ) system is therefore to maximise the fraction of interesting B decays in the B-physics data stream. The ATLAS Trigger/DAQ system is split into three levels. The initial B-physics selection is made in the first-level trigger by an inclusive low-p T muon trigger (∼6 GeV). The second-level trigger strategy is based on identifying classes of final states by their partial reconstruction. The muon trigger is confirmed before proceeding to a track search. Electron/hadron separation is given by the transition radiation tracking detector and the Electromagnetic calorimeter. Muon identification is possible using the muon detectors and the hadronic calorimeter. From silicon strips, pixels and straw tracking, precise track reconstruction is used to make selections based on invariant mass, momentum and impact parameter. The ATLAS trigger group is currently engaged in algorithm development and performance optimisation for the B-physics trigger. This is closely coupled to the R and D programme for the higher-level triggers. Together the two programmes of work will optimise the hardware, architecture and algorithms to meet the challenging requirements. This paper describes the current status and progress of this work

  12. Trigger tracking for the LHCb upgrade

    CERN Multimedia

    Dungs, K

    2014-01-01

    This poster presents a trigger system for the upgraded LHCb detector, scheduled to begin operation in 2020. The proposed trigger system is implemented entirely in software. We show that track reconstruction of a similar quality to that available in the offline algorithms can be performed on the full inelastic pp-collision rate. A track finding efficiency of 98.8% relative to offline can be achieved for good trigger tracks. The CPU time required for this reconstruction is less than 60% of the available budget.

  13. The CMS Barrel Muon trigger upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triossi, A.; Sphicas, P.; Bellato, M.; Montecassiano, F.; Ventura, S.; Ruiz, J.M. Cela; Bedoya, C. Fernandez; Tobar, A. Navarro; Fernandez, I. Redondo; Ferrero, D. Redondo; Sastre, J.; Ero, J.; Wulz, C.; Flouris, G.; Foudas, C.; Loukas, N.; Mallios, S.; Paradas, E.; Guiducci, L.; Masetti, G.

    2017-01-01

    The increase of luminosity expected by LHC during Phase1 will impose tighter constraints for rate reduction in order to maintain high efficiency in the CMS Level1 trigger system. The TwinMux system is the early layer of the muon barrel region that concentrates the information from different subdetectors: Drift Tubes, Resistive Plate Chambers and Outer Hadron Calorimeter. It arranges the slow optical trigger links from the detector chambers into faster links (10 Gbps) that are sent in multiple copies to the track finders. Results from collision runs, that confirm the satisfactory operation of the trigger system up to the output of the barrel track finder, will be shown.

  14. Event-triggered attitude control of spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Baolin; Shen, Qiang; Cao, Xibin

    2018-02-01

    The problem of spacecraft attitude stabilization control system with limited communication and external disturbances is investigated based on an event-triggered control scheme. In the proposed scheme, information of attitude and control torque only need to be transmitted at some discrete triggered times when a defined measurement error exceeds a state-dependent threshold. The proposed control scheme not only guarantees that spacecraft attitude control errors converge toward a small invariant set containing the origin, but also ensures that there is no accumulation of triggering instants. The performance of the proposed control scheme is demonstrated through numerical simulation.

  15. Electronic trigger for the ASP experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.J.

    1985-11-01

    The Anomalous Single Photon (ASP) electronic trigger is described. The experiments is based on an electromagnetic calorimeter composed of arrays of lead glass blocks, read out with photo-multiplier tubes, surrounding the interaction point at the PEP storage ring. The primary requirement of the trigger system is to be sensitive to low energy (approx. =0.5 GeV and above) photons whilst discriminating against high backgrounds at PEP. Analogue summing of the PMT signals and a sequence of programmable digital look-up tables produces a ''dead-timeless'' trigger for the beam collision rate of 408 kHz. 6 refs., 6 figs

  16. The LHCb trigger in Run II

    CERN Document Server

    Michielin, Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    The LHCb trigger system has been upgraded to allow alignment, calibration and physics analysis to be performed in real time. An increased CPU capacity and improvements in the software have allowed lifetime unbiased selections of beauty and charm decays in the high level trigger. Thanks to offline quality event reconstruction already available online, physics analyses can be performed directly on this information and for the majority of charm physics selections a reduced event format can be written out. Beauty hadron decays are more efficiently triggered by re-optimised inclusive selections, and the HLT2 output event rate is increased by a factor of three.

  17. Implementation of a level 1 trigger system using high speed serial (VXS) techniques for the 12GeV high luminosity experimental programs at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuevas, C.; Raydo, B.; Dong, H.; Gupta, A.; Barbosa, F.J.; Wilson, J.; Taylor, W.M.; Jastrzembski, E.; Abbott, D.

    2009-01-01

    We will demonstrate a hardware and firmware solution for a complete fully pipelined multi-crate trigger system that takes advantage of the elegant high speed VXS serial extensions for VME. This trigger system includes three sections starting with the front end crate trigger processor (CTP), a global Sub-System Processor (SSP) and a Trigger Supervisor that manages the timing, synchronization and front end event readout. Within a front end crate, trigger information is gathered from each 16 Channel, 12 bit Flash ADC module at 4 nS intervals via the VXS backplane, to a Crate Trigger Processor (CTP). Each Crate Trigger Processor receives these 500 MB/S VXS links from the 16 FADC-250 modules, aligns skewed data inherent of Aurora protocol, and performs real time crate level trigger algorithms. The algorithm results are encoded using a Reed-Solomon technique and transmission of this Level 1 trigger data is sent to the SSP using a multi-fiber link. The multi-fiber link achieves an aggregate trigger data transfer rate to the global trigger at 8 Gb/s. The SSP receives and decodes Reed-Solomon error correcting transmission from each crate, aligns the data, and performs the global level trigger algorithms. The entire trigger system is synchronous and operates at 250 MHz with the Trigger Supervisor managing not only the front end event readout, but also the distribution of the critical timing clocks, synchronization signals, and the global trigger signals to each front end readout crate. These signals are distributed to the front end crates on a separate fiber link and each crate is synchronized using a unique encoding scheme to guarantee that each front end crate is synchronous with a fixed latency, independent of the distance between each crate. The overall trigger signal latency is <3 uS, and the proposed 12GeV experiments at Jefferson Lab require up to 200KHz Level 1 trigger rate.

  18. Action-based flood forecasting for triggering humanitarian action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlan de Perez, Erin; van den Hurk, Bart; van Aalst, Maarten K.; Amuron, Irene; Bamanya, Deus; Hauser, Tristan; Jongma, Brenden; Lopez, Ana; Mason, Simon; Mendler de Suarez, Janot; Pappenberger, Florian; Rueth, Alexandra; Stephens, Elisabeth; Suarez, Pablo; Wagemaker, Jurjen; Zsoter, Ervin

    2016-09-01

    Too often, credible scientific early warning information of increased disaster risk does not result in humanitarian action. With financial resources tilted heavily towards response after a disaster, disaster managers have limited incentive and ability to process complex scientific data, including uncertainties. These incentives are beginning to change, with the advent of several new forecast-based financing systems that provide funding based on a forecast of an extreme event. Given the changing landscape, here we demonstrate a method to select and use appropriate forecasts for specific humanitarian disaster prevention actions, even in a data-scarce location. This action-based forecasting methodology takes into account the parameters of each action, such as action lifetime, when verifying a forecast. Forecasts are linked with action based on an understanding of (1) the magnitude of previous flooding events and (2) the willingness to act "in vain" for specific actions. This is applied in the context of the Uganda Red Cross Society forecast-based financing pilot project, with forecasts from the Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS). Using this method, we define the "danger level" of flooding, and we select the probabilistic forecast triggers that are appropriate for specific actions. Results from this methodology can be applied globally across hazards and fed into a financing system that ensures that automatic, pre-funded early action will be triggered by forecasts.

  19. The Trigger Processor and Trigger Processor Algorithms for the ATLAS New Small Wheel Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Lazovich, Tomo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS New Small Wheel (NSW) is an upgrade to the ATLAS muon endcap detectors that will be installed during the next long shutdown of the LHC. Comprising both MicroMegas (MMs) and small-strip Thin Gap Chambers (sTGCs), this system will drastically improve the performance of the muon system in a high cavern background environment. The NSW trigger, in particular, will significantly reduce the rate of fake triggers coming from track segments in the endcap not originating from the interaction point. We will present an overview of the trigger, the proposed sTGC and MM trigger algorithms, and the hardware implementation of the trigger. In particular, we will discuss both the heart of the trigger, an ATCA system with FPGA-based trigger processors (using the same hardware platform for both MM and sTGC triggers), as well as the full trigger electronics chain, including dedicated cards for transmission of data via GBT optical links. Finally, we will detail the challenges of ensuring that the trigger electronics can ...

  20. Triggered creep as a possible mechanism for delayed dynamic triggering of tremor and earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelly, David R.; Peng, Zhigang; Hill, David P.; Aiken, Chastity

    2011-01-01

    The passage of radiating seismic waves generates transient stresses in the Earth's crust that can trigger slip on faults far away from the original earthquake source. The triggered fault slip is detectable in the form of earthquakes and seismic tremor. However, the significance of these triggered events remains controversial, in part because they often occur with some delay, long after the triggering stress has passed. Here we scrutinize the location and timing of tremor on the San Andreas fault between 2001 and 2010 in relation to distant earthquakes. We observe tremor on the San Andreas fault that is initiated by passing seismic waves, yet migrates along the fault at a much slower velocity than the radiating seismic waves. We suggest that the migrating tremor records triggered slow slip of the San Andreas fault as a propagating creep event. We find that the triggered tremor and fault creep can be initiated by distant earthquakes as small as magnitude 5.4 and can persist for several days after the seismic waves have passed. Our observations of prolonged tremor activity provide a clear example of the delayed dynamic triggering of seismic events. Fault creep has been shown to trigger earthquakes, and we therefore suggest that the dynamic triggering of prolonged fault creep could provide a mechanism for the delayed triggering of earthquakes. ?? 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  1. The second level trigger system of FAST

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez,G; Berdugo, J; Casaus, J; Casella, V; De Laere, D; Deiters, K; Dick, P; Kirkby, J; Malgeri, L; Mañá, C; Marín, J; Pohl, M; Petitjean, C; Sánchez, E; Willmott, C

    2009-01-01

    The Fibre Active Scintillator Target (FAST) experiment is a novel imaging particle detector currently operating in a high-intensity π+ beam at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Villigen, Switzerland. The detector is designed to perform a high precision measurement of the μ+ lifetime, in order to determine the Fermi constant, Gf, to 1 ppm precision. A dedicated second level (LV2) hardware trigger system has been developed for the experiment. It performs an online analysis of the π/μ decay chain by identifying the stopping position of each beam particle and detecting the subsequent appearance of the muon. The LV2 trigger then records the muon stop pixel and selectively triggers the Time-to-Digital Converters (TDCs) in the vicinity. A detailed description of the trigger system is presented in this paper.

  2. The second level trigger system of FAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, G. [CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: gustavo.martinez@ciemat.es; Barcyzk, A. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Berdugo, J.; Casaus, J. [CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Casella, C.; De Laere, S. [Universite de Geneve, 30 quai Ernest-Anserment, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Deiters, K.; Dick, P. [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Kirkby, J.; Malgeri, L. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Mana, C.; Marin, J. [CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Pohl, M. [Universite de Geneve, 30 quai Ernest-Anserment, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Petitjean, C. [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Sanchez, E.; Willmott, C. [CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-10-11

    The Fibre Active Scintillator Target (FAST) experiment is a novel imaging particle detector currently operating in a high-intensity {pi}{sup +} beam at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Villigen, Switzerland. The detector is designed to perform a high precision measurement of the {mu}{sup +} lifetime, in order to determine the Fermi constant, G{sub f}, to 1 ppm precision. A dedicated second level (LV2) hardware trigger system has been developed for the experiment. It performs an online analysis of the {pi}/{mu} decay chain by identifying the stopping position of each beam particle and detecting the subsequent appearance of the muon. The LV2 trigger then records the muon stop pixel and selectively triggers the Time-to-Digital Converters (TDCs) in the vicinity. A detailed description of the trigger system is presented in this paper.

  3. SSC physics signatures and trigger requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Strategies are considered for triggering on new physics processes on the environment of the SSC, where interaction rates will be very high and most new physics processes quite rare. The quantities available for use in the trigger at various levels are related to the signatures of possible new physics. Two examples were investigated in some detail using the ISAJET Monte Carlo program: Higgs decays to W pairs and a missing energy trigger applied to gluino pair production. In both of the examples studied in detail, it was found that workable strategies for reducing the trigger rate were obtainable which also produced acceptable efficiency for the processes of interest. In future work, it will be necessary to carry out such a program for the full spectrum of suggested new physics

  4. Graphics Processing Units for HEP trigger systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammendola, R.; Bauce, M.; Biagioni, A.; Chiozzi, S.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Fantechi, R.; Fiorini, M.; Giagu, S.; Gianoli, A.; Lamanna, G.; Lonardo, A.; Messina, A.

    2016-01-01

    General-purpose computing on GPUs (Graphics Processing Units) is emerging as a new paradigm in several fields of science, although so far applications have been tailored to the specific strengths of such devices as accelerator in offline computation. With the steady reduction of GPU latencies, and the increase in link and memory throughput, the use of such devices for real-time applications in high-energy physics data acquisition and trigger systems is becoming ripe. We will discuss the use of online parallel computing on GPU for synchronous low level trigger, focusing on CERN NA62 experiment trigger system. The use of GPU in higher level trigger system is also briefly considered.

  5. Pulling the trigger on LHC electronics

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2001-01-01

    The conditions at CERN's Large Hadron Collider pose severe challenges for the designers and builders of front-end, trigger and data acquisition electronics. A recent workshop reviewed the encouraging progress so far and discussed what remains to be done. The LHC experiments have addressed level one trigger systems with a variety of high-speed hardware. The CMS Calorimeter Level One Regional Trigger uses 160 MHz logic boards plugged into the front and back of a custom backplane, which provides point-to-point links between the cards. Much of the processing in this system is performed by five types of 160 MHz digital applications-specific integrated circuits designed using Vitesse submicron high-integration gallium arsenide gate array technology. The LHC experiments make extensive use of field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). These offer programmable reconfigurable logic, which has the flexibility that trigger designers need to be able to alter algorithms so that they can follow the physics and detector perform...

  6. Boredom and Passion: Triggers of Habitual Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Sabine; Neergaard, Helle

    . The case based, the study identifies eight factors, which contribute to consecutive venture creation. The findings suggest that boredom and passion are necessary conditions triggering habitual entrepreneurship. Other important mechanisms included the joy of discovering and exploiting an opportunity...

  7. D0 triggering and data acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbard, B.

    1992-10-01

    The trigger for D0 is a multi-tier system. Within the 3.5 μsec bunch crossing interval, custom electronics select interesting event candidates based on electromagnetic and hadronic energy deposits in the calorimeter and on indications of tracks in the muon system. Subsequent hardware decisions use refined calculations of electron and muon characteristics. The highest level trigger occurs in one element of a farm of microprocessors, where fully developed algorithms for electrons, muons, jets, or missing E t are executed. This highest level trigger also provides the assembly of the event into its final data structure. Performance of this trigger and data acquisition system in collider operation is described

  8. Triggering and data acquisition general considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, Joel N.

    2003-01-01

    We provide a general introduction to trigger and data acquisition systems in High Energy Physics. We emphasize the new possibilities and new approaches that have been made possible by developments in computer technology and networking

  9. Session summary: Electronics, triggering and data acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rescia, S.

    1991-12-01

    The session focused on the requirements for calorimetry at the SSC/LHC. Results on new readout techniques, calibration, radiation hard electronics and semiconductor devices, analog and digital front and electronics, and trigger strategies are presented

  10. Trigger factors in migraine with aura

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauge, A W; Kirchmann, M; Olesen, J

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify trigger factors in migraine with aura (MA). A total of 629 MA patients representative of the Danish population were sent a questionnaire listing 16 trigger factors thought to be relevant as well as space for free text. Distinction was made between...... attacks with or without aura within each patient. The questionnaire was returned by 522 patients of whom 347 had current MA attacks. In total 80% with current attacks (278/347) indicated that at least one factor triggered their migraine, and 67% (187/278) in this group indicated that they were aware...... of at least one factor often or always giving rise to an attack of MA. Forty-one per cent (113/278) had co-occurring attacks of migraine without aura (MO). Stress (following stress), bright light, intense emotional influences, stress (during stress) and sleeping too much or too little were the trigger factors...

  11. The Aurora accelerator's triggered oil switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidenheimer, D.M.; Pereira, N.R.; Judy, D.C.; Stricklett, K.L.

    1993-01-01

    Achieving a radiation pulse with 15 ns risetime using all four of the Aurora accelerator's Blumlein pulse-forming lines demands synchronization of the Blumleins to within 10 ns (in addition to a 15 ns risetime for a single line). Timing of each Blumlein is controlled by a triggered 12 MV oil switch. A smaller-than-customary trigger electrode makes the switching time more reproducible. Time-resolved photography of the oil arcs suggests that triggering occurs simultaneously around the sharp edge of the trigger electrode, perhaps with small deviations that grow into the most prominent arcs characteristically seen in open-shutter photographs. However, many smaller arcs that are usually overlooked in open-shutter pictures may contribute to current conduction in a closed switch

  12. Graphics Processing Units for HEP trigger systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammendola, R. [INFN Sezione di Roma “Tor Vergata”, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Bauce, M. [INFN Sezione di Roma “La Sapienza”, P.le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); University of Rome “La Sapienza”, P.lee A.Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Biagioni, A. [INFN Sezione di Roma “La Sapienza”, P.le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Chiozzi, S.; Cotta Ramusino, A. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); University of Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); Fantechi, R. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); CERN, Geneve (Switzerland); Fiorini, M. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); University of Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); Giagu, S. [INFN Sezione di Roma “La Sapienza”, P.le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); University of Rome “La Sapienza”, P.lee A.Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Gianoli, A. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); University of Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); Lamanna, G., E-mail: gianluca.lamanna@cern.ch [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Lonardo, A. [INFN Sezione di Roma “La Sapienza”, P.le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Messina, A. [INFN Sezione di Roma “La Sapienza”, P.le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); University of Rome “La Sapienza”, P.lee A.Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); and others

    2016-07-11

    General-purpose computing on GPUs (Graphics Processing Units) is emerging as a new paradigm in several fields of science, although so far applications have been tailored to the specific strengths of such devices as accelerator in offline computation. With the steady reduction of GPU latencies, and the increase in link and memory throughput, the use of such devices for real-time applications in high-energy physics data acquisition and trigger systems is becoming ripe. We will discuss the use of online parallel computing on GPU for synchronous low level trigger, focusing on CERN NA62 experiment trigger system. The use of GPU in higher level trigger system is also briefly considered.

  13. Trigger circuits for the PHENIX electromagnetic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, S.S.; Britton, C.L. Jr.; Winterberg, A.L.; Young, G.R.

    1997-11-01

    Monolithic and discrete circuits have been developed to provide trigger signals for the PHENIX electromagnetic calorimeter detector. These trigger circuits are deadtimeless and create overlapping 4 by 4 energy sums, a cosmic muon trigger, and a 144 channel energy sum. The front end electronics of the PHENIX system sample the energy and timing channels at each bunch crossing (BC) but it is not known immediately if this data is of interest. The information from the trigger circuits is used to determine if the data collected is of interest and should be digitized and stored or discarded. This paper presents details of the design, issues affecting circuit performance, characterization of prototypes fabricated in 1.2 microm Orbit CMOS, and integration of the circuits into the EMCal electronics system

  14. New Fast Interaction Trigger for ALICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trzaska, Wladyslaw Henryk

    2017-02-11

    The LHC heavy-ion luminosity and collision rate from 2021 onwards will considerably exceed the design parameters of the present ALICE forward trigger detectors and the introduction of the Muon Forward Tracker (MFT) will significantly reduce the space available for the new trigger detectors. To comply with these conditions a new Fast Interaction Trigger (FIT) will be built. FIT will be the main forward trigger, luminometer, and interaction-time detector. It will also determine multiplicity, centrality, and reaction plane of heavy-ion collisions. FIT will consist of two arrays of Cherenkov quartz radiators with MCP-PMT sensors and of a plastic scintillator ring. By increasing the overall acceptance of FIT, the scintillator will improve centrality and event plane resolution. It will also add sensitivity for the detection of beam-gas events and provide some degree of redundancy. FIT is currently undergoing an intense R&D and prototyping period. It is scheduled for installation in ALICE during 2020.

  15. The new UA1 calorimeter trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenhandler, E.

    1988-01-01

    The new UA1 first-level calorimeter trigger processor is described, with emphasis on the fast two-dimensional electromagnetic cluster-finding that is its most novel feature. This processor is about five times more powerful than its predecessor, and makes extensive use of pipelining techniques. It allows multiple combinations of triggers on electromagnetic showers, hadronic jets and energy sums, including a total-energy veto of multiple interactions and a full vector sum of missing transverse energy. (author)

  16. The upgrade of the LHCb trigger system

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00259834; Fitzpatrick, C.; Gligorov, V.; Raven, G.

    2014-10-20

    The LHCb experiment will operate at a luminosity of $2\\times10^{33}$ cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ during LHC Run 3. At this rate the present readout and hardware Level-0 trigger become a limitation, especially for fully hadronic final states. In order to maintain a high signal efficiency the upgraded LHCb detector will deploy two novel concepts: a triggerless readout and a full software trigger.

  17. EMIC triggered chorus emissions in Cluster data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grison, B.; SantolíK, O.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Masson, A.; Engebretson, M. J.; Pickett, J. S.; Omura, Y.; Robert, P.; Nomura, R.

    2013-03-01

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) triggered chorus emissions have recently been a subject of several experimental, theoretical and simulation case studies, noting their similarities with whistler-mode chorus. We perform a survey of 8 years of Cluster data in order to increase the database of EMIC triggered emissions. The results of this is that EMIC triggered emissions have been unambiguously observed for only three different days. These three events are studied in detail. All cases have been observed at the plasmapause between 22 and 24 magnetic local time (MLT) and between - 15° and 15° magnetic latitude (λm). Triggered emissions are also observed for the first time below the local He+ gyrofrequency (fHe+). The number of events is too low to produce statistical results, nevertheless we point out a variety of common properties of those waves. The rising tones have a high level of coherence and the waves propagate away from the equatorial region. The propagation angle and degree of polarization are related to the distance from the equator, whereas the slope and the frequency extent vary from one event to the other. From the various spacecraft separations, we determine that the triggering process is a localized phenomenon in space and time. However, we are unable to determine the occurrence rates of these waves. Small frequency extent rising tones are more common than large ones. The newly reported EMIC triggered events are generally observed during periods of large AE index values and in time periods close to solar maximum.

  18. Progress on the Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger

    CERN Multimedia

    Eric Eisenhandler

    The Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger (L1Calo) has recently passed a number of major hurdles. The various electronic modules that make up the trigger are either in full production or are about to be, and preparations in the ATLAS pit are well advanced. L1Calo has three main subsystems. The PreProcessor converts analogue calorimeter signals to digital, associates the rather broad trigger pulses with the correct proton-proton bunch crossing, and does a final calibration in transverse energy before sending digital data streams to the two algorithmic trigger processors. The Cluster Processor identifies and counts electrons, photons and taus, and the Jet/Energy-sum Processor looks for jets and also sums missing and total transverse energy. Readout drivers allow the performance of the trigger to be monitored online and offline, and also send region-of-interest information to the Level-2 Trigger. The PreProcessor (Heidelberg) is the L1Calo subsystem with the largest number of electronic modules (124), and most of its fu...

  19. Triggered tremor sweet spots in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomberg, Joan; Prejean, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    To better understand what controls fault slip along plate boundaries, we have exploited the abundance of seismic and geodetic data available from the richly varied tectonic environments composing Alaska. A search for tremor triggered by 11 large earthquakes throughout all of seismically monitored Alaska reveals two tremor “sweet spots”—regions where large-amplitude seismic waves repeatedly triggered tremor between 2006 and 2012. The two sweet spots locate in very different tectonic environments—one just trenchward and between the Aleutian islands of Unalaska and Akutan and the other in central mainland Alaska. The Unalaska/Akutan spot corroborates previous evidence that the region is ripe for tremor, perhaps because it is located where plate-interface frictional properties transition between stick-slip and stably sliding in both the dip direction and laterally. The mainland sweet spot coincides with a region of complex and uncertain plate interactions, and where no slow slip events or major crustal faults have been noted previously. Analyses showed that larger triggering wave amplitudes, and perhaps lower frequencies (tremor. However, neither the maximum amplitude in the time domain or in a particular frequency band, nor the geometric relationship of the wavefield to the tremor source faults alone ensures a high probability of triggering. Triggered tremor at the two sweet spots also does not occur during slow slip events visually detectable in GPS data, although slow slip below the detection threshold may have facilitated tremor triggering.

  20. Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger starts firing

    CERN Multimedia

    Stephen Hillier

    2007-01-01

    L1Calo is one of the major components of ATLAS First Level trigger, along with the Muon Trigger and Central Trigger Processor. It forms all of the first-level calorimeter-based triggers, including electron, jet, tau and missing ET. The final system consists of over 250 custom designed 9U VME boards, most containing a dense array of FPGAs or ASICs. It is subdivided into a PreProcessor, which digitises the incoming trigger signals from the Liquid Argon and Tile calorimeters, and two separate processor systems, which perform the physics algorithms. All of these are highly flexible, allowing the possibility to adapt to beam conditions and luminosity. All parts of the system are read out through Read-Out Drivers, which provide monitoring data and Region of Interest (RoI) information for the Level-2 trigger. Production of the modules is now essentially complete, and enough modules exist to populate the full scale system in USA15. Installation is proceeding rapidly - approximately 90% of the final modules are insta...

  1. The LHCb trigger and data acquisition system

    CERN Document Server

    Dufey, J P; Harris, F; Harvey, J; Jost, B; Mato, P; Müller, E

    2000-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is the most recently approved of the 4 experiments under construction at CERNs LHC accelerator. It is a special purpose experiment designed to precisely measure the CP violation parameters in the B-B system. Triggering poses special problems since the interesting events containing B-mesons are immersed in a large background of inelastic p-p reactions. We therefore decided to implement a 4 level triggering scheme. The LHCb Data Acquisition (DAQ) system will have to cope with an average trigger rate of ~40 kHz, after two levels of hardware triggers, and an average event size of ~100 kB. Thus an event-building network which can sustain an average bandwidth of 4 GB/s is required. A powerful software trigger farm will have to be installed to reduce the rate from the 40 kHz to ~100 Hz of events written to permanent storage. In this paper we outline the general architecture of the Trigger and DAQ system and the readout protocols we plan to implement. First results of simulations of the behavior o...

  2. Design studies for the Double Chooz trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cucoanes, Andi Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    The main characteristic of the neutrino mixing effect is assumed to be the coupling between the flavor and the mass eigenstates. Three mixing angles (θ 12 , θ 23 , θ 13 ) are describing the magnitude of this effect. Still unknown, θ 13 is considered very small, based on the measurement done by the CHOOZ experiment. A leading experiment will be Double Chooz, placed in the Ardennes region, on the same site as used by CHOOZ. The Double Chooz goal is the exploration of ∝80% from the currently allowed θ 13 region, by searching the disappearance of reactor antineutrinos. Double Chooz will use two similar detectors, located at different distances from the reactor cores: a near one at ∝150 m where no oscillations are expected and a far one at 1.05 km distance, close to the first minimum of the survival probability function. The measurement foresees a precise comparison of neutrino rates and spectra between both detectors. The detection mechanism is based on the inverse β-decay. The Double Chooz detectors have been designed to minimize the rate of random background. In a simplified view, two optically separated regions are considered. The target, filled with Gd-doped liquid scintillator, is the main antineutrino interaction volume. Surrounding the target, the inner veto region aims to tag the cosmogenic muon background which hits the detector. Both regions are viewed by photomultipliers. The Double Chooz trigger system has to be highly efficient for antineutrino events as well as for several types of background. The trigger analyzes discriminated signals from the central region and the inner veto photomultipliers. The trigger logic is fully programmable and can combine the input signals. The trigger conditions are based on the total energy released in event and on the PMT groups multiplicity. For redundancy, two independent trigger boards will be used for the central region, each of them receiving signals from half of the photomultipliers. A third trigger board

  3. Design studies for the Double Chooz trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cucoanes, Andi Sebastian

    2009-07-24

    The main characteristic of the neutrino mixing effect is assumed to be the coupling between the flavor and the mass eigenstates. Three mixing angles ({theta}{sub 12}, {theta}{sub 23}, {theta}{sub 13}) are describing the magnitude of this effect. Still unknown, {theta}{sub 13} is considered very small, based on the measurement done by the CHOOZ experiment. A leading experiment will be Double Chooz, placed in the Ardennes region, on the same site as used by CHOOZ. The Double Chooz goal is the exploration of {proportional_to}80% from the currently allowed {theta}{sub 13} region, by searching the disappearance of reactor antineutrinos. Double Chooz will use two similar detectors, located at different distances from the reactor cores: a near one at {proportional_to}150 m where no oscillations are expected and a far one at 1.05 km distance, close to the first minimum of the survival probability function. The measurement foresees a precise comparison of neutrino rates and spectra between both detectors. The detection mechanism is based on the inverse {beta}-decay. The Double Chooz detectors have been designed to minimize the rate of random background. In a simplified view, two optically separated regions are considered. The target, filled with Gd-doped liquid scintillator, is the main antineutrino interaction volume. Surrounding the target, the inner veto region aims to tag the cosmogenic muon background which hits the detector. Both regions are viewed by photomultipliers. The Double Chooz trigger system has to be highly efficient for antineutrino events as well as for several types of background. The trigger analyzes discriminated signals from the central region and the inner veto photomultipliers. The trigger logic is fully programmable and can combine the input signals. The trigger conditions are based on the total energy released in event and on the PMT groups multiplicity. For redundancy, two independent trigger boards will be used for the central region, each of

  4. Upgrade of the CMS muon trigger system in the barrel region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabady, Dinyar; Ero, Janos; Flouris, Giannis; Fulcher, Jonathan; Loukas, Nikitas; Paradas, Evangelos; Reis, Thomas; Sakulin, Hannes; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    To maintain the excellent performance shown during the LHC's Run-1 the Level-1 Trigger of the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment underwent a significant upgrade. One part of this upgrade is the re-organization of the muon trigger path from a subsystem-centric view in which hits in the drift tubes (DT), the cathode strip chambers (CSC), and the resistive plate chambers (RPC) were treated separately in dedicated track-finding systems to one in which complementary detector systems for a given region (barrel, overlap, and endcap) are merged at the track-finding level. This fundamental restructuring of the muon trigger system required the development of a system to receive track candidates from the track-finding layer, remove potential duplicate tracks, and forward the best candidates to the global decision layer. An overview will be given of the new track-finder system for the barrel region, the Barrel Muon Track Finder (BMTF), as well as the cancel-out and sorting layer: the upgraded Global Muon Trigger (μGMT). Both the BMTF and μGMT have been implemented in a Xilinx Virtex-7 card utilizing the microTCA architecture. While the BMTF improves on the proven and well-tested algorithms used in the Drift Tube Track Finder during Run-1, the μGMT is an almost complete re-development due to the re-organization of the underlying systems from track-finders for a specific detector to regional track finders covering a given area of the whole detector. Additionally the μGMT calculates a muon's isolation using energy information received from the calorimeter trigger. This information is added to the muon objects forwarded to the global decision layer, the so-called Global Trigger. - Highlights: • Presented upgraded Global Muon Trigger and Barrel Muon Track Finder systems. • Upgraded system moves from sub-detector centric view to geometric-view. • To improve trigger performance. • Common hardware improves maintainability and increases development speed. • Use of

  5. Upgrade of the CMS muon trigger system in the barrel region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabady, Dinyar, E-mail: dinyar.rabady@cern.ch [Institute of High Energy Physics Vienna (HEPHY), Nikolsdorfer Gasse 18, 1050 Wien (Austria); Ero, Janos [Institute of High Energy Physics Vienna (HEPHY), Nikolsdorfer Gasse 18, 1050 Wien (Austria); Flouris, Giannis [University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Fulcher, Jonathan [CERN, 1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland); Loukas, Nikitas; Paradas, Evangelos [University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Reis, Thomas; Sakulin, Hannes; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth [CERN, 1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland)

    2017-02-11

    To maintain the excellent performance shown during the LHC's Run-1 the Level-1 Trigger of the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment underwent a significant upgrade. One part of this upgrade is the re-organization of the muon trigger path from a subsystem-centric view in which hits in the drift tubes (DT), the cathode strip chambers (CSC), and the resistive plate chambers (RPC) were treated separately in dedicated track-finding systems to one in which complementary detector systems for a given region (barrel, overlap, and endcap) are merged at the track-finding level. This fundamental restructuring of the muon trigger system required the development of a system to receive track candidates from the track-finding layer, remove potential duplicate tracks, and forward the best candidates to the global decision layer. An overview will be given of the new track-finder system for the barrel region, the Barrel Muon Track Finder (BMTF), as well as the cancel-out and sorting layer: the upgraded Global Muon Trigger (μGMT). Both the BMTF and μGMT have been implemented in a Xilinx Virtex-7 card utilizing the microTCA architecture. While the BMTF improves on the proven and well-tested algorithms used in the Drift Tube Track Finder during Run-1, the μGMT is an almost complete re-development due to the re-organization of the underlying systems from track-finders for a specific detector to regional track finders covering a given area of the whole detector. Additionally the μGMT calculates a muon's isolation using energy information received from the calorimeter trigger. This information is added to the muon objects forwarded to the global decision layer, the so-called Global Trigger. - Highlights: • Presented upgraded Global Muon Trigger and Barrel Muon Track Finder systems. • Upgraded system moves from sub-detector centric view to geometric-view. • To improve trigger performance. • Common hardware improves maintainability and increases development speed. • Use of

  6. Retrospective respiratory triggering renal perfusion MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attenberger, Ulrike I.; Michaely, Henrik J.; Schoenberg, Stefan O. (Dept. of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Univ. Hospital Mannheim, Univ. of Heidelberg, Mannheim (Germany)), e-mail: ulrike.attenberger@medma.uni-heidelberg.de; Sourbron, Steven P. (Div. of Medical Physics, Univ. of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom)); Reiser, Maximilian F. (Dept. of Clinical Radiology, Univ. Hospitals Munich, Grosshadern, Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ., Munich (Germany))

    2010-12-15

    Background: Artifacts of respiratory motion are one of the well-known limitations of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) of the kidney. Purpose: To propose and evaluate a retrospective triggering approach to minimize the effect of respiratory motion in DCE-MRI of the kidney. Material and Methods: Nine consecutive patients underwent renal perfusion measurements. Data were acquired with a 2D saturation-recovery TurboFLASH sequence. In order to test the dependence of the results on size and location of the manually drawn triggering regions of interest (ROIs), three widely differing triggering regions were defined by one observer. Mean value, standard deviation, and variability of the renal function parameters plasma flow (FP), plasma volume (VP), plasma transit time (TP), tubular flow (FT), tubular volume (VT), and tubular transit time (TT) were calculated on a per-patient basis. Results: The results show that triggered data have adequate temporal resolution to measure blood flow. The overall average values of the function parameters were: 152.77 (FP), 15.18 (VP), 6,73 (TP), 18.50 (FT), 35.36 (VT), and 117.67 (TT). The variability (calculated in % SD from the mean value) for three different respiratory triggering regions defined on a per-patient basis was between 0.81% and 9.87% for FP, 1.45% and 8.19% for VP, 0% and 9.63% for TP, 2.15% and 12.23% for TF, 0.8% and 17.28% for VT, and 1.97% and 12.87% for TT. Conclusion: Triggering reduces the oscillations in the signal curves and produces sharper parametric maps. In contrast to numerically challenging approaches like registration and segmentation it can be applied in clinical routine, but a (semi)-automatic approach to select the triggering ROI is desirable to reduce user dependence.

  7. Aftershocks and triggering processes in rock fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidsen, J.; Kwiatek, G.; Goebel, T.; Stanchits, S. A.; Dresen, G.

    2017-12-01

    One of the hallmarks of our understanding of seismicity in nature is the importance of triggering processes, which makes the forecasting of seismic activity feasible. These triggering processes by which one earthquake induces (dynamic or static) stress changes leading to potentially multiple other earthquakes are at the core relaxation processes. A specic example of triggering are aftershocks following a large earthquake, which have been observed to follow certain empirical relationships such as the Omori-Utsu relation. Such an empirical relation should arise from the underlying microscopic dynamics of the involved physical processes but the exact connection remains to be established. Simple explanations have been proposed but their general applicability is unclear. Many explanations involve the picture of an earthquake as a purely frictional sliding event. Here, we present experimental evidence that these empirical relationships are not limited to frictional processes but also arise in fracture zone formation and are mostly related to compaction-type events. Our analysis is based on tri-axial compression experiments under constant displacement rate on sandstone and granite samples using spatially located acoustic emission events and their focal mechanisms. More importantly, we show that event-event triggering plays an important role in the presence of large-scale or macrocopic imperfections while such triggering is basically absent if no signicant imperfections are present. We also show that spatial localization and an increase in activity rates close to failure do not necessarily imply triggering behavior associated with aftershocks. Only if a macroscopic crack is formed and its propagation remains subcritical do we observe significant triggering.

  8. Global warning, global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benarde, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    This book provides insights into the formidable array of issues which, in a warmer world, could impinge upon every facet of readers lives. It examines climatic change and long-term implications of global warming for the ecosystem. Topics include the ozone layer and how it works; the greenhouse effect; the dangers of imbalance and its effects on human and animal life; disruptions to the basic ecology of the planet; and the real scientific evidence for and against aberrant climatic shifts. The author also examines workable social and political programs and changes that must be instituted to avoid ecological disaster

  9. Sub-nanosecond clock synchronization and trigger management in the nuclear physics experiment AGATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellato, M; Isocrate, R; Rampazzo, G; Bazzacco, D; Bortolato, D; Triossi, A; Chavas, J; Mengoni, D; Recchia, F

    2013-01-01

    The new-generation spectrometer AGATA, the Advanced GAmma Tracking Array, requires sub-nanosecond clock synchronization among readout and front-end electronics modules that may lie hundred meters apart. We call GTS (Global Trigger and Synchronization System) the infrastructure responsible for precise clock synchronization and for the trigger management of AGATA. It is made of a central trigger processor and nodes, connected in a tree structure by means of optical fibers operated at 2Gb/s. The GTS tree handles the synchronization and the trigger data flow, whereas the trigger processor analyses and eventually validates the trigger primitives centrally. Sub-nanosecond synchronization is achieved by measuring two different types of round-trip times and by automatically correcting for phase-shift differences. For a tree of depth two, the peak-to-peak clock jitter at each leaf is 70 ps; the mean phase difference is 180 ps, while the standard deviation over such phase difference, namely the phase equalization repeatability, is 20 ps. The GTS system has run flawlessly for the two-year long AGATA campaign, held at the INFN Legnaro National Laboratories, Italy, where five triple clusters of the AGATA sub-array were coupled with a variety of ancillary detectors

  10. Sub-nanosecond clock synchronization and trigger management in the nuclear physics experiment AGATA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellato, M.; Bortolato, D.; Chavas, J.; Isocrate, R.; Rampazzo, G.; Triossi, A.; Bazzacco, D.; Mengoni, D.; Recchia, F.

    2013-07-01

    The new-generation spectrometer AGATA, the Advanced GAmma Tracking Array, requires sub-nanosecond clock synchronization among readout and front-end electronics modules that may lie hundred meters apart. We call GTS (Global Trigger and Synchronization System) the infrastructure responsible for precise clock synchronization and for the trigger management of AGATA. It is made of a central trigger processor and nodes, connected in a tree structure by means of optical fibers operated at 2Gb/s. The GTS tree handles the synchronization and the trigger data flow, whereas the trigger processor analyses and eventually validates the trigger primitives centrally. Sub-nanosecond synchronization is achieved by measuring two different types of round-trip times and by automatically correcting for phase-shift differences. For a tree of depth two, the peak-to-peak clock jitter at each leaf is 70 ps; the mean phase difference is 180 ps, while the standard deviation over such phase difference, namely the phase equalization repeatability, is 20 ps. The GTS system has run flawlessly for the two-year long AGATA campaign, held at the INFN Legnaro National Laboratories, Italy, where five triple clusters of the AGATA sub-array were coupled with a variety of ancillary detectors.

  11. An on-line non-leptonic neural trigger applied to an experiment looking for beauty

    CERN Document Server

    Baldanza, C; Cotta-Ramusino, A; D'Antone, I; Malferrari, L; Mazzanti, P; Odorici, F; Odorico, R; Zuffa, M; Bruschini, C; Musico, P; Novelli, P; Passaseo, M

    1994-01-01

    Results from a non-leptonic neural-network trigger hosted by experiment WA92, looking for beauty particle production from 350 GeV 1t- on a Cu target, are presented. The neural trigger has been used to send on a special data stream (the Fast Stream) events to be analyzed with high priority. The non-leptonic signature uses microvertex detector data and was devised so as to enrich the fraction of events containing C3 secondary vertices (i.e, vertices having three tracks whith sum of electric charges equal to +1 or -1). The neural trigger module consists of a VME crate hosting two ET ANN analog neural chips from Intel. The neural trigger operated for two continuous weeks during the WA92 1 993 run. For an acceptance of 15% for C3 events, the neural trigger yields a C3 enrichment factor of 6.6-7.l (depending on the event sample considered), which multiplied by that already provided by the standard non-leptonic trigger leads to a global C3 enrichment factor of -1 50. In the event sample selected by the neural trigge...

  12. Rate Predictions and Trigger/DAQ Resource Monitoring in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Schaefer, D M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Since starting in 2010, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has pro- duced collisions at an ever increasing rate. The ATLAS experiment successfully records the collision data with high eciency and excel- lent data quality. Events are selected using a three-level trigger system, where each level makes a more re ned selection. The level-1 trigger (L1) consists of a custom-designed hardware trigger which seeds two higher software based trigger levels. Over 300 triggers compose a trig- ger menu which selects physics signatures such as electrons, muons, particle jets, etc. Each trigger consumes computing resources of the ATLAS trigger system and oine storage. The LHC instantaneous luminosity conditions, desired physics goals of the collaboration, and the limits of the trigger infrastructure determine the composition of the ATLAS trigger menu. We describe a trigger monitoring frame- work for computing the costs of individual trigger algorithms such as data request rates and CPU consumption. This framework has been used...

  13. Graphical processors for HEP trigger systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammendola, R.; Biagioni, A.; Chiozzi, S.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Di Lorenzo, S.; Fantechi, R.; Fiorini, M.; Frezza, O.; Lamanna, G.; Lo Cicero, F.; Lonardo, A.; Martinelli, M.; Neri, I.; Paolucci, P.S.; Pastorelli, E.; Piandani, R.; Pontisso, L.; Rossetti, D.; Simula, F.; Sozzi, M.

    2017-01-01

    General-purpose computing on GPUs is emerging as a new paradigm in several fields of science, although so far applications have been tailored to employ GPUs as accelerators in offline computations. With the steady decrease of GPU latencies and the increase in link and memory throughputs, time is ripe for real-time applications using GPUs in high-energy physics data acquisition and trigger systems. We will discuss the use of online parallel computing on GPUs for synchronous low level trigger systems, focusing on tests performed on the trigger of the CERN NA62 experiment. Latencies of all components need analysing, networking being the most critical. To keep it under control, we envisioned NaNet, an FPGA-based PCIe Network Interface Card (NIC) enabling GPUDirect connection. Moreover, we discuss how specific trigger algorithms can be parallelised and thus benefit from a GPU implementation, in terms of increased execution speed. Such improvements are particularly relevant for the foreseen LHC luminosity upgrade where highly selective algorithms will be crucial to maintain sustainable trigger rates with very high pileup.

  14. CMS Triggers for the LHC Startup

    CERN Document Server

    Nhan Nguyen, Chi

    2009-01-01

    The LHC will collide proton beams at a bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz. At the design luminosity of $10^{34}$ cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ each crossing results in an average of about 20 inelastic pp events. The CMS trigger system is designed to reduce the input rate to about 100 Hz. This task is carried out in two steps, namely the Level-1 (L1) and the High-Level trigger (HLT). The L1 trigger is built of customized fast electronics and is designed to reduce the rate to 100 kHz. The HLT is implemented in a filter farm running on hundreds of CPUs and is designed to reduce the rate by another factor of ~1000. It combines the traditional L2 and L3 trigger components in a novel way and allows the coherent tuning of the HLT algorithms to accommodate multiple physics channels. We will discuss the strategies for optimizing triggers covering the experiment`s early physics program.

  15. The Fast Interaction Trigger Upgrade for ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Solis, Edmundo

    2016-01-01

    The ALICE Collaboration is preparing a major detector upgrade for the second LHC long shutdown (2019–20). The LHC heavy-ion luminosity and collision rate from 2021 onwards will considerably exceed the design parameters of the present ALICE forward trigger detectors. Furthermore, the introduction of a new Muon Forward Tracker (MFT) will significantly reduce the space available for the upgraded trigger detectors. To comply with these conditions a Fast Interaction Trigger (FIT) has been designed. FIT will be the primary forward trigger, luminosity, and collision time measurement detector. The FIT will be capable of triggering at an interaction rate of 50 kHz, with a time resolution better than 30 ps, with 99% efficiency. It will also determine multiplicity, centrality, and reaction plane. FIT will consist of two arrays of Cherenkov radiators with MCP-PMT sensors and of a single, large-size scintillator ring. The arrays will be placed on both sides of the interaction point (IP). Because of the presence of the h...

  16. Tools for Trigger Rate Monitoring at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Geoffrey; Wightman, Andrew Steven

    2017-01-01

    In 2017, we expect the LHC to deliver an instantaneous luminosity of roughly $2.0 \\times 10^{34}$~cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ to the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment, with about 60 simultaneous proton-proton collisions (pileup) per event. In these challenging conditions, it is important to be able to intelligently monitor the rate at which data are being collected (the trigger rate). It is not enough to simply look at the trigger rate; it is equally important to compare the trigger rate with expectations. We present a set of software tools that have been developed to accomplish this. The tools include a real-time component - a script that monitors the rates of individual triggers during data-taking, and activates an alarm if rates deviate significantly from expectation. Fits are made to previously collected data and extrapolated to higher pileup. The behavior of triggers as a function of pileup is then monitored as data are collected - plots are automatically produced on an hourly basis and uploaded to a web area...

  17. Tracking at High Level Trigger in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Tosi, Mia

    2016-01-01

    The trigger systems of the LHC detectors play a crucial role in determining the physics capabili- ties of the experiments. A reduction of several orders of magnitude of the event rate is needed to reach values compatible with detector readout, offline storage and analysis capability. The CMS experiment has been designed with a two-level trigger system: the Level-1 Trigger (L1T), implemented on custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a stream- lined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. A software trigger system requires a trade-off between the complexity of the algorithms, the sustainable out- put rate, and the selection efficiency. With the computing power available during the 2012 data taking the maximum reconstruction time at HLT was about 200 ms per event, at the nominal L1T rate of 100 kHz. Track reconstruction algorithms are widely used in the HLT, for the reconstruction of the physics objects as well as in the identification of b-jets and ...

  18. DZERO Level 3 DAQ/Trigger Closeout

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    The Tevatron Collider, located at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, delivered its last 1.96 TeV proton-antiproton collisions on September 30th, 2011. The DZERO experiment continues to take cosmic data for final alignment for several more months . Since Run 2 started, in March 2001, all DZERO data has been collected by the DZERO Level 3 Trigger/DAQ System. The system is a modern, networked, commodity hardware trigger and data acquisition system based around a large central switch with about 60 front ends and 200 trigger computers. DZERO front end crates are VME based. Single Board Computer interfaces between detector data on VME and the network transport for the DAQ system. Event flow is controlled by the Routing Master which can steer events to clusters of farm nodes based on the low level trigger bits that fired. The farm nodes are multi-core commodity computer boxes, without special hardware, that run isolated software to make the final Level 3 trigger decision. Passed events are transferred to th...

  19. Graphical processors for HEP trigger systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammendola, R. [INFN Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Biagioni, A. [INFN Sezione di Roma, P.le Aldo Moro, 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Chiozzi, S.; Cotta Ramusino, A. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara, Via Saragat, 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); Di Lorenzo, S. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, L. Bruno Pontecorvo, 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Università di Pisa, Lungarno Pacinotti 43, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Fantechi, R. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, L. Bruno Pontecorvo, 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Fiorini, M. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara, Via Saragat, 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); Università di Ferrara, Via Ludovico Ariosto 35, 44121 Ferrara (Italy); Frezza, O. [INFN Sezione di Roma, P.le Aldo Moro, 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Lamanna, G. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (Italy); Lo Cicero, F.; Lonardo, A.; Martinelli, M.; Neri, I.; Paolucci, P.S.; Pastorelli, E. [INFN Sezione di Roma, P.le Aldo Moro, 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Piandani, R. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, L. Bruno Pontecorvo, 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Pontisso, L., E-mail: luca.pontisso@cern.ch [INFN Sezione di Pisa, L. Bruno Pontecorvo, 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Rossetti, D. [NVIDIA Corp., Santa Clara, CA (United States); Simula, F. [INFN Sezione di Roma, P.le Aldo Moro, 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Sozzi, M. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, L. Bruno Pontecorvo, 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Università di Pisa, Lungarno Pacinotti 43, 56126 Pisa (Italy); and others

    2017-02-11

    General-purpose computing on GPUs is emerging as a new paradigm in several fields of science, although so far applications have been tailored to employ GPUs as accelerators in offline computations. With the steady decrease of GPU latencies and the increase in link and memory throughputs, time is ripe for real-time applications using GPUs in high-energy physics data acquisition and trigger systems. We will discuss the use of online parallel computing on GPUs for synchronous low level trigger systems, focusing on tests performed on the trigger of the CERN NA62 experiment. Latencies of all components need analysing, networking being the most critical. To keep it under control, we envisioned NaNet, an FPGA-based PCIe Network Interface Card (NIC) enabling GPUDirect connection. Moreover, we discuss how specific trigger algorithms can be parallelised and thus benefit from a GPU implementation, in terms of increased execution speed. Such improvements are particularly relevant for the foreseen LHC luminosity upgrade where highly selective algorithms will be crucial to maintain sustainable trigger rates with very high pileup.

  20. Validation of ATLAS L1 Topological Triggers

    CERN Document Server

    Praderio, Marco

    2017-01-01

    The Topological trigger (L1Topo) is a new component of the ATLAS L1 (Level-1) trigger. Its purpose is that of reducing the otherwise too high rate of data collection from the LHC by rejecting those events considered “uninteresting” (meaning that they have already been studied). This event rate reduction is achieved by applying topological requirements to the physical objects present in each event. It is very important to make sure that this trigger does not reject any “interesting” event. Therefore we need to verify its correct functioning. The goal of this summer student project is to study the response of two L1Topo algorithms (concerning ∆R and invariant mass). To do so I will compare the trigger decisions produced by the L1Topo hardware with the ones produced by the “official” L1Topo simulation. This way I will be able to identify events that could be incorrectly rejected. Simultaneously I will produce an emulation of these triggers that will help me understand the cause of disagreements bet...

  1. Online software trigger at PANDA/FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Donghee; Kliemt, Ralf; Nerling, Frank [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz (Germany); Denig, Achim [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Goetzen, Klaus; Peters, Klaus [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH (Germany); Collaboration: PANDA-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    The PANDA experiment at FAIR will employ a novel trigger-less read-out system. Since a conventional hardware trigger concept is not suitable for PANDA, a high level online event filter will be applied to perform fast event selection based on physics properties of the reconstructed events. A trigger-less data stream implies an event selection with track reconstruction and pattern recognition to be performed online, and thus analysing data under real time conditions at event rates of up to 40 MHz.The projected data rate reduction of about three orders of magnitude requires an effective background rejection, while retaining interesting signal events. Real time event selection in the environment of hadronic reactions is rather challenging and relies on sophisticated algorithms for the software trigger. The implementation and the performance of physics trigger algorithms presently studied with realistic Monte Carlo simulations is discussed. The impact of parameters such as momentum or mass resolution, PID probability, vertex reconstruction and a multivariate analysis using the TMVA package for event filtering is presented.

  2. Against Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, Lotte; Baggesgaard, Mads Anders

    2013-01-01

    In order to understand globalization, we need to consider what globalization is not. That is, in order to understand the mechanisms and elements that work toward globalization, we must, in a sense, read against globalization, highlighting the limitations of the concept and its inherent conflicts....... Only by employing this as a critical practice will we be analytically able to gain a dynamic understanding of the forces of globalization as they unfold today and as they have developed historically....

  3. Towards RTOS support for mixed time-triggered and event-triggered task sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, van den M.M.H.P.; Bril, R.J.; Lukkien, J.J.; Isovic, D.; Sankar Ramachandran, G.

    2012-01-01

    Many embedded systems have complex timing constraints and, at the same time, have flexibility requirements which prohibit offline planning of the entire system. To support a mixture of time-triggered and event-triggered tasks, some industrial systems deploy a real-time operating system (RTOS) with a

  4. Limited preemptive scheduling of mixed time-triggered and event-triggered tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, van den M.M.H.P.; Bril, R.J.; Zhang, X.; Abdullah, S.M.J.; Isovic, D.

    2013-01-01

    Many embedded systems have complex timing constraints and, at the same time, have flexibility requirements which prohibit offline planning of the entire system. To support a mixture of time-triggered and event-triggered tasks, some industrial systems deploy a table-driven dispatcher for

  5. Performance of the ATLAS Muon Trigger and Phase-1 Upgrade of Level-1 Endcap Muon Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Mizukami, Atsushi; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment utilises a trigger system to efficiently record interesting events. It consists of first-level and high-level triggers. The first-level trigger is implemented with custom-built hardware to reduce the event rate from 40 MHz to100 kHz. Then the software-based high-level triggers refine the trigger decisions reducing the output rate down to 1 kHz. Events with muons in the final state are an important signature for many physics topics at the LHC. An efficient trigger on muons and a detailed understanding of its performance are required. Trigger efficiencies are, for example, obtained from the muon decay of Z boson, with a Tag&Probe method, using proton-proton collision data collected in 2016 at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. The LHC is expected to increase its instantaneous luminosity to $3\\times10^{34} \\rm{cm^{-2}s^{-1}}$ after the phase-1 upgrade between 2018-2020. The upgrade of the ATLAS trigger system is mandatory to cope with this high-luminosity. In the phase-1 upgrade, new det...

  6. The BTeV trigger system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, D.M.

    2000-01-01

    BTeV is a dedicated beauty and charm experiment proposed for the Fermilab Tevatron. The broad physics program envisaged for BTeV requires a trigger that is efficient for a wide variety of heavy-quark decays, including those to all-hadronic final states. To achieve this, we plan to trigger on evidence of detached vertices at the very first trigger level, taking advantage of fast-readout pixel detectors to facilitate fast pattern recognition. Simulations show that 100-to-1 rejection of light-quark background events can be achieved at Level 1 using specialized trackfinding hardware, and that an additional factor of 10-100 in data reduction can be achieved using general purpose processor farms at Levels 2 and 3. This is adequate to allow data taking at luminosities in excess of 2x10 32 cm -2 s -1

  7. Use of GPUs in Trigger Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamanna, Gianluca

    In recent years the interest for using graphics processor (GPU) in general purpose high performance computing is constantly rising. In this paper we discuss the possible use of GPUs to construct a fast and effective real time trigger system, both in software and hardware levels. In particular, we study the integration of such a system in the NA62 trigger. The first application of GPUs for rings pattern recognition in the RICH will be presented. The results obtained show that there are not showstoppers in trigger systems with relatively low latency. Thanks to the use of off-the-shelf technology, in continous development for purposes related to video game and image processing market, the architecture described would be easily exported to other experiments, to build a versatile and fully customizable online selection.

  8. The ATLAS Electron and Photon Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Samuel David; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    ATLAS electron and photon triggers covering transverse energies from 5 GeV to several TeV are essential to record signals for a wide variety of physics: from Standard Model processes to searches for new phenomena. To cope with ever-increasing luminosity and more challenging pile-up conditions at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, the trigger selections need to be optimized to control the rates and keep efficiencies high. The ATLAS electron and photon trigger performance in Run 2 will be presented, including both the role of the ATLAS calorimeter in electron and photon identification and details of new techniques developed to maintain high performance even in high pile-up conditions.

  9. Combining triggers in HEP data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lendermann, Victor; Herbst, Michael; Krueger, Katja; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Stamen, Rainer; Haller, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    Modern high-energy physics experiments collect data using dedicated complex multi-level trigger systems which perform an online selection of potentially interesting events. In general, this selection suffers from inefficiencies. A further loss of statistics occurs when the rate of accepted events is artificially scaled down in order to meet bandwidth constraints. An offline analysis of the recorded data must correct for the resulting losses in order to determine the original statistics of the analysed data sample. This is particularly challenging when data samples recorded by several triggers are combined. In this paper we present methods for the calculation of the offline corrections and study their statistical performance. Implications on building and operating trigger systems are discussed. (orig.)

  10. Combining triggers in HEP data analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lendermann, Victor; Herbst, Michael; Krueger, Katja; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Stamen, Rainer [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Kirchhoff-Institut fuer Physik; Haller, Johannes [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Institut fuer Experimentalphysik

    2009-01-15

    Modern high-energy physics experiments collect data using dedicated complex multi-level trigger systems which perform an online selection of potentially interesting events. In general, this selection suffers from inefficiencies. A further loss of statistics occurs when the rate of accepted events is artificially scaled down in order to meet bandwidth constraints. An offline analysis of the recorded data must correct for the resulting losses in order to determine the original statistics of the analysed data sample. This is particularly challenging when data samples recorded by several triggers are combined. In this paper we present methods for the calculation of the offline corrections and study their statistical performance. Implications on building and operating trigger systems are discussed. (orig.)

  11. A new fast and programmable trigger logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fucci, A.; Amendolia, S.R.; Bertolucci, E.; Bottigli, U.; Bradaschia, C.; Foa, L.; Giazotto, A.; Giorgi, M.; Givoletti, M.; Lucardesi, P.; Menzione, A.; Passuello, D.; Quaglia, M.; Ristori, L.; Rolandi, L.; Salvadori, P.; Scribano, A.; Stanga, R.; Stefanini, A.; Vincelli, M.L.

    1977-01-01

    The NA1 (FRAMM) experiment, under construction for the CERN-SPS North Area, deals with more than 1000 counter signals which have to be combined together in order to build sophisticated and highly selective triggers. These requirements have led to the development of a low cost, combinatorial, fast electronics which can replace, in an advantageous way the standard NIM electronics at the trigger level. The essential performances of the basic circuit are: 1) programmability of any desired logical expression; 2) trigger time independent of the chosen expression; 3) reduced cost and compactness due to the use of commercial RAMs, PROMs, and PLAs; 4) short delay, less than 20 ns, between input and output pulses. (Auth.)

  12. A self triggered intensified Ccd (Stic)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charon, Y.; Laniece, P.; Bendali, M.

    1990-01-01

    We are developing a new device based on the results reported previously of the successfull coincidence detection of β- particles with a high spatial resolution [1]. The novelty of the device consists in triggering an intensified CCD, i.e. a CCD coupled to an image intensifier (II), by an electrical signal collected from the II itself. This is a suitable procedure for detecting with high efficiency and high resolution low light rare events. The trigger pulse is obtained from the secondary electrons produced by multiplication in a double microchannel plate (MCP) and collected on the aluminized layer protecting the phosphor screen in the II. Triggering efficiencies up to 80% has been already achieved

  13. The UA1 upgrade calorimeter trigger processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bains, M.; Charleton, D.; Ellis, N.; Garvey, J.; Gregory, J.; Jimack, M.P.; Jovanovic, P.; Kenyon, I.R.; Baird, S.A.; Campbell, D.; Cawthraw, M.; Coughlan, J.; Flynn, P.; Galagedera, S.; Grayer, G.; Halsall, R.; Shah, T.P.; Stephens, R.; Biddulph, P.; Eisenhandler, E.; Fensome, I.F.; Landon, M.; Robinson, D.; Oliver, J.; Sumorok, K.

    1990-01-01

    The increased luminosity of the improved CERN Collider and the more subtle signals of second-generation collider physics demand increasingly sophisticated triggering. We have built a new first-level trigger processor designed to use the excellent granularity of the UA1 upgrade calorimeter. This device is entirely digital and handles events in 1.5 μs, thus introducing no dead time. Its most novel feature is fast two-dimensional electromagnetic cluster-finding with the possibility of demanding an isolated shower of limited penetration. The processor allows multiple combinations of triggers on electromagnetic showers, hadronic jets and energy sums, including a total-energy veto of multiple interactions and a full vector sum of missing transverse energy. This hard-wired processor is about five times more powerful than its predecessor, and makes extensive use of pipelining techniques. It was used extensively in the 1988 and 1989 runs of the CERN Collider. (orig.)

  14. The UA1 upgrade calorimeter trigger processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bains, N.; Baird, S.A.; Biddulph, P.

    1990-01-01

    The increased luminosity of the improved CERN Collider and the more subtle signals of second-generation collider physics demand increasingly sophisticated triggering. We have built a new first-level trigger processor designed to use the excellent granularity of the UA1 upgrade calorimeter. This device is entirely digital and handles events in 1.5 μs, thus introducing no deadtime. Its most novel feature is fast two-dimensional electromagnetic cluster-finding with the possibility of demanding an isolated shower of limited penetration. The processor allows multiple combinations of triggers on electromagnetic showers, hadronic jets and energy sums, including a total-energy veto of multiple interactions and a full vector sum of missing transverse energy. This hard-wired processor is about five times more powerful than its predecessor, and makes extensive use of pipelining techniques. It was used extensively in the 1988 and 1989 runs of the CERN Collider. (author)

  15. The double Chooz hardware trigger system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cucoanes, Andi; Beissel, Franz; Reinhold, Bernd; Roth, Stefan; Stahl, Achim; Wiebusch, Christopher [RWTH Aachen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The double Chooz neutrino experiment aims to improve the present knowledge on {theta}{sub 13} mixing angle using two similar detectors placed at {proportional_to}280 m and respectively 1 km from the Chooz power plant reactor cores. The detectors measure the disappearance of reactor antineutrinos. The hardware trigger has to be very efficient for antineutrinos as well as for various types of background events. The triggering condition is based on discriminated PMT sum signals and the multiplicity of groups of PMTs. The talk gives an outlook to the double Chooz experiment and explains the requirements of the trigger system. The resulting concept and its performance is shown as well as first results from a prototype system.

  16. Self-triggering superconducting fault current limiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xing [Albany, NY; Tekletsadik, Kasegn [Rexford, NY

    2008-10-21

    A modular and scaleable Matrix Fault Current Limiter (MFCL) that functions as a "variable impedance" device in an electric power network, using components made of superconducting and non-superconducting electrically conductive materials. The matrix fault current limiter comprises a fault current limiter module that includes a superconductor which is electrically coupled in parallel with a trigger coil, wherein the trigger coil is magnetically coupled to the superconductor. The current surge doing a fault within the electrical power network will cause the superconductor to transition to its resistive state and also generate a uniform magnetic field in the trigger coil and simultaneously limit the voltage developed across the superconductor. This results in fast and uniform quenching of the superconductors, significantly reduces the burnout risk associated with non-uniformity often existing within the volume of superconductor materials. The fault current limiter modules may be electrically coupled together to form various "n" (rows).times."m" (columns) matrix configurations.

  17. Dendrite Injury Triggers DLK-Independent Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle C. Stone

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Axon injury triggers regeneration through activation of a conserved kinase cascade, which includes the dual leucine zipper kinase (DLK. Although dendrites are damaged during stroke, traumatic brain injury, and seizure, it is not known whether mature neurons monitor dendrite injury and initiate regeneration. We probed the response to dendrite damage using model Drosophila neurons. Two larval neuron types regrew dendrites in distinct ways after all dendrites were removed. Dendrite regeneration was also triggered by injury in adults. Next, we tested whether dendrite injury was initiated with the same machinery as axon injury. Surprisingly, DLK, JNK, and fos were dispensable for dendrite regeneration. Moreover, this MAP kinase pathway was not activated by injury to dendrites. Thus, neurons respond to dendrite damage and initiate regeneration without using the conserved DLK cascade that triggers axon regeneration.

  18. The ATLAS trigger: high-level trigger commissioning and operation during early data taking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalo, R

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is one of the two general-purpose experiments due to start operation soon at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The LHC will collide protons at a centre of mass energy of 14 TeV, with a bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz. The ATLAS three-level trigger will reduce this input rate to match the foreseen offline storage capability of 100-200 Hz. This paper gives an overview of the ATLAS High Level Trigger focusing on the system design and its innovative features. We then present the ATLAS trigger strategy for the initial phase of LHC exploitation. Finally, we report on the valuable experience acquired through in-situ commissioning of the system where simulated events were used to exercise the trigger chain. In particular we show critical quantities such as event processing times, measured in a large-scale HLT farm using a complex trigger menu

  19. Self triggered single pulse beam position monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothman, J.L.; Blum, E.B.

    1993-01-01

    A self triggered beam position monitor (BPM) has been developed for the NSLS injection system to provide single pulse orbit measurements in the booster synchrotron, linac, and transport lines. The BPM integrates the negative going portion of 3 nS wide bipolar pickup electrode signals. The gated, self triggering feature confines critical timing components to the front end, relaxing external timing specifications. The system features a low noise high speed FET sampler, a fiber optic gate for bunch and turn selection, and an inexpensive interface to a standard PC data acquisition system

  20. Run 2 ATLAS Trigger and Detector Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Solovyanov, Oleg; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The 2nd LHC run has started in June 2015 with a proton-proton centre-of-mass collision energy of 13 TeV. During the years 2016 and 2017, LHC delivered an unprecedented amount of luminosity under the ever-increasing challenging conditions in terms of peak luminosity, pile-up and trigger rates. In this talk, the LHC running conditions and the improvements made to the ATLAS experiment in the course of Run 2 will be discussed, and the latest ATLAS detector and ATLAS trigger performance results from the Run 2 will be presented.

  1. Advances in tracking and trigger concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisel, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Increasing beam intensities and input data rates require to rethink the traditional approaches in trigger concepts. At the same time the advanced many-core computer architectures providing new dimensions in programming require to rework the standard methods or to develop new methods of track reconstruction in order to efficiently use parallelism of the computer hardware. As a results a new tendency appears to replace the standard (usually implemented in FPGA) hardware triggers by clusters of computers running software reconstruction and selection algorithms. In addition that makes possible unification of the offline and on-line data processing and analysis in one software package running on a heterogeneous computer farm

  2. The CMS High-Level Trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covarelli, R.

    2009-01-01

    At the startup of the LHC, the CMS data acquisition is expected to be able to sustain an event readout rate of up to 100 kHz from the Level-1 trigger. These events will be read into a large processor farm which will run the 'High-Level Trigger'(HLT) selection algorithms and will output a rate of about 150 Hz for permanent data storage. In this report HLT performances are shown for selections based on muons, electrons, photons, jets, missing transverse energy, τ leptons and b quarks: expected efficiencies, background rates and CPU time consumption are reported as well as relaxation criteria foreseen for a LHC startup instantaneous luminosity.

  3. The CMS High-Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Covarelli, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    At the startup of the LHC, the CMS data acquisition is expected to be able to sustain an event readout rate of up to 100 kHz from the Level-1 trigger. These events will be read into a large processor farm which will run the "High-Level Trigger" (HLT) selection algorithms and will output a rate of about 150 Hz for permanent data storage. In this report HLT performances are shown for selections based on muons, electrons, photons, jets, missing transverse energy, tau leptons and b quarks: expected efficiencies, background rates and CPU time consumption are reported as well as relaxation criteria foreseen for a LHC startup instantaneous luminosity.

  4. The CMS High-Level Trigger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covarelli, R.

    2009-12-01

    At the startup of the LHC, the CMS data acquisition is expected to be able to sustain an event readout rate of up to 100 kHz from the Level-1 trigger. These events will be read into a large processor farm which will run the "High-Level Trigger" (HLT) selection algorithms and will output a rate of about 150 Hz for permanent data storage. In this report HLT performances are shown for selections based on muons, electrons, photons, jets, missing transverse energy, τ leptons and b quarks: expected efficiencies, background rates and CPU time consumption are reported as well as relaxation criteria foreseen for a LHC startup instantaneous luminosity.

  5. Popular sweetner sucralose as a migraine trigger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rajendrakumar M; Sarma, Rakesh; Grimsley, Edwin

    2006-09-01

    Sucralose (trichlorogalactosucrose, or better known as Splenda) is an artificial sweetener from native sucrose that was approved by the FDA on April 1, 1998 (April Fool's Day). This observation of a potential causal relationship between sucralose and migraines may be important for physicians to remember this can be a possible trigger during dietary history taking. Identifying further triggers for migraine headaches, in this case sucralose, may help alleviate some of the cost burden (through expensive medical therapy or missed work opportunity) as well as provide relief to migraineurs.

  6. CMS Calorimeter Trigger Phase I upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klabbers, P; Gorski, T; Bachtis, M; Dasu, S; Fobes, R; Grothe, M; Ross, I; Smith, W H; Compton, K; Farmahini-Farahani, A; Gregerson, A; Seemuth, D; Schulte, M

    2012-01-01

    We present a design for the Phase-1 upgrade of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) calorimeter trigger system composed of FPGAs and Multi-GBit/sec links that adhere to the μTCA crate Telecom standard. The upgrade calorimeter trigger will implement algorithms that create collections of isolated and non-isolated electromagnetic objects, isolated and non-isolated tau objects and jet objects. The algorithms are organized in several steps with progressive data reduction. These include a particle cluster finder that reconstructs overlapping clusters of 2x2 calorimeter towers and applies electron identification, a cluster overlap filter, particle isolation determination, jet reconstruction, particle separation and sorting.

  7. Hardware trigger processor for the MDT system

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)757787; The ATLAS collaboration; Hazen, Eric; Butler, John; Black, Kevin; Gastler, Daniel Edward; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Taffard, Anyes; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Ishino, Masaya; Okumura, Yasuyuki

    2017-01-01

    We are developing a low-latency hardware trigger processor for the Monitored Drift Tube system in the Muon spectrometer. The processor will fit candidate Muon tracks in the drift tubes in real time, improving significantly the momentum resolution provided by the dedicated trigger chambers. We present a novel pure-FPGA implementation of a Legendre transform segment finder, an associative-memory alternative implementation, an ARM (Zynq) processor-based track fitter, and compact ATCA carrier board architecture. The ATCA architecture is designed to allow a modular, staged approach to deployment of the system and exploration of alternative technologies.

  8. Global Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping

    2013-01-01

    Global strategy differs from domestic strategy in terms of content and process as well as context and structure. The content of global strategy can contain five key elements, while the process of global strategy can have six major stages. These are expounded below. Global strategy is influenced...... by rich and complementary local contexts with diverse resource pools and game rules at the national level to form a broad ecosystem at the global level. Further, global strategy dictates the interaction or balance between different entry strategies at the levels of internal and external networks....

  9. Human response to global change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frassetto, R.

    1991-01-01

    Alertness of the global climate and environment change triggered by the effects of the economy of waste of industrial modern society has been raised to governments and populations. World-wide agreements and protocols have been established; they will be improved for action in two major issues: limitation (elimination of CFC's use, reductions of CO2 emissions, increasing energy efficiency, etc.) and adaptation (socio economic impacts, human behaviour, enhancement of predictive models, etc.)

  10. Rainfall-triggered landslides, anthropogenic hazards, and mitigation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Larsen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall-triggered landslides are part of a natural process of hillslope erosion that can result in catastrophic loss of life and extensive property damage in mountainous, densely populated areas. As global population expansion on or near steep hillslopes continues, the human and economic costs associated with landslides will increase. Landslide hazard mitigation strategies generally involve hazard assessment mapping, warning systems, control structures, and regional landslide planning and policy development. To be sustainable, hazard mitigation requires that management of natural resources is closely connected to local economic and social interests. A successful strategy is dependent on a combination of multi-disciplinary scientific and engineering approaches, and the political will to take action at the local community to national scale.

  11. Experimental investigation of the trigger problem in magnetic reconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, Noam; Egedal, Jan; Fox, Will; Le, Ari; Vrublevskis, Arturs; Bonde, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic reconnection releases magnetic energy not only in steady state, but also in time-dependent and often explosive events. Here, we investigate the trigger mechanism for this explosive release by using a toroidal experiment in the strong guide-field regime. We observe spontaneous reconnection events with exponentially growing reconnection rates, and we characterize the full 3D dynamics of these events using multiple internal probes. The reconnection is asymmetric: it begins at one toroidal location and propagates around in both directions. The spontaneous onset is facilitated by an interaction between the x-line current channel and a global mode, which appears in the electrostatic potential. It is this mode which breaks axisymmetry and enables a localized decrease in x-line current. We apply a simple model - which relies on ion polarization currents for current continuity - to reproduce the exponential growth and compute the growth rate. The result agrees well with the experimental growth rate.

  12. A trigger simulation framework for the ALICE experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antinori, F; Carminati, F; Gheata, A; Gheata, M

    2011-01-01

    A realistic simulation of the trigger system in a complex HEP experiment is essential for performing detailed trigger efficiency studies. The ALICE trigger simulation is evolving towards a framework capable of replaying the full trigger chain starting from the input to the individual trigger processors and ending with the decision mechanisms of the ALICE central trigger processor. This paper describes the new ALICE trigger simulation framework that is being tested and deployed. The framework handles details like trigger levels, signal delays and busy signals, implementing the trigger logic via customizable trigger device objects managed by a robust scheduling mechanism. A big advantage is the high flexibility of the framework, which is able to mix together components described with very different levels of detail. The framework is being gradually integrated within the ALICE simulation and reconstruction frameworks.

  13. Mercury enrichment indicates volcanic triggering of the Valanginian environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonnier, Guillaume; Morales, Chloé; Duchamp-Alphonse, Stéphanie; Westermann, Stéphane; Adatte, Thierry; Föllmi, Karl

    2017-04-01

    The Valanginian stage (Early Cretaceous, ˜137-132 Ma) recorded an episode of pronounced palaeoenvironmental change, which is marked by a globally recorded positive δ13C excursion of 1.5 to 2‰ amplitude, also known as the "Weissert event or episode". Its onset near the early/late Valanginian boundary (B. campylotoxus-S. verrucosum ammonite Zones) coincides with a phase of warmer climate conditions associated with enhanced humidity, major changes in the evolution of marine plankton, and the drowning of tropical and subtropical marine shallow-water carbonate ecosystems. The globally recorded excursion indicates important transformations in the carbon cycle, which have tentatively been associated with Paraná-Etendeka large igneous province (LIP) volcanic activity. Incertainties in existing age models preclude, however, its positive identification as a trigger of Valanginian environmental change. Since very recently, mercury (Hg) chemostratigraphy offers the possibly to evaluate the role of LIP activity during major palaeoenvironmental perturbations. In this study we investigate the distribution of Hg contents in four Valanginian reference sections located in pelagic and hemipelagic environments in the Central Tethyan Realm (Lombardian Basin, Breggia section), the northern Tethyan margin (Vocontian Basin, Orpierre and Angles sections), and the narrow seaway connecting the Tethyan and Boreal Oceans (Polish Basin, Wawal core). All records show an enrichment in Hg concentrations at or near the onset of the Weissert Episode, with maximal values of 70.5 ppb at Angles, 59.5 ppb at Orpierre, 69.9 ppb at Wawal, and 17.0 ppb at Breggia. The persistence of the Hg anomaly in Hg/TOC and Hg/phyllosilicate ratios shows that organic-matter scavenging and/or adsorbtion onto clay minerals only played a limited role.We propose that volcanic outgassing was the primary source of the Hg enrichment and conclude that an important magmatic pulse triggered the Valanginian environmental

  14. Towards a Level-1 Tracking Trigger for the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    De Santo, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    In preparation for the high-luminosity phase of the Large Hadron Collider, ATLAS is planning a trigger upgrade that will enable the experiment to use tracking information already at the first trigger level. This will provide enhanced background rejection power at trigger level while preserving much needed flexibility for the trigger system. The status and current plans for the new ATLAS Level-1 tracking trigger are presented.

  15. UA1 upgrade first-level calorimeter trigger processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bains, N.; Charlton, D.; Ellis, N.; Garvey, J.; Gregory, J.; Jimack, M.P.; Jovanovic, P.; Kenyon, I.R.; Baird, S.A.; Campbell, D.; Cawthraw, M.; Coughlan, J.; Flynn, P.; Galagedera, S.; Grayer, G.; Halsall, R.; Shah, T.P.; Stephens, R.; Eisenhandler, E.; Fensome, I.; Landon, M.

    1989-01-01

    A new first-level trigger processor has been built for the UA1 experiment on the Cern SppS Collider. The processor exploits the fine granularity of the new UA1 uranium-TMP calorimeter to improve the selectivity of the trigger. The new electron trigger has improved hadron jet rejection, achieved by requiring low energy deposition around the electromagnetic cluster. A missing transverse energy trigger and a total energy trigger have also been implemented. (orig.)

  16. Prostate cancer may trigger paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jakob Kristian; Zakharia, Elias Raja; Boysen, Anders Kindberg Fossø

    2013-01-01

    -Hu antibody test the patient was diagnosed with paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis related to prostate cancer. The patient died within 6 months. We review the literature on prostate cancer-related paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis. High-risk prostate cancer can trigger paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis...

  17. Entity models for trigger-reaction documents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khalid, M.A.; Marx, M.; Makkes, M.X.

    2008-01-01

    We define the notion of an entity model for a special kind of document popular on the web: an article followed by a list of reactions on that article, usually by many authors, usually inverse chronologically ordered. We call these documents trigger-reactions pairs. The entity model describes which

  18. Hard scattering and a diffractive trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, E.L.; Collins, J.C.; Soper, D.E.; Sterman, G.

    1986-02-01

    Conclusions concerning the properties of hard scattering in diffractively produced systems are summarized. One motivation for studying diffractive hard scattering is to investigate the interface between Regge theory and perturbative QCD. Another is to see whether diffractive triggering can result in an improvement in the signal-to-background ratio of measurements of production of very heavy quarks. 5 refs

  19. 2017 B-Physics trigger efficiencies

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The performance of the trigger used to select B-Physics decay channels in CMS is presented for data collected in 2017, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $9.8\\,\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$ at $13\\,\\mathrm{TeV}$.

  20. Self-triggered coordination with ternary controllers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Persis, Claudio; Frasca, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    This paper regards coordination of networked systems with ternary controllers. We develop a hybrid coordination system which implements a self-triggered communication policy, based on polling the neighbors upon need. We prove that the proposed scheme ensures finite-time convergence to a neighborhood

  1. BTeV trigger/DAQ innovations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Votava, Margaret

    2005-01-01

    The BTeV experiment was a collider based high energy physics (HEP) B-physics experiment proposed at Fermilab. It included a large-scale, high speed trigger/data acquisition (DAQ) system, reading data off the detector at 500 Gbytes/sec and writing to mass storage at 200 Mbytes/sec. The online design was considered to be highly credible in terms of technical feasibility, schedule and cost. This paper will give an overview of the overall trigger/DAQ architecture, highlight some of the challenges, and describe the BTeV approach to solving some of the technical challenges. At the time of termination in early 2005, the experiment had just passed its baseline review. Although not fully implemented, many of the architecture choices, design, and prototype work for the online system (both trigger and DAQ) were well on their way to completion. Other large, high-speed online systems may have interest in the some of the design choices and directions of BTeV, including (a) a commodity-based tracking trigger running asynchronously at full rate, (b) the hierarchical control and fault tolerance in a large real time environment, (c) a partitioning model that supports offline processing on the online farms during idle periods with plans for dynamic load balancing, and (d) an independent parallel highway architecture

  2. Event Reconstruction Algorithms for the ATLAS Trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca-Martin, T.; /CERN; Abolins, M.; /Michigan State U.; Adragna, P.; /Queen Mary, U. of London; Aleksandrov, E.; /Dubna, JINR; Aleksandrov, I.; /Dubna, JINR; Amorim, A.; /Lisbon, LIFEP; Anderson, K.; /Chicago U., EFI; Anduaga, X.; /La Plata U.; Aracena, I.; /SLAC; Asquith, L.; /University Coll. London; Avolio, G.; /CERN; Backlund, S.; /CERN; Badescu, E.; /Bucharest, IFIN-HH; Baines, J.; /Rutherford; Barria, P.; /Rome U. /INFN, Rome; Bartoldus, R.; /SLAC; Batreanu, S.; /Bucharest, IFIN-HH /CERN; Beck, H.P.; /Bern U.; Bee, C.; /Marseille, CPPM; Bell, P.; /Manchester U.; Bell, W.H.; /Glasgow U. /Pavia U. /INFN, Pavia /Regina U. /CERN /Annecy, LAPP /Paris, IN2P3 /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Napoli Seconda U. /INFN, Naples /Argonne /CERN /UC, Irvine /Barcelona, IFAE /Barcelona, Autonoma U. /CERN /Montreal U. /CERN /Glasgow U. /Michigan State U. /Bucharest, IFIN-HH /Napoli Seconda U. /INFN, Naples /New York U. /Barcelona, IFAE /Barcelona, Autonoma U. /Salento U. /INFN, Lecce /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Bucharest, IFIN-HH /UC, Irvine /CERN /Glasgow U. /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /Lisbon, LIFEP /Napoli Seconda U. /INFN, Naples /UC, Irvine /Valencia U. /Rio de Janeiro Federal U. /University Coll. London /New York U.; /more authors..

    2011-11-09

    The ATLAS experiment under construction at CERN is due to begin operation at the end of 2007. The detector will record the results of proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 14 TeV. The trigger is a three-tier system designed to identify in real-time potentially interesting events that are then saved for detailed offline analysis. The trigger system will select approximately 200 Hz of potentially interesting events out of the 40 MHz bunch-crossing rate (with 10{sup 9} interactions per second at the nominal luminosity). Algorithms used in the trigger system to identify different event features of interest will be described, as well as their expected performance in terms of selection efficiency, background rejection and computation time per event. The talk will concentrate on recent improvements and on performance studies, using a very detailed simulation of the ATLAS detector and electronics chain that emulates the raw data as it will appear at the input to the trigger system.

  3. Multiple output timing and trigger generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheat, Robert M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dale, Gregory E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    In support of the development of a multiple stage pulse modulator at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, we have developed a first generation, multiple output timing and trigger generator. Exploiting Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) Micro Controller Units (MCU's), the timing and trigger generator provides 32 independent outputs with a timing resolution of about 500 ns. The timing and trigger generator system is comprised of two MCU boards and a single PC. One of the MCU boards performs the functions of the timing and signal generation (the timing controller) while the second MCU board accepts commands from the PC and provides the timing instructions to the timing controller. The PC provides the user interface for adjusting the on and off timing for each of the output signals. This system provides 32 output or timing signals which can be pre-programmed to be in an on or off state for each of 64 time steps. The width or duration of each of the 64 time steps is programmable from 2 {micro}s to 2.5 ms with a minimum time resolution of 500 ns. The repetition rate of the programmed pulse train is only limited by the time duration of the programmed event. This paper describes the design and function of the timing and trigger generator system and software including test results and measurements.

  4. Performance of the CMS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Perrotta, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a 2-level trigger system. The first level is implemented using custom-designed electronics. The second level is the so-called High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. For Run II of the Large Hadron Collider, the increases in center-of-mass energy and luminosity will raise the event rate to a level challenging for the HLT algorithms. The increase in the number of interactions per bunch crossing, on average 25 in 2012, and expected to be around 40 in Run II, will be an additional complication. We present here the expected performance of the main triggers that will be used during the 2015 data taking campaign, paying particular attention to the new approaches that have been developed to cope with the challenges of the new run. This includes improvements in HLT electron and photon reconstruction as well as better performing muon triggers. We will also present the performance of the improved trac...

  5. ALICE Trigger and Event Selection QA

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    I will present the last nine weeks of work on building a class that efficiently produces trending physics selection of various trigger classes for the purposes of quality assurance. This class is easily generalizable and will be used for live monitoring via a webpage.

  6. Triggering on electrons and photons with CMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zabi Alexandre

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the year 2011, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC has operated with an instantaneous luminosity that has risen continually to around 4 × 1033cm−2s−1. With this prodigious high-energy proton collisions rate, efficient triggering on electrons and photons has become a major challenge for the LHC experiments. The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS experiment implements a sophisticated two-level online selection system that achieves a rejection factor of nearly 106. The first level (L1 is based on coarse information coming from the calorimeters and the muon detectors while the High-Level Trigger (HLT combines fine-grain information from all sub-detectors. In this intense hadronic environment, the L1 electron/photon trigger provides a powerful tool to select interesting events. It is based upon information from the Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL, a high-resolution detector comprising 75848 lead tungstate (PbWO4 crystals in a “barrel” and two “endcaps”. The performance as well as the optimization of the electron/photon trigger are presented.

  7. Reflex epilepsy: triggers and management strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okudan ZV

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Zeynep Vildan Okudan,1 Çiğdem Özkara2 1Department of Neurology, Bakirkoy Dr Sadi Konuk Education and Research Hospital, 2Department of Neurology and Clinical Neurophysiology, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine, University of Istanbul, Istanbul, Turkey Abstract: Reflex epilepsies (REs are identified as epileptic seizures that are consistently induced by identifiable and objective-specific triggers, which may be an afferent stimulus or by the patient’s own activity. RE may have different subtypes depending on the stimulus characteristic. There are significant clinical and electrophysiologic differences between different RE types. Visual stimuli-sensitive or photosensitive epilepsies constitute a large proportion of the RE and are mainly related to genetic causes. Reflex epilepsies may present with focal or generalized seizures due to specific triggers, and sometimes seizures may occur spontaneously. The stimuli can be external (light flashes, hot water, internal (emotion, thinking, or both and should be distinguished from triggering precipitants, which most epileptic patients could report such as emotional stress, sleep deprivation, alcohol, and menstrual cycle. Different genetic and acquired factors may play a role in etiology of RE. This review will provide a current overview of the triggering factors and management of reflex seizures. Keywords: seizure, reflex epilepsy, photosensitivity, hot water, reading, thinking

  8. Does heavy physical exertion trigger myocardial infarction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallqvist, J; Möller, J; Ahlbom, A

    2000-01-01

    To study possible triggering of first events of acute myocardial infarction by heavy physical exertion, the authors conducted a case-crossover analysis (1993-1994) within a population-based case-referent study in Stockholm County, Sweden (the Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program). Interviews were...

  9. The CMS Barrel Muon Trigger Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Triossi, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The increase of luminosity expected by LHC during Phase 1 will impose several constrains for rate reduction while maintaining high efficiency in the CMS Level 1 trigger system. The TwinMux system is the early layer of the muon barrel region that concentrates the information from different subdetectors DT, RPC and HO. It arranges and fan-out the slow optical trigger links from the detector chambers into faster links (10 Gbps) that are sent to the track finders. Results, from collision runs, that confirm the satisfactory operation of the trigger system up to the output of the barrel track finder, will be shown. SUMMARY: In view of the increase of luminosity during phase 1 upgrade of LHC, the muon trigger chain of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment underwent considerable improvements. The muon detector was designed for preserving the complementarity and redundancy of three separate muon detection systems, Cathode Strip Chambers (CSC), Drift Tubes (DT) and Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC), until ...

  10. Trigger factors and mechanisms in migraine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonman, Geurt Gerhard

    2008-01-01

    Migraine is a severe headache syndrome, affecting approximately 33% of females and 13% of males. Patients suffer from recurring headache episodes in combination with nausea, vomiting, phono and photophobia. It is a paroxysmal disorder for which several several trigger factors have been identified by

  11. BTeV detached vertex trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottschalk, E.E.

    2001-01-01

    BTeV is a collider experiment that has been approved to run in the Tevatron at Fermilab. The experiment will conduct precision studies of CP violation using a forward-geometry detector. The detector will be optimized for high-rate detection of beauty and charm particles produced in collisions between protons and anti-protons. BTeV will trigger on beauty and charm events by taking advantage of the main difference between these heavy quark events and more typical hadronic events - the presence of detached beauty and charm decay vertices. The first stage of the BTeV trigger will receive data from a pixel vertex detector at a rate of 100 gb s -1 , reconstruct tracks and vertices for every beam crossing, reject 99% of beam crossings that do not produce beauty or charm particles, and trigger on beauty events with high efficiency. An overview of the trigger design and its influence on the design of the pixel vertex detector is presented

  12. Event reconstruction algorithms for the ATLAS trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F-Martin, T; Avolio, G; Backlund, S [European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Abolins, M [Michigan State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, East Lansing, Michigan (United States); Adragna, P [Department of Physics, Queen Mary and Westfield College, University of London, London (United Kingdom); Aleksandrov, E; Aleksandrov, I [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Amorim, A [Laboratorio de Instrumentacao e Fisica Experimental, Lisboa (Portugal); Anderson, K [University of Chicago, Enrico Fermi Institute, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Anduaga, X [National University of La Plata, La Plata (United States); Aracena, I; Bartoldus, R [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), Stanford (United States); Asquith, L [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Badescu, E [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Institute of Atomic Physics, Bucharest (Romania); Baines, J [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot (United Kingdom); Beck, H P [Laboratory for High Energy Physics, University of Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Bee, C [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, IN2P3-CNRS, Marseille (France); Bell, P [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Barria, P; Batreanu, S [and others

    2008-07-01

    The ATLAS experiment under construction at CERN is due to begin operation at the end of 2007. The detector will record the results of proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 14 TeV. The trigger is a three-tier system designed to identify in real-time potentially interesting events that are then saved for detailed offline analysis. The trigger system will select approximately 200 Hz of potentially interesting events out of the 40 MHz bunch-crossing rate (with 10{sup 9} interactions per second at the nominal luminosity). Algorithms used in the trigger system to identify different event features of interest will be described, as well as their expected performance in terms of selection efficiency, background rejection and computation time per event. The talk will concentrate on recent improvements and on performance studies, using a very detailed simulation of the ATLAS detector and electronics chain that emulates the raw data as it will appear at the input to the trigger system.

  13. Event reconstruction algorithms for the ATLAS trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    F-Martin, T; Avolio, G; Backlund, S; Abolins, M; Adragna, P; Aleksandrov, E; Aleksandrov, I; Amorim, A; Anderson, K; Anduaga, X; Aracena, I; Bartoldus, R; Asquith, L; Badescu, E; Baines, J; Beck, H P; Bee, C; Bell, P; Barria, P; Batreanu, S

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment under construction at CERN is due to begin operation at the end of 2007. The detector will record the results of proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 14 TeV. The trigger is a three-tier system designed to identify in real-time potentially interesting events that are then saved for detailed offline analysis. The trigger system will select approximately 200 Hz of potentially interesting events out of the 40 MHz bunch-crossing rate (with 10 9 interactions per second at the nominal luminosity). Algorithms used in the trigger system to identify different event features of interest will be described, as well as their expected performance in terms of selection efficiency, background rejection and computation time per event. The talk will concentrate on recent improvements and on performance studies, using a very detailed simulation of the ATLAS detector and electronics chain that emulates the raw data as it will appear at the input to the trigger system

  14. The ATLAS FTK system: how to improve the physics potential with a tracking trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Iizawa, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    After a very successful data taking run, the ATLAS experiment is being upgraded to cope with the higher luminosity and higher center of mass energy that the Large Hadron Collider will provide in the next years. The Fast Tracker (FTK) trigger system, part of the ATLAS trigger upgrade program, is a highly parallel hardware device designed to operate at the level-1 trigger output rate. FTK is a dedicated processor based on a mixture of advanced technologies. Modern, powerful Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) form an important part of the system architecture, and the large level of computing power required for pattern recognition is provided by incorporating standard-cell ASICs named Associative Memories (AM). FTK provides global track reconstruction in the full inner silicon detector, with resolution comparable to the offline algorithms, in approximately 100 microseconds, allowing a fast and precise detection of the primary and secondary vertex information. The track and vertex information is then used by t...

  15. The ATLAS FTK system: how to improve the physics potential with a tracking trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Iizawa, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    After a very successful data taking run, the ATLAS experiment [1] is being upgraded to cope with the higher luminosity and higher center of mass energy that the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will provide in the next years. The Fast Tracker (FTK) trigger system, part of the ATLAS trigger upgrade program, is a highly parallel hardware device processor based on a mixture of advanced technologies. Modern, powerful Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) form an important part of the system architecture, and the large level of computing power required for pattern recognition is provided by incorporating standard-cell ASICs named Associative Memory (AM). FTK provides global track reconstruction in the full inner silicon detector, with resolution comparable to the offline algorithms, in approximately 100 microseconds, allowing a fast and precise detection of the primary and secondary vertex information. The track and vertex information is then used by the high-level trigger (HLT) algorithms, allowing highly improved tr...

  16. Global Europa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2010-01-01

    at the mythology of ‘global Europa' - the EU in the world. It concludes with a reflection on the way in which the many diverse myths of global Europa compete for daily attention, whether as lore, ideology, or pleasure. In this respect the mythology of global Europa is part of our everyday existence, part of the EU...

  17. Global usability

    CERN Document Server

    Douglas, Ian

    2011-01-01

    The concept of usability has become an increasingly important consideration in the design of all kinds of technology. As more products are aimed at global markets and developed through internationally distributed teams, usability design needs to be addressed in global terms. Interest in usability as a design issue and specialist area of research and education has developed steadily in North America and Europe since the 1980's. However, it is only over the last ten years that it has emerged as a global concern. Global Usability provides an introduction to the important issues in globalizing des

  18. The ATLAS online High Level Trigger framework experience reusing offline software components in the ATLAS trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Wiedenmann, W

    2009-01-01

    Event selection in the Atlas High Level Trigger is accomplished to a large extent by reusing software components and event selection algorithms developed and tested in an offline environment. Many of these offline software modules are not specifically designed to run in a heavily multi-threaded online data flow environment. The Atlas High Level Trigger (HLT) framework based on the Gaudi and Atlas Athena frameworks, forms the interface layer, which allows the execution of the HLT selection and monitoring code within the online run control and data flow software. While such an approach provides a unified environment for trigger event selection across all of Atlas, it also poses strict requirements on the reused software components in terms of performance, memory usage and stability. Experience of running the HLT selection software in the different environments and especially on large multi-node trigger farms has been gained in several commissioning periods using preloaded Monte Carlo events, in data taking peri...

  19. Upgrade of the CMS muon trigger system in the barrel region

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2080489; Flouris, Gianis; Fulcher, Jonathan; Loukas, Nikitas; Paradas, Evangelos; Reis,Thomas; Sakulin, Hannes; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    To maintain the excellent performance shown during the LHCs Run-1 the Level-1 Trigger of the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment underwent a significant upgrade. One part of this upgrade is the re-organization of the muon trigger path from a subsystem-centric view in which hits in the drift tubes (DT), the cathode strip chambers (CSC), and the resistive plate chambers (RPC) were treated separately in dedicated track-finding systems to one in which complementary detector systems for a given region (barrel, overlap, and endcap) are merged at the track-finding level. This fundamental restructuring of the muon trigger system required the development of a system to receive track candidates from the track-finding layer, remove potential duplicate tracks, and forward the best candidates to the global decision layer.An overview will be given of the new track-finder system for the barrel region, the Barrel Muon Track Finder (BMTF) as well as the cancel-out and sorting layer, the upgraded Global Muon Trigger ($\\mu$GMT). B...

  20. Conflict-Triggered Top-Down Control: Default Mode, Last Resort, or No Such Thing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugg, Julie M.

    2014-01-01

    The conflict monitoring account posits that globally high levels of conflict trigger engagement of top-down control; however, recent findings point to the mercurial nature of top-down control in high conflict contexts. The current study examined the potential moderating effect of associative learning on conflict-triggered top-down control engagement by testing the Associations as Antagonists to Top-Down Control (AATC) hypothesis. In 4 experiments, list-wide proportion congruence was manipulated, and conflict-triggered top-down control engagement was examined by comparing interference for 50% congruent items across mostly congruent (low conflict) and mostly incongruent (high conflict) lists. Despite the fact that global levels of conflict were varied identically across experiments, evidence of conflict-triggered top-down control engagement was selective to those experiments in which responses could not be predicted on the majority of trials via simple associative learning, consistent with the AATC hypothesis. In a fifth experiment, older adults showed no evidence of top-down control engagement under conditions in which young adults did, a finding that refined the interpretation of the patterns observed in the prior experiments. Collectively, these findings suggest that top-down control engagement in high conflict contexts is neither the default mode nor an unused (or non-existent) strategy. Top-down control is best characterized as a last resort that is engaged when reliance on one’s environment, and in particular associative responding, is unproductive for achieving task goals. PMID:24274385

  1. Incorporating human-triggered earthquake risks into energy and water policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, C. D.; Seeber, L.; Jacob, K. H.

    2010-12-01

    A comprehensive understanding of earthquake risks in urbanized regions requires an accurate assessment of both urban vulnerabilities and hazards from earthquakes, including ones whose timing might be affected by human activities. Socioeconomic risks associated with human-triggered earthquakes are often misconstrued and receive little scientific, legal, and public attention. Worldwide, more than 200 damaging earthquakes, associated with industrialization and urbanization, were documented since the 20th century. Geomechanical pollution due to large-scale geoengineering activities can advance the clock of earthquakes, trigger new seismic events or even shot down natural background seismicity. Activities include mining, hydrocarbon production, fluid injections, water reservoir impoundments and deep-well geothermal energy production. This type of geohazard has impacts on human security on a regional and national level. Some planned or considered future engineering projects raise particularly strong concerns about triggered earthquakes, such as for instance, sequestration of carbon dioxide by injecting it deep underground and large-scale natural gas production in the Marcellus shale in the Appalacian basin. Worldwide examples of earthquakes are discussed, including their associated losses of human life and monetary losses (e.g., 1989 Newcastle and Volkershausen earthquakes, 2001 Killari earthquake, 2006 Basel earthquake, 2010 Wenchuan earthquake). An overview is given on global statistics of human-triggered earthquakes, including depths and time delay of triggering. Lastly, strategies are described, including risk mitigation measures such as urban planning adaptations and seismic hazard mapping.

  2. The ATLAS High Level Trigger Steering Framework and the Trigger 
Configuration System.

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez Cavalcanti, Tiago; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS High Level Trigger Steering Framework and the Trigger 
Configuration System.
 
The ATLAS detector system installed in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) 
at CERN is designed to study proton-proton and nucleus-nucleus 
collisions with a maximum center of mass energy of 14 TeV at a bunch 
collision rate of 40MHz.  In March 2010 the four LHC experiments saw 
the first proton-proton collisions at 7 TeV. Still within the year a 
collision rate of nearly 10 MHz is expected. At ATLAS, events of 
potential interest for ATLAS physics are selected by a three-level 
trigger system, with a final recording rate of about 200 Hz. The first 
level (L1) is implemented in custom hardware; the two levels of 
the high level trigger (HLT) are software triggers, running on large 
farms of standard computers and network devices. 

Within the ATLAS physics program more than 500 trigger signatures are 
defined. The HLT tests each signature on each L1-accepted event; the 
test outcome is recor...

  3. Machine learning techniques for razor triggers

    CERN Document Server

    Kolosova, Marina

    2015-01-01

    My project was focused on the development of a neural network which can predict if an event passes or not a razor trigger. Using synthetic data containing jets and missing transverse energy we built and trained a razor network by supervised learning. We accomplished a ∼ 91% agreement between the output of the neural network and the target while the other 10% was due to the noise of the neural network. We could apply such networks during the L1 trigger using neuromorhic hardware. Neuromorphic chips are electronic systems that function in a way similar to an actual brain, they are faster than GPUs or CPUs, but they can only be used with spiking neural networks.

  4. Exogenously triggered response inhibition in developmental stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggers, Kurt; De Nil, Luc F; Van den Bergh, Bea R H

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine relations between children's exogenously triggered response inhibition and stuttering. Participants were 18 children who stutter (CWS; mean age = 9;01 years) and 18 children who not stutter (CWNS; mean age = 9;01 years). Participants were matched on age (±3 months) and gender. Response inhibition was assessed by a stop signal task (Verbruggen, Logan, & Stevens, 2008). Results suggest that CWS, compared to CWNS, perform comparable to CWNS in a task where response control is externally triggered. Our findings seem to indicate that previous questionnaire-based findings (Eggers, De Nil, & Van den Bergh, 2010) of a decreased efficiency of response inhibition cannot be generalized to all types of response inhibition. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The ALICE Central Trigger Processor (CTP) upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivda, M.; Alexandre, D.; Barnby, L.S.; Evans, D.; Jones, P.G.; Jusko, A.; Lietava, R.; Baillie, O. Villalobos; Pospíšil, J.

    2016-01-01

    The ALICE Central Trigger Processor (CTP) at the CERN LHC has been upgraded for LHC Run 2, to improve the Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) data-taking efficiency and to improve the physics performance of ALICE. There is a new additional CTP interaction record sent using a new second Detector Data Link (DDL), a 2 GB DDR3 memory and an extension of functionality for classes. The CTP switch has been incorporated directly onto the new LM0 board. A design proposal for an ALICE CTP upgrade for LHC Run 3 is also presented. Part of the development is a low latency high bandwidth interface whose purpose is to minimize an overall trigger latency

  6. CDF tau triggers, analysis and other developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. R. Smith

    2003-01-01

    This note is a write-up of contribution made by the author to the HCP2002 conference. It has two principal subjects. The first subject concerns the CDF τ triggers, τ-cone algorithms and τ physics analysis. τ physics is going to be very important in Run II because τ's can extend SUSY searches at large tan β in particular, τ's will help in the searches for (tilde χ) 1 ± (tilde χ) 2 0 , MSSM Higgs and other non Standard Model (SM) processes. Also, τ events are important for various Standard Model processes including Precision Electroweak, t(bar t), and SM Higgs searches. τ triggers are installed and operating at CDF. The second subject of this contribution to the HCP2002 conference concerns the algorithms of backwards differentiation abstracted from their usual setting inside of Automatic Differentiation software packages. Backwards differentiation (reverse-mode differentiation) provides a useful means for optimizing many kinds of problems

  7. Particle combinations in the LHCb Upgrade trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Fanyi

    2017-01-01

    The LHCb experiment will be upgraded during long shutdown II (2018-2020) to process inelastic proton-proton collisions at 30MHz in a software application and run at a higher instantaneous luminosity of $2\\times 10^{33}cm^{−2}s^{−1}$. Each of these collisions will contain substantially more proton-proton interactions and charged particles. It is important to identify the decay vertices of heavy-flavour hadrons produced by the primary proton-proton interaction in an efficient, CPU-performant manner. In this project, I will learn about the LHCb trigger and experimental programme and investigate alternative models for reconstructing these vertices, which may scale more efficiently to the upgraded trigger conditions than the current model.

  8. The ATLAS Trigger Simulation with Legacy Software

    CERN Document Server

    Bernius, Catrin; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Physics analyses at the LHC which search for rare physics processes or measure Standard Model parameters with high precision require accurate simulations of the detector response and the event selection processes. The accurate simulation of the trigger response is crucial for determination of overall selection efficiencies and signal sensitivities. For the generation and the reconstruction of simulated event data, generally the most recent software releases are used to ensure the best agreement between simulated data and real data. For the simulation of the trigger selection process, however, the same software release with which real data were taken should be ideally used. This requires potentially running with software dating many years back, the so-called legacy software. Therefore having a strategy for running legacy software in a modern environment becomes essential when data simulated for past years start to present a sizeable fraction of the total. The requirements and possibilities for such a simulatio...

  9. Software trigger for the TOPAZ detector at TRISTAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukamoto, T.; Yamauchi, M.; Enomoto, R.

    1990-01-01

    A new software trigger system was developed and installed at the TOPAZ detector to the trigger system for the TRISTAN e + e - collider to take data efficiently in the scheduled high luminosity experiment. This software trigger requires two or more charged tracks originated at the interaction point by examining the timing of signals from the time projection chamber. To execute the vertex finding very quickly, four microprocessors are used in parallel. By this new trigger the rate of the track trigger was reduced down to 30-40% with very small inefficiency. The additional dead time by this trigger is negligible. (orig.)

  10. The CLEO-III Trigger: Decision and gating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergfeld, T.J.; Gollin, G.D.; Haney, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    The CLEO-III Trigger provides a trigger decision every 42ns, with a latency of approximately 2.5μs. This paper describes the free-running, pipelined trigger decision logic, the throttling mechanism whereby the data acquisition system can modulate the trigger rate to maximize throughput without buffer overrun, and the subsequent signal distribution mechanism for delivering the trigger decision to the front-end electronics. This paper also describes the multilevel simulation methods employed to allow detailed low-level models of trigger components to be co-simulated with more abstract system models, thus allowing full system modeling without incurring prohibitive computational overheads

  11. A multiplicity jump trigger using silicon planes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexopoulos, T.; Erwin, A.R.

    1993-01-01

    Since silicon tracking planes are already present in a B decay experiment, it is an attractive idea to use these as part of a multiplicity jump detector. Two average B decays would produce a multiplicity jump of around 10 in the final state. Such a trigger has been tried for a fixed target Charm experiment with disappointing success. The failure was attributed to the difficulty in adequately controlling the gains of a large number of microstrip amplifies

  12. LHC detectors trigger/DAQ at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Sphicas, Paris

    1998-01-01

    At its design luminosity, the LHC will deliver hundreds of millions of proton-proton interactions per second. Storage and computing limitations limit the number of physics events that can be recorded to about 100 per second. The selection will be carried out by the Trigger and data acquisition systems of the experiments. This lecture will review the requirements, architectures and various designs currently considered.

  13. A solar tornado triggered by flares?

    OpenAIRE

    Panesar, N. K.; Innes, D. E.; Tiwari, S. K.; Low, B. C.

    2013-01-01

    Context. Solar tornados are dynamical, conspicuously helical magnetic structures that are mainly observed as a prominence activity. Aims. We investigate and propose a triggering mechanism for the solar tornado observed in a prominence cavity by SDO/AIA on September 25, 2011. Methods. High-cadence EUV images from the SDO/AIA and the Ahead spacecraft of STEREO/EUVI are used to correlate three flares in the neighbouring active-region (NOAA 11303) and their EUV waves with the dynamical de...

  14. Storytelling as a trigger for sharing conversations

    OpenAIRE

    Emma Louise Parfitt

    2014-01-01

    This article explores whether traditional oral storytelling can be used to provide insights into the way in which young people of 12-14 years identify and understand the language of emotion and behaviour. Following the preliminary analysis, I propose that storytelling may trigger sharing conversations. My research attempts to extend the social and historical perspectives of Jack Zipes, on fairy tales, into a sociological analysis of young people’s lives today. I seek to investigate the extent...

  15. RF gun using laser-triggered photocathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, H.; Otake, Y.; Naito, T.; Takeuchi, Y.; Yoshioka, M.

    1992-01-01

    An RF gun using laser-triggered photocathode has many advantages as an injector of the linear colliders since it can generate a low emittance and high current pulsed beam. The experimental facility for the RF gun, such as an RF system, a laser system and a photocathode have been fabricated to study the fundamental characteristics. The dynamics of the RF gun has also studied by the 1D sheet beam model. (author)

  16. Splint therapy for trigger finger in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuyuguchi, Y; Tada, K; Kawaii, H

    1983-02-01

    During the last 9 years, 83 trigger digits in 65 children were treated using a modified coil spring splint which maintains the interphalangeal (IP) joint in neutral extension or hyperextension. Sixty-two digits (75%) were completely healed following splint therapy alone, after an average period of splinting for 9.4 months. Eight digits which did not improve with splinting were surgically treated. Splint therapy to maintain the IP joint in neutral extension or hyperextension proved markedly effective in our series.

  17. Earthquake-triggered landslides in southwest China

    OpenAIRE

    X. L. Chen; Q. Zhou; H. Ran; R. Dong

    2012-01-01

    Southwest China is located in the southeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau and it is a region of high seismic activity. Historically, strong earthquakes that occurred here usually generated lots of landslides and brought destructive damages. This paper introduces several earthquake-triggered landslide events in this region and describes their characteristics. Also, the historical data of earthquakes with a magnitude of 7.0 or greater, having occurred in this region, is col...

  18. Diffraction in ALICE and trigger efficiencies

    CERN Document Server

    Navin, Sparsh; Lietava, Roman

    ALICE is built to measure the properties of strongly interacting matter created in heavy-ion collisions. In addition, taking advantage of the low pT acceptance in the central barrel, ALICE is playing an important role in understanding pp collisions with minimum bias triggers at LHC energies. The work presented in this thesis is based on pp data simulated by the ALICE collaboration and early data collected at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. A procedure to calculate trigger efficiencies and an estimate of the systematic uncertainty due to the limited acceptance of the detector are shown. A kinematic comparison between Monte Carlo event generators, PYTHIA 6, PYTHIA 8 and PHOJET is also presented. To improve the description of diffraction in PYTHIA, a hard diffractive component was added to PYTHIA 8 in 2009, which is described. Finally a trigger with a high efficiency for picking diffractive events is used to select a sample with an enhanced diffractive component from pp data. These data are compared to Monte ...

  19. Trigger chemistries for better industrial formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsuan-Chin; Zhang, Yanfeng; Possanza, Catherine M; Zimmerman, Steven C; Cheng, Jianjun; Moore, Jeffrey S; Harris, Keith; Katz, Joshua S

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, innovations and consumer demands have led to increasingly complex liquid formulations. These growing complexities have provided industrial players and their customers access to new markets through product differentiation, improved performance, and compatibility/stability with other products. One strategy for enabling more complex formulations is the use of active encapsulation. When encapsulation is employed, strategies are required to effect the release of the active at the desired location and time of action. One particular route that has received significant academic research effort is the employment of triggers to induce active release upon a specific stimulus, though little has translated for industrial use to date. To address emerging industrial formulation needs, in this review, we discuss areas of trigger release chemistries and their applications specifically as relevant to industrial use. We focus the discussion on the use of heat, light, shear, and pH triggers as applied in several model polymeric systems for inducing active release. The goal is that through this review trends will emerge for how technologies can be better developed to maximize their value through industrial adaptation.

  20. The ATLAS Level-2 Trigger Pilot Project

    CERN Document Server

    Wickens, F J

    2000-01-01

    The Level-2 Trigger Pilot Project of ATLAS, one of the two general purpose LHC experiments, is part of the on-going programme to develop the ATLAS High Level Triggers (HLT). The Level-2 Trigger will receive events at up to 100 kHz, which has to be reduced to a rate suitable for full event-building of the order of 1 kHz. To reduce the data collection bandwidth and processing power required for the challenging Level-2 task it is planned to use Region of Interest guidance (from Level-1) and sequential processing. The Pilot Project included the construction and use of testbeds of up to 48 processing nodes, development of optimised components and computer simulations of a full system. It has shown how the required performance can be achieved, using largely commodity components and operating systems, and validated an architecture for the Level-2 system. This paper describes the principal achievements and conclusions of this project. (28 refs).

  1. The ATLAS Level-2 Trigger Pilot Project

    CERN Document Server

    Blair, R; Haberichter, W N; Schlereth, J L; Bock, R; Bogaerts, A; Boosten, M; Dobinson, Robert W; Dobson, M; Ellis, Nick; Elsing, M; Giacomini, F; Knezo, E; Martin, B; Shears, T G; Tapprogge, Stefan; Werner, P; Hansen, J R; Wäänänen, A; Korcyl, K; Lokier, J; George, S; Green, B; Strong, J; Clarke, P; Cranfield, R; Crone, G J; Sherwood, P; Wheeler, S; Hughes-Jones, R E; Kolya, S; Mercer, D; Hinkelbein, C; Kornmesser, K; Kugel, A; Männer, R; Müller, M; Sessler, M; Simmler, H; Singpiel, H; Abolins, M; Ermoline, Y; González-Pineiro, B; Hauser, R; Pope, B; Sivoklokov, S Yu; Boterenbrood, H; Jansweijer, P; Kieft, G; Scholte, R; Slopsema, R; Vermeulen, J C; Baines, J T M; Belias, A; Botterill, David R; Middleton, R; Wickens, F J; Falciano, S; Bystrický, J; Calvet, D; Gachelin, O; Huet, M; Le Dû, P; Mandjavidze, I D; Levinson, L; González, S; Wiedenmann, W; Zobernig, H

    2002-01-01

    The Level-2 Trigger Pilot Project of ATLAS, one of the two general purpose LHC experiments, is part of the on-going program to develop the ATLAS high-level triggers (HLT). The Level-2 Trigger will receive events at up to 100 kHz, which has to be reduced to a rate suitable for full event-building of the order of 1 kHz. To reduce the data collection bandwidth and processing power required for the challenging Level-2 task it is planned to use Region of Interest guidance (from Level-1) and sequential processing. The Pilot Project included the construction and use of testbeds of up to 48 processing nodes, development of optimized components and computer simulations of a full system. It has shown how the required performance can be achieved, using largely commodity components and operating systems, and validated an architecture for the Level-2 system. This paper describes the principal achievements and conclusions of this project. (28 refs).

  2. The ALICE Dimuon Spectrometer High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, B; Cicalo, Corrado; Das, Indranil; de Vaux, Gareth; Fearick, Roger; Lindenstruth, Volker; Marras, Davide; Sanyal, Abhijit; Siddhanta, Sabyasachi; Staley, Florent; Steinbeck, Timm; Szostak, Artur; Usai, Gianluca; Vilakazi, Zeblon

    2009-01-01

    The ALICE Dimuon Spectrometer High Level Trigger (dHLT) is an on-line processing stage whose primary function is to select interesting events that contain distinct physics signals from heavy resonance decays such as J/psi and Gamma particles, amidst unwanted background events. It forms part of the High Level Trigger of the ALICE experiment, whose goal is to reduce the large data rate of about 25 GB/s from the ALICE detectors by an order of magnitude, without loosing interesting physics events. The dHLT has been implemented as a software trigger within a high performance and fault tolerant data transportation framework, which is run on a large cluster of commodity compute nodes. To reach the required processing speeds, the system is built as a concurrent system with a hierarchy of processing steps. The main algorithms perform partial event reconstruction, starting with hit reconstruction on the level of the raw data received from the spectrometer. Then a tracking algorithm finds track candidates from the recon...

  3. Surgical Treatment of Trigger Finger: Open Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firat Ozan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, open A1 pulley release results were evaluated in patients with a trigger finger diagnosis. 45 patients (29 females, 16 males, mean age 50.7 ± 11.9; range (24-79, 45 trigger fingers were released via open surgical technique. On the 25 of 45 cases were involved in the right hand and 16 of them were at the thumb, 2 at index, 6 at the middle and 1 at ring finger. Similarly, at the left hand, 15 of 20 cases were at the thumb, 1 at the index finger, 2 at middle finger and 2 at ring finger. Average follow-up time was 10.2 ± 2.7 (range, 6-15 months. Comorbidities in patients were; diabetes mellitus at 6 cases (13.3%, hypertension at 11 cases (24.4%, hyperthyroidism at 2 cases (4.4%, dyslipidemia at 2 cases (4.4% and lastly 2 cases had carpal tunnel syndrome operation. The mean time between the onset of symptoms to surgery was 6.9 ± 4.8 (range, 2-24 months. Patient satisfaction was very good in 34 cases (75.4% and good in 11 (24.6% patients. The distance between the pulpa of the operated finger and the palm was normal in every case postoperatively. We have not encountered any postoperative complications. We can recommend that; A1 pulley release via open incision is an effective and reliable method in trigger finger surgery.

  4. CMS High Level Trigger Timing Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, Clint

    2015-01-01

    The two-level trigger system employed by CMS consists of the Level 1 (L1) Trigger, which is implemented using custom-built electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a farm of commercial CPUs running a streamlined version of the offline CMS reconstruction software. The operational L1 output rate of 100 kHz, together with the number of CPUs in the HLT farm, imposes a fundamental constraint on the amount of time available for the HLT to process events. Exceeding this limit impacts the experiment's ability to collect data efficiently. Hence, there is a critical need to characterize the performance of the HLT farm as well as the algorithms run prior to start up in order to ensure optimal data taking. Additional complications arise from the fact that the HLT farm consists of multiple generations of hardware and there can be subtleties in machine performance. We present our methods of measuring the timing performance of the CMS HLT, including the challenges of making such measurements. Results for the performance of various Intel Xeon architectures from 2009-2014 and different data taking scenarios are also presented. (paper)

  5. The Sandia transportable triggered lightning instrumentation facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnetzer, George H.; Fisher, Richard J.

    1991-01-01

    Development of the Sandia Transportable Triggered Lightning Instrumentation Facility (SATTLIF) was motivated by a requirement for the in situ testing of a munitions storage bunker. Transfer functions relating the incident flash currents to voltages, currents, and electromagnetic field values throughout the structure will be obtained for use in refining and validating a lightning response computer model of this type of structure. A preliminary shakedown trial of the facility under actual operational conditions was performed during summer of 1990 at the Kennedy Space Center's (KSC) rocket-triggered lightning test site. A description is given of the SATTLIF, which is readily transportable on a single flatbed truck of by aircraft, and its instrumentation for measuring incident lightning channel currents and the responses of the systems under test. Measurements of return-stroke current peaks obtained with the SATTLIF are presented. Agreement with data acquired on the same flashes with existing KSC instrumentation is, on average, to within approximately 7 percent. Continuing currents were measured with a resolution of approximately 2.5 A. This field trial demonstrated the practicality of using a transportable triggered lightning facility for specialized test applications.

  6. Run-2 ATLAS Trigger and Detector Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Winklmeier, Frank; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The 2nd LHC run has started in June 2015 with a pp centre-of-mass collision energy of 13 TeV, and ATLAS has taken first data at this new energy. In this talk the improvements made to the ATLAS experiment during the 2-year shutdown 2013/2014 will be discussed, and first detector and trigger performance results from the Run-2 will be shown. In general, reconstruction algorithms of tracks, e/gamma, muons, taus, jets and flavour tag- ging have been improved for Run-2. The new reconstruction algorithms and their performance measured using the data taken in 2015 at sqrt(s)=13 TeV will be discussed. Reconstruction efficiency, isolation performance, transverse momentum resolution and momentum scales are measured in various regions of the detector and in momentum intervals enlarged with respect to those measured in the Run-1. This presentation will also give an overview of the upgrades to the ATLAS trigger system that have been implemented during the LHC shutdown in order to deal with the increased trigger rates (fact...

  7. TRIGGERS OF ACUTE CHANGES IN ETHICAL ATTITUDE : Do Honour Codes cause Priming Effects?

    OpenAIRE

    Krämer, Dr. David Kitz

    2009-01-01

    The recent turbulences that led to a global financial crisis have partially been triggered by immoral and overly egoistic behaviour. In the wake of the disaster many have asked, and keep asking, how a sustainable and socially fair economy can be build. Ethics is one of the cornerstones of human interaction in general and in economic interaction. This thesis has been inspired by the question: How can unethical behaviour be avoided? This Master Thesis work has dealt with the question of how eth...

  8. SHADOW GLOBALIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Larissa Mihaylovna Kapitsa

    2014-01-01

    The article reviews some development trends brought about by globalization, particularly, a growing tax evasion and tax avoidance, an expansion of illicit financial flows and the proliferation of a global criminal network. The author draws attention to some new phenomena, particularly, cosmopolitanization of some parts of national elites and a deepening divide between national interests and the private interests of elites as a consequence of financial globalization. Modern mass media, both Ru...

  9. Global Mindset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Olav Jull

    2016-01-01

    The concept of Global Mindset (GM) – the way to think about the global reality – is on the agenda of multinational companies concomitant with the increase in global complexity, uncertainty and diversity. In spite of a number of studies, the concept is still fluid and far from a managerial.......e. the capability to sense (quickly), reflect (constructively) and act purposefully (for mutual benefit). A case on an MNC is used at the end to show the organizational manifestations of a GM....

  10. Global scenarios and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The 21st century brings with it a number of disturbing challenges. They may even threaten to disrupt world order. Many agree the most critical and urgent challenge of all confronting human kind today is climate change. Global warming has reached a level which can trigger drastic shifts in world weather. There is convincing evidence to show that global warming is significantly attributed to mans own activities. If man is responsible for the warming of the planet, then only man can help stop global warming. Only man can reverse climate change. Climate change has the power to literally destruct the world. The adverse effects of global climate change are increasingly evident from the frequency and ferocity of natural disasters like the recent severe drought and flood in Queensland, Australia; the prolonged drought in East Africa; the destructive typhoon Nargis in Myanmar; the terrifying hurricane Katrina which brought New Orleans to its knees; the disastrous Mississippi flood and killer cyclones in USA and the out of season drought and flood in the Yangtze river basin. The list does not end there. Dr. R. K. Pachauri, Chairman of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), in his lecture on 28 April 2011 at UNITEN, entitled Fukushima, Energy and Climate Change reaffirmed that the warming of the earths climate system is unequivocal. That climate change is mans common enemy is no longer in doubt. This is the reason why many see climate change as the single most important driver of the expanding global interest in green technology and a low carbon economy. (author)

  11. The ATLAS Trigger: Recent Experience and Future Plans

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    This paper will give an overview of the ATLAS trigger design and its innovative features. It will describe the valuable experience gained in running the trigger reconstruction and event selection in the fastchanging environment of the detector commissioning during 2008. It will also include a description of the trigger selection menu and its 2009 deployment plan from first collisions to the nominal luminosity. ATLAS is one of the two general-purpose detectors at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The trigger system needs to efficiently reject a large rate of background events and still select potentially interesting ones with high efficiency. After a first level trigger implemented in custom electronics, the trigger event selection is made by the High Level Trigger (HLT) system, implemented in software. To reduce the processing time to manageable levels, the HLT uses seeded, step-wise and fast selection algorithms, aiming at the earliest possible rejection of background events. The ATLAS trigger event selection...

  12. Readout and triggering of the Soudan 2 nucleon decay experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thron, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    The readout and triggering electronics for the Soudan 2 proton decay detector is presented. Pratically all the electronics is implemented in CMOS. The triggering scheme is highly flexible and software controllable

  13. Cross-Lingual Lexical Triggers in Statistical Language Modeling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kim, Woosung; Khudanpur, Sanjeev

    2003-01-01

    .... We achieve this through an extension of the method of lexical triggers to the cross-language problem, and by developing a likelihoodbased adaptation scheme for combining a trigger model with an N-gram model...

  14. 77 FR 38033 - WTO Agricultural Safeguard Trigger Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service WTO Agricultural Safeguard Trigger Levels... and trigger levels for safeguard measures provided for in the World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement... measures under the safeguard provisions of the WTO [[Page 38034

  15. Trigger Algorithms and Electronics for the ATLAS Muon NSW Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Guan, Liang; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS New Small Wheel (NSW), comprising MicroMegas (MMs) and small-strip Thin Gap Chambers (sTGCs), will upgrade the ATLAS muon system for a high background environment. Particularly, the NSW trigger will reduce the rate of fake triggers coming from background tracks in the endcap. We will present an overview of the FPGA-based trigger processor for NSW and trigger algorithms for sTGC and Micromegas detector sub systems. In additional, we will present development of NSW trigger electronics, in particular, the sTGC Trigger Data Serializer (TDS) ASIC, sTGC Pad Trigger board, the sTGC data packet router and L1 Data Driver Card. Finally, we will detail the challenges of meeting the low latency requirements of the trigger system and coping with the high background rates of the HL-LHC.

  16. Toward a rational understanding of migraine trigger factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, V T; Behbehani, M M

    2001-07-01

    The typical migraine patient is exposed to a myriad of migraine triggers on a daily basis. These triggers potentially can act at various sites within the cerebral vasculature and the central nervous system to promote the development of migraine headache. The challenge to the physician is in the identification and avoidance of migraine trigger factors within patients suffering from migraine headache. Only through a rational approach to migraine trigger factors can physicians develop an appropriate treatment strategy for migraine patients.

  17. The ATLAS online High Level Trigger framework: Experience reusing offline software components in the ATLAS trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedenmann, Werner

    2010-01-01

    Event selection in the ATLAS High Level Trigger is accomplished to a large extent by reusing software components and event selection algorithms developed and tested in an offline environment. Many of these offline software modules are not specifically designed to run in a heavily multi-threaded online data flow environment. The ATLAS High Level Trigger (HLT) framework based on the GAUDI and ATLAS ATHENA frameworks, forms the interface layer, which allows the execution of the HLT selection and monitoring code within the online run control and data flow software. While such an approach provides a unified environment for trigger event selection across all of ATLAS, it also poses strict requirements on the reused software components in terms of performance, memory usage and stability. Experience of running the HLT selection software in the different environments and especially on large multi-node trigger farms has been gained in several commissioning periods using preloaded Monte Carlo events, in data taking periods with cosmic events and in a short period with proton beams from LHC. The contribution discusses the architectural aspects of the HLT framework, its performance and its software environment within the ATLAS computing, trigger and data flow projects. Emphasis is also put on the architectural implications for the software by the use of multi-core processors in the computing farms and the experiences gained with multi-threading and multi-process technologies.

  18. Gendering Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte

    2009-01-01

    The current global financial situation bluntly and brutally brings home the fact that the global and local are closely connected in times of opportunity as well as crises. The articles in this issue of Asia Insights are about ontra-action between Asia, particularly China, and the Nordic countries...

  19. Developing Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    2017-01-01

    This chapter is the first qualitative micro case study of one aspect of globalization: personal networks as a concrete outcome of development assistance spending. The empirical findings related in this paper present circumstantial evidence that Japanese foreign aid has contributed to globalization...

  20. Global Uddannelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Rosendal

    Antologien handler om "demokratiproblemer i den globale sammenhæng" (del I) og "demokratiproblemer i uddannelse og for de offentligt ansatte" (del II), bundet sammen af et mellemstykke, der rækker ud mod begge poler både det globale og det lokale ved at knytte det til forholdet mellem marked...

  1. Global Mindsets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Global Mindsets: Exploration and Perspectives seeks to tackle a topic that is relatively new in research and practice, and is considered by many to be critical for firms seeking to conduct global business. It argues that multiple mindsets exist (across and within organizations), that they operate...... in a global context, and that they are dynamic and undergo change and action. Part of the mindset(s) may depend upon place, situation and context where individuals and organizations operate. The book will examine the notion of "mindset" is situational and dynamic, especially in a global setting, why...... it is important for future scholars and managers and how it could be conceptualized. Global Mindsets: Exploration and Perspectives is split into two major sections; the first examines where the literature currently is with respect to the knowledge in the field and what conceptual frameworks guide the thinking...

  2. Global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Canada's Green Plan strategy for dealing with global warming is being implemented as a multidepartmental partnership involving all Canadians and the international community. Many of the elements of this strategy are built on an existing base of activities predating the Green Plan. Elements of the strategy include programs to limit emissions of greenhouse gases, such as initiatives to encourage more energy-efficient practices and development of alternate fuel sources; studies and policy developments to help Canadians prepare and adapt to climate change; research on the global warming phenomenon; and stimulation of international action on global warming, including obligations arising out of the Framework Convention on Climate Change. All the program elements have been approved, funded, and announced. Major achievements to date are summarized, including improvements in the Energy Efficiency Act, studies on the socioeconomic impacts of global warming, and participation in monitoring networks. Milestones associated with the remaining global warming initiatives are listed

  3. New shower maximum trigger for electrons and photons at CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amidei, D.; Burkett, K.; Gerdes, D.; Miao, C.; Wolinski, D.

    1994-01-01

    For the 1994 Tevatron collider run, CDF has upgraded the electron and photo trigger hardware to make use of shower position and size information from the central shower maximum detector. For electrons, the upgrade has resulted in a 50% reduction in backgrounds while retaining approximately 90% of the signal. The new trigger also eliminates the background to photon triggers from single-phototube spikes

  4. New shower maximum trigger for electrons and photons at CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerdes, D.

    1994-08-01

    For the 1994 Tevatron collider run, CDF has upgraded the electron and photon trigger hardware to make use of shower position and size information from the central shower maximum detector. For electrons, the upgrade has resulted in a 50% reduction in backgrounds while retaining approximately 90% of the signal. The new trigger also eliminates the background to photon triggers from single-phototube discharge

  5. Trigger Warnings as Respect for Student Boundaries in University Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Leland G.; Kulbaga, Theresa A.

    2018-01-01

    The fierce public and scholarly debate over trigger warnings in university classrooms has often characterized the issue as one of academic freedom and ignored the social justice arguments for trigger warnings. In this essay, we argue that trigger warnings expand academic speech by engaging students more fully in their own learning. Specifically,…

  6. Triggering of Suicidal Erythrocyte Death by Regorafenib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Zierle

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The multikinase inhibitor regorafenib is utilized for the treatment of malignancy. The substance is effective in part by triggering suicidal death or apoptosis of tumor cells. Side effects of regorafenib include anemia. At least in theory, regorafenib induced anemia could result from stimulated suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis, characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Triggers of eryptosis include increase of cytosolic Ca2+ activity ([Ca2+]i, oxidative stress and ceramide. The present study explored, whether regorafenib induces eryptosis and, if so, whether it is effective up- and/or downstream of Ca2+. Methods: To this end, phosphatidylserine exposure at the cell surface was estimated from annexin-V-binding, cell volume from forward scatter, [Ca2+]i from Fluo3-fluorescence, ROS formation from DCFDA dependent fluorescence, and ceramide abundance utilizing specific antibodies. Results: A 48 hours exposure of human erythrocytes to regorafenib (≥ 0.5 µg/ml significantly increased the percentage of annexin-V-binding cells, significantly decreased forward scatter (≥ 1.25 µg/ml, but did not significantly increase Fluo3-fluorescence, DCFDA fluorescence or ceramide abundance. The effect of regorafenib on annexin-V-binding and forward scatter was not significantly blunted by removal of extracellular Ca2+. Regorafenib (5 µg/ml significantly augmented the increase of annexin-V-binding, but significantly blunted the decrease of forward scatter following treatment with the Ca2+ ionophore ionomycin. Conclusions: Regorafenib triggers cell shrinkage and phospholipid scrambling of the erythrocyte cell membrane, an effect at least in part downstream of Ca2+.

  7. Triggering of Suicidal Erythrocyte Death by Regorafenib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zierle, Jens; Bissinger, Rosi; Bouguerra, Ghada; Abbès, Salem; Lang, Florian

    2016-01-01

    The multikinase inhibitor regorafenib is utilized for the treatment of malignancy. The substance is effective in part by triggering suicidal death or apoptosis of tumor cells. Side effects of regorafenib include anemia. At least in theory, regorafenib induced anemia could result from stimulated suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis, characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Triggers of eryptosis include increase of cytosolic Ca2+ activity ([Ca2+]i), oxidative stress and ceramide. The present study explored, whether regorafenib induces eryptosis and, if so, whether it is effective up- and/or downstream of Ca2+. To this end, phosphatidylserine exposure at the cell surface was estimated from annexin-V-binding, cell volume from forward scatter, [Ca2+]i from Fluo3-fluorescence, ROS formation from DCFDA dependent fluorescence, and ceramide abundance utilizing specific antibodies. A 48 hours exposure of human erythrocytes to regorafenib (≥ 0.5 µg/ml) significantly increased the percentage of annexin-V-binding cells, significantly decreased forward scatter (≥ 1.25 µg/ml), but did not significantly increase Fluo3-fluorescence, DCFDA fluorescence or ceramide abundance. The effect of regorafenib on annexin-V-binding and forward scatter was not significantly blunted by removal of extracellular Ca2+. Regorafenib (5 µg/ml) significantly augmented the increase of annexin-V-binding, but significantly blunted the decrease of forward scatter following treatment with the Ca2+ ionophore ionomycin. Regorafenib triggers cell shrinkage and phospholipid scrambling of the erythrocyte cell membrane, an effect at least in part downstream of Ca2+. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Euro Membership as a Real Option Trigger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; Pantzalis, Christos

    2007-01-01

    -adopters (UK, Sweden, and Denmark) to exercise various forms of real options such as to establish alliances / partnerships, to enter new markets / market segments, to switch suppliers, and to generally expand in the Euro-area. The study furthermore shows that small, profitable and financially constrained firms...... are particularly likely to exercise such real options triggered by the introduction of the Euro. The results go beyond the immediate trade effects, which empirical studies have shown to be weak and without trade diversion as to the three non-adopters, and provide important insights about the potential long...

  9. Inflammation: a trigger for acute coronary syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SAGER, Hendrik B.; NAHRENDORF, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the vessel wall and a major cause of death worldwide. One of atherosclerosis’ most dreadful complications are acute coronary syndromes that comprise ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, and unstable angina. We now understand that inflammation substantially contributes to the initiation, progression, and destabilization of atherosclerosis. In this review, we will focus on the role of inflammatory leukocytes, which are the cellular protagonists of vascular inflammation, in triggering disease progression and, ultimately, the destabilization that causes acute coronary syndromes.

  10. Pulsed laser triggered high speed microfluidic switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ting-Hsiang; Gao, Lanyu; Chen, Yue; Wei, Kenneth; Chiou, Pei-Yu

    2008-10-01

    We report a high-speed microfluidic switch capable of achieving a switching time of 10 μs. The switching mechanism is realized by exciting dynamic vapor bubbles with focused laser pulses in a microfluidic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) channel. The bubble expansion deforms the elastic PDMS channel wall and squeezes the adjacent sample channel to control its fluid and particle flows as captured by the time-resolved imaging system. A switching of polystyrene microspheres in a Y-shaped channel has also been demonstrated. This ultrafast laser triggered switching mechanism has the potential to advance the sorting speed of state-of-the-art microscale fluorescence activated cell sorting devices.

  11. Simple multifunction discriminator for multichannel triggers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, M.R.

    1982-10-01

    A simple version of a multifunction timing discriminator using only two integrated circuits is presented. It can be configured as a leading edge, a constant fraction, a zero cross or a dual threshold timing discriminator. Since so few parts are used, it is well suited for building multichannel timing discriminators. Two versions of this circuit are described: a quadruple multifunction discriminator and an octal constant fraction trigger. The different compromises made in these units are discussed. Results for walk and jitter obtained with these are presented and possible improvements are disussed

  12. EMIC triggered chorus emissions in Cluster data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grison, Benjamin; Santolík, Ondřej; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Masson, A.; Engebretson, M. J.; Pickett, J. S.; Omura, Y.; Robert, P.; Nomura, R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 118, č. 3 (2013), s. 1159-1169 ISSN 2169-9380 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7E12026; GA ČR(CZ) GPP209/11/P848; GA ČR GAP205/10/2279; GA MŠk(CZ) LH11122 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 284520 - MAARBLE Program:FP7 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : EMIC wave * triggered emission * plasmapause Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.440, year: 2013 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jgra.50178/abstract

  13. New methods for trigger electronics development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleland, W.E.; Stern, E.G. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The large and complex nature of RHIC experiments and the tight time schedule for their construction requires that new techniques for designing the electronics should be employed. This is particularly true of the trigger and data acquisition electronics which has to be ready for turn-on of the experiment. We describe the use of the Workview package from VIEWlogic Inc. for design, simulation, and verification of a flash ADC readout system. We also show how field-programmable gate arrays such as the Xilinx 4000 might be employed to construct or prototype circuits with a large number of gates while preserving flexibility.

  14. Steam explosion triggering and efficiency studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buxton, L.D.; Nelson, L.S.; Benedick, W.B.

    1979-01-01

    A program at Sandia Laboratories to provide relevant data on the interaction of molten LWR core materials with water is described. Two different subtasks were established. The first was the performance of laboratory-scale experiments to investigate the ability to trigger steam explosions for realistic LWR core melt simulants under a wide range of initial conditions. The second was the performance of field-scale experiments to investigate the efficiency of converting the thermal energy of the melt into mechanical work in much larger steam explosions

  15. Use of parallel counters for triggering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikityuk, N.M.

    1991-01-01

    Results of investigation of using parallel counters, majority coincidence schemes, parallel compressors for triggering in multichannel high energy spectrometers are described. Concrete examples of methods of constructing fast and economic new devices used to determine multiplicity hits t>900 registered in a hodoscopic plane and a pixel detector are given. For this purpose the author uses the syndrome coding method and cellular arrays. In addition, an effective coding matrix has been created which can be used for light signal coding. For example, such signals are supplied from scintillators to photomultipliers. 23 refs.; 21 figs

  16. Excimer lamp pumped by a triggered discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldacchini, G.; Bollanti, S.; Di Lazzaro, P.; Flora, F.; Giordano, G.; Letardi, T.; Renieri, A.; Schina, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Rome (Italy). Dip. Innovazione; Clementi, G.; Muzzi, F.; Zheng, C.E. [EL.EN. (Electronic Engineering), Florence (Italy)

    1996-11-01

    Radiation characteristics and discharge performances of an excimer lamp are described. The discharge of the HCl/Xe gas mixture at an atmospheric pressure, occurring near the quartz tube wall, is initiated by a trigger wire. A maximum total UV energy of about 0.4 J in a (0.8-0.9) {mu}s pulse, radiated from a 10 cm discharge length, is obtained with a total discharge input energy of 8 J. Excimer lamps are the preferred choice for medical and material processing irradiations, when the monochromaticity or coherence of UV light is not required, due to their low cost, reliability and easy maintenance.

  17. SHADOW GLOBALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Mihaylovna Kapitsa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews some development trends brought about by globalization, particularly, a growing tax evasion and tax avoidance, an expansion of illicit financial flows and the proliferation of a global criminal network. The author draws attention to some new phenomena, particularly, cosmopolitanization of some parts of national elites and a deepening divide between national interests and the private interests of elites as a consequence of financial globalization. Modern mass media, both Russian and foreign, tend to interpret globalization processes exclusively from the position of conformism, and for some of the researchers globalization became the "sacred cow", which one may only worship. Critical analysis of the processes associated with globalization is given a hostile reception. In response to criticism of globalization, one can hear the very same argument: "globalization in inevitable!" Such a state of affairs, the very least, causes perplexity. Some of the world development trends been observed over the past years raise serious concerns about the security and welfare of the peoples of the world. One of such trends has been the globalization of shadow economic activities. Methods of fight against the criminal economy been applied in international practice can be grouped into: 1 punitive enforcement (or criminal-legal methods and 2 socio-economic methods. As the results of various research works evidence punitive enforcement methods not supported by socio-economic measures not effective enough. Toughening the control over criminal economic activities in the absence of preventive and corrective actions aiming to neutralize institutional, social and other stimuli facilitating criminalization of economic activities can result in large losses of financial assets in the form of mass capital flight

  18. Shadow Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Mihaylovna Kapitsa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews some development trends brought about by globalization, particularly, a growing tax evasion and tax avoidance, an expansion of illicit financial flows and the proliferation of a global criminal network. The author draws attention to some new phenomena, particularly, cosmopolitanization of some parts of national elites and a deepening divide between national interests and the private interests of elites as a consequence of financial globalization. Modern mass media, both Russian and foreign, tend to interpret globalization processes exclusively from the position of conformism, and for some of the researchers globalization became the "sacred cow", which one may only worship. Critical analysis of the processes associated with globalization is given a hostile reception. In response to criticism of globalization, one can hear the very same argument: "globalization in inevitable!" Such a state of affairs, the very least, causes perplexity. Some of the world development trends been observed over the past years raise serious concerns about the security and welfare of the peoples of the world. One of such trends has been the globalization of shadow economic activities. Methods of fight against the criminal economy been applied in international practice can be grouped into: 1 punitive enforcement (or criminal-legal methods and 2 socio-economic methods. As the results of various research works evidence punitive enforcement methods not supported by socio-economic measures not effective enough. Toughening the control over criminal economic activities in the absence of preventive and corrective actions aiming to neutralize institutional, social and other stimuli facilitating criminalization of economic activities can result in large losses of financial assets in the form of mass capital flight

  19. SQL Triggers Reacting on Time Events: An Extension Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrend, Andreas; Dorau, Christian; Manthey, Rainer

    Being able to activate triggers at timepoints reached or after time intervals elapsed has been acknowledged by many authors as a valuable functionality of a DBMS. Recently, the interest in time-based triggers has been renewed in the context of data stream monitoring. However, up till now SQL triggers react to data changes only, even though research proposals and prototypes have been supporting several other event types, in particular time-based ones, since long. We therefore propose a seamless extension of the SQL trigger concept by time-based triggers, focussing on semantic issues arising from such an extension.

  20. The LHCb vertex locator and level-1 trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Dijkstra, H

    2000-01-01

    LHCb will study CP violation and other rare phenomena in B-decays with a forward detector at the LHC. One of the challenges is to design a fast and efficient trigger. The design of the silicon Vertex Locator (VELO) has been driven by the requirements of one of the most selective triggers of the experiment. The VELO trigger is designed to work at an input rate of 1 MHz. The requirements and implementation of the VELO and the associated trigger are summarised, followed by a description of an upgrade which improves the trigger performance significantly. (3 refs).

  1. Scintillation trigger system of the liquid argon neutrino detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belikov, S.V.; Gurzhiev, S.N.; Gutnikov, Yu.E.; Denisov, A.G.; Kochetkov, V.I.; Matveev, M.Yu.; Mel'nikov, E.A.; Usachev, A.P.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the organization of the Scintillation Trigger System (STS) for the Liquid Argon Neutrino Detector of the Tagged Neutrino Facility. STS is aimed at the effective registration of the needed neutrino interaction type and production of a fast trigger signal with high time resolution. The fast analysis system of analog signal from the trigger scintillation planes for rejection of the trigger signals from background processes is described. Real scintillation trigger planes characteristics obtained on the basis of the presented data acquisition system are shown. 10 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Simulation of the ATLAS New Small Wheel Trigger Sysmtem

    CERN Document Server

    Saito, Tomoyuki; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The instantaneous luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will be increased up to a factor of five with respect to the original design value to explore higher energy scale. In order to benefit from the expected high luminosity performance, the first station of the ATLAS muon end-cap Small Wheel system will be replaced by a New Small Wheel (NSW) detector. The NSW provide precise track segment information to the muon Level-1 trigger to reduce fake triggers. This contribution will summarize a detail of the NSW trigger decision system, track reconstruction algorithm implemented into the trigger processor and results of performance studies on the trigger system.

  3. Feasibility studies of a Level-1 Tracking Trigger for ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Warren, M; Brenner, R; Konstantinidis, N; Sutton, M

    2009-01-01

    The existing ATLAS Level-1 trigger system is seriously challenged at the SLHC's higher luminosity. A hardware tracking trigger might be needed, but requires a detailed understanding of the detector. Simulation of high pile-up events, with various data-reduction techniques applied will be described. Two scenarios are envisaged: (a) regional readout - calorimeter and muon triggers are used to identify portions of the tracker; and (b) track-stub finding using special trigger layers. A proposed hardware system, including data reduction on the front-end ASICs, readout within a super-module and integrating regional triggering into all levels of the readout system, will be discussed.

  4. Using a neural network approach for muon reconstruction and triggering

    CERN Document Server

    Etzion, E; Abramowicz, H; Benhammou, Ya; Horn, D; Levinson, L; Livneh, R

    2004-01-01

    The extremely high rate of events that will be produced in the future Large Hadron Collider requires the triggering mechanism to take precise decisions in a few nano-seconds. We present a study which used an artificial neural network triggering algorithm and compared it to the performance of a dedicated electronic muon triggering system. Relatively simple architecture was used to solve a complicated inverse problem. A comparison with a realistic example of the ATLAS first level trigger simulation was in favour of the neural network. A similar architecture trained after the simulation of the electronics first trigger stage showed a further background rejection.

  5. Global Rome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Is 21st-century Rome a global city? Is it part of Europe's core or periphery? This volume examines the “real city” beyond Rome's historical center, exploring the diversity and challenges of life in neighborhoods affected by immigration, neoliberalism, formal urban planning, and grassroots social...... movements. The contributors engage with themes of contemporary urban studies–the global city, the self-made city, alternative modernities, capital cities and nations, urban change from below, and sustainability. Global Rome serves as a provocative introduction to the Eternal City and makes an original...

  6. The ATLAS b-jet Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira de Lima, D E; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS detector, at the LHC, has a three-level trigger, which selects events relevant for the physics goals of the experiment. The identification of jets arising from bottom quark production is important in many analyses. The b-tagging at the ATLAS Trigger relies on the fragmentation of the b quark, which generates a B hadron, that retains most of the parent quark’s momentum (∼ 70%). Furthermore, the high b quark mass results in decay products with high momenta with respect to the jet axis. The lifetime tagger relies on the the relatively long lifetime of the B hadrons (∼ 1.6 ps in their rest frame), which allows them to have a long decay length. Due to the large mass of the B hadron, the tracks reconstructed from this decay often have large impact parameters, compared to prompt jets. The algorithms exploit this by identifying tracks from the B hadron decay which are displaced from the primary interaction vertex and thus, indicate that a long-lived particle was present. The latest performance results...

  7. Soudan 2 data acquisition and trigger electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, J.; Haberichter, W.; Laird, R.

    1985-01-01

    The 1.1 kton Soudan 2 calorimetric drift-chamber detector is read out by 16K anode wires and 32K cathode strips. Preamps from each wire or strip are bussed together in groups of 8 to reduce the number of ADC channels. The resulting 6144 channels of ionization signal are flash-digitized every 200 ns and stored in RAM. The raw data hit patterns are continually compared with programmable trigger multiplicity and adjacency conditions. The data acquisition process is managed in a system of 24 parallel crates each containing an Intel 80C86 microprocessor, which supervises a pipe-lined data compactor, and allows transfer of the compacted data via CAMAC to the host computer. The 80C86's also manage the local trigger conditions and can perform some parallel processing of the data. Due to the scale of the system and multiplicity of identical channels, semi-custom gate array chips are used for much of the logic, utilizing 2.5 micron CMOS technology

  8. Test of special resolution and trigger efficiency

    CERN Document Server

    Benhammou, Y

    2015-01-01

    The forthcoming luminosity upgrade of LHC to super-LHC (sLHC) will increase the expected background rate in the forward region of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer by approximately the factor of five. Some of the present Muon Spectrometer components will fail to cope with these high rates and will have to be replaced. The results of a test of a device consisting of Thin Gap Chambers (TGC) and a fast small-diameter Muon Drift Tube Chamber (sMDT) using the 180 GeV/c muons at the SPS-H8 muon beam at CERN are presented. The goal of the test was to study the combined TGC-sMDT system as tracking and triggering device in the ATLAS muon spectrometer after high-luminosity upgrades of the LHC. The analysis of the recorded data shows a very good correlation between the TGC and sMDT track position and inclination. This technology offers the combination of trigger and tracking and has good angular and spatial resolutions. The angular resolution is 0.4 mrad for each system individually. For the spatial resolution, the width of t...

  9. Stress triggering and the Canterbury earthquake sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steacy, Sandy; Jiménez, Abigail; Holden, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    The Canterbury earthquake sequence, which includes the devastating Christchurch event of 2011 February, has to date led to losses of around 40 billion NZ dollars. The location and severity of the earthquakes was a surprise to most inhabitants as the seismic hazard model was dominated by an expected Mw > 8 earthquake on the Alpine fault and an Mw 7.5 earthquake on the Porters Pass fault, 150 and 80 km to the west of Christchurch. The sequence to date has included an Mw = 7.1 earthquake and 3 Mw ≥ 5.9 events which migrated from west to east. Here we investigate whether the later events are consistent with stress triggering and whether a simple stress map produced shortly after the first earthquake would have accurately indicated the regions where the subsequent activity occurred. We find that 100 per cent of M > 5.5 earthquakes occurred in positive stress areas computed using a slip model for the first event that was available within 10 d of its occurrence. We further find that the stress changes at the starting points of major slip patches of post-Darfield main events are consistent with triggering although this is not always true at the hypocentral locations. Our results suggest that Coulomb stress changes contributed to the evolution of the Canterbury sequence and we note additional areas of increased stress in the Christchurch region and on the Porters Pass fault.

  10. The ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger Architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Garvey, J; Mahout, G; Moye, T H; Staley, R J; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Achenbach, R; Hanke, P; Kluge, E E; Meier, K; Meshkov, P; Nix, O; Penno, K; Schmitt, K; Ay, Cc; Bauss, B; Dahlhoff, A; Jakobs, K; Mahboubi, K; Schäfer, U; Trefzger, T M; Eisenhandler, E F; Landon, M; Moyse, E; Thomas, J; Apostoglou, P; Barnett, B M; Brawn, I P; Davis, A O; Edwards, J; Gee, C N P; Gillman, A R; Perera, V J O; Qian, W; Bohm, C; Hellman, S; Hidvégi, A; Silverstein, S; RT 2003 13th IEEE-NPSS Real Time Conference

    2004-01-01

    The architecture of the ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger system (L1Calo) is presented. Common approaches have been adopted for data distribution, result merging, readout, and slow control across the three different subsystems. A significant amount of common hardware is utilized, yielding substantial savings in cost, spares, and development effort. A custom, high-density backplane has been developed with data paths suitable for both the em/tt cluster processor (CP) and jet/energy-summation processor (JEP) subsystems. Common modules also provide interfaces to VME, CANbus and the LHC Timing, Trigger and Control system (TTC). A common data merger module (CMM) uses FPGAs with multiple configurations for summing electron/photon and tau/hadron cluster multiplicities, jet multiplicities, or total and missing transverse energy. The CMM performs both crate- and system-level merging. A common, FPGA-based readout driver (ROD) is used by all of the subsystems to send input, intermediate and output data to the data acquis...

  11. Progress in the High Level Trigger Integration

    CERN Multimedia

    Cristobal Padilla

    2007-01-01

    During the week from March 19th to March 23rd, the DAQ/HLT group performed another of its technical runs. On this occasion the focus was on integrating the Level 2 and Event Filter triggers, with a much fuller integration of HLT components than had been done previously. For the first time this included complete trigger slices, with a menu to run the selection algorithms for muons, electrons, jets and taus at the Level-2 and Event Filter levels. This Technical run again used the "Pre-Series" system (a vertical slice prototype of the DAQ/HLT system, see the ATLAS e-news January issue for details). Simulated events, provided by our colleagues working in the streaming tests, were pre-loaded into the ROS (Read Out System) nodes. These are the PC's where the data from the detector is stored after coming out of the front-end electronics, the "first part of the TDAQ system" and the interface to the detectors. These events used a realistic beam interaction mixture and had been subjected to a Level-1 selection. The...

  12. Soudan 2 data acquisition and trigger electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, J.; Laird, R.; May, E.; Mondal, N.; Schlereth, J.; Solomey, N.; Thron, J.; Heppelmann, S.

    1985-01-01

    The 1.1 kton Soudan 2 detector is read out by 16K anode wires and 3 2K cathode strips. Preamps from each wire or strip are bussed together in groups of 8 to reduce the number of ADC channels. The resulting 6144 channels of ionization signal are flash-digitized every 150 ns and stored in RAM. The raw data hit patterns are continually compared with programmable trigger multiplicity and adjacency conditions. The data acquisition process is managed in a system of 24 parallel crates each containing an Intel 8086 microprocessors, which supervises a pipe-lined data compactors, and allows transfer of the compacted data via CAMAC to the host computer. The 8086's also manage the local trigger conditions and can perform some parallel processing of the data. Due to the scale of the system and multiplicity of identical channels, semi-custom gate array chips are used for much of the logic, utilizing 2.5 micron CMOS technology

  13. ATLAS calorimetry: Trigger, simulation and jet calibration

    CERN Document Server

    Weber, Pavel

    2008-01-01

    The Pre-Processor system of the ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger performs complex processing of analog trigger tower signals from electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters. The main processing block of the Pre-Processor System is the Multi-Chip Module (MCM). The first part of this thesis describes MCM quality assurance tests that have been developed, their use in the MCM large scale production and the results that have been obtained. In the second part of the thesis a validation of a shower parametrisation model for the ATLAS fast simulation package ATLFAST based on QCD dijet events is performed. A detailed comparison of jet response and jet energy resolution between the fast and the full simulation is presented. The uniformity of the calorimeter response has a significant impact on the accuracy of the jet energy measurement. A study of the calorimeter intercalibration using QCD dijet events is presented in the last part of the thesis. The intercalibration study is performed in azimuth angle phi and in pseud...

  14. Triggering of internal transport barrier in JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joffrin, E. [Association Euratom-CEA pour la Fusion, CEA Cadarache, St. Paul lez Durance (France); Gorini, G. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, EURATOM-ENEA-CNR Association, Milan (Italy); Challis, C.D. [Euratom/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon (United Kingdom)] [and others

    2002-08-01

    Internal transport barriers (ITBs) can be produced in JET by the application of strong additional heating during the current rise phase of the plasma discharge. Using up to 3 MW of lower hybrid power to tailor the q-profile prior to the main heating phase, a large variety of q-profiles ranging from low positive to strong negative central shear have been obtained during the current rise (0.4 MA s{sup -1}). With negative central magnetic shear s=(r/q)(r/q), the analysis of ITB triggering reveals a correlation between the formation of the ITB and q{sub andmin;} reaching an integer value (q=2 or q=3). This observation is confirmed by the analysis of the Alfven cascades. The minimum power required to access regimes with ITBs is probably related to the transport and magnetohydrodynamic properties of integer magnetic surfaces. Laser ablation and shallow pellet injection have also been attempted in recent JET ITB triggering experiments. (author)

  15. Reducing Environmental Allergic Triggers: Policy Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Stuart L

    The implementation of policies to reduce environmental allergic triggers can be an important adjunct to optimal patient care for allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma. Policies at the local level in schools and other public as well as private buildings can make an impact on disease morbidity. Occupational exposures for allergens have not yet been met with the same rigorous policy standards applied for exposures to toxicants by Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Further benefit may be obtained through policies by local, county, state, and national governments, and possibly through international cooperative agreements. The reduction of allergenic exposures can and should be affected by policies with strong scientific, evidence-based derivation. However, a judicious application of the precautionary principle may be needed in circumstances where the health effect of inaction could lead to more serious threats to vulnerable populations with allergic disease. This commentary covers the scientific basis, current implementation, knowledge gaps, and pro/con views on policy issues in reducing environmental allergic triggers. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Pulse generator circuit triggerable by nuclear radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredrickson, P.B.

    1980-01-01

    A pulse generator circuit triggerable by a pulse of nuclear radiation is described. The pulse generator circuit includes a pair of transistors arranged, together with other electrical components, in the topology of a standard monostable multivibrator circuit. The circuit differs most significantly from a standard monostable multivibrator circuit in that the circuit is adapted to be triggered by a pulse of nuclear radiation rather than electrically and the transistors have substantially different sensitivities to radiation, due to different physical and electrical characteristics and parameters. One of the transistors is employed principally as a radiation detector and is in a normally non-conducting state and the other transistor is normally in a conducting state. When the circuit is exposed to a pulse of nuclear radiation, currents are induced in the collector-base junctions of both transistors but, due to the different radiation sensitivities of the transistors, the current induced in the collector-base junction of the radiation-detecting transistor is substantially greater than that induced in the collector-base junction of the other transistor. The pulse of radiation causes the radiation-detecting transistor to operate in its conducting state, causing the other transistor to operate in its non-conducting state. As the radiation-detecting transistor operates in its conducting state, an output signal is produced at an output terminal connected to the radiation-detecting transistor indicating the presence of a predetermined intensity of nuclear radiation

  17. Soudan 2 data acquisition and trigger electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, J.; Heppelmann, S.; Laird, R.; May, E.; Mondal, N.; Schlereth, J.; Solomey, N.; Thron, J.

    1985-01-01

    The 1.1 kton Soudan 2 detector is read out by 16K anode wires and 32K cathode strips. Preamps from each wire or strip are bussed together in groups of 8 to reduce the number of ADC channels. The resulting 6144 channels of ionization signal are flash-digitized every 150 ns and stored in RAM. The raw data hit patterns are continually compared with programmable trigger multiplicity and adjacency conditions. The data acquisition process is managed in a system of 24 parallel crates each containing an Intel 8086 microprocessors, which supervises a pipe-lined data compactors, and allows transfer of the compacted data via CAMAC to the host computer. The 8086's also manage the local trigger conditions and can perform some parallel processing of the data. Due to the scale of the system and multiplicity of identical channels, semi-custom gate array chips are used for much of the logic, utilizing 2.5 micron CMOS technology

  18. Nanocomposite thin films for triggerable drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannozzi, Lorenzo; Iacovacci, Veronica; Menciassi, Arianna; Ricotti, Leonardo

    2018-05-01

    Traditional drug release systems normally rely on a passive delivery of therapeutic compounds, which can be partially programmed, prior to injection or implantation, through variations in the material composition. With this strategy, the drug release kinetics cannot be remotely modified and thus adapted to changing therapeutic needs. To overcome this issue, drug delivery systems able to respond to external stimuli are highly desirable, as they allow a high level of temporal and spatial control over drug release kinetics, in an operator-dependent fashion. Areas covered: On-demand drug delivery systems actually represent a frontier in this field and are attracting an increasing interest at both research and industrial level. Stimuli-responsive thin films, enabled by nanofillers, hold a tremendous potential in the field of triggerable drug delivery systems. The inclusion of responsive elements in homogeneous or heterogeneous thin film-shaped polymeric matrices strengthens and/or adds intriguing properties to conventional (bare) materials in film shape. Expert opinion: This Expert Opinion review aims to discuss the approaches currently pursued to achieve an effective on-demand drug delivery, through nanocomposite thin films. Different triggering mechanisms allowing a fine control on drug delivery are described, together with current challenges and possible future applications in therapy and surgery.

  19. ATLAS calorimetry. Trigger, simulation and jet calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, P

    2007-02-06

    The Pre-Processor system of the ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger performs complex processing of analog trigger tower signals from electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters. The main processing block of the Pre-Processor System is the Multi-Chip Module (MCM). The first part of this thesis describes MCM quality assurance tests that have been developed, their use in the MCM large scale production and the results that have been obtained. In the second part of the thesis a validation of a shower parametrisation model for the ATLAS fast simulation package ATLFAST based on QCD dijet events is performed. A detailed comparison of jet response and jet energy resolution between the fast and the full simulation is presented. The uniformity of the calorimeter response has a significant impact on the accuracy of the jet energy measurement. A study of the calorimeter intercalibration using QCD dijet events is presented in the last part of the thesis. The intercalibration study is performed in azimuth angle {phi} and in pseudorapidity {eta}. The performance of the calibration methods including possible systematic and statistical effects is described. (orig.)

  20. The design and performance of the ATLAS jet trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Shima

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS jet trigger is an important element of the event selection process, providing data samples for studies of Standard Model physics and searches for new physics at the LHC. The ATLAS jet trigger system has undergone substantial modifications over the past few years of LHC operations, as experience developed with triggering in a high luminosity and high event pileup environment. In particular, the region-of-interest based strategy has been replaced by a full scan of the calorimeter data at the third trigger level, and by a full scan of the level-1 trigger input at level-2 for some specific trigger chains. Hadronic calibration and cleaning techniques are applied in order to provide improved performance and increased stability in high luminosity data taking conditions. In this note we discuss the implementation and operational aspects of the ATLAS jet trigger during 2011 and 2012 data taking periods at the LHC.