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Sample records for luria broth lb

  1. Viability of Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 in Nutrient Broth, Luria-Bertani Broth and Brain Heart Infusion over 11 Weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Samuel Xin Zher; Aw, Zhen Qin; Loo, Bryan Zong Lin; Lee, Kun Cheng; Oon, Jack Si Hao; Lee, Chin How; Ling, Maurice Han Tong

    2013-01-01

    Escherichia coli is a widely studied prokaryotic system. A recent study had demonstrated that reduced growth of E. coli after extended culture in Luria-Bertani broth is a result of depletion of fermentable sugars but able to sustain extended cell culture due to the presence of amino acids, which can be utilized as a carbon source. However, this had not been demonstrated in other media. The study aimed to determine the growth and viability of E. coli ATCC 8739 in 3 different media, Nutrient Broth (NB), Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) and Luria-Bertani Broth (LB) over 11 weeks. Growth of E. coli ATCC 8739 was determined by optical density. Viability was determined by serial dilution/spread-plate enumeration. After 11 weeks, the media were exhausted by repeated culture. Glucose was added to the exhausted media to determine whether glucose is the growth-limiting factor. Our results showed that cell density in all 3 media increased to about 1 × 10(9) cells/ml by the end of week 1, from the inoculation density of 2.67 × 10(5) cells/ml, peaked at about 1 × 10(13) cells/ml at week 4, before declining to about 5 × 10(7) cells/ml at week 7. Cell density is highly correlated to genomic DNA content (r(2) = 0.93) but poorly correlated to optical density (r(2)< 0.2). Our results also showed that the spent media were able to support further growth after glucose-supplementation. NB, LB and BHI are able to support extended periods of culture and glucose depletion is the likely reason for declining cell growth.

  2. [Gene expression differences of toxigenic and nontoxigenic Vibrio cholerae strains in mannitol fermentation medium and Luria-Bertani broth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongzhi; Pang, Bo; Zhang, Li; Kan, Biao

    2009-06-01

    To analyze gene expression differences of toxigenic and nontoxigenic strains of El Tor Vibrio cholerae growing separately in mannitol fermentation medium and LB (Luria-Bertani) broth. Total RNA was extracted from the mannitol slow-fermenting strain N16961 (toxigenic) and the mannitol fast-fermenting strain 93097 (nontoxigenic) at 1 h of fermentation. The large scale gene expression profiles were detected and compared with high throughout microarray. By comparing the strains growing in different cultures, we found 142 differentially expressed genes in N16961 and 418 genes in 93097. Most of these genes were grouped into six functional classes. They were mainly related to transport and binding, energy metabolism, protein biosynthesis, and protein fate. The expression levels of genes in N16961 and 93097 were affected by culture conditions, which can serve as basis for further studying the mechanism of metabolism of mannitol.

  3. 产毒和非产毒霍乱弧菌在甘露醇发酵液和Luria-Bertani培养液中的基因表达差异%Gene expression differences of toxigenic and nontoxigenic Vibrio cholerae strains in mannitol fermentation medium and Luria-Bertani broth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红芝; 逄波; 张力; 阚飙

    2009-01-01

    [目的]分析霍乱弧菌产毒株和非产毒株在甘露醇发酵液和LB(Luria-Bertani)培养液中生长的基因表达谱和代谢差异特征.[方法]提取甘露醇发酵液和LB培养液中霍乱弧菌甘露醇慢发酵株(产毒株)N16961和快发酵株(非产毒株)93097生长第一小时的总RNA,应用霍乱弧菌N16961基因组芯片分析各菌株在不同培养液中的表达差异基因.[结果]筛选出产毒株N16961在甘露醇发酵液和LB中表达差异基因142个,非产毒株93097有418个,这些表达差异基因主要分属于6个不同的功能类群,主要是转运结合、能量代谢以及蛋白质合成代谢功能.[结论]甘露醇发酵液和LB中产毒株和非产毒株的许多功能基因的转录水平有显著差异,这些表达差异基因可能与霍乱弧菌在甘露醇发酵液中代谢产酸有关,这为进一步分析霍乱弧菌代谢甘露醇的机制、以及分析产毒株与非产毒株的甘露醇发酵快慢机制提供了基础.

  4. Influence of aerobic and anaerobic conditions on survival of Escherichia coli O157 : H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in Luria-Bertani broth, farm-yard manure and slurry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Semenov, Alexander V.; van Overbeek, Leo; Termorshuizen, Aad J.; van Bruggen, Ariena H. C.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of aerobic and anaerobic conditions on the survival of the enteropathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella serovar Typhimurium was investigated in microcosms with broth, cattle manure or slurry. These substrates were inoculated with a green fluorescent protein transformed strai

  5. Influence of aerobic and anaerobic conditions on survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in Luria-Bertani broth, farm-yard manure and slurry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Semenov, Alexander V.; van Overbeek, Leo; Termorshuizen, Aad J.; van Bruggen, Ariena H. C.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of aerobic and anaerobic conditions on the survival of the enteropathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella serovar Typhimurium was investigated in microcosms with broth, cattle manure or slurry. These substrates were inoculated with a green fluorescent protein transformed strai

  6. Influence of aerobic and anaerobic conditions on survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in Luria-Bertani broth, farm-yard manure and slurry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Semenov, A.V.; Overbeek, van L.S.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of aerobic and anaerobic conditions on the survival of the enteropathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella serovar Typhimurium was investigated in microcosms with broth, cattle manure or slurry. These substrates were inoculated with a green fluorescent protein transformed strai

  7. EXPLORATION OF BROTH CHICKEN GUT AS GROWTH MEDIA OF Escherichia coli BL21 pET-Endo FOR ENDO-Β-1,4-D-XYLANASE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anak Agung Istri Ratnadewi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Endo-β-1,4-D-xylanase is a hydrolytic enzyme that breakdown the 1.4 chain of xylan polysaccharide. We have succes to transform the plasmid pET-Endo gene encoding endo-1,4-β-D-xylanase from Bacillus sp. originally from termites abdominal to E. coli BL21. The clone was ready for large scale of enzyme production. To reduce production cost, we look for subtitute media for the expensive Luria Berthani broth. Chicken guts broth is good alternative while rich of protein and very cheap. The content of N dissolved chicken guts broth reaches 87 % of LB broth. Growth of E. Coli BL21 in Chicken guts broth and LB broth (as control was observed by Optical Density (OD using spectrofotometer. Concentration of glucose added in broth and incubation temperature was varied. The result showed that optimal growth was in addition of 1.5 % glucose and incubated at  37 oC for 16 h. This optimal condition was used to grow E. coli BL21 pET-Endo for xylanase production. Enzyme purification was done by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. Highest protein yield was 0.076 mg/mL obtained in 100 mM imidazole elucidation. The activity and specific activity of xylanase were estimated as 0.042 U/mL and 0.556 U/µg, respectively. The purification factor was 3.16 time and the molecular weight of enzyme was ± 30, 000 Dalton

  8. L. Vygotsky, A. Luria and developmental neuropsychology

    OpenAIRE

    Tatyana V. Akhutina; Nataly M. Pylaeva

    2011-01-01

    This article is devoted to Lev Vygotsky's and Alexander Luria's contribution to the theory and methods of neuropsychology, and particularly, developmental neuropsychology. The first part of the article covers the principle foundations of neuropsychology as elaborated by Vygotsky and Luria. The goal of the second part is to show what interpretation of learning disabilities can be derived from it.

  9. L. Vygotsky, A. Luria and developmental neuropsychology

    OpenAIRE

    Tatyana V. Akhutina; Nataly M. Pylaeva

    2011-01-01

    This article is devoted to Lev Vygotsky's and Alexander Luria's contribution to the theory and methods of neuropsychology, and particularly, developmental neuropsychology. The first part of the article covers the principle foundations of neuropsychology as elaborated by Vygotsky and Luria. The goal of the second part is to show what interpretation of learning disabilities can be derived from it.

  10. Semantic Aphasia and Luria's Neurolinguistic Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Birgitta

    A study of eight adult chronic aphasic patients' comprehension of sentences and pictures in which comparisons of time and space were crucial was designed to assess A. R. Luria's approach to designing comprehension test tasks. The investigation required patients, with lesions of varying size and location, to determine whether a sentence expressing…

  11. Scientist and Educationist: A. R. Luria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Joan

    1978-01-01

    A. R. Luria, who was always dedicated to solving human problems and whose work revolutionized neuropsychology, is dead. His central concern was the removal of threats to effective psychological functioning, to a fully human life. Here is a review of his contributions to psychological research. (Author/RK)

  12. The Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery (LNNB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barowsky, Ellis I.

    1990-01-01

    The Luria Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery identifies cognitive deficits and localizes specific brain impairment in individuals age 15 or older. The instrument uses visual stimulus cards and an audiotape to assess performance in such areas as tactile functions, speech, arithmetic, and memory. This paper examines test administration, summation…

  13. The Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery (LNNB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barowsky, Ellis I.

    1990-01-01

    The Luria Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery identifies cognitive deficits and localizes specific brain impairment in individuals age 15 or older. The instrument uses visual stimulus cards and an audiotape to assess performance in such areas as tactile functions, speech, arithmetic, and memory. This paper examines test administration, summation…

  14. Effects of sugar addition in luria bertania (LB) media on Escherichia coli 0157:H7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human pathogenic E. coli O157:H7 produces Shiga-like toxins (SLT) that causes hemolytic uremic syndrome. Typically SLT are released when a bacterium lyses but the mechanism on controlling SLT production is not clearly understood. This paper studies the growth and cell growth and metabolism of the ...

  15. L.Vygotsky, A.Luria and Developmental Neuropsychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana V. Akhutina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to Lev Vygotsky's and Alexander Luria's contribution to the theory and methods of neuropsychology, and particularly, developmental neuropsychology. The first part of the article covers the principle foundations of neuropsychology as elaborated by Vygotsky and Luria. The goal of the second part is to show what interpretation of learning disabilities can be derived from it.

  16. Neuropsychological Perspectives in Pupil Services: Practical Application of Luria's Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrzut, John E.; Obrzut, Ann

    1982-01-01

    The rationale and guidelines for incorporating a neuropsychological perspective in the educational process are presented. Luria's (1973) model is most pertinent for "neuroeducators" because it describes the concept of functional systems interacting to produce behavior. (CJ)

  17. Relieving Mipafox Inhibition in Organophosphorus Acid Anhydrolase by Rational Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    variant proteins. For each, an Escherichia coli DH5 culture containing one of the plasmids was grown at 37C in 1L of Luria -Bertani (LB) broth...inhibition constant LB Luria -Bertani (broth) OPPA organophosphorus acid anhydrolase SDS-PAGE sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

  18. Speech and regulation of behavior: the works of LS Vygosty and AR Luria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Derouesné, Christian

    2011-01-01

    The role of speech in the regulation of behavior was described in child psychology by LS Vygotsky and AR Luria in the Soviet Union during the twenties, and extended to neuropsychology by Luria after the World War II...

  19. An Investigation of Luria's Hypothesis on Prompting in Aphasic Naming Disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Edith Chin; Canter, Gerald J.

    1987-01-01

    The study investigated A. R. Luria's hypothesis that aphasic subgroups (Broca's, conduction, Wernicke's, and anomic aphasics) would respond differentially to phonemic prompts. Results, with the exception of the anomic aphasic group, supported Luria's predictions. (Author/DB)

  20. Psychology in the Service of Education--The Work of A. R. Luria, 1902-77.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Joan

    1986-01-01

    This article covers both the life and the work of Alexander Luria, the Soviet psychologist, and constitutes a comprehensive introduction to the subject. A substantial bibliography of Luria's publications in English is included in the article. (CT)

  1. Psychology in the Service of Education--The Work of A. R. Luria, 1902-77.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Joan

    1986-01-01

    This article covers both the life and the work of Alexander Luria, the Soviet psychologist, and constitutes a comprehensive introduction to the subject. A substantial bibliography of Luria's publications in English is included in the article. (CT)

  2. An Investigation of Luria's Hypothesis on Prompting in Aphasic Naming Disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Edith Chin; Canter, Gerald J.

    1987-01-01

    The study investigated A. R. Luria's hypothesis that aphasic subgroups (Broca's, conduction, Wernicke's, and anomic aphasics) would respond differentially to phonemic prompts. Results, with the exception of the anomic aphasic group, supported Luria's predictions. (Author/DB)

  3. 3-Lie bialgebras (Lb,Cd and (Lb,Ce

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    Bai Ruipu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Four dimensional $3$-Lie coalgebras with two-dimensional derived algebras, and four-dimensional $3$-Lie bialgebras of type $(L_b, C_c$ are classified. It is proved that there exist three classes of four dimensional $3$-Lie coalgebras with two-dimensional derived algebra which are $(L, C_{c_i}$, $i=1, 2, 3$ (Lemma 3.1, and ten classes of four dimensional $3$-Lie bialgebras of type $(L_b, C_c$ (Theorem 3.2.

  4. Batería Luria Inicial y desarrollo de las funciones psicológicas superiores = Initial Battery Luria and development of Higher Psychological Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez Benítez, Yaser

    2014-01-01

    La batería neuropsicológica Luria Inicial es un instrumento válido para evaluar y seguir el desarrollo de las funciones psicológicas superiores en la edad preescolar. El modelo neuropsicológico de Luria ofrece la posibilidad para conocer las funcione

  5. A.R. Luria and the history of Russian neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glozman, J M

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes Russian contributions to neuropsychology from the eighteenth up to the twenty-first century. Various approaches to the problem of the organization and localization of mental functions in the Pre-Lurian and Luria's periods are discussed. Comparisons with European and North American contributions and with contributions from subsequent Russian literature (post-Lurian period) are presented to demonstrate their interconnections in shaping the course of Russian neuropsychology and the main tendencies in its development.

  6. Luria: a unitary view of human brain and mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecacci, Luciano

    2005-12-01

    Special questions the eminent Russian psychologist and neuropsychologist Aleksandr R. Luria (1902-1977) dealt with in his research regarded the relationship between animal and human brain, child and adult mind, normal and pathological, theory and rehabilitation, clinical and experimental investigation. These issues were integrated in a unitary theory of cerebral and psychological processes, under the influence of both different perspectives active in the first half of the Nineteenth century (psychoanalysis and historical-cultural school, first of all) and the growing contribution of neuropsychological research on brain-injured patients.

  7. The Development of Verbal Control over Motor Behavior: A Replication and Extension of Luria's Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinsley, Virginia S.; Waters, Harriet Salatas

    1982-01-01

    Two experiments replicate and extend Luria's (1959, 1961) findings on the development of verbal self-regulation during early childhood. Results support Luria's hypothesis that overt verbalizations facilitate control of motor behavior in young children and that language can play an active and integrative role in the development of behavioral and…

  8. The Short Form Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery in Assessment of Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Michael; And Others

    This study sought to determine whether a short form of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery could discriminate between senile dementia of the Alzheimer's type and depression in a sample of elderly neuropsychiatric patients. The short form Luria-Nebraska includes 141 of the 269 items contained in the original version, with the Rhythm scale…

  9. Batería luria inicial y desarrollo de las funciones psicológicas superiores

    OpenAIRE

    Yaser Ramírez Benítez

    2014-01-01

    La batería neuropsicológica Luria Inicial es un instrumento válido para evaluar y seguir el desarrollo de las funciones psicológicas superiores en la edad preescolar. El modelo neuropsicológico de Luria ofrece la posibilidad para conocer las funciones superiores del niño. Metodología: La investigación pretende determinar la utilidad clínica del instrumento Luria Inicial en la población cubana preescolar con alteraciones del neurodesarrollo. El objetivo se cumplió con la revisión de los trabaj...

  10. The influence of cholesterol and biomass concentration on the uptake of cholesterol by Lactobacillus from MRS broth

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    Małgorzata Ziarno

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the determination of some factors influence (i.e. the vitality of bacteria cells and the cholesterol concentration on the ability of selected Lactobacillus sp. to cholesterol uptake during culture in MRS broth. Three Lactobacillus strains (Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Lb. acidophilus, Lb. casei isolated from commercial single species lyophilized dairy starter cultures and three Lactobacillus strains (Lb. plantarum, Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Lb. acidophilus originated from commercial pharmaceuticals were used in this study. The uptake of cholesterol from MRS broth during the growth of Lactobacillus sp., expressed as the difference between the final and the initial concentrations of cholesterol, ranged from 0.053 to 0.153 g/dm³, apart from the initial cholesterol content and the origin of Lactobacillus sp. The results confirmed that biomass concentration have a statistically significant effect on uptake of cholesterol. The ten-fold increase of the amount of intact cells biomass caused about 1.5-2-fold increase of the amount of cholesterol removed. The influence of the concentration of biomass of alive cells on the removal of cholesterol was bigger than in case of the heat-sterilized cells.

  11. Ultrafiltration of hemicellulose hydrolysate fermentation broth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresnowati, M. T. A. P.; Desiriani, Ria; Wenten, I. G.

    2017-03-01

    Hemicelulosic material is often used as the main substrate to obtain high-value products such as xylose. The five carbon sugar, xylose, could be further processed by fermentation to produce xylitol. However, not only the hemicellulose hydrolysate fermentation broth contains xylitol, but also metabolite products, residual substances, biomass and mineral salts. Therefore, in order to obtain the end products, various separation processes are required to separate and purify the desired product from the fermentation broth. One of the most promising downstream processing methods of fermentation broth clarification is ultrafiltration due to its potential for energy saving and higher purity. In addition, ultrafiltration membrane has a high performance in separating inhibitory components in the fermentation broth. This paper assesses the influence of operating conditions; including trans-membrane pressure, velocity, pH of the fermentation broth solutions, and also to the xylitol concentration in the product. The challenges of the ultrafiltration process will be pointed out.

  12. Luria-Delbrück, revisited: the classic experiment does not rule out Lamarckian evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Caroline M; Ghafari, Mahan; Abbas, Anzar; Saravanan, Varun; Nemenman, Ilya

    2017-08-21

    We re-examined data from the classic Luria-Delbrück fluctuation experiment, which is often credited with establishing a Darwinian basis for evolution. We argue that, for the Lamarckian model of evolution to be ruled out by the experiment, the experiment must favor pure Darwinian evolution over both the Lamarckian model and a model that allows both Darwinian and Lamarckian mechanisms (as would happen for bacteria with CRISPR-Cas immunity). Analysis of the combined model was not performed in the original 1943 paper. The Luria-Delbrück paper also did not consider the possibility of neither model fitting the experiment. Using Bayesian model selection, we find that the Luria-Delbrück experiment, indeed, favors the Darwinian evolution over purely Lamarckian. However, our analysis does not rule out the combined model, and hence cannot rule out Lamarckian contributions to the evolutionary dynamics.

  13. Luria-Delbrück, revisited: the classic experiment does not rule out Lamarckian evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Caroline M.; Ghafari, Mahan; Abbas, Anzar; Saravanan, Varun; Nemenman, Ilya

    2017-10-01

    We re-examined data from the classic Luria-Delbrück fluctuation experiment, which is often credited with establishing a Darwinian basis for evolution. We argue that, for the Lamarckian model of evolution to be ruled out by the experiment, the experiment must favor pure Darwinian evolution over both the Lamarckian model and a model that allows both Darwinian and Lamarckian mechanisms (as would happen for bacteria with CRISPR-Cas immunity). Analysis of the combined model was not performed in the original 1943 paper. The Luria-Delbrück paper also did not consider the possibility of neither model fitting the experiment. Using Bayesian model selection, we find that the Luria-Delbrück experiment, indeed, favors the Darwinian evolution over purely Lamarckian. However, our analysis does not rule out the combined model, and hence cannot rule out Lamarckian contributions to the evolutionary dynamics.

  14. Analysis and Remediation of Aphasia in the U.S.S.R.: The Contribution of A. R. Luria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Frances M.

    1981-01-01

    The paper surveys contribution of A. Luria to aphasiology, emphasizing unique extent to which he integrated theory and therapeutic practice. Luria's view of primary defects underlying main forms of aphasia is summarized; this is followed by brief account of his application of certain notions of structural linguists, including R. Jakobson's…

  15. Analysis and Remediation of Aphasia in the U.S.S.R.: The Contribution of A. R. Luria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Frances M.

    1981-01-01

    The paper surveys contribution of A. Luria to aphasiology, emphasizing unique extent to which he integrated theory and therapeutic practice. Luria's view of primary defects underlying main forms of aphasia is summarized; this is followed by brief account of his application of certain notions of structural linguists, including R. Jakobson's…

  16. Mean field mutation dynamics and the continuous Luria-Delbrück distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashdan, Eugene; Pareschi, Lorenzo

    2012-12-01

    The Luria-Delbrück mutation model has a long history and has been mathematically formulated in several different ways. Here we tackle the problem in the case of a continuous distribution using some mathematical tools from nonlinear statistical physics. Starting from the classical formulations we derive the corresponding differential models and show that under a suitable mean field scaling they correspond to generalized Fokker-Planck equations for the mutants distribution whose solutions are given by the corresponding Luria-Delbrück distribution. Numerical results confirming the theoretical analysis are also presented. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Mean field mutation dynamics and the continuous Luria-Delbr\\"uck distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Kashdan, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    The Luria-Delbr\\"uck mutation model has a long history and has been mathematically formulated in several different ways. Here we tackle the problem in the case of a continuous distribution using some mathematical tools from nonlinear statistical physics. Starting from the classical formulations we derive the corresponding differential models and show that under a suitable mean field scaling they correspond to generalized Fokker-Planck equations for the mutants distribution whose solutions are given by the corresponding Luria-Delbr\\"uck distribution. Numerical results confirming the theoretical analysis are also presented.

  18. Separation of biopolymer from fermentation broths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, W.L.; Compere, A.L.; Westmoreland, C.G.; Johnson, J.S. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Application of recent developments in filtration separations have been applied to separation of biopolymers from fermentation broths. More economical production of biopolymers near the site of use would be especially attractive for use in micellar flood programs for enhanced oil recovery. Solutions of the organisms Sclerotium rolfsii producing scleroglucans were used for the tests because the organisms are genetically more stable than the organisms that produce xanthan gums and because their more acid broths are less apt to become contaminated. Three types of filtration, axial filtration, pleated ultrafiltration module, and microscreens were tested on the broth. Filtration results are reported for broths with various preparation histories. An economic comparison is presented for processing of a ton of biopolymer per day, and the microscreening process is shown to be the most efficient, but a polishing step would have to be added. (BLM)

  19. Cluster Analysis of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery with Learning Disabled Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Michael; And Others

    The study reports a cluster analysis of Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery sources of 25 learning disabled adults. The cluster analysis suggested the presence of three subgroups within this sample, one having high elevations on the Rhythm, Writing, Reading, and Arithmetic Rhythm scales, the second having an extremely high evelation on the…

  20. Discriminative Effectiveness of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery for LD Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Richard D.; Lorion, Raymond P.

    1988-01-01

    Evaluation of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery's utility in distinguishing between 30 male adolescents diagnosed as learning disabled (LD) and 30 matched non-LD students indicated that the battery correctly classified 90 percent of the sample with 6.7 percent false positives and 13.3 percent false negatives. (Author/DB)

  1. Investigation of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery--Children's Revision with Learning Disabled Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boliek-Uphoff, Carol; Obrzut, John E.

    Twenty-three learning disabled (LD) children (age 8-12 years) and 15 nondisabled children (age 8-12 years) were individually administered the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children's Revision (LNNB). Means and standard deviations for each of the test's scales were computed by group, and individual T-tests were calculated for…

  2. Diagnostic Validity of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children's Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Margaret A.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Results of an assessment of the diagnostic validity of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children's Revision (LNNB-C) with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) for the following relevant diagnostic groups: neurological, psychiatric, and normal controls are reported. (Author/BL)

  3. Verbal Control of Motor Behaviour in Mentally Retarded Children: A Re-examination of Luria's Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotundo, N.; Johnson, E. G.

    1981-01-01

    Results supported A. Luria's contention that the development of mentally retarded children, regardless of etiology, is arrested at the second (asemantic) stage and that their performance deficiencies are even greater than might be predicted simply on the basis of their developmental level. (Author/SB)

  4. Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children's Revision: Concurrent Validity With Three Learning Disability Subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Sam B.; Brown, Tina L.

    1988-01-01

    Studied concurrent validity of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children's Revision (LNNB-C) in learning disabled children categorized according to Verbal and Performance IQ differences. Found no significant differences between the three groups, thus failing to support the validity of the LNNB-C in discriminating between learning…

  5. Validity of the Luria-Nebraska Intellectual Processes Scale as a Measure of Adult Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prifitera, Aurelio; Ryan, Joseph J.

    1981-01-01

    Investigated the validity of the Luria-Nebraska Intellectual Processes Scale (IPS) as a substitute for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS). IPS scores were correlated with the three WAIS IQs, and regression equations were computed to obtain estimated Verbal IQ, Performance IQ, and Full Scale IQ. (Author)

  6. Use of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery--Children's Revision with Learning Disabled Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkening, Greta N.

    The paper examines use of a children's revision of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery (LNNB-CR) for three aspects of neuropsychologic assessment in children: the absence or presence of learning disability (LD), patterns in dysfunction, and rehabilitation potential and strategies. A review of research covers the use of the battery in the…

  7. Diagnostic Validity of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children's Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Margaret A.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Results of an assessment of the diagnostic validity of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children's Revision (LNNB-C) with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) for the following relevant diagnostic groups: neurological, psychiatric, and normal controls are reported. (Author/BL)

  8. Discriminative Effectiveness of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery for LD Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Richard D.; Lorion, Raymond P.

    1988-01-01

    Evaluation of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery's utility in distinguishing between 30 male adolescents diagnosed as learning disabled (LD) and 30 matched non-LD students indicated that the battery correctly classified 90 percent of the sample with 6.7 percent false positives and 13.3 percent false negatives. (Author/DB)

  9. Investigation of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery--Children's Revision with Learning Disabled Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boliek-Uphoff, Carol; Obrzut, John E.

    Twenty-three learning disabled (LD) children (age 8-12 years) and 15 nondisabled children (age 8-12 years) were individually administered the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children's Revision (LNNB). Means and standard deviations for each of the test's scales were computed by group, and individual T-tests were calculated for…

  10. Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children's Revision: Concurrent Validity With Three Learning Disability Subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Sam B.; Brown, Tina L.

    1988-01-01

    Studied concurrent validity of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children's Revision (LNNB-C) in learning disabled children categorized according to Verbal and Performance IQ differences. Found no significant differences between the three groups, thus failing to support the validity of the LNNB-C in discriminating between learning…

  11. Microbiological culture broth designed from food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalón, Miriam C; Terán, Victoria; Arena, Mario E; Oliszewki, Rubén; González, Silvia N

    2013-01-30

    The current trend of increasing air, water, and soil pollution is, in part, due to inadequate management of municipal solid waste (MSW). The relationship between public health and the collection, storage and improper disposal of solid waste has encouraged several studies and the results were attributed to the spread of over twenty human and animal diseases due to this interrelationship. The term "single cell protein" (SCP) refers to microbial biomass used as a dietary additive. It has high nutritional value because of its high content of vitamins, lipids, and proteins of biological quality (the presence of all essential amino acids) (Lal, 2005). The aim of this work was to design a culture media for microbiological assays and to produce SCP for animal feeding, using nutrients contained in organic waste. In order to compare the effectiveness of food waste (FW) and LAPTg media, different strains of Lactobacillus, Enterococcus, Staphylococcus, Shigella, Salmonella, Saccharomyces and Schizosaccharomyces were studied. In all cases, the growth obtained from FW and LAPTg culture media were not significantly different (p > 0.05). In addition, the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was studied in order to produce SCP for animal feeding. Comparative experiments involving molasses broth, FW broth, and basal broth were carried out. The biomass yield calculated at 24 h from FW broth was 13% lower than from molasses broth. The FW broth provided a significantly lower biomass yield; however, it can be very useful in areas where molasses are not available. FW broth can be elaborated at low cost, in any populated region of the world because its ingredients are wastes generated by humans. It has great versatility, allowing the development of a wide variety of microorganisms, both Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria as well as yeasts. The production of safe protein additives, with high biological quality and low cost, is necessary due to the increasing global demand for food

  12. Pervaporation of ethanol from lignocellulosic fermentation broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaykawad, Sushil S; Zha, Ying; Punt, Peter J; van Groenestijn, Johan W; van der Wielen, Luuk A M; Straathof, Adrie J J

    2013-02-01

    Pervaporation can be applied in ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. Hydrophobic pervaporation, using a commercial PDMS membrane, was employed to concentrate the ethanol produced by fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysate. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing this. Pervaporation carried out with three different lignocellulosic fermentation broths reduced the membrane performance by 17-20% as compared to a base case containing only 3 wt.% ethanol in water. The membrane fouling caused by these fermentation broths was irreversible. Solutions containing model lignocellulosic components were tested during pervaporation at the same conditions. A total flux decrease of 12-15%, as compared to the base case, was observed for each component except for furfural. Catechol was found to be most fouling component whereas furfural permeated through the membrane and increased the total flux. The membrane selectivity increased in the presence of fermentation broth but remained unchanged for all selected components. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Determination of amino acids in cell culture and fermentation broth media using anion-exchange chromatography with integrated pulsed amperometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanko, Valoran P; Rohrer, Jeffrey S

    2004-01-01

    Cell culture and fermentation broth media are used in the manufacture of biotherapeutics and many other biological materials. Characterizing the amino acid composition in cell culture and fermentation broth media is important because deficiencies in these nutrients can reduce desired yields or alter final product quality. Anion-exchange (AE) chromatography using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium acetate gradients, coupled with integrated pulsed amperometric detection (IPAD), determines amino acids without sample derivatization. AE-IPAD also detects carbohydrates, glycols, and sugar alcohols. The presence of these compounds, often at high concentrations in cell culture and fermentation broth media, can complicate amino acid determinations. To determine whether these samples can be analyzed without sample preparation, we studied the effects of altering and extending the initial NaOH eluent concentration on the retention of 42 different carbohydrates and related compounds, 30 amino acids and related compounds, and 3 additional compounds. We found that carbohydrate retention is impacted in a manner different from that of amino acid retention by a change in [NaOH]. We used this selectivity difference to design amino acid determinations of diluted cell culture and fermentation broth media, including Bacto yeast extract-peptone-dextrose (yeast culture medium) broth, Luria-Bertani (bacterial culture medium) broth, and minimal essential medium and serum-free protein-free hybridoma medium (mammalian cell culture media). These media were selected as representatives for both prokaryotic and eukaryotic culture systems capable of challenging the analytical technique presented in this paper. Glucose up to 10mM (0.2%, w/w) did not interfere with the chromatography, or decrease recovery greater than 20%, for the common amino acids arginine, lysine, alanine, threonine, glycine, valine, serine, proline, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, histidine, phenylalanine, glutamate, aspartate

  14. Rapidly Degradable Pyrotechnic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    Broth LB-Amp: Ampicillin-Luria Broth NdeI: Restriction Endonuclease OmpA: Outer Membrane Protein Gene PBS: Phosphate Buffered Saline PCR...concentrations of 0.5 g L−1 can be easily achieved by fermentation . In batch fermentation the major part of the enzyme is accumulated in the

  15. Antibacterial activity of cinnamaldehyde and Sporan against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    The in vitro antimicrobial effect of cinnamaldehyde and Sporan in combination with acetic acid against E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella was investigated. A five strain cocktail of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella were inoculated in Luria-Bertoni broth (LB broth, 7 log CFU ml-1) containing cinnamaldehyde...

  16. CURVA DE APRENDIZAJE DE LURIA EN PERSONAS CON DAÑO CEREBRAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esperanza Bausela Herreras

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo se centra en el estudio de la curva de aprendizaje de Luria en personas que presentan algún tipo de alteración neuropsicológica. Con ella, se permite el estudio de los procesos de aprendizaje, retención y recuperación y memoria lógica. Es en este marco teórico en el que se planteó estudiar los resultados obtenidos de un grupo de 15 personas con alteración neuropsicológica en la curva de aprendizaje incluida en la batería Luria-DNA. Los resultados de este estudio muestran una meseta distintiva, característica de un tipo inactivo de proceso mnésico, confirmando así la hipóteis de investigación.

  17. CURVA DE APRENDIZAJE DE LURIA EN PERSONAS CON DAÑO CEREBRAL

    OpenAIRE

    Esperanza Bausela Herreras

    2010-01-01

    Este artículo se centra en el estudio de la curva de aprendizaje de Luria en personas que presentan algún tipo de alteración neuropsicológica. Con ella, se permite el estudio de los procesos de aprendizaje, retención y recuperación y memoria lógica. Es en este marco teórico en el que se planteó estudiar los resultados obtenidos de un grupo de 15 personas con alteración neuropsicológica en la curva de aprendizaje incluida en la batería Luria-DNA. Los resultados de este estudio muestran una mes...

  18. Syndromic analysis of ADHD at preschool age according to A.R. Luria concept

    OpenAIRE

    Yulia Solovieva; Luis Quintanar Rojas

    2014-01-01

    Different authors have studied attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in preschool children from different perspectives. Neuropsychological assessment can detect many kinds of cognitive difficulties, but the common syndromic picture has not yet been established. The idea of the existence of a specific neuropsychological syndrome based on A.R. Lurias concept differs from syndromes that are established in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , 4 th edition. The goa...

  19. Luria-delbruck estimation of turnip mosaic virus mutation rate in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Iglesia, Francisca; Martínez, Fernando; Hillung, Julia; Cuevas, José M; Gerrish, Philip J; Daròs, José-Antonio; Elena, Santiago F

    2012-03-01

    A potential drawback of recent antiviral therapies based on the transgenic expression of artificial microRNAs is the ease with which viruses may generate escape mutations. Using a variation of the classic Luria-Delbrück fluctuation assay, we estimated that the spontaneous mutation rate in the artificial microRNA (amiR) target of a plant virus was ca. 6 × 10(-5) per replication event.

  20. Cellular replication limits in the Luria-Delbrück mutation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Brenes, Ignacio A.; Wodarz, Dominik; Komarova, Natalia L.

    2016-08-01

    Originally developed to elucidate the mechanisms of natural selection in bacteria, the Luria-Delbrück model assumed that cells are intrinsically capable of dividing an unlimited number of times. This assumption however, is not true for human somatic cells which undergo replicative senescence. Replicative senescence is thought to act as a mechanism to protect against cancer and the escape from it is a rate-limiting step in cancer progression. Here we introduce a Luria-Delbrück model that explicitly takes into account cellular replication limits in the wild type cell population and models the emergence of mutants that escape replicative senescence. We present results on the mean, variance, distribution, and asymptotic behavior of the mutant population in terms of three classical formulations of the problem. More broadly the paper introduces the concept of incorporating replicative limits as part of the Luria-Delbrück mutational framework. Guidelines to extend the theory to include other types of mutations and possible applications to the modeling of telomere crisis and fluctuation analysis are also discussed.

  1. LB1 and LB6 Homo floresiensis are not modern human (Homo sapiens) cretins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Peter

    2012-02-01

    Excavations in the late Pleistocene deposits at Liang Bua cave, Flores, have uncovered the skeletal remains of several small-bodied and small-brained hominins in association with stone artefacts and the bones of Stegodon. Due to their combination of plesiomorphic, unique and derived traits, they were ascribed to a new species, Homo floresiensis, which, along with Stegodon, appears to have become extinct ∼17 ka (thousand years ago). However, recently it has been argued that several characteristics of H. floresiensis were consistent with dwarfism and evidence of delayed development in modern human (Homo sapiens) myxoedematous endemic (ME) cretins. This research compares the skeletal and dental morphology in H. floresiensis with the clinical and osteological indicators of cretinism, and the traits that have been argued to be associated with ME cretinism in LB1 and LB6. Contrary to published claims, morphological and statistical comparisons did not identify the distinctive skeletal and dental indicators of cretinism in LB1 or LB6 H. floresiensis. Brain mass, skeletal proportions, epiphyseal union, orofacial morphology, dental development, size of the pituitary fossa and development of the paranasal sinuses, vault bone thickness and dimensions of the hands and feet all distinguish H. floresiensis from modern humans with ME cretinism. The research team responsible for the diagnosis of ME cretinism had not examined the original H. floresiensis skeletal materials, and perhaps, as a result, their research confused taphonomic damage with evidence of disease, and thus contained critical errors of fact and interpretation. Behavioural scenarios attempting to explain the presence of cretinous H. sapiens in the Liang Bua Pleistocene deposits, but not unaffected H. sapiens, are both unnecessary and not supported by the available archaeological and geochronological evidence from Flores. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Luria revisited: cognitive research in schizophrenia, past implications and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaytseva, Yuliya; Chan, Raymond C K; Pöppel, Ernst; Heinz, Andreas

    2015-02-27

    Contemporary psychiatry is becoming more biologically oriented in the attempt to elicit a biological rationale of mental diseases. Although mental disorders comprise mostly functional abnormalities, there is a substantial overlap between neurology and psychiatry in addressing cognitive disturbances. In schizophrenia, the presence of cognitive impairment prior to the onset of psychosis and early after its manifestation suggests that some neurocognitive abnormalities precede the onset of psychosis and may represent a trait marker. These cognitive alterations may arise from functional disconnectivity, as no significant brain damage has been found. In this review we aim to revise A.R. Luria's systematic approach used in the neuropsychological evaluation of cognitive functions, which was primarily applied in patients with neurological disorders and in the cognitive evaluation in schizophrenia and other related disorders. As proposed by Luria, cognitive processes, associated with higher cortical functions, may represent functional systems that are not localized in narrow, circumscribed areas of the brain, but occur among groups of concertedly working brain structures, each of which makes its own particular contribution to the organization of the functional system. Current developments in neuroscience provide evidence of functional connectivity in the brain. Therefore, Luria's approach may serve as a frame of reference for the analysis and interpretation of cognitive functions in general and their abnormalities in schizophrenia in particular. Having said that, modern technology, as well as experimental evidence, may help us to understand the brain better and lead us towards creating a new classification of cognitive functions. In schizophrenia research, multidisciplinary approaches must be utilized to address specific cognitive alterations. The relationships among the components of cognitive functions derived from the functional connectivity of the brain may provide an

  3. Batería!Neuropsicológica!Luria!Inicial!y!procesos!atencionales!

    OpenAIRE

    Yaser Ramírez Benitez; Miriela Diaz Bringas; Rosário Somoano; Daime Hernando-Cuba

    2011-01-01

    Introducción: El TDAH es una de las alteraciones del neurodesarrollo caracterizada por presentar síntomas nucleares: inatención, hiperactividad e impulsividad y por sus comorbilidades. Por ello, se necesitan instrumentos neuropsicológicos que identifiquen todos los sistemas cognitivos en desarrollo. La batería Luria Inicial (BLI) se creó con el objetivo de identificar y seguir los niños con alteraciones neuropsicológicas. Material-Método: La BLI tiene la debilidad de identificar directamente ...

  4. Batería luria inicial y desarrollo de las funciones psicológicas superiores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaser Ramírez Benítez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available La batería neuropsicológica Luria Inicial es un instrumento válido para evaluar y seguir el desarrollo de las funciones psicológicas superiores en la edad preescolar. El modelo neuropsicológico de Luria ofrece la posibilidad para conocer las funciones superiores del niño. Metodología: La investigación pretende determinar la utilidad clínica del instrumento Luria Inicial en la población cubana preescolar con alteraciones del neurodesarrollo. El objetivo se cumplió con la revisión de los trabajos científicos publicados en la fecha 2006-2013 en bases de datos electrónica (Scielo, EBSCO host, LILACS, Medigraphic. Resultados: El instrumento tiene una efectiva utilidad clínica para conocer el perfil neuropsicológico del niño preescolar con alteraciones del neurodesarrollo. Los resultados en varias poblaciones (TDAH, bajo peso al nacer, desórdenes metabólicos informan que el acto motor con intencionalidad, la inhibición conductual y la organización espacial son habilidades diana a cualquier evento que interrumpan el neurodesarrollo. La adquisición de la función reguladora del habla predice las condiciones preacadémicas del niño en conjunto con el estado real de las funciones superiores. La utilidad clínica del instrumento está en la posibilidad de describir-explicar el estado real de las funciones superiores y su potencial: el niño puede ejecutar e imitar movimientos, dibujar, reconocer los colores y hablar (estado real, pero si no organiza esas ejecuciones a través de la función reguladora del habla (estado potencial estará sujeto a errores y a no aprender por orientaciones del adulto en la etapa escolar. La línea de pensamiento que ofrece Luria para estudiar a los niños es válida y confiable para diagnosticar y rehabilitar las secuelas del sistema nervioso en desarrollo.

  5. General formulation of Luria-Delbr{\\"u}ck distribution of the number of mutants

    CERN Document Server

    Houchmandzadeh, Bahram

    2015-01-01

    The Luria-Delbr{\\"u}ck experiment is a cornerstone of evolutionary theory, demonstrating the ran-domness of mutations before selection. The distribution of the number of mutants in this experiment has been the subject of intense investigation during the last 70 years. Despite this considerable effort, most of the results have been obtained under the assumption of constant growth rate, which is far from the experimental condition. We derive here the properties of this distribution for arbitrary growth function, for both the deterministic and stochastic growth of the mutants. The derivation we propose is surprisingly simple and versatile, allowing many generalizations to be taken easily into account.

  6. Recovery of succinic acid from fermentation broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzrock, Tanja; Weuster-Botz, Dirk

    2010-03-01

    Succinic acid is of high interest as bio-feedstock for the chemical industry. It is a precursor for a variety of many other chemicals, e.g. 1,4-butandiol, tetrahydrofuran, biodegradable polymers and fumaric acid. Besides optimized production strains and fermentation processes it is indispensable to develop cost-saving and energy-effective downstream processes to compete with the current petrochemical production process. Various methods such as precipitation, sorption and ion exchange, electrodialysis, and liquid-liquid extraction have been investigated for the recovery of succinic acid from fermentation broth and are reviewed critically here.

  7. Performance on the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Test Battery-Children's Revision: A Comparison of Children with and without Significant WISC-R VIQ-PIQ Discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilger, J. W.; Geary, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    Compared the performance of 56 children on the 11 subscales of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children's Revision. Results revealed significant differences on Receptive Speech and Expressive Language subscales, suggesting a possible differential sensitivity of the children's Luria-Nebraska to verbal and nonverbal cognitive deficits.…

  8. 75 FR 5359 - In the Matter of L. Luria & Son, Inc., Lew Corp. (n/k/a Questus Global Limited), Library Bureau...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION In the Matter of L. Luria & Son, Inc., Lew Corp. (n/k/a Questus Global Limited), Library Bureau... current and accurate information concerning the securities of L. Luria & Son, Inc. because it has not...

  9. Performance on the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Test Battery-Children's Revision: A Comparison of Children with and without Significant WISC-R VIQ-PIQ Discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilger, J. W.; Geary, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    Compared the performance of 56 children on the 11 subscales of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children's Revision. Results revealed significant differences on Receptive Speech and Expressive Language subscales, suggesting a possible differential sensitivity of the children's Luria-Nebraska to verbal and nonverbal cognitive deficits.…

  10. Recovery of actinorhodin from fermentation broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güzeltunç, E; Ulgen, K O

    2001-04-20

    In the present work, a new method of purification for actinorhodin was developed using an expanded bed chromatography technique in which antibiotic capture, feedstock clarification, centrifugation, dialysis and concentration are done in one step. The cation-exchanger (P-11) resulted in 26% adsorption and 2% recovery whereas the anion-exchanger (DE-52) resulted in 99% adsorption and 56% recovery of adsorbed antibiotic using methanol buffer and 2 M NH4Cl as eluting agent. Streamline DEAE anion-exchanger, which is especially designed for EBA applications, yields 82% adsorption and 50% elution of actinorhodin fed into the chromatography column directly from the fermentation broth. Isocratic elution resulted in extremely efficient yield compared to linear gradient elution, i.e. 13.5-fold more recovery in the column with an aspect ratio (L:D) of 4. Expansion by 150% of settled bed resulted in the best recovery of actinorhodin among 100 and 200% expansions. A comparison of breakthrough profiles in packed and expanded bed adsorption showed that the performance of the expanded bed is better (by 33%) at allowing more volume of the fermentation broth to pass through the chromatography column.

  11. Generated Voltage Measurement of Poly(3-Hexylthiophene) LB Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushida, Masahito; Koide, Tetsuya; Hino, Koji

    The electrical conductivity of a bulky polythiophene or a bulky gold has high value. If the electrical conductivity of nanometer scale films of polythiophene or gold has high value, it is very interesting that the molecular devices are combined with these polythiophene. The Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films were synthesized from poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), and the LB films of P3HT were doped by the electrochemical method in present study. Samples of Al/P3HT LB films/Au generated the voltage. The time dependence of the voltage generated from the Al/P3HT LB films/Au was measured. The electrochemical doping caused the generated voltage of the samples to increase.

  12. Luria revisited: complex motor phenomena in first episode schizophrenia and schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaytseva, Yuliya; Korsakova, Natalya; Gurovich, Isaac Ya; Heinz, Andreas; Rapp, Michael A

    2014-12-15

    Patients with schizophrenia frequently exhibit motor deficits. However, to date, there are no studies comparing motor performance in first episode patients with schizophrenia and schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD; e.g. schizoaffective and brief psychosis). Participants comprised 57 first episode patients with schizophrenia, 32 first episode patients with SSD, and 51 healthy controls who underwent neuropsychological testing based on Luria׳s systematic approach, including the following tests on complex motor sequencing: the Fist-Edge-Palm (FEP) test and the bimanual probe (BP). Schizophrenia patients performed worse than SSD patients in FEP and BP, and both patient groups showed decreased scores compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, we found that a higher proportion of schizophrenia cases failed to correct their motor performance and needed external error correction, while SSD cases exhibited a higher proportion of self-correction in FEP and in BP. Lack of insight and poor executive functioning correlated with motor performance in schizophrenia, while impulse control and difficulties in abstract thinking were related to motor performance in schizophrenia spectrum disorder. Thus, psychomotor impairments appear already in first episode patients with schizophrenia and differ from impairments in SSD. Especially the inability to self-correct errors may be characteristic of schizophrenia, suggesting that impairments in error monitoring are related to psychomotor dysfunction in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The remediation of executive functions in children with cognitive disorders: the Vygotsky-Luria neuropsychological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhutina, T V

    1997-04-01

    The demands of methods of effective remediation arising from the Vygotsky-Luria approach to the structure and development of higher mental functions are discussed. These demands suggest the structuring of a therapeutic interaction in accordance with the rules of the internalization process, taking into account a weak component of the child's functional systems and the emotional involvement of a child in that interaction. In order to provide a theoretical framework for developing methods of executive function remediation, the approaches of Vygotsky and Luria, as well as modern views on the structure and development of executive functions, are discussed. The Method of Numerical Sequence is presented as an example of the application of the general principles discussed above. The Method of Numerical Sequence provides a background for following the development of successive processing, programming and planning, and can be considered as a complement to the development of the metacognitive aspects of self-regulation. This method was verified experimentally in groups of 5-8-year-old children with intellectual disability.

  14. [Speech and regulation of behavior: the works of LS Vygosty and AR Luria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derouesné, Christian

    2011-09-01

    The role of speech in the regulation of behavior was described in child psychology by LS Vygotsky and AR Luria in the Soviet Union during the twenties, and extended to neuropsychology by Luria after the World War II. According to Vygotsky, man built up « psychological tools » on the model of material tools to extend his natural capacities. Psychological tools, such as language, are symbolic systems from social origin, which control activity and behavior, and convert natural cognitive processes into higher cortical functions. Therefore child's development is embedded into particular social relationships. First communicational speech then inner speech plays a major role in the regulation of behavior in man: at first it goes with action, then precedes it, and finally replaces it. A willful action is thus an action largely controlled by inner speech, especially in novel and complex tasks, but the properties of inner speech differ from those of communicational speech. Assessment of the role of speech on the regulation of action and behavior should be part of the neuropsychological examination of frontal lobe functions. It also could be useful to assess the ability of patients to participate in cognitive rehabilitation, particularly in Alzheimer's disease.

  15. Investigation of tribological properties of composite C60-LB films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Guanghong; ZHANG Xingtang; XUN Jun; JIANG Xiaohong; ZHANG Pingyu; DU Zuliang

    2006-01-01

    Composite C60-LB films were fabricated by the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique, their micro- structures, micro- and macro-tribological properties were investigated using atomic force microscope/ friction force microscope (AFM/FFM). The results showed that in the confined C60-LB films there were two kinds of structures for the special C60 assembly: grain diameters of one kind were in the range of 150-230 nm; the other was smaller than 20 nm. Mi-cro-tribological studies showed that topographical images of tiny C60 aggregates (<20 nm) were con-sistent with their frictional ones very well, namely, low friction occurred on tiny C60 aggregates compared with fatty chains LB monolayer, and 'Micro-rolling effect' was apparent; but for big large ones frictional forces were relatively high and 'ratchet mechanism' was seen apparently. Macro-tribological data proved large C60 aggregates had wear resistance and load-carrying capacities and anti-wear lives for com- posite C60-LB films were prolonged greatly with dis-persibility of C60 improved and its grain diameter re-duced. Tiny C60 aggregates were mainly the lubricating agents. Friction coefficients of composite C60-LB films gradually reduced with loads increasing having the same friction coefficient-load relations with boundary lubrication films.

  16. Inactivation of Escherichia coli in broth and sausage by combined high pressure and Lactobacillus casei cell extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hyun-Jung; Yousef, Ahmed E

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of combined high pressure and Lactobacillus casei cell extract (CE) on Escherichia coli O157 strains with variation in pressure resistance in broth and sausage. Pressure-resistant (O157:H7 and O157:H12) and -sensitive (O157-M1 and O157-M2) E. coli strains were used. Pressure treatment at 350 MPa for 20 min in broth caused 1.1-1.2 logs reduction in O157:H12 and O157:H7 and 4.1-5.5 logs reduction in the O157-M1 and O157-M2. When high pressure was treated in the presence of CE (32 CEAU/mL), the combination treatment caused a significant inactivation in the pressure-resistant O157:H7 strains resulting in the viability loss of 4.3-4.6 logs and the synergistic effect increased with increase in treatment time (p high pressure treatment. The synergy between high pressure processing and Lb. casei OSY-LB6A CE against pressure-resistant E. coli O157 strains suggests the feasibility of using this combination to minimize the risk of transmission of E. coli O157 by food.

  17. Enumeration of starter cultures during yogurt production using Petrifilm AC plates associated with acidified MRS and M17 broths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Marília M; Freitas, Rosangela; Nero, Luís A; Carvalho, Antônio F

    2009-05-01

    The efficiency of Petrifilm AC (3M Microbiology, St. Paul, MN, USA) associated with the broths M17 and de Mann-Rogosa-Sharpe (MRS) at pH 5.4 was evaluated to enumerate Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus during the yogurt production. Commercial and reference strains of these microorganisms were experimentally inoculated in nonfat milk and incubated at 42 degrees C for 4 h for yogurt production. At the moment of inoculation and after incubation, aliquots were collected, submitted to dilution using the broths M17 and MRS at pH 5.4, and plated for Strep. salivarius and Lb. bulgaricus enumeration according ISO 9232 and at Petrifilm AC plates, respectively. M17 plates were incubated at 42 degrees C, and MRS plates were incubated at 35 degrees C under anaerobiosis. After 48 h, the formed colonies were enumerated and the counts were compared by correlation and analysis of variance (Pyogurt production, with slight interferences due to the acidity of MRS at the moment of inoculation, and due to the acidity of yogurt at the end of fermentation process. It was also observed that the MRS at pH 5.4 was not sufficiently selective for Lb. delbrueckii enumeration, despite it is indicated by the official protocol from ISO 9232.

  18. When Everything New Is Well-Forgotten Old: Vygotsky/Luria Insights in the Development of Executive Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodrova, Elena; Leong, Deborah J.; Akhutina, Tatiana V.

    2011-01-01

    The concept of "extra-cortical organization of higher mental functions" proposed by Lev Vygotsky and expanded by Alexander Luria extends cultural-historical psychology regarding the interplay of natural and cultural factors in the development of the human mind. Using the example of self-regulation, the authors explore the evolution of this idea…

  19. Validation of the Luria-Nebraska Intellectual Processes Scale as a Measure of Intelligence in Male Alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivlahan, Daniel R.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Investigated the Luria-Nebraska Intellectual Processes Scale (IPS) as a predictor of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) IQs among alcoholic inpatients. Strong correlations were found between IPS and WAIS Verbal IQ and Full Scale IQ; however, the correlation with Performance IQ was only -.41. (NRB)

  20. The Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery and the WAIS-R in Assessment of Adults with Specific Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Lynda; Goldstein, Gerald

    1993-01-01

    Compared intellectual (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale for Adults-Revised) and neuropsychological (Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery) assessment as valid methods of identifying learning disabilities in adults. Findings from 155 subjects revealed that both instruments were able to distinguish adults with and without learning disabilities.…

  1. Forms of Discourse and the Sciences of the Mind: Luria, Sacks, and the Role of Narrative in Neurological Case Histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journet, Debra

    1990-01-01

    Discusses two sets of neurological case histories: A. R. Luria's "The Man with a Shattered World," and Oliver Sack's "Awakenings." Argues that these histories display two paradigmatic explanations for the mind/brain relation, and that the movement from one paradigm to another also necessitates a movement to different forms of…

  2. Factor Structure of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children's Revision with Learning-Disabled Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Jeffrey; Hynd, George W.

    1985-01-01

    Examined the factor structure of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children's Revision in a population of learning-disabled children (N=100). Factor analysis and varimax rotation revealed three factors: a language-general intellectual factor, a reading-written expression factor, and a sensory-motor factor. (Author/MCF)

  3. Neuropsychological Test Performance and the Attention Deficit Disorders: Clinical Utility of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children's Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaughency, Elizabeth A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Administered Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery--Children's Revision (LNNB-CR) to 54 clinic-referred children aged 8-12 years. Compared children reliably diagnosed as attention deficit disorder (ADD) with hyperactivity, without hyperactivity, and control group with internalizing disorders. Findings failed to support hypothesis that ADD is…

  4. Planning Ability across Ranges of Intellectual Ability: An Examination of the Luria-Das Information-Processing Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, R. Steve; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Based on Luria-Das information processing theory, hypothesized that 26 educable mentally retarded children would score significantly less well on relatively pure measures of planning ability than would 13 younger average ability students after students were matched on cognitive processing ability. Hypothesis was not supported by study. (Author/NB)

  5. Diagnostic Accuracy of the Halstead-Reitan and Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Batteries: Performance of Clinical Raters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Robert L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Three experienced neuropsychologists rated brain damaged and control subjects for brain damage using the Halstead-Reitan Battery and the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery. Using either battery, raters were accurate in judging the presence of brain damage. There was a high degree of consistency between raters and test batteries when both…

  6. Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised and Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery for Children: Intercorrelations for Normal Youngsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrocchi, Mary M.; Golden, Charles J.

    1983-01-01

    The relationship between scores on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised (PPVT-R) and Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery for Children was examined utilizing 86 normal children, including 55 females and 31 males from middle-class families. Significant relationships were predicted between the PPVT-R and the receptive scale on the…

  7. Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised and Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery for Children: Intercorrelations for Normal Youngsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrocchi, Mary M.; Golden, Charles J.

    1983-01-01

    The relationship between scores on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised (PPVT-R) and Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery for Children was examined utilizing 86 normal children, including 55 females and 31 males from middle-class families. Significant relationships were predicted between the PPVT-R and the receptive scale on the…

  8. Factor Structure of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children's Revision with Learning-Disabled Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Jeffrey; Hynd, George W.

    1985-01-01

    Examined the factor structure of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children's Revision in a population of learning-disabled children (N=100). Factor analysis and varimax rotation revealed three factors: a language-general intellectual factor, a reading-written expression factor, and a sensory-motor factor. (Author/MCF)

  9. Validation of the Luria-Nebraska Intellectual Processes Scale as a Measure of Intelligence in Male Alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivlahan, Daniel R.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Investigated the Luria-Nebraska Intellectual Processes Scale (IPS) as a predictor of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) IQs among alcoholic inpatients. Strong correlations were found between IPS and WAIS Verbal IQ and Full Scale IQ; however, the correlation with Performance IQ was only -.41. (NRB)

  10. Forms of Discourse and the Sciences of the Mind: Luria, Sacks, and the Role of Narrative in Neurological Case Histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journet, Debra

    1990-01-01

    Discusses two sets of neurological case histories: A. R. Luria's "The Man with a Shattered World," and Oliver Sack's "Awakenings." Argues that these histories display two paradigmatic explanations for the mind/brain relation, and that the movement from one paradigm to another also necessitates a movement to different forms of…

  11. When Everything New Is Well-Forgotten Old: Vygotsky/Luria Insights in the Development of Executive Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodrova, Elena; Leong, Deborah J.; Akhutina, Tatiana V.

    2011-01-01

    The concept of "extra-cortical organization of higher mental functions" proposed by Lev Vygotsky and expanded by Alexander Luria extends cultural-historical psychology regarding the interplay of natural and cultural factors in the development of the human mind. Using the example of self-regulation, the authors explore the evolution of this idea…

  12. Planning Ability across Ranges of Intellectual Ability: An Examination of the Luria-Das Information-Processing Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, R. Steve; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Based on Luria-Das information processing theory, hypothesized that 26 educable mentally retarded children would score significantly less well on relatively pure measures of planning ability than would 13 younger average ability students after students were matched on cognitive processing ability. Hypothesis was not supported by study. (Author/NB)

  13. Neuropsychological Test Performance and the Attention Deficit Disorders: Clinical Utility of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children's Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaughency, Elizabeth A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Administered Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery--Children's Revision (LNNB-CR) to 54 clinic-referred children aged 8-12 years. Compared children reliably diagnosed as attention deficit disorder (ADD) with hyperactivity, without hyperactivity, and control group with internalizing disorders. Findings failed to support hypothesis that ADD is…

  14. Diagnostic Accuracy of the Halstead-Reitan and Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Batteries: Performance of Clinical Raters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Robert L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Three experienced neuropsychologists rated brain damaged and control subjects for brain damage using the Halstead-Reitan Battery and the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery. Using either battery, raters were accurate in judging the presence of brain damage. There was a high degree of consistency between raters and test batteries when both…

  15. The Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery and the WAIS-R in Assessment of Adults with Specific Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Lynda; Goldstein, Gerald

    1993-01-01

    Compared intellectual (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale for Adults-Revised) and neuropsychological (Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery) assessment as valid methods of identifying learning disabilities in adults. Findings from 155 subjects revealed that both instruments were able to distinguish adults with and without learning disabilities.…

  16. A New Diketopiperazine, Cyclo(D-trans-Hyp-L-Leu) from a Kenyan Bacterium Bacillus licheniformis LB 8CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seoung Rak; Beemelmanns, Christine; Tsuma, Leah M M; Clardy, Jon; Cao, Shugeng; Kim, Ki Hyun

    2016-04-01

    Bacterially-produced small molecules demonstrate a wide range of structural and functional diversity. A new diketopiperazine, cyclo(D-trans-Hyp-L-Leu) (1), and five other known diketopiperazines (2-6), were isolated and purified from the fermented broth of a Kenyan bacterium Bacillus licheniformis LB 8CT. The structure of 1 was elucidated by a combination of extensive spectroscopic analyses, including 2D NMR and HR-MS, and the absolute configuration was determined by a combination of NOESY analysis and Marfey's method. The known compounds were identified as cyclo(D-cis-Hyp-L-Leu) (2), cyclo(D-cis-Hyp-L-Phe) (3), cyclo(D-Pro-L-Tyr) (4), cyclo-(D-Trp-L-Leu) (5), and cyclo(L-Tyr-Gly) (6) by comparison of their spectroscopic and physical data with reported values. Compounds 1-6 were tested for antifungal and antimicrobial properties.

  17. Comparing mutation rates under the Luria-Delbrück protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qi

    2016-06-01

    Comparison of microbial mutation rates under the Luria-Delbrück protocol is a routine laboratory task. However, execution of this important task has been hampered by the lack of proper statistical methods. Visual inspection or improper use of the t test and the Mann-Whitney test can impair the quality of genetic research. This paper proposes a unified framework for constructing likelihood ratio tests that overcome three important obstacles to the proper comparison of microbial mutation rates. Specifically, algorithms for likelihood ratio tests have been devised that allow for partial plating, differential growth rates and unequal terminal cell population sizes. The new algorithms were assessed by computer simulations. In addition, a strategy for multiple comparison was illustrated by reanalyzing the experimental data from a study of bacterial resistance against tuberculosis antibiotics.

  18. Evidences of validity and reliability of the Luria-Nebraska Test for Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Franco de Lima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper aimed to verify evidences of validity and reliability of Luria-Nebraska Test for Children (TLN-C, in Portuguese. Three hundred eighty-seven students aged 6–13 years old, with learning difficulties, comprised the study. They were assessed with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III and TLN-C; and effect of age differences, as well as accuracy rating by internal consistency were investigated. Age effects were found for all subtests and in the general score, except for receptive speech subtest, even when total IQ effect was controlled. Reliability analysis had satisfactory results (0.79. The TLN-C showed evidences of validity and reliability. Receptive speech subtest requires revision.

  19. General formulation of Luria-Delbrück distribution of the number of mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houchmandzadeh, Bahram

    2015-07-01

    The Luria-Delbrück experiment is a cornerstone of evolutionary theory, demonstrating the randomness of mutations before selection. The distribution of the number of mutants in this experiment has been the subject of intense investigation during the past 70 years. Despite this considerable effort, most of the results have been obtained under the assumption of constant growth rate, which is far from the experimental condition. We derive here the properties of this distribution for arbitrary growth function for both the deterministic and stochastic growth of the mutants. The derivation we propose uses the number of wild-type bacteria as the independent variable instead of time. The derivation is surprisingly simple and versatile, allowing many generalizations to be taken easily into account.

  20. A new practical guide to the Luria-Delbrück protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qi

    2015-11-01

    Since 2000 several review papers have been published about the analysis of experimental data obtained using the Luria-Delbrück protocol. These timely papers cleared much of the confusion surrounding various methods for estimating or comparing mutation rates. As a result, today the fluctuation test is more widely applied with much improved accuracy. The present paper provides guidelines on a few remaining problems that continue to baffle mutation researchers. Among the issues addressed are incomplete plating, relative fitness, and comparison of experiments where average final cell population sizes differ. It also offers a fresh view on the estimation methods that are based on the sample median. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Single-walled carbon nanotubes: a nanospecific enhancer of cellular growth in LB culture%单壁碳纳米管在LB培养基及生理盐水中的抗菌性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵金明; 赵云; 黄庆; 吕敏; 李江; 杨夏峰

    2012-01-01

    测定了单壁碳纳米管(SWNTs)在生理盐水及LB培养基中对革兰氏阳性菌枯草芽孢杆菌(B.subtilis)的抑菌率,探讨了SWNTs的抑菌机理及培养基对SWNTs抑菌性的影响.用扫描电镜(SEM)、透射电镜(TEM)对有无LB(Luria-Bertani)培养基的SWNTs进行了表征.结果表明:SWNTs的抑菌性受环境影响,在生理盐水及LB培养基中,抑菌性能表现迥异.

  2. Filtration Process of the Spiramycin Fermentation Broth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the effects of acidity and additive pretreatment on the filtering rate and Spiramycin (SPM) concentration in the filter liquor of SPM fermentation broth. The experimental results show that the SPM peak value in filter liquor is obtained at pH 5.5 with either 0.1% methanal or 0.1% BAPE. It is also indicated that there exists a dissolution equilibrium of proteins from the experiment results. The soluble proteins are denatured due to the too high/low acidity and then precipitate. Usually, the amount of soluble proteins reaches its lowest level in pH range of 6.0-6.5. The protein precipitation will, together with other suspended solids particles, contribute to the final SPM concentration in the filter liquor. This paper assumes that the contribution is the result of the adsorption equilibrium of SPM on the surfaces of suspended solids. For a satisfactory explanation, the revised Langmuir adsorption theory was employed and a model was developed.

  3. Discussion on research methods of bacterial resistant mutation mechanisms under selective culture—uncertainty analysis of data from the Luria-Delbrück fluctuation experiment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jin, JianLing; Wei, Gang; Yang, WeiQiang; Zhang, HuaiQiang; Gao, PeiJi

    2012-01-01

    ... in both genetics and medicinal fields. In a pioneering study, Luria and Delbrück exposed E. coli to T1 phage, to investigate whether the number of resistant colonies followed the Poisson distribution...

  4. Drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by the broth microdilution method with 7H9 broth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Yilmaz Coban

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have evaluated the broth microdilution method (BMM for susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A total of 43 clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis and H37Rv as a control strain were studied. All isolates were tested by the proportion method and the BMM for isoniazid (INH, rifampicin (RIF, streptomycin (STR, and ethambutol (ETM. The proportion method was carried out according to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS on Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ medium. The BMM was carried out using 7H9 broth with 96 well-plates. All strains were tested at 3.2-0.05 µg/ml, 16-0.25 µg/ml, 32-0.5 µg/ml, and 32-0.5 µg/ml concentrations for INH, RIF, STR, and ETM, respectively. When the BMM was compared with the proportion method, sensitivity was 100, 100, 96.9, and 90.2%, while specificity was 100, 85.7, 90.9, and 100% for INH, RIF, STR, and ETM, respectively. The plates were examined 7, 10, 14, and 21 days after incubation. The majority of the result were obtained at 14th days after incubation, while the proportion method result were ended in 21-28 days. According to our results, it may be suggested that the BMM is suitable for early determining of multidrug-resistance-M. tuberculosis strains in developed or developing countries.

  5. Differential stress resistance and metabolic traits underlie coexistence in a sympatrically evolved bacterial population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puentes Tellez, Pilar; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Following intermittent batch growth in Luria-Bertani (LB) broth for about 1000 generations, differentially evolved forms were found in a population of Escherichia coli cells. Studies on this population revealed the emergence of key polymorphisms, as evidenced by analysis of both whole genome sequenc

  6. Semiconductor Metal Oxide Sensors in Water and Water Based Biological Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina V. Strobkova

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The results of implementation of In2O3-based semiconductor sensors for oxygen concentration evaluation in water and the LB-nutrient media (15.5 g/l Luria Broth Base, Miller (Sigma, Lot-1900 and NaCl without bacteria and with E.coli bacteria before and after UV-irradiation are presented.

  7. Differential stress resistance and metabolic traits underlie coexistence in a sympatrically evolved bacterial population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puentes Tellez, Pilar; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Following intermittent batch growth in Luria-Bertani (LB) broth for about 1000 generations, differentially evolved forms were found in a population of Escherichia coli cells. Studies on this population revealed the emergence of key polymorphisms, as evidenced by analysis of both whole genome sequenc

  8. Large population solution of the stochastic Luria-Delbruck evolution model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, David A; Levine, Herbert

    2013-07-16

    Luria and Delbrück introduced a very useful and subsequently widely adopted framework for quantitatively understanding the emergence of new cellular lineages. Here, we provide an analytical treatment of the fully stochastic version of the model, enabled by the fact that population sizes at the time of measurement are invariably very large and mutation rates are low. We show that the Lea-Coulson generating function describes the "inner solution," where the number of mutants is much smaller than the total population. We find that the corresponding distribution function interpolates between a monotonic decrease at relatively small populations, (compared with the inverse of the mutation probability), whereas it goes over to a Lévy α-stable distribution in the very large population limit. The moments are completely determined by the outer solution, and so are devoid of practical significance. The key to our solution is focusing on the fixed population size ensemble, which we show is very different from the fixed time ensemble due to the extreme variability in the evolutionary process.

  9. Pick Your Poisson: An Educational Primer for Luria and Delbrück's Classic Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneely, Philip M

    2016-02-01

    The origin of beneficial mutations is fundamentally important in understanding the processes by which natural selection works. Using phage-resistant mutants in Escherichia coli as their model for identifying the origin of beneficial mutations, Luria and Delbrück distinguished between two different hypotheses. Under the first hypothesis, which they termed "acquired immunity," the phages induced bacteria to mutate to immunity; this predicts that none of the resistant mutants were present before infection by the phages. Under the second hypothesis, termed "mutation to immunity," resistant bacteria arose from random mutations independent of the presence of the phages; this predicts that resistant bacteria were present in the population before infection by the phages. These two hypotheses could be distinguished by calculating the frequencies at which resistant mutants arose in separate cultures infected at the same time and comparing these frequencies to the theoretical results under each model. The data clearly show that mutations arise at a frequency that is independent of the presence of the phages. By inference, natural selection reveals the genetic variation that is present in a population rather than inducing or causing this variation. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  10. Cognitive structure of writing disorders in Russian: what would Luria say?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozintseva, Elena; Skvortsov, Anatoly; Ulicheva, Anastasia; Vlasova Zaykova, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Acquired disorders of writing in the Russian language have been reported for more than a century. The study of these disorders reflects the history of Russian neuropsychology and is dominated by the syndrome approach most notably by the writings of Luria. Indeed, our understanding of acquired dysgraphia in Russian speakers is conceptualized according to the classical approach in Modern Russia. In this review, we describe the classical approach and compare it to the cognitive neuropsychological models of writing disorders that are developed to explain dysgraphia in English and in other Western European languages. We argue that the basic theoretical assumptions of the two approaches - cognitive and classical or syndrome approach - share similarities. It is therefore proposed that identification of acquired cases of dysgraphia in Russian could potentially benefit from taking the cognitive neuropsychological perspective. We also conclude that adopting elements of the syndrome approach would substantially enrich the understanding of acquired dysgraphia since these offer an insight into processes not described in the cognitive neuropsychological approach.

  11. Acidichromism in the LB film of bolaform Schiff base

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei Fang Yin; Ti Feng Jiao; Ming Hua Liu

    2007-01-01

    A bolaform (BNC10) and single-headed (HNOA) amphiphilic Schiff bases containing naphthyl group were designed and their Langmuir-Blodgett films were investigated. It was found that both the LB films show acidichromism, i.e. a reversible color change upon alternatively exposing the films to HCl and NH3 gases, respectively. It was further found that the bolaform Schiff bases film could trap NH3 gas during the acidichromic process.

  12. Comparison of carrot broth- and selective Todd-Hewitt broth-enhanced PCR protocols for real-time detection of Streptococcus agalactiae in prenatal vaginal/anorectal specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Timothy; Munson, Erik; Culver, Anne; Vaughan, Katharine; Hryciuk, Jeanne E

    2008-11-01

    The reporting of accurate Streptococcus agalactiae screening results in a short time frame is of tremendous clinical benefit. A total of 203 consecutive primary vaginal/anorectal specimens were cultured in selective Todd-Hewitt broth (LIM broth) and with the StrepB carrot broth kit (carrot broth). One-day broth cultures were subjected to both centrifugation and clarification of a 500-mul aliquot prior to sample lysis (protocol A) and direct lysis of a 50-mul aliquot (protocol B). The lysates were subsequently analyzed by the BD GeneOhm StrepB assay. The results were compared to the carrot broth culture results derived from visualization of pigment on day 1 or from a subculture of carrot broth. Thirty-four carrot broth cultures (16.7%) generated diagnostic pigment following overnight incubation; an additional 26 (12.8%) were positive for S. agalactiae upon subculture. Carrot broth-enhanced PCR by the use of either protocol A or protocol B trended toward a higher rate of positive results (33.0%) than the rate observed by either the LIM broth-enhanced PCR (30.5%) or full carrot broth culture analysis (29.6%). In the context of the result on day 1, both carrot broth- and LIM broth-enhanced PCRs generated more true-positive results (P protocols of carrot broth- or LIM broth-enhanced PCR were >/=95.4%. Whereas protocol A resolved the results for 99.8% of the specimens in the evaluation upon initial testing, a 5.7% initial unresolved rate and a 1.5% final unresolved rate were determined by the use of protocol B. The use of carrot broth within a rapid and highly accurate molecular reflex testing algorithm can limit follow-up testing to cultures without evidence of pigmentation.

  13. Neuraminidase Inhibitors from the Fermentation Broth of Phellinus linteus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Byung Soon; Lee, Myeong-Seok; Lee, Seung Woong; Lee, In-Kyoung; Seo, Geon-Sik; Choi, Hwa Jung; Yun, Bong-Sik

    2014-06-01

    During a search for neuraminidase inhibitors derived from medicinal fungi, we found that the fermentation broth of Phellinus linteus exhibited potent neuraminidase inhibitory activity. Through bioassay-guided fractionation, two active compounds were purified from the ethyl acetate-soluble portion of the fermentation broth of P. linteus. These structures were identified as inotilone (1) and 4-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3-buten-2-one (2) by spectroscopic methods. Compounds 1 and 2 inhibited H1N1 neuraminidase activity with IC50 values of 29.1 and 125.6 µM, respectively, in a dose-dependent manner. They also exhibited an antiviral effect in a viral cytopathic effect reduction assay using MDCK cells. These results suggest that compounds 1 and 2 from the culture broth of P. linteus would be good candidates for the prevention and therapeutic strategies towards viral infections.

  14. Neuraminidase Inhibitors from the Culture Broth of Phellinus linteus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Ji-Hee; Lee, In-Kyoung; Ki, Dae-Won; Lee, Myeong-Seok; Seok, Soon-Ja; Yun, Bong-Sik

    2012-06-01

    During the search for neuraminidase inhibitors from medicinal fungi, we found that the culture broth of Phellinus linteus exhibited potent inhibitory activity. Solvent partition, Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were performed for purification of two active substances from the culture broth. According to (1)H NMR measurements and comparison of HPLC retention times with those of authentic compounds, their chemical structures were identified as hispidin and hypholomine B. Compounds (hispidin) 1 and 2 (hypholomine B) inhibited neuraminidase, with IC(50) values of 13.1 and 0.03 µM, respectively.

  15. When everything new is well-forgotten old: Vygotsky/Luria insights in the development of executive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodrova, Elena; Leong, Deborah J; Akhutina, Tatiana V

    2011-01-01

    The concept of "extra-cortical organization of higher mental functions" proposed by Lev Vygotsky and expanded by Alexander Luria extends cultural-historical psychology regarding the interplay of natural and cultural factors in the development of the human mind. Using the example of self-regulation, the authors explore the evolution of this idea from its origins to recent findings on the neuropsychological trajectories of the development of executive functions. Empirical data derived from the Tools of the Mind project are used to discuss the idea of using classroom intervention to study the development of self-regulation in early childhood. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  16. Recovery of butanol from fermentation broth by pervaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butanol can be produced by fermentation from corn, molasses or lignocellulosic biomass for use as a chemical or superior biofuel. However, butanol’s production is hampered by its toxicity to the microbial culture that produces it. In fermentation broths, final butanol concentrations typically range ...

  17. Broth dilution testing of Candida albicans susceptibility to ketoconazole.

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, C E; Bennett, R L; Beggs, W H

    1987-01-01

    We performed a detailed investigation of the kinetics of ketoconazole activity in the setting of broth dilution testing of Candida albicans susceptibility. Turbidimetric readings reflected parallel quantitative colony counts. The method of endpoint determination markedly affected the results. Determinations of 50% inhibitory concentrations clearly separated the ketoconazole-resistant strains from the susceptible strains.

  18. Batería!Neuropsicológica!Luria!Inicial!y!procesos!atencionales!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaser Ramírez Benitez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El TDAH es una de las alteraciones del neurodesarrollo caracterizada por presentar síntomas nucleares: inatención, hiperactividad e impulsividad y por sus comorbilidades. Por ello, se necesitan instrumentos neuropsicológicos que identifiquen todos los sistemas cognitivos en desarrollo. La batería Luria Inicial (BLI se creó con el objetivo de identificar y seguir los niños con alteraciones neuropsicológicas. Material-Método: La BLI tiene la debilidad de identificar directamente los problemas atencionales. Se utilizó como complementario las pruebas de atención sostenida visual/auditiva para evaluar la atención orientación y la tarea de interferencia perceptual para la atención ejecución. La muestra fue de 29 niños de 6 años de edad que habían sido identificados desde el primer año de vida con signos de hiperactividad. La correlación fue realizada por una prueba de regresión lineal en busca de debilidades y fortalezas discriminativas. Resultados: La correlación demostró ser más fuerte en los subtest de las funciones ejecutivas de la BLI. Los niños mostraron debilidad en la motricidad manual, orientación espacial, discriminación fonemática y en semejanzas-diferencias. De la muestra,15 presentaron problemas en la atención orientación auditiva y 9 en la visual. 20 niños presentaron dificultades en la atención ejecutiva. La tarea de interferencia perceptual resultó ser una importante herramienta para evaluar la capacidad de inhibición. Conclusiones: Las pruebas de atención orientación y ejecutivas utilizadas son consistentes para evaluar la atención como complemento a la BLI. Los primeros signos de hiperactividad predicen problemas en la atención ejecutiva en el desarrollo.

  19. FFT-LB Modeling of Thermal Liquid-Vapor System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘延标; 许爱国; 张广财; 李英骏

    2012-01-01

    We present an improved lattice Boltzmann(LB) model for thermal liquid-vapor system.In the new model,the Windowed Fast Fourier Transform(WFFT) and its inverse are used to calculate both the convection term and the external force term of the LB equation.By adopting the WFFT scheme,Gibbs oscillations can be damped effectively in unsmooth regions while high resolution feature of the spectral method can be retained in smooth regions.As a result,spatial discretization errors are dramatically decreased,conservation of the total energy is much better preserved,and the spurious velocities near the liquid-vapor interface are significantly reduced.The high resolution,together with the low complexity of the WFFT approach,endows the proposed method with considerable potential for studying a wide class of problems in the field of multiphase flows.

  20. CaLB Catalyzed Conversion of ε-Caprolactone in Aqueous Medium. Part 1: Immobilization of CaLB to Microgels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Engel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The enzymatic ring-opening polymerization of lactones is a method of increasing interest for the synthesis of biodegradable and biocompatible polymers. In the past it was shown that immobilization of Candida antarctica lipase B (CaLB and the reaction medium play an important role in the polymerization ability especially of medium ring size lactones like ε-caprolactone (ε-CL. We investigated a route for the preparation of compartmentalized microgels based on poly(glycidol in which CaLB was immobilized to increase its esterification ability. To find the ideal environment for CaLB, we investigated the acceptable water concentration and the accessibility for the monomer in model polymerizations in toluene and analyzed the obtained oligomers/polymers by NMR and SEC. We observed a sufficient accessibility for ε-CL to a toluene like hydrophobic phase imitating a hydrophobic microgel. Comparing free CaLB and Novozym® 435 we found that not the monomer concentration but rather the solubility of the enzyme, as well as the water concentration, strongly influences the equilibrium of esterification and hydrolysis. On the basis of these investigations, microgels of different polarity were prepared and successfully loaded with CaLB by physical entrapment. By comparison of immobilized and free CaLB, we demonstrated an effect of the hydrophobicity of the microenvironment of CaLB on its enzymatic activity.

  1. Separation of gamma-aminobutyric acid from fermented broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haixing; Qiu, Ting; Chen, Yan; Cao, Yusheng

    2011-12-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a non-proteinaceous amino acid that is widely distributed in nature and acts as the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain. This study aimed to find a separation method for getting high-purity GABA from a fermented broth. Firstly, a fermented broth with a high content of GABA (reaching 997 ± 51 mM) was prepared by fermentation with Lactobacillus brevis NCL912. GABA purification was conducted by successive centrifugation, filtration, decoloration, desalination, ion-exchange chromatography (IEC), and crystallization. Inorganic salt (Na₂SO₄) was removed from the both by desalination with 70% ethanol solution. A ninhydrin test strip was designed for the real-time detection of GABA during IEC. The recovery rate for the whole purification process was about 50%. The purified product was characterized by thin-layer chromatography and HPLC, and its purity reached 98.66 ± 2.36%.

  2. WAIS-R Factors and Performance on the Luria-Nebraska's Intelligence, Memory, and Motor Scales: A Canonical Model of Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Patrick C.; Macciocchi, Stephen N.

    1986-01-01

    Pattern and level of performance on the WAIS-R (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Revised) and the Luria-Nebraska's Intelligence, Memory, and Motor Scales were examined for 93 neurologically impaired adults. Each set of procedures evidently is indexing the same theoretical constructs. (Author/ABB)

  3. The Diagnostic Accuracy of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children's Revision for 9- to 12-Year-Old Learning Disabled Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerry, David C.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Two groups (learning disabled and normal) of 15 children were administered the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children's Revision and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised. Considering abnormal or borderline profiles as indicative of learning disability was 93.3 percent accurate in discriminating between groups.…

  4. Assessing the Incremental Value of KABC-II Luria Model Scores in Predicting Achievement: What Do They Tell Us beyond the MPI?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Ryan J.; Spurgin, Angelia R.

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined the incremental validity of the Luria interpretive scheme for the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition (KABC-II) for predicting scores on the Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement-Second Edition (KTEA-II). All participants were children and adolescents (N = 2,025) drawn from the nationally…

  5. The Relationship between the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children's Revision and The Minnesota Percepto-Diagnostic Test With Learning Disabled Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Jeffrey H.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Administered the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children's Revision (LNNB-Children's Revision) and The Minnesota Percepto-Diagnostic Test (MPD) to 40 learning disabled students. Low correlations were found between MPD T scores and the LNNB-Children's Revision Scales, but raw scores from the MPD had somewhat higher correlations with the…

  6. Luria's Model of the Verbal Control of Behavior. Study F: Motivational and Control in the Development of Language Functions, D. Birch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiswenger, Hugo

    A. R. Luria, in his conception of the verbal control of behavior, regards four fundamental and distinctive functional attributes of the human speech system as making up a signaling system that humans alone possess: (1) the nominative role of language, (2) the generalizing or semantic role, (3) the communicative role, and (4) the role of…

  7. The Relationship between the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children's Revision and The Minnesota Percepto-Diagnostic Test With Learning Disabled Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Jeffrey H.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Administered the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children's Revision (LNNB-Children's Revision) and The Minnesota Percepto-Diagnostic Test (MPD) to 40 learning disabled students. Low correlations were found between MPD T scores and the LNNB-Children's Revision Scales, but raw scores from the MPD had somewhat higher correlations with the…

  8. The Diagnostic Accuracy of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children's Revision for 9- to 12-Year-Old Learning Disabled Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerry, David C.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Two groups (learning disabled and normal) of 15 children were administered the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children's Revision and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised. Considering abnormal or borderline profiles as indicative of learning disability was 93.3 percent accurate in discriminating between groups.…

  9. WAIS-R Factors and Performance on the Luria-Nebraska's Intelligence, Memory, and Motor Scales: A Canonical Model of Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Patrick C.; Macciocchi, Stephen N.

    1986-01-01

    Pattern and level of performance on the WAIS-R (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Revised) and the Luria-Nebraska's Intelligence, Memory, and Motor Scales were examined for 93 neurologically impaired adults. Each set of procedures evidently is indexing the same theoretical constructs. (Author/ABB)

  10. Assessing the Incremental Value of KABC-II Luria Model Scores in Predicting Achievement: What Do They Tell Us beyond the MPI?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Ryan J.; Spurgin, Angelia R.

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined the incremental validity of the Luria interpretive scheme for the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition (KABC-II) for predicting scores on the Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement-Second Edition (KTEA-II). All participants were children and adolescents (N = 2,025) drawn from the nationally…

  11. Campylobacter growth rates in four different matrices: broiler caecal material, live birds, Bolton broth, and brain heart infusion broth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Battersby

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study was to characterise Campylobacter growth in enrichment broths (Bolton broth, brain heart infusion broth, caecal material (in vitro, and in the naturally infected live broilers (in vivo in terms of mean lag periods and generation times as well as maximum growth rates and population (cell concentration achieved. Methods: Bolton and brain heart infusion broths and recovered caecal material were inoculated with 10 poultry strains of Campylobacter (eight Campylobacter jejuni and two Campylobacter coli, incubated under microaerobic conditions, and Campylobacter concentrations determined periodically using the ISO 10272:2006 method. Caeca from 10 flocks, infected at first thinning, were used to characterise Campylobacter growth in the live birds. Mean generation times (G (early lag to exponential phase were calculated using the formula: G=t/3.3 logb/B. Mean lag times and µmax were calculated using the Micro Fit© Software (Version 1.0, Institute of Food Research. Statistical comparison was performed using GENSTAT ver. 14.1 (VSN International Ltd., Hemel, Hempstead, UK. Results: The mean lag periods in Bolton broth, brain heart infusion broth, caecal material, and in the live bird were estimated to be 6.6, 6.7, 12.6, and 31.3 h, respectively. The corresponding mean generation times were 2.1, 2.2, 3.1, and 6.7 h, respectively; maximum growth rates were 0.7, 0.8, 0.4, and 2 generations h−1 and the maximum populations obtained in each matrix were 9.6, 9.9, 7.8, and 7.4 log10 CFU/g, respectively. Conclusion: This study provides data on the growth of Campylobacter in a range of laboratory media, caecal contents, and in broilers which may be used to develop predictive models and/or inform science-based control strategies such as the maximum time between flock testing and slaughter, logistical slaughter, and single-stage depopulation of broiler units.

  12. Standartization of broth microdilution method for Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Clarice Queico Fujimura Leite; Ana Laura Remédio Zeni Beretta; Ivone Shizuko Anno; Maria Alice da Silva Telles

    2000-01-01

    Indirect drug susceptibility tests of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was done to investigate the accuracy and feasibility of a broth microdilution method (BMM) for determining minimal inhibitory concentrations of conventional drugs against M. tuberculosis. Test drugs included isoniazid (H), rifampicin (R), ethambutol (E), streptomycin (S) and pyrazinamide (Z). Fifty isolates of M. tuberculosis from patients who had never received drug therapy, and H37Rv strain for control, were evaluated in the s...

  13. Data of evolutionary structure change: 2Q1LB-3CCTA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available A 3CCTA LETLIETHERGV ...2Q1LB-3CCTA 2Q1L 3CCT B A ------------------AKFLSDAEIIQLVNAKHIPAY...MTRGPVVRLPRACDSAEVKAWLETSEGFAVIKEAFDSTSRFARLQKLHTSIAGRNLYIRFQSRSGDAMGMNMISKGTEKALSKLHEYFPEMQILAVSGNYCTDKKPAA...INWIEGRGKSVVCEAVIPAKVVREVLKTTTEAMIEVNINKNLVGSAMAGSIGGYNAHAANIVTAIYIACGQDAAQNVGSSNCITLMEASGPTNEDLYISCT...AGRNLYIRFQSRSGDAMGMNMISKGTEKALSKLHEYFPEMQILAVSGNYCTDKKPAAINWIEGRGKSVVCEAVIPAKVVREVLKTTTEAMIEVNINKNLVGSAMAGSI

  14. Genetic Analysis and Fine Mapping of a Novel Semidominant Dwarfing Gene LB4D in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Liang; Xiaoyun Xin; Zejun Hu; Jiandi Xu; Gang Wei; Xiaoyin Qian; Jinshui Yang; Haohua He; Xiaojin Luo

    2011-01-01

    tA dwarf mutant, designated LB4D, was obtained among the progeny of backcrosses to a wild rice introgression line. Genetic analysis of LB4D indicated that the dwarf phenotype was controlled by a single semidominant dwarfing gene, which was named LB4D. The mutants were categorized as dn-type dwarf mutants according to the pattern of internode reduction. In addition, gibberellin (GA) response tests showed that LB4D plants were neither deficient nor insensitive to GA. This study found that tiller formation by LB4D plants was decreased by 40% compared with the wild type, in contrast to other dominant dwarf mutants that have been identified, indicating that a different dwarfing mechanism might be involved in the LB4D dominant mutant. The reduction of plant height in F1 plants ranged from 27.9% to 38.1% in different genetic backgrounds, showing that LB4D exerted a stronger dominant dwarfing effect.Using large F2 and F3 populations derived from a cross between heterozygous LB4D and the japonica cultivar Nipponbare, the LB4D gene was localized to a 46 kb region between the markers Indel 4 and Indel G on the short arm of chromosome 11, and four predicted genes were identified as candidates in the target region.

  15. Removing Bacillus subtilis from fermentation broth using alumina nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Dashuai; Mu, Xin; Xu, Zhenxing; Du, Zongjun; Chen, Guanjun

    2015-12-01

    In this study, an efficient separation technology using Al2O3 nanoparticles (NPs) was developed for removing Bacillus subtilis from fermentation broth. The dosage of alumina nanoparticles used for separating B. subtilis increased during the culture process and remained stable in the stationary phase of the culture process. The pH of the culture-broth was also investigated for its effects on flocculation efficiency, and showed an acidic pH could enhance the flocculation efficiency. The attachment mechanisms of Al2O3 NPs to the B. subtilis surface were investigated, and the zeta potential analysis showed that Al2O3 NPs could attach to B. subtilis via electrostatic attachment. Finally, the metabolite content and the antibacterial effect of the fermentation supernatants were detected and did not significantly differ between alumina nanoparticle separation and centrifugation separation. Together, these results indicate a great potential for a highly efficient and economical method for removing B. subtilis from fermentation broth using alumina nanoparticles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Scaling Solution in the Large Population Limit of the General Asymmetric Stochastic Luria-Delbrück Evolution Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, David A.; Levine, Herbert

    2015-02-01

    One of the most popular models for quantitatively understanding the emergence of drug resistance both in bacterial colonies and in malignant tumors was introduced long ago by Luria and Delbrück. Here, individual resistant mutants emerge randomly during the birth events of an exponentially growing sensitive population. A most interesting limit of this process occurs when the population size is large and mutation rates are low, but not necessarily small compared to . Here we provide a scaling solution valid in this limit, making contact with the theory of Levy -stable distributions, in particular one discussed long ago by Landau. One consequence of this association is that moments of the distribution are highly misleading as far as characterizing typical behavior. A key insight that enables our solution is that working in the fixed population size ensemble is not the same as working in a fixed time ensemble. Some of our results have been presented previously in abbreviated form [12].

  17. Sequential motor task (Luria's Fist-Edge-Palm Test in children with benign focal epilepsy of childhood with centrotemporal spikes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Silvia Molleis Galego Miziara

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the sequential motor manual actions in children with benign focal epilepsy of childhood with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS and compares the results with matched control group, through the application of Luria's fist-edge-palm test. The children with BECTS underwent interictal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT and School Performance Test (SPT. Significant difference occurred between the study and control groups for manual motor action through three equal and three different movements. Children with lower school performance had higher error rate in the imitation of hand gestures. Another factor significantly associated with the failure was the abnormality in SPECT. Children with BECTS showed abnormalities in the test that evaluated manual motor programming/planning. This study may suggest that the functional changes related to epileptiform activity in rolandic region interfere with the executive function in children with BECTS.

  18. A Metallurgical Characterization and Assessment of SMA, GMA, EB, and LB Welds of HY-130 Steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-09-30

    and GMA welds consisted of a large percentage of acicular ferrite with smaller amounts of bainite and martensite; EB and LB welds comprised mostly...martensite and a small percentage of bainite . Strain hardening exponent values for SMA, GMA, and LB welds were appreciably higher than the values

  19. Interaction between nitric oxide and lipid-like DDPA LB film investigated with SHG and AFM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU, An- Chi; LIU, Ting-Ting; LUO, Guo-Bin; YING, Li-Ming; ZHAO, Xin-Sheng; HUANG, Yan-Yi; HUANG, Chun-Hui

    2000-01-01

    Interactions between Nitric oxide (NO) and DDPA LangmuirBlodgett (LB) film are investigated with second harmonic generation (SHG) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). It has been found that the adsorption of NO molecules on DDPA LB film only changes the value of the second-order susceptibility of the DDPA molecule on film but not its orientation.

  20. Tuning the nanostructure of DODAB/nickel tetrasulfonated phthalocyanine bilayers in LbL films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furini, L.N. [Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, UNESP Univ Estadual Paulista, Presidente Prudente, SP (Brazil); Feitosa, E. [Departamento de Física, Instituto de Biociências, Letras e Ciências Exatas,UNESP Univ Estadual Paulista, São José do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil); Alessio, P.; Shimabukuro, M.H. [Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, UNESP Univ Estadual Paulista, Presidente Prudente, SP (Brazil); Riul, A. [Universidade Federal de São Carlos, campus Sorocaba, Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Constantino, C.J.L., E-mail: case@fct.unesp.br [Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, UNESP Univ Estadual Paulista, Presidente Prudente, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Nanostructured films of dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide (DODAB) and nickel tetrasulfonated phthalocyanine (NiTsPc) were layer-by-layer (LbL) assembled to achieve a synergistic effect considering the distinct properties of both materials. Prior to LbL growth, the effect of NiTsPc on the structure of DODAB vesicles in aqueous medium was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Therefore, DODAB/NiTsPc LbL films were prepared using NiTsPc at concentrations below and above the limit concentration of vesicle formation according to our DSC experiments. As a result, LbL films with distinct nanostructures were obtained, which were studied at micro and nanoscales by micro-Raman and atomic force microscopy, respectively. A linear growth of the LbL films was observed by ultraviolet–visible absorption spectroscopy. However, the bilayer thickness and the surface morphology of the LbL films were radically affected depending on NiTsPc concentration. The electrostatic interaction between DODAB and NiTsPc was identified via Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectroscopy as the main driving force responsible for LbL growth. Because LbL films have been widely applied as transducers in sensing devices, DODAB/NiTsPc LbL films having distinct nanostructures were tested as proof-of-principle in preliminary sensing experiments toward dopamine detection using impedance spectroscopy (e-tongue system). The real capacitance vs. dopamine concentration curves were treated using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and an equivalent electric circuit, revealing the role played by the LbL film nanostructure and the possibility of building calibration curves. - Highlights: • Changes in thermogram profile reflect the way NiTsPc affects DODAB vesicle structure. • The growth of LbL film is driven by electrostatic interactions between DODAB and NiTsPc. • The nanostructure of the LbL films is determined by NiTsPc concentration. • Lower NiTsPc concentrations lead to

  1. Tuning the nanostructure of DODAB/nickel tetrasulfonated phthalocyanine bilayers in LbL films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furini, L N; Feitosa, E; Alessio, P; Shimabukuro, M H; Riul, A; Constantino, C J L

    2013-07-01

    Nanostructured films of dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide (DODAB) and nickel tetrasulfonated phthalocyanine (NiTsPc) were layer-by-layer (LbL) assembled to achieve a synergistic effect considering the distinct properties of both materials. Prior to LbL growth, the effect of NiTsPc on the structure of DODAB vesicles in aqueous medium was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Therefore, DODAB/NiTsPc LbL films were prepared using NiTsPc at concentrations below and above the limit concentration of vesicle formation according to our DSC experiments. As a result, LbL films with distinct nanostructures were obtained, which were studied at micro and nanoscales by micro-Raman and atomic force microscopy, respectively. A linear growth of the LbL films was observed by ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy. However, the bilayer thickness and the surface morphology of the LbL films were radically affected depending on NiTsPc concentration. The electrostatic interaction between DODAB and NiTsPc was identified via Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectroscopy as the main driving force responsible for LbL growth. Because LbL films have been widely applied as transducers in sensing devices, DODAB/NiTsPc LbL films having distinct nanostructures were tested as proof-of-principle in preliminary sensing experiments toward dopamine detection using impedance spectroscopy (e-tongue system). The real capacitance vs. dopamine concentration curves were treated using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and an equivalent electric circuit, revealing the role played by the LbL film nanostructure and the possibility of building calibration curves.

  2. Evaluation of TA10 broth for recovery of heat- and freeze-injured Salmonella from beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamisaki-Horikoshi, Naoko; Okada, Yukio; Takeshita, Kazuko; Sameshima, Takashi; Kawasaki, Susumu; Kawamoto, Shinichi; Fratamico, Pina M

    2011-01-01

    The Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) Salmonella pre-enrichment broth [lactose (LAC) broth], buffered peptone water, and universal pre-enrichment (UP) broth were compared with TA10 broth, developed in our laboratory, for recovery of heat- and freeze-injured Salmonella (55 degrees C for 2-20 min and -20 degrees C for 2 months, respectively) from beef. Beef samples were contaminated with single Salmonella serovars, and contamination levels of 0.44 to <0.001 most probable number (MPN)/g and 0.74 to 0.14 MPN/g were used for heat- and freezing-induced injury studies, respectively. Twenty test portions (25 g) of the contaminated beef were pre-enriched in each broth, and the BAM Salmonella culture method was used thereafter. There was a significant difference (chi2 = 7.73) in recovery of heat-injured Salmonella between TA10 broth and LAC broth, 189 (67.5%) versus 156 (55.7%) positive samples, respectively, determined by plating onto selective agars and identification by biochemical tests. For the recovery of freeze-injured Salmonella, there was a significant difference (chi2 = 24.7) between TA10 and LAC broth, 189 (72.7%) versus 133 (51.2%) positive samples, respectively. TA10 broth was more effective than LAC broth and UP broth for recovery of freeze-injured Salmonella. The results indicate that TA10 broth should be used instead of LAC broth for testing of beef that may be contaminated with heat- and freeze-injured Salmonella spp.

  3. Luria-Psychological Thought in Empirical Study%鲁利亚--实证研究中的心理学思想

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘盛力

    2014-01-01

    鲁利亚的心理学思想主要是针对维果斯基社会历史学派的观点进行深入论证。他运用大量的实证研究论述人的认识过程特点和心理结构的形成很大程度上都是由所生活的外部(社会、历史)条件以及存在的社会方式决定的。本文通过梳理鲁利亚关于心理学的部分实证研究,进而阐述鲁利亚的心理学思想以及对心理科学所做出的贡献。%The psychological thought of Luria is mainly aimed at Lev Vygotsky opinions of Social-Cultural historical school for further argument. He used a lot of empirical research on human cognitive process characteristics and the formation of psy-chological structure. He put forward the views that it largely determined by the external living social condition, historical con-ditions and social way of existence. This paper expounds psychological thought of Luria and contribution to the psychological science, according to the materials and articles published abroad of Luria.

  4. A Critical Evaluation of the Down Syndrome Diagnosis for LB1, Type Specimen of Homo floresiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baab, Karen L; Brown, Peter; Falk, Dean; Richtsmeier, Joan T; Hildebolt, Charles F; Smith, Kirk; Jungers, William

    2016-01-01

    The Liang Bua hominins from Flores, Indonesia, have been the subject of intense scrutiny and debate since their initial description and classification in 2004. These remains have been assigned to a new species, Homo floresiensis, with the partial skeleton LB1 as the type specimen. The Liang Bua hominins are notable for their short stature, small endocranial volume, and many features that appear phylogenetically primitive relative to modern humans, despite their late Pleistocene age. Recently, some workers suggested that the remains represent members of a small-bodied island population of modern Austro-Melanesian humans, with LB1 exhibiting clinical signs of Down syndrome. Many classic Down syndrome signs are soft tissue features that could not be assessed in skeletal remains. Moreover, a definitive diagnosis of Down syndrome can only be made by genetic analysis as the phenotypes associated with Down syndrome are variable. Most features that contribute to the Down syndrome phenotype are not restricted to Down syndrome but are seen in other chromosomal disorders and in the general population. Nevertheless, we re-evaluated the presence of those phenotypic features used to support this classification by comparing LB1 to samples of modern humans diagnosed with Down syndrome and euploid modern humans using comparative morphometric analyses. We present new data regarding neurocranial, brain, and symphyseal shape in Down syndrome, additional estimates of stature for LB1, and analyses of inter- and intralimb proportions. The presence of cranial sinuses is addressed using CT images of LB1. We found minimal congruence between the LB1 phenotype and clinical descriptions of Down syndrome. We present important differences between the phenotypes of LB1 and individuals with Down syndrome, and quantitative data that characterize LB1 as an outlier compared with Down syndrome and non-Down syndrome groups. Homo floresiensis remains a phenotypically unique, valid species with its roots

  5. Discussion on research methods of bacterial resistant mutation mechanisms under selective culture--uncertainty analysis of data from the Luria-Delbrück fluctuation experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jianling; Wei, Gang; Yang, Weiqiang; Zhang, Huaiqiang; Gao, Peiji

    2012-11-01

    Whether bacterial drug-resistance is drug-induced or results from rapid propagation of random spontaneous mutations in the flora prior to exposure, remains a long-term key issue concerned and debated in both genetics and medicinal fields. In a pioneering study, Luria and Delbrück exposed E. coli to T1 phage, to investigate whether the number of resistant colonies followed the Poisson distribution. They deduced that the development of resistant colonies is independent of phage presence. Similar results have since been obtained on solid medium containing antibacterial agents. Luria and Delbrück's conclusions were long considered a gold standard for analyzing drug resistance mutations. More recently, the concept of adaptive mutation has triggered controversy over this approach. Microbiological observation shows that, following exposure to drugs of various concentrations, drug-resistant cells emerge and multiply depending on the time course, and show a process function, inconsistent with the definition of Poisson distribution (which assumes not only that resistance is independent of drug quantity but follows no specific time course). At the same time, since cells tend to aggregate after division rather than separating, colonies growing on drug plates arise from the multiplication of resistant bacteria cells of various initial population sizes. Thus, statistical analysis based on equivalence of initial populations will yield erroneous results. In this paper, 310 data from the Luria-Delbrück fluctuation experiment were reanalyzed from this perspective. In most cases, a high-end abnormal value, resulting from the non-synchronous variation of the two above-mentioned time variables, was observed. Therefore, the mean value cannot be regarded as an unbiased expectation estimate. The ratio between mean value and variance was similarly incomparable, because two different sampling methods were used. In fact, the Luria-Delbrück data appear to follow an aggregated, rather than

  6. The VIMOS VLT Deep Survey: the contribution of minor mergers to the growth of L_B >= L*_B galaxies since z ~ 1 from spectroscopically identified pairs

    CERN Document Server

    López-Sanjuan, C; de Ravel, L; Cucciati, O; Ilbert, O; Tresse, L; Bardelli, S; Bolzonella, M; Contini, T; Garilli, B; Guzzo, L; Maccagni, D; McCraken, H J; Mellier, Y; Pollo, A; Vergani, D; Zucca, E

    2010-01-01

    In this work we measure the merger fraction, f_m, of L_B >= L*_B galaxies in the VVDS-Deep spectroscopic Survey. We define kinematical close pairs as those galaxies with a separation in the sky plane 5h^-1 kpc = 1/4 and 1/10 = mu) proportional to mu^s. The value of s evolves from s = -0.64 +- 0.13 at z = 0.8 to s = -1.11 +- 0.19 at z = 0.5. The fraction of minor mergers for bright galaxies decreases with redshift as a power-law (1+z)^m with index m = -0.4 +- 0.6 for the merger fraction and m = -0.8 +- 0.9 for the merger rate. We split our principal galaxies in red and blue by their rest-frame NUV-r colour, finding that i) f_m is higher for red galaxies, ii) f_m^red does not evolve with z, and iii) f_m^blue evolves dramatically. Our results show that the mass of normal L_B >= L*_B galaxies has grown ~25% since z ~ 1 because of minor and major mergers. The relative contribution of the mass growth by merging is ~25% due to minor mergers and ~75% due to major ones. The relative effect of merging is more important...

  7. CaLB Catalyzed Conversion of ε-Caprolactone in Aqueous Medium. Part 1: Immobilization of CaLB to Microgels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Engel, Stefan; Höck, Heidi; Bocola, Marco; Keul, Helmut; Schwaneberg, Ulrich; Möller, Martin

    2016-01-01

    .... In the past it was shown that immobilization of Candida antarctica lipase B (CaLB) and the reaction medium play an important role in the polymerization ability especially of medium ring size lactones like ε-caprolactone (ε-CL...

  8. The type specimen (LB1) of Homo floresiensis did not have Laron syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Dean; Hildebolt, Charles; Smith, Kirk; Jungers, William; Larson, Susan; Morwood, Michael; Sutikna, Thomas; Jatmiko; Saptomo, E Wahyu; Prior, Fred

    2009-09-01

    The type specimen (LB1) of Homo floresiensis has been hypothesized to be a pathological human afflicted with Laron Syndrome (LS), a type of primary growth hormone insensitivity (Hershkovitz et al.: Am J Phys Anthropol 134 [2007] 198-208). Comparing measurements, photographs and three-dimensional, computed-tomography reconstructions of LB1 with data and diagnoses from the literature on LS, we critically evaluate numerous skull and postcranial traits that Hershkovitz et al. identified as being shared by LB1 and patients with LS. The statements regarding most of these traits are new to the clinical literature and lack quantitative support. LB1 and patients with LS differ markedly in the size and shape of the cranium; thickness and pneumatization of cranial bones; morphology of the face, mandible, teeth, and chin; form of the shoulder, wrist, and pelvis; and general body proportions including relative foot size. Claims that patients with LS are similar to LB1 in displaying protracted scapulae, short clavicles, low degrees of humeral torsion, flaring ilia, and curved tibiae are not supported by data or corroborating images. Some points of similarity (e.g., femoral neck-shaft angle, femoral bicondylar angle, and estimated stature) can be found in other hominins, and cannot be considered diagnostic. From our review and analysis, we conclude that LB1 did not suffer from LS.

  9. Comparative performance of isolation methods using Preston broth, Bolton broth and their modifications for the detection of Campylobacter spp. from naturally contaminated fresh and frozen raw poultry meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seliwiorstow, T; De Zutter, L; Houf, K; Botteldoorn, N; Baré, J; Van Damme, I

    2016-10-03

    The performance of different isolation methods was evaluated for the detection of Campylobacter from naturally contaminated raw poultry meat. Therefore, fresh and frozen poultry meat samples were analysed using the standard procedure (ISO 10272-1:2006), enrichment in Preston broth, and enrichment in modified Bolton broth (supplemented with (i) potassium clavulanate (C-BB), (ii) triclosan (T-BB), (iii) polymyxin B (P-BB)). The enrichment cultures were streaked onto both modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) and RAPID'Campylobacter agar (RCA). Moreover, direct plating on mCCDA and RCA was performed to quantify Campylobacter. In total, 33 out of 59 fresh retail meat samples (55.9%) were Campylobacter positive. For both fresh and frozen poultry meat samples, enrichment in Bolton broth (ISO 10272-1:2006) resulted in a higher number of positive samples than enrichment in Preston broth. Supplementation of Bolton broth with potassium clavulanate (C-BB) and triclosan (T-BB) enhanced the Campylobacter recovery from fresh poultry meat compared to non-supplemented Bolton broth, although the use of C-BB was less applicable than T-BB for Campylobacter recovery from frozen samples. Additionally, the use of RCA resulted in a higher isolation rate compared to mCCDA. The present study demonstrates the impact of culture medium on the recovery of Campylobacter from fresh and frozen naturally contaminated poultry meat samples and can support laboratories in choosing the most appropriate culturing method to detect Campylobacter.

  10. Rheology and hydrodynamic properties of Tolypocladium inflatum fermentation broth and its simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchapattarapong, N; Anderson, W A; Bai, F; Moo-Young, M

    2005-07-01

    A physico-chemical, two phase simulated pseudoplastic fermentation (SPF) broth was investigated in which Solka Floc cellulose fibre was used to simulate the filamentous biomass, and a mixture of 0.1% (w/v) carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and 0.15 M aqueous sodium chloride was used to simulate the liquid fraction of the fermentation broth. An investigation of the rheological behaviour and hydrodynamic properties of the SPF broth was carried out, and compared to both a fungal Tolypocladium inflatum fermentation broth and a CMC solution in a 50 L stirred tank bioreactor equipped with conventional Rushton turbines. The experimental data confirmed the ability of the two phase SPF broth to mimic both the T. inflatum broth bulk rheology as well as the mixing and mass transfer behaviour. In contrast, using a homogeneous CMC solution with a similar bulk rheology to simulate the fermentation resulted in a significant underestimation of the mass transfer and mixing times. The presence of the solid phase and its microstructure in the SPF broth appear to play a significant role in gas holdup and bubble size, thus leading to the different behaviours. The SPF broth seems to be a more accurate simulation fluid that can be used to predict the bioreactor mixing and mass transfer performance in filamentous fermentations, in comparison with CMC solutions used in some previous studies.

  11. Direct electrodialysis of fermentation broth with periodic removal of fouling layers

    OpenAIRE

    Kuppinger, Franz-Felix; Busch, Claudia; Eigenberger, Gerhart

    1992-01-01

    In the present investigation the fermentation broth is fed directly into the electrodialysis module without prefiltration. Under these conditions a biofouling layer of living and dead parts of the fermentation broth builds up primarily on the anion exchange membranes. The mainly negatively charged fouling producers, for example protein ions, are transported by the electric field to the anion exchange membranes.

  12. Comparison of CLSI broth macrodilution and microdilution methods for echinocandin susceptibility testing of 5 Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bopp, Lawrence H; Baltch, Aldona L; Ritz, William J; Smith, Raymond P

    2011-11-01

    In order to compare the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) broth macrodilution and microdilution methods of susceptibility testing for echinocandins and yeast, 55 strains of Candida representing 5 species were tested using the CLSI-recommended broth macro- and microdilution methods. Small (1-3 log(2)) but potentially important method-, species-, and drug-dependent differences in MICs were observed.

  13. Detergents enhance EspB secretion from Escherichia coli strains harboring the locus for the enterocyte effacement (LEE) gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakasone, Noboru; Toma, Claudia; Higa, Naomi; Koizumi, Yukiko; Ogura, Yasunori; Suzuki, Toshihiko

    2011-02-01

    The effects of detergents (cholic acid, deoxycholic acid, Triton X-100, and Nonidet P-40) on the secretion of EspB from the locus for enterocyte effacement (LEE) gene-positive Escherichia coli strains were examined. Clinical isolates of eight EPEC strains and seven STEC strains were used to detect EspB after they had been cultivated in Luria-Bertani (LB) broth containing one of the detergents. When the bacteria were cultured in LB broth supplemented with one of the detergents, the amount of EspB produced was increased by 2-32-fold depending on the detergent and the strain used. EspB was detected in all strains when they were cultured in LB broth containing all of the detergents. The results obtained in this study can be applied to immunological diagnostic methods for detecting EspB and also to the production of EspB for research purposes.

  14. Membrane fouling mechanism in ultrafiltration of succinic acid fermentation broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Caixia; Li, Qiang; Tang, Huang; Yan, Daojiang; Zhou, Wei; Xing, Jianmin; Wan, Yinhua

    2012-07-01

    The membrane fouling mechanism was studied in treating succinic acid fermentation broth during dead-end ultrafiltration. Different membranes were used and two models were applied to analyze the fouling mechanism. Resistance-in-series model was applied to determine the main factor that caused the operation resistance. Results indicated that most membranes tended to be fouled by cake layer or concentration polarization. Hermia's model, which is composed of four individual sub-models, was used to analyze the predominant fouling mechanism. Results showed that the fouling of RC 10 kDa and PES 30 kDa was controlled by the complete blocking mechanism, while PES 100 kDa was controlled by the intermediate blocking and PES 10 kDa was controlled by cake layer. This conclusion was also proved by SEM photos. Membrane characteristics were monitored before and after ultrafiltration by AFM and goniometer. Both contact angle and roughness of most membranes increased after ultrafiltration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Standartization of broth microdilution method for Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leite Clarice Queico Fujimura

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Indirect drug susceptibility tests of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was done to investigate the accuracy and feasibility of a broth microdilution method (BMM for determining minimal inhibitory concentrations of conventional drugs against M. tuberculosis. Test drugs included isoniazid (H, rifampicin (R, ethambutol (E, streptomycin (S and pyrazinamide (Z. Fifty isolates of M. tuberculosis from patients who had never received drug therapy, and H37Rv strain for control, were evaluated in the system. When comparing this method with the gold standard proportional method in Lowenstein-Jensen medium, sensitivity of 100% for all drugs and specifities of 91, 100, 96, 98 and 85% were observed respectively for H, R, E, S and Z. The BMM was read faster (14-20 days than the proportional method (20-28 days. The microdilution method evaluated allows the testing of multiple drugs in multiple concentrations. It is easy to perform and does not require special equipment or expensive supplies. In contrast to radiometric method it does not use radioactive material.

  16. Synthesis and Structure of PEDOT Prepared through a Modified LB Film Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Hua-Jing; JIANG Ya-Dong; XU Jian-Hua; YANG Ya-Jie

    2011-01-01

    Adopting LB film method, an arachidic acid (AA)/PEDOT multilayer LB film and polymerized EDOT monomers in hydrophilic group of LB were chosen to prepare the arachidic acid (AA)/PEDOT multilayer LB film. UV-Vis, FT-IR and XPS analyses implied that EDOT was effectively polymerized in film, and thus PEDOT conducting polymer was produced. Analyses of XRR and SIMS indicated that the film had a well-arranged lamella structure, and further research showed that polymerization of EDOT in AA film destroyed the orderliness of the original LB film. This phenomenon could be related to the destructive effect of polymerization on the layered structure. We used four-point probe and semiconductor instrument to study the conductivity property of the film, and observed that the conductivity of AA/PEDOT film had sudden changes with the changes of processing time in an effective conduction network, which was caused by "permeability" in conducting channel of multilayer film. The test results also indicated that the conductivity of AA/PEDOT film was obviously better than that of spin-coating PEDOT/PSS or ODA-SA/PEDOT-PSS film due to the higher π structure of PEDOT structure and ordered film structure.

  17. Gas Sensitivity of Poly (3, 4-ethylene dioxythiophene) Prepared by a Modified LB Film Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Huajing; JIANG Yadong; XU Jianhua; YANG Yajie

    2011-01-01

    An arachidic acid/poly (3, 4-ethylene dioxythiophene) (AA/PEDOT) multilayer Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film was prepared by a modified LB film method. The theories were utilized to explain the effects between HCl molecule and LB film. The gas sensitivity mechanism of poly (3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) (PEDOT) muitilayer film can be explained by the charge transfer between p system of PEDOT and oxidization HCl system. The gas sensitivity of PEDOT LB film deposited interdigital electrode to HCl was tested. The results showed that film thickness, treating temperature,deposition speed had different influence on film gas sensitivity. The AA/PEDOT film deposited device exhibited nonlinear behavior to HCl gas at lower concentration (20-60 ppm) and linear response behavior at higher gas concentration was observed. The time of the compound LB film of the AA/PEDOT responding to the 30 ppm HCl gas is about 20 seconds, which is far quicker than the time of the film to the PEDOT- PRESS film(about 80 seconds). It is not higher film press to better film. When the film press attains 45 mNs/m, the sensitivity of the AA/PEDOT film on the contrary descends.

  18. Magnetic properties of Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films: a theoretical study. III. LB films consisting of different types of stable π-monoradicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drebov, Nedko; Tyutyulkov, Nikolai; Dietz, Fritz

    2013-01-22

    We present theoretical results for the magnetic properties of modeled two-dimensional (2-D) Langmuir-Blodgett films consisting of different types of stable organic π-monoradicals. Their energy spectra and magnetic characteristics are investigated using the many-body band theory of magnetism in π-electron approximation. The main factors which determine the magnitude and character of the magnetic interaction in the 2-D molecular arrangements are thoroughly studied. Semiempirical electronic structure calculations have been also carried out for molecular clusters to gain further insight into their magnetic properties. The proposed models for LB films are potential candidates for new 2-D ferromagnetic materials which are characterized by a substantial increase of the critical temperatures up to 250 K in comparison to only about 5 K for the now existing magnetic LB films based on organometallic systems.

  19. Electric properties and fabrication of IMI-O LB films containing the imidazole group

    CERN Document Server

    Yoo, S Y; Kwon, Y S; Park, J C

    1999-01-01

    We fabricated an IMI-O polymer containing an imidazole group that could form a complex structure between the monolayer and the metal ions at the air-water interface. Also, the monolayer behavior at the air-water interface and the electrical properties of metal-complexed Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films were investigated by using Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) and current-voltage(I-V) measurements. The difference in the BAM images between the pure water and the aqueous metal ions is attributed to the interactions of the copolymers with the metal ions at the interface and the consequent change of the monolayer organization. In the I-V characteristics, the current for LB films with different metal ion depended on the quantity of the metal-ion complexed with the LB film due to the interaction between the metal ion and the IMI-O polymer.

  20. The distribution and synonyms of Breutelia microdonta (Mitt.) Broth. : with additional notes on certain taxa of Breutelia

    OpenAIRE

    Griffin, Dana

    1992-01-01

    Breutelia microdonta (Mitt.) Broth., described originally from Brazil, is the oldest name for a disjunct widespread tropical species that includes as synonyms B. angustifolia Rehm. ex Sim of Southern Africa and B. merrillii Broth. of the Philippines. Breutelia kilaueae (C. Muell.) Broth. of Hawaii is considered a synonym of the austral Pacific species B. affinis (Hook.) Mitt., and B. brachyphylla Broth. of Ecuador is reduced to synonymy under the North Andean B. squarrosa Jaeg. Breutelia anac...

  1. Succinic acid adsorption from fermentation broth and regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Brian H; Nghiem, Nhuan P; Richardson, Gerald L

    2004-01-01

    More than 25 sorbents were tested for uptake of succinic acid from aqueous solutions. The best resins were then tested for successive loading and regeneration using hot water. The key desired properties for an ideal sorbent are high capacity, complete stable regenerability, and specificity for the product. The best resins have a stable capacity of about 0.06 g of succinic acid/g of resin at moderate concentrations (1-5 g/L) of succinic acid. Several sorbents were tested more exhaustively for uptake of succinic acid and for successive loading and regeneration using hot water. One resin, XUS 40285, has a good stable isotherm capacity, prefers succinate over glucose, and has good capacities at both acidic and neutral pH. Succinic acid was removed from simulated media containing salts, succinic acid, acetic acid, and sugar using a packed column of sorbent resin, XUS 40285. The fermentation byproduct, acetate, was completely separated from succinate. A simple hot water regeneration successfully concentrated succinate from 10 g/L (inlet) to 40-110 g/L in the effluent. If successful, this would lower separation costs by reducing the need for chemicals for the initial purification step. Despite promising initial results of good capacity (0.06 g of succinic/g of sorbent), 70% recovery using hot water, and a recovered concentration of >100 g/L, this regeneration was not stable over 10 cycles in the column. Alternative regeneration schemes using acid and base were examined. Two (XUS 40285 and XFS-40422) showed both good stable capacities for succinic acid over 10 cycles and >95% recovery in a batch operation using a modified extraction procedure combining acid and hot water washes. These resins showed comparable results with actual broth.

  2. Physico-chemical Properties and Bioactivities of a Glycoconjugate LbGp5B from Lycium barbarum L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG,Xue-Mei(彭雪梅); PENG,Xue-Mei; QI,Chun-Hui(齐春会); QI,Chun-Hui; TIAN,Geng-Yuan (田庚元); TIAN,Geng-Yuan; ZHANG,Yong-Xiang(张永详); ZHANG,Yong-Xiang

    2001-01-01

    A glycoconjugatedesignated as LbGp5B was isolated from the fruit of Lyciun barbarum L. and purified to homogeneity by gel filtration .LbGp5B is composed of rhamnose (Rha), arabinose (Ara), galactose (Gal), glucose (Glc), galacturonic acid (GalA) and seveateen amino acids. The molecular weight of LbGp5B was determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and by matrix-asisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time of fight (T OF) mass spectrometry (MS). The preliminary experiments showed that LbGp5B promoted splenocyte proliferation in mice and inhihited the peroxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL).

  3. Energy efficient recovery and dehydration of ethanol from fermentation broths by Membrane Assisted Vapor Stripping technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distillation combined with molecular sieve dehydration is the current state of the art for fuel grade ethanol production from fermentation broths. To improve the sustainability of bioethanol production, energy efficient separation alternatives are needed, particularly for lower ...

  4. Separation technologies for the recovery and dehydration of alcohols from fermentation broths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multi-column distillation followed by molecular sieve adsorption is currently the standard method for producing fuel grade ethanol from dilute fermentation broths in modern corn-to-ethnol facilities. As the liquid biofuels industry transitions to lignocellulosic feedstocks, expan...

  5. Membrane-based recovery and dehydration of alcohols from fermentation broths - of materials and modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distillation combined with molecular sieve dehydration is the current state of the art for fuel grade ethanol production from fermentation broths. As the liquid biofuels industry transitions to lignocellulosic feedstocks, expands the end product portfolio to include other alcoho...

  6. Improved detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus using phenyl mannitol broth containing aztreonam and ceftizoxime.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.F.L. Wertheim (Heiman); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); C. van Pelt (Cindy); P. de Man (Peter); A.F. van Belkum (Alex); M.C. Vos (Margreet)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractWe tested a phenyl mannitol broth containing ceftizoxime and aztreonam (PHMB(+)) for detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with reference MRSA strains and, subsequently, with clinical samples (n = 1,098). All reference MRSA strains

  7. Separation technologies for the recovery and dehydration of alcohols from fermentation broths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multi-column distillation followed by molecular sieve adsorption is currently the standard method for producing fuel grade ethanol from dilute fermentation broths in modern corn-to-ethnol facilities. As the liquid biofuels industry transitions to lignocellulosic feedstocks, expan...

  8. Energy efficient recovery and dehydration of ethanol from fermentation broths by Membrane Assisted Vapor Stripping technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distillation combined with molecular sieve dehydration is the current state of the art for fuel grade ethanol production from fermentation broths. To improve the sustainability of bioethanol production, energy efficient separation alternatives are needed, particularly for lower ...

  9. [Kinetic simulation of enhanced biological phosphorus removal with fermentation broth as carbon source].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Chen, Yin-Guang

    2013-07-01

    As a high-quality carbon source, fermentation broth could promote the phosphorus removal efficiency in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR). The transformation of substrates in EBPR fed with fermentation broth was well simulated using the modified activated sludge model No. 2 (ASM2) based on the carbon source metabolism. When fermentation broth was used as the sole carbon source, it was found that heterotrophic bacteria acted as a promoter rather than a competitor to the phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAO). When fermentation broth was used as a supplementary carbon source of real municipal wastewater, the wastewater composition was optimized for PAO growth; and the PAO concentration, which was increased by 3.3 times compared to that in EBPR fed with solely real municipal wastewater, accounting for about 40% of the total biomass in the reactor.

  10. Improved detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus using phenyl mannitol broth containing aztreonam and ceftizoxime.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.F.L. Wertheim (Heiman); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); C. van Pelt (Cindy); P. de Man (Peter); A.F. van Belkum (Alex); M.C. Vos (Margreet)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractWe tested a phenyl mannitol broth containing ceftizoxime and aztreonam (PHMB(+)) for detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with reference MRSA strains and, subsequently, with clinical samples (n = 1,098). All reference MRSA strains

  11. Fructo-oligosaccharides purification from a fermentative broth using an activated charcoal column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, C; Teixeira, J A; Rodrigues, L R

    2012-02-15

    In this study, a simple and efficient process to purify fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) from a fermentative broth was proposed using a single activated charcoal column. The FOS adsorption onto the activated charcoal was modeled by a pseudo-second order model. Several volumes and concentrations of water/ethanol were studied to optimize the selective desorption of sugars from the broth mixture at 25°C. Mixtures containing 50.6% (w/w) of FOS (FOS content in the fermentative broth) were purified to 92.9% (w/w) with a FOS recovery of 74.5% (w/w). Moreover, with the proposed process, fractions with purity up to 97% (w/w) of FOS were obtained. This purification process was also found to be efficient in the desalting of the fermentative broth.

  12. Comparative Analysis of Two Biological Warfare Air Samplers Using Live Surrogate Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    bacteriophage. First, a 1L sterile Nalgene® bottle was used then 20 mL of MS2 fitrate (3 x 109) was mixed with 500 mL of Luria -Bertani broth media...broth CFU colony-forming units IPA isopropyl alcohol LBA luria -bertani agar LBB luria -bertani broth PBS phosphate buffer saline PFU

  13. Gain in student understanding of the role of random variation in evolution following teaching intervention based on luria-delbruck experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Rachel L; Burns, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Undergraduate students in introductory biology classes are typically saddled with pre-existing popular beliefs that impede their ability to learn about biological evolution. One of the most common misconceptions about evolution is that the environment causes advantageous mutations, rather than the correct view that mutations occur randomly and the environment only selects for mutants with advantageous traits. In this study, a significant gain in student understanding of the role of randomness in evolution was observed after students participated in an inquiry-based pedagogical intervention based on the Luria-Delbruck experiment. Questionnaires with isomorphic questions regarding environmental selection among random mutants were administered to study participants (N = 82) in five separate sections of a sophomore-level microbiology class before and after the teaching intervention. Demographic data on each participant was also collected, in a way that preserved anonymity. Repeated measures analysis showed that post-test scores were significantly higher than pre-test scores with regard to the questions about evolution (F(1, 77) = 25.913, p Luria-Delbruck experiment to other organisms subjected to other kinds of selection.

  14. Gain in Student Understanding of the Role of Random Variation in Evolution Following Teaching Intervention Based on Luria-Delbruck Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L. Robson

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Undergraduate students in introductory biology classes are typically saddled with pre-existing popular beliefs that impede their ability to learn about biological evolution. One of the most common misconceptions about evolution is that the environment causes advantageous mutations, rather than the correct view that mutations occur randomly and the environment only selects for mutants with advantageous traits. In this study, a significant gain in student understanding of the role of randomness in evolution was observed after students participated in an inquiry-based pedagogical intervention based on the Luria-Delbruck experiment. Questionnaires with isomorphic questions regarding environmental selection among random mutants were administered to study participants (N = 82 in five separate sections of a sophomore-level microbiology class before and after the teaching intervention. Demographic data on each participant was also collected, in a way that preserved anonymity. Repeated measures analysis showed that post-test scores were significantly higher than pre-test scores with regard to the questions about evolution (F(1, 77 = 25.913, p < 0.001. Participants' pre-existing beliefs about evolution had no significant effect on gain in understanding of this concept. This study indicates that conducting and discussing an experiment about phage resistance in E. coli may improve student understanding of the role of stochastic events in evolution more broadly, as post-test answers showed that students were able to apply the lesson of the Luria-Delbruck experiment to other organisms subjected to other kinds of selection.

  15. Conformal Array Pattern Synthesis Using a Hybrid WARP/2LB-MOPSO Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghieh Karimzadeh Baee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses conformal array synthesis as a constrained multiobjective optimization problem. Simultaneous reduction of side lobe level (SLL and cross-polarization (XPL level is aimed with a constraint on main beam direction. A hybrid of weighted alternating reverse projection (WARP and two local best multiobjective particle swarm optimization (2LB-MOPSO is proposed to optimize the pattern. First, the WARP method finds a moderate and feasible solution. Second, 2LB-MOPSO begins with an initial population including the solution of WARP and penalty functions for constraint handling. Involving WARP result in the initial population of 2LB-MOPSO leads to higher convergence rate, avoiding local extermum traps and less sensitivity to penalty functions. Compared to WARP method which stagnates rapidly, the proposed hybrid method gives better SLL and XPL after adequate iterations. In addition, as 2LB-MOPSO offers a set of optimum solutions (Pareto front instead of a single solution, this method provides more degrees of freedom in selection of proper practical arrays. Finally, to examine the mutual coupling consideration in array design, the same procedure was applied ignoring the mutual coupling between elements. The results show that the SLL and XPL strongly depend on mutual coupling.

  16. A New Method of Photopatterning with LB Films Based on a Chemically Amplified Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A new approach to introducing a photoacid generator(PAG) into Langmuir-Blodgett(LB) films to draw photopatterns as a lithographic process is described here. The chemically amplified positive-tone resist system used here consists of two components: a copolymer, poly(dodecrylacrylamide-co-4-t-butyloxylvinyl-phenylcarbonate)[P(DDA-t-BVPC53)] and a PAG, tri(2,3-dibromopropyl) isocyanurate(TDBPIC). In the two-component system, the acid generated by the PAG catalyzes the deprotection reaction of P(DDA-t-BVPC53), to remove the tert-butoxycarbonyl group(t-BOC) in the exposed region during the postexposure baking process, thus rendering the exposed region soluble to alkaline aqueous solvents to form a positive tone. Photolithographic properties of the LB films have been evaluated. The patterns can be resolved with a resolution of 1 μm line width by UV irradiation, followed by development with an alkaline solution. The LB films can be used to generate etched gold relief images on a glass substrate via an aqueous iodide, like ammonium iodide, in alcohol/water as the etchant. The etch resistance of such LB films is sufficiently good, allowing patterning of a gold film suitable for photomask fabrication.

  17. Enhanced Polychlorinated Biphenyl Removal in a Switchgrass Rhizosphere by Bioaugmentation with Burkholderia xenovorans LB400.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yi; Meggo, Richard; Hu, Dingfei; Schnoor, Jerald L; Mattes, Timothy E

    2014-10-01

    Phytoremediation makes use of plants and associated microorganisms to clean up soils and sediments contaminated with inorganic and organic pollutants. In this study, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) was used to test for its efficiency in improving the removal of three specific polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners (PCB 52, 77 and 153) in soil microcosms. The congeners were chosen for their ubiquity, toxicity, and recalcitrance. After 24 weeks of incubation, loss of 39.9 ± 0.41% of total PCB molar mass was observed in switchgrass treated soil, significantly higher than in unplanted soil (29.5 ± 3.4%) (p<0.05). The improved PCB removal in switchgrass treated soils could be explained by phytoextraction processes and enhanced microbial activity in the rhizosphere. Bioaugmentation with Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 was performed to further enhance aerobic PCB degradation. The presence of LB400 was associated with improved degradation of PCB 52, but not PCB 77 or PCB 153. Increased abundances of bphA (a functional gene that codes for a subunit of PCB-degrading biphenyl dioxygenase in bacteria) and its transcript were observed after bioaugmentation. The highest total PCB removal was observed in switchgrass treated soil with LB400 bioaugmentation (47.3 ± 1.22 %), and the presence of switchgrass facilitated LB400 survival in the soil. Overall, our results suggest the combined use of phytoremediation and bioaugmentation could be an efficient and sustainable strategy to eliminate recalcitrant PCB congeners and remediate PCB-contaminated soil.

  18. OXIDATION OF BIPHENYL BY A MULTICOMPONENT ENZYME SYSTEM FROM PSEUDOMONAS SP. STRAIN LB400

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pseudomonas sp. strain LB400 grows on biphenyl as the sole carbon and energy source. This organism also cooxidizes several chlorinated biphenyl congeners. Biphenyl dioxygenase activity in cell extract required addition of NAD(P)H as an electron donor for the conversion of bipheny...

  19. OXIDATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS BY PSEUDOMONAS SP. STRAIN LB400 AND PSEUDOMONAS PSEUDOALCALIGENES KF707

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biphenyl-grown cells and cell extracts prepared from biphenyl-grown cells of Pseudomonas sp. strain LB400 oxidize a much wider range of chlorinated biphenyls than do analogous preparations from Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707. These results are attributed to differences in th...

  20. Comparative analysis of mixing distribution in aerobic stirred bioreactor for simulated yeasts and fungus broths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascaval, Dan; Galaction, Anca-Irina; Turnea, Marius

    2007-01-01

    The study on mixing distribution for an aerobic stirred bioreactor and simulated (solutions of carboxymethylcellulose sodium salt), yeasts (S. cerevisiae) and fungus (P. chrysogenum pellets and free mycelia) broths indicated the significant variation of mixing time on the bioreactor height. The experiments suggested the possibility to reach a uniform mixing in whole bulk of the real broths for a certain value of rotation speed or biomass concentration domain. For S. cerevisiae broths the optimum rotation speed increased to 500 rpm with the biomass accumulation from 40 to 150 g/l d.w. Irrespective of their morphology, for fungus cultures the existence of optimum rotation speed (500 rpm) has been recorded only for biomass concentration below 24 g/l d.w. The influence of aeration rate depends on the apparent viscosity/biomass concentration and on the impellers and sparger positions. By increasing the apparent viscosity for simulated broths, or biomass amount for real broths, the shape of the curves describing the mixing time variation is significantly changed for all the considered positions. The intensification of the aeration induced the increase of mixing time, which reached a maximum value, decreasing then, due to the flooding phenomena. This variation became more pronounced at higher viscosities for simulated broths, at higher yeasts concentration, and at lower pellets or filamentous fungus concentration, respectively. By means of the experimental data and using MATLAB software, some mathematical correlations for mixing time have been proposed for each broth and considered position inside the bioreactor. These equations offer a good agreement with the experiment, the maximum deviation being +/-7.3% for S. cerevisiae broths.

  1. What do cranial bones of LB1 tell us about Homo floresiensis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzeau, Antoine; Charlier, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    Cranial vault thickness (CVT) of Liang Bua 1, the specimen that is proposed to be the holotype of Homo floresiensis, has not yet been described in detail and compared with samples of fossil hominins, anatomically modern humans or microcephalic skulls. In addition, a complete description from a forensic and pathological point of view has not yet been carried out. It is important to evaluate scientifically if features related to CVT bring new information concerning the possible pathological status of LB1, and if it helps to recognize affinities with any hominin species and particularly if the specimen could belong to the species Homo sapiens. Medical examination of the skull based on a micro-CT examination clearly brings to light the presence of a sincipital T (a non-metrical variant of normal anatomy), a scar from an old frontal trauma without any evident functional consequence, and a severe bilateral hyperostosis frontalis interna that may have modified the anterior morphology of the endocranium of LB1. We also show that LB1 displays characteristics, related to the distribution of bone thickness and arrangements of cranial structures, that are plesiomorphic traits for hominins, at least for Homo erectus s.l. relative to Homo neanderthalensis and H. sapiens. All the microcephalic skulls analyzed here share the derived condition of anatomically modern H. sapiens. Cranial vault thickness does not help to clarify the definition of the species H. floresiensis but it also does not support an attribution of LB1 to H. sapiens. We conclude that there is no support for the attribution of LB1 to H. sapiens as there is no evidence of systemic pathology and because it does not have any of the apomorphic traits of our species.

  2. Clinical comparison of isolator, Septi-Chek, nonvented tryptic soy broth, and direct agar plating combined with thioglycolate broth for diagnosing spontaneous bacterial peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, J E; Cockerill, F R; Kaese, D; Vetter, E A; Wollan, P C; Rakela, J; Wilhelm, M P

    1996-01-01

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is a life-threatening complication of cirrhotic ascites. Optimal patient management depends on the isolation of the causal organism from ascitic fluid. To evaluate culture techniques for the diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, we prospectively compared three blood culture system, the Isolator system, a lysis-centrifugation system, the Septi-Chek system, a biphasic culture system, and a nonvented tryptic soy broth system, all inoculated at the bedside, and our standard method of direct inoculation of specimens after transport to the laboratory onto agar plates and into thioglycolate broth. The results showed that the Septi-Chek and nonvented tryptic soy broth systems each recovered statistically significantly more pathogens than either the Isolator system (P = 0.0084) or the standard method (P = 0.00098). The Isolator system recovered more pathogens than the standard plate method, but this difference was not statistically significant. Both the Isolator system and the standard plate method recovered more contaminating microorganisms than the Septi-Chek or nonvented tryptic soy broth system. The Isolator system required the most processing time compared with the processing times required by any other method. PMID:8748267

  3. Common stock solutions, buffers, and media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-01

    This collection of recipes describes the preparation of buffers and reagents used in Current Protocols in Pharmacology for cell culture, manipulation of neural tissue, molecular biological methods, and neurophysiological/neurochemical measurements. RECIPES: Acid, concentrated stock solutions Ammonium hydroxide, concentrated stock solution EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid), 0.5 M (pH 8.0) Ethidium bromide staining solution Fetal bovine serum (FBS) Gel loading buffer, 6× LB medium (Luria broth) and LB plates Potassium phosphate buffer, 0.1 M Sodium phosphate buffer, 0.1 M TE (Tris/EDTA) buffer Tris⋅Cl, 1 M.

  4. Comparison of different preenrichment broths, egg:preenrichment broth ratios, and surface disinfection for the detection of Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica serovar Enteritidis in shell eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, G; Brown, E W; Hammack, T S

    2013-11-01

    Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica serovar Enteritidis is the leading reported cause of Salmonella infections. Most Salmonella Enteritidis infections are associated with whole shell eggs and egg products. This project attempted to lay the foundation for improving the Food and Drug Administration's current Bacteriological Analytical Manual method for the detection of Salmonella Enteritidis in shell eggs. Two Salmonella Enteritidis isolates were used for comparisons among different preenrichment and enrichment media and for the evaluation of egg:preenrichment broth ratios for the detection of Salmonella Enteritidis in shell eggs. The effect of surface disinfection on the detection of Salmonella Enteritidis in shell eggs was also investigated. The results indicated that tryptic soy broth (TSB) was similar to TSB plus ferrous sulfate, but significantly (α = 0.05) better than nutrient broth, Universal Preenrichment broth, and buffered peptone water when used for preenrichment of Salmonella in shell eggs. Salmonella Enteritidis populations after enrichment with Rappaport-Vassiliadis broth were 0.40 to 1.11 log cfu/mL of culture lower than those in preenrichment cultures. The reduction was statistically significant (α = 0.05). Egg:broth ratios at 1:9 and 1:2 produced significantly (α = 0.05) higher Salmonella Enteritidis populations after preenrichment with TSB with inoculum levels at 4 cfu/100 g of eggs and 40 cfu/1,000 g of eggs than the ratio at 1:1. Salmonella Enteritidis populations in TSB preenrichment cultures of shell eggs surface-disinfected with 70% alcohol:iodine/potassium iodide solution and untreated control were 9.11 ± 0.11 and 9.18 ± 0.05 log cfu/mL, respectively, for SE 13-2, and 9.20 ± 0.04 and 9.16 ± 0.05 log cfu/mL, respectively, for SE CDC_2010K_1543. Surface disinfection of eggs did not reduce the sensitivity of detection of Salmonella Enteritidis in liquid eggs. These results could improve the Food and Drug Administration's current

  5. New insight into surface properties of LB film of an amphiphilic terpolymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu Li Yue; Fang Ma; Zhi Fei Dai; Meng Liu; Lei Xing; Hai Yan Fan; Zhan Wen Xing; Shao Qin Liu

    2011-01-01

    Amphiphilic terpolymer (TPR) exhibits good film-forming behavior on pure water observed by means of n-A isotherms. To gain insight into physical properties of TPR, the films have been deposited on silicon substrates at different surface pressure by Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique. It was found that the increase in peak intensities of stretching mode was due to orderly packing of the films. The contact angles increased with increasing surface pressure, indicating an increase in hydrophobicity due to dense packing of chains of TPR. The cyclic voltammetric measurements indicated that TPR showed good current shielding effect for electron-transfer. In a word, LB films of TPR can produce a variety of structures with varied topography, enabling us to control not only the functionality of the surface, but also the interfacial transport characteristics.

  6. Development of A Surface Acoustic Wave LB MembraneImmunity Sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Jie; SHU Na; REN Shu; ZHOU Xianming

    2000-01-01

    A new kind of biosensor for immunology was developed by ultrasonic technique and LB membrane. A double delay-line resonator was made by using ST-cut quartz crystal with working frequency of 149.7 MHz. Then a layer of LB membrane was covered on it. When anti-IgM antibody of various concentrations was added to it, the sensor can be used to detect IgM antigen. The biosensor was highly sensitive, small and light. The experimental results showed that the working frequency change of the sensor was proportional to the concentration of antibody with its dilution ratio between 1:10000 and 1:100. It was also first observed that the frequency curve of the sensor resulting from the reaction of IgM antigen and antibody undulated in the experiment.

  7. Analysis of Second-Harmonic Generation from CuttbPc LB Film/Metal Interface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程晓曼; 姚素薇; 李成全; 间中孝彰; 岩本光正

    2004-01-01

    Second-harmonic generation signals from a CuttbPc LB film deposited on metal (Al or Au)-glass substrates were investigated. It was observed that there were two second-harmonic peaks at the wavelength of 1060 and 1250nm in the CuttbPc/A1 film, but only one peak at 1050nm in the CuttbPc/Au film. Meanwhile the surface electric potentials (SEP) at the interfaces of LB film/metals were also measured using a Kelvin probe. The SEP in the CuttbPc/Al decreases and eventually approaches a saturated value of -1.0 V as the film thickness increases,while the SEP in the CuttbPc/Au is nearly zero. Based on the experimental results and theoretical analysis, it was considered that the space-charge-induced electric field makes a main contribution to the second-harmonic generation at 1250nm in the CuttbPc/Al film.

  8. Tensile and fatigue qualification testing of ITER-CS conduit alloy JK2LB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, R. P.; McRae, D. M.; Han, K.; Martovetsky, N. N.

    2015-12-01

    The ITER Central Solenoid (CS) coils utilize cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC) and the conduit alloy is JK2LB. The production grade conduit alloy (and it's welds) must meet strict requirements for strength, toughness, fatigue crack resistance, and fabricability. The conduit alloy must retain good mechanical properties after additional fabrication steps such as welding, coil winding strain and exposure to the Nb3Sn superconductor's reaction heat treatment. Here we present data from cryogenic tensile, fracture toughness, fatigue crack growth rate, and axial fatigue tests of JK2LB alloy and conduit butt welds, before and after the exposure to the reaction heat treatment. The tests of specimens removed directly from the conduit provide confirmation of the materials properties and the effect of the cold work and aging. The 4 K fatigue performance is extremely important to the reliability of the CS and is covered both by axial cyclic fatigue tests and the fatigue crack growth rate measurements.

  9. Biological evaluation of Phellinus linteus-fermented broths as anti-inflammatory agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Jung; Lien, Hsiu-Man; Chang, Hsiao-Yun; Huang, Chao-Lu; Liu, Jau-Jin; Chang, Yun-Chieh; Chen, Chia-Chang; Lai, Chih-Ho

    2014-07-01

    Phellinus linteus and its constituent hispolon induce potent anti-inflammatory activity in macrophages. Efficient production of the effective constituent and the biological function of P. linteus in the regulation of innate sensing have rarely been investigated. The aim of this study was to efficiently manufacture P. linteus-fermented broth containing the effective constituent, hispolon, and evaluate its immunoregulatory functions in macrophages. Four distinct fermented broths (PL1-4) and the medium dialyzate (MD) were prepared to screen suitable culture conditions for the mycelial growth of P. linteus. The P. linteus-fermented broth exhibited a dose-responsive inhibition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production by murine macrophages. In addition, the P. linteus-fermented broths suppressed macrophage LPS-mediated nuclear factor (NF)-κB activity and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Among the tested samples from P. linteus, PL4 contained vast amounts of hispolon and showed the greatest anti-inflammatory activity in both the RAW264.7 cells and murine primary peritoneal exudate macrophages (PEMs). This study demonstrates that the purification of the effective constituent from P. linteus-fermented broth may enable the production of a potent therapeutic agent for anti-inflammation in macrophages.

  10. Broth versus solid agar culture of swab samples of cadaveric allograft musculoskeletal tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varettas, Kerry

    2013-12-01

    As part of the donor assessment protocol, bioburden assessment must be performed on allograft musculoskeletal tissue samples collected at the time of tissue retrieval. Swab samples of musculoskeletal tissue allografts from cadaveric donors are received at the microbiology department of the South Eastern Area Laboratory Services (Australia) to determine the presence of bacteria and fungi. This study will review the isolation rate of organisms from solid agar and broth culture of swab samples of cadaveric allograft musculoskeletal tissue over a 6-year period, 2006-2011. Swabs were inoculated onto horse blood agar (anaerobic, 35 °C) and chocolate agar (CO2, 35 °C) and then placed into a cooked meat broth (aerobic, 35 °C). A total of 1,912 swabs from 389 donors were received during the study period. 557 (29.1 %) swabs were culture positive with the isolation of 713 organisms, 249 (34.9 %) from solid agar culture and an additional 464 (65.1 %) from broth culture only. This study has shown that the broth culture of cadaveric allograft musculoskeletal swab samples recovered a greater amount of organisms than solid agar culture. Isolates such as Clostridium species and Staphylococcus aureus would not have been isolated from solid agar culture alone. Broth culture is an essential part of the bioburden assessment protocol of swab samples of cadaveric allograft musculoskeletal tissue in this laboratory.

  11. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Tetrachloromethane CCl4 + CHCl3 Trichloromethane (VMSD1212, LB4576_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Tetrachloromethane CCl4 + CHCl3 Trichloromethane (VMSD1212, LB4576_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  12. Hydrogen-bonded LbL Shells for Living Cell Surface Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    phospholipids into the lipid bilayer membrane, and cell decoration with/inclusion into biodegradable gel microparti- cles.7–11 However, for these strategies...polymer membrane. The poly(allylamine hydrochloride)/poly(styrene sulfonate) ( PAH /PSS) coating is the mostly explored poly- electrolyte pair used to...this approach for cell surface engineering.42,43 As suggested, overall toxicity of the PAH /PSS LbL shells originates from the positive charge of

  13. Pelaksanaan Pendidikan Agama Pada SD-LB B Sidakarya Kota Denpasar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulyani Mudis Taruna

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The  Research  on the Implementation of Religious Education was conductedat the  SD Luar Biasa Part  B (SD-LB B Sidakarya Denpasar, Bali  Province. Theresults of this study indicate that the religious education implementation at theSD-LB B Sidakarya is still less attention. It can be seen from  the teaching materials that still use the public school textbook and there is no RPP or specialized reference books for SD-LB B, religious teachers concerns to a religion teacher. The supporting factors in the process of learning  is  good  spirit for student availability of classrooms, school infrastructure and the location is not far from the student  environment.  The problem Inhibiting in the  learning    rocess is the lack of teaching tools, no specific reference books for  deaf and dumb there isnt good attantion for religioous teaching is still not getting  the attention of the series.

  14. Graphene-based LbL deposited films: further study of electrical and gas sensing properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabok A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Graphene-surfactant composite materials obtained by the ultrasonic exfoliation of graphite powder in the presence of ionic surfactants (either CTAB or SDS were utilised to construct thin films using layer-by-layer (LbL electrostatic deposition technique. A series of graphene-based thin films were made by alternating layers of either graphene-SDS with polycations (PEI or PAH or graphene-CTAB with polyanions (PSS. Also, graphene-phthalocyanine composite films were produced by alternating layers of graphene-CTAB with tetrasulfonated nickel phthalocyanine. Graphene-surfactant LbL films exhibited good electric conductivity (about 0.1 S/cm of semiconductor type with a band gap of about 20 meV. Judging from UV-vis spectra measurements, graphene-phthalocyanine LbL films appeared to form joint π-electron system. Gas sensing testing of such composite films combining high conductivity of graphene with the gas sensing abilities of phthalocyanines showed substantial changes (up to 10% in electrical conductivity upon exposure to electro-active gases such as HCl and NH3.

  15. Electrochemistry of LB films of mixed MGDG:UQ on ITO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyo, Javier; Guaus, Ester; Torrent-Burgués, Juan; Sanz, Fausto

    2015-08-01

    The electrochemical behaviour of biomimetic monolayers of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) incorporating ubiquinone-10 (UQ) has been investigated. MGDG is the principal component in the thylakoid membrane and UQ seems a good substitute for plastoquinone-9, involved in photosynthesis chain. The monolayers have been performed using the Langmuir and Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) techniques and the redox behaviour of the LB films, transferred at several surface pressures on a glass covered with indium-tin oxide (ITO), has been characterized by cyclic voltammetry. The cyclic voltammograms show that UQ molecules present two redox processes (I and II) at high UQ content and high surface pressures, and only one redox process (I) at low UQ content and low surface pressures. The apparent rate constants calculated for processes I and II indicate a different kinetic control for the reduction and the oxidation of UQ/UQH2 redox couple, being k(Rapp)(I) = 2.2 · 10(-5) s(-1), k(Rapp)(II) = 5.1 · 10(-14) k(Oapp)(I) = 3.3 · 10(-3) s(-1) and k(Oapp)(II) = 6.1 · 10(-6) s(-1), respectively. The correlation of the redox response with the physical states of the LB films allows determining the positions of the UQ molecules in the biomimetic monolayer, which change with the surface pressure and the UQ content. These positions are known as diving and swimming. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Exploratory Higher Order Analysis of the Luria Interpretive Model on the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition (KABC-II) School-Age Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Ryan J; Spurgin, Angelia R

    2017-06-01

    Higher order factor structure of the Luria interpretive scheme on the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition (KABC-II) for the 7- to 12-year and the 13- to 18-year age groups in the KABC-II normative sample ( N = 2,025) is reported. Using exploratory factor analysis, multiple factor extraction criteria, and hierarchical exploratory factor analysis not included in the KABC-II manual, two-, three-, and four-factor extractions were analyzed to assess the hierarchical factor structure by sequentially partitioning variance appropriately to higher order and lower order dimensions as recommended by Carroll. No evidence for a four-factor solution was found. Results showed that the largest portions of total and common variance were accounted for by the second-order general factor and that interpretation should focus primarily, if not exclusively, at that level of measurement.

  17. Neutron Reference Benchmark Field Specification: ACRR 44 Inch Lead-Boron (LB44) Bucket Environment (ACRR-LB44-CC-32-CL).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega, Richard Manuel [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Parma, Edward J. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Griffin, Patrick J. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vehar, David W. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This report was put together to support the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) REAL- 2016 activity to validate the dosimetry community’s ability to use a consistent set of activation data and to derive consistent spectral characterizations. The report captures details of integral measurements taken in the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) central cavity with the 44 inch Lead-Boron (LB44) bucket, reference neutron benchmark field. The field is described and an “a priori” calculated neutron spectrum is reported, based on MCNP6 calculations, and a subject matter expert (SME) based covariance matrix is given for this “a priori” spectrum. The results of 31 integral dosimetry measurements in the neutron field are reported.

  18. Hydrodynamics in bubble column bioreactors with fermentation broths having a yield stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawase, Y.; Moo-Young, M.

    1989-06-01

    The hydrodynamics in a bubble column bioreactor with fermentation broths having a yield stress are studied. Specifically, the liquid velocity at the reactor axis, the axial dispersion coefficient, and the gas hold-up are examined. The liquid velocity at the reactor axis and the gas hold-up are measured in a 40-l bench-scale bubble column fermentor using carboxypolymethylene (Carbopol) aqueous solutions as simulated broths. Theoretical correlations for the liquid velocity at the reactor axis, the axial dispersion coefficient, and the gas hold-up are derived on the basis of an energy balance and the mixing length theory. The correlations are compared with the present data and a reasonable agreement is found. The theoretical predictions are also in satisfactory agreement with the re-examined data for actual fermentation broths which are Chaetomium cellulolyticum and Neurospora sitophila cultured in a 1000-l pilot-plant scale airlift fermentor.

  19. Chemical Constituents of the Culture Broth of Phellinus linteus and Their Antioxidant Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myeong-Seok; Hwang, Byung Soon; Lee, In-Kyoung; Seo, Geon-Sik; Yun, Bong-Sik

    2015-03-01

    The medicinal fungus Phellinus linteus, in the family Hymenochaetaceae, has been used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases. In this study, the chemical constituents of the culture broth of P. linteus were investigated. P. linteus was cultured in potato dextrose broth medium, and the culture broth was extracted with ethyl acetate. The ethyl acetate-soluble portion was concentrated and subjected to ODS column chromatography, followed by Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. Six compounds (1~6) were purified by preparative reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Spectroscopic methods identified their structures as caffeic acid (1), inotilone (2), 4-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3-buten-2-one (3), phellilane H (4), (2E,4E)-(+)-4'-hydroxy-γ-ionylideneacetic acid (5), and (2E,4E)-γ-ionylideneacetic acid (6). Compounds 1, 2, and 3 exhibited potent dose-dependent antioxidant activity.

  20. Antibiotic Fermentation Broth Treatment by a pilot upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor and kinetic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, T; Kabuk, H A; Varinca, K B; Debik, E; Durak, I; Kavurt, C

    2012-10-01

    In this study, an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) mesophilic reactor was used to remove antibiotic fermentation broth wastewater. The hydraulic retention time was held constant at 13.3 days. The volumetric organic loading value increased from 0.33 to 7.43 kg(COD)m(-3)d(-1) using antibiotic fermentation broth wastewater gradually diluted with various ratios of domestic wastewater. A COD removal efficiency of 95.7% was obtained with a maximum yield of 3,700 L d(-1) methane gas production. The results of the study were interpreted using the modified Stover-Kincannon, first-order, substrate mass balance and Van der Meer and Heertjes kinetic models. The obtained kinetic coefficients showed that antibiotic fermentation broth wastewater can be successfully treated using a UASB reactor while taking COD removal and methane production into account. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer between organic dyes adsorbed onto nano-clay and Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Syed Arshad; Chakraborty, S.; Bhattacharjee, D.; Schoonheydt, R. A.

    2010-02-01

    In this communication we investigate two dyes N, N'-dioctadecyl thiacyanine perchlorate (NK) and octadecyl rhodamine B chloride (RhB) in Langmuir and Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films with or with out a synthetic clay laponite. Observed changes in isotherms of RhB in absence and presence of nano-clay platelets indicate the incorporation of clay platelets onto RhB-clay hybrid films. AFM images confirm the incorporation of clay into hybrid films. FRET is observed in clay dispersion and LB films with and without clay. Efficiency of energy transfer is maximum in LB films with clay.

  2. Preconcentrating (within the broth) secreted extracellular proteins during a bakers' yeast fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Effler, W.T. Jr.; Pandey, N.K.; Tanner, R.D.; Malaney, G.W.; Scott, C.D. (ed.)

    1986-01-01

    Proteins secreted by yeast during the fermentation process are spacially fractionated (concentrated at a particular vertical position) within the fermentation vessel due to the phenomenon of bubble fractionation, despite moderately vigorous mixing. The degree of fractionation is influenced by the conditions in which the fermentation takes place. The broth pH strongly influences the extent of fractionation of specific proteins. In addition fractionation is enhanced under anaerobic conditions, presumably because there are more CO2 bubbles present for hydrophobic protein adsorption. The addition of moderate levels of salt to the broth reduces the fractionation for most (but not all) of the proteins.

  3. Ordered and ultrathin reduced graphene oxide LB films as hole injection layers for organic light-emitting diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yajie; Yang, Xiaojie; Yang, Wenyao; Li, Shibin; Xu, Jianhua; Jiang, Yadong

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrated the utilization of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films as high performance hole injection layer in organic light-emitting diode (OLED). By using LB technique, the well-ordered and thickness-controlled RGO sheets are incorporated between the organic active layer and the transparent conducting indium tin oxide (ITO), leading to an increase of recombination between electrons and holes. Due to the dramatic increase of hole carrier injection efficiency in RGO LB layer, the device luminance performance is greatly enhanced comparable to devices fabricated with spin-coating RGO and a commercial conducting polymer PEDOT:PSS as the hole transport layer. Furthermore, our results indicate that RGO LB films could be an excellent alternative to commercial PEDOT:PSS as the effective hole transport and electron blocking layer in light-emitting diode devices.

  4. Discriminating plants using the DNA barcode rbcLb: an appraisal based on a large data set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wenpan; Cheng, Tao; Li, Changhao; Xu, Chao; Long, Ping; Chen, Chumming; Zhou, Shiliang

    2014-03-01

    The ideal DNA barcode for plants remains to be discovered, and the candidate barcode rbcL has been met with considerable skepticism since its proposal. In fact, the variability within this gene has never been fully explored across all plant groups from algae to flowering plants, and its performance as a barcode has not been adequately tested. By analysing all of the rbcL sequences currently available in GenBank, we attempted to determine how well a region of rbcL performs as a barcode in species discrimination. We found that the rbcLb region was more variable than the frequently used rbcLa region. Both universal and plant group-specific primers were designed to amplify rbcLb, and the performance of rbcLa and rbcLb was tested in several ways. Using blast, both regions successfully identified all families and nearly all genera; however, the successful species identification rates varied significantly among plant groups, ranging from 24.58% to 85.50% for rbcLa and from 36.67% to 90.89% for rbcLb. Successful species discrimination ranged from 5.19% to 96.33% for rbcLa and from 22.09% to 98.43% for rbcLb in species-rich families, and from 0 to 88.73% for rbcLa and from 2.04% to 100% for rbcLb in species-rich genera. Both regions performed better for lower plants than for higher plants, although rbcLb performed significantly better than rbcLa overall, particularly for angiosperms. Considering the applicability across plants, easy and unambiguous alignment, high primer universality, high sequence quality and high species discrimination power for lower plants, we suggest rbcLb as a universal plant barcode. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Use of liquid/supercritical CO2 extraction process for butanol recovery from fermentation broth

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order for butanol fermentation to be a viable option, it is essential to recover it from fermentation broth using economical alternate in-situ product recovery techniques such as liquid/supercritical CO2 extraction as compared to distillation. This technique (liquid CO2 extraction & supercritical...

  6. Extraction of Penicillin V from Simulated Fermentation Broth by Liquid-Liquid Membrane Technique

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khalid W. Hameed

    2012-01-01

    ... (methyl isobutyl ketone, n-butyl acetate, and n-amyl acetate) was used for recovery of penicillin V from simulated fermentation broth under various operating conditions of pH value (4-6) for feed and (6-8...

  7. Preparative separation of echinocandin B from Aspergillus nidulans broth using macroporous resin adsorption chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Shu-Ping; Liu, Miao; Wang, Qiu-Liang; Xiong, Yan; Niu, Kun; Zheng, Yu-Guo; Shen, Yin-Chu

    2015-01-26

    Echinocandin B (ECB), an echinocandin type of lipopeptide antibiotic produced by Aspergillus nidulans, is a precursor for the synthesis of novel anti-fungal drug - anidulafungin. In this work, a separation strategy involving one-step macroporous resin adsorption chromatography was established for ECB purification from Aspergillus nidulans CCTCC M 2010275 fermentation broth. Among nine macroporous resin adsorbents tested, the non-polar resin HP-20 had the best adsorption and desorption performance. The static equilibrium adsorption data fitted well with the Langmuir equation, and the adsorption kinetic followed the pseudo-second order model. The separation parameters of ECB from broth were optimised by dynamic adsorption/desorption experiments with the column packed with HP-20 resin. Under optimal conditions, the purity increased by 3.8-fold from 23.2% in broth to 88.5% in eluent with 87.1% recovery yield by a one-step treatment. Our study provided a one-step and effective method for large-scale production of ECB, and offered references for separating other echinocandins from broth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Simple and efficient isolation of cordycepin from culture broth of a Cordyceps militaris mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Mina; Hatashita, Masanori; Fujihara, Shinya; Suzuki, Yu; Sakurai, Akihiko

    2015-12-01

    Isolation of cordycepin from the culture broth of Cordyceps militaris mutant was investigated. Based on the solubility curve, three crystallizing processes, temperature shift (process I), pH shift (process II), and pH shift followed by temperature shift (process III) were carried out. Process III was the most promising method regarding both purity and yield.

  9. Mixed-morphotype broth microdilution susceptibility testing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from cystic fibrosis patients.

    OpenAIRE

    1993-01-01

    Multiple morphotypes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from 50 respiratory specimens of cystic fibrosis patients were tested for correlation of broth microdilution susceptibility results of a mixed-morphotype inoculum with a predicted antibiogram of the individual isolates. The overall correlation was 96.0%, with only 1.6% very major or major errors.

  10. Analysis of lard in meatball broth using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawati, Endah; Rohman, Abdul; Triyana, Kuwat

    2014-01-01

    Meatball is one of the favorite foods in Indonesia. For the economic reason (due to the price difference), the substitution of beef meat with pork can occur. In this study, FTIR spectroscopy in combination with chemometrics of partial least square (PLS) and principal component analysis (PCA) was used for analysis of pork fat (lard) in meatball broth. Lard in meatball broth was quantitatively determined at wavenumber region of 1018-1284 cm(-1). The coefficient of determination (R(2)) and root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) values obtained were 0.9975 and 1.34% (v/v), respectively. Furthermore, the classification of lard and beef fat in meatball broth as well as in commercial samples was performed at wavenumber region of 1200-1000 cm(-1). The results showed that FTIR spectroscopy coupled with chemometrics can be used for quantitative analysis and classification of lard in meatball broth for Halal verification studies. The developed method is simple in operation, rapid and not involving extensive sample preparation.

  11. Use of Mueller-Hinton broth and agar in the germ tube test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, Antonella Souza; Alves, Sydney Hartz; Severo, Cecília Bittencourt; Guazzelli, Luciana da Silva; Oliveira, Flávio de Mattos; Severo, Luiz Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Candida albicans is often isolated from clinical samples, thus its presumptive differentiation from other species of the same genus can be based on its ability to form the germ tube in human serum. Nevertheless, there are two other species that share this characteristic: C. dubliniensis and C. africana. The aim of this study was to compare four different substrates to perform the germ tube (GT) test. The Candida spp. isolates were identified using a manual system (135 C. albicans, 24 C. tropicalis and one C. dubliniensis). The germ tube test was performed with fresh, previously frozen serum and Mueller-Hinton (MH) broth and agar. GT was observed in 96% (130/136) of the isolates through the fresh serum technique, 94% (128/136) through previously frozen serum, 92% (125/136) in MH agar, and 90% (122/136) in MH broth. The sensitivity of each test was higher than 90%, with 100% specificity. Both the MH agar and broth were able to identify the true positives, and false positives were not found. However, some C. albicans isolates were not identified. MH agar and broth may be used in laboratory for the rapid presumptive identification of C. albicans, as an alternative method for germ tube test.

  12. Recovery of butanol from Clostridium beijerinckii P260 fermentation broth by supercritical CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butanol is a superior biofuel to ethanol because of its blend properties and higher energy density. However, its recovery by distillation from the fermentation broth is energy intensive. For this reason, we studied butanol recovery by supercritical CO2 extraction from simulated and actual fermentati...

  13. PGRP-LB is a maternally transmitted immune milk protein that influences symbiosis and parasitism in tsetse’s offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingwen; Aksoy, Serap

    2012-01-01

    Beneficial microbe functions range from host dietary supplementation to development and maintenance of host immune system. In mammals, newborn progeny are quickly colonized with a symbiotic fauna that is provisioned in mother’s milk and that closely resembles that of the parent. Tsetse fly (Diptera: Glossinidae) also depends on the obligate symbiont Wigglesworthia for nutritional supplementation, optimal fecundity, and immune system development. Tsetse progeny develop one at a time in an intrauterine environment and receive nourishment and symbionts in mother’s milk. We show that the host Peptidoglycan Recognition Protein (PGRP-LB) is expressed only in adults and is a major component of the milk that nourishes the developing progeny. The amidase activity associated with PGRP-LB may scavenge the symbiotic peptidoglycan and prevent the induction of tsetse's Immune Deficiency pathway that otherwise can damage the symbionts. Reduction of PGRP-LB experimentally diminishes female fecundity and damages Wigglesworthia in the milk through induction of antimicrobial peptides, including Attacin. Larvae that receive less maternal PGRP-LB give rise to adults with fewer Wigglesworthia and hyperimmune responses. Such adults also suffer dysregulated immunity, as indicated by the presence of higher trypanosome densities in parasitized adults. We show that recPGRP-LB has antimicrobial and antitrypanosomal activities that may regulate symbiosis and impact immunity. Thus, PGRP-LB plays a pivotal role in tsetse’s fitness by protecting symbiosis against host-inflicted damage during development and by controlling parasite infections in adults that can otherwise reduce host fecundity. PMID:22689989

  14. Hemicyanine LB film—Silver nanoparticle composite: contrasting fluorescence responses sensitive to the ultrathin film assembly sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maganti, Lasya; Dwivedi, Itisha; Jose, Anju; Radhakrishnan, T. P.

    2017-07-01

    Fluorescence emission of molecules is strongly influenced by the plasmonic field of metal nanoparticles, with significant enhancement induced under optimal conditions. Nanocomposite ultrathin films fabricated with citrate-stabilized Ag nanoparticles and LB film of a cationic hemicyanine amphiphile, are shown to produce opposing fluorescence emission trends upon subtle variation in the assembly sequence. Monolayer LB films of the pure amphiphile show aggregation-induced quenching with increasing deposition pressure. Composite films formed by adsorption of Ag nanoparticles on the Langmuir film (self-assembly together with steered assembly) followed by LB transfer, show further quenching. However, adsorption of Ag nanoparticles on the pre-formed amphiphile LB film (self-assembly following steered assembly), causes the fluorescence to increase with the extent of adsorption. Spectroscopy and microscopy provide insight into the contrasting, tunable emission. Formation of Ag nanoparticle chains on the Langmuir film and their direct contact with the monolayer cause the fluorescence quenching; adsorption of isolated Ag nanoparticles on the LB film along with multilayer formation leads to the enhancement. The study illustrates the versatility of LB film—metal nanoparticle composites in producing distinct materials responses through subtle changes in the mode of assembly.

  15. Studies on the interaction of fermentation and microfiltration operations: erythromycin recovery from Saccharopolyspora erythraea fermentation broths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, J L; Baganz, F; Ison, A P; Lye, G J

    2000-08-20

    Changes in fermentation media not only affect the performance of the fermentation itself (with regard to the kinetics of biomass and product formation and the yields obtained) but also the initial product-recovery operations downstream of the fermentor. In this work, microfiltration experiments to remove Saccharopolyspora erythraea biomass from fermentation broth and to recover erythromycin were carried out using two fundamentally different media; a soluble complex medium (SCM) and an oil-based process medium (OBM). Small-scale batch fermentations of 14-L working volume were carried out in triplicate using both media. Broth samples were taken from each fermentation at regular intervals from the end of the exponential-growth phase onwards. These were then processed using a Minitan II (acrylic), tangential crossflow-filtration module, fitted with a single 60 cm(2) Durapore hydrophilic 0.2 microm membrane, operated in concentration mode. The OBM fermentations produced higher titers of erythromycin but required longer fermentation times due to increased lag phases and slower maximum-growth rates. The OBM also increased the loading on the membrane; at maximum product titers residual oil concentrations of 3 g. L(-1), antifoam concentrations of 2 g. L(-1) and flour concentrations estimated at approximately 10 g/L(-1) were typical. It was found that both the permeate flux and erythromycin transmission were affected by the choice of medium. The OBM had significantly lower values for both parameters (12.8 Lm(-2) h(-1) and 89.6% respectively) than the SCM (35.9 Lm(-2) h(-1) and 96.7% respectively) when the fermentations were harvested at maximum erythromycin titers. Transmission of erythromycin stayed approximately constant as a function of fermentation time for both media, however, for the OBM the permeate flux decreased with time which correlated with an increase in broth viscosity. The relatively poor microfiltration performance of the OBM medium was, however, offset by

  16. The Aggregates in LB Films of Schiff base Aluminium (III) Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The surface pressure-area (p -A) isotherm of Schiff base aluminium (III), tris (2-hydroxy-5-nitro-N-dodecyl-benzylideneaminato) aluminium (III) (denoted as Al(TA12)3), on pure water subphase was investigated. The molecular area, 0.48 nm2 , is one-third of expected value that indicated the aggregation took place. The Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films of Al(TA12)3 was transferred and characterized. The AFM image confirmed the formation of aggregates.

  17. Degradation of phenanthrene-analogue azaarenes by Mycobacterium gilvum strain LB307T under aerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willumsen, P A; Nielsen, J K; Karlson, U

    2001-08-01

    A polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degrading Mycobacterium gilvum, strain LB307T, was able to degrade the azaarenes 5,6-benzoquinoline, 7,8-benzoquinoline, and phenanthridine (nitrogen-containing heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) under aerobic conditions. The strain was able to use 5,6-benzoquinoline as sole sources of carbon, nitrogen, and energy. However, inhibition of degradation and growth was observed with increasing substrate concentration. During degradation, metabolites built up transiently. One of the metabolites detected during 5,6-benzoquinoline degradation is suggested to be 2-oxo-5,6-benzoquinoline. This is the first report on bacterial degradation of phenanthrene-analogue azaarenes.

  18. Synthesis of a functionalized europium complex and deposition of luminescent Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films

    OpenAIRE

    Adati, Renata D.; Pavinatto, Felippe José; Monteiro, Jorge H.S.K. [UNESP; Marian R. Davolos; Jafelicci, Miguel, Jr.; Oliveira Junior, Osvaldo Novais de

    2012-01-01

    The synthesis, characterization and formation of Langmuir-Blodgett (LB)films for the luminescent [(C12H25)(2)(CH3)(2)N][Eu(tta)(4)] complex, where [(C12H25)(2)(CH3)(2)](N+) is didodecyldimethylammonium and the tta ligand is thenoyltrifluoroacetone, are reported. The coordination of tta ligands to the Eu3+ ion was confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy and the emission spectrum comprised bands corresponding to D-5(0) -> F-7(0-4) transitions. The lifetime (tau) from the emission state (D-5(0))was 0....

  19. Thermal broadening of Lb band of ``trehalose coated'' tyrosine and phenylalanine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrotta, Rita; Sanfratello, Vincenzo; Leone, Maurizio; Cordone, Lorenzo

    2000-04-01

    We studied the thermal broadening of Lb band of tyrosine and phenylalanine embedded in a trehalose matrix. Aim of this work is to obtain information on the effects of "trehalose coating" on the coupling of the electronic transition to low frequency modes in the surrounding of the chromophore. The results obtained for the two molecular complexes put in evidence that O-H groups are involved in blocking these structures within the solid trehalose matrix and shed light on the role played by hydrogen bonds on the interactions that keep "trehalose coated" proteins rigid and solid-like.

  20. Effect of dried-bonito broth on mood states: a pooled analysis of four randomized controlled human trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Motonaka; Nozawa, Yoshizu

    2008-08-01

    Dried-bonito broth is commonly employed as a soup and sauce base in Japanese cuisine and is considered to be a nutritional supplement that promotes recovery from fatigue. Previous human trials have indicated that the ingestion of dried-bonito broth improves several mood states including fatigue, however, the effects in these studies have differed. The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of daily ingestion of dried-bonito broth on mood states by a pooled analysis of the randomized placebo-controlled trials. Five comparisons in four trials were selected for the pooled analysis (n = 159). The ingestion of dried-bonito broth significantly decreased the scores for fatigue (P = 0.032) and increased those for vigor (P = 0.027) compared to the placebo ingestion, suggesting that the dried-bonito broth improved fatigue felt in daily life. Furthermore, the ingestion of dried-bonito broth decreased the scores for tension-anxiety (P = 0.004) and confusion (P = 0.008) compared to the placebo ingestion. The ingestion of dried-bonito broth also significantly decreased the scores for total mood disturbance (P = 0.005). These results suggest that the ingestion of dried-bonito broth improves mood states especially fatigue, vigor, tension-anxiety and confusion.

  1. In vitro antagonistic growth effects of Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus salivarius and their fermentative broth on periodontal pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Ju Chen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available As lactobacilli possess an antagonistic growth property, these bacteria may be beneficial as bioprotective agents for infection control. However, whether the antagonistic growth effects are attributed to the lactobacilli themselves or their fermentative broth remains unclear. The antagonistic growth effects of Lactobacillus salivarius and Lactobacillus fermentum as well as their fermentative broth were thus tested using both disc agar diffusion test and broth dilution method, and their effects on periodontal pathogens, including Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, and Porphyromonas gingivalisin vitro at different concentrations and for different time periods were also compared. Both Lactobacillus salivarius and Lactobacillus fermentum and their concentrated fermentative broth were shown to inhibit significantly the growth of Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, and Porphyromonas gingivalis, althoughdifferent inhibitory effects were observed for different pathogens. The higher the counts of lactobacilli and the higher the folds of concentrated fermentative broth, the stronger the inhibitory effects are observed. The inhibitory effect is demonstrated to be dose-dependent. Moreover, for the lactobacilli themselves, Lactobacillus fermentum showed stronger inhibitory effects than Lactobacillus salivarius. However, the fermentative broth of Lactobacillus fermentum showed weaker inhibitory effects than that of Lactobacillus salivarius. These data suggested that lactobacilli and their fermentative broth exhibit antagonistic growth activity, and consumption of probiotics or their broth containing lactobacilli may benefit oral health.

  2. Evaluation of CLSI agar dilution method and Trek Sensititre broth microdilution panel for determining antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sean X; Rawte, Prasad; Brown, Shirley; Lo, Steven; Siebert, Heather; Pong-Porter, Sylvia; Low, Donald E; Jamieson, Frances B

    2011-02-01

    Both the CLSI agar dilution method and Trek Sensititre broth microdilution panel for Streptococcus pneumoniae antimicrobial susceptibility testing were evaluated against the reference CLSI broth microdilution method using the most recently published CLSI breakpoints. While agar dilution was not an optimal method, the commercial panel appeared to be an acceptable method, with minor errors encountered for ceftriaxone, penicillin, and meropenem.

  3. In vitro antagonistic growth effects of Lactobacillus fermentum and lactobacillus salivarius and their fermentative broth on periodontal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ling-Ju; Tsai, Hsiu-Ting; Chen, Wei-Jen; Hsieh, Chu-Yang; Wang, Pi-Chieh; Chen, Chung-Shih; Wang, Lina; Yang, Chi-Chiang

    2012-10-01

    As lactobacilli possess an antagonistic growth property, these bacteria may be beneficial as bioprotective agents for infection control. However, whether the antagonistic growth effects are attributed to the lactobacilli themselves or their fermentative broth remains unclear. The antagonistic growth effects of Lactobacillus salivarius and Lactobacillus fermentum as well as their fermentative broth were thus tested using both disc agar diffusion test and broth dilution method, and their effects on periodontal pathogens, including Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, and Porphyromonas gingivalis in vitro at different concentrations and for different time periods were also compared. Both Lactobacillus salivarius and Lactobacillus fermentum and their concentrated fermentative broth were shown to inhibit significantly the growth of Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, and Porphyromonas gingivalis, although different inhibitory effects were observed for different pathogens. The higher the counts of lactobacilli and the higher the folds of concentrated fermentative broth, the stronger the inhibitory effects are observed. The inhibitory effect is demonstrated to be dose-dependent. Moreover, for the lactobacilli themselves, Lactobacillus fermentum showed stronger inhibitory effects than Lactobacillus salivarius. However, the fermentative broth of Lactobacillus fermentum showed weaker inhibitory effects than that of Lactobacillus salivarius. These data suggested that lactobacilli and their fermentative broth exhibit antagonistic growth activity, and consumption of probiotics or their broth containing lactobacilli may benefit oral health.

  4. Evaluation of CLSI Agar Dilution Method and Trek Sensititre Broth Microdilution Panel for Determining Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sean X.; Rawte, Prasad; Brown, Shirley; Lo, Steven; Siebert, Heather; Pong-Porter, Sylvia; Low, Donald E.; Jamieson, Frances B.

    2011-01-01

    Both the CLSI agar dilution method and Trek Sensititre broth microdilution panel for Streptococcus pneumoniae antimicrobial susceptibility testing were evaluated against the reference CLSI broth microdilution method using the most recently published CLSI breakpoints. While agar dilution was not an optimal method, the commercial panel appeared to be an acceptable method, with minor errors encountered for ceftriaxone, penicillin, and meropenem. PMID:21123533

  5. Recommendation for a Standardised Method of Broth Microdilution Susceptibility Testing for Porcine Bordetella bronchiseptica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Prüller

    Full Text Available The objective was to establish and standardise a broth microdilution susceptibility testing method for porcine Bordetella (B. bronchiseptica. B. bronchiseptica isolates from different geographical regions and farms were genotyped by macrorestriction analysis and subsequent pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. One reference and one type strain plus two field isolates of B. bronchiseptica were chosen to analyse growth curves in four different media: cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth (CAMHB with and without 2% lysed horse blood, Brain-Heart-Infusion (BHI, and Caso broth. The growth rate of each test strain in each medium was determined by culture enumeration and the suitability of CAMHB was confirmed by comparative statistical analysis. Thereafter, reference and type strain and eight epidemiologically unrelated field isolates of B. bronchiseptica were used to test the suitability of a broth microdilution susceptibility testing method following CLSI-approved performance standards given in document VET01-A4. Susceptibility tests, using 20 antimicrobial agents, were performed in five replicates, and data were collected after 20 and 24 hours incubation and statistically analysed. Due to the low growth rate of B. bronchiseptica, an incubation time of 24 hours resulted in significantly more homogeneous minimum inhibitory concentrations after five replications compared to a 20-hour incubation. An interlaboratory comparison trial including susceptibility testing of 24 antimicrobial agents revealed a high mean level of reproducibility (97.9% of the modified method. Hence, in a harmonization for broth microdilution susceptibility testing of B. bronchiseptica, an incubation time of 24 hours in CAMHB medium with an incubation temperature of 35°C and an inoculum concentration of approximately 5 x 10(5 cfu/ml was proposed.

  6. O desenvolvimento psicológico do adulto com deficiência adquirida: contribuições de A. R. Luria na obra O homem com um mundo estilhaçado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza Maura Castilho Lopes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Adquirir uma deficiência pode implicar em importantes transformações na vida de um adulto. Segundo pressupostos da Teoria Histórico-Cultural, o desenvolvimento do indivíduo continuará ocorrendo, considerando suas condições objetivas. Para explorar como ocorre esse desenvolvimento e qual o papel da Psicologia enquanto ciência diante do sujeito que adquire uma deficiência, será analisado o livro “O homem com um mundo estilhaçado”, de A. R. Luria, que conta a história de um indivíduo adulto que sofre uma lesão cerebral. A obra será discutida com base em pressupostos teóricos do próprio Luria, e de teóricos da mesma abordagem, como Vigotski e Leontiev.

  7. Learning by Modeling (LbM: Understanding Complex Systems by Articulating Structures, Behaviors, and Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Hashem

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the behavior of complex systems has become a focal issue for scientists in a wide range of disciplines. Making sense of a complex system should require that a student construct a network of concepts and principles about the learning complex phenomena. This paper describes part of a project about Learning-by-Modeling (LbM. Many features of complex systems make it difficult for students to develop deep understanding. Previous research indicates that involvement with modeling scientific phenomena and complex systems can play a powerful role in science learning. Some researchers argue with this view indicating that models and modeling do not contribute to understanding complexity concepts, since these increases the cognitive load on students. In this study we investigated the effect of different modes of involvement in exploring scientific phenomena using computer simulation tools, on students’ mental model from the perspective of structure, behaviour and function. Quantitative and qualitative methods are used to report about 121 freshmen students that engaged in participatory simulations about complex phenomena, showing emergent, self-organized and decentralized patterns. Results show that LbM plays a major role in students' concept formation about complexity concepts.

  8. Design and performance of a parachute for the recovery of a 760-lb payload

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waye, D.E.

    1991-01-01

    A 26-ft-diameter ribbon parachute deployed using a pilot parachute system has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the recovery of a 760-lb payload released at subsonic and transonic speeds. The wide range of deployment dynamic pressures led to the design, utilizing wind tunnel testing and computer simulation, of a unique pilot parachute system verified in full-scale flight tests. Performance data from 20 full-scale flight tests were used to evaluate system performance and structural validity. The concical ribbon parachute design chosen for this development effort follows the practice of previous Sandia National Laboratory parachute development programs for high performance airdropped payloads. The design process for this parachute system included a tradeoff study to evaluate and compare the performance between an equivalent drag area 26-foot-diameter single parachute system and a cluster system of three 14-ft-diameter parachutes. The results showed a small advantage for the cluster system in inflation and initial deceleration characteristics. However, the higher cost, higher weight, greater packing complexity and greater risk involved in the development of the cluster system outweighed the performance advantages and led to the choice of the 26-ft-diameter parachute as the baseline design for the development. This paper describes the design and performance of the 26-ft-diameter parachute which was chosen for the recovery of a 760-lb payload. The results of 20 full-scale flight test of this parachute system are summarized. 8 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Immobilization and stabilization of lipase (CaLB) through hierarchical interfacial assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbert, Joey N; Wang, Li-Sheng; Duncan, Bradley; Jeong, Youngdo; Andler, Stephanie M; Rotello, Vincent M; Goddard, Julie M

    2014-11-10

    Nanostructure-enabled hierarchical assembly holds promise for efficient biocatalyst immobilization for improved stability in bioprocessing. In this work we demonstrate the use of a hierarchical assembly immobilization strategy to enhance the physicochemical properties and stability of lipase B from Candida antarctica (CaLB). CaLB was complexed with iron oxide nanoparticles followed by interfacial assembly at the surface of an oil-in-water emulsion. Subsequent ring opening polymerization of the oil provided cross-linked microparticles that displayed an increase in catalytic efficiency when compared to the native enzyme and Novozym 435. The hierarchical immobilized enzyme assembly showed no leakage from the support in 50% acetonitrile and could be magnetically recovered across five cycles. Immobilized lipase exhibited enhanced thermal and pH stability, providing 72% activity retention after 24 h at 50 °C (pH 7.0) and 62% activity retention after 24 h at pH 3.0 (30 °C); conditions resulting in complete deactivation of the native lipase.

  10. Burkholderia xernovorans LB400 harbors a multi-replicon, 9.73-Mbp genome shaped for versatility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chain, Patrick S. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Denef, Vincent [University of California, Berkeley; Konstantinidis, Konstantinos T [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Vergez, Lisa [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Agullo, Loreine [Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Casilla 110-V; Reyes, Valeria Latorre [Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Casilla 110-V; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Cordova, Macarena [Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Casilla 110-V; Gomez, Luis [Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Casilla 110-V; Gonzalez, Myriam [Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Casilla 110-V; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Lao, Victoria [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Larimer, Frank W [ORNL; LiPuma, John J [University of Michigan; Mahenthiralingam, Eshwar [Cardiff University, Wales; Malfatti, Stephanie [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Marx, Christopher J [Harvard University; Parnell, J Jacob [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Ramette, Alban [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Richardson, P M [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Seeger, Michael [Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Casilla 110-V; Smith, Daryl [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Spilker, Theodore [University of Michigan; Sul, Woo Jun [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Tsoi, Tamara V [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Zhulin, Igor B [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Tiedje, James M. [Michigan State University, East Lansing

    2006-01-01

    Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 (LB400), a well studied, effective polychlorinated biphenyl-degrader, has one of the two largest known bacterial genomes and is the first nonpathogenic Burkholderia isolate sequenced. From an evolutionary perspective, we find significant differences in functional specialization between the three replicons of LB400, as well as a more relaxed selective pressure for genes located on the two smaller vs. the largest replicon. High genomic plasticity, diversity, and specialization within the Burkholderia genus are exemplified by the conservation of only 44% of the genes between LB400 and Burkholderia cepacia complex strain 383. Even among four B. xenovorans strains, genome size varies from 7.4 to 9.73 Mbp. The latter is largely explained by our findings that >20% of the LB400 sequence was recently acquired by means of lateral gene transfer. Although a range of genetic factors associated with in vivo survival and intercellular interactions are present, these genetic factors are likely related to niche breadth rather than determinants of pathogenicity. The presence of at least eleven 'central aromatic' and twenty 'peripheral aromatic' pathways in LB400, among the highest in any sequenced bacterial genome, supports this hypothesis. Finally, in addition to the experimentally observed redundancy in benzoate degradation and formaldehyde oxidation pathways, the fact that 17.6% of proteins have a better LB400 paralog than an ortholog in a different genome highlights the importance of gene duplication and repeated acquirement, which, coupled with their divergence, raises questions regarding the role of paralogs and potential functional redundancies in large-genome microbes.

  11. Roughness-controlled self-assembly of mannitol/LB agar microparticles by polymorphic transformation for pulmonary drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengying; Ngoc, Nguyen Thi Quynh; Tay, Bao Hui; Mendyk, Aleksander; Shao, Yu-Hsuan; Lau, Raymond

    2015-01-05

    Novel roughness-controlled mannitol/LB Agar microparticles were synthesized by polymorphic transformation and self-assembly method using hexane as the polymorphic transformation reagent and spray-dried mannitol/LB Agar microparticles as the starting material. As-prepared microparticles were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), X-ray diffraction spectra (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and Andersen Cascade Impactor (ACI). The XRD and DSC results indicate that after immersing spray-dried mannitol/LB Agar microparticles in hexane, β-mannitol was completely transformed to α-mannitol in 1 h, and all the δ-mannitol was transformed to α form after 14 days. SEM shows that during the transformation the nanobelts on the spray-dried mannitol/LB Agar microparticles become more dispersed and the contour of the individual nanobelts becomes more noticeable. Afterward, the nanobelts self-assemble to nanorods and result in rod-covered mannitol/LB Agar microparticles. FTIR indicates new hydrogen bonds were formed among mannitol, LB Agar, and hexane. SEM images coupled with image analysis software reveal that different surface morphology of the microparticles have different drug adhesion mechanisms. Comparison of ACI results and image analysis of SEM images shows that an increase in the particle surface roughness can increase the fine particle fractions (FPFs) using the rod-covered mannitol microparticles as drug carriers. Transformed microparticles show higher FPFs than commercially available lactose carriers. An FPF of 28.6 ± 2.4% was achieved by microparticles transformed from spray-dried microparticles using 2% mannitol(w/v)/LB Agar as feed solution. It is comparable to the highest FPF reported in the literature using lactose and spray-dried mannitol as carriers.

  12. Protein Phosphatase 2A Inhibition with LB100 Enhances Radiation-Induced Mitotic Catastrophe and Tumor Growth Delay in Glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Ira K; Lu, Jie; Graves, Christian A; Huntoon, Kristin; Frerich, Jason M; Hanson, Ryan H; Wang, Xiaoping; Hong, Christopher S; Ho, Winson; Feldman, Michael J; Ikejiri, Barbara; Bisht, Kheem; Chen, Xiaoyuan S; Tandle, Anita; Yang, Chunzhang; Arscott, W Tristram; Ye, Donald; Heiss, John D; Lonser, Russell R; Camphausen, Kevin; Zhuang, Zhengping

    2015-07-01

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a tumor suppressor whose function is lost in many cancers. An emerging, though counterintuitive, therapeutic approach is inhibition of PP2A to drive damaged cells through the cell cycle, sensitizing them to radiotherapy. We investigated the effects of PP2A inhibition on U251 glioblastoma cells following radiation treatment in vitro and in a xenograft mouse model in vivo. Radiotherapy alone augmented PP2A activity, though this was significantly attenuated with combination LB100 treatment. LB100 treatment yielded a radiation dose enhancement factor of 1.45 and increased the rate of postradiation mitotic catastrophe at 72 and 96 hours. Glioblastoma cells treated with combination LB100 and radiotherapy maintained increased γ-H2AX expression at 24 hours, diminishing cellular repair of radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks. Combination therapy significantly enhanced tumor growth delay and mouse survival and decreased p53 expression 3.68-fold, compared with radiotherapy alone. LB100 treatment effectively inhibited PP2A activity and enhanced U251 glioblastoma radiosensitivity in vitro and in vivo. Combination treatment with LB100 and radiation significantly delayed tumor growth, prolonging survival. The mechanism of radiosensitization appears to be related to increased mitotic catastrophe, decreased capacity for repair of DNA double-strand breaks, and diminished p53 DNA-damage response pathway activity.

  13. OGLE-2005-BLG-071Lb, the Most Massive M-Dwarf Planetary Companion?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, S; Gould, A; Udalski, A; Anderson, J; Christie, G W; Gaudi, B S; Jaroszynski, M; Kubiak, M; Szymanski, M K; Pietrzynski, G; Soszynski, I; Szewczyk, O; Ulaczyk, K; Wyrzykowski, L; DePoy, D L; Fox, D B; Gal-Yam, A; Han, C; Lepine, S; McCormick, J; Ofek, E; Park, B; Pogge, R W; Abe, F; Bennett, D P; Bond, I A; Britton, T R; Gilmore, A C; Hearnshaw, J B; Itow, Y; Kamiya, K; Kilmartin, P M; Korpela, A; Masuda, K; Matsubara, Y; Motomura, M; Muraki, Y; Nakamura, S; Ohnishi, K; Okada, C; Rattenbury, N; Saito, T; Sako, T; Sasaki, M; Sullivan, D; Sumi, T; Tristram, P J; Yanagisawa, T; Yock, P M; Yoshoika, T; Albrow, M D; Beaulieu, J P; Brillant, S; Calitz, H; Cassan, A; Cook, K H; Coutures, C; Dieters, S; Prester, D D; Donatowicz, J; Fouque, P; Greenhill, J; Hill, K; Hoffman, M; Horne, K; J?rgensen, U G; Kane, S; Kubas, D; Marquette, J B; Martin, R; Meintjes, P; Menzies, J; Pollard, K R; Sahu, K C; Vinter, C; Wambsganss, J; Williams, A; Bode, M; Bramich, D M; Burgdorf, M; Snodgrass, C; Steele, I; Doublier, V; Foelmi, C

    2008-04-18

    We combine all available information to constrain the nature of OGLE-2005-BLG-071Lb, the second planet discovered by microlensing and the first in a high-magnification event. These include photometric and astrometric measurements from Hubble Space Telescope, as well as constraints from higher-order effects extracted from the ground-based light curve, such as microlens parallax, planetary orbital motion and finite-source effects. Our primary analysis leads to the conclusion that the host of Jovian planet OGLE-2005-BLG-071Lb is a foreground M dwarf, with mass M = 0.46 {+-} 0.04M{sub {circle_dot}}, distance D{sub l} = 3.3 {+-} 0.4 kpc, and thick-disk kinematics {nu}{sub LSR} {approx} 103 km s{sup -1}. From the best-fit model, the planet has mass M{sub p} = 3.5 {+-} 0.3 M{sub Jupiter}, lies at a projected separation r{sub {perpendicular}} = 3.6 {+-} 0.2 AU from its host and has an equilibrium temperature of T {approx} 50 K, i.e., similar to Neptune. A degenerate model less favored by {Delta}{sub {chi}}{sup 2} {approx} 4 gives essentially the same planetary mass M{sub p} = 3.3 {+-} 0.3 M{sub Jupiter} with a smaller projected separation, r{sub {perpendicular}} = 2.1 {+-} 0.1 AU, and higher equilibrium temperature T {approx} 68 K. These results from the primary analysis suggest that OGLE-2005-BLG-071Lb is likely to be the most massive planet yet discovered that is hosted by an M dwarf. However, the formation of such high-mass planetary companions in the outer regions of M-dwarf planetary systems is predicted to be unlikely within the core-accretion scenario. There are a number of caveats to this analysis, but these could mostly be resolved by a single astrometric measurement a few years after the event.

  14. Evidências de Validade do Teste Luria-Nebraska para Crianças: Relações com Escolaridade e Inteligência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus Silvestrin

    Full Text Available RESUMO O presente estudo buscou evidências de validade do Teste Luria-Nebraska para Crianças (TLN-C em sua relação com escolaridade e inteligência. Participaram 120 crianças com dificuldades escolares (2ª ao 6ª ano, avaliadas com o TLN-C e a Escala de Inteligência Wechsler para Crianças - Terceira Revisão. Os resultados evidenciaram influência da escolaridade e desempenho intelectual no escore total do TLN-C e nos subtestes Ritmo, Habilidade Motora, Habilidade Visual, Escrita, Leitura, Raciocínio Matemático e Memória Imediata. Tais resultados permitiram diferenciar o desempenho das crianças no 2º e 3º ano daquele de crianças em outros anos escolares, e o desempenho de crianças com nível intelectualmente deficiente daquele de crianças com outros níveis intelectuais.Houve correlações positivas e significativas entre os escores do TLN-C e o quociente de inteligência total da WISC. O instrumento mostrou-se adequado para diferenciar o desempenho por escolaridade e inteligência.

  15. Incidence of Propionibacterium acnes in initially culture-negative thioglycollate broths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvich, L.; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Justesen, U. S.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate the incidence of Propionibacterium acnes in thioglycollate broths reported as culture-negative at the Department of Clinical Microbiology, Rigshospitalet, to evaluate whether 5 days of incubation was enough to find all relevant cases. Five....... After exclusion criteria were met, P. acnes was cultured from ten out of 151 patients (6.6%) in the infected group and from one out of 138 participants (0.7%) in the control group. This resulted in more findings of P. acnes in the infected group on day 14 than on day 5 (p 0.002). Furthermore, P. acnes...... was cultured more often from bone tissue and tissue surrounding foreign materials on day 14 than on day 5 (p 0.04). Clinical microbiology laboratories should consider incubating thioglycollate broths for at least 14 days to find all relevant cases of P. acnes, especially when it comes to bone tissue and tissue...

  16. Isolation of ATP from a yeast fermentation broth using a cryogel column at high flow velocities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chen; Shen, Shaochuan; Yun, Junxian; Wang, Lianghua; Yao, Kejian; Yao, Shan-Jing

    2008-12-01

    This communication presents an effective method for isolating adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from a yeast fermentation broth using an anion-exchange supermacroporous cryogel column at high flow velocities. The breakthrough and elution behaviors of pure ATP in the cryogel bed were investigated at flow velocities of 2, 5, and 10 cm/min and the ATP binding capacities were determined. Then the ATP-containing yeast fermentation broth was employed as the test feedstock and various chromatographic runs were conducted to isolate ATP by the cryogel at different high flow velocities. The ATP samples obtained were analyzed quantitatively by HPLC. The results showed that even at a flow velocity of 5 or 10 cm/min, a product purity of 97.4 or 98.0% can be achieved, illustrating the potential of the present method for separation of high-purity ATP directly from fermentation feedstock at high flow velocities.

  17. In situ separation of lactic acid from fermentation broth using ion exchange resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataei, Seyed Ahmad; Vasheghani-Farahani, Ebrahim

    2008-11-01

    Lactic acid fermentation is an end product inhibited reaction. In situ separation of lactic acid from fermentation broth using ion exchange resins was investigated and compared with conventional fermentation system. Amberlite resin (IRA-400, Cl-) was used to separate lactic acid from fermentation broth and pH was controlled online with an automatic pH controller. The effect of process variables on lactic acid production by Lactobacillus casei in whey permeate was studied. The maximum productivity was obtained at pH=6.1, T=37 degrees C and impeller speed=200 rpm. The maximum concentration of lactic acid at optimum condition was found to be 37.4 g/L after 38 h of fermentation using in situ separation system. The productivity of in situ separation system was five times increased in comparison with conventional system.

  18. Chromatographic separation of cytidine triphosphate from fermentation broth of yeast using anion-exchange cryogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lianghua; Shen, Shaochuan; Yun, Junxian; Yao, Kejian; Yao, Shan-Jing

    2008-03-01

    A novel separation method was developed to isolate directly cytidine triphosphate (CTP) from fermentation broth of yeast using anion-exchange supermacroporous cryogel. The anion-exchange cryogel with tertiary amine groups was prepared by graft polymerization. The breakthrough characteristics and elution performance of pure CTP in the cryogel bed were investigated experimentally and the CTP binding capacity was determined. Then the separation experiments of CTP from crude fermentation broth of yeast using the cryogel column were carried out using deionized water and 0.01 M HCl as washing buffer, respectively. The chromatographic behavior was monitored and analyzed. The purity and concentration of the obtained CTP in these processes were determined quantitatively by HPLC. The maximal purity of CTP obtained at the condition of 0.01 M HCl as washing buffer and 0.5 M NaCl in 0.01 M HCl as elution buffer reached 93%.

  19. Efficient extraction of intracellular reduced glutathione from fermentation broth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zhi-Qiang; Guo, Mei-Jin; Guo, Yuan-Xin; Chu, Ju; Zhuang, Ying-Ping; Zhang, Si-Liang

    2009-01-01

    Reduced glutathione (GSH) from fermentation broth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was extracted with ethanol without disruption of the cells. The effects of ethanol concentration, extraction temperature and extraction time were assessed by using 2(3) full factorial designs (FFD). Preliminary studies showed that ethanol concentration had the most influence on GSH yield by ethanol extraction, based on the first order regression coefficients derived using MINITAB software, and an optimal ethanol concentration (25%, v/v) was obtained. However, compared to the conventional extraction technique (hot water extraction), there was no significant advantage in yield of GSH from yeast cells using ethanol extraction under these optimized conditions. But ethanol extraction has several advantages, such as lower energy consumption and lower protein concentration of extraction broth, which may reduce the complexity and cost of the purification process. Hence, ethanol extraction which does not disrupt yeast cells could be an inexpensive, simple and efficient alternative to conventional extraction techniques in the GSH industry.

  20. Nanofiltration, bipolar electrodialysis and reactive extraction hybrid system for separation of fumaric acid from fermentation broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, Krystyna; Staszak, Katarzyna; Woźniak-Budych, Marta Joanna; Regel-Rosocka, Magdalena; Adamczak, Michalina; Wiśniewski, Maciej; Staniewski, Jacek

    2014-09-01

    A novel approach based on a hybrid system allowing nanofiltration, bipolar electrodialysis and reactive extraction, was proposed to remove fumaric acid from fermentation broth left after bioconversion of glycerol. The fumaric salts can be concentrated in the nanofiltration process to a high yield (80-95% depending on pressure), fumaric acid can be selectively separated from other fermentation components, as well as sodium fumarate can be conversed into the acid form in bipolar electrodialysis process (stack consists of bipolar and anion-exchange membranes). Reactive extraction with quaternary ammonium chloride (Aliquat 336) or alkylphosphine oxides (Cyanex 923) solutions (yield between 60% and 98%) was applied as the final step for fumaric acid recovery from aqueous streams after the membrane techniques. The hybrid system permitting nanofiltration, bipolar electrodialysis and reactive extraction was found effective for recovery of fumaric acid from the fermentation broth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of boiling conditions on the molecular and sensory profile of a vegetable broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mougin, Alice; Mauroux, Olivier; Matthey-Doret, Walter; Barcos, Eugenia Maria; Beaud, Fernand; Bousbaine, Ahmed; Viton, Florian; Smarrito-Menozzi, Candice

    2015-02-11

    Low-pressure cooking has recently been identified as an alternative to ambient and high-pressure cooking to provide food with enhanced organoleptic properties. This work investigates the impact of the cooking process at different pressures on the molecular and sensory profile of a vegetable broth. Experimental results showed similar sensory and chemical profiles of vegetable broths when boiling at 0.93 and 1.5 bar, while an enhancement of sulfur volatile compounds correlated with a greater leek content and savory aroma was observed when boiling at low pressure (80 °C/0.48 bar). Thus, low-pressure cooking would allow preserving the most labile volatiles likely due to the lower water boiling temperature and the reduced level of oxygen. This study evidenced chemical and sensory impact of pressure during cooking and demonstrated that the flavor profile of culinary preparations can be enhanced by applying low-pressure conditions.

  2. Standardization of a broth microdilution susceptibility testing method to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations of aquatic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, R.A.; Walker, R.D.; Carson, J.;

    2005-01-01

    A multiple laboratory study was conducted in accordance with the standards established by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), formerly the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS), for the development of quality control (QC) ranges using dilution antimicrob......A multiple laboratory study was conducted in accordance with the standards established by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), formerly the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS), for the development of quality control (QC) ranges using dilution......-Hinton broth. These QC ranges were accepted by the CLSI/NCCLS Subcommittee on Veterinary Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing in January 2004. This broth microdilution testing method represents the first standardized method for determining MICs of bacterial isolates whose preferred growth temperatures...

  3. Crude oil biodegradation aided by biosurfactants from Pseudozyma sp. NII 08165 or its culture broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajna, Kuttuvan Valappil; Sukumaran, Rajeev Kumar; Gottumukkala, Lalitha Devi; Pandey, Ashok

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the biosurfactants produced by the yeast Pseudozyma sp. NII 08165 for enhancing the degradation of crude oil by a model hydrocarbon degrading strain, Pseudomonas putida MTCC 1194. Pseudozyma biosurfactants were supplemented at various concentrations to the P. putida culture medium containing crude oil as sole carbon source. Supplementation of the biosurfactants enhanced the degradation of crude oil by P. putida; the maximum degradation of hydrocarbons was observed with a 2.5 mg L(-1) supplementation of biosurfactants. Growth inhibition constant of the Pseudozyma biosurfactants was 11.07 mg L(-1). It was interesting to note that Pseudozyma sp. NII 08165 alone could also degrade diesel and kerosene. Culture broth of Pseudozyma containing biosurfactants resulted up to ∼46% improvement in degradation of C10-C24 alkanes by P. putida. The enhancement in degradation efficiency of the bacterium with the culture broth supplementation was even more pronounced than that with relatively purer biosurfactants.

  4. Slide Coagglutination for Salmonella typhi Antigens in Broths Inoculated with Feces from Typhoid Fever Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    SLIDE COAGGLUTINATION FOR SALMONELLA TYPHI ANTIGENS IN BROTHS INOCULATED WITH FECES FROM TYPHOID FEVER PATIENTS R. C. Rockhill, L. W. Rumans and M...permission of the Editor, Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health SLIDE COAGGLUTINATION FOR SALMONELLA TYPHI ANTIGENS IN...525 Vol. 12 No. 4 December 1981 1 1P .. .. . --U- 1- "J SLIDE COAGGLUTINATION O Salmonella typhi ANTIGFNS the Infectious Disease Hospital and cultured

  5. A new bisabolane-type sesquiterpenoid from the fermentation broth of fungus Antrodiella gypsea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhen-Zhu; He, Li-Qiang; Chen, He-Ping; Li, Zheng-Hui; Dong, Ze-Jun; Feng, Tao; Liu, Ji-Kai

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the fermentation broth of fungus Antrodiella gypsea led to the isolation of a new bisabolane-type sesquiterpenoid that was named gypseatriol (1), together with the known compound 2,10-dodecadiene-1,6,7-triol (2). The structure of this new metabolite was assigned by analysis of 2D NMR and HR-EI-MS. Absolute configuration was assigned by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Compound 1 was evaluated for its antifungal activity on Candida albicans.

  6. MICROFILTRATION AND ULTRAFILTRATION OF Bacillus thuringiensis FERMENTATION BROTH: MEMBRANE PERFORMANCE AND SPORE-CRYSTAL RECOVERY APPROACHES

    OpenAIRE

    R. Marzban; F. Saberi; M.M.A. Shirazi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recovery of spores and crystals from the fermentation broth of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) was studied using the membrane separation technology. Four types of polymeric membranes, with different characteristics, in the range of microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) were used for evaluating their permeate flux and spore-crystal recovery capacity. Results indicated that both MF and UF membranes are effective for spore-crystal recovery. The hydrophobic MF membrane made of polyvi...

  7. A study of parameters affecting the solvent extraction of lactic acid from fermentation broth

    OpenAIRE

    Udachan,I. S.; Sahoo, A.K.

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid has recently been drawing much interest as a raw material for biodegradable polymer. One of the promising technologies for recovery of lactic acid from fermentation broth is reactive liquid - liquid extraction. Equilibrium studies on the reactive extraction of lactic acid with trioctylamine (TOA) in various organic phases and its re-extraction into aqueous solutions were carried out. In this study distribution coefficient, extractability, stripping efficiency of various active and...

  8. Early and efficient detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum by microscopic observation of broth cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benson R Kidenya

    Full Text Available Early, efficient and inexpensive methods for the detection of pulmonary tuberculosis are urgently needed for effective patient management as well as to interrupt transmission. These methods to detect M. tuberculosis in a timely and affordable way are not yet widely available in resource-limited settings. In a developing-country setting, we prospectively evaluated two methods for culturing and detecting M. tuberculosis in sputum. Sputum samples were cultured in liquid assay (micro broth culture in microplate wells and growth was detected by microscopic observation, or in Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ solid media where growth was detected by visual inspection for colonies. Sputum samples were collected from 321 tuberculosis (TB suspects attending Bugando Medical Centre, in Mwanza, Tanzania, and were cultured in parallel. Pulmonary tuberculosis cases were diagnosed using the American Thoracic Society diagnostic standards. There were a total of 200 (62.3% pulmonary tuberculosis cases. Liquid assay with microscopic detection detected a significantly higher proportion of cases than LJ solid culture: 89.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 84.7% to 93.3% versus 77.0% (95% CI, 71.2% to 82.8% (p = 0.0007. The median turn around time to diagnose tuberculosis was significantly shorter for micro broth culture than for the LJ solid culture, 9 days (interquartile range [IQR] 7-13, versus 21 days (IQR 14-28 (p<0.0001. The cost for micro broth culture (labor inclusive in our study was US $4.56 per sample, versus US $11.35 per sample for the LJ solid culture. The liquid assay (micro broth culture is an early, feasible, and inexpensive method for detection of pulmonary tuberculosis in resource limited settings.

  9. The shock compression of microorganism-loaded broths and emulsions: Experiments and simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Hazell, P. J.; Beveridge, C.; Groves, K.; Appleby-Thomas, G.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract By carefully selecting flyer plate thickness and the geometry of a target capsule for bacterial broths and emulsions, we have successfully subjected the contents of the capsule to simultaneous shock and dynamic compression when subjected to a flyer-plate impact experiment. The capsules were designed to be recovered intact so that post experimental analysis could be done on the contents. ANSYS? AUTODYN hydrocode simulations were carried out to interrogate the deformation of...

  10. In Vitro Antibiotic Susceptibilities of Yersinia pestis Determined by Broth Microdilution following CLSI Methods

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In vitro susceptibilities to 45 antibiotics were determined for 30 genetically and geographically diverse strains of Yersinia pestis by the broth microdilution method at two temperatures, 28°C and 35°C, following Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) methods. The Y. pestis strains demonstrated susceptibility to aminoglycosides, quinolones, tetracyclines, β-lactams, cephalosporins, and carbapenems. Only a 1-well shift was observed for the majority of antibiotics between the two te...

  11. Identification of Leaf Rust Resistance Gene in Wheat Line LB0288%中国小麦LB0288中抗叶锈病基因的鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐爱勇; 李星; 赵振杰

    2011-01-01

    明确中国小麦LB0288中所含的抗叶锈病基因,找到与其紧密连锁的DNA分子标记.将小麦LB0288和感病小麦品种Thatcher杂交,获得F1、F2代群体,用叶锈菌小FHTT分别对双亲及其杂交后代进行叶锈鉴定并进行标记分析.抗性鉴定结果表明F2代群体时呈现一对显性基因的抗感分离比例,经过亲本和抗感池间标记筛选以及F2代群体的标记检测,位于5DL的SSR标记barc144与抗病基因连锁,遗传距离为5.3 cM,同时Lr1的STS标记与之共分离,根据该基因的抗性特点和染色体位置推断为Lrl.此实验通过抗性鉴定、遗传分析和分子标记等手段确定LB0288中含有小麦抗叶锈病基因Lr1.%The objective of this study was to identify leaf rust resistance gene and its closely linked molecular markers in LB0288. In order to make use of the leaf rust resistance gene in LB0288 effectively, F1 and F2 populations from the cross LB0288/Thatcher were tested with pathotype FHTT for following marker analysis.The results indicated that LB0288 carried a single dominant resistance gene Lr1, closely linked to the STS markers of Lr1 and SSR marker barc144, with genetic distances of 0 cM and 5.3 cM, respectively. Based on the chromosomal location and seedling reactions, it could be concluded that LB0288 carried resistance gene Lr1.

  12. Sugaring-out extraction of acetoin from fermentation broth by coupling with fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jian-Ying; Ma, Lin-Hui; Wang, Zhuang-Fei; Guan, Wen-Tian; Xiu, Zhi-Long

    2017-03-01

    Acetoin is a natural flavor and an important bio-based chemical which could be separated from fermentation broth by solvent extraction, salting-out extraction or recovered in the form of derivatives. In this work, a novel method named as sugaring-out extraction coupled with fermentation was tried in the acetoin production by Bacillus subtilis DL01. The effects of six solvents on bacterial growth and the distribution of acetoin and glucose in different solvent-glucose systems were explored. The operation parameters such as standing time, glucose concentration, and volume ratio of ethyl acetate to fermentation broth were determined. In a system composed of fermentation broth, glucose (100%, m/v) and two-fold volume of ethyl acetate, nearly 100% glucose was distributed into bottom phase, and 61.2% acetoin into top phase without coloring matters and organic acids. The top phase was treated by vacuum distillation to remove solvent and purify acetoin, while the bottom phase was used as carbon source to produce acetoin in the next batch of fermentation.

  13. UV-Heat Treatments for the Control of Foodborne Microbial Pathogens in Chicken Broth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gouma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation established the process criteria for using UV-C light and mild heat (UV-H treatment to inactivate 5-Log10 cycles (performance criterion of common foodborne pathogen populations, Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus, when inoculated in chicken broth. To define the target microorganism and the proper UV-H treatment conditions (including UV dose, treatment time, and temperature that would achieve the stated performance criterion, mathematical equations based on Geeraerd’s model were developed for each microorganism. For the sake of comparison, inactivation equations for heat treatments were also performed on the same chicken broth and for the same microorganisms. L. monocytogenes was the most UV-H resistant microorganism at all temperatures, requiring a UV dose between 6.10 J/mL (5.6 min and 2.26 J/mL (2.09 min to achieve 5-Log10 reductions. In comparison with UV treatments at room temperatures, the combination of UV and mild heat allowed both the UV dose and treatment time to be reduced by 30% and 63% at 55°C and 60°C, respectively. Compared to heat treatments, the UV-H process reduced the heating time for 5-Log10 reductions of all the investigated microorganisms in chicken broth from 20-fold to 2-fold when the operating temperature varied from 53 to 60°C.

  14. Characterization of dye decolorization in cell-free culture broth of Trametes versicolor CBR43.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Hyun; Ryu, Hee Wook; Cho, Kyung Suk

    2016-09-23

    The dye decolorization rate in a cell-free culture broth of the white rot fungus Trametes versicolor CBR43 was studied, including the effects of inhibitors of NaCl, Zn(II), and Cd(II) on dye decolorization activity. The maximum rates of dye decolorization in cell-free culture broth were 1410, 44.7, 41.2, and 0.19 μmol L(-1) min(-1) for Acid Blue 62, Acid Black 175, Reactive Blue 4, and Acid Red 114, respectively. The inhibition effects of NaCl, Zn(II), and Cd(II) on dye decolorization were quantitatively compared using the half maximal inhibition concentration (IC50), which indicates the concentration of an inhibitor required for 50% inhibition. Based on IC50 values, dye decolorization in the cell-free culture broth of CBR43 was most potently inhibited by Cd(II), whereas the inhibitory effect of NaCl was relatively low. The dye decolorization rates and IC50 data can be used in the design and development of a dye-wastewater treatment process using T. versicolor CBR43 and its operating factors.

  15. Chemical constituents of the fermentation broth of the marine-derived fungus Penicillium roqueforti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mioso, Roberto; Marante, Francisco Javier Toledo; Laguna, Irma Herrera Bravo de

    2015-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Penicillium roqueforti is a well-known multifunctional cell factory of high added-value biomolecules. The objective of this work was to carry out a detailed analysis of the metabolites present in the culture broth of a new marine-derived Penicillium roqueforti strain isolated in the Canary Islands, Spain. The fungal biomass production was carried out in liquid-state fermentation, and after 10-12 days of incubation at 22-25°C, the supernatant mycelia was separated by filtration, and the culture broth (12l) was stored in a refrigerator at 4°C for a subsequent liquid-liquid extraction with dichloromethane (3×), in accordance with the modified Kupchan method. The volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds were separated by chromatography and analyzed using GC-MS and NMR spectroscopy analyses. Several volatile organic compounds involved in the fatty acid pathway were identified: a terpenoid, a cyclic dipeptide, phthalates, and an alkyl adipate. In addition, three categories of non-volatile compounds (alkanes, fatty acids and 1-alkanols) were identified by spectroscopy. The results show that the fermented broth of this fungal strain has no mycotoxins under the culture conditions applied. It is hoped that this chemo-specific information will offer critical input for improving the biotechnological applications of this filamentous fungus. Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Superparamagnetic poly(methyl methacrylate) beads for nattokinase purification from fermentation broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chengli; Xing, Jianmin; Guan, Yueping; Liu, Huizhou

    2006-09-01

    An effective method for purification of nattokinase from fermentation broth using magnetic poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) beads immobilized with p-aminobenzamidine was proposed in this study. Firstly, magnetic PMMA beads with a narrow size distribution were prepared by spraying suspension polymerization. Then, they were highly functionalized via transesterification reaction with polyethylene glycol. The surface hydroxyl-modified magnetic beads obtained were further modified with chloroethylamine to transfer the surface amino-modified magnetic functional beads. The morphology and surface functionality of the magnetic beads were examined by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared. An affinity ligand, p-aminobenzamidine was covalently immobilized to the amino-modified magnetic beads by the glutaraldehyde method for nattokinase purification directly from the fermentation broth. The purification factor and the recovery of the enzyme activity were found to be 8.7 and 85%, respectively. The purification of nattokinase from fermentation broth by magnetic beads only took 40 min, which shows a very fast purification of nattokinase compared to traditional purification methods.

  17. Separation of salvianic acid A from the fermentation broth of engineered Escherichia coli using macroporous resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Chen-Long; Zhao, Guang-Rong

    2015-08-01

    Salvianic acid A (also known as danshensu) is a plant-derived polyphenolic acid, and has a variety of physiological and pharmacological activities. Our laboratory previously constructed an unprecedented artificial biosynthetic pathway in Escherichia coli and established the fermentation process to produce salvianic acid A. Here, we developed an efficient method for separating salvianic acid A from the fermentation broth of engineered Escherichia coli by macroporous resins. Among ten tested macroporous resins, the static and dynamic adsorption/desorption experiments demonstrated that X5 resin was the best to separate salvianic acid A from fermentation broth. Other parameters during static and dynamic procedures were also investigated. Under the optimum separation conditions, the average adsorption capacity of SAA were 10.66±0.54 mg/g dry resin and the desorption ratio was 85.6±4.1%. The purity and recovery yield of salvianic acid A in the final dry product were 90.2±1.5 and 81.5±2.3%, respectively. The results show that adsorption separation with macroporous resin X5 was an efficient method to prepare salvianic acid A from fermentation broth. This work will benefit the development and application of plant-derived salvianic acid A and its derivatives. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Separation and purification of γ-aminobutyric acid from fermentation broth by flocculation and chromatographic methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qiang; Duan, Qiang; Wang, Depei; Zhang, Yunze; Zheng, Chunyang

    2013-02-27

    To date, the multifunctional γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is mainly produced by microbial fermentation in industry. The purpose of this study was to find an effective method for separation and purification of 31.2 g/L initial GABA from the fermentation broth of Enterococcus raffinosus TCCC11660. To remove the impurities from fermentation broth, flocculation pretreatment using chitosan and sodium alginate was first implemented to facilitate subsequent filtration. Ultrafiltration followed two discontinuous diafiltration steps to effectively remove proteins and macromolecular pigments, and the resulting permeate was further decolored by DA201-CII resin at a high decoloration ratio and GABA recovery. Subsequently, ion exchange chromatography (IEC) with Amberlite 200C resin and gradient elution were applied for GABA separation from glutamate and arginine. Finally, GABA crystals of 99.1% purity were prepared via warm ethanol precipitation twice. Overall, our results reveal that the successive process including flocculation, filtration, ultrafiltration, decoloration, IEC, and crystallization is promising for scale-up GABA extraction from fermentation broth.

  19. HPLC-ELSD determination of kanamycin B in the presence of kanamycin A in fermentation broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; He, Hui-Min; Zhang, Jin; Liu, Feng-Jiao; Li, Chao; Wang, Bing-Wu; Qiao, Ren-Zhong

    2015-03-01

    A novel method for the direct determination of kanamycin B in the presence of kanamycin A in fermentation broth using high performance liquid chromatography with evaporative light scattering detector (HPLC-ELSD) was developed. An Agilent Technologies C18 column was utilized, evaporation temperature of 40°C and nitrogen pressure of 3.5 bar, the optimized mobile phase was water-acetonitrile (65:35, v/v), containing 11.6 mm heptafluorobutyric acid (isocratic elution with flow rate of 0.5 mL/min) with the gain 11. Kanamycin B was eluted at 5.6 min with an asymmetry factor of 1.827. The method showed good linearity over the concentration range of 0.05 to 0.80 mg/mL for the kanamycin B (r(2) = 0.9987). The intra-day and inter-day coefficients of variation obtained from kanamycin B were less than 4.3%. Mean recovery of kanamycin B from spiked fermentation broth was 95%. The developed method was applied to the determination of kanamycin B without any interference from other constituents in the fermentation broth. This method offers simple, rapid and quantitative detection of kanamycin B. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Recovery of ammonium lactate and removal of hardness from fermentation broth by nanofiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sang Hyeon; Chang, Yong Keun; Chang, Ho Nam

    2004-01-01

    Nanofiltration (NF) was investigated as an alternative to desalting electrodialysis (ED) and ion exchange for the recovery of ammonium lactate from fermentation broth. Three commercial NF membranes, NF45, NF70, and NTR-729HF, were characterized with 50 mM NaCl, MgSO(4), and glucose solutions. NF45 membrane was selected because it showed the lowest rejection of monovalent ion, the highest rejection of divalent ion, and the highest rejection of nonpolar molecule. Effects of the operating pressure were investigated in a range of 100-400 psig, on the flux, lactate recovery, and glucose and magnesium removal from a real fermentation broth containing about 1.0 M of ammonium lactate. The flux and recovery rate increased linearly with the pressure. However, lactate rejection also increased with the pressure, lowering the recovery yield. More magnesium ions and glucose were rejected as the pressure was increased, and at 400 psig, for example, magnesium ion was almost completely rejected, highlighting the chance of obviating the necessity of ion exchange to remove hardness, by using NF instead of desalting ED. Membrane fouling was not so severe as expected, considering the complex nature and a rather high concentration of the fermentation broth treated.

  1. Modeling of mixing in stirred bioreactors 4. mixing time for aerated bacteria, yeasts and fungus broths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cascaval Dan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The mixing time for bioreactors depends mainly on the rheoiogicai properties of the broths, the biomass concentration and morphology, mixing system characteristics and fermentation conditions. For quantifying the influence of these factors on the mixing efficiency for stirred bioreactors, aerated broths of bacteria (P. shermanii, yeasts (S. cerevisiae and fungi (P. chrysogenum, free mycelia and mycelial aggregates of different concentrations have been investigated using a laboratory bioreactor with a double turbine impeller. The experimental data indicated that the influence of the rotation speed, aeration rate and stirrer positions on the mixing intensity strongly differ from one system to another and must be correlated with the microorganism characteristics, namely: the biomass concentration and morphology. Moreover, compared with non-aerated broths, variations of the mixing time with the considered parameters are very different, due to the complex flow mechanism of gas-liquid dispersions. By means of the experimental data and using a multiregression analysis method some mathematical correlations for the mixing time of the general form: tm = a1*Cx2+a2*Cx+a3*IgVa+a4-N2+a5-N+a6/a7*L2+a8*L+a9 were established. The proposed equations offer good agreement with the experiments, the average deviation being ±6.7% - ±9.4 and are adequate for the flow regime Re < 25,000.

  2. Volatile flavor constituents in the pork broth of black-pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian; Wang, Meng; Xie, Jianchun; Zhao, Mengyao; Hou, Li; Liang, Jingjing; Wang, Shi; Cheng, Jie

    2017-07-01

    Pork of black-pig in China is well known for its quality and preferred by consumers. However, there is a lack of research on its flavors. By solvent assisted flavor evaporation combined with GC-MS, 104 volatile compounds in the stewed pork broth of black-pig were identified with the dominant amounts of fatty acids, alcohols, and esters. By aroma extract dilution analysis-GC-O method, 27 odor-active compounds were characterized, including 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 3-(methylthio)propanal, 2-furfurylthiol, γ-decalactone, nonanal, (E)-2-nonenal, and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal that had high FD factors. Compared to the common white-pig, the aroma compounds in both pork broths were almost the same, but the aroma profile of potent odorants for the black-pig pork broth showed less fatty and more roasted notes, which were partially attributed to the higher monounsaturated fatty acids and lower polyunsaturated fatty acids in meat. With aid of authentic chemicals and selected reaction monitoring mode of GC-MS/MS, 19 aroma compounds were quantitated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Use of potato extract broth for culturing root-nodule bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyniuk, Stefan; Oroń, Jadwiga

    2011-01-01

    Liquid media containing potato extract and 1% of glucose or sucrose were used to culture root-nodule bacteria (rhizobia) in shaken Erlenmeyer flasks. For comparison, these bacteria were also cultured in yeast extract-mannitol broth (YEMB) as a standard medium. Proliferation of rhizobia was monitored by measuring optical densities (OD550) of the cultures and by plate counting of the viable cells (c.f.u) of the bacteria. In general, multiplication of the rhizobia in potato extract-glucose broth (PEGB) and potato extract-sucrose broth (PESB) was markedly faster, as indicated by higher values of OD550, than in YEMB. The numbers of R. leguminosarum by. vicae GGL and S. meliloti 330 in PEGB and PEGB were high and ranged from 1.2 x 10(10) to 4.9 x 10(10) mL(-1) after 48 h of incubation at 28 degrees C. B. japonicum B3S culture in PEGB contained 6.4 x 10(9) c.f.u. ml(-1) after 72 h of incubation. PEGB and YEMB cultures of the rhizobia were similar with respect to their beneficial effects on nodulation of the host-plants of these bacteria.

  4. Flow cytometry susceptibility testing for conventional antifungal drugs and Comparison with the NCCLS Broth Macrodilution Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Najafzadeh

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: During the last decade, the incidence of fungal infection has been increased in many countries. Because of the advent of resistant to antifungal agents, determination of an efficient strategic plan for treatment of fungal disease is an important issue in clinical mycology. Many methods have been introduced and developed for determination of invitro susceptibility tests. During the recent years, flow cytometry has developed to solving the problem and many papers have documented the usefulness of this technique. Materials and methods: As the first step, the invitro susceptibility of standard PTCC (Persian Type of Culture Collection strain and some clinical isolates of Candida consisting of Candida albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata, C. kefyer and C. parapsilosis were evaluated by macrodilution broth method according to NCCLS (National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards guidelines and flow cytometry susceptibility test. Results:  The data indicated that macro dilution broth methods and flow cytometry have the same results in determination of MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration for amphotericin B, clotrimazole, fluconazole, ketoconazole and miconazole in C. albicans PTCC 5027 as well as clinical Candida isolates, such as C.albicans, C.dubliniensis, C.glabrata C.kefyr, and C.parapsilosis. Discussion: Comparing the results obtained by macrodilution broth and flow cytometry methods revealed that flow cytometry was faster. It is suggested that flow cytometry susceptibility test can be used as a powerful tool for determination of MIC and administration of the best antifungal drug in treatment of patients with Candida infections.

  5. MICROFILTRATION AND ULTRAFILTRATION OF Bacillus thuringiensis FERMENTATION BROTH: MEMBRANE PERFORMANCE AND SPORE-CRYSTAL RECOVERY APPROACHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Marzban

    Full Text Available Abstract Recovery of spores and crystals from the fermentation broth of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt was studied using the membrane separation technology. Four types of polymeric membranes, with different characteristics, in the range of microfiltration (MF and ultrafiltration (UF were used for evaluating their permeate flux and spore-crystal recovery capacity. Results indicated that both MF and UF membranes are effective for spore-crystal recovery. The hydrophobic MF membrane made of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF achieved a better performance compared to the one made with hydrophilic cellulose acetate (CA. Both had a 0.22 µm pore size, under the condition of an upper range of feed pressure. Also, with the increase of the feed flow rate, a higher flux was achieved for the PVDF membrane. A UF membrane made of polyethersulfone (PES polymer was also used effectively for spore/crystal recovery from the broth, but under a higher operating pressure. In the entire experiment, a 99.9% rejection factor was measured with the applied membranes for the spore/crystal in the fermentation broth.

  6. In vitro effect of intracanal medicaments on strict anaerobes by means of the broth dilution method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSA Odila Pereira da Silva

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The determination of bacterial susceptibility to intracanal medicaments is a necessity. Nevertheless, few studies utilize the proper methodology to carry out that evaluation with anaerobes. In this study, the steps of a broth dilution method, carried out in microplates (microdilution and tubes (macrodilution, to test the effect of traditional intracanal medicaments on anaerobic bacteria are described. The results are presented as values of minimal inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations (MIC and MBC. Standardized inocula of the anaerobic bacteria Prevotella nigrescens (ATCC 33563, Fusobacterium nucleatum (ATCC 25586 and Clostridium perfringens (ATCC 13124, in reinforced Clostridium medium (RCM and supplemented Brucella broth, were submitted to different concentrations of calcium hydroxide, chlorhexidine digluconate, camphorated paramonochlorophenol and formocresol solutions. The drugs were diluted in the same culture broths, in microplates and tubes, and were then incubated in anaerobiosis jars at 37ºC for 48 or 96 hours. The determination of MICs was carried out through visual and spectrophotometric readings, and the determination of MBCs, through the plating of aliquots on RCM-blood agar. For that kind of study, the macromethod with spectrophotometric reading should be the natural choice. MICs and MBCs obtained with the macromethod were compatible with the known clinical performance of the studied medications, and the values varied according to the bacteria and culture media employed. RCM was the most effective medium and C. perfringens, the most resistant microorganism.

  7. Ion Permeability of Free-Suspended Layer-by-Layer (LbL Films Prepared Using an Alginate Scaffold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuhiko Sato

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Layer-by-layer (LbL films were prepared over an aperture (diameter 1–5 mm on a glass plate to study ion permeation across free-suspended LbL films. LbL films were prepared by depositing alternating layers of poly(allylamine hydrochloride (PAH and poly(styrene sulfonate (PSS on the surface of a glass plate with an aperture filled with an alginate gel, followed by dissolution of the alginate gel. PAH-PSS films prepared in this way showed permeability to inorganic salts, depending on the size and charge. Permeability to alkali metal chlorides depended on the Stokes radius of the alkali metal cations. The effect of the type of halide was negligible because of the halides’ smaller ionic radii. Permeation of multivalent ions such as Ru(NH363+ and [Fe(CN6]3− was severely suppressed owing to Donnan exclusion.

  8. Chemsensor of NO2 gas based on porphyrin of 5, 10, 15, 20-tetraphenylporphyrin LB films and LS films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelício Faria de Sales

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of 5, 10, 15, 20-tetraphenylporphyrin (H2TPP to the presence of NO2 gas in diluted solutions and in Langmuir-Blodgett (LB and Langmuir-Schaefer (LS films was investigated by UV-visible spectroscopy. The shift of Soret and Q bands were analyzed and the energies involved were calculated. The exposure of LB porphyrin films deposited onto glass slides to NO2 has performed as an active chemsensor with 7000 ppm gas concentration. Furthermore, the UV-vis dichroism absorption results associated with the Soret bands have given evidence of the tilt angle of the macrocycle related to the substrate. H2TPP in LB film was tilted by an angle of 51 ± 5° and in the LS film was tilted by an angle of 36° ± 5° indicating the formation of a preferential organization of the molecular films depending on the deposition method.

  9. Cytocompatible in situ cross-linking of degradable LbL films based on thiol-exchange reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sung Ho; Choi, Jinsu; Palanikumar, L; Choi, Eun Seong; Lee, Juno; Kim, Juan; Choi, Insung S; Ryu, Ja-Hyoung

    2015-08-01

    Formation of both mechanically durable and programmably degradable layer-by-layer (LbL) films in a biocompatible fashion has potential applications in cell therapy, tissue engineering, and drug-delivery systems, where the films are interfaced with living cells. In this work, we developed a simple but versatile method for generating in situ cross-linked and responsively degradable LbL films, based on the thiol-exchange reaction, under highly cytocompatible conditions (aqueous solution at pH 7.4 and room temperature). The cytocompatibility of the processes was confirmed by coating individual yeast cells with the cross-linked LbL films and breaking the films on demand, while maintaining the cell viability. In addition, the processes were applied to the controlled release of an anticancer drug in the HeLa cells.

  10. A mild pulsed electric field condition that improves acid tolerance, growth, and protease activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-K and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subspecies bulgaricus LB-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najim, N; Aryana, Kayanush J

    2013-06-01

    Pulsed electric field (PEF) processing involves the application of pulses of voltage for less than 1 s to fluid products placed between 2 electrodes. The effect of mild PEF on beneficial characteristics of probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus is not clearly understood. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of mild PEF conditions on acid tolerance, growth, and protease activity of Lb. acidophilus LA-K and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus LB-12. A pilot plant PEF system (OSU-4M; The Ohio State University, Columbus) was used. The PEF treatments were positive square unipolar pulse width of 3 µs, pulse period of 0.5s, electric field strength of 1 kV/cm, delay time of 20 µs, flow rate of 60 mL/min, and 40.5°C PEF treatment temperature. Both Lb. acidophilus LA-K and Lb. bulgaricus LB-12 subjected to mild PEF conditions were acid tolerant until the end of the 120 min of incubation, unlike the Lb. bulgaricus control, which was not acid tolerant after 30 min. The mild PEF-treated Lb. acidophilus LA-K and Lb. bulgaricus LB-12 reached the logarithmic phase of growth an hour earlier than the control. Mild PEF conditions studied significantly improved acid tolerance, exponential growth, and protease activity of both Lb. acidophilus LA-K and Lb. bulgaricus LB-12 compared with the control. The mild PEF conditions studied can be recommended for pretreating cultures to enhance these desirable attributes.

  11. Quality control ranges for testing broth microdilution susceptibility of Flavobacterium columnare and F. psychrophilium to nine antimicrobials

    Science.gov (United States)

    A multi-laboratory broth microdilution method trial was performed to standardize the specialized test conditions required for fish pathogens Flavobacterium columnare and F. pyschrophilum. Nine laboratories tested the quality control (QC) strains Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Aeromonas salmonicid...

  12. Significant decrease of broth viscosity and glucose consumption in erythromycin fermentation by dynamic regulation of ammonium sulfate and phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Wang, Zejian; Chu, Ju; Zhuang, Yingping; Zhang, Siliang; Yu, Xiaoguang

    2013-04-01

    In this study, the effects of nitrogen sources on broth viscosity and glucose consumption in erythromycin fermentation were investigated. By controlling ammonium sulfate concentration, broth viscosity and glucose consumption were decreased by 18.2% and 61.6%, respectively, whereas erythromycin biosynthesis was little affected. Furthermore, erythromycin A production was increased by 8.7% still with characteristics of low broth viscosity and glucose consumption through the rational regulations of phosphate salt, soybean meal and ammonium sulfate. It was found that ammonium sulfate could effectively control proteinase activity, which was correlated with the utilization of soybean meal as well as cell growth. The pollets formation contributed much to the decrease of broth viscosity. The accumulation of extracellular propionate and succinate under the new regulation strategy indicated that higher propanol consumption might increase the concentration of methylmalonyl-CoA and propionyl-CoA and thus could increase the flux leading to erythromycin A. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Pre-treatment step with Leuconostoc mesenteroides or L. pseudomesenteroides strains removes furfural from Zymomonas mobilis ethanolic fermentation broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, William J; Manter, Daniel K

    2014-10-01

    Furfural is an inhibitor of growth and ethanol production by Zymomonas mobilis. This study used a naturally occurring (not GMO) biological pre-treatment to reduce that amount of furfural in a model fermentation broth. Pre-treatment involved inoculating and incubating the fermentation broth with strains of Leuconostoc mesenteroides or Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides. The Leuconostoc strains converted furfural to furfuryl alcohol without consuming large amounts of dextrose in the process. Coupling this pre-treatment to ethanolic fermentation reduced furfural in the broth and improved growth, dextrose uptake and ethanol formation. Pre-treatment permitted ethanol formation in the presence of 5.2 g L(-1) furfural, which was otherwise inhibitive. The pre-treatment and presence of the Leuconostoc strains in the fermentation broth did not interfere with Z. mobilis ethanolic fermentation or the amounts of ethanol produced. The method suggests a possible technique for reducing the effect that furfural has on the production of ethanol for use as a biofuel.

  14. Effects of starvation on the transport of Escherichia coli K12 in saturated porous media are dependent on pH and ionic strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, S.; Walczak, J. J.; Wang, L.; Bardy, S. L.; Li, J.

    2010-12-01

    In this research, we investigate the effects of starvation on the transport of E. coli K12 in saturated porous media. Particularly, we examine the relationship between such effects and the pH and ionic strength of the electrolyte solutions that were used to suspend bacterial cells. E. coli K12 (ATCC 10798) cells were cultured using either Luria-Bertani Miller (LB-Miller) broth (10 g trypton, 5 g yeast extract and 10 g NaCl in 1 L of deionized water) or LB-Luria broth (10 g tryptone, 5 g yeast extract and 0.5 g NaCl in 1 L of deionized water). Both broths had similar pH (~7.1) but differed in ionic strength (LB-Miller: ~170 mM, LB-Luria: ~ 8 mM). The bacterial cells were then harvested and suspended using one of the following electrolyte solutions: phosphate buffered saline (PBS) (pH ~7.2; ionic strength ~170 mM), 168 mM NaCl (pH ~5.7), 5% of PBS (pH ~ 7.2; ionic strength ~ 8 mM) and 8 mM NaCl (pH ~ 5.7). Column transport experiments were performed at 0, 21 and 48 hours following cell harvesting to evaluate the change in cell mobility over time under “starvation” conditions. Our results showed that 1) starvation increased the mobility of E. coli K12 cells; 2) the most significant change in mobility occurred when bacterial cells were suspended in an electrolyte solution that had different pH and ionic strength (i.e., LB-Miller culture suspended in 8 mM NaCl and LB-Luria culture suspended in 168 mM Nacl); and 3) the change in cell mobility primarily occurred within the first 21 hours. The size of the bacterial cells was measured and the surface properties (e.g., zeta potential, hydrophobicity, cell-bound protein, LPS sugar content, outer membrane protein profiles) of the bacterial cells were characterized. We found that the measured cell surface properties could not fully explain the observed changes in cell mobility caused by starvation.

  15. Cloning and Expression of a Thioredoxin Peroxidase Gene LbTPx from Limonium bicolor%二色补血草硫氧还蛋白过氧化物酶基因LbTPx的克隆及其表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁桂萍; 杨传平; 王玉成

    2011-01-01

    从二色补血草(Limonium bicolor)cDNA文库中分离出一个新的硫氧还蛋白过氧化物酶基因(LbTPx)全长cDNA序列.基因全长1016 bp,其中:5'非翻译区146 bp,3'非翻译区69 bp,开放读码框(ORF)801 bp,共编 码266个氨基酸;编码蛋白的分子质量为47.99× 10-24 kg,理论等电点为(pI)8.83.利用荧光定量PCR方法研究了二色补血草LbTPx基因在NaCl 、ABA、CuSO4、ZnCl2和CdCl2胁迫下不同时间的表达模式.结果表明:NaCl和CuSO4处理均能诱导LbTPx基因在二色补血草根和叶中的表达;ABA、ZnCl2和CdCl2处理则只能诱导Lb TPx基因在二色补血草叶中的表达,而抑制其在二色补血草根中的表达.

  16. Evaluation of Three Commercial Broth Media for Pigment Detection and Identification of a Group B Streptococcus (Streptococcus agalactiae)▿

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Maria da Glória; Facklam, Richard; Jackson, Delois; Beall, Bernard; McGee, Lesley

    2009-01-01

    Detection of group B Streptococcus (GBS) strains at various bacterial concentrations was evaluated using three pigment-producing broth media. At 103 CFU/ml, StrepB carrot broth (SBCB), Granada instant liquid biphasic (IGLB), and Northeast Laboratory GBS screening medium (NEL-GBS) showed 100% detection, but at the lower bacterial counts, SBCB and IGLB were more sensitive than NEL-GBS after 24 h.

  17. Effect of dried-bonito broth on mental fatigue and mental task performance in subjects with a high fatigue score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Motonaka; Ishizaki, Taichi; Maruyama, Tomoaki; Takatsuka, Yoji; Kuboki, Tomifusa

    2007-12-05

    Dried-bonito broth is commonly employed as a soup and sauce base in Japanese cuisine and is considered to be a nutritional supplement that promotes recovery from fatigue. Previous human trials suggest that the ingestion of dried-bonito broth improves several mood states; however, its effect on fatigue has not yet been clarified. The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of daily ingestion of dried-bonito broth on fatigue and cognitive parameters by a placebo-controlled double blind crossover trial. Forty-eight subjects with fatigue symptoms ingested the dried-bonito broth or a placebo solution every day for 4 weeks. Mood states were evaluated by the Profile of Mood States (POMS), and mental task performance was evaluated by the Uchida-Kraepelin psychodiagnostic (UKP) test. Fatigue and total mood disturbance (TMD) scores on the POMS test decreased significantly during the dried-bonito broth ingestion (p<0.05), but did not change significantly during placebo ingestion. The change in vigor score during dried-bonito broth ingestion was significantly higher than that during placebo ingestion at 2 weeks (p<0.05). The results of the UKP test indicate that the numbers of both total answers and correct answers significantly increased during dried-bonito broth ingestion (p<0.05), while no significant changes were observed in the placebo ingestion. These results suggest that the daily ingestion of dried-bonito broth may improve the mood states, may reduce mental fatigue and may increase performance on a simple calculation task.

  18. In vitro antibiotic susceptibilities of Burkholderia mallei (causative agent of glanders) determined by broth microdilution and E-test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, H S; England, M J; Waag, D M; Byrne, W R

    2001-07-01

    In vitro susceptibilities to 28 antibiotics were determined for 11 strains of Burkholderia mallei by the broth microdilution method. The B. mallei strains demonstrated susceptibility to aminoglycosides, macrolides, quinolones, doxycycline, piperacillin, ceftazidime, and imipenem. For comparison and evaluation, 17 antibiotic susceptibilities were also determined by the E-test. E-test values were always lower than the broth dilution values. Establishing and comparing antibiotic susceptibilities of specific B. mallei strains will provide reference information for assessing new antibiotic agents.

  19. The Fermentation Properties of Probiotic Lb.casein Zhang in the Yogurt%益生菌Lb.casei Zhang在酸乳中发酵特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫丽雅; 郭壮; 王记成; 张和平

    2008-01-01

    将益生菌Lb.casei Zhang分别以0、2×106、4×106、1×107 cfu/g的添加量,与商业酸乳发酵剂YC-X11共同接种进行酸乳制备.分别在发酵及贮藏期间测定酸乳样品的pH值、粘度及S.thermophilus,L.delbrueckii subsp.bulgaricus和Lb.casei Zhang的活菌数,并对上述指标之间的相关性进行了分析.结果表明,在发酵6 h后,添加Lb.casei Zhang的酸乳样品,其pH值变化及S.thermophilus和L.delbrueckii subsp.bulgaricus的活菌数均与对照组差异不明显(p<0.05),且各组酸乳样品测定指标间无相关性(p<0.05).变温贮藏21 d期间,添加Lb.casei Zhang的酸乳样品,其pH值、粘度、脱水收缩敏感性及S.thermophilus的活菌数与对照组差异不显著(p<0.05);添加Lb.casei Zhang的酸乳样品中L. delbrueckii subsp.bulgaricus的活菌数明显低于对照组(p<0.05). Lb.casei Zhang的添加量为2×106和1×107 cfu/g时,样品pH值均与粘度呈显著正相关(p<0.05),添加量4×106 cfu/g的Lb.casei Zhang时,样品粘度与脱水收缩敏感性及pH值与活菌数均呈显著负相关(p<0.05).

  20. Esterification synthesis of ethyl oleate in solvent-free system catalyzed by lipase membrane from fermentation broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei-Na; Chen, Bi-Qiang; Tan, Tian-Wei

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the immobilized lipase was prepared by fabric membrane adsorption in fermentation broth. The lipase immobilization method in fermentation broth was optimized on broth activity units and pH adjustments. The viscose fermentation broth can be used with a certain percentage of dilution based on the original broth activity units. The fermentation broth can be processed directly without pH adjustment. In addition, the oleic acid ethyl ester production in solvent-free system catalyzed by the immobilized lipase was optimized. The molar ratio of ethanol to oil acid, the enzyme amount, the molecular amount, and the temperature were 1:1, 12% (w/w), 9% (w/w)(based the total amount of reaction mixture), and 30 °C, respectively. Finally, the optimal condition afforded at least 19 reuse numbers with esterification rate above 80% under stepwise addition of ethanol. Due to simple lipase immobilization preparation, acceptable esterification result during long-time batch reactions and lower cost; the whole process was suitable for industrial ethyl oleate production.

  1. Effects of sugar alcohol and proteins on the survival of Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB6 during freeze drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Chen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB6 is a bacterium which was selected in the commercial yoghurt with high angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory activity. Preparation of concentrated starter cultures via freeze drying is of practical importance to dairy and food industries. Material and methods. We optimized the optimal sugar alcohol and proteins for Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB6 during the process of freeze drying using a Plackett-Burman design. In our initial tests survival rate and the number of viable cells were associated with the type of lyoprotectant used and so our optimization protocol focused on increasing survival rate. Substances that had previously had a protective effect during freeze drying were investigated, for example: mannitol, sorbitol, xylitol, meso-erythritol, lactitol, whey protein isolate 90, bovine serum albumin, and whey protein concentrate 80 and soy protein isolate 70. Results. We found that the optimum sugar alcohol and proteins for survival of Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB6 were whey protein concentrate (p = 0.0040 for survival rate, xylitol (p = 0.0067 for survival rate and sorbitol (p = 0.0073 for survival rate, they showed positive effect (whey protein concentrate and sorbitol or negative effect (xylitol. Discussion. The effectiveness of three chosen sugar alcohols and protein implied that they could be used as lyoprotectant for Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB6 in the further research, the optimal composition of sugar alcohol and protein for the lyoprotectant use must be established.

  2. Impact of LbSapSal Vaccine in Canine Immunological and Parasitological Features before and after Leishmania chagasi-Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, Lucilene Aparecida; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian de Oliveira; Gama-Ker, Henrique; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; de Mendonça, Ludmila Zanandreis; Alves, Marina Luiza Rodrigues; da Silveira-Lemos, Denise; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Araújo, Márcio Sobreira Silva; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Gontijo, Nelder Figueiredo; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro

    2016-01-01

    Dogs represent the most important domestic reservoir of L. chagasi (syn. L. infantum). A vaccine against canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) would be an important tool for decreasing the anxiety related to possible L. chagasi infection and for controlling human visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Because the sand fly salivary proteins are potent immunogens obligatorily co-deposited during transmission of Leishmania parasites, their inclusion in an anti-Leishmania vaccine has been investigated in past decades. We investigated the immunogenicity of the “LbSapSal” vaccine (L. braziliensis antigens, saponin as adjuvant, and Lutzomyia longipalpis salivary gland extract) in dogs at baseline (T0), during the post-vaccination protocol (T3rd) and after early (T90) and late (T885) times following L. chagasi-challenge. Our major data indicated that immunization with “LbSapSal” is able to induce biomarkers characterized by enhanced amounts of type I (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, interleukin [IL]-12, interferon [IFN]-γ) cytokines and reduction in type II cytokines (IL-4 and TGF-β), even after experimental challenge. The establishment of a prominent pro-inflammatory immune response after “LbSapSal” immunization supported the increased levels of nitric oxide production, favoring a reduction in spleen parasitism (78.9%) and indicating long-lasting protection against L. chagasi infection. In conclusion, these results confirmed the hypothesis that the “LbSapSal” vaccination is a potential tool to control the Leishmania chagasi infection. PMID:27556586

  3. Production of staphylococcal enterotoxins in microbial broth and milk by Staphylococcus aureus strains harboring seh gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Justyna; Podkowik, Magdalena; Bystroń, Jarosław; Bania, Jacek

    2016-10-17

    Twenty Staphylococcus aureus strains harboring seh gene, including one carrying also sec gene and 11 sea gene, were grown in BHI+YE broth and milk and were tested for SEA, SEC and SEH production. All strains decreased pH of BHI+YE broth at 24h and increased them at 48h. Seventeen S. aureus strains grown in milk changed pH for no >0.3 unit until 48h. Three other S. aureus strains significantly decreased pH during growth in milk. All S. aureus produced SEH in BHI+YE broth in amounts ranging from 95 to 1292ng/ml, and from 170 to 4158ng/ml at 24 and 48h, respectively. SEH production in milk by 17 strains did not exceed 23ng/ml at 24h and 36ng/ml at 48h. Three S. aureus strains able to decrease milk pH produced 107-3029ng/ml and 320-4246ng/ml of SEH in milk at 24 and 48h, respectively. These strains were grown in milk and BHI+YE broth with pH stabilized at values near neutral leading to a significant decrease of SEH production. Representative weak SEH producers were grown in milk at reduced pH resulting in moderate increase in SEH production. SEA was produced in milk by 10S. aureus strains at 24-151ng/ml at 24h, and 31-303ng/ml at 48h. SEA production in milk was higher or comparable as in BHI+YE broth in 3 strains and lower for remaining strains. Production of SEC by sec-positive S. aureus strains was lower in milk than in BHI+YE broth, ranging from 131 to 2319ng/ml at 24 and 48h in milk and 296-30,087ng/ml in BHI+YE at 24 and 48h. Both lacE and lacG transcripts involved in lactose metabolism were significantly up-regulated in milk in strong SEH producers. In these strains hld, rot and sarA transcripts were up-regulated in milk as compared to weak SEH producers. Stabilization of milk pH at a value of raw milk significantly down-regulated hld, rot and sarA RNA in strong SEH producers. Milk was generally found unfavorable for enterotoxin production. However, certain S. aureus strains were not restricted in SEH and SEA expression in milk, unlike SEC which remained down

  4. Automated harvesting and 2-step purification of unclarified mammalian cell-culture broths containing antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holenstein, Fabian; Eriksson, Christer; Erlandsson, Ioana; Norrman, Nils; Simon, Jill; Danielsson, Åke; Milicov, Adriana; Schindler, Patrick; Schlaeppi, Jean-Marc

    2015-10-30

    Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies represent one of the fastest growing segments in the pharmaceutical market. The growth of the segment has necessitated development of new efficient and cost saving platforms for the preparation and analysis of early candidates for faster and better antibody selection and characterization. We report on a new integrated platform for automated harvesting of whole unclarified cell-culture broths, followed by in-line tandem affinity-capture, pH neutralization and size-exclusion chromatography of recombinant antibodies expressed transiently in mammalian human embryonic kidney 293T-cells at the 1-L scale. The system consists of two bench-top chromatography instruments connected to a central unit with eight disposable filtration devices used for loading and filtering the cell cultures. The staggered parallel multi-step configuration of the system allows unattended processing of eight samples in less than 24h. The system was validated with a random panel of 45 whole-cell culture broths containing recombinant antibodies in the early profiling phase. The results showed that the overall performances of the preparative automated system were higher compared to the conventional downstream process including manual harvesting and purification. The mean recovery of purified material from the culture-broth was 66.7%, representing a 20% increase compared to that of the manual process. Moreover, the automated process reduced by 3-fold the amount of residual aggregates in the purified antibody fractions, indicating that the automated system allows the cost-efficient and timely preparation of antibodies in the 20-200mg range, and covers the requirements for early in vitro and in vivo profiling and formulation of these drug candidates. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Separating 2,3-butanediol from fermentation broth using n-butylaldehyde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a complete separation process for 2,3-butanediol fermentation broth has been developed using reactive-extraction and reactive-distillation. n-Butylaldehyde can be used as both reactant and extractant in the process. Equilibrium and kinetics were studied on the reaction between 2,3-butanediol and n-butylaldehyde using different catalysts. Pseudo-Homogeneous model was used to describe the reaction behavior. The kinetic parameters were determined by analyzing experimental data. The results revealed that the reaction enthalpy ΔrH0 = −21.58 ± 1.63 kJ mol−1. The reaction rate was found to increase with increasing reaction temperature and had a linear correlation with catalyst amount. The activity energy for H2SO4 system and HCl system was 57.52 ± 5.35 and 58.14 ± 5.06 kJ mol−1, respectively. Feasible operation conditions have been obtained as follows: volume ratio of n-butylaldehyde to fermentation broth is 0.2; feed molar ratio of water and 2-propyl-4,5-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolane (n-butylaldehyde 2,3-butanediol acetal for hydrolysis is 3.0; theoretical plate number for reactive-distillation column is 10 with concentration of HCl solution of 0.5 mol/L. With the above conditions, more than 90% of 2,3-butanediol can be recovered from fermentation broth by reactive-extraction process and the purity of final product can be over 99%.

  6. Shock Compression and Recovery of Microorganism-Loaded Broths and AN Emulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazell, P. J.; Beveridge, C.; Groves, K.; Stennett, C.

    2009-12-01

    The microorganisms Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and Zygosaccharomyces bailii and an oil-based emulsion, have been subjected to shock compression using the flyer-plate technique to initial pressures of 0.8 GPa (in the suspension). In each experiment, a stainless steel capsule was used to contain the broths and allow for recovery without contamination. Where cavitation was mostly suppressed by virtue of simultaneous shock and dynamic compression, no kill was observed. By introducing an air gap behind the suspension, limited kill was measured in the yeast. Results also suggest that stable emulsification occurs in coarse oil-based emulsions that are subjected to shock.

  7. Antibacterial activity composition of the fermentation broth of Streptomyces djakartensis NW35.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjuan; Wei, Shaopeng; Zhang, Jiwen; Wu, Wenjun

    2013-03-01

    The new compound Z-4-2 was isolated from the fermentation broth of Streptomyces djakartensis NW35, together with the known compound N-acetyltryptamine (Z-9-2) by bioassay-guided fractionation. Its chemical structure was elucidated as (E)-2-methoxy-1,4 naphthoquinone-1-oxime (Z-4-2) mainly by NMR analyses and MS spectral data. Their antibacterial activities against bacteria were evaluated by the filter paper method. The results of indicated that these compounds possess significant antibacterial activities.

  8. Lactic Acid Recovery from Model Solutions and Fermentation Broth by Electrodialysis

    OpenAIRE

    Nolasco-Hipolito, Cirilo; Thang, Vu Hong; Kobayashi, Genta; Sonomoto, Kenji; Ishizaki, Ayaaki

    2001-01-01

    The effect of current density, initial concentration of diluting solution on lactic acid (LA) recovery by electrodialysis from both model solutions and real fermentation broth was investigated. In model solutions, LA recovery efficiency was 93-96% and it was independent of both, current density and initial concentration of diluting solution. The recovery rates at 33, 66 and 100 A・m^ were 76, 175 and 272 g・m^・h^ respectively and, clearly were linearly depended on current density. In the first ...

  9. Subculture on potato dextrose agar as a complement to the broth microdilution assay for Malassezia pachydermatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Marilena R; Brito, Erika H S; Brilhante, Raimunda S N; Cordeiro, Rossana A; Leite, João J G; Sidrim, José J C; Rocha, Marcos F G

    2008-10-01

    The main aim of this study was to verify the efficacy of subculture on potato dextrose agar (PDA) as a complement to the in vitro susceptibility test for Malassezia pachydermatis strains by a broth microdilution method, as well as to determine the MIC and MFC of azole derivatives, amphotericin B and caspofungin. The microdilution assay was performed in 96-well plates using a modified RPMI 1640 medium. The M. pachydermatis strains were resistant to caspofungin. All strains (n=50) had shown MIC values of subculture on PDA improved the analysis of the in vitro antifungal susceptibility of M. pachydermatis.

  10. EXTRACTION OF CITRIC ACID FROM FERMENTATION BROTH USING ION—EXCHANGE METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuZuozhen; WangXiangyang; 等

    1998-01-01

    A number of ion-exchange resins were tested on their capacity to adsorb citric acid,among them resin 335,d315, Amberlite IRA-35 and IRA-68 exhibited higher adsorption capacity.We chose resin 335 and D315 to be used for extraction of citric acid from fermentation broth,followed by elution with 10% ammonia liquor,decoloration with K-15 carbon and removal of ammonia with resin 732,converting citrate of free citric acid with a concentration of 10% and an amount of readily carbonizable substance meeting the GB 8269-87 standard.

  11. A sub-Saturn Mass Planet, MOA-2009-BLG-319Lb

    CERN Document Server

    Miyake, N; Dong, Subo; Street, R; Mancini, L; Gould, A; Bennett, D P; Tsapras, Y; Yee, J C; Albrow, M D; Bond, I A; Fouque, P; Browne, P; Han, C; Snodgrass, C; Finet, F; Furusawa, K; Harpsoe, K; Allen, W; Hundertmark, M; Freeman, M; Suzuki, D; Abe, F; Botzler, C S; Douchin, D; Fukui, A; Hayashi, F; Hearnshaw, J B; Hosaka, S; Itow, Y; Kamiya, K; Kilmartin, P M; Korpela, A; Lin, W; Ling, C H; Makita, S; Masuda, K; Matsubara, Y; Muraki, Y; Nagayama, T; Nishimoto, K; Ohnishi, K; Perrott, Y C; Rattenbury, N; Saito, To; Skuljan, L; Sullivan, D J; Sweatman, W L; Tristram, P J; Wada, K; Yock, P C M; Bolt, G; Bos, M; Christie, G W; DePoy, D L; Drummond, J; Gal-Yam, A; Gaudi, B S; Gorbikov, E; Higgins, D; Janczak, K -H Hwang J; Kaspi, S; Lee, C -U; Koo, J -R; lowski, S Koz; Lee, Y; Mallia, F; Maury, A; Maoz, D; McCormick, J; Monard, L A G; Moorhouse, D; Mu~noz, J A; Natusch, T; Ofek, E O; Pogge, R W; Polishook, D; Santallo, R; Shporer, A; Spector, O; Thornley, G; Allan, A; Bramich, D M; Horne, K; Kains, N; Steele, I; Bozza, V; Burgdorf, M J; Novati, S Calchi; Dominik, M; Dreizler, S; Glitrup, M; Hessman, F V; Hinse, T C; Jorgensen, U G; Liebig, C; Maier, G; Mathiasen, M; Rahvar, S; Ricci, D; Scarpetta, G; Skottfelt, J; Southworth, J; Surdej, J; Wambsganss, J; Zimmer, F; Batista, V; Beaulieu, J P; Brillant, S; Cassan, A; Cole, A; Corrales, E; Coutures, Ch; Dieters, S; Greenhill, J; Kubas, D; Menzies, J

    2015-01-01

    We report the gravitational microlensing discovery of a sub-Saturn mass planet, MOA-2009-BLG-319Lb, orbiting a K or M-dwarf star in the inner Galactic disk or Galactic bulge. The high cadence observations of the MOA-II survey discovered this microlensing event and enabled its identification as a high magnification event approximately 24 hours prior to peak magnification. As a result, the planetary signal at the peak of this light curve was observed by 20 different telescopes, which is the largest number of telescopes to contribute to a planetary discovery to date. The microlensing model for this event indicates a planet-star mass ratio of q = (3.95 +/- 0.02) x 10^{-4} and a separation of d = 0.97537 +/- 0.00007 in units of the Einstein radius. A Bayesian analysis based on the measured Einstein radius crossing time, t_E, and angular Einstein radius, \\theta_E, along with a standard Galactic model indicates a host star mass of M_L = 0.38^{+0.34}_{-0.18} M_{Sun} and a planet mass of M_p = 50^{+44}_{-24} M_{Earth}...

  12. Formation and Properties of Protamine/Pectin LbL-Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hileuskaya, K.; Agabekov, V. E.

    The adsorption regularities of protamine sulfate and pectin on the surfaces from solution with different ionic strength were investigated in situ using quartz substrate via the quartz crystal microbalance technique. Both polymers were observed to absorb according to Langmuir's adsorption isotherm. The value of Langmuir adsorption constant (k) is equal to 74,48 and 1,12 sm3/μg for pectin and protamine respectively. Maximum amount of biopolymer (A∞) adsorbed on resonator is 0,87 μg/sm2 for Pect and 0,57 μg/sm2 for PtS. Ultrathin (pectin)8 LbL films were formed and adsorption kinetics of both polyions were studied. The rate constant of protamine and pectin adsorption are (3,9 ± 0,9)·10-2 s-1 and (3,4 ± 0,3)·10-2 s-1 respectively. It was shown, that film thickness increases by 2.5 times with polymers concentration in solution increasing from 0.1 to 3.0 mg/ml.

  13. The First Cold Neptune Analog Exoplanet: MOA-2013-BLG-605Lb

    CERN Document Server

    Sumi, T; Bennett, D P; Gould, A; Poleski, R; Bond, I A; Rattenbury, N; Pogge, R W; Bensby, T; Beaulieu, J P; Marquette, J B; Batista, V; Brillant, S; Abe, F; Bhattacharya, A; Donachie, M; Freeman, M; Fukui, A; Hirao, Y; Itow, Y; Koshimoto, N; Li, M C A; Ling, C H; Masuda, K; Matsubara, Y; Muraki, Y; Nagakane, M; Ohnishi, K; Saito, To; Sharan, A; Sullivan, D J; Suzuki, D; P.,; Tristram, J; Yonehara, A; Szymanski, M K; Ulaczyk, K; Kozlowski, S; Wyrzykowski, L; Kubiak, M; Pietrukowicz, P; Pietrzynski, G; Soszynski, I

    2015-01-01

    We present the discovery of the first Neptune analog exoplanet, MOA-2013-BLG-605Lb. This planet has a mass similar to that of Neptune or a super-Earth and it orbits at $9\\sim 14$ times the expected position of the snow-line, $a_{\\rm snow}$, which is similar to Neptune's separation of $ 11\\,a_{\\rm snow}$ from the Sun. The planet/host-star mass ratio is $q=(3.6\\pm0.7)\\times 10^{-4}$ and the projected separation normalized by the Einstein radius is $s=2.39\\pm0.05$. There are three degenerate physical solutions and two of these are due to a new type of degeneracy in the microlensing parallax parameters, which we designate "the wide degeneracy". The three models have (i) a Neptune-mass planet with a mass of $M_{\\rm p}=21_{-7}^{+6} M_{\\rm earth}$ orbiting a low-mass M-dwarf with a mass of $M_{\\rm h}=0.19_{-0.06}^{+0.05} M_\\odot$, (ii) a mini-Neptune with $M_{\\rm p}= 7.9_{-1.2}^{+1.8} M_{\\rm earth}$ orbiting a brown dwarf host with $M_{\\rm h}=0.068_{-0.011}^{+0.019} M_\\odot$ and (iii) a super-Earth with $M_{\\rm p}= ...

  14. OGLE-2012-BLG-0724Lb: A Saturn-mass Planet around an M-dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Hirao, Y; Sumi, T; Bennett, D P; Bond, I A; Rattenbury, N; Suzuki, D; Koshimoto, N; Abe, F; Asakura, Y; Bhattacharya, A; Freeman, M; Fukui, A; Itow, Y; Li, M C A; Ling, C H; Masuda, K; Matsubara, Y; Matsuo, T; Muraki, Y; Nagakane, M; Ohnishi, K; Oyokawa, H; Saito, To; Sharan, A; Shibai, H; Sullivan, D J; Tristram, P J; Yonehara, A; Poleski, R; Skowron, J; Mróz, P; Szymański, M K; Kozłowski, S; Pietrukowicz, P; Soszyński, I; Wyzykowski, Ł; Ulaczyk, K

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery of a planet by the microlensing method, OGLE-2012-BLG-0724Lb. Although the duration of the planetary signal for this event was one of the shortest seen for a planetary event, the anomaly was well covered thanks to high cadence observations taken by the survey groups OGLE and MOA. By analyzing the light curve, this planetary system is found to have a mass ratio $q=(1.58\\pm0.15)\\times10^{-3}$. By conducting a Bayesian analysis, we estimate that the host star is an M-dwarf star with a mass of $M_{\\rm L}=0.29_{-0.16}^{+0.33} \\ M_{\\odot}$ located at $D_{\\rm L}=6.7_{-1.2}^{+1.1} \\ {\\rm kpc}$ away from the Earth and the companion's mass is $m_{\\rm P}=0.47_{-0.26}^{+0.54} \\ M_{\\rm Jup}$. The projected planet-host separation is $a_{\\perp}=1.6_{-0.3}^{+0.4} \\ {\\rm AU}$. Because the lens-source relative proper motion is relatively high, future high resolution images would detect the lens host star and determine the lens properties uniquely. This system is likely a Saturn-mass exoplanet around an ...

  15. Rapid determination of lovastatin in the fermentation broth of Aspergillus terreus using dual-wavelength UV spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shi-Weng; Song, Hong-Ping; Leng, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Lovastatin, a hypocholesterolemic drug, is produced by submerged fermentation of Aspergillus terreus Thom (Trichocomaceae). High performance liquid chromatography is usually used to determine lovastatin in samples of the fermentation broth. However, this method is inconvenient and costly, especially in the context of high-throughput sample analysis. A direct and simple dual-wavelength ultraviolet spectrophotometric method for quantifying lovastatin in the fermentation broth of A. terreus was developed. A. terreus Z15-7 was used for all experiments. The liquid fermentation was conducted at 30 °C in a rotary shaker at 150 rpm for 15 d. Silica gel and neutral alumina column chromatography were used for the separation and purification of lovastatin from the fermentation broth. The limits of detection of lovastatin were 0.320 μg/ml in the lovastatin standard solution and 0.490 μg/ml in the fermentation broth sample and the limits of quantification of lovastatin were 1.265 μg/ml in the lovastatin standard solution and 3.955 μg/ml in the fermentation broth sample. The amounts of lovastatin in the fermentation broth ranged from 876.614 to 911.967 μg/ml, with relative standard deviations from 1.203 to 1.709%. The mean recoveries of lovastatin using silica gel and neutral alumina column chromatography were 84.2 ± 0.82 and 87.2 ± 0.21%, respectively. Dual-wavelength UV spectrophotometry is a rapid, sensitive, accurate, and convenient method for quantifying lovastatin in fermentation broth. Neutral alumina column chromatography is more efficient than silica gel column chromatography for the purification and determination lovastatin using the developed dual-wavelength UV spectrophotometry method.

  16. 26 CFR 1.1400L(b)-1 - Additional first year depreciation deduction for qualified New York Liberty Zone property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Additional first year depreciation deduction for... to Individuals' Title 11 Cases § 1.1400L(b)-1 Additional first year depreciation deduction for...-percent additional first year depreciation deduction allowable under section 1400L(b) for qualified...

  17. Electrical response of culture media during bacterial growth on a paper-based device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srimongkon, Tithimanan; Buerkle, Marius; Nakamura, Akira; Enomae, Toshiharu; Ushijima, Hirobumi; Fukuda, Nobuko

    2017-05-01

    In this work, we evaluated the feasibility of a paper-based bacterial detection system. The paper served as a substrate for the measurement electrodes and the culture medium. Using a printing technique, we patterned gold electrodes onto the paper substrate and applied Luria broth (LB) agar gel as a culture medium on top of the electrodes. As the first step towards the development of a bacterial detection system, we determined changes in the surface potential during bacterial growth and monitored these changes over 24 h. This allowed us to correlate changes in the surface potential with the different growth phases of the bacteria.

  18. Novel Platform Development Using an Assembly of Carbon Nanotube, Nanogold and Immobilized RNA Capture Element Towards Rapid, Selective Sensing of Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    inoculated by the addition of 10 μL of frozen stock solution to 6 mL of sterile Luria Bertani (LB) broth, comprised of 20 g of powder dissolved in 1 L of...unbound particles. The cellular pellet was suspended in sterile water for UV-Vis measurements. One milliliter of the sample is placed in a quartz...Thordarson, P.; Gooding, J.J.; Ringer, S.P.; Braet, F. Carbon nanotubes for biological and biomedical applications. Nanotechnology 2007, 18, 1–12. 4

  19. The antileukaemic cell cycle regulatory activities of swainsonine purified from Metarhizium anisopliae fermentation broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Digar; Kaur, Gurvinder

    2014-01-01

    Swainsonine is a Metarhizium secondary metabolite known differentially for its specific mannosidase inhibitory, toxic and therapeutic activities. Here, the standard and purified swainsonine from Metarhizium anisopliae fermentation broth were comparatively evaluated for their in situ antileukaemic activities in human promyelocytic cell line, HL-60. Both the standard (IC50 = 6.96 μM) and purified (IC50 = 9.50 μM) compounds inhibited the leukaemic cell proliferation without inflicting cell membrane disruption at 48 h of post-treatment incubation. The DNA cell cycle analysis showed approximately 48.81% and 60.72% of the treated cells arrested in the synthetic phase (S-phase) at 36 and 48 h, respectively, upon treatment with IC50 concentration of the purified swainsonine. However, only 29.62% of cells were arrested in S-phase with standard swainsonine at 48 h, suggesting the comprehensive action of certain other metabolites sharing the similar paradigm of antiproliferative properties in Metarhizium broth extract.

  20. Downstream extraction process development for recovery of organic acids from a fermentation broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekatorou, Argyro; Dima, Agapi; Tsafrakidou, Panagiotia; Boura, Konstantina; Lappa, Katerina; Kandylis, Panagiotis; Pissaridi, Katerina; Kanellaki, Maria; Koutinas, Athanasios A

    2016-11-01

    The present study focused on organic acids (OAs) recovery from an acidogenic fermentation broth, which is the main problem regarding the use of OAs for production of ester-based new generation biofuels or other applications. Specifically, 10 solvents were evaluated for OAs recovery from aqueous media and fermentation broths. The effects of pH, solvent/OAs solution ratios and application of successive extractions were studied. The 1:1 solvent/OAs ratio showed the best recovery rates in most cases. Butyric and isobutyric acids showed the highest recovery rates (80-90%), while lactic, succinic, and acetic acids were poorly recovered (up to 45%). The OAs recovery was significantly improved by successive 10-min extractions. Alcohols presented the best extraction performance. The process using repeated extractions with 3-methyl-1-butanol led to the highest OAs recovery. However, 1-butanol can be considered as the most cost-effective option taking into account its price and availability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Preparation of maltotriose from fermentation broth by hydrolysis of pullulan using pullulanase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sheng-Jun; Chen, Jing

    2014-07-17

    In this study, we prepared maltotriose from the fermentation broth of Auerobasidium Pullulans CJ001 isolated from the sea mud by hydrolysis of pullulan with pullulanase. The fermentation broth was centrifuged to remove the microorganisms and then hydrolysed by pullulanase. The optimal hydrolysis conditions were obtained as follows: time, 9.40 h; pH, 4.92; temperature, 47.88°C; pullulanase, 10ASPU/g. Under these optimum hydrolysis conditions, the maximum dextrose equivalent value reached 31.86. The hydrolysates were filtrated through a filter membrane to separate any particle with molecular weight higher than 1,000 Da, concentrated to ∼20%, and precipitated with 8 volumes of absolute ethanol. The precipitate was dried at 80°C for 2h to yield the maltotriose product. The maltotriose content in the product and the yield of maltotriose were 92.13% and 90.23%, respectively. The results indicate that this was a promising way of maltotriose production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Two-stage electrodialytic concentration of glyceric acid from fermentation broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habe, Hiroshi; Shimada, Yuko; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Kitamoto, Dai; Itagaki, Masayuki; Watanabe, Kunihiko; Yanagishita, Hiroshi; Sakaki, Keiji

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this research was the application of a two-stage electrodialysis (ED) method for glyceric acid (GA) recovery from fermentation broth. First, by desalting ED, glycerate solutions (counterpart is Na+) were concentrated using ion-exchange membranes, and the glycerate recovery and energy consumption became more efficient with increasing the initial glycerate concentration (30 to 130 g/l). Second, by water-splitting ED, the concentrated glycerate was electroconverted to GA using bipolar membranes. Using a culture broth of Acetobacter tropicalis containing 68.6 g/l of D-glycerate, a final D-GA concentration of 116 g/l was obtained following the two-stage ED process. The total energy consumption for the D-glycerate concentration and its electroconversion to D-GA was approximately 0.92 kWh per 1 kg of D-GA. Copyright © 2010 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. 2,3-Butanediol recovery from fermentation broth by alcohol precipitation and vacuum distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Sangjun; Kim, Duk-Ki; Song, Hyohak; Lee, Hee Jong; Park, Sunghoon; Seung, Doyoung; Chang, Yong Keun

    2014-04-01

    This study presents a new and effective downstream process to recover 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) from fermentation broth which is produced by a recombinant Klebsiella pneumoniae strain. The ldhA-deficient K. pneumoniae strain yielded about 90 g/L of 2,3-BD, along with a number of by-products, such as organic acids and alcohols, in a 65 h fed-batch fermentation. The pH-adjusted cell-free fermentation broth was firstly concentrated until 2,3-BD reached around 500 g/L by vacuum evaporation at 50°C and 50 mbar vacuum pressure. The concentrated solution was further treated using light alcohols, including methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol, for the precipitation of organic acids and inorganic salts. Isopropanol showed the highest removal efficiency, in which 92.5% and 99.8% of organic acids and inorganic salts were precipitated, respectively. At a final step, a vacuum distillation process enabled the recovery of 76.2% of the treated 2,3-BD, with 96.1% purity, indicating that fermentatively produced 2,3-BD is effectively recovered by a simple alcohol precipitation and vacuum distillation. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Species of Genus Ganoderma (Agaricomycetes) Fermentation Broth: A Novel Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilerdzic, Jasmina; Kosanic, Marijana; Stajić, Mirjana; Vukojevic, Jelena; Ranković, Branislav

    2016-01-01

    The bioactivity of Ganoderma lucidum basidiocarps has been well documented, but there are no data on the medicinal properties of its submerged cultivation broth nor on the other species of the genus Ganoderma. Thus the aim of this study was to test the potential antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of fermentation broth obtained after submerged cultivation of G. applanatum, G. carnosum, and G. lucidum. DPPH· scavenging ability, total phenols, and flavonoid contents were measured to determine the antioxidative potential of Ganoderma spp. fermentation filtrates, whereas their antimicrobial potential was studied using the microdilution method. DPPH· scavenging activity of G. lucidum fermentation filtrates was significantly higher than that of G. applanatum and G. carnosum, with the maximum (39.67%) obtained from strain BEOFB 432. This filtrate also contained the highest concentrations of phenols (134.89 μg gallic acid equivalents/mL) and flavonoids (42.20 μg quercetin equivalent/mL). High correlations between the activity and phenol content in the extracts showed that these compounds were active components of the antioxidative activity. G. lucidum strain BEOFB 432 was the most effective antibacterial agent, whereas strain BEOFB 434 has proven to be the most effective antifungal agent. The study showed that Ganoderma spp. fermentation filtrates are novel potent antioxidative and antimicrobial agents that could be obtained more quickly and cheaper than basidiocarps.

  5. Isolation of brefeldin A from Eupenicillium brefeldianum broth using macroporous resin adsorption chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Jun; Wu, Ye-Fei; Xue, Feng; Wu, Zhi-Xian; Xue, Ya-Ping; Zheng, Yu-Guo; Shen, Yin-Chu

    2012-05-01

    Brefeldin A (BFA) is a macrolide lactone antibiotic, possessing antitumor, antiviral, antifungal activities. In this work, a separation strategy involving one-step macroporous resin adsorption chromatography combined with crystallization was established for BFA purification from Eupenicillium brefeldianum CCTCC M 208113 fermentation broth. Among six macroporous resin adsorbents tested, the non-polar resin HZ830 had the best adsorption and desorption performance. The static equilibrium adsorption data fitted well with the Freundlich equation, and the adsorption kinetic followed the pseudo-second order model. Through experimental optimization of column adsorption and desorption, BFA in purity of 90.4% (w/w), 92.1% (w/w) yield was obtained by a one-step macroporous resin adsorption chromatography, using a stepwise elution protocol. Furthermore, high purity (>99%, w/w) of BFA crystals were prepared from E. brefeldianum CCTCC M 208113 fermentation broth in an overall recovery of 67.0% (w/w), using a combination of adsorption chromatography packed with non-polar macroporous adsorbent HZ830 and crystallization in acetone. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of solution environment on mammalian cell fermentation broth properties: enhanced impurity removal and clarification performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westoby, Matthew; Chrostowski, James; de Vilmorin, Philippe; Smelko, John Paul; Romero, Jonathan K

    2011-01-01

    The processing of recombinant proteins from high cell density, high product titer cell cultures containing mammalian cells is commonly performed using tangential flow microfiltration (MF). However, the increased cellular debris present in these complex feed streams can prematurely foul the membrane, adversely impacting MF capacity and throughput. In addition, high cell density cell culture streams introduce elevated levels of process-related impurities, which increase the burden on subsequent purification operations to remove these complex media components and impurities. To address this challenge, an evaluation of mammalian cell culture broth buffer properties was examined to determine if enhanced impurity removal and clarification performance could be achieved. A framework is presented here for establishing optimized mammalian cell culture buffer conditions, involving trade-offs between product recovery and purification and improved clarification at manufacturing-scale production. A reduction in cell culture broth pH to 4.7-5.0 induced flocculation and impurity precipitation which increased the average feed particle-size. These conditions led to enhanced impurity removal and improved MF throughput and filter capacity for several mammalian systems. Feed conditions were further optimized by controlling ionic composition along with pH to improve product recovery from high cell density/high product titer cell cultures. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Studies of polypropylene membrane fouling during microfiltration of broth with Citrobacter freundii bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gryta Marek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work a fouling study of polypropylene membranes used for microfiltration of glycerol solutions fermented by Citrobacter freundii bacteria was presented. The permeate free of C. freundii bacteria and having a turbidity in the range of 0.72–1.46 NTU was obtained. However, the initial permeate flux (100–110 L/m2h at 30 kPa of transmembrane pressure was decreased 3–5 fold during 2–3 h of process duration. The performed scanning electron microscope observations confirmed that the filtered bacteria and suspensions present in the broth formed a cake layer on the membrane surface. A method of periodical module rinsing was used for restriction of the fouling influence on a flux decline. Rinsing with water removed most of the bacteria from the membrane surface, but did not permit to restore the initial permeate flux. It was confirmed that the irreversible fouling was dominated during broth filtration. The formed deposit was removed using a 1 wt% solution of sodium hydroxide as a rinsing solution.

  8. Selenium intoxication with selenite broth resulting in acute renal failure and severe gastritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamble P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is an essential trace element in human and animal nutrition. It is also widely utilized in industrial processes. Reports of acute selenium toxicity in humans are rare. We report a case of a 23-year-old female who consumed about 100 mL of liquid selenite broth and presented with severe nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, hematemesis and acute renal failure (ARF. The serum selenium level was significantly increased. Gastro-duodenoscopy revealed severe corrosive gastritis. Renal biopsy showed features of acute tubular necrosis (ATN, affecting primarily the proximal tubules. The patient was managed with gastric lavage, blood transfusions, infusion of fresh frozen plasma (FFP and platelet concentrates and hemo-dialysis. The patient was discharged five weeks after admission and her renal functions reco-vered completely by eight weeks after admission. She continues to be on regular follow-up for any possible sequelae of mucosal corrosive damage. This case highlights a case of selenium intoxication from selenite broth resulting in ARF and corrosive gastritis. The recovery was complete.

  9. Optimization of the precipitation of clavulanic acid from fermented broth using t-octylamine as intermediate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. B. Hirata

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the use of clavulanic acid (CA precipitation as the final step in the process of purification of CA from fermentation broth as an alternative to conventional methods employed traditionally. The purpose of this study was to use a stable intermediate (t-octylamine between the conversion of CA to its salt form (potassium clavulanate, thereby enabling the resulting intermediate (amine salt of clavulanic acid to improve the purification process and maintain the stability of the resulting potassium clavulanate. To this end, response surface methodology was employed to optimize the precipitation step. For the first reaction, five temperatures (6.6 to 23.4 ºC, concentrations of clavulanic acid in organic solvent (6.6 to 23.4 mg/mL and t-octylamine inflow rates (0.33 to 1.17 drop/min were selected based on a central composite rotatable design (CCRD. For the second reaction, five temperatures (11.6 to 28.4 ºC, concentrations of clavulanic acid amine salt in organic solvent (8.2 to 41.8 mg/mL and concentrations of potassium 2-ethylhexanoate (0.2 to 1.2 molar were also selected using CCRD. From these results, precipitation conditions were selected and applied to the purification of CA from the fermentation broth, obtaining a yield of 72.37%.

  10. CLSI broth microdilution method for testing susceptibility of Malassezia pachydermatis to thiabendazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascente, Patrícia da Silva; Meinerz, Ana Raquel Mano; de Faria, Renata Osório; Schuch, Luiz Filipe Damé; Meireles, Mário Carlos Araújo; de Mello, João Roberto Braga

    2009-01-01

    Thiabendazole, classified as antiparasitic and also used as an antifungal drug, can be found as otological solution indicated for treatment of parasitic and fungal external otitis in small animals. Malassezia pachydermatis is a yeast recognized as a normal inhabitant on the skin and mucous membranes of dogs and cats. However, it is considered an opportunistic agent that causes external otitis and dermatitis in these animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro effect of thiabendazole against 51 isolates of M. pachydermatis using the CLSI Broth Microdilution method that has been adapted for this yeast species (NCCLS, 2002). Based on this test, the Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) of thiabendazol was calculated. Subsequently, the susceptibility of each isolate against this antifungal was determined. It was observed that the MIC of thiabendazole against M. pachydermatis ranged from 0.03 to > 4 µg/mL. A total of 13.7% of the isolates were found to be resistant, 47.1% were intermediate and 39.2% were sensitive to the drug. The rate of resistance of the yeasts against thiabendazole was similar to the results previously obtained with other antifungals, while the adapted broth microdilution technique used in this study proved to be efficient. PMID:24031347

  11. High pressure inactivation of Pseudomonas in black truffle - comparison with Pseudomonas fluorescens in tryptone soya broth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballestra, Patricia; Verret, Catherine; Cruz, Christian; Largeteau, Alain; Demazeau, Gerard; El Moueffak, Abdelhamid

    2010-03-01

    Pseudomonas is one of the most common genera in black Perigord truffle. Its inactivation by high pressure (100-500 MPa/10 min) applied on truffles at sub-zero or low temperatures was studied and compared with those of Pseudomonas fluorescens in tryptone soya broth. Pressurization of truffles at 300 MPa/4 °C reduced the bacterial count of Pseudomonas by 5.3 log cycles. Higher pressures of 400 or 500 MPa, at 4 °C or 20 °C, allowed us to slightly increase the level of destruction to the value of ca. 6.5 log cycles but did not permit us to completely inactivate Pseudomonas. The results showed a residual charge of about 10 CFU/g. Pressure-shift freezing of truffles, which consists in applying a pressure of 200 MPa/-18 °C for 10 min and then quickly releasing this pressure to induce freezing, reduced the population of Pseudomonas by 3.3 log cycles. The level of inactivation was higher than those obtained with conventional freezing. Endogenous Pseudomonas in truffle was shown to be more resistant to high pressure treatments than P. fluorescens used for inoculation of broths.

  12. Ogle-2012-blg-0724lb: A Saturn Mass Planet Around an M-dwarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirao, Y.; Sumi, T.; Bennett, D. P.; Bond, I. A.; Rattenbury, N.; Suzuki, D.; Koshimoto, N.; Abe, F.; Asakura, Y.; Bhattacharya, A.

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery of a planet by the microlensing method, OGLE-2012-BLG-0724Lb. Although the duration of the planetary signal for this event was one of the shortest seen for a planetary event, the anomaly was well covered thanks to high-cadence observations taken by the survey groups OGLE and MOA. By analyzing the light curve, this planetary system is found to have a mass ratio q = (1.58 +/- 0.15) x 10(exp -3). By conducting a Bayesian analysis, we estimate that the host star is an M dwarf with a mass of M(sub L) = 0.29(+0.33/-0.16) solar mass located at D(sub L) = 6.7(+1.1/-1.2) kpc away from the Earth and the companion's mass is m(sub P) = 0.47(+0.54/-0.26) M(Jup). The projected planet- host separation is a falsum = 1.6(+0.4/-0.3) AU. Because the lens-source relative proper motion is relatively high, future highresolution images would detect the lens host star and determine the lens properties uniquely. This system is likely a Saturn-mass exoplanet around an M dwarf, and such systems are commonly detected by gravitational microlensing. This adds another example of a possible pileup of sub-Jupiters (0.2 less than m(sub P)/M(sub Jup) less than 1) in contrast to a lack of Jupiters (approximately 1-2 M(sub Jup)) around M dwarfs, supporting the prediction by core accretion models that Jupiter-mass or more massive planets are unlikely to form around M dwarfs.

  13. Photocatalytic degradation of dimethoate using LbL fabricated TiO2/polymer hybrid films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, D Neela; Modak, Jayant M; Trebše, Polonca; Zabar, Romina; Raichur, Ashok M

    2011-11-15

    Degradation of dimethoate under UV irradiation using TiO(2)/polymer films prepared by the layer-by-layer (LbL) method was investigated. The thin films were fabricated on glass slides and the surface morphology and roughness of the thin films were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The effect of lamp intensity, catalyst loading in the layers, number of bilayers, pH and initial dimethoate concentration on the degradation of dimethoate was systematically studied. The degradation was monitored using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis and total organic carbon (TOC) measurements as a function of irradiation time, to see the change in concentration of dimethoate and mineralization, respectively. Complete degradation of dimethoate was achieved under TiO(2) optimum loading of 4 g/L at an UV irradiation time of 180 min. Increase in the lamp intensity, catalyst loading and number of bilayers increased the rate of degradation. At a pH of 4.62, complete degradation of dimethoate was observed. The degradation efficiency decreased with increase in initial dimethoate concentration. The degradation byproducts were analyzed and confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectra (GC-MS). Toxicity of the irradiated samples was measured using the luminescence of bacteria Vibrio fischeri after 30 min of incubation and the results showed more toxicity than the parent compound. Catalyst reusability studies revealed that the fabricated thin films could be repeatedly used for up to ten times without affecting the photocatalytic activity of the films. The findings of the present study are very useful for the treatment of wastewaters contaminated with pesticides.

  14. LB3D: A parallel implementation of the Lattice-Boltzmann method for simulation of interacting amphiphilic fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmieschek, S.; Shamardin, L.; Frijters, S.; Krüger, T.; Schiller, U. D.; Harting, J.; Coveney, P. V.

    2017-08-01

    We introduce the lattice-Boltzmann code LB3D, version 7.1. Building on a parallel program and supporting tools which have enabled research utilising high performance computing resources for nearly two decades, LB3D version 7 provides a subset of the research code functionality as an open source project. Here, we describe the theoretical basis of the algorithm as well as computational aspects of the implementation. The software package is validated against simulations of meso-phases resulting from self-assembly in ternary fluid mixtures comprising immiscible and amphiphilic components such as water-oil-surfactant systems. The impact of the surfactant species on the dynamics of spinodal decomposition are tested and quantitative measurement of the permeability of a body centred cubic (BCC) model porous medium for a simple binary mixture is described. Single-core performance and scaling behaviour of the code are reported for simulations on current supercomputer architectures.

  15. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C4H10O Diethyl ether (VMSD1211, LB3412_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C4H10O Diethyl ether (VMSD1211, LB3412_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure dilatometric measurement of molar excess volume at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  16. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C8H16 Cyclooctane (VMSD1211, LB3565_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes II' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C8H16 Cyclooctane (VMSD1211, LB3565_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure dilatometric measurement of molar excess volume at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  17. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C5H10O Oxane (VMSD1212, LB3577_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C5H10O Oxane (VMSD1212, LB3577_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  18. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C4H8O Oxolane (VMSD1212, LB3576_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C4H8O Oxolane (VMSD1212, LB3576_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  19. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C6H14 Hexane (VMSD1211, LB4339_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes II' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C6H14 Hexane (VMSD1211, LB4339_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure dilatometric measurement of molar excess volume at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  20. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C6H12 Cyclohexane (VMSD1211, LB3566_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C6H12 Cyclohexane (VMSD1211, LB3566_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure dilatometric measurement of molar excess volume at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  1. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C6H7N Aniline (VMSD1211, LB4340_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C6H7N Aniline (VMSD1211, LB4340_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure dilatometric measurement of molar excess volume at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  2. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C5H10 Cyclopentane (VMSD1211, LB3567_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C5H10 Cyclopentane (VMSD1211, LB3567_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure dilatometric measurement of molar excess volume at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  3. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C2H6S 2-Thiapropane (VMSD1211, LB3233_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C2H6S 2-Thiapropane (VMSD1211, LB3233_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure dilatometric measurement of molar excess volume at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  4. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C2H6OS Dimethyl sulfoxide (VMSD1211, LB3256_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C2H6OS Dimethyl sulfoxide (VMSD1211, LB3256_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure dilatometric measurement of molar excess volume at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  5. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + CH2Cl2 Dichloromethane (VMSD1212, LB4574_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + CH2Cl2 Dichloromethane (VMSD1212, LB4574_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  6. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C6H6 Benzene (VMSD1212, LB3207_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C6H6 Benzene (VMSD1212, LB3207_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  7. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C2H3N Ethanenitrile (VMSD1212, LB4352_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C2H3N Ethanenitrile (VMSD1212, LB4352_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  8. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C4H10S 3-Thiapentane (VMSD1211, LB3237_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C4H10S 3-Thiapentane (VMSD1211, LB3237_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure dilatometric measurement of molar excess volume at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  9. Assessment of the Group 5-6 (LB C2, LB S2, LV S1) Stack Sampling Probe Locations for Compliance with ANSI/HPS N13.1 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glissmeyer, John A.; Flaherty, Julia E.; Piepel, Gregory F.

    2011-03-11

    This document reports on a series of tests to assess the proposed air sampling locations for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Group 5-6 exhaust stacks with respect to the applicable criteria regarding the placement of an air sampling probe. The LB-C2, LV-S1, and LB S2 exhaust stacks were tested together as a group (Test Group 5-6) because the common factor in their design is that the last significant flow disturbance upstream of the air sampling probe is a reduction in duct diameter. Federal regulations( ) require that a sampling probe be located in the exhaust stack according to the criteria of the American National Standards Institute/Health Physics Society (ANSI/HPS) N13.1-1999, Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances from the Stack and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities. These criteria address the capability of the sampling probe to extract a sample that represents the effluent stream. The testing on scale models of the stacks conducted for this project was part of the River Protection Project—Waste Treatment Plant Support Program under Contract No. DE-AC05-76RL01830 according to the statement of work issued by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI, 24590-QL-SRA-W000-00101, N13.1-1999 Stack Monitor Scale Model Testing and Qualification, Revision 1, 9/12/2007) and Work Authorization 09 of Memorandum of Agreement 24590-QL-HC9-WA49-00001. The internal Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) project for this task is 53024, Work for Hanford Contractors Stack Monitoring. The testing described in this document was further guided by the Test Plan Scale Model Testing the Waste Treatment Plant LB-C2, LB-S2, and LV-S1 (Test Group 5-6) Stack Air Sampling Positions (TP-RPP-WTP-594). The tests conducted by PNNL during 2009 and 2010 on the Group 5-6 scale model systems are described in this report. The series of tests consists of various measurements taken over a grid of points in the duct cross-section at the designed sampling

  10. An integrated platform for gas-diffusion separation and electrochemical determination of ethanol on fermentation broths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giordano, Gabriela Furlan [Microfabrication Laboratory, Brazilian Nanotechnology National Laboratory (LNNano), Brazilian Center for Research in Energy and Materials (CNPEM), Campinas, SP 13083-970 (Brazil); Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry – UNICAMP, Campinas, SP 13083-970 (Brazil); National Institute of Science and Technology of Bioanalytics, Institute of Chemistry – UNICAMP, Campinas, SP 13083-970 (Brazil); Vieira, Luis Carlos Silveira; Gobbi, Angelo Luiz [Microfabrication Laboratory, Brazilian Nanotechnology National Laboratory (LNNano), Brazilian Center for Research in Energy and Materials (CNPEM), Campinas, SP 13083-970 (Brazil); Lima, Renato Sousa [Microfabrication Laboratory, Brazilian Nanotechnology National Laboratory (LNNano), Brazilian Center for Research in Energy and Materials (CNPEM), Campinas, SP 13083-970 (Brazil); Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry – UNICAMP, Campinas, SP 13083-970 (Brazil); National Institute of Science and Technology of Bioanalytics, Institute of Chemistry – UNICAMP, Campinas, SP 13083-970 (Brazil); Kubota, Lauro Tatsuo, E-mail: kubota@iqm.unicamp.br [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry – UNICAMP, Campinas, SP 13083-970 (Brazil); National Institute of Science and Technology of Bioanalytics, Institute of Chemistry – UNICAMP, Campinas, SP 13083-970 (Brazil)

    2015-05-22

    Highlights: • Integrated platform was developed to determine ethanol in fermentation broths. • The designed system integrates gas diffusion separation with voltammetric detection. • Detector relied on Ni(OH){sub 2}-modified electrode stabilized by Co{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} insertion. • Separation was made by PTFE membrane separating sample from electrolyte (receptor). • Despite the sample complexity, accurate tests were achieved by direct interpolation. - Abstract: An integrated platform was developed for point-of-use determination of ethanol in sugar cane fermentation broths. Such analysis is important because ethanol reduces its fuel production efficiency by altering the alcoholic fermentation step when in excess. The custom-designed platform integrates gas diffusion separation with voltammetric detection in a single analysis module. The detector relied on a Ni(OH){sub 2}-modified electrode. It was stabilized by uniformly depositing cobalt and cadmium hydroxides as shown by XPS measurements. Such tests were in accordance with the hypothesis related to stabilization of the Ni(OH){sub 2} structure by insertion of Co{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} ions in this structure. The separation step, in turn, was based on a hydrophobic PTFE membrane, which separates the sample from receptor solution (electrolyte) where the electrodes were placed. Parameters of limit of detection and analytical sensitivity were estimated to be 0.2% v/v and 2.90 μA % (v/v){sup −1}, respectively. Samples of fermentation broth were analyzed by both standard addition method and direct interpolation in saline medium based-analytical curve. In this case, the saline solution exhibited ionic strength similar to those of the samples intended to surpass the tonometry colligative effect of the samples over analyte concentration data by attributing the reduction in quantity of diffused ethanol vapor majorly to the electrolyte. The approach of analytical curve provided rapid, simple and accurate

  11. Microcin V Production in Lactobacillus plantarum LB-B1 Using Heterologous Leader Peptide from Pediocin PA-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiayin; Wang, Guohong; Li, Dan; Hao, Yanling

    2016-03-01

    Lactobacillus strains producing bacteriocins have attracted highly attention as probiotic cultures in animal nutrition since the use of antibiotics was forbidden in the livestock industry. Lactobacillus plantarum LB-B1 isolated from the fermented dairy product can produce pediocin PA-1, which has a strong inhibition of Listeria but hardly any influence on Gram-negative spoilage agents. In this work, L. plantarum LB-B1 was selected as the host to express microcin V using the leader peptide of pediocin PA-1. Well-diffusion assay combined with Tricine-SDS-polyacrylamide gel showed that microcin V could be successfully expressed and secreted in L. plantarum LB-B1. Meanwhile, the production of microcin V did not affect the secretion of pediocin PA-1. It is worthwhile noted that the supernatant from L. plantarum 8148-ColV had a more effective inhibition of Listeria than that from the control strain L. plantarum 8148. Furthermore, this supernatant also unexpectedly produced antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Taken altogether, these results suggested that pediocin PA-1 and microcin V in the supernatant could generate synergistic effect, which not only enhanced the antibacterial ability but also expanded the antibacterial spectrum. Therefore, the recombinant strain has a great potential application as a probiotic to reduce the level of enteric pathogens in livestock industry.

  12. Lytic enzyme production optimization using low-cost substrates and its application in the clarification of xanthan gum culture broth

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Cíntia Reis; Silva, Marilia Lordelo Cardoso; Kamida, Helio Mitoshi; Goes-Neto, Aristoteles; Koblitz, Maria Gabriela Bello

    2014-01-01

    Lytic enzymes are widely used in industrial biotechnology as they are able to hydrolyze the bacterial cell wall. One application of these enzymes is the clarification of the culture broth for the production of xanthan gum, because of its viability in viscous media and high specificity. The screening process for filamentous fungi producing lytic enzymes, the optimization of production of these enzymes by the selected microorganism, and the optimization of the application of the enzymes produced in the clarification of culture broth are presented in this article. Eleven fungal isolates were tested for their ability to produce enzymes able to increase the transmittance of the culture broth containing cells of Xanthomonas campestris. To optimize the secretion of lytic enzymes by the selected microorganism the following variables were tested: solid substrate, initial pH, incubation temperature, and addition of inducer (gelatin). Thereafter, secretion of the enzymes over time of incubation was assessed. To optimize the clarification process a central composite rotational design was applied in which the pH of the reaction medium, the dilution of the broth, and the reaction temperature were evaluated. The isolate identified as Aspergillus tamarii was selected for increasing the transmittance of the broth from 2.1% to 54.8%. The best conditions for cultivation of this microorganism were: use of coconut husk as solid substrate, with 90% moisture, at 30°C for 20 days. The lytic enzymes produced thereby were able to increase the transmittance of the culture broth from 2.1% to 70.6% at 65°C, without dilution and without pH adjustment. PMID:25473487

  13. [Antimycoplasmic Activity of Fermentation Broth of Trichoderma harzianum Rifai F-180, an Organism Producing L-Lysine-α-Oxidase, an Antitumor and Antiviral Enzyme].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, I P; Rakovskaya, I V

    2014-01-01

    A concentrate of the fermentation broth of Trichoderma harzianum Rifai F-180, an organism producing L-lysine-α-oxidase, an antitumor and antiviral enzyme, with the activity in the fermentation broth of 0.54-0.56 U/mI was recovered. The effect of the concentrate on the mycoplasmas growth was investigated for the first time. Two representatives of Mycoplasmafaceae, i.e. Mycoplasma hominis and Mycoplasma fermentans and one representative of Aholeplasmataceae. i. e. Aholeplasma laidlawii were used. It was shown that the fermentation broth inhibited the growth of Mycoplasma hominis after the preliminary exposure. The inhibition rate depended on the mycoplasma inoculation dose and the fermentation broth concentration.

  14. [Determination of tetrodotoxin in fermentation broth of distiller's yeast by ion chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Jing; Li, Bailin; Ou, Jie

    2011-02-01

    A method was developed for the quantitative analysis of tetrodotoxin (TTX) in fermentation broth of distiller's yeast by ion chromatography. After extraction with acetonitrile solution (containing 0.1% phosphoric acid) and purification with an ion-exchange column, the tetrodotoxin was separated by ion chromatography and detected by a ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) absorbance detector. The experimental results showed that the tetrodotoxin had a good linearity (r2 = 0.997) in the range of 10 - 100 mg/L and the detection limit (3 of signal-to-noise ratio) was 1.0 mg/L. The average recoveries were between 90% - 103% with a relative standard deviation lower than 4.9%. The analysis of real samples verified the reliability of this method and demonstrated that the ion chromatography can be used for the quantification detection of the tetrodotoxin. The degradation experiment results suggested that distiller's yeast had a remarkable effect on the tetrodotoxin degradation.

  15. A novel process for recovery and refining of L-lactic acid from fermentation broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lijun; Zeng, Aiwu; Dong, Haibo; Li, Qi; Niu, Congcong

    2012-05-01

    This paper introduces a novel process for recovery and refining of L-lactic acid from a fermentation broth. The use of a solvent extraction step, in the novel approach, has significant impacts on the following centrifugal short-path distillation conditions (operating pressure, evaporator temperature and feed flow rate). As the conditions were varied, the l-lactic acid purity and yield in the distillate were monitored. For the purpose of comparison, a series of experiments were also carried out using the existing purification process. The results showed that both of the two processes can obtain l-lactic acid with a high purity around 91.3%, while the yield obtained using the novel process reached 61.73%, which was about 20.43% higher than that using the existing process. Additionally, multiple-pass distillation observed special attention by improving the yield up to 74.63%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Energy-efficient recovery of butanol from model solutions and fermentation broth by adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, N; Hughes, S; Maddox, I S; Cotta, M A

    2005-07-01

    This article discusses the separation of butanol from aqueous solutions and/or fermentation broth by adsorption. Butanol fermentation is also known as acetone butanol ethanol (ABE) or solvent fermentation. Adsorbents such as silicalite, resins (XAD-2, XAD-4, XAD-7, XAD-8, XAD-16), bone charcoal, activated charcoal, bonopore, and polyvinylpyridine have been studied. Use of silicalite appears to be the more attractive as it can be used to concentrate butanol from dilute solutions (5 to 790-810 g L(-1)) and results in complete desorption of butanol (or ABE). In addition, silicalite can be regenerated by heat treatment. The energy requirement for butanol recovery by adsorption-desorption processes has been calculated to be 1,948 kcal kg(-1) butanol as compared to 5,789 kcal kg(-1) butanol by steam stripping distillation. Other techniques such as gas stripping and pervaporation require 5,220 and 3,295 kcal kg(-1) butanol, respectively.

  17. A study of parameters affecting the solvent extraction of lactic acid from fermentation broth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Udachan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid has recently been drawing much interest as a raw material for biodegradable polymer. One of the promising technologies for recovery of lactic acid from fermentation broth is reactive liquid - liquid extraction. Equilibrium studies on the reactive extraction of lactic acid with trioctylamine (TOA in various organic phases and its re-extraction into aqueous solutions were carried out. In this study distribution coefficient, extractability, stripping efficiency of various active and inert diluents with TOA as extractant were investigated, which were higher for active diluents. The effects of operating temperature, speed of agitation, agitation time and diluent composition on extraction efficiency were also studied. Temperature and extraction efficiency were inversely proportional to each other, whereas extraction efficiency was little affected by speed of agitation and agitation time.

  18. In Vitro Antibiotic Susceptibilities of Francisella tularensis Determined by Broth Microdilution following CLSI Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Henry S; Miller, Lynda; Halasohoris, Stephanie; Purcell, Bret K

    2017-09-01

    In vitro susceptibilities for 47 antibiotics were determined in 30 genetic diverse strains of Francisella tularensis by the broth microdilution method following Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) methods. The F. tularensis strains demonstrated susceptibility to aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, and tetracyclines. There was a distinct difference in macrolide susceptibilities between A and B type strains, as has been noted previously. The establishment and comparison of antibiotic susceptibilities of a diverse but specific set of F. tularensis strains by standardized methods and the establishment of population ranges and MIC50/90 values provide reference information for assessing new antibiotic agents and a baseline to monitor any future emergence of resistance, whether natural or intentional. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  19. In vitro antibiotic susceptibilities of Yersinia pestis determined by broth microdilution following CLSI methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Henry S; Hershfield, Jeremy; Marchand, Charles; Miller, Lynda; Halasohoris, Stephanie; Purcell, Bret K; Worsham, Patricia L

    2015-04-01

    In vitro susceptibilities to 45 antibiotics were determined for 30 genetically and geographically diverse strains of Yersinia pestis by the broth microdilution method at two temperatures, 28°C and 35°C, following Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) methods. The Y. pestis strains demonstrated susceptibility to aminoglycosides, quinolones, tetracyclines, β-lactams, cephalosporins, and carbapenems. Only a 1-well shift was observed for the majority of antibiotics between the two temperatures. Establishing and comparing antibiotic susceptibilities of a diverse but specific set of Y. pestis strains by standardized methods and establishing population ranges and MIC50 and MIC90 values provide reference information for assessing new antibiotic agents and also provide a baseline for use in monitoring any future emergence of resistance.

  20. Paradigm Diagnostics Salmonella Indicator Broth (PDX-SIB) for detection of Salmonella on selected environmental surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olstein, Alan; Griffith, Leena; Feirtag, Joellen; Pearson, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    The Paradigm Diagnostics Salmonella Indicator Broth (PDX-SIB) is intended as a single-step selective enrichment indicator broth to be used as a simple screening test for the presence of Salmonella spp. in environmental samples. This method permits the end user to avoid multistep sample processing to identify presumptively positive samples, as exemplified by standard U.S. reference methods. PDX-SIB permits the outgrowth of Salmonella while inhibiting the growth of competitive Gram-negative and -positive microflora. Growth of Salmonella-positive cultures results in a visual color change of the medium from purple to yellow when the sample is grown at 37 +/- 1 degree C. Performance of PDX-SIB has been evaluated in five different categories: inclusivity-exclusivity, methods comparison, ruggedness, lot-to-lot variability, and shelf stability. The inclusivity panel included 100 different Salmonella serovars, 98 of which were SIB-positive during the 30 to 48 h incubation period. The exclusivity panel included 33 different non-Salmonella microorganisms, 31 of which were SIB-negative during the incubation period. Methods comparison studies included four different surfaces: S. Newport on plastic, S. Anatum on sealed concrete, S. Abaetetuba on ceramic tile, and S. Typhimurium in the presence of 1 log excess of Citrobacter freundii. Results of the methods comparison studies demonstrated no statistical difference between the SIB method and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration-Bacteriological Analytical Manual reference method, as measured by the Mantel-Haenszel Chi-square test. Ruggedness studies demonstrated little variation in test results when SIB incubation temperatures were varied over a 34-40 degrees C range. Lot-to-lot consistency results suggest no detectable differences in manufactured goods using two reference Salmonella serovars and one non-Salmonella microorganism.

  1. Fermentation broth components influence droplet coalescence and hinder advanced biofuel recovery during fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeres, Arjan S; Schroën, Karin; Heijnen, Joseph J; van der Wielen, Luuk A M; Cuellar, Maria C

    2015-08-01

    Developments in synthetic biology enabled the microbial production of long chain hydrocarbons, which can be used as advanced biofuels in aviation or transportation. Currently, these fuels are not economically competitive due to their production costs. The current process offers room for improvement: by utilizing lignocellulosic feedstock, increasing microbial yields, and using cheaper process technology. Gravity separation is an example of the latter, for which droplet growth by coalescence is crucial. The aim of this study was to study the effect of fermentation broth components on droplet coalescence. Droplet coalescence was measured using two setups: a microfluidic chip and regular laboratory scale stirred vessel (2 L). Some fermentation broth components had a large impact on droplet coalescence. Especially components present in hydrolysed cellulosic biomass and mannoproteins from the yeast cell wall retard coalescence. To achieve a technically feasible gravity separation that can be integrated with the fermentation, the negative effects of these components on coalescence should be minimized. This could be achieved by redesign of the fermentation medium or adjusting the fermentation conditions, aiming to minimize the release of surface active components by the microorganisms. This way, another step can be made towards economically feasible advanced biofuel production. © 2015 The Authors. Biotechnology Journal published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial-NoDerivs Licence, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.

  2. Taxithelium juruense (Broth. Broth. (Pylaisiadelphaceae an endangered Brazilian endemic, with notes on the genus Taxithelium in Brazil Taxithelium juruense (Broth. Broth.(Pylaisiadelphaceae, uma espécie brasileira ameaçada e notas sobre o gênero Taxithelium no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Eduardo Aguiar Saraiva Câmara

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available (Taxithelium juruense (Broth. Broth. (Pylaisiadelphaceae an endangered Brazilian endemic, with notes on the genus Taxithelium in Brazil. Since its original description, several collections of this species were reported in different states of Brazil. During a revision of the genus, it was confirmed that the geographic range of this species is restricted to the state of Acre, all other reports being based on misidentifications due mostly to the highly polymorphic nature of Taxithelium planum (Brid. Mitt. Here, we present a more detailed study of T. juruense with characters that will help to distinguish it from T. planum. The misidentifications have obscured the real conservation status of this species, which should be endangered (EN. Key and illustrations of the Brazilian species of Taxithelium are provided.Desde a sua descrição original diversas coletas têm sido reportadas para este táxon em diferentes estados brasileiros. Durante a revisão do gênero Taxithelium e o estudo do material tipo, comprovou-se que o táxon, é restrito ao estado do Acre, sendo as demais ocorrências baseadas em identificações errôneas, em especial, devido à natureza altamente polimórfica de Taxithelium planum (Brid. Mitt. Neste trabalho, apresentamos um estudo mais detalhado de T. juruense com as características que o diferenciam de T. planum. As citações equivocadas têm ocultado o verdadeiro estado de conservação desta espécie que deveria ser de espécie ameaçada (EN. Chave e ilustrações para as espécies de Taxithelium do Brasil são apresentadas.

  3. Effects of sources of carbon and nitrogen on production of α-glucosidase inhibitor by a newly isolated strain of Bacillus subtilis B2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yun-Ping; Yin, Li-Jun; Cheng, Yong-Qiang; Yamaki, Kohji; Mori, Yutaka; Su, Yi-Cheng; Li, Li-Te

    2008-08-15

    This study examined production of α-glucosidase inhibitors by Bacillus subtilis B2 in Luria-Bertani (LB) fermentation with okara, soy powder, starch or pectin as additional source of carbon and nitrogen. All the fermentation broths of B. subtilis B2 exhibited gradual increase in α-glucosidase inhibitory activity during the fermentation process with or without supplemented source of carbon or nitrogen. Addition of okara into the LB medium greatly enhanced the strength (nearly twice as much of that without okara supplement) of α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of fermentation broth. The α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of B. subtilis B2 fermentation broth was positively correlated (pprocess and were both reduced drastically in media containing okara, soy powder, starch or pectin after 6days of fermentation. The fermented LB medium containing okara by B. subtilis B2 possessed very strong α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and contained little glucose and sucrose, suggesting that fermentation of B. subtilis B2 in LB added with okara might be considered as a strategy for preparing functional foods for diabetic patients.

  4. 选择性培养条件下细菌抗性突变体发生机制研究方法的探讨——对Luria-Delbrück实验结果的不确定性分析%Discussion on research methods of bacterial resistant mutation mechanisms under selective culture-uncertainty analysis on data from the Luria-Delbrück fluctuation experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金建玲; 魏刚; 杨维强; 张怀强; 高培基

    2012-01-01

    Luria-Delbrück的推断被公认为遗传学上开创性的经典研究,并被沿用于抗药性产生机理的分析.近年来,适应性突变现象的发现,引发了对此难题的再次争议.系列微生物学观察表明,在不同浓度药物存在的条件下,耐药/抗药性细胞的发生和增值都是依赖于时间的过程函数,它并不符合“既不依赖于存在量,又独立于时间过程”的Poisson分布的限定条件.同时,由于细菌细胞分裂后并不立即完全分离开,而是呈一定的聚集状态存在,因此,在药物平板上出现的菌落,是由来源数目不等的耐/抗性菌细胞历经不同分裂次数增殖过程所形成,以其作为等值进行统计分析,必然会失真.本文对Luria-Delbrück波动试验中13组310个数据的重新分析表明,它们大都存在高端异常值,这正是上述2类时间变量不同步变化所导致的结果,所以其均值不能作为期望值的无偏估计.同时,2类抽样方式得到的均值/方差比值也不具备等价可比性.应用多种统计分析方法对Luria-Delbrück数据的分析表明,它不呈Poisson分布,而是呈聚集分布.综合上述分析,Luria-Delbrück波动试验所呈现的相对于Poisson分布的差异,有更大可能性是实验设计本身的系统偏差,而非一般所期望的用以区分细菌突变是否受环境压力所诱导的主要依据.这表明Luria-Delbrück由于对抗性突变体的发生和增殖规律认识不足而错用了统计分析方法,从而导致了统计推断的失真.本文对此历史性误解的阐明,将推动对细菌抗药性发生机理研究的进展.

  5. Genomic and functional analyses of the 2-aminophenol catabolic pathway and partial conversion of its substrate into picolinic acid in Burkholderia xenovorans LB400.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardita Chirino

    Full Text Available 2-aminophenol (2-AP is a toxic nitrogen-containing aromatic pollutant. Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 possess an amn gene cluster that encodes the 2-AP catabolic pathway. In this report, the functionality of the 2-aminophenol pathway of B. xenovorans strain LB400 was analyzed. The amnRJBACDFEHG cluster located at chromosome 1 encodes the enzymes for the degradation of 2-aminophenol. The absence of habA and habB genes in LB400 genome correlates with its no growth on nitrobenzene. RT-PCR analyses in strain LB400 showed the co-expression of amnJB, amnBAC, amnACD, amnDFE and amnEHG genes, suggesting that the amn cluster is an operon. RT-qPCR showed that the amnB gene expression was highly induced by 2-AP, whereas a basal constitutive expression was observed in glucose, indicating that these amn genes are regulated. We propose that the predicted MarR-type transcriptional regulator encoded by the amnR gene acts as repressor of the amn gene cluster using a MarR-type regulatory binding sequence. This report showed that LB400 resting cells degrade completely 2-AP. The amn gene cluster from strain LB400 is highly identical to the amn gene cluster from P. knackmussi strain B13, which could not grow on 2-AP. However, we demonstrate that B. xenovorans LB400 is able to grow using 2-AP as sole nitrogen source and glucose as sole carbon source. An amnBA (- mutant of strain LB400 was unable to grow with 2-AP as nitrogen source and glucose as carbon source and to degrade 2-AP. This study showed that during LB400 growth on 2-AP this substrate was partially converted into picolinic acid (PA, a well-known antibiotic. The addition of PA at lag or mid-exponential phase inhibited LB400 growth. The MIC of PA for strain LB400 is 2 mM. Overall, these results demonstrate that B. xenovorans strain LB400 posses a functional 2-AP catabolic central pathway, which could lead to the production of picolinic acid.

  6. 改进的 LB 算法在动态手势识别中的应用%The Application of Improving LB Algorithm in Dynamic Gesture Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺霄琛; 韩燮; 李顺增

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the matching efficiency of dynamic gesture recognition , we have put forward a modified LB algorithm .First of all ,we segment the collecting depth information of gesture in real time ,and use a new feature extraction method to describe gesture .After that ,we introduce the concept of anchor distance ,and apply it to the LB algorithm ,for simultaneous classification and recognition .Finally ,comparing execution time of other two kinds of algorithms respectively and recognition rate of modified LB algorithm .The experiment results show that the method proposed in this article has improved algorithm performance efficiency in the case of having no influence on recognition rate .%为了提高动态手势识别中的匹配效率,提出一种改进的LB算法。首先,对采集手势深度信息进行实时分割,并使用一种新的特征提取方法对手势进行描述。然后,引入锚定距离的概念,并将其应用到LB算法当中,同时进行分类和识别。最后,分别对比其他两种相关算法的执行时间,以及改进LB算法的识别率。实验结果表明,提出的方法在不影响识别率的情况下,对算法执行效率有了很大的提升。

  7. Antibiotic susceptibility of members of the Lactobacillus acidophilus group using broth microdilution and molecular identification of their resistance determinants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mayrhofer, S.; Hoek, van A.H.A.M.; Mair, C.; Huys, G.; Aarts, H.J.M.; Kneifel, W.; Domig, K.J.

    2010-01-01

    The range of antibiotic susceptibility to 13 antibiotics in 101 strains of the Lactobacillus acidophilus group was examined using the lactic acid bacteria susceptibility test medium (LSM) and broth microdilution. Additionally, microarray analysis and PCR were applied to identify resistance genes res

  8. [Simultaneous determination of organic acids and saccharides in lactic acid fermentation broth from biomass using high performance liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rui; Ouyang, Jia; Li, Xin; Lian, Zhina; Cai, Cong

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: A high performance liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of organic acids and saccharides in lactic acid fermentation broth from biomass was developed. A Bio-Rad Aminex HPX-87H column was used at 55 degrees C. The mobile phase was 5 mmol/L sulfuric acid solution at a flow rate of 0.6 mL/min. The samples were detected by a refractive index detector (RID). The results showed that six organic acids and three saccharides in fermentation broth were completely separated and determined in 17 min. The linear correlation coefficients were above 0.999 8 in the range of 0.15-5.19 g/L. Under the optimized conditions, the recoveries of the organic acids and saccharides in Rhizopus oryzae fermentation broth at two spiked levels were in the range of 96.91%-103.11% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 6) of 0.81%-4.61%. This method is fast and accurate for the quantitative analysis of the organic acids and saccharides in microbial fermentation broths.

  9. Removal of heavy metals from polluted soil using the citric acid fermentation broth: a promising washing agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongjiao; Gao, Yuntao; Xiong, Huabin

    2017-04-01

    The citric acid fermentation broth was prepared and it was employed to washing remediation of heavy metal-polluted soil. A well-defined washing effect was obtained, the removal percentages using citric acid fermentation broth are that 48.2% for Pb, 30.6% for Cu, 43.7% for Cr, and 58.4% for Cd and higher than that using citric acid solution. The kinetics of heavy metals desorption can be described by the double constant equation and Elovich equation and is a heterogeneous diffusion process. The speciation analysis shows that the citric acid fermentation broth can effectively reduce bioavailability and environmental risk of heavy metals. Spectroscopy characteristics analysis suggests that the washing method has only a small effect on the mineral composition and does not destroy the framework of soil system. Therefore, the citric acid fermentation broth is a promising washing agent and possesses a potential practical application value in the field of remediation of soils with a good washing performance.

  10. Evaluation of Disk Diffusion Method for Determining Posaconazole Susceptibility of Filamentous Fungi: Comparison with CLSI Broth Microdilution Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Oviedo, E.; Aller, A. I.; Martín, C.; Castro, C.; Ramirez, M.; Pemán, J. M.; Cantón, E.; Almeida, C.; Martín-Mazuelos, E.

    2006-01-01

    The disk diffusion method was evaluated for determining posaconazole susceptibility against 78 strains of molds using two culture media in comparison with the CLSI (Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute) broth microdilution method (M38-A). A significant correlation between disk diffusion and microdilution methods was observed with both culture media. PMID:16495281

  11. Dihydroberkleasmin A: a new eremophilane sesquiterpenoid from the fermentation broth of the plant endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis photiniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-Long; Zhang, Su; Zhu, Hua-Jie; Luo, Du-Qiang

    2011-02-23

    Dihydroberkleasmin A (1), a new ester-substituted sesquiterpenoid related to the eremophilane class, together with the known compound berkleasmin C (2), were isolated from the fermentation broth of the plant endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis photiniae. The structure of dihydroberkleasmin A (1) was elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis. The stereochemistry was assigned by comparison of the NMR spectroscopic data with those of berkleasmin A.

  12. Dihydroberkleasmin A: A New Eremophilane Sesquiterpenoid from the Fermentation Broth of the Plant Endophytic Fungus Pestalotiopsis photiniae

    OpenAIRE

    Du-Qiang Luo; Su Zhang; Hua-Jie Zhu; Xiao-Long Yang

    2011-01-01

    Dihydroberkleasmin A (1), a new ester-substituted sesquiterpenoid related to the eremophilane class, together with the known compound berkleasmin C (2), were isolated from the fermentation broth of the plant endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis photiniae. The structure of dihydroberkleasmin A (1) was elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis. The stereochemistry was assigned by comparison of the NMR spectroscopic data with those of berkleasmin A.

  13. Medium effects on minimum inhibitory concentrations of nylon-3 polymers against E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Heejun; Chakraborty, Saswata; Liu, Runhui; Gellman, Samuel H; Weisshaar, James C

    2014-01-01

    Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against E. coli were measured for three nylon-3 polymers using Luria-Bertani broth (LB), brain-heart infusion broth (BHI), and a chemically defined complete medium (EZRDM). The polymers differ in the ratio of hydrophobic to cationic subunits. The cationic homopolymer is inert against E. coli in BHI and LB, but becomes highly potent in EZRDM. A mixed hydrophobic/cationic polymer with a hydrophobic t-butylbenzoyl group at its N-terminus is effective in BHI, but becomes more effective in EZRDM. Supplementation of EZRDM with the tryptic digest of casein (often found in LB) recapitulates the LB and BHI behavior. Additional evidence suggests that polyanionic peptides present in LB and BHI may form electrostatic complexes with cationic polymers, decreasing activity by diminishing binding to the anionic lipopolysaccharide layer of E. coli. In contrast, two natural antimicrobial peptides show no medium effects. Thus, the use of a chemically defined medium helps to reveal factors that influence antimicrobial potency of cationic polymers and functional differences between these polymers and evolved antimicrobial peptides.

  14. Supplementing chicken broth with monosodium glutamate reduces energy intake from high fat and sweet snacks in middle-aged healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imada, Toshifumi; Hao, Susan Shuzhen; Torii, Kunio; Kimura, Eiichiro

    2014-08-01

    Monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) and inosine monophosphate-5 (IMP) are flavor enhancers for umami taste. However, their effects on appetite and food intake are not well-researched. The objective of the current study was to test their additions in a broth preload on subsequent appetite ratings, energy intake and food choice. Eighty-six healthy middle-aged women with normal body weight received three preload conditions on 3 test days 1 week apart - a low-energy chicken flavor broth (200 ml) as the control preload, and broths with added MSG alone (0.5 g/100 ml, MSG broth) or in combination with IMP (0.05 g/100 ml) (MSG+ broth) served as the experimental conditions. Fifteen minutes after preload administration subjects were provided an ad libitum testing meal which consisted of 16 snacks varying in taste and fat content. MSG and MSG+ enhanced savory taste and broth properties of liking and pleasantness. In comparison with control, the MSG preload resulted in less consumption of total energy, as well as energy from sweet and high-fat snacks. Furthermore, MSG broth preload reduced added sugar intake. These findings were not observed after MSG+ preload. Appetite ratings were not different across the three preloads. Results suggest a potential role of MSG addition to a low-energy broth preload in subsequent energy intake and food choice. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01761045.

  15. Lactobacillus plantarum LB95 impairs the virulence potential of Gram-positive and Gram-negative food-borne pathogens in HT-29 and Vero cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Virna; Silva, Ana Carla; Cabrita, Paula; Peres, Cidália; Malcata, Xavier; Brito, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica and verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) are amongst the most important agents responsible for food outbreaks occurring worldwide. In this work, two Lactobacillus spp. strains (LABs), Lactobacillus plantarum (LB95) and Lactobacillus paraplantarum (LB13), previously isolated from spontaneously fermenting olive brines, and two reference probiotic strains, Lactobacillus casei Shirota and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, were investigated for their ability to attenuate the virulence of the aforementioned pathogens using animal cell culture assays. In competitive exclusion assays, the relative percentages of adhesion and invasion of S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis were significantly reduced when the human HT-29 cell line was previously exposed to LB95. The relative percentage of invasion by Listeria monocytogenes was significantly reduced when HT-29 cells were previously exposed to LB95. In the cytotoxicity assays, the cell-free supernatant of the co-culture (CFSC)of VTEC with LB95 accounted for the lowest value obtained amongst the co-cultures of VTEC with LABs, and was significantly lower than the value obtained with the co-culture of VTEC with the two probiotic reference strains. The cytotoxicity of CFSC of VTEC with both LB95 and LB13 exhibited values not significantly different from the cell-free supernatant of the nonpathogenic E. coli B strain. Our results suggested that LB95 may be able to attenuate the virulence of Gram-positive and Gram-negative food-borne pathogens; together with other reported features of these strains, our data reveal their possible use in probiotic foods due to their interesting potential in preventing enteric infections in humans.

  16. Increase of the Bacillus thuringiensis secreted toxicity against lepidopteron larvae by homologous expression of the vip3LB gene during sporulation stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellami, Sameh; Jamoussi, Kaïs; Dabbeche, Emna; Jaoua, Samir

    2011-09-01

    The Vegetative insecticidal Vip3A proteins display a wide range of insecticidal spectrum against several agricultural insect pests. The fact that the expression of vip3 genes occurs only during the vegetative growth phase of Bacillus thuringiensis is a limiting factor in term of production level. Therefore, extending the synthesis of the Vip proteins to the sporulation phase is a good alternative to reach high levels of toxin synthesis. In this study, we have demonstrated that the maximal production of the secreted Vip3LB (also called Vip3Aa16) during the growth of the wild-type strain B. thuringiensis BUPM 95 is reached at the end of the vegetative growth phase, and that the protein remains relatively stable in the culture supernatant during the late sporulation stages. The vip3LB gene was cloned and expressed under the control of the sporulation dependant promoters BtI and BtII in B. thuringiensis BUPM 106 (Vip3(-)) and BUPM 95 (Vip3(+)) strains. The examination of the culture supernatants during the sporulation phase evidenced the synthesis of Vip3LB and its toxicity against the second-instars larvae of the Lepidopteron insect Spodoptera littoralis for the recombinant BUPM 106. Moreover, there was an increase of the Vip3LB synthesis level and an enhancement of the oral toxicity for the recombinant BUPM 95 resulting from the expression of the vip3LB gene during both the vegetative and sporulation phases and the relative stability of the Vip3LB protein.

  17. Molecular rectification with identical metal electrodes at low temperatures Thin film deposition; Gold; Molecular electronics; Langmuir- Blodgett; Au/LB/Au structures; Fabrication

    CERN Document Server

    Okazaki, N

    2003-01-01

    A gold deposition technique for the fabrication of Au/LB/Au structures has been developed. The kinetic energy of evaporated gold atoms is reduced by scattering the gold atoms from argon gas. Moreover, the samples are cooled down below 173K (-100 deg C) to avoid the diffusion of gold atoms into the LB films and to fabricate electrically continuous thin gold electrodes (This technique has since been used in fabrication of Au/LB/Au structures even with monolayer LB films (Metzger, et al. (2001)). To measure the current-voltage characteristics of the Au/LB/Au structures at liquid helium temperatures, new junction geometries have been explored. To avoid the direct contact of the Gallium-Indium eutectic onto the LB films, which is the cause of the breakdown of the junction at lower temperatures, a cross electrode junction geometry is used. The problem of poor Langmuir-Blodgett film deposition at the penumbra region of the base electrode is avoided by covering the penumbra region with an insulating omega-tricosenoic...

  18. Effects of antimicrobial components of essential oils on growth of Bacillus cereus INRA L2104 in and the sensory qualities of carrot broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, M; Giner, M J

    2006-01-15

    The possible use of antimicrobials from seven plant essential oils as food preservatives was studied by examining their effects on the growth kinetics of activated Bacillus cereus INRA L2104 spores inoculated into tyndallized carrot broth. The effects of various concentrations of borneol, carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, menthol, thymol, and vanillin were determined. Five microliters of cinnamaldehyde, 15 microl of carvacrol, or 30 mg of thymol per 100 ml of inoculated carrot broth completely inhibited bacterial growth for more than 60 days at 16 degrees C. Lower concentrations of the three antimicrobials prolonged the lag phase and reduced both the exponential growth rate and the final population densities of cultures. The study of the sensory characteristics of the supplemented broths suggested that low concentration of cinnamaldehyde enhanced the taste of carrot broth, and that it did not have any adverse effect on the taste and smell of carrot broth at concentrations less than 6 microl 100 ml(-1).

  19. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C2H3N Ethanenitrile (VMSD1111, LB4349_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C2H3N Ethanenitrile (VMSD1111, LB4349_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure measurement of mass density at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  20. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C4H9Cl 1-Chlorobutane (VMSD1212, LB4573_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C4H9Cl 1-Chlorobutane (VMSD1212, LB4573_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  1. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C6H6 Benzene (VMSD1111, LB3208_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C6H6 Benzene (VMSD1111, LB3208_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure measurement of mass density at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  2. Review on Health Functions of Chicken Broths%鸡汤健康功能的研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何蓉蓉; 李怡芳; 李维熙; 栗原博

    2012-01-01

    There had been a long history of using chicken broths to improve and treat diseases. In traditional medicine, chicken broths had the effects of warming up the body, elevating energy and vitality, strengthening organs and bones, etc. Recent researches proved that consuming chicken broths can relieve cold symptoms, tiredness, promoting metabolism and increasing immune functions. People found that chicken broths are rich in nutrients like proteins, various a-mino acids, minerals and trace elements, etc. Carnosine and anserine which are important nutrients in chicken broth, are histamine dipeptide compounds and antioxidative substances with multiple bioactivities. They act as precursors of central nervous histaminergic transmitters, which can regulate central nervous histamine level and activity of serotonin, and hence activate serotonin-related physiological activities. Results showed that chicken broth can improve sleeping qualities, lighten up mood and regulate rhythm of life. With the industrialization of chicken broth production, people are paying much more attention to functional foods like chicken essences. This article summarizes the researches on active components and physiological effects of chicken broths and elucidates the related mechanisms, which can provide consumers with more beneficial information, on the research and development of chicken broths.%传统医学认为,鸡汤具有温中益气、补虚填精、益五脏健脾胃及强筋骨等效果.近年来的研究证明鸡汤具有缓解感冒症状、消除疲劳、促进机体新陈代谢及增强免疫功能等作用.鸡汤中富合蛋白质、多种氨基酸、多种矿物质及微量元素等营养成分,其中肌肽和鹅肌肽是组胺酰二肽类化合物,不仅是鸡汤中的营养成分,同时也是具有多种生理活性的抗氧化物质.此外,肌肽等小分子化合物又作为中枢组织胺神经递质的前驱活性物质,可以通过组氨酸等代谢途径有效调节

  3. Antimicrobial Activity of a Neem Cake Extract in a Broth Model Meat System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Serrone, Paola; Nicoletti, Marcello

    2013-01-01

    This work reports on the antimicrobial activity of an ethyl acetate extract of neem (Azadirachta indica) cake (NCE) against bacteria affecting the quality of retail fresh meat in a broth model meat system. NCE (100 µg) was also tested by the agar disc diffusion method. It inhibited the growth of all tested microorganisms. The NCE growth inhibition zone (IZ) ranged 11.33–22.67 mm while the ciprofloxacin (10 µg) IZ ranged from 23.41–32.67 mm. There was no significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) between the antimicrobial activity of NCE and ciprofloxacin vs. C. jejuni and Leuconostoc spp. The NCE antibacterial activity was moreover determined at lower concentrations (1:10–1:100,000) in micro-assays. The percent growth reduction ranged from 61 ± 2.08–92 ± 3.21. The higher bacterial growth reduction was obtained at 10 µg concentration of NCE. Species-specific PCR and multiplex PCR with the DNA dye propidium monoazide were used to directly detect viable bacterial cells from experimentally contaminated meat samples. The numbers of bacterial cells never significantly (p ≤ 0.05) exceeded the inocula concentration used to experimentally contaminate the NCE treated meat. This report represents a screening methodology to evaluate the antimicrobial capability of a herbal extract to preserve meat. PMID:23917814

  4. Ergosterols from the Culture Broth of Marine Streptomyces anandii H41-59

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang-Mei Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available An actinomycete strain, H41-59, isolated from sea sediment in a mangrove district, was identified as Streptomyces anandii on the basis of 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis as well as the investigation of its morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics. Three new ergosterols, ananstreps A–C (1–3, along with ten known ones (4–13, were isolated from the culture broth of this strain. The gross structures of these new compounds were elucidated on the basis of extensive analysis of spectroscopic data, including HR-ESI-MS, and NMR. The cytotoxicities of these isolates against human breast adenocarcinoma cell line MCF-7, human glioblastoma cell line SF-268, and human lung cancer cell line NCI-H460 and their antibacterial activities in inhibiting the growth of Candida albicans and some other pathogenic microorganisms were tested. Compounds 3–8, 10 and 11 displayed cytotoxicity with IC50 values in a range from 13.0 to 27.8 μg/mL. However, all the tested compounds showed no activity on C. albicans and other bacteria at the test concentration of 1 mg/mL with the paper disc diffusion method.

  5. [Isolation, purification and bioactivities of exopoly saccharides from fermented broth of Ganoderma lucidum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P; Zhang, K

    2000-04-01

    The exopolysaccharides of Ganoderma lucidum(GLEP) extracted from the fermentation broth after removing protein by Sevage and protease digestion procedures, were applied to a column of DEAE-cellulose(OH- form), and eluted stepwise with distilled water, sodium hydrogen carbonate (0.1 mol/L, 0.3 mol/L, 0.5 mol/L successively) and 0.1 mol/L sodium hydroxide. Five fractions were obtained, and the main fraction was known as GLEP-I, furthermore subjected to chromatography on a column of SepharoseC1-6B, eluted at a flow rate of 30 mL/(cm2.h), the relative viscosity of sample solution of 1.5. Two fractions, GLEP-IFr1 and GLEP-IFr2 with a ratio of 3.8:1, were obtained. Molecular weight of GLEP-IFr1 and GLEP-IFr2 was estimated to be 38,000 and 22,000 Dalton respectively by Membrane Osmometer. The animal test showed that GLEP-IFr1 could inhibited the growth of Sarcoma 180 tumor in mice. The average inhibition ratio was 57.4% (i.p. 10 mg/kg for 10 days). The result of immunological activity showed that GLEP-IFr1 could significantly improve macrophage cytophagy.

  6. Dried bonito broth improves cognitive function via the histaminergic system in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozawa, Yoshizu; Mimura, Masako; Yamada, Keiko; Sugita, Mayu; Shibakusa, Tetsuro; Koyama, Naoto

    2014-01-01

    Bonito extract, i.e., dried bonito broth (DBB), has been reported to counteract mental fatigue and to increase performance in a simple calculation task, but the mechanism by which DBB increases task performance is not known. The brain neurotransmitter histamine is biosynthesized only from histidine in the tuberomammillary nucleus. Histamine neurons are projected to almost all areas of the cerebral cortex, and histamine has various behavioral and neurobiological functions, particularly in recognition memory. Here we used a mouse model to investigate the effects of the oral ingestion of DBB, which contains abundant histidine, as well as the ingestion of histidine on cognitive function. In a retention trial of novel object recognition test, the administration of 1.6 g/kg of DBB and 500 mg/kg of histidine significantly increased the animals' exploratory behavior toward a novel object, and that these agents significantly increased the spontaneous alternation behavior ratio in a Y-maze under conditions of scopolamine-induced amnesia, which induced learning and memory impairment. These results suggested the improvement of spatial short-term working memory in a scopolamine amnesia model, as well as the strengthening of visual cognitive function by a single ingestion of DBB and histidine. Interestingly, the administration of αFMH, which is an inhibitor of histamine biosynthesis, eliminated the increase in the spontaneous alternation behavior ratio by DBB ingestion in the scopolamine-induced amnesia model, suggesting that DBB may improve working memory impairment via activation of the histaminergic neuron system.

  7. Analysis of mixtures of fatty acids and fatty alcohols in fermentation broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yilan; Chen, Ting; Yang, Maohua; Wang, Caixia; Huo, Weiyan; Yan, Daojiang; Chen, Jinjin; Zhou, Jiemin; Xing, Jianmin

    2014-01-03

    Microbial production of fatty acids and fatty alcohols has attracted increasing concerns because of energy crisis and environmental impact of fossil fuels. Therefore, simple and efficient methods for the extraction and quantification of these compounds become necessary. In this study, a high-performance liquid chromatography-refractive index detection (HPLC-RID) method was developed for the simultaneous quantification of fatty acids and fatty alcohols in these samples. The optimum chromatographic conditions are C18 column eluted with methanol:water:acetic acid (90:9.9:0.1, v/v/v); column temperature, 26°C; flow rate, 1.0mL/min. Calibration curves of all selected analytes showed good linearity (r(2)≥0.9989). The intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the 10 compounds were less than 4.46% and 5.38%, respectively, which indicated that the method had good repeatability and precision. Besides, a method for simultaneous extraction of fatty acids and fatty alcohols from fermentation broth was optimized by orthogonal design. The optimal extraction conditions were as follows: solvent, ethyl acetate; solvent to sample ratio, 0.5:1; rotation speed, 2min at 260rpm; extraction temperature, 10°C. This study provides simple and fast methods to simultaneously extract and quantify fatty acids and fatty alcohols for the first time. It will be useful for the study of microbial production of these products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Validation of a HILIC Method for the Analysis of Ergothioneine in Fermentation Broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Zhang, Weiya; Wang, Hongyu; Li, Yunhua; Liu, Wei; Wang, Qunjie; Liu, Dongze; Chen, Ning; Jiang, Wenxia

    2016-07-01

    A hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography method has been established for the quantification of ergothioneine (EGT) in fermentation broth. Chromatographic separation was conducted on a Venusil hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm) at an elution rate of 1.0 mL/min with an isocratic mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile/20 mmol/L ammonium acetate solution (85 : 15, v/v) adjusted to pH 6.0 with acetic acid. Analytes were detected at 254 nm using a UV-VIS detector. The injection volume was 10 µL, and the column temperature was 40°C. The limits of detection and limits of quantification were 63 and 21 µg/L, respectively. Excellent linearity [correlation coefficient (R(2)) = 0.9999] was achieved for EGT quantification in the range of 5-400 mg/L. The relative standard deviations of repeatability, intermediate precision and stability were 1.47, 1.03 and 1.66%, respectively, and EGT recoveries were within 99.2-100.8%. The chromatographic peak corresponding to EGT in the HILIC spectrum was confirmed using ESI-MS. In general, the method developed here is simple, reliable, accurate, and stable and may be useful for routine analyses in EGT biosynthesis research. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Ion-exclusion chromatography determination of organic acid in uridine 5'-monophosphate fermentation broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Huanqing; Chen, Yong; Xie, Jingjing; Chen, Xiaochun; Bai, Jianxin; Wu, Jinglan; Liu, Dong; Ying, Hanjie

    2012-09-01

    Simultaneous determination of organic acids using ion-exclusion liquid chromatography and ultraviolet detection is described. The chromatographic conditions are optimized when an Aminex HPX-87H column (300 × 7.8 mm) is employed, with a solution of 3 mmol/L sulfuric acid as eluent, a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min and a column temperature of 60°C. Eight organic acids (including orotic acid, α-ketoglutaric acid, citric acid, pyruvic acid, malic acid, succinic acid, lactic acid and acetic acid) and one nucleotide are successfully quantified. The calibration curves for these analytes are linear, with correlation coefficients exceeding 0.999. The average recovery of organic acids is in the range of 97.6% ∼ 103.1%, and the relative standard deviation is in the range of 0.037% ∼ 0.38%. The method is subsequently applied to obtain organic acid profiles of uridine 5'-monophosphate culture broth fermented from orotic acid by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These data demonstrate the quantitative accuracy for nucleotide fermentation mixtures, and suggest that the method may also be applicable to other biological samples.

  10. Purification of chondroitin precursor from Escherichia coli K4 fermentation broth using membrane processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiraldi, Chiara; Carcarino, Immacolata Loredana; Alfano, Alberto; Restaino, Odile Francesca; Panariello, Andrea; De Rosa, Mario

    2011-04-01

    Recently the possibility of producing the capsular polysaccharide K4, a fructosylated chondroitin, in fed-batch experiments was assessed. In the present study, a novel downstream process to obtain chondroitin from Escherichia coli K4 fermentation broth was developed. The process is simple, scalable and economical. In particular, downstream procedures were optimized with a particular aim of purifying a product suitable for further chemical modifications, in an attempt to develop a biotechnological platform for chondroitin sulfate production. During process development, membrane devices (ultrafiltration/diafiltration) were exploited, selecting the right cassette cut-offs for different phases of purification. The operational conditions (cross-flow rate and transmembrane pressure) used for the process were determined on an ÄKTA cross-flow instrument (GE Healthcare, USA), a lab-scale automatic tangential flow filtration system. In addition, parameters such as selectivity and throughput were calculated based on the analytical quantification of K4 and defructosylated K4, as well as the major contaminants. The complete downstream procedure yielded about 75% chondroitin with a purity higher than 90%.

  11. Isolation of α-arbutin from Xanthomonas CGMCC 1243 fermentation broth by macroporous resin adsorption chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunqiao; Zhang, Peng; Liu, Luo; Xu, Tao; Tan, Tianwei; Wang, Fang; Deng, Li

    2013-04-15

    α-Arbutin is a glycosylated hydroquinone which has inhibitory function against tyrosinase. In this work, a one-step isolation of α-arbutin from Xanthomonas CGMCC 1243 fermentation broth by macroporous resin adsorption chromatography was investigated. The research results indicated that S-8 resin offered the best adsorption and desorption capacities for α-arbutin than others and its equilibrium adsorption data were well-fitted to the Freundlich isotherm. In order to optimize the operating parameters for separating α-arbutin, dynamic adsorption and desorption tests on S-8 column chromatography were carried out. Under optimized conditions (adsorption volume of 7 bed volume (BV), mobile phase of 25% (v/v) ethanol solution and elution volume of 3 BV), the purity and recovery of α-arbutin were 97.3% (w/w) and 90.9% (w/w), respectively. The product was identified as α-arbutin by (13)C NMR and (1)H NMR analysis. Moreover, we scaled up S-8 column from laboratory test (10 cm × 2 cm ID) to large scale (500 cm × 100 cm ID) without diminishing α-arbutin yield. In conclusion, the results in this work provide a one-step and cost-effective method for large-scale production of α-arbutin. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Bactericidal activity of soymilk fermentation broth by in vitro and animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Yi-Ping; Tsui, Ko-Chung; Chen, Mei-Chieh; Wang, Cheng-Yi; Yang, Chin-Yuh; Lin, Yuh-Ling

    2012-06-01

    Soybean fermentation broth (SFB) exhibits potent antibacterial activity against different species of bacteria in in vitro assays and animal models. Four isoflavone compounds-daidzin, genistin, genistein, and daidzein-of SFB were analyzed and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. In the in vitro test, daidzin and daidzein had more potent antibacterial activity than genistin. The minimum inhibition concentration values for these bacteria of SFB ranged from 1.25% to 5%, and the minimum bactericidal concentration values of strains ranged from 2.5% to 10%, depending on the species or strain. Vancomycin-resistant Entercoccus faecalis (VRE) strains were also tested for susceptibility to SFB in two species of animal model: the Sprague-Dawley rat and the BALB/c mouse. SFB-fed Sprague-Dawley rats showed excellent elimination efficiency against VRE, close to 99% compared with the phosphate-buffered saline-fed control group. In the BALB/c mouse model, SFB antibacterial activity was 65-80% against VRE compared with the control. In conclusion, SFB contains natural antibacterial substances such as daidzin, genistin, and daidzein that inhibit bacterial growth.

  13. RP-HPLC determination of recombinant human interferon omega in the Pichia pastoris fermentation broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Pan, Hong-Chun; Peng, Li; Cai, Shao-Xi

    2005-07-15

    A rapid and valid reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method for determination of recombinant human interferon omega (rhIFNomega) in the yeast Pichia pastoris fermentation broth was developed. The method is based on the hydrophobicity of rhIFNomega followed by RP-HPLC separation with UV detection. The chromatography analysis was performed on EC 250/4 NUCLEOSIL 300-5 C18 (250 mm x 4 mm i.d., 300 A, with a particle size of 5 microm) column. The compositions of the mobile phase A and B were 999:1 (v/v) water/TFA and 999:1 (v/v) acetonitrile/TFA at a flow rate of 1.0 ml min(-1). Detection was done by spectrophotometry at 280 nm and the column temperature was 30+/-1 degrees C. Calibration curve was linear (r=0.9986, n=7) in the range of 0.074-0.555 mg ml(-1) for rhIFNomega and the regression equation was y=2.02 x 10(6)x-1.27 x 10(5). Limit of detection for rhIFNomega was 0.053 mg ml(-1). The values of R.S.D. (%) of intra-day and inter-day precision were recovery rate of recovery experiment were <1.23 (n=3) and 97.97%.

  14. Lactic acid recovery from cheese whey fermentation broth using combined ultrafiltration and nanofiltration membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yebo; Shahbazi, Abolghasem

    2006-01-01

    The separation of lactic acid from lactose in the ultrafiltration permeate of cheese whey broth was studied using a cross-flow nanofiltration membrane unit. Experiments to test lactic acid recovery were conducted at three levels of pressure (1.4, 2.1, and 2.8 MPa), two levels of initial lactic acid concentration (18.6 and 27 g/L), and two types of nanofiltration membranes (DS-5DK and DS-5HL). Higher pressure caused significantly higher permeate flux and higher lactose and lactic acid retention (p < 0.0001). Higher initial lactic acid concentrations also caused significantly higher permeate flux, but significantly lower lactose and lactic acid retention (p < 0.0001). The two tested membranes demonstrated significant differences on the permeate flux and lactose and lactic acid retention. Membrane DS-5DK was found to retain 100% of lactose at an initial lactic acid concentration of 18.6 g/L for all the tested pressures, and had a retention level of 99.5% of lactose at initial lactic acid concentration of 27 g/L when the pressure reached 2.8 MPa. For all the tests when lactose retention reached 99-100%, as much as 64% of the lactic acid could be recovered in the permeate.

  15. Recovery of acids from anaerobic acidification broth by liquid-liquid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkaya, Emrah; Kaptan, Serkan; Ozkan, Leyla; Uludag-Demirer, Sibel; Demirer, Göksel N

    2009-11-01

    In this study, anaerobic acidification of sugar beet processing wastes and subsequent liquid-liquid extraction of produced fermentation metabolites were investigated. The aim of extraction experiments was to asses the influence of pH and extractant (trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) in kerosene) concentrations on the recovery of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from fermentation broth. The effect of TOPO in kerosene concentration was as crucial as the effect of pH on the recovery of VFAs via extraction. Consequently, pH 2.5 was determined as optimum. At this pH, percent recoveries of VFAs were changed from 43% to 98%, depending on the type of the acid extracted (acetic, butyric, propionic and valeric acids) and the concentration of TOPO in kerosene (5-20%). As the concentration of TOPO in kerosene was increased, efficiency of extraction was increased. As a result, highest VFA recoveries (61-98%) were observed at 20% TOPO in kerosene with distribution ratio values ranging between 1.54 and 40.79. At pH 2.5, the increase in TOPO concentration directly increased the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies, as it does for total VFA recovery. Up to 72% COD removals were achieved, at 20% TOPO in kerosene at pH 2.5, while the removal efficiencies remained between 19% and 22% at pH 5.5.

  16. Urokinase Separation from Cell Culture Broth of a Human Kidney Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibha Bansal, Pradip K. Roychoudhury, Ashok Kumar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A single step ion-exchange chromatography on a sulfo-propyl (SP- Sepharose column was performed to separate both the high molecular weight (HMW- and low molecular weight (LMW- forms of enzymatically active urokinase type plasminogen activator from human kidney (HT1080 cell culture media. The level of urokinase secreted by the cell line reached to about 145 Plough units/ml culture broth within 48 h of cultivation. The conditioned cell culture media was applied directly to the column without any prior concentration steps. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the column eluates in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate showed that the cell line secretes three forms of two-chain high molecular weight (HMW urokinase of molecular weights (Mr 64,000, 60,900 and 55,000. In addition, two low molecular weight (LMW forms of Mr 22,000 and 20,000; proteolytic cleavage products of HMW, were also found. The HMW and LMW forms had intrinsic plasminogen dependent proteolytic activity as judged by zymographic analysis. The specific activity of the pooled peak fractions increased (approximately 93-fold to values as high as 1481 Plough units/ mg protein. Both HMW as well as LMW forms were obtained in significantly high yields.

  17. Purification and characterization of an endoxylanase from the culture broth of Bacillus cereus BSA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, A; Kar, S; Das Mohapatra, P K; Maity, C; Pati, B R; Mondal, K C

    2011-01-01

    An extracellular xylanase from the fermented broth of Bacillus cereus BSA1 was purified and characterized. The enzyme was purified to 3.43 fold through ammonium sulphate precipitation, DEAE-cellulose chromatography and followed by gel filtration through Sephadex G-100 column. The molecular mass of the purified xylanse was about 33 kDa. The enzyme was an endoxylanase as it initially degraded xylan to xylooligomers. The purified enzyme showed optimum activity at 55 degrees C and at pH 7.0 and remained reasonably stable in a wide range ofpH (5.0-8.0) and temperature (40-65 degrees C). The Km and Vmax values were found to be 8.2 mg/ml and 181.8 micromol/(min mg), respectively. The enzyme had no apparent requirement ofcofactors, and its activity was strongly inhibited by Cu++, Hg++. It was also a salt tolerant enzyme and stable upto 2.5 M of NaCl and retained its 85% activity at 3.0 M. For stability and substrate binding, the enzyme needed hydrophobic interaction that revealed when most surfactants inhihited xylanase activity. Since the enzyme was active over wide range ofpH, temperature and remained active in higher salt concentration, it could find potential uses in biobleaching process in paper industries.

  18. An improved HPLC-DAD method for clavulanic acid quantification in fermentation broths of Streptomyces clavuligerus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Malule, Howard; Junne, Stefan; López, Carlos; Zapata, Julian; Sáez, Alex; Neubauer, Peter; Rios-Estepa, Rigoberto

    2016-02-20

    Clavulanic acid (CA) is an important secondary metabolite commercially produced by cultivation of Streptomyces clavuligerus (Sc). It is a potent inhibitor of bacterial β-lactamases. In this work, a specific and improved high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method, using a C-18 reversed phase column, diode array detector and gradient elution for CA quantification in fermentation broths of Sc, was developed and successfully validated. Samples were imidazole-derivatized for the purpose of creating a stable chromophore (clavulanate-imidazole). The calibration curve was linear over a typical range of CA concentration between 0.2 and 400mg/L. The detection and quantification limits were 0.01 and 0.02mg/L, respectively. The precision of the method was evaluated for CA spiked into production media and a recovery of 103.8%, on average, was obtained. The clavulanate-imidazole complex was not stable when the samples were not cooled during the analysis. The recovery rate was 39.3% on average. This assay was successfully tested for CA quantification in samples from Sc fermentation, using both, a chemically defined and a complex medium.

  19. Purification of monoclonal antibodies from whole hybridoma fermentation broth by fluidized bed adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thömmes, J; Halfar, M; Lenz, S; Kula, M R

    1995-02-01

    To achive the coarse purification of a monoclonal antibody from whole hybridoma fermentation broth a fluidized bed cation exchange process was used. The procedure consisted of application of the crude sample and washing of the bed in a fluidized mode and elution in a fixed bed mode. A completely clarified eluate was obtained with purification factors between 4 and 8 and a concentration of the desired product (monoclonal antibody) by a factor of more than 3 was achived. Thus, a combination of the three early steps of the downstream process clarification, concentration and coarse purification was possible. Two different materials were tested: a commercially available agarose-based matrix (Stream-line-SP), and a self-derivatized material based on controlled-pore glass (Bioran). Initial experiments were performed to describe the fluidization of the glass material. Comparison with the agarose material showed several differences, the agarose matrix allowing liquid flow closer to plug flow than the glass material. Increased backmixing in the liquid phase was detected when fluidizing the glass adsorbent compared with the agarose-based matrix. Despite this fact, comparison of the two materials with respect to antibody binding and elution demonstrated a similar performance. (c) 1995 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  20. Mutations in Transhydrogenase Change the Fluorescence Emission State of TRP72 from 1La to 1Lb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tveen Jensen, Karina; Strambini, Giovanni; Gonnelli, Margherita; Broos, Jaap; Jackson, J. Baz

    2008-01-01

    The dI component of Rhodospirillum rubrum transhydrogenase has a single Trp residue (Trp72), which has distinctive optical properties, including short-wavelength fluorescence emission with clear vibrational fine structure, and long-lived, well-resolved phosphorescence emission. We have made a set of mutant dI proteins in which residues contacting Trp72 are conservatively substituted. The room-temperature fluorescence-emission spectra of our three Met97 mutants are blue shifted by ∼4 nm, giving them a shorter-wavelength emission than any other protein described in the literature, including azurin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Fluorescence spectra in low-temperature glasses show equivalent well-resolved vibrational bands in wild-type and the mutant dI proteins, and in azurin. Substitution of Met97 in dI changes the relative intensities of some of these vibrational bands. The analysis supports the view that fluorescence from the Met97 mutants arises predominantly from the 1Lb excited singlet state of Trp72, whereas 1La is the predominant emitting state in wild-type dI. It is suggested that the sulfur atom of Met97 promotes greater stabilization of 1La than either 1Lb or the ground state. The phosphorescence spectra of Met97 mutants are also blue-shifted, indicating that the sulfur atom decreases the transition energy between the 3La state of the Trp and the ground state. PMID:18599622

  1. A Procedure to Address the Fuel Rod Failures during LB-LOCA Transient in Atucha-2 NPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Adorni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Depending on the specific event scenario and on the purpose of the analysis, the availability of calculation methods that are not implemented in the standard system thermal hydraulic codes might be required. This may imply the use of a dedicated fuel rod thermomechanical computer code. This paper provides an outline of the methodology for the analysis of the 2A LB-LOCA accident in Atucha-2 NPP and describes the procedure adopted for the use of the fuel rod thermomechanical code. The methodology implies the application of best estimate thermalhydraulics, neutron physics, and fuel pin performance computer codes, with the objective to verify the compliance with the specific acceptance criteria. The fuel pin performance code is applied with the main objective to evaluate the extent of cladding failures during the transient. The procedure consists of a deterministic calculation by the fuel performance code of each individual fuel rod during its lifetime and in the subsequent LB-LOCA transient calculations. The boundary and initial conditions are provided by core physics and three-dimensional neutron kinetic coupled thermal-hydraulic system codes calculations. The procedure is completed by the sensitivity calculations and the application of the probabilistic method, which are outside the scope of the current paper.

  2. Explaining level inversion of the La and Lb States of indole and indole derivatives in polar solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisker-Klaiman, Daria; Dreuw, Andreas

    2015-06-01

    Quantum chemical methods are used to study the solvent effects on the spectra of indole and a series of methyl-substituted indoles. We focus on the low-lying L(a) and L(b) states and study their interplay. We find that the solvent mainly affects emission from the L(a) state, by stabilizing its energy in its excited-state geometry. The stabilization of the L(a) state increases with increasing solvent polarity, which accounts for the large fluorescence shift observed in indoles and leads to an inversion in the nature of the lowest emitting state, from L(b) in vacuum to L(a) in water. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first theoretical evidence for level inversion done for a series of indoles. The underlying mechanism of level inversion is analyzed in detail. The usual interpretation of level inversion in terms of their static dipole moment is criticized and an improved predictive measurement is suggested.

  3. Faint-Source-Star Planetary Microlensing: The Discovery of the Cold Gas-Giant Planet OGLE-2014-BLG-0676Lb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattenbury, N. J.; Bennett, D. P.; Sumi, T.; Koshimoto, N.; Bond, I. A.; Udalski, A.; Shvartzvald, Y.; Maoz, D.; Jorgensen, U. G.; Barry, R.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery of a planet OGLE-2014-BLG-0676Lb via gravitational microlensing. Observations for the lensing event were made by the following groups: Microlensing Observations in Astrophysics; Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment; Wise Observatory; RoboNETLas Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope; Microlensing Network for the Detection of Small Terrestrial Exoplanets; and -FUN. All analyses of the light-curve data favoura lens system comprising a planetary mass orbiting a host star. The most-favoured binary lens model has a mass ratio between the two lens masses of (4.78 +/- 0.13) 10(exp -3). Subject to some important assumptions, a Bayesian probability density analysis suggests the lens system comprises a 3.09(+1.02/-1.12) MJ planet orbiting a 0.62(+0.20/-0.22) solar mass host star at a deprojected orbital separation of 4.40(+2.16/-1.46) au. The distance to the lens system is 2.22(+0.96/-0.83) kpc. Planet OGLE-2014-BLG-0676Lb provides additional data to the growing number of cool planets discover redusing gravitational microlensing against which planetary formation theories may be tested. Most of the light in the baseline of this event is expected to come from the lens and thus high-resolution imaging observations could confirm our planetary model interpretation.

  4. Determination of Ideal Broth Formulations Needed to Prepare Hydrous Cerium Oxide Microspheres via the Internal Gelation Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Jack Lee [ORNL; Chi, Anthony [ORNL

    2009-02-01

    A simple test tube methodology was used to determine optimum process parameters for preparing hydrous cerium oxide microspheres via the internal gelation process.1 Broth formulations of cerium ammonium nitrate [(NH4)2Ce(NO3)6], hexamethylenetetramine, and urea were found that can be used to prepare hydrous cerium oxide gel spheres in the temperature range of 60 to 90 C. A few gel-forming runs were made in which microspheres were prepared with some of these formulations to be able to equate the test-tube gelation times to actual gelation times. These preparations confirmed that the test-tube methodology is reliable for determining the ideal broth formulations.

  5. Inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enteritidis in tryptic soy broth and caviar samples by high pressure processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fioretto

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available We studied the action of high pressure processing on the inactivation of two foodborne pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 and Salmonella enteritidis ATCC 13076, suspended in a culture medium and inoculated into caviar samples. The baroresistance of the two pathogens in a tryptic soy broth suspension at a concentration of 10(8-10(9 colony-forming units/ml was tested for continuous and cycled pressurization in the 150- to 550-MPa range and for 15-min treatments at room temperature. The increase of cycle number permitted the reduction of the pressure level able to totally inactivate both microorganisms in the tryptic soy broth suspension, whereas the effect of different procedure times on complete inactivation of the microorganisms inoculated into caviar was similar.

  6. Pharmacia and biological functionalities of nutrient broth dispersed multi-walled carbon nanotubes:A novel drug delivery system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A new drug delivery system was developed using the interaction of nutrient broth treated multi-walled carbon nanotubes(NBT-MWCNTs) and cefotaxime sodium(CTX) as a model.Investigated factors of the drug delivery system include dispersion effect,biocompatibility of NBT-MWCNTs,pharmacodynamic effect and delivery efficiency in vitro.It was found that MWCNTs can be well dispersed in the nutrient broth and stable at least for one week at 4 °C.The formed NBT-MWCNTs suspension scarcely exhibits toxicity to E.coli at concentrations lower than 10.24 μg/mL,but displays enhanced pharmacodynamic effect of CTX via its bridge effect and targeted transport.Compared with general acid treated MWCNTs(AT-MWCNTs),our present NBT-MWCNTs show good biocompatibility,enhanced pharmacodynamic effect,and high delivery efficiency.

  7. Biodegradation of 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in liquid broth by brown-rot fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlatti, Bruno; da Silva, Maria Fátima das Graças Fernandes; Fernandes, João Batista; Forim, Moacir Rossi

    2013-11-01

    Dioxins are a class of extremely hazardous molecules that might pose a threat to the environment. This work evaluated the microbial degradation of 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1,2,3,4-TCDD), in liquid broth using three brown-rot fungi and one white-rot fungi as control. A fast and reliable extraction method with recoveries of over 98% together with a validated GC-MS method was developed, and applied to quantify 1,2,3,4-TCDD in liquid broth, mycelia and reaction flask, with detection limits of 10 ppb. Among the four strains tested, brown-rot fungus Aspergillus aculeatus showed best results, removing up to 21% of dioxin after 30-day incubation. The results open both a path for biotechnological interest in bioremediation purposes and environmental behavior studies by using brown-rot fungus.

  8. Early Recovery of Salmonella from Food Using a 6-Hour Non-selective Pre-enrichment and Reformulation of Tetrathionate Broth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daquigan, Ninalynn; Grim, Christopher J.; White, James R.; Hanes, Darcy E.; Jarvis, Karen G.

    2016-01-01

    Culture based methods are commonly employed to detect pathogens in food and environmental samples. These methods are time consuming and complex, requiring multiple non-selective and selective enrichment broths, and usually take at least 1 week to recover and identify pathogens. Improving pathogen detection in foods is a primary goal for regulatory agencies and industry. Salmonella detection in food relies on a series of culture steps in broth formulations optimized to resuscitate Salmonella and reduce the abundance of competitive bacteria. Examples of non-selective pre-enrichment broths used to isolate Salmonella from food include Lactose, Universal Pre-enrichment, BPW, and Trypticase Soy broths. Tetrathionate (TT) and Rappaport–Vassiliadis (RV) broths are employed after a 24-h non-selective enrichment to select for Salmonella and hamper the growth of competitive bacteria. In this study, we tested a new formulation of TT broth that lacks brilliant green dye and has lower levels of TT . We employed this TT broth formulation in conjunction with a 6-h non-selective pre-enrichment period and determined that Salmonella recovery was possible one day earlier than standard food culture methods. We tested the shortened culture method in different non-selective enrichment broths, enumerated Salmonella in the non-selective enrichments, and used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to determine the proportional abundances of Salmonella in the TT and RV selective enrichments. Together these data revealed that a 6-h non-selective pre-enrichment reduces the levels of competitive bacteria inoculated into the selective TT and RV broths, enabling the recovery of Salmonella 1 day earlier than standard culture enrichment methods. PMID:28082968

  9. Extraction of natural red colorants from the fermented broth of Penicillium purpurogenum using aqueous two-phase polymer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Ebinuma, Valéria Carvalho; Lopes, André Moreni; Pessoa, Adalberto; Teixeira, Maria Francisca Simas

    2015-01-01

    Safety concerns related to the increasing and widespread application of synthetic coloring agents have increased the demand for natural colorants. Fungi have been employed in the production of novel and safer colorants. In order to obtain the colorants from fermented broth, suitable extraction systems must be developed. Aqueous two-phase polymer systems (ATPPS) offer a favorable chemical environment and provide a promising alternative for extracting and solubilizing these molecules. The aim of this study was to investigate the partitioning of red colorants from the fermented broth of Penicillium purpurogenum using an ATPPS composed of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and sodium polyacrylate (NaPA). Red colorants partitioned preferentially to the top (PEG-rich phase). In systems composed of PEG 6,000 g/mol/NaPA 8,000 g/mol, optimum colorant partition coefficient (KC ) was obtained in the presence of NaCl 0.1 M (KC  = 10.30) while the PEG 10,000 g/mol/NaPA 8,000 g/mol system in the presence of Na2 SO4 0.5 M showed the highest KC (14.78). For both polymers, the mass balance (%MB) and yield in the PEG phase (%ηTOP ) were close to 100 and 79%, respectively. The protein selectivity in all conditions evaluated ranged from 2.0-3.0, which shows a suitable separation of the red colorants and proteins present in the fermented broth. The results suggest that the partitioning of the red colorants is dependent on both the PEG molecular size and salt type. Furthermore, the results obtained support the potential application of ATPPS as the first step of a purification process to recover colorants from fermented broth of microorganisms.

  10. Verification of an Automated, Digital Dispensing Platform for At-Will Broth Microdilution-Based Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kenneth P; Kirby, James E

    2016-09-01

    With rapid emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria, there is often a need to perform susceptibility testing for less commonly used or newer antimicrobial agents. Such testing can often be performed only by using labor-intensive, manual dilution methods and lies outside the capacity of most clinical labs, necessitating reference laboratory testing and thereby delaying the availability of susceptibility data. To address the compelling clinical need for microbiology laboratories to perform such testing in-house, we explored a novel, automated, at-will broth microdilution-based susceptibility testing platform. Specifically, we used the modified inkjet printer technology in the HP D300 digital dispensing system to dispense, directly from stock solutions into a 384-well plate, the 2-fold serial dilution series required for broth microdilution testing. This technology was combined with automated absorbance readings and data analysis to determine MICs. Performance was verified by testing members of the Enterobacteriaceae for susceptibility to ampicillin, cefazolin, ciprofloxacin, colistin, gentamicin, meropenem, and tetracycline in comparison to the results obtained with a broth microdilution reference standard. In precision studies, essential and categorical agreement levels were 96.8% and 98.3%, respectively. Furthermore, significantly fewer D300-based measurements were outside ±1 dilution from the modal MIC, suggesting enhanced reproducibility. In accuracy studies performed using a panel of 80 curated clinical isolates, rates of essential and categorical agreement and very major, major, and minor errors were 94%, 96.6%, 0%, 0%, and 3.4%, respectively. Based on these promising initial results, it is anticipated that the D300-based methodology will enable hospital-based clinical microbiology laboratories to perform at-will broth microdilution testing of antimicrobials and to address a critical testing gap. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All

  11. A new compound from liquid fermentation broth of Armillaria mellea and the determination of its absolute configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun-Chao; Zhang, Yu-Wei; Zheng, Li-Hua; Bao, Yong-Li; Wu, Yin; Yu, Chun-Lei; Sun, Lu-Guo; Zhang, Yu; Huang, Yan-Xin; Sun, Ying; Li, Yu-Xin

    2013-01-01

    A new 2,5-diketopiperazine, (R)-2-(2-(furan-2-yl)-oxoethyl)-octahydropyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine-1,4-dione, and seven known compounds were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of liquid fermentation broth of Armillaria mellea. The structures of the isolated compounds were established from NMR and HR-MS data. The absolute configuration of the new compound was established by comparing the experimental electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectrum with the calculated ECD data.

  12. [Simultaneous determination of meso-erythritol and L-erythrulose in fermentation broth using high performance liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Chiyu; Zhang, Junli; Chen, Jianhua

    2012-08-01

    A high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of meso-erythritol and L-erythrulose in fermentation broth. The chromatographic conditions were as follows: Lichrospher 5-NH2 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm) with the temperature of 30 degrees C, acetonitrile-water (90: 10, v/v) as mobile phase with the flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. meso-Erythritol was detected by refractive index (RI) detector at 35 degrees C and L-erythrulose was detected by ultraviolet (UV) detector at 277 nm at room temperature. The linear range for meso-erythritol was 1.00 - 100.00 g/L with a correlation coefficient of 0.998 5. The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) for meso-erythritol were 0.10 g/L and 0.45 g/L, respectively. The linear range for L-erythrulose was 1.00 - 100.00 g/L with a correlation coefficient of 0.995 8. The LOD and LOQ for L-erythrulose were 0.50 g/L and 0.87 g/L, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of intraday and interday for meso-erythritol were less than 3.28% and 5.30%, respectively. The intraday and interday RSDs for L-erythrulose were less than 2.16% and 2.25%, respectively. The recoveries of meso-erythritol and L-erythrulose in fermentation broth were greater than 99%. The samples from fermentation broth were detected at different time points. The measurement by the novel HPLC method was not affected by the other components in the fermentation broth. Furthermore, the HPLC method can be used for the determination of the substrate meso-erythritol and the product L-erythrulose simultaneously.

  13. A novel Method for the selective recovery and purification of gamma-polyglutamic acid from Bacillus licheniformis fermentation broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manocha, Bhavik; Margaritis, Argyrios

    2010-01-01

    Microbially produced gamma-polyglutamic acid (gamma-PGA) is a commercially important biopolymer with many applications in biopharmaceutical, food, cosmetic and waste-water treatment industries. Owing to its increasing demand in various industries, production of gamma-PGA is well documented in the literature, however very few methods have been reported for its recovery. In this paper, we report a novel method for the selective recovery and purification of gamma-PGA from cell-free fermentation broth of Bacillus licheniformis. The cell-free fermentation broth was treated with divalent copper ions, resulting in the precipitation of gamma-PGA, which was collected as a pellet by centrifugation. The pellet was resolubilized and dialyzed against de-ionized water to obtain the purified gamma-PGA biopolymer. The efficiency and selectivity of gamma-PGA recovery was compared with ethanol precipitation method. We found that 85% of the original gamma-PGA content in the broth was recovered by copper sulfate-induced precipitation, compared to 82% recovery by ethanol precipitation method. Since ethanol is a commonly used solvent for protein precipitation, the purity of gamma-PGA precipitate was analyzed by measuring proteins that co-precipitated with gamma-PGA. Of the total proteins present in the broth, 48% proteins were found to be co-precipitated with gamma-PGA by ethanol precipitation, whereas in copper sulfate-induced precipitation, only 3% of proteins were detected in the final purified gamma-PGA, suggesting that copper sulfate-induced precipitation offers better selectivity than ethanol precipitation method. Total metal content analysis of the purified gamma-PGA revealed the undetectable amount of copper ions, whereas other metal ions detected were in low concentration range. The purified gamma-PGA was characterized using infrared spectroscopy. Copyright 2010 American Institute of Chemical Engineers

  14. MEKANISME ANTIBAKTERI METABOLIT Lb. plantarum kik dan MONOASILGLISEROL MINYAK KELAPA TERHADAP BAKTERI PATOGAN PANGAN [Mechanism at Antibacterial Activity of Lb. plantarum kik Metabolites and Monoacylglycerol Coconut Oil upon Pathogenic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asriani1

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial mechanism of mixture between metabolites Lb.plantarum klik and monoacylglycerol coconut oil was found through analysis of the MIC levels. The level of 1 and 2 MIC can increase the leakages of the gram positif bacterial sell (L.monocytogenes and B.cereus and that of the gram negative bacteria (S.typhimurium. The leackages of cell was measured by spectrofotometer and represented increasing of the absorbance of the protein nucleic acid . The absorbance of metal ion was evaluated using a AASS (measured by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer and it indicated that the absorbance increased of 40.2% and 22.1% for Ca 2+ and K+ respectively. Observation of cell damage on L. monoctogenes and S. tyhimurium using SEM (scanning Electron Microscopy resulted in morphological damage on both MIC 1 and 2 in which MIC 2 was severly damage.

  15. Indirect methods for characterization of carbon dioxide levels in fermentation broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, R; Junker, B

    1999-01-01

    Various factors which influence dissolved carbon dioxide levels were indirectly evaluated in pilot scale and laboratory studies. For pilot scale studies, off-gas carbon dioxide (percentage in exit air) was measured using a mass spectrometer and then its potential impact on dissolved carbon dioxide concentrations qualitatively examined. Greater volumetric air flowrates reduced off-gas carbon dioxide levels more effectively at lower airflow ranges and thus lowered expected dissolved carbon dioxide levels through gas stripping. Lower broth pH values decreased off-gas carbon dioxide levels but increased expected dissolved carbon dioxide levels due to the pH-dependence of the gas/liquid carbon dioxide equilibrium. While back-pressure increases had an insignificant effect on off-gas carbon dioxide levels, they directly affected expected dissolved carbon dioxide levels according to Henry's law. Laboratory studies, conducted using both uninoculated and inoculated fermentation media, quantified the response of the media to pH changes with bicarbonate addition, specifically its buffering capacity. This effect then was related qualitatively to expected dissolved carbon dioxide levels. Higher dissolved carbon dioxide levels, as demonstrated by reduced pH changes with bicarbonate addition, thus would be expected for salt solutions of increased ionic strength and higher protein content media. In addition, pH changes with greater bicarbonate additions declined for fermentation samples taken over the course of a one week cultivation, most likely due to the higher protein content associated with biomass growth. The presence of weak acids/bases initially in the media or formed as metabolic by products, as well as the concentration of buffering ions such as phosphate, also were believed to be important contributing elements to the buffering capacity of the solution.

  16. Isolation and Characterization of Exopolysaccharide with Immunomodulatory Activity from Fermentation Broth of Morchella Conica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-an Su

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of this study: Mushroom polysaccharides have traditionally been used for the prevention and treatment of a multitude of disorders like infectious illnesses, cancers and various autoimmune diseases. In vitro and in vivo studies suggest that certain polysaccharides affect immune system function. Morchella conica (M. conica is a species of rare edible mushroom whose multiple medicinal functions have been proven. Thus, the objective of this study is to isolate and characterize of exopolysaccharide from submerged mycelial culture of M. conica, and to evaluate its immunomodulatory activity.MethodsA water-soluble Morchella conica Polysaccharides (MCP were extracted and isolated from the fermentation broth of M. conica through a combination of DEAE-cellulose and Sephacryl S-300 HR chromatograph. NMR and IR spectroscopy has played a developing role in identification of polysaccharide with different structure and composition from fungal and plant sources, as well as complex glycosaminoglycans of animal origin. Thus, NMR and IR spectroscopy were used to analyze the chemical structure and composition of the isolated polysaccharide. Moreover, the polysaccharide was tested for its immunomodulatory activity at different concentrations using in vitro model.ResultsThe results showed that MCP may significantly modulate nitric oxide production in macrophages, and promote splenocytes proliferation. Analysis from HPLC, infrared spectra and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed that MCP was a homogeneous mannan with an average molecular weight of approximately 81.2 kDa. The glycosidic bond links is [rightwards arrow]6-alpha-D-Man p-(1[rightwards arrow].ConclusionThe results suggested that the extracted MCP may modulate nitric oxide production in macrophages and promote splenocytes proliferation, and it may act as a potent immunomodulatory agent.

  17. Combination of Origanum vulgare L. essential oil and lactic acid to inhibit Staphylococcus aureus in meat broth and meat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson C. de Barros

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the occurrence of an enhancing inhibitory effect of the combined application of Origanum vulgare L. essential oil and lactic acid against Staphylococcus aureus by the determination of Fractional Inhibitory Concentration (FIC index and cell viability in meat broth and meat model. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC of the oil was 0.6 and 1.25 µL.mL-1, respectively. Lactic acid showed MIC and MBC of 2.5 and 5µL.mL-1, respectively. FIC indices of the combined application of the oil and lactic acid were 0.5 showing a synergic interaction. The essential oil and lactic acid showed similar (p>0.05 anti-S. aureus effect in meat broth over 96 h of exposure. Treatment with essential oil or lactic acid presented a smaller anti-staphylococcal effect in meat in comparison to meat broth. No significant difference (p>0.05 was found for the microbial counts in meat treated with each antimicrobial alone or in mixture. These results could arise as an interesting approach for the improvement of food preservation using more natural procedures, considering the current demand of consumer and sensory quality of foods.

  18. Radiation sensitivity of poliovirus, a model for norovirus, inoculated in oyster (Crassostrea gigas) and culture broth under different conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Pil-Mun [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae Seok [Korea Food and Drug Administration, Seoul 122-704 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin-Gyu; Park, Jae-Nam; Han, In-Jun; Song, Beom-Seok; Choi, Jong-il; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Min [Atomic Energy Policy Division, Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, Gwacheon 427-715 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Young-Jin [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju-Woon [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: sjwlee@kaeri.re.kr

    2009-07-15

    Poliovirus is a recognized surrogate for norovirus, pathogen in water and food, due to the structural and genetic similarity. Although radiation sensitivity of poliovirus in water or media had been reported, there has been no research in food model such as shellfish. In this study, oyster (Crassostrea gigas) was incubated in artificial seawater contaminated with poliovirus, and thus radiation sensitivity of poliovirus was determined in inoculated oyster. The effects of ionizing radiation on the sensitivity of poliovirus were also evaluated under different conditions such as pH (4-7) and salt concentration (1-15%) in culture broth, and temperature during irradiation. The D{sub 10} value of poliovirus in PBS buffer, virus culture broth and oyster was determined to 0.46, 2.84 and 2.94 kGy, respectively. The initial plaque forming unit (PFU) of poliovirus in culture broth was slightly decreased as the decrease of pH and the increase of salt concentration, but radiation sensitivity was not affected by pH and salt contents. However, radiation resistance of poliovirus was increased at frozen state. These results provide the basic information for the inactivation of pathogenic virus in foods by using irradiation.

  19. Radiation sensitivity of poliovirus, a model for norovirus, inoculated in oyster ( Crassostrea gigas) and culture broth under different conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Pil-Mun; Park, Jae Seok; Park, Jin-Gyu; Park, Jae-Nam; Han, In-Jun; Song, Beom-Seok; Choi, Jong-il; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo; Baek, Min; Chung, Young-Jin; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2009-07-01

    Poliovirus is a recognized surrogate for norovirus, pathogen in water and food, due to the structural and genetic similarity. Although radiation sensitivity of poliovirus in water or media had been reported, there has been no research in food model such as shellfish. In this study, oyster ( Crassostrea gigas) was incubated in artificial seawater contaminated with poliovirus, and thus radiation sensitivity of poliovirus was determined in inoculated oyster. The effects of ionizing radiation on the sensitivity of poliovirus were also evaluated under different conditions such as pH (4-7) and salt concentration (1-15%) in culture broth, and temperature during irradiation. The D10 value of poliovirus in PBS buffer, virus culture broth and oyster was determined to 0.46, 2.84 and 2.94 kGy, respectively. The initial plaque forming unit (PFU) of poliovirus in culture broth was slightly decreased as the decrease of pH and the increase of salt concentration, but radiation sensitivity was not affected by pH and salt contents. However, radiation resistance of poliovirus was increased at frozen state. These results provide the basic information for the inactivation of pathogenic virus in foods by using irradiation.

  20. Functionalized magnetic mesoporous silica nanoparticles: fabrication, laccase adsorption performance and direct laccase capture from Trametes versicolor fermentation broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Huang, Wei; Guo, Chen; Liu, Chun-Zhao

    2012-12-01

    A simple and highly efficient protocol using magnetic mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MMSNPs) with metal affinity ligands was developed to directly capture laccase from Trametes versicolor fermentation broth. The Cu(2+)-chelated magnetic mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MMSNPs-Cu(2+)) with pore sizes ranging from 3.6 to 27.1 nm exhibited size selectivity on laccase capture from the fermentation broth, and the MMSNPs-Cu(2+) with an average pore size of 14.5 nm provided 60.6-fold purification of laccase and 114.6% recovery yield of enzyme activity. Both size selectivity of the MMSNPs and affinity of the chelated metal ion resulted in high laccase capture efficiency from the fermentation broth. The most efficient MMSNPs-Cu(2+) demonstrated no significant loss in laccase capture effectiveness following 10 reuse cycles. This simple and efficient strategy has the potential to be used for the robust and inexpensive preparation of purified laccase at the industrial scale. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Determination of enantiomeric purity for lactic acid in fermentation broth by Rhizopus oryzae with high performance liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, D M; Zhao, X M; Hu, Z D

    2001-01-01

    A procedure for the resolution of DL-lactic acid and the determination of D-isomer ratio in L-lactic acid fermentation broth by Rhizopus oryzae is described. The effects of pH of mobile phase and concentration of chiral mobile phase additives on resolution of DL-lactic acid were investigated. The optical isomers of lactic acid were resolved by RP-HPLC with 2,3,6-tri-O-beta-cyclodextrin(TM-beta-CD) as a chiral mobile phase additive, and C18 column as stationary phase, and detected at wavelength 210 nm. The results showed that a correction factor should be introduced into the equation for calculation of the percentage of D-lactic acid, because the UV absorption of D-lactic acid and L-lactic acid might not be the same when TM-beta-CD was present. Quantitation was achieved with external standard method, the average recovery was 100.4%, and the relative standard deviation was 0.82%. This method can be used for the determination of the percentage of D-isomer in L-lactic acid fermentation broth by Rhizopus oryzae, and it is simple, rapid and accurate. The results showed that the mass fraction of D-isomer in the fermented broth increased during the period of storage.

  2. A selective broth enrichment combined with real-time nuc-mecA-PCR in the exclusion of MRSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasanen, Tanja; Korkeila, Maija; Mero, Sointu; Tarkka, Eveliina; Piiparinen, Heli; Vuopio-Varkila, Jaana; Vaara, Martti; Tissari, Päivi

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed the performance of a selective enrichment broth combined with Taqman-based real-time duplex nuc-mecA-PCR to expedite the screening of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). We found the broth to be able to select MRSA strains (oxacillin MIC range 4-256 microg/ml) from MSSA strains. A total of 31 MRSA strains were found from 1250 clinical samples screened. The nuc-mecA-PCR was positive from all enrichment broths containing MRSA. From the remaining 1219 samples negative for MRSA on culture/subculture, 138 samples were nuc+/mecA+ in PCR. The sensitivity of the test was 93.5%, specificity 88.6%, positive predictive value 17.3%, and negative predictive value 99.8% as compared to culture. Thus, with this method, the negative MRSA results can be reliably reported within 24-48 h from sampling. The method is a practical additional alternative to those already described for the same purpose.

  3. Listeria monocytogenes efficiently invades Caco-2 cells after low-temperature storage in broth and on deli meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Marianne Halberg; Koch, Anette Granly; Ingmer, Hanne

    2010-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how various growth conditions influence the virulence of Listeria monocytogenes monitored by its ability to invade the epithelial cell lines Caco-2 and INT-407. The growth conditions examined were modified atmosphere-packaged deli meat and brain heart infusion broth (BHI) with and without salt. Five strains of L. monocytogenes were selected to investigate their invasiveness and all strains invaded Caco-2 cells at higher levels than INT-407 cells. Further, the clinical strains (3443 and 3734) were more invasive (p 0.05) in invasiveness after 7 days at 10 degrees C in BHI broth or on sausage, whereas a slight increase (p < 0.05) was observed after incubation on ham for 2 and 4 weeks compared to that in BHI broth. Most importantly, our results show that L. monocytogenes efficiently invade Caco-2 cells even after 4 weeks of storage at chilled temperature. This is highly relevant for safety assessment of this organism in food as these conditions reflect storage of ready-to-eat food products in domestic refrigerators.

  4. The effects of fermentation and adsorption using lactic acid bacteria culture broth on the feed quality of rice straw

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jing-jing; LIU Xiao-ping; REN Ji-wei; ZHAO Hong-yan; YUAN Xu-feng; WANG Xiao-fen; Abdelfattah Z M Salem; CUI Zong-jun

    2015-01-01

    To improve the nutritional value and the palatability of air-dried rice straw, culture broth of the lactic acid bacteria community SFC-2 was used to examine the effects of two different treatments, fermentation and adsorption. Air-dried and chopped rice straw was treated with either fermentation for 30 d after adding 1.5 L nutrient solution (50 mL inocula L–1, 1.2×1012 CFU mL–1 inocula) kg–1 straw dry matter, or spraying a large amount of culture broth (1.5 L kg–1 straw dry matter, 1.5×1011 CFU mL–1 culture broth) on the straw and al owing it to adsorb for 30 min. The feed quality and aerobic stability of the resulting forage were examined. Both treatments improved the feed quality of rice straw, and adsorption was better than fermen-tation for preserving nutrients and improving digestibility, as evidenced by higher dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) concentrations, lower neutral detergent ifber (NDF), acid detergent ifber (ADF) and NH3-N concentrations, as wel as higher lactic acid production and in vitro digestibility of DM (IVDMD). The aerobic stability of the adsorbed straw and the fermented straw was 392 and 480 h, respectively. After being exposed to air, chemical components and microbial community of the fermented straw were more stable than the adsorbed straw.

  5. Characterization of the xylanases from the new isolated thermophilic xylan-degrading Bacillus thermoleovorans strain K-3d and Bacillus flavothermus strain LB3A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunna, A; Prowe, S G; Stoffregen, T; Antranikian, G

    1997-03-15

    Three strictly aerobic strains (K-1, K-3d and K-4) were isolated from a hot-spring in Kobe, Japan, and a facultative anaerobic strain LB3A was isolated from sediments collected from the alkaline Lake Bogoria, Kenya. All strains were thermophilic and capable of growth on xylan. On the basis of morphological, physiological and phylogenetic studies the new aerobic isolates resemble the thermophilic species Bacillus thermoleovorans while the facultative anaerobic isolate LB3A resembles the facultative anaerobic thermophilic species Bacillus flavothermus. When grown on xylan as sole carbon source, all isolates produce thermoactive xylanases, Xylanases from strains K-3d and LB3A are active at temperatures between 40 and 90 degrees C and pH values between 5.0 and 9.0. Applying SDS-PAGE the crude xylanase complex of isolate K-3d was shown to be composed of two active bands, with molecular masses of 40 and 69 kDa. The crude xylanase complex of isolate LB3A, on the other hand, is composed of at least four activity bands with molecular masses ranging from 80 to 130 kDa. Due to the product pattern of xylan hydrolysis both enzymes are classified as endoxylanases. The xylanolytic enzyme system of isolate K-3d produces xylotriose, xylotetraose and larger xylooligosacharides, whereas the xylanases from isolate LB3A release xylotetraose as the major product of hydrolysis.

  6. Evolved developmental homeostasis disturbed in LB1 from Flores, Indonesia, denotes Down syndrome and not diagnostic traits of the invalid species Homo floresiensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneberg, Maciej; Eckhardt, Robert B.; Chavanaves, Sakdapong; Hsü, Kenneth J.

    2014-08-01

    Human skeletons from Liang Bua Cave, Flores, Indonesia, are coeval with only Homo sapiens populations worldwide and no other previously known hominins. We report here for the first time to our knowledge the occipitofrontal circumference of specimen LB1. This datum makes it possible to link the 430-mL endocranial volume of LB1 reported by us previously, later confirmed independently by other investigators, not only with other human skeletal samples past and present but also with a large body of clinical data routinely collected on patients with developmental disorders. Our analyses show that the brain size of LB1 is in the range predicted for an individual with Down syndrome (DS) in a normal small-bodied population from the geographic region that includes Flores. Among additional diagnostic signs of DS and other skeletal dysplasiae are abnormally short femora combined with disproportionate flat feet. Liang Bua Cave femora, known only for LB1, match interlimb proportions for DS. Predictions based on corrected LB1 femur lengths show a stature normal for other H. sapiens populations in the region.

  7. Plasmodium falciparum synthetic LbL microparticle vaccine elicits protective neutralizing antibody and parasite-specific cellular immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Thomas J; Tang, Jie; Derome, Mary E; Mitchell, Robert A; Jacobs, Andrea; Deng, Yanhong; Palath, Naveen; Cardenas, Edwin; Boyd, James G; Nardin, Elizabeth

    2013-04-01

    Epitopes of the circumsporozoite (CS) protein of Plasmodium falciparum, the most pathogenic species of the malaria parasite, have been shown to elicit protective immunity in experimental animals and human volunteers. The mechanisms of immunity include parasite-neutralizing antibodies that can inhibit parasite motility in the skin at the site of infection and in the bloodstream during transit to the hepatocyte host cell and also block interaction with host cell receptors on hepatocytes. In addition, specific CD4+ and CD8+ cellular mechanisms target the intracellular hepatic forms, thus preventing release of erythrocytic stage parasites from the infected hepatocyte and the ensuing blood stage cycle responsible for clinical disease. An innovative method for producing particle vaccines, layer-by-layer (LbL) fabrication of polypeptide films on solid CaCO3 cores, was used to produce synthetic malaria vaccines containing a tri-epitope CS peptide T1BT comprising the antibody epitope of the CS repeat region (B) and two T-cell epitopes, the highly conserved T1 epitope and the universal epitope T. Mice immunized with microparticles loaded with T1BT peptide developed parasite-neutralizing antibodies and malaria-specific T-cell responses including cytotoxic effector T-cells. Protection from liver stage infection following challenge with live sporozoites from infected mosquitoes correlated with neutralizing antibody levels. Although some immunized mice with low or undetectable neutralizing antibodies were also protected, depletion of T-cells prior to challenge resulted in the majority of mice remaining resistant to challenge. In addition, mice immunized with microparticles bearing only T-cell epitopes were not protected, demonstrating that cellular immunity alone was not sufficient for protective immunity. Although the microparticles without adjuvant were immunogenic and protective, a simple modification with the lipopeptide TLR2 agonist Pam3Cys increased the potency and

  8. Shortening of the Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei BGNJ1-64 AggLb protein switches its activity from auto-aggregation to biofilm formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Miljković

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available AggLb is the largest (318.6 kDa aggregation-promoting protein of Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei BGNJ1-64 responsible for forming large cell aggregates, which causes auto-aggregation, collagen binding and pathogen exclusion in vitro. It contains an N-terminus leader peptide, followed by six successive collagen binding domains, 20 successive repeats (CnaB-like domains and an LPXTG sorting signal at the C-terminus for cell wall anchoring. Experimental information about the roles of the domains of AggLb is currently unknown. To define the domain that confers cell aggregation and the key domains for interactions of specific affinity between AggLb and components of the extracellular matrix (ECM, we constructed a series of variants of the aggLb gene and expressed them in Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis BGKP1-20 using a lactococcal promoter. All of the variants contained a leader peptide, an inter collagen binding-CnaB domain region (used to raise an anti-AggLb antibody, an anchor domain and a different number of collagen binding and CnaB-like domains. The role of the collagen binding repeats of the N-terminus in auto-aggregation and binding to collagen and fibronectin was confirmed. Deletion of the collagen binding repeats II, III and IV resulted in a loss of the strong auto-aggregation, collagen and fibronectin binding abilities whereas the biofilm formation capability was increased. The strong auto-aggregation, collagen and fibronectin binding abilities of AggLb were negatively correlated to biofilm formation.

  9. Effectiveness of the antimicrobial removal device, BACTEC 16B medium, and thiol broth in neutralizing antibacterial activities of imipenem, norfloxacin, and related agents.

    OpenAIRE

    Weinberg, E.; Shungu, D L; Gadebusch, H. H.

    1984-01-01

    The Antimicrobial Removal Device (ARD), BACTEC 16B medium, and Thiol broth were evaluated for their effectiveness in reducing the activity of imipenem (IPM), cefoxitin, moxalactam, and ceftazidime in blood samples. In addition, the capability of the ARD and Thiol broth to bind norfloxacin and the ARD to bind oxolinic and nalidixic acids in urine samples was investigated. At the highest concentrations of the drugs tested (32 micrograms/ml for the four beta-lactams and 256 micrograms/ml for the...

  10. Detection of Inducible Clindamycin Resistance in Beta-Hemolytic Streptococci by Using the CLSI Broth Microdilution Test and Erythromycin-Clindamycin Combinations ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, Jason E.; Owens, Aaron E.; McElmeel, M. Leticia; Fulcher, Letitia C.; Herrera, Monica L.; Wickes, Brian L.; Jorgensen, James H.

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed an erythromycin-clindamycin (ERY-CC) broth test for inducible CC resistance in beta-hemolytic streptococci. One hundred one isolates of groups A, B, C, F, and G were tested by the CLSI broth microdilution method. Combinations of 1 and 0.25 μg/ml or 0.5 and 0.25 μg/ml of ERY and CC, respectively, detected all inducible isolates. PMID:20392918

  11. Enhanced Amplified Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Direct Test for Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex in Positive BACTEC 12B Broth Cultures of Respiratory Specimens

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    The reliability of the Gen-Probe enhanced Amplified Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Direct Test (MTD) for identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) in BACTEC 12B broth cultures of respiratory specimens was evaluated by testing aliquots from 268 bottles with a growth index of ≥50. MTD results were compared to those obtained by usual laboratory protocol, whereby MTBC was identified by DNA probe (Gen-Probe, Inc.) testing sediment from broth samples or colonies on a solid medium. For...

  12. Antifungal susceptibility testing of vaginal candida isolates: the broth microdilution method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoudi Rad M

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a common mucosal infection among immunocompetent, healthy women, and is caused by opportunistic yeasts that belong to genus Candida. In this study, we isolated and identified the Candida species in the vagina of patients who admitted in Gynecology Department of Mahdieh Hospital in Tehran, Iran to evaluate the in vitro activities of fluconazole, miconazole, itraconazole and flucytosine against 191 clinical Candida isolates by the NCCLS microdilution method."n"nMethods: 191 Candida were isolated from vaginal secretions and identified with conventional mycological methods in the diagnosis of Candida species. The identity of all strains was confirmed genotypically by multiplex PCR. In vitro susceptibility testing of vaginal Candida isolates was performed by the NCCLS broth microdilution method. The results were read at 48 h."n"nResults: Most C. albicans isolates (>90% were sensitive in vitro to the antifungal agents tested. Most C. glabrata isolates showed sensitivity to miconazole and then flucytosine while they were more resistant to Itraconazole and fluconazole. Many isolates of C. tropicalis were susceptible to miconazole and then fluconazole. They showed a little resistance to

  13. Model-based design of a pilot-scale simulated moving bed for purification of citric acid from fermentation broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinglan; Peng, Qijun; Arlt, Wolfgang; Minceva, Mirjana

    2009-12-11

    One of the conventional processes used for the recovery of citric acid from its fermentation broth is environmentally harmful and cost intensive. In this work an innovative benign process, which comprises simulated moving bed (SMB) technology and use of a tailor-made tertiary poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PVP) resin as a stationary phase is proposed. This paper focuses on a model-based design of the operation conditions for an existing pilot-scale SMB plant. The SMB unit is modeled on the basis of experimentally determined hydrodynamics, thermodynamics and mass transfer characteristics in a single chromatographic column. Three mathematical models are applied and validated for the prediction of the experimentally attained breakthrough and elution profiles of citric acid and the main impurity component (glucose). The transport dispersive model was selected for the SMB simulation and design studies, since it gives a satisfactory prediction of the elution profiles within acceptable computational time. The equivalent true moving bed (TMB) and SMB models give a good prediction of the experimentally attained SMB separation performances, obtained with a real clarified and concentrated fermentation broth as a feed mixture. The SMB separation requirements are set to at least 99.8% citric acid purity and 90% citric acid recovery in the extract stream. The complete regeneration in sections 1 and 4 is unnecessary. Therefore the net flow rates in all four SMB sections have been considered in the unit design. The influences of the operating conditions (the flow rate in each section, switching time and unit configuration) on the SMB performances were investigated systematically. The resulting SMB design provides 99.8% citric acid purity and 97.2% citric acid recovery in the extract. In addition the citric acid concentration in the extract is a half of its concentration in the pretreated fermentation broth (feed).

  14. Pellicle associated adherence film above incubation broth surface - an inexpensive adjunct to recognizing Candida krusei in the laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sripuntanagoon Elia M

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Candida species including Candida krusei have become common pathogens, especially in immune-compromised patients. Pellicle on the surface of incubating nutrient broth extending with an adherent film above the broth has been described as a feature of this organism. We investigated whether this easily observable adherent film could be useful in the identification of this yeast. We also wanted to see if this process involved any morphological changes from the yeast form on the part of C. krusei. Findings Common and less frequently isolated species of Candida were inoculated into YPD broth and observed for pellicle formation. For C. krusei different inoculum sizes and time periods were studied to establish earliest period and the smallest number of organisms needed for this process. A cover-slip assay was established to observe the architecture of the film formed by this organism. Among the clinically common Candida species, only C. krusei formed a visible film, requiring 106 organisms to produce it at 24 hours post inoculation. Film formation also differentiated C. krusei from C. inconspicua usually reported as a complex by carbohydrate assimilation assays. Rarely isolated C. famata and C. norvegensis also formed pellicles and film but less robustly. Microscopic observations of the film showed only yeast forms, no hypha or pseudohypha were seen. Conclusions Pellicle formation following inoculation of a clinical specimen into liquid culture, is a useful alert to the probable presence of C. krusei and likely fluconazole resistance, while awaiting the results of more definitive identification assays. Pellicle and adherence film formation are not a result of polymorphic changes on the part of C. krusei as only yeast forms were present.

  15. Recovery of Acetic Acid from An Ethanol Fermentation Broth by Liquid-Liquid Extraction (LLE) Using Various Solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, Thi Thu Huong; Kim, Tae Hyun [Kongju National University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Um, Byung Hwan [Hankyong National University, Anseong (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) using various solvents was studied for recovery of acetic acid from a synthetic ethanol fermentation broth. The microbial fermentation of sugars presented in hydrolyzate gives rise to acetic acid as a byproduct. In order to obtain pure ethanol for use as a biofuel, fermentation broth should be subjected to acetic acid removal step and the recovered acetic acid can be put to industrial use. Herein, batch LLE experiments were carried out at 25°C using a synthetic fermentation broth comprising 20.0 g l{sup -1} acetic acid and 5.0 g l{sup -1} ethanol. Ethyl acetate (EtOAc), tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO), tri-n-octylamine (TOA), and tri-n-alkylphosphine oxide (TAPO) were utilized as solvents, and the extraction potential of each solvent was evaluated by varying the organic phase-to-aqueous phase ratios as 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0. The highest acetic acid extraction yield was achieved with TAPO; however, the lowest ethanol-to-acetic acid extraction ratio was obtained using TOPO. In a single-stage batch extraction, 97.0 % and 92.4 % of acetic acid could be extracted using TAPO and TOPO when the ratio of organic-to-aqueous phases is 4:1 respectively. A higher solvent-to-feed ratio resulted in an increase in the ethanol-to-acetic acid ratio, which decreased both acetic acid purity and acetic acid extraction yield.

  16. A new cyclopeptide with antifungal activity from the co-culture broth of two marine mangrove fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunyuan; Wang, Jinhua; Luo, Cuiping; Ding, Weijia; Cox, Daniel G

    2014-01-01

    A new cyclic tetrapeptide, cyclo-(L-leucyl-trans-4-hydroxy-L-prolyl-D-leucyl-trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline) (1), was isolated from the co-culture broth of two mangrove fungi Phomopsis sp. K38 and Alternaria sp. E33. The structure of 1 was determined by analysis of spectroscopic data and Marfey's analytic method. Primary bioassay demonstrated that compound 1 exhibited moderate to high inhibitory activity against four crop-threatening fungi including Gaeumannomyces graminis, Rhizoctonia cerealis, Helminthosporium sativum and Fusarium graminearum as compared with triadimefon.

  17. In vitro susceptibility testing of dermatophytes isolated in Goiania, Brazil, against five antifungal agents by broth microdilution method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Crystiane Rodrigues; Miranda, Karla Carvalho; Fernandes, Orionalda de Fatima Lisboa; Soares, Ailton José; Silva, Maria do Rosário Rodrigues

    2009-01-01

    The antifungal activities of fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, terbinafine and griseofulvin were tested by broth microdilution technique, against 60 dermatophytes isolated from nail or skin specimens from Goiania city patients, Brazil. In this study, the microtiter plates were incubated at 28 masculineC allowing a reading of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) after four days of incubation for Trichophyton mentagrophytes and five days for T. rubrum and Microsporum canis. Most of the dermatophytes had uniform patterns of susceptibility to the antifungal agents tested. Low MIC values as 0.03 microg/mL were found for 33.3%, 31.6% and 15% of isolates for itraconazole, ketoconazole and terbinafine, respectively.

  18. Quality control MIC ranges used for telavancin with application of a revised CLSI reference broth microdilution method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, James E; Mendes, Rodrigo E; Jones, Ronald N

    2014-09-01

    The telavancin broth microdilution susceptibility testing method was revised, which provides MIC results lower than those obtained by the previous method. This study was performed to reestablish the quality control ranges for telavancin when tested against the strains (updated MIC range) Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 (0.03 to 0.12 μg/ml), Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 (0.03 to 0.12 μg/ml), and Streptococcus pneumoniae ATCC 49619 (0.004 to 0.015 μg/ml).

  19. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture 1-Bromopropane C3H7Br + C4H9Cl 1-Chlorobutane (LB0774, VMSD1111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Hnědkovský, L.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes' of Volume 23 `Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV `Physical Chemistry'. It corresponds to the data set LB0774 of the ELBT database.

  20. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Iodoethane C2H5I + C3H7Br 1-Bromopropane (LB0775, VMSD1212)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Hnědkovský, L.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes' of Volume 23 `Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV `Physical Chemistry'. It corresponds to the data set LB0775 of the ELBT database.

  1. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Iodoethane C2H5I + C3H7Br 1-Bromopropane (LB0772, VMSD1111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Hnědkovský, L.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes' of Volume 23 `Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV `Physical Chemistry'. It corresponds to the data set LB0772 of the ELBT database.

  2. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture 1-Bromopropane C3H7Br + C4H9Cl 1-Chlorobutane (LB0777, VMSD1212)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Hnědkovský, L.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes' of Volume 23 `Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV `Physical Chemistry'. It corresponds to the data set LB0777 of the ELBT database.

  3. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Diethyl carbonate C5H10O3 + C10H22O Decan-1-ol (LB0397, VMSD1111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Hnědkovský, L.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes' of Volume 23 `Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV `Physical Chemistry'. It corresponds to the data set LB0397 of the ELBT database.

  4. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Diethyl carbonate C5H10O3 + C8H18O Octan-1-ol (LB0396, VMSD1111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Hnědkovský, L.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes' of Volume 23 `Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV `Physical Chemistry'. It corresponds to the data set LB0396 of the ELBT database.

  5. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Diethyl carbonate C5H10O3 + C10H22O Decan-1-ol (LB0404, VMSD1212)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Hnědkovský, L.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes' of Volume 23 `Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV `Physical Chemistry'. It corresponds to the data set LB0404 of the ELBT database.

  6. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Diethyl carbonate C5H10O3 + C8H18O Octan-1-ol (LB0403, VMSD1212)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Hnědkovský, L.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes' of Volume 23 `Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV `Physical Chemistry'. It corresponds to the data set LB0403 of the ELBT database.

  7. NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCING AND TRANSCRIPTIONAL MAPPING OF THE GENES ENCODING BIPHENYL DIOXYGENASE, A MULTICOM- PONENT POLYCHLORINATED-BIPHENYL-DEGRADING ENZYME IN PSEUDOMONAS STRAIN LB400

    Science.gov (United States)

    The DNA region encoding biphenyl dioxygenase, the first enzyme in the biphenyl-polychlorinated biphenyl degradation pathway of Pseudomonas species strain LB400, was sequenced. Six open reading frames were identified, four of which are homologous to the components of toluene dioxy...

  8. Rare events in earth history include the LB1 human skeleton from Flores, Indonesia, as a developmental singularity, not a unique taxon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, Robert B.; Henneberg, Maciej; Weller, Alex S.; Hsü, Kenneth J.

    2014-08-01

    The original centrally defining features of "Homo floresiensis" are based on bones represented only in the single specimen LB1. Initial published values of 380-mL endocranial volume and 1.06-m stature are markedly lower than later attempts to confirm them, and facial asymmetry originally unreported, then denied, has been established by our group and later confirmed independently. Of nearly 200 syndromes in which microcephaly is one sign, more than half include asymmetry as another sign and more than one-fourth also explicitly include short stature. The original diagnosis of the putative new species noted and dismissed just three developmental abnormalities. Subsequent independent attempts at diagnosis (Laron Syndrome, Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II, cretinism) have been hampered a priori by selectively restricted access to specimens, and disparaged a posteriori using data previously unpublished, without acknowledging that all of the independent diagnoses corroborate the patent abnormal singularity of LB1. In this report we establish in detail that even in the absence of a particular syndromic diagnosis, the originally defining features of LB1 do not establish either the uniqueness or normality necessary to meet the formal criteria for a type specimen of a new species. In a companion paper we present a new syndromic diagnosis for LB1.

  9. Photocatalytic degradation of dimethoate using LbL fabricated TiO{sub 2}/polymer hybrid films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priya, D. Neela [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Modak, Jayant M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Trebse, Polonca; Zabar, Romina [Laboratory for Environmental Research, University of Nova Gorica, Vipavska 13, P.O. Box 301, 5000 Nova Gorica (Slovenia); Raichur, Ashok M., E-mail: amr@materials.iisc.ernet.in [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} The LbL-TiO{sub 2} thin films offer many advantages unlike TiO{sub 2} used in powder form. {yields} TiO{sub 2} can be immobilized using low concentrations on polymer on any substrate using a simple method. {yields} The solution, after the completion of the reaction, can be disposed directly into the environment. {yields} Degradation of organics is complete with no harmful intermediates being produced in the process. {yields} Immobilization is inexpensive and catalysts can be reused making it a cost effective method. - Abstract: Degradation of dimethoate under UV irradiation using TiO{sub 2}/polymer films prepared by the layer-by-layer (LbL) method was investigated. The thin films were fabricated on glass slides and the surface morphology and roughness of the thin films were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The effect of lamp intensity, catalyst loading in the layers, number of bilayers, pH and initial dimethoate concentration on the degradation of dimethoate was systematically studied. The degradation was monitored using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis and total organic carbon (TOC) measurements as a function of irradiation time, to see the change in concentration of dimethoate and mineralization, respectively. Complete degradation of dimethoate was achieved under TiO{sub 2} optimum loading of 4 g/L at an UV irradiation time of 180 min. Increase in the lamp intensity, catalyst loading and number of bilayers increased the rate of degradation. At a pH of 4.62, complete degradation of dimethoate was observed. The degradation efficiency decreased with increase in initial dimethoate concentration. The degradation byproducts were analyzed and confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectra (GC-MS). Toxicity of the irradiated samples was measured using the luminescence of bacteria Vibrio fischeri after 30 min of incubation and the results showed more

  10. OGLE-2012-BLG-0950Lb: The Possible First Planet Mass Measurement from Only Microlens Parallax and Lens Flux

    CERN Document Server

    Koshimoto, N; Beaulieu, J P; Sumi, T; Bennett, D P; Bond, I A; Rattenbury, N; Fukui, A; Batista, V; Marquette, J B; Brillant, S; Abe, F; Asakura, Y; Bhattacharya, A; Freeman, M; Hirao, Y; Itow, Y; Li, M C A; Ling, C H; Masuda, K; Matsubara, Y; Matsuo, T; Muraki, Y; Ohnishi, K; Oyokawa, H; Saito, To; Sharan, A; Shibai, H; Sullivan, D J; Suzuki, D; Tristram, P J; Yonehara, A; Kozlowski, S; Pietrukowicz, P; Poleski, R; Skowron, J; Soszynski, I; Szymanski, M K; Ulaczyk, K; Wyrzykowski, L

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery of a microlensing planet OGLE-2012-BLG-0950Lb with the planet/host mass ratio of $q = 2 \\times 10^{-4}$. A long term distortion detected in both MOA and OGLE light curve can be explained by the microlens parallax due to the Earth's orbital motion around the Sun. Although the finite source effect is not detected, we obtain the lens flux by the high resolution Keck AO observation. Combining the microlens parallax and the lens flux reveal the nature of the lens: a planet with mass of $M_{p} = 35^{+17}_{-9} M_{Earth}$ is orbiting around a M-dwarf with mass of $M_{h} = 0.56^{+0.12}_{-0.16} M_{Sun}$ with a planet-host projected separation of $r_{proj} =2.7^{+0.6}_{-0.7}$ AU located at $D_{L} = 3.0^{+0.8}_{-1.1}$ kpc from us. This is the first mass measurement from only microlens parallax and the lens flux without the finite source effect. The long term distortion can also be explained by the source orbital motion (xallarap) which is suspicious but not ruled out. These models can be distingui...

  11. Chirality Transfer and Modulation in LB Films Derived From the Diacetylene/Melamine Hydrogen-Bonded Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yu; Xu, Yangyang; Zou, Gang; Zhang, Qijin

    2015-08-01

    Introduction of hydrogen-bonding interaction into π-conjugated systems is a promising strategy, since the highly selective and directional hydrogen-bonding can increase the binding strength, provide enhanced stability to the assemblies, and position the π-conjugated molecules in a desired arrangement. The helical packing of the rigid melamine cores seems to play a dominating role in the subsequent formation of the peripheral helical PDA backbone. The polymerized Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films exhibited reversible colorimetric and chiroptical changes during repeated heating-cooling cycles, which should be ascribed to the strong hydrogen-bonding interaction between the carboxylic acid and the melamine core. Further, the closely helical packing of the melamine cores could be destroyed upon exposure to HCl or NH(3) gas, whereas the peripheral helical polyaniline and polydiacetylene (PDA) backbone exhibited excellent stability. Although similar absorption changes could be observed for the films upon exposure to HCl or NH(3) gas, their distinct circular dichroism (CD) responses enabled us to distinguish the above two stimuli.

  12. On the Possible Properties of Small and Cold Extrasolar Planets: Is OGLE-2005-BLG-390Lb Entirely Frozen?

    CERN Document Server

    Ehrenreich, D; Beaulieu, J P; Grasset, O; Ehrenreich, David; Etangs, Alain Lecavelier Des; Beaulieu, Jean-Philippe; Grasset, Olivier

    2006-01-01

    Extrasolar planets as light as a few Earths are now being detected. Such planets are likely not gas or ice giants. Here, we present a study on the possible properties of the small and cold extrasolar planets, applied to the case of the recently discovered planet OGLE-2005-BLG-390Lb (Beaulieu et al. 2006). This planet (5.5[+5.5/-2.7] Earth masses) orbits 2.6[+1.5/-0.6]-astronomical units away from an old M-type star of the Galactic Bulge. The planet should be entirely frozen given the low surface temperature (35 to 47 K). However, depending on the rock-to-ice mass ratio in the planet, the radiogenic heating could be sufficient to make the existence of liquid water within an icy crust possible. This possibility is estimated as a function of the planetary mass and the illumination received from the parent star, both being strongly related by the observational constraints. The results are presented for water-poor and water-rich planets. We find that no oceans can be present in any cases at 9-10 Gyr, a typical age...

  13. Fluorescence lifetimes of tryptophan: structural origin and relation with So --> 1Lb and So --> 1La transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albani, Jihad René

    2009-11-01

    We measured fluorescence lifetimes of L-Tryptophan dissolved in de-ionized water and in ethanol in the absence and the presence of high progesterone concentrations. The hormone absorbs between 220 and 280 with a peak around 250 nm, while its absorption is equal to zero beyond 280 nm. Tryptophan excitation spectrum recorded in presence of progesterone shows that the S(o) --> 1L(a) transition is completely abolished while the S(o) --> 1L(b) transition is not affected. Emission of L-tryptophan in water occurs with two fluorescence lifetimes, 0.40 and 2.8 ns. In ethanol, three fluorescence lifetimes equal to around 0.2, 1.8 and 4.8 ns were observed. Addition of progesterone to the medium does not affect any of the fluorescence lifetimes indicating clearly that both transitions could induce tryptophan excitation and that recorded fluorescence lifetimes could be assigned to sub-structures generated in the excited state.

  14. OGLE-2012-BLG-0950Lb: The First Planet Mass Measurement from Only Microlens Parallax and Lens Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshimoto, N.; Udalski, A.; Beaulieu, J. P.; Sumi, T.; Bennett, D. P.; Bond, I. A.; Rattenbury, N.; Fukui, A.; Batista, V.; Marquette, J. B.; Brillant, S.; and; Abe, F.; Asakura, Y.; Bhattacharya, A.; Donachie, M.; Freeman, M.; Hirao, Y.; Itow, Y.; Li, M. C. A.; Ling, C. H.; Masuda, K.; Matsubara, Y.; Matsuo, T.; Muraki, Y.; Nagakane, M.; Ohnishi, K.; Oyokawa, H.; Saito, To.; Sharan, A.; Shibai, H.; Sullivan, D. J.; Suzuki, D.; Tristram, P. J.; Yonehara, A.; MOA Collaboration; Kozłowski, S.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Poleski, R.; Skowron, J.; Soszyński, I.; Szymański, M. K.; Ulaczyk, K.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; OGLE Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    We report the discovery of a microlensing planet OGLE-2012-BLG-0950Lb with a planet/host mass ratio of q≃ 2× {10}-4. A long term distortion detected in both MOA and OGLE light curve can be explained by the microlens parallax due to the Earth’s orbital motion around the Sun. Although the finite source effect is not detected, we obtain the lens flux by the high resolution Keck AO observation. Combining the microlens parallax and the lens flux reveal the nature of the lens: a planet with mass of {M}{{p}}={35}-9+17{M}\\oplus is orbiting around an M-dwarf with mass of {M}{host}={0.56}-0.16+0.12{M}ȯ with a planet-host projected separation of {r}\\perp ={2.7}-0.7+0.6 au located at {D}{{L}}={3.0}-1.1+0.8 kpc from us. This is the first mass measurement from only microlens parallax and the lens flux without the finite source effect. In the coming space observation-era with Spitzer, K2, Euclid, and WFIRST, we expect many such events for which we will not be able to measure any finite source effect. This work demonstrates an ability of mass measurements in such events.

  15. Interfacial properties in Langmuir monolayers and LB films of DPPC with partially fluorinated alcohol (F8H7OH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Hiromichi; Hirano, Chikayo; Fujita, Ichiro; Shibata, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    Two-component interactions between (perfluorooctyl) heptanol (F8H7OH) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), which is a major component of pulmonary surfactants in mammals, were systematically elucidated using Langmuir monolayers and Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films of the compounds. The interactions such as the miscibility of the compounds and their phase behavior were examined from thermodynamic and morphological perspectives. The surface pressure (π)-molecular area (A) and surface potential (ΔV)-A isotherms of the binary monolayers containing F8H7OH in different mole fractions (XF8H7OH) were measured simultaneously. The excess Gibbs free energy of mixing of the two components was calculated from the π-A isotherms. The resulting isotherm data were employed to construct a two-dimensional (2D) phase diagram of the system. The phase diagram revealed that the transition pressure as well as the monolayer collapse pressure change with changes in XF8H7OH. These thermodynamic analyses suggested that the miscibility of the two components and the solidification of DPPC monolayers can be induced by the addition of F8H7OH. The phase behavior upon monolayer compression was observed morphologically in situ using Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) and fluorescence microscopy (FM), as well as ex situ using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Interestingly, the AFM-based analysis revealed the formation of monodispersed 2D micelles consisting of F8H7OH at low surface pressures.

  16. Isolation of natural red colorants from fermented broth using ionic liquid-based aqueous two-phase systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Sónia P M; Santos-Ebinuma, Valéria C; Pereira, Jorge F B; Teixeira, Maria F S; Pessoa, Adalberto; Coutinho, João A P

    2013-05-01

    There is a growing demand for natural colorants. This is prompting the search for new alternative and "benign" separation systems allowing higher recoveries, extraction yields, and selectivities. This work investigates the use of aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) based on ionic liquids as extraction processes for the recovery of red colorants from the fermented broth of Penicillium purpurogenum DPUA 1275. Several ATPS based on quaternary ammonium and imidazolium were studied in this work aiming at separating the red colorants produced from the remaining colorants and contaminant proteins present in the fermented broth. The results suggest that the red colorants can be isolated by an appropriate manipulation of some of the process conditions, such as the use of quaternary ammonium with short alkyl chains, alkaline media, and short tie-line lengths (extraction point systems with lower concentrations of ionic liquid). These conditions allow large partition coefficients for the red colorants (K red = 24.4 ± 2.3), high protein removal (60.7 ± 2.8 %) and selectivity parameters (S red/prot = 10.05).

  17. [Determination of sugars, organic acids and alcohols in microbial consortium fermentation broth from cellulose using high performance liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yan; Fan, Guifang; Du, Ran; Li, Peipei; Jiang, Li

    2015-08-01

    A high performance liquid chromatographic method was established for the determination of metabolites (sugars, organic acids and alcohols) in microbial consortium fermentation broth from cellulose. Sulfate was first added in the samples to precipitate calcium ions in microbial consortium culture medium and lower the pH of the solution to avoid the dissociation of organic acids, then the filtrates were effectively separated using high performance liquid chromatography. Cellobiose, glucose, ethanol, butanol, glycerol, acetic acid and butyric acid were quantitatively analyzed. The detection limits were in the range of 0.10-2.00 mg/L. The linear correlation coefficients were greater than 0.999 6 in the range of 0.020 to 1.000 g/L. The recoveries were in the range of 85.41%-115.60% with the relative standard deviations of 0.22% -4.62% (n = 6). This method is accurate for the quantitative analysis of the alcohols, organic acids and saccharides in microbial consortium fermentation broth from cellulose.

  18. Functional magnetic mesoporous nanoparticles for efficient purification of laccase from fermentation broth in magnetically stabilized fluidized bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Guo, Chen; Liu, Chun-Zhao

    2013-12-01

    A magnetically stabilized fluidized bed (MSFB) with the Cu(2+)-chelated magnetic mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MMSNPs-Cu(2+)) was established to purify laccase directly from the fermentation broth of Trametes versicolor. The MMSNPs-Cu(2+) particles in the MSFB maintained a stable bed expansion of two to threefold at a flow rate of 120-180 cm/h. At the optimal magnetic field intensity of 120 Gs, both the maximal Bodenstein number and the smallest axial dispersion coefficient were achieved, which resulted in a stable fluidization stage. The dynamic binding capacity of laccase in the MSFB decreased from 192.5 to144.3 mg/g when the flow velocity through the bed increased from 44.2 to 69.8 cm/h. The MSFB with MMSNPs-Cu(2+) achieved efficient laccase purification from the fermentation broth with 62.4-fold purification of laccase and 108.9 % activity yield. These results provided an excellent platform for the application of these magnetic mesoporous nanoparticles integrated with the MSFB in developing novel protein purification process.

  19. A platform technology of recovery of lactic acid from a fermentation broth of novel substrate Zizyphus oenophlia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishai, Moumita; De, Swarnalok; Adhikari, Basudam; Banerjee, Rintu

    2015-08-01

    Lactic acid, a biologically derived compound, exists ubiquitously in nature. Its existence ranges from human being to microorganisms. Having paramount industrial significance, lactic acid should be highly pure, devoid of any contaminants. Hence, development of minimum steps of platform technologies to purify it needs urgent attention. The article proposed a novel and simple process for separation of lactic acid from a potential substrate Zizyphus oenophlia, based on ion exchange chromatography. The process herein involves two steps of purification; firstly a weak anion exchange resin was used to separate lactic acid from other anions present in the broth. This was followed by use of strong cation exchanger which washes out the target molecule (lactic acid) while trapped other cations present in the solution. The selected ion exchangers were Amberlite IRA 96 and Amberlite IR 120. Amberlite IRA 96 retained the lactic acid from the broth while washing away other anions. Maximum binding capacity of the resin was found to 210.46 mg lactic acid/g bead. After the simple two-step purification process, the purity of lactic acid improves up to 99.17 % with a recovery yield of 98.9 %. Upon characterization, formation of only levo rotatory form of lactic acid confirms its easy metabolism by the human system, thus triggering its application towards biomaterial sector.

  20. Multi-probe real-time PCR identification of four common Candida species in blood culture broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foongladda, Suporn; Mongkol, Nanthanida; Petlum, Pornphan; Chayakulkeeree, Methee

    2014-06-01

    We developed a single-tube real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay with multiple hybridization probes for detecting Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, and C. parapsilosis. Primers were designed to amplify 18S rRNA gene of the genus Candida, and DNA probes were designed to hybridize two areas of the amplicons. The amplification curves and specific melting peaks of the probes hybridized with PCR product were used for definite species identifications. The reaction specificity was 100 % when evaluating the assay using DNA samples from 21 isolates of fungal and bacterial species. The assay was further evaluated in 129 fungal blood culture broth samples which were culture positive for fungus. Of the 129 samples, 119 were positively identified as: C. albicans (39), C. tropicalis (30), C. parapsilosis (23), C. glabrata (20), Candida spp. (5), and two samples containing mixed C. glabrata/C. albicans and C. glabrata/C. tropicalis. The five Candida spp. were identified by sequencing analysis as C. krusei, C. dubliniensis, C. aquaetextoris, and two isolates of C. athensensis. Of the ten samples which showed negative PCR results, six were Cryptococcus neoformans, and the others were Trichosporon sp., Rhodotorula sp., Fusarium sp., and Penicillium marneffei. Our findings show that the assay was highly effective in identifying the four medically important Candida species. The results can be available within 3 h after positivity of a blood culture broth sample.

  1. Two new cyclopeptides from the co-culture broth of two marine mangrove fungi and their antifungal activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Song; Ding, Weijia; Li, Chunyuan; Cox, Daniel G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The strategy that co-cultivation two microorganisms in a single confined environment were recently developed to generate new active natural products. In the study, two new cyclic tetrapeptides, cyclo (D-Pro-L-Tyr-L-Pro-L-Tyr) (1) and cyclo (Gly-L-Phe-L-Pro-L-Tyr) (2) were isolated from the co-culture broth of two mangrove fungi Phomopsis sp. K38 and Alternaria sp. E33. Their antifungal activity against Candida albicans, Gaeumannomyces graminis, Rhzioctonia cerealis, Helminthosporium sativum and Fusarium graminearum was evaluated. Materials and Methods: Different column chromatographic techniques with different solvent systems were used to separate the constituents of the n-butyl alcohol extract of the culture broth. The structures of compounds 1 and 2 were identified by analysis of spectroscopic data (one-dimensional, two-dimensional - nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry) and Marfey's analytic method. Dilution method was used for the evaluation of antifungal activity. Results: Compounds 1 and 2 were identified as cyclo (D-Pro-L-Tyr-L-Pro-L-Tyr) and cyclo (Gly-L-Phe-L-Pro-L-Tyr), respectively. Compounds 1 and 2 showed moderate to high antifungal activities as compared with the positive control. Conclusions: Compounds 1 and 2 are new cyclopeptides with moderate antifungal activity being worthy of consideration for the development and research of antifungal agents. PMID:25422539

  2. Evaluation of Morphological Properties of Solanum chrysotrichum Cell Cultures in a Shake Flask and Fermentor and Rheological Properties of Broths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. de la Luz Morante

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Solanum chrysotrichum cells were grown in a shake flask and a stirred tank bioreactor. Their growth kinetics and rheological and morphological behaviors were evaluated. The specific growth rate obtained in both systems was similar (0.09 day–1, but biomass yield achieved in shake flasks was 60 % higher than that in the fermentor. Culture broths exhibited non-Newtonian and shear-thinning characteristics, which can be simulated by the Ostwald de Waele model (power law. Results show that the pseudoplasticity of culture broths was determined by the biomass concentration and aggregate size distribution, while the aggregate roundness, measured as the elliptical form factor, was similar in both systems.Morphological analysis indicated that 100 % of the cell aggregates from the fermentor were <0.25 mm2, and their size distribution remained constant during cultivation. The cultures grown in shake flasks presented a tendency to increase their aggregate size as a consequence of cell growth. The reduction of the size of S. chrysotrichum aggregates during the scale-up had an important influence on flow index behavior and consistency coefficient values.

  3. Comparação da eficiência dos caldos de enriquecimento seletivo no isolamento de Salmonella Dublin Comparison of the efficiency of selective enrichment broths for Salmonella Dublin isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.G. Silva

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare three different selective enrichment broths: Rappaport-Vassiliadis (RV, selenite cystine (SC and Muller-Kauffmann tetrathionate (MKT for Salmonella Dublin isolation from faecal samples of calf experimentally infected. The bacteriological procedure involved pre-enrichment stages in Hajna-GN broth (only for the samples inoculated in RV broth, selective enrichment, culture in modified brilliant green agar (BGA, presumptive biochemistry tests (using triple-sugar-iron agar and lysine-agar and slide agglutination test with poli-O and poli-H Salmonella antiserum. The effects of enrichment temperatures using RV broth were also evaluated (37ºC and 42ºC. SC broth was significantly more efficient in the isolation of Salmonella Dublin (P<0,05, whereas RV broth incubated at 42ºC had a lower efficiency in the microbiological isolation.

  4. PDMS复合膜从发酵液中渗透汽化回收乙醇%Ethanol Recovery from Fermentation Broth by Pervaporation Using a Composite polydimethylsiloxane Membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍勇; 黄卫星; 肖泽仪; 钟月华

    2004-01-01

    The pervaporation behavior of fermentation broth was investigated experimentally and compared with those started with ethanol mixtures. Ethanol was produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae utilizing technical grade glucose and recovered by pervaporation using a composite polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane prepared in our laboratory. Ethanol concentration in fermentation broth decreased to a relatively low level when pervaporation was coupled with fermentation. The more active cells appeared in the fermentation broth, the better the membrane performance was.

  5. Preparative isolation and purification of anti-tumor agent ansamitocin P-3 from fermentation broth of Actinosynnema pretiosum using high-performance counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yuqin; Cheng, Zhihui; Ye, Haoyu; Xie, Yongmei; He, Jing; Tang, Minghai; Shen, Tao; Wang, Jiangman; Zhou, Yan; Lu, Zejun; Luo, Feng; Chen, Lijuan; Yu, Luoting; Yang, Jin-Liang; Peng, Aihua; Wei, Yuquan

    2010-05-01

    Ansamitocin P-3 is a potent anti-tumor maytansinoid found in Actinosynnema pretiosum. However, due to the complexity of the fermentation broth of Actinomycete, how to effectively separate ansamitocin P-3 is still a challenge. In this study, both analytical and preparative high-performance counter-current chromatography were successfully used to separate and purify ansamitocin P-3 from fermentation broth. A total of 28.8 mg ansamitocin P-3 with purity of 98.4% was separated from 160 mg crude sample of fermentation broth in less than 80 min with the two-phase solvent system of hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (0.6:1:0.6:1, v/v/v/v). The purity and structural identification were determined by HPLC, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and mass spectroscopy.

  6. Comparison of adsorption equilibrium and kinetic models for a case study of pharmaceutical active ingredient adsorption from fermentation broths: parameter determination, simulation, sensitivity analysis and optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Likozar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical models for a batch process were developed to predict concentration distributions for an active ingredient (vancomycin adsorption on a representative hydrophobic-molecule adsorbent, using differently diluted crude fermentation broth with cells as the feedstock. The kinetic parameters were estimated using the maximization of the coefficient of determination by a heuristic algorithm. The parameters were estimated for each fermentation broth concentration using four concentration distributions at initial vancomycin concentrations of 4.96, 1.17, 2.78, and 5.54 g l−¹. In sequence, the models and their parameters were validated for fermentation broth concentrations of 0, 20, 50, and 100% (v/v by calculating the coefficient of determination for each concentration distribution at the corresponding initial concentration. The applicability of the validated models for process optimization was investigated by using the models as process simulators to optimize the two process efficiencies.

  7. Effectiveness of the antimicrobial removal device, BACTEC 16B medium, and thiol broth in neutralizing antibacterial activities of imipenem, norfloxacin, and related agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, E; Shungu, D L; Gadebusch, H H

    1984-02-01

    The Antimicrobial Removal Device (ARD), BACTEC 16B medium, and Thiol broth were evaluated for their effectiveness in reducing the activity of imipenem (IPM), cefoxitin, moxalactam, and ceftazidime in blood samples. In addition, the capability of the ARD and Thiol broth to bind norfloxacin and the ARD to bind oxolinic and nalidixic acids in urine samples was investigated. At the highest concentrations of the drugs tested (32 micrograms/ml for the four beta-lactams and 256 micrograms/ml for the three quinolinecarboxylic acids), there was at least a 95% reduction in the in vitro activity of each of the antibacterial agents for treated versus untreated samples. Of the compounds tested in the ARD system, the organic acids were more completely removed than were the beta-lactams. The Thiol broth was more effective than the ARD and the BACTEC 16B medium in inactivating imipenem, but it had no effect on the antibacterial activity of norfloxacin.

  8. Heparin-mimicking multilayer coating on polymeric membrane via LbL assembly of cyclodextrin-based supramolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jie; Liu, Xinyue; Ma, Lang; Cheng, Chong; Shi, Wenbin; Nie, Chuanxiong; Zhao, Changsheng

    2014-12-10

    In this study, multifunctional and heparin-mimicking star-shaped supramolecules-deposited 3D porous multilayer films with improved biocompatibility were fabricated via a layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly method on polymeric membrane substrates. Star-shaped heparin-mimicking polyanions (including poly(styrenesulfonate-co-sodium acrylate; Star-PSS-AANa) and poly(styrenesulfonate-co-poly(ethylene glycol)methyl ether methacrylate; Star-PSS-EGMA)) and polycations (poly(methyl chloride-quaternized 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate; Star-PMeDMA) were first synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) from β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) based cores. Then assembly of 3D porous multilayers onto polymeric membrane surfaces was carried out by alternating deposition of the polyanions and polycations via electrostatic interaction. The surface morphology and composition, water contact angle, blood activation, and thrombotic potential as well as cell viability for the coated heparin-mimicking films were systematically investigated. The results of surface ATR-FTIR spectra and XPS spectra verified successful deposition of the star-shaped supramolecules onto the biomedical membrane surfaces; scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) observations revealed that the modified substrate had 3D porous surface morphology, which might have a great biological influence on the biointerface. Furthermore, systematic in vitro investigation of protein adsorption, platelet adhesion, human platelet factor 4 (PF4, indicates platelet activation), activate partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT), coagulation activation (thrombin-antithrombin III complex (TAT, indicates blood coagulant)), and blood-related complement activation (C3a and C5a, indicates inflammation potential) confirmed that the heparin-mimicking multilayer coated membranes exhibited ultralow blood component activations and excellent hemocompatibility. Meanwhile, after surface coating

  9. Research, development and demonstration of nickel-zinc batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1979. [70 W/lb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    This second annual report under Contract No. 31-109-39-4200 covers the period July 1, 1978 through August 31, 1979. The program demonstrates the feasibility of the nickel-zinc battery for electric vehicle propulsion. The program is divided into seven distinct but highly interactive tasks collectively aimed at the development and commercialization of nickel-zinc technology. These basic technical tasks are separator development, electrode development, product design and analysis, cell/module battery testing, process development, pilot manufacturing, and thermal management. A Quality Assurance Program has also been established. Significant progress has been made in the understanding of separator failure mechanisms, and a generic category of materials has been specified for the 300+ deep discharge (100% DOD) applications. Shape change has been reduced significantly. A methodology has been generated with the resulting hierarchy: cycle life cost, volumetric energy density, peak power at 80% DOD, gravimetric energy density, and sustained power. Generation I design full-sized 400-Ah cells have yielded in excess of 70 W/lb at 80% DOD. Extensive testing of cells, modules, and batteries is done in a minicomputer-based testing facility. The best life attained with electric vehicle-size cell components is 315 cycles at 100% DOD (1.0V cutoff voltage), while four-cell (approx. 6V) module performance has been limited to about 145 deep discharge cycles. The scale-up of processes for production of components and cells has progressed to facilitate component production rates of thousands per month. Progress in the area of thermal management has been significant, with the development of a model that accurately represents heat generation and rejection rates during battery operation. For the balance of the program, cycle life of > 500 has to be demonstrated in modules and full-sized batteries. 40 figures, 19 tables. (RWR)

  10. Characterization and Optimization of Amylase Production in WangLB, a High Amylase-Producing Strain of Bacillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shihui; Jeyaseelan, Jenasia; Liu, Yun; Qin, Wensheng

    2016-09-01

    The costs of amylase represent ca. 24 % of the expenditures in the starch industry and an increase in amylase production and/or activity will greatly cut down on production costs. In the present study, we obtained a high amylase-producing strain of bacteria, WangLB, and identified it as a member of the Bacillus genus based on 16S rDNA analysis. The fermentation conditions for amylase production in the strain were optimized, and the maximum amylase activity we obtained was 26,670 ± 1390 U/mL, under the optimized conditions of 48-h incubation in liquid starch medium, 35 °C, pH 10, 1 % v/v inoculum concentration, 20 g/L starch concentration, and 0.1 % w/v peptone. The influences of 16 small organic inducers on amylase production were tested, and the results showed that 20 mmol/L alanine greatly enhanced amylase production to 290 % of the baseline level. We also conducted an amylase enzymology analysis. The molecular weight of the amylase was 55 kD, determined by SDS-PAGE. The optimum temperature and pH for the amylase were 55 °C and pH 9, respectively. The enzyme also showed high activity over a wide range of temperatures (50-85 °C) and pH values (3-10), and the activity of the amylase was Ca(2+) independent. The kinetic parameters K m and V max were 0.37 ± 0.02 mg/mL and 233 U/mg, respectively. Finally, the amylase was applied to the hydrolysis of five different brands of starch. It was found that the hydrolyzability of the substrate by amylase increased along with starch solubility.

  11. Pyrroloquinoline quinone from Gluconobacter oxydans fermentation broth enhances superoxide anion-scavenging capacity of Cu/Zn-SOD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ke; Cui, Jun-Zhu; Ye, Jian-Bin; Hu, Xian-Mei; Ma, Ge-Li; Yang, Xue-Peng

    2017-09-01

    A bioassay-guided fractionation of extract from Gluconobacter oxydans fermentation broth afforded Compound 1, which was identified as pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) by spectroscopic methods. PQQ has been shown to enhance the superoxide anion-scavenging capacity significantly for Cu/Zn-SOD. To illustrate the mechanism, the interaction between PQQ and Cu/Zn-SOD was investigated. The multiple binding sites involving hydrogen bonds and van der Waals force between PQQ and Cu/Zn-SOD were revealed by isothermal titration calorimetry. The α-helix content was increased in the Cu/Zn-SOD structure with the addition of PQQ into the solution through ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy. These results indicated that PQQ could change the conformation of Cu/Zn-SOD through interaction, which could enhance its superoxide anion-scavenging capacity. Therefore, PQQ is a potential natural antioxidant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Oxidative production of xylonic acid using xylose in distillation stillage of cellulosic ethanol fermentation broth by Gluconobacter oxydans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongsen; Han, Xushen; Wei, Chengxiang; Bao, Jie

    2017-01-01

    An oxidative production process of xylonic acid using xylose in distillation stillage of cellulosic ethanol fermentation broth was designed, experimentally investigated, and evaluated. Dry dilute acid pretreated and biodetoxified corn stover was simultaneously saccharified and fermented into 59.80g/L of ethanol (no xylose utilization). 65.39g/L of xylose was obtained in the distillation stillage without any concentrating step after ethanol was distillated. Then the xylose was completely converted into 66.42g/L of xylonic acid by Gluconobacter oxydans. The rigorous Aspen Plus modeling shows that the wastewater generation and energy consumption was significantly reduced comparing to the previous xylonic acid production process using xylose in pretreatment liquid. This study provided a practical process option for xylonic acid production from lignocellulose feedstock with significant reduction of wastewater and energy consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Purification of nattokinase by reverse micelles extraction from fermentation broth: effect of temperature and phase volume ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun-Guo; Xing, Jian-Min; Chang, Tian-Shi; Liu, Hui-Zhou

    2006-03-01

    Nattokinase is a novel fibrinolytic enzyme that is considered to be a promising agent for thrombosis therapy. In this study, reverse micelles extraction was applied to purify and concentrate nattokinase from fermentation broth. The effects of temperature and phase volume ratio used for the forward and backward extraction on the extraction process were examined. The optimal temperature for forward and backward extraction were 25 degrees C and 35 degrees C respectively. Nattokinase became more thermosensitive during reverse micelles extraction. And it could be enriched in the stripping phase eight times during backward extraction. It was found that nattokinase could be purified by AOT reverse micelles with up to 80% activity recovery and with a purification factor of 3.9.

  14. Aqueous two-phase extraction of 2,3-butanediol from fermentation broths by isopropanol/ammonium sulfate system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li-Hui; Jiang, Bo; Xiu, Zhi-Long

    2009-03-01

    A novel aqueous two-phase system consisted of 2-propanol/ammonium sulfate was used for the extraction of 2,3-butanediol from fermentation broths. The maximum partition coefficient and recovery of 2,3-butanediol reached 9.9 and 93.7%, respectively, and more than 99% of the cells and about 85% of the soluble proteins were removed when 34% (w/w) 2-propanol and 20% (w/w) ammonium sulfate were used. The separated cells could be re-used as inocula for subsequent fermentations. The aqueous two-phase system described in this study may have potential application in the extraction of 2,3-butanediol produced by industrial fermentation processes.

  15. Solid phase extraction of lactic acid from fermentation broth by anion-exchangeable silica confined ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Wentao; Zhou, Jun; Row, Kyung Ho

    2011-01-15

    Three anion-exchangeable, silica-confined ionic liquids were synthesized for solid phase extraction of lactic acid from fermentation broth, followed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to ultraviolet detection. By comparing the adsorption isotherms of lactic acid on different silica-confined ionic liquids, interactions between the lactic acid and sorbents were investigated. The adsorbed amounts were then fitted into different adsorption isotherm equations; finally, the Langmuir equation was selected. Then the imidazolium silica with the highest adsorption capacity of lactic acid was packed into a cartridge for solid phase extraction. The loading volume of the cartridge was optimized by the Langmuir equation and geometry. After washing with distilled water and eluting with 0.25 mol L(-1) of an HCl solution, the lactic acid was separated from interference with a recovery yield of 91.9%. Furthermore, this kind of anion-exchangeable material exhibited potential for industrial applications and separation of other anionic bioactive compounds.

  16. Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium in the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C5H8O Cyclopentanone (EVLM1111, LB5655_E)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium in the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C5H8O Cyclopentanone (EVLM1111, LB5655_E)' providing data from direct measurement of pressure at variable mole fraction in liquid phase and constant temperature.

  17. Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium in the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C6H10O Cyclohexanone (EVLM1111, LB5654_E)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium in the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C6H10O Cyclohexanone (EVLM1111, LB5654_E)' providing data from direct measurement of pressure at variable mole fraction in liquid phase and constant temperature.

  18. Inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lb. fermentum isolated from the faeces of healthy infants against nonfermentative bacteria causing nosocomial infections

    OpenAIRE

    M.M. Soltan Dallal; Davoodabadi, A.; Abdi, M.; M. Hajiabdolbaghi; M.K. Sharifi Yazdi; Douraghi, M.; Tabatabaei Bafghi, S.M.

    2017-01-01

    Nosocomial infection constitutes a major public health problem worldwide. Increasing antibiotic resistance of pathogens associated with nosocomial infections has also become a major therapeutic challenge for physicians. Thus, development of alternative treatment protocols, such as the use of probiotics, matters. The aim of this research was to determine the antagonistic properties of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lb. fermentum isolated from the faeces of healthy infants against nonfermentative ...

  19. A simple one pot purification of bacterial amylase from fermented broth based on affinity toward starch-functionalized magnetic nanoparticle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Tanima; Chatterjee, Saptarshi; Bandyopadhyay, Arghya; Chattopadhyay, Dwiptirtha; Basu, Semanti; Sarkar, Keka

    2015-08-18

    Surface-functionalized adsorbant particles in combination with magnetic separation techniques have received considerable attention in recent years. Selective manipulation on such magnetic nanoparticles permits separation with high affinity in the presence of other suspended solids. Amylase is used extensively in food and allied industries. Purification of amylase from bacterial sources is a matter of concern because most of the industrial need for amylase is met by microbial sources. Here we report a simple, cost-effective, one-pot purification technique for bacterial amylase directly from fermented broth of Bacillus megaterium utilizing starch-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION). SPION was prepared by co-precipitation method and then functionalized by starch coating. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID, zeta potential, and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The starch-coated nanoparticles efficiently purified amylase from bacterial fermented broth with 93.22% recovery and 12.57-fold purification. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) revealed that the molecular mass of the purified amylase was 67 kD, and native gel showed the retention of amylase activity even after purification. Optimum pH and temperature of the purified amylase were 7 and 50°C, respectively, and it was stable over a range of 20°C to 50°C. Hence, an improved one-pot bacterial amylase purification method was developed using starch-coated SPION.

  20. High quality draft genome sequence of Leucobacter chironomi strain MM2LB(T) (DSM 19883(T)) isolated from a Chironomus sp. egg mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laviad, Sivan; Lapidus, Alla; Copeland, Alex; Reddy, Tbk; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Ivanova, Natalia N; Markowitz, Victor M; Pukall, Rüdiger; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Halpern, Malka

    2015-01-01

    Leucobacter chironomi strain MM2LB(T) (Halpern et al., Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 59:665-70 2009) is a Gram-positive, rod shaped, non-motile, aerobic, chemoorganotroph bacterium. L. chironomi belongs to the family Microbacteriaceae, a family within the class Actinobacteria. Strain MM2LB(T) was isolated from a chironomid (Diptera; Chironomidae) egg mass that was sampled from a waste stabilization pond in northern Israel. In a phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, strain MM2LB(T) formed a distinct branch within the radiation encompassing the genus Leucobacter. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The DNA GC content is 69.90%. The chromosome length is 2,964,712 bp. It encodes 2,690 proteins and 61 RNA genes. L. chironomi genome is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Type Strains, Phase I: the one thousand microbial genomes (KMG) project.

  1. Isolation and characterization of xanthan-degrading Enterobacter sp. nov. LB37 for reducing the viscosity of xanthan in petroleum industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoyi; Wang, Mi; Yang, Fan; Tang, Wenzhu; Li, Xianzhen

    2014-05-01

    A Gram-negative, straight rod and facultative anaerobic bacterium was isolated from soil sample. It exhibits the phenotypic characteristics consistent with its classification in the genus Enterobacter. The isolate ferment glucose to acid and gas. Arginine dihydrolase, ornithin decarboxylase and gelatinase but not deoxyribonuclease was produced by this isolate. There was no hydrogen sulfide production. On the basis of the phenotypic data, together with phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA gene sequences, this strain should represent a novel species of the genus Enterobacter and was designated as LB37. The strain LB37 could degrade xanthan molecules resulting in the rapid decrease of the viscosity of xanthan solution used in oil drilling process. Endoxanthanase activity was also detected in the culture supernatant. To our knowledge, it is the first report on the microbes being involved in the xanthan degradation for oil industry. The isolate LB37 would be useful for potential application in enhanced oil recovery and oil drilling field.

  2. The First Neptune Analog or Super-Earth with a Neptune-Like Orbit: MOA-2013-BLG-605Lb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, T.; Bennett, D. P.; Udalski, A.; Gould, A.; Poleski, R.; Bond, I. A.; Skowron, J.; Rattenbury, N.; Pogge, R. W.; Bensby, T.

    2016-01-01

    We present the discovery of the first Neptune analog exoplanet or super-Earth with a Neptune-like orbit, MOA- 2013-BLG-605Lb. This planet has a mass similar to that of Neptune or a super-Earth and it orbits at 9 approximately 14 times the expected position of the snow line, a(sub snow), which is similar to Neptune's separation of 11 a(sub snow) from the Sun. The planet/host-star mass ratio is q = (3.6 +/- 0.7) × 10(exp -4) and the projected separation normalized by the Einstein radius is s = 2.39 +/- 0.05. There are three degenerate physical solutions and two of these are due to a new type of degeneracy in the microlensing parallax parameters, which we designate "the wide degeneracy." The three models have (i) a Neptune-mass planet with a mass of M(sub p) = 21(+6/-7)(M) orbiting a low-mass M-dwarf with a mass of M(sub h) = 0.19(+0.05/-0.06 (solar mass)), (ii) a mini-Neptune with M(sub p) = 7.9(+1.8/-1.5)(M)) orbiting a brown dwarf host with M(sub h) = 0.068(+0.019/-0.011(solar mass)), and (iii) a super-Earth with M(sub p) = 3.2(+0.5/-0.3(M)) orbiting a low-mass brown dwarf host with M(sub h) = 0.025(+0.005/-0.004)(solar mass)), which is slightly favored. The 3D planet-host separations are 4.6(+4.7/-1.2)au, 2.1(+1.0/-0.2)au, and 0.94(+0.67/-0.02)au, which are 8.9(+10.5/-1.4)m 12(+7/-1), or 14(+11/-1) times larger than a(sub snow) for these models, respectively. Keck adaptive optics observations confirm that the lens is faint. This discovery suggests that low-mass planets with Neptune-like orbits are common. Therefore processes similar to the one that formed Neptune in our own solar system or cold super-Earths may be common in other solar systems.

  3. 重组乳酸杆菌Lb.hCGβ-C3d3经鼻腔免疫BALB/c小鼠的抗生育潜能%The anti-fertility potential of inoculation via nose with recombinant live Lactobacilli of Lb.hCGβ-C3d3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王健理; 姚晓英; 李大金

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨表达hCGβ-C3d3融合蛋白的重组乳酸杆菌避孕疫苗经鼻腔黏膜接种BALB/c小鼠及其抗生育潜能.方法:用野生型乳酸杆菌Lb.及重组乳酸杆菌Lb.hCGβ和Lb.hCGβ-C3d3 以两种剂量(109个和1010个)经鼻腔滴注接种6~8周龄雌性BALB/c小鼠.3周后用相同剂量加强免疫一次.于初次免疫后的第6、7、8周收集血清,分别培养MLTC-1、BeWo细胞;化学发光法检测培养上清中孕酮或hCGβ水平;免疫荧光观察抗血清处理后BeWo细胞的融合情况.结果:用1010个Lb.hCGβ-C3d3滴鼻免疫BALB/c小鼠产生的抗血清能显著抑制hCG刺激MLTC-1分泌孕酮,明显抑制BeWo细胞分泌hCGβ及细胞融合.结论:重组乳酸杆菌活疫苗Lb.hCGβ-C3d3经鼻腔接种诱导的hCGβ抗体可拮抗hCGβ生物学功能,并干扰滋养细胞功能,因此具有抗生育潜能.%0bjective :To evaluate the anti-fertility of potential by inoculation via nose with the recom binant live Lactobacilli expressing hCGβ-C3d3 fusion protein.Methods :Female BALB/cmie were inmunized with 1010,109 Lb,Lb.hCGβor Lb .hCGβ-C3d3,respectively,via nose .The antrserum was collected respectively in the 6-8th week after the primary inmunization M LTC-1and BeW o cell line were respectively treated with the anti-serum ,and then the supematant was recovered ,respective]y .Progesterone and hCGβ in the supematent were detemined by Chem olum inescence assay .Fusion of the BeW o cells was investigated by inmunofluorescence microscopy. Results :The anti-serum induced by the Lb. hCGβ-C3d3 inoculation with the dose of 1010 could significantly inhibit the progesterone production in MLTC-1 cells via neuttalizng hCG bioactivity ,and suppress the hCGβ secretion and fusion in vitro of BeW o cell line .Conclusion :Lb.hCGβ-C3d3 live Lactobacilli are effective in blocking hCG bioactivity,which appears anti-fertilily potential.

  4. Suppression of pecan and peach pathogens using metabolites or broths of from symbiotic bacteria obtained from the guts of entomopathogenic nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concentrated metabolites from the bacteria Xenorhabdus spp. and Photorhabdus spp. have previously been shown to suppress growth of peach and pecan pathogens in vitro, and reduce disease on detached leaves or terminals. The objectives of this study were 1) determine if bacterial broths (in addition t...

  5. 卤牛肉与牛肉高汤联合生产技术%Joint production technology of stewed beef and beef broth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓钟; 张蕾

    2015-01-01

    The joint production processing of stewed beef and beef broth was discussed. The pro⁃duction economic benefits were analyzed.%主要阐述卤牛肉与牛肉高汤联合生产工艺,分析了产生的经济效益。

  6. Effect of fermentation time on antioxidative activities of Ganoderma lucidum broth using leguminous plants as part of the liquid fermentation medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Yung Liang; Ho, Chi Tang; Chiang, Been Huang; Hwang, Lucy Sun

    2011-06-15

    Oxidative damage plays an important role in the pathology of human diseases. Ganoderma lucidum, a medicinal fungus, has been used for thousands of years in traditional Oriental medicine. It is reported to have antioxidant functions such as inhibition of lipid peroxidation. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of fermentation time on the antioxidative activities of G. lucidum broth filtrate using leguminous plants as part of the liquid fermentation medium. Inhibition of Cu(2+)-induced oxidation of human low-density lipoprotein (LDL), DPPH radical-scavenging activity, total phenolic compounds, isoflavones and protocatechuic acid were measured to evaluate the antioxidant activity of G. lucidum fermentation broth filtrate. Our results showed that black soybean and Astragalus membranaceus improved the antioxidant activity of the G. lucidum fermentation broth filtrate. Protocatechuic acid was identified by LC-MS as the antioxidant compounds whose relative potency of inhibiting LDL oxidation to Trolox is 1.55. Protocatechuic acid showed positive correlation with the antioxidant activity of the fermentation broth filtrate while isoflavones did not contribute to antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Determination of gibberellins in fermentation broth produced by Fusarium verticilliodes MTCC 156 by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rohit; Iyer, Jitesh P; Chakraborti, Asit K; Banerjee, Uttam Chand

    2004-02-01

    A method for the detection of gibberellins produced by Fusarium verticilliodes is described using HPLCMS/MS (HPLC tandem MS). A Hypersil (5 microm) octadecylsilane column with methanol/water as eluent in the ratio 3:1 at a flow rate of 0.5 ml/min was used. In the HPLCMS, GA(3) (gibberellic acid; m / z 346.3) eluted at retention time tr=3.08 min, with the corresponding mass chromatogram having peaks at m / z 346.7 and 328.8 corresponding to the M+ and M+-H2O ions respectively. The ethyl acetate extract from the broth, subjected to HPLCMS analysis under similar conditions, showed a constituent with tr=2.13 min, the mass chromatogram of which exhibited peaks at m / z 348.9 and 331.9 corresponding to the MH+ and MH+-H2O ions respectively. Comparison of the MS and MS/MS results (direct infusion) of an authentic sample of GA3 and the ethyl acetate extract from the broth revealed the formation of reduced GA3 in the broth. The present study, utilizing HPLCMS/MS, describes an improved methodology for the unambiguous determination and estimation of gibberellins from fermentation broth.

  8. Growth Kinetics of Listeria monocytogenes in Broth and Beef Frankfurters– Determination of Lag Phase Duration and Exponential Growth Rate under Isothermal Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research was to develop a new kinetic model to describe the isothermal growth of microorganisms. The new model was tested with Listeria monocytogenes in broth and frankfurters, and compared with two commonly used models - Baranyi and modified Gompertz models. Bias factor (BF)...

  9. Carbapenem Susceptibility Testing Errors Using Three Automated Systems, Disk Diffusion, Etest, and Broth Microdilution and Carbapenem Resistance Genes in Isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii-calcoaceticus Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    2006 and 2008 were studied. Frozen cultures were passed twice on blood agar plates (Remel, Lenexa, KS) before testing. Quality control strains used for...Solna, Sweden ) according to the manufacturer’s instructions (3, 18, 23). Antimicrobial solutions for broth microdilution testing were prepared from

  10. Evaluation of a multiplex selective enrichment broth SEL for simultaneous detection of injured Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biao Suo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Although many rapid and high throughput molecular methods have been developed in the recent years for the multiplex detection of foodborne pathogens, the simultaneous recovery and enrichment of sublethally injured cells is still a problem that needs to be considered. Combined with previous established multiplex real-time PCR assay, the capability of simultaneous recovery and enrichment of sublethally injured Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes cells was evaluated in a multiplex selective enrichment broth SEL. The injured cells were obtained by heat shock. After evaluation of different procedures, 1 h of recovery period prior to 20 h of enrichment was proved to be necessary for the detection of less than 10 CFU/5 mL broth of injured L. monocytogenes. When the detection method was applied to artificially contaminated ground beef, all the three injured pathogens could be simultaneously detected without discrimination by real-time PCR combined with SEL broth, the detection limit was < 5 CFU/10 g ground beef. Comparatively, when BPW was employed as the enrichment broth in the same detection procedure, injured L. monocytogenes could not be detected if the initially spiked level was below 10² CFU/10 g ground beef. Considering the capability of co-enrichment and high detection effectiveness, the real-time PCR assay combined with SEL broth herein appears to be a promising tool for high-throughput screening of a large number of processed food samples, which require either single or multiple pathogen detection. More important, the sublethally injured foodborne pathogen cells were also detectable.

  11. Microbiological culture simplified using anti-O12 monoclonal antibody in TUBEX test to detect Salmonella bacteria from blood culture broths of enteric fever patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraha, Jusak; Marpaung, Ferdy R; Tam, Frankie C H; Lim, Pak Leong

    2012-01-01

    Definitive diagnosis of infectious diseases, including food poisoning, requires culture and identification of the infectious agent. We described how antibodies could be used to shorten this cumbersome process. Specifically, we employed an anti-Salmonella lipopolysaccharide O12 monoclonal antibody in an epitope-inhibition 10-min test (TUBEX TP) to detect O12⁺Salmonella organisms directly from routine blood culture broths. The aim is to obviate the need to subculture the broth and subsequently identify the colonies. Thus, blood from 78 young outpatients suspected of having enteric fever was incubated in an enrichment broth, and after 2 or 4 days, broth samplings were examined by TUBEX TP as well as by conventional agar culture and identification. TUBEX TP was performed before the culture results. Eighteen isolates of S. Typhi (15 after 2 days) and 10 isolates of S. Paratyphi A (4 after 2 days) were obtained by conventional culture. Both these Salmonella serotypes, the main causes of enteric fever, share the O12 antigen. In all instances where either of these organisms was present (cultured), TUBEX TP was positive (score 4 [light blue]--to--score 10 [dark blue]; negative is 0 [pink-colored]) i.e. 100% sensitive. Identification of the specific Salmonella serotype in TUBEX-positive cases was achieved subsequently by conventional slide agglutination using appropriate polyclonal antisera against the various serotypes. Twelve Escherichia coli, 1 Alcaligenes spp. and 1 Enterobacter spp. were isolated. All of these cases, including all the 36 culture-negative broths, were TUBEX-negative i.e. TUBEX TP was 100% specific. In a separate study using known laboratory strains, TUBEX TF, which detects S. Typhi but not S. Paratyphi A via the O9 antigen, was found to efficiently complement TUBEX TP as a differential test. Thus, TUBEX TP and TUBEX TF are useful adjuncts to conventional culture because they can save considerable time (>2 days), costs and manpower.

  12. Microbiological culture simplified using anti-O12 monoclonal antibody in TUBEX test to detect Salmonella bacteria from blood culture broths of enteric fever patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jusak Nugraha

    Full Text Available Definitive diagnosis of infectious diseases, including food poisoning, requires culture and identification of the infectious agent. We described how antibodies could be used to shorten this cumbersome process. Specifically, we employed an anti-Salmonella lipopolysaccharide O12 monoclonal antibody in an epitope-inhibition 10-min test (TUBEX TP to detect O12⁺Salmonella organisms directly from routine blood culture broths. The aim is to obviate the need to subculture the broth and subsequently identify the colonies. Thus, blood from 78 young outpatients suspected of having enteric fever was incubated in an enrichment broth, and after 2 or 4 days, broth samplings were examined by TUBEX TP as well as by conventional agar culture and identification. TUBEX TP was performed before the culture results. Eighteen isolates of S. Typhi (15 after 2 days and 10 isolates of S. Paratyphi A (4 after 2 days were obtained by conventional culture. Both these Salmonella serotypes, the main causes of enteric fever, share the O12 antigen. In all instances where either of these organisms was present (cultured, TUBEX TP was positive (score 4 [light blue]--to--score 10 [dark blue]; negative is 0 [pink-colored] i.e. 100% sensitive. Identification of the specific Salmonella serotype in TUBEX-positive cases was achieved subsequently by conventional slide agglutination using appropriate polyclonal antisera against the various serotypes. Twelve Escherichia coli, 1 Alcaligenes spp. and 1 Enterobacter spp. were isolated. All of these cases, including all the 36 culture-negative broths, were TUBEX-negative i.e. TUBEX TP was 100% specific. In a separate study using known laboratory strains, TUBEX TF, which detects S. Typhi but not S. Paratyphi A via the O9 antigen, was found to efficiently complement TUBEX TP as a differential test. Thus, TUBEX TP and TUBEX TF are useful adjuncts to conventional culture because they can save considerable time (>2 days, costs and manpower.

  13. A SYBR(®) Green-based real-time PCR method for improved detection of mcr-1-mediated colistin resistance in human stool samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donà, Valentina; Bernasconi, Odette J; Kasraian, Sara; Tinguely, Regula; Endimiani, Andrea

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to design a rapid and sensitive real-time PCR (rt-PCR) method for colistin resistance mcr-1 gene detection in human faecal samples. Stools (n=88) from 36 volunteers were analysed. To isolate mcr-1-producing Enterobacteriaceae, samples were enriched overnight in Luria-Bertani (LB) broth containing 2mg/L colistin and were then plated on selective agar plates with 4mg/L colistin. A SYBR(®) Green-based rt-PCR targeting mcr-1 was then designed. For method validation and to establish the limit of detection (LOD), total DNA was extracted from mcr-1-negative and mcr-1-positive Escherichia coli. rt-PCR was also performed with DNA extracted from 88 native stools and after enriching them in LB broth containing colistin. Based on the culture approach, three unique volunteers resulted colonised with mcr-1-harboring E. coli strains. For culture isolates, rt-PCR exhibited a LOD of 10 genomic copies/reaction, with both sensitivity and specificity of 100%. Nevertheless, when testing native stools, only two of the three mcr-1-positive specimens were detected. However, after enrichment in LB broth containing colistin, the rt-PCR was strongly positive for all culture-positive samples. The average cycle threshold was 22, granting rapid and confident detection of positive specimens within 30 cycles. No false positives were observed for the remaining 85 culture-negative specimens. A rapid rt-PCR for detection of mcr-1 from stool specimens was developed. The detection rate was increased by testing selective broth enrichments. This approach also has the advantage of concomitant isolation of mcr-1-harboring strains for further antimicrobial susceptibility and genetic testing. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Investigation of Composition and Antimicrobial Properties of Lavandula stoechas Essential Oil Using Disk Diffusion and Broth Microdilution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jila Asghari (PhD

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Lavandula stoechas is a species of native and permanent plants in Golestan province that belongs to the family Lamiaceae. L. stoechas has been used in traditional medicine for treatment of various diseases. The aim of this study was to extract essential oil using steam distillation method from the flowers of L. stoechas collected from Jahan-nama region in the Golestan province, and evaluate its antibacterial activity. Methods: Steam distillation (Clevenger and GC-MS system were used to separate volatile oils and identify the essential oil components, respectively. Two methods of disk diffusion and broth micro dilution were used to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of L. stoechas essential oil. Six bacterial species including Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus sp., Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were tested. Results: The essential oil yield was 0.28%. The main components were camphor (71.86%, 1, 8-cineole (4.08%, linalool (3.77% and borneol (3.19%. The essential oil showed no inhibitory effect on P. aeruginosa and E. faecalis, while it had different inhibitory effects on other bacteria. S. aureus and Bacillus sp. showed the highest sensitivity with inhibition zone diameter of 32 and 29 mm, respectively. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the essential oil of L. stoechas has high inhibitory and antimicrobial activity particularly against Gram-positive bacteria, which may be due to the presence of 71.86% camphor in its composition.

  15. Two-stage pervaporation process for effective in situ removal acetone-butanol-ethanol from fermentation broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Di; Hu, Song; Miao, Qi; Chen, Changjing; Chen, Huidong; Zhang, Changwei; Li, Ping; Qin, Peiyong; Tan, Tianwei

    2017-01-01

    Two-stage pervaporation for ABE recovery from fermentation broth was studied to reduce the energy cost. The permeate after the first stage in situ pervaporation system was further used as the feedstock in the second stage of pervaporation unit using the same PDMS/PVDF membrane. A total 782.5g/L of ABE (304.56g/L of acetone, 451.98g/L of butanol and 25.97g/L of ethanol) was achieved in the second stage permeate, while the overall acetone, butanol and ethanol separation factors were: 70.7-89.73, 70.48-84.74 and 9.05-13.58, respectively. Furthermore, the theoretical evaporation energy requirement for ABE separation in the consolidate fermentation, which containing two-stage pervaporation and the following distillation process, was estimated less than ∼13.2MJ/kg-butanol. The required evaporation energy was only 36.7% of the energy content of butanol. The novel two-stage pervaporation process was effective in increasing ABE production and reducing energy consumption of the solvents separation system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Broth and agar hop-gradient plates used to evaluate the beer-spoilage potential of Lactobacillus and Pediococcus isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haakensen, M; Schubert, A; Ziola, B

    2009-03-15

    Identification of the beer-spoilage Lactobacillus and Pediococcus bacteria has largely taken two approaches; identification of spoilage-associated genes or identification of specific species of bacteria regardless of ability to grow in beer. The problem with these two approaches is that they are either overly inclusive (i.e., detect all bacteria of a given species regardless of spoilage potential) or overly selective (i.e., rely upon individual, putative spoilage-associated genes). Our goal was to design a method to assess the ability of Lactobacillus and Pediococcus to spoil beer that is independent of speciation or genetic background. In searching for a method by which to differentiate between beer-spoilage bacteria and bacteria that cannot grow in beer, we explored the ability of lactobacilli and pediococci isolates to grow in the presence of varying concentrations of hop-compounds and ethanol in broth medium versus on agar medium. The best method for differentiating between bacteria that can grow in beer and bacteria that do not pose a threat as beer-spoilage organisms was found to be a hop-gradient agar plate containing ethanol. This hop-gradient agar plate technique provides a rapid and simple solution to the dilemma of assessing the ability of Lactobacillus and Pediococcus isolates to grow in beer, and provides new insights into the different strategies used by these bacteria to survive under the stringent conditions of beer.

  17. Comparison of agar dilution and antibiotic gradient strip test with broth microdilution for susceptibility testing of swine Brachyspira species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirajkar, Nandita S; Gebhart, Connie J

    2016-03-01

    Production-limiting diseases in swine caused by Brachyspira are characterized by mucohemorrhagic diarrhea (B. hyodysenteriae and "B. hampsonii") or mild colitis (B. pilosicoli), while B. murdochii is often isolated from healthy pigs. Emergence of novel pathogenic Brachyspira species and strains with reduced susceptibility to commonly used antimicrobials has reinforced the need for standardized susceptibility testing. Two methods are currently used for Brachyspira susceptibility testing: agar dilution (AD) and broth microdilution (BMD). However, these tests have primarily been used for B. hyodysenteriae and rarely for B. pilosicoli. Information on the use of commercial susceptibility testing products such as antibiotic gradient strips is lacking. Our main objective was to validate and compare the susceptibility results, measured as the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), of 6 antimicrobials for 4 Brachyspira species (B. hyodysenteriae, "B. hampsonii", B. pilosicoli, and B. murdochii) by BMD and AD (tiamulin, valnemulin, lincomycin, tylosin, and carbadox) or antibiotic gradient strip (doxycycline) methods. In general, the results of a high percentage of all 4 Brachyspira species differed by ±1 log2 dilution or less by BMD and AD for tiamulin, valnemulin, lincomycin, and tylosin, and by BMD and antibiotic gradient strip for doxycycline. The carbadox MICs obtained by BMD were 1-5 doubling dilutions different than those obtained by AD. BMD for Brachyspira was quicker to perform with less ambiguous interpretation of results when compared with AD and antibiotic gradient strip methods, and the results confirm the utility of BMD in routine diagnostics.

  18. HPLC-fluorescence detection method for determination of key intermediates of the lincomycin biosynthesis in fermentation broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameník, Zdenek; Kopecký, Jan; Marecková, Markéta; Ulanová, Dana; Novotná, Jitka; Pospísil, Stanislav; Olsovská, Jana

    2009-03-01

    The biosynthetic pathway of the clinically important antibiotic lincomycin is not known in details. The precise knowledge of the lincomycin biosynthesis is a prerequisite for generation of improved derivatives by means of combinatorial genetics. Methods allowing determination of the key intermediates are very important tools of the pathway investigation. Two new high-performance liquid chromatography methods with fluorescence detection for determination of lincomycin precursors in fermentation broth of Streptomyces lincolnensis and its lincomycin nonproducing mutants were developed. The first one enables simultaneous analysis of methylthiolincosamide (MTL) and N-demethyllincomycin (NDL), whereas the second one is suitable for 4-propyl-L-proline (PPL) assay. Both methods are based on the pre-column derivatization: MTL and NDL with 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan; PPL with o-phthaldialdehyde. The methods were validated with lower limit of quantification values of 2.50, 3.75, and 3.75 microg ml(-1) for MTL, NDL, and PPL, respectively. The inter- and intra-day accuracies and precisions were all within 12%. Stability of oxidized and derivatized analytes was investigated.

  19. Preparative separation of six antimycin A components from antimycin fermentation broth by high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaoyan; Wen, Yaoming; Chen, Xiuming; Lin, Yuhan; Zhou, Jingming; Xie, Ying; Wang, Huaiwang; Jiang, Hong; Zheng, Wei

    2010-09-03

    A method of using high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was established for preparative isolation and purification of antimycin A components from antimycin fermentation broth. Six antimycin A components were successfully purified for the first time by HSCCC with a two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (5:2:4:1, by volume). Total of 20mg antimycin A(4)(a or b), 25mg antimycin A(3)(a or b), 21mg antimycin A(8)(a or b), 34mg antimycin A(2)(a or b), 26mg antimycin A(1)(a or b) and 34mg antimycin A(1)(a or b) with the purities of 93.2, 98.6, 96.2, 94.1, 94.9 and 96.7%, respectively, determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), were yielded from 200mg crude sample only in one HSCCC run. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of different options for harvest of a therapeutic protein product from high cell density yeast fermentation broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Alice; Lewus, Rachael; Rathore, Anurag S

    2006-05-05

    Recovery of therapeutic protein from high cell density yeast fermentations at commercial scale is a challenging task. In this study, we investigate and compare three different harvest approaches, namely centrifugation followed by depth filtration, centrifugation followed by filter-aid enhanced depth filtration, and microfiltration. This is achieved by presenting a case study involving recovery of a therapeutic protein from Pichia pastoris fermentation broth. The focus of this study is on performance of the depth filtration and the microfiltration steps. The experimental data has been fitted to the conventional models for cake filtration to evaluate specific cake resistance and cake compressibility. In the case of microfiltration, the experimental data agrees well with flux predicted by shear induced diffusion model. It is shown that, under optimal conditions, all three options can deliver the desired product recovery ( >80%), harvest time ( <15 h including sequential concentration/diafiltration step), and clarification ( <6 NTU). However, the three options differ in terms of process development time required, capital cost, consumable cost, ease of scale-ability and process robustness. It is recommended that these be kept under consideration when making a final decision on a harvesting approach.

  1. A refrigeration temperature of 4 degrees C does not prevent static growth of Yersinia pestis in heart infusion broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torosian, Stephen D; Regan, Patrick M; Doran, Tara; Taylor, Michael A; Margolin, Aaron

    2009-09-01

    Multiple barriers such as inspections, testing, and proper storage conditions are used to minimize the risk of contaminated food. Knowledge of which barriers, such as refrigeration, are effective in preventing pathogen growth and persistence, can help direct the focus of efforts during food sampling. In this study, the doubling times were evaluated for 10 strains of Yersinia pestis of different genetic background cultured in heart infusion broth (HIB) kept at 4 degrees C +/- 1 degrees C under static conditions. Nine out of the 10 strains were able to grow at 4 degrees C +/- 1 degrees C. Apparent doubling times for 7 of the strains ranged from 41 to 50 h. Strain Harbin and strain D1 had apparent doubling times of 65 and 35 h, respectively, and strain O19 Ca-6 did not grow at all. Analysis of variance showed that the averaged growth data (colony forming units per mL) between strains that grew were not significantly different. The data presented here demonstrate that refrigeration alone is not an effective barrier to prevent static growth of Y. pestis in HIB. These findings provide the preliminary impetus to investigate Y. pestis growth in a variety of food matrices that may provide a similar environment as HIB.

  2. The use of Macronet resins to recover gamma-decalactone produced by Rhodotorula aurantiaca from the culture broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alchihab, Mohamed; Aldric, Jean-Marc; Aguedo, Mario; Destain, Jacqueline; Wathelet, Jean-Paul; Thonart, Philippe

    2010-02-01

    During the biotransformation of castor oil into gamma-decalactone, R. aurantiaca produced both the lactone form and its precursor (4-hydroxydecanoic acid). After six days of culture, a maximum yield of gamma-decalactone of 6.5 g/l was obtained. The parameters of gamma-decalactone adsorption on three Macronet resins (MN-202, MN-102 and MN-100) were investigated in water. Adsorption isotherms of gamma-decalactone for the three Macronet resins were linear. The trapping of gamma-decalactone produced by R. aurantiaca on these resins was then carried out. gamma-Decalactone was effectively retained by all the studied Macronet resins. The resin MN-202 trapped gamma-decalactone more efficiently than MN-102 and MN-100. The percentages of gamma-decalactone adsorbed on the resins MN-202, MN-102 and MN-100 were, respectively, 85, 75 and 81%, whereas around 70% of the adsorbed gamma-decalactone was then desorbed. We propose an industrial process that uses Macronet resins to extract gamma-decalactone from culture broth of R. aurantiaca.

  3. Biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus from food contact surfaces in a meat-based broth and sensitivity to sanitizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Leite de Souza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the capacity of adhesion, the detachment kinetic and the biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus isolated from food services on stainless steel and polypropylene surfaces (2 x 2 cm when cultivated in a meat-based broth at 28 and 7 ºC. It was also to study the efficacy of the sanitizers sodium hypochlorite (250 mg/L and peracetic acid (30 mg/L in inactivating the bacterial cells in the preformed biofilm. S. aureus strains adhered in high numbers regardless the assayed surface kind and incubation temperature over 72 h. Cells detachment of surfaces revealed high persistence over the incubation period. Number of cells needed for biofilm formation was noted at all experimental systems already after 3 days. Peracetic acid and sodium hypochlorite were not efficient in completely removing the cells of S. aureus adhered on polypropylene and stainless steel surfaces. From these results, the assayed strains revealed high capacity to adhere and form biofilm on polypropylene and stainless steel surfaces under different growth conditions. Moreover, the cells in biofilm matrix were resistant for total removal when submitted to the exposure to sanitizers.

  4. Biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus from food contact surfaces in a meat-based broth and sensitivity to sanitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Evandro Leite; Meira, Quênia Gramile Silva; de Medeiros Barbosa, Isabella; Athayde, Ana Júlia Alves Aguiar; da Conceição, Maria Lúcia; de Siqueira Júnior, José Pinto

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the capacity of adhesion, the detachment kinetic and the biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus isolated from food services on stainless steel and polypropylene surfaces (2 × 2 cm) when cultivated in a meat-based broth at 28 and 7 °C. It was also to study the efficacy of the sanitizers sodium hypochlorite (250 mg/L) and peracetic acid (30 mg/L) in inactivating the bacterial cells in the preformed biofilm. S. aureus strains adhered in high numbers regardless the assayed surface kind and incubation temperature over 72 h. Cells detachment of surfaces revealed high persistence over the incubation period. Number of cells needed for biofilm formation was noted at all experimental systems already after 3 days. Peracetic acid and sodium hypochlorite were not efficient in completely removing the cells of S. aureus adhered on polypropylene and stainless steel surfaces. From these results, the assayed strains revealed high capacity to adhere and form biofilm on polypropylene and stainless steel surfaces under different growth conditions. Moreover, the cells in biofilm matrix were resistant for total removal when submitted to the exposure to sanitizers.

  5. Effects of the origins of Botrytis cinerea on earthy aromas from grape broth media further inoculated with Penicillium expansum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Valle, H; Silva, L C; Paterson, R R M; Venâncio, A; Lima, N

    2011-08-01

    Earthy "off" aromas from wine and grape juice are highly detrimental to the production of quality grape products. These volatile compounds are produced on grapes by Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium expansum and/or a combination of P. expansum and B. cinerea strains. B. cinerea strains were isolated from different (a) vineyards in Spain and Portugal, (b) grape varieties (c) bunches (i.e., sound and botrytized) and (d) positions in the botrytized bunch (i.e., interior or exterior). A novel Headspace-Phase Microextraction (SPME) followed by Gas Chromatrography/Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) dedicated to analyze geosmin, methylisoborneol (MIB), 1-octen-3-ol, fenchone and fenchol in grape broth medium was used. Approximately 50% of the B. cinerea strains induced detectable geosmin. One strain accumulated significant amounts of anisoles, demonstrating that this contamination might already occur in the vineyard. Strains from the interior of Cainho grape bunches induced more geosmin and hence it may be possible to reduce this volatile in wine by avoiding using these grapes in case of B. cinerea attack.

  6. Optimization of DsbA Purification from Recombinant Escherichia coil Broth Using Box-Behnken Design Methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Man; GUAN Yixin; YAO Shanjing

    2013-01-01

    Disulfide bond formation protein A(DsbA)is one of the important helper proteins for folding in protein synthesis in vivo.In this study,purification of recombinant DsbA was investigated by examining four important factors with Box-Behnken design method,a statistic-based design of experiments.The optimal operation conditions were obtained by adopting the effectiveness coefficient method on the multi-objective problem,which takes the protein recovery,purification efficiency and throughput of ion-exchange chromatography into account.After the optimization,protein recovery of 96.8% and purity higher than 95% DsbA was achieved,and the productivity was (377.9±1.7)mg soluble DsbA per liter broth.The purified protein was identified by peptide mass fingerprinting matching the record of gil2624856,a mutant of DsbA.The DsbA was preliminarily applied to the refolding of denatured lysozyme m vitro.

  7. Platinum nanoparticles incorporated in silsesquioxane for use in LbL films for the simultaneous detection of dopamine and ascorbic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Vagner; de Jesus, Cliciane Guadalupe; dos Santos, Monalisa; Canestraro, Carla Daniele; Zucolotto, Valtencir; Fujiwara, Sérgio Toshio; Garcia, Jarem Raul; Pessoa, Christiana Andrade; Wohnrath, Karen

    2012-09-01

    We describe the preparation of platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) using the 3- n-propylpyridinium silsesquioxane chloride (SiPy+Cl-) as a nanoreactor and stabilizer. The formation of PtNPs was monitored by UV-Vis spectroscopy by measuring the decrease in the intensity of the band at 375 nm, which is attributed to the electronic absorption of PtCl6 2- ions. TEM images of Pt-SiPy+Cl- nanohybrid indicated an average size of 3-40 nm for PtNPs. The Pt-SiPy+Cl- was used as a polycation in the preparation of layer-by-layer films (LbL) on a glass substrate coated with fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) alternating with the polyanion poly(vinyl sulfonic acid) (PVS). The films were electrochemically tested in sulfuric acid to confirm the deposition of Pt-SiPy+Cl- onto the LbL films, observing the adsorption and desorption of hydrogen ( E pa = 0.1 V) and by the redox process of formation for PtO with E pa = 1.3 V and E pc = 0.65 V. FTIR and Raman spectra confirmed the presence of the PVS and Pt-SiPy+Cl- in the LbL films. A linear increase in the absorbance in the UV-Vis spectra of the Pt-SiPy+Cl- at 258 nm (π → π* transition of the pyridine groups) with a number of Pt-SiPy+Cl-/PVS or PVS/SiPy+Cl- bilayers ( R = 0.992) was observed. These LbL films were tested for the determination of dopamine (DA) in the presence of ascorbic acid (AA) with a detection limit (DL) on the order of 2.6 × 10-6 mol L-1 and a quantification limit (QL) of 8.6 × 10-6 mol L-1. The films exhibited a good repeatability and reproducibility, providing a potential difference of 550 mV for the oxidation of DA with AA interferent.

  8. Platinum nanoparticles incorporated in silsesquioxane for use in LbL films for the simultaneous detection of dopamine and ascorbic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Vagner dos; Guadalupe de Jesus, Cliciane; Santos, Monalisa dos [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, UEPG, Department of Chemistry (Brazil); Canestraro, Carla Daniele [Universidade Federal do Parana, UFPR, Department of Physics (Brazil); Zucolotto, Valtencir [IFSC, Universidade de Sao Paulo (Brazil); Fujiwara, Sergio Toshio; Garcia, Jarem Raul; Andrade Pessoa, Christiana; Wohnrath, Karen, E-mail: karen.woh@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, UEPG, Department of Chemistry (Brazil)

    2012-09-15

    We describe the preparation of platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) using the 3-n-propylpyridinium silsesquioxane chloride (SiPy{sup +}Cl{sup -}) as a nanoreactor and stabilizer. The formation of PtNPs was monitored by UV-Vis spectroscopy by measuring the decrease in the intensity of the band at 375 nm, which is attributed to the electronic absorption of PtCl{sub 6}{sup 2-} ions. TEM images of Pt-SiPy{sup +}Cl{sup -} nanohybrid indicated an average size of 3-40 nm for PtNPs. The Pt-SiPy{sup +}Cl{sup -} was used as a polycation in the preparation of layer-by-layer films (LbL) on a glass substrate coated with fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) alternating with the polyanion poly(vinyl sulfonic acid) (PVS). The films were electrochemically tested in sulfuric acid to confirm the deposition of Pt-SiPy{sup +}Cl{sup -} onto the LbL films, observing the adsorption and desorption of hydrogen (E{sub pa} = 0.1 V) and by the redox process of formation for PtO with E{sub pa} = 1.3 V and E{sub pc} = 0.65 V. FTIR and Raman spectra confirmed the presence of the PVS and Pt-SiPy{sup +}Cl{sup -} in the LbL films. A linear increase in the absorbance in the UV-Vis spectra of the Pt-SiPy{sup +}Cl{sup -} at 258 nm ({pi} {yields} {pi}* transition of the pyridine groups) with a number of Pt-SiPy{sup +}Cl{sup -}/PVS or PVS/SiPy{sup +}Cl{sup -} bilayers (R = 0.992) was observed. These LbL films were tested for the determination of dopamine (DA) in the presence of ascorbic acid (AA) with a detection limit (DL) on the order of 2.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} mol L{sup -1} and a quantification limit (QL) of 8.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} mol L{sup -1}. The films exhibited a good repeatability and reproducibility, providing a potential difference of 550 mV for the oxidation of DA with AA interferent.

  9. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C5H10O Pentan-3-one (VMSD1212, LB4605_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C5H10O Pentan-3-one (VMSD1212, LB4605_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  10. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C5H10O Pentan-3-one (VMSD1111, LB4603_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C5H10O Pentan-3-one (VMSD1111, LB4603_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure measurement of mass density at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  11. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C6H14O Hexan-1-ol (VMSD1212, LB5052_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C6H14O Hexan-1-ol (VMSD1212, LB5052_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  12. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C4H10O Butan-1-ol (VMSD1511, LB5192_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C4H10O Butan-1-ol (VMSD1511, LB5192_V)' providing data from direct measurement of low-pressure thermodynamic speed of sound at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  13. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C3H8O Propan-1-ol (VMSD1212, LB5190_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C3H8O Propan-1-ol (VMSD1212, LB5190_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  14. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C6H14O Hexan-1-ol (VMSD1511, LB5055_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C6H14O Hexan-1-ol (VMSD1511, LB5055_V)' providing data from direct measurement of low-pressure thermodynamic speed of sound at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  15. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C7H16O Heptan-1-ol (VMSD1111, LB5050_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C7H16O Heptan-1-ol (VMSD1111, LB5050_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure measurement of mass density at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  16. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C3H8O Propan-1-ol (VMSD1412, LB5193_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C3H8O Propan-1-ol (VMSD1412, LB5193_V)' providing data by calculation of isentropic compressibility from low-pressure density and thermodynamic speed of sound data at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  17. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C4H8O2 1,4-Dioxane (VMSD1211, LB3413_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C4H8O2 1,4-Dioxane (VMSD1211, LB3413_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure dilatometric measurement of molar excess volume at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  18. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C3H7NO N-Methylethanamide (VMSD1211, LB4401_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C3H7NO N-Methylethanamide (VMSD1211, LB4401_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure dilatometric measurement of molar excess volume at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  19. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C4H10O Butan-1-ol (VMSD1111, LB5188_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C4H10O Butan-1-ol (VMSD1111, LB5188_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure measurement of mass density at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  20. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C3H6O2 1,3-Dioxolane (VMSD1212, LB3578_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C3H6O2 1,3-Dioxolane (VMSD1212, LB3578_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.